WorldWideScience

Sample records for greater depth including

  1. Regional correlations of VS30 averaged over depths less than and greater than 30 meters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boore, David M.; Thompson, Eric M.; Cadet, Héloïse

    2011-01-01

    Using velocity profiles from sites in Japan, California, Turkey, and Europe, we find that the time-averaged shear-wave velocity to 30 m (VS30), used as a proxy for site amplification in recent ground-motion prediction equations (GMPEs) and building codes, is strongly correlated with average velocities to depths less than 30 m (VSz, with z being the averaging depth). The correlations for sites in Japan (corresponding to the KiK-net network) show that VSz is systematically larger for a given VSz than for profiles from the other regions. The difference largely results from the placement of the KiK-net station locations on rock and rocklike sites, whereas stations in the other regions are generally placed in urban areas underlain by sediments. Using the KiK-net velocity profiles, we provide equations relating VS30 to VSz for z ranging from 5 to 29 m in 1-m increments. These equations (and those for California velocity profiles given in Boore, 2004b) can be used to estimate VS30 from VSz for sites in which velocity profiles do not extend to 30 m. The scatter of the residuals decreases with depth, but, even for an averaging depth of 5 m, a variation in logVS30 of ±1 standard deviation maps into less than a 20% uncertainty in ground motions given by recent GMPEs at short periods. The sensitivity of the ground motions to VS30 uncertainty is considerably larger at long periods (but is less than a factor of 1.2 for averaging depths greater than about 20 m). We also find that VS30 is correlated with VSz for z as great as 400 m for sites of the KiK-net network, providing some justification for using VS30 as a site-response variable for predicting ground motions at periods for which the wavelengths far exceed 30 m.

  2. Experimental observation of the stratified electrothermal instability on aluminum with thickness greater than a skin depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, T. M.; Awe, T. J.; Bauer, B. S.; Yates, K. C.; Yu, E. P.; Yelton, W. G.; Fuelling, S.

    2018-05-01

    A direct observation of the stratified electrothermal instability on the surface of thick metal is reported. Aluminum rods coated with 70 μ m Parylene-N were driven to 1 MA in 100 ns , with the metal thicker than the skin depth. The dielectric coating suppressed plasma formation, enabling persistent observation of discrete azimuthally correlated stratified thermal perturbations perpendicular to the current whose wave numbers, k , grew exponentially with rate γ (k ) =0.06 n s-1-(0.4 n s-1μ m2ra d-2 ) k2 in ˜1 g /c m3 , ˜7000 K aluminum.

  3. Experimental Observation of the Stratified Electrothermal Instability on Aluminum with Thickness Greater than a Skin Depth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchinson, Trevor M. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Hutchinson, Trevor M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Awe, Thomas James [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bauer, Bruno S. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Yates, Kevin [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Yu, Edmund p. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Yelton, William G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fuelling, Stephan [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

    2017-07-01

    The first direct observation of the stratified electrothermal instability on the surface of thick metal is reported. Aluminum rods coated with 70 μm Parylene-N were driven to 1 MA in approximately 100 ns, with the metal thicker than the skin depth. The dielectric coating suppressed plasma formation, enabling persistent observation of discrete azimuthally-correlated stratified structures perpendicular to the current. Strata amplitudes grow rapidly, while their Fourier spectrum shifts toward longer wavelength. Assuming blackbody emission, radiometric calculations indicate strata are temperature perturbations that grow exponentially with rate γ = 0.04 ns -1 in 3000- 10,000 K aluminum.

  4. Regional correlations of V s30 and velocities averaged over depths less than and greater than 30 meters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boore, D.M.; Thompson, E.M.; Cadet, H.

    2011-01-01

    Using velocity profiles from sites in Japan, California, Turkey, and Europe, we find that the time-averaged shear-wave velocity to 30 m (V S30), used as a proxy for site amplification in recent ground-motion prediction equations (GMPEs) and building codes, is strongly correlated with average velocities to depths less than 30 m (V Sz, with z being the averaging depth). The correlations for sites in Japan (corresponding to the KiK-net network) show that V S30 is systematically larger for a given V Sz than for profiles from the other regions. The difference largely results from the placement of the KiK-net station locations on rock and rocklike sites, whereas stations in the other regions are generally placed in urban areas underlain by sediments. Using the KiK-net velocity profiles, we provide equations relating V S30 to V Sz for z ranging from 5 to 29 m in 1-m increments. These equations (and those for California velocity profiles given in Boore, 2004b) can be used to estimate V S30 from V Sz for sites in which velocity profiles do not extend to 30 m. The scatter of the residuals decreases with depth, but, even for an averaging depth of 5 m, a variation in log V S30 of 1 standard deviation maps into less than a 20% uncertainty in ground motions given by recent GMPEs at short periods. The sensitivity of the ground motions to V S30 uncertainty is considerably larger at long periods (but is less than a factor of 1.2 for averaging depths greater than about 20 m). We also find that V S30 is correlated with V Sz for z as great as 400 m for sites of the KiK-net network, providing some justification for using V S30 as a site-response variable for predicting ground motions at periods for which the wavelengths far exceed 30 m.

  5. Techniques for depth-resolved imaging through turbid media including coherence-gated imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunsby, C; French, P M W

    2003-01-01

    This article aims to review the panoply of techniques for realising optical imaging through turbid media such as biological tissue. It begins by briefly discussing optical scattering and outlines the various approaches that have been developed to image through scattering media including spatial filtering, time-gated imaging and coherence-based techniques. The discussion includes scanning and wide-field techniques and concentrates on techniques to discriminate in favour of unscattered ballistic light although imaging with scattered light is briefly reviewed. Wide-field coherence-gated imaging techniques are discussed in some detail with particular emphasis placed on techniques to achieve real-time high-resolution three-dimensional imaging including through turbid media, providing rapid whole-field acquisition and high depth and transverse spatial resolution images. (topical review)

  6. Depth of Formation of Ferropericlase Included in Super-Deep Diamonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzolini, C.; Nestola, F.; Gianese, A.; Nimis, P.; Harris, J. W.

    2017-12-01

    Super-deep diamonds are believed to have formed at depths of at least 300 km depth (Harte, 2010). A common mineral inclusion in these diamonds is ferropericlase, (Mg,Fe)O (see Kaminsky, 2012 and references therein). Ferropericlase (fPer) is the second most abundant mineral in the lower mantle, comprising approximately 16-20 wt% (660 to 2900 km depth), and inclusions of fPer in diamond are often considered to indicate a lower-mantle origin (Harte et al., 1999). Samples from São Luiz/Juina, Brazil, are noteworthy for containing nanometer-sized magnesioferrite (Harte et al., 1999; Wirth et al., 2014; Kaminsky et al., 2015; Palot et al., 2016). Based upon a phase diagram valid for 1 atm, such exsolutions would place the origin of this assemblage in the uppermost part of the lower mantle. However, a newly reported phase diagram for magnesioferrite demonstrates that the latter is not stable at such pressures and, thus, it cannot exsolve directly from fPer at lower-mantle conditions (Uenver-Thiele et al., 2017). Here we report the investigation of two fPer inclusions, extracted from a single São Luiz diamond, by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy. Both techniques showed micrometer-sized exsolutions of magnesioferrite within the two fPers. We also completed elastic geobarometry (see Angel et al., 2015), which determined an estimate for the depth of entrapment of the two ferropericlase - diamond pairs. In the temperature range between 1273 and 1773 K, pressures varied between 9.88 and 12.34 GPa (325-410 km depth) for one inclusion and between 10.69 and 13.16 GPa (350-440 km depth) for the other one. These results strengthen the hypothesis that solitary fPer inclusions might not be reliable markers for a lower-mantle provenance. This work was supported by Fondazione CaRiPaRo and ERC-2012-StG 307322 to FN. Angel, R.J., et al. (2015) Russ Geol Geophys, 56, 211-220; Harte, B. (2010) Mineral Mag, 74, 189-215; Harte, B., et al

  7. Three-dimensional cross point readout detector design for including depth information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Jae; Baek, Cheol-Ha

    2018-04-01

    We designed a depth-encoding positron emission tomography (PET) detector using a cross point readout method with wavelength-shifting (WLS) fibers. To evaluate the characteristics of the novel detector module and the PET system, we used the DETECT2000 to perform optical photon transport in the crystal array. The GATE was also used. The detector module is made up of four layers of scintillator arrays, the five layers of WLS fiber arrays, and two sensor arrays. The WLS fiber arrays in each layer cross each other to transport light to each sensor array. The two sensor arrays are coupled to the forward and left sides of the WLS fiber array, respectively. The identification of three-dimensional pixels was determined using a digital positioning algorithm. All pixels were well decoded, with the system resolution ranging from 2.11 mm to 2.29 mm at full width at half maximum (FWHM).

  8. Regional and sediment depth differences in nematode community structure greater than between habitats on the New Zealand margin: Implications for vulnerability to anthropogenic disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosli, Norliana; Leduc, Daniel; Rowden, Ashley A.; Probert, P. Keith; Clark, Malcolm R.

    2018-01-01

    Deep-sea community attributes vary at a range of spatial scales. However, identifying the scale at which environmental factors affect variability in deep-sea communities remains difficult, as few studies have been designed in such a way as to allow meaningful comparisons across more than two spatial scales. In the present study, we investigated nematode diversity, community structure and trophic structure at different spatial scales (sediment depth (cm), habitat (seamount, canyon, continental slope; 1-100 km), and geographic region (100-10000 km)), while accounting for the effects of water depth, in two regions on New Zealand's continental margin. The greatest variability in community attributes was found between sediment depth layers and between regions, which explained 2-4 times more variability than habitats. The effect of habitat was consistently stronger in the Hikurangi Margin than the Bay of Plenty for all community attributes, whereas the opposite pattern was found in the Bay of Plenty where effect of sediment depth was greater in Bay of Plenty. The different patterns at each scale in each region reflect the differences in the environmental variables between regions that control nematode community attributes. Analyses suggest that nematode communities are mostly influenced by sediment characteristics and food availability, but that disturbance (fishing activity and bioturbation) also accounts for some of the observed patterns. The results provide new insight on the relative importance of processes operating at different spatial scales in regulating nematode communities in the deep-sea, and indicate potential differences in vulnerability to anthropogenic disturbance.

  9. Ultrasonic scalpel causes greater depth of soft tissue necrosis compared to monopolar electrocautery at standard power level settings in a pig model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Ultrasonic scalpel (UC) and monopolar electrocautery (ME) are common tools for soft tissue dissection. However, morphological data on the related tissue alteration are discordant. We developed an automatic device for standardized sample excision and compared quality and depth of morphological changes caused by UC and ME in a pig model. Methods 100 tissue samples (5 × 3 cm) of the abdominal wall were excised in 16 pigs. Excisions were randomly performed manually or by using the self-constructed automatic device at standard power levels (60 W cutting in ME, level 5 in UC) for abdominal surgery. Quality of tissue alteration and depth of coagulation necrosis were examined histopathologically. Device (UC vs. ME) and mode (manually vs. automatic) effects were studied by two-way analysis of variance at a significance level of 5%. Results At the investigated power level settings UC and ME induced qualitatively similar coagulation necroses. Mean depth of necrosis was 450.4 ± 457.8 μm for manual UC and 553.5 ± 326.9 μm for automatic UC versus 149.0 ± 74.3 μm for manual ME and 257.6 ± 119.4 μm for automatic ME. Coagulation necrosis was significantly deeper (p < 0.01) when UC was used compared to ME. The mode of excision (manual versus automatic) did not influence the depth of necrosis (p = 0.85). There was no significant interaction between dissection tool and mode of excision (p = 0.93). Conclusions Thermal injury caused by UC and ME results in qualitatively similar coagulation necrosis. The depth of necrosis is significantly greater in UC compared to ME at investigated standard power levels. PMID:22361346

  10. Differences in meiofauna communities with sediment depth are greater than habitat effects on the New Zealand continental margin: implications for vulnerability to anthropogenic disturbance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norliana Rosli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies of deep-sea benthic communities have largely focused on particular (macro habitats in isolation, with few studies considering multiple habitats simultaneously in a comparable manner. Compared to mega-epifauna and macrofauna, much less is known about habitat-related variation in meiofaunal community attributes (abundance, diversity and community structure. Here, we investigated meiofaunal community attributes in slope, canyon, seamount, and seep habitats in two regions on the continental slope of New Zealand (Hikurangi Margin and Bay of Plenty at four water depths (700, 1,000, 1,200 and 1,500 m. We found that patterns were not the same for each community attribute. Significant differences in abundance were consistent across regions, habitats, water and sediment depths, while diversity and community structure only differed between sediment depths. Abundance was higher in canyon and seep habitats compared with other habitats, while between sediment layer, abundance and diversity were higher at the sediment surface. Our findings suggest that meiofaunal community attributes are affected by environmental factors that operate on micro- (cm to meso- (0.1–10 km, and regional scales (> 100 km. We also found a weak, but significant, correlation between trawling intensity and surface sediment diversity. Overall, our results indicate that variability in meiofaunal communities was greater at small scale than at habitat or regional scale. These findings provide new insights into the factors controlling meiofauna in these deep-sea habitats and their potential vulnerability to anthropogenic activities.

  11. Medical students are afraid to include abortion in their future practices: in-depth interviews in Maharastra, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöström, Susanne; Essén, Birgitta; Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina; Klingberg-Allvin, Marie

    2016-01-12

    Unsafe abortions are estimated to cause eight per-cent of maternal mortality in India. Lack of providers, especially in rural areas, is one reason unsafe abortions take place despite decades of legal abortion. Education and training in reproductive health services has been shown to influence attitudes and increase chances that medical students will provide abortion care services in their future practice. To further explore previous findings about poor attitudes toward abortion among medical students in Maharastra, India, we conducted in-depth interviews with medical students in their final year of education. We used a qualitative design conducting in-depth interviews with twenty-three medical students in Maharastra applying a topic guide. Data was organized using thematic analysis with an inductive approach. The participants described a fear to provide abortion in their future practice. They lacked understanding of the law and confused the legal regulation of abortion with the law governing gender biased sex selection, and concluded that abortion is illegal in Maharastra. The interviewed medical students' attitudes were supported by their experiences and perceptions from the clinical setting as well as traditions and norms in society. Medical abortion using mifepristone and misoprostol was believed to be unsafe and prohibited in Maharastra. The students perceived that nurse-midwives were knowledgeable in Sexual and Reproductive Health and many found that they could be trained to perform abortions in the future. To increase chances that medical students in Maharastra will perform abortion care services in their future practice, it is important to strengthen their confidence and knowledge through improved medical education including value clarification and clinical training.

  12. A depth-averaged debris-flow model that includes the effects of evolving dilatancy. I. physical basis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Richard M.; George, David L.

    2014-01-01

    To simulate debris-flow behaviour from initiation to deposition, we derive a depth-averaged, two-phase model that combines concepts of critical-state soil mechanics, grain-flow mechanics and fluid mechanics. The model's balance equations describe coupled evolution of the solid volume fraction, m, basal pore-fluid pressure, flow thickness and two components of flow velocity. Basal friction is evaluated using a generalized Coulomb rule, and fluid motion is evaluated in a frame of reference that translates with the velocity of the granular phase, vs. Source terms in each of the depth-averaged balance equations account for the influence of the granular dilation rate, defined as the depth integral of ∇⋅vs. Calculation of the dilation rate involves the effects of an elastic compressibility and an inelastic dilatancy angle proportional to m−meq, where meq is the value of m in equilibrium with the ambient stress state and flow rate. Normalization of the model equations shows that predicted debris-flow behaviour depends principally on the initial value of m−meq and on the ratio of two fundamental timescales. One of these timescales governs downslope debris-flow motion, and the other governs pore-pressure relaxation that modifies Coulomb friction and regulates evolution of m. A companion paper presents a suite of model predictions and tests.

  13. Ultrasonic scalpel causes greater depth of soft tissue necrosis compared to monopolar electrocautery at standard power level settings in a pig model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homayounfar, Kia; Meis, Johanna; Jung, Klaus; Klosterhalfen, Bernd; Sprenger, Thilo; Conradi, Lena-Christin; Langer, Claus; Becker, Heinz

    2012-02-23

    Ultrasonic scalpel (UC) and monopolar electrocautery (ME) are common tools for soft tissue dissection. However, morphological data on the related tissue alteration are discordant. We developed an automatic device for standardized sample excision and compared quality and depth of morphological changes caused by UC and ME in a pig model. 100 tissue samples (5 × 3 cm) of the abdominal wall were excised in 16 pigs. Excisions were randomly performed manually or by using the self-constructed automatic device at standard power levels (60 W cutting in ME, level 5 in UC) for abdominal surgery. Quality of tissue alteration and depth of coagulation necrosis were examined histopathologically. Device (UC vs. ME) and mode (manually vs. automatic) effects were studied by two-way analysis of variance at a significance level of 5%. At the investigated power level settings UC and ME induced qualitatively similar coagulation necroses. Mean depth of necrosis was 450.4 ± 457.8 μm for manual UC and 553.5 ± 326.9 μm for automatic UC versus 149.0 ± 74.3 μm for manual ME and 257.6 ± 119.4 μm for automatic ME. Coagulation necrosis was significantly deeper (p power levels.

  14. Intramedullary femoral nailing through the trochanteric fossa versus greater trochanter tip : a randomized controlled study with in-depth functional outcome results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moein, C. M. Ansari; ten Duis, H. J.; Oey, P. L.; de Kort, G. A. P.; van der Meulen, W.; van der Werken, Chr

    2011-01-01

    In a level 1 university trauma center, an explorative randomized controlled study was performed to compare soft tissue damage and functional outcome after antegrade femoral nailing through a trochanteric fossa (also known as piriform fossa) entry point to a greater trochanter entry point in patients

  15. Complexity and Dynamical Depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terrence Deacon

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We argue that a critical difference distinguishing machines from organisms and computers from brains is not complexity in a structural sense, but a difference in dynamical organization that is not well accounted for by current complexity measures. We propose a measure of the complexity of a system that is largely orthogonal to computational, information theoretic, or thermodynamic conceptions of structural complexity. What we call a system’s dynamical depth is a separate dimension of system complexity that measures the degree to which it exhibits discrete levels of nonlinear dynamical organization in which successive levels are distinguished by local entropy reduction and constraint generation. A system with greater dynamical depth than another consists of a greater number of such nested dynamical levels. Thus, a mechanical or linear thermodynamic system has less dynamical depth than an inorganic self-organized system, which has less dynamical depth than a living system. Including an assessment of dynamical depth can provide a more precise and systematic account of the fundamental difference between inorganic systems (low dynamical depth and living systems (high dynamical depth, irrespective of the number of their parts and the causal relations between them.

  16. SMAP Multi-Temporal Soil Moisture and Vegetation Optical Depth Retrievals in Vegetated Regions Including Higher-Order Soil-Canopy Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, A.; Akbar, R.; Konings, A. G.; Piles, M.; Entekhabi, D.

    2017-12-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission utilizes a zeroth order radiative transfer model, known as the tau-omega model, to retrieve soil moisture from microwave brightness temperature observations. This model neglects first order scattering which is significant at L-Band in vegetated regions, or 30% of land cover. Previous higher order algorithms require extensive in-situ measurements and characterization of canopy layer physical properties. We propose a first order retrieval algorithm that approximately characterizes the eight first order emission pathways using rough surface reflectivity, vegetation optical depth (VOD), and scattering albedo terms. The recently developed Multi-Temporal Dual Channel Algorithm (MT-DCA) then retrieves these three parameters in a forward model without ancillary information under the assumption of temporally static albedo and constant vegetation water content between three day SMAP revisits. The approximated scattering terms are determined to be conservative estimates of analytically derived first order scattering terms. In addition, we find the first order algorithm to be more sensitive to surface emission than the tau-omega model. The simultaneously retrieved VOD, previously demonstrated to be proportional to vegetation water content, can provide insight into vegetation dynamics in regions with significant phenology. Specifically, dry tropical forests exhibit an increase in VOD during the dry season in alignment with prior studies that suggest that certain vegetative species green up during the dry season despite limited water availability. VOD retrieved using the first order algorithm and MT-DCA framework can therefore contribute to understanding of tropical forests' role in the carbon, energy, and water cycles, which has yet to be fully explained.

  17. Greater-confinement disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevorrow, L.E.; Schubert, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    Greater-confinement disposal (GCD) is a general term for low-level waste (LLW) disposal technologies that employ natural and/or engineered barriers and provide a degree of confinement greater than that of shallow-land burial (SLB) but possibly less than that of a geologic repository. Thus GCD is associated with lower risk/hazard ratios than SLB. Although any number of disposal technologies might satisfy the definition of GCD, eight have been selected for consideration in this discussion. These technologies include: (1) earth-covered tumuli, (2) concrete structures, both above and below grade, (3) deep trenches, (4) augered shafts, (5) rock cavities, (6) abandoned mines, (7) high-integrity containers, and (8) hydrofracture. Each of these technologies employ several operations that are mature,however, some are at more advanced stages of development and demonstration than others. Each is defined and further described by information on design, advantages and disadvantages, special equipment requirements, and characteristic operations such as construction, waste emplacement, and closure

  18. Greater oil investment opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arenas, Ismael Enrique

    1997-01-01

    Geologically speaking, Colombia is a very attractive country for the world oil community. According to this philosophy new and important steps are being taken to reinforce the oil sector: Expansion of the exploratory frontier by including a larger number of sedimentary areas, and the adoption of innovative contracting instruments. Colombia has to offer, Greater economic incentives for the exploration of new areas to expand the exploratory frontier, stimulation of exploration in areas with prospectivity for small fields. Companies may offer Ecopetrol a participation in production over and above royalties, without it's participating in the investments and costs of these fields, more favorable conditions for natural gas seeking projects, in comparison with those governing the terms for oil

  19. Greater autonomy at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtman, I.L.D.

    2004-01-01

    In the past 10 years, workers in the Netherlands increasingly report more decision-making power in their work. This is important for an economy in recession and where workers face greater work demands. It makes work more interesting, creates a healthier work environment, and provides opportunities

  20. More features, greater connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Sarah

    2015-09-01

    Changes in our political infrastructure, the continuing frailties of our economy, and a stark growth in population, have greatly impacted upon the perceived stability of the NHS. Healthcare teams have had to adapt to these changes, and so too have the technologies upon which they rely to deliver first-class patient care. Here Sarah Hunt, marketing co-ordinator at Aid Call, assesses how the changing healthcare environment has affected one of its fundamental technologies - the nurse call system, argues the case for wireless such systems in terms of what the company claims is greater adaptability to changing needs, and considers the ever-wider range of features and functions available from today's nurse call equipment, particularly via connectivity with both mobile devices, and ancillaries ranging from enuresis sensors to staff attack alert 'badges'.

  1. Transcribing for Greater Musicality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinz, Bob

    1995-01-01

    States that transcribing is notating the performance of a musical composition or improvisation as the music is grasped aurally. Maintains that transcribing is effective for high school and college students who want to understand jazz techniques. Includes eight suggestions for teaching transcribing. (CFR)

  2. Curie Depth Analysis of the Salton Sea Region, Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickus, Kevin; Hussein, Musa

    2016-02-01

    Aeromagnetic data were analyzed to determine the bottom of magnetic bodies that might be related to the Curie point depth (CPD) by 2D spectral and 3D inversion methods within the Salton Trough and the surrounding region in southern California. The bottom of the magnetic bodies for 55 × 55 km windows varied in depth between 11 and 23 km in depth using 2D spectral methods. Since the 55 × 55 km square window may include both shallow and deep source, a 3D inversion method was used to provide better resolution of the bottom of the magnetic bodies. The 3D models indicate the depth to the bottom of the magnetic bodies varied between 5 and 23 km. Even though both methods produced similar results, the 3D inversion method produced higher resolution of the CPD depths. The shallowest depths (5-8 km) occur along and west of the Brawley Seismic Zone and the southwestern portion of the Imperial Valley. The source of these shallow CPD values may be related to geothermal systems including hydrothermal circulation and/or partially molten material. Additionally, shallow CPD depths (7-12 km) were found in a northwest-trending zone in the center of the Salton Trough. These depths coincide with previous seismic analyses that indicated a lower crustal low velocity region which is believed to be caused by partially molten material. Lower velocity zones in several regions may be related to fracturing and/or hydrothermal fluids. If the majority of these shallow depths are related to temperature, they are likely associated with the CPD, and the partially molten material extends over a wider zone than previously known. Greater depths within the Salton Trough coincide with the base of basaltic material and/or regions of intense metamorphism intruded by mafic material in the middle/lower crust.

  3. Planning for greater confinement disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Meshkov, N.K.; Trevorrow, L.E.; Yu, C.

    1985-01-01

    A report that provides guidance for planning for greater-confinement disposal (GCD) of low-level radioactive waste is being prepared. The report addresses procedures for selecting a GCD technology and provides information for implementing these procedures. The focus is on GCD; planning aspects common to GCD and shallow-land burial are covered by reference. Planning procedure topics covered include regulatory requirements, waste characterization, benefit-cost-risk assessment and pathway analysis methodologies, determination of need, waste-acceptance criteria, performance objectives, and comparative assessment of attributes that support these objectives. The major technologies covered include augered shafts, deep trenches, engineered structures, hydrofracture, improved waste forms, and high-integrity containers. Descriptive information is provided, and attributes that are relevant for risk assessment and operational requirements are given. 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Cuff depth and continuous chest auscultation method for determination of tracheal tube insertion depth in nasal intubation: observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouchi, Kentaro; Sugiyama, Kazuna

    2016-04-01

    Incorrect endobronchial placement of the tracheal tube can lead to serious complications. Hence, it is necessary to determine the accuracy of tracheal tube positioning. Markers are included on tracheal tubes, in the process of their manufacture, as indicators of approximate intubation depth. In addition, continuous chest auscultation has been used for determining the proper position of the tube. We examined insertion depth using the cuff depth and continuous chest auscultation method (CC method), compared with insertion depth determined by the marker method, to assess the accuracy of these methods. After induction of anesthesia, tracheal intubation was performed in each patient. In the CC method, the depth of tube insertion was measured when the cuff had passed through the glottis, and again when breath sounds changed in quality; the depth of tube insertion was determined from these values. In the marker method, the depth of tube insertion was measured and determined when the marker of the tube had reached the glottis, using insertion depth according to the marker as an index. Insertion depth by the marker method was 26.6 ± 1.2 cm and by the CC method was 28.0 ± 1.2 cm (P < 0.0001). The CC method indicated a significantly greater depth than the marker method. This study determined the safe range of tracheal tube placement. Tube positions determined by the CC method were about 1 cm deeper than those determined by the marker. This information is important to prevent accidental one-lung ventilation and accidental extubation. UMIN No. UMIN000011375.

  5. [Autoerotic fatalities in Greater Dusseldorf].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Benno; Hellen, Florence; Borchard, Nora; Huckenbeck, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Autoerotic fatalities in the Greater Dusseldorf area correspond to the relevant medicolegal literature. Our results included exclusively young to middle-aged, usually single men who were found dead in their city apartments. Clothing and devices used showed a great variety. Women's or fetish clothing and complex shackling or hanging devices were disproportionately frequent. In most cases, death occurred due to hanging or ligature strangulation. There was no increased incidence of underlying psychiatric disorders. In most of the deceased no or at least no remarkable alcohol intoxication was found. Occasionally, it may be difficult to reliably differentiate autoerotic accidents, accidents occurring in connection with practices of bondage & discipline, dominance & submission (BDSM) from natural death, suicide or homicide.

  6. New seismograph includes filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-02

    The new Nimbus ES-1210 multichannel signal enhancement seismograph from EG and G geometrics has recently been redesigned to include multimode signal fillers on each amplifier. The ES-1210F is a shallow exploration seismograph for near subsurface exploration such as in depth-to-bedrock, geological hazard location, mineral exploration, and landslide investigations.

  7. Greater trochanteric pain syndrome diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallow, Michael; Nazarian, Levon N

    2014-05-01

    Lateral hip pain, or greater trochanteric pain syndrome, is a commonly seen condition; in this article, the relevant anatomy, epidemiology, and evaluation strategies of greater trochanteric pain syndrome are reviewed. Specific attention is focused on imaging of this syndrome and treatment techniques, including ultrasound-guided interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Weighted halfspace depth

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kotík, Lukáš; Hlubinka, D.; Vencálek, O.

    Vol. 46, č. 1 (2010), s. 125-148 ISSN 0023-5954 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : data depth * nonparametric multivariate analysis * strong consistency of depth * mixture of distributions Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.461, year: 2010 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2010/SI/kotik-weighted halfspace depth.pdf

  9. Waste management in Greater Vancouver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrusca, K. [Greater Vancouver Regional District, Burnaby, BC (Canada); Richter, R. [Montenay Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada)]|[Veolia Environmental Services, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    An outline of the Greater Vancouver Regional District (GVRD) waste-to-energy program was presented. The GVRD has an annual budget for solid waste management of $90 million. Energy recovery revenues from solid waste currently exceed $10 million. Over 1,660,00 tonnes of GVRD waste is recycled, and another 280,000 tonnes is converted from waste to energy. The GVRD waste-to-energy facility combines state-of-the-art combustion and air pollution control, and has processed over 5 million tonnes of municipal solid waste since it opened in 1988. Its central location minimizes haul distance, and it was originally sited to utilize steam through sales to a recycle paper mill. The facility has won several awards, including the Solid Waste Association of North America award for best facility in 1990. The facility focuses on continual improvement, and has installed a carbon injection system; an ammonia injection system; a flyash stabilization system; and heat capacity upgrades in addition to conducting continuous waste composition studies. Continuous air emissions monitoring is also conducted at the plant, which produces a very small percentage of the total air emissions in metropolitan Vancouver. The GVRD is now seeking options for the management of a further 500,000 tonnes per year of solid waste, and has received 23 submissions from a range of waste energy technologies which are now being evaluated. It was concluded that waste-to-energy plants can be located in densely populated metropolitan areas and provide a local disposal solution as well as a source of renewable energy. Other GVRD waste reduction policies were also reviewed. refs., tabs., figs.

  10. Institutional Strength in Depth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weightman, M.

    2016-01-01

    Much work has been undertaken in order to identify, learn and implement the lessons from the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident. These have mainly targeted on engineering or operational lessons. Less attention has been paid to the institutional lessons, although there have been some measures to improve individual peer reviews, particularly by the World Association of Nuclear Operators, and the authoritative IAEA report published in 2015 brought forward several important lessons for regulators and advocated a system approach. The report noted that one of the contributing factors the accident was the tendency of stakeholders not to challenge. Additionally, it reported deficiencies in the regulatory authority and system. Earlier, the root cause of the accident was identified by a Japanese independent parliamentary report as being cultural and institutional. The sum total of the institutions, the safety system, was ineffective. While it is important to address the many technical and operational lessons these may not necessary address this more fundamental lesson, and may not serve to provide robust defences against human or institutional failings over a wide variety of possible events and combinations. The overall lesson is that we can have rigorous and comprehensive safety standards and other tools in place to deliver high levels of safety, but ultimately what is important is the ability of the nuclear safety system to ensure that the relevant institutions diligently and effectively apply those standards and tools — to be robust and resilient. This has led to the consideration of applying the principles of the strength in depth philosophy to a nuclear safety system as a way of providing a framework for developing, assessing, reviewing and improving the system. At an IAEA conference in October 2013, a model was presented for a robust national nuclear safety system based on strength in depth philosophy. The model highlighted three main layers: industry, the

  11. Motivation with Depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiSpezio, Michael A.

    2000-01-01

    Presents an illusional arena by offering experience in optical illusions in which students must apply critical analysis to their innate information gathering systems. Introduces different types of depth illusions for students to experience. (ASK)

  12. Prestack depth migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postma, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    Two lines form the southern North Sea, with known velocity inhomogeneities in the overburden, have been pre-stack depth migrated. The pre-stack depth migrations are compared with conventional processing, one with severe distortions and one with subtle distortions on the conventionally processed sections. The line with subtle distortions is also compared with post-stack depth migration. The results on both lines were very successful. Both have already influenced drilling decisions, and have caused a modification of structural interpretation in the respective areas. Wells have been drilled on each of the lines, and well tops confirm the results. In fact, conventional processing led to incorrect locations for the wells, both of which were dry holes. The depth migrated sections indicate the incorrect placement, and on one line reveals a much better drilling location. This paper reports that even though processing costs are high for pre-stack depth migration, appropriate use can save millions of dollars in dry-hole expense

  13. Depth as an organizer of fish assemblages in floodplain lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, L.E.

    2011-01-01

    Depth reduction is a natural process in floodplain lakes, but in many basins has been accelerated by anthropogenic disturbances. A diverse set of 42 floodplain lakes in the Yazoo River Basin (Mississippi, USA) was examined to test the hypothesis of whether depth reduction was a key determinant of water quality and fish assemblage structure. Single and multiple variable analyses were applied to 10 commonly monitored water variables and 54 fish species. Results showed strong associations between depth and water characteristics, and between depth and fish assemblages. Deep lakes provided less variable environments, clearer water, and a wider range of microhabitats than shallow lakes. The greater environmental stability was reflected by the dominant species in the assemblages, which included a broader representation of large-body species, species less tolerant of extreme water quality, and more predators. Stability in deep lakes was further reflected by reduced among-lake variability in taxa representation. Fish assemblages in shallow lakes were more variable than deep lakes, and commonly dominated by opportunistic species that have early maturity, extended breeding seasons, small adult size, and short lifespan. Depth is a causal factor that drives many physical and chemical variables that contribute to organizing fish assemblages in floodplain lakes. Thus, correlations between fish and water transparency, temperature, oxygen, trophic state, habitat structure, and other environmental descriptors may ultimately be totally or partly regulated by depth. In basins undergoing rapid anthropogenic modifications, local changes forced by depth reductions may be expected to eliminate species available from the regional pool and could have considerable ecological implications. ?? 2010 Springer Basel AG (outside the USA).

  14. Variation in Depth Dose Data between Open and Wedge Fields for 6 MV X-Rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    U, Hong; Ryu, M. S. Samuel; Park, In Kyu

    1989-01-01

    Central axis depth dose data for 6 MV X-rays, including tissue maximum ratios, were measured for wedge fields according to Tatcher equation. In wedge fields, the differences in magnitude which increased with depth, field size, and wedge thickness increased when compared with the corresponding open field data. However, phantom scatter correction factors for wedge fields differed less that 1% from the corresponding open field factors. The differences in central axis percent depth dose between two types of fields indicated beam hardening by the wedge filter. The deviation of percent depth doses and scatter correction factors between the effective wedge field and the nominal wedge field at same angle was negligible. The differences were less than 3.26% between the nominal or effective wedge fields and the open fields for percent depth doses to the depth 7cm in 6cm x 6cm field. For larger (10cm x 10cm) field size, however, the deviation of percent depth doses between the nominal or effective wedge fields and the open fields were greater-dosimetric errors were 3.56% at depth 7cm and nearly 5.30% at 12cm. We suggest that the percent depth doses of individual wedge and wedge transmission factors should be considered for the dose calculation or monitor setting in the treatment of deep seated tumor

  15. Radon depth migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildebrand, S.T.; Carroll, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    A depth migration method is presented that used Radon-transformed common-source seismograms as input. It is shown that the Radon depth migration method can be extended to spatially varying velocity depth models by using asymptotic ray theory (ART) to construct wavefield continuation operators. These operators downward continue an incident receiver-array plane wave and an assumed point-source wavefield into the subsurface. The migration velocity model is constrain to have longer characteristic wavelengths than the dominant source wavelength such that the ART approximations for the continuation operators are valid. This method is used successfully to migrate two synthetic data examples: (1) a point diffractor, and (2) a dipping layer and syncline interface model. It is shown that the Radon migration method has a computational advantage over the standard Kirchhoff migration method in that fewer rays are computed in a main memory implementation

  16. Measuring depth in boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodson, G.M.

    1979-01-01

    This invention relates to a method of determining the depth of rock strata and other features of a borehole. It may be employed with particular advantage when access to the top of the borehole is difficult, for example in underwater operations. A radioactive marker, such as a source of gamma rays, is positioned near the top of the riser of a sub-sea wellhead structure. A radiation detector is lowered between the marker and a radioactive stratum and the length of line supplied is measured on the floating platform. This enables the depth of the stratum to be measured irrespective of tidal variations of the height of the platform. (U.K.)

  17. Butterfly valves: greater use in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCoy, M.

    1975-01-01

    Improvements in butterfly valves, particularly in the areas of automatic control and leak tightness are described. The use of butterfly valves in nuclear power plants is discussed. These uses include service in component cooling, containment cooling, and containment isolation. The outlook for further improvements and greater uses is examined. (U.S.)

  18. Greater Somalia, the never-ending dream?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoppi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an historical analysis of the concept of Greater Somalia, the nationalist project that advocates the political union of all Somali-speaking people, including those inhabiting areas in current Djibouti, Ethiopia and Kenya. The Somali territorial unification project of “lost...

  19. Why bother about depth?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stæhr, Peter A.; Obrador, Biel; Christensen, Jesper Philip

    We present results from a newly developed method to determine depth specific rates of GPP, NEP and R using frequent automated profiles of DO and temperature. Metabolic rate calculations were made for three lakes of different trophic status using a diel DO methodology that integrates rates across...

  20. Defining depth of anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, S L; Stanski, D R

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter, drawn largely from the synthesis of material that we first presented in the sixth edition of Miller's Anesthesia, Chap 31 (Stanski and Shafer 2005; used by permission of the publisher), we have defined anesthetic depth as the probability of non-response to stimulation, calibrated against the strength of the stimulus, the difficulty of suppressing the response, and the drug-induced probability of non-responsiveness at defined effect site concentrations. This definition requires measurement of multiple different stimuli and responses at well-defined drug concentrations. There is no one stimulus and response measurement that will capture depth of anesthesia in a clinically or scientifically meaningful manner. The "clinical art" of anesthesia requires calibration of these observations of stimuli and responses (verbal responses, movement, tachycardia) against the dose and concentration of anesthetic drugs used to reduce the probability of response, constantly adjusting the administered dose to achieve the desired anesthetic depth. In our definition of "depth of anesthesia" we define the need for two components to create the anesthetic state: hypnosis created with drugs such as propofol or the inhalational anesthetics and analgesia created with the opioids or nitrous oxide. We demonstrate the scientific evidence that profound degrees of hypnosis in the absence of analgesia will not prevent the hemodynamic responses to profoundly noxious stimuli. Also, profound degrees of analgesia do not guarantee unconsciousness. However, the combination of hypnosis and analgesia suppresses hemodynamic response to noxious stimuli and guarantees unconsciousness.

  1. Defence in depth perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veneau, Tania; Ferrier, Agnes; Barbaud, Jean

    2017-01-01

    The Defence in Depth (DiD) concept was introduced to the field of nuclear safety in the sixties and early seventies. Even though it was not well developed at the beginning, the principles rapidly became close to those currently used. The concept was then composed of 3 levels, and was already associated with operating conditions. These principles have progressed over time and now there are five levels, including progressively situations issued from design extension conditions, to cope with severe accidents and dealing with accident management off-site. Indeed, human and organizational features are considered as a part of the safety provisions at all levels in an integrated approach that is not just related to reactor design. That's the current vision from IAEA, addressed first in INSAG 3 then in INSAG 10, and in the IAEA standards requirements currently addressed by SSR-2/1 superseding NS-R-1). These five levels of DiD are also referred to in other texts including WENRA documents in Europe, but also in the national requirements from different countries. Thus, the application of DiD principle has become a recognized international practice. The 2011 Fukushima Daiichi accidents, even if they raised many questions on nuclear safety issues, confirmed the merits of the DiD concept. Indeed, lessons learned from the accidents have reinforced the use of the DiD concept to ensure adequate safety. The discussions focused more on the implementation of the concept (how it has been or can be used in practice) than the concept itself, and in particular on the following subjects: the notion of level robustness, generally addressed separately from the levels definition, but playing an important role for the efficiency of the concept; the notion of levels independence and the need for strengthening them; the role of diversity to achieve levels independence. However, a prescription of additional diversity and independence across all safety levels could result in inappropriately

  2. Spatiotemporal variability of snow depth across the Eurasian continent from 1966 to 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xinyue; Zhang, Tingjun; Kang, Shichang; Wang, Kang; Zheng, Lei; Hu, Yuantao; Wang, Huijuan

    2018-01-01

    Snow depth is one of the key physical parameters for understanding land surface energy balance, soil thermal regime, water cycle, and assessing water resources from local community to regional industrial water supply. Previous studies by using in situ data are mostly site specific; data from satellite remote sensing may cover a large area or global scale, but uncertainties remain large. The primary objective of this study is to investigate spatial variability and temporal change in snow depth across the Eurasian continent. Data used include long-term (1966-2012) ground-based measurements from 1814 stations. Spatially, long-term (1971-2000) mean annual snow depths of >20 cm were recorded in northeastern European Russia, the Yenisei River basin, Kamchatka Peninsula, and Sakhalin. Annual mean and maximum snow depth increased by 0.2 and 0.6 cm decade-1 from 1966 through 2012. Seasonally, monthly mean snow depth decreased in autumn and increased in winter and spring over the study period. Regionally, snow depth significantly increased in areas north of 50° N. Compared with air temperature, snowfall had greater influence on snow depth during November through March across the former Soviet Union. This study provides a baseline for snow depth climatology and changes across the Eurasian continent, which would significantly help to better understanding climate system and climate changes on regional, hemispheric, or even global scales.

  3. Shave-off depth profiling: Depth profiling with an absolute depth scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nojima, M.; Maekawa, A.; Yamamoto, T.; Tomiyasu, B.; Sakamoto, T.; Owari, M.; Nihei, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Shave-off depth profiling provides profiling with an absolute depth scale. This method uses a focused ion beam (FIB) micro-machining process to provide the depth profile. We show that the shave-off depth profile of a particle reflected the spherical shape of the sample and signal intensities had no relationship to the depth. Through the introduction of FIB micro-sampling, the shave-off depth profiling of a dynamic random access memory (DRAM) tip was carried out. The shave-off profile agreed with a blue print from the manufacturing process. Finally, shave-off depth profiling is discussed with respect to resolutions and future directions

  4. Operational technology for greater confinement disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickman, P.T.; Vollmer, A.T.; Hunter, P.H.

    1984-12-01

    Procedures and methods for the design and operation of a greater confinement disposal facility using large-diameter boreholes are discussed. It is assumed that the facility would be located at an operating low-level waste disposal site and that only a small portion of the wastes received at the site would require greater confinement disposal. The document is organized into sections addressing: facility planning process; facility construction; waste loading and handling; radiological safety planning; operations procedures; and engineering cost studies. While primarily written for low-level waste management site operators and managers, a detailed economic assessment section is included that should assist planners in performing cost analyses. Economic assessments for both commercial and US government greater confinement disposal facilities are included. The estimated disposal costs range from $27 to $104 per cubic foot for a commercial facility and from $17 to $60 per cubic foot for a government facility. These costs are based on average site preparation, construction, and waste loading costs for both contact- and remote-handled wastes. 14 figures, 22 tables

  5. Real-time lossless compression of depth streams

    KAUST Repository

    Schneider, Jens

    2017-08-17

    Various examples are provided for lossless compression of data streams. In one example, a Z-lossless (ZLS) compression method includes generating compacted depth information by condensing information of a depth image and a compressed binary representation of the depth image using histogram compaction and decorrelating the compacted depth information to produce bitplane slicing of residuals by spatial prediction. In another example, an apparatus includes imaging circuitry that can capture one or more depth images and processing circuitry that can generate compacted depth information by condensing information of a captured depth image and a compressed binary representation of the captured depth image using histogram compaction; decorrelate the compacted depth information to produce bitplane slicing of residuals by spatial prediction; and generate an output stream based upon the bitplane slicing.

  6. Real-time lossless compression of depth streams

    KAUST Repository

    Schneider, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Various examples are provided for lossless compression of data streams. In one example, a Z-lossless (ZLS) compression method includes generating compacted depth information by condensing information of a depth image and a compressed binary representation of the depth image using histogram compaction and decorrelating the compacted depth information to produce bitplane slicing of residuals by spatial prediction. In another example, an apparatus includes imaging circuitry that can capture one or more depth images and processing circuitry that can generate compacted depth information by condensing information of a captured depth image and a compressed binary representation of the captured depth image using histogram compaction; decorrelate the compacted depth information to produce bitplane slicing of residuals by spatial prediction; and generate an output stream based upon the bitplane slicing.

  7. Offshore Wind Technology Depth Zones

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coastal bathymetric depth, measured in meters at depth values of: -30, -60, -900 Shallow Zone (0-30m): Technology has been demonstrated on a commercial scale at...

  8. The Greater Sekhukhune-CAPABILITY outreach project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregersen, Nerine; Lampret, Julie; Lane, Tony; Christianson, Arnold

    2013-07-01

    The Greater Sekhukhune-CAPABILITY Outreach Project was undertaken in a rural district in Limpopo, South Africa, as part of the European Union-funded CAPABILITY programme to investigate approaches for capacity building for the translation of genetic knowledge into care and prevention of congenital disorders. Based on previous experience of a clinical genetic outreach programme in Limpopo, it aimed to initiate a district clinical genetic service in Greater Sekhukhune to gain knowledge and experience to assist in the implementation and development of medical genetic services in South Africa. Implementing the service in Greater Sekhukhune was impeded by a developing staff shortage in the province and pressure on the health service from the existing HIV/AIDS and TB epidemics. This situation underscores the need for health needs assessment for developing services for the care and prevention of congenital disorders in middle- and low-income countries. However, these impediments stimulated the pioneering of innovate ways to offer medical genetic services in these circumstances, including tele-teaching of nurses and doctors, using cellular phones to enhance clinical care and adapting and assessing the clinical utility of a laboratory test, QF-PCR, for use in the local circumstances.

  9. Naturalistic depth perception and binocular vision

    OpenAIRE

    Maiello, G.

    2017-01-01

    Humans continuously move both their eyes to redirect their foveae to objects at new depths. To correctly execute these complex combinations of saccades, vergence eye movements and accommodation changes, the visual system makes use of multiple sources of depth information, including binocular disparity and defocus. Furthermore, during development, both fine-tuning of oculomotor control as well as correct eye growth are likely driven by complex interactions between eye movements, accommodation,...

  10. Greater soil carbon accumulation in deeper soils in native- than in exotic-dominated grassland plantings in the southern Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilsey, B. J.; Xu, X.; Polley, H. W.; Hofmockel, K. S.

    2017-12-01

    Global change includes invasion by non-native plant species, and invasion may affect carbon cycling and storage. We tested predictions in central Texas in an experiment that compares mixtures of all exotic or all native species under two summer irrigation treatments (128 or 0 mm) that varies the amount of summer drought stress. At the end of the eighth growing season after establishment, soils were sampled in 10 cm increments to 100 cm depth to determine if soil C differed among treatments, and if treatments differentially affected soil C in deeper soils. Soil C content was significantly (5%) higher under native plantings than under exotic species plantings (P plantings increased with depth, and native plantings had higher soil C in deeper soil layers than in surface layers (native-exotic x depth, P plantings had decreasing soil C with depth. Soil C:N ratio and δ13C/12C were also significantly affected by native-exotic status, with soils in exotic plots having a significantly greater C4 contribution than native soils. Soil C was unaffected by summer irrigation treatments. Our results suggest that a significant amount of carbon could be sequestered by replacing exotic plant species with native species in the southern Plains, and that more work should be conducted at deeper soil depths. If we had restricted our analyses to surface soil layers (e.g. top 30 cm), we would have failed to detect depth differences between natives and exotics.

  11. Reserves in western basins: Part 1, Greater Green River basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This study characterizes an extremely large gas resource located in low permeability, overpressured sandstone reservoirs located below 8,000 feet drill depth in the Greater Green River basin, Wyoming. Total in place resource is estimated at 1,968 Tcf. Via application of geologic, engineering and economic criteria, the portion of this resource potentially recoverable as reserves is estimated. Those volumes estimated include probable, possible and potential categories and total 33 Tcf as a mean estimate of recoverable gas for all plays considered in the basin. Five plays (formations) were included in this study and each was separately analyzed in terms of its overpressured, tight gas resource, established productive characteristics and future reserves potential based on a constant $2/Mcf wellhead gas price scenario. A scheme has been developed to break the overall resource estimate down into components that can be considered as differing technical and economic challenges that must be overcome in order to exploit such resources: in other words, to convert those resources to economically recoverable reserves. Total recoverable reserves estimates of 33 Tcf do not include the existing production from overpressured tight reservoirs in the basin. These have estimated ultimate recovery of approximately 1.6 Tcf, or a per well average recovery of 2.3 Bcf. Due to the fact that considerable pay thicknesses can be present, wells can be economic despite limited drainage areas. It is typical for significant bypassed gas to be present at inter-well locations because drainage areas are commonly less than regulatory well spacing requirements.

  12. Greater confinement disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevorrow, L.E.; Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Merry-Libby, P.A.; Meshkov, N.K.; Yu, C.

    1985-01-01

    Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) includes a broad spectrum of different radionuclide concentrations, half-lives, and hazards. Standard shallow-land burial practice can provide adequate protection of public health and safety for most LLW. A small volume fraction (approx. 1%) containing most of the activity inventory (approx. 90%) requires specific measures known as greater-confinement disposal (GCD). Different site characteristics and different waste characteristics - such as high radionuclide concentrations, long radionuclide half-lives, high radionuclide mobility, and physical or chemical characteristics that present exceptional hazards - lead to different GCD facility design requirements. Facility design alternatives considered for GCD include the augered shaft, deep trench, engineered structure, hydrofracture, improved waste form, and high-integrity container. Selection of an appropriate design must also consider the interplay between basic risk limits for protection of public health and safety, performance characteristics and objectives, costs, waste-acceptance criteria, waste characteristics, and site characteristics

  13. Effects of burn location and investigator on burn depth in a porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Adam J; Toussaint, Jimmy; Chung, Won Taek; Thode, Henry C; McClain, Steve; Raut, Vivek

    2016-02-01

    In order to be useful, animal models should be reproducible and consistent regardless of sampling bias, investigator creating burn, and burn location. We determined the variability in burn depth based on biopsy location, burn location and investigator in a porcine model of partial thickness burns. 24 partial thickness burns (2.5 cm by 2.5 cm each) were created on the backs of 2 anesthetized pigs by 2 investigators (one experienced, one inexperienced) using a previously validated model. In one of the pigs, the necrotic epidermis covering each burn was removed. Five full thickness 4mm punch biopsies were obtained 1h after injury from the four corners and center of the burns and stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin and Masson's trichrome for determination of burn depth by a board certified dermatopathologist blinded to burn location and investigator. Comparisons of burn depth by biopsy location, burn location and investigator were performed with t-tests and ANOVA as appropriate. The mean (SD) depth of injury to blood vessels (the main determinant of burn progression) in debrided and non-debrided pigs pooled together was 1.8 (0.3)mm, which included 75% of the dermal depth. Non-debrided burns were 0.24 mm deeper than debrided burns (Plocations, in debrided burns. Additionally, there were also no statistical differences in burn depths from midline to lateral in either of these burn types. Burn depth was similar for both investigators and among biopsy locations. Burn depth was greater for caudal locations in non-debrided burns and overall non-debrided burns were deeper than debrided burns. However, burn depth did not differ based on investigator, biopsy site, and medial-lateral location. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of Depth of Field for depth perception in DVR

    KAUST Repository

    Grosset, A.V.Pascal; Schott, Mathias; Bonneau, Georges-Pierre; Hansen, Charles D.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present a user study on the use of Depth of Field for depth perception in Direct Volume Rendering. Direct Volume Rendering with Phong shading and perspective projection is used as the baseline. Depth of Field is then added to see its impact on the correct perception of ordinal depth. Accuracy and response time are used as the metrics to evaluate the usefulness of Depth of Field. The onsite user study has two parts: static and dynamic. Eye tracking is used to monitor the gaze of the subjects. From our results we see that though Depth of Field does not act as a proper depth cue in all conditions, it can be used to reinforce the perception of which feature is in front of the other. The best results (high accuracy & fast response time) for correct perception of ordinal depth occurs when the front feature (out of the two features users were to choose from) is in focus and perspective projection is used. © 2013 IEEE.

  15. Evaluation of Depth of Field for depth perception in DVR

    KAUST Repository

    Grosset, A.V.Pascal

    2013-02-01

    In this paper we present a user study on the use of Depth of Field for depth perception in Direct Volume Rendering. Direct Volume Rendering with Phong shading and perspective projection is used as the baseline. Depth of Field is then added to see its impact on the correct perception of ordinal depth. Accuracy and response time are used as the metrics to evaluate the usefulness of Depth of Field. The onsite user study has two parts: static and dynamic. Eye tracking is used to monitor the gaze of the subjects. From our results we see that though Depth of Field does not act as a proper depth cue in all conditions, it can be used to reinforce the perception of which feature is in front of the other. The best results (high accuracy & fast response time) for correct perception of ordinal depth occurs when the front feature (out of the two features users were to choose from) is in focus and perspective projection is used. © 2013 IEEE.

  16. ASEAN economic growth, trade openness and banking-sector depth: The nexus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudra P. Pradhan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated the linkages between banking sector depth, trade openness, and economic growth using a panel data set covering the ASEAN regional forum countries for the period 1961–2012. Using our multivariate framework, we first found that all the variables were integrated of order one and were cointegrated. Our panel-data estimation procedures offered more robust estimates than previous studies by utilizing variations between countries as well as variations over time. The results of this study indicated a general long-run equilibrium relationship among trade openness, banking sector depth and economic growth as well as a short-run relationship between these variables. Policy recommendations include those that will promote greater banking sector development as well as increased trade openness. JEL classification: O16, O43, E44, E31, Keywords: Trade openness, Banking sector depth, Economic growth, Granger causality, ASEAN regional forum countries

  17. Small cities face greater impact from automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Morgan R; Sun, Lijun; Cebrian, Manuel; Youn, Hyejin; Rahwan, Iyad

    2018-02-01

    The city has proved to be the most successful form of human agglomeration and provides wide employment opportunities for its dwellers. As advances in robotics and artificial intelligence revive concerns about the impact of automation on jobs, a question looms: how will automation affect employment in cities? Here, we provide a comparative picture of the impact of automation across US urban areas. Small cities will undertake greater adjustments, such as worker displacement and job content substitutions. We demonstrate that large cities exhibit increased occupational and skill specialization due to increased abundance of managerial and technical professions. These occupations are not easily automatable, and, thus, reduce the potential impact of automation in large cities. Our results pass several robustness checks including potential errors in the estimation of occupational automation and subsampling of occupations. Our study provides the first empirical law connecting two societal forces: urban agglomeration and automation's impact on employment. © 2018 The Authors.

  18. Small cities face greater impact from automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lijun; Cebrian, Manuel; Rahwan, Iyad

    2018-01-01

    The city has proved to be the most successful form of human agglomeration and provides wide employment opportunities for its dwellers. As advances in robotics and artificial intelligence revive concerns about the impact of automation on jobs, a question looms: how will automation affect employment in cities? Here, we provide a comparative picture of the impact of automation across US urban areas. Small cities will undertake greater adjustments, such as worker displacement and job content substitutions. We demonstrate that large cities exhibit increased occupational and skill specialization due to increased abundance of managerial and technical professions. These occupations are not easily automatable, and, thus, reduce the potential impact of automation in large cities. Our results pass several robustness checks including potential errors in the estimation of occupational automation and subsampling of occupations. Our study provides the first empirical law connecting two societal forces: urban agglomeration and automation's impact on employment. PMID:29436514

  19. Planning for greater-confinement disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Meshkov, N.K.; Trevorrow, L.E.; Yu, C.

    1984-01-01

    This contribution is a progress report for preparation of a document that will summarize procedures and technical information needed to plan for and implement greater-confinement disposal (GCD) of low-level radioactive waste. Selection of a site and a facility design (Phase I), and construction, operation, and extended care (Phase II) will be covered in the document. This progress report is limited to Phase I. Phase I includes determination of the need for GCD, design alternatives, and selection of a site and facility design. Alternative designs considered are augered shafts, deep trenches, engineered structures, high-integrity containers, hydrofracture, and improved waste form. Design considerations and specifications, performance elements, cost elements, and comparative advantages and disadvantages of the different designs are covered. Procedures are discussed for establishing overall performance objectives and waste-acceptance criteria, and for comparative assessment of the performance and cost of the different alternatives. 16 references

  20. Planning for greater-confinement disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Meshkov, N.K.; Trevorrow, L.E.; Yu, C.

    1984-01-01

    This contribution is a progress report for preparation of a document that will summarize procedures and technical information needed to plan for and implement greater-confinement disposal (GCD) of low-level radioactive waste. Selection of a site and a facility design (Phase I), and construction, operation, and extended care (Phase II) will be covered in the document. This progress report is limited to Phase I. Phase I includes determination of the need for GCD, design alternatives, and selection of a site and facility design. Alternative designs considered are augered shafts, deep trenches, engineered structures, high-integrity containers, hydrofracture, and improved waste form. Design considerations and specifications, performance elements, cost elements, and comparative advantages and disadvantages of the different designs are covered. Procedures are discussed for establishing overall performance objecties and waste-acceptance criteria, and for comparative assessment of the performance and cost of the different alternatives. 16 refs

  1. Controlling Force and Depth in Friction Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Glynn; Loftus, Zachary; McCormac, Nathan; Venable, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Feedback control of the penetration force applied to a pin tool in friction stir welding has been found to be a robust and reliable means for controlling the depth of penetration of the tool. This discovery has made it possible to simplify depth control and to weld with greater repeatability, even on workpieces with long weld joints. Prior to this discovery, depths of penetration in friction stir welding were controlled by hard-tooled roller assemblies or by depth actuators controlled by feedback from such external sensors as linear variable-differential transformers or laser-based devices. These means of control are limited: A hard-tooled roller assembly confines a pin tool to a preset depth that cannot be changed easily during the welding process. A measurement by an external sensor is only an indirect indicative of the depth of penetration, and computations to correlate such a measurement with a depth of penetration are vulnerable to error. The present force-feedback approach exploits the proportionality between the depth and the force of penetration Unlike a depth measurement taken by an external sensor, a force measurement can be direct because it can be taken by a sensor coupled directly to the pin tool. The reading can be processed through a modern electronic servo control system to control an actuator to keep the applied penetration force at the desired level. In comparison with the older depth-control methods described above, this method offers greater sensitivity to plasticizing of the workpiece metal and is less sensitive to process noise, resulting in a more consistent process. In an experiment, a tapered panel was friction stir welded while controlling the force of penetration according to this method. The figure is a plot of measurements taken during the experiment, showing that force was controlled with a variation of 200 lb (890 N), resulting in control of the depth of penetration with a variation of 0.004 in. (0.1 mm).

  2. TRENDS IN ESTIMATED MIXING DEPTH DAILY MAXIMUMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, R; Amy DuPont, A; Robert Kurzeja, R; Matt Parker, M

    2007-11-12

    Mixing depth is an important quantity in the determination of air pollution concentrations. Fireweather forecasts depend strongly on estimates of the mixing depth as a means of determining the altitude and dilution (ventilation rates) of smoke plumes. The Savannah River United States Forest Service (USFS) routinely conducts prescribed fires at the Savannah River Site (SRS), a heavily wooded Department of Energy (DOE) facility located in southwest South Carolina. For many years, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has provided forecasts of weather conditions in support of the fire program, including an estimated mixing depth using potential temperature and turbulence change with height at a given location. This paper examines trends in the average estimated mixing depth daily maximum at the SRS over an extended period of time (4.75 years) derived from numerical atmospheric simulations using two versions of the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). This allows for differences to be seen between the model versions, as well as trends on a multi-year time frame. In addition, comparisons of predicted mixing depth for individual days in which special balloon soundings were released are also discussed.

  3. ISLSCP II Ecosystem Rooting Depths

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this study was to predict the global distribution of plant rooting depths based on data about global aboveground vegetation structure and climate....

  4. ISLSCP II Ecosystem Rooting Depths

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: The goal of this study was to predict the global distribution of plant rooting depths based on data about global aboveground vegetation structure and...

  5. Factors controlling contrail cirrus optical depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kärcher

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Aircraft contrails develop into contrail cirrus by depositional growth and sedimentation of ice particles and horizontal spreading due to wind shear. Factors controlling this development include temperature, ice supersaturation, thickness of ice-supersaturated layers, and vertical gradients in the horizontal wind field. An analytical microphysical cloud model is presented and validated that captures these processes. Many individual contrail cirrus are simulated that develop differently owing to the variability in the controlling factors, resulting in large samples of cloud properties that are statistically analyzed. Contrail cirrus development is studied over the first four hours past formation, similar to the ages of line-shaped contrails that were tracked in satellite imagery on regional scales. On these time scales, contrail cirrus optical depth and microphysical variables exhibit a marked variability, expressed in terms of broad and skewed probability distribution functions. Simulated mean optical depths at a wavelength of 0.55 μm range from 0.05-0.5 and a substantial fraction 20-50% of contrail cirrus stay subvisible (optical depth <0.02, depending on meteorological conditions.

    A detailed analysis based on an observational case study over the continental USA suggests that previous satellite measurements of line-shaped persistent contrails have missed about 89%, 50%, and 11% of contrails with optical depths 0-0.05, 0.05-0.1, and 0.1-0.2, respectively, amounting to 65% of contrail coverage of all optical depths. When comparing observations with simulations and when estimating the contrail cirrus climate impact, not only mean values but also the variability in optical depth and microphysical properties need to be considered.

  6. Λ and Σ well depth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, Eiji

    1982-01-01

    The Λ well depth was calculated by taking into account the effect of the ΛΣ conversion. Takahashi et al. obtained the separate type of potentials which described the hyperon-nucleon interaction up to p waves. Two types of the potentials among several types they obtained were used to calculate the Λ well depth. The G matrix was easily calculated, and the Λ well depth was obtained by integrating the G matrix in momentum space up to the Fermi surface. The effect of the ΛΣ conversion was given by an equation. The total Λ well depth was estimated to be 9.13 MeV and 49.36 MeV for each type of potential, respectively. It was concluded that the argument by Bodmer et al. was not correct. The Σ well depth was also calculated using the potential obtained by Takahashi et al. for I = 1/2 and the one obtained by Σ + p → Σ + p scattering data for I = 3/2. The obtained value 35.30 MeV may be overestimated, and the experimental value is expected to be in the range from 20 MeV to 30 MeV. (Ito, K.)

  7. Corrosion pit depth extreme value prediction from limited inspection data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najjar, D.; Bigerelle, M.; Iost, A.; Bourdeau, L.; Guillou, D.

    2004-01-01

    Passive alloys like stainless steels are prone to localized corrosion in chlorides containing environments. The greater the depth of the localized corrosion phenomenon, the more dramatic the related damage that can lead to a structure weakening by fast perforation. In practical situations, because measurements are time consuming and expensive, the challenge is usually to predict the maximum pit depth that could be found in a large scale installation from the processing of a limited inspection data. As far as the parent distribution of pit depths is assumed to be of exponential type, the most successful method was found in the application of the statistical extreme-value analysis developed by Gumbel. This study aims to present a new and alternative methodology to the Gumbel approach with a view towards accurately estimating the maximum pit depth observed on a ferritic stainless steel AISI 409 subjected to an accelerated corrosion test (ECC1) used in automotive industry. This methodology consists in characterising and modelling both the morphology of pits and the statistical distribution of their depths from a limited inspection dataset. The heart of the data processing is based on the combination of two recent statistical methods that avoid making any choice about the type of the theoretical underlying parent distribution of pit depths: the Generalized Lambda Distribution (GLD) is used to model the distribution of pit depths and the Bootstrap technique to determine a confidence interval on the maximum pit depth. (authors)

  8. Improving Focal Depth Estimates: Studies of Depth Phase Detection at Regional Distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroujkova, A.; Reiter, D. T.; Shumway, R. H.

    2006-12-01

    The accurate estimation of the depth of small, regionally recorded events continues to be an important and difficult explosion monitoring research problem. Depth phases (free surface reflections) are the primary tool that seismologists use to constrain the depth of a seismic event. When depth phases from an event are detected, an accurate source depth is easily found by using the delay times of the depth phases relative to the P wave and a velocity profile near the source. Cepstral techniques, including cepstral F-statistics, represent a class of methods designed for the depth-phase detection and identification; however, they offer only a moderate level of success at epicentral distances less than 15°. This is due to complexities in the Pn coda, which can lead to numerous false detections in addition to the true phase detection. Therefore, cepstral methods cannot be used independently to reliably identify depth phases. Other evidence, such as apparent velocities, amplitudes and frequency content, must be used to confirm whether the phase is truly a depth phase. In this study we used a variety of array methods to estimate apparent phase velocities and arrival azimuths, including beam-forming, semblance analysis, MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) (e.g., Schmidt, 1979), and cross-correlation (e.g., Cansi, 1995; Tibuleac and Herrin, 1997). To facilitate the processing and comparison of results, we developed a MATLAB-based processing tool, which allows application of all of these techniques (i.e., augmented cepstral processing) in a single environment. The main objective of this research was to combine the results of three focal-depth estimation techniques and their associated standard errors into a statistically valid unified depth estimate. The three techniques include: 1. Direct focal depth estimate from the depth-phase arrival times picked via augmented cepstral processing. 2. Hypocenter location from direct and surface-reflected arrivals observed on sparse

  9. Spectrometric kidney depth measurement method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, P.; Soussaline, F.; Raynaud, C.

    1976-01-01

    The method proposed uses the single posterior surface measurement of the kidney radioactivity distribution. The ratio C/P of the number of scattered photons to the number of primary photons, which is a function of the tissue depth penetrated, is calculated for a given region. The parameters on which the C/P value depends are determined from studies on phantoms. On the basis of these results the kidney depth was measured on a series of 13 patients and a correlation was established between the value thus calculated and that obtained by the profile method. The reproducibility of the method is satisfactory [fr

  10. Heat flow of standard depth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cull, J.P.

    1981-01-01

    Secular and long-term periodic changes in surface temperature cause perturbations to the geothermal gradient which may be significant to depths of at least 1000 m, and major corrections are required to determine absolute values of heat flow from the Earth's interior. However, detailed climatic models remain contentious and estimates of error in geothermal gradients differ widely. Consequently, regions of anomalous heat flow which could contain geothermal resources may be more easily resolved by measuring relative values at a standard depth (e.g. 100 m) so that all data are subject to similar corrections. (orig./ME)

  11. Estimating the Rut Depth by UAV Photogrammetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paavo Nevalainen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The rut formation during forest operations is an undesirable phenomenon. A methodology is being proposed to measure the rut depth distribution of a logging site by photogrammetric point clouds produced by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV. The methodology includes five processing steps that aim at reducing the noise from the surrounding trees and undergrowth for identifying the trails. A canopy height model is produced to focus the point cloud on the open pathway around the forest machine trail. A triangularized ground model is formed by a point cloud filtering method. The ground model is vectorized using the histogram of directed curvatures (HOC method to produce an overall ground visualization. Finally, a manual selection of the trails leads to an automated rut depth profile analysis. The bivariate correlation (Pearson’s r between rut depths measured manually and by UAV photogrammetry is r = 0.67 . The two-class accuracy a of detecting the rut depth exceeding 20 cm is a = 0.65 . There is potential for enabling automated large-scale evaluation of the forestry areas by using autonomous drones and the process described.

  12. Tolerance to acute isovolemic hemodilution. Effect of anesthetic depth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, Philippe; de Hert, Stefan; Mathieu, Nathalie; Degroote, Françoise; Schmartz, Denis; Zhang, Haibo; Vincent, Jean-Louis

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acceptance of a lower transfusion trigger in the perioperative period requires study of the effects of anesthetic depth on the tolerance to acute isovolemic anemia. Anesthetic agents with negative effects on the cardiovascular system may exert proportionately greater depressant effects

  13. Pursuing the Depths of Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyles, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Today's state literacy standards and assessments demand deeper levels of knowledge from students. But many teachers ask, "What does depth of knowledge look like on these new, more rigorous assessments? How do we prepare students for this kind of thinking?" In this article, Nancy Boyles uses a sampling of questions from the PARCC and SBAC…

  14. Simultaneous bilateral isolated greater trochanter fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maruti Kambali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 48-year-old woman sustained simultaneous isolated bilateral greater trochanteric fracture, following a road traffic accident. The patient presented to us 1 month after the injury. She presented with complaints of pain in the left hip and inability to walk. Roentgenograms revealed displaced comminuted bilateral greater trochanter fractures. The fracture of the left greater trochanter was reduced and fixed internally using the tension band wiring technique. The greater trochanter fracture on the right side was asymptomatic and was managed conservatively. The patient regained full range of motion and use of her hips after a postoperative follow-up of 6 months. Isolated fractures of the greater trochanter are unusual injuries. Because of their relative rarity and the unsettled controversy regarding their etiology and pathogenesis, several methods of treatment have been advocated. Furthermore, the reports of this particular type of injury are not plentiful and the average textbook coverage afforded to this entity is limited. In our study we discuss the mechanism of injury and the various treatment options available.

  15. A Simulation-based Randomized Controlled Study of Factors Influencing Chest Compression Depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey P. Mayrand

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Current resuscitation guidelines emphasize a systems approach with a strong emphasis on quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR. Despite the American Heart Association (AHA emphasis on quality CPR for over 10 years, resuscitation teams do not consistently meet recommended CPR standards. The objective is to assess the impact on chest compression depth of factors including bed height, step stool utilization, position of the rescuer’s arms and shoulders relative to the point of chest compression, and rescuer characteristics including height, weight, and gender. Methods: Fifty-six eligible subjects, including physician assistant students and first-year emergency medicine residents, were enrolled and randomized to intervention (bed lowered and step stool readily available and control (bed raised and step stool accessible, but concealed groups. We instructed all subjects to complete all interventions on a high-fidelity mannequin per AHA guidelines. Secondary end points included subject arm angle, height, weight group, and gender. Results: Using an intention to treat analysis, the mean compression depths for the intervention and control groups were not significantly different. Subjects positioning their arms at a 90-degree angle relative to the sagittal plane of the mannequin’s chest achieved a mean compression depth significantly greater than those compressing at an angle less than 90 degrees. There was a significant correlation between using a step stool and achieving the correct shoulder position. Subject height, weight group, and gender were all independently associated with compression depth. Conclusion: Rescuer arm position relative to the patient’s chest and step stool utilization during CPR are modifiable factors facilitating improved chest compression depth.

  16. Fluctuating water depths affect American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) body condition in the Everglades, Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Laura A.; Beauchamp, Jeffrey S.; Jeffery, Brian M.; Cherkiss, Michael S.; Mazzotti, Frank J.

    2016-01-01

    Successful restoration of wetland ecosystems requires knowledge of wetland hydrologic patterns and an understanding of how those patterns affect wetland plant and animal populations.Within the Everglades, Florida, USA restoration, an applied science strategy including conceptual ecological models linking drivers to indicators is being used to organize current scientific understanding to support restoration efforts. A key driver of the ecosystem affecting the distribution and abundance of organisms is the timing, distribution, and volume of water flows that result in water depth patterns across the landscape. American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) are one of the ecological indicators being used to assess Everglades restoration because they are a keystone species and integrate biological impacts of hydrological operations through all life stages. Alligator body condition (the relative fatness of an animal) is one of the metrics being used and targets have been set to allow us to track progress. We examined trends in alligator body condition using Fulton’s K over a 15 year period (2000–2014) at seven different wetland areas within the Everglades ecosystem, assessed patterns and trends relative to restoration targets, and related those trends to hydrologic variables. We developed a series of 17 a priori hypotheses that we tested with an information theoretic approach to identify which hydrologic factors affect alligator body condition. Alligator body condition was highest throughout the Everglades during the early 2000s and is approximately 5–10% lower now (2014). Values have varied by year, area, and hydrology. Body condition was positively correlated with range in water depth and fall water depth. Our top model was the “Current” model and included variables that describe current year hydrology (spring depth, fall depth, hydroperiod, range, interaction of range and fall depth, interaction of range and hydroperiod). Across all models, interaction

  17. Density distributions and depth in flocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, J. M.; Turner, M. S.

    2017-12-01

    Recent experimental evidence suggests that interactions in flocks of birds do not involve a characteristic length scale. Bird flocks have also been revealed to have an inhomogeneous density distribution, with the density of birds near the border greater than near the centre. We introduce a strictly metric-free model for collective behaviour that incorporates a distributed motional bias, providing control of the density distribution. A simple version of this model is then able to provide a good fit to published data for the density variation across flocks of Starlings. We find that it is necessary for individuals on the edge of the flock to have an inward motional bias but that birds in the interior of the flock instead must have an outward bias. We discuss the ability of individuals to determine their depth within a flock and show how this might be achieved by relatively simple analysis of their visual environment.

  18. Greater trochanteric fracture with occult intertrochanteric extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Michael; O'Brien, Seth D; Bui-Mansfield, Liem T; Alderete, Joseph

    2013-10-01

    Proximal femoral fractures are frequently encountered in the emergency department (ED). Prompt diagnosis is paramount as delay will exacerbate the already poor outcomes associated with these injuries. In cases where radiography is negative but clinical suspicion remains high, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the study of choice as it has the capability to depict fractures which are occult on other imaging modalities. Awareness of a particular subset of proximal femoral fractures, namely greater trochanteric fractures, is vital for both radiologists and clinicians since it has been well documented that they invariably have an intertrochanteric component which may require surgical management. The detection of intertrochanteric or cervical extension of greater trochanteric fractures has been described utilizing MRI but is underestimated with both computed tomography (CT) and bone scan. Therefore, if MRI is unavailable or contraindicated, the diagnosis of an isolated greater trochanteric fracture should be met with caution. The importance of avoiding this potential pitfall is demonstrated in the following case of an elderly woman with hip pain and CT demonstrating an isolated greater trochanteric fracture who subsequently returned to the ED with a displaced intertrochanteric fracture.

  19. Intercomparison On Depth Dose Measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohmah, N; Akhadi, M

    1996-01-01

    Intercomparation on personal dose evaluation system has been carried out between CSRSR-NAEA of Indonesia toward Standard Laboratory of JAERI (Japan) and ARL (Australia). The intercomparison was in 10 amm depth dose measurement , Hp (10), from the intercomparison result could be stated that personal depth dose measurement conducted by CSRSR was sufficiently good. Deviation of dose measurement result using personal dosemeter of TLD BG-1 type which were used by CSRSR in the intercomparison and routine photon personal dose monitoring was still in internationally agreed limit. Maximum deviation of reported doses by CSRSR compared to delivered doses for dosemeter irradiation by JAERI was -10.0 percent and by ARL was +29 percent. Maximum deviation permitted in personal dose monitoring is ± 50 percent

  20. Applications of positron depth profiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakvoort, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    In this thesis some contributions of the positron-depth profiling technique to materials science have been described. Following studies are carried out: Positron-annihilation measurements on neon-implanted steel; Void creation in silicon by helium implantation; Density of vacancy-type defects present in amorphous silicon prepared by ion implantation; Measurements of other types of amorphous silicon; Epitaxial cobalt disilicide prepared by cobalt outdiffusion. Positron-annihilation experiments on low-pressure CVD silicon-nitride films. (orig./MM)

  1. Applications of positron depth profiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakvoort, R A

    1993-12-23

    In this thesis some contributions of the positron-depth profiling technique to materials science have been described. Following studies are carried out: Positron-annihilation measurements on neon-implanted steel; Void creation in silicon by helium implantation; Density of vacancy-type defects present in amorphous silicon prepared by ion implantation; Measurements of other types of amorphous silicon; Epitaxial cobalt disilicide prepared by cobalt outdiffusion. Positron-annihilation experiments on low-pressure CVD silicon-nitride films. (orig./MM).

  2. The very deep hole concept - Geoscientific appraisal of conditions at great depth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhlin, C.; Wallroth, T.; Smellie, J.; Leijon, B.; Eliasson, T.; Ljunggren, C.; Beswick, J.

    1998-06-01

    One of the alternative systems for disposal of high-level radioactive nuclear waste being studied by SKB is the very deep hole (2000 - 4000 m) concept. As part of SKB's research programme a study has been carried out to increase the level of knowledge on the expected geological conditions in the depth interval 1000-5000 m in older crystalline rock. As a first step, existing data from relevant areas throughout the world have been compiled. The majority of the data come from deep boreholes, mines, and surface geophysical surveys. An attempt has been made to interpret these data in an integrated manner and to develop a conceptual geological model on the conditions in the Baltic Shield down to a depth of 5 km. One of the main features of the suggested model is that the upper 1 km of crust contains significantly more open fractures than the rock below. However, hydraulically conductive fractures and fracture zones may exist at great depth. In areas of low topography active groundwater circulation is primarily limited to the upper 1 km with the water below 1 km having high salinity. The high salinity reflects the near hydraulically stagnant conditions which exist relatively shallow in areas of low topography. In areas with greater topographic relief fresh water penetrates to great depth and near stagnant conditions are first encountered much deeper. The report also covers how the studied parameters which describe the geological conditions vary with depth. A number of recommendations are made on how the presented conceptual model can be tested and improved aside from obtaining data from new boreholes. These recommendations include the following geoscientific surveys and studies: Reflection and refraction seismics for mapping discrete sub-horizontal fracture zones and the upper more fractured part of the crust; Geoelectric methods for mapping the depth to saline water; Detailed hydrogeological measurements in existing deep boreholes; Isotope studies on fracture minerals

  3. Comparative assessment of disposal of TRU waste in a greater-confinement disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, J.J.; Smith, C.F.; Ciminesi, F.J.; Dickman, P.T.; O'Neal, D.A.

    1982-11-01

    This study reviewed previous work that established generic limits for shallow land burial of TRU contaminated wastes and extended previous methodology to estimate approximate appropriate burial limits for TRU wastes in an arid zone greater confinement disposal facility (GCDF). An erosion scenario provided the limiting pathway in the previous determination of generic shallow land burial limits. Erosion removed the cover soil, exposing the waste mass to habitation and agriculture. For the deep burial concept (that is, burial at a depth greater than 10 m [33 ft]), the aquifer transport scenario was controlling. In both cases, the assumed site conditions were characteristic of a humid zone in which groundwater flows immediately below the waste deposit. In deriving limits for an arid site GCDF, either the erosion/reclaimer or the aquifer transport scenario could provide the controlling pathway, depending on the nuclide and the assumed burial depth. The derived limits were higher for the arid sited GCDF than those of the generic humid study. The physical processes that increase limits relative to the generic study include increased time during which radioactive decay occurs prior to release and increased dilution. Some nuclides were effectively unlimited in an arid zone GCDF, while others (notably Pu-239) were affected on a much smaller scale, primarily due to very long half-lives. As a final comment, the limit values derived in this report represent adjustments to the calculations of the Healy and Rodgers report (LA-UR-79-100). Those original calculations were very conservative, utilizing a worst case approach, but nevertheless involving significant levels of uncertainty in key assumptions. Consequently, the results are assumption dependent. Other approaches to such an analysis could, and should be used to develop site specific concentration limits for TRU wastes

  4. COMPLETION OF THE TRANSURANIC GREATER CONFINEMENT DISPOSAL BOREHOLE PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT FOR THE NEVADA TEST SITE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colarusso, Angela; Crowe, Bruce; Cochran, John R.

    2003-01-01

    Classified transuranic material that cannot be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico is stored in Greater Confinement Disposal boreholes in the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site on the Nevada Test Site. A performance assessment was completed for the transuranic inventory in the boreholes and submitted to the Transuranic Waste Disposal Federal Review Group. The performance assessment was prepared by Sandia National Laboratories on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office using an iterative methodology that assessed radiological releases from the intermediate depth disposal configuration against the regulatory requirements of the 1985 version of 40 CFR 191 of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The transuranic materials are stored at 21 to 37 m depth (70 to 120 ft) in large diameter boreholes constructed in the unsaturated alluvial deposits of Frenchman Flat. Hydrologic processes that affect long- term isolation of the radionuclides are dominated by extremely slow upward rates of liquid/vapor advection and diffusion; there is no downward pathway under current climatic conditions and there is no recharge to groundwater under future ''glacial'' climatic conditions. A Federal Review Team appointed by the Transuranic Waste Disposal Federal Review Group reviewed the Greater Confinement Disposal performance assessment and found that the site met the majority of the regulatory criteria of the 1985 and portions of the 1993 versions of 40 CFR 191. A number of technical and procedural issues required development of supplemental information that was incorporated into a final revision of the performance assessment. These issues include inclusion of radiological releases into the complementary cumulative distribution function for the containment requirements associated with drill cuttings from inadvertent human intrusion, verification of mathematical models used in the performance

  5. Depth profiling of tritium by neutron time-of-flight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.C.; Anderson, J.D.; Lefevre, H.W.

    1976-01-01

    A method to measure the depth profile of tritium implanted or absorbed in materials was developed. The sample to be analyzed is bombarded with a pulsed proton beam and the energy of neutrons produced by the T(p,n) reaction is measured by the time-of-flight technique. From the neutron energy the depth in the target of the T atoms may be inferred. A sensitivity of 0.1 at. percent T or greater is possible. The technique is non-destructive and may be used with thick or radioactive host materials. Samples up to 20 μm in thickness may be profiled with resolution limited by straggling of the proton beam for depths greater than 1 μm. Deuterium depth profiling has been demonstrated using the D(d,n) reaction. The technique has been used to observe the behavior of an implantation spike of T produced by a 400 keV T + beam stopping at a depth of 3 μm in 11 μm thick layers of Ti and TiH. The presence of H in the Ti lattice is observed to inhibit the diffusion of T through the lattice. Effects of the total hydrogen concentration (H + T) being forced above stochiometry at the implantation site are suggested by the shapes of the implantation spikes

  6. Structural and functional correlates of hypnotic depth and suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGeown, William Jonathan; Mazzoni, Giuliana; Vannucci, Manila; Venneri, Annalena

    2015-02-28

    This study explores whether self-reported depth of hypnosis and hypnotic suggestibility are associated with individual differences in neuroanatomy and/or levels of functional connectivity. Twenty-nine people varying in suggestibility were recruited and underwent structural, and after a hypnotic induction, functional magnetic resonance imaging at rest. We used voxel-based morphometry to assess the correlation of grey matter (GM) and white matter (WM) against the independent variables: depth of hypnosis, level of relaxation and hypnotic suggestibility. Functional networks identified with independent components analysis were regressed with the independent variables. Hypnotic depth ratings were positively correlated with GM volume in the frontal cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Hypnotic suggestibility was positively correlated with GM volume in the left temporal-occipital cortex. Relaxation ratings did not correlate significantly with GM volume and none of the independent variables correlated with regional WM volume measures. Self-reported deeper levels of hypnosis were associated with less connectivity within the anterior default mode network. Taken together, the results suggest that the greater GM volume in the medial frontal cortex and ACC, and lower connectivity in the DMN during hypnosis facilitate experiences of greater hypnotic depth. The patterns of results suggest that hypnotic depth and hypnotic suggestibility should not be considered synonyms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Utilization of wind energy in greater Hanover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahling, U.

    1993-01-01

    Since the beginning of the Eighties, the association of communities of Greater Hanover has dealt intensively with energy and ecopolitical questions in the scope of regional planning. Renewable energy sources play a dominant role in this context. This brochure is the third contribution to the subject ''Energy policy and environmental protection''. Experts as well as possibly interested parties are addressed especially. For all 8 contributions contained, separate entries have been recorded in this database. (BWI) [de

  8. Small cities face greater impact from automation

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Morgan R.; Sun, Lijun; Cebrian, Manuel; Youn, Hyejin; Rahwan, Iyad

    2017-01-01

    The city has proven to be the most successful form of human agglomeration and provides wide employment opportunities for its dwellers. As advances in robotics and artificial intelligence revive concerns about the impact of automation on jobs, a question looms: How will automation affect employment in cities? Here, we provide a comparative picture of the impact of automation across U.S. urban areas. Small cities will undertake greater adjustments, such as worker displacement and job content su...

  9. Improving greater trochanteric reattachment with a novel cable plate system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baril, Yannick; Bourgeois, Yan; Brailovski, Vladimir; Duke, Kajsa; Laflamme, G Yves; Petit, Yvan

    2013-03-01

    Cable-grip systems are commonly used for greater trochanteric reattachment because they have provided the best fixation performance to date, even though they have a rather high complication rate. A novel reattachment system is proposed with the aim of improving fixation stability. It consists of a Y-shaped fixation plate combined with locking screws and superelastic cables to reduce cable loosening and limit greater trochanter movement. The novel system is compared with a commercially available reattachment system in terms of greater trochanter movement and cable tensions under different greater trochanteric abductor application angles. A factorial design of experiments was used including four independent variables: plate system, cable type, abductor application angle, and femur model. The test procedure included 50 cycles of simultaneous application of an abductor force on the greater trochanter and a hip force on the femoral head. The novel plate reduces the movements of a greater trochanter fragment within a single loading cycle up to 26%. Permanent degradation of the fixation (accumulated movement based on 50-cycle testing) is reduced up to 46%. The use of superelastic cables reduces tension loosening up to 24%. However this last improvement did not result in a significant reduction of the grater trochanter movement. The novel plate and cables present advantages over the commercially available greater trochanter reattachment system. The plate reduces movements generated by the hip abductor. The superelastic cables reduce cable loosening during cycling. Both of these positive effects could decrease the risks related to grater trochanter non-union. Copyright © 2012 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Educational Afterlife of Greater Britain, 1903-1914

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Following its late nineteenth-century emergence as an important element within federalist thinking across the British Empire, the idea of Greater Britain lost much of its political force in the years following the Boer War. The concept however continued to retain considerable residual currency in other fields of Imperial debate, including those…

  11. Newcastle disease: An in-depth review including epidemiology and molecular diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infections of birds with strains of avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 (APMV-1), (synonyms: Newcastle disease virus (NDV), pigeon PMV-1 (PPMV-1)) are associated with two clinical outcomes: 1) Newcastle disease (ND) results from infections with virulent APMV-1, and is also called Exotic ND (END) in U. S...

  12. An in-depth review of NDV, including epidemiology and molecular diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birds infected with virulent strains of avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 (APMV-1), also known as Newcastle disease virus (NDV), and pigeon PMV-1 (PPMV-1)are defined as having Newcastle disease (ND), which in the United States is sometimes called Exoctic Newcastle disease (END). Infections with virule...

  13. GNF Defense in Depth Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lingenfelter, Andrew A.; Schneider, Robert J.; Cantonwine, Paul E.; Moore, Brian; Rea, John; Crawford, Douglas C. [Global Nuclear Fuel, P.O. Box 780 M/C H25, Wilmington, NC 28402 (United States)

    2009-06-15

    Global Nuclear Fuel (GNF) has designed, fabricated, and placed into operation more than 9 million fuel rods in approximately 135 thousand assemblies. Customer satisfaction has always compelled GNF to reduce fuel rod failures (defined here as fuel rods that breach or leak in service), However, increasing success with and subsequent expectations for economic performance of nuclear reactor plants have raised broader Industry emphasis on fuel reliability. In 2005, GNF established its Defense-in-Depth (DID) Program for the purpose of focusing attention on the many aspects of fuel design, fabrication, performance, and utilization that affect fuel reliability as well as on the key methods that govern the utilization of GNF fuel. The Program is structured to address each of the identified in-service, fuel failure mechanisms. This paper provides a summary of GNF fuel performance, following previous updates. This paper will discuss recent GNF fuel reliability and channel performance, GNF2 introduction status, and methods. GNF's more recent fuel experience includes approximately 3.8 million GE11/13 (9x9) and GE12/14 (10x10) fuel rods, well over half of which are the GE12/14 design. (Those figures also include roughly 25,000 recently-introduced GNF2 fuel rods.) Reliability, expressed as annual, observed fuel failure rates (i.e., number of rods failed each year divided by the number of opportunities, or fuel rods in service), has improved for each year since 2005. The GNF fuel failure rate for years leading up to 2007 and 2008 has been on the order of 5 to 7 ppm (excluding the corrosion events of 2001-2003), and as of this writing (January 2009) the current in-service failure has decreased to around 1.5 ppm. Failures in GE14 fuel rod failures have been primarily due to debris-fretting (> 60%), with other failures being duty-related or yet undetermined. The only failure observed in GNF2 to date was a single, early-life debris failure in a bundle not equipped with GNF

  14. Snowfall and Snow Depth for Canada 1943-1982

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data include monthly snowfall and end-of-month snow depth for 140 stations across Canada. Stations that maintained at least 20 years of data were chosen. The...

  15. DEPTH - OBSERVATION and Other Data (NODC Accession 9700138)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature, salinity and other data were collected in the North Sea and other locations. Data include water depths, temperatures, salinities, and oxygen...

  16. Everglades Depth Estimation Network (EDEN)—A decade of serving hydrologic information to scientists and resource managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patino, Eduardo; Conrads, Paul; Swain, Eric; Beerens, James M.

    2017-10-30

    IntroductionThe Everglades Depth Estimation Network (EDEN) provides scientists and resource managers with regional maps of daily water levels and depths in the freshwater part of the Greater Everglades landscape. The EDEN domain includes all or parts of five Water Conservation Areas, Big Cypress National Preserve, Pennsuco Wetlands, and Everglades National Park. Daily water-level maps are interpolated from water-level data at monitoring gages, and depth is estimated by using a digital elevation model of the land surface. Online datasets provide time series of daily water levels at gages and rainfall and evapotranspiration data (https://sofia.usgs.gov/eden/). These datasets are used by scientists and resource managers to guide large-scale field operations, describe hydrologic changes, and support biological and ecological assessments that measure ecosystem response to the implementation of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan. EDEN water-level data have been used in a variety of biological and ecological studies including (1) the health of American alligators as a function of water depth, (2) the variability of post-fire landscape dynamics in relation to water depth, (3) the habitat quality for wading birds with dynamic habitat selection, and (4) an evaluation of the habitat of the Cape Sable seaside sparrow.

  17. Lateral femoral notch depth is not associated with increased rotatory instability in ACL-injured knees: a quantitative pivot shift analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanakamedala, Ajay C; Burnham, Jeremy M; Pfeiffer, Thomas R; Herbst, Elmar; Kowalczuk, Marcin; Popchak, Adam; Irrgang, James; Fu, Freddie H; Musahl, Volker

    2018-05-01

    A deep lateral femoral notch (LFN) on lateral radiographs is indicative of ACL injury. Prior studies have suggested that a deep LFN may also be a sign of persistent rotatory instability and a concomitant lateral meniscus tear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between LFN depth and both quantitative measures of rotatory knee instability and the incidence of lateral meniscus tears. It was hypothesized that greater LFN depth would be correlated with increased rotatory instability, quantified by lateral compartment translation and tibial acceleration during a quantitative pivot shift test, and incidence of lateral meniscus tears. ACL-injured patients enrolled in a prospective ACL registry from 2014 to 2016 were analyzed. To limit confounders, patients were only included if they had primary ACL tears, no concurrent ligamentous or bony injuries requiring operative treatment, and no previous knee injuries or surgeries to either knee. Eighty-four patients were included in the final analysis. A standardized quantitative pivot shift test was performed pre-operatively under anesthesia in both knees, and rotatory instability, specifically lateral compartment translation and tibial acceleration, was quantified using tablet image analysis software and accelerometer sensors. Standard lateral radiographs and sagittal magnetic resonance images (MRI) of the injured knee were evaluated for LFN depth. There were no significant correlations between LFN depth on either imaging modality and ipsilateral lateral compartment translation or tibial acceleration during a quantitative pivot shift test or side-to-side differences in these measurements. Patients with lateral meniscus tears were found to have significantly greater LFN depths than those without on conventional radiograph and MRI (1.0 vs. 0.6 mm, p quantitative measures of rotatory instability. Concomitant lateral meniscus injury was associated with significantly greater LFN depth. Based on

  18. Compensating for geographic variation in detection probability with water depth improves abundance estimates of coastal marine megafauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagihara, Rie; Jones, Rhondda E; Sobtzick, Susan; Cleguer, Christophe; Garrigue, Claire; Marsh, Helene

    2018-01-01

    The probability of an aquatic animal being available for detection is typically probability of detection is important for obtaining robust estimates of the population abundance and determining its status and trends. The dugong (Dugong dugon) is a bottom-feeding marine mammal and a seagrass community specialist. We hypothesized that the probability of a dugong being available for detection is dependent on water depth and that dugongs spend more time underwater in deep-water seagrass habitats than in shallow-water seagrass habitats. We tested this hypothesis by quantifying the depth use of 28 wild dugongs fitted with GPS satellite transmitters and time-depth recorders (TDRs) at three sites with distinct seagrass depth distributions: 1) open waters supporting extensive seagrass meadows to 40 m deep (Torres Strait, 6 dugongs, 2015); 2) a protected bay (average water depth 6.8 m) with extensive shallow seagrass beds (Moreton Bay, 13 dugongs, 2011 and 2012); and 3) a mixture of lagoon, coral and seagrass habitats to 60 m deep (New Caledonia, 9 dugongs, 2013). The fitted instruments were used to measure the times the dugongs spent in the experimentally determined detection zones under various environmental conditions. The estimated probability of detection was applied to aerial survey data previously collected at each location. In general, dugongs were least available for detection in Torres Strait, and the population estimates increased 6-7 fold using depth-specific availability correction factors compared with earlier estimates that assumed homogeneous detection probability across water depth and location. Detection probabilities were higher in Moreton Bay and New Caledonia than Torres Strait because the water transparency in these two locations was much greater than in Torres Strait and the effect of correcting for depth-specific detection probability much less. The methodology has application to visual survey of coastal megafauna including surveys using Unmanned

  19. Expatriate job performance in Greater China: Does age matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan; Lauring, Jakob; Feng, Yunxia

    to expatriates in Chinese societies. It is possible that older business expatriates will receive more respect and be treated with more deference in a Chinese cultural context than their apparently younger colleagues. This may have a positive impact on expatriates’ job performance. To empirically test...... this presumption, business expatriates in Greater Chine were targeted by a survey. Controlling for the potential bias of a number of background variables, results indicate that contextual/managerial performance, including general managerial functions applied to the subsidiary in Greater China, had a positive...

  20. Greater happiness for a greater number: Is that possible in Austria?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractWhat is the final goal of public policy? Jeremy Bentham (1789) would say: greater happiness for a greater number. He thought of happiness as subjective enjoyment of life; in his words as “the sum of pleasures and pains”. In his time the happiness of the great number could not be measured

  1. Greater happiness for a greater number: Is that possible? If so how? (Arabic)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut); E. Samuel (Emad)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractWhat is the final goal of public policy? Jeremy Bentham (1789) would say: greater happiness for a greater number. He thought of happiness as subjective enjoyment of life; in his words as “the sum of pleasures and pains”. In his time, the happiness of the great number could not be

  2. Greater happiness for a greater number: Is that possible in Germany?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractWhat is the final goal of public policy? Jeremy Bentham (1789) would say: greater happiness for a greater number. He thought of happiness as subjective enjoyment of life; in his words as “the sum of pleasures and pains”. In his time the Happiness of the great number could not be measured

  3. Does footprint depth correlate with foot motion and pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, K T; Savage, R; Pataky, T C; Morse, S A; Webster, E; Falkingham, P L; Ren, L; Qian, Z; Collins, D; Bennett, M R; McClymont, J; Crompton, R H

    2013-06-06

    Footprints are the most direct source of evidence about locomotor biomechanics in extinct vertebrates. One of the principal suppositions underpinning biomechanical inferences is that footprint geometry correlates with dynamic foot pressure, which, in turn, is linked with overall limb motion of the trackmaker. In this study, we perform the first quantitative test of this long-standing assumption, using topological statistical analysis of plantar pressures and experimental and computer-simulated footprints. In computer-simulated footprints, the relative distribution of depth differed from the distribution of both peak and pressure impulse in all simulations. Analysis of footprint samples with common loading inputs and similar depths reveals that only shallow footprints lack significant topological differences between depth and pressure distributions. Topological comparison of plantar pressures and experimental beach footprints demonstrates that geometry is highly dependent on overall print depth; deeper footprints are characterized by greater relative forefoot, and particularly toe, depth than shallow footprints. The highlighted difference between 'shallow' and 'deep' footprints clearly emphasizes the need to understand variation in foot mechanics across different degrees of substrate compliance. Overall, our results indicate that extreme caution is required when applying the 'depth equals pressure' paradigm to hominin footprints, and by extension, those of other extant and extinct tetrapods.

  4. Technical concept for a Greater Confinement Disposal test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, P.H.

    1982-01-01

    For the past two years, Ford, Bacon and Davis has been performing technical services for the Department of Energy at the Nevada Test Site in specific development of defense low-level waste management concepts for greater confinement disposal concept with particular application to arid sites. The investigations have included the development of Criteria for Greater Confinement Disposal, NVO-234, which was published in May of 1981 and the draft of the technical concept for Greater Confinement Disposal, with the latest draft published in November 1981. The final draft of the technical concept and design specifications are expected to be published imminently. The document is prerequisite to the actual construction and implementation of the demonstration facility this fiscal year. The GCD Criteria Document, NVO-234 is considered to contain information complimentary and compatible with that being developed for the reserved section 10 CFR 61.51b of the NRCs proposed licensing rule for low level waste disposal facilities

  5. Search for greater stability in nuclear regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asselstine, J.K.

    1985-01-01

    The need for greater stability in nuclear regulation is discussed. Two possible approaches for dealing with the problems of new and rapidly changing regulatory requirements are discussed. The first approach relies on the more traditional licensing reform initiatives that have been considered off and on for the past decade. The second approach considers a new regulator philosophy aimed at the root causes of the proliferation of new safety requirements that have been imposed in recent years. For the past few years, the concepts of deregulation and regulatory reform have been in fashion in Washington, and the commercial nuclear power program has not remained unaffected. Many look to these concepts to provide greater stability in the regulatory program. The NRC, the nuclear industry and the administration have all been avidly pursuing regulatory reform initiatives, which take the form of both legislative and administrative proposals. Many of these proposals look to the future, and, if adopted, would have little impact on currently operating nuclear power plants or plants now under construction

  6. Greater Sudbury fuel efficient driving handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-12-15

    Reducing the amount of fuel that people use for personal driving saves money, improves local air quality, and reduces personal contributions to climate change. This handbook was developed to be used as a tool for a fuel efficient driving pilot program in Greater Sudbury in 2009-2010. Specifically, the purpose of the handbook was to provide greater Sudbury drivers with information on how to drive and maintain their personal vehicles in order to maximize fuel efficiency. The handbook also provides tips for purchasing fuel efficient vehicles. It outlines the benefits of fuel maximization, with particular reference to reducing contributions to climate change; reducing emissions of air pollutants; safe driving; and money savings. Some tips for efficient driving are to avoid aggressive driving; use cruise control; plan trips; and remove excess weight. Tips for efficient winter driving are to avoid idling to warm up the engine; use a block heater; remove snow and ice; use snow tires; and check tire pressure. The importance of car maintenance and tire pressure was emphasized. The handbook also explains how fuel consumption ratings are developed by vehicle manufacturers. refs., figs.

  7. Women at greater risk of HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahathir, M

    1997-04-01

    Although many people believe that mainly men get infected with HIV/AIDS, women are actually getting infected at a faster rate than men, especially in developing countries, and suffer more from the adverse impact of AIDS. As of mid-1996, the Joint UN Program on AIDS estimated that more than 10 million of the 25 million adults infected with HIV since the beginning of the epidemic are women. The proportion of HIV-positive women is growing, with almost half of the 7500 new infections daily occurring among women. 90% of HIV-positive women live in a developing country. In Asia-Pacific, 1.4 million women have been infected with HIV out of an estimated total 3.08 million adults from the late 1970s until late 1994. Biologically, women are more vulnerable than men to infection because of the greater mucus area exposed to HIV during penile penetration. Women under age 17 years are at even greater risk because they have an underdeveloped cervix and low vaginal mucus production. Concurrent sexually transmitted diseases increase the risk of HIV transmission. Women's risk is also related to their exposure to gender inequalities in society. The social and economic pressures of poverty exacerbate women's risk. Prevention programs are discussed.

  8. Evaluation of canister weld flaw depth for concrete storage cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Tae Chul; Cho, Chun Hyung [Korea Radioactive Waste Agency, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Sung Hun; Lee, Young Oh; Jung, In Su [Korea Nuclear Engineering and Service Corp, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Domestically developed concrete storage casks include an internal canister to maintain the confinement integrity of radioactive materials. In this study, we analyzed the depth of flaws caused by loads that propagate canister weld cracks under normal, off-normal and accident conditions, and evaluated the maximum allowable weld flaw depth needed to secure the structural integrity of the canister weld and to reduce the welding time of the internal canister lid of the concrete storage cask. Structural analyses for normal, off-normal and accident conditions were performed using the general-purpose finite element analysis program ABAQUS; the allowable flaw depth was assessed according to ASME B and PV Code Section XI. Evaluation results revealed an allowable canister weld flaw depth of 18.75 mm for the concrete storage cask, which satisfies the critical flaw depth recommended in NUREG-1536.

  9. Development of the point-depletion code DEPTH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    She, Ding; Wang, Kan; Yu, Ganglin

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The DEPTH code has been developed for the large-scale depletion system. ► DEPTH uses the data library which is convenient to couple with MC codes. ► TTA and matrix exponential methods are implemented and compared. ► DEPTH is able to calculate integral quantities based on the matrix inverse. ► Code-to-code comparisons prove the accuracy and efficiency of DEPTH. -- Abstract: The burnup analysis is an important aspect in reactor physics, which is generally done by coupling of transport calculations and point-depletion calculations. DEPTH is a newly-developed point-depletion code of handling large burnup depletion systems and detailed depletion chains. For better coupling with Monte Carlo transport codes, DEPTH uses data libraries based on the combination of ORIGEN-2 and ORIGEN-S and allows users to assign problem-dependent libraries for each depletion step. DEPTH implements various algorithms of treating the stiff depletion systems, including the Transmutation trajectory analysis (TTA), the Chebyshev Rational Approximation Method (CRAM), the Quadrature-based Rational Approximation Method (QRAM) and the Laguerre Polynomial Approximation Method (LPAM). Three different modes are supported by DEPTH to execute the decay, constant flux and constant power calculations. In addition to obtaining the instantaneous quantities of the radioactivity, decay heats and reaction rates, DEPTH is able to calculate the integral quantities by a time-integrated solver. Through calculations compared with ORIGEN-2, the validity of DEPTH in point-depletion calculations is proved. The accuracy and efficiency of depletion algorithms are also discussed. In addition, an actual pin-cell burnup case is calculated to illustrate the DEPTH code performance in coupling with the RMC Monte Carlo code

  10. Distribution in depth of quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, M.; Green, R.F.

    1980-01-01

    The authors discuss the distribution in depth of different kinds of quasars: quasi-stellar radio sources with steep radio spectrum, those with flat radio spectrum, and optically selected quasars. All exhibit an increase of space density with distance to a different degree. The optically selected quasars, in particular, show a steep increase of surface density with magnitude. The steepness of the increase is inconsistent with a uniform distribution of quasars in the local hypothesis. In the cosmological hypothesis the co-moving space density of optically selected quasars increases by a factor of 100,000 to a redshift of 2, and by factors of 1000 and 10 for steep-spectrum and flat-spectrum radio quasars, respectively. (Auth.)

  11. Simplicial band depth for multivariate functional data

    KAUST Repository

    López-Pintado, Sara

    2014-03-05

    We propose notions of simplicial band depth for multivariate functional data that extend the univariate functional band depth. The proposed simplicial band depths provide simple and natural criteria to measure the centrality of a trajectory within a sample of curves. Based on these depths, a sample of multivariate curves can be ordered from the center outward and order statistics can be defined. Properties of the proposed depths, such as invariance and consistency, can be established. A simulation study shows the robustness of this new definition of depth and the advantages of using a multivariate depth versus the marginal depths for detecting outliers. Real data examples from growth curves and signature data are used to illustrate the performance and usefulness of the proposed depths. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  12. Depth distribution of martensite in xenon implanted stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansen, A.; Johnson, E.; Sarholt-Kristensen, L.; Steenstrup, S.; Hayashi, N.; Sakamoto, I.

    1989-01-01

    The amount of stress-induced martensite and its distribution in depth in xenon implanted austenitic stainless steel poly- and single crystals have been measured by Rutherford backscattering and channeling analysis, depth selective conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy, cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction analysis. In low nickel 17/7, 304 and 316 commercial stainless steels and in 17:13 single crystals the martensitic transformation starts at the surface and develops towards greater depth with increasing xenon fluence. The implanted layer is nearly completely transformed, and the interface between martensite and austenite is rather sharp and well defined. In high nickel 310 commercial stainless steel and 15:19 and 20:19 single crystals, on the other hand, only insignificant amounts of martensite are observed. (orig.)

  13. The Everglades Depth Estimation Network (EDEN) surface-water model, version 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telis, Pamela A.; Xie, Zhixiao; Liu, Zhongwei; Li, Yingru; Conrads, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The Everglades Depth Estimation Network (EDEN) is an integrated network of water-level gages, interpolation models that generate daily water-level and water-depth data, and applications that compute derived hydrologic data across the freshwater part of the greater Everglades landscape. The U.S. Geological Survey Greater Everglades Priority Ecosystems Science provides support for EDEN in order for EDEN to provide quality-assured monitoring data for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan.

  14. Analytic device including nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.; Fratalocchi, Andrea; Totero Gongora, Juan Sebastian; Coluccio, Maria Laura; Candeloro, Patrizio; Cuda, Gianni

    2015-01-01

    A device for detecting an analyte in a sample comprising: an array including a plurality of pixels, each pixel including a nanochain comprising: a first nanostructure, a second nanostructure, and a third nanostructure, wherein size of the first nanostructure is larger than that of the second nanostructure, and size of the second nanostructure is larger than that of the third nanostructure, and wherein the first nanostructure, the second nanostructure, and the third nanostructure are positioned on a substrate such that when the nanochain is excited by an energy, an optical field between the second nanostructure and the third nanostructure is stronger than an optical field between the first nanostructure and the second nanostructure, wherein the array is configured to receive a sample; and a detector arranged to collect spectral data from a plurality of pixels of the array.

  15. Saskatchewan resources. [including uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-01

    The production of chemicals and minerals for the chemical industry in Saskatchewan are featured, with some discussion of resource taxation. The commodities mentioned include potash, fatty amines, uranium, heavy oil, sodium sulfate, chlorine, sodium hydroxide, sodium chlorate and bentonite. Following the successful outcome of the Cluff Lake inquiry, the uranium industry is booming. Some developments and production figures for Gulf Minerals, Amok, Cenex and Eldorado are mentioned.

  16. Updating default depths in the ISC bulletin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Maiclaire K.; Storchak, Dmitry A.; Harris, James

    2006-09-01

    The International Seismological Centre (ISC) publishes the definitive global bulletin of earthquake locations. In the ISC bulletin, we aim to obtain a free depth, but often this is not possible. Subsequently, the first option is to obtain a depth derived from depth phases. If depth phases are not available, we then use the reported depth from a reputable local agency. Finally, as a last resort, we set a default depth. In the past, common depths of 10, 33, or multiples of 50 km have been assigned. Assigning a more meaningful default depth, specific to a seismic region will increase the consistency of earthquake locations within the ISC bulletin and allow the ISC to publish better positions and magnitude estimates. It will also improve the association of reported secondary arrivals to corresponding seismic events. We aim to produce a global set of default depths, based on a typical depth for each area, from well-constrained events in the ISC bulletin or where depth could be constrained using a consistent set of depth phase arrivals provided by a number of different reporters. In certain areas, we must resort to using other assumptions. For these cases, we use a global crustal model (Crust2.0) to set default depths to half the thickness of the crust.

  17. Urban acid deposition in Greater Manchester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D.S.; Longhurst, J.W.S.; Gee, D.R.; Hare, S.E. (Manchester Polytechnic, Manchester (UK). Acid Rain Information Centre)

    1989-08-01

    Data are presented from a monitoring network of 18 bulk precipitation collectors and one wet-only collector in the urban area of Greater Manchester, in the north west of England. Weekly samples were analysed for all the major ions in precipitation along with gaseous nitrogen dioxide concentrations from diffusion tubes. Statistical analysis of the data shows significant spatial variation of non marine sulphate, nitrate, ammonium, acidity and calcium concentrations, and nitrogen dioxide concentrations. Calcium is thought to be responsible for the buffering of acidity and is of local origin. Wet deposition is the likely removal process for calcium in the atmosphere and probably by below cloud scavenging. Nitrate and ammonium concentrations and depositions show close spatial, temporal and statistical association. Examination of high simultaneous episodes of nitrate and ammonium deposition shows that these depositions cannot be explained in terms of trajectories and it is suggested that UK emissions of ammonia may be important. Statistical analysis of the relationships between nitrate and ammonium depositions, concentrations and precipitation amount suggest that ammonia from mesoscale sources reacts reversibly with nitric acid aerosol and is removed by below cloud scavenging. High episodes of the deposition of non marine sulphate are difficult to explain by trajectory analysis alone, perhaps suggesting local sources. In a comparison between wet deposition and bulk deposition, it was shown that only 15.2% of the non marine sulphur was dry deposited to the bulk precipitation collector. 63 refs., 86 figs., 31 tabs.

  18. EOP TDRs (Temperature-Depth-Recordings) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature-depth-recorders (TDRs) were attached to commercial longline and research Cobb trawl gear to obtain absolute depth and temperature measurement during...

  19. Simplicial band depth for multivariate functional data

    KAUST Repository

    Ló pez-Pintado, Sara; Sun, Ying; Lin, Juan K.; Genton, Marc G.

    2014-01-01

    sample of curves. Based on these depths, a sample of multivariate curves can be ordered from the center outward and order statistics can be defined. Properties of the proposed depths, such as invariance and consistency, can be established. A simulation

  20. Being Included and Excluded

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korzenevica, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Following the civil war of 1996–2006, there was a dramatic increase in the labor mobility of young men and the inclusion of young women in formal education, which led to the transformation of the political landscape of rural Nepal. Mobility and schooling represent a level of prestige that rural...... politics. It analyzes how formal education and mobility either challenge or reinforce traditional gendered norms which dictate a lowly position for young married women in the household and their absence from community politics. The article concludes that women are simultaneously excluded and included from...... community politics. On the one hand, their mobility and decision-making powers decrease with the increase in the labor mobility of men and their newly gained education is politically devalued when compared to the informal education that men gain through mobility, but on the other hand, schooling strengthens...

  1. Gaspe hole sets depth record

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1970-03-09

    The deepest diamond-cored hole in the Western Hemisphere, Gulf Sunnybank No. 1 on the Gaspe Peninsula of Quebec, has been completed at a depth of 11,600 ft. This is the deepest cored hole to be drilled anywhere in search of oil and gas production, and the deepest to be drilled using a wire-line core recovery technique. The well was completed in 183 days, and was cored continuously below the surface casing which was set and cemented at 1,004 ft. After underreaming a portion of the bottom of the hole, intermediate casing was set and cemented at 8,000 ft as a safety precaution against possible high oil or gas-fluid pressure. Actual coring time, after deducting time for underreaming and casing operations, was 152 days. Because of the cost of transporting a conventional oil-drilling rig to the E. location, the 89-ft mining rig was modified for the project. The contractor was Heath and Sherwood Drilling (Western) Ltd.

  2. Research of detection depth for graphene-based optical sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Sun, Jialve; Liu, Lu; Zhu, Siwei; Yuan, Xiaocong

    2018-03-01

    Graphene-based optical sensors have been developed for research into the biological intercellular refractive index (RI) because they offer greater detection depths than those provided by the surface plasmon resonance technique. In this Letter, we propose an experimental approach for measurement of the detection depth in a graphene-based optical sensor system that uses transparent polydimethylsiloxane layers with different thicknesses. The experimental results show that detection depths of 2.5 μm and 3 μm can be achieved at wavelengths of 532 nm and 633 nm, respectively. These results prove that graphene-based optical sensors can realize long-range RI detection and are thus promising for use as tools in the biological cell detection field. Additionally, we analyze the factors that influence the detection depth and provide a feasible approach for detection depth control based on adjustment of the wavelength and the angle of incidence. We believe that this approach will be useful in RI tomography applications.

  3. Radiographic features of tuberculous osteitis in greater trochanter and lschium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahm, So Hee; Lee, Ye Ri; Kim, Dong Jin; Sung, Ki Jun; Lim, Jong Nam

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate, if possible, the radiographic features of tuberculous osteitis in the greater trochanter and ischium, and to determine the cause of the lesions. We reterospectively reviewed the plain radiographic findings of 14 ptients with histologically proven tuberculous osteitis involving the greater trochanter and ischium. In each case, the following were analyzed:morphology of bone destruction, including cortical erosion;periosteal reaction;presence or abscence of calcific shadows in adjacent soft tissue. On the basis of an analysis of radiographic features and correlation of the anatomy with adjacent structures we attempted to determine causes. Of the 14 cases evaluated, 12 showed varrious degrees of extrinsic erosion on the outer cortical bone of the greater trochanter and ischium ; in two cases, bone destruction was so severe that the radiographic features of advanced perforated osteomyelitis were simulated. In addition to findings of bone destruction, in these twelve cases, the presence of sequestrum or calcific shadows was seen in adjacent soft tissue. Tuberculous osteitis in the greater trochanter and ischium showed the characteristic findings of chronic extrinsic erosion. On the basis of these findings we can suggest that these lesions result from an extrinsic pathophysiologic cause such as adjacent bursitis

  4. Radiographic features of tuberculous osteitis in greater trochanter and lschium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahm, So Hee; Lee, Ye Ri [Hanil Hospital Affiliated to KEPCO, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Jin; Sung, Ki Jun [Yonsei Univ. Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Jong Nam [Konkuk Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-11-01

    To evaluate, if possible, the radiographic features of tuberculous osteitis in the greater trochanter and ischium, and to determine the cause of the lesions. We reterospectively reviewed the plain radiographic findings of 14 ptients with histologically proven tuberculous osteitis involving the greater trochanter and ischium. In each case, the following were analyzed:morphology of bone destruction, including cortical erosion;periosteal reaction;presence or abscence of calcific shadows in adjacent soft tissue. On the basis of an analysis of radiographic features and correlation of the anatomy with adjacent structures we attempted to determine causes. Of the 14 cases evaluated, 12 showed varrious degrees of extrinsic erosion on the outer cortical bone of the greater trochanter and ischium ; in two cases, bone destruction was so severe that the radiographic features of advanced perforated osteomyelitis were simulated. In addition to findings of bone destruction, in these twelve cases, the presence of sequestrum or calcific shadows was seen in adjacent soft tissue. Tuberculous osteitis in the greater trochanter and ischium showed the characteristic findings of chronic extrinsic erosion. On the basis of these findings we can suggest that these lesions result from an extrinsic pathophysiologic cause such as adjacent bursitis.

  5. Visual Discomfort and Depth-of-Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise O'Hare

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Visual discomfort has been reported for certain visual stimuli and under particular viewing conditions, such as stereoscopic viewing. In stereoscopic viewing, visual discomfort can be caused by a conflict between accommodation and convergence cues that may specify different distances in depth. Earlier research has shown that depth-of-field, which is the distance range in depth in the scene that is perceived to be sharp, influences both the perception of egocentric distance to the focal plane, and the distance range in depth between objects in the scene. Because depth-of-field may also be in conflict with convergence and the accommodative state of the eyes, we raised the question of whether depth-of-field affects discomfort when viewing stereoscopic photographs. The first experiment assessed whether discomfort increases when depth-of-field is in conflict with coherent accommodation–convergence cues to distance in depth. The second experiment assessed whether depth-of-field influences discomfort from a pre-existing accommodation–convergence conflict. Results showed no effect of depth-of-field on visual discomfort. These results suggest therefore that depth-of-field can be used as a cue to depth without inducing discomfort in the viewer, even when cue conflicts are large.

  6. Effective depth of spermatogonia in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casey, R.; Jewett, M.A.S.; Facey, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    Dosimetry for sperm cells irradiated by high-energy betas requires precise knowledge of the effective depth of the spermatogonia, and hence the thickness of overlying tissues (scrotum plus tunics)), because beta dose rate changes very rapidly with depth. Measurements were made on 25 volunteers and surgical patients by mechanical caliper during surgery (2), by ultrasound (14), or by both (9), all at 20 deg C air temperature. The tunica albuginea (TA) measured 0.1 mm. The surgical results (TA excluded) were 2.0 mm, σ = 0.3 mm (n = 11). The ultrasound results (TA included) were 2.2 mm,σ = 0.6 mm (n = 23). There was no correlation of scrotal thickness with age (24-83 years) and only a very weak correlation (r = 0.3) with body mass. There was no decrease in scrotal thickness (at 20 deg C) with further warming but there was an increase (to 3.3 mm from 2.3 mm) with chilling before measurement. Ultrasound is shown to be valid for such measurements. (author)

  7. Aerosol Optical Depth Over India

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Liji Mary; Ravishankara, A. R.; Kodros, John K.; Venkataraman, Chandra; Sadavarte, Pankaj; Pierce, Jeffrey R.; Chaliyakunnel, Sreelekha; Millet, Dylan B.

    2018-04-01

    Tropospheric aerosol optical depth (AOD) over India was simulated by Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS)-Chem, a global 3-D chemical-transport model, using SMOG (Speciated Multi-pOllutant Generator from Indian Institute of Technology Bombay) and GEOS-Chem (GC) (current inventories used in the GEOS-Chem model) inventories for 2012. The simulated AODs were 80% (SMOG) and 60% (GC) of those measured by the satellites (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer and Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer). There is no strong seasonal variation in AOD over India. The peak AOD values are observed/simulated during summer. The simulated AOD using SMOG inventory has particulate black and organic carbon AOD higher by a factor 5 and 3, respectively, compared to GC inventory. The model underpredicted coarse-mode AOD but agreed for fine-mode AOD with Aerosol Robotic Network data. It captured dust only over Western India, which is a desert, and not elsewhere, probably due to inaccurate dust transport and/or noninclusion of other dust sources. The calculated AOD, after dust correction, showed the general features in its observed spatial variation. Highest AOD values were observed over the Indo-Gangetic Plain followed by Central and Southern India with lowest values in Northern India. Transport of aerosols from Indo-Gangetic Plain and Central India into Eastern India, where emissions are low, is significant. The major contributors to total AOD over India are inorganic aerosol (41-64%), organic carbon (14-26%), and dust (7-32%). AOD over most regions of India is a factor of 5 or higher than over the United States.

  8. Is visual short-term memory depthful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Adam; Lei, Quan

    2014-03-01

    Does visual short-term memory (VSTM) depend on depth, as it might be if information was stored in more than one depth layer? Depth is critical in natural viewing and might be expected to affect retention, but whether this is so is currently unknown. Cued partial reports of letter arrays (Sperling, 1960) were measured up to 700 ms after display termination. Adding stereoscopic depth hardly affected VSTM capacity or decay inferred from total errors. The pattern of transposition errors (letters reported from an uncued row) was almost independent of depth and cue delay. We conclude that VSTM is effectively two-dimensional. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Electroacoustic Process Study of Plasma Sparker Under Different Water Depth

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Yifan

    2015-01-05

    The plasma sparker has been applied in oceanic high-resolution seismic exploration for decades. Normally it is towed on the water surface. This is suitable for shallow water, but if the water depth is great, the resolution will decrease dramatically, especially in the horizontal direction. This paper proposes the concept of a deep-towed plasma sparker and presents an experimental study of plasma sparker performance in terms of electric parameters, bubble behavior, and acoustic characteristics. The results show that hydrostatic pressure at a source depth ranging from 1 to 2000 m has a negligible influence on the electric parameters but a strong influence on bubble behavior, wherein both the maximum bubble radius and oscillation period are decreased. The collapse pulse vanishes when the source depth reaches 1000 m or deeper, and no bubble oscillation can be distinguished. The source level (evaluated by the expansion pulse) is also decreased as the source depth increases; moreover, the greater the discharge energy, the smaller the source level loss. The discharge energy per electrode should be greater than 20 J for the deep-towed plasma sparker, which can make the source level loss induced by hydrostatic pressure smaller than the transmission loss. The fast Fourier transform (FFT) results show that the dominant energy is around 20 kHz, which is mainly induced by the expansion pulse and its oscillation. According to the simulation results, the fundamental frequency of the acoustic waveform increases with source depth in accord with a log linear trend, and also reaches tens of kilohertz in deep water. So, before the development of deep-towed plasma sparker, a new technical solution will need to be developed to solve this problem. © 1976-2012 IEEE.

  10. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Defense-in-Depth Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, Edward G.; Fleming, Karl N.; Burns, Edward M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to (1) document the definition of defense-in-depth and the pproach that will be used to assure that its principles are satisfied for the NGNP project and (2) identify the specific questions proposed for preapplication discussions with the NRC. Defense-in-depth is a safety philosophy in which multiple lines of defense and conservative design and evaluation methods are applied to assure the safety of the public. The philosophy is also intended to deliver a design that is tolerant to uncertainties in knowledge of plant behavior, component reliability or operator performance that might compromise safety. This paper includes a review of the regulatory foundation for defense-in-depth, a definition of defense-in-depth that is appropriate for advanced reactor designs based on High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) technology, and an explanation of how this safety philosophy is achieved in the NGNP.

  11. Knee Kinetics during Squats of Varying Loads and Depths in Recreationally Trained Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Victoria; Becker, James; Burkhardt, Eric; Cotter, Joshua

    2018-03-06

    The back squat exercise is typically practiced with varying squat depths and barbell loads. However, depth has been inconsistently defined, resulting in unclear safety precautions when squatting with loads. Additionally, females exhibit anatomical and kinematic differences to males which may predispose them to knee joint injuries. The purpose of this study was to characterize peak knee extensor moments (pKEMs) at three commonly practiced squat depths of above parallel, parallel, and full depth, and with three loads of 0% (unloaded), 50%, and 85% depth-specific one repetition maximum (1RM) in recreationally active females. Nineteen females (age, 25.1 ± 5.8 years; body mass, 62.5 ± 10.2 kg; height, 1.6 ± 0.10 m; mean ± SD) performed squats of randomized depth and load. Inverse dynamics were used to obtain pKEMs from three-dimensional knee kinematics. Depth and load had significant interaction effects on pKEMs (p = 0.014). Significantly greater pKEMs were observed at full depth compared to parallel depth with 50% 1RM load (p = 0.001, d = 0.615), and 85% 1RM load (p = 0.010, d = 0.714). Greater pKEMs were also observed at full depth compared to above parallel depth with 50% 1RM load (p = 0.003, d = 0.504). Results indicate effect of load on female pKEMs do not follow a progressively increasing pattern with either increasing depth or load. Therefore, when high knee loading is a concern, individuals are must carefully consider both the depth of squat being performed and the relative load they are using.

  12. Divergent Responses of Forest Soil Microbial Communities under Elevated CO2 in Different Depths of Upper Soil Layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hao; He, Zhili; Wang, Aijie; Xie, Jianping; Wu, Liyou; Van Nostrand, Joy D; Jin, Decai; Shao, Zhimin; Schadt, Christopher W; Zhou, Jizhong; Deng, Ye

    2018-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that the continuous increase of atmosphere CO 2 concentrations may have profound effects on the forest ecosystem and its functions. However, little is known about the response of belowground soil microbial communities under elevated atmospheric CO 2 (eCO 2 ) at different soil depth profiles in forest ecosystems. Here, we examined soil microbial communities at two soil depths (0 to 5 cm and 5 to 15 cm) after a 10-year eCO 2 exposure using a high-throughput functional gene microarray (GeoChip). The results showed that eCO 2 significantly shifted the compositions, including phylogenetic and functional gene structures, of soil microbial communities at both soil depths. Key functional genes, including those involved in carbon degradation and fixation, methane metabolism, denitrification, ammonification, and nitrogen fixation, were stimulated under eCO 2 at both soil depths, although the stimulation effect of eCO 2 on these functional markers was greater at the soil depth of 0 to 5 cm than of 5 to 15 cm. Moreover, a canonical correspondence analysis suggested that NO 3 -N, total nitrogen (TN), total carbon (TC), and leaf litter were significantly correlated with the composition of the whole microbial community. This study revealed a positive feedback of eCO 2 in forest soil microbial communities, which may provide new insight for a further understanding of forest ecosystem responses to global CO 2 increases. IMPORTANCE The concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) has continuously been increasing since the industrial revolution. Understanding the response of soil microbial communities to elevated atmospheric CO 2 (eCO 2 ) is important for predicting the contribution of the forest ecosystem to global atmospheric change. This study analyzed the effect of eCO 2 on microbial communities at two soil depths (0 to 5 cm and 5 to 15 cm) in a forest ecosystem. Our findings suggest that the compositional and functional structures of microbial

  13. Subring Depth, Frobenius Extensions, and Towers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Kadison

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The minimum depth d(B,A of a subring B⊆A introduced in the work of Boltje, Danz and Külshammer (2011 is studied and compared with the tower depth of a Frobenius extension. We show that d(B,A < ∞ if A is a finite-dimensional algebra and Be has finite representation type. Some conditions in terms of depth and QF property are given that ensure that the modular function of a Hopf algebra restricts to the modular function of a Hopf subalgebra. If A⊇B is a QF extension, minimum left and right even subring depths are shown to coincide. If A⊇B is a Frobenius extension with surjective Frobenius, homomorphism, its subring depth is shown to coincide with its tower depth. Formulas for the ring, module, Frobenius and Temperley-Lieb structures are noted for the tower over a Frobenius extension in its realization as tensor powers. A depth 3 QF extension is embedded in a depth 2 QF extension; in turn certain depth n extensions embed in depth 3 extensions if they are Frobenius extensions or other special ring extensions with ring structures on their relative Hochschild bar resolution groups.

  14. Efficient Deterministic Finite Automata Minimization Based on Backward Depth Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Desheng; Huang, Zhiping; Zhang, Yimeng; Guo, Xiaojun; Su, Shaojing

    2016-01-01

    Obtaining a minimal automaton is a fundamental issue in the theory and practical implementation of deterministic finite automatons (DFAs). A minimization algorithm is presented in this paper that consists of two main phases. In the first phase, the backward depth information is built, and the state set of the DFA is partitioned into many blocks. In the second phase, the state set is refined using a hash table. The minimization algorithm has a lower time complexity O(n) than a naive comparison of transitions O(n2). Few states need to be refined by the hash table, because most states have been partitioned by the backward depth information in the coarse partition. This method achieves greater generality than previous methods because building the backward depth information is independent of the topological complexity of the DFA. The proposed algorithm can be applied not only to the minimization of acyclic automata or simple cyclic automata, but also to automata with high topological complexity. Overall, the proposal has three advantages: lower time complexity, greater generality, and scalability. A comparison to Hopcroft's algorithm demonstrates experimentally that the algorithm runs faster than traditional algorithms.

  15. Cyber security for greater service reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vickery, P. [N-Dimension Solutions Inc., Richmond Hill, ON (Canada)

    2008-05-15

    Service reliability in the electricity transmission and distribution (T and D) industry is being challenged by increased equipment failures, harsher climatic conditions, and computer hackers who aim to disrupt services by gaining access to transmission and distribution resources. This article discussed methods of ensuring the cyber-security of T and D operators. Weak points in the T and D industry include remote terminal units; intelligent electronic devices; distributed control systems; programmable logic controllers; and various intelligent field devices. An increasing number of interconnection points exist between an operator's service control system and external systems. The North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) standards specify that cyber security strategies should ensure that all cyber assets are protected, and that access points must be monitored to detect intrusion attempts. The introduction of new advanced metering initiatives must also be considered. Comprehensive monitoring systems should be available to support compliance with cyber security standards. It was concluded that senior management should commit to a periodic cyber security re-assessment program in order to keep up-to-date.

  16. Ecological specialization and morphological diversification in Greater Antillean boas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, R Graham; Collar, David C; Pasachnik, Stesha A; Niemiller, Matthew L; Puente-Rolón, Alberto R; Revell, Liam J

    2016-08-01

    Colonization of islands can dramatically influence the evolutionary trajectories of organisms, with both deterministic and stochastic processes driving adaptation and diversification. Some island colonists evolve extremely large or small body sizes, presumably in response to unique ecological circumstances present on islands. One example of this phenomenon, the Greater Antillean boas, includes both small (<90 cm) and large (4 m) species occurring on the Greater Antilles and Bahamas, with some islands supporting pairs or trios of body-size divergent species. These boas have been shown to comprise a monophyletic radiation arising from a Miocene dispersal event to the Greater Antilles, though it is not known whether co-occurrence of small and large species is a result of dispersal or in situ evolution. Here, we provide the first comprehensive species phylogeny for this clade combined with morphometric and ecological data to show that small body size evolved repeatedly on separate islands in association with specialization in substrate use. Our results further suggest that microhabitat specialization is linked to increased rates of head shape diversification among specialists. Our findings show that ecological specialization following island colonization promotes morphological diversity through deterministic body size evolution and cranial morphological diversification that is contingent on island- and species-specific factors. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  17. Greater Confinement Disposal Program at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Towler, O.A.; Cook, J.R.; Peterson, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    Plans for improved LLW disposal at the Savannah River Plant include Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) for the higher activity fractions of this waste. GCD practices will include waste segregation, packaging, emplacement below the root zone, and stabilizing the emplacement with cement. Statistical review of SRP burial records showed that about 95% of the radioactivity is associated with only 5% of the waste volume. Trigger values determined in this study were compared with actual burials in 1982 to determine what GCD facilities would be needed for a demonstration to begin in Fall 1983. Facilities selected include 8-feet-diameter x 30-feet-deep boreholes to contain reactor scrap, tritiated waste, and selected wastes from offsite

  18. Coding of Depth Images for 3DTV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zamarin, Marco; Forchhammer, Søren

    In this short paper a brief overview of the topic of coding and compression of depth images for multi-view image and video coding is provided. Depth images represent a convenient way to describe distances in the 3D scene, useful for 3D video processing purposes. Standard approaches...... for the compression of depth images are described and compared against some recent specialized algorithms able to achieve higher compression performances. Future research directions close the paper....

  19. Depth of cure of bulk-fill flowable composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedalino, Inaam; Hartup, Grant R; Vandewalle, Kraig S

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, manufacturers have introduced flowable composite resins that reportedly can be placed in increments of 4 mm or greater. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the depth of cure of bulk-fill flowable composite resins (SureFil SDR Flow, Grandio Flow, and Venus Bulk Fill) and a conventional flowable composite resin (Revolution Formula 2). Depth of cure was measured in terms of bottom-maximum Knoop hardness number (KHN) ratios and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 4049 scrape technique. Shades A2 and A3 of SureFil SDR Flow, Grandio Flow, and Revolution Formula 2 were tested. Venus Bulk Fill was tested in its only available shade (universal). Specimens in thicknesses of 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 mm were polymerized for 20 or 40 seconds, and a hardness tester was used to determine the hardness ratios for each shade at each thickness. For the scraping technique, after specimens were exposed to the curing light, unpolymerized composite resin was removed with a plastic instrument, the polymerized composite was measured, and the length was divided by 2 per ISO guidelines. According to the KHN ratios and the scrape test, Venus Bulk Fill predictably exceeded the manufacturer's claim of a 4-mm depth of cure at both 20 and 40 seconds of curing time. The overall results for depth of cure showed that Venus Bulk Fill ≥ SureFil SDR Flow ≥ Grandio Flow ≥ Revolution Formula 2.

  20. Depth Perception In Remote Stereoscopic Viewing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diner, Daniel B.; Von Sydow, Marika

    1989-01-01

    Report describes theoretical and experimental studies of perception of depth by human operators through stereoscopic video systems. Purpose of such studies to optimize dual-camera configurations used to view workspaces of remote manipulators at distances of 1 to 3 m from cameras. According to analysis, static stereoscopic depth distortion decreased, without decreasing stereoscopitc depth resolution, by increasing camera-to-object and intercamera distances and camera focal length. Further predicts dynamic stereoscopic depth distortion reduced by rotating cameras around center of circle passing through point of convergence of viewing axes and first nodal points of two camera lenses.

  1. Directional Joint Bilateral Filter for Depth Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anh Vu Le

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Depth maps taken by the low cost Kinect sensor are often noisy and incomplete. Thus, post-processing for obtaining reliable depth maps is necessary for advanced image and video applications such as object recognition and multi-view rendering. In this paper, we propose adaptive directional filters that fill the holes and suppress the noise in depth maps. Specifically, novel filters whose window shapes are adaptively adjusted based on the edge direction of the color image are presented. Experimental results show that our method yields higher quality filtered depth maps than other existing methods, especially at the edge boundaries.

  2. ACCURACY ANALYSIS OF KINECT DEPTH DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Khoshelham

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an investigation of the geometric quality of depth data obtained by the Kinect sensor. Based on the mathematical model of depth measurement by the sensor a theoretical error analysis is presented, which provides an insight into the factors influencing the accuracy of the data. Experimental results show that the random error of depth measurement increases with increasing distance to the sensor, and ranges from a few millimetres up to about 4 cm at the maximum range of the sensor. The accuracy of the data is also found to be influenced by the low resolution of the depth measurements.

  3. An Exploration of the Needling Depth in Acupuncture: The Safe Needling Depth and the Needling Depth of Clinical Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaung-Geng Lin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To explore the existing scientific information regarding safe needling depth of acupuncture points and the needling depth of clinical efficacy. Methods. We searched the PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane, Allied and Complementary Medicine (AMED, The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI databases to identify relevant monographs and related references from 1991 to 2013. Chinese journals and theses/dissertations were hand searched. Results. 47 studies were recruited and divided into 6 groups by measuring tools, that is, MRI, in vivo evaluation, CT, ultrasound, dissected specimen of cadavers, and another group with clinical efficacy. Each research was analyzed for study design, definition of safe depth, and factors that would affect the measured depths. Depths of clinical efficacy were discussed from the perspective of de-qi and other clinical observations. Conclusions. Great inconsistency in depth of each point measured from different subject groups and tools exists. The definition of safe depth should be established through standardization. There is also lack of researches to compare the clinical efficacy. A well-designed clinical trial selecting proper measuring tools to decide the actual and advisable needling depth for each point, to avoid adverse effects or complications and promote optimal clinical efficacy, is a top priority.

  4. Sowing Depth Effects on Vetch Yield in Maragheh Dry Lands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Asghari Meidany

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Increases forage production and economic production in rainfed condition requires attention to agricultural issues such as determination of appropriate sowing depth. So in order to determine the effect of different sowing depths of vetch this experiment was conducted in Agricultural Research Station of Maragheh as strip plot based on randomized complete block design with three species of vetch V. sativa , V. dasycarpa-kouhak and V. narbonensis velox67 as main plots and three sowing depth as sub factor. Results showed that the effect of sowing depth on Vicia yield was significant at the 1% level and the maximum yield of wet hay, dry hay, straw and seed depth of belong to 8-10 cm depth and respectively are 5.364, 3.416, 4.389 and 1.081 ton per ha whereas the minimum yield of wet hay, dry hay, straw and seed depth of belong to 2-4 cm depth and respectively are 4.888, 2.318, 3.729 and 0.825. Among the three Vicia species the highest yield of wet hay, dry hay , straw and seed belongs to V. dasykarpa and respectively are 5.632, 3.532, 4.614 and 1.065 ton/ha. Soil moisture study in the field of these vetches at the time of 10 % vetch flowering showed water differences. V.dasycarpa had lower water depletion from soil. The amount of average soil water for species included: V. dasycarpa 26.31, V. sativa 23.76 and V. narbonesis 22.5.

  5. Depth of origin of atoms sputtered from crystalline targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, M.H.; Trovato, E.; Tombrello, T.A.

    2001-01-01

    Recently, V.I. Shulga and W. Eckstein (Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 145 (1998) 492) investigated the depth of origin of atoms sputtered from random elemental targets using the Monte Carlo code TRIM.SP and the lattice code OKSANA. They found that the mean depth of origin is proportional to N -0.86 , where N is the atomic density; and that the most probable escape depth is ∼λ 0 /2, where λ 0 is the mean atomic distance. Since earlier molecular dynamics simulations with small crystalline elemental targets typically produced a most probable escape depth of zero (i.e., most sputtered atoms came from the topmost layer of the target), we have carried out new molecular dynamics simulations of sputtered atom escape depths with much larger crystalline targets. Our new results, which include the bcc targets Cs, Rb and W, as well as the fcc targets Cu and Au predict that the majority of sputtered atoms come from the first atomic layer for the bcc(1 0 0), bcc(1 1 1), fcc(1 0 0) and fcc(1 1 1) targets studied. For the high-atomic density targets Cu, Au and W, the mean depth of origin of sputtered atoms typically is less than 0.25λ 0 . For the low-atomic density targets Cs and Rb, the mean depth of origin of sputtered atoms is considerably larger, and depends strongly on the crystal orientation. We show that the discrepancy between the single-crystal and amorphous target depth of origin values can be resolved by applying a simple correction to the single-crystal results

  6. A computed tomography study in the location of greater palatine artery in South Indian population for maxillary osteotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Packiaraj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The greater palatine artery is one of the important feeding vessel to the maxilla. The surgeon should know the surgical anatomy of greater palatine artery to avoid trauma in maxilla which leads to ischemic problems. Aim: The CT evaluation of the distance between Pyriform aperture and the greater palatine foramen in various ages of both sexes. Result: The distance varies according to sex and age which are measured by CT and standardised. Discussion: The lateral nasal osteotomy can be done upto 25 mm depth, instead of 20 mm. Conclusion: By this study it shows that the lateral nasal wall osteotomy can be performed without injury to greater palatine artery.

  7. Intermediate depth burial of classified transuranic wastes in arid alluvium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochran, J.R.; Crowe, B.M.; Di Sanza, F.

    1999-01-01

    Intermediate depth disposal operations were conducted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) at the DOE's Nevada Test Site (NTS) from 1984 through 1989. These operations emplaced high-specific activity low-level wastes (LLW) and limited quantities of classified transuranic (TRU) wastes in 37 m (120-ft) deep, Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) boreholes. The GCD boreholes are 3 m (10 ft) in diameter and founded in a thick sequence of arid alluvium. The bottom 15 m (50 ft) of each borehole was used for waste emplacement and the upper 21 m (70 ft) was backfilled with native alluvium. The bottom of each GCD borehole is almost 200 m (650 ft) above the water table. The GCD boreholes are located in one of the most arid portions of the US, with an average precipitation of 13 cm (5 inches) per year. The limited precipitation, coupled with generally warm temperatures and low humidities results in a hydrologic system dominated by evapotranspiration. The US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) 40 CFR 191 defines the requirements for protection of human health from disposed TRU wastes. This EPA standard sets a number of requirements, including probabilistic limits on the cumulative releases of radionuclides to the accessible environment for 10,000 years. The DOE Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) has contracted with Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) to conduct a performance assessment (PA) to determine if the TRU wastes emplaced in the GCD boreholes complies with the EPA's 40 CFR 191 requirements. This paper describes DOE's actions undertaken to evaluate whether the TRU wastes in the GCD boreholes will, or will not, endanger human health. Based on preliminary modeling, the TRU wastes in the GCD boreholes meet the EPA's requirements, and are, therefore, protective of human health

  8. The very deep hole concept - Geoscientific appraisal of conditions at great depth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juhlin, C. [Christopher Juhlin Consulting (Sweden); Wallroth, T. [Bergab Consulting Geologists (Sweden); Smellie, J.; Leijon, B. [Conterra AB (Sweden); Eliasson, T. [Geological Survey of Sweden (Sweden); Ljunggren, C. [Vattenfall Hydropower AB (Sweden); Beswick, J. [EDECO Petroleum Services Ltd. (United Kingdom)

    1998-06-01

    One of the alternative systems for disposal of high-level radioactive nuclear waste being studied by SKB is the very deep hole (2000 - 4000 m) concept. As part of SKB`s research programme a study has been carried out to increase the level of knowledge on the expected geological conditions in the depth interval 1000-5000 m in older crystalline rock. As a first step, existing data from relevant areas throughout the world have been compiled. The majority of the data come from deep boreholes, mines, and surface geophysical surveys. An attempt has been made to interpret these data in an integrated manner and to develop a conceptual geological model on the conditions in the Baltic Shield down to a depth of 5 km. One of the main features of the suggested model is that the upper 1 km of crust contains significantly more open fractures than the rock below. However, hydraulically conductive fractures and fracture zones may exist at great depth. In areas of low topography active groundwater circulation is primarily limited to the upper 1 km with the water below 1 km having high salinity. The high salinity reflects the near hydraulically stagnant conditions which exist relatively shallow in areas of low topography. In areas with greater topographic relief fresh water penetrates to great depth and near stagnant conditions are first encountered much deeper. The report also covers how the studied parameters which describe the geological conditions vary with depth. A number of recommendations are made on how the presented conceptual model can be tested and improved aside from obtaining data from new boreholes. These recommendations include the following geoscientific surveys and studies: Reflection and refraction seismics for mapping discrete sub-horizontal fracture zones and the upper more fractured part of the crust; Geoelectric methods for mapping the depth to saline water; Detailed hydrogeological measurements in existing deep boreholes; Isotope studies on fracture minerals

  9. Diffraction enhanced kinetic depth X-ray imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicken, A.

    An increasing number of fields would benefit from a single analytical probe that can characterise bulk objects that vary in morphology and/or material composition. These fields include security screening, medicine and material science. In this study the X-ray region is shown to be an effective probe for the characterisation of materials. The most prominent analytical techniques that utilise X-radiation are reviewed. The study then focuses on methods of amalgamating the three dimensional power of kinetic depth X-ray (KDFX) imaging with the materials discrimination of angular dispersive X-ray diffraction (ADXRD), thus providing KDEX with a much needed material specific counterpart. A knowledge of the sample position is essential for the correct interpretation of diffraction signatures. Two different sensor geometries (i.e. circumferential and linear) that are able to collect end interpret multiple unknown material diffraction patterns and attribute them to their respective loci within an inspection volume are investigated. The circumferential and linear detector geometries are hypothesised, simulated and then tested in an experimental setting with the later demonstrating a greater ability at discerning between mixed diffraction patterns produced by differing materials. Factors known to confound the linear diffraction method such as sample thickness and radiation energy have been explored and quantified with a possible means of mitigation being identified (i.e. via increasing the sample to detector distance). A series of diffraction patterns (following the linear diffraction approach) were obtained from a single phantom object that was simultaneously interrogated via KDEX imaging. Areas containing diffraction signatures matched from a threat library have been highlighted in the KDEX imagery via colour encoding and match index is inferred by intensity. This union is the first example of its kind and is called diffraction enhanced KDEX imagery. Finally an additional

  10. Greater-confinement disposal of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevorrow, L.E.; Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Merry-Libby, P.A.; Meshkov, N.K.; Yu, C.

    1985-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes include a broad spectrum of wastes that have different radionuclide concentrations, half-lives, and physical and chemical properties. Standard shallow-land burial practice can provide adequate protection of public health and safety for most low-level wastes, but a small volume fraction (about 1%) containing most of the activity inventory (approx.90%) requires specific measures known as ''greater-confinement disposal'' (GCD). Different site characteristics and different waste characteristics - such as high radionuclide concentrations, long radionuclide half-lives, high radionuclide mobility, and physical or chemical characteristics that present exceptional hazards - lead to different GCD facility design requirements. Facility design alternatives considered for GCD include the augered shaft, deep trench, engineered structure, hydrofracture, improved waste form, and high-integrity container. Selection of an appropriate design must also consider the interplay between basic risk limits for protection of public health and safety, performance characteristics and objectives, costs, waste-acceptance criteria, waste characteristics, and site characteristics. This paper presents an overview of the factors that must be considered in planning the application of methods proposed for providing greater confinement of low-level wastes. 27 refs

  11. Depth image enhancement using perceptual texture priors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Duhyeon; Shim, Hyunjung

    2015-03-01

    A depth camera is widely used in various applications because it provides a depth image of the scene in real time. However, due to the limited power consumption, the depth camera presents severe noises, incapable of providing the high quality 3D data. Although the smoothness prior is often employed to subside the depth noise, it discards the geometric details so to degrade the distance resolution and hinder achieving the realism in 3D contents. In this paper, we propose a perceptual-based depth image enhancement technique that automatically recovers the depth details of various textures, using a statistical framework inspired by human mechanism of perceiving surface details by texture priors. We construct the database composed of the high quality normals. Based on the recent studies in human visual perception (HVP), we select the pattern density as a primary feature to classify textures. Upon the classification results, we match and substitute the noisy input normals with high quality normals in the database. As a result, our method provides the high quality depth image preserving the surface details. We expect that our work is effective to enhance the details of depth image from 3D sensors and to provide a high-fidelity virtual reality experience.

  12. A new method for depth profiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chittleborough, C.W.; Chaudhri, M.A.; Rouse, J.L.

    1978-01-01

    A simple method for obtaining depth profiles of concentrations has been developed for charged particle induced nuclear reactions which produce γ-rays or neutrons. This method is particularly suitable for non-resonant reactions but is also applicable to resonant reactions and can examine the concentration of the sought nuclide throughout the entire activation depth of the incoming particles in the matrix

  13. Depth of origin of magma in eruptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerril, Laura; Galindo, Ines; Gudmundsson, Agust; Morales, Jose Maria

    2013-09-26

    Many volcanic hazard factors--such as the likelihood and duration of an eruption, the eruption style, and the probability of its triggering large landslides or caldera collapses--relate to the depth of the magma source. Yet, the magma source depths are commonly poorly known, even in frequently erupting volcanoes such as Hekla in Iceland and Etna in Italy. Here we show how the length-thickness ratios of feeder dykes can be used to estimate the depth to the source magma chamber. Using this method, accurately measured volcanic fissures/feeder-dykes in El Hierro (Canary Islands) indicate a source depth of 11-15 km, which coincides with the main cloud of earthquake foci surrounding the magma chamber associated with the 2011-2012 eruption of El Hierro. The method can be used on widely available GPS and InSAR data to calculate the depths to the source magma chambers of active volcanoes worldwide.

  14. Connectivity algorithm with depth first search (DFS) on simple graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riansanti, O.; Ihsan, M.; Suhaimi, D.

    2018-01-01

    This paper discusses an algorithm to detect connectivity of a simple graph using Depth First Search (DFS). The DFS implementation in this paper differs than other research, that is, on counting the number of visited vertices. The algorithm obtains s from the number of vertices and visits source vertex, following by its adjacent vertices until the last vertex adjacent to the previous source vertex. Any simple graph is connected if s equals 0 and disconnected if s is greater than 0. The complexity of the algorithm is O(n2).

  15. Momentum distribution at great depths when electron axial channeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khokonov, M.Kh.; Tuguz, F.K.

    1989-01-01

    The electron distribution in momenta during axial channeling in thick monocrystals in great depths is estimated. The estimate was carried out with respect to the fact that due to diffusion the angular momentum of the electron can change only in a limited region of phase space and that multiple scattering only takes place on thermal oscillations of nuclei of the crystal lattice. It is shown that in thick monocrystals the distribution in momenta can be considered uniform on the greater part of the way of channeled electrons which can simplity the qualitative consideration of spectral-angular characteristics forming during this radiation

  16. In-depth analysis of accidental criticality in a reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, W.; Gmal, B.

    1989-01-01

    An in-depth-analysis including probabilistic considerations has been performed for a potential criticality excursion in two large vessels in a planned reprocessing plant. Criticality safety of these components is based on limitation of uranium and plutonium concentration. The main intention of this study was to investigate the potential and probable magnitude of a criticality in greater detail and to detect possible weaknesses of criticality safety provisions. The results of the analysis show, that the calculated probability of less than 5 · 10 -4 /a a for a criticality excursion in the most relevant rework tank may be further reduced. The peak power rework tank may be further reduced by design modifications. The peak power and total fissions of the critical excursion as assessed in a preceding analysis for licensing are conservative by factors of 10 and 4, respectively

  17. Effect of pictorial depth cues, binocular disparity cues and motion parallax depth cues on lightness perception in three-dimensional virtual scenes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiteru Kitazaki

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Surface lightness perception is affected by scene interpretation. There is some experimental evidence that perceived lightness under bi-ocular viewing conditions is different from perceived lightness in actual scenes but there are also reports that viewing conditions have little or no effect on perceived color. We investigated how mixes of depth cues affect perception of lightness in three-dimensional rendered scenes containing strong gradients of illumination in depth.Observers viewed a virtual room (4 m width x 5 m height x 17.5 m depth with checkerboard walls and floor. In four conditions, the room was presented with or without binocular disparity (BD depth cues and with or without motion parallax (MP depth cues. In all conditions, observers were asked to adjust the luminance of a comparison surface to match the lightness of test surfaces placed at seven different depths (8.5-17.5 m in the scene. We estimated lightness versus depth profiles in all four depth cue conditions. Even when observers had only pictorial depth cues (no MP, no BD, they partially but significantly discounted the illumination gradient in judging lightness. Adding either MP or BD led to significantly greater discounting and both cues together produced the greatest discounting. The effects of MP and BD were approximately additive. BD had greater influence at near distances than far.These results suggest the surface lightness perception is modulated by three-dimensional perception/interpretation using pictorial, binocular-disparity, and motion-parallax cues additively. We propose a two-stage (2D and 3D processing model for lightness perception.

  18. Variations of aerosol optical depth and Angstrom parameters at a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, aerosol optical properties including aerosol optical depth (AOD), Angstrom exponent () and Angstrom turbidity coefficient () have been investigated during December 2009 to October 2010, in a suburban area of Zanjan (36°N, 43°E, 1700 m), in the north–west of Iran, using meteorological and sun ...

  19. Scene depth estimation using a moving camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sune, Jean-Luc

    1995-01-01

    This thesis presents a solution of the depth-from-motion problem. The movement of the monocular observer is known. We have focused our research on a direct method which avoid the optical flow estimation required by classical approaches. The direct application of this method is not exploitable. We need to define a validity domain to extract the set of image points where it is possible to get a correct depth value. Also, we use a multi-scale approach to improve the derivatives estimation. The depth estimation for a given scale is obtained by the minimisation of an energy function established in the context of statistic regularization. A fusion operator, merging the various spatial and temporal scales, has been used to estimate the final depth map. A correction-prediction schema is used to integrate the temporal information from an image sequence. The predicted depth map is considered as an additional observation and integrated in the fusion process. At each time, an error depth map is associated to the estimated depth map. (author) [fr

  20. Hydrologic controls on equilibrium soil depths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicótina, L.; Tarboton, D. G.; Tesfa, T. K.; Rinaldo, A.

    2011-04-01

    This paper deals with modeling the mutual feedbacks between runoff production and geomorphological processes and attributes that lead to patterns of equilibrium soil depth. Our primary goal is an attempt to describe spatial patterns of soil depth resulting from long-term interactions between hydrologic forcings and soil production, erosion, and sediment transport processes under the framework of landscape dynamic equilibrium. Another goal is to set the premises for exploiting the role of soil depths in shaping the hydrologic response of a catchment. The relevance of the study stems from the massive improvement in hydrologic predictions for ungauged basins that would be achieved by using directly soil depths derived from geomorphic features remotely measured and objectively manipulated. Hydrological processes are here described by explicitly accounting for local soil depths and detailed catchment topography. Geomorphological processes are described by means of well-studied geomorphic transport laws. The modeling approach is applied to the semiarid Dry Creek Experimental Watershed, located near Boise, Idaho. Modeled soil depths are compared with field data obtained from an extensive survey of the catchment. Our results show the ability of the model to describe properly the mean soil depth and the broad features of the distribution of measured data. However, local comparisons show significant scatter whose origins are discussed.

  1. Overview of Milestone E activities, greater confinement than shallow land burial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezga, L.J.

    1981-01-01

    In summary, the objective of Milestone E is to provide the technology and documentation needed to open a site providing greater confinement than shallow land burial. To that end, ORNL has prepared a technical position paper defining greater confinement disposal, options for achieving it, and the need for this disposal technology. In order to meet the objective of the milestones, the LLWMP evaluated the full range of options to shallow land burial and decided to focus on a combination of greater depth solidification containment and engineered barriers. The program identified a series of research needs and then focused program efforts on resolving those needs. These tasks are proceeding on schedule at this time but budget reductions may have an impact on our ability to maintain the schedule

  2. Inferring river bathymetry via Image-to-Depth Quantile Transformation (IDQT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legleiter, Carl

    2016-01-01

    Conventional, regression-based methods of inferring depth from passive optical image data undermine the advantages of remote sensing for characterizing river systems. This study introduces and evaluates a more flexible framework, Image-to-Depth Quantile Transformation (IDQT), that involves linking the frequency distribution of pixel values to that of depth. In addition, a new image processing workflow involving deep water correction and Minimum Noise Fraction (MNF) transformation can reduce a hyperspectral data set to a single variable related to depth and thus suitable for input to IDQT. Applied to a gravel bed river, IDQT avoided negative depth estimates along channel margins and underpredictions of pool depth. Depth retrieval accuracy (R25 0.79) and precision (0.27 m) were comparable to an established band ratio-based method, although a small shallow bias (0.04 m) was observed. Several ways of specifying distributions of pixel values and depths were evaluated but had negligible impact on the resulting depth estimates, implying that IDQT was robust to these implementation details. In essence, IDQT uses frequency distributions of pixel values and depths to achieve an aspatial calibration; the image itself provides information on the spatial distribution of depths. The approach thus reduces sensitivity to misalignment between field and image data sets and allows greater flexibility in the timing of field data collection relative to image acquisition, a significant advantage in dynamic channels. IDQT also creates new possibilities for depth retrieval in the absence of field data if a model could be used to predict the distribution of depths within a reach.

  3. Hydrologic regulation of plant rooting depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ying; Miguez-Macho, Gonzalo; Jobbágy, Esteban G; Jackson, Robert B; Otero-Casal, Carlos

    2017-10-03

    Plant rooting depth affects ecosystem resilience to environmental stress such as drought. Deep roots connect deep soil/groundwater to the atmosphere, thus influencing the hydrologic cycle and climate. Deep roots enhance bedrock weathering, thus regulating the long-term carbon cycle. However, we know little about how deep roots go and why. Here, we present a global synthesis of 2,200 root observations of >1,000 species along biotic (life form, genus) and abiotic (precipitation, soil, drainage) gradients. Results reveal strong sensitivities of rooting depth to local soil water profiles determined by precipitation infiltration depth from the top (reflecting climate and soil), and groundwater table depth from below (reflecting topography-driven land drainage). In well-drained uplands, rooting depth follows infiltration depth; in waterlogged lowlands, roots stay shallow, avoiding oxygen stress below the water table; in between, high productivity and drought can send roots many meters down to the groundwater capillary fringe. This framework explains the contrasting rooting depths observed under the same climate for the same species but at distinct topographic positions. We assess the global significance of these hydrologic mechanisms by estimating root water-uptake depths using an inverse model, based on observed productivity and atmosphere, at 30″ (∼1-km) global grids to capture the topography critical to soil hydrology. The resulting patterns of plant rooting depth bear a strong topographic and hydrologic signature at landscape to global scales. They underscore a fundamental plant-water feedback pathway that may be critical to understanding plant-mediated global change.

  4. Hydrologic regulation of plant rooting depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ying; Miguez-Macho, Gonzalo; Jobbágy, Esteban G.; Jackson, Robert B.; Otero-Casal, Carlos

    2017-10-01

    Plant rooting depth affects ecosystem resilience to environmental stress such as drought. Deep roots connect deep soil/groundwater to the atmosphere, thus influencing the hydrologic cycle and climate. Deep roots enhance bedrock weathering, thus regulating the long-term carbon cycle. However, we know little about how deep roots go and why. Here, we present a global synthesis of 2,200 root observations of >1,000 species along biotic (life form, genus) and abiotic (precipitation, soil, drainage) gradients. Results reveal strong sensitivities of rooting depth to local soil water profiles determined by precipitation infiltration depth from the top (reflecting climate and soil), and groundwater table depth from below (reflecting topography-driven land drainage). In well-drained uplands, rooting depth follows infiltration depth; in waterlogged lowlands, roots stay shallow, avoiding oxygen stress below the water table; in between, high productivity and drought can send roots many meters down to the groundwater capillary fringe. This framework explains the contrasting rooting depths observed under the same climate for the same species but at distinct topographic positions. We assess the global significance of these hydrologic mechanisms by estimating root water-uptake depths using an inverse model, based on observed productivity and atmosphere, at 30″ (˜1-km) global grids to capture the topography critical to soil hydrology. The resulting patterns of plant rooting depth bear a strong topographic and hydrologic signature at landscape to global scales. They underscore a fundamental plant-water feedback pathway that may be critical to understanding plant-mediated global change.

  5. Human action recognition with depth cameras

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Jiang; Wu, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Action recognition technology has many real-world applications in human-computer interaction, surveillance, video retrieval, retirement home monitoring, and robotics. The commoditization of depth sensors has also opened up further applications that were not feasible before. This text focuses on feature representation and machine learning algorithms for action recognition from depth sensors. After presenting a comprehensive overview of the state of the art, the authors then provide in-depth descriptions of their recently developed feature representations and machine learning techniques, includi

  6. Multiple scattering effects in depth resolution of elastic recoil detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wielunski, L.S.; Harding, G.L.

    1998-01-01

    Elastic Recoil Detection (ERD) is used to profile hydrogen and other low mass elements in thin films at surface and interfaces in a similar way that Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS) is used to detect and profile heavy elements. It is often assumed that the depth resolutions of these two techniques are similar. However, in contrast to typical RBS, the depth resolution of ERD is limited substantially by multiple scattering. In experimental data analysis and/or spectra simulations of a typical RBS measurement multiple scattering effects are often ignored. Computer programs used in IBA, such as RUMP, HYPRA or RBX do not include multiple scattering effects at all. In this paper, using practical thin metal structures with films containing intentionally introduced hydrogen, we demonstrate experimental ERD depth resolution and sensitivity limitations. The effects of sample material and scattering angle are also discussed. (authors)

  7. Multiple scattering effects in depth resolution of elastic recoil detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wielunski, L.S.; Harding, G.L. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Lindfield, NSW (Australia). Telecommunications and Industrial Physics; Szilagyi, E. [KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, Budapest, (Hungary)

    1998-06-01

    Elastic Recoil Detection (ERD) is used to profile hydrogen and other low mass elements in thin films at surface and interfaces in a similar way that Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS) is used to detect and profile heavy elements. It is often assumed that the depth resolutions of these two techniques are similar. However, in contrast to typical RBS, the depth resolution of ERD is limited substantially by multiple scattering. In experimental data analysis and/or spectra simulations of a typical RBS measurement multiple scattering effects are often ignored. Computer programs used in IBA, such as RUMP, HYPRA or RBX do not include multiple scattering effects at all. In this paper, using practical thin metal structures with films containing intentionally introduced hydrogen, we demonstrate experimental ERD depth resolution and sensitivity limitations. The effects of sample material and scattering angle are also discussed. (authors). 19 refs., 4 figs.

  8. Estimating floodwater depths from flood inundation maps and topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Sagy; Brakenridge, G. Robert; Kettner, Albert; Bates, Bradford; Nelson, Jonathan M.; McDonald, Richard R.; Huang, Yu-Fen; Munasinghe, Dinuke; Zhang, Jiaqi

    2018-01-01

    Information on flood inundation extent is important for understanding societal exposure, water storage volumes, flood wave attenuation, future flood hazard, and other variables. A number of organizations now provide flood inundation maps based on satellite remote sensing. These data products can efficiently and accurately provide the areal extent of a flood event, but do not provide floodwater depth, an important attribute for first responders and damage assessment. Here we present a new methodology and a GIS-based tool, the Floodwater Depth Estimation Tool (FwDET), for estimating floodwater depth based solely on an inundation map and a digital elevation model (DEM). We compare the FwDET results against water depth maps derived from hydraulic simulation of two flood events, a large-scale event for which we use medium resolution input layer (10 m) and a small-scale event for which we use a high-resolution (LiDAR; 1 m) input. Further testing is performed for two inundation maps with a number of challenging features that include a narrow valley, a large reservoir, and an urban setting. The results show FwDET can accurately calculate floodwater depth for diverse flooding scenarios but also leads to considerable bias in locations where the inundation extent does not align well with the DEM. In these locations, manual adjustment or higher spatial resolution input is required.

  9. Wind Wave Behavior in Fetch and Depth Limited Estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimpour, Arash; Chen, Qin; Twilley, Robert R.

    2017-01-01

    Wetland dominated estuaries serve as one of the most productive natural ecosystems through their ecological, economic and cultural services, such as nursery grounds for fisheries, nutrient sequestration, and ecotourism. The ongoing deterioration of wetland ecosystems in many shallow estuaries raises concerns about the contributing erosive processes and their roles in restraining coastal restoration efforts. Given the combination of wetlands and shallow bays as landscape components that determine the function of estuaries, successful restoration strategies require knowledge of wind wave behavior in fetch and depth limited water as a critical design feature. We experimentally evaluate physics of wind wave growth in fetch and depth limited estuaries. We demonstrate that wave growth rate in shallow estuaries is a function of wind fetch to water depth ratio, which helps to develop a new set of parametric wave growth equations. We find that the final stage of wave growth in shallow estuaries can be presented by a product of water depth and wave number, whereby their product approaches 1.363 as either depth or wave energy increases. Suggested wave growth equations and their asymptotic constraints establish the magnitude of wave forces acting on wetland erosion that must be included in ecosystem restoration design.

  10. Black breast cancer survivors experience greater upper extremity disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Lorraine T; DeMichele, Angela; LeBlanc, Mously; Stephens-Shields, Alisa; Li, Susan Q; Colameco, Chris; Coursey, Morgan; Mao, Jun J

    2015-11-01

    Over one-third of breast cancer survivors experience upper extremity disability. Black women present with factors associated with greater upper extremity disability, including: increased body mass index (BMI), more advanced disease stage at diagnosis, and varying treatment type compared with Whites. No prior research has evaluated the relationship between race and upper extremity disability using validated tools and controlling for these factors. Data were drawn from a survey study among 610 women with stage I-III hormone receptor positive breast cancer. The disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (QuickDASH) is an 11-item self-administered questionnaire that has been validated for breast cancer survivors to assess global upper extremity function over the past 7 days. Linear regression and mediation analysis estimated the relationships between race, BMI and QuickDASH score, adjusting for demographics and treatment types. Black women (n = 98) had 7.3 points higher average QuickDASH scores than White (n = 512) women (p disability by 40 %. Even several years post-treatment, Black breast cancer survivors had greater upper extremity disability, which was partially mediated by higher BMIs. Close monitoring of high BMI Black women may be an important step in reducing disparities in cancer survivorship. More research is needed on the relationship between race, BMI, and upper extremity disability.

  11. Observability-in-depth: An essential complement to the defense-in-depth safety strategy in the nuclear industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favaro, Francesca M.; Saleh, Joseph H. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Defense-in-depth is a fundamental safety principle for the design and operation of nuclear power plants. Despite its general appeal, defense-in-depth is not without its drawbacks, which include its potential for concealing the occurrence of hazardous states in a system, and more generally rendering the latter more opaque for its operators and managers, thus resulting in safety blind spots. This in turn translates into a shrinking of the time window available for operators to identify an unfolding hazardous condition or situation and intervene to abate it. To prevent this drawback from materializing, we propose propose in this work a novel safety principle termed 'observability-in-depth'. We characterize it as the set of provisions technical, operational, and organizational designed to enable the monitoring and identification of emerging hazardous conditions and accident pathogens in real-time and over different time-scales. Observability-in-depth also requires the monitoring of conditions of all safety barriers that implement defense-in-depth; and in so doing it supports sense making of identified hazardous conditions, and the understanding of potential accident sequences that might follow (how they can propagate). Observability-in-depth is thus an information-centric principle, and its importance in accident prevention is in the value of the information it provides and actions or safety interventions it spurs. We examine several 'event reports' from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission database, which illustrate specific instances of violation of the observability-in-depth safety principle and the consequences that followed (e.g., unmonitored releases and loss of containments). We also revisit the Three Mile Island accident in light of the proposed principle, and identify causes and consequences of the lack of observability-in-depth related to this accident sequence. We illustrate both the benefits of adopting the observability-in-depth

  12. Response of seasonal soil freeze depth to climate change across China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Tingjun; Frauenfeld, Oliver W.; Wang, Kang; Cao, Bin; Zhong, Xinyue; Su, Hang; Mu, Cuicui

    2017-05-01

    The response of seasonal soil freeze depth to climate change has repercussions for the surface energy and water balance, ecosystems, the carbon cycle, and soil nutrient exchange. Despite its importance, the response of soil freeze depth to climate change is largely unknown. This study employs the Stefan solution and observations from 845 meteorological stations to investigate the response of variations in soil freeze depth to climate change across China. Observations include daily air temperatures, daily soil temperatures at various depths, mean monthly gridded air temperatures, and the normalized difference vegetation index. Results show that soil freeze depth decreased significantly at a rate of -0.18 ± 0.03 cm yr-1, resulting in a net decrease of 8.05 ± 1.5 cm over 1967-2012 across China. On the regional scale, soil freeze depth decreases varied between 0.0 and 0.4 cm yr-1 in most parts of China during 1950-2009. By investigating potential climatic and environmental driving factors of soil freeze depth variability, we find that mean annual air temperature and ground surface temperature, air thawing index, ground surface thawing index, and vegetation growth are all negatively associated with soil freeze depth. Changes in snow depth are not correlated with soil freeze depth. Air and ground surface freezing indices are positively correlated with soil freeze depth. Comparing these potential driving factors of soil freeze depth, we find that freezing index and vegetation growth are more strongly correlated with soil freeze depth, while snow depth is not significant. We conclude that air temperature increases are responsible for the decrease in seasonal freeze depth. These results are important for understanding the soil freeze-thaw dynamics and the impacts of soil freeze depth on ecosystem and hydrological process.

  13. The effects of husband's alcohol consumption on married women in three low-income areas of Greater Mumbai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Marlene J; Kremelberg, David; Dwivedi, Purva; Verma, Supriya; Schensul, Jean J; Gupta, Kamla; Chandran, Devyani; Singh, S K

    2010-08-01

    Gender-based violence rooted in norms, socialization practices, structural factors, and policies that underlie men's abusive practices against married women in India is exacerbated by alcohol. The intersection of domestic violence, childhood exposure to alcohol and frustration, which contribute to drinking and its consequences including forced sex is explored through analysis of data obtained from 486 married men living with their wives in a low-income area of Greater Mumbai. SEM shows pathways linking work-related stress, greater exposure to alcohol as a child, being a heavy drinker, and having more sexual partners (a proxy for HIV risk). In-depth ethnographic interviews with 44 married women in the study communities reveal the consequences of alcohol on women's lives showing how married women associate alcohol use and violence with different patterns of drinking. The study suggests ways alcohol use leads from physical and verbal abuse to emotional and sexual violence in marriage. Implications for gendered multi-level interventions addressing violence and HIV risk are explored.

  14. Monocular depth effects on perceptual fading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Li-Chuan; Kramer, Peter; Yeh, Su-Ling

    2010-08-06

    After prolonged viewing, a static target among moving non-targets is perceived to repeatedly disappear and reappear. An uncrossed stereoscopic disparity of the target facilitates this Motion-Induced Blindness (MIB). Here we test whether monocular depth cues can affect MIB too, and whether they can also affect perceptual fading in static displays. Experiment 1 reveals an effect of interposition: more MIB when the target appears partially covered by, than when it appears to cover, its surroundings. Experiment 2 shows that the effect is indeed due to interposition and not to the target's contours. Experiment 3 induces depth with the watercolor illusion and replicates Experiment 1. Experiments 4 and 5 replicate Experiments 1 and 3 without the use of motion. Since almost any stimulus contains a monocular depth cue, we conclude that perceived depth affects perceptual fading in almost any stimulus, whether dynamic or static. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Depth to Bedrock: Isopach of Unconsolidated Materials

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This vector dataset gives the approximate depth to bedrock (in feet) from Iowa's current land surface. This 50 foot isopach data was derived from the Digital...

  16. FINANCIAL DEPTH AND FINANCIAL ACCESS IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigit Setiawan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study is intended to analyze the current levels of financial depth and financial access in Indonesia and to analyze the factors affecting them. The analysis method used was a combination of descriptive quantitative, benchmarking, and literature reviews. The conclusion is that the financial depth in Indonesia has not shown a satisfactory level since it was the lowest, or the second lowest ranked country among the sampled countries. Meanwhile, the financial access in Indonesia is relatively better than its financial depth, especially for financial markets, in which Indonesia ranks in the lower average group. From literature reviews, it can be inferred that the main factor driving the poor financial depth in Indonesia is non-competitiveness of the institutions; whereas the driving force of poor financial access in Indonesia are geographical constraints, poverty, a high income gap, and a less than effective national financial development policy.

  17. Sputtering as a means of depth profiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitton, J.L.

    1978-01-01

    Probably the most common technique for determination of depth profiles by sputtering is that of secondary ion mass spectrometry. Many problems occur in the important step of converting the time (of sputtering) scale to a depth scale and these problems arise before the secondary ions are ejected. An attempt is made to present a comprehensive list of the effects that should be taken into consideration in the use of sputtering as a means of depth profiling. The various parameters liable to affect the depth profile measurements are listed in four sections: beam conditions; target conditions; experimental environment; and beam-target interactions. The effects are discussed and where interplay occurs, cross-reference is made and examples are provided where possible. (B.R.H.)

  18. Rand Corporation Mean Monthly Global Snow Depth

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — All available monthly snow depth climatologies were integrated by the Rand Corporation, in the early 1980s, into one global (excluding Africa and South America)...

  19. The Beryllium 7 Depth Distribution Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalal Sharib; Zainudin Othman; Dainee Nor Fardzila Ahmad Tugi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the evolution of 7Be depth distribution in a soil profile. The soil samples have been collected by using plastic core in bare area in Bangi, Malaysia. Each of the soil core samples has been sectioned into 2 mm increments to a depth of 4 cm and the samples are subsequently oven dried at 45°C and gently disaggregated. The sample is passed through a < 2 mm sieve and packed into plastic pot for 7Be analysis using gamma spectrometry with a 24 hour count time. From the findings, show the 7Be depth penetration from this study decreases exponentially with depth and is confined within the top few centimeters and similar with other works been reported. The further discussion for this findings will be presented in full paper. (author)

  20. Capturing Motion and Depth Before Cinematography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Nicholas J

    2016-01-01

    Visual representations of biological states have traditionally faced two problems: they lacked motion and depth. Attempts were made to supply these wants over many centuries, but the major advances were made in the early-nineteenth century. Motion was synthesized by sequences of slightly different images presented in rapid succession and depth was added by presenting slightly different images to each eye. Apparent motion and depth were combined some years later, but they tended to be applied separately. The major figures in this early period were Wheatstone, Plateau, Horner, Duboscq, Claudet, and Purkinje. Others later in the century, like Marey and Muybridge, were stimulated to extend the uses to which apparent motion and photography could be applied to examining body movements. These developments occurred before the birth of cinematography, and significant insights were derived from attempts to combine motion and depth.

  1. Wavefield Extrapolation in Pseudo-depth Domain

    KAUST Repository

    Ma, Xuxin

    2011-12-11

    Wave-equation based seismic migration and inversion tools are widely used by the energy industry to explore hydrocarbon and mineral resources. By design, most of these techniques simulate wave propagation in a space domain with the vertical axis being depth measured from the surface. Vertical depth is popular because it is a straightforward mapping of the subsurface space. It is, however, not computationally cost-effective because the wavelength changes with local elastic wave velocity, which in general increases with depth in the Earth. As a result, the sampling per wavelength also increases with depth. To avoid spatial aliasing in deep fast media, the seismic wave is oversampled in shallow slow media and therefore increase the total computation cost. This issue is effectively tackled by using the vertical time axis instead of vertical depth. This is because in a vertical time representation, the "wavelength" is essentially time period for vertical rays. This thesis extends the vertical time axis to the pseudo-depth axis, which features distance unit while preserving the properties of the vertical time representation. To explore the potentials of doing wave-equation based imaging in the pseudo-depth domain, a Partial Differential Equation (PDE) is derived to describe acoustic wave in this new domain. This new PDE is inherently anisotropic because the use of a constant vertical velocity to convert between depth and vertical time. Such anisotropy results in lower reflection coefficients compared with conventional space domain modeling results. This feature is helpful to suppress the low wavenumber artifacts in reverse-time migration images, which are caused by the widely used cross-correlation imaging condition. This thesis illustrates modeling acoustic waves in both conventional space domain and pseudo-depth domain. The numerical tool used to model acoustic waves is built based on the lowrank approximation of Fourier integral operators. To investigate the potential

  2. Location-dependent depth and undermining formation of pressure ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yoshiko; Isogai, Zenzo; Mizokami, Fumihiro; Furuta, Katsunori; Nemoto, Tetsuya; Kanoh, Hiroyuki; Yoneda, Masahiko

    2013-08-01

    We examined the location-specific properties of pressure ulcers, focusing on depth and undermining formation, which are often unfavorable factors for ulcer healing. We conducted a retrospective observational study of 2 independent databases on pressure ulcers. Databases from a 200-bed hospital (database A) and a 300-bed hospital (database B) were collected during different time periods. Relationships between ulcer location, ulcer depth, and undermining formation were analyzed. All pressure ulcers were accurately diagnosed and classified according to their locations. A total of 282 pressure ulcers in 189 patients from database A and 232 pressure ulcers in 154 patients from database B were analyzed. It was found that pressure ulcers primarily developed over the sacrum. Ratio of stages III and IV pressure ulcers was high in pressure ulcers of the foot, ankle, and crus on the lower leg. Among the deep pressure ulcers, undermining formation was frequently observed on the greater trochanter, ilium, and sacrum. In contrast, pressure ulcers of the foot, ankle, and crus did not exhibit undermining formation. Our results revealed marked differences in pressure ulcer properties depending on their location. Factors affecting depth and undermining of pressure ulcers appear to be related to anatomical and physical properties of the bone and subcutaneous tissue. Copyright © 2013 Tissue Viability Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Generators for finite depth subfactor planar algebras

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The main result of Kodiyalam and Tupurani [3] shows that a subfactor planar algebra of finite depth is singly generated with a finite presentation. If P is a subfactor planar algebra of depth k, it is shown there that a single 2k-box generates P. It is natural to ask what the smallest s is such that a single s-box generates P. While ...

  4. FINANCIAL DEPTH AND FINANCIAL ACCESS IN INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    Sigit Setiawan

    2015-01-01

    This study is intended to analyze the current levels of financial depth and financial access in Indonesia and to analyze the factors affecting them. The analysis method used was a combination of descriptive quantitative, benchmarking, and literature reviews. The conclusion is that the financial depth in Indonesia has not shown a satisfactory level since it was the lowest, or the second lowest ranked country among the sampled countries. Meanwhile, the financial access in Indonesia is relativel...

  5. A brain electrophysiological correlate of depth perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akay, Ahmet; Celebi, Gurbuz

    2009-01-01

    To investigate brain electrical activity accompanying depth perception using random-dot stereograms. Additional experiments were conducted to ascertain the specificity of this potential to depth perception. In the present study, we performed 3 different and independent experiments on 34 subjects to establish the relationship between depth perception and its cortical electrophysiological correlate. Visual evoked potentials in response to visual stimulation by random-dot stereograms were recorded. To achieve this goal, a data acquisition and analysis system, different from common visual evoked potential recording systems, consisting of 2 personal computers, was used. One of the computers was used to generate the visual stimulus patterns and the other to record and digitally average the potentials evoked by the stimuli. This study was carried out at the Department of Biophysics of Ege University Medical School, Izmir, Turkey, from April to December, 2006. A negative potential component, which is thought to arise in association with depth perception, was recorded from the occipital region from 30 of the 34 subjects. Typically, it had a mean latency of 211.46 ms and 6.40 micron V amplitude. The negative potential is related to depth perception, as this component is present in the responses to stimulus, which carries disparity information but is absent when the stimulus is switched to no disparity information. Additional experiments also showed that the specificity of this component to depth perception becomes evident beyond doubt. (author)

  6. Total Variation Depth for Functional Data

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Huang

    2016-11-15

    There has been extensive work on data depth-based methods for robust multivariate data analysis. Recent developments have moved to infinite-dimensional objects such as functional data. In this work, we propose a new notion of depth, the total variation depth, for functional data. As a measure of depth, its properties are studied theoretically, and the associated outlier detection performance is investigated through simulations. Compared to magnitude outliers, shape outliers are often masked among the rest of samples and harder to identify. We show that the proposed total variation depth has many desirable features and is well suited for outlier detection. In particular, we propose to decompose the total variation depth into two components that are associated with shape and magnitude outlyingness, respectively. This decomposition allows us to develop an effective procedure for outlier detection and useful visualization tools, while naturally accounting for the correlation in functional data. Finally, the proposed methodology is demonstrated using real datasets of curves, images, and video frames.

  7. High resolution MR imaging of bladder cancer: new criteria for determining depth of wall invasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Chang Hae; Kressel, Herbert Y

    1993-01-01

    To establish new criteria to determine the depth of bladder cancer as well as to obtain the findings of each stage of bladder cancer we reviewed high resolution MR images of 18 bladder cancer patients including seven cases (26%) with superficial bladder wall invasion. All MR scans were done before biopsy or surgery. Multiple layers of the bladder wall (inner black, middle white, outer black) were demonstrated in 11 cases out of a total 18 cases. Thickening of the middle layer caused by tumor infiltration or edema of lamina propria was seen in 8 of 12 patients with stage T2 or greater, and was suggestive of superficial muscle invasion when multiple layers were demonstrated. Disruption of outer layer (as well as inner layer) and external protrusion of tumor itself were indicative of perivesical invasion. When multiple layers were not demonstrated, the depth of tumor invasion could not be judged. High resolution MR imaging can depict submucosal invasion, muscle invasion, and perivesical invasion secondary to bladder cancer

  8. The right view from the wrong location: depth perception in stereoscopic multi-user virtual environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Brice; Burton, Melissa; Kelly, Jonathan W; Gilbert, Stephen; Winer, Eliot

    2012-04-01

    Stereoscopic depth cues improve depth perception and increase immersion within virtual environments (VEs). However, improper display of these cues can distort perceived distances and directions. Consider a multi-user VE, where all users view identical stereoscopic images regardless of physical location. In this scenario, cues are typically customized for one "leader" equipped with a head-tracking device. This user stands at the center of projection (CoP) and all other users ("followers") view the scene from other locations and receive improper depth cues. This paper examines perceived depth distortion when viewing stereoscopic VEs from follower perspectives and the impact of these distortions on collaborative spatial judgments. Pairs of participants made collaborative depth judgments of virtual shapes viewed from the CoP or after displacement forward or backward. Forward and backward displacement caused perceived depth compression and expansion, respectively, with greater compression than expansion. Furthermore, distortion was less than predicted by a ray-intersection model of stereo geometry. Collaboration times were significantly longer when participants stood at different locations compared to the same location, and increased with greater perceived depth discrepancy between the two viewing locations. These findings advance our understanding of spatial distortions in multi-user VEs, and suggest a strategy for reducing distortion.

  9. Influence of water depth on energy expenditure during aquatic walking in people post stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyosok; Azurdia, Daniel; Jeng, Brenda; Jung, Taeyou

    2018-05-11

    This study aimed to investigate the metabolic cost during aquatic walking at various depths in people post stroke. The secondary purpose was to examine the differences in metabolic cost between aquatic walking and land walking among individuals post stroke. A cross-sectional research design is used. Twelve participants post stroke (aged 55.5 ± 13.3 years) completed 6 min of walking in 4 different conditions: chest-depth, waist-depth, and thigh-depth water, and land. Data were collected on 4 separate visits with at least 48 hr in between. On the first visit, all participants were asked to walk in chest-depth water at their fastest speed. The walking speed was used as a reference speed, which was applied to the remaining 3 walking conditions. The order of remaining walking conditions was randomized. Energy expenditure (EE), oxygen consumption (VO 2 ), and minute ventilation (V E ) were measured with a telemetric metabolic system. Our findings showed statistically significant differences in EE, VO 2 , and V E among the 4 different walking conditions: chest-depth, waist-depth, and thigh-depth water, and land (all p stroke consume less energy in chest-depth water, which may allow them to perform prolonged duration of training. Thigh-depth water demonstrated greater EE compared with other water depths; thus, it can be recommended for time-efficient cardiovascular exercise. Waist-depth water showed similar EE to land walking, which may have been contributed by the countervailing effects of buoyancy and water resistance. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Quantitative depth profiling of near surface semiconductor structures using ultra low energy SIMS analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliner, D.I.

    1999-09-01

    The continual reduction in size of semiconductor structures and depths of junctions is putting a greater strain on characterization techniques. Accurate device and process modelling requires quantified electrical and dopant profiles from the topmost few nanometres. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is an analytical technique commonly used in the semiconductor industry to measure concentration depth profiles. To allow the quantification of the features that are closer to the surface, lower energy ions are employed, which also improves the available depth resolution. The development of the floating ion gun (FLIG) has made it possible to use sub keV beam energies on a routine basis, allowing quantified dopant profiles to be obtained within the first few nanometres of the surface. This thesis demonstrates that, when profiling with oxygen ion beams, greatest certainty in the retained dose is achieved at normal incidence, and when analysing boron accurate profile shapes are only obtained when the primary beam energy is less than half that of the implant. It was shown that it is now possible to profile, though with slower erosion rates and a limited dynamic range, with 100 eV oxygen (0 2 + ) ion beams. Profile features that had developed during rapid thermal annealing, that could only be observed when ultra low energy ion beams were used, were investigated using various analytical techniques. Explanations of the apparently inactive dopant were proposed, and included suggestions for cluster molecules. The oxide thickness of fully formed altered layers has also been investigated. The results indicate that a fundamental change in the mechanism of oxide formation occurs, and interfaces that are sharper than those grown by thermal oxidation can be produced using sub-keV ion beams. (author)

  11. Depth distribution of nitrogen in silicon from plasma ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vajo, J.J.; Williams, J.D.; Wei, R.; Wilson, R.G.; Matossian, J.N.

    1994-01-01

    Plasma Ion Implantation (PII) is an ion implantation technique that eliminates the line-of-sight restriction of conventional ion-beam implantation and therefore allows for cost effective surface modification of large-scale objects or large-number of small-scale objects. In PII, a part to be implanted is immersed in a low-pressure (10 -4 --10 -5 Torr), partially-ionized plasma that surrounds the part with a plasma sheath. The part is negatively pulse biased up to 100 keV using a repetitive train (100--1,000 Hz) of short-duration (10--40 μsec) voltage pulses. The applied voltage develops across the sheath and accelerates plasma ions into the surface, implanting them omnidirectionally and simultaneously over the entire surface of the part. The depth distribution of the implanted ions influences the extent and type of surface modification achieved and depends upon many factors. These include three rise and fall time of the voltage-pulse waveform, the voltage-pulse amplitude, the ion specie, the ion density, and the temperature of the target. Understanding the contributions to the depth distribution from each of these factors will enable prediction of conditions that will be useful for implantation of large complex parts. To investigate the contributions to the measured depth distributions from these factors nitrogen, predominantly as N + 2 , has been implanted into silicon using PII at 50 and 100 keV (25 and 50 keV per N atom). The implanted depth distributions have been determined using secondary ion mass spectroscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy depth profiling. The distributions differ from the typical, approximately Gaussian, profiles that result from conventional mass selected monoenergetic ion beam implantation. In comparison with ion beam implants and numerical simulations the profiles appear ''filled-in'' with an approximately constant nitrogen concentration for depths less than the expected average ion range

  12. Depth resolution and preferential sputtering in depth profiling of sharp interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, S.; Han, Y.S.; Wang, J.Y.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Interfacial depth resolution from MRI model depends on sputtering rate differences. • Depth resolution critically depends on the dominance of roughness or atomic mixing. • True (depth scale) and apparent (time scale) depth resolutions are different. • Average sputtering rate approximately yields true from apparent depth resolution. • Profiles by SIMS and XPS are different but similar to surface concentrations. - Abstract: The influence of preferential sputtering on depth resolution of sputter depth profiles is studied for different sputtering rates of the two components at an A/B interface. Surface concentration and intensity depth profiles on both the sputtering time scale (as measured) and the depth scale are obtained by calculations with an extended Mixing-Roughness-Information depth (MRI)-model. The results show a clear difference for the two extreme cases (a) preponderant roughness and (b) preponderant atomic mixing. In case (a), the interface width on the time scale (Δt(16–84%)) increases with preferential sputtering if the faster sputtering component is on top of the slower sputtering component, but the true resolution on the depth scale (Δz(16–84%)) stays constant. In case (b), the interface width on the time scale stays constant but the true resolution on the depth scale varies with preferential sputtering. For similar order of magnitude of the atomic mixing and the roughness parameters, a transition state between the two extremes is obtained. While the normalized intensity profile of SIMS represents that of the surface concentration, an additional broadening effect is encountered in XPS or AES by the influence of the mean electron escape depth which may even cause an additional matrix effect at the interface.

  13. Depth resolution and preferential sputtering in depth profiling of sharp interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, S. [Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems (formerly MPI for Metals Research), Heisenbergstrasse 3, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Han, Y.S. [Department of Physics, Shantou University, 243 Daxue Road, Shantou, 515063 Guangdong (China); Wang, J.Y., E-mail: wangjy@stu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Shantou University, 243 Daxue Road, Shantou, 515063 Guangdong (China)

    2017-07-15

    Highlights: • Interfacial depth resolution from MRI model depends on sputtering rate differences. • Depth resolution critically depends on the dominance of roughness or atomic mixing. • True (depth scale) and apparent (time scale) depth resolutions are different. • Average sputtering rate approximately yields true from apparent depth resolution. • Profiles by SIMS and XPS are different but similar to surface concentrations. - Abstract: The influence of preferential sputtering on depth resolution of sputter depth profiles is studied for different sputtering rates of the two components at an A/B interface. Surface concentration and intensity depth profiles on both the sputtering time scale (as measured) and the depth scale are obtained by calculations with an extended Mixing-Roughness-Information depth (MRI)-model. The results show a clear difference for the two extreme cases (a) preponderant roughness and (b) preponderant atomic mixing. In case (a), the interface width on the time scale (Δt(16–84%)) increases with preferential sputtering if the faster sputtering component is on top of the slower sputtering component, but the true resolution on the depth scale (Δz(16–84%)) stays constant. In case (b), the interface width on the time scale stays constant but the true resolution on the depth scale varies with preferential sputtering. For similar order of magnitude of the atomic mixing and the roughness parameters, a transition state between the two extremes is obtained. While the normalized intensity profile of SIMS represents that of the surface concentration, an additional broadening effect is encountered in XPS or AES by the influence of the mean electron escape depth which may even cause an additional matrix effect at the interface.

  14. The ocean depths: Elf's target for 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Elf has long since been aware of the potential of sedimentary basins in the ocean depths. For this reason, the group has been preparing to descend to these depths for many years. Today, it is setting itself the target of being ready to optimise as from 1997 a discovery made in the depth between 400 and 1500 m of water in Africa. In the Gulf of Guinea, most of the neighbouring countries have opened up their deep sea offshore areas, in order to try to renew their reserves on the verge of the third millennium. Indeed a great similarity can be seen between the West African and the Brazilian ocean depths. In the African offshore areas, Elf has acquired or renewed eight blocks, four of which are in Nigeria, one in the Congo, one in Gabon and two in Angola. The group is also interested in the ocean depths which are now accessible in the North Sea, whether in the Norwegian (Voring and More) of British (Western Shetlands) areas. (author). 1 fig

  15. Relationship between severe obesity and depth to the cricothyroid membrane in third-trimester non-labouring parturients: a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadd, K; Wills, K; Harle, R; Terblanche, N

    2018-05-01

    Severely obese parturients have increased 'cannot intubate, cannot oxygenate' risk during Caesarean section under general anaesthesia. Front-of-neck access (FONA) at the cricothyroid membrane (CTM) is definitive management; however, attempted FONA can fail. Point-of-care ultrasonography may provide useful information about CTM depth to aid FONA in obesity. This study determined the difference in CTM depth between severely obese and non-obese parturients, utilising ultrasonography. In this prospective observational study, two anaesthetists performed airway ultrasonography on 15 severely obese (BMI >45 kg m -2 ) and 15 normal-weight (BMI ≤25 kg m -2 ) parturients in the third trimester, using the transverse and longitudinal planes, sniffing and extended head positions, and nil and firm transducer pressures. The primary outcome was CTM depth (millimetres) measured in the transverse plane with the head extended and nil transducer pressure. Secondary outcomes included CTM depth measurements using other factor configurations. Intra-class correlation coefficients assessed the inter-observer reliability. CTM depth measured in the transverse plane with head extended and nil transducer pressure was significantly greater in severely obese parturients, mean 18.0 mm (95% confidence interval 16.3-19.8), vs 10.6 mm (8.81-12.4) in non-obese (P<0.001); mean difference 7.4 mm (4.9-9.9; P<0.001). CTM depths were increased in the severely obese group regardless of scanning plane, head and neck position, or transducer pressure (all P<0.001). There was excellent inter-observer reliability. Cricothyroid membrane depth is significantly increased in severely obese vs normal-weight parturients independently of scanning plane, head and neck position, or transducer pressure. Copyright © 2018 British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved.

  16. Depth sensitivity of Lexan polycarbonate detector

    CERN Document Server

    Awad, E M

    1999-01-01

    The dependence of the registration sensitivity of Lexan polycarbonate with depth inside the detector was studied. Samples of Lexan from General Electric were irradiated to two long range ions. These were Ni and Au ions with a projectile energy of 0.3 and 1 GeV/n. Two independent techniques, the track-diameter technique (TDT) and the track profile technique (TPT), were used. The registration sensitivity was measured at depths of 7, 10, 15, 18, 20, 28, 35 and 40 mu m inside the detector. The results of the two techniques show that the detector sensitivity decreases gradually with the depth inside the detector. It reaches 20 % less compared to sensitivity at the surface after 40 mu m have been removed.

  17. Wavefield extrapolation in pseudo-depth domain

    KAUST Repository

    Ma, Xuxin; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2012-01-01

    Extrapolating seismic waves in Cartesian coordinate is prone to uneven spatial sampling, because the seismic wavelength tends to grow with depth, as velocity increase. We transform the vertical depth axis to a pseudo one using a velocity weighted mapping, which can effectively mitigate this wavelength variation. We derive acoustic wave equations in this new domain based on the direct transformation of the Laplacian derivatives, which admits solutions that are more accurate and stable than those derived from the kinematic transformation. The anisotropic versions of these equations allow us to isolate the vertical velocity influence and reduce its impact on modeling and imaging. The major benefit of extrapolating wavefields in pseudo-depth space is its near uniform wavelength as opposed to the normally dramatic change of wavelength with the conventional approach. Time wavefield extrapolation on a complex velocity shows some of the features of this approach.

  18. Depth sectioning using electron energy loss spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Alfonso, A J; Findlay, S D; Allen, L J; Cosgriff, E C; Kirkland, A I; Nellist, P D; Oxley, M P

    2008-01-01

    The continued development of electron probe aberration correctors for scanning transmission electron microscopy has enabled finer electron probes, allowing atomic resolution column-by-column electron energy loss spectroscopy. Finer electron probes have also led to a decrease in the probe depth of focus, facilitating optical slicing or depth sectioning of samples. The inclusion of post specimen aberration corrected image forming lenses allows for scanning confocal electron microscopy with further improved depth resolution and selectivity. We show that in both scanning transmission electron microscopy and scanning confocal electron microscopy geometries, by performing a three dimensional raster scan through a specimen and detecting electrons scattered with a characteristic energy loss, it will be possible to determine the location of isolated impurities embedded within the bulk.

  19. Depth resolved investigations of boron implanted silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sztucki, M.; Metzger, T. H.; Milita, S.; Berberich, F.; Schell, N.; Rouvière, J. L.; Patel, J.

    2003-01-01

    We have studied the depth distribution and structure of defects in boron implanted silicon (0 0 1). Silicon wafers were implanted with a boron dose of 6×10 15 ions/cm -2 at 32 keV and went through different annealing treatments. Using diffuse X-ray scattering at grazing incidence and exit angles we are able to distinguish between different kinds of defects (point defect clusters and extrinsic stacking faults on {1 1 1} planes) and to determine their depth distribution as a function of the thermal budget. Cross-section transmission electron microscopy was used to gain complementary information. In addition we have determined the strain distribution caused by the boron implantation as a function of depth from rocking curve measurements.

  20. Photodegradation of wood and depth profile analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kataoka, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Photochemical degradation is a key process of the weathering that occurs when wood is exposed outdoors. It is also a major cause of the discoloration of wood in indoor applications. The effects of sunlight on the chemical composition of wood are superficial in nature, but estimates of the depth at which photodegradation occurs in wood vary greatly from 80 microm to as much as 2540 mic rom. Better understanding of the photodegradation of wood through depth profile analysis is desirable because it would allow the development of more effective photo-protective treatments that target the surface layers of wood most susceptible to photodegradation. This paper briefly describes fundamental aspects of photodegradation of wood and reviews progress made in the field of depth profile study on the photodegradation of wood. (author)

  1. Shallow surface depth profiling with atomic resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi, J.; Dastoor, P.C.; King, B.V.; O'Connor, D.J.

    1999-01-01

    It is possible to derive atomic layer-by-layer composition depth profiles from popular electron spectroscopic techniques, such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) or Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). When ion sputtering assisted AES or XPS is used, the changes that occur during the establishment of the steady state in the sputtering process make these techniques increasingly inaccurate for depths less than 3nm. Therefore non-destructive techniques of angle-resolved XPS (ARXPS) or AES (ARAES) have to be used in this case. In this paper several data processing algorithms have been used to extract the atomic resolved depth profiles of a shallow surface (down to 1nm) from ARXPS and ARAES data

  2. Geothermal prospection in the Greater Geneva Basin (Switzerland and France): Structural and reservoir quality assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusillon, Elme; Clerc, Nicolas; Makhloufi, Yasin; Brentini, Maud; Moscariello, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    A reservoir assessment was performed in the Greater Geneva Basin to evaluate the geothermal resources potential of low to medium enthalpy (Moscariello, 2016). For this purpose, a detail structural analysis of the basin was performed (Clerc et al., 2016) simultaneously with a reservoir appraisal study including petrophysical properties assessment in a consistent sedimentological and stratigraphical frame (Brentini et al., 2017). This multi-disciplinary study was organised in 4 steps: (1) investigation of the surrounding outcrops to understand the stratigraphy and lateral facies distribution of the sedimentary sequence from Permo-Carboniferous to Lower Cretaceous units; (2) development of 3D geological models derived from 2D seismic and well data focusing on the structural scheme of the basin to constrain better the tectonic influence on facies distribution and to assess potential hydraulic connectivity through faults between reservoir units ; (3) evaluation of the distribution, geometry, sedimentology and petrophysical properties of potential reservoir units from well data; (4) identification and selection of the most promising reservoir units for in-depth rock type characterization and 3D modeling. Petrophysical investigations revealed that the Kimmeridgian-Tithonian Reef Complex and the underlying Calcaires de Tabalcon units are the most promising geothermal reservoir targets (porosity range 10-20%; permeability to 1mD). Best reservoir properties are measured in patch reefs and high-energy peri-reefal depositional environments, which are surrounded by synchronous tight lagoonal deposits. Associated highly porous dolomitized intervals reported in the western part of the basin also provide enhanced reservoir quality. The distribution and geometry of best reservoir bodies is complex and constrained by (1) palaeotopography, which can be affected by synsedimentary fault activity during Mesozoic times, (2) sedimentary factors such as hydrodynamics, sea level variations

  3. High bit depth infrared image compression via low bit depth codecs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belyaev, Evgeny; Mantel, Claire; Forchhammer, Søren

    2017-01-01

    images via 8 bit depth codecs in the following way. First, an input 16 bit depth image is mapped into 8 bit depth images, e.g., the first image contains only the most significant bytes (MSB image) and the second one contains only the least significant bytes (LSB image). Then each image is compressed.......264/AVC codecs, which are usually available in efficient implementations, and compare their rate-distortion performance with JPEG2000, JPEG-XT and H.265/HEVC codecs supporting direct compression of infrared images in 16 bit depth format. A preliminary result shows that two 8 bit H.264/AVC codecs can...

  4. Efficient Depth Enhancement Using a Combination of Color and Depth Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyungjae; Ban, Yuseok; Lee, Sangyoun

    2017-07-01

    Studies on depth images containing three-dimensional information have been performed for many practical applications. However, the depth images acquired from depth sensors have inherent problems, such as missing values and noisy boundaries. These problems significantly affect the performance of applications that use a depth image as their input. This paper describes a depth enhancement algorithm based on a combination of color and depth information. To fill depth holes and recover object shapes, asynchronous cellular automata with neighborhood distance maps are used. Image segmentation and a weighted linear combination of spatial filtering algorithms are applied to extract object regions and fill disocclusion in the object regions. Experimental results on both real-world and public datasets show that the proposed method enhances the quality of the depth image with low computational complexity, outperforming conventional methods on a number of metrics. Furthermore, to verify the performance of the proposed method, we present stereoscopic images generated by the enhanced depth image to illustrate the improvement in quality.

  5. Dietary flexibility in three representative waterbirds across salinity and depth gradients in salt ponds of San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takekawa, John Y.; Miles, A.K.; Tsao-Melcer, D. C.; Schoellhamer, D.H.; Fregien, S.; Athearn, N.D.

    2009-01-01

    Salt evaporation ponds have existed in San Francisco Bay, California, for more than a century. In the past decade, most of the salt ponds have been retired from production and purchased for resource conservation with a focus on tidal marsh restoration. However, large numbers of waterbirds are found in salt ponds, especially during migration and wintering periods. The value of these hypersaline wetlands for waterbirds is not well understood, including how different avian foraging guilds use invertebrate prey resources at different salinities and depths. The aim of this study was to investigate the dietary flexibility of waterbirds by examining the population number and diet of three feeding guilds across a salinity and depth gradient in former salt ponds of the Napa-Sonoma Marshes. Although total invertebrate biomass and species richness were greater in low than high salinity salt ponds, waterbirds fed in ponds that ranged from low (20 g l-1) to very high salinities (250 g l -1). American avocets (surface sweeper) foraged in shallow areas at pond edges and consumed a wide range of prey types (8) including seeds at low salinity, but preferred brine flies at mid salinity (40-80 g l-1). Western sandpipers (prober) focused on exposed edges and shoal habitats and consumed only a few prey types (2-4) at both low and mid salinities. Suitable depths for foraging were greatest for ruddy ducks (diving benthivore) that consumed a wide variety of invertebrate taxa (5) at low salinity, but focused on fewer prey (3) at mid salinity. We found few brine shrimp, common in higher salinity waters, in the digestive tracts of any of these species. Dietary flexibility allows different guilds to use ponds across a range of salinities, but their foraging extent is limited by available water depths. ?? 2009 USGS, US Government.

  6. Depth resolution of secondary ion mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pustovit, A.N.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of the solid body discreteness in the direction of the normal to the sample surface on the depth resolution of the secondary ion mass spectrometry method is analyzed. It is shown that for this case the dependence of the width at the semi-height of the delta profiles of the studied elements depth distribution on the energy and angle of incidence of the initial ions should have the form of the stepwise function. This is experimentally proved by the silicon-germanium delta-layers in the silicon samples [ru

  7. FINANCIAL DEPTH AND FINANCIAL ACCESS IN INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    Sigit Setiawan

    2015-01-01

    This study is intended to analyse the current levels of financial depth and financial access in Indonesia and to analyse the factors affecting them. The analysis method used was a combination of descriptive quantitative, benchmarking, and literature reviews. The conclusion is that the financial depth in Indonesia has not shown a satisfactory level since it was the lowest, or the second lowest ranked country among the sampled countries. Meanwhile, the financial access in Indonesia is relativel...

  8. Financial Depth and Financial Access in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Setiawan, Sigit

    2015-01-01

    This study is intended to analyse the current levels of financial depth and financial access in Indonesia and to analyse the factors affecting them. The analysis method used was a combination of descriptive quantitative, benchmarking, and literature reviews. The conclusion is that the financial depth in Indonesia has not shown a satisfactory level since it was the lowest, or the second lowest ranked country among the sampled countries. Meanwhile, the financial access in Indonesia is relativel...

  9. Defence in depth in nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayakumar, J.S.

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear energy is clean and can prevent global warming and hence it has a lot of importance in the current world. In order for the safe and reliable operation of the NPP, a defence in depth concept has been practised, so that even one level of protection fails the subsequent one will contain the hazardous situation. Various levels, both from consideration of the physical barriers and implementation are described in this paper. Three major accidents happened in nuclear reactors are analysed from the defence in depth concept and shortcomings are discussed. (author)

  10. Measuring impact crater depth throughout the solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Stuart J.; Watters, Wesley A.; Chappelow, John E.; Bray, Veronica J.; Daubar, Ingrid J.; Craddock, Robert A.; Beyer, Ross A.; Landis, Margaret E.; Ostrach, Lillian; Tornabene, Livio L.; Riggs, Jamie D.; Weaver, Brian P.

    2018-01-01

    One important, almost ubiquitous, tool for understanding the surfaces of solid bodies throughout the solar system is the study of impact craters. While measuring a distribution of crater diameters and locations is an important tool for a wide variety of studies, so too is measuring a crater's “depth.” Depth can inform numerous studies including the strength of a surface and modification rates in the local environment. There is, however, no standard data set, definition, or technique to perform this data‐gathering task, and the abundance of different definitions of “depth” and methods for estimating that quantity can lead to misunderstandings in and of the literature. In this review, we describe a wide variety of data sets and methods to analyze those data sets that have been, are currently, or could be used to derive different types of crater depth measurements. We also recommend certain nomenclature in doing so to help standardize practice in the field. We present a review section of all crater depths that have been published on different solar system bodies which shows how the field has evolved through time and how some common assumptions might not be wholly accurate. We conclude with several recommendations for researchers which could help different data sets to be more easily understood and compared.

  11. Super Normal Vector for Human Activity Recognition with Depth Cameras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaodong; Tian, YingLi

    2017-05-01

    The advent of cost-effectiveness and easy-operation depth cameras has facilitated a variety of visual recognition tasks including human activity recognition. This paper presents a novel framework for recognizing human activities from video sequences captured by depth cameras. We extend the surface normal to polynormal by assembling local neighboring hypersurface normals from a depth sequence to jointly characterize local motion and shape information. We then propose a general scheme of super normal vector (SNV) to aggregate the low-level polynormals into a discriminative representation, which can be viewed as a simplified version of the Fisher kernel representation. In order to globally capture the spatial layout and temporal order, an adaptive spatio-temporal pyramid is introduced to subdivide a depth video into a set of space-time cells. In the extensive experiments, the proposed approach achieves superior performance to the state-of-the-art methods on the four public benchmark datasets, i.e., MSRAction3D, MSRDailyActivity3D, MSRGesture3D, and MSRActionPairs3D.

  12. Technical concept for a greater-confinement-disposal test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, P.H.

    1982-01-01

    Greater confinement disposal (GCO) has been defined by the National Low-Level Waste Program as the disposal of low-level waste in such a manner as to provide greater containment of radiation, reduce potential for migration or dispersion or radionuclides, and provide greater protection from inadvertent human and biological intrusions in order to protect the public health and safety. This paper discusses: the need for GCD; definition of GCD; advantages and disadvantages of GCD; relative dose impacts of GCD versus shallow land disposal; types of waste compatible with GCD; objectives of GCD borehole demonstration test; engineering and technical issues; and factors affecting performance of the greater confinement disposal facility

  13. Geo-information for sustainable urban development of Greater Dhaka City, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Andreas; Asaduzzaman, Atm; Bahls, Rebecca; Ludwig, Rüdiger; Ashraful Kamal, Mohammad; Nahar Faruqa, Nurun

    2015-04-01

    Greater Dhaka City (including Dhaka and five adjacent municipal areas) is one of the fastest developing urban regions in the world. Densely build-up areas in the developed metropolitan area of Dhaka City are subject to extensive restructuring as common six-storied buildings are replaced by higher and heavier constructions. Additional stories are built on existing houses, frequently exceeding the allowable bearing pressure on the subsoil as supported by the foundations. In turn, newly developing areas are projected in marshy areas modified by extensive, largely unengineered landfills. In many areas, these terrains bear unfavorable building ground conditions, and reliable geospatial information is a major prerequisite for risk-sensitive urban planning. Within a collaborative technical cooperation project between Bangladesh and Germany, BGR supports GSB in the provision of geo-information for the Capital Development authority (RAJUK). For general urban planning, RAJUK successively develops a detailed area plan (DAP) at scale 1 : 50000 for the whole Greater Dhaka City area. Geospatial information have not been considered in the present DAP. Within the project, GSB prepared a detailed geomorphologic map matching the DAP both in areal extent and scale. The geomorphological setting can be used as an important spatial proxy for the characterization of the subsurface since highly segmented, elevated terraces consisting of consolidated sandy Pliocene deposits overlain by stiff Plio-Pleistocene sediments are sharply bordered by low lying-areas. The floodplain and marsh areas are consisting of thick, mechanically weak Holocene fluvial sandy-silty sediments that are sometimes alternated by organic layers. A first expert-based engineering geological reclassification of the geomorphological map resulting in five building ground suitability classes is highly supported by the spatial analysis of extensive archive borehole information consisting of depth-continuous standard

  14. Binocular depth processing in the ventral visual pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Verhoef, Bram-Ernst; Vogels, Rufin; Janssen, Peter

    2016-01-01

    One of the most powerful forms of depth perception capitalizes on the small relative displacements, or binocular disparities, in the images projected onto each eye. The brain employs these disparities to facilitate various computations, including sensori-motor transformations (reaching, grasping), scene segmentation and object recognition. In accordance with these different functions, disparity activates a large number of regions in the brain of both humans and monkeys. Here, we review how di...

  15. Energy and depth resolution in elastic recoil coincidence spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szilagyi, E., E-mail: szilagyi@rmki.kfki.h [KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary)

    2010-06-15

    Elastic recoil coincidence spectrometry was implemented into the analytical ion beam simulation program DEPTH. In the calculations, effective detector geometry and multiple scattering effects are considered. Mott's cross section for the identical, spin zero particles is included. Spectra based on the individual detector signal and summing the energy of the recoiled and scattered particles originating from the same scattering events can also be calculated. To calculate this latter case, the dependency of the energy spread contributions had to be reconsidered.

  16. Energy and depth resolution in elastic recoil coincidence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szilagyi, E.

    2010-01-01

    Elastic recoil coincidence spectrometry was implemented into the analytical ion beam simulation program DEPTH. In the calculations, effective detector geometry and multiple scattering effects are considered. Mott's cross section for the identical, spin zero particles is included. Spectra based on the individual detector signal and summing the energy of the recoiled and scattered particles originating from the same scattering events can also be calculated. To calculate this latter case, the dependency of the energy spread contributions had to be reconsidered.

  17. Age-depth modelling with radiocarbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howarth, J.D.

    2017-01-01

    Chronology is a critical component of any study into the Quaternary because the information about climate and environmental change preserved in sedimentary deposits can only be placed in a useful context when it is associated with a robust chronological framework. This overview will introduce you to the key concepts in age depth modelling.

  18. Soil depth influence on Amazonian ecophysiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagerstrom, I.; Baker, I. T.; Gallup, S.; Denning, A. S.

    2017-12-01

    Models of land-atmosphere interaction are important for simulating present day weather and critical for predictions of future climate. Land-atmosphere interaction models have become increasingly complex in the last 30 years, leading to the need for further studies examining their intricacies and improvement. This research focuses on the effect of variable soil depth on Amazonian Gross Primary Production (GPP), respiration, and their combination into overall carbon flux. We evaluate a control, which has a universal soil depth of 10 meters, with two experiments of variable soil depths. To conduct this study we ran the 3 models for the period 2000-2012, evaluating similarities and differences between them. We focus on the Amazon rain forest, and compare differences in components of carbon flux. Not surprisingly, we find that the main differences between the models arises in regions where the soil depth is dissimilar between models. However, we did not observe significant differences in GPP between known drought, wet, and average years; interannual variability in carbon dynamics was less than anticipated. We also anticipated that differences between models would be most significant during the dry season, but found discrepancies that persisted through the entire annual cycle.

  19. Effects of tailwater depth on spillway aeration

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-04-15

    Apr 15, 2011 ... Hydraulic structures such as spillways or weirs with their water-air controlling mechanisms are not only important for their structural properties but also for their effects on downstream ecology. Tailwater depth is an important factor affecting dissolved oxygen transfer and aeration rates of spillways. In this ...

  20. Visual discomfort and depth-of-field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Hare, L.; Zhang, T.; Nefs, H.T.; Hibbard, P.B.

    2013-01-01

    Visual discomfort has been reported for certain visual stimuli and under particular viewing conditions, such as stereoscopic viewing. In stereoscopic viewing, visual discomfort can be caused by a conflict between accommodation and convergence cues that may specify different distances in depth.

  1. Sampling depth confounds soil acidification outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the northern Great Plains (NGP) of North America, surface sampling depths of 0-15 or 0-20 cm are suggested for testing soil characteristics such as pH. However, acidification is often most pronounced near the soil surface. Thus, sampling deeper can potentially dilute (increase) pH measurements an...

  2. Depth dependent stress revealed by aftershocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narteau, C.; Shebalin, P.

    2017-12-01

    Aftershocks occur in response to perturbations of the state of stress induced either by earthquakes or human activities. Along major strike-slip fault segments of the San Andreas fault system, the time-delay before the onset of the power-law aftershock decay rate (the c-value) varies by three orders of magnitude in the first twenty kilometers below the surface. Despite the influence of the lithostatic stress, there is no continuous change in c-value with respect to depth. Instead, two decay phases are separated by an abrupt increase at an intermediate depth range of 2 to 5 km. This transitional regime is the only one observed in fluid-injection-induced seismic areas. This provides strong evidence for the role of fluid and a porosity reduction mechanism at depth of few kilometers in active fault zones. Aftershock statistics can then be used to predict the evolution the differential shear stress with depth until the brittle-ductile transition is reached.

  3. Verifying optimal depth settings for LFAS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lam, F.P.A.; Beerens, S.P.; Ainslie, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    Naval operations in coastal waters are challenging the modelling support in several disciplines. An important instrument for undersea defence in the littoral is the LFAS sonar. To adapt to the local acoustic environment, LFAS sonars can adjust their operation depth to increase the coverage of the

  4. The case for transparent depth display

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooi, F.L.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: The continuing developments in display technology have resulted in the ability to present increasing amounts of data on computer displays. One of the coming break-throughs is generally believed to be the introduction of '3-D displays': displays with a true sense of depth. Though these types

  5. Safety in depth for nuclear waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringwood, T [Australian National Univ., Canberra. Research School of Earth Sciences

    1980-11-27

    A nuclear waste disposal strategy is described in which the radionuclides are immobilised in widely-dispersed drill holes in an extremely stable and leach resistant titanate ceramic form (SYNROC) at depths of 1500 to 4000 metres. The advantages of this method over that of burying such wastes in large centralised mined repositories at 500 to 700 metres in suitable geological strata are examined.

  6. Depths of Magma Chambers in the Icelandic Crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, D. F.; Kapostasy, D. D.; Barton, M.

    2004-05-01

    There is considerable interest in the structure and thermal state of the crust in Iceland, which lies across the Mid Atlantic Ridge. However, interpretations of seismic and gravity data yield conflicting views of the nature of the lower crust. Some interpretations prefer a model in which the lower crust (15-25 km) is relatively cool and solid, whereas other interpretations, based largely on gravity data, prefer a model in which the lower crust is relatively warm and possibly partially molten. Knowledge of the depth of magma chambers is critical to constrain the geothermal gradient in Icelandic crust and to resolve discrepancies in interpretation of geophysical data. Analyses of aphyric lavas and of glasses in Icelandic lavas erupted from 11 volcanic centers have been compiled. The compositions are picritic and basaltic with SiO2 - 47 to 50 wt%, MgO - 6 to 15wt%, FeO - 8 to 14wt%, to, Na2O - 1.3 to 3.3 wt%, and K2O - 0.03-46 wt%. The pressures of equilibration of these liquids with ol, high-Ca pyx and plag were estimated qualitatively from projections into the pseudoternary system Ol-Di-Silica using methods described by Walker and coworkers and Grove and coworkers. The results (ca. 0.5 GPa) indicate crystallization in magma chambers located at about 16 km depth. Equilibration pressures were also calculated using the method described by Yang and coworkers and by a modified version of this method. Calculated pressures (0.45±0.15 GPa) indicate magma chambers located at 15±4 km depth. Equilibration pressures for Rekjanes Ridge glasses determined using the same techniques are 0.2±0.1 GPa, corresponding to depths of 7.6±3 km. The results indicate the presence of magma chambers in the deep Icelandic crust and that the latter is relatively warm. Shallower chambers (3-7 km) have been identified from seismic studies suggesting a complex magma plumbing system. The results also confirm that magma chambers beneath Iceland are located at greater depths than those beneath the

  7. Assessing Human Impacts on the Greater Akaki River, Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We assessed the impacts of human activities on the Greater Akaki River using physicochemical parameters and macroinvertebrate metrics. Physicochemical samples and macroinvertebrates were collected bimonthly from eight sites established on the Greater Akaki River from February 2006 to April 2006. Eleven metrics ...

  8. Comparative Education in Greater China: Contexts, Characteristics, Contrasts and Contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Mark; Qin, Gui

    2001-01-01

    The evolution of comparative education in Greater China (mainland China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Macau) has been influenced by size, culture, political ideologies, standard of living, and colonialism. Similarities and differences in conceptions of comparative education are identified among the four components and between Greater China and other…

  9. Greater temperature sensitivity of plant phenology at colder sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prevey, Janet; Vellend, Mark; Ruger, Nadja

    2017-01-01

    Warmer temperatures are accelerating the phenology of organisms around the world. Temperature sensitivity of phenology might be greater in colder, higher latitude sites than in warmer regions, in part because small changes in temperature constitute greater relative changes in thermal balance...

  10. Breeding of Greater and Lesser Flamingos at Sua Pan, Botswana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to fledging was unknown owing to the rapid drying of the pan in late March 1999. No Greater Flamingo breeding was seen that season. Exceptional flooding during 1999–2000 produced highly favourable breeding conditions, with numbers of Greater and Lesser Flamingos breeding estimated to be 23 869 and 64 287 pairs, ...

  11. Surgical anatomy of greater occipital nerve and its relation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The knowledge of the anatomy of greater occipital nerve and its relation to occipital artery is important for the surgeon. Blockage or surgical release of greater occipital nerve is clinically effective in reducing or eliminating chronic migraine symptoms. Aim: The aim of this research was to study the anatomy of ...

  12. Surgical anatomy of greater occipital nerve and its relation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nancy Mohamed El Sekily

    2014-08-19

    Aug 19, 2014 ... Abstract Introduction: The knowledge of the anatomy of greater occipital nerve and its relation to occipital artery is important for the surgeon. Blockage or surgical release of greater occipital nerve is clinically effective in reducing or eliminating chronic migraine symptoms. Aim: The aim of this research was to ...

  13. INDUSTRIAL LAND DEVELOPMENT AND MANUFACTURING DECONCENTRATION IN GREATER JAKARTA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hudalah, Delik; Viantari, Dimitra; Firman, Tommy; Woltjer, Johan

    2013-01-01

    Industrial land development has become a key feature of urbanization in Greater Jakarta, one of the largest metropolitan areas in Southeast Asia. Following Suharto's market-oriented policy measures in the late 1980s, private developers have dominated the land development projects in Greater Jakarta.

  14. Strategies for Talent Management: Greater Philadelphia Companies in Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council for Adult and Experiential Learning (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    Human capital is one of the critical issues that impacts the Greater Philadelphia region's ability to grow and prosper. The CEO Council for Growth (CEO Council) is committed to ensuring a steady and talented supply of quality workers for this region. "Strategies for Talent Management: Greater Philadelphia Companies in Action" provides…

  15. Comparing statistical tests for detecting soil contamination greater than background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardin, J.W.; Gilbert, R.O.

    1993-12-01

    The Washington State Department of Ecology (WSDE) recently issued a report that provides guidance on statistical issues regarding investigation and cleanup of soil and groundwater contamination under the Model Toxics Control Act Cleanup Regulation. Included in the report are procedures for determining a background-based cleanup standard and for conducting a 3-step statistical test procedure to decide if a site is contaminated greater than the background standard. The guidance specifies that the State test should only be used if the background and site data are lognormally distributed. The guidance in WSDE allows for using alternative tests on a site-specific basis if prior approval is obtained from WSDE. This report presents the results of a Monte Carlo computer simulation study conducted to evaluate the performance of the State test and several alternative tests for various contamination scenarios (background and site data distributions). The primary test performance criteria are (1) the probability the test will indicate that a contaminated site is indeed contaminated, and (2) the probability that the test will indicate an uncontaminated site is contaminated. The simulation study was conducted assuming the background concentrations were from lognormal or Weibull distributions. The site data were drawn from distributions selected to represent various contamination scenarios. The statistical tests studied are the State test, t test, Satterthwaite's t test, five distribution-free tests, and several tandem tests (wherein two or more tests are conducted using the same data set)

  16. Greater utilization of wood residue fuels through improved financial planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billings, C.D.; Ziemke, M.C.; Stanford, R.

    1991-01-01

    Recent events have focused attention on the promotion of greater utilization of biomass fuel. Considerations include the need to reduce increases in global warming and also to improve ground level air quality by limiting the use of fossil fuels. However, despite all these important environmentally related considerations, economics remains the most important factor in the decision process used to determine the feasibility of using available renewable fuels instead of more convenient fossil fuels. In many areas of the Southeast, this decision process involves choosing between wood residue fuels such as bark, sawdust and shavings and presently plentiful natural gas. The primary candidate users of wood residue fuels are industries that use large amounts of heat and electric power and are located near centers of activity in the forest products industry such as sawmills, veneer mills and furniture factories. Given that such facilities both produce wood residues and need large amounts of heat and electricity, it is understandable that these firms are often major users of wood-fired furnaces and boilers. The authors have observed that poor or incomplete financial planning by the subject firms is a major barrier to economic utilization of inexpensive and widely available renewable fuels. In this paper, the authors suggest that wider usage of improved financial planning could double the present modest annual incidence of new commercial wood-fueled installation

  17. [Reproductive health survey of young adults in greater Santiago].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, M S; Herold, J M; Morris, L; López, I M

    1992-01-01

    In 1988 a survey was carried out in order to obtain information on knowledge about reproduction, sexual activity, attitudes, and use of contraceptive methods among residents between 15 and 24 years of age in Greater Santiago. For this purpose, a multistage, self-weighted, non-replacement probability sample was chosen from the entire Santiago urban area. After 2,898 households were visited, 865 women and 800 men were selected and interviewed. For the interview, a questionnaire with 156 questions was developed; many questions were similar to those included in similar surveys in Brazil and Guatemala. The interviewers were professionals who had received prior training. Although 75% of the interviewees had attended sex education classes, they had erroneous ideas on various basic subjects. Sixty-nine percent of the women interviewed had undergone menarche before attending these classes. In addition, 35.4% of the women and 65.0% of the men had had sexual relations prior to marriage, and less than 20% had used any contraceptive method. More than 60% of the interviewees who had children had conceived them before marrying. These findings point up the necessity of offering sex education classes for children and young people, as well as facilitating their access to family planning services, in order to decrease the number of illegitimate and unwanted children that are born in Chile.

  18. Vapour cloud explosion hazard greater with light feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Windebank, C.S.

    1980-03-03

    Because lighter chemical feedstocks such as propylene and butylenes are more reactive than LPG's they pose a greater risk of vapor cloud explosion, particularly during their transport. According to C.S. Windebank (Insurance Tech. Bur.), percussive unconfined vapor cloud explosions (PUVCE's) do not usually occur below the ten-ton threshold for saturated hydrocarbons but can occur well below this threshold in the case of unsaturated hydrocarbons such as propylene and butylenes. Boiling liquid expanding vapor explosions (BLEVE's) are more likely to be ''hot'' (i.e., the original explosion is associated with fire) than ''cold'' in the case of unsaturated hydrocarbons. No PUVCE or BLEVE incident has been reported in the UK. In the US, 16 out of 20 incidents recorded between 1970 and 1975 were related to chemical feedstocks, including propylene and butylenes, and only 4 were LPG-related. The average losses were $20 million per explosion. Between 1968 and 1978, 8% of LPG pipeline spillages led to explosions.

  19. Spontaneous, generalized lipidosis in captive greater horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozalo, Alfonso S; Schwiebert, Rebecca S; Metzner, Walter; Lawson, Gregory W

    2005-11-01

    During a routine 6-month quarantine period, 3 of 34 greater horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum) captured in mainland China and transported to the United States for use in echolocation studies were found dead with no prior history of illness. All animals were in good body condition at the time of death. At necropsy, a large amount of white fat was found within the subcutis, especially in the sacrolumbar region. The liver, kidneys, and heart were diffusely tan in color. Microscopic examination revealed that hepatocytes throughout the liver were filled with lipid, and in some areas, lipid granulomas were present. renal lesions included moderate amounts of lipid in the cortical tubular epithelium and large amounts of protein and lipid within Bowman's capsules in the glomeruli. In addition, one bat had large lipid vacuoles diffusely distributed throughout the myocardium. The exact pathologic mechanism inducing the hepatic, renal, and cardiac lipidosis is unknown. The horseshoe bats were captured during hibernation and immediately transported to the United States. It is possible that the large amount of fat stored coupled with changes in photoperiod, lack of exercise, and/or the stress of captivity might have contributed to altering the normal metabolic processes, leading to anorexia and consequently lipidosis in these animals.

  20. 'Female condoms give women greater control': a qualitative assessment of the experiences of commercial sex workers in Swaziland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathenjwa, Thulile; Maharaj, Pranitha

    2012-10-01

    To explore commercial sex workers' experiences with the female condom in Swaziland. This is a qualitative study that draws on two focus group discussions and ten individual in-depth interviews with female commercial sex workers in Lavumisa, Swaziland. The findings suggest that the majority of female sex workers prefer to use the female condom with their clients because it offers them greater control over the sexual encounter. Other factors that facilitate its use include the absence of side effects, the enhancement of sexual pleasure and protection against the risk of STIs (including HIV). In addition, the women reported that the female condom is stronger and more resistant to breakage than the male condom. Moreover, the female condoms can be inserted well in advance of sexual intercourse. Difficulties of insertion, partner objection and limited product availability were some of the barriers to the use of the device. There was also a tendency to reuse the female condoms because of lack of product availability and privacy to insert it. Although female condom use involves negotiation with clients, the fact that it offers sex workers an independent method of protection gives them more power and also, increases their ability to control their sexual and reproductive health.

  1. Edge-preserving Intra mode for efficient depth map coding based on H.264/AVC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zamarin, Marco; Forchhammer, Søren

    2014-01-01

    Depth-image-based-rendering (DIBR) algorithms for 3D video communication systems based on the “multi-view video plus depth” format are very sensitive to the accuracy of depth information. Specifically, edge regions in the depth data should be preserved in the coding/decoding process to ensure good...... view synthesis performance, which directly affects the overall system performance. This paper proposes a novel scheme for edge-aware Intra depth compression based on the H.264/AVC framework enabled on both Intra (I) and Inter (P) slices. The proposed scheme includes a new Intra mode specifically...

  2. A new probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for greater Tokyo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, R.S.; Toda, S.; Parsons, T.; Grunewald, E.; Blong, R.; Sparks, S.; Shah, H.; Kennedy, J.

    2006-01-01

    Tokyo and its outlying cities are home to one-quarter of Japan's 127 million people. Highly destructive earthquakes struck the capital in 1703, 1855 and 1923, the last of which took 105 000 lives. Fuelled by greater Tokyo's rich seismological record, but challenged by its magnificent complexity, our joint Japanese-US group carried out a new study of the capital's earthquake hazards. We used the prehistoric record of great earthquakes preserved by uplifted marine terraces and tsunami deposits (17 M???8 shocks in the past 7000 years), a newly digitized dataset of historical shaking (10 000 observations in the past 400 years), the dense modern seismic network (300 000 earthquakes in the past 30 years), and Japan's GeoNet array (150 GPS vectors in the past 10 years) to reinterpret the tectonic structure, identify active faults and their slip rates and estimate their earthquake frequency. We propose that a dislodged fragment of the Pacific plate is jammed between the Pacific, Philippine Sea and Eurasian plates beneath the Kanto plain on which Tokyo sits. We suggest that the Kanto fragment controls much of Tokyo's seismic behaviour for large earthquakes, including the damaging 1855 M???7.3 Ansei-Edo shock. On the basis of the frequency of earthquakes beneath greater Tokyo, events with magnitude and location similar to the M??? 7.3 Ansei-Edo event have a ca 20% likelihood in an average 30 year period. In contrast, our renewal (time-dependent) probability for the great M??? 7.9 plate boundary shocks such as struck in 1923 and 1703 is 0.5% for the next 30 years, with a time-averaged 30 year probability of ca 10%. The resulting net likelihood for severe shaking (ca 0.9g peak ground acceleration (PGA)) in Tokyo, Kawasaki and Yokohama for the next 30 years is ca 30%. The long historical record in Kanto also affords a rare opportunity to calculate the probability of shaking in an alternative manner exclusively from intensity observations. This approach permits robust estimates

  3. Data requirements of GREAT-ER: Modelling and validation using LAS in four UK catchments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, Oliver R.; Munday, Dawn K.; Whelan, Mick J.; Holt, Martin S.; Fox, Katharine K.; Morris, Gerard; Young, Andrew R.

    2009-01-01

    Higher-tier environmental risk assessments on 'down-the-drain' chemicals in river networks can be conducted using models such as GREAT-ER (Geography-referenced Regional Exposure Assessment Tool for European Rivers). It is important these models are evaluated and their sensitivities to input variables understood. This study had two primary objectives: evaluate GREAT-ER model performance, comparing simulated modelled predictions for LAS (linear alkylbenzene sulphonate) with measured concentrations, for four rivers in the UK, and investigate model sensitivity to input variables. We demonstrate that the GREAT-ER model is very sensitive to variability in river discharges. However it is insensitive to the form of distributions used to describe chemical usage and removal rate in sewage treatment plants (STPs). It is concluded that more effort should be directed towards improving empirical estimates of effluent load and reducing uncertainty associated with usage and removal rates in STPs. Simulations could be improved by incorporating the effect of river depth on dissipation rates. - Validation of GREAT-ER.

  4. Data requirements of GREAT-ER: Modelling and validation using LAS in four UK catchments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Oliver R., E-mail: oliver.price@unilever.co [Safety and Environmental Assurance Centre, Unilever, Colworth Science Park, Sharnbrook, Bedfordshire MK44 1LQ (United Kingdom); Munday, Dawn K. [Safety and Environmental Assurance Centre, Unilever, Colworth Science Park, Sharnbrook, Bedfordshire MK44 1LQ (United Kingdom); Whelan, Mick J. [Department of Natural Resources, School of Applied Sciences, Cranfield University, College Road, Cranfield, Bedfordshire MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); Holt, Martin S. [ECETOC, Ave van Nieuwenhuyse 4, Box 6, B-1160 Brussels (Belgium); Fox, Katharine K. [85 Park Road West, Birkenhead, Merseyside CH43 8SQ (United Kingdom); Morris, Gerard [Environment Agency, Phoenix House, Global Avenue, Leeds LS11 8PG (United Kingdom); Young, Andrew R. [Wallingford HydroSolutions Ltd, Maclean building, Crowmarsh Gifford, Wallingford, Oxon OX10 8BB (United Kingdom)

    2009-10-15

    Higher-tier environmental risk assessments on 'down-the-drain' chemicals in river networks can be conducted using models such as GREAT-ER (Geography-referenced Regional Exposure Assessment Tool for European Rivers). It is important these models are evaluated and their sensitivities to input variables understood. This study had two primary objectives: evaluate GREAT-ER model performance, comparing simulated modelled predictions for LAS (linear alkylbenzene sulphonate) with measured concentrations, for four rivers in the UK, and investigate model sensitivity to input variables. We demonstrate that the GREAT-ER model is very sensitive to variability in river discharges. However it is insensitive to the form of distributions used to describe chemical usage and removal rate in sewage treatment plants (STPs). It is concluded that more effort should be directed towards improving empirical estimates of effluent load and reducing uncertainty associated with usage and removal rates in STPs. Simulations could be improved by incorporating the effect of river depth on dissipation rates. - Validation of GREAT-ER.

  5. The outcome of endoscopy for recalcitrant greater trochanteric pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, James; Fary, Camdon; Tran, Phong

    2016-11-01

    Greater trochanteric pain syndrome (GTPS), previously referred as trochanteric bursitis, is a debilitating condition characterised by chronic lateral hip pain. The syndrome is thought to relate to gluteal tendinopathy, with most cases responding to non-operative treatment. A number of open and endoscopic surgical techniques targeting the iliotibial band, trochanteric bursa and gluteal tendons have, however, been described for severe recalcitrant cases. We report the outcomes of one such endoscopic approach here. We retrospectively reviewed 49 patients (57 operations) who had undergone endoscopic longitudinal vertical iliotibial band release and trochanteric bursectomy. Inclusion criteria included diagnosed GTPS with a minimum of six months of non-operative treatment. Exclusion criteria included concomitant intra- or extra-articular hip pathology and previous hip surgery including total hip arthroplasty. Outcomes were assessed using the Visual Analogue Scale, Oxford hip Score and International Hip Outcome Tool (iHOT-33). The series included 42 females and 7 males with a mean age of 65.0 years (26.7-88.6). Mean follow-up time was 20.7 months (5.3-41.2). Eight patients had full thickness gluteal tendon tears, of which 7 were repaired. Adjuvant PRP was injected intraoperatively in 38 of 57 operations (67.2 %). At follow-up, overall mean Visual Analogue Scale values had decreased from 7.8 to 2.8 (p < 0.001), Oxford hip Scores had increased from 20.4 to 37.3 (p < 0.001) and iHOT-33 scores had increased from 23.8 to 70.2 (p < 0.001). Of the 57 operations performed, patients reported feeling very satisfied with the surgical outcome in 28 operations (49.1 %), satisfied in 17 operations (29.8 %) and less than satisfied in 12 operations (21.1 %). While the majority of patients with GTPS will improve with non-operative management, endoscopic iliotibial band release, trochanteric bursectomy and gluteal tendon repair is a safe and effective treatment for severe

  6. EC6 safety enhancement - including impact of Fukushima lessons learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, S.; Zemdegs, R.; Boyle, S.; Soulard, M., E-mail: stephen.yu@candu.com [Candu Energy Inc., Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-09-15

    The Enhanced CANDU 6 (EC6) is the new Generation III CANDU reactor design that meets the most up to date regulatory requirements and customer expectations. EC6 builds on the proven high performance design inch as the Qinshan CANDU 6 units and has made improvements to safety and operational performance, and has incorporated extensive operational feedback including Fukushima. The Fukushima Dai-ichi March 11, 2011 event has demonstrated the importance of defence-in-depth considerations for beyond-design basis events, including severe accidents. The EC6 design is based on the defence-in-depth principles and provides further design features that address the lessons learned from Fukushima. (author)

  7. Dynamic topography and the Cenozoic carbonate compensation depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, S. M.; Moucha, R.; Raymo, M. E.; Derry, L. A.

    2015-12-01

    The carbonate compensation depth (CCD), the ocean depth at which the calcium carbonate accumulation rate goes to zero, can provide valuable insight into climatic and weathering conditions over the Cenozoic. The paleoposition of the CCD can be inferred from sediment core data. As the carbonate accumulation rate decreases linearly with depth between the lysocline and CCD, the CCD can be calculated using a linear regression on multiple sediment cores with known carbonate accumulation rates and paleodepths. It is therefore vital to have well-constrained estimates of paleodepths. Paleodepths are typically calculated using models of thermal subsidence and sediment loading and compaction. However, viscous convection-related stresses in the mantle can warp the ocean floor by hundreds of meters over broad regions and can also vary significantly over millions of years. This contribution to paleobathymetry, termed dynamic topography, can be calculated by modeling mantle flow backwards in time. Herein, we demonstrate the effect dynamic topography has on the inference of the late Cenozoic CCD with an example from the equatorial Pacific, considering sites from IODP Expeditions 320/321. The equatorial Pacific, given its large size and high productivity, is closely tied to the global carbon cycle. Accordingly, long-term changes in the equatorial Pacific CCD can be considered to reflect global changes in weathering fluxes and the carbon cycle, in addition to more regional changes in productivity and thermohaline circulation. We find that, when the dynamic topography contribution to bathymetry is accounted for, the equatorial Pacific CCD is calculated to be appreciably shallower at 30 Ma than previous estimates would suggest, implying a greater deepening of the Pacific CCD over the late Cenozoic.

  8. Change of Safe Needling Depth at Acupoint GB21 according to Posture and Breathing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmin Chu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Acupoint GB21 (Jianjing is used for treating back and shoulder pain but is associated with a risk of pneumothorax. We aimed to determine the SND (safe needling depth at GB21 according to posture and breathing in real time. Ultrasonographic images of GB21 during normal breathing, inspiration, and expiration in a SP (sitting position were acquired for 52 healthy volunteers. Images were also acquired during normal respiration in the PP (prone position with arms raised and lowered. The average SND was greater for men than for women (p<0.05. Analysis of variance revealed that the SND was greater for the PP than for the SP (p=0.01 and p<0.05, resp.. Although the SND tended to change according to posture, the average depth tended to deviate widely in some subjects. During breathing, the differences between inspiration and expiration were less than 1 mm in most subjects, but some showed differences more than 4.5 mm. The SND at GB21 was greater in overweight subjects and significantly greater in the PP and during maximal expiration. However, intragroup differences were greater than the intergroup differences. Therefore, it is dangerous to simply apply needling depth on a gender or BMI basis. The practitioner would adjust the SND by examining the individual anatomical structures.

  9. Radioactivity levels in well water supplies within the greater Chicago area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristoff, L.M.; Lordi, D.T.; Lue-Hing, C.

    1976-01-01

    The radiological analysis of well water supplies within the geographical boundaries of the Metropolitan Sanitary District of Greater Chicago was prompted by the relatively high total alpha levels encountered in wastewaters of a MSDGC water reclamation plant as compared to the wastewaters of the other waste treatment plants. Consequently, 87 wells constituting 42 water supplies were sampled and analyzed for total alpha and beta radioactivity. The wells were grouped according to depth. In general, both total alpha and total beta radioactivity concentrations were found to be a function of well depth. The relatively higher total alpha and beta activities in the wastewaters to one of the treatment plants was attributed to the higher levels found in the well water supply. Comparison with the USEPA's Drinking Water Regulations for Radionuclides (July 9, 1976) showed the maximum total alpha level of 15 pCi/liter was exceeded in 3 wells and 32 of the deep well waters had total alpha level greater than 5 pCi/liter. The total beta level of 50 pCi/liter was exceeded in 8 wells

  10. A comparison of conventional maximum intensity projection with a new depth-specific topographic mapping technique in the CT analysis of proximal tibial subchondral bone density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, James D.; Kontulainen, Saija A.; Masri, Bassam A.; Wilson, David R.

    2010-01-01

    The objective was to identify subchondral bone density differences between normal and osteoarthritic (OA) proximal tibiae using computed tomography osteoabsorptiometry (CT-OAM) and computed tomography topographic mapping of subchondral density (CT-TOMASD). Sixteen intact cadaver knees from ten donors (8 male:2 female; mean age:77.8, SD:7.4 years) were categorized as normal (n = 10) or OA (n = 6) based upon CT reconstructions. CT-OAM assessed maximum subchondral bone mineral density (BMD). CT-TOMASD assessed average subchondral BMD across three layers (0-2.5, 2.5-5 and 5-10 mm) measured in relation to depth from the subchondral surface. Regional analyses of CT-OAM and CT-TOMASD included: medial BMD, lateral BMD, and average BMD of a 10-mm diameter area that searched each medial and lateral plateau for the highest ''focal'' density present within each knee. Compared with normal knees, both CT-OAM and CT-TOMASD demonstrated an average of 17% greater whole medial compartment density in OA knees (p 0.05). CT-TOMASD focal region analyses revealed an average of 24% greater density in the 0- to 2.5-mm layer (p = 0.003) and 36% greater density in the 2.5- to 5-mm layer (p = 0.034) in OA knees. Both CT-OAM and TOMASD identified higher medial compartment density in OA tibiae compared with normal tibiae. In addition, CT-TOMASD indicated greater focal density differences between normal and OA knees with increased depth from the subchondral surface. Depth-specific density analyses may help identify and quantify small changes in subchondral BMD associated with OA disease onset and progression. (orig.)

  11. Palaeoecological studies as a source of peat depth data: A discussion and data compilation for Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ratcliffe

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The regional/national carbon (C stock of peatlands is often poorly characterised, even for comparatively well-studied areas. A key obstacle to better estimates of landscape C stock is the scarcity of data on peat depth, leading to simplistic assumptions. New measurements of peat depth become unrealistically resource-intensive when considering large areas. Therefore, it is imperative to maximise the use of pre-existing datasets. Here we propose that one potentially valuable and currently unexploited source of peat depth data is palaeoecological studies. We discuss the value of these data and present an initial compilation for Scotland (United Kingdom which consists of records from 437 sites and yields an average depth of 282 cm per site. This figure is likely to be an over-estimate of true average peat depth and is greater than figures used in current estimates of peatland C stock. Depth data from palaeoecological studies have the advantages of wide distribution, high quality, and often the inclusion of valuable supporting information; but also the disadvantage of spatial bias due to the differing motivations of the original researchers. When combined with other data sources, each with its own advantages and limitations, we believe that palaeoecological datasets can make an important contribution to better-constrained estimates of peat depth which, in turn, will lead to better estimates of peatland landscape carbon stock.

  12. Depth-based human activity recognition: A comparative perspective study on feature extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba Hamdy Ali

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Depth Maps-based Human Activity Recognition is the process of categorizing depth sequences with a particular activity. In this problem, some applications represent robust solutions in domains such as surveillance system, computer vision applications, and video retrieval systems. The task is challenging due to variations inside one class and distinguishes between activities of various classes and video recording settings. In this study, we introduce a detailed study of current advances in the depth maps-based image representations and feature extraction process. Moreover, we discuss the state of art datasets and subsequent classification procedure. Also, a comparative study of some of the more popular depth-map approaches has provided in greater detail. The proposed methods are evaluated on three depth-based datasets “MSR Action 3D”, “MSR Hand Gesture”, and “MSR Daily Activity 3D”. Experimental results achieved 100%, 95.83%, and 96.55% respectively. While combining depth and color features on “RGBD-HuDaAct” Dataset, achieved 89.1%. Keywords: Activity recognition, Depth, Feature extraction, Video, Human body detection, Hand gesture

  13. RFID tag modification for full depth backscatter modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jeffrey Wayne [Pasco, WA; Pratt, Richard M [Richland, WA

    2010-07-20

    A modulated backscatter radio frequency identification device includes a diode detector configured to selectively modulate a reply signal onto an incoming continuous wave; communications circuitry configured to provide a modulation control signal to the diode detector, the diode detector being configured to modulate the reply signal in response to be modulation control signal; and circuitry configured to increase impedance change at the diode detector which would otherwise not occur because the diode detector rectifies the incoming continuous wave while modulating the reply signal, whereby reducing the rectified signal increases modulation depth by removing the reverse bias effects on impedance changes. Methods of improving depth of modulation in a modulated backscatter radio frequency identification device are also provided.

  14. Ion induced optical emission for surface and depth profile analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, C.W.

    1977-01-01

    Low-energy ion bombardment of solid surfaces results in the emission of infrared, visible, and ultraviolet radiation produced by inelastic ion-solid collision processes. The emitted optical radiation provides important insight into low-energy particle-solid interactions and provides the basis for an analysis technique which can be used for surface and depth profile analysis with high sensitivity. The different kinds of collision induced optical radiation emitted as a result of low-energy particle-solid collisions are reviewed. Line radiation arising from excited states of sputtered atoms or molecules is shown to provide the basis for surface and depth profile analysis. The spectral characteristics of this type of radiation are discussed and applications of the ion induced optical emission technique are presented. These applications include measurements of ion implant profiles, detection sensitivities for submonolayer quantities of impurities on elemental surfaces, and the detection of elemental impurities on complex organic substrates

  15. Reducing Visual Discomfort with HMDs Using Dynamic Depth of Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnegie, Kieran; Rhee, Taehyun

    2015-01-01

    Although head-mounted displays (HMDs) are ideal devices for personal viewing of immersive stereoscopic content, exposure to VR applications on them results in significant discomfort for the majority of people, with symptoms including eye fatigue, headaches, nausea, and sweating. A conflict between accommodation and vergence depth cues on stereoscopic displays is a significant cause of visual discomfort. This article describes the results of an evaluation used to judge the effectiveness of dynamic depth-of-field (DoF) blur in an effort to reduce discomfort caused by exposure to stereoscopic content on HMDs. Using a commercial game engine implementation, study participants report a reduction of visual discomfort on a simulator sickness questionnaire when DoF blurring is enabled. The study participants reported a decrease in symptom severity caused by HMD exposure, indicating that dynamic DoF can effectively reduce visual discomfort.

  16. Wave Loads on Ships Sailing in Restricted Water Depth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidic-Perunovic, Jelena; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2003-01-01

    depth for a container vessel. The results show that if the water depth is less than two times the draft of the vessel, the wave-induced bending moment becomes significant larger than in deep water with the same sea state description. The peak in the frequency response function for the wave bending......The wave-induced bending moment in ships is the most important sea load parameter for ships larger than 100m in length. Hence, any rational ship design procedure must include a reasonable accurate determination of this load and a large amount of various hydrodynamic formulations have been published......, ranging from semi-empirical formulas to three-dimensional non-linear procedures. A review of the state-of-the art can be found in ISSC.VI.1 (2000). These procedures must be combined with operational and sea state information to predict the probability distribution of the maximum wave-induced bending...

  17. Fractures of the greater trochanter following total hip replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Ole-Christian L; Maansson, Lukas

    2013-01-01

    We studied the incidence of greater trochanteric fractures at our department following THR. In all we examined 911 patients retrospectively and found the occurance of a greater trochanteric fracture to be 3%. Patients with fractures had significantly poorer outcome on Oxford Hip score, Pain VAS, Satisfaction VAS and EQ-5D compared to THR without fractures. Greater trochanteric fracture following THR is one of the most common complications following THR. It has previously been thought to have little impact on the overall outcome following THR, but our study suggests otherwise.

  18. Depth of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 3 in Peruvian Women: Implications for Therapeutic Depth of Necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taxa, Luis; Jeronimo, Jose; Alonzo, Todd A; Gage, Julia; Castle, Philip E; Cremer, Miriam L; Felix, Juan C

    2018-01-01

    To determine the involvement of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3) in a population of women in a lower-resource setting. One hundred twelve consecutive cone excision specimens with histological diagnosis of CIN3 were retrieved from the National Institute of Neoplastic Diseases in Lima Peru. Two pathologists independently evaluated each specimen microscopically and confirmed 107 cases that could be measured by optical micrometry. Depth and breadth of the lesions were measured microscopically. The mean maximal depth of cervical involvement by CIN3 was 2 ± 0.13 mm; depth was less than 3.5 mm in 89.7% of cases and less than 5 mm in 93.5%. Mean breadth of CIN3 was 7.3 ± 4.4 mm; breadth was less than 15.9 mm in 95% of cases and less than 20.5 mm in 99.7%. The correlation coefficient between breadth and depth of CIN3 was 0.61. No significant correlation was found between age and depth. Depth of CIN3 involvement in a developing country is significantly deeper than that reported in the United States. Treatment selection for women with CIN3 and risk of treatment failure may vary between developing and developed countries because of the difference in the depth of lesions. Countries with underscreened populations need to consider the increased disease severity in devising treatment strategies.

  19. Investigation of the shallow depth explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamegai, M.

    1976-01-01

    An investigation of the nuclear explosions at shallow depth is made. A combination of an explosion code and an effects code proves to be an excellent tool for this study. A numerical simulation of ''Johnie Boy'' shows that the energy coupling to the air takes place in two stages; first by a rising mound, and then by a vented source. The thermal effects are examined for a 1 kt source at three depths of burial. The ''mushroom effect'' leaves a hot radiative plasma in the upper level and cold materials in the lower region of the debris. The temperature and the energy density of the debris can give an upper limit on the thermal output

  20. Weak layer fracture: facets and depth hoar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Reiweger

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding failure initiation within weak snow layers is essential for modeling and predicting dry-snow slab avalanches. We therefore performed laboratory experiments with snow samples containing a weak layer consisting of either faceted crystals or depth hoar. During these experiments the samples were loaded with different loading rates and at various tilt angles until fracture. The strength of the samples decreased with increasing loading rate and increasing tilt angle. Additionally, we took pictures of the side of four samples with a high-speed video camera and calculated the displacement using a particle image velocimetry (PIV algorithm. The fracture process within the weak layer could thus be observed in detail. Catastrophic failure started due to a shear fracture just above the interface between the depth hoar layer and the underlying crust.

  1. Observations of territorial breeding common ravens caching eggs of greater sage-grouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Kristy B.; Coates, Peter S.

    2015-01-01

    Previous investigations using continuous video monitoring of greater sage-grouse Centrocercus urophasianus nests have unambiguously identified common ravens Corvus corax as an important egg predator within the western United States. The quantity of greater sage-grouse eggs an individual common raven consumes during the nesting period and the extent to which common ravens actively hunt greater sage-grouse nests are largely unknown. However, some evidence suggests that territorial breeding common ravens, rather than nonbreeding transients, are most likely responsible for nest depredations. We describe greater sage-grouse egg depredation observations obtained opportunistically from three common raven nests located in Idaho and Nevada where depredated greater sage-grouse eggs were found at or in the immediate vicinity of the nest site, including the caching of eggs in nearby rock crevices. We opportunistically monitored these nests by counting and removing depredated eggs and shell fragments from the nest sites during each visit to determine the extent to which the common raven pairs preyed on greater sage-grouse eggs. To our knowledge, our observations represent the first evidence that breeding, territorial pairs of common ravens cache greater sage-grouse eggs and are capable of depredating multiple greater sage-grouse nests.

  2. A holistic water depth simulation model for small ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shakir; Ghosh, Narayan C.; Mishra, P. K.; Singh, R. K.

    2015-10-01

    Estimation of time varying water depth and time to empty of a pond is prerequisite for comprehensive and coordinated planning of water resource for its effective utilization. A holistic water depth simulation (HWDS) and time to empty (TE) model for small, shallow ephemeral ponds have been derived by employing the generalized model based on the Green-Ampt equation in the basic water balance equation. The HWDS model includes time varying rainfall, runoff, surface water evaporation, outflow and advancement of wetting front length as external inputs. The TE model includes two external inputs; surface water evaporation and advancement of wetting front length. Both the models also consider saturated hydraulic conductivity and fillable porosity of the pond's bed material as their parameters. The solution of the HWDS model involved numerical iteration in successive time intervals. The HWDS model has successfully evaluated with 3 years of field data from two small ponds located within a watershed in a semi-arid region in western India. The HWDS model simulated time varying water depth in the ponds with high accuracy as shown by correlation coefficient (R2 ⩾ 0.9765), index of agreement (d ⩾ 0.9878), root mean square errors (RMSE ⩽ 0.20 m) and percent bias (PB ⩽ 6.23%) for the pooled data sets of the measured and simulated water depth. The statistical F and t-tests also confirmed the reliability of the HWDS model at probability level, p ⩽ 0.0001. The response of the TE model showed its ability to estimate the time to empty the ponds. An additional field calibration and validation of the HWDS and TE models with observed field data in varied hydro-climatic conditions could be conducted to increase the applicability and credibility of the models.

  3. MR determination of neonatal spinal canal depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthurs, Owen; Thayyil, Sudhin; Wade, Angie; Chong, W K Kling; Sebire, Neil J; Taylor, Andrew M

    2012-08-01

    Lumbar punctures (LPs) are frequently performed in neonates and often result in traumatic haemorrhagic taps. Knowledge of the distance from the skin to the middle of the spinal canal (mid-spinal canal depth - MSCD) may reduce the incidence of traumatic taps, but there is little data in extremely premature or low birth weight neonates. Here, we determined the spinal canal depth at post-mortem in perinatal deaths using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Spinal canal depth was measured in 78 post-mortem foetuses and perinatal cases (mean gestation 26 weeks; mean weight 1.04kg) at the L3/L4 inter-vertebral space at post-mortem MRI. Both anterior (ASCD) and posterior (PSCD) spinal canal depth were measured; MSCD was calculated and modelled against weight and gestational age. ASCD and PSCD (mm) correlated significantly with weight and gestational age (all r>0.8). A simple linear model MSCD (mm)=3×Weight (kg)+5 was the best fit, identifying an SCD value within the correct range for 87.2% (68/78) (95% CI (78.0, 92.9%)) cases. Gestational age did not add significantly to the predictive value of the model. There is a significant correlation between MSCD and body weight at post-mortem MRI in foetuses and perinatal deaths. If this association holds in preterm neonates, use of the formula MSCD (mm)=3×Weight (kg)+5 could result in fewer traumatic LPs in this population. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. MR determination of neonatal spinal canal depth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthurs, Owen, E-mail: owenarthurs@uk2.net [Centre for Cardiovascular MR, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London WC1N 3JH (United Kingdom); Thayyil, Sudhin, E-mail: s.thayyil@ucl.ac.uk [Academic Neonatology, Institute for Women' s Health, London WC1E 6AU (United Kingdom); Wade, Angie, E-mail: a.wade@ucl.ac.uk [Centre for Paediatric Epidemiology and Biostatistics, UCL Institute of Child Health, London (United Kingdom); Chong, W.K., E-mail: Kling.Chong@gosh.nhs.uk [Paediatric Neuroradiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom); Sebire, Neil J., E-mail: Neil.Sebire@gosh.nhs.uk [Histopathology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London WC1E 6AU (United Kingdom); Taylor, Andrew M., E-mail: a.taylor76@ucl.ac.uk [Centre for Cardiovascular MR, Cardiorespiratory Unit, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children and UCL Institute of Cardiovascular Science, London WC1E 6AU (United Kingdom)

    2012-08-15

    Objectives: Lumbar punctures (LPs) are frequently performed in neonates and often result in traumatic haemorrhagic taps. Knowledge of the distance from the skin to the middle of the spinal canal (mid-spinal canal depth - MSCD) may reduce the incidence of traumatic taps, but there is little data in extremely premature or low birth weight neonates. Here, we determined the spinal canal depth at post-mortem in perinatal deaths using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Patients and methods: Spinal canal depth was measured in 78 post-mortem foetuses and perinatal cases (mean gestation 26 weeks; mean weight 1.04 kg) at the L3/L4 inter-vertebral space at post-mortem MRI. Both anterior (ASCD) and posterior (PSCD) spinal canal depth were measured; MSCD was calculated and modelled against weight and gestational age. Results: ASCD and PSCD (mm) correlated significantly with weight and gestational age (all r > 0.8). A simple linear model MSCD (mm) = 3 Multiplication-Sign Weight (kg) + 5 was the best fit, identifying an SCD value within the correct range for 87.2% (68/78) (95% CI (78.0, 92.9%)) cases. Gestational age did not add significantly to the predictive value of the model. Conclusion: There is a significant correlation between MSCD and body weight at post-mortem MRI in foetuses and perinatal deaths. If this association holds in preterm neonates, use of the formula MSCD (mm) = 3 Multiplication-Sign Weight (kg) + 5 could result in fewer traumatic LPs in this population.

  5. Mobile Variable Depth Sampling System Design Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOGER, R.M.

    2000-01-01

    A design study is presented for a mobile, variable depth sampling system (MVDSS) that will support the treatment and immobilization of Hanford LAW and HLW. The sampler can be deployed in a 4-inch tank riser and has a design that is based on requirements identified in the Level 2 Specification (latest revision). The waste feed sequence for the MVDSS is based on Phase 1, Case 3S6 waste feed sequence. Technical information is also presented that supports the design study

  6. Mobile Variable Depth Sampling System Design Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOGER, R.M.

    2000-08-25

    A design study is presented for a mobile, variable depth sampling system (MVDSS) that will support the treatment and immobilization of Hanford LAW and HLW. The sampler can be deployed in a 4-inch tank riser and has a design that is based on requirements identified in the Level 2 Specification (latest revision). The waste feed sequence for the MVDSS is based on Phase 1, Case 3S6 waste feed sequence. Technical information is also presented that supports the design study.

  7. Hydrogen depth profiling using elastic recoil detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, B.L.; Peercy, P.S.

    1979-01-01

    The elastic recoil detection (ERD) analysis technique for H profiling in the near surface regions of solids is described. ERD is shown to have the capability of detecting H and its isotopes down to concentrations of approx. 0.01 at. % with a depth resolution of a few hundred angstroms. Is is demonstrated that 2.4-MeV He ions can be used successfully to profile 1 H and 2 D using this technique. 12 figures

  8. Coding In-depth Semistructured Interviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, John L.; Quincy, Charles; Osserman, Jordan

    2013-01-01

    Many social science studies are based on coded in-depth semistructured interview transcripts. But researchers rarely report or discuss coding reliability in this work. Nor is there much literature on the subject for this type of data. This article presents a procedure for developing coding schemes...... useful for situations where a single knowledgeable coder will code all the transcripts once the coding scheme has been established. This approach can also be used with other types of qualitative data and in other circumstances....

  9. [Measurement of the depth of anaesthesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, G N; Müller, J; Bischoff, P

    2008-01-01

    One of the most important mandates of the anaesthesiologist is to control the depth of anaesthesia. An unsolved problem is that a straight definition of the depth of anaesthesia does not exist. Concerning this it is rational to separate hypnosis from analgesia, from muscle relaxation and from block of cardiovascular reactions. Clinical surrogate parameters such as blood pressure and heart rate are not well-suited for a valid statement about the depth of hypnosis. To answer this question the brain has become the focus of interest as the target of anaesthesia. It is possible to visualize the brain's electrical activity from anelectroencephalogram (EEG). The validity of the spontaneous EEG as an anesthetic depth monitor is limited by the multiphasic activity, especially when anaesthesia is induced (excitation) and in deep anaesthesia (burst suppression). Recently, various commercial monitoring systems have been introduced to solve this problem. These monitoring systems use different interpretations of the EEG or auditory-evoked potentials (AEP). These derived and calculated variables have no pure physiological basis. For that reason a profound knowledge of the algorithms and a validation of the monitoring systems is an indispensable prerequisite prior to their routine clinical use. For the currently available monitoring systems various studies have been reported. At this time it is important to know that the actual available monitors can only value the sedation and not the other components of anaesthesia. For example, they cannot predict if a patient will react to a painful stimulus or not. In the future it would be desirable to develop parameters which allow an estimate of the other components of anaesthesia in addition to the presently available monitoring systems to estimate sedation and muscle relaxation. These could be sensoric-evoked potentials to estimate analgesia and AEPs for the detection of awareness.

  10. Depth and degree of melting of komatiites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzberg, Claude

    1992-04-01

    High pressure melting experiments have permitted new constraints to be placed on the depth and degree of partial melting of komatiites. Komatiites from Gorgona Island were formed by relatively low degrees of pseudoinvariant melting involving L + Ol + Opx + Cpx + Gt on the solidus at 40 kbar, about 130 km depth. Munro-type komatiites were separated from a harzburgite residue (L + Ol + Opx) at pressures that were poorly constrained, but were probably around 50 kbar, about 165 km depth; the degree of partial melting was less than 40 percent. Secular variations in the geochemistry of komatiites could have formed in response to a reduction in the temperature and pressure of melting with time. The 3.5 Ga Barberton komatiites and the 2.7 Ga Munro-type komatiities could have formed in plumes that were hotter than the present-day mantle by 500 deg and 300 deg, respectively. When excess temperatures are this size, melting is deeper and volcanism changes from basaltic to momatiitic. The komatiities from Gorgona Island, which are Mesozoic in age, may be representative of komatiities that are predicted to occur in oceanic plateaus of Cretaceous age throughout the Pacific (Storey et al., 1991).

  11. Impeller Submergence Depth for Stirred Tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiyam T. Devi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Impeller submergence governs the performance of mixing tanks employed in oxygen transfer operation. Present work experimentally investigates the effect of impeller submergence depths on oxygen transfer and corresponding power consumption. It has been found that at higher range of impeller submergence, mixing tanks consume less power and gives higher values of oxygen transfer coefficient. Optimal range of submergence depth is 0.7 to 0.9 times the impeller diameter. Copyright ©2011 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved.(Received: 4th March 2011; Revised: 12nd July 2011; Accepted: 14th July 2011[How to Cite: T.T. Devi, A.P. Sinha, M. Thakre, and B. Kumar. (2011. Impeller Submergence Depth for Stirred Tanks. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 6 (2: 123-128. doi:10.9767/bcrec.6.2.826.123-128][How to Link / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.6.2.826.123-128 || or local: http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/826] | View in 

  12. Low-Depth Quantum Simulation of Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Babbush

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Quantum simulation of the electronic structure problem is one of the most researched applications of quantum computing. The majority of quantum algorithms for this problem encode the wavefunction using N Gaussian orbitals, leading to Hamiltonians with O(N^{4} second-quantized terms. We avoid this overhead and extend methods to condensed phase materials by utilizing a dual form of the plane wave basis which diagonalizes the potential operator, leading to a Hamiltonian representation with O(N^{2} second-quantized terms. Using this representation, we can implement single Trotter steps of the Hamiltonians with linear gate depth on a planar lattice. Properties of the basis allow us to deploy Trotter- and Taylor-series-based simulations with respective circuit depths of O(N^{7/2} and O[over ˜](N^{8/3} for fixed charge densities. Variational algorithms also require significantly fewer measurements in this basis, ameliorating a primary challenge of that approach. While our approach applies to the simulation of arbitrary electronic structure problems, the basis sets explored in this work will be most practical for treating periodic systems, such as crystalline materials, in the near term. We conclude with a proposal to simulate the uniform electron gas (jellium using a low-depth variational ansatz realizable on near-term quantum devices. From these results, we identify simulations of low-density jellium as a promising first setting to explore quantum supremacy in electronic structure.

  13. Prey selection by a reintroduced lion population in the Greater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prey selection by a reintroduced lion population in the Greater Makalali Conservancy, South Africa. Dave Druce, Heleen Genis, Jonathan Braak, Sophie Greatwood, Audrey Delsink, Ross Kettles, Luke Hunter, Rob Slotow ...

  14. LiveDiverse: Case study area, Greater Kruger South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nortje, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Livelihoods and Biodiversity in Developing Countries Case study area: Greater Kruger, South Africa January 2011 Kolhapur, India Where are we? HARDSHIP LIVELIHOODS NATURE & BIODIVERSITY BELIEFS & CULTURAL PRACTISE threesansinv foursansinv onesansinv...

  15. Exploration of the Energy Efficiency of the Greater London Authority ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GLA Building/City Hall) ... Journal Home > Vol 11, No 2 (2007) > ... The Greater London Authority building was acclaimed as being energy efficient, with claims of 75 % reduction in its annual energy consumption compared to a high specification ...

  16. Molecular insights into the biology of Greater Sage-Grouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Quinn, Thomas W.

    2011-01-01

    Recent research on Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) genetics has revealed some important findings. First, multiple paternity in broods is more prevalent than previously thought, and leks do not comprise kin groups. Second, the Greater Sage-Grouse is genetically distinct from the congeneric Gunnison sage-grouse (C. minimus). Third, the Lyon-Mono population in the Mono Basin, spanning the border between Nevada and California, has unique genetic characteristics. Fourth, the previous delineation of western (C. u. phaios) and eastern Greater Sage-Grouse (C. u. urophasianus) is not supported genetically. Fifth, two isolated populations in Washington show indications that genetic diversity has been lost due to population declines and isolation. This chapter examines the use of molecular genetics to understand the biology of Greater Sage-Grouse for the conservation and management of this species and put it into the context of avian ecology based on selected molecular studies.

  17. Depth of processing effects on neural correlates of memory encoding: relationship between findings from across- and within-task comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, L J; Henson, R N; Rugg, M D

    2001-02-01

    Neuroimaging studies have implicated the prefrontal cortex and medial temporal areas in the successful encoding of verbal material into episodic memory. The present study used event-related functional MRI to investigate whether the brain areas associated with successful episodic encoding of words in a semantic study task are a subset of those demonstrating depth of processing effects. In addition, we tested whether the brain areas associated with successful episodic encoding differ depending on the nature of the study task. At study, 15 volunteers were cued to make either animacy or alphabetical decisions about words. A recognition memory test including confidence judgements followed after a delay of 15 min. Prefrontal and medial temporal regions showed greater functional MRI activations for semantically encoded words relative to alphabetically encoded words. Two of these regions (left anterior hippocampus and left ventral inferior frontal gyrus) showed greater activation for semantically encoded words that were subsequently recognized confidently. However, other regions (left posterior hippocampus and right inferior frontal cortex) demonstrated subsequent memory effects, but not effects of depth of processing. Successful memory for alphabetically encoded words was also associated with greater activation in the left anterior hippocampus and left ventral inferior frontal gyrus. The findings suggest that episodic encoding for words in a semantic study task involves a subset of the regions activated by deep relative to shallow processing. The data provide little evidence that successful episodic encoding during a shallow study task depends upon regions different from those that support the encoding of deeply studied words. Instead, the findings suggest that successful episodic encoding during a shallow study task relies on a subset of the regions engaged during successful encoding in a deep task.

  18. Greater saphenous vein anomaly and aneurysm with subsequent pulmonary embolism

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Truong; Kornbau, Craig

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Venous aneurysms often present as painful masses. They can present either in the deep or superficial venous system. Deep venous system aneurysms have a greater risk of thromboembolism. Though rare, there have been case reports of superficial aneurysms and thrombus causing significant morbidity such as pulmonary embolism. We present a case of an anomalous greater saphenous vein connection with an aneurysm and thrombus resulting in a pulmonary embolism. This is the only reported case o...

  19. GREATER OMENTUM: MORPHOFUNCTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS AND CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE IN PEDIATRICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Nekrutov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The review analyzes the structure organization and pathophysiological age specificities of the greater omentum, which determine its uniqueness and functional diversity in a child's organism. the article discusses protective functions of the organ, its role in the development of post operative complications of children, and the usage in children's reconstructive plastic surgery.Key words: greater omentum, omentitis, of post operative complications, children.

  20. Dietary breadth of grizzly bears in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunther, Kerry A.; Shoemaker, Rebecca; Frey, Kevin L.; Haroldson, Mark A.; Cain, Steven L.; van Manen, Frank T.; Fortin, Jennifer K.

    2014-01-01

    Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) are opportunistic omnivores that eat a great diversity of plant and animal species. Changes in climate may affect regional vegetation, hydrology, insects, and fire regimes, likely influencing the abundance, range, and elevational distribution of the plants and animals consumed by GYE grizzly bears. Determining the dietary breadth of grizzly bears is important to document future changes in food resources and how those changes may affect the nutritional ecology of grizzlies. However, no synthesis exists of all foods consumed by grizzly bears in the GYE. We conducted a review of available literature and compiled a list of species consumed by grizzly bears in the GYE. We documented >266 species within 200 genera from 4 kingdoms, including 175 plant, 37 invertebrate, 34 mammal, 7 fungi, 7 bird, 4 fish, 1 amphibian, and 1 algae species as well as 1 soil type consumed by grizzly bears. The average energy values of the ungulates (6.8 kcal/g), trout (Oncorhynchus spp., 6.1 kcal/g), and small mammals (4.5 kcal/g) eaten by grizzlies were higher than those of the plants (3.0 kcal/g) and invertebrates (2.7 kcal/g) they consumed. The most frequently detected diet items were graminoids, ants (Formicidae), whitebark pine seeds (Pinus albicaulis), clover (Trifolium spp.), and dandelion (Taraxacum spp.). The most consistently used foods on a temporal basis were graminoids, ants, whitebark pine seeds, clover, elk (Cervus elaphus), thistle (Cirsium spp.), and horsetail (Equisetum spp.). Historically, garbage was a significant diet item for grizzlies until refuse dumps were closed. Use of forbs increased after garbage was no longer readily available. The list of foods we compiled will help managers of grizzly bears and their habitat document future changes in grizzly bear food habits and how bears respond to changing food resources.

  1. Predictability of Seasonal Rainfall over the Greater Horn of Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngaina, J. N.

    2016-12-01

    The El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a primary mode of climate variability in the Greater of Africa (GHA). The expected impacts of climate variability and change on water, agriculture, and food resources in GHA underscore the importance of reliable and accurate seasonal climate predictions. The study evaluated different model selection criteria which included the Coefficient of determination (R2), Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC), Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC), and the Fisher information approximation (FIA). A forecast scheme based on the optimal model was developed to predict the October-November-December (OND) and March-April-May (MAM) rainfall. The predictability of GHA rainfall based on ENSO was quantified based on composite analysis, correlations and contingency tables. A test for field-significance considering the properties of finiteness and interdependence of the spatial grid was applied to avoid correlations by chance. The study identified FIA as the optimal model selection criterion. However, complex model selection criteria (FIA followed by BIC) performed better compared to simple approach (R2 and AIC). Notably, operational seasonal rainfall predictions over the GHA makes of simple model selection procedures e.g. R2. Rainfall is modestly predictable based on ENSO during OND and MAM seasons. El Nino typically leads to wetter conditions during OND and drier conditions during MAM. The correlations of ENSO indices with rainfall are statistically significant for OND and MAM seasons. Analysis based on contingency tables shows higher predictability of OND rainfall with the use of ENSO indices derived from the Pacific and Indian Oceans sea surfaces showing significant improvement during OND season. The predictability based on ENSO for OND rainfall is robust on a decadal scale compared to MAM. An ENSO-based scheme based on an optimal model selection criterion can thus provide skillful rainfall predictions over GHA. This study concludes that the

  2. Greater effort increases perceived value in an invertebrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaczkes, Tomer J; Brandstetter, Birgit; di Stefano, Isabella; Heinze, Jürgen

    2018-05-01

    Expending effort is generally considered to be undesirable. However, both humans and vertebrates will work for a reward they could also get for free. Moreover, cues associated with high-effort rewards are preferred to low-effort associated cues. Many explanations for these counterintuitive findings have been suggested, including cognitive dissonance (self-justification) or a greater contrast in state (e.g., energy or frustration level) before and after an effort-linked reward. Here, we test whether effort expenditure also increases perceived value in ants, using both classical cue-association methods and pheromone deposition, which correlates with perceived value. In 2 separate experimental setups, we show that pheromone deposition is higher toward the reward that requires more effort: 47% more pheromone deposition was performed for rewards reached via a vertical runway (high effort) compared with ones reached via a horizontal runway (low effort), and deposition rates were 28% higher on rough (high effort) versus smooth (low effort) runways. Using traditional cue-association methods, 63% of ants trained on different surface roughness, and 70% of ants trained on different runway elevations, preferred the high-effort related cues on a Y maze. Finally, pheromone deposition to feeders requiring memorization of one path bifurcation was up to 29% higher than to an identical feeder requiring no learning. Our results suggest that effort affects value perception in ants. This effect may stem from a cognitive process, which monitors the change in a generalized hedonic state before and after reward. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Deviance and resistance: Malaria elimination in the greater Mekong subregion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyttleton, Chris

    2016-02-01

    Malaria elimination rather than control is increasingly globally endorsed, requiring new approaches wherein success is not measured by timely treatment of presenting cases but eradicating all presence of infection. This shift has gained urgency as resistance to artemisinin-combination therapies spreads in the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS) posing a threat to global health security. In the GMS, endemic malaria persists in forested border areas and elimination will require calibrated approaches to remove remaining pockets of residual infection. A new public health strategy called 'positive deviance' is being used to improve health promotion and community outreach in some of these zones. However, outbreaks sparked by alternative understandings of appropriate behaviour expose the unpredictable nature of 'border malaria' and difficulties eradication faces. Using a recent spike in infections allegedly linked to luxury timber trade in Thai borderlands, this article suggests that opportunities for market engagement can cause people to see 'deviance' as a means to material advancement in ways that increase disease vulnerability. A malaria outbreak in Ubon Ratchathani was investigated during two-week field-visit in November 2014 as part of longer project researching border malaria in Thai provinces. Qualitative data were collected in four villages in Ubon's three most-affected districts. Discussions with villagers focused primarily on changing livelihoods, experience with malaria, and rosewood cutting. Informants included ten men and two women who had recently overnighted in the nearby forest. Data from health officials and villagers are used to frame Ubon's rise in malaria transmission within moral and behavioural responses to expanding commodity supply-chains. The article argues that elimination strategies in the GMS must contend with volatile outbreaks among border populations wherein 'infectiousness' and 'resistance' are not simply pathogen characteristics but also

  4. Interspecific nest parasitism by chukar on greater sage-grouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearon, Michelle L.; Coates, Peter S.

    2014-01-01

    Nest parasitism occurs when a female bird lays eggs in the nest of another and the host incubates the eggs and may provide some form of parental care for the offspring (Lyon and Eadie 1991). Precocial birds (e.g., Galliformes and Anseriformes) are typically facultative nest parasites of both their own and other species (Lyon and Eadie 1991). This behavior increases a female’s reproductive success when she parasitizes other nests while simultaneously raising her own offspring. Both interspecific and conspecific nest parasitism have been well documented in several families of the order Galliformes, particularly the Phasianidae (Lyon and Eadie 1991, Geffen and Yom-Tov 2001, Krakauer and Kimball 2009). The Chukar (Alectoris chukar) has been widely introduced as a game bird to western North America from Eurasia and is now well established within the Great Basin from northeastern California east to Utah and north to Idaho and Oregon (Christensen 1996). Over much of this range the Chukar occurs with other phasianids, including the native Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), within sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) steppe (Christensen 1996, Schroeder et al. 1999, Connelly et al. 2000). Chukar typically exploit a broader range of habitats than do sage-grouse, but both species use the same species of sagebrush and other shrubs for nesting cover (Christensen 1996, Schroeder et al. 1999). Chukar are known to parasitize nests of other individuals of their own species (Geffen and Yom-Tov 2001), but we are unaware of reported evidence that Chukar may parasitize nests of sage-grouse. Here we describe a case of a Chukar parasitizing a sage-grouse nest in the sagebrush steppe of western Nevada.

  5. Medical students are afraid to include abortion in their future practices : in-depth interviews in Maharastra, India

    OpenAIRE

    Sjöström, Susanne; Essen, Birgitta; Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina; Klingberg-Allvin, Marie

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Unsafe abortions are estimated to cause eight per-cent of maternal mortality in India. Lack of providers, especially in rural areas, is one reason unsafe abortions take place despite decades of legal abortion. Education and training in reproductive health services has been shown to influence attitudes and increase chances that medical students will provide abortion care services in their future practice. To further explore previous findings about poor attitudes toward abortion amo...

  6. Vs30 mapping at selected sites within the Greater Accra Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nortey, Grace; Armah, Thomas K.; Amponsah, Paulina

    2018-06-01

    A large part of Accra is underlain by a complex distribution of shallow soft soils. Within seismically active zones, these soils hold the most potential to significantly amplify seismic waves and cause severe damage, especially to structures sited on soils lacking sufficient stiffness. This paper presents preliminary site classification for the Greater Accra Metropolitan Area of Ghana (GAMA), using experimental data from two-dimensional (2-D) Multichannel Analysis of Surface Wave (MASW) technique. The dispersive characteristics of fundamental mode Rayleigh type surface waves were utilized for imaging the shallow subsurface layers (approx. up to 30 m depth) by estimating the 1D (depth) and 2D (depth and surface location) shear wave velocities at 5 selected sites. The average shear wave velocity for 30 m depth (Vs30), which is critical in evaluating the site response of the upper 30 m, was estimated and used for the preliminary site classification of the GAM area, as per NEHRP (National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program). Based on the Vs30 values obtained in the study, two common site types C, and D corresponding to shallow (>6 m Lower velocity profiles are inferred for the residual soils (sandy to silty clays), derived from the Accraian Formation that lies mainly within Accra central. Stiffer soil sites lie to the north of Accra, and to the west near Nyanyano. The seismic response characteristics over the residual soils in the GAMA have become apparent using the MASW technique. An extensive site effect map and a more robust probabilistic seismic hazard analysis can now be efficiently built for the metropolis, by considering the site classes and design parameters obtained from this study.

  7. Socio-economic considerations of cleaning Greater Vancouver's air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-08-01

    Socio-economic considerations of better air quality on the Greater Vancouver population and economy were discussed. The purpose of the study was to provide socio-economic information to staff and stakeholders of the Greater Vancouver Regional District (GVRD) who are participating in an Air Quality Management Plan (AQMP) development process and the Sustainable Region Initiative (SRI) process. The study incorporated the following methodologies: identification and review of Canadian, American, and European quantitative socio-economic, cost-benefit, cost effectiveness, competitiveness and health analyses of changes in air quality and measures to improve air quality; interviews with industry representatives in Greater Vancouver on competitiveness impacts of air quality changes and ways to improve air quality; and a qualitative analysis and discussion of secondary quantitative information that identifies and evaluates socio-economic impacts arising from changes in Greater Vancouver air quality. The study concluded that for the Greater Vancouver area, the qualitative analysis of an improvement in Greater Vancouver air quality shows positive socio-economic outcomes, as high positive economic efficiency impacts are expected along with good social quality of life impacts. 149 refs., 30 tabs., 6 appendices

  8. Digging a Little Deeper: Microbial Communities, Molecular Composition and Soil Organic Matter Turnover along Tropical Forest Soil Depth Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pett-Ridge, J.; McFarlane, K. J.; Heckman, K. A.; Reed, S.; Green, E. A.; Nico, P. S.; Tfaily, M. M.; Wood, T. E.; Plante, A. F.

    2016-12-01

    Tropical forest soils store more carbon (C) than any other terrestrial ecosystem and exchange vast amounts of CO2, water, and energy with the atmosphere. Much of this C is leached and stored in deep soil layers where we know little about its fate or the microbial communities that drive deep soil biogeochemistry. Organic matter (OM) in tropical soils appears to be associated with mineral particles, suggesting deep soils may provide greater C stabilization. However, few studies have evaluated sub-surface soils in tropical ecosystems, including estimates of the turnover times of deep soil C, the sensitivity of this C to global environmental change, and the microorganisms involved. We quantified bulk C pools, microbial communities, molecular composition of soil organic matter, and soil radiocarbon turnover times from surface soils to 1.5m depths in multiple soil pits across the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico. Soil C, nitrogen, and root and microbial biomass all declined exponentially with depth; total C concentrations dropped from 5.5% at the surface to communities in surface soils (Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria) versus those below the active rooting zone (Verrucomicrobia and Thaumarchaea). High resolution mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS) analyses suggest a shift in the composition of OM with depth (especially in the water soluble fraction), an increase in oxidation, and decreasing H/C with depth (indicating higher aromaticity). Additionally, surface samples were rich in lignin-like compounds of plant origin that were absent with depth. Soil OM 14C and mean turnover times were variable across replicate horizons, ranging from 3-1500 years at the surface, to 5000-40,000 years at depth. In comparison to temperate deciduous forests, these 14C values reflect far older soil C. Particulate organic matter (free light fraction), with a relatively modern 14C was found in low but measureable concentration in even the deepest soil horizons. Our results indicate these

  9. Measurement of Optic Disc Cup Surface Depth Using Cirrus HD-OCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Kook; Ha, Ahnul; Lee, Won June; Jeoung, Jin Wook; Park, Ki Ho

    2017-12-01

    To introduce the measurement method of optic disc cup surface depth using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and then evaluate the rates of cup surface depression at 3 different stages of glaucoma. We retrospectively identified 52 eyes with preperimetric glaucoma, 56 with mild-or-moderate glaucoma and 50 with severe glaucoma and followed them for at least 48 months. Eyes were imaged using SD-OCT (Cirrus HD-OCT) at 12-month intervals. The mean cup surface depth was calculated using the following formula: Cup volume/(disc area×average cup-to-disc ratio)-200 μm. The rates of mean cup surface depression (μm/y) were significantly greater in mild-or-moderate glaucoma (-7.96±1.03) than in preperimetric (-3.11±0.61) and severe glaucoma (-0.70±0.12; all Pcup surface depression (%/y) were significantly greater than those of average of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thinning (%/y) in preperimetric glaucoma (-1.64±0.12 vs. -1.11±0.07; Pcup surface depth changed slower than did average RNFL thickness (-0.64±0.06 vs. -0.75±0.08%/y; Pcup surface depth changed faster than did the RNFL thickness. These results signify the possibility that SD-OCT-based estimation of cup surface depth might be useful for monitoring of glaucoma development and progression.

  10. Extraction of depth-dependent perturbation factors for silicon diodes using a plastic scintillation detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, Frederic; Guillot, Mathieu; McEwen, Malcolm; Gingras, Luc; Beaulieu, Luc

    2011-10-01

    This work presents the experimental extraction of the perturbation factor in megavoltage electron beams for three models of silicon diodes (IBA Dosimetry, EFD and SFD, and the PTW 60012 unshielded) using a plastic scintillation detector (PSD). The authors used a single scanning PSD mounted on a high-precision scanning tank to measure depth-dose curves in 6-, 12-, and 18-MeV clinical electron beams. They also measured depth-dose curves using the IBA Dosimetry, EFD and SFD, and the PTW 60012 unshielded diodes. The authors used the depth-dose curves measured with the PSD as a perturbation-free reference to extract the perturbation factors of the diodes. The authors found that the perturbation factors for the diodes increased substantially with depth, especially for low-energy electron beams. The experimental results show the same trend as published Monte Carlo simulation results for the EFD diode; however, the perturbations measured experimentally were greater. They found that using an effective point of measurement (EPOM) placed slightly away from the source reduced the variation of perturbation factors with depth and that the optimal EPOM appears to be energy dependent. The manufacturer recommended EPOM appears to be incorrect at low electron energy (6 MeV). In addition, the perturbation factors for diodes may be greater than predicted by Monte Carlo simulations.

  11. Extraction of depth-dependent perturbation factors for silicon diodes using a plastic scintillation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacroix, Frederic; Guillot, Mathieu; McEwen, Malcolm; Gingras, Luc; Beaulieu, Luc

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This work presents the experimental extraction of the perturbation factor in megavoltage electron beams for three models of silicon diodes (IBA Dosimetry, EFD and SFD, and the PTW 60012 unshielded) using a plastic scintillation detector (PSD). Methods: The authors used a single scanning PSD mounted on a high-precision scanning tank to measure depth-dose curves in 6-, 12-, and 18-MeV clinical electron beams. They also measured depth-dose curves using the IBA Dosimetry, EFD and SFD, and the PTW 60012 unshielded diodes. The authors used the depth-dose curves measured with the PSD as a perturbation-free reference to extract the perturbation factors of the diodes. Results: The authors found that the perturbation factors for the diodes increased substantially with depth, especially for low-energy electron beams. The experimental results show the same trend as published Monte Carlo simulation results for the EFD diode; however, the perturbations measured experimentally were greater. They found that using an effective point of measurement (EPOM) placed slightly away from the source reduced the variation of perturbation factors with depth and that the optimal EPOM appears to be energy dependent. Conclusions: The manufacturer recommended EPOM appears to be incorrect at low electron energy (6 MeV). In addition, the perturbation factors for diodes may be greater than predicted by Monte Carlo simulations.

  12. Focusing and depth of field in photography: application in dermatology practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, Arash; Yentzer, Brad A; Feldman, Steven R

    2013-11-01

    Conventional photography obtains a sharp image of objects within a given 'depth of field'; objects not within the depth of field are out of focus. In recent years, digital photography revolutionized the way pictures are taken, edited, and stored. However, digital photography does not result in a deeper depth of field or better focusing. In this article, we briefly review the concept of depth of field and focus in photography as well as new technologies in this area. A deep depth of field is used to have more objects in focus; a shallow depth of field can emphasize a subject by blurring the foreground and background objects. The depth of field can be manipulated by adjusting the aperture size of the camera, with smaller apertures increasing the depth of field at the cost of lower levels of light capture. Light-field cameras are a new generation of digital cameras that offer several new features, including the ability to change the focus on any object in the image after taking the photograph. Understanding depth of field and camera technology helps dermatologists to capture their subjects in focus more efficiently. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Laser display system for multi-depth screen projection scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Torre, J Pablo; Mayes, Nathan; Riza, Nabeel A

    2017-11-10

    Proposed is a laser projection display system that uses an electronically controlled variable focus lens (ECVFL) to achieve sharp and in-focus image projection over multi-distance three-dimensional (3D) conformal screens. The system also functions as an embedded distance sensor that enables 3D mapping of the multi-level screen platform before the desired laser scanned beam focused/defocused projected spot sizes are matched to the different localized screen distances on the 3D screen. Compared to conventional laser scanning and spatial light modulator (SLM) based projection systems, the proposed design offers in-focus non-distorted projection over a multi-distance screen zone with varying depths. An experimental projection system for a screen depth variation of 65 cm is demonstrated using a 633 nm laser beam, 3 KHz scan speed galvo-scanning mirrors, and a liquid-based ECVFL. As a basic demonstration, an in-house developed MATLAB based graphic user interface is deployed to work along with the laser projection display, enabling user inputs like text strings or predefined image projection. The user can specify projection screen distance, scanned laser linewidth, projected text font size, projected image dimensions, and laser scanning rate. Projected images are shown highlighting the 3D control capabilities of the display, including the production of a non-distorted image onto two-depths versus a distorted image via dominant prior-art projection methods.

  14. Knee Joint Kinetics in Relation to Commonly Prescribed Squat Loads and Depths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, Joshua A.; Chaudhari, Ait M.; Jamison, Steve T.; Devor, Steven T.

    2014-01-01

    Controversy exists regarding the safety and performance benefits of performing the squat exercise to depths beyond 90° of knee flexion. Our aim was to compare the net peak external knee flexion moments (pEKFM) experienced over typical ranges of squat loads and depths. Sixteen recreationally trained males (n = 16; 22.7 ± 1.1 yrs; 85.4 ± 2.1 kg; 177.6 ± 0.96 cm; mean ± SEM) with no previous lower limb surgeries or other orthopedic issues and at least one year of consistent resistance training experience while utilizing the squat exercise performed single repetition squat trials in a random order at squat depths of above parallel, parallel, and below parallel. Less than one week before testing, one repetition maximum (1RM) values were found for each squat depth. Subsequent testing required subjects to perform squats at the three depths with three different loads: unloaded, 50% 1RM, and 85% 1RM (nine total trials). Force platform and kinematic data were collected to calculate pEKFM. To assess differences among loads and depths, a two-factor (load and depth) repeated-measures ANOVA with significance set at the P Squat 1RM significantly decreased 13.6% from the above parallel to parallel squat and another 3.6% from the parallel to the below parallel squat (P squat depth and load were increased (P ≤ 0.02). Slopes of pEKFM were greater from unloaded to 50% 1RM than when progressing from 50% to 85% 1RM (P squat loads used with increasing depths are not enough to offset increases in pEKFM. PMID:23085977

  15. Waste Management Facilities Cost Information report for Greater-Than-Class C and DOE equivalent special case waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feizollahi, F.; Shropshire, D.

    1993-07-01

    This Waste Management Facility Cost Information (WMFCI) report for Greater-Than-Class C low-level waste (GTCC LLW) and DOE equivalent special case waste contains preconceptual designs and planning level life-cycle cost (PLCC) estimates for treatment, storage, and disposal facilities needed for management of GTCC LLW and DOE equivalent waste. The report contains information on 16 facilities (referred to as cost modules). These facilities are treatment facility front-end and back-end support functions (administration support, and receiving, preparation, and shipping cost modules); seven treatment concepts (incineration, metal melting, shredding/compaction, solidification, vitrification, metal sizing and decontamination, and wet/air oxidation cost modules); two storage concepts (enclosed vault and silo); disposal facility front-end functions (disposal receiving and inspection cost module); and four disposal concepts (shallow-land, engineered shallow-land, intermediate depth, and deep geological cost modules). Data in this report allow the user to develop PLCC estimates for various waste management options. A procedure to guide the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor personnel in the use of estimating data is also included in this report.

  16. Waste Management Facilities Cost Information report for Greater-Than-Class C and DOE equivalent special case waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feizollahi, F.; Shropshire, D.

    1993-07-01

    This Waste Management Facility Cost Information (WMFCI) report for Greater-Than-Class C low-level waste (GTCC LLW) and DOE equivalent special case waste contains preconceptual designs and planning level life-cycle cost (PLCC) estimates for treatment, storage, and disposal facilities needed for management of GTCC LLW and DOE equivalent waste. The report contains information on 16 facilities (referred to as cost modules). These facilities are treatment facility front-end and back-end support functions (administration support, and receiving, preparation, and shipping cost modules); seven treatment concepts (incineration, metal melting, shredding/compaction, solidification, vitrification, metal sizing and decontamination, and wet/air oxidation cost modules); two storage concepts (enclosed vault and silo); disposal facility front-end functions (disposal receiving and inspection cost module); and four disposal concepts (shallow-land, engineered shallow-land, intermediate depth, and deep geological cost modules). Data in this report allow the user to develop PLCC estimates for various waste management options. A procedure to guide the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor personnel in the use of estimating data is also included in this report

  17. 30 CFR 250.1007 - What to include in applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... features and other pertinent data including area, lease, and block designations; water depths; route...) submitted for a pipeline right-of-way shall bear a signed certificate upon its face by the engineer who made... additional design precautions you took to enable the pipeline to withstand the effects of water currents...

  18. Summary of science, activities, programs, and policies that influence the rangewide conservation of Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manier, D.J.; Wood, David J.A.; Bowen, Z.H.; Donovan, R.M.; Holloran, M.J.; Juliusson, L.M.; Mayne, K.S.; Oyler-McCance, S.J.; Quamen, F.R.; Saher, D.J.; Titolo, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    The Greater Sage-Grouse, has been observed, hunted, and counted for decades. The sagebrush biome, home to the Greater Sage-Grouse, includes sagebrush-steppe and Great Basin sagebrush communities, interspersed with grasslands, salt flats, badlands, mountain ranges, springs, intermittent creeks and washes, and major river systems, and is one of the most widespread and enigmatic components of Western U.S. landscapes. Over time, habitat conversion, degradation, and fragmentation have accumulated across the entire range such that local conditions as well as habitat distributions at local and regional scales are negatively affecting the long-term persistence of this species. Historic patterns of human use and settlement of the sagebrush ecosystem have contributed to the current condition and status of sage-grouse populations. The accumulation of habitat loss, persistent habitat degradation, and fragmentation by industry and urban infrastructure, as indicated by U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) findings, presents a significant challenge for conservation of this species and sustainable management of the sagebrush ecosystem. Because of the wide variations in natural and human history across these landscapes, no single prescription for management of sagebrush ecosystems (including sage-grouse habitats) will suffice to guide the collective efforts of public and private entities to conserve the species and its habitat. This report documents and summarizes several decades of work on sage-grouse populations, sagebrush as habitat, and sagebrush community and ecosystem functions based on the recent assessment and findings of the USFWS under consideration of the Endangered Species Act. As reflected here, some of these topics receive a greater depth of discussion because of the perceived importance of the issue for sagebrush ecosystems and sage-grouse populations. Drawing connections between the direct effects on sagebrush ecosystems and the effect of ecosystem condition on

  19. High myopia in Greater Beijing School Children in 2016.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Guo

    Full Text Available To assess prevalence and associated factors of myopia and high myopia in schoolchildren in Greater Beijing.The school-based, cross-sectional Greater Beijing School Children Myopia study was carried out in the year 2016 in 54 schools randomly selected from 15 districts in Beijing. Non-cycloplegic auto-refractometry of the right eyes was performed.The study included 35,745 (99.4% out of 35,968 eligible pupils with a mean age of 12.6±3.4 years (range 6-18 years. Prevalence of myopia defined as myopic refractive error of ≥-0.50 diopters (D,≥-1D,≥-6D,≥-8D and ≥-10D was 70.9%(95% confidence intervals (CI:70.5,71.4, 60.9% (95%CI:60.4,61.4, 8.6%(95%CI:8.4,8.9, 2.2%(95%CI:2.0,2.4, and 0.3% (95%CI:0.3,0.4, respectively. The frequency of high myopia (≥-6D, ≥-8D, ≥-10D increased from 1.5% (95%CI:1.0,2.0, 0.4% (95%CI:0.1,0.6 and 0.1% (95%CI:0.00,0.02, respectively in 10-year-olds to 19.4% (95%CI:17.3,21.6, 5.2% (95%CI:4.0,6.4 and 0.9% (95%CI:0.4,1.5, respectively, in 18-year-olds. Mean refractive error in the 18-year-olds was -3.74±2.56D (median:-3.63D;range:-19.6D to + 6.25D. Higher prevalence of high myopia (≥-6D and ≥-8D was correlated (all P<0.001 with older age (OR:1.18, and 1.15, respectively, female gender (OR: 1.44 and 1.40, respectively, higher body mass index (OR: 1.02 and 1.03, respectively, taller body height (OR: 1.03 and 1.02, respectively, urban region of habitation (OR: 1.26 and 1.33, respectively and higher school type (OR:1.57 and 2.22, respectively. Prevalence of severe high myopia (≥-10D was associated only with older age (P<0.001; OR: 1.44; 95%CI: 1.31, 1.59 but not with any education-related parameter such as higher school type (P = 0.48, urban region of habitation (P = 0.07 or female gender (P = 0.37.In this most recent survey, prevalence of high myopia (≥-6D:19.4%;≥-8D:5.2%;≥-10D:0.9% in 18-year-old school children was higher than in previous surveys from mainland China. In contrast to minor high myopia

  20. Mapping the global depth to bedrock for land surface modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shangguan, W.; Hengl, T.; Yuan, H.; Dai, Y. J.; Zhang, S.

    2017-12-01

    Depth to bedrock serves as the lower boundary of land surface models, which controls hydrologic and biogeochemical processes. This paper presents a framework for global estimation of Depth to bedrock (DTB). Observations were extracted from a global compilation of soil profile data (ca. 130,000 locations) and borehole data (ca. 1.6 million locations). Additional pseudo-observations generated by expert knowledge were added to fill in large sampling gaps. The model training points were then overlaid on a stack of 155 covariates including DEM-based hydrological and morphological derivatives, lithologic units, MODIS surfacee reflectance bands and vegetation indices derived from the MODIS land products. Global spatial prediction models were developed using random forests and Gradient Boosting Tree algorithms. The final predictions were generated at the spatial resolution of 250m as an ensemble prediction of the two independently fitted models. The 10-fold cross-validation shows that the models explain 59% for absolute DTB and 34% for censored DTB (depths deep than 200 cm are predicted as 200 cm). The model for occurrence of R horizon (bedrock) within 200 cm does a good job. Visual comparisons of predictions in the study areas where more detailed maps of depth to bedrock exist show that there is a general match with spatial patterns from similar local studies. Limitation of the data set and extrapolation in data spare areas should not be ignored in applications. To improve accuracy of spatial prediction, more borehole drilling logs will need to be added to supplement the existing training points in under-represented areas.

  1. Five Year Mean Euphotic Depth in the Northern Gulf of Mexico for 2005 through 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These images were created by combining the mean euphotic depth estimates to produce seasonal representations for winter, spring, summer and fall. Winter includes the...

  2. NOAA ESRI Grid - depth predictions bathymetry model in New York offshore planning area from Biogeography Branch

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset represents depth predictions from a bathymetric model developed for the New York offshore spatial planning area. The model also includes...

  3. Canadian Meteorological Centre (CMC) Daily Snow Depth Analysis Data, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set consists of a Northern Hemisphere subset of the Canadian Meteorological Centre (CMC) operational global daily snow depth analysis. Data include daily...

  4. Kinect Fusion improvement using depth camera calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliari, D.; Menna, F.; Roncella, R.; Remondino, F.; Pinto, L.

    2014-06-01

    Scene's 3D modelling, gesture recognition and motion tracking are fields in rapid and continuous development which have caused growing demand on interactivity in video-game and e-entertainment market. Starting from the idea of creating a sensor that allows users to play without having to hold any remote controller, the Microsoft Kinect device was created. The Kinect has always attract researchers in different fields, from robotics to Computer Vision (CV) and biomedical engineering as well as third-party communities that have released several Software Development Kit (SDK) versions for Kinect in order to use it not only as a game device but as measurement system. Microsoft Kinect Fusion control libraries (firstly released in March 2013) allow using the device as a 3D scanning and produce meshed polygonal of a static scene just moving the Kinect around. A drawback of this sensor is the geometric quality of the delivered data and the low repeatability. For this reason the authors carried out some investigation in order to evaluate the accuracy and repeatability of the depth measured delivered by the Kinect. The paper will present a throughout calibration analysis of the Kinect imaging sensor, with the aim of establishing the accuracy and precision of the delivered information: a straightforward calibration of the depth sensor in presented and then the 3D data are correct accordingly. Integrating the depth correction algorithm and correcting the IR camera interior and exterior orientation parameters, the Fusion Libraries are corrected and a new reconstruction software is created to produce more accurate models.

  5. Kinect Fusion improvement using depth camera calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pagliari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Scene's 3D modelling, gesture recognition and motion tracking are fields in rapid and continuous development which have caused growing demand on interactivity in video-game and e-entertainment market. Starting from the idea of creating a sensor that allows users to play without having to hold any remote controller, the Microsoft Kinect device was created. The Kinect has always attract researchers in different fields, from robotics to Computer Vision (CV and biomedical engineering as well as third-party communities that have released several Software Development Kit (SDK versions for Kinect in order to use it not only as a game device but as measurement system. Microsoft Kinect Fusion control libraries (firstly released in March 2013 allow using the device as a 3D scanning and produce meshed polygonal of a static scene just moving the Kinect around. A drawback of this sensor is the geometric quality of the delivered data and the low repeatability. For this reason the authors carried out some investigation in order to evaluate the accuracy and repeatability of the depth measured delivered by the Kinect. The paper will present a throughout calibration analysis of the Kinect imaging sensor, with the aim of establishing the accuracy and precision of the delivered information: a straightforward calibration of the depth sensor in presented and then the 3D data are correct accordingly. Integrating the depth correction algorithm and correcting the IR camera interior and exterior orientation parameters, the Fusion Libraries are corrected and a new reconstruction software is created to produce more accurate models.

  6. Nest-site Selection of the Greater Painted Snipe (Rostratula benghalensis benghalensis in Fallow Fields of I-Lan, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hsun Hsu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Nest site quality often affects nest success and the fitness of avian breeders. Vegetation structure and water depth are possible factors evaluated in nest-site selection by ground nesting birds in wetlands. Vegetation structure may affect the predation risk, and water depth is linked to the possibility of being flooded. We examined these two factors in the nest site selection of a wetland bird, the Greater Painted Snipe (Rostratula benghalensis benghalensis, in I-Lan, Taiwan. We found 17 Greater Painted Snipe nests in wet fallow fields. By paired comparisons, we found the breeders tended to nest on sites with higher vegetation coverage and lower water depth than random sites. No significant difference was found in the vegetation height between the nest sites and the paired random sites. Five nests failed to hatch due to flooding or predation. The preference for nest sites with low water depth may be an effort to avoid being flooded and the preference for dense vegetation coverage at nest sites may be a response to predation risk.

  7. Directional spread parameter at intermediate water depth

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; Deo, M.C.; Anand, N.M.; AshokKumar, K.

    ’ involves only the significant wave height, zero crossing wave period and water depth, the spreading function based on ‘s 3 ’ can be used for practical appli- cation. In the model based on ‘s 3 ’ the mean wave direction is an input and this has...-linearity parameter can be recommended for practical use as it provides an averaged distribution. Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank the Department of Science and Technology, New Delhi, for funding the project titled “Directional wave modelling...

  8. Cognitive psychology and depth psychology backgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzsche, A.F.

    1986-01-01

    The sixth chapter gives an insight into the risk perception process which is highly determined by emotions, and, thus, deals with the psychological backgrounds of both the conscious cognitive and the subconscious intuitive realms of the human psyche. The chapter deals with the formation of opinion and the origination of an attitude towards an issue; cognitive-psychological patterns of thinking from the field of risk perception; the question of man's rationality; pertinent aspects of group behaviour; depth psychological backgrounds of the fear of technology; the collective subconscious; nuclear energy as a preferred object of projection for various psychological problems of modern man. (HSCH) [de

  9. Element depth profiles of porous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobzev, A.P.; Nikonov, O.A.; Kulik, M.; Zuk, J.; Krzyzanowska, H.; Ochalski, T.J.

    1997-01-01

    Element depth profiles of porous silicon were measured on the Van-de-Graaff accelerator in the energy range of 4 He + ions from 2 to 3.2 MeV. Application of complementary RBS, ERD and 16 O(α,α) 16 O nuclear reaction methods permits us to obtain: 1) the exact silicon, oxygen and hydrogen distribution in the samples, 2) the distribution of partial pore concentrations. The oxygen concentration in porous silicon reaches 30%, which allows one to assume the presence of silicon oxide in the pores and to explain the spectrum shift of luminescence into the blue area

  10. EPA Region 1 - Valley Depth in Meters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raster of the Depth in meters of EPA-delimited Valleys in Region 1.Valleys (areas that are lower than their neighbors) were extracted from a Digital Elevation Model (USGS, 30m) by finding the local average elevation, subtracting the actual elevation from the average, and selecting areas where the actual elevation was below the average. The landscape was sampled at seven scales (circles of 1, 2, 4, 7, 11, 16, and 22 km radius) to take into account the diversity of valley shapes and sizes. Areas selected in at least four scales were designated as valleys.

  11. Determination of representative renal depth for accurate attenuation corred in measurement of glomerular filtration rate in transplanted kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Soon Nam; Kim, Sung Hoon; Rha, Sung Eun; Chung, Yong An; Yoo, Ie Ryung; Sohn, Hyung Sun; Lee, Sung Young; Chung, Soo Kyo

    2002-01-01

    To measure reliable glomerular filtration rate by using the representative values of transplanted renal depths, which are measured with ultrasonography. We included 54 patients (26 men, 28 women), with having both renal scintigraphy and ultrasonography after renal transplantation. We measured DFR with Gates' method using the renal depth measured by ultrasonography, and median and mean ones in each patient. We compared GFR derived from ultrasonography-measured renal depth with GFR derived from median and mean renal depths. The correlation coefficients were obtained among GFR derived from ultrasonography-measured renal depths, median and mean renal depth under linear regression analysis. We determined whether GFR derived from median or mean renal depth could substitute GFR derived from ultrasonography-measured renal depth with Bland-Altman method. We analyze the expected errors of the GFR using representative renal depth in terms of age, sex, weight, height, creatinine value, and body surface. The transplanted renal depths range from 3.20 cm to 5.96 cm. The mean value and standard deviation of renal depths measured by ultrasonography are 4.09±0.65 cm in men, and 4.24±0.78 cm in women. The median value of renal depths measured by ultrasonography is 4.36 cm in men and 4.14 cm in women. The GFR derived from median renal depth is more consistent with GFR derived from ultrasonography-measured renal depth than GFR derived from mean renal depth. Differences of GFR derived from median and ultrasonography-measured renal depth are not significantly different in the groups classified with creatinine value, age, sex, height, weight and body surface. When median value is adapted as a representative renal depth, we could obtain reliable GFR in transplanted kidney simply

  12. (including travel dates) Proposed itinerary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashok

    31 July to 22 August 2012 (including travel dates). Proposed itinerary: Arrival in Bangalore on 1 August. 1-5 August: Bangalore, Karnataka. Suggested institutions: Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. St Johns Medical College & Hospital, Bangalore. Jawaharlal Nehru Centre, Bangalore. 6-8 August: Chennai, TN.

  13. High bit depth infrared image compression via low bit depth codecs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaev, Evgeny; Mantel, Claire; Forchhammer, Søren

    2017-08-01

    Future infrared remote sensing systems, such as monitoring of the Earth's environment by satellites, infrastructure inspection by unmanned airborne vehicles etc., will require 16 bit depth infrared images to be compressed and stored or transmitted for further analysis. Such systems are equipped with low power embedded platforms where image or video data is compressed by a hardware block called the video processing unit (VPU). However, in many cases using two 8-bit VPUs can provide advantages compared with using higher bit depth image compression directly. We propose to compress 16 bit depth images via 8 bit depth codecs in the following way. First, an input 16 bit depth image is mapped into 8 bit depth images, e.g., the first image contains only the most significant bytes (MSB image) and the second one contains only the least significant bytes (LSB image). Then each image is compressed by an image or video codec with 8 bits per pixel input format. We analyze how the compression parameters for both MSB and LSB images should be chosen to provide the maximum objective quality for a given compression ratio. Finally, we apply the proposed infrared image compression method utilizing JPEG and H.264/AVC codecs, which are usually available in efficient implementations, and compare their rate-distortion performance with JPEG2000, JPEG-XT and H.265/HEVC codecs supporting direct compression of infrared images in 16 bit depth format. A preliminary result shows that two 8 bit H.264/AVC codecs can achieve similar result as 16 bit HEVC codec.

  14. Absenteeism movement in Greater Poland in 1840–1902

    OpenAIRE

    Izabela Krasińska

    2013-01-01

    The article presents the origins and development of the idea of absenteeism in Greater Poland in the 19th century. The start date for the research is 1840, which is considered to be a breakthrough year in the history of an organized absenteeism movement in Greater Poland. It was due to the Association for the Suppression of the Use of Vodka (Towarzystwo ku Przytłumieniu Używania Wódki) in the Great Duchy of Posen that was then established in Kórnik. It was a secular organization that came int...

  15. Malaria in the Greater Mekong Subregion: Heterogeneity and Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Liwang; Yan, Guiyun; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Cao, Yaming; Chen, Bin; Chen, Xiaoguang; Fan, Qi; Fang, Qiang; Jongwutiwes, Somchai; Parker, Daniel; Sirichaisinthop, Jeeraphat; Kyaw, Myat Phone; Su, Xin-zhuan; Yang, Henglin; Yang, Zhaoqing; Wang, Baomin; Xu, Jianwei; Zheng, Bin; Zhong, Daibin; Zhou, Guofa

    2011-01-01

    The Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS), comprised of six countries including Cambodia, China's Yunnan Province, Lao PDR, Myanmar (Burma), Thailand and Vietnam, is one of the most threatening foci of malaria. Since the initiation of the WHO's Mekong Malaria Program a decade ago, malaria situation in the GMS has greatly improved, reflected in the continuous decline in annual malaria incidence and deaths. However, as many nations are moving towards malaria elimination, the GMS nations still face great challenges. Malaria epidemiology in this region exhibits enormous geographical heterogeneity with Myanmar and Cambodia remaining high-burden countries. Within each country, malaria distribution is also patchy, exemplified by ‘border malaria’ and ‘forest malaria’ with high transmission occurring along international borders and in forests or forest fringes, respectively. ‘Border malaria’ is extremely difficult to monitor, and frequent malaria introductions by migratory human populations constitute a major threat to neighboring, malaria-eliminating countries. Therefore, coordination between neighboring countries is essential for malaria elimination from the entire region. In addition to these operational difficulties, malaria control in the GMS also encounters several technological challenges. Contemporary malaria control measures rely heavily on effective chemotherapy and insecticide control of vector mosquitoes. However, the spread of multidrug resistance and potential emergence of artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum make resistance management a high priority in the GMS. This situation is further worsened by the circulation of counterfeit and substandard artemisinin-related drugs. In most endemic areas of the GMS, P. falciparum and P. vivax coexist, and in recent malaria control history, P. vivax has demonstrated remarkable resilience to control measures. Deployment of the only registered drug (primaquine) for the radical cure of vivax malaria is

  16. Extreme depth-of-field intraocular lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Kenneth M.

    1996-05-01

    A new technology brings the full aperture single vision pseudophakic eye's effective hyperfocal distance within the half-meter range. A modulated index IOL containing a subsurface zeroth order coherent microlenticular mosaic defined by an index gradient adds a normalizing function to the vergences or parallactic angles of incoming light rays subtended from field object points and redirects them, in the case of near-field images, to that of far-field images. Along with a scalar reduction of the IOL's linear focal range, this results in an extreme depth of field with a narrow depth of focus and avoids the focal split-up, halo, and inherent reduction in contrast of multifocal IOLs. A high microlenticular spatial frequency, which, while still retaining an anisotropic medium, results in a nearly total zeroth order propagation throughout the visible spectrum. The curved lens surfaces still provide most of the refractive power of the IOL, and the unique holographic fabrication technology is especially suitable not only for IOLs but also for contact lenses, artificial corneas, and miniature lens elements for cameras and other optical devices.

  17. Junction depth measurement using carrier illumination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borden, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Carrier Illumination [trade mark] (CI) is a new method recently developed to meet the need for a non-destructive, high throughput junction depth measurement on patterned wafers. A laser beam creates a quasi-static excess carrier profile in the semiconductor underlying the activated junction. The excess carrier profile is fairly constant below the junction, and drops rapidly in the junction, creating a steep index of refraction gradient at the junction edge. Interference with light reflected from this index gradient provides a signal that is analyzed to determine the junction depth. The paper summarizes evaluation of performance in full NMOS and PMOS process flows, on both bare and patterned wafers. The aims have been to validate (1) performance in the presence of underlying layers typically found at the source/drain (S/D) process steps and (2) measurement on patterned wafers. Correlation of CI measurements to SIMS and transistor drive current are shown. The data were obtained from NMOS structures using As S/D and LDD implants. Correlations to SRP, SIMS and sheet resistance are shown for PMOS structures using B 11 LDD implants. Gage capability measurements are also presented

  18. Compact synchrotron radiation depth lithography facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knüppel, O.; Kadereit, D.; Neff, B.; Hormes, J.

    1992-01-01

    X-ray depth lithography allows the fabrication of plastic microstructures with heights of up to 1 mm but with the smallest possible lateral dimensions of about 1 μm. A resist is irradiated with ``white'' synchrotron radiation through a mask that is partially covered with x-ray absorbing microstructures. The plastic microstructure is then obtained by a subsequent chemical development of the irradiated resist. In order to irradiate a reasonably large resist area, the mask and the resist have to be ``scanned'' across the vertically thin beam of the synchrotron radiation. A flexible, nonexpensive and compact scanner apparatus has been built for x-ray depth lithography at the beamline BN1 at ELSA (the 3.5 GeV Electron Stretcher and Accelerator at the Physikalisches Institut of Bonn University). Measurements with an electronic water level showed that the apparatus limits the scanner-induced structure precision to not more than 0.02 μm. The whole apparatus is installed in a vacuum chamber thus allowing lithography under different process gases and pressures.

  19. Optimal depth-based regional frequency analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Wazneh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Classical methods of regional frequency analysis (RFA of hydrological variables face two drawbacks: (1 the restriction to a particular region which can lead to a loss of some information and (2 the definition of a region that generates a border effect. To reduce the impact of these drawbacks on regional modeling performance, an iterative method was proposed recently, based on the statistical notion of the depth function and a weight function φ. This depth-based RFA (DBRFA approach was shown to be superior to traditional approaches in terms of flexibility, generality and performance. The main difficulty of the DBRFA approach is the optimal choice of the weight function ϕ (e.g., φ minimizing estimation errors. In order to avoid a subjective choice and naïve selection procedures of φ, the aim of the present paper is to propose an algorithm-based procedure to optimize the DBRFA and automate the choice of ϕ according to objective performance criteria. This procedure is applied to estimate flood quantiles in three different regions in North America. One of the findings from the application is that the optimal weight function depends on the considered region and can also quantify the region's homogeneity. By comparing the DBRFA to the canonical correlation analysis (CCA method, results show that the DBRFA approach leads to better performances both in terms of relative bias and mean square error.

  20. Optimal depth-based regional frequency analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wazneh, H.; Chebana, F.; Ouarda, T. B. M. J.

    2013-06-01

    Classical methods of regional frequency analysis (RFA) of hydrological variables face two drawbacks: (1) the restriction to a particular region which can lead to a loss of some information and (2) the definition of a region that generates a border effect. To reduce the impact of these drawbacks on regional modeling performance, an iterative method was proposed recently, based on the statistical notion of the depth function and a weight function φ. This depth-based RFA (DBRFA) approach was shown to be superior to traditional approaches in terms of flexibility, generality and performance. The main difficulty of the DBRFA approach is the optimal choice of the weight function ϕ (e.g., φ minimizing estimation errors). In order to avoid a subjective choice and naïve selection procedures of φ, the aim of the present paper is to propose an algorithm-based procedure to optimize the DBRFA and automate the choice of ϕ according to objective performance criteria. This procedure is applied to estimate flood quantiles in three different regions in North America. One of the findings from the application is that the optimal weight function depends on the considered region and can also quantify the region's homogeneity. By comparing the DBRFA to the canonical correlation analysis (CCA) method, results show that the DBRFA approach leads to better performances both in terms of relative bias and mean square error.

  1. Cigarette Mouth Insertion Depths Among Chinese Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Q

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vent blocking - where filter ventilation holes are intentionally or unintentionally, partly or completely covered by smokers’ lips during smoking - is an aspect of smoking behavior which can alter mainstream smoke yields. This study was designed to determine if, and to what extent ventilation holes were blocked by smokers’ lips in two cohorts of Chinese smokers. In this study, two groups of samples were collected. One group (1742 butts was collected randomly from public places in six chosen cities. Another (1037 butts was obtained by collecting the butts from identified smokers in Kunming. In this paper, the mouth insertion depth among Chinese smokers was studied for the first time by a staining method employing ninhydrin in ethanol. The results indicate that Chinese smokers exhibit a mouth insertion depth ranging from 1 to 17 mm with an average value of 7.5 AA± 2 mm. In this study, 95% of the ventilated filters examined showed that the vent zone was neither completely nor partially covered by smokers’ lips.

  2. Defence-in-depth and new reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonaca, M.

    2002-01-01

    Defense-in-Depth (DID) is the structured approach to nuclear reactor safety that is at the basis of the safety features of the current generation of operating plants. This approach developed as a means of compensating for uncertainties in equipment and human performance, and it has evolved since the 1950's from its early use as a reactor safety guiding principle to its current broad, systematic application as an overall safety philosophy incorporating lessons learned from the current generation of operating reactors. The NRC white paper on risk-informed and performance based regulation defines DID as ''...an element of the NRC's Safety Philosophy that employs successive compensatory measures to prevent accidents or mitigate damage if a malfunction, accident, or naturally caused event occurs at a nuclear facility. This philosophy ensures that safety will not be wholly dependent on any single element...The net effect of incorporating defense-in-depth...is that the facility...tends to be more tolerant of failures and external challenges''. In practical terms, DID results from the implementation of multiple measures to prevent and mitigate accidents, to contain their consequences, and to establish an acceptable balance between prevention and mitigation. Its pervasive application in reactor safety design and regulation is translated into many precepts and technical requirements of the current body of regulation. (author)

  3. Theory including future not excluded

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagao, K.; Nielsen, H.B.

    2013-01-01

    We study a complex action theory (CAT) whose path runs over not only past but also future. We show that, if we regard a matrix element defined in terms of the future state at time T and the past state at time TA as an expectation value in the CAT, then we are allowed to have the Heisenberg equation......, Ehrenfest's theorem, and the conserved probability current density. In addition,we showthat the expectation value at the present time t of a future-included theory for large T - t and large t - T corresponds to that of a future-not-included theory with a proper inner product for large t - T. Hence, the CAT...

  4. Z-depth integration: a new technique for manipulating z-depth properties in composited scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckel, Kayla; Whittinghill, David

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents a new technique in the production pipeline of asset creation for virtual environments called Z-Depth Integration (ZeDI). ZeDI is intended to reduce the time required to place elements at the appropriate z-depth within a scene. Though ZeDI is intended for use primarily in two-dimensional scene composition, depth-dependent "flat" animated objects are often critical elements of augmented and virtual reality applications (AR/VR). ZeDI is derived from "deep image compositing", a capacity implemented within the OpenEXR file format. In order to trick the human eye into perceiving overlapping scene elements as being in front of or behind one another, the developer must manually manipulate which pixels of an element are visible in relation to other objects embedded within the environment's image sequence. ZeDI improves on this process by providing a means for interacting with procedurally extracted z-depth data from a virtual environment scene. By streamlining the process of defining objects' depth characteristics, it is expected that the time and energy required for developers to create compelling AR/VR scenes will be reduced. In the proof of concept presented in this manuscript, ZeDI is implemented for pre-rendered virtual scene construction via an AfterEffects software plug-in.

  5. Depth resolved hyperspectral imaging spectrometer based on structured light illumination and Fourier transform interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Heejin; Wadduwage, Dushan; Matsudaira, Paul T.; So, Peter T.C.

    2014-01-01

    A depth resolved hyperspectral imaging spectrometer can provide depth resolved imaging both in the spatial and the spectral domain. Images acquired through a standard imaging Fourier transform spectrometer do not have the depth-resolution. By post processing the spectral cubes (x, y, λ) obtained through a Sagnac interferometer under uniform illumination and structured illumination, spectrally resolved images with depth resolution can be recovered using structured light illumination algorithms such as the HiLo method. The proposed scheme is validated with in vitro specimens including fluorescent solution and fluorescent beads with known spectra. The system is further demonstrated in quantifying spectra from 3D resolved features in biological specimens. The system has demonstrated depth resolution of 1.8 μm and spectral resolution of 7 nm respectively. PMID:25360367

  6. No support for Heincke's law in hagfish (Myxinidae): lack of an association between body size and the depth of species occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, E L; Owens, B D; Uyeno, T A; Clark, A J; Reece, J S

    2017-08-01

    This study tests for interspecific evidence of Heincke's law among hagfishes and advances the field of research on body size and depth of occurrence in fishes by including a phylogenetic correction and by examining depth in four ways: maximum depth, minimum depth, mean depth of recorded specimens and the average of maximum and minimum depths of occurrence. Results yield no evidence for Heincke's law in hagfishes, no phylogenetic signal for the depth at which species occur, but moderate to weak phylogenetic signal for body size, suggesting that phylogeny may play a role in determining body size in this group. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  7. Adjustment of Business Expatriates in Greater China: A Strategic Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Research has found that due to similarities, firms which have gained business experience elsewhere in Greater China may exhibit relatively better performance in mainland China. Hence, the experience of business expatriates could be of strategic importance for the expansion path of their firms...

  8. College Students with ADHD at Greater Risk for Sleep Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaultney, Jane F.

    2014-01-01

    The pediatric literature indicates that children with ADHD are at greater risk for sleep problems, daytime sleepiness, and some sleep disorders than children with no diagnosed disability. It has not been determined whether this pattern holds true among emerging adults, and whether comorbid sleep disorders with ADHD predict GPA. The present study…

  9. Ecology of greater sage-grouse in the Dakotas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher C. Swanson

    2009-01-01

    Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) populations and the sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) communities that they rely on have dramatically declined from historic levels. Moreover, information regarding sage-grouse annual life-history requirements at the eastern-most extension of sagebrush steppe communities is lacking....

  10. The Easterlin Illusion: Economic growth does go with greater happiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut); F. Vergunst (Floris)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The 'Easterlin Paradox' holds that economic growth in nations does not buy greater happiness for the average citizen. This thesis was advanced in the 1970s on the basis of the then available data on happiness in nations. Later data have disproved most of the empirical

  11. Job-Sharing at the Greater Victoria Public Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Don

    1978-01-01

    Describes the problems associated with the management of part-time library employees and some solutions afforded by a job sharing arrangement in use at the Greater Victoria Public Library. This is a voluntary work arrangement, changing formerly full-time positions into multiple part-time positions. (JVP)

  12. Greater Confinement Disposal trench and borehole operations status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harley, J.P. Jr.; Wilhite, E.L.; Jaegge, W.J.

    1987-01-01

    Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) facilities have been constructed within the operating burial ground at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) to dispose of the higher activity fraction of SRP low-level waste. GCD practices of waste segregation, packaging, emplacement below the root zone, and waste stabilization are being used in the demonstration. 2 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  13. The Mesozoic-Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the Greater Caucasus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saintot, A.N.; Brunet, M.F.; Yakovlev, F.; Sébrier, M.; Stephenson, R.A.; Ershov, A.V.; Chalot-Prat, F.; McCann, T.

    2006-01-01

    The Greater Caucasus (GC) fold-and-thrust belt lies on the southern deformed edge of the Scythian Platform (SP) and results from the Cenoozoic structural inversion of a deep marine Mesozoic basin in response to the northward displacement of the Transcaucasus (lying south of the GC subsequent to the

  14. Introduction. China and the Challenges in Greater Middle East

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Camilla T. N.; Andersen, Lars Erslev; Jiang, Yang

    2016-01-01

    This collection of short papers is an outcome of an international conference entitled China and the Challenges in Greater Middle East, organized by the Danish Institute for International Studies and Copenhagen University on 10 November 2015. The conference sought answers to the following questions...

  15. On the Occurrence of Standardized Regression Coefficients Greater than One.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, John, Jr.

    1978-01-01

    It is demonstrated here that standardized regression coefficients greater than one can legitimately occur. Furthermore, the relationship between the occurrence of such coefficients and the extent of multicollinearity present among the set of predictor variables in an equation is examined. Comments on the interpretation of these coefficients are…

  16. Reinforcing Defence in Depth: A Practical Systemic Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watts, G.; Misak, J.

    2016-01-01

    The concept of defence in depth for ensuring nuclear safety of nuclear installations is often oversimplified and interpreted as a set of physical barriers, whose integrity is ensured by safety provisions in the form of the plant systems implemented independently at various levels of defence. However, the provisions established at each level of defence should in general terms include not only hardware components (active and passive systems), but more comprehensively, also inherent safety characteristics, safety margins, operating procedures and guidelines, quality assurance, safety culture, staff training, and many other organizational measures as parts of management of safety. Many of the above mentioned provisions belong to the category of human and organizational factors. While various hardware components are typically specific for different levels of defence, human and organizational factors may have an impact on several levels of defence. These factors are associated with large uncertainties and can result in latent weaknesses. Their implementation can negatively affect several levels of defence at the same time. The proposed paper will underline the need for a more comprehensive view of the defence in depth concept in order to provide a practical and effective tool for a systemic approach to safety. The paper will consist of two main parts. The first part will introduce a screening method developed by the IAEA as a tool for facilitating the assessment of the comprehensiveness of defence in depth. The method uses screening of safety provisions at five levels of defence to ensure integrity of the physical barriers and achievement of safety objectives at each level of defence. The second part of the paper will focus on human and organizational factors considered as provisions for reliable performance of safety functions. It will explain the significant shift in the demands on the human system between levels 3 and 4 of the defence in depth framework, and will

  17. Campbell penetration depth in Fe-based superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prommapan, Plegchart

    2011-01-01

    A 'true' critical current density, j c , as opposite to commonly measured relaxed persistent (Bean) current, j B , was extracted from the Campbell penetration depth, λ c (T,H) measured in single crystals of LiFeAs, and optimally electron-doped Ba(Fe 0.954 Ni 0.046 ) 2 As 2 (FeNi122). In LiFeAs, the effective pinning potential is nonparabolic, which follows from the magnetic field - dependent Labusch parameter α. At the equilibrium (upon field - cooling), α(H) is non-monotonic, but it is monotonic at a finite gradient of the vortex density. This behavior leads to a faster magnetic relaxation at the lower fields and provides a natural dynamic explanation for the fishtail (second peak) effect. We also find the evidence for strong pinning at the lower fields.The inferred field dependence of the pinning potential is consistent with the evolution from strong pinning, through collective pinning, and eventually to a disordered vortex lattice. The value of j c (2 K) ≅ 1.22 x 10 6 A/cm 2 provide an upper estimate of the current carrying capability of LiFeAs. Overall, vortex behavior of almost isotropic, fully-gapped LiFeAs is very similar to highly anisotropic d-wave cuprate superconductors, the similarity that requires further studies in order to understand unconventional superconductivity in cuprates and pnictides. In addition to LiFeAs, we also report the magnetic penetration depth in BaFe 2 As 2 based superconductors including irradiation of FeNi122. In unirradiated FeNi122, the maximum critical current value is, j c (2K) ≅ 3.3 x 10 6 A/cm 2 . The magnetic-dependent feature was observed near the transition temperature in FeTe 0.53 Se 0.47 and irradiated FeNi122. Because of this feature, further studies are required in order to properly calibrate the Campbell penetration depth. Finally, we detected the crossing between the magnetic penetration depth and London penetration depth in optimally hold-doped Ba 0.6 K 0.4 Fe 2 As 2 (BaK122) and isovalent doped BaFe 2 (As 0

  18. Accuracy assessment of Terra-MODIS aerosol optical depth retrievals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safarpour, Sahabeh; Abdullah, Khiruddin; Lim, Hwee San; Dadras, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aerosol products have been widely used to address environment and climate change subjects with daily global coverage. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) is retrieved by different algorithms based on the pixel surface, determining between land and ocean. MODIS-Terra and Global Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) products can be obtained from the Multi-sensor Aerosol Products Sampling System (MAPSS) for coastal regions during 2000-2010. Using data collected from 83 coastal stations worldwide from AERONET from 2000-2010, accuracy assessments are made for coastal aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrieved from MODIS aboard the Terra satellite. AOD retrieved from MODIS at 0.55μm wavelength has been compared With the AERONET derived AOD, because it is reliable with the major wavelength used by many chemistry transport and climate models as well as previous MODIS validation studies. After removing retrievals with quality flags below1 for Ocean algorithm and below 3 for Land algorithm, The accuracy of AOD retrieved from MODIS Dark Target Ocean algorithms (correlation coefficient R 2 is 0.844 and a regression equation of τ M = 0.91·τ A + 0.02 (where subscripts M and A represent MODIS and AERONET respectively), is the greater than the MODIS Dark Target Land algorithms (correlation coefficient R 2 is 0.764 and τ M = 0.95·τ A + 0.03) and the Deep Blue algorithm (correlation coefficient R 2 is 0.652 and τ M = 0.81·τ A + 0.04). The reasons of the retrieval error in AOD are found to be the various underlying surface reflectance. Therefore, the aerosol models and underlying surface reflectance are the dominant factors which influence the accuracy of MODIS retrieval performance. Generally the MODIS Land algorithm implements better than the Ocean algorithm for coastal sites

  19. Variation of curve number with storm depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banasik, K.; Hejduk, L.

    2012-04-01

    The NRCS Curve Number (known also as SCS-CN) method is well known as a tool in predicting flood runoff depth from small ungauged catchment. The traditional way of determination the CNs, based on soil characteristics, land use and hydrological conditions, seemed to have tendency to overpredict the floods in some cases. Over 30 year rainfall-runoff data, collected in two small (A=23.4 & 82.4 km2), lowland, agricultural catchments in Center of Poland (Banasik & Woodward 2010), were used to determine runoff Curve Number and to check a tendency of changing. The observed CN declines with increasing storm size, which according recent views of Hawkins (1993) could be classified as a standard response of watershed. The analysis concluded, that using CN value according to the procedure described in USDA-SCS Handbook one receives representative value for estimating storm runoff from high rainfall depths in the analyzes catchments. This has been confirmed by applying "asymptotic approach" for estimating the watershed curve number from the rainfall-runoff data. Furthermore, the analysis indicated that CN, estimated from mean retention parameter S of recorded events with rainfall depth higher than initial abstraction, is also approaching the theoretical CN. The observed CN, ranging from 59.8 to 97.1 and from 52.3 to 95.5, in the smaller and the larger catchment respectively, declines with increasing storm size, which has been classified as a standard response of watershed. The investigation demonstrated also changeability of the CN during a year, with much lower values during the vegetation season. Banasik K. & D.E. Woodward (2010). "Empirical determination of curve number for a small agricultural watrshed in Poland". 2nd Joint Federal Interagency Conference, Las Vegas, NV, June 27 - July 1, 2010 (http://acwi.gov/sos/pubs/2ndJFIC/Contents/10E_Banasik_ 28_02_10. pdf). Hawkins R. H. (1993). "Asymptotic determination of curve numbers from data". Journal of Irrigation and Drainage

  20. Faster Movement Speed Results in Greater Tendon Strain during the Loaded Squat Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earp, Jacob E.; Newton, Robert U.; Cormie, Prue; Blazevich, Anthony J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Tendon dynamics influence movement performance and provide the stimulus for long-term tendon adaptation. As tendon strain increases with load magnitude and decreases with loading rate, changes in movement speed during exercise should influence tendon strain. Methods: Ten resistance-trained men [squat one repetition maximum (1RM) to body mass ratio: 1.65 ± 0.12] performed parallel-depth back squat lifts with 60% of 1RM load at three different speeds: slow fixed-tempo (TS: 2-s eccentric, 1-s pause, 2-s concentric), volitional-speed without a pause (VS) and maximum-speed jump (JS). In each condition joint kinetics, quadriceps tendon length (LT), patellar tendon force (FT), and rate of force development (RFDT) were estimated using integrated ultrasonography, motion-capture, and force platform recordings. Results: Peak LT, FT, and RFDT were greater in JS than TS (p < 0.05), however no differences were observed between VS and TS. Thus, moving at faster speeds resulted in both greater tendon stress and strain despite an increased RFDT, as would be predicted of an elastic, but not a viscous, structure. Temporal comparisons showed that LT was greater in TS than JS during the early eccentric phase (10–14% movement duration) where peak RFDT occurred, demonstrating that the tendon's viscous properties predominated during initial eccentric loading. However, during the concentric phase (61–70 and 76–83% movement duration) differing FT and similar RFDT between conditions allowed for the tendon's elastic properties to predominate such that peak tendon strain was greater in JS than TS. Conclusions: Based on our current understanding, there may be an additional mechanical stimulus for tendon adaptation when performing large range-of-motion isoinertial exercises at faster movement speeds. PMID:27630574

  1. Enhanced depth and mass resolution with HIRBS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Q.; O'Connor, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    The extension of Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) to heavier mass projectiles (HIRBS) has been limited, as these projectiles cause much more radiation damage in the detectors and curtail their lifetime. Despite this limitation interest in the use of heavier projectiles continues as there are several significant benefits which can accrue from their use. To properly understand the interaction of heavy ions with solids a systematic study of the energy loss and straggling of MeV heavy ions has been conducted and an empirical expression for these terms has been obtained. This expression has allowed the development of a realistic computer simulation which accurately predicts the energy spectra for a wide range of energies, projectiles and targets. In parallel with that study, measurements of the depth resolution of Si/Ge multilayer films using 4-6 MeV C projectiles have been used to verify the simulation. (orig.)

  2. ABDURRAHMAN WAHID, DEPTH ISLAM, AND RELIGIOUS PLURALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Media Zainul Bahri

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay elucidates the idea of religious pluralism of Abdurrahman Wahid (1940-2009, a very important figure in the tradition of Indonesian Islam. Wahis’s ideas  of religious pluralism is based on what the so-called “Depth Islam” (DI. DI is different from the usual theological dogmas that only contains concepts and structures. DI  is  not a literal and superficial forms of religion. It is an understanding  that goes beyond the literal texts to look for the principles and spirit of religion in appreciating humanity, diversity and peace.  DI may have arisen because of the long process of religious internalization within Wahid experiences, but it is also a hybrid form, i.e., it is a result of the process of encountering or learning Wahid’s traditions inter-mingling with cultures of the wider world. 

  3. Slab tears and intermediate-depth seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meighan, Hallie E.; ten Brink, Uri S.; Pulliam, Jay

    2013-01-01

    Active tectonic regions where plate boundaries transition from subduction to strike slip can take several forms, such as triple junctions, acute, and obtuse corners. Well-documented slab tears that are associated with high rates of intermediate-depth seismicity are considered here: Gibraltar arc, the southern and northern ends of the Lesser Antilles arc, and the northern end of Tonga trench. Seismicity at each of these locations occurs, at times, in the form of swarms or clusters, and various authors have proposed that each marks an active locus of tear propagation. The swarms and clusters start at the top of the slab below the asthenospheric wedge and extend 30–60 km vertically downward within the slab. We propose that these swarms and clusters are generated by fluid-related embrittlement of mantle rocks. Focal mechanisms of these swarms generally fit the shear motion that is thought to be associated with the tearing process.

  4. Spectral entropy in monitoring anesthetic depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escontrela Rodríguez, B; Gago Martínez, A; Merino Julián, I; Martínez Ruiz, A

    2016-10-01

    Monitoring the brain response to hypnotics in general anesthesia, with the nociceptive and hemodynamic stimulus interaction, has been a subject of intense investigation for many years. Nowadays, monitors of depth of anesthesia are based in processed electroencephalogram by different algorithms, some of them unknown, to obtain a simplified numeric parameter approximate to brain activity state in each moment. In this review we evaluate if spectral entropy suitably reflects the brain electric behavior in response to hypnotics and the different intensity nociceptive stimulus effect during a surgical procedure. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Depth profile measurement with lenslet images of the plenoptic camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Peng; Wang, Zhaomin; Zhang, Wei; Zhao, Hongying; Qu, Weijuan; Zhao, Haimeng; Asundi, Anand; Yan, Lei

    2018-03-01

    An approach for carrying out depth profile measurement of an object with the plenoptic camera is proposed. A single plenoptic image consists of multiple lenslet images. To begin with, these images are processed directly with a refocusing technique to obtain the depth map, which does not need to align and decode the plenoptic image. Then, a linear depth calibration is applied based on the optical structure of the plenoptic camera for depth profile reconstruction. One significant improvement of the proposed method concerns the resolution of the depth map. Unlike the traditional method, our resolution is not limited by the number of microlenses inside the camera, and the depth map can be globally optimized. We validated the method with experiments on depth map reconstruction, depth calibration, and depth profile measurement, with the results indicating that the proposed approach is both efficient and accurate.

  6. Device including a contact detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    arms (12) may extend from the supporting body in co-planar relationship with the first surface. The plurality of cantilever arms (12) may extend substantially parallel to each other and each of the plurality of cantilever arms (12) may include an electrical conductive tip for contacting the area......The present invention relates to a probe for determining an electrical property of an area of a surface of a test sample, the probe is intended to be in a specific orientation relative to the test sample. The probe may comprise a supporting body defining a first surface. A plurality of cantilever...... of the test sample by movement of the probe relative to the surface of the test sample into the specific orientation.; The probe may further comprise a contact detector (14) extending from the supporting body arranged so as to contact the surface of the test sample prior to any one of the plurality...

  7. Neoclassical transport including collisional nonlinearity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candy, J; Belli, E A

    2011-06-10

    In the standard δf theory of neoclassical transport, the zeroth-order (Maxwellian) solution is obtained analytically via the solution of a nonlinear equation. The first-order correction δf is subsequently computed as the solution of a linear, inhomogeneous equation that includes the linearized Fokker-Planck collision operator. This equation admits analytic solutions only in extreme asymptotic limits (banana, plateau, Pfirsch-Schlüter), and so must be solved numerically for realistic plasma parameters. Recently, numerical codes have appeared which attempt to compute the total distribution f more accurately than in the standard ordering by retaining some nonlinear terms related to finite-orbit width, while simultaneously reusing some form of the linearized collision operator. In this work we show that higher-order corrections to the distribution function may be unphysical if collisional nonlinearities are ignored.

  8. SIMS depth profile analysis of environmental microparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konarski, P.

    2000-01-01

    Environmental and technological research demands chemical characterization of aerosol particles so minute in size, that conventional methods for bulk analyses are simply not applicable. In this work novel application of secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) for characterization of microparticles suspended in atmosphere of the working environment of glass plant Thomson Polkolor, Piaseczno and steelworks Huta Sendzimira, Cracow is presented. The new technique based on sample rotation in depth profile analysis of sub-micrometer particulate material was performed on SAJW-02 analyser equipped with Balzers 16 mm quadrupole spectrometer and sample rotation manipulator using 5 keV Ar + and O 2 + ion beams. The results were compared with the standard method used on ims-3f Cameca analyser 12 keV O 2 + ion beam. Grain size distributions of aerosol microparticles were estimated using eight-stage cascade impactor with particle size range of 0.2 μm to 15 μm. Elemental concentration and crystalline structure of the collected dust particles were performed using spark source mass spectrometry and X-ray diffraction methods. SIMS depth profile analysis shows that sub-micrometer particles do not have uniform morphology, The core-shell structure has been observed for particles collected in both factories. Presented models show that the steelworks particles consists mainly of iron and manganese cores. At the shells of these microparticles :lead, chlorine and fluorine are found. The cores of glass plant submicrometer particles consists mainly of lead-zirconium glass covered by a shell containing carbon and copper. Sample rotation technique applied SIMS appears to be an effective tool for environmental microparticle morphology studies. (author)

  9. A drilling complex for increasing the depth of mineshafts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durov, Ye.M.; Ivenskiy, N.S.

    1982-01-01

    The heading complex for deepening mine shafts includes a bucket on a lift cable, cable and rigid conductors and a guide carriage. In order to increase the productivity of the passage complex through the capability of using a greater capacity bucket, it is equipped with an additional carriage installed in the rigid conductors with two coaxially disposed rings, where the external ring is connected with the internal using a spring link and the lift cable is passed through the internal ring.

  10. Water depth effects on impact loading, kinematic and physiological variables during water treadmill running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdermid, Paul W; Wharton, Josh; Schill, Carina; Fink, Philip W

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare impact loading, kinematic and physiological responses to three different immersion depths (mid-shin, mid-thigh, and xiphoid process) while running at the same speed on a water based treadmill. Participants (N=8) ran on a water treadmill at three depths for 3min. Tri-axial accelerometers were used to identify running dynamics plus measures associated with impact loading rates, while heart rate data were logged to indicate physiological demand. Participants had greater peak impact accelerations (prunning immersed to the xiphoid process. Physiological effort determined by heart rate was also significantly less (prunning immersed to the xiphoid process. Water immersed treadmill running above the waistline alters kinematics of gait, reduces variables associated with impact, while decreasing physiological demand compared to depths below the waistline. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The measurement of dose at 70 micrometres' depth using thermoluminescent dosimeters (tlds)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, A.R.

    1989-01-01

    The measurement of dose with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) at a tissue-equivalent depth of 70 μm can be done in three ways. These are by using: very thin TLDs (made by cementing fine, powdered, TLD particles to a high-temperature plastic film); opaque TLDs whose surface alone is sensitive. (Light emitted at a greater depth has a low probability of emergence and, thus, they behave as if they were thin.); at least three TLDs covered with absorbers of differing thickness. The approaches were studied using examples of dosimeter arrangements of the three types. The characteristics which were measured to form a basis of comparison were: the performance at high and low doses; the effect of changing angle of incidence and beta-ray energy; the effect on performance of repeated irradiation, annealing and reading. It was concluded that the very thin TLDs (powdered) are the best suited to the measurement of doses at 70 μm depth

  12. Diversified cropping systems support greater microbial cycling and retention of carbon and nitrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Alison E.; Hofmockel, Kirsten S.

    2017-03-01

    Diversifying biologically simple cropping systems often entails altering other management practices, such as tillage regime or nitrogen (N) source. We hypothesized that the interaction of crop rotation, N source, and tillage in diversified cropping systems would promote microbially-mediated soil C and N cycling while attenuating inorganic N pools. We studied a cropping systems trial in its 10th year in Iowa, USA, which tested a 2-yr cropping system of corn (Zea mays L.)/soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] managed with conventional fertilizer N inputs and conservation tillage, a 3-yr cropping system of corn/soybean/small grain + red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), and a 4-yr cropping system of corn/soybean/small grain + alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)/alfalfa. Three year and 4-yr cropping systems were managed with composted manure, reduced N fertilizer inputs, and periodic moldboard ploughing. We assayed soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and N (MBN), soil extractable NH4 and NO3, gross proteolytic activity of native soil, and potential activity of six hydrolytic enzymes eight times during the growing season. At the 0-20cm depth, native protease activity in the 4-yr cropping system was greater than in the 2-yr cropping system by a factor of 7.9, whereas dissolved inorganic N pools did not differ between cropping systems (P = 0.292). At the 0-20cm depth, MBC and MBN the 4-yr cropping system exceeded those in the 2-yr cropping system by factors of 1.51 and 1.57. Our findings suggest that diversified crop cropping systems, even when periodically moldboard ploughed, support higher levels of microbial biomass, greater production of bioavailable N from SOM, and a deeper microbially active layer than less diverse cropping systems.

  13. Internet addiction neuroscientific approaches and therapeutical implications including smartphone addiction

    CERN Document Server

    Reuter, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The second edition of this successful book provides further and in-depth insight into theoretical models dealing with Internet addiction, as well as includes new therapeutical approaches. The editors also broach the emerging topic of smartphone addiction. This book combines a scholarly introduction with state-of-the-art research in the characterization of Internet addiction. It is intended for a broad audience including scientists, students and practitioners. The first part of the book contains an introduction to Internet addiction and their pathogenesis. The second part of the book is dedicated to an in-depth review of neuroscientific findings which cover studies using a variety of biological techniques including brain imaging and molecular genetics. The third part of the book focuses on therapeutic interventions for Internet addiction. The fourth part of the present book is an extension to the first edition and deals with a new emerging potential disorder related to Internet addiction – smartphone addicti...

  14. Basalt Reactivity Variability with Reservoir Depth in Supercritical CO2 and Aqueous Phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaef, Herbert T.; McGrail, B. Peter; Owen, Antionette T.

    2011-04-01

    Long term storage of CO{sub 2} in geologic formations is currently considered the most attractive option to reduce greenhouse gas emissions while continuing to utilize fossil fuels for energy production. Injected CO{sub 2} is expected to reside as a buoyant water-saturated supercritical fluid in contact with reservoir rock, the caprock system, and related formation waters. As was reported for the first time at the GHGT-9 conference, experiments with basalts demonstrated surprisingly rapid carbonate mineral formation occurring with samples suspended in the scCO{sub 2} phase. Those experiments were limited to a few temperatures and CO{sub 2} pressures representing relatively shallow (1 km) reservoir depths. Because continental flood basalts can extend to depths of 5 km or more, in this paper we extend the earlier results across a pressure-temperature range representative of these greater depths. Different basalt samples, including well cuttings from the borehole used in a pilot-scale basalt sequestration project (Eastern Washington, U.S.) and core samples from the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP), were exposed to aqueous solutions in equilibrium with scCO{sub 2} and water-rich scCO{sub 2} at six different pressures and temperatures for select periods of time (30 to 180 days). Conditions corresponding to a shallow injection of CO{sub 2} (7.4 MPa, 34 C) indicate limited reactivity with basalt; surface carbonate precipitates were not easily identified on post-reacted basalt grains. Basalts exposed under identical times appeared increasingly more reacted with simulated depths. Tests, conducted at higher pressures (12.0 MPa) and temperatures (55 C), reveal a wide variety of surface precipitates forming in both fluid phases. Under shallow conditions tiny clusters of aragonite needles began forming in the wet scCO{sub 2} fluid, whereas in the CO{sub 2} saturated water, cation substituted calcite developed thin radiating coatings. Although these types of coatings

  15. Decision trees with minimum average depth for sorting eight elements

    KAUST Repository

    AbouEisha, Hassan M.

    2015-11-19

    We prove that the minimum average depth of a decision tree for sorting 8 pairwise different elements is equal to 620160/8!. We show also that each decision tree for sorting 8 elements, which has minimum average depth (the number of such trees is approximately equal to 8.548×10^326365), has also minimum depth. Both problems were considered by Knuth (1998). To obtain these results, we use tools based on extensions of dynamic programming which allow us to make sequential optimization of decision trees relative to depth and average depth, and to count the number of decision trees with minimum average depth.

  16. Higher motivation - greater control? The effect of arousal on judgement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemer, Hila; Viswanathan, Madhu

    2013-01-01

    This research examines control over the effect of arousal, a dimension of affect, on judgement. Past research shows that high processing motivation enhances control over the effects of affect on judgement. Isolating and studying arousal as opposed to valence, the other dimension of affect, and its effect on judgement, we identify boundary conditions for past findings. Drawing from the literature on processes by which arousal influences judgement, we demonstrate that the role of motivation is contingent upon the type of judgement task (i.e., memory- versus stimulus-based judgement). In stimulus-based judgement, individuals exert greater control over the effect of arousal on judgement under low compared to high motivation. In contrast, in memory-based judgement individuals exert greater control over the effect of arousal under high compared to low motivation. Theoretical implications and avenues for future research are discussed.

  17. Patient expectations predict greater pain relief with joint arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Rajiv; Davey, John Roderick; Mahomed, Nizar

    2009-08-01

    We examined the relationship between patient expectations of total joint arthroplasty and functional outcomes. We surveyed 1799 patients undergoing primary hip or knee arthroplasty for demographic data and Western Ontario McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index scores at baseline, 3 months, and 1 year of follow-up. Patient expectations were determined with 3 survey questions. The patients with the greatest expectations of surgery were younger, male, and had a lower body mass index. Linear regression modeling showed that a greater expectation of pain relief with surgery independently predicted greater reported pain relief at 1 year of follow-up, adjusted for all relevant covariates (P relief after joint arthroplasty is an important predictor of outcomes at 1 year.

  18. Classification of Effective Soil Depth by Using Multinomial Logistic Regression Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C. H.; Chan, H. C.; Chen, B. A.

    2016-12-01

    Classification of effective soil depth is a task of determining the slopeland utilizable limitation in Taiwan. The "Slopeland Conservation and Utilization Act" categorizes the slopeland into agriculture and husbandry land, land suitable for forestry and land for enhanced conservation according to the factors including average slope, effective soil depth, soil erosion and parental rock. However, sit investigation of the effective soil depth requires a cost-effective field work. This research aimed to classify the effective soil depth by using multinomial logistic regression with the environmental factors. The Wen-Shui Watershed located at the central Taiwan was selected as the study areas. The analysis of multinomial logistic regression is performed by the assistance of a Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The effective soil depth was categorized into four levels including deeper, deep, shallow and shallower. The environmental factors of slope, aspect, digital elevation model (DEM), curvature and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) were selected for classifying the soil depth. An Error Matrix was then used to assess the model accuracy. The results showed an overall accuracy of 75%. At the end, a map of effective soil depth was produced to help planners and decision makers in determining the slopeland utilizable limitation in the study areas.

  19. Rooting Depths of Red Maple (Acer Rubrum L.) on Various Sites in the Lake States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl L. Haag; James E. Johnson; Gayne G. Erdmann

    1989-01-01

    Rooting depth and habit of red maple were observed on 60 sites in northern Wisconsin and Michigan as part of a regional soil-site studay. Vertical woody root extension on dry, outwash sites averaged 174 cm, which was significantly greater than the extension on sites with fragipans (139 cm) and on wet sites (112 cm). Site index was higher on wet sites and non-woody...

  20. Torsion of the greater omentum: A rare preoperative diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tandon, Ankit Anil; Lim, Kian Soon

    2010-01-01

    Torsion of the greater omentum is a rare acute abdominal condition that is seldom diagnosed preoperatively. We report the characteristic computed tomography (CT) scan findings and the clinical implications of this unusual diagnosis in a 41-year-old man, who also had longstanding right inguinal hernia. Awareness of omental torsion as a differential diagnosis in the acute abdomen setting is necessary for correct patient management

  1. High bit depth infrared image compression via low bit depth codecs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belyaev, Evgeny; Mantel, Claire; Forchhammer, Søren

    .264/AVC codecs, which are usually available in efficient implementations, and compare their rate-distortion performance with JPEG2000, JPEG-XT and H.265/HEVC codecs supporting direct compression of infrared images in 16 bit depth format. A preliminary result shows that two 8 bit H.264/AVC codecs can...

  2. 125I eye plaque dose distribution including penumbra characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Zerda, A; Chiu-Tsao, S T; Lin, J; Boulay, L L; Kanna, I; Kim, J H; Tsao, H S

    1996-03-01

    The two main purposes of this work are (1) to determine the penumbra characteristics for 125I eye plaque and the relative influence of the plaque and eye-air interface on the dose distribution, and (2) to initiate development of a treatment planning algorithm for clinical dose calculations. Dose was measured in a newly designed solid water eye phantom for an 125I (6711) seed at the center of a 20 mm COMS eye plaque using thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) "cubes" and "minichips" inside and outside the eye, in the longitudinal and transverse central planes. TLD cubes were used in most locations, except for short distances from the seed and in the penumbra region. In the presence of both the plaque and the eye-air interface, the dose along the central axis was found to be reduced by 10% at 1 cm and up to 20% at 2.5 cm, relative to the bulk homogeneous phantom case. In addition, the overall dose reduction was greater for larger off-axis coordinates at a given depth. The penumbra characteristics due to the lip collimation were quantified, particularly the dependence of penumbra center and width on depth. Only small differences were observed between the profiles in the transverse and longitudinal planes. In the bulk geometry (without the eye-air interface), the dose reduction due to the presence of the plaque alone was found to be 7% at a depth of 2.5 cm. The additional reduction of 13% observed, with the presence of eye-air interface (20% combined), can be attributed to the lack of backscattering from the air in front of the eye. The dose-reduction effect due to the anterior air interface alone became unnoticeable at a depth of 1.1 cm (1.5 cm from the eye-air interface). An analytic fit to measured data was developed for clinical dose calculations for a centrally loaded seed. The central axis values of the dose rates multiplied by distance squared, Dr2, were fitted with a double exponential function of depth. The off-axis profile of Dr2, at a given depth, was

  3. Moderate Baseline Vagal Tone Predicts Greater Prosociality in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jonas G.; Kahle, Sarah; Hastings, Paul D.

    2016-01-01

    Vagal tone is widely believed to be an important physiological aspect of emotion regulation and associated positive behaviors. However, there is inconsistent evidence for relations between children’s baseline vagal tone and their helpful or prosocial responses to others (Hastings & Miller, 2014). Recent work in adults suggests a quadratic association (inverted U-shape curve) between baseline vagal tone and prosociality (Kogan et al., 2014). The present research examined whether this nonlinear association was evident in children. We found consistent evidence for a quadratic relation between vagal tone and prosociality across 3 samples of children using 6 different measures. Compared to low and high vagal tone, moderate vagal tone in early childhood concurrently predicted greater self-reported prosociality (Study 1), observed empathic concern in response to the distress of others and greater generosity toward less fortunate peers (Study 2), and longitudinally predicted greater self-, mother-, and teacher-reported prosociality 5.5 years later in middle childhood (Study 3). Taken together, our findings suggest that moderate vagal tone at rest represents a physiological preparedness or tendency to engage in different forms of prosociality across different contexts. Early moderate vagal tone may reflect an optimal balance of regulation and arousal that helps prepare children to sympathize, comfort, and share with others. PMID:27819463

  4. Acceptability of a microfinance-based empowerment intervention for transgender and cisgender women sex workers in Greater Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lall, Priya; Shaw, Stacey A.; Saifi, Rumana; Sherman, Susan G.; Azmi, Nuruljannah Nor; Pillai, Veena; El-Bassel, Nabila; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Wickersham, Jeffrey A.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Cisgender and transgender woman sex workers (CWSWs and TWSWs, respectively) are key populations in Malaysia with higher HIV-prevalence than that of the general population. Given the impact economic instability can have on HIV transmission in these populations, novel HIV prevention interventions that reduce poverty may reduce HIV incidence and improve linkage and retention to care for those already living with HIV. We examine the feasibility of a microfinance-based HIV prevention intervention among CWSW and TWSWs in Greater Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Methods: We conducted 35 in-depth interviews to examine the acceptability of a microfinance-based HIV prevention intervention, focusing on: (1) participants’ readiness to engage in other occupations and the types of jobs in which they were interested in; (2) their level of interest in the components of the potential intervention, including training on financial literacy and vocational education; and (3) possible barriers and facilitators to the successful completion of the intervention. Using grounded theory as a framework of analysis, transcripts were analysed through Nvivo 11. Results: Participants were on average 41 years old, slightly less than half (48%) were married, and more than half (52%) identified as Muslim. Participants express high motivation to seek employment in other professions as they perceived sex work as not a “proper job” with opportunities for career growth but rather as a short-term option offering an unstable form of income. Participants wanted to develop their own small enterprise. Most participants expressed a high level of interest in microfinance intervention and training to enable them to enter a new profession. Possible barriers to intervention participation included time, stigma, and a lack of resources. Conclusion: Findings indicate that a microfinance intervention is acceptable and desirable for CWSWs and TWSWs in urban Malaysian contexts as participants

  5. Acceptability of a microfinance-based empowerment intervention for transgender and cisgender women sex workers in Greater Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lall, Priya; Shaw, Stacey A; Saifi, Rumana; Sherman, Susan; Azmi, Nuruljannah Nor; Pillai, Veena; El-Bassel, Nabila; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Wickersham, Jeffrey A

    2017-08-02

    Cisgender and transgender woman sex workers (CWSWs and TWSWs, respectively) are key populations in Malaysia with higher HIV-prevalence than that of the general population. Given the impact economic instability can have on HIV transmission in these populations, novel HIV prevention interventions that reduce poverty may reduce HIV incidence and improve linkage and retention to care for those already living with HIV. We examine the feasibility of a microfinance-based HIV prevention intervention among CWSW and TWSWs in Greater Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. We conducted 35 in-depth interviews to examine the acceptability of a microfinance-based HIV prevention intervention, focusing on: (1) participants' readiness to engage in other occupations and the types of jobs in which they were interested in; (2) their level of interest in the components of the potential intervention, including training on financial literacy and vocational education; and (3) possible barriers and facilitators to the successful completion of the intervention. Using grounded theory as a framework of analysis, transcripts were analysed through Nvivo 11. Participants were on average 41 years old, slightly less than half (48%) were married, and more than half (52%) identified as Muslim. Participants express high motivation to seek employment in other professions as they perceived sex work as not a "proper job" with opportunities for career growth but rather as a short-term option offering an unstable form of income. Participants wanted to develop their own small enterprise. Most participants expressed a high level of interest in microfinance intervention and training to enable them to enter a new profession. Possible barriers to intervention participation included time, stigma, and a lack of resources. Findings indicate that a microfinance intervention is acceptable and desirable for CWSWs and TWSWs in urban Malaysian contexts as participants reported that they were ready to engage in alternative forms of

  6. Restoration handbook for sagebrush steppe ecosystems with emphasis on greater sage-grouse habitat - Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    David A. Pyke; Jeanne C. Chambers; Mike Pellant; Steven T. Knick; Richard F. Miller; Jeffrey L. Beck; Paul S. Doescher; Eugene W. Schupp; Bruce A. Roundy; Mark Brunson; James D. McIver

    2015-01-01

    Sagebrush steppe ecosystems in the United States currently occur on only about one-half of their historical land area because of changes in land use, urban growth, and degradation of land, including invasions of non-native plants. The existence of many animal species depends on the existence of sagebrush steppe habitat. The greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus...

  7. Greater sage-grouse as an umbrella species for sagebrush-associated vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary M. Rowland; Michael J. Wisdom; Lowell Suring; Cara W. Meinke

    2006-01-01

    Widespread degradation of the sagebrush ecosystem in the western United States, including the invasion of cheatgrass, has prompted resource managers to consider a variety of approaches to restore and conserve habitats for sagebrush-associated species. One such approach involves the use of greater sage-grouse, a species of prominent conservation interest, as an umbrella...

  8. Criteria and technical concept for demonstrating greater confinement disposal of radioactive wastes at Arid Western Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, P.H.

    1981-01-01

    This report summarizes the work of two documents; the Criteria for Greater Confinement of Radioactive Wastes at Arid Western Sites, NVO-234, March 1981, (within this report, referred to as the GCDF Criteria Document); and the Draft Technical Concept for a Test of Greater Confinement Disposal of Radioactive Waste in Unsaturated Media at the Nevada Test Site, FBDU-343-004, June 1981, (referred within this report as the Technical Concept for the GCDF). For the past two years, Ford, Bacon and Davis has been performing technical services for the Department of Energy at the Nevada Test Site in development of defense low-level waste management concepts, including the greater confinement disposal concept with particular application to arid sites. The investigations have included the development of Criteria for Greater Confinement Disposal, NVO-234, which we published in May of this year; then the draft for the technical concept for greater confinement disposal, published in June; leading up to the point where we are now. The final technical concept and design specifications should be published imminently. The document is prerequisite to the actual construction and implementation of the demonstration facility this fiscal year

  9. Improved depth estimation with the light field camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huachun; Sang, Xinzhu; Chen, Duo; Guo, Nan; Wang, Peng; Yu, Xunbo; Yan, Binbin; Wang, Kuiru; Yu, Chongxiu

    2017-10-01

    Light-field cameras are used in consumer and industrial applications. An array of micro-lenses captures enough information that one can refocus images after acquisition, as well as shift one's viewpoint within the sub-apertures of the main lens, effectively obtaining multiple views. Thus, depth estimation from both defocus and correspondence are now available in a single capture. And Lytro.Inc also provides a depth estimation from a single-shot capture with light field camera, like Lytro Illum. This Lytro depth estimation containing many correct depth information can be used for higher quality estimation. In this paper, we present a novel simple and principled algorithm that computes dense depth estimation by combining defocus, correspondence and Lytro depth estimations. We analyze 2D epipolar image (EPI) to get defocus and correspondence depth maps. Defocus depth is obtained by computing the spatial gradient after angular integration and correspondence depth by computing the angular variance from EPIs. Lytro depth can be extracted from Lyrto Illum with software. We then show how to combine the three cues into a high quality depth map. Our method for depth estimation is suitable for computer vision applications such as matting, full control of depth-of-field, and surface reconstruction, as well as light filed display

  10. Layered compression for high-precision depth data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Dan; Fu, Jingjing; Lu, Yan; Li, Shipeng; Chen, Chang Wen

    2015-12-01

    With the development of depth data acquisition technologies, access to high-precision depth with more than 8-b depths has become much easier and determining how to efficiently represent and compress high-precision depth is essential for practical depth storage and transmission systems. In this paper, we propose a layered high-precision depth compression framework based on an 8-b image/video encoder to achieve efficient compression with low complexity. Within this framework, considering the characteristics of the high-precision depth, a depth map is partitioned into two layers: 1) the most significant bits (MSBs) layer and 2) the least significant bits (LSBs) layer. The MSBs layer provides rough depth value distribution, while the LSBs layer records the details of the depth value variation. For the MSBs layer, an error-controllable pixel domain encoding scheme is proposed to exploit the data correlation of the general depth information with sharp edges and to guarantee the data format of LSBs layer is 8 b after taking the quantization error from MSBs layer. For the LSBs layer, standard 8-b image/video codec is leveraged to perform the compression. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed coding scheme can achieve real-time depth compression with satisfactory reconstruction quality. Moreover, the compressed depth data generated from this scheme can achieve better performance in view synthesis and gesture recognition applications compared with the conventional coding schemes because of the error control algorithm.

  11. Absenteeism movement in Greater Poland in 1840–1902

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Krasińska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the origins and development of the idea of absenteeism in Greater Poland in the 19th century. The start date for the research is 1840, which is considered to be a breakthrough year in the history of an organized absenteeism movement in Greater Poland. It was due to the Association for the Suppression of the Use of Vodka (Towarzystwo ku Przytłumieniu Używania Wódki in the Great Duchy of Posen that was then established in Kórnik. It was a secular organization that came into being on an initiative of doctor De La Roch, who was a German surgeon of a French origin. However, as early as 1844, the idea of absenteeism raised an interest of catholic clergymen of Greater Poland with high ranking clergy such as Rev. Leon Michał Przyłuski, Archbishop of Gniezno and Rev. Jan Kanty Dąbrowski, Archbishop of Posen, and later on Archbishops Rev. Mieczysław Halka Ledóchowski and Rev. Florian Oksza Stablewski. They were fascinated with activities of Rev. Jan Nepomucen Fick, Parish Priest of Piekary Śląskie and several other priests on whose initiative a lot of church brotherhoods of so called holy continence were set up in Upper Silesia as early as the first half-year of 1844. It was due to Bishop Dąbrowski that 100 000 people took vows of absenteeism in 1844–1845, becoming members of brotherhoods of absenteeism. In turn, it was an initiative of Archbishop Przyłuski that Jesuit missionaries – Rev. Karol Bołoz Antoniewicz, Rev. Teofil Baczyński and Rev. Kamil Praszałowicz, arrived in Greater Poland from Galicia in 1852 to promote the idea of absenteeism. Starting from 1848, they were helping Silesian clergymen to spread absenteeism. Clergymen of Greater Poland were also active in secular absenteeism associations. They became involved in the workings of the Association for the Promotion of Absenteeism that was set up by Zygmunt Celichowski in Kórnik in 1887, and especially in the Jutrzenka Absenteeism Association

  12. Metalliferous deposits of the greater Helena mining region, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardee, Joseph Thomas; Schrader, F.C.

    1933-01-01

    The ore deposits described in this bulletin are distributed through a region of about 3,000 square miles surrounding the city of Helena, Mont. In general the surface of this region is mountainous, but it includes several large intermontane valleys. Large areas in the northern and eastern parts of the region sire underlain by sedimentary rocks of the Algonkian Belt series, and on the northeast and southwest the Belt rocks are overlain without any noticeable angular unconformity by Paleozoic and Mesozoic beds. Oligocene, Miocene, and possibly Pliocene sediments, composed chiefly of volcanic ash and land waste of local origin, occupy large areas in the intermontane valleys and lie unconformably upon Cretaceous and older rocks. A thin veneer of Pleistocene and Recent alluvium generally overspreads the Tertiary. In the extreme northern part of the region are large deposits of glacial drift that represent two stages of the Pleistocene. The principal igneous body of the region is the northern part of the early Tertiary or late Cretaceous Boulder batholitb of quartz monzonite. The main exposure of this body occupies an area of nearly 1,200 square miles and extends southward beyond the limits of the particular region considered. Smaller areas of similar rocks are clustered around this exposure. Most of the exposures probably represent bodies that are connected in depth to form a single mass. The late Cretaceous and older sedimentary rocks are involved in a series of northwestward-trending folds. Along the east side of the region overthrust faults related to the great Lewis overthrust of Glacier National Park cause Belt rocks to overlie rocks of Paleozoic and Mesozoic ages. Large normal faults occur near Marysville and faults of moderate displacement near Helena. The Tertiary beds are slightly deformed by folds and faults that are unrelated to the structure of the older rock. The geologic history of the region includes two contrasting periods, the earlier of which was

  13. Multi-approach analysis of maximum riverbed scour depth above subway tunnel

    OpenAIRE

    Jun Chen; Hong-wu Tang; Zui-sen Li; Wen-hong Dai

    2010-01-01

    When subway tunnels are routed underneath rivers, riverbed scour may expose the structure, with potentially severe consequences. Thus, it is important to identify the maximum scour depth to ensure that the designed buried depth is adequate. There are a range of methods that may be applied to this problem, including the fluvial process analysis method, geological structure analysis method, scour formula method, scour model experiment method, and numerical simulation method. However, the applic...

  14. Four-dimensional Microscope-Integrated Optical Coherence Tomography to Visualize Suture Depth in Strabismus Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasricha, Neel D; Bhullar, Paramjit K; Shieh, Christine; Carrasco-Zevallos, Oscar M; Keller, Brenton; Izatt, Joseph A; Toth, Cynthia A; Freedman, Sharon F; Kuo, Anthony N

    2017-02-14

    The authors report the use of swept-source microscope-integrated optical coherence tomography (SS-MIOCT), capable of live four-dimensional (three-dimensional across time) intraoperative imaging, to directly visualize suture depth during lateral rectus resection. Key surgical steps visualized in this report included needle depth during partial and full-thickness muscle passes along with scleral passes. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2017;54:e1-e5.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  15. Stronger at Depth: Jamming Grippers as Deep Sea Sampling Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licht, Stephen; Collins, Everett; Mendes, Manuel Lopes; Baxter, Christopher

    2017-12-01

    In this work we experimentally demonstrate (a) that the holding strength of universal jamming grippers increases as a function of the jamming pressure to greater than three atmospheres, and (b) that jamming grippers can be operated in the deep sea in ambient pressures exceeding one hundred atmospheres, where such high jamming pressures can be readily achieved. Laboratory experiments in a pressurized, water-filled test cell are used to measure the holding force of a "universal" style jamming gripper as a function of the pressure difference between internal membrane pressure and ambient pressure. Experiments at sea are used to demonstrate that jamming grippers can be installed on, and operated from, remotely operated vehicles at depths in excess of 1200 m. In both experiments, the jamming gripper consists of a latex balloon filled with a mixture of fresh water and ∼200 μm glass beads, which are cheaply available in large quantities as sand blasting media. The use of a liquid, rather than a gas, as the fluid media allows operation of the gripper with a closed-loop fluid system; jamming pressure is controlled with an electrically driven water hydraulic cylinder in the laboratory and with an oil hydraulic-driven large-bore water hydraulic cylinder at sea.

  16. The post-orgasmic prolactin increase following intercourse is greater than following masturbation and suggests greater satiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Stuart; Krüger, Tillmann H C

    2006-03-01

    Research indicates that prolactin increases following orgasm are involved in a feedback loop that serves to decrease arousal through inhibitory central dopaminergic and probably peripheral processes. The magnitude of post-orgasmic prolactin increase is thus a neurohormonal index of sexual satiety. Using data from three studies of men and women engaging in masturbation or penile-vaginal intercourse to orgasm in the laboratory, we report that for both sexes (adjusted for prolactin changes in a non-sexual control condition), the magnitude of prolactin increase following intercourse is 400% greater than that following masturbation. The results are interpreted as an indication of intercourse being more physiologically satisfying than masturbation, and discussed in light of prior research reporting greater physiological and psychological benefits associated with coitus than with any other sexual activities.

  17. Chemometric characterization of soil depth profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieg, M.; Einax, J.

    1994-01-01

    The application of multivariate-statistical methods to the description of the metal distribution in soil depth profiles is shown. By means of cluster analysis, it is possible to get a first overview of the main differences in the metal status of the soil horizons. In case of anthropogenic soil pollution or geogenic enrichment, cluster analysis was able to detect the extent of the polluted soil layer or the different geological layers. The results of cluster analysis can be confirmed by means of multidimensional variance and discriminant analysis. Methods of discriminant analysis can also be used as a tool to determine the optimum number of variables which has to be measured for the classification of unknown soil samples into different pollution levels. Factor analysis yields an identification of not directly observable relationships between the variables. With additional knowledge about the orographic situation of the area and the probable sources of emission the factor loadings give information on the immission structure at the sampling location. (orig.)

  18. Multichannel optical mapping: investigation of depth information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sase, Ichiro; Eda, Hideo; Seiyama, Akitoshi; Tanabe, Hiroki C.; Takatsuki, Akira; Yanagida, Toshio

    2001-06-01

    Near infrared (NIR) light has become a powerful tool for non-invasive imaging of human brain activity. Many systems have been developed to capture the changes in regional brain blood flow and hemoglobin oxygenation, which occur in the human cortex in response to neural activity. We have developed a multi-channel reflectance imaging system, which can be used as a `mapping device' and also as a `multi-channel spectrophotometer'. In the present study, we visualized changes in the hemodynamics of the human occipital region in multiple ways. (1) Stimulating left and right primary visual cortex independently by showing sector shaped checkerboards sequentially over the contralateral visual field, resulted in corresponding changes in the hemodynamics observed by `mapping' measurement. (2) Simultaneous measurement of functional-MRI and NIR (changes in total hemoglobin) during visual stimulation showed good spatial and temporal correlation with each other. (3) Placing multiple channels densely over the occipital region demonstrated spatial patterns more precisely, and depth information was also acquired by placing each pair of illumination and detection fibers at various distances. These results indicate that optical method can provide data for 3D analysis of human brain functions.

  19. The variable-depth mobile gammadensitometer (GMPV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gourdon, J.L.; Davy, M.; Bisson, D.

    1991-01-01

    The continuous control of the density of wearing courses has been common practice in France for nearly twenty years. The instrument used for this purpose, called PSM (Petit Sabot Mobile; the Small Mobile Shoe), consists of a diffusion nucleo-densitometer carried on a mini-tractor. The unit has had to be completely replaced since this equipment is no longer on the market. The new instrument, known as the GMPV, has the following advantages. The depth of measurement is adjustable, so that thin wearing courses can be controlled. The accuracy and reproducibility of measurements are in the neighbourhood of 1% and 0.5% respectively, for a duration of 100 seconds. Handling is easier, thanks to infra-red remote steering of the measuring carriage from the driver's seat, and to a compatible micro-PC making it possible to gather, display, edit and store 200 kilometres of density values per hour. The GMPV is designed for intensive use in strict accordance with safety standards. It is due to be put into normal service in 1991 [fr

  20. Hyperspectral aerosol optical depths from TCAP flights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinozuka, Yohei [NASA Ames Research Center (ARC), Moffett Field, Mountain View, CA (United States); Bay Area Environmental REsearch Institute; Johnson, Roy R [NASA Ames Research Center (ARC), Moffett Field, Mountain View, CA (United States); Flynn, Connor J [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Russell, Philip B [NASA Ames Research Center (ARC), Moffett Field, Mountain View, CA (United States); Schmid, Beat [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-06-01

    4STAR (Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research), a hyperspectral airborne sunphotometer, acquired aerosol optical depths (AOD) at 1 Hz during all July 2012 flights of the Two Column Aerosol Project (TCAP). Root-mean-square differences from AERONET ground-based observations were 0.01 at wavelengths between 500-1020 nm, 0.02 at 380 and 1640 nm and 0.03 at 440 nm in four clear-sky fly-over events, and similar in ground side-by-side comparisons. Changes in the above-aircraft AOD across 3- km-deep spirals were typically consistent with integrals of coincident in situ (on DOE Gulfstream 1 with 4STAR) and lidar (on NASA B200) extinction measurements within 0.01, 0.03, 0.01, 0.02, 0.02, 0.02 at 355, 450, 532, 550, 700, 1064 nm, respectively, despite atmospheric variations and combined measurement uncertainties. Finer vertical differentials of the 4STAR measurements matched the in situ ambient extinction profile within 14% for one homogeneous column. For the AOD observed between 350-1660 nm, excluding strong

  1. Defence in Depth and Ageing Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabbri, S.; Vega, G.; Diluch, A.; Versaci, R., E-mail: versaci@cnea.gov.ar [Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2014-10-15

    Accident prevention is the first safety priority of both designers and operators. It is achieved through the use of reliable structures, components, systems and procedures in a plant operated by personnel who are committed to a strong safety culture. For future nuclear power plants, consideration of multiple failures and severe accidents will be achieved in a more systematic and complete way from the design stage. Defence in depth (DID) consists of a hierarchical deployment of different levels of equipment and procedures in order to maintain the effectiveness of physical barriers placed between radioactive materials and workers, the public or the environment, in normal operation, anticipated operational occurrences and, for some barriers, in accidents at the plant. The primary way of preventing accidents is to achieve a high quality in design, construction and operation of the plant, and thereby to ensure that deviations from normal operation are infrequent. The best way to meet these premises of effectiveness of the barriers and the Systems, Structures and Components (SSCs) is to develop an ageing management programme to prevent potential failures and accidents. In this work we will refer to the ageing management programme for Atucha I and Atucha II power plants and to the Atucha I spent fuel storage. (author)

  2. Depth Perception in Cave and Panorama

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mullins, Michael; Strojan, Tadeja Zupancic

    2004-01-01

    This study compares aspects of spatial perception in a physical environment and its virtual representations in a CAVE and Panorama, derived from recent research. To measure accuracy of spatial perception, participants in an experiment were asked to look at identical objects in the three environme......, learning and training in virtual environments; in architectural education; and participatory design processes, in which the dialogue between real and imagined space may take place in virtual . reality environments...... environments and then locate them and identify their shape on scaled drawings.  Results are presented together with statistical analysis. In a discussion of the results, the paper addresses the two hypothetical assertions ? that depth perception in physical reality and its virtual representations in CAVE......This study compares aspects of spatial perception in a physical environment and its virtual representations in a CAVE and Panorama, derived from recent research. To measure accuracy of spatial perception, participants in an experiment were asked to look at identical objects in the three...

  3. Evaluating methods for controlling depth perception in stereoscopic cinematography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Geng; Holliman, Nick

    2009-02-01

    Existing stereoscopic imaging algorithms can create static stereoscopic images with perceived depth control function to ensure a compelling 3D viewing experience without visual discomfort. However, current algorithms do not normally support standard Cinematic Storytelling techniques. These techniques, such as object movement, camera motion, and zooming, can result in dynamic scene depth change within and between a series of frames (shots) in stereoscopic cinematography. In this study, we empirically evaluate the following three types of stereoscopic imaging approaches that aim to address this problem. (1) Real-Eye Configuration: set camera separation equal to the nominal human eye interpupillary distance. The perceived depth on the display is identical to the scene depth without any distortion. (2) Mapping Algorithm: map the scene depth to a predefined range on the display to avoid excessive perceived depth. A new method that dynamically adjusts the depth mapping from scene space to display space is presented in addition to an existing fixed depth mapping method. (3) Depth of Field Simulation: apply Depth of Field (DOF) blur effect to stereoscopic images. Only objects that are inside the DOF are viewed in full sharpness. Objects that are far away from the focus plane are blurred. We performed a human-based trial using the ITU-R BT.500-11 Recommendation to compare the depth quality of stereoscopic video sequences generated by the above-mentioned imaging methods. Our results indicate that viewers' practical 3D viewing volumes are different for individual stereoscopic displays and viewers can cope with much larger perceived depth range in viewing stereoscopic cinematography in comparison to static stereoscopic images. Our new dynamic depth mapping method does have an advantage over the fixed depth mapping method in controlling stereo depth perception. The DOF blur effect does not provide the expected improvement for perceived depth quality control in 3D cinematography

  4. The depth distribution of bubbles and fracture in He+ and D+ irradiated copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, P.B.; Mazey, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy is used to investigate the spatial arrangement and distribution with depth of gas bubbles produced in Cu by irradiation at 320 K to a level approx. equal to 4 x 10 21 30 keV He + m -2 . At the depth of maximum bubble size the bubbles are random and large (up to approx. equal to 10 nm across). At both shallower and greater depths the gas bubbles are smaller (approx. equal to 2 nm diam), much more uniform in size and ordered on an fcc superlattice with a lattice constant of a 1 approx. equal to 7.7 nm which (in contrast to the average bubble size) is independent of depth. It is suggested that blistering results from fracture, at a depth near the mean projected range, between large randomly-ordered bubbles which have evolved from smaller bubbles of uniform size arranged on a superlattice. For the particular case of D + irradiation of Cu at 120 K evidence is found to suggest that the fracture mechanisms involved in blistering and flaking are quite different. (orig.)

  5. Alternative method for predicting optimal insertion depth of the laryngeal tube in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J T; Jeon, S Y; Kim, C S; Kim, S D; Kim, H S

    2007-11-01

    Little information is available about the accuracy of the teeth mark on the laryngeal tube (LT) as a guide to correct placement in children. The aim of this crossover study was to evaluate three methods for optimal insertion depth of the size (#) 2 tube in children weighing 12-25 kg. In 24 children, the LT #2 was consecutively inserted by three different methods: (A) until the thick teeth mark on the tube was aligned with the upper incisors, (B) until resistance was felt, and (C) by inserting to a depth, previously measured, of the curved distance between the cricoid cartilage and the upper incisor. In each case, the depth of insertion, the degree of effective ventilation, the presence of leakage, and the fibreoptic view were assessed. Insertion based on the teeth mark led to a shorter insertion depth and a greater incidence of inadequate ventilation compared with the other two methods. There was no difference in the adequacy of ventilation between methods B and C. The vocal cords were more easily identified with methods B (62.5%) and C (75%) than with method A (12.5%). Insertion of the LT #2 aligned with the teeth mark can result in a shallow insertion depth and inadequate ventilation. The measured distance from the cricoid cartilage to the upper incisor offers alternative guidance for correct LT insertion.

  6. Rooting depth and root depth distribution of Trifolium repens × T. uniflorum interspecific hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, S N; Hofmann, R W; Williams, W M; van Koten, C

    2016-05-20

    Traits related to root depth distribution were examined in Trifolium repens × T. uniflorum backcross 1 (BC 1 ) hybrids to determine whether root characteristics of white clover could be improved by interspecific hybridization. Two white clover cultivars, two T. uniflorum accessions and two BC 1 populations were grown in 1 -m deep tubes of sand culture. Maximum rooting depth and root mass distribution were measured at four harvests over time, and root distribution data were fitted with a regression model to provide measures of root system shape. Morphological traits were measured at two depths at harvest 3. Root system shape of the hybrids was more similar to T. uniflorum than to white clover. The hybrids and T. uniflorum had a higher rate of decrease in root mass with depth than white clover, which would result in higher proportions of root mass in the upper profile. Percentage total root mass at 100-200 mm depth was higher for T. uniflorum than white clover, and for Crusader BC 1 than 'Crusader'. Roots of the hybrids and T. uniflorum also penetrated deeper than those of white clover. T. uniflorum had thicker roots at 50-100 mm deep than the other entries, and more of its fine root mass at 400-500 mm. The hybrids and white clover had more of their fine root mass higher in the profile. Consequently, T. uniflorum had a higher root length density at 400-500 mm than most entries, and a smaller decrease in root length density with depth. These results demonstrate that rooting characteristics of white clover can be altered by hybridization with T. uniflorum, potentially improving water and nutrient acquisition and drought resistance. Root traits of T. uniflorum are likely to be adaptations to soil moisture and fertility in its natural environment. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Addressing Stillbirth in India Must Include Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Lisa; Montgomery, Susanne; Ganesh, Gayatri; Kaur, Harinder Pal; Singh, Ratan

    2017-07-01

    Millennium Development Goal 4, to reduce child mortality, can only be achieved by reducing stillbirths globally. A confluence of medical and sociocultural factors contribute to the high stillbirth rates in India. The psychosocial aftermath of stillbirth is a well-documented public health problem, though less is known of the experience for men, particularly outside of the Western context. Therefore, men's perceptions and knowledge regarding reproductive health, as well as maternal-child health are important. Key informant interviews (n = 5) were analyzed and 28 structured interviews were conducted using a survey based on qualitative themes. Qualitative themes included men's dual burden and right to medical and reproductive decision making power. Wives were discouraged from expressing grief and pushed to conceive again. If not successful, particularly if a son was not conceived, a second wife was considered a solution. Quantitative data revealed that men with a history of stillbirths had greater anxiety and depression, perceived less social support, but had more egalitarian views towards women than men without stillbirth experience. At the same time fathers of stillbirths were more likely to be emotionally or physically abusive. Predictors of mental health, attitudes towards women, and perceived support are discussed. Patriarchal societal values, son preference, deficient women's autonomy, and sex-selective abortion perpetuate the risk for future poor infant outcomes, including stillbirth, and compounds the already higher risk of stillbirth for males. Grief interventions should explore and take into account men's perceptions, attitudes, and behaviors towards reproductive decision making.

  8. Sexual predators, energy development, and conservation in greater Yellowstone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Joel; Beckmann, Jon P

    2010-06-01

    In the United States, as elsewhere, a growing debate pits national energy policy and homeland security against biological conservation. In rural communities the extraction of fossil fuels is often encouraged because of the employment opportunities it offers, although the concomitant itinerant workforce is often associated with increased wildlife poaching. We explored possible positive and negative factors associated with energy extraction in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE), an area known for its national parks, intact biological diversity, and some of the New World's longest terrestrial migrations. Specifically, we asked whether counties with different economies-recreation (ski), agrarian (ranching or farming), and energy extractive (petroleum)-differed in healthcare (gauged by the abundance of hospital beds) and in the frequency of sexual predators. The absolute and relative frequency of registered sex offenders grew approximately two to three times faster in areas reliant on energy extraction. Healthcare among counties did not differ. The strong conflation of community dishevel, as reflected by in-migrant sexual predators, and ecological decay in Greater Yellowstone is consistent with patterns seen in similar systems from Ecuador to northern Canada, where social and environmental disarray exist around energy boomtowns. In our case, that groups (albeit with different aims) mobilized campaigns to help maintain the quality of rural livelihoods by protecting open space is a positive sign that conservation can matter, especially in the face of rampant and poorly executed energy extraction projects. Our findings further suggest that the public and industry need stronger regulatory action to instill greater vigilance when and where social factors and land conversion impact biological systems.

  9. Land cover mapping of Greater Mesoamerica using MODIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Chandra; Jenkins, Clinton N.

    2005-01-01

    A new land cover database of Greater Mesoamerica has been prepared using moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS, 500 m resolution) satellite data. Daily surface reflectance MODIS data and a suite of ancillary data were used in preparing the database by employing a decision tree classification approach. The new land cover data are an improvement over traditional advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) based land cover data in terms of both spatial and thematic details. The dominant land cover type in Greater Mesoamerica is forest (39%), followed by shrubland (30%) and cropland (22%). Country analysis shows forest as the dominant land cover type in Belize (62%), Cost Rica (52%), Guatemala (53%), Honduras (56%), Nicaragua (53%), and Panama (48%), cropland as the dominant land cover type in El Salvador (60.5%), and shrubland as the dominant land cover type in Mexico (37%). A three-step approach was used to assess the quality of the classified land cover data: (i) qualitative assessment provided good insight in identifying and correcting gross errors; (ii) correlation analysis of MODIS- and Landsat-derived land cover data revealed strong positive association for forest (r2 = 0.88), shrubland (r2 = 0.75), and cropland (r2 = 0.97) but weak positive association for grassland (r2 = 0.26); and (iii) an error matrix generated using unseen training data provided an overall accuracy of 77.3% with a Kappa coefficient of 0.73608. Overall, MODIS 500 m data and the methodology used were found to be quite useful for broad-scale land cover mapping of Greater Mesoamerica.

  10. Practicing more retrieval routes leads to greater memory retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jun; Zhang, Wei; Li, Tongtong; Liu, Zhaomin; Luo, Liang

    2016-09-01

    A wealth of research has shown that retrieval practice plays a significant role in improving memory retention. The current study focused on one simple yet rarely examined question: would repeated retrieval using two different retrieval routes or using the same retrieval route twice lead to greater long-term memory retention? Participants elaborately learned 22 Japanese-Chinese translation word pairs using two different mediators. Half an hour after the initial study phase, the participants completed two retrieval sessions using either one mediator (Tm1Tm1) or two different mediators (Tm1Tm2). On the final test, which was performed 1week after the retrieval practice phase, the participants received only the cue with a request to report the mediator (M1 or M2) followed by the target (Experiment 1) or only the mediator (M1 or M2) with a request to report the target (Experiment 2). The results of Experiment 1 indicated that the participants who practiced under the Tm1Tm2 condition exhibited greater target retention than those who practiced under the Tm1Tm1 condition. This difference in performance was due to the significant disadvantage in mediator retrieval and decoding of the unpracticed mediator under the Tm1Tm1 condition. Although mediators were provided to participants on the final test in Experiment 2, decoding of the unpracticed mediators remained less effective than decoding of the practiced mediators. We conclude that practicing multiple retrieval routes leads to greater memory retention than focusing on a single retrieval route. Thus, increasing retrieval variability during repeated retrieval practice indeed significantly improves long-term retention in a delay test. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Taino and African maternal heritage in the Greater Antilles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhari, Areej; Luis, Javier Rodriguez; Alfonso-Sanchez, Miguel A; Garcia-Bertrand, Ralph; Herrera, Rene J

    2017-12-30

    Notwithstanding the general interest and the geopolitical importance of the island countries in the Greater Antilles, little is known about the specific ancestral Native American and African populations that settled them. In an effort to alleviate this lacuna of information on the genetic constituents of the Greater Antilles, we comprehensively compared the mtDNA compositions of Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica and Puerto Rico. To accomplish this, the mtDNA HVRI and HVRII regions, as well as coding diagnostic sites, were assessed in the Haitian general population and compared to data from reference populations. The Taino maternal DNA is prominent in the ex-Spanish colonies (61.3%-22.0%) while it is basically non-existent in the ex-French and ex-English colonies of Haiti (0.0%) and Jamaica (0.5%), respectively. The most abundant Native American mtDNA haplogroups in the Greater Antilles are A2, B2 and C1. The African mtDNA component is almost fixed in Haiti (98.2%) and Jamaica (98.5%), and the frequencies of specific African haplogroups vary considerably among the five island nations. The strong persistence of Taino mtDNA in the ex-Spanish colonies (and especially in Puerto Rico), and its absence in the French and English excolonies is likely the result of different social norms regarding mixed marriages with Taino women during the early years after the first contact with Europeans. In addition, this article reports on the results of an integrative approach based on mtDNA analysis and demographic data that tests the hypothesis of a southward shift in raiding zones along the African west coast during the period encompassing the Transatlantic Slave Trade. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of Sowing Media and Sowing Depth on Germination and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the effect of sowing media and sowing depth on the germination and growth of Lecanodiscus cupanoides (Planch.Ex Benth). The germination of L. cupanoides seed was significantly affected by sowing depth and sowing medium at p=0.05. The result of various sowing media and sowing depth showed ...

  13. Computations Of Critical Depth In Rivers With Flood Plains | Okoli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Critical flows may occur at more than one depth in rivers with flood plains. The possibility of multiple critical depths affects the water-surface profile calculations. Presently available algorithms determine only one of the critical depths which may lead to large errors. It is the purpose of this paper to present an analytical ...

  14. The effects of multiview depth video compression on multiview rendering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merkle, P.; Morvan, Y.; Smolic, A.; Farin, D.S.; Mueller, K.; With, de P.H.N.; Wiegang, T.

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the interaction between different techniques for depth compression and view synthesis rendering with multiview video plus scene depth data. Two different approaches for depth coding are compared, namely H.264/MVC, using temporal and inter-view reference images for efficient

  15. The effect of depth compression on multiview rendering quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merkle, P.; Morvan, Y.; Smolic, A.; Farin, D.S.; Mueller, K..; With, de P.H.N.; Wiegand, T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative study on different techniques for depth-image compression and its implications on the quality of multiview video plus depth virtual view rendering. A novel coding algorithm for depth images that concentrates on their special characteristics, namely smooth regions

  16. A depth-dependent formula for shallow water propagation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sertlek, H.O.; Ainslie, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    In shallow water propagation, the sound field depends on the proximity of the receiver to the sea surface, the seabed, the source depth, and the complementary source depth. While normal mode theory can predict this depth dependence, it can be computationally intensive. In this work, an analytical

  17. Sediment transport and mixing depth on a coral reef sand apron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila-Concejo, Ana; Harris, Daniel L.; Power, Hannah E.; Shannon, Amelia M.; Webster, Jody M.

    2014-10-01

    This paper investigates the mechanics of sediment transport on a subtidal sand apron located on a coral reef environment. In this environment 100% of the sediment is carbonate bioclasts generated in situ. The sand apron is located on the back reef and only affected by waves during high tides. It is commonly accepted in the literature that sand aprons are features that prograde lagoonwards and that most of the progradation occurs during high-energy events. Measurements of water depths, waves, currents and near bed suspended sediment concentrations (all at 10 Hz) on the sand apron were undertaken over a nine day intensive field campaign over both spring and neap tides; waves and tides were also measured in the lagoon. The topography and bathymetry of the sand apron were measured and mixing depth was obtained on three transects using depth of disturbance rods. We found that sediment transport on sand aprons is not solely restricted to high-energy events but occurs on a daily basis during spring tides. The main factor controlling the sediment transport was the water depth above the bed, with depths of 2-2.3 m allowing waves to promote the most sediment transport. This corresponds to a depth over the reef crest of 1.6-1.9 m. The second most important control was waves; transport was observed when Hs on the apron was 0.1 m or greater. In contrast, current magnitude was not a controlling mechanism for sediment entrainment but did affect sediment transport. The morphology of the sand apron was shown to affect the direction of currents with the currents also expected to influence the morphology of the sand apron. The currents measured during this field campaign were aligned with a shallow channel in the sand apron. Mixing depths were small (< 2.5 cm) yet they were larger than the values predicted by empirical formulae for gentle siliciclastic ocean beaches.

  18. Hand and goods judgment algorithm based on depth information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingzhu; Zhang, Jinsong; Yan, Dan; Wang, Qin; Zhang, Ruiqi; Han, Jing

    2016-03-01

    A tablet computer with a depth camera and a color camera is loaded on a traditional shopping cart. The inside information of the shopping cart is obtained by two cameras. In the shopping cart monitoring field, it is very important for us to determine whether the customer with goods in or out of the shopping cart. This paper establishes a basic framework for judging empty hand, it includes the hand extraction process based on the depth information, process of skin color model building based on WPCA (Weighted Principal Component Analysis), an algorithm for judging handheld products based on motion and skin color information, statistical process. Through this framework, the first step can ensure the integrity of the hand information, and effectively avoids the influence of sleeve and other debris, the second step can accurately extract skin color and eliminate the similar color interference, light has little effect on its results, it has the advantages of fast computation speed and high efficiency, and the third step has the advantage of greatly reducing the noise interference and improving the accuracy.

  19. Multicriteria Similarity-Based Anomaly Detection Using Pareto Depth Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Ko-Jen; Xu, Kevin S; Calder, Jeff; Hero, Alfred O

    2016-06-01

    We consider the problem of identifying patterns in a data set that exhibits anomalous behavior, often referred to as anomaly detection. Similarity-based anomaly detection algorithms detect abnormally large amounts of similarity or dissimilarity, e.g., as measured by the nearest neighbor Euclidean distances between a test sample and the training samples. In many application domains, there may not exist a single dissimilarity measure that captures all possible anomalous patterns. In such cases, multiple dissimilarity measures can be defined, including nonmetric measures, and one can test for anomalies by scalarizing using a nonnegative linear combination of them. If the relative importance of the different dissimilarity measures are not known in advance, as in many anomaly detection applications, the anomaly detection algorithm may need to be executed multiple times with different choices of weights in the linear combination. In this paper, we propose a method for similarity-based anomaly detection using a novel multicriteria dissimilarity measure, the Pareto depth. The proposed Pareto depth analysis (PDA) anomaly detection algorithm uses the concept of Pareto optimality to detect anomalies under multiple criteria without having to run an algorithm multiple times with different choices of weights. The proposed PDA approach is provably better than using linear combinations of the criteria, and shows superior performance on experiments with synthetic and real data sets.

  20. Depth distribution of multiple order X-ray scatter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Weiguang; Leszczynski, Konrad

    2008-01-01

    Scatter can significantly affect quality of projectional X-ray radiographs and tomographic reconstructions. With this in mind, we examined some of the physical properties of multiple orders of scatter of X-ray photons traversing through a layer of scattering media such as water. Using Monte Carlo techniques, we investigated depth distributions of interactions between incident X-ray photons and water before the resulting scattered photons reach the detector plane. Effects of factors such as radiation field size, air gap, thickness of the layer of scattering medium and X-ray energy, on the scatter were included in the scope of this study. The following scatter characteristics were observed: (1) for a layer of scattering material corresponding to the typical subject thickness in medical imaging, frequency distribution of locations of the last scattering interaction increases approximately exponentially with depth, and the higher the order of scatter or the energy of the incident photon, the narrower is the distribution; (2) for the second order scatter, the distribution of locations of the first interaction is more uniform than that of the last interaction and is dependent on the energy of the primary photons. Theoretical proofs for some of these properties are given. These properties are important to better understanding of effects of scatter on the radiographic and tomographic imaging process and to developing effective methods for scatter correction

  1. Defence in depth by 'Leittechnique' systems with graded intelligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleite, W.

    1983-01-01

    In the past, only two types of nuclear power plant instrumentation and control systems were in use in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG): safety systems and operational systems. Present nuclear power plant 'Leittechnique' systems in the FRG have been expanded from this 'black-and-white' status to multiple-grade systems with respect to safety, qualification requirements and intelligence. The extensive experience of the past has encouraged the rule-making committees - representing all parties working in the nuclear field - to differentiate between the protection limitations and condition limitations of the reactor protection system on one hand and the information systems (including the accident monitoring and alarm system) of different safety importance on the other, assuming additional extensive application of non-safety-grade operational Leittechnique systems. These definitions of categories are in accordance with international practice and enable designers to apply 'echelons of defence', composed of equipment of all categories, in accordance with 'defence-in-depth' concepts. They also simplify the introduction of computerized equipment, especially in the lower safety categories. Status, background and reasons of the introduction, as well as typical defence-in-depth modes, of the first running Leittechnique system of this kind (in the Grafenrheinfeld nuclear power plant) and especially their different tasks in disturbance handling are described. The international situation and future developments are briefly characterized. (author)

  2. Techniques for estimating flood-depth frequency relations for streams in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    Multiple regression analyses are applied to data from 119 U.S. Geological Survey streamflow stations to develop equations that estimate baseline depth (depth of 50% flow duration) and 100-yr flood depth on unregulated streams in West Virginia. Drainage basin characteristics determined from the 100-yr flood depth analysis were used to develop 2-, 10-, 25-, 50-, and 500-yr regional flood depth equations. Two regions with distinct baseline depth equations and three regions with distinct flood depth equations are delineated. Drainage area is the most significant independent variable found in the central and northern areas of the state where mean basin elevation also is significant. The equations are applicable to any unregulated site in West Virginia where values of independent variables are within the range evaluated for the region. Examples of inapplicable sites include those in reaches below dams, within and directly upstream from bridge or culvert constrictions, within encroached reaches, in karst areas, and where streams flow through lakes or swamps. (Author 's abstract)

  3. Patterns and drivers of fungal community depth stratification in Sphagnum peat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamit, Louis J; Romanowicz, Karl J; Potvin, Lynette R; Rivers, Adam R; Singh, Kanwar; Lennon, Jay T; Tringe, Susannah G; Kane, Evan S; Lilleskov, Erik A

    2017-07-01

    Peatlands store an immense pool of soil carbon vulnerable to microbial oxidation due to drought and intentional draining. We used amplicon sequencing and quantitative PCR to (i) examine how fungi are influenced by depth in the peat profile, water table and plant functional group at the onset of a multiyear mesocosm experiment, and (ii) test if fungi are correlated with abiotic variables of peat and pore water. We hypothesized that each factor influenced fungi, but that depth would have the strongest effect early in the experiment. We found that (i) communities were strongly depth stratified; fungi were four times more abundant in the upper (10-20 cm) than the lower (30-40 cm) depth, and dominance shifted from ericoid mycorrhizal fungi to saprotrophs and endophytes with increasing depth; (ii) the influence of plant functional group was depth dependent, with Ericaceae structuring the community in the upper peat only; (iii) water table had minor influences; and (iv) communities strongly covaried with abiotic variables, including indices of peat and pore water carbon quality. Our results highlight the importance of vertical stratification to peatland fungi, and the depth dependency of plant functional group effects, which must be considered when elucidating the role of fungi in peatland carbon dynamics. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of FEMS 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  4. Absorption spectrum of DNA for wavelengths greater than 300 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, J.C.; Griffin, K.P.

    1981-01-01

    Although DNA absorption at wavelengths greater than 300 nm is much weaker than that at shorter wavelengths, this absorption seems to be responsible for much of the biological damage caused by solar radiation of wavelengths less than 320 nm. Accurate measurement of the absorption spectrum of DNA above 300 nm is complicated by turbidity characteristic of concentrated solutions of DNA. We have measured the absorption spectra of DNA from calf thymus, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, salmon testis, and human placenta using procedures which separate optical density due to true absorption from that due to turbidity. Above 300 nm, the relative absorption of DNA increases as a function of guanine-cytosine content, presumably because the absorption of guanine is much greater than the absorption of adenine at these wavelengths. This result suggests that the photophysical processes which follow absorption of a long-wavelength photon may, on the average, differ from those induced by shorter-wavelength photons. It may also explain the lower quantum yield for the killing of cells by wavelengths above 300 nm compared to that by shorter wavelengths

  5. Nesting ecology of Greater Sandhill Cranes (Grus canadensis tabida) in riparian and palustrine wetlands of eastern Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWethy, D.B.; Austin, J.E.

    2009-01-01

    Little information exists on breeding Greater Sandhill Cranes (Grus canadensis tabida) in riparian wetlands of the Intermountain West. We examined the nesting ecology of Sandhill Cranes associated with riparian and palustrine wetlands in the Henry's Fork Watershed in eastern Idaho in 2003. We located 36 active crane nests, 19 in riparian wetlands and 17 in palustrine wetlands. Nesting sites were dominated by rushes (Juncus spp.), sedges (Carex spp.), Broad-leaved Cattail (Typha latifolia) and willow (Salix spp.), and adjacent foraging areas were primarily composed of sagebrush (Artemisia spp.), cinquefoil (Potentilla spp.),Rabbitbrush (Ericameria bloomeri) bunch grasses, upland forbs, Quaking Aspen (Populus tremuloides) and cottonwood (Populus spp.). Mean water depth surrounding nests was 23 cm (SD = 22). A majority of nests (61%) were surrounded by vegetation between 3060 cm, 23% by vegetation 60 cm in height. We were able to determine the fate of 29 nests, of which 20 were successful (69%). Daily nest survival was 0.986 (95% LCI 0.963, UCI 0.995), equivalent to a Mayfield nest success of 0.654 (95% LCI 0.324, UCI 0.853). Model selection favored models with the covariates vegetation type, vegetation height, and water depth. Nest survival increased with increasing water depth surrounding nest sites. Mean water depth was higher around successful nests (30 cm, SD = 21) than unsuccessful nests (15 cm, SD 22). Further research is needed to evaluate the relative contribution of cranes nesting in palustrine and riparian wetlands distributed widely across the Intermountain West.

  6. Three-dimensional seismic depth migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hongbo

    1998-12-01

    One-pass 3-D modeling and migration for poststack seismic data may be implemented by replacing the traditional 45sp° one-way wave equation (a third-order partial differential equation) with a pair of second and first order partial differential equations. Except for an extra correction term, the resulting second order equation has a form similar to Claerbout's 15sp° one-way wave equation, which is known to have a nearly circular horizontal impulse response. In this approach, there is no need to compensate for splitting errors. Numerical tests on synthetic data show that this algorithm has the desirable attributes of being second-order in accuracy and economical to solve. A modification of the Crank-Nicholson implementation maintains stability. Absorbing boundary conditions play an important role in one-way wave extrapolations by reducing reflections at grid edges. Clayton and Engquist's 2-D absorbing boundary conditions for one-way wave extrapolation by depth-stepping in the frequency domain are extended to 3-D using paraxial approximations of the scalar wave equation. Internal consistency is retained by incorporating the interior extrapolation equation with the absorbing boundary conditions. Numerical schemes are designed to make the proposed absorbing boundary conditions both mathematically correct and efficient with negligible extra cost. Synthetic examples illustrate the effectiveness of the algorithm for extrapolation with the 3-D 45sp° one-way wave equation. Frequency-space domain Butterworth and Chebyshev dip filters are implemented. By regrouping the product terms in the filter transfer function into summations, a cascaded (serial) Butterworth dip filter can be made parallel. A parallel Chebyshev dip filter can be similarly obtained, and has the same form as the Butterworth filter; but has different coeffcients. One of the advantages of the Chebyshev filter is that it has a sharper transition zone than that of Butterworth filter of the same order. Both

  7. Prediction of Soil Solum Depth Using Topographic Attributes in Some Hilly Land of Koohrang in Central Zagros

    OpenAIRE

    A. Mehnatkesh; S. Ayoubi; A. Jalalian

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Soil depth is defined as the depth from the surface to more-or-less consolidated material and can be considered as the most crucial soil indicator, affecting desertification and degradation in disturbed ecosystems. Soil depth varies as a function of many different factors, including slope, land use, curvature, parent material, weathering rate, climate, vegetation cover, upslope contributing area, and lithology. Topography, one of the major soil forming factors, controls various ...

  8. Emergence dynamics of barnyardgrass and jimsonweed from two depths when switching from conventional to reduced and no-till conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasileiadis, V.; Froud-Williams, R.J.; Loddo, D.; Eleftherohorinos, I.G.

    2016-11-01

    A cylinder experiment was conducted in northern Greece during 2005 and 2006 to assess emergence dynamics of barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv.) and jimsonweed (Datura stramonium L.) in the case of a switch from conventional to conservation tillage systems (CT). Emergence was surveyed from two burial depths (5 and 10 cm) and with simulation of reduced tillage (i.e. by soil disturbance) and no-till conditions. Barnyardgrass emergence was significantly affected by burial depth, having greater emergence from 5 cm depth (96%) although even 78% of seedlings emerged from 10 cm depth after the two years of study. Emergence of barnyardgrass was stable across years from the different depths and tillage regimes. Jimsonweed seeds showed lower germination than barnyardgrass during the study period, whereas its emergence was significantly affected by soil disturbance having 41% compared to 28% without disturbance. A burial depth x soil disturbance interaction was also determined, which showed higher emergence from 10 cm depth with soil disturbance. Jimsonweed was found to have significantly higher emergence from 10 cm depth with soil disturbance in Year 2. Seasonal emergence timing of barnyardgrass did not vary between the different burial depth and soil disturbance regimes, as it started in April and lasted until end of May in both years. Jimsonweed showed a bimodal pattern, with first emergence starting end of April until mid-May and the second ranging from mid-June to mid-August from 10 cm burial depth and from mid-July to mid-August from 5 cm depth, irrespective of soil disturbance in both cases. (Author)

  9. Exploring Regolith Depth and Cycling on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassett, C.; Needham, D. H.; Watters, W. A.; Hundal, C.

    2017-12-01

    Regolith or loose sediment is ubiquitous on the surface of Mars, but our understanding of how this fragmental layer forms and evolves with time is limited. In particular, how regolith thickness varies spatially on Mars is not well known. A common perspective is to start from the canonical model for lunar regolith, which is not unreasonable, given that both Mars and the Moon are heavily cratered surfaces. However, this lunar-like paradigm is not supported by observations of Mars from recent missions. On Mars, bedrock exposures are more common and bedrock is generally closer to the surface than on the Moon, and the processes modifying the regolith differ substantially on the two bodies. Moreover, boulders on the Moon have much shorter lifetimes than on Mars, so boulders are much less common on the lunar surface. The sediment transport processes infilling craters differs dramatically on these two bodies as well. On Mars, fine-grained sediment is efficiently transported (advectively) by wind and trapped in craters rapidly after they form. Lateral transport of lunar regolith is comparatively inefficient and dominated by slow impact-driven (diffusive) transport of regolith. The goal of this contribution is to discuss observational constraints on Mars' regolith depth, and to place observations into a model for Mars landform evolution and regolith cycle. Our operating hypothesis is that the inter-crater surface on Mars is comparatively starved of fine-grained sediment (compared to the Moon), because transport and trapping of fines in craters out-competes physical weathering. Moreover, thick sedimentary bodies on Mars often get (weakly) cemented and lithified due to interactions with fluids, even in the most recent, Amazonian epoch. This is consistent with what is observed at the MER and MSL landing sites and what is known from the SNC meteorites.

  10. Introducing artificial depth cues to improve task performance in ITER maintenance actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heemskerk, C.J.M.; Eendebak, P.T.; Schropp, G.Y.R.; Hermes, H.V.; Elzendoorn, B.S.Q.; Magielsen, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Operators regard lack of 3D perception as primary factor hindering remote maintenance. ► Promising techniques to improve depth perception are depth gauges and stereo vision. ► First experiment shows artificial depth gauges need to be designed with care. ► Second experiment shows that stereo vision improves task performance significantly. -- Abstract: Maintenance operations on ITER tokamak components will be largely performed by remote handling. In previous work it was shown that representative maintenance tasks could be performed significantly faster with direct visual feedback than with camera feedback. In post-test interviews, operators indicated that they regarded the lack of 3D perception as the primary factor hindering their performance. This paper discusses various techniques to improve depth perception in teleoperation, including stereo vision, head tracking, virtual camera views and depth gauges. The most promising techniques were tested. Performance metrics included time-to-complete, path analysis and operator work-load. In a first experiment, artificial depth gauges views were tested in a 1:1 scale hardware testbed with mechanical master-slave manipulators handled by experienced operators. Robust real-time image processing was achieved with marker-based objects. The simple depth gauge and graphical overlay did not significantly improve task performance. Operators commented on their view of the task being “obstructed” by the graphical overlay, and the depth gauge was judged not very informative. In a second experiment, real time tracking was combined with VR display including stereo and head tracking. While stereo was found to improve the task performance significantly over the 1 camera (mono) condition, head tracking unexpectedly did not

  11. Introducing artificial depth cues to improve task performance in ITER maintenance actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heemskerk, C.J.M., E-mail: c.heemskerk@heemskerk-innovative.nl [Heemskerk Innovative Technology, Sassenheim (Netherlands); Eendebak, P.T. [TNO Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research (Netherlands); Schropp, G.Y.R. [Heemskerk Innovative Technology, Sassenheim (Netherlands); Hermes, H.V. [TU Eindhoven (Netherlands); Elzendoorn, B.S.Q. [FOM Institute DIFFER (Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research), Association EURATOM-FOM, Partner in the Trilateral Euregio Cluster, P.O. Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Magielsen, A.J. [NRG, P.O. Box 25, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► Operators regard lack of 3D perception as primary factor hindering remote maintenance. ► Promising techniques to improve depth perception are depth gauges and stereo vision. ► First experiment shows artificial depth gauges need to be designed with care. ► Second experiment shows that stereo vision improves task performance significantly. -- Abstract: Maintenance operations on ITER tokamak components will be largely performed by remote handling. In previous work it was shown that representative maintenance tasks could be performed significantly faster with direct visual feedback than with camera feedback. In post-test interviews, operators indicated that they regarded the lack of 3D perception as the primary factor hindering their performance. This paper discusses various techniques to improve depth perception in teleoperation, including stereo vision, head tracking, virtual camera views and depth gauges. The most promising techniques were tested. Performance metrics included time-to-complete, path analysis and operator work-load. In a first experiment, artificial depth gauges views were tested in a 1:1 scale hardware testbed with mechanical master-slave manipulators handled by experienced operators. Robust real-time image processing was achieved with marker-based objects. The simple depth gauge and graphical overlay did not significantly improve task performance. Operators commented on their view of the task being “obstructed” by the graphical overlay, and the depth gauge was judged not very informative. In a second experiment, real time tracking was combined with VR display including stereo and head tracking. While stereo was found to improve the task performance significantly over the 1 camera (mono) condition, head tracking unexpectedly did not.

  12. Rooting depths of plants relative to biological and environmental factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foxx, T.S.; Tierney, G.D.; Williams, J.M.

    1984-11-01

    In 1981 to 1982 an extensive bibliographic study was completed to document rooting depths of native plants in the United States. The data base presently contains 1034 citations with approximately 12,000 data elements. In this paper the data were analyzed for rooting depths as related to life form, soil type, geographical region, root type, family, root depth to shoot height ratios, and root depth to root lateral ratios. Average rooting depth and rooting frequencies were determined and related to present low-level waste site maintenance

  13. Seed drill instrumentation for spatial coulter depth measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard Nielsen, Søren; Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Lamandé, Mathieu

    2017-01-01

    coulter depth varied up to ±5 mm between the blocks. In addition, significant depth variations between the individual coulters were found. The mean depths varied between −14.2 and −25.9 mm for the eleven coulters. The mean shallowest coulter depth (−14.2 mm) was measured for the coulter running...... in the wheel track of the tractor. The power spectral densities (distribution) of the coulter depth oscillation frequencies showed that the majority of oscillations occurred below 0.5 Hz without any natural vibration frequency. The study concluded that the instrumentation concept was functional for on...

  14. [Clinical Results of Endoscopic Treatment of Greater Trochanteric Pain Syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeman, P; Rafi, M; Skala, P; Zeman, J; Matějka, J; Pavelka, T

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY This retrospective study aims to present short-term clinical outcomes of endoscopic treatment of patients with greater trochanteric pain syndrome (GTPS). MATERIAL AND METHODS The evaluated study population was composed of a total of 19 patients (16 women, 3 men) with the mean age of 47 years (19-63 years). In twelve cases the right hip joint was affected, in the remaining seven cases it was the left side. The retrospective evaluation was carried out only in patients with greater trochanteric pain syndrome caused by independent chronic trochanteric bursitis without the presence of m. gluteus medius tear not responding to at least 3 months of conservative treatment. In patients from the followed-up study population, endoscopic trochanteric bursectomy was performed alone or in combination with iliotibial band release. The clinical results were evaluated preoperatively and with a minimum follow-up period of 1 year after the surgery (mean 16 months). The Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for assessment of pain and WOMAC (Western Ontario MacMaster) score were used. In both the evaluated criteria (VAS and WOMAC score) preoperative and postoperative results were compared. Moreover, duration of surgery and presence of postoperative complications were assessed. Statistical evaluation of clinical results was carried out by an independent statistician. In order to compare the parameter of WOMAC score and VAS pre- and post-operatively the Mann-Whitney Exact Test was used. The statistical significance was set at 0.05. RESULTS The preoperative VAS score ranged 5-9 (mean 7.6) and the postoperative VAS ranged 0-5 (mean 2.3). The WOMAC score ranged 56.3-69.7 (mean 64.2) preoperatively and 79.8-98.3 (mean 89.7) postoperatively. When both the evaluated parameters of VAS and WOMAC score were compared in time, a statistically significant improvement (ppain syndrome yields statistically significant improvement of clinical results with the concurrent minimum incidence of

  15. Color image guided depth image super resolution using fusion filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jin; Liang, Bin; He, Ying; Yang, Jun

    2018-04-01

    Depth cameras are currently playing an important role in many areas. However, most of them can only obtain lowresolution (LR) depth images. Color cameras can easily provide high-resolution (HR) color images. Using color image as a guide image is an efficient way to get a HR depth image. In this paper, we propose a depth image super resolution (SR) algorithm, which uses a HR color image as a guide image and a LR depth image as input. We use the fusion filter of guided filter and edge based joint bilateral filter to get HR depth image. Our experimental results on Middlebury 2005 datasets show that our method can provide better quality in HR depth images both numerically and visually.

  16. Automated sulcal depth measurement on cortical surface reflecting geometrical properties of sulci.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyuk Jin Yun

    Full Text Available Sulcal depth that is one of the quantitative measures of cerebral cortex has been widely used as an important marker for brain morphological studies. Several studies have employed Euclidean (EUD or geodesic (GED algorithms to measure sulcal depth, which have limitations that ignore sulcal geometry in highly convoluted regions and result in under or overestimated depth. In this study, we proposed an automated measurement for sulcal depth on cortical surface reflecting geometrical properties of sulci, which named the adaptive distance transform (ADT. We first defined the volume region of cerebrospinal fluid between the 3D convex hull and the cortical surface, and constructed local coordinates for that restricted region. Dijkstra's algorithm was then used to compute the shortest paths from the convex hull to the vertices of the cortical surface based on the local coordinates, which may be the most proper approach for defining sulcal depth. We applied our algorithm to both a clinical dataset including patients with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD and 25 normal controls and a simulated dataset whose shape was similar to a single sulcus. The mean sulcal depth in the mild AD group was significantly lower than controls (p = 0.007, normal [mean±SD]: 7.29±0.23 mm, AD: 7.11±0.29 and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was relatively high, showing the value of 0.818. Results from clinical dataset that were consistent with former studies using EUD or GED demonstrated that ADT was sensitive to cortical atrophy. The robustness against inter-individual variability of ADT was highlighted through simulation dataset. ADT showed a low and constant normalized difference between the depth of the simulated data and the calculated depth, whereas EUD and GED had high and variable differences. We suggest that ADT is more robust than EUD or GED and might be a useful alternative algorithm for measuring sulcal depth.

  17. Strontium isotopic geochemistry of intrusive rocks, Puerto Rico, Greater Antilles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, L.M.; Kesler, S.E.

    1980-01-01

    The strontium isotope geochemistry is given for three Puerto Rican intrusive rocks: the granodioritic Morovis and San Lorenzo plutons and the Rio Blanco stock of quartz dioritic composition. The average calculated initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios are 0.70370, 0.70355 and 0.70408, respectively. In addition, the San Lorenzo data establish a whole-rock isochron of 71 +- 2 m.y., which agrees with the previously reported K-Ar age of 73 m.y. Similarity of most of the intrusive rocks in the Greater Antilles with respect to their strontium isotopic geochemistry regardless of their major element composition indicates that intrusive magmas with a wide range of composition can be derived from a single source material. The most likely source material, in view of the available isotopic data, is the mantle wedge overlying the subduction zone. (orig.)

  18. Slimness is associated with greater intercourse and lesser masturbation frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Stuart

    2004-01-01

    I examined the relationship of recalled and diary recorded frequency of penile-vaginal intercourse (FSI), noncoital partnered sexual activity, and masturbation to measured waist and hip circumference in 120 healthy adults aged 19-38. Slimmer waist (in men and in the sexes combined) and slimmer hips (in men and women) were associated with greater FSI. Slimmer waist and hips were associated with rated importance of intercourse for men. Noncoital partnered sexual activity had a less consistent association with slimness. Slimmer waist and hips were associated with less masturbation (in men and in the sexes combined). I discuss the results in terms of differences between different sexual behaviors, attractiveness, emotional relatedness, physical sensitivity, sexual dysfunction, sociobiology, psychopharmacological aspects of excess fat and carbohydrate consumption, and implications for sex therapy.

  19. ADR characteristics and corporate governance in the Greater China region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee-Hsien Pan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We examine the relationship between firm valuation and governance mechanisms, firm characteristics, and institutional factors of the American Depository Receipts (ADRs domiciled in the Greater China region. We find that China ADRs have the highest market-to-book value ratio followed by Hong Kong and Taiwan ADRs. It appears that Chinese firms with the poorest external governance environment stand to benefit the most from cross listing under the ADR programs. Listing in the U.S. that requires more stringent regulations and disclosure rules may strengthen the firms’ governance practices and thereby enhance their firm value. Among the internal governance mechanisms, institutional ownership and insider ownership are important for firm value.

  20. Greater confinement disposal program at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.; Towler, O.A.; Peterson, D.L.; Johnson, G.M.; Helton, B.D.

    1984-01-01

    The first facility to demonstrate Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) in a humid environment in the United States has been built and is operating at the Savannah River Plant. GCD practices of waste segregation, packaging, emplacement below the root zone, and waste stabilization are being used in the demonstration. Activity concentrations to select wastes for GCD are based on a study of SRP burial records, and are equal to or less than those for Class B waste in 10CFR61. The first disposal units to be constructed are 9-foot diameter, thirty-foot deep boreholes which will be used to dispose of wastes from production reactors, tritiated wastes, and selected wastes from off-site. In 1984 an engineered GCD trench will be constructed for disposal of boxed wastes and large bulky items. 2 figures, 1 table

  1. Evil genius? How dishonesty can lead to greater creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gino, Francesca; Wiltermuth, Scott S

    2014-04-01

    We propose that dishonest and creative behavior have something in common: They both involve breaking rules. Because of this shared feature, creativity may lead to dishonesty (as shown in prior work), and dishonesty may lead to creativity (the hypothesis we tested in this research). In five experiments, participants had the opportunity to behave dishonestly by overreporting their performance on various tasks. They then completed one or more tasks designed to measure creativity. Those who cheated were subsequently more creative than noncheaters, even when we accounted for individual differences in their creative ability (Experiment 1). Using random assignment, we confirmed that acting dishonestly leads to greater creativity in subsequent tasks (Experiments 2 and 3). The link between dishonesty and creativity is explained by a heightened feeling of being unconstrained by rules, as indicated by both mediation (Experiment 4) and moderation (Experiment 5).

  2. Use of renewable energy in the greater metropolitan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias Garcia, Rocio; Castro Gomez, Gustavo; Fallas Cordero, Kenneth; Grant Chaves, Samuel; Mendez Parrales, Tony; Parajeles Fernandez, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    A study is conducted on different renewable energy within the larger metropolitan area, selecting the most suitable for the area and the implementation for distributed generation. A research methodology is practiced type pretending gather the necessary information to make proposals selected of different type of energy. The geography of the greater metropolitan area is studied along with the different existing renewable energy: distributed generation, remote measurement of energy which is one of the elements of the concept of intelligent networks (Smart Grid) in the electricity sector, legislation of Costa Rica regarding the generation of renewable energy and environmental impact. An analysis of economic feasibility is covered for each of the proposals estimating current rates for leading distributors of a future value, concluding with the viability of projects for possible execution of the same. (author) [es

  3. The hydrogen village in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimmel, T.B.; Smith, R.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' A Hydrogen Village (H2V) is a public/private partnership with an objective to accelerate the commercialization of hydrogen and fuel cell technology in Canada and firmly position Canada as the international leader in this sector. The first Hydrogen Village is planned for the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) and will make use of existing hydrogen and fuel cell deployments to assist in its creation. This five year GTA Hydrogen Village program is planned to begin operations in 2004. The Hydrogen Village will demonstrate and deploy various hydrogen production and delivery techniques as well as fuel cells for stationary, transportation (mobile) and portable applications. This paper will provide an overview of the Hydrogen Village and identify the missions, objectives, members and progress within the H2V. (author)

  4. Age and Expatriate Job Performance in Greater China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan; Lauring, Jakob; Feng, Yunxia

    2009-01-01

    a positive impact on expatriates' job performance. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is toexamine the association between the age of business expatriates and their work performance in a Chinese cultural setting. Design/methodology/approach - Controlling for the potential bias of a number of background......, companies should not discriminate against older candidatesin expatriate selection for Greater China. Furthermore, older expatriates destined for a Chinesecultural context could be trained how to exploit their age advantage. Originality/value - In contrast to previous studies, this investigation attempts...... to match a certain personal characteristic of expatriates with a specific host culture. The results have implications for and contribute to the literature on expatriate selection as well as to the body of research on crosscultural training....

  5. Rheumatoid Arthritis and Complementary Medicine: In Depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... unproven. Many factors—including differences in tai chi styles, number of movements, length of the practice, and ... JY, Kim YJ, et al. Acupuncture for symptom management of rheumatoid arthritis: a pilot study. Clinical Rheumatology. ...

  6. In-depth survey report of Scoular Elevator, Salina, Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaebst, D.D.

    1987-06-01

    An in/depth industrial hygiene survey of exposures to phosphine during the use of aluminum phosphide was conducted as part of a survey on exposure to grain fumigants. Area monitoring and breathing-zone sampling for phosphine were conducted during the addition of aluminum phosphide to grain during turning operations; source samples and peak personal exposures were also analyzed. Major sources of personal exposure included the escape of air from the bin headspace during filling with treated grain, filling and emptying of the phosphide pellet dispenser, and infiltration from the treated grain bin and from the pellet dispenser itself into adjacent air space. Relatively good dust control was indicated by the total dust samples collected during the survey. Measures recommended by the author are in the report.

  7. Estimating water equivalent snow depth from related meteorological variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steyaert, L.T.; LeDuc, S.K.; Strommen, N.D.; Nicodemus, M.L.; Guttman, N.B.

    1980-05-01

    Engineering design must take into consideration natural loads and stresses caused by meteorological elements, such as, wind, snow, precipitation and temperature. The purpose of this study was to determine a relationship of water equivalent snow depth measurements to meteorological variables. Several predictor models were evaluated for use in estimating water equivalent values. These models include linear regression, principal component regression, and non-linear regression models. Linear, non-linear and Scandanavian models are used to generate annual water equivalent estimates for approximately 1100 cooperative data stations where predictor variables are available, but which have no water equivalent measurements. These estimates are used to develop probability estimates of snow load for each station. Map analyses for 3 probability levels are presented

  8. Uncertainty characterization of particle depth measurement using digital in-line holography and the hybrid method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jian; Guildenbecher, Daniel R; Reu, Phillip L; Chen, Jun

    2013-11-04

    In the detection of particles using digital in-line holography, measurement accuracy is substantially influenced by the hologram processing method. In particular, a number of methods have been proposed to determine the out-of-plane particle depth (z location). However, due to the lack of consistent uncertainty characterization, it has been unclear which method is best suited to a given measurement problem. In this work, depth determination accuracies of seven particle detection methods, including a recently proposed hybrid method, are systematically investigated in terms of relative depth measurement errors and uncertainties. Both synthetic and experimental holograms of particle fields are considered at conditions relevant to particle sizing and tracking. While all methods display a range of particle conditions where they are most accurate, in general the hybrid method is shown to be the most robust with depth uncertainty less than twice the particle diameter over a wide range of particle field conditions.

  9. The Greater Caucasus Glacier Inventory (Russia, Georgia and Azerbaijan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tielidze, Levan G.; Wheate, Roger D.

    2018-01-01

    There have been numerous studies of glaciers in the Greater Caucasus, but none that have generated a modern glacier database across the whole mountain range. Here, we present an updated and expanded glacier inventory at three time periods (1960, 1986, 2014) covering the entire Greater Caucasus. Large-scale topographic maps and satellite imagery (Corona, Landsat 5, Landsat 8 and ASTER) were used to conduct a remote-sensing survey of glacier change, and the 30 m resolution Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer Global Digital Elevation Model (ASTER GDEM; 17 November 2011) was used to determine the aspect, slope and height distribution of glaciers. Glacier margins were mapped manually and reveal that in 1960 the mountains contained 2349 glaciers with a total glacier surface area of 1674.9 ± 70.4 km2. By 1986, glacier surface area had decreased to 1482.1 ± 64.4 km2 (2209 glaciers), and by 2014 to 1193.2 ± 54.0 km2 (2020 glaciers). This represents a 28.8 ± 4.4 % (481 ± 21.2 km2) or 0.53 % yr-1 reduction in total glacier surface area between 1960 and 2014 and an increase in the rate of area loss since 1986 (0.69 % yr-1) compared to 1960-1986 (0.44 % yr-1). Glacier mean size decreased from 0.70 km2 in 1960 to 0.66 km2 in 1986 and to 0.57 km2 in 2014. This new glacier inventory has been submitted to the Global Land Ice Measurements from Space (GLIMS) database and can be used as a basis data set for future studies.

  10. Myiasis in Dogs in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sherry A M; Gakuya, Daniel W; Mbuthia, Paul G; Mande, John D; Afakye, Kofi; Maingi, Ndichu

    2016-01-01

    Myiasis is the infestation of tissues of live vertebrate animals and humans with dipterous larvae. In sub-Saharan Africa, Cordylobia anthropohaga and Cordylobia rodhaini are known to be responsible for cutaneous myiasis in animals and humans. Human cases of myiasis, purportedly acquired in Ghana but diagnosed in other countries, have been reported; however, published data on its occurrence in animals in Ghana is unavailable. This study assessed the prevalence of canine myiasis among owned dogs in the Greater Accra region (GAR) of Ghana. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Greater Accra region of Ghana, selected for being the region with the highest estimated population density of owned dogs. Physical examination and demographic characteristics of the study dogs were assessed. Management of the dogs was assessed through a questionnaire administered to the dog owners. A total of 392 owned dogs were sampled. Twenty-nine (7.4%) had cutaneous myiasis caused by C. rodhaini. In addition, one (0.2%) of the dogs had intestinal myiasis, with Dermatobia hominis as the offending larvae. Among the breeds of dogs with myiasis, the mongrel was most affected, with 24 (82.8%) out of the 29 cases. The mongrels, majority of which (24; 82.8%) were males, were left to roam freely in the community. Results from this study demonstrate that C. rodhaini and D. hominis are important causes of myiasis in owned dogs in the GAR of Ghana. Dogs could play a role in the spread of myiasis to humans, with its attendant public health implications.

  11. Economic and geographic factors affecting the development of Greater Baku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vusat AFANDIYEV

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Globally, the responsible factors for the ongoing development of urbanization are the high speed of population growth, and the mass migration of humans to cities and large urban areas. In most countries, this process resulted in the emergence of ‘pseudo-urbanization’ which is difficult to be regulated. The purpose of the carried researches to determine the development priorities in the territory of Greater Baku – the capital city of the Republic of Azerbaijan; to define the problems that take place in this connection; and to develop ways of elimination of these problems. The reason of taking Baku as a research area is connected with some of the factors. Firstly, studies on Baku have been conducted based on the Soviet geographical and urban planning school and their methods for a long period. In this regard, it is necessary to carry out research in this field based on the principles adopted in most countries. Secondly, since 1992, the intensive accumulation of population in the territory of the capital city and the surrounding areas is being observed because of socio-economic problems. As a result, the process of pseudo-urbanization intensified, entailing a densely-populated area. Thirdly, low-rise buildings still continue to exist in the large areas within the territory of Baku, and they are not associated with the functional structure of the city. This situation creates many challenges, particularly in terms of density growth and effective use of the city’s territory. Finally, numerous new buildings have been constructed in the residential areas of Baku in recent years, and this may entailserious problems in water supply, energy provision, and utilities. The study is carried out referring to previous works of researchers, statistic data, and the results of the population census conducted in 1959-2009.The practical significance of the scientific work is that positive and negative factors affecting the further development of Greater Baku

  12. Greater learnability is not sufficient to produce cultural universals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafferty, Anna N; Griffiths, Thomas L; Ettlinger, Marc

    2013-10-01

    Looking across human societies reveals regularities in the languages that people speak and the concepts that they use. One explanation that has been proposed for these "cultural universals" is differences in the ease with which people learn particular languages and concepts. A difference in learnability means that languages and concepts possessing a particular property are more likely to be accurately transmitted from one generation of learners to the next. Intuitively, this difference could allow languages and concepts that are more learnable to become more prevalent after multiple generations of cultural transmission. If this is the case, the prevalence of languages and concepts with particular properties can be explained simply by demonstrating empirically that they are more learnable. We evaluate this argument using mathematical analysis and behavioral experiments. Specifically, we provide two counter-examples that show how greater learnability need not result in a property becoming prevalent. First, more learnable languages and concepts can nonetheless be less likely to be produced spontaneously as a result of transmission failures. We simulated cultural transmission in the laboratory to show that this can occur for memory of distinctive items: these items are more likely to be remembered, but not generated spontaneously once they have been forgotten. Second, when there are many languages or concepts that lack the more learnable property, sheer numbers can swamp the benefit produced by greater learnability. We demonstrate this using a second series of experiments involving artificial language learning. Both of these counter-examples show that simply finding a learnability bias experimentally is not sufficient to explain why a particular property is prevalent in the languages or concepts used in human societies: explanations for cultural universals based on cultural transmission need to consider the full set of hypotheses a learner could entertain and all of

  13. The Greater Involvement of People Living with AIDS principle: theory versus practice in Ontario's HIV/AIDS community-based research sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travers, R; Wilson, M G; Flicker, S; Guta, A; Bereket, T; McKay, C; van der Meulen, A; Cleverly, S; Dickie, M; Globerman, J; Rourke, S B

    2008-07-01

    Drawing on the Greater Involvement of People with HIV/AIDS (GIPA) principle, the HIV/AIDS movement began to "democratize" research in Canada in the mid-1990s. To date, there is little evidence about the success of the community-based research (CBR) movement in relation to the implementation of GIPA. We draw on findings from a larger study examining barriers and facilitating factors in relation to HIV-related CBR in Ontario, Canada. An online survey was completed by 39 senior managers in Ontario AIDS service organizations (ASOs). Twenty-five in-depth, semi-structured interviews were then conducted to further explore the survey findings. Survey respondents reported that, compared to researchers and frontline service providers, people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) tended to be the least involved in all stages (input, process and outcome) of CBR projects. AIDS service organizations with a mandate that included serving rural and urban communities reported even lower levels of PLWHA involvement in CBR. Qualitative data reveal complex barriers that make meaningful PLWHA engagement in CBR difficult, including: HIV-related stigma; health-related challenges; "credentialism"; lack of capacity to engage in research; other issues taking priority; and mistrust of researchers. Facilitating factors included valuing lived experience; training and mentoring opportunities; financial compensation; trust building; and accommodating PLWHA's needs. While there is strong support for the GIPA principles in theory, practice lags far behind.

  14. An in-depth examination into pharmacy technician worklife through an organizational behavior framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desselle, Shane P

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacy technicians are a vital part of the health care workforce. Little is known about perceptions of their own work environment that would engender more effective recruitment, retention, and management strategies by pharmacists and employers. The purpose of this study was to gain a greater understanding of certified pharmacy technician worklife. Specific objectives included the identification of themes of worklife phenomena to assist with the development of appropriate responses by other pharmacy stakeholders and to ascertain the contribution of various factors engendering or discouraging career commitment of pharmacy technicians. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were carried out with a convenience sample of pharmacy technicians in one U.S. state, who varied by their work settings and level of experience. The interview guide and corresponding participant responses were framed from around an organizational cultural basis rooted in organizational behavior theory. Notes from the interviews were analyzed thematically using directed content analysis. Four primary themes emerged, including: career impetus, job responsibilities, quality of work life, and equitable partnership. The data revealed pharmacy technicians' need for self-actualization and recognition of the value they bring to the organization. The participants identified primary responsibilities that contribute to their sense of worth and those that if not managed adequately potentially detract from their well-being and effectiveness. Findings in regard to rate of pay corroborate previous work on wages as both an intrinsic and extrinsic motivator. Pharmacy technicians seek equity among each other (their peers) and in a mutually beneficial relationship with their employing organization. This study provides the impetus for interventions and further study that should serve to enhance pharmacy technician effectiveness, quality of work life, and longevity in an emerging profession. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier

  15. Greater general startle reflex is associated with greater anxiety levels: a correlational study on 111 young women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora ePoli

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Startle eyeblink reflex is a valid non-invasive tool for studying attention, emotion and psychiatric disorders. In the absence of any experimental manipulation, the general (or baseline startle reflex shows a high inter-individual variability, which is often considered task-irrelevant and therefore normalized across participants. Unlike the above view, we hypothesized that greater general startle magnitude is related to participants’ higher anxiety level. 111 healthy young women, after completing the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, were randomly administered 10 acoustic white noise probes (50 ms, 100 dBA acoustic level while integrated EMG from left and right orbicularis oculi was recorded. Results showed that participants with greater state anxiety levels exhibited larger startle reflex magnitude from the left eye (r109=0.23, p<0.05. Furthermore, individuals who perceived the acoustic probe as more aversive reported the largest anxiety scores (r109=0.28, p<0.05 and had the largest eyeblinks, especially in the left eye (r109 = 0.34, p<0.001. Results suggest that general startle may represent a valid tool for studying the neural excitability underlying anxiety and emotional dysfunction in neurological and mental disorders.

  16. Prediction of lake depth across a 17-state region in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Samantha K.; Soranno, Patricia A.; Fergus, C. Emi; Wagner, Tyler; Winslow, Luke A.; Scott, Caren E.; Webster, Katherine E.; Downing, John A.; Stanley, Emily H.

    2016-01-01

    Lake depth is an important characteristic for understanding many lake processes, yet it is unknown for the vast majority of lakes globally. Our objective was to develop a model that predicts lake depth using map-derived metrics of lake and terrestrial geomorphic features. Building on previous models that use local topography to predict lake depth, we hypothesized that regional differences in topography, lake shape, or sedimentation processes could lead to region-specific relationships between lake depth and the mapped features. We therefore used a mixed modeling approach that included region-specific model parameters. We built models using lake and map data from LAGOS, which includes 8164 lakes with maximum depth (Zmax) observations. The model was used to predict depth for all lakes ≥4 ha (n = 42 443) in the study extent. Lake surface area and maximum slope in a 100 m buffer were the best predictors of Zmax. Interactions between surface area and topography occurred at both the local and regional scale; surface area had a larger effect in steep terrain, so large lakes embedded in steep terrain were much deeper than those in flat terrain. Despite a large sample size and inclusion of regional variability, model performance (R2 = 0.29, RMSE = 7.1 m) was similar to other published models. The relative error varied by region, however, highlighting the importance of taking a regional approach to lake depth modeling. Additionally, we provide the largest known collection of observed and predicted lake depth values in the United States.

  17. Greater vertical spot spacing to improve femtosecond laser capsulotomy quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Tim; Joachim, Stephanie C; Noristani, Rozina; Scott, Wendell; Dick, H Burkhard

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of adapted capsulotomy laser settings on the cutting quality in femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery. Ruhr-University Eye Clinic, Bochum, Germany. Prospective randomized case series. Eyes were treated with 1 of 2 laser settings. In Group 1, the regular standard settings were used (incisional depth 600 μm, pulse energy 4 μJ, horizontal spot spacing 5 μm, vertical spot spacing 10 μm, treatment time 1.2 seconds). In Group 2, vertical spot spacing was increased to 15 μm and the treatment time was 1.0 seconds. Light microscopy was used to evaluate the cut quality of the capsule edge. The size and number of tags (misplaced laser spots, which form a second cut of the capsule with high tear risk) were evaluated in a blinded manner. Groups were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. The study comprised 100 eyes (50 eyes in each group). Cataract surgery was successfully completed in all eyes, and no anterior capsule tear occurred during the treatment. Histologically, significant fewer tags were observed with the new capsulotomy laser setting. The mean score for the number and size of free tags was significantly lower in this group than with the standard settings (P laser settings improved cut quality and reduced the number of tags. The modification has the potential to reduce the risk for radial capsule tears in femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery. With the new settings, no tags and no capsule tears were observed under the operating microscope in any eye. Copyright © 2017 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Variations in depth-dose data between open and wedge fields for 4-MV x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sewchand, W.; Khan, F.M.; Williamson, J.

    1978-01-01

    Central-axis depth-dose data for 4-MV x rays, including tissue-maximum ratios, were measured for wedge fields. Comparison with corresponding open-field data revealed differences in magnitude which increased with depth, field size, and wedge thickness. However, phantom scatter correction factors for the wedge fields differed less than 1% from corresponding open-field factors. The differences in central-axis percent depth doses between the two types of fields indicate beam hardening by the wedge filter. This study also implies that the derivation of tissue-maximum ratios from central-axis percent depth is as valid for wedge as for open fields

  19. Depth perception: the need to report ocean biogeochemical rates as functions of temperature, not depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Peter G; Peltzer, Edward T

    2017-09-13

    For over 50 years, ocean scientists have oddly represented ocean oxygen consumption rates as a function of depth but not temperature in most biogeochemical models. This unique tradition or tactic inhibits useful discussion of climate change impacts, where specific and fundamental temperature-dependent terms are required. Tracer-based determinations of oxygen consumption rates in the deep sea are nearly universally reported as a function of depth in spite of their well-known microbial basis. In recent work, we have shown that a carefully determined profile of oxygen consumption rates in the Sargasso Sea can be well represented by a classical Arrhenius function with an activation energy of 86.5 kJ mol -1 , leading to a Q 10 of 3.63. This indicates that for 2°C warming, we will have a 29% increase in ocean oxygen consumption rates, and for 3°C warming, a 47% increase, potentially leading to large-scale ocean hypoxia should a sufficient amount of organic matter be available to microbes. Here, we show that the same principles apply to a worldwide collation of tracer-based oxygen consumption rate data and that some 95% of ocean oxygen consumption is driven by temperature, not depth, and thus will have a strong climate dependence. The Arrhenius/Eyring equations are no simple panacea and they require a non-equilibrium steady state to exist. Where transient events are in progress, this stricture is not obeyed and we show one such possible example.This article is part of the themed issue 'Ocean ventilation and deoxygenation in a warming world'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  20. Depth perception: the need to report ocean biogeochemical rates as functions of temperature, not depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Peter G.; Peltzer, Edward T.

    2017-08-01

    For over 50 years, ocean scientists have oddly represented ocean oxygen consumption rates as a function of depth but not temperature in most biogeochemical models. This unique tradition or tactic inhibits useful discussion of climate change impacts, where specific and fundamental temperature-dependent terms are required. Tracer-based determinations of oxygen consumption rates in the deep sea are nearly universally reported as a function of depth in spite of their well-known microbial basis. In recent work, we have shown that a carefully determined profile of oxygen consumption rates in the Sargasso Sea can be well represented by a classical Arrhenius function with an activation energy of 86.5 kJ mol-1, leading to a Q10 of 3.63. This indicates that for 2°C warming, we will have a 29% increase in ocean oxygen consumption rates, and for 3°C warming, a 47% increase, potentially leading to large-scale ocean hypoxia should a sufficient amount of organic matter be available to microbes. Here, we show that the same principles apply to a worldwide collation of tracer-based oxygen consumption rate data and that some 95% of ocean oxygen consumption is driven by temperature, not depth, and thus will have a strong climate dependence. The Arrhenius/Eyring equations are no simple panacea and they require a non-equilibrium steady state to exist. Where transient events are in progress, this stricture is not obeyed and we show one such possible example. This article is part of the themed issue 'Ocean ventilation and deoxygenation in a warming world'.

  1. Greater physiological and behavioral effects of interrupted stress pattern compared to daily restraint stress in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    Full Text Available Repeated stress can trigger a range of psychiatric disorders, including anxiety. The propensity to develop abnormal behaviors after repeated stress is related to the severity, frequency and number of stressors. However, the pattern of stress exposure may contribute to the impact of stress. In addition, the anxiogenic nature of repeated stress exposure can be moderated by the degree of coping that occurs, and can be reflected in homotypic habituation to the repeated stress. However, expectations are not clear when a pattern of stress presentation is utilized that diminishes habituation. The purpose of these experiments is to test whether interrupted stress exposure decreases homotypic habituation and leads to greater effects on anxiety-like behavior in adult male rats. We found that repeated interrupted restraint stress resulted in less overall homotypic habituation compared to repeated daily restraint stress. This was demonstrated by greater production of fecal boli and greater corticosterone response to restraint. Furthermore, interrupted restraint stress resulted in a lower body weight and greater adrenal gland weight than daily restraint stress, and greater anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze. Control experiments demonstrated that these effects of the interrupted pattern could not be explained by differences in the total number of stress exposures, differences in the total number of days that the stress periods encompased, nor could it be explained as a result of only the stress exposures after an interruption from stress. These experiments demonstrate that the pattern of stress exposure is a significant determinant of the effects of repeated stress, and that interrupted stress exposure that decreases habituation can have larger effects than a greater number of daily stress exposures. Differences in the pattern of stress exposure are therefore an important factor to consider when predicting the severity of the effects of repeated

  2. The Active Structure of the Greater Dead Sea Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamir, G.

    2002-12-01

    The Greater Dead Sea Basin (GDSB) is a 220km long depression situated along the southern section of the Dead Sea Transform (DST), between two structurally and gravitationally elevated points, Wadi Malih in the north and Paran fault zone in the south. In its center is the Dead Sea basin 'sensu strictu' (DSB), which has been described since the 1970s as a pull-apart basin at a left step-over along the DST. However, several observations, or their lack thereof, contradict this scheme, e.g. (i) It is not supported by recent seismological and geomorphic data; (ii) It does not explain the fault pattern and mixed sinistral and dextral offset along the DSB western boundary; (iii) It does not simply explain the presence of intense deformation outside the presumed fault step zone; (iv) It is inconsistent with the orientation of seismically active faults within the Dead Sea and Jericho Valley; (v) The length of the DSB exceeds the total offset along the Dead Sea Transform, while its subsidence is about the age of the DST. In this study, newly acquired and analyzed data (high resolution seismic reflection and earthquake relocation and fault plane solutions) has been integrated with previously published data (structural mapping, fracture orientation distribution, Bouguer anomaly maps, sinkhole distribution, geomorphic lineaments). The results show that the GDSB is dominated by two active fault systems, one trending NNE and showing normal-dextral motion, the other trending NW. These systems are identified by earthquake activity, seismic reflection observations, alignment of recent sinkholes, and distribution of Bouguer anomaly gradients. As a result, the intra-basin structure is of a series of rectangular blocks. The dextral slip component along NNE trending faults, the mixed sense of lateral offset along the western boundary of the DSB and temporal change in fracture orientation in the Jericho Valley suggest that the intra-basin blocks have rotated counterclockwise since the

  3. GERMINATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF BRACHIARIA SEEDLING IN TEXTURES OF SOIL AND SOWING DEPTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Castaldo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The agriculture expansion at Brazil is turning to lower clay index soils and consequently, less organic matter content and cation exchange capacity. To overcome those deficiencies, an intense organic matter addition in these soils may be a solution, and this solution is positive when using a crop-livestock integration with corn-pasture dual crop planted on winter. However, to establish this dual-crop system, there is a need to study the behavior of seeds and seedlings of Brachiaria ruziziensis sown in greater depths than normally recommended. Thus, this work aimed to determine the best depth of sowing B. ruziziensis in sandy and loamy soils of Umuarama region, studying the germination and early development of seedlings. The work was held in pots of 12 cm diameter x 12 cm deep, filled with 2 types of soil, a sandy and clay ones with 30 B. ruziziensis seeds sown each pot in five sowing depths: 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 cm. After 16 days, the number of emerged seedlings was evaluated to set up the germination rate of each treatment, after that, the plants where leveled to 4 each pot, those were cultivated for another 45 days to evaluate the fresh and dried masses of plants and roots, the height of the plants and average length of roots. The sowing depth with higher percentage of germination estimated was 2.65 cm to sandy and 3.02 cm to clay soil. At seedlings development, there was a standard, with better development seedling at lower sowing depths on clay soil and better developments at higher sowing depths in sandy soil.

  4. Assessment of Factors Associated with the Safety Depth of GV15 Yamen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Soo-Jung

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Yamen is the fifteenth acupoint of the Governor Vessel Meridian (GV15. It is anatomically close to the medulla oblongata, so finding the safety depth of the acupoint is very important. However, few studies on the safety depth of GV15 have been done. Methods: This study tried to measure the safety depth of GV15 by using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scans and to analyze the factors affecting the safety depth through multiple regression analyses. This study was carried out for patients who had a brain MRI scan while visiting Jeonju Wonkwang Hospital, Korea. The shortest distance between the glabella and the occipital protuberance (DGO, the horizontal distance between the glabella and the back of the head (DGB and the dangerous depth (DD were measured from the sagittal views of the MRI images. The DD is the horizontal distance from the skin’s surface at GV15 to the spinal dura mater. Results: The model suggested that the safety depth (SD was significantly associated with gender (β = 0.474, P < 0.0001, DGO (β = 0.272, P = 0.027, and BMI (β = 0.249, P = 0.005 and the combination of three variables can explain the SD, with R2 = 0.571 (Table 3 A longer SD was associated with males and with greater BMI and DGO. Conclusion: This study suggests that gender, BMI and DGO may be important factors when the SD of GV15 is considered clinically through a multiple regression analysis of GV15.

  5. Helioseismic Constraints on the Depth Dependence of Large-Scale Solar Convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Martin F.

    2017-08-01

    A recent helioseismic statistical waveform analysis of subsurface flow based on a 720-day time series of SOHO/MDI Medium-l spherical-harmonic coefficients has been extended to cover a greater range of subphotospheric depths. The latest analysis provides estimates of flow-dependent oscillation-mode coupling-strength coefficients b(s,t;n,l) over the range l = 30 to 150 of mode degree (angular wavenumber) for solar p-modes in the approximate frequency range 2 to 4 mHz. The range of penetration depths of this mode set covers most of the solar convection zone. The most recent analysis measures spherical harmonic (s,t) components of the flow velocity for odd s in the angular wavenumber range 1 to 19 for t not much smaller than s at a given s. The odd-s b(s,t;n,l) coefficients are interpreted as averages over depth of the depth-dependent amplitude of one spherical-harmonic (s,t) component of the toroidal part of the flow velocity field. The depth-dependent weighting function defining the average velocity is the fractional kinetic energy density in radius of modes of the (n,l) multiplet. The b coefficients have been converted to estimates of root velocity power as a function of l0 = nu0*l/nu(n,l), which is a measure of mode penetration depth. (nu(n,l) is mode frequency and nu0 is a reference frequency equal to 3 mHz.) A comparison of the observational results with simple convection models will be presented.

  6. Directional dependence of depth of correlation due to in-plane fluid shear in microscopic particle image velocimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, Michael G

    2009-01-01

    An analytical model for the microscopic particle image velocimetry (microPIV) correlation signal peak in a purely shearing flow was derived for the case of in-plane shearing (out-of-plane shearing was not considered). This model was then used to derive equations for the measured velocity weighting functions for the two velocity components, and the weighting functions were in turn used to define the depths of correlation associated with the two measured velocity components. The depth of correlation for the velocity component perpendicular to the shear was found to be unaffected by the shear rate. However, the depth of correlation for the velocity component in the direction of the shear was found to be highly dependent on the shear rate, with the depth of correlation increasing as the shear rate increased. Thus, in a flow with shear, there is not a single value for the depth of correlation within an interrogation region. Instead, the depth of correlation exhibits directional dependence, with a different depth of correlation for each of the two measured velocity components. The increase in the depth of correlation due to the shear rate is greater for large numerical aperture objectives than for small numerical aperture objectives. This increase in the depth of correlation in a shearing flow can be quite large, with increases in the depth of correlation exceeding 100% being very possible for high numerical aperture objectives. The effects of out-of-plane shear are beyond the capabilities of this analysis, although the possible consequences of out-of-plane shear are discussed

  7. Method for the depth corrected detection of ionizing events from a co-planar grids sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Geronimo, Gianluigi [Syosset, NY; Bolotnikov, Aleksey E [South Setauket, NY; Carini, Gabriella [Port Jefferson, NY

    2009-05-12

    A method for the detection of ionizing events utilizing a co-planar grids sensor comprising a semiconductor substrate, cathode electrode, collecting grid and non-collecting grid. The semiconductor substrate is sensitive to ionizing radiation. A voltage less than 0 Volts is applied to the cathode electrode. A voltage greater than the voltage applied to the cathode is applied to the non-collecting grid. A voltage greater than the voltage applied to the non-collecting grid is applied to the collecting grid. The collecting grid and the non-collecting grid are summed and subtracted creating a sum and difference respectively. The difference and sum are divided creating a ratio. A gain coefficient factor for each depth (distance between the ionizing event and the collecting grid) is determined, whereby the difference between the collecting electrode and the non-collecting electrode multiplied by the corresponding gain coefficient is the depth corrected energy of an ionizing event. Therefore, the energy of each ionizing event is the difference between the collecting grid and the non-collecting grid multiplied by the corresponding gain coefficient. The depth of the ionizing event can also be determined from the ratio.

  8. Topology Optimization including Inequality Buoyancy Constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Picelli, R.; Van Dijk, R.; Vicente, W.M.; Pavanello, R.; Langelaar, M.; Van Keuen, A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an evolutionary topology optimization method for applications in design of completely submerged buoyant devices with design-dependent fluid pressure loading. This type of structures aid rig installations and pipeline transportation in all water depths in offshore structural

  9. ELISA-seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in draught horses in Greater Cairo, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haridy, Fouad M; Shoukry, Nahla M; Hassan, Aly Awad; Morsy, Tosson A

    2009-12-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is one of the important zoonotic parasites of worldwide. In this paper the seroprevalence of T. gondii in draught horses (3-15 years) including 90 males and 10 females in the first half of the year 2009 was studied. The result showed that the overall ELISA-T. gondii antibodies were 25% of the horses in Greater Cairo, 50% (females) and 22.2% (males).

  10. Scaling and allometry in the building geometries of Greater London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batty, M.; Carvalho, R.; Hudson-Smith, A.; Milton, R.; Smith, D.; Steadman, P.

    2008-06-01

    Many aggregate distributions of urban activities such as city sizes reveal scaling but hardly any work exists on the properties of spatial distributions within individual cities, notwithstanding considerable knowledge about their fractal structure. We redress this here by examining scaling relationships in a world city using data on the geometric properties of individual buildings. We first summarise how power laws can be used to approximate the size distributions of buildings, in analogy to city-size distributions which have been widely studied as rank-size and lognormal distributions following Zipf [ Human Behavior and the Principle of Least Effort (Addison-Wesley, Cambridge, 1949)] and Gibrat [ Les Inégalités Économiques (Librarie du Recueil Sirey, Paris, 1931)]. We then extend this analysis to allometric relationships between buildings in terms of their different geometric size properties. We present some preliminary analysis of building heights from the Emporis database which suggests very strong scaling in world cities. The data base for Greater London is then introduced from which we extract 3.6 million buildings whose scaling properties we explore. We examine key allometric relationships between these different properties illustrating how building shape changes according to size, and we extend this analysis to the classification of buildings according to land use types. We conclude with an analysis of two-point correlation functions of building geometries which supports our non-spatial analysis of scaling.

  11. Distribution of grizzly bears in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, C.C.; Haroldson, M.A.; Gunther, K.; Moody, D.

    2006-01-01

    The US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) proposed delisting the Yellowstone grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) in November 2005. Part of that process required knowledge of the most current distribution of the species. Here, we update an earlier estimate of occupied range (1990–2000) with data through 2004. We used kernel estimators to develop distribution maps of occupied habitats based on initial sightings of unduplicated females (n = 481) with cubs of the year, locations of radiomarked bears (n = 170), and spatially unique locations of conflicts, confrontations, and mortalities (n = 1,075). Although each data set was constrained by potential sampling bias, together they provided insight into areas in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) currently occupied by grizzly bears. The current distribution of 37,258 km2 (1990–2004) extends beyond the distribution map generated with data from 1990–2000 (34,416 km2 ). Range expansion is particularly evident in parts of the Caribou–Targhee National Forest in Idaho and north of Spanish Peaks on the Gallatin National Forest in Montana.

  12. Blood transfusion sampling and a greater role for error recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldham, Jane

    Patient identification errors in pre-transfusion blood sampling ('wrong blood in tube') are a persistent area of risk. These errors can potentially result in life-threatening complications. Current measures to address root causes of incidents and near misses have not resolved this problem and there is a need to look afresh at this issue. PROJECT PURPOSE: This narrative review of the literature is part of a wider system-improvement project designed to explore and seek a better understanding of the factors that contribute to transfusion sampling error as a prerequisite to examining current and potential approaches to error reduction. A broad search of the literature was undertaken to identify themes relating to this phenomenon. KEY DISCOVERIES: Two key themes emerged from the literature. Firstly, despite multi-faceted causes of error, the consistent element is the ever-present potential for human error. Secondly, current focus on error prevention could potentially be augmented with greater attention to error recovery. Exploring ways in which clinical staff taking samples might learn how to better identify their own errors is proposed to add to current safety initiatives.

  13. Greater commitment to the domestic violence training is required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppäkoski, Tuija Helena; Flinck, Aune; Paavilainen, Eija

    2015-05-01

    Domestic violence (DV) is a major public health problem with high health and social costs. A solution to this multi-faceted problem requires that various help providers work together in an effective and optimal manner when dealing with different parties of DV. The objective of our research and development project (2008-2013) was to improve the preparedness of the social and healthcare professionals to manage DV. This article focuses on the evaluation of interprofessional education (IPE) to provide knowledge and skills for identifying and intervening in DV and to improve collaboration among social and health care professionals and other help providers at the local and regional level. The evaluation data were carried out with an internal evaluation. The evaluation data were collected from the participants orally and in the written form. The participants were satisfied with the content of the IPE programme itself and the teaching methods used. Participation in the training sessions could have been more active. Moreover, some of the people who had enrolled for the trainings could not attend all of them. IPE is a valuable way to develop intervening in DV. However, greater commitment to the training is required from not only the participants and their superiors but also from trustees.

  14. Greater confinement disposal program at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Towler, O.A.; Cook, J.R.; Peterson, D.L.; Reddick, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    A facility to demonstrate Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) of low-level solid radioactive waste in a humid environment has been built and is operating at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). GCD practices of waste segregation into high and low activity concentrations, emplacement of waste below the root zone, waste stabilization, and capping are being used in the demonstration. Activity concentrations to select wastes for GCD are based on the volume/activity distribution of low-level solid wastes as obtained from SRP burial records, and are equal to or less than those for Class B waste in 10 CFR 61. The first disposal units constructed are twenty 9-ft-diam, 30-ft-deep boreholes. These holes will be used to dispose of wastes from the production reactors, tritiated wastes, and selected wastes from offsite. In 1984, construction will begin on an engineered GCD trench for disposal of boxed waste and large bulky items that meet the activity concentration criteria. 4 references, 5 figures, 2 tables

  15. Greater future global warming inferred from Earth's recent energy budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Patrick T; Caldeira, Ken

    2017-12-06

    Climate models provide the principal means of projecting global warming over the remainder of the twenty-first century but modelled estimates of warming vary by a factor of approximately two even under the same radiative forcing scenarios. Across-model relationships between currently observable attributes of the climate system and the simulated magnitude of future warming have the potential to inform projections. Here we show that robust across-model relationships exist between the global spatial patterns of several fundamental attributes of Earth's top-of-atmosphere energy budget and the magnitude of projected global warming. When we constrain the model projections with observations, we obtain greater means and narrower ranges of future global warming across the major radiative forcing scenarios, in general. In particular, we find that the observationally informed warming projection for the end of the twenty-first century for the steepest radiative forcing scenario is about 15 per cent warmer (+0.5 degrees Celsius) with a reduction of about a third in the two-standard-deviation spread (-1.2 degrees Celsius) relative to the raw model projections reported by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Our results suggest that achieving any given global temperature stabilization target will require steeper greenhouse gas emissions reductions than previously calculated.

  16. Interculturalism and Physical Cultural Diversity in the Greater Toronto Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuka Nakamura

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Greater Toronto Area (GTA is one of the most multicultural communities in the world. Frequently, this description is based on ethnic, linguistic, and culinary diversity. Physical cultural diversity, such as different sports, martial arts, forms of dance, exercise systems, and other physical games and activities, remains ignored and understudied. Based on a living database of the GTA’s physical cultural diversity, this study identifies the trajectories of the lifecycle of activities that have been introduced into the GTA’s physical culture by immigrants. These pathways differ based on whether the activity is offered in a separate setting, where individuals may be participating with other immigrants of the same ethnocultural group, or mixed settings, where people are participating with people from outside of their ethnocultural group. We argue that the diversity and the lifecycle trajectories of physical cultural forms in the GTA serve as evidence of interculturalism and the contribution by immigrants to the social and cultural life of Canada.

  17. Neural markers of a greater female responsiveness to social stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zani Alberto

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is fMRI evidence that women are neurally predisposed to process infant laughter and crying. Other findings show that women might be more empathic and sensitive than men to emotional facial expressions. However, no gender difference in the brain responses to persons and unanimated scenes has hitherto been demonstrated. Results Twenty-four men and women viewed 220 images portraying persons or landscapes and ERPs were recorded from 128 sites. In women, but not in men, the N2 component (210–270 was much larger to persons than to scenes. swLORETA showed significant bilateral activation of FG (BA19/37 in both genders when viewing persons as opposed to scenes. Only women showed a source of activity in the STG and in the right MOG (extra-striate body area, EBA, and only men in the left parahippocampal area (PPA. Conclusion A significant gender difference was found in activation of the left and right STG (BA22 and the cingulate cortex for the subtractive condition women minus men, thus indicating that women might have a greater preference or interest for social stimuli (faces and persons.

  18. Status on disposal of greater-than-Class C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plummer, T.L.

    1995-12-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a plan for the management and disposal of commercially generated greater-than-Class C (GTCC) low-level radioactive waste. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 made DOE responsible for disposal of GTCC waste. The act requires that GTCC waste be disposed in a Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-licensed facility. The NRC has amended 10 CFR 61 to express a preference for geologic disposal of GTCC waste. Based on reassessment studies, legislative guidance, and stakeholder involvement, a revised plan has been formulated to provide for total management of GTCC waste. The plan has four major thrusts: (1) plan for GTCC waste storage at the generator site until disposal is available, (2) establish storage for GTCC sealed sources posing health and safety risk to the public, (3) facilitate storage for other GTCC waste posing health and safety risk to the public, and (4) plan for co-disposal of GTCC waste in a geologic disposal site with similar waste types. The revised plan focuses on applying available resources to near- and long-term needs.

  19. Greater Vancouver's water supply receives ozone treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crosby, J.; Singh, I.; Reil, D. D.; Neden, G.

    2000-10-01

    To improve the overall quality of the treated water delivered to the member municipalities of the Greater Vancouver Water District (GVWD), the GVWD implemented a phased drinking water quality improvement program. The phased treatment program is directed at attaining effective disinfection while minimizing the formation of chlorinated disinfection by-products. Accordingly, the current primary disinfection method of chlorination was reevaluated and an ozone primary disinfection without filtration was authorized. Ozonization provides increased protection against Giardia and Cryptosporidium and a decrease in the formation potential for disinfection by-products (DPBs). This paper describes the design for the ozonation facility at Coquitlam, construction of which began in 1998 and completed during the summer of 2000. The facility houses the liquid oxygen supply, ozone generation, cooling water, ozone injection, primary off-gas ozone destruct system, and provides a home for various office, electrical maintenance and diesel generating functions. The second site at Capilano is expected to start construction in the fall of 2000 and be completed late in 2002. Wit its kilometre long stainless steel ozone contactor and sidestream injector tower, the Coquitlam Ozonation Facility is the first ozone pressure injection system of its kind in North America. 1 tab., 2 figs.

  20. Revisiting the Concept and Implementation of Defense-in-Depth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Youngsung

    2013-01-01

    The subsequent tsunami, with its maximum wave height greater than the design basis, invalidated all layers of the Fukushima NPP. This raises the question on which of the philosophy or the implementation of DID fell short at Fukushima. This paper suggests several complements necessary to the concept of DID and new application practice in a wide variety of safety related objectives/areas/events. Since its conception, DID appears to have been successfully applied to the design and operation but less to the site, external events, resource requirements, the unexpected impacts of organization, etc. Thus, the horizontal as well as vertical application of DID is suggested. Here, the latter application means repeated questions of 'What if this fails?' and the former one means the application of DID to all the applicable objectives, which can be a real defense-in-width. It is widely accepted that defense-in-depth (DID) has been the core of safety philosophy in nuclear safety regulation. Its concept has been developed and refined over many years to go beyond physical barriers and design practices. The historical development of the concept led to a general structure of four physical barriers and five successive levels of defense. The accident at the Fukushima nuclear power plant (NPP) showed that multiple levels of defense could fail at the same time, demonstrated how these could work and how some were challenged, and gave the chance of the concept and implementation being improved. This paper examines the traditional concept and implementation strategies of DID, identifies some weaknesses in that, and suggest some complements and new approach to improving the application of DID

  1. Fluence dependence of disorder depth profiles in Pb implanted Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christodoulides, C.E.; Kadhim, N.J.; Carter, G.

    1980-01-01

    The total, depth integrated disorder, induced by Pb implantation into Si at room temperature, initially increases rapidly with implantation fluence and then reaches a quasi saturation level where the increase with fluence is slow. Measurements of the depth distributions of the disorder, using high resolution low angle exit Rutherford Backscattering/Channelling analysis, suggest that the quasi saturation results from overlapping of disordered zones generated deep in the tail of the disorder-depth profiles. The depth of the disordered solid-crystal boundary, xsub(D), increases with ion fluence PHI, according to the relation xsub(D) = x bar + f(PHI).σ, where x bar is the most probable projected depth and σ the projected standard deviation of disorder generation. It is shown that this relationship is consistent with an approximately Gaussian depth distribution of disorder production. (author)

  2. Depth-based Multi-View 3D Video Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zamarin, Marco

    techniques are used to extract dense motion information and generate improved candidate side information. Multiple candidates are merged employing multi-hypothesis strategies. Promising rate-distortion performance improvements compared with state-of-the-art Wyner-Ziv decoders are reported, both when texture......-view video. Depth maps are typically used to synthesize the desired output views, and the performance of view synthesis algorithms strongly depends on the accuracy of depth information. In this thesis, novel algorithms for efficient depth map compression in MVD scenarios are proposed, with particular focus...... on edge-preserving solutions. In a proposed scheme, texture-depth correlation is exploited to predict surface shapes in the depth signal. In this way depth coding performance can be improved in terms of both compression gain and edge-preservation. Another solution proposes a new intra coding mode targeted...

  3. Occlusion edge blur: A cue to relative visual depth

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, J.A.; Burbeck, C.A.; Ariely, D.; Rolland, J.P.; Martin, K.E.

    1996-01-01

    We studied whether the blur/sharpness of an occlusion boundary between a sharply focused surface and a blurred surface is used as a relative depth cue. Observers judged relative depth in pairs of images that differed only in the blurriness of the common boundary between two adjoining texture regions, one blurred and one sharply focused. Two experiments were conducted; in both, observers consistently used the blur of the boundary as a cue to relative depth. However, the strength of the cue, re...

  4. Method and apparatus of prefetching streams of varying prefetch depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gara, Alan [Mount Kisco, NY; Ohmacht, Martin [Yorktown Heights, NY; Salapura, Valentina [Chappaqua, NY; Sugavanam, Krishnan [Mahopac, NY; Hoenicke, Dirk [Seebruck-Seeon, DE

    2012-01-24

    Method and apparatus of prefetching streams of varying prefetch depth dynamically changes the depth of prefetching so that the number of multiple streams as well as the hit rate of a single stream are optimized. The method and apparatus in one aspect monitor a plurality of load requests from a processing unit for data in a prefetch buffer, determine an access pattern associated with the plurality of load requests and adjust a prefetch depth according to the access pattern.

  5. Local bilinear multiple-output quantile/depth regression

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hallin, M.; Lu, Z.; Paindaveine, D.; Šiman, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 3 (2015), s. 1435-1466 ISSN 1350-7265 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06047 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : conditional depth * growth chart * halfspace depth * local bilinear regression * multivariate quantile * quantile regression * regression depth Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.372, year: 2015 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2015/SI/siman-0446857.pdf

  6. A method to measure depth distributions of implanted ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnesen, A.; Noreland, T.

    1977-04-01

    A new variant of the radiotracer method for depth distribution determinations has been tested. Depth distributions of radioactive implanted ions are determined by dissolving thin, uniform layers of evaporated material from the surface of a backing and by measuring the activity before and after the layer removal. The method has been used to determine depth distributions for 25 keV and 50 keV 57 Co ions in aluminium and gold. (Auth.)

  7. Quantification of total and particulate dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) in five Bermudian coral species across a depth gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, D. M.; Jones, R.; Rowe, C. L.; Mitchelmore, Carys Louise

    2012-06-01

    The symbiotic dinoflagellate microalgae of corals ( Symbiodinium spp.) contain high concentrations of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), a multifunctional metabolite commonly found in many species of marine algae and dinoflagellates. A photoprotective antioxidant function for DMSP and its breakdown products has often been inferred in algae, but its role(s) in the coral-algal symbiosis remains elusive. To examine potential correlations between environmental and physiological parameters and DMSP, total DMSP (DMSPt, from the host coral and zooxanthellae), particulate DMSP (DMSPp, from the zooxanthellae only), coral surface area, and total protein, as well as zooxanthellae density, chlorophyll concentration, cell volume and genotype (i.e., clade) were measured in five coral species from the Diploria- Montastraea- Porites species complex in Bermuda along a depth gradient of 4, 12, 18, and 24 m. DMSPt concentrations were consistently greater than DMSPp concentrations in all species suggesting the possible translocation of DMSP from symbiont to host. D. labyrinthiformis was notably different from the other corals examined, showing DMSPp and DMSPt increases (per coral surface area or tissue biomass) with increasing water depth. However, overall, there were no consistent depth-related patterns in DMSPp and DMSPt concentrations. Further research, investigating dimethylsulfide (DMS), dimethylsulfoxide, and acrylate levels and DMSP-lyase activity in correlation with other biomarker endpoints that have been shown to be depth (i.e., temperature and light) responsive are needed to substantiate the significance of these findings.

  8. Confirmation of a change in the global shear velocity pattern at around 1000 km depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, S.; Debayle, E.; Ricard, Y.; Zaroli, C.; Lambotte, S.

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we confirm the existence of a change in the shear velocity spectrum around 1000 km depth based on a new shear velocity tomographic model of the Earth's mantle, SEISGLOB2. This model is based on Rayleigh surface wave phase velocities, self- and cross-coupling structure coefficients of spheroidal normal modes and body wave traveltimes which are, for the first time, combined in a tomographic inversion. SEISGLOB2 is developed up to spherical harmonic degree 40 and in 21 radial spline functions. The spectrum of SEISGLOB2 is the flattest (i.e. richest in 'short' wavelengths corresponding to spherical harmonic degrees greater than 10) around 1000 km depth and this flattening occurs between 670 and 1500 km depth. We also confirm various changes in the continuity of slabs and mantle plumes all around 1000 km depth where we also observed the upper boundary of Large Low Shear Velocity Provinces. The existence of a flatter spectrum, richer in short-wavelength heterogeneities, in a region of the mid-mantle can have great impacts on our understanding of the mantle dynamics and should thus be better understood in the future. Although a viscosity increase, a phase change or a compositional change can all concur to induce this change of pattern, its precise origin is still very uncertain.

  9. Depth of manual dismantling analysis: A cost–benefit approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achillas, Ch., E-mail: c.achillas@ihu.edu.gr [School of Economics and Business Administration, International Hellenic University, 14th km Thessaloniki-Moudania, 57001 Thermi (Greece); Aidonis, D. [Department of Logistics, Alexander Technological Educational Institute, Branch of Katerini, 60100 Katerini (Greece); Vlachokostas, Ch.; Karagiannidis, A.; Moussiopoulos, N.; Loulos, V. [Laboratory of Heat Transfer and Environmental Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University, Thessaloniki, Box 483, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► A mathematical modeling tool for OEMs. ► The tool can be used by OEMs, recyclers of electr(on)ic equipment or WEEE management systems’ regulators. ► The tool makes use of cost–benefit analysis in order to determine the optimal depth of product disassembly. ► The reusable materials and the quantity of metals and plastics recycled can be quantified in an easy-to-comprehend manner. - Abstract: This paper presents a decision support tool for manufacturers and recyclers towards end-of-life strategies for waste electrical and electronic equipment. A mathematical formulation based on the cost benefit analysis concept is herein analytically described in order to determine the parts and/or components of an obsolete product that should be either non-destructively recovered for reuse or be recycled. The framework optimally determines the depth of disassembly for a given product, taking into account economic considerations. On this basis, it embeds all relevant cost elements to be included in the decision-making process, such as recovered materials and (depreciated) parts/components, labor costs, energy consumption, equipment depreciation, quality control and warehousing. This tool can be part of the strategic decision-making process in order to maximize profitability or minimize end-of-life management costs. A case study to demonstrate the models’ applicability is presented for a typical electronic product in terms of structure and material composition. Taking into account the market values of the pilot product’s components, the manual disassembly is proven profitable with the marginal revenues from recovered reusable materials to be estimated at 2.93–23.06 €, depending on the level of disassembly.

  10. Determination of forest road surface roughness by Kinect depth imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Marinello

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Roughness is a dynamic property of the gravel road surface that affects safety, ride comfort as well as vehicle tyre life and maintenance costs. A rapid survey of gravel road condition is fundamental for an effective maintenance planning and definition of the intervention priorities.Different non-contact techniques such as laser scanning, ultrasonic sensors and photogrammetry have recently been proposed to reconstruct three-dimensional topography of road surface and allow extraction of roughness metrics. The application of Microsoft Kinect™ depth camera is proposed and discussed here for collection of 3D data sets from gravel roads, to be implemented in order to allow quantification of surface roughness.The objectives are to: i verify the applicability of the Kinect sensor for characterization of different forest roads, ii identify the appropriateness and potential of different roughness parameters and iii analyse the correlation with vibrations recoded by 3-axis accelerometers installed on different vehicles. The test took advantage of the implementation of the Kinect depth camera for surface roughness determination of 4 different forest gravel roads and one well-maintained asphalt road as reference. Different vehicles (mountain bike, off-road motorcycle, ATV vehicle, 4WD car and compact crossover were included in the experiment in order to verify the vibration intensity when travelling on different road surface conditions. Correlations between the extracted roughness parameters and vibration levels of the tested vehicles were then verified. Coefficients of determination of between 0.76 and 0.97 were detected between average surface roughness and standard deviation of relative accelerations, with higher values in the case of lighter vehicles.

  11. Pulsed photothermal depth profiling of tattoos undergoing laser removal treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanic, Matija; Majaron, Boris

    2012-02-01

    Pulsed photothermal radiometry (PPTR) allows noninvasive determination of temperature depth profiles induced by pulsed laser irradiation of strongly scattering biological tissues and organs, including human skin. In present study, we evaluate the potential of this technique for investigational characterization and possibly quantitative evaluation of laser tattoo removal. The study involved 5 healthy volunteers (3 males, 2 females), age 20-30 years, undergoing tattoo removal treatment using a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. There were four measurement and treatment sessions in total, separated by 2-3 months. Prior to each treatment, PPTR measurements were performed on several tattoo sites and one nearby healthy site in each patient, using a 5 ms Nd:YAG laser at low radiant exposure values and a dedicated radiometric setup. The laser-induced temperature profiles were then reconstructed by applying a custom numerical code. In addition, each tatoo site was documented with a digital camera and measured with a custom colorimetric system (in tristimulus color space), providing an objective evaluation of the therapeutic efficacy to be correlated with our PPTR results. The results show that the laser-induced temperature profile in untreated tattoos is invariably located at a subsurface depth of 300 μm. In tattoo sites that responded well to laser therapy, a significant drop of the temperature peak was observed in the profiles obtained from PPTR record. In several sites that appeared less responsive, as evidenced by colorimetric data, a progressive shift of the temperature profile deeper into the dermis was observed over the course of consecutive laser treatments, indicating that the laser tattoo removal was efficient.

  12. Ambient Seismic Imaging of Hydraulically Active Fractures at km Depths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, P. E.; Sicking, C.

    2017-12-01

    Streaming Depth Images of ambient seismic signals using numerous, densely-distributed, receivers have revealed their connection to hydraulically active fractures at 0.5 to 5 km depths. Key for this type of imaging is very high-fold stacking over both multiple receives and periods of a few hours. Also important is suppression of waveforms from fixed, repeating sources such as pumps, generators, and traffic. A typical surface-based ambient SDI survey would use a 3D seismic receiver grid. It would have 1,000 to 4,000 uniformly distributed receivers at a density of 50/km2over the target. If acquired by borehole receivers buried 100 m deep, the density can be dropped by an order of magnitude. We show examples of the acquisition and signal processing scenarios used to produce the ambient images. (Sicking et al., SEG Interpretation, Nov 2017.) While the fracture-fluid source connection of SDI has been verified by drilling and various types of hydraulic tests, the precise nature of the signal's origin is not clear. At the current level of observation, the signals do not have identifiable phases, but can be focused using P wave velocities. Suggested sources are resonances of pressures fluctuations in the fractures, or small, continuous, slips on fractures surfaces. In either case, it appears that the driving mechanism is tectonic strain in an inherently unstable crust. Solid earth tides may enhance these strains. We illustrate the value of the ambient SDI method in its industrial application by showing case histories from energy industry and carbon-capture-sequestration projects. These include ambient images taken before, during, and after hydraulic treatments in un-conventional reservoirs. The results show not only locations of active fractures, but also their time responses to stimulation and production. Time-lapse ambient imaging can forecast and track events such as well interferences and production changes that can result from nearby treatments.

  13. Depth of manual dismantling analysis: A cost–benefit approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achillas, Ch.; Aidonis, D.; Vlachokostas, Ch.; Karagiannidis, A.; Moussiopoulos, N.; Loulos, V.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A mathematical modeling tool for OEMs. ► The tool can be used by OEMs, recyclers of electr(on)ic equipment or WEEE management systems’ regulators. ► The tool makes use of cost–benefit analysis in order to determine the optimal depth of product disassembly. ► The reusable materials and the quantity of metals and plastics recycled can be quantified in an easy-to-comprehend manner. - Abstract: This paper presents a decision support tool for manufacturers and recyclers towards end-of-life strategies for waste electrical and electronic equipment. A mathematical formulation based on the cost benefit analysis concept is herein analytically described in order to determine the parts and/or components of an obsolete product that should be either non-destructively recovered for reuse or be recycled. The framework optimally determines the depth of disassembly for a given product, taking into account economic considerations. On this basis, it embeds all relevant cost elements to be included in the decision-making process, such as recovered materials and (depreciated) parts/components, labor costs, energy consumption, equipment depreciation, quality control and warehousing. This tool can be part of the strategic decision-making process in order to maximize profitability or minimize end-of-life management costs. A case study to demonstrate the models’ applicability is presented for a typical electronic product in terms of structure and material composition. Taking into account the market values of the pilot product’s components, the manual disassembly is proven profitable with the marginal revenues from recovered reusable materials to be estimated at 2.93–23.06 €, depending on the level of disassembly

  14. Uncertainty analysis of depth predictions from seismic reflection data using Bayesian statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelioudakis, Dimitrios G.; Hobbs, Richard W.; Caiado, Camila C. S.

    2018-03-01

    Estimating the depths of target horizons from seismic reflection data is an important task in exploration geophysics. To constrain these depths we need a reliable and accurate velocity model. Here, we build an optimum 2D seismic reflection data processing flow focused on pre - stack deghosting filters and velocity model building and apply Bayesian methods, including Gaussian process emulation and Bayesian History Matching (BHM), to estimate the uncertainties of the depths of key horizons near the borehole DSDP-258 located in the Mentelle Basin, south west of Australia, and compare the results with the drilled core from that well. Following this strategy, the tie between the modelled and observed depths from DSDP-258 core was in accordance with the ± 2σ posterior credibility intervals and predictions for depths to key horizons were made for the two new drill sites, adjacent the existing borehole of the area. The probabilistic analysis allowed us to generate multiple realizations of pre-stack depth migrated images, these can be directly used to better constrain interpretation and identify potential risk at drill sites. The method will be applied to constrain the drilling targets for the upcoming International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP), leg 369.

  15. Composite depth dose measurement for total skin electron (TSE) treatments using radiochromic film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamble, Lisa M; Farrell, Thomas J; Jones, Glenn W; Hayward, Joseph E

    2003-01-01

    Total skin electron (TSE) radiotherapy is routinely used to treat cutaneous T-cell lymphomas and can be implemented using a modified Stanford technique. In our centre, the composite depth dose for this technique is achieved by a combination of two patient positions per day over a three-day cycle, and two gantry angles per patient position. Due to patient morphology, underdosed regions typically occur and have historically been measured using multiple thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). We show that radiochromic film can be used as a two-dimensional relative dosimeter to measure the percent depth dose in TSE radiotherapy. Composite depth dose curves were measured in a cylindrical, polystyrene phantom and compared with TLD data. Both multiple films (1 film per day) and a single film were used in order to reproduce a realistic clinical scenario. First, three individual films were used to measure the depth dose, one per treatment day, and then compared with TLD data; this comparison showed a reasonable agreement. Secondly, a single film was used to measure the dose delivered over three daily treatments and then compared with TLD data; this comparison showed good agreement throughout the depth dose, which includes doses well below 1 Gy. It will be shown that one piece of radiochromic film is sufficient to measure the composite percent depth dose for a TSE beam, hence making radiochromic film a suitable candidate for monitoring underdosed patient regions

  16. Estimation of foot pressure from human footprint depths using 3D scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, Dwi Basuki; Haryadi, Gunawan Dwi; Priambodo, Agus

    2016-03-01

    The analysis of normal and pathological variation in human foot morphology is central to several biomedical disciplines, including orthopedics, orthotic design, sports sciences, and physical anthropology, and it is also important for efficient footwear design. A classic and frequently used approach to study foot morphology is analysis of the footprint shape and footprint depth. Footprints are relatively easy to produce and to measure, and they can be preserved naturally in different soils. In this study, we need to correlate footprint depth with corresponding foot pressure of individual using 3D scanner. Several approaches are used for modeling and estimating footprint depths and foot pressures. The deepest footprint point is calculated from z max coordinate-z min coordinate and the average of foot pressure is calculated from GRF divided to foot area contact and identical with the average of footprint depth. Evaluation of footprint depth was found from importing 3D scanner file (dxf) in AutoCAD, the z-coordinates than sorted from the highest to the lowest value using Microsoft Excel to make footprinting depth in difference color. This research is only qualitatif study because doesn't use foot pressure device as comparator, and resulting the maximum pressure on calceneus is 3.02 N/cm2, lateral arch is 3.66 N/cm2, and metatarsal and hallux is 3.68 N/cm2.

  17. Uncertainty analysis of depth predictions from seismic reflection data using Bayesian statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelioudakis, Dimitrios G.; Hobbs, Richard W.; Caiado, Camila C. S.

    2018-06-01

    Estimating the depths of target horizons from seismic reflection data is an important task in exploration geophysics. To constrain these depths we need a reliable and accurate velocity model. Here, we build an optimum 2-D seismic reflection data processing flow focused on pre-stack deghosting filters and velocity model building and apply Bayesian methods, including Gaussian process emulation and Bayesian History Matching, to estimate the uncertainties of the depths of key horizons near the Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) borehole 258 (DSDP-258) located in the Mentelle Basin, southwest of Australia, and compare the results with the drilled core from that well. Following this strategy, the tie between the modelled and observed depths from DSDP-258 core was in accordance with the ±2σ posterior credibility intervals and predictions for depths to key horizons were made for the two new drill sites, adjacent to the existing borehole of the area. The probabilistic analysis allowed us to generate multiple realizations of pre-stack depth migrated images, these can be directly used to better constrain interpretation and identify potential risk at drill sites. The method will be applied to constrain the drilling targets for the upcoming International Ocean Discovery Program, leg 369.

  18. Accelerated decay rates drive soil organic matter persistence and storage in temperate forests via greater mineral stabilization of microbial residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, R.; Craig, M.; Turner, B. L.; Liang, C.

    2017-12-01

    Climate predicts soil organic matter (SOM) stocks at the global scale, yet controls on SOM stocks at finer spatial scales are still debated. A current hypothesis predicts that carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) storage in soils should be greater when decomposition is slow owing to microbial competition for nutrients or the recalcitrance of organic substrates (hereafter the `slow decay' hypothesis). An alternative hypothesis predicts that soil C and N storage should be greater in soils with rapid decomposition, owing to the accelerated production of microbial residues and their stabilization on soil minerals (hereafter the `stabilization hypothesis'). To test these alternative hypotheses, we quantified soil C and N to 1-m depth in temperate forests across the Eastern and Midwestern US that varied in their biotic, climatic, and edaphic properties. At each site, we sampled (1) soils dominated by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) tree species, which typically have fast decay rates and accelerated N cycling, (2) soils dominated by ectomycorrhizal (ECM) tree species, which generally have slow decay rates and slow N cycling, and (3) soils supporting both AM and ECM trees. To the extent that trees and theor associated microbes reflect and reinforce soil conditions, support for the slow decay hypothesis would be greater SOM storage in ECM soils, whereas support for the stabilization hypothesis would be greater SOM storage in AM soils. We found support for both hypotheses, as slow decomposition in ECM soils increased C and N storage in topsoil, whereas fast decomposition in AM soils increased C and N storage in subsoil. However, at all sites we found 57% greater total C and N storage in the entire profile in AM- soils (P stabilization hypothesis. Amino sugar biomarkers (an indicator of microbial necromass) and particle size fractionation revealed that the greater SOM storage in AM soils was driven by an accumulation of microbial residues on clay minerals and metal oxides. Taken together

  19. Contributions of depth filter components to protein adsorption in bioprocessing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, Ohnmar; Singh, Nripen; Traylor, Steven J; Xu, Xuankuo; Ghose, Sanchayita; Li, Zheng J; Lenhoff, Abraham M

    2018-04-16

    Depth filtration is widely used in downstream bioprocessing to remove particulate contaminants via depth straining and is therefore applied to harvest clarification and other processing steps. However, depth filtration also removes proteins via adsorption, which can contribute variously to impurity clearance and to reduction in product yield. The adsorption may occur on the different components of the depth filter, that is, filter aid, binder, and cellulose filter. We measured adsorption of several model proteins and therapeutic proteins onto filter aids, cellulose, and commercial depth filters at pH 5-8 and ionic strengths filter component in the adsorption of proteins with different net charges, using confocal microscopy. Our findings show that a complete depth filter's maximum adsorptive capacity for proteins can be estimated by its protein monolayer coverage values, which are of order mg/m 2 , depending on the protein size. Furthermore, the extent of adsorption of different proteins appears to depend on the nature of the resin binder and its extent of coating over the depth filter surface, particularly in masking the cation-exchanger-like capacity of the siliceous filter aids. In addition to guiding improved depth filter selection, the findings can be leveraged in inspiring a more intentional selection of components and design of depth filter construction for particular impurity removal targets. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. The effect of glenoid cavity depth on rotator cuff tendinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkoc, Melih; Korkmaz, Ozgur; Ormeci, Tugrul; Sever, Cem; Kara, Adna; Mahirogulları, Mahir

    2016-03-01

    Some of the most important causes of shoulder pain are inflammation and degenerative changes in the rotator cuff (RC). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive and safe imaging modality. MRI can be used for the evaluation of cuff tendinopathy. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between glenoid cavity depth and cuff tendinopathy and we investigated glenoid cavity depth on the pathogenesis of cuff tendinopathy. We retrospectively evaluated 215 patients who underwent MRI. Of these, 60 patients showed cuff tendinopathy (group A) and 54 patients showed no pathology (group B). Glenoid cavity depth was calculated in the coronal and transverse planes. The mean axial depth was 1.7 ± 0.9 and the mean coronal depth 3.8 ± 0.9, for group A. The mean axial depth was 3.5 ± 0.7 and the mean coronal depth 1.5 ± 0.8, for group B. There were significant differences in the axial and coronal depths between the two groups. High coronal and low axial depth of the glenoid cavity can be used to diagnose RC tendinitis.

  1. Sensor and control for consistent seed drill coulter depth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard Nielsen, Søren; Nørremark, Michael; Green, Ole

    2016-01-01

    The consistent depth placement of seeds is vital for achieving the optimum yield of agricultural crops. In state-of-the-art seeding machines, the depth of drill coulters will vary with changes in soil resistance. This paper presents the retrofitting of an angle sensor to the pivoting point...... by a sub-millimetre accurate positioning system (iGPS, Nikon Metrology NV, Belgium) mounted on the drill coulter. At a drill coulter depth of 55 mm and controlled by an ordinary fixed spring loaded down force only, the change in soil resistance decreased the mean depth by 23 mm. By dynamically controlling...

  2. Greater trochanter pain syndrome: A descriptive MR imaging study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klontzas, Michail E., E-mail: miklontzas@gmail.com; Karantanas, Apostolos H., E-mail: akarantanas@gmail.com

    2014-10-15

    Objective: Greater trochanter pain syndrome (GTPS) is a diverse clinical entity caused by a variety of underlying conditions. We sought to explore the impact of (1) hip morphology, namely the center-edge angle (CEa) and femoral neck-shaft (NSa) angle, (2) hip abductor tendon degeneration, (3) the dimensions of peritrochanteric edema and (4) bursitis, on the presence of GTPS, using MR imaging. Materials and methods: The presence of pain was prospectively assessed blindly by the senior author. CEa and NSa were blindly measured in 174 hip MR examinations, after completion of the clinical evaluation by another evaluator. The existence and dimensions of T2 hyperintensity of the peritrochanteric soft tissues, the existence and dimensions of bursae, as well as degeneration and tearing of gluteus tendons were also recorded. Results: Out of 174 examinations, 91 displayed peritrochanteric edema (group A) and 34 bursitis, all with peritrochanteric edema (group B). A number of 78 patients from both A and B groups, showed gluteus medius tendon degeneration and one tendon tear. CEa of groups A and B were 6° higher than those of normals (group C, P = 0.0038). The mean age of normals was 16.6 years less than in group A and 19.8 years less than in group B (P < 0.0001). Bursitis was associated with pain with a negative predictive value of 97% (P = 0.0003). Conclusion: Acetabular morphology is associated with GTPS and the absence of bursitis was proved to be clinically relevant. Peritrochanteric edema alone was not associated with local pain.

  3. Greater trochanter pain syndrome: A descriptive MR imaging study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klontzas, Michail E.; Karantanas, Apostolos H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Greater trochanter pain syndrome (GTPS) is a diverse clinical entity caused by a variety of underlying conditions. We sought to explore the impact of (1) hip morphology, namely the center-edge angle (CEa) and femoral neck-shaft (NSa) angle, (2) hip abductor tendon degeneration, (3) the dimensions of peritrochanteric edema and (4) bursitis, on the presence of GTPS, using MR imaging. Materials and methods: The presence of pain was prospectively assessed blindly by the senior author. CEa and NSa were blindly measured in 174 hip MR examinations, after completion of the clinical evaluation by another evaluator. The existence and dimensions of T2 hyperintensity of the peritrochanteric soft tissues, the existence and dimensions of bursae, as well as degeneration and tearing of gluteus tendons were also recorded. Results: Out of 174 examinations, 91 displayed peritrochanteric edema (group A) and 34 bursitis, all with peritrochanteric edema (group B). A number of 78 patients from both A and B groups, showed gluteus medius tendon degeneration and one tendon tear. CEa of groups A and B were 6° higher than those of normals (group C, P = 0.0038). The mean age of normals was 16.6 years less than in group A and 19.8 years less than in group B (P < 0.0001). Bursitis was associated with pain with a negative predictive value of 97% (P = 0.0003). Conclusion: Acetabular morphology is associated with GTPS and the absence of bursitis was proved to be clinically relevant. Peritrochanteric edema alone was not associated with local pain

  4. Influence of size and depth on accuracy of electrical impedance scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malich, Ansgar; Facius, Mirjam; Boettcher, Joachim; Sauner, Dieter; Hansch, Andreas; Marx, Christiane; Petrovitch, Alexander; Pfleiderer, Stefan; Kaiser, Werner [Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Friedrich Schiller University, Bachstrasse 18, 07740, Jena (Germany); Anderson, Roselle [Siemens Medical Systems, Oncology Care Systems Group, 4040 Nelson Ave., CA 94520, Concorde (United States)

    2003-11-01

    Cancer cells exhibit altered local dielectric properties which can be assessed using electrical impedance scanning (EIS). The study was aimed at clarifying influence of lesion size and depth on EIS performance. From a series of 387 lesions (129 malignant and 258 benign) from 363 patients being sonographically and/or mammographically evaluated, size and depth information was not available in 112 lesions, size was available in 86 lesions and additional depth information was available in 189 lesions, respectively, while performing EIS. Lesions were either histologically verified or had a follow-up of at least 2 years. One hundred three of 129 malignant lesions and 165 of 258 benign lesions were correctly detected (sensitivity 79.8%, specificity 64.0%, accuracy 71.9%). Sensitivity without knowledge of size and depth was 64.6% (10 of 16 malignant lesions detected). This value increased to 76.2% (32 of 42) with knowledge of the size and further increased to 85.9% with knowledge of size and depth (61 of 71). Specificity values in the three subgroups were almost similar: 64.6 (62 of 96), 65.9 (29 of 44), and 62.7% (74 of 118), respectively. Accuracy rises from 63.6% (without knowledge of size/depth) to 71.1 and 74.3% (with size knowledge and with size and depth knowledge, respectively). Accuracy of EIS improved significantly by including sonographical information about depth and size into the analysis. Ultrasound examination should be performed prior to EIS. (orig.)

  5. Influence of size and depth on accuracy of electrical impedance scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malich, Ansgar; Facius, Mirjam; Boettcher, Joachim; Sauner, Dieter; Hansch, Andreas; Marx, Christiane; Petrovitch, Alexander; Pfleiderer, Stefan; Kaiser, Werner; Anderson, Roselle

    2003-01-01

    Cancer cells exhibit altered local dielectric properties which can be assessed using electrical impedance scanning (EIS). The study was aimed at clarifying influence of lesion size and depth on EIS performance. From a series of 387 lesions (129 malignant and 258 benign) from 363 patients being sonographically and/or mammographically evaluated, size and depth information was not available in 112 lesions, size was available in 86 lesions and additional depth information was available in 189 lesions, respectively, while performing EIS. Lesions were either histologically verified or had a follow-up of at least 2 years. One hundred three of 129 malignant lesions and 165 of 258 benign lesions were correctly detected (sensitivity 79.8%, specificity 64.0%, accuracy 71.9%). Sensitivity without knowledge of size and depth was 64.6% (10 of 16 malignant lesions detected). This value increased to 76.2% (32 of 42) with knowledge of the size and further increased to 85.9% with knowledge of size and depth (61 of 71). Specificity values in the three subgroups were almost similar: 64.6 (62 of 96), 65.9 (29 of 44), and 62.7% (74 of 118), respectively. Accuracy rises from 63.6% (without knowledge of size/depth) to 71.1 and 74.3% (with size knowledge and with size and depth knowledge, respectively). Accuracy of EIS improved significantly by including sonographical information about depth and size into the analysis. Ultrasound examination should be performed prior to EIS. (orig.)

  6. A perspective on two chemometrics tools: PCA and MCR, and introduction of a new one: Pattern recognition entropy (PRE), as applied to XPS and ToF-SIMS depth profiles of organic and inorganic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Shiladitya; Singh, Bhupinder; Diwan, Anubhav; Lee, Zheng Rong; Engelhard, Mark H.; Terry, Jeff; Tolley, H. Dennis; Gallagher, Neal B.; Linford, Matthew R.

    2018-03-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) are much used analytical techniques that provide information about the outermost atomic and molecular layers of materials. In this work, we discuss the application of multivariate spectral techniques, including principal component analysis (PCA) and multivariate curve resolution (MCR), to the analysis of XPS and ToF-SIMS depth profiles. Multivariate analyses often provide insight into data sets that is not easily obtained in a univariate fashion. Pattern recognition entropy (PRE), which has its roots in Shannon's information theory, is also introduced. This approach is not the same as the mutual information/entropy approaches sometimes used in data processing. A discussion of the theory of each technique is presented. PCA, MCR, and PRE are applied to four different data sets obtained from: a ToF-SIMS depth profile through ca. 100 nm of plasma polymerized C3F6 on Si, a ToF-SIMS depth profile through ca. 100 nm of plasma polymerized PNIPAM (poly (N-isopropylacrylamide)) on Si, an XPS depth profile through a film of SiO2 on Si, and an XPS depth profile through a film of Ta2O5 on Ta. PCA, MCR, and PRE reveal the presence of interfaces in the films, and often indicate that the first few scans in the depth profiles are different from those that follow. PRE and backward difference PRE provide this information in a straightforward fashion. Rises in the PRE signals at interfaces suggest greater complexity to the corresponding spectra. Results from PCA, especially for the higher principal components, were sometimes difficult to understand. MCR analyses were generally more interpretable.

  7. Headgear Accessories Classification Using an Overhead Depth Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Luna

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we address the generation of semantic labels describing the headgear accessories carried out by people in a scene under surveillance, only using depth information obtained from a Time-of-Flight (ToF camera placed in an overhead position. We propose a new method for headgear accessories classification based on the design of a robust processing strategy that includes the estimation of a meaningful feature vector that provides the relevant information about the people’s head and shoulder areas. This paper includes a detailed description of the proposed algorithmic approach, and the results obtained in tests with persons with and without headgear accessories, and with different types of hats and caps. In order to evaluate the proposal, a wide experimental validation has been carried out on a fully labeled database (that has been made available to the scientific community, including a broad variety of people and headgear accessories. For the validation, three different levels of detail have been defined, considering a different number of classes: the first level only includes two classes (hat/cap, and no hat/cap, the second one considers three classes (hat, cap and no hat/cap, and the last one includes the full class set with the five classes (no hat/cap, cap, small size hat, medium size hat, and large size hat. The achieved performance is satisfactory in every case: the average classification rates for the first level reaches 95.25%, for the second one is 92.34%, and for the full class set equals 84.60%. In addition, the online stage processing time is 5.75 ms per frame in a standard PC, thus allowing for real-time operation.

  8. Ultrasound-Guided Intermediate Site Greater Occipital Nerve Infiltration: A Technical Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipfel, Jonathan; Kastler, Adrian; Tatu, Laurent; Behr, Julien; Kechidi, Rachid; Kastler, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Two studies recently reported that computed tomography (CT) guided infiltration of the greater occipital nerve at its intermediate site allows a high efficacy rate with long-lasting pain relief following procedure in occipital neuralgia and in various craniofacial pain syndromes. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the technical feasibility and safety of ultrasound-guided intermediate site greater occipital nerve infiltration. Retrospective study. This study was conducted at the imaging department of a 1,409 bed university hospital. Local institutional review board approval was obtained and written consent was waived. In this retrospective study, 12 patients suffering from refractory occipital neuralgia or craniofacial pain syndromes were included between April and October 2014. They underwent a total of 21 ultrasound-guided infiltrations. Infiltration of the greater occipital nerve was performed at the intermediate site of the greater occipital nerve, at its first bend between obliqus capitis inferior and semispinalis capitis muscles with local anestetics and cortivazol. Technical success was defined as satisfactory diffusion of added iodinated contrast media in the fatty space between these muscles depicted on control CT scan. We also reported first data of immediate block test efficacy and initial clinical efficacy at 7 days, one month, and 3 months, defined by a decrease of at least 50% of visual analog scale (VAS) scores. Technical success rate was 95.24%. Patients suffered from right unilateral occipital neuralgia in 3 cases, left unilateral occipital neuralgia in 2 cases, bilateral occipital neuralgia in 2 cases, migraine in one case, cervicogenic headache in one case, tension-type headache in 2 cases, and cluster headache in one case. Block test efficacy was found in 93.3% (14/15) cases. Clinical efficacy was found in 80% of cases at 7 days, in 66.7% of cases at one month and in 60% of cases at 3 months. No major complications were noted. Some of the

  9. Pilomatricoma: A tumor with hidden depths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simi C

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pilomatricoma is a benign tumor of hair matrix differentiation and has been classically described as comprising of basaloid and shadow cells admixed with multinucleated giant cells and areas of calcification. However, there are a diverse range of histologic features this tumor displays that are often unrecognized. Aims: This study was undertaken to record the histopathologic features of pilomatricoma with an emphasis on the occurrence of other forms of differentiation. Methods: The study included all skin biopsy specimens over a 13-year period from 1995 to 2007 that had a histologic diagnosis of pilomatricoma. Hematoxylin and eosin-stained slides were reviewed. Results: This study included 21 cases of pilomatricoma. Supramatrical differentiation was seen in all cases and three-quarters of the cases showed matrical differentiation. Also observed in some of the cases were clear cell differentiation toward the outer root sheath, infundibular differentiation, calcification, ossification and secondary inflammation with a foreign body giant cell reaction. Epidermal induction in the form of a downward plate-like growth of the epidermis was seen in a few cases. Conclusion: Pilomatricoma, although considered a tumor of hair matrix differentiation, can show cellular evolution toward the other parts of the hair follicle, such as the outer and inner root sheaths, sebaceous and infundibular components and, therefore, can be considered a panfollicular neoplasm.

  10. Immigration history of amphidromous species on a Greater Antillean island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin D. Cook; Catherine M. Pringle; Jane M. Hughes

    2010-01-01

    Aim To use molecular data to test for dispersal structuring in the immigration history of an amphidromous community on an island. Location The Caribbean island of Puerto Rico. Methods Mitochondrial DNA sequences were obtained from 11 amphidromous species, including shrimps, fish and a gastropod, sampled from throughout the island. The timing of population expansion (TE...

  11. Action Program for Implementing Heat Savings in Greater Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen; Karlsson, Kenneth; Engell, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    This main report summarized the content of the three sub-report of the project, including the background for the project, the potentails for saving heat and the barriers for implementing these savings. Afterwards the report define the geographical area considered, as well as the present situation...

  12. Views That Are Shared With Others Are Expressed With Greater Confidence and Greater Fluency Independent of Any Social Influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koriat, Asher; Adiv, Shiri; Schwarz, Norbert

    2016-05-01

    Research on group influence has yielded a prototypical majority effect (PME): Majority views are endorsed faster and with greater confidence than minority views, with the difference increasing with majority size. The PME was attributed to conformity pressure enhancing confidence in consensual views and causing inhibition in venturing deviant opinions. Our results, however, indicate that PME for binary choices can arise from the process underlying confidence and latency independent of social influence. PME was demonstrated for tasks and conditions that are stripped of social relevance; it was observed in within-individual analyses in contrasting the individual's more frequent and less frequent responses to the same item, and was found for the predictions of others' responses. A self-consistency model, which assumes that choice and confidence are based on the sampling of representations from a commonly shared pool of representations, yielded a PME for confidence and latency. Behavioral implications of the results are discussed. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  13. Direct measurement of dose at depth in breast cancer using lithium fluoride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawes, P J.D.K.; Aird, E G; Crawshaw, I P

    1988-05-01

    In 23 cases of breast cancer treated conservatively using external beam and interstitial radiotherapy, lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosimetry has been used to measure the radiation dose received by the breast tissue at depth. Thirty-six investigations were made using a number of lithium fluoride micro-rods for each investigation. Three results could not be analysed because of measurement problems in two and insufficient information in one. Twenty-eight results were obtained at a depth in tissue greater than the build-up zone, 23 of the 28 falling within +- 5% and 27 of the 28 falling within +- 10% of the computer-calculated prescribed dose. Of five results obtained within the build-up zone, two fell within +- 5% and four within +- 10% of the prescribed dose.

  14. Direct measurement of dose at depth in breast cancer using lithium fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawes, P.J.D.K.; Aird, E.G.; Crawshaw, I.P.

    1988-01-01

    In 23 cases of breast cancer treated conservatively using external beam and interstitial radiotherapy, lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosimetry has been used to measure the radiation dose received by the breast tissue at depth. Thirty-six investigations were made using a number of lithium fluoride micro-rods for each investigation. Three results could not be analysed because of measurement problems in two and insufficient information in one. Twenty-eight results were obtained at a depth in tissue greater than the build-up zone, 23 of the 28 falling within ± 5% and 27 of the 28 falling within ± 10% of the computer-calculated prescribed dose. Of five results obtained within the build-up zone, two fell within ± 5% and four within ± 10% of the prescribed dose. (author)

  15. A prospective observational study of skin to subarachnoid space depth in the Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita Prakash

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: A pre-puncture estimate of skin to subarachnoid space depth (SSD may guide spinal needle placement and reduce complications associated with lumbar puncture. Our aim was to determine (1 The SSD in Indian males, females, parturients and the overall population; (2 To derive formulae for predicting SSD and (3 To determine which previously suggested formula best suited our population. Methods: In this prospective, observational study, 800 adult Indian patients undergoing surgery under spinal anaesthesia were divided into three groups: Males (Group M, females (Group F and parturients (Group PF. SSD was measured after lumbar puncture. The relationship between SSD and patient characteristics was studied and statistical models were used to derive formula for predicting SSD. Statistical analysis included One-way ANOVA with post hoc analysis, forward stepwise multivariate regression analysis and paired t-tests. Results: Mean SSD was 4.71 ± 0.70 cm in the overall population. SSD in adult males (4.81 ± 0.68 cm was significantly longer than that observed in females (4.55 ± 0.66 cm but was comparable with SSD in parturients (4.73 ± 0.73 cm. Formula for predicting SSD in the overall population was 2.71 + 0.09 × Body Mass Index (BMI. Stocker′s formula when applied correlated best with the observed SSD. Formulae were derived for the three groups. Conclusions: We found gender-based differences in SSD, with SSD in males being significantly greater than that observed in the female population. SSD correlated with BMI in the parturient and the overall population. Amongst the previously proposed formulae, Stocker′s formula was most accurate in predicting SSD in our population.

  16. Relation between 1m depth temperature and average geothermal gradient at 75cm depth in geothermal fields

    OpenAIRE

    江原, 幸雄

    2009-01-01

    Shallow ground temperatures such as 1m depth temperature have been measured to delineate thermal anomalies of geothermal fields and also to estimate heat discharge rates from geothermal fields. As a result, a close linear relation between 1m depth temperature and average geothermal gradient at 75cm depth has been recognized in many geothermal fields and was used to estimate conductive heat discharge rates. However, such a linear relation may show that the shallow thermal regime in geothermal ...

  17. Sedimentary basins reconnaissance using the magnetic Tilt-Depth method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, A.; Williams, S.; Samson, E.; Fairhead, D.; Ravat, D.; Blakely, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    We compute the depth to the top of magnetic basement using the Tilt-Depth method from the best available magnetic anomaly grids covering the continental USA and Australia. For the USA, the Tilt-Depth estimates were compared with sediment thicknesses based on drilling data and show a correlation of 0.86 between the datasets. If random data were used then the correlation value goes to virtually zero. There is little to no lateral offset of the depth of basinal features although there is a tendency for the Tilt-Depth results to be slightly shallower than the drill depths. We also applied the Tilt-Depth method to a local-scale, relatively high-resolution aeromagnetic survey over the Olympic Peninsula of Washington State. The Tilt-Depth method successfully identified a variety of important tectonic elements known from geological mapping. Of particular interest, the Tilt-Depth method illuminated deep (3km) contacts within the non-magnetic sedimentary core of the Olympic Mountains, where magnetic anomalies are subdued and low in amplitude. For Australia, the Tilt-Depth estimates also give a good correlation with known areas of shallow basement and sedimentary basins. Our estimates of basement depth are not restricted to regional analysis but work equally well at the micro scale (basin scale) with depth estimates agreeing well with drill hole and seismic data. We focus on the eastern Officer Basin as an example of basin scale studies and find a good level of agreement between previously-derived basin models. However, our study potentially reveals depocentres not previously mapped due to the sparse distribution of well data. This example thus shows the potential additional advantage of the method in geological interpretation. The success of this study suggests that the Tilt-Depth method is useful in estimating the depth to crystalline basement when appropriate quality aeromagnetic anomaly data are used (i.e. line spacing on the order of or less than the expected depth to

  18. Quantifying spatial variability of depth of peat burn in wetlands in relation to antecedent characteristics using field data, multi-temporal and multi-spectral LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasmer, L.; Flade, L.; Virk, R.; Montgomery, J. S.; Hopkinson, C.; Thompson, D. K.; Petrone, R. M.; Devito, K.

    2017-12-01

    Landscape changes in the hydrological characteristics of wetlands in some parts of the Boreal region of Canada are occurring as a result of climate-induced feedbacks and anthropogenic disturbance. Wetlands are largely resilient to wildfire, however, natural, climatic and anthropogenic disturbances can change surface water regimes and predispose wetlands to greater depth of peat burn. Over broad areas, peat loss contributes to significant pollution emissions, which can affect community health. In this study, we a) quantify depth of peat burn and relationships to antecedent conditions (species type, topography, surficial geology) within three classified wetlands found in the Boreal Plains ecoregion of western Canada; and b) examine the impacts of wildfire on post-fire ground surface energy balance to determine how peat loss might affect local hydro-climatology and surface water feedbacks. High-resolution optical imagery, pre- and post-burn multi-spectral Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR), airborne thermal infrared imagery, and field validation data products are integrated to identify multiple complex interactions within the study wetlands. LiDAR-derived depth of peat burn is within 1 cm (average) compared with measured (RMSE = 9 cm over the control surface), demonstrating the utility of LiDAR with high point return density. Depth of burn also correlates strongly with variations in Normalised Burn Ratio (NBR) determined for ground surfaces only. Antecedent conditions including topographic position, soil moisture, soil type and wetland species also have complex interactions with depth of peat loss within wetlands observed in other studies. However, while field measurements are important for validation and understanding eco-hydrological processes, results from remote sensing are spatially continuous. Temporal LiDAR data illustrate the full range of variability in depth of burn and wetland characteristics following fire. Finally, measurements of instantaneous surface

  19. Greater sage-grouse population trends across Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, David; Aldridge, Cameron L.; O'Donnell, Michael; Monroe, Adrian

    2018-01-01

    The scale at which analyses are performed can have an effect on model results and often one scale does not accurately describe the ecological phenomena of interest (e.g., population trends) for wide-ranging species: yet, most ecological studies are performed at a single, arbitrary scale. To best determine local and regional trends for greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in Wyoming, USA, we modeled density-independent and -dependent population growth across multiple spatial scales relevant to management and conservation (Core Areas [habitat encompassing approximately 83% of the sage-grouse population on ∼24% of surface area in Wyoming], local Working Groups [7 regional areas for which groups of local experts are tasked with implementing Wyoming's statewide sage-grouse conservation plan at the local level], Core Area status (Core Area vs. Non-Core Area) by Working Groups, and Core Areas by Working Groups). Our goal was to determine the influence of fine-scale population trends (Core Areas) on larger-scale populations (Working Group Areas). We modeled the natural log of change in population size ( peak M lek counts) by time to calculate the finite rate of population growth (λ) for each population of interest from 1993 to 2015. We found that in general when Core Area status (Core Area vs. Non-Core Area) was investigated by Working Group Area, the 2 populations trended similarly and agreed with the overall trend of the Working Group Area. However, at the finer scale where Core Areas were analyzed separately, Core Areas within the same Working Group Area often trended differently and a few large Core Areas could influence the overall Working Group Area trend and mask trends occurring in smaller Core Areas. Relatively close fine-scale populations of sage-grouse can trend differently, indicating that large-scale trends may not accurately depict what is occurring across the landscape (e.g., local effects of gas and oil fields may be masked by increasing

  20. Alternate approach for calculating hardness based on residual indentation depth: Comparison with experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananthakrishna, G.; K, Srikanth

    2018-03-01

    It is well known that plastic deformation is a highly nonlinear dissipative irreversible phenomenon of considerable complexity. As a consequence, little progress has been made in modeling some well-known size-dependent properties of plastic deformation, for instance, calculating hardness as a function of indentation depth independently. Here, we devise a method of calculating hardness by calculating the residual indentation depth and then calculate the hardness as the ratio of the load to the residual imprint area. Recognizing the fact that dislocations are the basic defects controlling the plastic component of the indentation depth, we set up a system of coupled nonlinear time evolution equations for the mobile, forest, and geometrically necessary dislocation densities. Within our approach, we consider the geometrically necessary dislocations to be immobile since they contribute to additional hardness. The model includes dislocation multiplication, storage, and recovery mechanisms. The growth of the geometrically necessary dislocation density is controlled by the number of loops that can be activated under the contact area and the mean strain gradient. The equations are then coupled to the load rate equation. Our approach has the ability to adopt experimental parameters such as the indentation rates, the geometrical parameters defining the Berkovich indenter, including the nominal tip radius. The residual indentation depth is obtained by integrating the Orowan expression for the plastic strain rate, which is then used to calculate the hardness. Consistent with the experimental observations, the increasing hardness with decreasing indentation depth in our model arises from limited dislocation sources at small indentation depths and therefore avoids divergence in the limit of small depths reported in the Nix-Gao model. We demonstrate that for a range of parameter values that physically represent different materials, the model predicts the three characteristic