WorldWideScience

Sample records for greater capture radius

  1. Recombination radius of a Frenkel pair and capture radius of a self-interstitial atom by vacancy clusters in bcc Fe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, Kenichi; Stoller, Roger E; Xu, Haixuan

    2015-01-01

    The recombination radius of a Frenkel pair is a fundamental parameter for the object kinetic Monte Carlo (OKMC) and mean field rate theory (RT) methods that are used to investigate irradiation damage accumulation in irradiated materials. The recombination radius in bcc Fe has been studied both experimentally and numerically, however there is no general consensus about its value. The detailed atomistic processes of recombination also remain uncertain. Values from 1.0a 0 to 3.3a 0 have been employed as a recombination radius in previous studies using OKMC and RT. The recombination process of a Frenkel pair is investigated at the atomic level using the self-evolved atomistic kinetic Monte Carlo (SEAKMC) method in this paper. SEAKMC calculations reveal that a self-interstitial atom recombines with a vacancy in a spontaneous reaction from several nearby sites following characteristic pathways. The recombination radius of a Frenkel pair is estimated to be 2.26a 0 by taking the average of the recombination distances from 80 simulation cases. In addition, we apply these procedures to the capture radius of a self-interstitial atom by a vacancy cluster. The capture radius is found to gradually increase with the size of the vacancy cluster. The fitting curve for the capture radius is obtained as a function of the number of vacancies in the cluster. (paper)

  2. Spectral radius of graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Stevanovic, Dragan

    2015-01-01

    Spectral Radius of Graphs provides a thorough overview of important results on the spectral radius of adjacency matrix of graphs that have appeared in the literature in the preceding ten years, most of them with proofs, and including some previously unpublished results of the author. The primer begins with a brief classical review, in order to provide the reader with a foundation for the subsequent chapters. Topics covered include spectral decomposition, the Perron-Frobenius theorem, the Rayleigh quotient, the Weyl inequalities, and the Interlacing theorem. From this introduction, the

  3. The proton radius puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonesini, Maurizio

    2017-12-01

    The FAMU (Fisica degli Atomi Muonici) experiment has the goal to measure precisely the proton Zemach radius, thus contributing to the solution of the so-called proton radius "puzzle". To this aim, it makes use of a high-intensity pulsed muon beam at RIKEN-RAL impinging on a cryogenic hydrogen target with an high-Z gas admixture and a tunable mid-IR high power laser, to measure the hyperfine (HFS) splitting of the 1S state of the muonic hydrogen. From the value of the exciting laser frequency, the energy of the HFS transition may be derived with high precision ( 10-5) and thus, via QED calculations, the Zemach radius of the proton. The experimental apparatus includes a precise fiber-SiPMT beam hodoscope and a crown of eight LaBr3 crystals and a few HPGe detectors for detection of the emitted characteristic X-rays. Preliminary runs to optimize the gas target filling and its operating conditions have been taken in 2014 and 2015-2016. The final run, with the pump laser to drive the HFS transition, is expected in 2018.

  4. On the proton radius problem

    OpenAIRE

    Giannini, M. M.; Santopinto, E.

    2013-01-01

    The recent values of the proton charge radius obtained by means of muonic-hydrogen laser spectroscopy are about $4\\%$ different from the electron scattering data. It has been suggested that the proton radius is actually measured in different frames and that, starting from a non relativistic quark model calculation, the Lorentz transformation of the form factors accounts properly for the discepancy. We shall show that the relation between the charge radii measured in different frames can be de...

  5. Ever-changing proton radius?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihovilovic, Miha [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Johannes-Gutenberg-Universitaet, Mainz (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The discrepancy between the proton charge radius extracted from the muonic hydrogen Lamb shift measurement and the presently best value obtained from elastic scattering experiments remains unexplained and represents a burning problem of today's nuclear physics. Therefore, several new experiments are underway, committed to provide new insight into the problem. High-precision electron scattering experiments are in progress at the Jefferson Lab and the Mainz Microtron. As a counterpart to these measurements, a muon-proton scattering experiment is envisioned at the Paul Scherrer Institute. Together with the nuclear scattering experiments, new atomic measurements are underway at the Max Planck Institute in Garching, which aim to further improve also the spectroscopic results on electronic hydrogen. These experiments are complemented by extensive theoretical efforts focused on studying various processes contributing to the atomic Lamb shift measurements that could explain the difference, as well as on pursuing different ways to interpret nuclear form-factor measurements, which could lead to a consistent value of the radius. In this presentation the currently best proton radius measurements are summarized, and the importance of the observed inconsistency between the hydrogen and the muonic-hydrogen data is discussed. Selected new experiments dedicated to remeasuring the radius are described, and the results of the MAMI experiment are presented.

  6. Electric arc radius and characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, T.M.

    1980-01-01

    The heat transfer equation of an arc discharge has been solved. The arc is assumed to be a cylinder with negligible axial variation and the dominant heat transfer process is conduction radially inside the column and radiation/convection at the outside edge. The symmetric consideration allows a simple one-dimensional formulation. By taking into account proper variation of the electrical conductivity as function of temperature, the heat balance equation has been solved analytically. The radius of the arc and its current-field characteristics have also been obtained. The conventional results that E approx. I 0 5385 and R approx. I 0 7693 with E being the applied field, I the current, and R the radius of the cylindrical arc, have been proved to be simply limiting cases of our more general characteristics. The results can be applied quite widely including, among others, the neutral beam injection project in nuclear fusion and MHD energy conversion

  7. On joint numerical radius II

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drnovšek, R.; Müller, Vladimír

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 9 (2014), s. 1197-1204 ISSN 0308-1087 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/09/0473; GA AV ČR IAA100190903 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : joint numerical range * numerical radius Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.738, year: 2014 http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/03081087.2013.816303

  8. Capturing Thoughts, Capturing Minds?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Janni

    2004-01-01

    Think Aloud is cost effective, promises access to the user's mind and is the applied usability technique. But 'keep talking' is difficult, besides, the multimodal interface is visual not verbal. Eye-tracking seems to get around the verbalisation problem. It captures the visual focus of attention...

  9. The radius of RX Eridani

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woolley, R.; Dean, J.

    1976-01-01

    Photoelectric observations of the light curves of RX Eri obtained in B, V and I, and radial velocity determinations, are combined to determine the radius by a method originally proposed by van Hoof which avoids matching colours in the rising and falling branches of the light curve and concentrates on the falling branch. The results agree well with those from other stars determined by the normal Baade-Wesselink method, but the method is easier to apply if the colour curve is flat in the falling branch. The parameters found for the star are r 0 = 5.5 Sun, mass = 0.45 Sun, and Msub(v) = + 0sup(m).54. (author)

  10. Puzzling out the proton radius puzzle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihovilovič Miha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The discrepancy between the proton charge radius extracted from the muonic hydrogen Lamb shift measurement and the best present value obtained from the elastic scattering experiments, remains unexplained and represents a burning problem of today’s nuclear physics: after more than 50 years of research the radius of a basic constituent of matter is still not understood. This paper presents a summary of the best existing proton radius measurements, followed by an overview of the possible explanations for the observed inconsistency between the hydrogen and the muonic-hydrogen data. In the last part the upcoming experiments, dedicated to remeasuring the proton radius, are described.

  11. Puzzling out the proton radius puzzle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihovilovič, M.; Merkel, H.; Weber, A. [Institut für Kernphysik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Johann-Joachim-Becher-Weg 45, 55128 Mainz (Germany)

    2016-01-22

    The discrepancy between the proton charge radius extracted from the muonic hydrogen Lamb shift measurement and the best present value obtained from the elastic scattering experiments, remains unexplained and represents a burning problem of today’s nuclear physics: after more than 50 years of research the radius of a basic constituent of matter is still not understood. This paper presents a summary of the best existing proton radius measurements, followed by an overview of the possible explanations for the observed inconsistency between the hydrogen and the muonic-hydrogen data. In the last part the upcoming experiments, dedicated to remeasuring the proton radius, are described.

  12. Critical cladding radius for hybrid cladding modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyard, Romain; Leduc, Dominique; Lupi, Cyril; Lecieux, Yann

    2018-05-01

    In this article we explore some properties of the cladding modes guided by a step-index optical fiber. We show that the hybrid modes can be grouped by pairs and that it exists a critical cladding radius for which the modes of a pair share the same electromagnetic structure. We propose a robust method to determine the critical cladding radius and use it to perform a statistical study on the influence of the characteristics of the fiber on the critical cladding radius. Finally we show the importance of the critical cladding radius with respect to the coupling coefficient between the core mode and the cladding modes inside a long period grating.

  13. Gravitational capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondi, H.

    1979-01-01

    In spite of the strength of gravitational focres between celestial bodies, gravitational capture is not a simple concept. The principles of conservation of linear momentum and of conservation of angular momentum, always impose severe constraints, while conservation of energy and the vital distinction between dissipative and non-dissipative systems allows one to rule out capture in a wide variety of cases. In complex systems especially those without dissipation, long dwell time is a more significant concept than permanent capture. (author)

  14. Synovectomy by Neutron capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega C, H.R.; Torres M, C.

    1998-01-01

    The Synovectomy by Neutron capture has as purpose the treatment of the rheumatoid arthritis, illness which at present does not have a definitive curing. This therapy requires a neutron source for irradiating the articulation affected. The energy spectra and the intensity of these neutrons are fundamental since these neutrons induce nuclear reactions of capture with Boron-10 inside the articulation and the freely energy of these reactions is transferred at the productive tissue of synovial liquid, annihilating it. In this work it is presented the neutron spectra results obtained with moderator packings of spherical geometry which contains in its center a Pu 239 Be source. The calculations were realized through Monte Carlo method. The moderators assayed were light water, heavy water base and the both combination of them. The spectra obtained, the average energy, the neutron total number by neutron emitted by source, the thermal neutron percentage and the dose equivalent allow us to suggest that the moderator packing more adequate is what has a light water thickness 0.5 cm (radius 2 cm) and 24.5 cm heavy water (radius 26.5 cm). (Author)

  15. Nuclear charge radius of $^{12}$Be

    CERN Document Server

    Krieger, Andreas; Bissell, Mark L; Frömmgen, Nadja; Geppert, Christopher; Hammen, Michael; Kreim, Kim; Kowalska, Magdalena; Krämer, Jörg; Neff, Thomas; Neugart, Rainer; Neyens, Gerda; Nörtershäuser, Wilfried; Novotny, Christian; Sanchez, Rodolfo; Yordanov, Deyan T

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear charge radius of $^{12}$Be was precisely determined using the technique of collinear laser spectroscopy on the $2s_{1/2}\\rightarrow 2p_{1/2, 3/2}$ transition in the Be$^{+}$ ion. The mean square charge radius increases from $^{10}$Be to $^{12}$Be by $\\delta ^{10,12} = 0.69(5)$ fm$^{2}$ compared to $\\delta ^{10,11} = 0.49(5)$ fm$^{2}$ for the one-neutron halo isotope $^{11}$Be. Calculations in the fermionic molecular dynamics approach show a strong sensitivity of the charge radius to the structure of $^{12}$Be. The experimental charge radius is consistent with a breakdown of the N=8 shell closure.

  16. Radius crossover sign: an indication of malreduced radius shaft greenstick fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Patrick B; Crepeau, Allison E; Herrera-Soto, José A; Price, Charles T

    2012-06-01

    Radius shaft greenstick fractures in children can be a challenging injury to treat because angulation and rotational alignment are difficult to assess. In this report, we describe a simple method for analyzing the deformity and identifying rotational and angular malalignment. This technique involves analyzing the forearm radiographs as 2 segments, proximal and distal, and assuring that the rotational position of each matches the other. We present 3 cases of proximal radius greenstick fractures in malalignment to demonstrate the radius crossover sign. Identifying the radius crossover sign, and proceeding with further closed reduction may prevent deformity that could otherwise result in a significant loss of forearm motion. Level V.

  17. A Maximum Radius for Habitable Planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibert, Yann

    2015-09-01

    We compute the maximum radius a planet can have in order to fulfill two constraints that are likely necessary conditions for habitability: 1- surface temperature and pressure compatible with the existence of liquid water, and 2- no ice layer at the bottom of a putative global ocean, that would prevent the operation of the geologic carbon cycle to operate. We demonstrate that, above a given radius, these two constraints cannot be met: in the Super-Earth mass range (1-12 Mearth), the overall maximum that a planet can have varies between 1.8 and 2.3 Rearth. This radius is reduced when considering planets with higher Fe/Si ratios, and taking into account irradiation effects on the structure of the gas envelope.

  18. Study Application of RADIUS Protocol on Ethernet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Fang; YANG Huan-yu; LI Hong

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents how to apply the RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial In User Service)protocol ,which is generally applied to dial-up network, to the authentication & charge of Broad Band accessing control system on Ethernet. It is provided that the Broad Band accessing control system included a self-designed communication protocol is used in communicating between an terminal user and Network Access Server .The interface module on the servers side and the Radius system is also given in this article.

  19. The earth's radius and the G variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canuto, V.M.; City Coll., New York

    1981-01-01

    It has been assumed that if the gravitational constant G was larger in the past, the Earth's radius had to be smaller. The assertion holds provided the input from microphysics (in particular the equation of state) is independent of G. While this is true for some theories of gravity with variable G it is not so in the scale covariant theory, where the pressure can be affected by a variable G in a way that, for a constant mass of the Earth, a larger G in the past implies a larger Earth's radius. Comparison with recent palaeomagnetic data is presented. (author)

  20. Variable radius cartography - History and perspectives of a new discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalera, Giancarlo

    2014-05-01

    is now possible to represent paleopoles, their uncertainty ellipses, and site-pole segments of meridian (Scalera, 1988, 1990). In all paleogeographic reconstructions of the different authors, variable radius cartography is used in a way more or less complex, more or less intertwined with other disciplines and databases, not as pure representation or in the spirit of the simple fits that supported plate tectonics, but as experiments of greater complexity with a value of proof in favor of the planet expansion. Today a common feeling is that is now necessary to develop an interactive and user friendly program code, which could be distributed or used in the web. The use of variable radius mapping would be a profitable tool in the field of geodesy, where a full treatment without subtle vicious loops of an expanding globe has yet to be developed.

  1. Spectral Radius and Hamiltonicity of Graphs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fiedler, Miroslav; Nikiforov, V.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 432, č. 9 (2010), s. 2170-2173 ISSN 0024-3795 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : Hamiltonian cycle * Hamiltonian path * spectral radius Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.005, year: 2010

  2. Cost Effective RADIUS Authentication for Wireless Clients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru ENACEANU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Network administrators need to keep administrative user information for each network device, but network devices usually support only limited functions for user management. WLAN security is a modern problem that needs to be solved and it requires a lot of overhead especially when applied to corporate wireless networks. Administrators can set up a RADIUS server that uses an external database server to handle authentication, authorization, and accounting for network security issues.

  3. Upper pinch radius limit in EXTRAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnert, B.

    1989-12-01

    A simple static equilibrium model of the Z-pinch is considered where a hot plasma core is surrounded by a cold-mantle (gas blanket). The pinch radius, defined as the radial extension of the fully ionized plasma core, is uniquely determined by the plasma particle. momentum and heat balance equations. In Extrap configurations an octupole field is introduced which imposes a magnetic separatrix on Z-pinch geometry. This makes the conditions for Extrap equilibrium 'overdetermined' when the characteristic pinch radium given by the plasma parameters tends to exceed the characteristic radius of the magnetic separatrix. In this case no conventional pinch equilibrium can exist, and part of the current which is forced into the plasma discharge by external sources must be channelled outside of the separatrix, i.e. into the surrounding support structure of the Extrap conductors and the vessel walls. A possibly existing bootstrap current in the plasma boundary layer is further expected to be 'scraped off' in this case. The present paper gives some illustrations of the marginal case of this upper pinch radius limit, in a state where the pinch current is antiparallel to the external rod currents which generate the octupole field. (authors)

  4. Mass-Radius diagram for compact stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, G A; Jr, R M Marinho; Malheiro, M

    2015-01-01

    The compact stars represent the final stage in the evolution of ordinary stars, they are formed when a star ceases its nuclear fuel, in this point the process that sustain its stability will stop. After this, the internal pressure can no longer stand the gravitational force and the star colapses [2]. In this work we investigate the structure of these stars which are described by the equations of Tolman-Openheimer-Volkof (TOV) [1]. These equations show us how the pressure varies with the mass and radius of the star. We consider the TOV equations for both relativistic and non-relativistic cases. In the case of compact stars (white dwarfs and neutron stars) the internal pressure that balances the gravitational pressure is essentialy the pressure coming from the degeneracy of fermions. To have solved the TOV equations we need a equation of state that shows how this internal pressure is related to the energy density or mass density. Instead of using politropic equations of state we have solved the equations numericaly using the exact relativistic energy equation for the model of fermion gas at zero temperature. We obtain results for the mass-radius relation for white dwarfs and we compared with the results obtained using the politropic equations of state. In addition we discussed a good fit for the mass-radius relation. (paper)

  5. Solar radius change between 1925 and 1979

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofia, S.; Dunham, D. W.; Dunham, J. B.; Fiala, A. D.

    1983-01-01

    From an analysis of numerous reports from different locations on the duration of totality of the solar eclipses on January 24, 1925, and February 26, 1979, it is found that the solar radius at the earlier date was 0.5 arcsec (or 375 km) larger than at the later date. The correction to the standard solar radius found for each eclipse is different when different subsets of the observations are used (for example, edge of path of totality timings compared with central timings). This is seen as suggesting the existence of systematic inaccuracies in our knowledge of the lunar figure. The differences between the corrections for both eclipses, however, are very similar for all subsets considered, indicating that changes of the solar size may be reliably inferred despite the existence of the lunar figure errors so long as there is proper consideration of the distribution of the observations. These results are regarded as strong evidence in support of the occurrence of solar radius changes on shorter than evolutionary time scales.

  6. Solar radius change between 1925 and 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofia, S.; Fiala, A.D.

    1983-01-01

    By analysing numerous reports, from different locations, on the duration of totality of the solar eclipses on 24 January 1925, and on 26 February 1979, it was found that the solar radius at the earlier date was 0.5 arc s, or 375 km larger than at the later date. The correction to the standard solar radius found for each eclipse was different when different subsets of the observations were used (for example, edge of path of totality timings compared with central timings), suggesting the existence of systematic inaccuracies in our knowledge of the lunar figure. However, the differences between the corrections for both eclipses were very similar for all subsets considered, indicating that changes of the solar size may be reliably inferred despite the existence of the lunar figure errors, as long as the proper consideration is made of the distribution of the observations. It is considered that these results are strong evidence in support of the occurrence of solar radius changes on shorter than evolutionary time scales. (author)

  7. Measurement of Capillary Radius and Contact Angle within Porous Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, Saitej; Dharmarajan, Ramanathan; Moghaddam, Saeed

    2015-12-01

    The pore radius (i.e., capillary radius) and contact angle determine the capillary pressure generated in a porous medium. The most common method to determine these two parameters is through measurement of the capillary pressure generated by a reference liquid (i.e., a liquid with near-zero contact angle) and a test liquid. The rate of rise technique, commonly used to determine the capillary pressure, results in significant uncertainties. In this study, we utilize a recently developed technique for independently measuring the capillary pressure and permeability to determine the equivalent minimum capillary radii and contact angle of water within micropillar wick structures. In this method, the experimentally measured dryout threshold of a wick structure at different wicking lengths is fit to Darcy's law to extract the maximum capillary pressure generated by the test liquid. The equivalent minimum capillary radii of different wick geometries are determined by measuring the maximum capillary pressures generated using n-hexane as the working fluid. It is found that the equivalent minimum capillary radius is dependent on the diameter of pillars and the spacing between pillars. The equivalent capillary radii of micropillar wicks determined using the new method are found to be up to 7 times greater than the current geometry-based first-order estimates. The contact angle subtended by water at the walls of the micropillars is determined by measuring the capillary pressure generated by water within the arrays and the measured capillary radii for the different geometries. This mean contact angle of water is determined to be 54.7°.

  8. Radius scaling of titanium wire arrays on the Z accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coverdale, C.A.; Denney, C.; Spielman, R.B.

    1999-01-01

    The 20 MA Z accelerator has made possible the generation of substantial radiation (> 100 kJ) at higher photon energies (4.8 keV) through the use of titanium wire arrays. In this paper, the results of experiments designed to study the effects of initial load radius variations of nickel-clad titanium wire arrays will be presented. The load radius was varied from 17.5 mm to 25 mm and titanium K-shell (4.8 keV) yields of greater than 100 kJ were measured. The inclusion of the nickel cladding on the titanium wires allows for higher wire number loads and increases the spectral broadness of the source; kilovolt emissions (nickel plus titanium L-shell) of 400 kJ were measured in these experiments. Comparisons of the data to calculations will be made to estimate pinched plasma parameters such as temperature and participating mass fraction. These results will also be compared with previous pure titanium wire array results

  9. A measurement of the pion charge radius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amendolia, S.R.; Badelek, B.; Batignani, G.; Bedeschi, F.; Bertolucci, E.; Bettoni, D.; Bosisio, L.; Bradaschia, C.; Dell'Orso, M.; Fidecaro, F.; Foa, L.; Focardi, E.; Giazotto, A.; Giorgi, M.A.; Marrocchesi, P.S.; Menzione, A.; Ristori, L.; Scribano, A.; Tonelli, G.; Codino, A.; Fabbri, F.L.; Laurelli, P.; Satta, L.; Spillantini, P.; Zallo, A.; Counihan, M.J.; Frank, S.G.F.; Harvey, J.; Storey, D.; Menasce, D.; Meroni, E.; Moroni, L.

    1984-01-01

    We report a measurement of the negative pion electromagnetic form factor in the range of space-like four-momentum transfer 0.014 2 2 . The measurement was made by the NA7 collaboration at the CERN SPS, by observing the interaction of 300 GeV pions with the electrons of a liquid hydrogen target. The form factor is fitted by a pole form with a pion radius of (rho 2 )sup(1/2) = 0.657 +- 0.012 fm. (orig.)

  10. A measurement of the kaon charge radius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amendolia, S.R.; Batignani, G.; Bertolucci, E.; Bosisio, L.; Bradaschia, C.; Dell'Orso, M.; Fidecaro, F.; Foa, L.; Focardi, E.; Gianetti, P.; Giazzotto, A.; Giorgi, M.A.; Marrocchesi, P.S.; Menzione, A.; Ristori, L.; Scribano, A.; Tonelli, G.; Triggiani, G.; Beck, G.A.; Bologna, G.; D'Ettorre Piazzoli, B.; Mannocchi, G.; Picchi, P.; Budinich, M.; Liello, F.; Ragusa, F.; Rolandi, L.; Stefanini, A.; Fabbri, F.L.; Laurelli, P.; Zallo, A.; Gren, M.G.; Landon, M.P.J.; March, P.V.; Strong, J.A.; Tenchini, R.; Meroni, E.

    1986-01-01

    The negative kaon electromagnetic form factor has been measured in the space-like q 2 range 0.015-0.10 (GeV/c) 2 by the direct scattering of 250 GeV kaons from electrons at the CERN SPS. It is found that the kaon mean square charge radius K 2 >=0.34±0.05 fm 2 . From data collected simultaneously for πe scattering, the difference between the charged pion and kaon mean square radii (which is less sensitive to systematic errors) is found to be π 2 >- K 2 >=0.10±0.045 fm 2 . (orig.)

  11. Small-radius jets to all orders

    CERN Document Server

    Cacciari, Matteo; Soyez, Gregory; Salam, Gavin; Dasgupta, Mrinal

    2015-01-01

    With hadron colliders continuing to push the boundaries of precision, it is becoming increas­ ingly important to have a detailed understanding of the subtleties appearing at smaller values of the jet radius R. We present a method to resum all leading logarithmic terms, a'.; Inn R, using a generating functional approach, as was recently discussed in Ref. 1. We study a variety of observables, such as the inclusive jet spectrum and jet vetoes for Higgs physics, and show that small-R effects can be sizeable. Finally, we compare our calculations to existing ALICE data, and show good agreement.

  12. Linear intra-bone geometry dependencies of the radius: Radius length determination by maximum distal width

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumbach, S.F.; Krusche-Mandl, I.; Huf, W.; Mall, G.; Fialka, C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the study was to investigate possible linear intra-bone geometry dependencies by determining the relation between the maximum radius length and maximum distal width in two independent populations and test for possible gender or age effects. A strong correlation can help develop more representative fracture models and osteosynthetic devices as well as aid gender and height estimation in anthropologic/forensic cases. Methods: First, maximum radius length and distal width of 100 consecutive patients, aged 20–70 years, were digitally measured on standard lower arm radiographs by two independent investigators. Second, the same measurements were performed ex vivo on a second cohort, 135 isolated, formalin fixed radii. Standard descriptive statistics as well as correlations were calculated and possible gender age influences tested for both populations separately. Results: The radiographic dataset resulted in a correlation of radius length and width of r = 0.753 (adj. R 2 = 0.563, p 2 = 0.592) and side no influence on the correlation. Radius length–width correlation for the isolated radii was r = 0.621 (adj. R 2 = 0.381, p 2 = 0.598). Conclusion: A relatively strong radius length–distal width correlation was found in two different populations, indicating that linear body proportions might not only apply to body height and axial length measurements of long bones but also to proportional dependency of bone shapes in general.

  13. Greater autonomy at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtman, I.L.D.

    2004-01-01

    In the past 10 years, workers in the Netherlands increasingly report more decision-making power in their work. This is important for an economy in recession and where workers face greater work demands. It makes work more interesting, creates a healthier work environment, and provides opportunities

  14. On the charge radius of the neutrino

    CERN Document Server

    Bernabeu, J; Papavassiliou, J; Vidal, J

    2000-01-01

    Using the pinch technique we construct at one-loop order a neutrino charge radius, which is finite, depends neither on the gauge-fixing parameter nor on the gauge-fixing scheme employed, and is process-independent. This definition stems solely from an effective proper photon-neutrino one-loop vertex, with no reference to box or self-energy contributions. The role of the $WW$ box in this construction is critically examined. In particular it is shown that the exclusion of the effective WW box from the definition of the neutrino charge radius is not a matter of convention but is in fact dynamically realized when the target-fermions are right-handedly polarized. In this way we obtain a unique decomposition of effective self-energies, vertices, and boxes, which separately respect electroweak gauge invariance. We elaborate on the tree-level origin of the mechanism which enforces at one-loop level massive cancellations among the longitudinal momenta appearing in the Feynman diagrams, and in particular those associat...

  15. Nuclear charge radius of {sup 11}Li

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, Rodolfo, E-mail: R.Sanchez@GSI.de; Noertershaeuser, Wilfried [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (Germany); Dax, Andreas [CERN(Switzerland); Ewald, Guido; Goette, Stefan; Kirchner, Reinhard; Kluge, H.-Juergen; Kuehl, Thomas [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (Germany); Wojtaszek, Agnieszka [Swietokrzyska Academy, Institute of Physics (Poland); Bushaw, Bruce A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (United States); Drake, Gordon W. F. [University of Windsor, Department of Physics (Canada); Yan Zongchao [University of New Brunswick, Department of Physics (Canada); Zimmermann, Claus [Physikalisches Institut, Eberhard Karls Universitaet Tuebingen (Germany); Albers, Daniel; Behr, John; Bricault, Pierre; Dilling, Jens; Dombsky, Marik; Lassen, Jens; Phil Levy, C. D. [Tri-University Meson Facility (Canada)

    2006-07-15

    We have determined the nuclear charge radius of {sup 11}Li by high-precision laser spectroscopy. The experiment was performed at the TRIUMF-ISAC facility where the {sup 7}Li-{sup 11}Li isotope shift (IS) was measured in the 2s{yields}3s electronic transition using Doppler-free two-photon spectroscopy with a relative accuracy better than 10{sup -5}. The accuracy for the IS of the other lithium isotopes was also improved. IS's are mainly caused by differences in nuclear mass, but changes in proton distribution also give small contributions. Comparing experimentally measured IS with advanced atomic calculation of purely mass-based shifts, including QED and relativistic effects, allows derivation of the nuclear charge radii. The radii are found to decrease monotonically from {sup 6}Li to {sup 9}Li, and then increase with {sup 11}Li about 11% larger than {sup 9}Li. These results are a benchmark for the open question as to whether nuclear core excitation by halo neutrons is necessary to explain the large nuclear matter radius of {sup 11}Li; thus, the results are compared with a number of nuclear structure models.

  16. Nuclear charge radius of 11Li

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Rodolfo; Noertershaeuser, Wilfried; Dax, Andreas; Ewald, Guido; Goette, Stefan; Kirchner, Reinhard; Kluge, H.-Juergen; Kuehl, Thomas; Wojtaszek, Agnieszka; Bushaw, Bruce A.; Drake, Gordon W. F.; Yan Zongchao; Zimmermann, Claus; Albers, Daniel; Behr, John; Bricault, Pierre; Dilling, Jens; Dombsky, Marik; Lassen, Jens; Phil Levy, C. D.

    2006-01-01

    We have determined the nuclear charge radius of 11 Li by high-precision laser spectroscopy. The experiment was performed at the TRIUMF-ISAC facility where the 7 Li- 11 Li isotope shift (IS) was measured in the 2s → 3s electronic transition using Doppler-free two-photon spectroscopy with a relative accuracy better than 10 -5 . The accuracy for the IS of the other lithium isotopes was also improved. IS's are mainly caused by differences in nuclear mass, but changes in proton distribution also give small contributions. Comparing experimentally measured IS with advanced atomic calculation of purely mass-based shifts, including QED and relativistic effects, allows derivation of the nuclear charge radii. The radii are found to decrease monotonically from 6 Li to 9 Li, and then increase with 11 Li about 11% larger than 9 Li. These results are a benchmark for the open question as to whether nuclear core excitation by halo neutrons is necessary to explain the large nuclear matter radius of 11 Li; thus, the results are compared with a number of nuclear structure models.

  17. QED confronts the radius of the proton

    CERN Document Server

    De Rujula, A

    2011-01-01

    Recent results on muonic hydrogen [1] and the ones compiled by CODATA on ordinary hydrogen and $ep$-scattering [2] are $5\\sigma$ away from each other. Two reasons justify a further look at this subject: 1) One of the approximations used in [1] is not valid for muonic hydrogen. This amounts to a shift of the proton's radius by $\\sim 3$ of the standard deviations of [1], in the "right" direction of data-reconciliation. In field-theory terms, the error is a mismatch of renormalization scales. Once corrected, the proton radius "runs", much as the QCD coupling "constant" does. 2) The result of [1] requires a choice of the "third Zemach moment". Its published independent determination is based on an analysis with a $p$-value --the probability of obtaining data with equal or lesser agreement with the adopted (fit form-factor) hypothesis-- of $3.92\\times 10^{-12}$. In this sense, this quantity is not empirically known. Its value would regulate the level of "tension" between muonic- and ordinary-hydrogen results, curr...

  18. Effects of corner radius on periodic nanoantenna for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, Bo-Kai; Lin, Shih-Che; Nien, Li-Wei; Hsueh, Chun-Hway; Li, Jia-Han

    2015-01-01

    Corner radius is a concept to approximate the fabrication limitation due to the effective beam broadening at the corner in using electron-beam lithography. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effects of corner radius on the electromagnetic field enhancement and resonance wavelength for three periodic polygon dimers of bowtie, twin square, and twin pentagon. The enhancement factor of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy due to the localized surface plasmon resonances in fabricated gold bowtie nanostructures was investigated using both Raman spectroscopy and finite-difference time-domain simulations. The simulated enhancement factor versus corner radius relation was in agreement with measurements and it could be fitted by a power-law relation. In addition, the resonance wavelength showed blue shift with the increasing corner radius because of the distribution of concentrated charges in a larger area. For different polygons, the corner radius instead of the tip angle is the dominant factor of the electromagnetic field enhancement because the surface charges tend to localize at the corner. Greater enhancements can be obtained by having both the smaller gap and sharper corner although the corner radius effect on intensity enhancement is less than the gap size effect. (paper)

  19. Utility of radius bone densitometry for the treatment of osteoporosis with once-weekly teriparatide therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harumi Nakayama

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: As clinics that treat patients with osteoporosis do not usually have central dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, bone density is often measured with radial DXA. However, no long-term evidence exists for radius bone density outcomes following treatment with once-weekly teriparatide in actual medical treatment. Methods: We evaluated changes in bone density at 6-, 12-, and 18-month intervals using radial DXA in patients treated with once-weekly teriparatide for more than 6 months. Results: A significant increase in bone mineral density (BMD was observed at the 1/3 and 1/10 radius sites 12 months after the initiation of once-weekly teriparatide. We also observed that the rate of change in BMD was greater at the distal 1/10 radius than at the 1/3 radius. Conclusions: Considering these points, the effect of once-weekly teriparatide therapy can be observed at the radius. In clinics that do not have central DXA, but instead have radial DXA, these findings can help to evaluate the effect of once-weekly teriparatide treatment on osteoporosis. Keywords: Once-weekly teriparatide, Osteoporosis, Radius, Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry

  20. Finite Larmor radius stabilization of ballooning modes in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, K.T.

    1980-07-01

    A ballooning mode equation that includes full finite Larmor radius effects has been derived from the Vlasov equation for a circular tokamak equilibrium. Numerical solution of this equation shows that finite Larmor radius effects are stabilizing

  1. Calculation of nuclear radius using alpha decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, R.B. de.

    1988-01-01

    Using a Quantum Theory approach for the Alpha-Decay process, a formula is deduced for determination of the nuclear radius of the s-state, that is, a nuclear model with a spherical shell. The hypothesis that it is possible to individualize the alpha particle and the daughter nucleus at the moment of the alpha particle emission is considered. In considered in these conditions, the treatment of a two body problem considered as point particles, repelling each other by Coulomb's Law. Using the new values of the fundamental physical constants, experimentally determinated, by substitution of their numerical values in the proposed, new values of nuclear radii are obtained. These values are compared with those found in the literature. (author) [pt

  2. Research of Precataclysmic Variables with Radius Excesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deminova, N. R.; Shimansky, V. V.; Borisov, N. V.; Gabdeev, M. M.; Shimanskaya, N. N.

    2017-06-01

    The results of spectroscopic observations of the pre-cataclysmic variable NSVS 14256825, which is a HW Vir binary system, were analyzed. The chemical composition is determined, the radial velocities and equivalent widths of a given star are measured. The fundamental parameters of the components were determined (R1 = 0.166 R⊙ , M2 = 0.100 M⊙ , R2 = 0.122 R⊙). It is shown that the secondary component has a mass close to the mass of brown dwarfs. A comparison of two close binary systems is made: HS 2333 + 3927 and NSVS 14256825. A radius-to-mass relationship for the secondary components of the studied pre-cataclysmic variables is constructed. It is concluded that an excess of radii relative to model predictions for MS stars is observed in virtually all systems.

  3. Understanding the mass-radius relation for sub-Neptunes: radius as a proxy for composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Eric D.; Fortney, Jonathan J. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Transiting planet surveys like Kepler have provided a wealth of information on the distribution of planetary radii, particularly for the new populations of super-Earth- and sub-Neptune-sized planets. In order to aid in the physical interpretation of these radii, we compute model radii for low-mass rocky planets with hydrogen-helium envelopes. We provide model radii for planets 1-20 M {sub ⊕}, with envelope fractions 0.01%-20%, levels of irradiation 0.1-1000 times Earth's, and ages from 100 Myr to 10 Gyr. In addition we provide simple analytic fits that summarize how radius depends on each of these parameters. Most importantly, we show that at fixed H/He envelope fraction, radii show little dependence on mass for planets with more than ∼1% of their mass in their envelope. Consequently, planetary radius is to a first order a proxy for planetary composition, i.e., H/He envelope fraction, for Neptune- and sub-Neptune-sized planets. We recast the observed mass-radius relationship as a mass-composition relationship and discuss it in light of traditional core accretion theory. We discuss the transition from rocky super-Earths to sub-Neptune planets with large volatile envelopes. We suggest ∼1.75 R {sub ⊕} as a physically motivated dividing line between these two populations of planets. Finally, we discuss these results in light of the observed radius occurrence distribution found by Kepler.

  4. Greater-confinement disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevorrow, L.E.; Schubert, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    Greater-confinement disposal (GCD) is a general term for low-level waste (LLW) disposal technologies that employ natural and/or engineered barriers and provide a degree of confinement greater than that of shallow-land burial (SLB) but possibly less than that of a geologic repository. Thus GCD is associated with lower risk/hazard ratios than SLB. Although any number of disposal technologies might satisfy the definition of GCD, eight have been selected for consideration in this discussion. These technologies include: (1) earth-covered tumuli, (2) concrete structures, both above and below grade, (3) deep trenches, (4) augered shafts, (5) rock cavities, (6) abandoned mines, (7) high-integrity containers, and (8) hydrofracture. Each of these technologies employ several operations that are mature,however, some are at more advanced stages of development and demonstration than others. Each is defined and further described by information on design, advantages and disadvantages, special equipment requirements, and characteristic operations such as construction, waste emplacement, and closure

  5. More features, greater connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Sarah

    2015-09-01

    Changes in our political infrastructure, the continuing frailties of our economy, and a stark growth in population, have greatly impacted upon the perceived stability of the NHS. Healthcare teams have had to adapt to these changes, and so too have the technologies upon which they rely to deliver first-class patient care. Here Sarah Hunt, marketing co-ordinator at Aid Call, assesses how the changing healthcare environment has affected one of its fundamental technologies - the nurse call system, argues the case for wireless such systems in terms of what the company claims is greater adaptability to changing needs, and considers the ever-wider range of features and functions available from today's nurse call equipment, particularly via connectivity with both mobile devices, and ancillaries ranging from enuresis sensors to staff attack alert 'badges'.

  6. Greater oil investment opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arenas, Ismael Enrique

    1997-01-01

    Geologically speaking, Colombia is a very attractive country for the world oil community. According to this philosophy new and important steps are being taken to reinforce the oil sector: Expansion of the exploratory frontier by including a larger number of sedimentary areas, and the adoption of innovative contracting instruments. Colombia has to offer, Greater economic incentives for the exploration of new areas to expand the exploratory frontier, stimulation of exploration in areas with prospectivity for small fields. Companies may offer Ecopetrol a participation in production over and above royalties, without it's participating in the investments and costs of these fields, more favorable conditions for natural gas seeking projects, in comparison with those governing the terms for oil

  7. Experimental study of finite Larmor radius effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struve, K.W.

    1980-08-01

    Linear Z-pinches in Ar, Kr, Xe, N 2 , and He are experimentally studied in regimes where strong finite Larmor radius effects could provide a significant stabilizing effect. Scaling arguments show that for deuterium such a pinch has an electron line density of order 2 x 10 15 /cm. For higher Z plasmas a higher line density is allowed, the exact value of which depends on the average ion charge. The pinch is formed by puffing gas axially through the cathode towards the anode of an evacuated pinch chamber. When the gas reaches the anode, the pinch bank is fired. The pinch current rises in 2 to 3 μsec to a maximum of 100 to 200 kA. The pinch bank capacitance is 900 μF, and the external inductance is 100 nH. Additionally, the bank is fused to increase dI/dt. The primary diagnostics are a framing camera, a spatially resolved Mach-Zehnder interferometer, and X-ray absorption

  8. An iterative algorithm for calculating stylus radius unambiguously

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorburger, T V; Zheng, A; Renegar, T B; Song, J-F; Ma, L

    2011-01-01

    The stylus radius is an important specification for stylus instruments and is commonly provided by instrument manufacturers. However, it is difficult to measure the stylus radius unambiguously. Accurate profiles of the stylus tip may be obtained by profiling over an object sharper than itself, such as a razor blade. However, the stylus profile thus obtained is a partial arc, and unless the shape of the stylus tip is a perfect sphere or circle, the effective value of the radius depends on the length of the tip profile over which the radius is determined. We have developed an iterative, least squares algorithm aimed to determine the effective least squares stylus radius unambiguously. So far, the algorithm converges to reasonable results for the least squares stylus radius. We suggest that the algorithm be considered for adoption in documentary standards describing the properties of stylus instruments.

  9. Finite-Larmor-radius stability theory of EBT plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berk, H.L.; Cheng, C.Z.; Rosenbluth, M.N.; Van Dam, J.W.

    1982-11-01

    An eikonal ballooning-mode formalism is developed to describe curvature-driven modes of hot electron plasmas in bumpy tori. The formalism treats frequencies comparable to the ion-cyclotron frequency, as well as arbitrary finite Larmor radius and field polarization, although the detailed analysis is restricted to E/sub parallel/ = 0. Moderate hot-electron finite-Larmor-radius effects are found to lower the background beta core limit, whereas strong finite-Lamor-radius effects produce stabilization

  10. Applicability of ANSYS ELBOW290 element for flexibility calculation of tight radius bends on feeder pipes in CANDU reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, X., E-mail: Xuan.Zhang@candu.com [Candu Energy Inc, Mississauga, ON (Canada)

    2015-07-01

    A curved pipe element, ELBOW290, became available in ANSYS 12. This element was developed based on a simplified shell theory, and maintains the ability to capture cross-sectional deformations of elbows. Numerical testing on the applicability of this element for the flexibility calculation of the tight radius bends in CANDU reactors is carried out to determine the usability of this element in completing stress analyses for feeder pipes. Comparisons are made between the ELBOW290 and the shell element for various feeder bend types found in domestic and overseas CANDU reactors. The comparisons show that the ELBOW290 element is suitable for calculating the flexibility of the tight radius bends. (author)

  11. Jets from jets: re-clustering as a tool for large radius jet reconstruction and grooming at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nachman, Benjamin; Nef, Pascal; Schwartzman, Ariel; Swiatlowski, Maximilian [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University,2575 Sand Hill Rd, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Wanotayaroj, Chaowaroj [Center for High Energy Physics, University of Oregon,1371 E. 13th Ave, Eugene, OR 97403 (United States)

    2015-02-12

    Jets with a large radius R≳1 and grooming algorithms are widely used to fully capture the decay products of boosted heavy particles at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Unlike most discriminating variables used in such studies, the jet radius is usually not optimized for specific physics scenarios. This is because every jet configuration must be calibrated, insitu, to account for detector response and other experimental effects. One solution to enhance the availability of large-R jet configurations used by the LHC experiments is jet re-clustering. Jet re-clustering introduces an intermediate scale rradius jets. In this paper we systematically study and propose new jet re-clustering configurations and show that re-clustered large radius jets have essentially the same jet mass performance as large radius groomed jets. Jet re-clustering has the benefit that no additional large-R calibration is necessary, allowing the re-clustered large radius parameter to be optimized in the context of specific precision measurements or searches for new physics.

  12. Jets from jets: re-clustering as a tool for large radius jet reconstruction and grooming at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nachman, Benjamin; Nef, Pascal; Schwartzman, Ariel; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Wanotayaroj, Chaowaroj

    2015-01-01

    Jets with a large radius R≳1 and grooming algorithms are widely used to fully capture the decay products of boosted heavy particles at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Unlike most discriminating variables used in such studies, the jet radius is usually not optimized for specific physics scenarios. This is because every jet configuration must be calibrated, insitu, to account for detector response and other experimental effects. One solution to enhance the availability of large-R jet configurations used by the LHC experiments is jet re-clustering. Jet re-clustering introduces an intermediate scale rradius jets. In this paper we systematically study and propose new jet re-clustering configurations and show that re-clustered large radius jets have essentially the same jet mass performance as large radius groomed jets. Jet re-clustering has the benefit that no additional large-R calibration is necessary, allowing the re-clustered large radius parameter to be optimized in the context of specific precision measurements or searches for new physics.

  13. Unitarity limits on the mass and radius of dark matter particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griest, Kim; Kamionkowski, Marc

    1989-01-01

    Using partial wave unitarity and the observed density of the Universe, it is show that a stable elementary particle which was once in thermal equilibrium cannot have a mass greater than 340 TeV. An extended object which was once in thermal equilibrium cannot have a radius less than 7.5 x 10(exp -7) fm. A lower limit to the relic abundance of such particles is also found.

  14. Description and application of capture zone delineation for a wellfield at Hilton Head Island, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landmeyer, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    Ground-water capture zone boundaries for individual pumped wells in a confined aquffer were delineated by using groundwater models. Both analytical and numerical (semi-analytical) models that more accurately represent the $round-water-flow system were used. All models delineated 2-dimensional boundaries (capture zones) that represent the areal extent of groundwater contribution to a pumped well. The resultant capture zones were evaluated on the basis of the ability of each model to realistically rapresent the part of the ground-water-flow system that contributed water to the pumped wells. Analytical models used were based on a fixed radius approach, and induded; an arbitrary radius model, a calculated fixed radius model based on the volumetric-flow equation with a time-of-travel criterion, and a calculated fixed radius model derived from modification of the Theis model with a drawdown criterion. Numerical models used induded the 2-dimensional, finite-difference models RESSQC and MWCAP. The arbitrary radius and Theis analytical models delineated capture zone boundaries that compared least favorably with capture zones delineated using the volumetric-flow analytical model and both numerical models. The numerical models produced more hydrologically reasonable capture zones (that were oriented parallel to the regional flow direction) than the volumetric-flow equation. The RESSQC numerical model computed more hydrologically realistic capture zones than the MWCAP numerical model by accounting for changes in the shape of capture zones caused by multiple-well interference. The capture zone boundaries generated by using both analytical and numerical models indicated that the curnmtly used 100-foot radius of protection around a wellhead in South Carolina is an underestimate of the extent of ground-water capture for pumped wetis in this particular wellfield in the Upper Floridan aquifer. The arbitrary fixed radius of 100 feet was shown to underestimate the upgradient

  15. Numerical Radius Inequalities for Finite Sums of Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirmostafaee Alireza Kamel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we obtain some sharp inequalities for numerical radius of finite sums of operators. Moreover, we give some applications of our result in estimation of spectral radius. We also compare our results with some known results.

  16. Radius of curvature measurement of spherical smooth surfaces by multiple-beam interferometry in reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelsalam, D. G.; Shaalan, M. S.; Eloker, M. M.; Kim, Daesuk

    2010-06-01

    In this paper a method is presented to accurately measure the radius of curvature of different types of curved surfaces of different radii of curvatures of 38 000,18 000 and 8000 mm using multiple-beam interference fringes in reflection. The images captured by the digital detector were corrected by flat fielding method. The corrected images were analyzed and the form of the surfaces was obtained. A 3D profile for the three types of surfaces was obtained using Zernike polynomial fitting. Some sources of uncertainty in measurement were calculated by means of ray tracing simulations and the uncertainty budget was estimated within λ/40.

  17. Negative meson capture in hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baird, T.J.

    1977-01-01

    The processes of deexcitation and capture of negative mesons and hadrons in atomic hydrogen are investigated. Only slow collisions in which the projectile-atom relative velocity is less than one atomic unit are considered, and the motion of the incident particle is treated classically. For each classical trajectory the probability of ionizing the hydrogen atom is determined, together with the energy spectrum of the emitted electron. Ionization probabilities are calculated using the time-dependent formulation of the perturbed stationary state method. Exact two-center electronic wave functions are used for both bound and continuum states. The total ionization cross section and electron energy spectrum have been calculated for negative muons, kaons and antiprotons at incident relative velocities between 0.04 and 1.0 atomic units. The electron energy spectrum has a sharp peak for electron kinetic energies on the order of 10 -3 Rydbergs. The ionization process thus favors the emission of very slow electrons. The cross section for ionization with capture of the incident particle was calculated for relative kinetic energies greater than 1.0 Rydberg. Since ionization was found to occur with the emission of electrons of nearly zero kinetic energy, the fraction of ionizing collisions which result in capture decreases very rapidly with projectile kinetic energy. The energy distributions of slowed down muons and hadrons were also computed. These distributions were used together with the capture cross section to determine the distribution of kinetic energies at which capture takes place. It was found that most captures occur for kinetic energies slightly less than 1.0 Rydbergs with relatively little capture at thermal energies. The captured particles therefore tend to go into very large and loosely found orbits with binding energies less than 0.1 Rydbergs

  18. Jets from jets: re-clustering as a tool for large radius jet reconstruction and grooming at the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachman, Benjamin; Nef, Pascal; Schwartzman, Ariel; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Wanotayaroj, Chaowaroj

    2015-02-01

    Jets with a large radius R ≳ 1 and grooming algorithms are widely used to fully capture the decay products of boosted heavy particles at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Unlike most discriminating variables used in such studies, the jet radius is usually not optimized for specific physics scenarios. This is because every jet configuration must be calibrated, insitu, to account for detector response and other experimental effects. One solution to enhance the availability of large- R jet configurations used by the LHC experiments is jet re-clustering. Jet re-clustering introduces an intermediate scale r groomed jets. Jet re-clustering has the benefit that no additional large-R calibration is necessary, allowing the re-clustered large radius parameter to be optimized in the context of specific precision measurements or searches for new physics.

  19. A Spitzer Infrared Radius for the Transiting Extrasolar Planet HD 209458 b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, L. Jeremy; Harrington, Joseph; Seager, Sara; Deming, Drake

    2007-01-01

    We have measured the infrared transit of the extrasolar planet HD 209458 b using the Spitzer Space Telescope. We observed two primary eclipse events (one partial and one complete transit) using the 24 micrometer array of the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS). We analyzed a total of 2392 individual images (10-second integrations) of the planetary system, recorded before, during, and after transit. We perform optimal photometry on the images and use the local zodiacal light as a short-term flux reference. At this long wavelength, the transit curve has a simple box-like shape, allowing robust solutions for the stellar and planetary radii independent of stellar limb darkening, which is negligible at 24 micrometers. We derive a stellar radius of R(sub *) = 1.06 plus or minus 0.07 solar radius, a planetary radius of R(sub p) = 1.26 plus or minus 0.08 R(sub J), and a stellar mass of 1.17 solar mass. Within the errors, our results agree with the measurements at visible wavelengths. The 24 micrometer radius of the planet therefore does not differ significantly compared to the visible result. We point out the potential for deriving extrasolar transiting planet radii to high accuracy using transit photometry at slightly shorter IR wavelengths where greater photometric precision is possible.

  20. MUSE: Measuring the proton radius with muon-proton scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernauer, Jan Christopher [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The proton radius has been measured so far using electron-proton scattering, electronic Hydrogen spectroscopy and muonic Hydrogen spectroscopy, the latter producing a much more accurate, but seven sigma different, result, leading to the now famous proton radius puzzle. The MUSE collaboration aims to complete the set of measurements by using muon scattering to determine the proton radius and to shed light on possible explanations of the discrepancy. The talk gives an overview of the experiment motivation and design and a status report on the progress.

  1. Variational principles for the spectral radius of functional operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonevich, A B; Zajkowski, K

    2006-01-01

    The spectral radius of a functional operator with positive coefficients generated by a set of maps (a dynamical system) is shown to be a logarithmically convex functional of the logarithms of the coefficients. This yields the following variational principle: the logarithm of the spectral radius is the Legendre transform of a convex functional T defined on a set of vector-valued probability measures and depending only on the original dynamical system. A combinatorial construction of the functional T by means of the random walk process corresponding to the dynamical system is presented in the subexponential case. Examples of the explicit calculation of the functional T and the spectral radius are presented.

  2. The strength of polyaxial locking interfaces of distal radius plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmeier, Konrad L; Hofmann, Gunther O; Mückley, Thomas

    2009-10-01

    Currently available polyaxial locking plates represent the consequent enhancement of fixed-angle, first-generation locking plates. In contrast to fixed-angle locking plates which are sufficiently investigated, the strength of the new polyaxial locking options has not yet been evaluated biomechanically. This study investigates the mechanical strength of single polyaxial interfaces of different volar radius plates. Single screw-plate interfaces of the implants Palmar 2.7 (Königsee Implantate und Instrumente zur Osteosynthese GmbH, Allendorf, Germany), VariAx (Stryker Leibinger GmbH & Co. KG, Freiburg, Germany) und Viper (Integra LifeSciences Corporation, Plainsboro, NJ, USA) were tested by cantilever bending. The strength of 0 degrees, 10 degrees and 20 degrees screw locking angle was obtained during static and dynamic loading. The Palmar 2.7 interfaces showed greater ultimate strength and fatigue strength than the interfaces of the other implants. The strength of the VariAx interfaces was about 60% of Palmar 2.7 in both, static and dynamic loading. No dynamic testing was applied to the Viper plate because of its low ultimate strength. By static loading, an increase in screw locking angle caused a reduction of strength for the Palmar 2.7 and Viper locking interfaces. No influence was observed for the VariAx locking interfaces. During dynamic loading; angulation had no influence on the locking strength of Palmar 2.7. However, reduction of locking strength with increasing screw angulation was observed for VariAx. The strength of the polyaxial locking interfaces differs remarkably between the examined implants. Depending on the implant an increase of the screw locking angle causes a reduction of ultimate or fatigue strength, but not in all cases a significant impact was observed.

  3. Exact Solution of the Gyration Radius of an Individual's Trajectory for a Simplified Human Regular Mobility Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiao-Yong; Han, Xiao-Pu; Zhou, Tao; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2011-12-01

    We propose a simplified human regular mobility model to simulate an individual's daily travel with three sequential activities: commuting to workplace, going to do leisure activities and returning home. With the assumption that the individual has a constant travel speed and inferior limit of time at home and in work, we prove that the daily moving area of an individual is an ellipse, and finally obtain an exact solution of the gyration radius. The analytical solution captures the empirical observation well.

  4. Correlation between quarter-point angle and nuclear radius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wei-Hu; Wang, Jian-Song; Mukherjee, S.; Wang, Qi; Patel, D.; Yang, Yan-Yun; Ma, Jun-Bing; Ma, Peng; Jin, Shi-Lun; Bai, Zhen; Liu, Xing-Quan

    2017-04-01

    The correlation between quarter-point angle of elastic scattering and nuclear matter radius is studied systematically. Various phenomenological formulae with parameters for nuclear radius are adopted and compared by fitting the experimental data of quarter point angle extracted from nuclear elastic scattering reaction systems. A parameterized formula related to binding energy is recommended, which gives a good reproduction of nuclear matter radii of halo nuclei. It indicates that the quarter-point angle of elastic scattering is quite sensitive to the nuclear matter radius and can be used to extract the nuclear matter radius. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (U1432247, 11575256), National Basic Research Program of China (973 Program)(2014CB845405 and 2013CB83440x) and (SM) Chinese Academy of Sciences President’s International Fellowship Initiative (2015-FX-04)

  5. Spectroscopy of muonic atoms and the proton radius puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antognini, Aldo

    2017-09-01

    We have measured several 2 S -2 P transitions in muonic hydrogen (μp), muonic deuterium (μd) and muonic helium ions (μ3He, μ4He). From muonic hydrogen we extracted a proton charge radius 20 times more precise than obtained from electron-proton scattering and hydrogen high-precision laser spectroscopy but at a variance of 7 σ from these values. This discrepancy is nowadays referred to as the proton radius puzzle. New insight has been recently provided by the first determination of the deuteron charge radius from laser spectroscopy of μd. The status of the proton charge radius puzzle including the new insights obtained by μd spectroscopy will be discussed. Work supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation SNF-200021-165854 and the ERC CoG. #725039.

  6. Human Fertility Increases with the Marital-radius

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Labouriau, Rodrigo; Amorim, António

    2008-01-01

    We report a positive association between marital radius (distance between mates' birthplaces) and fertility detected in a large population. Spurious association due to socioeconomic factors is discarded by a conditional analysis involving income, education, and urbanicity. Strong evidence...

  7. Frictional coefficient depending on active friction radius with BPV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Frictional coefficient depending on active friction radius with BPV and BTV in automobile disc braking system. ... International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology. Journal Home · ABOUT ... AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO ...

  8. A SCALING RELATION BETWEEN MEGAMASER DISK RADIUS AND BLACK HOLE MASS IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wardle, Mark; Yusef-Zadeh, Farhad

    2012-01-01

    Several thin, Keplerian, sub-parsec megamaser disks have been discovered in the nuclei of active galaxies and used to precisely determine the mass of their host black holes. We show that there is an empirical linear correlation between the disk radius and the black hole mass. We demonstrate that such disks are naturally formed by the partial capture of molecular clouds passing through the galactic nucleus and temporarily engulfing the central supermassive black hole. Imperfect cancellation of the angular momenta of the cloud material colliding after passing on opposite sides of the hole leads to the formation of a compact disk. The radial extent of the disk is determined by the efficiency of this process and the Bondi-Hoyle capture radius of the black hole, and naturally produces the empirical linear correlation of the radial extent of the maser distribution with black hole mass. The disk has sufficient column density to allow X-ray irradiation from the central source to generate physical and chemical conditions conducive to the formation of 22 GHz H 2 O masers. For initial cloud column densities ∼ 23.5 cm –2 the disk is non-self-gravitating, consistent with the ordered kinematics of the edge-on megamaser disks; for higher cloud columns the disk would fragment and produce a compact stellar disk similar to that observed around Sgr A* at the galactic center.

  9. DML and Foil Measurements of ETA Beam Radius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nexsen, W; Weir, J

    2005-01-01

    Simultaneous measurements of the ETA beam radius have been made with a quartz foil and a diamagnetic loop (DML). While the measurements agreed at some settings they diverged at others. While the DML measures the rms radius of the total beam, the foil measures mainly the core and the divergence can be explained by the presence of a low density halo. Evidence of such a halo from other measurements is presented

  10. Generalized spectral radius and its max algebra version

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Müller, Vladimír; Peperko, A.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 439, č. 4 (2013), s. 1006-1016 ISSN 0024-3795 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/09/0473; GA AV ČR IAA100190903 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : generalized spectral radius * joint spectral radius * Berger-Wang formula Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.983, year: 2013 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0024379512007380

  11. Radiative electron capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biggerstaff, J.A.; Appleton, B.R.; Datz, S.; Moak, C.D.; Neelavathi, V.N.; Noggle, T.S.; Ritchie, R.H.; VerBeek, H.

    1975-01-01

    Some data are presented for radiative electron capture by fast moving ions. The radiative electron capture spectrum is shown for O 8+ in Ag, along with the energy dependence of the capture cross-section. A discrepancy between earlier data, theoretical prediction, and the present data is pointed out. (3 figs) (U.S.)

  12. Formation of double galaxies by tidal capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alladin, S.M.; Potdar, A.; Sastry, K.S.

    1975-01-01

    The conditions under which double galaxies may be formed by tidal capture are considered. Estimates for the increase in the internal energy of colliding galaxies due to tidal effects are used to determine the magnitudes Vsub(cap) and Vsub(dis) of the maximum relative velocities at infinite separation required for tidal capture and tidal disruption respectively. A double galaxy will be formed by tidal capture without tidal disruption of a component if Vsub(cap)>Vsub(i) and Vsub(cap)>Vsub(dis) where Vsub(i) is the initial relative speed of the two galaxies at infinite separation. If the two galaxies are of the same dimension, formulation of double galaxies by tidal capture is possible in a close collision either if the two galaxies do not differ much in mass and density distribution or if the more massive galaxy is less centrally concentrated than the other. If it is assumed as statistics suggest, that the mass of a galaxy is proportional to the square of its radius, it follows that the probability of the formation of double galaxies by tidal capture increases with the increase in mass of the galaxies and tidal distribution does not occur in a single collision for any distance of closest approach of the two galaxies. (Auth.)

  13. The creep bending of short radius pipe bends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spence, John

    1975-01-01

    In existing and proposed liquid metal fast breeder reactor design the pipework has considerable importance. Parts of the LMFBR include thin walled short radius bends which are expected to operate in the creep regime. In linear elasticity it is known that the assumption of long radius bends is not too severe as far as the flexibility characteristics are concerned although some modifications are necessary for accurate determination of the stresses. No data exists for nonlinear creep. Current work is aimed at elucidating the effect of the various assumptions common to linear elastic theory in so far as they affect the creep characteristics of bends on systems. Herein an energy based analysis using a simple n power constitutive law for stationary creep is employed to derive basic design data for flexibilities and stresses which will be necessary before complete systems can be assessed for creep. The analysis shows on comparison with the long radius work that the assumption of R>r is not much more restrictive in creep than for linear elasticity. Flexibilities for short radius bends appear to be well approximated by the long radius values. Thus the attractive reference stress information already derived may be used directly to find deformations without a complete knowledge of the constitutive relationship. However, stresses are somewhat different. Fortunately the maximum deviation occurs at relatively low levels of stress, the peak stresses being in fair agreement. When n=1 the present results reduce essentially to those obtained from existing linear elastic theory

  14. On tidal radius determination for a globular cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninkovic, S.

    1985-01-01

    A tidal radius determination for a globular cluster based on its density minimum, which is caused by the galactic tidal forces and derivable from a model of the Galaxy, is proposed. Results obtained on the basis of the Schmidt model for two clusters are in a satisfactory agreement with those obtained earlier by means of other methods. A mass determination for the clusters through the tidal radius, when the latter one is identified with the cluster perigalactic distance, yields unusually large mass values. Probably, the tidal radius should be identified with the instantaneous galactocentric distance. Use of models more recent than the Schmidt one indicates that a globular cluster may contain a significant portion of an invisible interstellar matter. (author)

  15. Rational functions with maximal radius of absolute monotonicity

    KAUST Repository

    Loczi, Lajos

    2014-05-19

    We study the radius of absolute monotonicity R of rational functions with numerator and denominator of degree s that approximate the exponential function to order p. Such functions arise in the application of implicit s-stage, order p Runge-Kutta methods for initial value problems and the radius of absolute monotonicity governs the numerical preservation of properties like positivity and maximum-norm contractivity. We construct a function with p=2 and R>2s, disproving a conjecture of van de Griend and Kraaijevanger. We determine the maximum attainable radius for functions in several one-parameter families of rational functions. Moreover, we prove earlier conjectured optimal radii in some families with 2 or 3 parameters via uniqueness arguments for systems of polynomial inequalities. Our results also prove the optimality of some strong stability preserving implicit and singly diagonally implicit Runge-Kutta methods. Whereas previous results in this area were primarily numerical, we give all constants as exact algebraic numbers.

  16. The effects of implant composition on extensor tenosynovitis in a canine distal radius fracture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinicropi, Stefano M; Su, Brian W; Raia, Frank J; Parisien, May; Strauch, Robert J; Rosenwasser, Melvin P

    2005-03-01

    Dorsal plating of distal radius fractures with titanium plates has resulted in clinically observed tenosynovitis and tendon rupture. The goal of this study was to investigate whether titanium-based implants result in more extensor tendon inflammation than matched stainless-steel implants in a canine fracture model. An osteotomy was created in the distal radius of 18 beagles and fixed with 2.7-mm 4-hole plates composed of commercially pure titanium, titanium alloy (Ti-Al6-V4), or 316L stainless steel. Animals were killed at an average of 4 months. Tendon gliding was assessed by applying a force at the extensor musculotendinous junction and noting gliding. Histologic grading (mild, moderate, severe) was based on cellular hypertrophy, hyperplasia, and leukocytic infiltration. Tendons glided freely in 100% stainless-steel specimens, 75% of titanium alloy, and 43% of commercially pure titanium groups. A severe inflammatory reaction was identified in 60% of the titanium alloy (Ti-A16-V4) group, 57% of the pure titanium group, and 0% of the stainless-steel group. Dorsal plating of the canine radius with commercially pure titanium or titanium alloy implants produced a greater inflammatory peritendinous response than matched stainless-steel implants.

  17. Low beta rigid mode stability criterion for an arbitrary Larmor radius plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berk, H.L.; Wong, H.V.

    1987-05-01

    The low beta flute interchange dispersion relation for rigid displacement perturbation of axisymmetric plasma equilibria with arbitrary Larmor radius particles and field line curvature, large compared to the plasma radius, is derived. The equilibrium particle orbits are characterized by two constants of motion, energy and angular momentum, and a third adiabatic invariant derived from the rapid radial motion. The Vlasov equation is integrated, assuming that the mode frequency, axial ''bounce'' frequency, and particle drift frequency are small compared to the cyclotron frequency, and it is demonstrated that the plasma response to a rigid perturbation has a universal character independent of Larmor radius. As a result the interchange instability is the same as that predicted from conventional MHD theory. However, a new prediction, more optimistic than earlier work, is found for the low density threshold of systems like Migma, which are disc-shaped, that is, the axial extent Δz is less than the radial extent r 0 . For Δz/sub r 0 / much less than 1, the stability criterion is determined by the total particle number. Whereas the older theory (Δz/sub r 0 / much greater than 1) predicted instability at about the densities achieved in actual Migma experiments, the present theory (Δz/sub r 0 / much less than 1) indicates that the experimental results were for plasmas with particle number below the interchange threshold

  18. Thoughts on the so-called 'radius-capitellum axis'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schild, H.; Mueller, H.A.; Wagner, H.; Baetz, W.; Mainz Univ.

    1982-01-01

    We have studied 438 patients radiologically in order to observe the so-called 'radius-capitellum axis'. In about a quarter of people with normal elbows the axis passes lateral to the middle portion of the capitellum, so that even when there is marked deviation, there is no certainty that the humero-radial joint is abnormal. Deviation of the axis can be caused by changes in the shape of the capitellum or of the radius, or by distension of the capsule of the elbow joint, or by various changes in muscular pull. (orig.) [de

  19. Thoughts on the so-called radius-capitellum axis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schild, H; Mueller, H A; Wagner, H; Baetz, W

    1982-02-01

    We have studied 438 patients radiologically in order to observe the so-called 'radius-capitellum axis'. In about a quarter of people with normal elbows the axis passes lateral to the middle portion of the capitellum, so that even when there is marked deviation, there is no certainty that the humero-radial joint is abnormal. Deviation of the axis can be caused by changes in the shape of the capitellum or of the radius, or by distension of the capsule of the elbow joint, or by various changes in muscular pull.

  20. The PRad experiment and the proton radius puzzle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gasparian Ashot

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available New results from the recent muonic hydrogen experiments seriously questioned our knowledge of the proton charge radius, rp. The new value, with its unprecedented less than sub-percent precision, is currently up to eight standard deviation smaller than the average value from all previous experiments, triggering the well-known “proton charge radius puzzle” in nuclear and atomic physics. The PRad collaboration is currently preparing a novel, magnetic-spectrometer-free ep scattering experiment in Hall B at JLab for a new independent rp measurement to address this growing “puzzle” in physics.

  1. Underground nuclear explosions. Study of the cavity radius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaud, L.

    1968-11-01

    An underground nuclear explosion creates a cavity due to the expansion of the surrounding medium vaporized by the shot. The cavity radius is related to the energy of explosion and to the overburden pressure of the medium. The introduction of new elements such as the environment of the device (in a deep hole or in a tunnel) and the cohesion of the medium leads to a relationship which determines this radius. The known French and American underground explosions performed in various media, energy and overburden conditions, satisfy this relationship with a good precision. (author) [fr

  2. Stimulus-driven capture and contingent capture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theeuwes, J.; Olivers, C.N.L.; Belopolsky, A.V.

    2010-01-01

    Whether or not certain physical events can capture attention has been one of the most debated issues in the study of attention. This discussion is concerned with how goal-directed and stimulus-driven processes interact in perception and cognition. On one extreme of the spectrum is the idea that

  3. Bone density of the radius, spine, and proximal femur in osteoporosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazess, R.B.; Barden, H.; Ettinger, M.; Schultz, E.

    1988-01-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in 140 normal young women (aged 20 to 39 years) and in 423 consecutive women over age 40 referred for evaluation of osteoporosis. Lumbar spine and proximal femur BMD was measured using dual-photon absorptiometry ( 153 Gd), whereas the radius shaft measurement used single-photon absorptiometry ( 125 I). There were 324 older women with no fractures, of which 278 aged 60 to 80 years served as age-matched controls. There were 99 women with fractures including 32 with vertebral and 22 with hip fractures. Subsequently, another 25 women with hip fractures had BMD measured in another laboratory; their mean BMD was within 2% of that of the original series. The mean age in both the nonfracture and fracture groups was 70 +/- 5 years. The BMD in the age-matched controls was 20% to 25% below that of normal young women for the radius, spine, and femur, but the Ward's triangle region of the femur showed even greater loss (35%). The mean BMD at all sites in the crush fracture cases was about 10% to 15% below that of age-matched controls. Spinal abnormality was best discriminated by spine and femoral measurements (Z score about 0.9). In women with hip fractures, the BMD was 10% below that of age-matched controls for the radius and the spine, and the BMD for the femoral sites was about 25% to 30% below that of age-matched control (Z score about 1.6). Femoral densities gave the best discrimination of hip fracture cases and even reflected spinal osteopenia. In contrast, neither the spine nor the radius reflected the full extent of femoral osteopenia in hip fracture

  4. Radiographic Outcomes of Dorsal Distraction Distal Radius Plating for Fractures With Dorsal Marginal Impaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huish, Eric G; Coury, John G; Ibrahim, Mohamed A; Trzeciak, Marc A

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare radiographic outcomes of patients treated with dorsal spanning plates with previously reported normal values of radiographic distal radius anatomy and compare the results with prior publications for both external fixation and internal fixation with volar locked plates. Patients with complex distal radius fractures including dorsal marginal impaction pattern necessitating dorsal distraction plating at the discretion of the senior authors (M.A.T. and M.A.I.) from May 30, 2013, to December 29, 2015, were identified and included in the study. Retrospective chart and radiograph review was performed on 19 patients, 11 male and 8 female, with mean age of 47.83 years (22-82). No patients were excluded from the study. All fractures united prior to plate removal. The average time the plate was in place was 80.5 days (49-129). Follow-up radiographs showed average radial inclination of 20.5° (13.2°-25.5°), radial height of 10.7 mm (7.5-14 mm), ulnar variance of -0.3 mm (-2.1 to 3.1 mm), and volar tilt of 7.9° (-3° to 15°). One patient had intra-articular step-off greater than 2 mm. Dorsal distraction plating of complex distal radius fractures yields good radiographic results with minimal complications. In cases of complex distal radius fractures including dorsal marginal impaction where volar plating is not considered adequate, a dorsal distraction plate should be considered as an alternative to external fixation due to reduced risk for infection and better control of volar tilt.

  5. Capture ready study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minchener, A.

    2007-07-15

    There are a large number of ways in which the capture of carbon as carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) can be integrated into fossil fuel power stations, most being applicable for both gas and coal feedstocks. To add to the choice of technology is the question of whether an existing plant should be retrofitted for capture, or whether it is more attractive to build totally new. This miscellany of choices adds considerably to the commercial risk of investing in a large power station. An intermediate stage between the non-capture and full capture state would be advantageous in helping to determine the best way forward and hence reduce those risks. In recent years the term 'carbon capture ready' or 'capture ready' has been coined to describe such an intermediate stage plant and is now widely used. However a detailed and all-encompassing definition of this term has never been published. All fossil fuel consuming plant produce a carbon dioxide gas byproduct. There is a possibility of scrubbing it with an appropriate CO{sub 2} solvent. Hence it could be said that all fossil fuel plant is in a condition for removal of its CO{sub 2} effluent and therefore already in a 'capture ready' state. Evidently, the practical reality of solvent scrubbing could cost more than the rewards offered by such as the ETS (European Trading Scheme). In which case, it can be said that although the possibility exists of capturing CO{sub 2}, it is not a commercially viable option and therefore the plant could not be described as ready for CO{sub 2} capture. The boundary between a capture ready and a non-capture ready condition using this definition cannot be determined in an objective and therefore universally acceptable way and criteria must be found which are less onerous and less potentially contentious to assess. 16 refs., 2 annexes.

  6. Acceleration of beam ions during major radius compression in TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, K.L.; Bitter, M.; Hammett, G.W.

    1985-09-01

    Tangentially co-injected deuterium beam ions were accelerated from 82 keV up to 150 keV during a major radius compression experiment in TFTR. The ion energy spectra and the variation in fusion yield were in good agreement with Fokker-Planck code simulations. In addition, the plasma rotation velocity was observed to rise during compression

  7. Coulomb corrections to scattering length and effective radius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mur, V.D.; Kudryavtsev, A.E.; Popov, V.S.

    1983-01-01

    The problem considered is extraction of the ''purely nuclear'' scattering length asub(s) (corresponding to the strong potential Vsub(s) at the Coulomb interaction switched off) from the Coulomb-nuclear scattering length asub(cs), which is an object of experimental measurement. The difference between asub(s) and asub(cs) is especially large if the potential Vsub(s) has a level (real or virtual) with an energy close to zero. For this case formulae are obtained relating the scattering lengths asub(s) and asub(cs), as well as the effective radii rsub(s) and rsub(cs). The results are extended to states with arbitrary angular momenta l. It is shown that the Coulomb correction is especially large for the coefficient with ksup(2l) in the expansion of the effective radius; in this case the correction contains a large logarithm ln(asub(B)/rsub(0)). The Coulomb renormalization of other terms in the effective radius espansion is of order (rsub(0)/asub(B)), where r 0 is the nuclear force radius, asub(B) is the Bohr radius. The obtained formulae are tried on a number of model potentials Vsub(s), used in nuclear physics

  8. Radius ratio effects on natural heat transfer in concentric annulus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alipour, M.; Hosseini, R.; Kolaei, Alireza Rezania

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies natural convection heat transfer in vertical and electrically heated annulus. The metallic cylinders mounted concentrically in a parallel tube. Measurements are carried out for four input electric powers and three radius ratios with an apparatus immersed in stagnant air...

  9. Social Support Contributes to Outcomes following Distal Radius Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin J. Symonette

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Distal radius fractures are the most common fracture of the upper extremity and cause variable disability. This study examined the role of social support in patient-reported pain and disability at one year following distal radius fracture. Methods. The Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey was administered to a prospective cohort of 291 subjects with distal radius fractures at their baseline visit. Pearson correlations and stepwise linear regression models (F-to-remove 0.10 were used to identify whether social support contributes to wrist fracture outcomes. The primary outcome of pain and disability at one year was measured using the Patient Rated Wrist Evaluation. Results. Most injuries were low energy (67.5% and were treated nonoperatively (71.9%. Pearson correlation analysis revealed that higher reported social support correlated with improved Patient Rated Wrist Evaluation scores at 1 year, r(n=181=-0.22, P<0.05. Of the subscales within the Social Support Survey, emotional/informational support explained a significant proportion of the variance in 1-year Patient Rated Wrist Evaluation scores, R2=4.7%, F (1, 181 = 9.98, P<0.05. Conclusion. Lower emotional/informational social support at the time of distal radius fracture contributes a small but significant percentage to patient-reported pain and disability outcomes.

  10. Nonlinear buckling analyses of a small-radius carbon nanotube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Ning; Li, Min; Jia, Jiao; Wang, Yong-Gang

    2014-01-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) was first discovered by Sumio Iijima. It has aroused extensive attentions of scholars from all over the world. Over the past two decades, we have acquired a lot of methods to synthesize carbon nanotubes and learn their many incredible mechanical properties such as experimental methods, theoretical analyses, and computer simulations. However, the studies of experiments need lots of financial, material, and labor resources. The calculations will become difficult and time-consuming, and the calculations may be even beyond the realm of possibility when the scale of simulations is large, as for computer simulations. Therefore, it is necessary for us to explore a reasonable continuum model, which can be applied into nano-scale. This paper attempts to develop a mathematical model of a small-radius carbon nanotube based on continuum theory. An Isotropic circular cross-section, Timoshenko beam model is used as a simplified mechanical model for the small-radius carbon nanotube. Theoretical part is mainly based on modified couple stress theory to obtain the numerical solutions of buckling deformation. Meanwhile, the buckling behavior of the small radius carbon nanotube is simulated by Molecular Dynamics method. By comparing with the numerical results based on modified couple stress theory, the dependence of the small-radius carbon nanotube mechanical behaviors on its elasticity constants, small-size effect, geometric nonlinearity, and shear effect is further studied, and an estimation of the small-scale parameter of a CNT (5, 5) is obtained

  11. Finite Larmor radius flute mode theory with end loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotelnikov, I.A.; Berk, H.L.

    1993-08-01

    The theory of flute mode stability is developed for a two-energy- component plasma partially terminated by a conducting limiter. The formalism is developed as a preliminary study of the effect of end-loss in open-ended mirror machines where large Larmor radius effects are important

  12. Effect of limiter end loss in finite Larmor radius theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berk, H.L.; Kotelnikov, I.A.

    1993-08-01

    We have examined the effect of incomplete line tying on the MHD flute mode with FLR (finite Larmor radius) effects. We show that the combination of line tying and FLR effects can slow down MHD instability, but cannot produce complete stabilization

  13. Effect of Hall Current and Finite Larmor Radius Corrections on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy; Volume 37; Issue 3. Effect of Hall Current and Finite Larmor Radius Corrections on Thermal Instability of Radiative Plasma for Star Formation in Interstellar Medium (ISM). Sachin Kaothekar. Research Article Volume 37 Issue 3 September 2016 Article ID 23 ...

  14. Axial Length/Corneal Radius of Curvature Ratio and Refractive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-12-05

    Dec 5, 2017 ... variously described as determined by the ocular biometric variables. There have been many studies on the relationship between refractive error and ocular axial length (AL), anterior chamber depth, corneal radius of curvature (CR), keratometric readings as well as other ocular biometric variables such as ...

  15. Rational functions with maximal radius of absolute monotonicity

    KAUST Repository

    Loczi, Lajos; Ketcheson, David I.

    2014-01-01

    -Kutta methods for initial value problems and the radius of absolute monotonicity governs the numerical preservation of properties like positivity and maximum-norm contractivity. We construct a function with p=2 and R>2s, disproving a conjecture of van de Griend

  16. Nonlinear buckling analyses of a small-radius carbon nanotube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ning, E-mail: liuxiao@ase.buaa.edu.cn; Li, Min; Jia, Jiao [School of Aeronautic Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100091 (China); Wang, Yong-Gang [Department of Applied Mechanics, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2014-04-21

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) was first discovered by Sumio Iijima. It has aroused extensive attentions of scholars from all over the world. Over the past two decades, we have acquired a lot of methods to synthesize carbon nanotubes and learn their many incredible mechanical properties such as experimental methods, theoretical analyses, and computer simulations. However, the studies of experiments need lots of financial, material, and labor resources. The calculations will become difficult and time-consuming, and the calculations may be even beyond the realm of possibility when the scale of simulations is large, as for computer simulations. Therefore, it is necessary for us to explore a reasonable continuum model, which can be applied into nano-scale. This paper attempts to develop a mathematical model of a small-radius carbon nanotube based on continuum theory. An Isotropic circular cross-section, Timoshenko beam model is used as a simplified mechanical model for the small-radius carbon nanotube. Theoretical part is mainly based on modified couple stress theory to obtain the numerical solutions of buckling deformation. Meanwhile, the buckling behavior of the small radius carbon nanotube is simulated by Molecular Dynamics method. By comparing with the numerical results based on modified couple stress theory, the dependence of the small-radius carbon nanotube mechanical behaviors on its elasticity constants, small-size effect, geometric nonlinearity, and shear effect is further studied, and an estimation of the small-scale parameter of a CNT (5, 5) is obtained.

  17. Thrombocytopenia-absent radius syndrome: a clinical genetic study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greenhalgh, K.L.; Howell, R.; Bottani, A.; Ancliff, P.J.; Brunner, H.G.; Verschuuren-Bemelmans, C.C.; Vernon, E.; Brown, K.W.; Newbury-Ecob, R.

    2002-01-01

    The thrombocytopenia-absent radius (TAR) syndrome is a congenital malformation syndrome characterised by bilateral absence of the radii and a thrombocytopenia. The lower limbs, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and other systems may also be involved. Shaw and Oliver in 1959 were the first to

  18. Thrombocytopenia-absent radius syndrome : a clinical genetic study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greenhalgh, KL; Howell, RT; Bottani, A; Ancliff, PJ; Brunner, HG; Verschuuren-Bemelmans, CC; Vernon, E; Brown, KW; Newbury-Ecob, RA

    2002-01-01

    The thrombocytopenia-absent radius (TAR) syndrome is a congenital malformation syndrome characterised by bilateral absence of the radii and a thrombocytopenia. The lower limbs, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and other systems may also be involved. Shaw and Oliver in 1959 were the first to

  19. Individualist-Collectivist Culture and Trust Radius : A Multilevel Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoorn, André

    We apply a multilevel approach to examine empirically the nexus between individualist and collectivist culture on the one hand and people’s radius of trust on the other. People’s trust level (i.e., the intensity with which people trust other people) has been extensively studied. Increasingly,

  20. Ultrasonic pattern recognition study of feedwater nozzle inner radius indication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoneyama, H.; Takama, S.; Kishigami, M.; Sasahara, T.; Ando, H.

    1983-01-01

    A study was made to distinguish defects on feed-water nozzle inner radius from noise echo caused by stainless steel cladding by using ultrasonic pattern recognition method with frequency analysis technique. Experiment has been successfully performed on flat clad plates and nozzle mock-up containing fatigue cracks and the following results which shows the high capability of frequency analysis technique are obtained

  1. Study of a pulsed capillary discharge with a modulated radius

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broks, B.H.P.; Dijk, van W.; Mullen, van der J.J.A.M.; Veldhuizen, van E.M.

    2005-01-01

    In this contribution, we present a plasma physical model of a pulsed capillary discharge with a modulated radius. Using a 2D time-dependent model, we have modeled the plasma and wall properties of this channel. It was found that properties of the central plasma are different than the properties of a

  2. Recognizing chaotic states in stadium billiard by calculating gyration radius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Barezi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available   Nowadays study of chaotic quantum billiards because of their relation to Nano technology. In this paper distribution of zeros of wave function on the boundary of two circular and stadium billiards are investigated. By calculating gyration radius for these points chaotic and non-chaotic states are distinguished.

  3. On finite larmor radius stabilization of Z-pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellsten, T.

    1982-12-01

    Finite Larmor radius stabilization of Z-pinches is discussed. Stability criteria can be derived for a class of equilibria having constant mass and current density. The internal modes can be stabilized provided the line density not exceed a critical value of the order of 10 18 ions/m. (Author)

  4. 21 CFR 886.1450 - Corneal radius measuring device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Corneal radius measuring device. 886.1450 Section 886.1450 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... corneal size by superimposing the image of the cornea on a scale at the focal length of the lens of a...

  5. Artificial gravity: head movements during short-radius centrifugation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Young, L. R.; Hecht, H.; Lyne, L. E.; Sienko, K. H.; Cheung, C. C.; Kavelaars, J.

    2001-01-01

    Short-radius centrifugation is a potential countermeasure to long-term weightlessness. Unfortunately, head movements in a rotating environment induce serious discomfort, non-compensatory vestibulo-ocular reflexes, and subjective illusions of body tilt. In two experiments we investigated the effects

  6. Carbon Capture and Storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benson, S.M.; Bennaceur, K.; Cook, P.; Davison, J.; Coninck, H. de; Farhat, K.; Ramirez, C.A.; Simbeck, D.; Surles, T.; Verma, P.; Wright, I.

    2012-01-01

    Emissions of carbon dioxide, the most important long-lived anthropogenic greenhouse gas, can be reduced by Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS). CCS involves the integration of four elements: CO 2 capture, compression of the CO2 from a gas to a liquid or a denser gas, transportation of pressurized CO 2

  7. CAPTURED India Country Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Donoghue, R.; Brouwers, J.H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    This report provides the findings of the India Country Evaluation and is produced as part of the overall CAPTURED End Evaluation. After five years of support by the CAPTURED project the End Evaluation has assessed that results are commendable. I-AIM was able to design an approach in which health

  8. Interatomic Coulombic electron capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gokhberg, K.; Cederbaum, L. S.

    2010-01-01

    In a previous publication [K. Gokhberg and L. S. Cederbaum, J. Phys. B 42, 231001 (2009)] we presented the interatomic Coulombic electron capture process--an efficient electron capture mechanism by atoms and ions in the presence of an environment. In the present work we derive and discuss the mechanism in detail. We demonstrate thereby that this mechanism belongs to a family of interatomic electron capture processes driven by electron correlation. In these processes the excess energy released in the capture event is transferred to the environment and used to ionize (or to excite) it. This family includes the processes where the capture is into the lowest or into an excited unoccupied orbital of an atom or ion and proceeds in step with the ionization (or excitation) of the environment, as well as the process where an intermediate autoionizing excited resonance state is formed in the capturing center which subsequently deexcites to a stable state transferring its excess energy to the environment. Detailed derivation of the asymptotic cross sections of these processes is presented. The derived expressions make clear that the environment assisted capture processes can be important for many systems. Illustrative examples are presented for a number of model systems for which the data needed to construct the various capture cross sections are available in the literature.

  9. Influence of asymmetrical drawing radius deviation in micro deep drawing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, L.; Kobayashi, H.; Shimizu, T.; Yang, M.; Vollertsen, F.

    2017-09-01

    Nowadays, an increasing demand for small metal parts in electronic and automotive industries can be observed. Deep drawing is a well-suited technology for the production of such parts due to its excellent qualities for mass production. However, the downscaling of the forming process leads to new challenges in tooling and process design, such as high relative deviation of tool geometry or blank displacement compared to the macro scale. FEM simulation has been a widely-used tool to investigate the influence of symmetrical process deviations as for instance a global variance of the drawing radius. This study shows a different approach that allows to determine the impact of asymmetrical process deviations on micro deep drawing. In this particular case the impact of an asymmetrical drawing radius deviation and blank displacement on cup geometry deviation was investigated for different drawing ratios by experiments and FEM simulation. It was found that both variations result in an increasing cup height deviation. Nevertheless, with increasing drawing ratio a constant drawing radius deviation has an increasing impact, while blank displacement results in a decreasing offset of the cups geometry. This is explained by different mechanisms that result in an uneven cup geometry. While blank displacement leads to material surplus on one side of the cup, an unsymmetrical radius deviation on the other hand generates uneven stretching of the cups wall. This is intensified for higher drawing ratios. It can be concluded that the effect of uneven radius geometry proves to be of major importance for the production of accurately shaped micro cups and cannot be compensated by intentional blank displacement.

  10. Optional carbon capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alderson, T.; Scott, S.; Griffiths, J. [Jacobs Engineering, London (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-01

    In the case of IGCC power plants, carbon capture can be carried out before combustion. The carbon monoxide in the syngas is catalytically shifted to carbon dioxide and then captured in a standard gas absorption system. However, the insertion of a shift converter into an existing IGCC plant with no shift would mean a near total rebuild of the gasification waste heat recovery, gas treatment system and HRSG, with only the gasifier and gas turbine retaining most of their original features. To reduce the extent, cost and time taken for the revamping, the original plant could incorporate the shift, and the plant would then be operated without capture to advantage, and converted to capture mode of operation when commercially appropriate. This paper examines this concept of placing a shift converter into an IGCC plant before capture is required, and operating the same plant first without and then later with CO{sub 2} capture in a European context. The advantages and disadvantages of this 'capture ready' option are discussed. 6 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Influences on the radius of the auroral oval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Milan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available We examine the variation in the radius of the auroral oval, as measured from auroral images gathered by the Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE spacecraft, in response to solar wind inputs measured by the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE spacecraft for the two year interval June 2000 to May 2002. Our main finding is that the oval radius increases when the ring current, as measured by the Sym-H index, is intensified during geomagnetic storms. We discuss our findings within the context of the expanding/contracting polar cap paradigm, in terms of a modification of substorm onset conditions by the magnetic perturbation associated with the ring current.

  12. Evaluation of healing potential of autogenous, macroscopic fat deposited or fat free, omental graft in experimental radius bone defect in rabbit: Radiological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masouleh, M.N.; Haghdoost, I.S.; Heydari, G.A.C.; Raissi, A.; Mohitmafi, S.

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed for evaluation of the difference between the ability of greater omentum graft with or without macroscopic fat deposition in acceleration of bone healing process. Adult female New Zealand white rabbits (n=15) were randomly divided into three equal groups. In groups A and B, the drilled hole on the left radius was filled by the omentum without and with macroscopic fat deposition, respectively while drilled hole on the right radius left intact for consideration as control. In group C, the drilled hole on the left and right radius was filled by the omentum sample with and without macroscopic fat deposition, respectively. Experimental bone defects on the radiuses were secured by the pieces of greater omentum, with or without macroscopic fat deposition, which obtained as an autogenous graft from each rabbit in accompany with control samples. Standardized serial radiography for evaluation of bone healing was performed and the difference in bone healing process in three groups of study was determined. According to the obtained data, the radius bones which filled by omentum without macroscopic fat deposition showed faster healing process than the radius bones which filled by omentum with macroscopic fat deposition (P<0.05). (author)

  13. Local Convergence and Radius of Convergence for Modified Newton Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Măruşter Ştefan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the local convergence of modified Newton method, i.e., the classical Newton method in which the derivative is periodically re-evaluated. Based on the convergence properties of Picard iteration for demicontractive mappings, we give an algorithm to estimate the local radius of convergence for considered method. Numerical experiments show that the proposed algorithm gives estimated radii which are very close to or even equal with the best ones.

  14. Finite-Larmor-radius effects on z-pinch stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffel, Jan; Faghihi, Mostafa

    1989-06-01

    The effect of finite Larmor radius (FLR) on the stability of m = 1 small-axial-wavelength kinks in a z-pinch with purely poloidal magnetic field is investigated. We use the incompressible FLR MHD model; a collisionless fluid model that consistently includes the relevant FLR terms due to ion gyroviscosity, Hall effect and electron diamagnetism. With FLR terms absent, the Kadomtsev criterion of ideal MHD, 2r dp/dr + m2B2/μ0 ≥ 0 predicts instability for internal modes unless the current density is singular at the centre of the pinch. The same result is obtained in the present model, with FLR terms absent. When the FLR terms are included, a normal-mode analysis of the linearized equations yields the following results. Marginally unstable (ideal) modes are stabilized by gyroviscosity. The Hall term has a damping (but not absolutely stabilizing) effect - in agreement with earlier work. On specifying a constant current and particle density equilibrium, the effect of electron diamagnetism vanishes. For a z-pinch with parameters relevant to the EXTRAP experiment, the m = 1 modes are then fully stabilized over the crosssection for wavelengths λ/a ≤ 1, where a denotes the pinch radius. As a general z-pinch result a critical line-density limit Nmax = 5 × 1018 m-1 is found, above which gyroviscous stabilization near the plasma boundary becomes insufficient. This limit corresponds to about five Larmor radii along the pinch radius. The result holds for wavelengths close to, or smaller than, the pinch radius and for realistic equilibrium profiles. This limit is far below the required limit for a reactor with contained alpha particles, which is in excess of 1020 m-1.

  15. Finite-Larmor-radius effects on z-pinch stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheffel, J.; Faghihi, M. (Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden))

    1989-06-01

    The effect of finite Larmor radius (FLR) on the stability of m = 1 small-axial-wavelength kinks in a z-pinch with purely poloidal magnetic field is investigated. The incompressible FLR MHD model is used; a collisionless fluid model that consistently includes the relevant FLR terms due to ion gyroviscosity, Hall effect and electron diamagnetism. With FLR terms absent, the Kadomtsev criterion of ideal MHD, 2rdp/dr+m{sup 2}B{sup 2}/{mu}{sub 0}{ge}0 predicts instability for internal modes unless the current density is singular at the centre of the pinch. The same result is obtained in the present model, with FLR terms absent. When the LFR terms are included, a normal-mode analysis of the linearized equations yields the following results. Marginally unstable (ideal) modes are stabilized by gyroviscosity. The Hall term has a damping (but no absolutely stabilizing) effect - in agreement with earlier work. On specifying a constant current and particle density equilibrium, the effect of electron diamagnetism vanishes. For a z-pinch with parameters relevant to the EXTRAP experiment, the m = 1 modes are then fully stabilized over the cross-section for wavelengths {lambda}/{alpha}{le}1, where {alpha} denotes the pinch radius. As a general z-pinch result a critical line-density limit ''N''{sub max}=5x10{sup 18}m{sup -1} is found, above which gyroviscous stabilization near the plasma boundary becomes insufficient. This limit corresponds to about five Larmor radii along the pinch radius. The result holds for wavelengths close to, or smaller than, the pinch radius and for realistic equilibrium profiles. This limit is far below the required limit for a reactor with contained alpha particles, which is in excess of 10{sup 20} m{sup -1}. (author).

  16. Finite-Larmor-radius effects on z-pinch stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheffel, J.; Faghihi, M.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of finite Larmor radius (FLR) on the stability of m = 1 small-axial-wavelength kinks in a z-pinch with purely poloidal magnetic field is investigated. The incompressible FLR MHD model is used; a collisionless fluid model that consistently includes the relevant FLR terms due to ion gyroviscosity, Hall effect and electron diamagnetism. With FLR terms absent, the Kadomtsev criterion of ideal MHD, 2rdp/dr+m 2 B 2 /μ 0 ≥0 predicts instability for internal modes unless the current density is singular at the centre of the pinch. The same result is obtained in the present model, with FLR terms absent. When the LFR terms are included, a normal-mode analysis of the linearized equations yields the following results. Marginally unstable (ideal) modes are stabilized by gyroviscosity. The Hall term has a damping (but no absolutely stabilizing) effect - in agreement with earlier work. On specifying a constant current and particle density equilibrium, the effect of electron diamagnetism vanishes. For a z-pinch with parameters relevant to the EXTRAP experiment, the m = 1 modes are then fully stabilized over the cross-section for wavelengths λ/α≤1, where α denotes the pinch radius. As a general z-pinch result a critical line-density limit ''N'' max =5x10 18 m -1 is found, above which gyroviscous stabilization near the plasma boundary becomes insufficient. This limit corresponds to about five Larmor radii along the pinch radius. The result holds for wavelengths close to, or smaller than, the pinch radius and for realistic equilibrium profiles. This limit is far below the required limit for a reactor with contained alpha particles, which is in excess of 10 20 m -1 . (author)

  17. Factors Associated with Infection Following Open Distal Radius Fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Glueck, Dane A.; Charoglu, Constantine P.; Lawton, Jeffrey N.

    2009-01-01

    Open fractures are often classified according to a system described by Gustilo and Anderson. However, this system was applied to open long bone factures, which may not predict the incidence of infection in open metaphyseal fractures of the upper extremity. Other studies have found that wound contamination and systemic illness were the best predictors of infections in open hand fractures. Our study assessed infection in open distal radius fractures and identifies factors that are associated wi...

  18. Fractures of the shafts of the radius and ulna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, C.E.; Campbell, D.C.

    1985-01-01

    Although the clinical presentation of fracture of the forearm bones is usually quite obvious, thorough radiologic examination of the radius and ulna and adjacent wrist and elbow joints is mandatory. Standard views of the forearm of the patient include the AP and lateral projections. The degree of shortening, angulation, rotation, and comminution should be noted. The selected films must be long enough to include the adjacent elbow and wrist joints

  19. THE SIZE-VIRIAL RADIUS RELATION OF GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravtsov, Andrey V.

    2013-01-01

    I use the abundance matching ansatz, which has proven to be successful in reproducing galaxy clustering and other statistics, to derive estimates of the virial radius, R 200 , for galaxies of different morphological types and a wide range of stellar masses. I show that over eight orders of magnitude in stellar mass galaxies of all morphological types follow an approximately linear relation between half-mass radius of their stellar distribution, r 1/2 , and virial radius, r 1/2 ≈ 0.015 R 200 , with scatter of ≈0.2 dex. Such scaling is in remarkable agreement with the expectation of models that assume that galaxy sizes are controlled by halo angular momentum, r 1/2 ∝λR 200 , where λ is the spin of galaxy parent halo. The scatter about the relation is comparable with the scatter expected from the distribution of λ. Moreover, I show that when the stellar and gas surface density profiles of galaxies of different morphological types are rescaled by the radius r n = 0.015 R 200 , the rescaled profiles follow approximately universal exponential (for late types) and de Vaucouleurs (for early types) form with scatter of only ≈30%-50% at R ≈ 1-3r n . Remarkably, both late- and early-type galaxies have similar mean stellar surface density profiles at R ∼> 1r n . The main difference between their stellar distributions is thus at R n . The results of this study imply that galaxy sizes and radial distribution of baryons are shaped primarily by properties of their parent halos and that the sizes of both late-type disks and early-type spheroids are controlled by halo angular momentum.

  20. Localized electronic states: the small radius potential approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steslicka, M.; Jurczyszyn, L.

    1984-09-01

    Using a quasi three-dimensional crystal model we investigate the localized electronic states, generated by the crystal surface covered by foreign atoms. Two such states are found in the first forbidden energy gap and, because of their localization properties, called the Tamm-like and adsorption-like states. Using the small radius potential approximation, the properties of both types of states were discussed in detail. (author)

  1. Iodine neutron capture therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Kazi Fariduddin

    A new technique, Iodine Neutron Capture Therapy (INCT) is proposed to treat hyperthyroidism in people. Present thyroid therapies, surgical removal and 131I treatment, result in hypothyroidism and, for 131I, involve protracted treatment times and excessive whole-body radiation doses. The new technique involves using a low energy neutron beam to convert a fraction of the natural iodine stored in the thyroid to radioactive 128I, which has a 24-minute half-life and decays by emitting 2.12-MeV beta particles. The beta particles are absorbed in and damage some thyroid tissue cells and consequently reduce the production and release of thyroid hormones to the blood stream. Treatment times and whole-body radiation doses are thus reduced substantially. This dissertation addresses the first of the several steps needed to obtain medical profession acceptance and regulatory approval to implement this therapy. As with other such programs, initial feasibility is established by performing experiments on suitable small mammals. Laboratory rats were used and their thyroids were exposed to the beta particles coming from small encapsulated amounts of 128I. Masses of 89.0 mg reagent-grade elemental iodine crystals have been activated in the ISU AGN-201 reactor to provide 0.033 mBq of 128I. This activity delivers 0.2 Gy to the thyroid gland of 300-g male rats having fresh thyroid tissue masses of ˜20 mg. Larger iodine masses are used to provide greater doses. The activated iodine is encapsulated to form a thin (0.16 cm 2/mg) patch that is then applied directly to the surgically exposed thyroid of an anesthetized rat. Direct neutron irradiation of a rat's thyroid was not possible due to its small size. Direct in-vivo exposure of the thyroid of the rat to the emitted radiation from 128I is allowed to continue for 2.5 hours (6 half-lives). Pre- and post-exposure blood samples are taken to quantify thyroid hormone levels. The serum T4 concentration is measured by radioimmunoassay at

  2. Neutron charge radius and the neutron electric form factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentile, T. R.; Crawford, C. B.

    2011-01-01

    For nearly forty years, the Galster parametrization has been employed to fit existing data for the neutron electric form factor, G E n , vs the square of the four-momentum transfer, Q 2 . Typically this parametrization is constrained to be consistent with experimental data for the neutron charge radius. However, we find that the Galster form does not have sufficient freedom to accommodate reasonable values of the radius without constraining or compromising the fit. In addition, the G E n data are now at sufficient precision to motivate a two-parameter fit (or three parameters if we include thermal neutron data). Here we present a modified form of a two-dipole parametrization that allows this freedom and fits both G E n (including recent data at both low and high four-momentum transfer) and the charge radius well with simple, well-defined parameters. Analysis reveals that the Galster form is essentially a two-parameter approximation to the two-dipole form but becomes degenerate if we try to extend it naturally to three parameters.

  3. Is the proton radius puzzle evidence of extra dimensions?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahia, F.; Lemos, A.S. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Department of Physics, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2016-08-15

    The proton charge radius inferred from muonic hydrogen spectroscopy is not compatible with the previous value given by CODATA-2010, which, on its turn, essentially relies on measurements of the electron-proton interaction. The proton's new size was extracted from the 2S-2P Lamb shift in the muonic hydrogen, which showed an energy excess of 0.3 meV in comparison to the theoretical prediction, evaluated with the CODATA radius. Higher-dimensional gravity is a candidate to explain this discrepancy, since the muon-proton gravitational interaction is stronger than the electron-proton interaction and, in the context of braneworld models, the gravitational potential can be hugely amplified in short distances when compared to the Newtonian potential. Motivated by these ideas, we study a muonic hydrogen confined in a thick brane. We show that the muon-proton gravitational interaction modified by extra dimensions can provide the additional separation of 0.3 meV between the 2S and 2P states. In this scenario, the gravitational energy depends on the higher-dimensional Planck mass and indirectly on the brane thickness. Studying the behavior of the gravitational energy with respect to the brane thickness in a realistic range, we find constraints for the fundamental Planck mass that solve the proton radius puzzle and are consistent with previous experimental bounds. (orig.)

  4. Fractures of the distal radius in children: A retrospective evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Yazıcı

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study designed to evaluate the resultsof treatment, closed reduction and percutaneous wires, ofthe distal radius fractures in children.Materials and methods: A retrospective analysis wascarried out in children aged between 5-15 years who presentedwith a displaced fracture of the distal radius to ourhospital. They were initially treated with closed reductionand cast immobilization. If the fractures redisplaced treatedby percutaneous Kirschner (K- wire with scope undera general anaesthesia.Results: Totally 104 patients, who have distal radius fractureswere treated by closed reduction and immobilizationin a plaster cast. 13 patient who have distal radiusfractures were treated by closed reduction under generalanaesthesia and fixed by percutaneous Kirschner (K-wire. Patients with impaired the alignment of the fracturein late period were usually completely displaced fractures.(n=5, 4,3%, in early period, completely displaced fractures(n=5, 4,3% are superior to partial displaced fractures(n=2, 1,7%.Conclusion: In our study, when children with distal radiusfracture first come, they were treated by closed reductionand immobilization in a plaster cast. We thought that inredisplaced fractures patients were suitable for the closedreduction with percutaneous wire treatment.

  5. Conversion of radius of curvature to power (and vice versa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickenhagen, Sven; Endo, Kazumasa; Fuchs, Ulrike; Youngworth, Richard N.; Kiontke, Sven R.

    2015-09-01

    Manufacturing optical components relies on good measurements and specifications. One of the most precise measurements routinely required is the form accuracy. In practice, form deviation from the ideal surface is effectively low frequency errors, where the form error most often accounts for no more than a few undulations across a surface. These types of errors are measured in a variety of ways including interferometry and tactile methods like profilometry, with the latter often being employed for aspheres and general surface shapes such as freeforms. This paper provides a basis for a correct description of power and radius of curvature tolerances, including best practices and calculating the power value with respect to the radius deviation (and vice versa) of the surface form. A consistent definition of the sagitta is presented, along with different cases in manufacturing that are of interest to fabricators and designers. The results make clear how the definitions and results should be documented, for all measurement setups. Relationships between power and radius of curvature are shown that allow specifying the preferred metric based on final accuracy and measurement method. Results shown include all necessary equations for conversion to give optical designers and manufacturers a consistent and robust basis for decision-making. The paper also gives guidance on preferred methods for different scenarios for surface types, accuracy required, and metrology methods employed.

  6. Characterizing SL2S galaxy groups using the Einstein radius

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdugo, T.; Motta, V.; Foex, G.

    2014-01-01

    Aims. We aim to study the reliability of RA (the distance from the arcs to the center of the lens) as a measure of the Einstein radius in galaxy groups. In addition, we want to analyze the possibility of using RA as a proxy to characterize some properties of galaxy groups, such as luminosity (L......) and richness (N). Methods. We analyzed the Einstein radius, θE, in our sample of Strong Lensing Legacy Survey (SL2S) galaxy groups, and compared it with RA, using three different approaches: 1) the velocity dispersion obtained from weak lensing assuming a singular isothermal sphere profile (θE,I); 2) a strong.......7 ± 0.2)RA, θE,II = (0.4 ± 1.5) + (1.1 ± 0.4)RA, and θE,III = (0.4 ± 1.5) + (0.9 ± 0.3)RA for each method respectively. We found weak evidence of anti-correlation between RA and z, with Log RA = (0.58 ± 0.06) − (0.04 ± 0.1)z, suggesting a possible evolution of the Einstein radius with z, as reported...

  7. [Autoerotic fatalities in Greater Dusseldorf].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Benno; Hellen, Florence; Borchard, Nora; Huckenbeck, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Autoerotic fatalities in the Greater Dusseldorf area correspond to the relevant medicolegal literature. Our results included exclusively young to middle-aged, usually single men who were found dead in their city apartments. Clothing and devices used showed a great variety. Women's or fetish clothing and complex shackling or hanging devices were disproportionately frequent. In most cases, death occurred due to hanging or ligature strangulation. There was no increased incidence of underlying psychiatric disorders. In most of the deceased no or at least no remarkable alcohol intoxication was found. Occasionally, it may be difficult to reliably differentiate autoerotic accidents, accidents occurring in connection with practices of bondage & discipline, dominance & submission (BDSM) from natural death, suicide or homicide.

  8. Planning for greater confinement disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Meshkov, N.K.; Trevorrow, L.E.; Yu, C.

    1985-01-01

    A report that provides guidance for planning for greater-confinement disposal (GCD) of low-level radioactive waste is being prepared. The report addresses procedures for selecting a GCD technology and provides information for implementing these procedures. The focus is on GCD; planning aspects common to GCD and shallow-land burial are covered by reference. Planning procedure topics covered include regulatory requirements, waste characterization, benefit-cost-risk assessment and pathway analysis methodologies, determination of need, waste-acceptance criteria, performance objectives, and comparative assessment of attributes that support these objectives. The major technologies covered include augered shafts, deep trenches, engineered structures, hydrofracture, improved waste forms, and high-integrity containers. Descriptive information is provided, and attributes that are relevant for risk assessment and operational requirements are given. 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  9. The Impact of Subsampling on MODIS Level-3 Statistics of Cloud Optical Thickness and Effective Radius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreopoulos, Lazaros

    2004-01-01

    The MODIS Level-3 optical thickness and effective radius cloud product is a gridded l deg. x 1 deg. dataset that is derived from aggregation and subsampling at 5 km of 1 km, resolution Level-2 orbital swath data (Level-2 granules). This study examines the impact of the 5 km subsampling on the mean, standard deviation and inhomogeneity parameter statistics of optical thickness and effective radius. The methodology is simple and consists of estimating mean errors for a large collection of Terra and Aqua Level-2 granules by taking the difference of the statistics at the original and subsampled resolutions. It is shown that the Level-3 sampling does not affect the various quantities investigated to the same degree, with second order moments suffering greater subsampling errors, as expected. Mean errors drop dramatically when averages over a sufficient number of regions (e.g., monthly and/or latitudinal averages) are taken, pointing to a dominance of errors that are of random nature. When histograms built from subsampled data with the same binning rules as in the Level-3 dataset are used to reconstruct the quantities of interest, the mean errors do not deteriorate significantly. The results in this paper provide guidance to users of MODIS Level-3 optical thickness and effective radius cloud products on the range of errors due to subsampling they should expect and perhaps account for, in scientific work with this dataset. In general, subsampling errors should not be a serious concern when moderate temporal and/or spatial averaging is performed.

  10. Factors associated with infection following open distal radius fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glueck, Dane A; Charoglu, Constantine P; Lawton, Jeffrey N

    2009-09-01

    Open fractures are often classified according to a system described by Gustilo and Anderson. However, this system was applied to open long bone fractures, which may not predict the incidence of infection in open metaphyseal fractures of the upper extremity. Other studies have found that wound contamination and systemic illness were the best predictors of infections in open hand fractures. Our study assessed infection in open distal radius fractures and identifies factors that are associated with these infections. We hypothesize that contamination, rather than absolute wound size, is the best predictor of infection associated with open distal radius fractures. A review by CPT code yielded 42 patients with open distal radius fractures between 1997 and 2002 treated at a level one trauma center. Medical records and radiographic follow-up were reviewed to assess the time to irrigation and debridement, the number of debridements in initial treatment period, the method of operative stabilization, the Gustilo and Anderson type of fracture, the Swanson type of fracture, and description of wound contamination. Forty-two patients were followed up for an average of 15 months (range 4 to 68 months). Twenty-four fractures were classified as Gustilo and Anderson type I, ten were type II, and eight were type III, 30 were Swanson type I, and 12 were Swanson type II. Five of the 42 fractures were considered contaminated. Two were exposed to fecal contamination. The others were contaminated with tar, dirt/grass, and gravel, respectively. Three of 42 (7%) fractures developed infections. All three infected cases received a single irrigation and debridement. Two of five contaminated fractures (40%) developed a polymicrobial infection. Both were exposed to fecal contamination and, therefore, considered Swanson type II fractures. They were classified as Gustilo and Anderson type II and IIIB based solely upon the size of the wound. Both required multiple debridements and eventually wrist

  11. NEUTRON STAR MASS–RADIUS CONSTRAINTS USING EVOLUTIONARY OPTIMIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, A. L.; Morsink, S. M. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, 4-183 CCIS, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2E1 (Canada); Fiege, J. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, R3T 2N2 (Canada); Leahy, D. A. [Department of Physics, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, AB, T2N 1N4 (Canada)

    2016-12-20

    The equation of state of cold supra-nuclear-density matter, such as in neutron stars, is an open question in astrophysics. A promising method for constraining the neutron star equation of state is modeling pulse profiles of thermonuclear X-ray burst oscillations from hot spots on accreting neutron stars. The pulse profiles, constructed using spherical and oblate neutron star models, are comparable to what would be observed by a next-generation X-ray timing instrument like ASTROSAT , NICER , or a mission similar to LOFT . In this paper, we showcase the use of an evolutionary optimization algorithm to fit pulse profiles to determine the best-fit masses and radii. By fitting synthetic data, we assess how well the optimization algorithm can recover the input parameters. Multiple Poisson realizations of the synthetic pulse profiles, constructed with 1.6 million counts and no background, were fitted with the Ferret algorithm to analyze both statistical and degeneracy-related uncertainty and to explore how the goodness of fit depends on the input parameters. For the regions of parameter space sampled by our tests, the best-determined parameter is the projected velocity of the spot along the observer’s line of sight, with an accuracy of ≤3% compared to the true value and with ≤5% statistical uncertainty. The next best determined are the mass and radius; for a neutron star with a spin frequency of 600 Hz, the best-fit mass and radius are accurate to ≤5%, with respective uncertainties of ≤7% and ≤10%. The accuracy and precision depend on the observer inclination and spot colatitude, with values of ∼1% achievable in mass and radius if both the inclination and colatitude are ≳60°.

  12. HABITABILITY OF EXOMOONS AT THE HILL OR TIDAL LOCKING RADIUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinkel, Natalie R.; Kane, Stephen R., E-mail: natalie.hinkel@gmail.com [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, Caltech, MS 100-22, 770 South Wilson Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Moons orbiting extrasolar planets are the next class of object to be observed and characterized for possible habitability. Like the host-planets to their host-star, exomoons have a limiting radius at which they may be gravitationally bound, or the Hill radius. In addition, they also have a distance at which they will become tidally locked and therefore in synchronous rotation with the planet. We have examined the flux phase profile of a simulated, hypothetical moon orbiting at a distant radius around the confirmed exoplanets {mu} Ara b, HD 28185 b, BD +14 4559 b, and HD 73534 b. The irradiated flux on a moon at its furthest, stable distance from the planet achieves its largest flux gradient, which places a limit on the flux ranges expected for subsequent (observed) moons closer in orbit to the planet. We have also analyzed the effect of planetary eccentricity on the flux on the moon, examining planets that traverse the habitable zone either fully or partially during their orbit. Looking solely at the stellar contributions, we find that moons around planets that are totally within the habitable zone experience thermal equilibrium temperatures above the runaway greenhouse limit, requiring a small heat redistribution efficiency. In contrast, exomoons orbiting planets that only spend a fraction of their time within the habitable zone require a heat redistribution efficiency near 100% in order to achieve temperatures suitable for habitability. This means that a planet does not need to spend its entire orbit within the habitable zone in order for the exomoon to be habitable. Because the applied systems comprise giant planets around bright stars, we believe that the transit detection method is most likely to yield an exomoon discovery.

  13. HABITABILITY OF EXOMOONS AT THE HILL OR TIDAL LOCKING RADIUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinkel, Natalie R.; Kane, Stephen R.

    2013-01-01

    Moons orbiting extrasolar planets are the next class of object to be observed and characterized for possible habitability. Like the host-planets to their host-star, exomoons have a limiting radius at which they may be gravitationally bound, or the Hill radius. In addition, they also have a distance at which they will become tidally locked and therefore in synchronous rotation with the planet. We have examined the flux phase profile of a simulated, hypothetical moon orbiting at a distant radius around the confirmed exoplanets μ Ara b, HD 28185 b, BD +14 4559 b, and HD 73534 b. The irradiated flux on a moon at its furthest, stable distance from the planet achieves its largest flux gradient, which places a limit on the flux ranges expected for subsequent (observed) moons closer in orbit to the planet. We have also analyzed the effect of planetary eccentricity on the flux on the moon, examining planets that traverse the habitable zone either fully or partially during their orbit. Looking solely at the stellar contributions, we find that moons around planets that are totally within the habitable zone experience thermal equilibrium temperatures above the runaway greenhouse limit, requiring a small heat redistribution efficiency. In contrast, exomoons orbiting planets that only spend a fraction of their time within the habitable zone require a heat redistribution efficiency near 100% in order to achieve temperatures suitable for habitability. This means that a planet does not need to spend its entire orbit within the habitable zone in order for the exomoon to be habitable. Because the applied systems comprise giant planets around bright stars, we believe that the transit detection method is most likely to yield an exomoon discovery

  14. Fractal analysis of bone architecture at distal radius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomomitsu, Tatsushi; Mimura, Hiroaki; Murase, Kenya; Sone, Teruki; Fukunaga, Masao

    2005-01-01

    Bone strength depends on bone quality (architecture, turnover, damage accumulation, and mineralization) as well as bone mass. In this study, human bone architecture was analyzed using fractal image analysis, and the clinical relevance of this method was evaluated. The subjects were 12 healthy female controls and 16 female patients suspected of having osteoporosis (age range, 22-70 years; mean age, 49.1 years). High-resolution CT images of the distal radius were acquired and analyzed using a peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) system. On the same day, bone mineral densities of the lumbar spine (L-BMD), proximal femur (F-BMD), and distal radius (R-BMD) were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). We examined the correlation between the fractal dimension and six bone mass indices. Subjects diagnosed with osteopenia or osteoporosis were divided into two groups (with and without vertebral fracture), and we compared measured values between these two groups. The fractal dimension correlated most closely with L-BMD (r=0.744). The coefficient of correlation between the fractal dimension and L-BMD was very similar to the coefficient of correlation between L-BMD and F-BMD (r=0.783) and the coefficient of correlation between L-BMD and R-BMD (r=0.742). The fractal dimension was the only measured value that differed significantly between both the osteopenic and the osteoporotic subjects with and without vertebral fracture. The present results suggest that the fractal dimension of the distal radius can be reliably used as a bone strength index that reflects bone architecture as well as bone mass. (author)

  15. US Spacesuit Knowledge Capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chullen, Cinda; Thomas, Ken; McMann, Joe; Dolan, Kristi; Bitterly, Rose; Lewis, Cathleen

    2011-01-01

    The ability to learn from both the mistakes and successes of the past is vital to assuring success in the future. Due to the close physical interaction between spacesuit systems and human beings as users, spacesuit technology and usage lends itself rather uniquely to the benefits realized from the skillful organization of historical information; its dissemination; the collection and identification of artifacts; and the education of those in the field. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), other organizations and individuals have been performing United States (U.S.) Spacesuit Knowledge Capture since the beginning of space exploration. Avenues used to capture the knowledge have included publication of reports; conference presentations; specialized seminars; and classes usually given by veterans in the field. More recently the effort has been more concentrated and formalized whereby a new avenue of spacesuit knowledge capture has been added to the archives in which videotaping occurs engaging both current and retired specialists in the field presenting technical scope specifically for education and preservation of knowledge. With video archiving, all these avenues of learning can now be brought to life with the real experts presenting their wealth of knowledge on screen for future learners to enjoy. Scope and topics of U.S. spacesuit knowledge capture have included lessons learned in spacesuit technology, experience from the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab and Shuttle programs, hardware certification, design, development and other program components, spacesuit evolution and experience, failure analysis and resolution, and aspects of program management. Concurrently, U.S. spacesuit knowledge capture activities have progressed to a level where NASA, the National Air and Space Museum (NASM), Hamilton Sundstrand (HS) and the spacesuit community are now working together to provide a comprehensive closed-looped spacesuit knowledge capture system which includes

  16. Adiabatic capture and debunching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, K.Y.

    2012-01-01

    In the study of beam preparation for the g-2 experiment, adiabatic debunching and adiabatic capture are revisited. The voltage programs for these adiabbatic processes are derived and their properties discussed. Comparison is made with some other form of adiabatic capture program. The muon g-2 experiment at Fermilab calls for intense proton bunches for the creation of muons. A booster batch of 84 bunches is injected into the Recycler Ring, where it is debunched and captured into 4 intense bunches with the 2.5-MHz rf. The experiment requires short bunches with total width less than 100 ns. The transport line from the Recycler to the muon-production target has a low momentum aperture of ∼ ±22 MeV. Thus each of the 4 intense proton bunches required to have an emittance less than ∼ 3.46 eVs. The incoming booster bunches have total emittance ∼ 8.4 eVs, or each one with an emittance ∼ 0.1 eVs. However, there is always emittance increase when the 84 booster bunches are debunched. There will be even larger emittance increase during adiabatic capture into the buckets of the 2.5-MHz rf. In addition, the incoming booster bunches may have emittances larger than 0.1 eVs. In this article, we will concentrate on the analysis of the adiabatic capture process with the intention of preserving the beam emittance as much as possible. At this moment, beam preparation experiment is being performed at the Main Injector. Since the Main Injector and the Recycler Ring have roughly the same lattice properties, we are referring to adiabatic capture in the Main Injector instead in our discussions.

  17. Trajectory Calculator for Finite-Radius Cutter on a Lathe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Strekalov, Dmitry; Yu, Nan

    2009-01-01

    A computer program calculates the two-dimensional trajectory (radial vs. axial position) of a finite-radius-of-curvature cutting tool on a lathe so as to cut a workpiece to a piecewise-continuous, analytically defined surface of revolution. (In the original intended application, the tool is a diamond cutter, and the workpiece is made of a crystalline material and is to be formed into an optical resonator disk.) The program also calculates an optimum cutting speed as F/L, where F is a material-dependent empirical factor and L is the effective instantaneous length of the cutting edge.

  18. Modelling Acoustic Wave Propagation in Axisymmetric Varying-Radius Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bæk, David; Willatzen, Morten

    2008-01-01

    A computationally fast and accurate model (a set of coupled ordinary differential equations) for fluid sound-wave propagation in infinite axisymmetric waveguides of varying radius is proposed. The model accounts for fluid heat conduction and fluid irrotational viscosity. The model problem is solved...... by expanding solutions in terms of cross-sectional eigenfunctions following Stevenson’s method. A transfer matrix can be easily constructed from simple model responses of a given waveguide and later used in computing the response to any complex wave input. Energy losses due to heat conduction and viscous...

  19. Paediatric post-traumatic cortical defects of the distal radius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roach, Richard T.; Summers, Bruce N.; Cassar-Pullicino, Victor

    2002-01-01

    Paediatric post-traumatic cortical defects, although rare, are predominately seen affecting the distal radius following a greenstick or torus fracture. We review the literature and present a further two cases supported by CT and MRI. Images from an acute greenstick fracture are also presented to help understand the pathogenesis. Defects are typically solitary on plain radiographs and are usually noticed late, proximal to the site of compression. They are non-expansile in an otherwise healthy child. CT and MRI may reveal smaller multiple subperiosteal defects. Typical defects require no further management other than reassurance and advice that they may occasionally cause discomfort but resolve with time. (orig.)

  20. Charge Radius Measurement of the Halo Nucleus $^{11}$Li

    CERN Multimedia

    Kluge, H-J; Kuehl, T; Simon, H; Wang, Haiming; Zimmermann, C; Onishi, T; Tanihata, I; Wakasugi, M

    2002-01-01

    %IS385 %title\\\\ \\\\The root-mean-square charge radius of $^{11}$Li will be determined by measuring the isotope shift of a suitable atomic transition in a laser spectroscopic experiment. Comparing the charge radii of the lithium isotopes obtained by this nuclear-model-independent method with the relevant mass radii obtained before will help to answer the question whether the proton distribution in halo nuclei at the neutron drip-line is decoupled to the first order from their neutron distribution. The necessary experimental sensitivity requires the maximum possible rate of $^{11}$Li nuclei in a beam of low emittance which can only be provided by ISOLDE.

  1. Motion Capturing Emotions

    OpenAIRE

    Wood Karen; Cisneros Rosemary E.; Whatley Sarah

    2017-01-01

    The paper explores the activities conducted as part of WhoLoDancE: Whole Body Interaction Learning for Dance Education which is an EU-funded Horizon 2020 project. In particular, we discuss the motion capture sessions that took place at Motek, Amsterdam as well as the dancers’ experience of being captured and watching themselves or others as varying visual representations through the HoloLens. HoloLens is Microsoft’s first holographic computer that you wear as you would a pair of glasses. The ...

  2. Nuclear muon capture

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, N C

    1977-01-01

    Our present knowledge of the nuclear muon capture reactions is surveyed. Starting from the formation of the muonic atom, various phenomena, having a bearing on the nuclear capture, are reviewed. The nuclear reactions are then studied from two angles-to learn about the basic muon+nucleon weak interaction process, and to obtain new insights on the nuclear dynamics. Future experimental prospects with the newer generation muon 'factories' are critically examined. Possible modification of the muon+nucleon weak interaction in complex nuclei remains the most important open problem in this field. (380 refs).

  3. Proton capture resonance studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, G.E. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina (United States) 27695]|[Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina (United States) 27708; Bilpuch, E.G. [Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States) 27708]|[Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina (United States) 27708; Bybee, C.R. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina (United States) 27695]|[Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina (United States) 27708; Cox, J.M.; Fittje, L.M. [Tennessee Technological University, Cookeville, Tennessee (United States) 38505]|[Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina (United States) 27708; Labonte, M.A.; Moore, E.F.; Shriner, J.D. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina (United States) 27695]|[Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina (United States) 27708; Shriner, J.F. Jr. [Tennessee Technological University, Cookeville, Tennessee (United States) 38505]|[Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina (United States) 27708; Vavrina, G.A. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina (United States) 27695]|[Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina (United States) 27708; Wallace, P.M. [Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States) 27708]|[Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina (United States) 27708

    1997-02-01

    The fluctuation properties of quantum systems now are used as a signature of quantum chaos. The analyses require data of extremely high quality. The {sup 29}Si(p,{gamma}) reaction is being used to establish a complete level scheme of {sup 30}P to study chaos and isospin breaking in this nuclide. Determination of the angular momentum J, the parity {pi}, and the isospin T from resonance capture data is considered. Special emphasis is placed on the capture angular distributions and on a geometric description of these angular distributions. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  4. The influence of chamfering and corner radiusing on the discharge coefficient of rotating axial orifices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idris, A; Pullen, K

    2013-01-01

    The effects of chamfering and corner radiusing on the discharge coefficient of rotating axial orifices are presented in this paper. Both experimental and CFD results show that chamfering and corner radiusing improve the discharge coefficient of rotating orifices. For non-inclined rotating orifices, the discharge coefficient reduces with increasing speed, but chamfered and radiused orifices manage to have higher discharge coefficient (C d ) than the straight edge orifices. Comparing between chamfering and corner radiusing, the radiused corner orifice has the highest C d at every rotational speed. This is because the inlet radius helps guiding the flow into the orifice and avoiding flow separation at the inlet.

  5. Waste management in Greater Vancouver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrusca, K. [Greater Vancouver Regional District, Burnaby, BC (Canada); Richter, R. [Montenay Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada)]|[Veolia Environmental Services, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    An outline of the Greater Vancouver Regional District (GVRD) waste-to-energy program was presented. The GVRD has an annual budget for solid waste management of $90 million. Energy recovery revenues from solid waste currently exceed $10 million. Over 1,660,00 tonnes of GVRD waste is recycled, and another 280,000 tonnes is converted from waste to energy. The GVRD waste-to-energy facility combines state-of-the-art combustion and air pollution control, and has processed over 5 million tonnes of municipal solid waste since it opened in 1988. Its central location minimizes haul distance, and it was originally sited to utilize steam through sales to a recycle paper mill. The facility has won several awards, including the Solid Waste Association of North America award for best facility in 1990. The facility focuses on continual improvement, and has installed a carbon injection system; an ammonia injection system; a flyash stabilization system; and heat capacity upgrades in addition to conducting continuous waste composition studies. Continuous air emissions monitoring is also conducted at the plant, which produces a very small percentage of the total air emissions in metropolitan Vancouver. The GVRD is now seeking options for the management of a further 500,000 tonnes per year of solid waste, and has received 23 submissions from a range of waste energy technologies which are now being evaluated. It was concluded that waste-to-energy plants can be located in densely populated metropolitan areas and provide a local disposal solution as well as a source of renewable energy. Other GVRD waste reduction policies were also reviewed. refs., tabs., figs.

  6. Stellar Initial Mass Function: Trends With Galaxy Mass And Radius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Taniya

    2017-06-01

    There is currently no consensus about the exact shape and, in particular, the universality of the stellar initial mass function (IMF). For massive galaxies, it has been found that near-infrared (NIR) absorption features, which are sensitive to the ratio of dwarf to giant stars, deviate from a Milky Way-like IMF; their modelling seems to require a larger fraction of low mass stars. There are now increasing results looking at whether the IMF varies not only with galaxy mass, but also radially within galaxies. The SDSS-IV/MaNGA integral-field survey will provide spatially resolved spectroscopy for 10,000 galaxies at R 2000 from 360-1000nm. Spectra of early-type galaxies were stacked to achieve high S/N which is particularly important for features in the NIR. Trends with galaxy radius and mass were compared to stellar population models for a range of absorption features in order to separate degeneracies due to changes in stellar population parameters, such as age, metallicity and element abundances, with potential changes in the IMF. Results for 611 galaxies show that we do not require an IMF steeper than Kroupa as a function of galaxy mass or radius based on the NaI index. The Wing-Ford band hints towards a steeper IMF at large radii however we do not have reliable measurements for the most massive galaxies.

  7. Electromagnetic Charge Radius of the Pion at High Precision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananthanarayan, B.; Caprini, Irinel; Das, Diganta

    2017-09-01

    We present a determination of the pion charge radius from high precision data on the pion vector form factor from both timelike and spacelike regions, using a novel formalism based on analyticity and unitarity. At low energies, instead of the poorly known modulus of the form factor, we use its phase, known with high accuracy from Roy equations for π π elastic scattering via the Fermi-Watson theorem. We use also the values of the modulus at several higher timelike energies, where the data from e+e- annihilation and τ decay are mutually consistent, as well as the most recent measurements at spacelike momenta. The experimental uncertainties are implemented by Monte Carlo simulations. The results, which do not rely on a specific parametrization, are optimal for the given input information and do not depend on the unknown phase of the form factor above the first inelastic threshold. Our prediction for the charge radius of the pion is rπ=(0.657 ±0.003 ) fm , which amounts to an increase in precision by a factor of about 2.7 compared to the Particle Data Group average.

  8. Finite Larmor radius effects on Z-pinch stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheffel, J.; Faghihi, M.

    1987-10-01

    The effect of finite Larmor radius (FLR) on the stability of m=1 small axial wavelength kinks in a z-pinch with purely poloidal magnetic field is investigated. We use the Incompressible FLR MHD model; a collisionless fluid model which consistently includes the relevant FLR terms due to ion gyroviscosity, Hall effect and electron diamagnetism. With FLR terms absent, the Kadomtsev criterion of ideal MHD 2rdp/dr+m 2 B 2 /μ 0 >=0 predicts instability for internal modes unless the current density becomes singular at the centre of the pinch. The same result is obtained in the present model, with FLR terms absent. When the FLR terms are included, a normal mode analysis of the linearized equations yields the following results. Marginally unstable (ideal) modes are stabilized by gyroviscosity. The Hall terms have a damping, however not stabilizing, effect, in agreement with earlier work. Specifying a constant current and particle density equilibrium, the effect of electron diamagnetism vanishes. For a z-pinch with parameters relevant to the EXTRAP experiment, the m=1 modes are then fully stabilized over the cross-section for wavelengths λ/a max =3-5x10 18 m -1 is found, above which gyroviscous stabilization near the plasma boundary becomes insufficient. The result holds for wavelengths close to, or smaller than, the pinch radius and for realistic equilibrium profiles. This limit is far below the required limit for a reactor with contained alpha particles, which is in excess of 10 20 m -1 . (authors)

  9. Hydroforming Process for an Ultrasmall Bending Radius Elbow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shangwen Ruan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Bent pipes are widely used in automotive, aviation, and aerospace industries for delivering fluids. Parts having small relative bending radiuses are called elbows. However, fabricating a thin-walled elbow part using the simple bending process poses many challenges. One possible way to manufacture elbows is with the stamping-welding process. The major drawbacks of this method include the decline in sealing performance and the addition in weight attributed to the lap welding process. Tube hydroforming (THF is considered as a feasible solution to these problems. However, the forming process could be quite complex, and multistep forming is necessary. This study investigates the effects of preliminary processes on elbow forming such as bending, partition forming, and heat treatment and presents a high-performance optimized process design to achieve an ultrasmall radius elbow. The effects of multistep forming on the thickness distribution and the heat treatment on the microstructure have been evaluated. The results obtained from simulations show a reasonable agreement with those from the experiments.

  10. Muon capture in deuterium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ricci, P.; Truhlík, Emil; Mosconi, B.; Smejkal, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 837, - (2010), s. 110-144 ISSN 0375-9474 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : Negative muon capture * Deuteron * Potential models Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.986, year: 2010

  11. Capture Matrices Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    materials, the affinity ligand would need identification , as well as chemistries that graft the affinity ligand onto the surface of magnetic...ACTIVE CAPTURE MATRICES FOR THE DETECTION/ IDENTIFICATION OF PHARMACEUTICALS...6 As shown in Figure 2.3-1a, the spectra exhibit similar baselines and the spectral peaks lineup . Under these circumstances, the spectral

  12. Capacitance for carbon capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landskron, Kai

    2018-01-01

    Metal recycling: A sustainable, capacitance-assisted carbon capture and sequestration method (Supercapacitive Swing Adsorption) can turn scrap metal and CO 2 into metal carbonates at an attractive energy cost. (copyright 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Capacitance for carbon capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landskron, Kai [Department of Chemistry, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA (United States)

    2018-03-26

    Metal recycling: A sustainable, capacitance-assisted carbon capture and sequestration method (Supercapacitive Swing Adsorption) can turn scrap metal and CO{sub 2} into metal carbonates at an attractive energy cost. (copyright 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Embedded enzymes catalyse capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentish, Sandra

    2018-05-01

    Membrane technologies for carbon capture can offer economic and environmental advantages over conventional amine-based absorption, but can suffer from limited gas flux and selectivity to CO2. Now, a membrane based on enzymes embedded in hydrophilic pores is shown to exhibit combined flux and selectivity that challenges the state of the art.

  15. Attention Capture by Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langton, Stephen R. H.; Law, Anna S.; Burton, A. Mike; Schweinberger, Stefan R.

    2008-01-01

    We report three experiments that investigate whether faces are capable of capturing attention when in competition with other non-face objects. In Experiment 1a participants took longer to decide that an array of objects contained a butterfly target when a face appeared as one of the distracting items than when the face did not appear in the array.…

  16. Maximum wind radius estimated by the 50 kt radius: improvement of storm surge forecasting over the western North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Hiroshi; Wu, Wenjie

    2016-03-01

    Even though the maximum wind radius (Rmax) is an important parameter in determining the intensity and size of tropical cyclones, it has been overlooked in previous storm surge studies. This study reviews the existing estimation methods for Rmax based on central pressure or maximum wind speed. These over- or underestimate Rmax because of substantial variations in the data, although an average radius can be estimated with moderate accuracy. As an alternative, we propose an Rmax estimation method based on the radius of the 50 kt wind (R50). Data obtained by a meteorological station network in the Japanese archipelago during the passage of strong typhoons, together with the JMA typhoon best track data for 1990-2013, enabled us to derive the following simple equation, Rmax = 0.23 R50. Application to a recent strong typhoon, the 2015 Typhoon Goni, confirms that the equation provides a good estimation of Rmax, particularly when the central pressure became considerably low. Although this new method substantially improves the estimation of Rmax compared to the existing models, estimation errors are unavoidable because of fundamental uncertainties regarding the typhoon's structure or insufficient number of available typhoon data. In fact, a numerical simulation for the 2013 Typhoon Haiyan as well as 2015 Typhoon Goni demonstrates a substantial difference in the storm surge height for different Rmax. Therefore, the variability of Rmax should be taken into account in storm surge simulations (e.g., Rmax = 0.15 R50-0.35 R50), independently of the model used, to minimize the risk of over- or underestimating storm surges. The proposed method is expected to increase the predictability of major storm surges and to contribute to disaster risk management, particularly in the western North Pacific, including countries such as Japan, China, Taiwan, the Philippines, and Vietnam.

  17. Teaching the Basics: Development and Validation of a Distal Radius Reduction and Casting Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, Mark A; Fabricant, Peter D; Lawrence, J Todd R

    2017-09-01

    realism of simulation. Eighteen participants consented to participate in the study (eight attending pediatric orthopaedic surgeons, six junior residents, four senior residents). The performances of junior residents (Postgraduate Year [PGY] 1-2), senior residents (PGY 3-5), and attending surgeons were compared using one-way ANOVA with Tukey's-adjusted pairwise comparisons. The majority of participants (15 of 18) felt that the model looked, felt, and moved like a human forearm. All participants strongly agreed that the model taught the basic steps of fracture reduction and should be implemented in orthopaedic training. Attending surgeons reduced fractures in less time than junior residents (60 ± 27 seconds versus 460 ± 62 seconds; mean difference, 400 seconds; 95% CI, 335-465 seconds; p < 0.001). Residual angulation was greater for junior residents when compared with attending surgeons on AP (7° ± 5° versus 0.7° ± 0.9°; mean difference, 6.3°; 95% CI, 3°-11°; p = 0.003) and lateral (27° ± 7° versus 7° ± 5°; mean difference, 20°; 95% CI, 13°-27°; p = 0.001) radiographs. Similarly, residual displacement was greater for junior residents than either senior residents (mean difference, 16 mm; 95% CI, 2-34 mm; p = 0.05) or attending surgeons (mean difference, 15 mm; 95% CI, 3-27 mm; p = 0.02) on lateral images. There were no differences identified in secondary performance variables (number of fluoroscopic images, casting time, and cast index) between groups. This is the first distal radius fracture reduction model to incorporate an elbow and shoulder and allow quantitative assessment of the fracture reduction. This simulator may be useful in an orthopaedic resident training program to help them reach a defined minimum level of competency. This simulator also could easily be integrated in other accreditation and training programs, including emergency medicine. Level II, therapeutic study.

  18. Quantum effects on the formation of negative hydrogen ion by polarization electron capture in partially ionized dense hydrogen plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Young-Dae; Kato, Daiji

    2009-05-01

    The quantum effects on the formation of the negative hydrogen ion (H - ) by the polarization electron capture process are investigated in partially ionized dense hydrogen plasmas. It is shown that the quantum effect strongly suppresses the electron capture radius as well as the cross section for the formation of the negative hydrogen ion. In addition, it has been found that the electron capture position is receded from the center of the projectile with decreasing the quantum effect of the plasma. (author)

  19. Power decoding Reed-Solomon codes up to the Johnson radius

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, Johan Sebastian Heesemann

    2018-01-01

    Power decoding, or "decoding using virtual interleaving" is a technique for decoding Reed-Solomon codes up to the Sudan radius. Since the method's inception, it has been an open question if it is possible to use this approach to decode up to the Johnson radius - the decoding radius of the Guruswami...

  20. Gadolinium neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akine, Yasuyuki; Tokita, Nobuhiko; Tokuuye, Koichi; Satoh, Michinao; Churei, Hisahiko

    1993-01-01

    Gadolinium neutron capture therapy makes use of photons and electrons produced by nuclear reactions between gadolinium and lower-energy neutrons which occur within the tumor. The results of our studies have shown that its radiation effect is mostly of low LET and that the electrons are the significant component in the over-all dose. The dose from gadolinium neutron capture reactions does not seem to increase in proportion to the gadolinium concentration, and the Gd-157 concentration of about 100 μg/ml appears most optimal for therapy. Close contact between gadolinium and the cell is not necessarily required for cell inactivation, however, the effect of electrons released from intracellular gadolinium may be significant. Experimental studies on tumor-bearing mice and rabbits have shown that this is a very promising modality though further improvements in gadolinium delivery to tumors are needed. (author)

  1. Small-radius jets to all orders in QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Dasgupta, Mrinal; Salam, Gavin P.; Soyez, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    As hadron collider physics continues to push the boundaries of precision, it becomes increasingly important to have methods for predicting properties of jets across a broad range of jet radius values R, and in particular for small R. In this paper we resum all leading logarithmic terms, $\\alpha_s^n \\ln^n R$, in the limit of small R, for a wide variety of observables. These include the inclusive jet spectrum, jet vetoes for Higgs physics and jet substructure tools. Some of the quantities that we consider are relevant also for heavy-ion collisions. Furthermore, we examine and comment on the underlying order-by-order convergence of the perturbative series for different R values. Our results indicate that small-R effects can be substantial. Phenomenological studies will appear in a forthcoming companion paper.

  2. Inclusive jet spectrum for small-radius jets

    CERN Document Server

    Dasgupta, Mrinal; Salam, Gavin P.; Soyez, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Following on our earlier work on leading-logarithmic (LLR) resummations for the properties of jets with a small radius, R, we here examine the phenomenological considerations for the inclusive jet spectrum. We discuss how to match the NLO predictions with small-R resummation. As part of the study we propose a new, physically-inspired prescription for fixed-order predictions and their uncertainties. We investigate the R-dependent part of the next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) corrections, which is found to be substantial, and comment on the implications for scale choices in inclusive jet calculations. We also examine hadronisation corrections, identifying potential limitations of earlier analytical work with regards to their $p_t$-dependence. Finally we assemble these different elements in order to compare matched (N)NLO+LLR predictions to data from ALICE and ATLAS, finding improved consistency for the R-dependence of the results relative to NLO predictions.

  3. Small-radius jets to all orders in QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dasgupta, Mrinal [Consortium for Fundamental Physics, School of Physics & Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Dreyer, Frédéric [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7589, LPTHE, F-75005, Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7589, LPTHE, F-75005, Paris (France); Salam, Gavin P. [CERN, PH-TH, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Soyez, Gregory [IPhT, CEA Saclay, CNRS URA 2306, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2015-04-08

    As hadron collider physics continues to push the boundaries of precision, it becomes increasingly important to have methods for predicting properties of jets across a broad range of jet radius values R, and in particular for small R. In this paper we resum all leading logarithmic terms, α{sub s}{sup n}ln{sup n} R{sup 2}, in the limit of small R, for a wide variety of observables. These include the inclusive jet spectrum, jet vetoes for Higgs physics and jet substructure tools. Some of the quantities that we consider are relevant also for heavy-ion collisions. Furthermore, we examine and comment on the underlying order-by-order convergence of the perturbative series for different R values. Our results indicate that small-R effects can be substantial. Phenomenological studies will appear in a forthcoming companion paper.

  4. Proton radius, Darwin-Foldy term and radiative corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jentschura, U.D.

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the role of the so-called Darwin-Foldy term in the evaluation of the proton and deuteron charge radii from atomic hydrogen spectroscopy and nuclear scattering data. The question of whether this term should be included or excluded from the nuclear radius has been controversially discussed in the literature. We attempt to clarify which literature values correspond to which conventions. A detailed discussion of the conventions appears useful because a recent experiment [R. Pohl et al., Nature 466, 213 (2010)] has indicated that there is a discrepancy between the proton charge radii inferred from ordinary ('electronic') atomic hydrogen and muonic hydrogen. We also investigate the role of quantum electrodynamic radiative corrections in the determination of nuclear radii from scattering data, and propose a definition of the nuclear self energy which is compatible with the subtraction of the radiative corrections in scattering experiments. (author)

  5. Mass-radius relation for magnetized strange quark stars

    CERN Document Server

    Martinez, A Perez; Paret, D Manreza

    2010-01-01

    We review the stability of magnetized strange quark matter (MSQM) within the phenomenological MIT bag model, taking into account the variation of the relevant input parameters, namely, the strange quark mass, baryon density, magnetic field and bag parameter. A comparison with magnetized asymmetric quark matter in $\\beta$-equilibrium as well as with strange quark matter (SQM) is presented. We obtain that the energy per baryon for MSQM decreases as the magnetic field increases, and its minimum value at vanishing pressure is lower than the value found for SQM, which implies that MSQM is more stable than non-magnetized SQM. The mass-radius relation for magnetized strange quark stars is also obtained in this framework.

  6. Inductive voltage adder (IVA) for submillimeter radius electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazarakis, M.G.; Poukey, J.W.; Maenchen, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    The authors have already demonstrated the utility of inductive voltage adder accelerators for production of small-size electron beams. In this approach, the inductive voltage adder drives a magnetically immersed foilless diode to produce high-energy (10--20 MeV), high-brightness pencil electron beams. This concept was first demonstrated with the successful experiments which converted the linear induction accelerator RADLAC II into an IVA fitted with a small 1-cm radius cathode magnetically immersed foilless diode (RADLAC II/SMILE). They present here first validations of extending this idea to mm-scale electron beams using the SABRE and HERMES-III inductive voltage adders as test beds. The SABRE experiments are already completed and have produced 30-kA, 9-MeV electron beams with envelope diameter of 1.5-mm FWHM. The HERMES-III experiments are currently underway

  7. Relation between radius and expansion velocity in planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Y.H.; Kwitter, K.B.; Kaler, J.B.

    1984-01-01

    The expansion velocity-radius (R-V) relation for planetary nebulae is examined using the existing measurements of expansion velocities and recent calculations of radii. It is found that some of the previously alleged R-V relations for PN are not convincingly established. The scatter in the R-V plots may be due largely to stratification of ions in individual nebulae and to heterogeneity in the planetary nebula population. In addition, from new echelle/CCD observations of planetary nebulae, it is found that spatial information is essential in deriving the internal kinematic properties. Future investigations of R-V relations should be pursued separately for groups of planetaries with similar physical properties, and they should employ observations of appropriate low excitation lines in order to measure the expansion velocity at the surface of the nebula. 26 references

  8. Nuclear charge radius measurements of radioactive beryllium isotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    We propose to measure the nuclear charge radii of the beryllium isotopes $^{7,9,10}$Be and the one-neutron halo isotope $^{11}$Be using laser spectroscopy of trapped ions. Ions produced at ISOLDE and ionized with the laser ion source will be cooled and bunched in the radio-frequency buncher of the ISOLTRAP experiment and then transferred into a specially designed Paul trap. Here, they will be cooled to temperatures in the mK range employing sympathetic and direct laser cooling. Precision laser spectroscopy of the isotope shift on the cooled ensemble in combination with accurate atomic structure calculations will provide nuclear charge radii with a precision of better than 3%. This will be the first model-independent determination of a one-neutron halo nuclear charge radius.

  9. Measurement of nuclear reaction rates and spectral indices along the radius of fuel pellets from IPEN/MB-01 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mura, Luis Felipe Liambos

    2010-01-01

    This work presents the measurements of the nuclear reaction rates along the radial direction of the fuel pellet by irradiation and posterior gamma spectrometry of a thin slice of fuel pellet of UO 2 with 4,3% enrichment. From its irradiation the rate of radioactive capture and fission have been measured as a function of the radius of the pellet disk using a HPGe detector. Lead collimators has been used for this purpose. Simulating the fuel pellet in the pin fuel of the IPEN/MB-01 reactor, a thin UO 2 disk is used. This disk is inserted in the interior of a dismountable fuel rod. This fuel rod is then placed in the central position of the IPEN/MB-01 reactor core and irradiated during 1 hour under a neutron flux of around 9 x 10 8 n/cm 2 s. For gamma spectrometry 10 collimators with different diameters have been used, consequently, the nuclear reactions of radioactive capture that occurs in atoms of 238 U and fissions that occur on both 235 U and 238 U are measured in function of 10 different region (diameter of collimator) of the fuel pellet disk. Corrections in the geometric efficiency due to introduction of collimators on HPGe detection system were estimated using photon transport of MCNP-4C code. Some calculated values of nuclear reaction rate of radioactive capture and fission along of the radial direction of the fuel pellet obtained by Monte Carlo methodology, using the MCNP-4C code, are presented and compared to the experimental data showing very good agreement. Besides nuclear reaction rates, the spectral indices 28 ρ and 25 δ have been obtained at each different radius of the fuel pellet disk. (author)

  10. Reliability of radiographic measurements for acute distal radius fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, Narelle J.; Asadollahi, Saeed; Parrish, Frank; Ridgway, Jacqueline; Tran, Phong; Keating, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    The management of distal radial fractures is guided by the interpretation of radiographic findings. The aim of this investigation was to determine the intra- and inter-observer reliability of eight traditionally reported anatomic radiographic parameters in adults with an acute distal radius fracture. Five observers participated. All were routinely involved in making treatment decisions based on distal radius fracture radiographs. Observers performed independent repeated measurements on 30 radiographs for eight anatomical parameters: dorsal shift (mm), intra-articular gap (mm), intra-articular step (mm), palmar tilt (degrees), radial angle (degrees), radial height (mm), radial shift (mm), ulnar variance (mm). Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and the magnitude of retest errors were calculated. Measurement reliability was summarised as high (ICC > 0.80), moderate (0.60–0.80) or low (<0.60). Intra-observer reliability was high for dorsal shift and palmar tilt; moderate for radial angle, radial height, ulnar variance and radial shift; and low for intra-articular gap and step. Inter-observer reliability was high for palmar tilt; moderate for dorsal shift, ulnar variance, radial angle and radial height; and low for radial shift, intra-articular gap and step. Error magnitude (95 % confidence interval) was within 1–2 mm for intra-articular gap and step, 2–4 mm for ulnar variance, 4–6 mm for radial shift, dorsal shift and radial height, and 6–8° for radial angle and palmar tilt. Based on previous reports of critical values for palmar tilt, ulnar variance and radial angle, error margins appear small enough for measurements to be useful in guiding treatment decisions. Our findings indicate that clinicians cannot reliably measure values ≤1 mm for intra-articular gap and step when interpreting radiographic parameters using the standardised methods investigated in this study. As a guide for treatment selection, palmar tilt, ulnar variance and radial angle

  11. The evolution of discharge current and channel radius in cloud-to-ground lightning return stroke process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Tingting; Yuan, Ping; Wang, Xuejuan; Cen, Jianyong; Chang, Xuan; Zhao, Yanyan

    2017-09-01

    The spectra of two negative cloud-to-ground lightning discharge processes with multi-return strokes are obtained by a slit-less high-speed spectrograph, which the temporal resolution is 110 μs. Combined with the synchronous electrical observation data and theoretical calculation, the physical characteristics during return strokes process are analysed. A positive correlation between discharge current and intensity of ionic lines in the spectra is verified, and based on this feature, the current evolution characteristics during four return strokes are investigated. The results show that the time from peak current to the half-peak value estimated by multi point-fitting is about 101 μs-139 μs. The Joule heat in per unit length of four return strokes channel is in the order of 105J/m-106 J/m. The radius of arc discharge channel is positively related to the discharge current, and the more intense the current is, the greater the radius of channel is. Furthermore, the evolution for radius of arc core channel in the process of return stroke is consistent with the change trend of discharge current after the peak value. Compared with the decay of the current, the temperature decreases more slowly.

  12. Patterns of triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) injury associated with severely dorsally displaced extra-articular distal radius fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheer, Johan H; Adolfsson, Lars E

    2012-06-01

    The aim of the study was to examine triangular fibrocartilage (TFCC) injury patterns associated with unstable, extra-articular dorsally displaced distal radius fractures. Twenty adult patients with an Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen (AO), type A2 or A3, distal radius fracture with an initial dorsal angulation greater than 20° were included. Nine had a tip fracture (distal to the base) of the ulnar styloid and 11 had no such fracture. They were all openly explored from an ulnopalmar approach and TFCC injuries were documented. Eleven patients also underwent arthroscopy and intra-articular pathology was recorded. All patients had TFCC lesions of varying severity, having an extensor carpi ulnaris subsheath avulsion in common. Eighteen out of 20 also displayed deep foveal radioulnar ligament lesions, with decreasingly dorsal fibres remaining. The extent of this foveal injury could not be appreciated by radiocarpal arthroscopy. Severe displacement of an extra-articular radius fracture suggests an ulnar-sided ligament injury to the TFCC. The observed lesions concur with findings in a previous cadaver study. The lesions follow a distinct pattern affecting both radioulnar as well as ulnocarpal stabilisers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of facility on the operative costs of distal radius fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Richard C; Wysocki, Robert W; Mack Aldridge, J; Pietrobon, Ricardo; Nunley, James A

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether ambulatory surgery centers can deliver lower-cost care and to identify sources of those cost savings. We performed a cost identification analysis of outpatient volar plating for closed distal radius fractures at a single academic medical center. Multiple costs and time measures were taken from an internal database of 130 consecutive patients and were compared by venue of treatment, either an inpatient facility or an ambulatory, stand-alone surgery facility. The relationships between total cost and operative time and multiple variables, including fracture severity, patient age, gender, comorbidities, use of bone graft, concurrent carpal tunnel release, and surgeon experience, were examined, using multivariate analysis and regression modeling to identify other cost drivers or explanatory variables. The mean operative cost was considerably greater at the inpatient facility ($7,640) than at the outpatient facility ($5,220). Cost drivers of this difference were anesthesia services, post-anesthesia care unit, and operating room costs. Total surgical time, nursing time, set-up, and operative times were 33%, 109%, 105%, and 35% longer, respectively, at the inpatient facility. There was no significant difference between facilities for the additional variables, and none of those variables independently affected cost or operative time. The only predictor of cost and time was facility type. This study supports the use of ambulatory stand-alone surgical facilities to achieve efficient resource utilization in the operative treatment of distal radius fractures. We also identified several specific costs and time measurements that differed between facilities, which can serve as potential targets for tertiary facilities to improve utilization. Economic and Decisional Analysis III. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Motion Capturing Emotions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wood Karen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the activities conducted as part of WhoLoDancE: Whole Body Interaction Learning for Dance Education which is an EU-funded Horizon 2020 project. In particular, we discuss the motion capture sessions that took place at Motek, Amsterdam as well as the dancers’ experience of being captured and watching themselves or others as varying visual representations through the HoloLens. HoloLens is Microsoft’s first holographic computer that you wear as you would a pair of glasses. The study embraced four dance genres: Ballet, Contemporary, Flamenco and Greek Folk dance. We are specifically interested in the kinesthetic and emotional engagement with the moving body and what new corporeal awareness may be experienced. Positioning the moving, dancing body as fundamental to technological advancements, we discuss the importance of considering the dancer’s experience in the real and virtual space. Some of the artists involved in the project have offered their experiences, which are included, and they form the basis of the discussion. In addition, we discuss the affect of immersive environments, how these environments expand reality and what effect (emotionally and otherwise that has on the body. The research reveals insights into relationships between emotion, movement and technology and what new sensorial knowledge this evokes for the dancer.

  15. Inclusive jet spectrum for small-radius jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dasgupta, Mrinal [Consortium for Fundamental Physics, School of Physics & Astronomy, University of Manchester,Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Dreyer, Frédéric A. [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7589, LPTHE,F-75005, Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7589, LPTHE,F-75005, Paris (France); CERN, Theoretical Physics Department,CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Salam, Gavin P. [CERN, Theoretical Physics Department,CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Soyez, Gregory [IPhT, CEA Saclay, CNRS UMR 3681,F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2016-06-09

    Following on our earlier work on leading-logarithmic (LL{sub R}) resummations for the properties of jets with a small radius, R, we here examine the phenomenological considerations for the inclusive jet spectrum. We discuss how to match the NLO predictions with small-R resummation. As part of the study we propose a new, physically-inspired prescription for fixed-order predictions and their uncertainties. We investigate the R-dependent part of the next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) corrections, which is found to be substantial, and comment on the implications for scale choices in inclusive jet calculations. We also examine hadronisation corrections, identifying potential limitations of earlier analytical work with regards to their p{sub t}-dependence. Finally we assemble these different elements in order to compare matched (N)NLO+LL{sub R} predictions to data from ALICE and ATLAS, finding improved consistency for the R-dependence of the results relative to NLO predictions.

  16. Kinetic theory of plasma adiabatic major radius compression in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorelenkova, M.V.; Gorelenkov, N.N.; Azizov, E.A.; Romannikov, A.N.; Herrmann, H.W.

    1998-01-01

    In order to understand the individual charged particle behavior as well as plasma macroparameters (temperature, density, etc.) during the adiabatic major radius compression (R-compression) in a tokamak, a kinetic approach is used. The perpendicular electric field from the Ohm close-quote s law at zero resistivity is made use of in order to describe particle motion during the R-compression. Expressions for both passing and trapped particle energy and pitch angle change are derived for a plasma with high aspect ratio and circular magnetic surfaces. The particle behavior near the passing trapped boundary during the compression is studied to simulate the compression-induced collisional losses of alpha particles. Qualitative agreement is obtained with the alphas loss measurements in deuterium-tritium (D-T) experiments in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) [World Survey of Activities in Controlled Fusion Research [Nucl. Fusion special supplement (1991)] (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1991)]. The plasma macroparameters evolution at the R-compression is calculated by solving the gyroaveraged drift kinetic equation. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  17. AO Distal Radius Fracture Classification: Global Perspective on Observer Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, Prakash; Teunis, Teun; Giménez, Beatriz Bravo; Verstreken, Frederik; Di Mascio, Livio; Jupiter, Jesse B.

    2016-01-01

    Background The primary objective of this study was to test interobserver reliability when classifying fractures by consensus by AO types and groups among a large international group of surgeons. Secondarily, we assessed the difference in inter- and intraobserver agreement of the AO classification in relation to geographical location, level of training, and subspecialty. Methods A randomized set of radiographic and computed tomographic images from a consecutive series of 96 distal radius fractures (DRFs), treated between October 2010 and April 2013, was classified using an electronic web-based portal by an invited group of participants on two occasions. Results Interobserver reliability was substantial when classifying AO type A fractures but fair and moderate for type B and C fractures, respectively. No difference was observed by location, except for an apparent difference between participants from India and Australia classifying type B fractures. No statistically significant associations were observed comparing interobserver agreement by level of training and no differences were shown comparing subspecialties. Intra-rater reproducibility was “substantial” for fracture types and “fair” for fracture groups with no difference accounting for location, training level, or specialty. Conclusion Improved definition of reliability and reproducibility of this classification may be achieved using large international groups of raters, empowering decision making on which system to utilize. Level of Evidence Level III PMID:28119795

  18. MASS-RADIUS RELATIONSHIPS FOR VERY LOW MASS GASEOUS PLANETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batygin, Konstantin; Stevenson, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the Kepler spacecraft has detected a sizable aggregate of objects, characterized by giant-planet-like radii and modest levels of stellar irradiation. With the exception of a handful of objects, the physical nature, and specifically the average densities, of these bodies remain unknown. Here, we propose that the detected giant planet radii may partially belong to planets somewhat less massive than Uranus and Neptune. Accordingly, in this work, we seek to identify a physically sound upper limit to planetary radii at low masses and moderate equilibrium temperatures. As a guiding example, we analyze the interior structure of the Neptune-mass planet Kepler-30d and show that it is acutely deficient in heavy elements, especially compared with its solar system counterparts. Subsequently, we perform numerical simulations of planetary thermal evolution and in agreement with previous studies, show that generally, 10-20 M ⊕ , multi-billion year old planets, composed of high density cores and extended H/He envelopes can have radii that firmly reside in the giant planet range. We subject our results to stability criteria based on extreme ultraviolet radiation, as well as Roche-lobe overflow driven mass-loss and construct mass-radius relationships for the considered objects. We conclude by discussing observational avenues that may be used to confirm or repudiate the existence of putative low mass, gas-dominated planets.

  19. Robust automated knowledge capture.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens-Adams, Susan Marie; Abbott, Robert G.; Forsythe, James Chris; Trumbo, Michael Christopher Stefan; Haass, Michael Joseph; Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt

    2011-10-01

    This report summarizes research conducted through the Sandia National Laboratories Robust Automated Knowledge Capture Laboratory Directed Research and Development project. The objective of this project was to advance scientific understanding of the influence of individual cognitive attributes on decision making. The project has developed a quantitative model known as RumRunner that has proven effective in predicting the propensity of an individual to shift strategies on the basis of task and experience related parameters. Three separate studies are described which have validated the basic RumRunner model. This work provides a basis for better understanding human decision making in high consequent national security applications, and in particular, the individual characteristics that underlie adaptive thinking.

  20. Fragment capture device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Lloyd R.; Cole, David L.

    2010-03-30

    A fragment capture device for use in explosive containment. The device comprises an assembly of at least two rows of bars positioned to eliminate line-of-sight trajectories between the generation point of fragments and a surrounding containment vessel or asset. The device comprises an array of at least two rows of bars, wherein each row is staggered with respect to the adjacent row, and wherein a lateral dimension of each bar and a relative position of each bar in combination provides blockage of a straight-line passage of a solid fragment through the adjacent rows of bars, wherein a generation point of the solid fragment is located within a cavity at least partially enclosed by the array of bars.

  1. Capturing the Daylight Dividend

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Boyce; Claudia Hunter; Owen Howlett

    2006-04-30

    Capturing the Daylight Dividend conducted activities to build market demand for daylight as a means of improving indoor environmental quality, overcoming technological barriers to effective daylighting, and informing and assisting state and regional market transformation and resource acquisition program implementation efforts. The program clarified the benefits of daylight by examining whole building systems energy interactions between windows, lighting, heating, and air conditioning in daylit buildings, and daylighting's effect on the human circadian system and productivity. The project undertook work to advance photosensors, dimming systems, and ballasts, and provided technical training in specifying and operating daylighting controls in buildings. Future daylighting work is recommended in metric development, technology development, testing, training, education, and outreach.

  2. Active space of pheromone plume and its relationship to effective attraction radius in applied models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers, John A

    2008-09-01

    The release rate of a semiochemical lure that attracts flying insects has a specific effective attraction radius (EAR) that corresponds to the lure's orientation response strength. EAR is defined as the radius of a passive sphere that intercepts the same number of insects as a semiochemical-baited trap. It is estimated by calculating the ratio of trap catches in the field in baited and unbaited traps and the interception area of the unbaited trap. EAR serves as a standardized method for comparing the attractive strengths of lures that is independent of population density. In two-dimensional encounter rate models that are used to describe insect mass trapping and mating disruption, a circular EAR (EAR(c)) describes a key parameter that affects catch or influence by pheromone in the models. However, the spherical EAR, as measured in the field, should be transformed to an EAR(c) for appropriate predictions in such models. The EAR(c) is calculated as (pi/2EAR(2))/F (L), where F (L) is the effective thickness of the flight layer where the insect searches. F (L) was estimated from catches of insects (42 species in the orders Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Diptera, Hemiptera, and Thysanoptera) on traps at various heights as reported in the literature. The EAR(c) was proposed further as a simple but equivalent alternative to simulations of highly complex active-space plumes with variable response surfaces that have proven exceedingly difficult to quantify in nature. This hypothesis was explored in simulations where flying insects, represented as coordinate points, moved about in a correlated random walk in an area that contained a pheromone plume, represented as a sector of active space composed of a capture probability surface of variable complexity. In this plume model, catch was monitored at a constant density of flying insects and then compared to simulations in which a circular EAR(c) was enlarged until an equivalent rate was caught. This demonstrated that there is a

  3. Improved automatic optic nerve radius estimation from high resolution MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrigan, Robert L.; Smith, Alex K.; Mawn, Louise A.; Smith, Seth A.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2017-02-01

    The optic nerve (ON) is a vital structure in the human visual system and transports all visual information from the retina to the cortex for higher order processing. Due to the lack of redundancy in the visual pathway, measures of ON damage have been shown to correlate well with visual deficits. These measures are typically taken at an arbitrary anatomically defined point along the nerve and do not characterize changes along the length of the ON. We propose a fully automated, three-dimensionally consistent technique building upon a previous independent slice-wise technique to estimate the radius of the ON and surrounding cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) on high-resolution heavily T2-weighted isotropic MRI. We show that by constraining results to be three-dimensionally consistent this technique produces more anatomically viable results. We compare this technique with the previously published slice-wise technique using a short-term reproducibility data set, 10 subjects, follow-up <1 month, and show that the new method is more reproducible in the center of the ON. The center of the ON contains the most accurate imaging because it lacks confounders such as motion and frontal lobe interference. Long-term reproducibility, 5 subjects, follow-up of approximately 11 months, is also investigated with this new technique and shown to be similar to short-term reproducibility, indicating that the ON does not change substantially within 11 months. The increased accuracy of this new technique provides increased power when searching for anatomical changes in ON size amongst patient populations.

  4. Impact of radius and skew angle on areal density in heat assisted magnetic recording hard disk drives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordle, Michael; Rea, Chris; Jury, Jason; Rausch, Tim; Hardie, Cal; Gage, Edward; Victora, R. H.

    2018-05-01

    This study aims to investigate the impact that factors such as skew, radius, and transition curvature have on areal density capability in heat-assisted magnetic recording hard disk drives. We explore a "ballistic seek" approach for capturing in-situ scan line images of the magnetization footprint on the recording media, and extract parametric results of recording characteristics such as transition curvature. We take full advantage of the significantly improved cycle time to apply a statistical treatment to relatively large samples of experimental curvature data to evaluate measurement capability. Quantitative analysis of factors that impact transition curvature reveals an asymmetry in the curvature profile that is strongly correlated to skew angle. Another less obvious skew-related effect is an overall decrease in curvature as skew angle increases. Using conventional perpendicular magnetic recording as the reference case, we characterize areal density capability as a function of recording position.

  5. On the determination of the proton RMS-radius from electron scattering data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borkowski, F.; Simon, G.G.; Walther, V.H.; Wendling, R.D.

    1975-01-01

    It is shown that the proton rms radius should be determined from fiting a polynomial of second order to the low-q 2 form factors. The commonly used polynomial of first yields radius values which are too small. The proton rms radius has been redetermined from an analysis of the electron scattering data measured at three laboratories. The best fit value is [r 2 sub(E)]sup(1/2) = 0.87 +- 0.02 fm. (orig.) [de

  6. Study of the external parameters influence on the channel discharge radius in Hg lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristea, M.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, the plasma electric conductivity and the channel radius for high-pressure mercury arc discharge are calculated. The examined model emphasizes some correlations between various external parameters (current intensity, silicon tube diameter and working pressure) and the channel discharge radius. After model validation, the temperature distribution in the discharge zone is obtained and then the electrons and ions distribution, the electric carriers mobility and the electric conductivity for different lamp characteristics are calculated. The applied numerical simulation shows a linear increase of the channel radius with the tube radius Rw increasing, and a very week pressure dependence (in the range 0.5 - 5 atm.)

  7. The separatrix radius measurement of field-reversed configuration plasma in FRX-L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shouyin; Tejero, Erik M.; Taccetti, Jose Martin; Wurden, Glen A.; Intrator, Thomas; Waganaar, William J.

    2004-01-01

    Magnetic pick-up coils and single turn flux loops are installed on the FRX-L device. The combination of the two measurements provides the excluded flux radius that approximates the separatrix radius of the field-reversed configuration plasma. Arrays of similar probes are used to map out local magnetic field dynamics beyond both ends of the theta-coil confinement region to help understand the effects of cusp locations on flux trapping during the FRC formation process. Details on the probe design and system calibrations are presented. The overall system calibration of excluded flux radius measurement is examined by replacing FRC plasma with a known radius aluminum conductor cylinder.

  8. Fractures of the bilateral distal radius and scaphoid: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozkan Korhan

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Bilateral fractures of the distal radius and scaphoid are extremely rare injuries. Case presentation A patient with bilateral comminuted, displaced distal fractures of the radius and bilateral fractures of the scaphoid was treated via internal fixation of the scaphoid fractures with Herbert screws and internal fixation of the distal radius fractures with locked volar plating. Conclusion Rigid internal fixation of distal radius and scaphoid fractures is mandatory to start early active rehabilitation of the wrist without the need for wrist immobilization with a plaster or external skeletal fixation.

  9. Thermal neutron capture gamma-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuli, J.K.

    1983-01-01

    The energy and intensity of gamma rays as seen in thermal neutron capture are presented. Only those (n,α), E = thermal, reactions for which the residual nucleus mass number is greater than or equal to 45 are included. These correspond to evaluations published in Nuclear Data Sheets. The publication source data are contained in the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF). The data presented here do not involve any additional evaluation. Appendix I lists all the residual nuclides for which the data are included here. Appendix II gives a cumulated index to A-chain evaluations including the year of publication. The capture gamma ray data are given in two tables - the Table 1 is the list of all gamma rays seen in (n,#betta#) reaction given in the order of increasing energy; the Table II lists the gamma rays according to the nuclide

  10. Neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, B. J.

    1998-11-01

    The overall state of the art related with neutron capture therapy(NCT) is surveyed. Since the field related with NCT is very wide, it is not intended to survey all related subjects in depth. The primary objective of this report is to help those working for the installation of a NCT facility and a PGNAA(prompt gamma ray neutron activation analysis) system for the boron analysis understand overall NCT at Hanaro. Therefore, while the parts of reactor neutron source and PGNAA are dealt in detail, other parts are limited to the level necessary to understand related fields. For example, the subject of chemical compound which requires intensive knowledge on chemistry, is not dealt as a separated item. However, the requirement of a compound for NCT, currently available compounds, their characteristics, etc. could be understood through this report. Although the subject of cancer treated by NCT is out of the capability of the author, it is dealt focussing its characteristics related with the success of NCT. Each detailed subject is expected to be dealt more detail by specialists in future. This report would be helpful for the researchers working for the NCT to understand related fields. (author). 128 refs., 3 tabs., 12 figs

  11. Captured by Aliens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achenbach, Joel

    2000-03-01

    Captured by Aliens is a long and twisted voyage from science to the supernatural and back again. I hung out in Roswell, N.M., spent time with the Mars Society, met a guy who was figuring out the best way to build a spaceship to go to Alpha Centauri. I visited the set of the X-Files and talked to Mulder and Scully. One day over breakfast I was told by NASA administrator Dan Goldin, We live in a fog, man! He wants the big answers to the big questions. I spent a night in the base of a huge radio telescope in the boondocks of West Virginia, awaiting the signal from the aliens. I was hypnotized in a hotel room by someone who suspected that I'd been abducted by aliens and that this had triggered my interest in the topic. In the last months of his life, I talked to Carl Sagan, who believed that the galaxy riots with intelligent civilizations. He's my hero, for his steadfast adherence to the scientific method. What I found in all this is that the big question that needs immediate attention is not what's out THERE, but what's going on HERE, on Earth, and why we think the way we do, and how we came to be here in the first place.

  12. Evaluation of sarcopenia in patients with distal radius fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Young Hak; Koh, Young Do; Noh, Jung Ho; Gong, Hyun Sik; Baek, Goo Hyun

    2017-12-01

    Sarcopenia is more prevalent in patients with distal radius fracture (DRF) than in age- and sex-matched controls. Lower appendicular mass index in men and weaker grip strength in both men and women increase the likelihood of DRF. Sarcopenia is a core component of physical frailty that predisposes older people to falls and negatively impacts the activities of daily living. The objectives of this study were to compare the prevalence of sarcopenia in patients with DRF with that in age- and sex-matched controls without DRF; and evaluate the association between sarcopenia and the occurrence of DRF. We prospectively recruited 132 patients over 50 years of age who sustained DRF due to fall and 132 age- and sex-matched controls without DRF. A definition of sarcopenia was based on the consensus of the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia. Sarcopenic components including appendicular lean body mass, grip strength, and gait speed were compared between the two groups. Other factors assessed for the occurrence of DRF were age, gender, body mass index (BMI), lumbar, and hip bone mineral density (BMD) values. A conditional logistic regression analysis was conducted to evaluate the associations between sarcopenia and the occurrence of DRF. A total of 39 (30%) of 132 DRF patients were sarcopenic, whereas 23 (17%) of the 132 controls were within the sarcopenic criteria (p = 0.048). The patient group had significantly lower lean body mass and weaker grip strength than those of the control group. However, there was no significant difference in gait speed between the two groups. According to regression analysis, lower appendicular mass index in men was associated with an increased incidence of DRF (odds ratio [OR] = 0.84, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.72, 0.95) while weaker grip strength and lower total hip BMD values were associated with the occurrence of DRF in both men (OR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.63, 0.92; and OR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.64, 0.94, respectively) and women (OR

  13. Capturing asteroids into bound orbits around the earth: Massive early return on an asteroid terminal defense system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hills, J.G.

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear explosives may be used to capture small asteroids (e.g., 20--50 meters in diameter) into bound orbits around the earth. The captured objects could be used for construction material for manned and unmanned activity in Earth orbit. Asteroids with small approach velocities, which are the ones most likely to have close approaches to the Earth, require the least energy for capture. They are particularly easy to capture if they pass within one Earth radius of the surface of the Earth. They could be intercepted with intercontinental missiles if the latter were retrofit with a more flexible guiding and homing capability. This asteroid capture-defense system could be implemented in a few years at low cost by using decommissioned ICMs. The economic value of even one captured asteroid is many times the initial investment. The asteroid capture system would be an essential part of the learning curve for dealing with larger asteroids that can hit the earth

  14. A Simple Correlation for Neutron Capture Rates from Nuclear Masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couture, Aaron Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-01-30

    Recent studies of neutron capture performed at LANL have revealed a previously unrecognized connection between nuclear masses and the average neutron capture cross section. A team of three scientists from Los Alamos (P-27), Yale Univ., and Istanbul Univ. (Turkey) recently discovered this connection and have published their results as a Rapid Communication in Physical Review C. Neutron capture is a reaction in which a free neutron is absorbed by the nucleus, keeping the element unchanged, but changing isotopes. This reaction is typically exothermic. As a result, the reaction can proceed even when many other reaction channels are closed. In an astrophysical environment, this means that neutron capture is the primary mechanism by which all of the elements with atomic number greater than nickel are produced is neutron capture.

  15. The Generic Data Capture Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Edward B.; Barnes, William P.; Stallings, William H.

    1987-01-01

    The Generic Data Capture Facility, which can provide data capture support for a variety of different types of spacecraft while enabling operations costs to be carefully controlled, is discussed. The data capture functions, data protection, isolation of users from data acquisition problems, data reconstruction, and quality and accounting are addressed. The TDM and packet data formats utilized by the system are described, and the development of generic facilities is considered.

  16. Midterm Follow-up of Treating Volar Marginal Rim Fractures with Variable Angle Lcp Volar Rim Distal Radius Plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goorens, Chul Ki; Geeurickx, Stijn; Wernaers, Pascal; Staelens, Barbara; Scheerlinck, Thierry; Goubau, Jean

    2017-06-01

    Specific treatment of the volar marginal rim fragment of distal radius fractures avoids occurance of volar radiocarpal dislocation. Although several fixation systems are available to capture this fragment, adequately maintaining internal fixation is difficult. We present our experience of the first 10 cases using the 2.4 mm variable angle LCP volar rim distal radius plate (Depuy Synthes®, West Chester, US), a low-profile volar rim-contouring plate designed for distal plate positioning and stable buttressing of the volar marginal fragment. Follow-up patient satisfaction, range of motion, grips strength, functional scoring with the QuickDASH and residual pain with a numeric rating scale were assessed. Radiological evaluation consisted in evaluating fracture consolidation, ulnar variance, volar angulation and maintenance of the volar rim fixation. The female to male ratio was 5:5 and the mean age was 52.2 (range, 17-80) years. The mean follow-up period was 11 (range, 5-19) months postoperatively. Patient satisfaction was high. The mean total flexion/extension range was 144° (range, 100-180°) compared to the contralateral uninjured side 160° (range, 95-180°). The mean total pronation/supination range was 153° (range, 140-180°) compared to the contralateral uninjured side 170° (range, 155-180°). Mean grip strength was 14 kg (range, 9-22), compared to the contralateral uninjured side 20 kg (range, 12-25 kg). Mean pre-injury level activity QuickDASH was 23 (range, 0-34.1), while post-recovery QuickDASH was 25 (range 0-43.2). Residual pain was 1.5 on the visual numerical pain rating scale. Radiological evaluation revealed in all cases fracture consolidation, satisfactory reconstruction of ulnar variance, volar angulation and volar rim. We encountered no flexor tendon complications, although plate removal was systematically performed after fracture consolidation. The 2.4 mm variable angle LCP volar rim distal radius plates is a valid treatment option for treating

  17. Carbon captured from the air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keith, D. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    This article presented an innovative way to achieve the efficient capture of atmospheric carbon. A team of scientists from the University of Calgary's Institute for Sustainable Energy, Environment and Economy have shown that it is possible to reduce carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) using a simple machine that can capture the trace amount of CO{sub 2} present in ambient air at any place on the planet. The thermodynamics of capturing the small concentrations of CO{sub 2} from the air is only slightly more difficult than capturing much larger concentrations of CO{sub 2} from power plants. The research is significant because it offers a way to capture CO{sub 2} emissions from transportation sources such as vehicles and airplanes, which represent more than half of the greenhouse gases emitted on Earth. The energy efficient and cost effective air capture technology could complement other approaches for reducing emissions from the transportation sector, such as biofuels and electric vehicles. Air capture differs from carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology used at coal-fired power plants where CO{sub 2} is captured and pipelined for permanent storage underground. Air capture can capture the CO{sub 2} that is present in ambient air and store it wherever it is cheapest. The team at the University of Calgary showed that CO{sub 2} could be captured directly from the air with less than 100 kWhrs of electricity per tonne of CO{sub 2}. A custom-built tower was able to capture the equivalent of 20 tonnes per year of CO{sub 2} on a single square meter of scrubbing material. The team devised a way to use a chemical process from the pulp and paper industry to cut the energy cost of air capture in half. Although the technology is only in its early stage, it appears that CO{sub 2} could be captured from the air with an energy demand comparable to that needed for CO{sub 2} capture from conventional power plants, but costs will be higher. The simple, reliable and scalable technology

  18. Resource capture by single leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, S.P.

    1992-05-01

    Leaves show a variety of strategies for maximizing CO{sub 2} and light capture. These are more meaningfully explained if they are considered in the context of maximizing capture relative to the utilization of water, nutrients and carbohydrates reserves. There is considerable variation between crops in their efficiency of CO{sub 2} and light capture at the leaf level. Understanding of these mechanisms indicate some ways in which efficiency of resource capture could be level cannot be meaningfully considered without simultaneous understanding of implications at the canopy level. 36 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Carbon captured from the air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keith, D.

    2008-01-01

    This article presented an innovative way to achieve the efficient capture of atmospheric carbon. A team of scientists from the University of Calgary's Institute for Sustainable Energy, Environment and Economy have shown that it is possible to reduce carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) using a simple machine that can capture the trace amount of CO 2 present in ambient air at any place on the planet. The thermodynamics of capturing the small concentrations of CO 2 from the air is only slightly more difficult than capturing much larger concentrations of CO 2 from power plants. The research is significant because it offers a way to capture CO 2 emissions from transportation sources such as vehicles and airplanes, which represent more than half of the greenhouse gases emitted on Earth. The energy efficient and cost effective air capture technology could complement other approaches for reducing emissions from the transportation sector, such as biofuels and electric vehicles. Air capture differs from carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology used at coal-fired power plants where CO 2 is captured and pipelined for permanent storage underground. Air capture can capture the CO 2 that is present in ambient air and store it wherever it is cheapest. The team at the University of Calgary showed that CO 2 could be captured directly from the air with less than 100 kWhrs of electricity per tonne of CO 2 . A custom-built tower was able to capture the equivalent of 20 tonnes per year of CO 2 on a single square meter of scrubbing material. The team devised a way to use a chemical process from the pulp and paper industry to cut the energy cost of air capture in half. Although the technology is only in its early stage, it appears that CO 2 could be captured from the air with an energy demand comparable to that needed for CO 2 capture from conventional power plants, but costs will be higher. The simple, reliable and scalable technology offers an opportunity to build a commercial-scale plant. 1 fig

  20. Synovectomy by Neutron capture; Sinovectomia por captura de neutrones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega C, H.R.; Torres M, C. [Centro Regional de Estudios Nucleares, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, C. Cipres 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98000 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    The Synovectomy by Neutron capture has as purpose the treatment of the rheumatoid arthritis, illness which at present does not have a definitive curing. This therapy requires a neutron source for irradiating the articulation affected. The energy spectra and the intensity of these neutrons are fundamental since these neutrons induce nuclear reactions of capture with Boron-10 inside the articulation and the freely energy of these reactions is transferred at the productive tissue of synovial liquid, annihilating it. In this work it is presented the neutron spectra results obtained with moderator packings of spherical geometry which contains in its center a Pu{sup 239} Be source. The calculations were realized through Monte Carlo method. The moderators assayed were light water, heavy water base and the both combination of them. The spectra obtained, the average energy, the neutron total number by neutron emitted by source, the thermal neutron percentage and the dose equivalent allow us to suggest that the moderator packing more adequate is what has a light water thickness 0.5 cm (radius 2 cm) and 24.5 cm heavy water (radius 26.5 cm). (Author)

  1. CT virtual reality in the preoperative workup of malunited distal radius fractures: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieger, Michael; Gruber, Hannes; Jaschke, Werner R.; Gabl, Markus; Mallouhi, Ammar

    2005-01-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the usefulness of CT virtual preoperative planning in the surgical repositioning of malunited distal radius fracture. Eleven patients with malunited distal radius fracture underwent multislice CT of both wrists. A preoperative workup was performed in a virtual reality environment created from the CT data sets. Virtual planning comprised three main procedures, carrying out the virtual osteotomy of the radius, prediction of the final position of the distal radius after osteotomy and computer-assisted manufacturing of a repositioning device, which was later placed at the surgical osteotomy site to reposition objectively the distal radius fragment before fixation with the osteosynthesis. All patients tolerated the surgical procedure well. During surgery, the orthopedic surgeons were not required in any of the cases to alter the position of the distal radius that was determined by the repositioning device. At postoperative follow-up, the anatomic relationship of the distal radius was restored (radial inclination, 21.4 ; volar tilt, 10.3 ; ulnar variance, 0.5 mm). Clinically, a significant improvement of pronation (P=0.012), supination (P=0.01), flexion (P=0.001) and extension (P=0.006) was achieved. Pain decreased from 54 to 7 points. CT virtual reality is a valuable adjunct for the preoperative workup and surgical reposition of malunited distal radius fractures. (orig.)

  2. Studying the proton 'radius' puzzle with μp elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilman, R.

    2013-01-01

    The disagreement between the proton radius determined from muonic hydrogen and from electronic measurements is called the proton radius puzzle. The resolution of the puzzle remains unclear and appears to require new experimental results. An experiment to measure muon-proton elastic scattering is presented here

  3. Non union of the neck of radius: a case report and review of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fractures of the neck of radius are frequent in trauma. They happen without being noticed at the moment of injury of the elbow or in the context of polytrauma. A case of non union of the radius neck occurring in a young person due to ignorance, during first consultation has been reported by the authors. They insist on the ...

  4. Radiographic diagnosis of scapholunate dissociation among intra-articular fractures of the distal radius: interobserver reliability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gradl, Gertraud; Neuhaus, Valentin; Fuchsberger, Thomas; Guitton, Thierry G.; Prommersberger, Karl-Josef; Ring, David; Wahegaonkar, Abhijeet L.; Shafritz, Adam B.; Garcia, Aida E.; Caputo, Andrew E.; Terrono, Andrew L.; Spoor, Andy B.; Eschler, Anica; Vochteloo, Anne J. H.; Beumer, Annechien; Barquet, Antonio; Kristan, Anze; van der Zwan, Arnard L.; Berner, Arne; Ilyas, Asif; Jubel, Axel; Sutker, Ben; Nolan, Betsy M.; Petrisor, Brad; Cross, Brian J.; Wills, Brian P. D.; Barreto, Camilo J. R.; Fernandes, Carlos H.; Swigart, Carrie; Zalavras, Charalampos; Goldfarb, Charles A.; Cassidy, Charles; Eaton, Charles; Wilson, Chris; Cheng, Christine J.; Wall, Christopher J.; Walsh, Christopher J.; Jones, Christopher M.; Garnavos, Christos; Klostermann, Cyrus; Kirkpatrick, D. Kay; Eygendaal, Denise; Verbeek, Diederik O. F.; Beeres, Frank J. P.; Thomas, George; Ponsen, Kornelis J.; van den Bekerom, Michel P. J.; Schep, Niels; Kloen, Peter; Haverlag, Robert

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the reliability and accuracy of diagnosis of scapholunate dissociation (SLD) among AO type C (compression articular) fractures of the distal radius. A total of 217 surgeons evaluated 21 sets of radiographs with type C fractures of the distal radius for which the status of the

  5. [Matrimonial radius and anthropologic differentiation of the population of the Peloponnese, Greece].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitsios, T K

    1983-09-01

    Mean matrimonial radius (MMR) and mean breeding radius (MBR) were studied in the population of the Peloponnese (Greece). The historical and geographical causes of these important genetical variables are discussed considering, too, their effects on the anthropological differentiation of this population.

  6. Relationship between plate removal and Soong grading following surgery for fractured distal radius

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selles, Caroline A.; Reerds, Sam T. H.; Roukema, Gert; van der Vlies, Kees H.; Cleffken, Berry I.; Schep, Niels W. L.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between volar plate removal and the Soong classification following fixation for fractured distal radius. In this retrospective cohort study, all consecutive patients who had volar plate fixation for a distal radius fracture in 2011-2015 were

  7. Classification and treatment of distal radius fractures: a survey among orthopaedic trauma surgeons and residents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A.M. Mulders (Marjolein A. M.); D. Rikli; J.C. Goslings (Carel); N.W.L. Schep (Niels)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: Classification, the definition of an acceptable reduction and indications for surgery in distal radius fracturemanagement are still subject of debate. The purpose of this study was to characterise current distal radius fracture management in Europe. Methods: During the European

  8. Vertical profiles of droplet effective radius in shallow convective clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zhang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Conventional satellite retrievals can only provide information on cloud-top droplet effective radius (re. Given the fact that cloud ensembles in a satellite snapshot have different cloud-top heights, Rosenfeld and Lensky (1998 used the cloud-top height and the corresponding cloud-top re from the cloud ensembles in the snapshot to construct a profile of re representative of that in the individual clouds. This study investigates the robustness of this approach in shallow convective clouds based on results from large-eddy simulations (LES for clean (aerosol mixing ratio Na = 25 mg−1, intermediate (Na = 100 mg−1, and polluted (Na = 2000 mg−1 conditions. The cloud-top height and the cloud-top re from the modeled cloud ensembles are used to form a constructed re profile, which is then compared to the in-cloud re profiles. For the polluted and intermediate cases where precipitation is negligible, the constructed re profiles represent the in-cloud re profiles fairly well with a low bias (about 10 %. The method used in Rosenfeld and Lensky (1998 is therefore validated for nonprecipitating shallow cumulus clouds. For the clean, drizzling case, the in-cloud re can be very large and highly variable, and quantitative profiling based on cloud-top re is less useful. The differences in re profiles between clean and polluted conditions derived in this manner are however, distinct. This study also investigates the subadiabatic characteristics of the simulated cumulus clouds to reveal the effect of mixing on re and its evolution. Results indicate that as polluted and moderately polluted clouds develop into their decaying stage, the subadiabatic fraction

  9. Measurements of the nuclear reaction rates and spectral indices along the radius of the fuel pellets of the IPEN/MB-01 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitelli, Ulysses d'Utra; Mura, Luis Felipe L.; Fanaro, Leda C.C.B.

    2009-01-01

    This work presents the measures of the nuclear reaction rates along of the radial direction of the fuel pellet by irradiation and posterior gamma spectrometry of a thin slice of fuel pellet of UO 2 at 4.3% enrichment. From its irradiation the rate of radioactive capture and fission are measures as a function of the radius of the pellet disk using a HPGe detector. Diverse lead collimators of changeable diameters have been used for this purpose. Simulating the fuel pellet in the pin fuel of the IPEN/MB-01 reactor, a thin disk is used, being inserted in the interior of a dismountable fuel rod. This fuel rod is then placed in the central position of the IPEN/MB-01 reactor core and irradiated during 1 hour under a neutron flux of 5.10 8 n/cm 2 s. The nuclear reaction of radioactive capture occurs in the atoms of U- 238 that when absorbs a neutron transmutes into U- 239 of half-life of only 23 minutes. Thus, it is opted for the detection of the Np- 239 , radionuclide derivative of the radioactive decay of the U- 239 and that has a measurable half-life (2.335 days). In gamma spectrometry 11 collimators with different diameters have been used, consequently, the gamma spectrometry is made in function of the diameter (radius) of the irradiated UO 2 fuel pellet disk, thus is possible to get the average value of the counting for each collimator in function of the specific pellet radius. These values are directly proportional to the radioactive capture nuclear reaction rates. The same way the nuclear fission rate occurs in the atoms of the U- 235 that produce different fission products such as Ce- 143 with a yield fission of 5.9% and applying the same procedure the fission nuclear reaction rate is obtained. This work presents some calculated values of nuclear reaction rate of radioactive capture and fission along of the radial direction of the fuel pellet obtained by Monte Carlo methodology using the MCNP-4C code. The relative values obtained are compared with experimental

  10. Greater trochanteric pain syndrome diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallow, Michael; Nazarian, Levon N

    2014-05-01

    Lateral hip pain, or greater trochanteric pain syndrome, is a commonly seen condition; in this article, the relevant anatomy, epidemiology, and evaluation strategies of greater trochanteric pain syndrome are reviewed. Specific attention is focused on imaging of this syndrome and treatment techniques, including ultrasound-guided interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Fish welfare in capture fisheries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuizen, L.J.L.; Berentsen, P.B.M.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Vis, van de J.W.; Bokkers, E.A.M.

    2018-01-01

    Concerns about the welfare of production animals have extended from farm animals to fish, but an overview of the impact of especially capture fisheries on fish welfare is lacking. This review provides a synthesis of 85 articles, which demonstrates that research interest in fish welfare in capture

  12. A mass transfer based variable porosity model with particle radius change for a Lithium-ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashwin, T.R.; McGordon, A.; Jennings, P.A.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Mass transfer based model to calculate the porosity variation and radius change. • Can be used with any model that calculates Lithium concentration in electrolyte. • Considers SEI as a mass deposition rather than simply an internal resistance. • Brings more accuracy to the volume specific area and the Butler-Volmer kinetics • Practical applicability in pre-lithiation, lithium plating and stress calculation. - Abstract: Micro pore-clogging in the electrodes due to SEI growth and other side reactions can cause adverse effects on the performance of a Lithium-ion battery. The fundamental problem of volume fraction variation and particle radius change during the charge-discharge process in a lithium-ion battery is modelled in this paper with the help of mass transfer based formulation and demonstrated on a battery with LiCoO_2 chemistry. The model can handle the volume fraction change due to intercalation reaction, solvent reduction side reaction and the electrolyte density change due to side reaction contamination in the battery. The entire calculation presented in this paper models particle radius and volume fraction together and therefore gives greater accuracy in calculating the volume-specific-area of the reacting particles which is an important parameter controlling the Butler-Volmer kinetics. The mass deposit on the electrode (or loss of lithium) gives an indication of the amount of pre-lithiation required to maintain cell performance while the amount of mass deposited on the SEI helps to decide the safe operating condition for which the clogging of pores and capacity fade will be minimal. Moreover the model presented in this paper has wide applicability in analysing the stress development inside the battery due to irreversible porous filling.

  13. Materials For Gas Capture, Methods Of Making Materials For Gas Capture, And Methods Of Capturing Gas

    KAUST Repository

    Polshettiwar, Vivek

    2013-06-20

    In accordance with the purpose(s) of the present disclosure, as embodied and broadly described herein, embodiments of the present disclosure, in one aspect, relate to materials that can be used for gas (e.g., CO.sub.2) capture, methods of making materials, methods of capturing gas (e.g., CO.sub.2), and the like, and the like.

  14. Experimental and numerical investigation of laser forming of cylindrical surfaces with arbitrary radius of curvature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Safari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, laser forming of cylindrical surfaces with arbitrary radius of curvature is investigated experimentally and numerically. For laser forming of cylindrical surfaces with arbitrary radius of curvature, a new and comprehensive method is proposed in this paper. This method contains simple linear irradiating lines and using an analytical method, required process parameters for laser forming of a cylindrical surface with a specific radius of curvature is proposed. In this method, laser output power, laser scanning speed and laser beam diameter are selected based on laser machine and process limitations. As in the laser forming of a cylindrical surface, parallel irradiating lines are needed; therefore key parameter for production of a cylindrical surface with a specific radius of curvature is the number of irradiating lines. Hence, in the proposed analytical method, the required number of irradiating lines for production of a cylindrical surface with a specific radius of curvature is suggested. Performance of the proposed method for production of cylindrical surface with a specific radius of curvature is verified with experimental tests. The results show that using proposed analytical method, cylindrical surfaces with any radius of curvature can be produced successfully.

  15. The radius of the quiescent neutron star in the globular cluster M13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, A. W.; Heinke, C. O.; Steiner, A. W.; Campana, S.; Cohn, H. N.; Ho, W. C. G.; Lugger, P. M.; Servillat, M.

    2018-06-01

    X-ray spectra of quiescent low-mass X-ray binaries containing neutron stars can be fit with atmosphere models to constrain the mass and the radius. Mass-radius constraints can be used to place limits on the equation of state of dense matter. We perform fits to the X-ray spectrum of a quiescent neutron star in the globular cluster M13, utilizing data from ROSAT, Chandra, and XMM-Newton, and constrain the mass-radius relation. Assuming an atmosphere composed of hydrogen and a 1.4 M⊙ neutron star, we find the radius to be R_NS=12.2^{+1.5}_{-1.1} km, a significant improvement in precision over previous measurements. Incorporating an uncertainty on the distance to M13 relaxes the radius constraints slightly and we find R_NS=12.3^{+1.9}_{-1.7} km (for a 1.4M⊙ neutron star with a hydrogen atmosphere), which is still an improvement in precision over previous measurements, some of which do not consider distance uncertainty. We also discuss how the composition of the atmosphere affects the derived radius, finding that a helium atmosphere implies a significantly larger radius.

  16. Electron capture and stellar collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, K.C.

    1979-01-01

    In order, to investigate the function of electron capture in the phenomenon of pre-supernovae gravitacional collapse, an hydrodynamic caculation was carried out, coupling capture, decay and nuclear reaction equation system. A star simplified model (homogeneous model) was adopted using fermi ideal gas approximation for tthe sea of free electrons and neutrons. The non simplified treatment from quasi-static evolution to collapse is presented. The capture and beta decay rates, as wellas neutron delayed emission, were calculated by beta decay crude theory, while the other reaction rates were determined by usual theories. The preliminary results are presented. (M.C.K.) [pt

  17. Proton capture by magnetic monopoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olaussen, K.; Olsen, H.A.; Oeverboe, I.; Osland, P.

    1983-09-01

    In the Kazama-Yang approximation, the lowest monopole-proton bound states have binding energies of 938 MeV, 263 keV, 105 eV, and 0.04 eV. The cross section for radiative capture to these states is for velocities β = 10 -5 - 10 -3 found to be of the order of 10 -28 - 10 -26 cm 2 . For the state that has a binding energy of 263 keV, the capture length in water is 171 x (β/10 -4 )sup(0.48) m. Observation of photons from the capture process would indicate the presence of monopoles. (orig.)

  18. Synchronous Multicentric Giant Cell Tumour of Distal Radius and Sacrum with Pulmonary Metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun Sharma Tandra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Giant cell tumour (GCT is an uncommon primary bone tumour, and its multicentric presentation is exceedingly rare. We report a case of a 45-year-old female who presented to us with GCT of left distal radius. On the skeletal survey, osteolytic lesion was noted in her right sacral ala. Biopsy confirmed both lesions as GCT. Pulmonary metastasis was also present. Resection-reconstruction arthroplasty for distal radius and thorough curettage and bone grafting of the sacral lesion were done. Multicentric GCT involving distal radius and sacrum with primary sacral involvement is not reported so far to our knowledge.

  19. Correction of the exciton Bohr radius in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Run-Ze; Dong, Xi-Ying; Li, Zhi-Qing; Wang, Zi-Wu

    2018-07-01

    We theoretically investigate the correction of exciton Bohr radius in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) on different polar substrates arising from the exciton-optical phonon coupling, in which both the intrinsic longitudinal optical phonon and surface optical phonon modes couple with the exciton are taken into account. We find that the exciton Bohr radius is enlarged markedly due to these coupling. Moreover, it can be changed on a large scale by modulating the polarizability of polar substrate and the internal distance between the monolayer TMDCs and polar substrate. Theoretical result provides a potential explanation for the variation of the exciton Bohr radius in experimental measurement.

  20. Initialization effects via the nuclear radius on transverse in-plane flow and its disappearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bansal Rajni

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We study the dependence of collective transverse flow and its disappearance on initialization effects via the nuclear radius within the framework of the Isospin-dependent Quantum Molecular Dynamics (IQMD model. We calculate the balance energy using different parametrizations of the radius available in the literature for the reaction of 12C+12C to explain its measured balance energy. A mass-dependent analysis of the balance energy through out the periodic table is also carried out by changing the default liquid drop IQMD radius.

  1. X-ray Spectroscopy of the Virgo Cluster out to the Virial Radius

    OpenAIRE

    Urban, O.; Werner, N.; Simionescu, A.; Allen, S. W.; Böhringer, H.

    2011-01-01

    We present results from the analysis of a mosaic of thirteen XMM-Newton pointings covering the Virgo Cluster from its center northwards out to a radius r~1.2 Mpc (~4.5 degrees), reaching the virial radius and beyond. This is the first time that the properties of a modestly sized (M_vir~1.4e14 M_sun, kT~2.3 keV), dynamically young cluster have been studied out to the virial radius. The density profile of the cluster can be described by a surprisingly shallow power-law with index 1.21+/-0.12. I...

  2. Initialization effects via the nuclear radius on transverse in-plane flow and its disappearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bansal, Rajni; Gautam, Sakshi

    2014-01-01

    We study the dependence of collective transverse flow and its disappearance on initialization effects via the nuclear radius within the framework of the Isospin-dependent Quantum Molecular Dynamics (IQMD) model. We calculate the balance energy using different parametrizations of the radius available in the literature for the reaction of 12 C + 12 C to explain its measured balance energy. A mass-dependent analysis of the balance energy through out the periodic table is also carried out by changing the default liquid drop IQMD radius. (author)

  3. Spontaneous, generalized lipidosis in captive greater horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozalo, Alfonso S; Schwiebert, Rebecca S; Metzner, Walter; Lawson, Gregory W

    2005-11-01

    During a routine 6-month quarantine period, 3 of 34 greater horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum) captured in mainland China and transported to the United States for use in echolocation studies were found dead with no prior history of illness. All animals were in good body condition at the time of death. At necropsy, a large amount of white fat was found within the subcutis, especially in the sacrolumbar region. The liver, kidneys, and heart were diffusely tan in color. Microscopic examination revealed that hepatocytes throughout the liver were filled with lipid, and in some areas, lipid granulomas were present. renal lesions included moderate amounts of lipid in the cortical tubular epithelium and large amounts of protein and lipid within Bowman's capsules in the glomeruli. In addition, one bat had large lipid vacuoles diffusely distributed throughout the myocardium. The exact pathologic mechanism inducing the hepatic, renal, and cardiac lipidosis is unknown. The horseshoe bats were captured during hibernation and immediately transported to the United States. It is possible that the large amount of fat stored coupled with changes in photoperiod, lack of exercise, and/or the stress of captivity might have contributed to altering the normal metabolic processes, leading to anorexia and consequently lipidosis in these animals.

  4. Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-19

    Carbon capture and sequestration (or storage)known as CCShas attracted interest as a : measure for mitigating global climate change because large amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2) : emitted from fossil fuel use in the United States are potentiall...

  5. Enzymes in CO2 Capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; Gladis, Arne; Thomsen, Kaj

    The enzyme Carbonic Anhydrase (CA) can accelerate the absorption rate of CO2 into aqueous solutions by several-fold. It exist in almost all living organisms and catalyses different important processes like CO2 transport, respiration and the acid-base balances. A new technology in the field...... of carbon capture is the application of enzymes for acceleration of typically slow ternary amines or inorganic carbonates. There is a hidden potential to revive currently infeasible amines which have an interesting low energy consumption for regeneration but too slow kinetics for viable CO2 capture. The aim...... of this work is to discuss the measurements of kinetic properties for CA promoted CO2 capture solvent systems. The development of a rate-based model for enzymes will be discussed showing the principles of implementation and the results on using a well-known ternary amine for CO2 capture. Conclusions...

  6. Alignment in double capture processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretto-Capelle, P.; Benhenni, M.; Bordenave-Montesquieu, A.; Benoit-Cattin, P.; Gleizes, A.

    1993-01-01

    The electron spectra emitted when a double capture occurs in N 7+ +He and Ne 8+ +He systems at 10 qkeV collisional energy, allow us to determine the angular distributions of the 3 ell 3 ell ' lines through a special spectra fitting procedure which includes interferences between neighbouring states. It is found that the doubly excited states populated in double capture processes are generally aligned

  7. Alignment in double capture processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moretto-Capelle, P.; Benhenni, M.; Bordenave-Montesquieu, A.; Benoit-Cattin, P.; Gleizes, A. (IRSAMC, URA CNRS 770, Univ. Paul Sabatier, 118 rte de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse Cedex (France))

    1993-06-05

    The electron spectra emitted when a double capture occurs in N[sup 7+]+He and Ne[sup 8+]+He systems at 10 qkeV collisional energy, allow us to determine the angular distributions of the 3[ell]3[ell] [prime] lines through a special spectra fitting procedure which includes interferences between neighbouring states. It is found that the doubly excited states populated in double capture processes are generally aligned.

  8. Toward transformational carbon capture systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, David C. [National Energy Technology Laboratory, U.S. Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh PA (United States); Litynski, John T. [Office of Fossil Energy, U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington DC (United States); Brickett, Lynn A. [National Energy Technology Laboratory, U.S. Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh PA (United States); Morreale, Bryan D. [National Energy Technology Laboratory, U.S. Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh PA (United States)

    2015-10-28

    This paper will briefly review the history and current state of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) research and development and describe the technical barriers to carbon capture. it will argue forcefully for a new approach to R&D, which leverages both simulation and physical systems at the laboratory and pilot scales to more rapidly move the best technoogies forward, prune less advantageous approaches, and simultaneously develop materials and processes.

  9. Carbon Capture: A Technology Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-21

    whereas laboratory-scale experiments typically seek to validate or obtain data for specific components of a system. Laboratory- and bench-scale processes...Plant,” Energy, vol. 35 (2010), pp. 841-850. E. Favre, R. Bounaceur, and D. Roizard, “ Biogas , Membranes and Carbon Dioxide Capture,” Journal of...pp. 1-49. 64 Favre, “ Biogas , Membranes.” Carbon Capture: A Technology Assessment Congressional Research Service 42 materials have pore sizes

  10. Radiative muon capture on hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertl, W.; Ahmad, S.; Chen, C.Q.; Gumplinger, P.; Hasinoff, M.D.; Larabee, A.J.; Sample, D.G.; Schott, W.; Wright, D.H.; Armstrong, D.S.; Blecher, M.; Azuelos, G.; Depommier, P.; Jonkmans, G.; Gorringe, T.P.; Henderson, R.; Macdonald, J.A.; Poutissou, J.M.; Poutissou, R.; Von Egidy, T.; Zhang, N.S.; Robertson, B.D.

    1992-01-01

    The radiative capture of negative muons by protons can be used to measure the weak induced pseudoscalar form factor. Brief arguments why this method is preferable to ordinary muon capture are given followed by a discussion of the experimental difficulties. The solution to these problems as attempted by experiment no. 452 at TRIUMF is presented together with preliminary results from the first run in August 1990. An outlook on the expected final precision and the experimental schedule is also given. (orig.)

  11. Context and competition in the capture of visual attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hickey, C.M.; Theeuwes, J.

    2011-01-01

    Competition-based models of visual attention propose that perceptual ambiguity is resolved through inhibition, which is stronger when objects share a greater number of neural receptive fields (RFs). According to this theory, the misallocation of attention to a salient distractor-that is, the capture

  12. Capture of exogenous attention modulates the attentional blink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Simon; Andersen, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    When two targets (T1 & T2) are presented in rapid succession, observers often fail to report T2 if they attend to T1. Bottleneck theories propose that this attentional blink (AB) is due to T1 occupying a slow processing stage when T2 is presented. Accordingly, if increasing T1 difficulty increases...... T1 processing time, this should cause a greater AB. Attention capture hypotheses suggest that T1 captures attention, which cannot be reallocated to T2 in time. Accordingly, if increasing T1 difficulty, decreases saliency, this should cause a smaller AB. Studies examining how T1 difficulty affects...... with T1 contrast energy. Our results indicate that T1 capture modulates the AB. We suggest that this effect has confounded previous studies on the effect of T1 difficulty. In an electrophysiological version of the study we will further examine the implied relation between attention capture and the AB....

  13. Atomic radii for atoms with the 6s shell outermost: The effective atomic radius and the van der Waals radius from 55Cs to 80Hg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Tatewaki

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We consider, for atoms from 55Cs to 80Hg, the effective atomic radius (rear, which is defined as the distance from the nucleus at which the magnitude of the electric field is equal to that in He at one half of the equilibrium bond length of He2. The values of rear are about 50% larger than the mean radius of the outermost occupied orbital of 6s, . The value of rear decreases from 55Cs to 56Ba and undergoes increases and decreases with rising nuclear charge from 57La to 70Y b. In fact rear is understood as comprising two interlaced sequences; one consists of 57La, 58Ce, and 64Gd, which have electronic configuration (4fn−1(5d1(6s2, and the remaining atoms have configuration (4fn(6s2. The sphere defined by rear contains 85%–90% of the 6s electrons. From 71Lu to 80Hg the radius rear also involves two sequences, corresponding to the two configurations 5dn+16s1 and 5dn6s2. The radius rear according to the present methodology is considerably larger than rvdW obtained by other investigators, some of who have found values of rvdW close to .

  14. Simultaneous bilateral isolated greater trochanter fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maruti Kambali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 48-year-old woman sustained simultaneous isolated bilateral greater trochanteric fracture, following a road traffic accident. The patient presented to us 1 month after the injury. She presented with complaints of pain in the left hip and inability to walk. Roentgenograms revealed displaced comminuted bilateral greater trochanter fractures. The fracture of the left greater trochanter was reduced and fixed internally using the tension band wiring technique. The greater trochanter fracture on the right side was asymptomatic and was managed conservatively. The patient regained full range of motion and use of her hips after a postoperative follow-up of 6 months. Isolated fractures of the greater trochanter are unusual injuries. Because of their relative rarity and the unsettled controversy regarding their etiology and pathogenesis, several methods of treatment have been advocated. Furthermore, the reports of this particular type of injury are not plentiful and the average textbook coverage afforded to this entity is limited. In our study we discuss the mechanism of injury and the various treatment options available.

  15. Modification of ELESTRES code with new database of flux depression across the pellet radius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, Ki Sub; Park, Kwang Suk; Byun, Taek Sang; Suk, Ho Chun

    1995-01-01

    Modification of ELESTRES CANDU fuel performance code with new database of flux depression across the pellet radius is described, and application results of the improved ELESTRES to the fuel performance data are described. (Author) 4 refs., 4 figs

  16. Design of roundness measurement model with multi-systematic error for cylindrical components with large radius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chuanzhi; Wang, Lei; Tan, Jiubin; Zhao, Bo; Tang, Yangchao

    2016-02-01

    The paper designs a roundness measurement model with multi-systematic error, which takes eccentricity, probe offset, radius of tip head of probe, and tilt error into account for roundness measurement of cylindrical components. The effects of the systematic errors and radius of components are analysed in the roundness measurement. The proposed method is built on the instrument with a high precision rotating spindle. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by experiment with the standard cylindrical component, which is measured on a roundness measuring machine. Compared to the traditional limacon measurement model, the accuracy of roundness measurement can be increased by about 2.2 μm using the proposed roundness measurement model for the object with a large radius of around 37 mm. The proposed method can improve the accuracy of roundness measurement and can be used for error separation, calibration, and comparison, especially for cylindrical components with a large radius.

  17. DHIAP Phase I Technology Demonstration Report: Prototype for Remote Authentication Dail-In User Service (RADIUS)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crane, Lynn

    2000-01-01

    ... a region, is a system that meets the Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS) standard. This report describes the development and trials of the technology and provides an analysis of alternative.

  18. Interchange instability with line-typing and finite Larmor radius effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riordan, J.C.; Hartman, C.W.

    1977-01-01

    Finite Larmor radius and end effects are included in a treatment of the low-β interchange instability. Higher order modes are shown to be destabilized by incomplete line-tying through an external plasma

  19. Analysis of the Arthroscopically Diagnosed Soft-Tissue Injuries Associated With the Distal Radius Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Katerina Kasapinova

    2014-06-01

    CONCLUSIONS: The frequency of the associated soft-tissue lesions in distal radius fractures is high. Ulnar styloid fracture was identified as risk factor for associated LT lesion, as well as combined lesion of both scapholunate and luntriquetral ligament.

  20. Capture by colour: evidence for dimension-specific singleton capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Anthony M; Becker, Stefanie I; Remington, Roger W

    2015-10-01

    Previous work on attentional capture has shown the attentional system to be quite flexible in the stimulus properties it can be set to respond to. Several different attentional "modes" have been identified. Feature search mode allows attention to be set for specific features of a target (e.g., red). Singleton detection mode sets attention to respond to any discrepant item ("singleton") in the display. Relational search sets attention for the relative properties of the target in relation to the distractors (e.g., redder, larger). Recently, a new attentional mode was proposed that sets attention to respond to any singleton within a particular feature dimension (e.g., colour; Folk & Anderson, 2010). We tested this proposal against the predictions of previously established attentional modes. In a spatial cueing paradigm, participants searched for a colour target that was randomly either red or green. The nature of the attentional control setting was probed by presenting an irrelevant singleton cue prior to the target display and assessing whether it attracted attention. In all experiments, the cues were red, green, blue, or a white stimulus rapidly rotated (motion cue). The results of three experiments support the existence of a "colour singleton set," finding that all colour cues captured attention strongly, while motion cues captured attention only weakly or not at all. Notably, we also found that capture by motion cues in search for colour targets was moderated by their frequency; rare motion cues captured attention (weakly), while frequent motion cues did not.

  1. Exact solution of gyration radius of individual's trajectory for a simplified human mobility model

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Xiao-Yong; Han, Xiao-Pu; Zhou, Tao; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2010-01-01

    Gyration radius of individual's trajectory plays a key role in quantifying human mobility patterns. Of particular interests, empirical analyses suggest that the growth of gyration radius is slow versus time except the very early stage and may eventually arrive to a steady value. However, up to now, the underlying mechanism leading to such a possibly steady value has not been well understood. In this Letter, we propose a simplified human mobility model to simulate individual's daily travel wit...

  2. "Osteoporosis and orthopods" incidences of osteoporosis in distal radius fracture from low energy trauma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bahari, Syah

    2007-07-01

    Fracture of the distal radius from low energy trauma is a common presentation to orthopaedic trauma services. This fragility type fracture is associated with underlying osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is a \\'silent disease\\' where fragility fracture is a common presentation. Orthopaedic surgeons may be the only physician that these patients encounter. We found a high percentage of female patients who sustained a fragility fracture of the distal radius have an underlying osteoporosis. Further management of osteoporosis is important to prevent future fragility fractures.

  3. Study on Oneself Developed to Apparatus Position of Measurement of BMD in the Distal Radius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Man Seok; Song, Jae Yong; Lee, Hyun Kuk; Yu, Se Jong; Kim, Yong Kyun

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the difference of bone mineral density according to distal radius rotation and to develop the supporting tool to measure rotation angles. CT scanning and the measurement of BMD by DXA of the appropriate position of the forearm were performed on 20 males. Twenty healthy volunteers without any history of operations, anomalies, or trauma were enrolled. The CT scan was used to evaluate the cross sectional structure and the rotation angle on the horizontal plane of the distal radius. The rotational angle was measured by the m-view program on the PACS monitor. The DXA was used in 20 dried radii of cadaveric specimens in pronation and supination with five and ten degrees, respectively, including a neutral position (zero degrees) to evaluate the changes of BMD according to the rotation. The mean rotation angle of the distal radius on CT was 7.4 degrees of supination in 16 cases (80%), 3.3 degrees of pronation in three cases (15%), and zero degree of neutral in one case (9%), respectively. The total average rotation angle in 20 people was 5.4 degrees of supination. In the cadaveric study, the BMD of the distal radius was different according to the rotational angles. The lowest BMD was obtained at 3.3 degrees of supination. In the case of the measurement of BMD in the distal radius with a neutral position, the rotational angle of the distal radius is close to supination. Pronation is needed for the constant measurement of BMD in the distal radius with the rotation angle measuring at the lowest BMD and about five degrees of pronation of the distal radius is recommended.

  4. The mean free path of protons in nuclei and the nuclear radius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dymarz, R.; Kohmura, T.

    1983-01-01

    We determine the mean free path of protons in nuclei in the energy range 40-1000 MeV. We find that it is necessary to use in the calculation of the mean free path the nuclear radius R which reproduces the reaction and total cross sections consistently and that this radius leads to a rather small mean free path which is comparable with the value obtained in the microscopic calculation in the whole energy region. (orig.)

  5. Mass-Radius Relations of Z and Higgs-Like Bosons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehnert B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Relations between the rest mass and the effective radius are deduced for the Z boson and the experimentally discovered Higgs-like boson, in terms of a revised quantum electrodynamic (RQED theory. The latter forms an alternative to the Standard Model of elementary particles. This results in an effective radius of the order of 10 E-18 m for a rest mass of 125 GeV.

  6. Mutagenic effects induced by accumulating rare earths nuclides with different ionic radius in fission fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Shoupeng; Wang Liuyi; Cao Genfa; Sun Baofu

    1991-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to ascertain the correlation between the different ionic radius of rare earths nuclides such as 170 Tm, 152 Eu, 147 Pm and its accumulation peculiarity as well as induction of mutagenic effect on bone marrow cells. The study showed that the accumulation peculiarity of rare earths nuclides will vary with the ionic radius. The results indicated that large ionic radius of 147 Pm was selectively localized in liver in early stage, while small ionic radius of 170 Tm and 152 Eu were deposited in bone predominantly. There was a positive relationship between the incidence of chromosome aberration rates and the absorption dose in skeleton by 170 Tm, 152 Eu, or 147 Pm. Studies indicated that the chromosome aberration rates were elevated when the absorption dose in skeleton was increased. Among the type of chromosome aberrations induced by rare earths nuclides with different ionic radius, chromatid breakage was predominant, accompanied with a few chromosome breakage and translocation. At the same time mitosis index of metaphase cells was depressed. Internal contamination of 170 Tm, 152 Eu, or 147 Pm can be induced by some aberrations in one cell. This phenomenon might be due in part to nonuniform irradiation of bone marrow cell with local deposition of these rare earths nuclides with different ionic radius

  7. Does bone measurement on the radius indicate skeletal status. Concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazess, R.B.; Peppler, W.W.; Chesney, R.W.; Lange, T.A.; Lindgren, U.; Smith, E. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Single-photon (I-125) absorptiometry was used to measure bone mineral content (BMC) of the distal third of the radius, and dual-photon absorptiometry (Gd-153) was used to measure total-body bone mineral (TBBM), as well as the BMC of major skeletal regions. Measurements were done in normal females, normal males, osteoporotic females, osteoporotic males, and renal patients. The BMC of the radius predicted TBBM well in normal subjects, but was less satisfactory in the patient groups. The spinal BMC was predicted with even lower accuracy from radius measurement. The error in predicting areal density (bone mass per unit projected skeletal area) of the lumbar and thoracic spine from the radius BMC divided by its width was smaller, but the regressions differed significantly among normals, osteoporotics, and renal patients. There was a preferential spinal osteopenia in the osteoporotic group and in about half of the renal patients. Bone measurements on the radius can indicate overall skeletal status in normal subjects and to a lesser degree in patients, but these radius measurements are inaccurate, even on the average, as an indicator of spinal state

  8. Synthetical optimization of hydraulic radius and acoustic field for thermoacoustic cooler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang Huifang; Li Qing; Zhou Gang

    2009-01-01

    It is well known that the acoustic field and the hydraulic radius of the regenerator play key roles in thermoacoustic processes. The optimization of hydraulic radius strongly depends on the acoustic field in the regenerator. This paper investigates the synthetical optimization of hydraulic radius and acoustic field which is characterized by the ratio of the traveling wave component to the standing wave component. In this paper, we discussed the heat flux, cooling power, temperature gradient and coefficient of performance of thermoacoustic cooler with different combinations of hydraulic radiuses and acoustic fields. The calculation results show that, in the cooler's regenerator, due to the acoustic wave, the heat is transferred towards the pressure antinodes in the pure standing wave, while the heat is transferred in the opposite direction of the wave propagation in the pure traveling wave. The better working condition for the regenerator appears in the traveling wave phase region of the like-standing wave, where the directions of the heat transfer by traveling wave component and standing wave component are the same. Otherwise, the small hydraulic radius is not a good choice for acoustic field with excessively high ratio of traveling wave, and the small hydraulic radius is only needed by the traveling wave phase region of like-standing wave.

  9. Influence of radius of cylinder HTS bulk on guidance force in a maglev vehicle system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longcai, Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The guidance force was decayed by the application of the AC external magnetic field. • The guidance force was higher for the bulk with bigger radius. • The guidance force decay rates of the bulks were approximately equal despite of the different radius in the maglev vehicle system. - Abstract: Bulk superconductors had great potential for various engineering applications, especially in a high-temperature superconducting (HTS) maglev vehicle system. In such a system, the HTS bulks were always exposed to AC external magnetic field, which was generated by the inhomogeneous surface magnetic field of the NdFeB guideway. In our previous work, it was observed that the guidance force of the YBCO bulk over the NdFeB guideway used in the HTS maglev vehicle system was decayed by the application of the AC external magnetic field. In this paper, we investigated the influence of the radius of the cylinder HTS bulk exposed to an AC magnetic field perturbation on the guidance force in the maglev vehicle system. From the results, it was found that the guidance force was stronger for the bulk with bigger radius and the guidance force decay rates of the bulks were approximately equal despite of the different radius in the maglev vehicle system. Therefore, in order to obtain higher guidance force in the maglev vehicle system, we could use the cylinder HTS bulks with the bigger radius

  10. [Growth behaviour after fractures of the proximal radius: differences to the rest of the skeleton].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hell, A K; von Laer, L

    2014-12-01

    Fractures of the proximal end of the radius in the growth phase have three characteristics: the head of the radius articulates with two joint partners and is therefore indispensable for an undisturbed function of the elbow. The blood supply of the proximal end of the radius is via periosteal vessels in the sense of a terminal circulation which makes it extremely vulnerable. Severe trauma caused either by accidents or treatment, can result in partial or complete necrosis with deformity of the head and neck region of the radius. Radioulnar synostosis and chronic epiphysiolysis are irreversible complications which can occur after excessive physiotherapy. Despite a low potency growth plate, in young patients the proximal end of the radius shows an enormous spontaneous correction of dislocations. Side to side shifts, however, will not be remodeled. Therapy should be as atraumatic as possible. Due to the blood supply situation, with the appropriate indications the spontaneous correction and a brief period of immobilization without physiotherapy should be integrated into the therapy concept. If an operation is necessary, repeated traumatic repositioning maneuvers should be avoided and in case of doubt closed or careful open repositioning can be achieved with intramedullary nailing. In order to take the special characteristics of the proximal radius into consideration, the vulnerability and correction potential must be weighed up against each other. Therapy must be as atraumatic as possible. The spontaneous correction potential should be integrated into the primary therapy without overestimating this potential with respect to the extent and age of the patient.

  11. Solar Radius at Subterahertz Frequencies and Its Relation to Solar Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Fabian; Valio, Adriana

    2017-12-01

    The Sun emits radiation at several wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum. In the optical band, the solar radius is 695 700 km, and this defines the photosphere, which is the visible surface of the Sun. However, as the altitude increases, the electromagnetic radiation is produced at other frequencies, causing the solar radius to change as a function of wavelength. These measurements enable a better understanding of the solar atmosphere, and the radius dependence on the solar cycle is a good indicator of the changes that occur in the atmospheric structure. We measure the solar radius at the subterahertz frequencies of 0.212 and 0.405 THz, which is the altitude at which these emissions are primarily generated, and also analyze the radius variation over the 11-year solar activity cycle. For this, we used radio maps of the solar disk for the period between 1999 and 2017, reconstructed from daily scans made by the Solar Submillimeter-wave Telescope (SST), installed at El Leoncito Astronomical Complex (CASLEO) in the Argentinean Andes. Our measurements yield radii of 966.5'' ±2.8'' for 0.2 THz and 966.5'' ±2.7'' for 0.4 THz. This implies a height of 5.0 ±2.0 ×106 m above the photosphere. Furthermore, we also observed a strong anticorrelation between the radius variation and the solar activity at both frequencies.

  12. Influence of radius of cylinder HTS bulk on guidance force in a maglev vehicle system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longcai, Zhang, E-mail: zhlcai2000@163.com

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • The guidance force was decayed by the application of the AC external magnetic field. • The guidance force was higher for the bulk with bigger radius. • The guidance force decay rates of the bulks were approximately equal despite of the different radius in the maglev vehicle system. - Abstract: Bulk superconductors had great potential for various engineering applications, especially in a high-temperature superconducting (HTS) maglev vehicle system. In such a system, the HTS bulks were always exposed to AC external magnetic field, which was generated by the inhomogeneous surface magnetic field of the NdFeB guideway. In our previous work, it was observed that the guidance force of the YBCO bulk over the NdFeB guideway used in the HTS maglev vehicle system was decayed by the application of the AC external magnetic field. In this paper, we investigated the influence of the radius of the cylinder HTS bulk exposed to an AC magnetic field perturbation on the guidance force in the maglev vehicle system. From the results, it was found that the guidance force was stronger for the bulk with bigger radius and the guidance force decay rates of the bulks were approximately equal despite of the different radius in the maglev vehicle system. Therefore, in order to obtain higher guidance force in the maglev vehicle system, we could use the cylinder HTS bulks with the bigger radius.

  13. Greater trochanteric fracture with occult intertrochanteric extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Michael; O'Brien, Seth D; Bui-Mansfield, Liem T; Alderete, Joseph

    2013-10-01

    Proximal femoral fractures are frequently encountered in the emergency department (ED). Prompt diagnosis is paramount as delay will exacerbate the already poor outcomes associated with these injuries. In cases where radiography is negative but clinical suspicion remains high, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the study of choice as it has the capability to depict fractures which are occult on other imaging modalities. Awareness of a particular subset of proximal femoral fractures, namely greater trochanteric fractures, is vital for both radiologists and clinicians since it has been well documented that they invariably have an intertrochanteric component which may require surgical management. The detection of intertrochanteric or cervical extension of greater trochanteric fractures has been described utilizing MRI but is underestimated with both computed tomography (CT) and bone scan. Therefore, if MRI is unavailable or contraindicated, the diagnosis of an isolated greater trochanteric fracture should be met with caution. The importance of avoiding this potential pitfall is demonstrated in the following case of an elderly woman with hip pain and CT demonstrating an isolated greater trochanteric fracture who subsequently returned to the ED with a displaced intertrochanteric fracture.

  14. Butterfly valves: greater use in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCoy, M.

    1975-01-01

    Improvements in butterfly valves, particularly in the areas of automatic control and leak tightness are described. The use of butterfly valves in nuclear power plants is discussed. These uses include service in component cooling, containment cooling, and containment isolation. The outlook for further improvements and greater uses is examined. (U.S.)

  15. Greater Somalia, the never-ending dream?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoppi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an historical analysis of the concept of Greater Somalia, the nationalist project that advocates the political union of all Somali-speaking people, including those inhabiting areas in current Djibouti, Ethiopia and Kenya. The Somali territorial unification project of “lost...

  16. CHAOTIC CAPTURE OF NEPTUNE TROJANS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesvorny, David; Vokrouhlicky, David

    2009-01-01

    Neptune Trojans (NTs) are swarms of outer solar system objects that lead/trail planet Neptune during its revolutions around the Sun. Observations indicate that NTs form a thick cloud of objects with a population perhaps ∼10 times more numerous than that of Jupiter Trojans and orbital inclinations reaching ∼25 deg. The high inclinations of NTs are indicative of capture instead of in situ formation. Here we study a model in which NTs were captured by Neptune during planetary migration when secondary resonances associated with the mean-motion commensurabilities between Uranus and Neptune swept over Neptune's Lagrangian points. This process, known as chaotic capture, is similar to that previously proposed to explain the origin of Jupiter's Trojans. We show that chaotic capture of planetesimals from an ∼35 Earth-mass planetesimal disk can produce a population of NTs that is at least comparable in number to that inferred from current observations. The large orbital inclinations of NTs are a natural outcome of chaotic capture. To obtain the ∼4:1 ratio between high- and low-inclination populations suggested by observations, planetary migration into a dynamically excited planetesimal disk may be required. The required stirring could have been induced by Pluto-sized and larger objects that have formed in the disk.

  17. Carbon capture and storage (CCS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin-Amouroux, Jean-Marie

    2016-01-01

    The author first defines what carbon capture and storage (CCS)is, describes more precisely the various technologies, methods and processes involved in carbon capture, carbon transport, and carbon geological storage. He briefly evokes the various applications and uses of CCS. In the second part, he proposes an overview of advances and deadlocks of CCS in the world, of the status of installations and projects, of the development of capture practices in the industry, of some existing and important storage sites, of some pilot installations developed by various industrial actors in different countries (26 installations in the world). He indicates power stations equipped for CCS (in Canada, USA, United-Kingdom, Netherlands, Norway, China, South Korea and United Arab Emirates). He evokes projects which have been given up or postponed. He proposes an overview of policies implemented in different countries (USA, Canada, European Union, Australia, and others) to promote CCS

  18. Utilization of wind energy in greater Hanover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahling, U.

    1993-01-01

    Since the beginning of the Eighties, the association of communities of Greater Hanover has dealt intensively with energy and ecopolitical questions in the scope of regional planning. Renewable energy sources play a dominant role in this context. This brochure is the third contribution to the subject ''Energy policy and environmental protection''. Experts as well as possibly interested parties are addressed especially. For all 8 contributions contained, separate entries have been recorded in this database. (BWI) [de

  19. Small cities face greater impact from automation

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Morgan R.; Sun, Lijun; Cebrian, Manuel; Youn, Hyejin; Rahwan, Iyad

    2017-01-01

    The city has proven to be the most successful form of human agglomeration and provides wide employment opportunities for its dwellers. As advances in robotics and artificial intelligence revive concerns about the impact of automation on jobs, a question looms: How will automation affect employment in cities? Here, we provide a comparative picture of the impact of automation across U.S. urban areas. Small cities will undertake greater adjustments, such as worker displacement and job content su...

  20. The Greater Sekhukhune-CAPABILITY outreach project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregersen, Nerine; Lampret, Julie; Lane, Tony; Christianson, Arnold

    2013-07-01

    The Greater Sekhukhune-CAPABILITY Outreach Project was undertaken in a rural district in Limpopo, South Africa, as part of the European Union-funded CAPABILITY programme to investigate approaches for capacity building for the translation of genetic knowledge into care and prevention of congenital disorders. Based on previous experience of a clinical genetic outreach programme in Limpopo, it aimed to initiate a district clinical genetic service in Greater Sekhukhune to gain knowledge and experience to assist in the implementation and development of medical genetic services in South Africa. Implementing the service in Greater Sekhukhune was impeded by a developing staff shortage in the province and pressure on the health service from the existing HIV/AIDS and TB epidemics. This situation underscores the need for health needs assessment for developing services for the care and prevention of congenital disorders in middle- and low-income countries. However, these impediments stimulated the pioneering of innovate ways to offer medical genetic services in these circumstances, including tele-teaching of nurses and doctors, using cellular phones to enhance clinical care and adapting and assessing the clinical utility of a laboratory test, QF-PCR, for use in the local circumstances.

  1. Operational technology for greater confinement disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickman, P.T.; Vollmer, A.T.; Hunter, P.H.

    1984-12-01

    Procedures and methods for the design and operation of a greater confinement disposal facility using large-diameter boreholes are discussed. It is assumed that the facility would be located at an operating low-level waste disposal site and that only a small portion of the wastes received at the site would require greater confinement disposal. The document is organized into sections addressing: facility planning process; facility construction; waste loading and handling; radiological safety planning; operations procedures; and engineering cost studies. While primarily written for low-level waste management site operators and managers, a detailed economic assessment section is included that should assist planners in performing cost analyses. Economic assessments for both commercial and US government greater confinement disposal facilities are included. The estimated disposal costs range from $27 to $104 per cubic foot for a commercial facility and from $17 to $60 per cubic foot for a government facility. These costs are based on average site preparation, construction, and waste loading costs for both contact- and remote-handled wastes. 14 figures, 22 tables

  2. Atomic radii for atoms with the 6s shell outermost: The effective atomic radius and the van der Waals radius from {sub 55}Cs to {sub 80}Hg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatewaki, Hiroshi, E-mail: htatewak@nsc.nagoya-cu.ac.jp [Graduate School of Natural Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya, Aichi 467-8501 (Japan); Institute of Advanced Studies in Artificial Intelligence, Chukyo University, Toyota, Aichi 470-0393 (Japan); Hatano, Yasuyo [School of Information Science and Technology, Chukyo University, Toyota, Aichi 470-0393 (Japan); Noro, Takeshi [Division of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0810 (Japan); Yamamoto, Shigeyoshi [School of International Liberal Studies, Chukyo University, Nagoya, Aichi 466-8666 (Japan)

    2015-06-15

    We consider, for atoms from {sub 55}Cs to {sub 80}Hg, the effective atomic radius (r{sub ear}), which is defined as the distance from the nucleus at which the magnitude of the electric field is equal to that in He at one half of the equilibrium bond length of He{sub 2}. The values of r{sub ear} are about 50% larger than the mean radius of the outermost occupied orbital of 6s, . The value of r{sub ear} decreases from {sub 55}Cs to {sub 56}Ba and undergoes increases and decreases with rising nuclear charge from {sub 57}La to {sub 70}Y b. In fact r{sub ear} is understood as comprising two interlaced sequences; one consists of {sub 57}La, {sub 58}Ce, and {sub 64}Gd, which have electronic configuration (4f{sup n−1})(5d{sup 1})(6s{sup 2}), and the remaining atoms have configuration (4f{sup n})(6s{sup 2}). The sphere defined by r{sub ear} contains 85%–90% of the 6s electrons. From {sub 71}Lu to {sub 80}Hg the radius r{sub ear} also involves two sequences, corresponding to the two configurations 5d{sup n+1}6s{sup 1} and 5d{sup n}6s{sup 2}. The radius r{sub ear} according to the present methodology is considerably larger than r{sub vdW} obtained by other investigators, some of who have found values of r{sub vdW} close to .

  3. CO2 Capture and Reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thambimuthu, K.; Gupta, M.; Davison, J.

    2003-01-01

    CO2 capture and storage including its utilization or reuse presents an opportunity to achieve deep reductions in greenhouse gas emissions from fossil energy use. The development and deployment of this option could significantly assist in meeting a future goal of achieving stabilization of the presently rising atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases. CO2 capture from process streams is an established concept that has achieved industrial practice. Examples of current applications include the use of primarily, solvent based capture technologies for the recovery of pure CO2 streams for chemical synthesis, for utilization as a food additive, for use as a miscible agent in enhanced oil recovery operations and removal of CO2 as an undesired contaminant from gaseous process streams for the production of fuel gases such as hydrogen and methane. In these applications, the technologies deployed for CO2 capture have focused on gas separation from high purity, high pressure streams and in reducing (or oxygen deficient) environments, where the energy penalties and cost for capture are moderately low. However, application of the same capture technologies for large scale abatement of greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel use poses significant challenges in achieving (at comparably low energy penalty and cost) gas separation in large volume, dilute concentration and/or low pressure flue gas streams. This paper will focus on a review of existing commercial methods of CO2 capture and the technology stretch, process integration and energy system pathways needed for their large scale deployment in fossil fueled processes. The assessment of potential capture technologies for the latter purpose will also be based on published literature data that are both 'transparent' and 'systematic' in their evaluation of the overall cost and energy penalties of CO2 capture. In view of the of the fact that many of the existing commercial processes for CO2 capture have seen applications in

  4. Electron capture by highly stripped ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenland, P.T.

    1981-06-01

    This review describes theories of electron capture suitable for the description of rearrangement collisions between atomic hydrogen and completely stripped projectiles with charge greater than unity. The region of impact velocity considered lies between 0.05 and 3 au, which is of technological importance in fusion power devices. The semiclassical, impact parameter formalism is discussed and the use of atomic expansions at medium impact velocity is described. Experimental results for both completely and partially stripped projectiles are reviewed. The use of a molecular basis at low energy, and the role of pseudocrossings peculiar to the two centre Coulomb interaction are described. Finally, purely classical techniques, in which the electron wavefunction is represented by an ensemble of Kepler orbits are considered. The review was completed in February 1981. (author)

  5. Capture reactions on C-14 in nonstandard big bang nucleosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiescher, Michael; Gorres, Joachim; Thielemann, Friedrich-Karl

    1990-01-01

    Nonstandard big bang nucleosynthesis leads to the production of C-14. The further reaction path depends on the depletion of C-14 by either photon, alpha, or neutron capture reactions. The nucleus C-14 is of particular importance in these scenarios because it forms a bottleneck for the production of heavier nuclei A greater than 14. The reaction rates of all three capture reactions at big bang conditions are discussed, and it is shown that the resulting reaction path, leading to the production of heavier elements, is dominated by the (p, gamma) and (n, gamma) rates, contrary to earlier suggestions.

  6. Space Inside a Liquid Sphere Transforms into De Sitter Space by Hilbert Radius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabounski, Dmitri; Borissova, Larissa

    2010-04-01

    Consider space inside a sphere of incompressible liquid, and space surrounding a mass-point. Metrics of the spaces were deduced in 1916 by Karl Schwarzschild. 1) Our calculation shows that a liquid sphere can be in the state of gravitational collapse (g00 = 0) only if its mass and radius are close to those of the Universe (M = 8.7x10^55 g, a = 1.3x10^28 cm). However if the same mass is presented as a mass-point, the radius of collapse rg (Hilbert radius) is many orders lesser: g00 = 0 realizes in a mass-point's space by other conditions. 2) We considered a liquid sphere whose radius meets, formally, the Hilbert radius of a mass-point bearing the same mass: a = rg, however the liquid sphere is not a collapser (see above). We show that in this case the metric of the liquid sphere's internal space can be represented as de Sitter's space metric, wherein λ = 3/a^2 > 0: physical vacuum (due to the λ-term) is the same as the field of an ideal liquid where ρ0 0 (the mirror world liquid). The gravitational redshift inside the sphere is produced by the non-Newtonian force of repulsion (which is due to the λ-term, λ = 3/a^2 > 0); it is also calculated.

  7. The effect of adhesion on the contact radius in atomic force microscopy indentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirghi, L; Rossi, F

    2009-01-01

    The effect of adhesion on nanoscale indentation experiments makes the interpretation of force-displacement curves acquired in these experiments very difficult. The indentation force results from the addition of adhesive and elastic forces at the indenter-sample contact. The evolution of the two forces during the indentation is determined by the variation of the indenter-sample contact radius. In the present work the variation of contact radius during atomic force microscopy (AFM) indentation of elastic and adhesive samples with conical indenters (AFM tips) is indirectly determined by measurements of the contact dynamic stiffness. For weak sample deformations, the contact radius is determined mainly by the adhesion force and indenter apex radius. For strong sample deformations, the contact radius increases linearly with the increase of the indenter displacement, the slope of this linear dependence being in agreement with Sneddon's theory of indentation (Sneddon 1965 Int. J. Eng. Sci. 3 47). Based on these results, a theoretical expression of indentation force dependence on displacement is found. This expression allows for determination of the thermodynamic work of adhesion at the indenter-sample interface and the sample elasticity modulus.

  8. Bounds of the Spectral Radius and the Nordhaus-Gaddum Type of the Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianfei Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Laplacian spectra are the eigenvalues of Laplacian matrix L(G=D(G-A(G, where D(G and A(G are the diagonal matrix of vertex degrees and the adjacency matrix of a graph G, respectively, and the spectral radius of a graph G is the largest eigenvalue of A(G. The spectra of the graph and corresponding eigenvalues are closely linked to the molecular stability and related chemical properties. In quantum chemistry, spectral radius of a graph is the maximum energy level of molecules. Therefore, good upper bounds for the spectral radius are conducive to evaluate the energy of molecules. In this paper, we first give several sharp upper bounds on the adjacency spectral radius in terms of some invariants of graphs, such as the vertex degree, the average 2-degree, and the number of the triangles. Then, we give some numerical examples which indicate that the results are better than the mentioned upper bounds in some sense. Finally, an upper bound of the Nordhaus-Gaddum type is obtained for the sum of Laplacian spectral radius of a connected graph and its complement. Moreover, some examples are applied to illustrate that our result is valuable.

  9. Electron capture in asymmetric collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graviele, M.S.; Miraglia, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    It is calculated the electronic capture of K shell by protons using the on-shell impulsive wave functions, exact and eikonal, in the initial and final channels respectively. Both wave functions are normalized and have the correct asyntotic conditions. A good agreement to the experimental data is found. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  10. Capturing Attention When Attention "Blinks"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Serena; Chua, Fook K.

    2004-01-01

    Four experiments addressed the question of whether attention may be captured when the visual system is in the midst of an attentional blink (AB). Participants identified 2 target letters embedded among distractor letters in a rapid serial visual presentation sequence. In some trials, a square frame was inserted between the targets; as the only…

  11. Radiative muon capture on hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schott, W.; Ahmad, S.; Chen, C.Q.; Gumplinger, P.; Hasinoff, M.D.; Larabee, A.J.; Sample, D.G.; Zhang, N.S.; Armstrong, D.S.; Blecher, M.; Serna-Angel, A.; Azuelos, G.; von Egidy, T.; Macdonald, J.A.; Poutissou, J.M.; Poutissou, R.; Wright, D.H.; Henderson, R.S.; McDonald, S.C.; Taylor, G.N.; Doyle, B.; Depommier, P.; Jonkmans, G.; Bertl, W.; Gorringe, T.P.; Robertson, B.C.

    1991-03-01

    The induced pseudoscalar coupling constant, g P , of the weak hadronic current can be determined from the measurement of the branching ratio of radiative muon capture (RMC) on hydrogen. This rare process is being investigated in the TRIUMF RMC experiment which is now taking data. This paper describes the experiment and indicates the status of the data analysis. (Author) 8 refs., 7 figs

  12. Feasibility study of multi-pixel retrieval of optical thickness and droplet effective radius of inhomogeneous clouds using deep learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, Rintaro; Iwabuchi, Hironobu; Schmidt, K. Sebastian

    2017-12-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) radiative-transfer effects are a major source of retrieval errors in satellite-based optical remote sensing of clouds. The challenge is that 3-D effects manifest themselves across multiple satellite pixels, which traditional single-pixel approaches cannot capture. In this study, we present two multi-pixel retrieval approaches based on deep learning, a technique that is becoming increasingly successful for complex problems in engineering and other areas. Specifically, we use deep neural networks (DNNs) to obtain multi-pixel estimates of cloud optical thickness and column-mean cloud droplet effective radius from multispectral, multi-pixel radiances. The first DNN method corrects traditional bispectral retrievals based on the plane-parallel homogeneous cloud assumption using the reflectances at the same two wavelengths. The other DNN method uses so-called convolutional layers and retrieves cloud properties directly from the reflectances at four wavelengths. The DNN methods are trained and tested on cloud fields from large-eddy simulations used as input to a 3-D radiative-transfer model to simulate upward radiances. The second DNN-based retrieval, sidestepping the bispectral retrieval step through convolutional layers, is shown to be more accurate. It reduces 3-D radiative-transfer effects that would otherwise affect the radiance values and estimates cloud properties robustly even for optically thick clouds.

  13. Greater happiness for a greater number: Is that possible in Austria?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractWhat is the final goal of public policy? Jeremy Bentham (1789) would say: greater happiness for a greater number. He thought of happiness as subjective enjoyment of life; in his words as “the sum of pleasures and pains”. In his time the happiness of the great number could not be measured

  14. Greater happiness for a greater number: Is that possible? If so how? (Arabic)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut); E. Samuel (Emad)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractWhat is the final goal of public policy? Jeremy Bentham (1789) would say: greater happiness for a greater number. He thought of happiness as subjective enjoyment of life; in his words as “the sum of pleasures and pains”. In his time, the happiness of the great number could not be

  15. Greater happiness for a greater number: Is that possible in Germany?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractWhat is the final goal of public policy? Jeremy Bentham (1789) would say: greater happiness for a greater number. He thought of happiness as subjective enjoyment of life; in his words as “the sum of pleasures and pains”. In his time the Happiness of the great number could not be measured

  16. The white dwarf mass-radius relation with Gaia, Hubble and FUSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Simon R. G.; Barstow, Martin A.; Casewell, Sarah L.; Holberg, Jay B.; Bond, Howard E.

    2018-04-01

    White dwarfs are becoming useful tools for many areas of astronomy. They can be used as accurate chronometers over Gyr timescales. They are also clues to the history of star formation in our galaxy. Many of these studies require accurate estimates of the mass of the white dwarf. The theoretical mass-radius relation is often invoked to provide these mass estimates. While the theoretical mass-radius relation is well developed, observational tests of this relation show a much larger scatter in the results than expected. High precision observational tests to confirm this relation are required. Gaia is providing distance measurements which will remove one of the main source of uncertainty affecting most previous observations. We combine Gaia distances with spectra from the Hubble and FUSE satelites to make precise tests of the white dwarf mass-radius relation.

  17. Measurements of the Minimum Bending Radius of Small Diameter Scintillating Plastic Fibres

    CERN Document Server

    Gruber, Lukas; Vaananen, Mika Petteri; Gavardi, Laura

    2018-01-01

    The minimum bending radius of plastic fibres is an important parameter as it determines the geometrical flexibility of the fibres during long-term storage or installation and usage inside detectors. The following document describes measurements of the minimum bending radius of round scintillating plastic fibres with small diameter performed in the context of the LHCb SciFi Tracker project. The experimental set-up is based on measuring the light output of a bent fibre in response to 1 MeV electrons over several days. The results suggest that the 250 μm diameter fibres can be bent to a radius of about 10 mm without damaging and losing light.

  18. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF CONSERVATIVE MANAGEMENT VS. EXTERNAL FIXATION OF COMMINUTED DISTAL RADIUS FRACTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Kumar Kare

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Fracture of the distal radius (‘broken wrist’ is a common clinical problem. It can be treated conservatively usually involving wrist immobilisation in a plaster cast or surgically. A key method of surgical fixation is external fixation. MATERIALS AND METHODS A prospective study was carried out on 66 patients admitted between June 2014 to May 2016 for evaluation of conservative and surgical management of distal radius fractures. RESULTS Excellent, fair or good result was noticed in around 85% of cases managed conservatively and in above 90% of cases managed by external fixator. CONCLUSION There is some evidence to support the use of external fixation for dorsally displaced fractures of the distal radius in adults. Though, there is insufficient evidence to confirm a better functional outcome, external fixation reduces redisplacement gives improved anatomical results and most of the excess surgically-related complications are minor.

  19. Possibility to determine the radius of accretion disk by gravitational waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sotani, H; Saijo, M

    2007-01-01

    We investigate gravitational waves from a dust disk around a Schwarzschild black hole to focus on whether we can extract any of its physical properties from a direct detection of gravitational waves. We adopt a black hole perturbation approach in a time domain, which is a satisfactory approximation to illustrate a dust disk in a supermassive black hole. We find that we can determine the radius of the disk by using the power spectrum of gravitational waves and that our method to extract the radius works for a disk of arbitrary density distribution. Therefore we believe a possibility exists for determining the radius of the disk from a direct observation of gravitational waves detected by the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna

  20. The Splashback Radius of Halos from Particle Dynamics. I. The SPARTA Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diemer, Benedikt

    2017-07-01

    Motivated by the recent proposal of the splashback radius as a physical boundary of dark-matter halos, we present a parallel computer code for Subhalo and PARticle Trajectory Analysis (SPARTA). The code analyzes the orbits of all simulation particles in all host halos, billions of orbits in the case of typical cosmological N-body simulations. Within this general framework, we develop an algorithm that accurately extracts the location of the first apocenter of particles after infall into a halo, or splashback. We define the splashback radius of a halo as the smoothed average of the apocenter radii of individual particles. This definition allows us to reliably measure the splashback radii of 95% of host halos above a resolution limit of 1000 particles. We show that, on average, the splashback radius and mass are converged to better than 5% accuracy with respect to mass resolution, snapshot spacing, and all free parameters of the method.

  1. Aplikasi Pencarian Tempat Wisata Berbasiskan GPS dengan Metode Radius dan Rating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Yulianto

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Tourist place navigation application becomes more important for travelers, especially backpackers. Previous research had produced applications which can only show the route from the position of traveler to tourist place with map shown. The goal of the research is to use the radius and rating method that is still rare in the community to navigate tourist place. Output of the research is a GPS-based application that can display the search results of tourist sites based on rating and radius method, route from the traveler to the destination place, and description of the place. Development method used waterfall that contained user requirement, analysis, design, coding and testing, implementation, and maintenance. Conclusion of the research has shown that the developed application provided convenience in searching tourist places based on radius and rating, displaying route, and description of tourist places.

  2. Search for greater stability in nuclear regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asselstine, J.K.

    1985-01-01

    The need for greater stability in nuclear regulation is discussed. Two possible approaches for dealing with the problems of new and rapidly changing regulatory requirements are discussed. The first approach relies on the more traditional licensing reform initiatives that have been considered off and on for the past decade. The second approach considers a new regulator philosophy aimed at the root causes of the proliferation of new safety requirements that have been imposed in recent years. For the past few years, the concepts of deregulation and regulatory reform have been in fashion in Washington, and the commercial nuclear power program has not remained unaffected. Many look to these concepts to provide greater stability in the regulatory program. The NRC, the nuclear industry and the administration have all been avidly pursuing regulatory reform initiatives, which take the form of both legislative and administrative proposals. Many of these proposals look to the future, and, if adopted, would have little impact on currently operating nuclear power plants or plants now under construction

  3. Greater Sudbury fuel efficient driving handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-12-15

    Reducing the amount of fuel that people use for personal driving saves money, improves local air quality, and reduces personal contributions to climate change. This handbook was developed to be used as a tool for a fuel efficient driving pilot program in Greater Sudbury in 2009-2010. Specifically, the purpose of the handbook was to provide greater Sudbury drivers with information on how to drive and maintain their personal vehicles in order to maximize fuel efficiency. The handbook also provides tips for purchasing fuel efficient vehicles. It outlines the benefits of fuel maximization, with particular reference to reducing contributions to climate change; reducing emissions of air pollutants; safe driving; and money savings. Some tips for efficient driving are to avoid aggressive driving; use cruise control; plan trips; and remove excess weight. Tips for efficient winter driving are to avoid idling to warm up the engine; use a block heater; remove snow and ice; use snow tires; and check tire pressure. The importance of car maintenance and tire pressure was emphasized. The handbook also explains how fuel consumption ratings are developed by vehicle manufacturers. refs., figs.

  4. Women at greater risk of HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahathir, M

    1997-04-01

    Although many people believe that mainly men get infected with HIV/AIDS, women are actually getting infected at a faster rate than men, especially in developing countries, and suffer more from the adverse impact of AIDS. As of mid-1996, the Joint UN Program on AIDS estimated that more than 10 million of the 25 million adults infected with HIV since the beginning of the epidemic are women. The proportion of HIV-positive women is growing, with almost half of the 7500 new infections daily occurring among women. 90% of HIV-positive women live in a developing country. In Asia-Pacific, 1.4 million women have been infected with HIV out of an estimated total 3.08 million adults from the late 1970s until late 1994. Biologically, women are more vulnerable than men to infection because of the greater mucus area exposed to HIV during penile penetration. Women under age 17 years are at even greater risk because they have an underdeveloped cervix and low vaginal mucus production. Concurrent sexually transmitted diseases increase the risk of HIV transmission. Women's risk is also related to their exposure to gender inequalities in society. The social and economic pressures of poverty exacerbate women's risk. Prevention programs are discussed.

  5. Capturing near-Earth asteroids around Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasnain, Zaki; Lamb, Christopher A.; Ross, Shane D.

    2012-12-01

    The list of detected near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) is constantly growing. NEAs are likely targets for resources to support space industrialization, as they may be the least expensive source of certain needed raw materials. The limited supply of precious metals and semiconducting elements on Earth may be supplemented or even replaced by the reserves floating in the form of asteroids around the solar system. Precious metals make up a significant fraction NEAs by mass, and even one metallic asteroid of ˜1km size and fair enrichment in platinum-group metals would contain twice the tonnage of such metals already harvested on Earth. There are ˜1000 NEAs with a diameter of greater than 1 km. Capturing these asteroids around the Earth would expand the mining industry into an entirely new dimension. Having such resources within easy reach in Earth's orbit could provide an off-world environmentally friendly remedy for impending terrestrial shortages, especially given the need for raw materials in developing nations. In this paper, we develop and implement a conceptually simple algorithm to determine trajectory characteristics necessary to move NEAs into capture orbits around the Earth. Altered trajectories of asteroids are calculated using an ephemeris model. Only asteroids of eccentricity less than 0.1 have been studied and the model is restricted to the ecliptic plane for simplicity. We constrain the time of retrieval to be 10 years or less, based on considerations of the time to return on investment. For the heliocentric phase, constant acceleration is assumed. The acceleration required for transporting these asteroids from their undisturbed orbits to the sphere of influence of the Earth is the primary output, along with the impulse or acceleration necessary to effect capture to a bound orbit once the Earth's sphere of influence is reached. The initial guess for the constant acceleration is provided by a new estimation method, similar in spirit to Edelbaum's. Based on the

  6. Sea quarks contribution to the nucleon magnetic moment and charge radius at the physical point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sufian, Raza Sabbir; Yang, Yi-Bo; Liang, Jian; Draper, Terrence; Liu, Keh-Fei; χ QCD Collaboration

    2017-12-01

    We report a comprehensive analysis of the light and strange disconnected-sea quarks contribution to the nucleon magnetic moment, charge radius, and the electric and magnetic form factors. The lattice QCD calculation includes ensembles across several lattice volumes and lattice spacings with one of the ensembles at the physical pion mass. We adopt a model-independent extrapolation of the nucleon magnetic moment and the charge radius. We have performed a simultaneous chiral, infinite volume, and continuum extrapolation in a global fit to calculate results in the continuum limit. We find that the combined light and strange disconnected-sea quarks contribution to the nucleon magnetic moment is μM(DI )=-0.022 (11 )(09 ) μN and to the nucleon mean square charge radius is ⟨r2⟩E(DI ) =-0.019 (05 )(05 ) fm2 which is about 1 /3 of the difference between the ⟨rp2⟩E of electron-proton scattering and that of a muonic atom and so cannot be ignored in obtaining the proton charge radius in the lattice QCD calculation. The most important outcome of this lattice QCD calculation is that while the combined light-sea and strange quarks contribution to the nucleon magnetic moment is small at about 1%, a negative 2.5(9)% contribution to the proton mean square charge radius and a relatively larger positive 16.3(6.1)% contribution to the neutron mean square charge radius come from the sea quarks in the nucleon. For the first time, by performing global fits, we also give predictions of the light and strange disconnected-sea quarks contributions to the nucleon electric and magnetic form factors at the physical point and in the continuum and infinite volume limits in the momentum transfer range of 0 ≤Q2≤0.5 GeV2 .

  7. Reconstruction of lower end of radius using vascularized upper end of fibula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koul Ashok

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Giant cell tumor is a fairly common locally invasive tumor in young adults. The lower end of the radius is the second commonest site for this tumor. The most common treatment for this tumor is curettage with or without bone grafting but it carries a significant rate of recurrence. Excision is the treatment of choice, especially for cases in which the cortex has been breached. After excision of the distal end of the radius, different procedures have been described to reconstruct the defect of distal radius. These include partial arthrodesis and hemiarthroplasty using the upper end of the fibula. The upper end of the fibula has a morphological resemblance to the lower end of the radius and has been used to replace the latter. Traditionally it was used as a ′free′ (non-vascularized graft. More recently the upper end of the fibula has been transferred as a vascularized transfer for the same purpose. Though vascularized transfer should be expected to be more physiological, its superiority over the technically simpler non-vascularized transfer has not been conclusively proven. Materials and Methods: Two patients are presented who had giant cell tumor of distal radius. They underwent wide local excision and reconstruction with free vascularized upper end of the fibula. Result: Follow-up period was two and a half years and 12 months respectively. Both patients have returned to routine work. One patient has excellent functional result and the other has a good result. Conclusion: Vascularized upper end of fibula transfer is a reliable method of reconstruction for loss of the distal end of the radius that restores local anatomy and physiology.

  8. New summer areas and mixing of two greater sandhill crane populations in the Intermountain West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Daniel P.; Grisham, Blake A.; Conring, Courtenay M.; Knetter, Jeffrey M.; Conway, Warren C.; Carleton, Scott A.; Boggie, Matthew A.

    2016-01-01

    Population delineation throughout the annual life cycle for migratory birds is needed to formulate regional and national management and conservation strategies. Despite being well studied continentally, connectivity of sandhill crane Grus canadensis populations throughout the western portion of their North American range remains poorly described. Our objectives were to 1) use global positioning system satellite transmitter terminals to identify summer distributions for the Lower Colorado River Valley Population of greater sandhill cranes Grus canadensis tabida and 2) determine whether intermingling occurs among any of the western greater sandhill crane populations: Rocky Mountain Population, Lower Colorado River Valley Population, and Central Valley Population. Capture and marking occurred during winter and summer on private lands in California and Idaho as well as on two National Wildlife Refuges: Cibola and Sonny Bono Salton Sea National Wildlife Refuges. A majority of marked greater sandhill cranes summered in what is established Lower Colorado River Valley Population breeding areas in northeastern Nevada and southwestern Idaho. A handful of greater sandhill cranes summered outside of traditional breeding areas in west-central Idaho around Cascade Reservoir near Donnelly and Cascade, Idaho. For example, a greater sandhill crane colt captured near Donnelly in July 2014 survived to winter migration and moved south to areas associated with the Rocky Mountain Population. The integration of the greater sandhill crane colt captured near Donnelly provides the first evidence of potential intermingling between the Lower Colorado River Population and Rocky Mountain Population. We suggest continued marking and banding efforts of all three western populations of greater sandhill cranes will accurately delineate population boundaries and connectivity and inform management decisions for the three populations.

  9. Materials For Gas Capture, Methods Of Making Materials For Gas Capture, And Methods Of Capturing Gas

    KAUST Repository

    Polshettiwar, Vivek; Patil, Umesh

    2013-01-01

    In accordance with the purpose(s) of the present disclosure, as embodied and broadly described herein, embodiments of the present disclosure, in one aspect, relate to materials that can be used for gas (e.g., CO.sub.2) capture, methods of making

  10. A Non-Interfering Beam Radius Diagnostic Suitable For Induction Linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nexsen, W E

    2005-01-01

    High current electron induction linacs operate in a parameter regime that allows the use of a diamagnetic loop (DML) to measure the beam magnetic moment. Under certain easily met conditions the beam radius can be derived from the moment measurement. The DML has the advantage over the present methods of measuring beam radius in that it is an electrical measurement with good time resolution that does not interfere with the beam transport. I describe experiments on the LLNL accelerators, ETA-II and FXR that give confidence in the use of a DML as a beam diagnostic

  11. An Adaption Broadcast Radius-Based Code Dissemination Scheme for Low Energy Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shidi; Liu, Xiao; Liu, Anfeng; Xiong, Naixue; Cai, Zhiping; Wang, Tian

    2018-05-10

    Due to the Software Defined Network (SDN) technology, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are getting wider application prospects for sensor nodes that can get new functions after updating program codes. The issue of disseminating program codes to every node in the network with minimum delay and energy consumption have been formulated and investigated in the literature. The minimum-transmission broadcast (MTB) problem, which aims to reduce broadcast redundancy, has been well studied in WSNs where the broadcast radius is assumed to be fixed in the whole network. In this paper, an Adaption Broadcast Radius-based Code Dissemination (ABRCD) scheme is proposed to reduce delay and improve energy efficiency in duty cycle-based WSNs. In the ABCRD scheme, a larger broadcast radius is set in areas with more energy left, generating more optimized performance than previous schemes. Thus: (1) with a larger broadcast radius, program codes can reach the edge of network from the source in fewer hops, decreasing the number of broadcasts and at the same time, delay. (2) As the ABRCD scheme adopts a larger broadcast radius for some nodes, program codes can be transmitted to more nodes in one broadcast transmission, diminishing the number of broadcasts. (3) The larger radius in the ABRCD scheme causes more energy consumption of some transmitting nodes, but radius enlarging is only conducted in areas with an energy surplus, and energy consumption in the hot-spots can be reduced instead due to some nodes transmitting data directly to sink without forwarding by nodes in the original hot-spot, thus energy consumption can almost reach a balance and network lifetime can be prolonged. The proposed ABRCD scheme first assigns a broadcast radius, which doesn’t affect the network lifetime, to nodes having different distance to the code source, then provides an algorithm to construct a broadcast backbone. In the end, a comprehensive performance analysis and simulation result shows that the proposed

  12. DETERMINATION ОF DRESS ROLL OPTIMAL RADIUS WHILE PRODUCING PARTS WITH TROCHOIDAL PROFILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Yankevich

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers determination of the dress roll optimal radius while producing parts having trohoidal profile with the help of grinding method that presupposes application of grinding disk. In this case disk profile has been cut-in by diamond dressing. Two methods for determination of calculation of the dress roll optimal radius have been proposed in the paper. On the basis of the satellite gear of the planetary pin reducer whose profile presents a trochoid it has been shown that the obtained results pertaining to two proposed methods conform with each other.

  13. Tyre effective radius and vehicle velocity estimation: a variable structure observer solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Tannoury, C.; Plestan, F.; Moussaoui, S.; ROMANi, N. RENAULT

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes an application of a variable structure observer for wheel effective radius and velocity of automotive vehicles. This observer is based on high order sliding approach allowing robustness and finite time convergence. Its originality consists in assuming a nonlinear relation between the slip ratio and the friction coefficient and providing an estimation of both variables, wheel radius and vehicle velocity, from measurement of wheel angular velocity and torque. These signals being available on major modern vehicle CAN (Controller Area Network) buses, this system does not require additional sensors. A simulation example is given to illustrate the relevance of this approach.

  14. The effective neutrino charge radius in the presence of fermion masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binosi, D.; Bernabeu, J.; Papavassiliou, J.

    2005-01-01

    We show how the crucial gauge cancellations leading to a physical definition of an effective neutrino charge radius persist in the presence of non-vanishing fermion masses. An explicit one-loop calculation demonstrates that, as happens in the massless case, the pinch technique rearrangement of the Feynman amplitudes, together with the judicious exploitation of the fundamental current relation J α (3) =2(J Z +sinθ w 2 J γ ) α , leads to a completely gauge independent definition of the effective neutrino charge radius. Using the formalism of the Nielsen identities it is further proved that the same cancellation mechanism operates unaltered to all orders in perturbation theory

  15. Fine-Tuning on the Effective Patch Radius Expression of the Circular Microstrip Patch Antennas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Yilmaz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effective patch radius expression for the circular microstrip antennas is improved by means of several manipulations. Departing from previously proposed equations in the literature, one of the most accurate equations is picked up, and this equation is fine-tuned by means of Particle Swarm Optimization technique. Throughout the study, impacts of other parameters (such as the definition of the fitness/objective function, the degree-of-freedom in the proposed effective patch radius expression, the number of measured resonant frequency values are observed in a controlled manner. Finally, about 3% additional improvement is achieved over a very accurate formula, which was proposed earlier.

  16. Optimization of the bubble radius in a moving single bubble sonoluminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirheydari, Mona; Sadighi-Bonabi, Rasoul; Rezaee, Nastaran; Ebrahimi, Homa

    2011-01-01

    A complete study of the hydrodynamic force on a moving single bubble sonoluminescence in N-methylformamide is presented in this work. All forces exerted, trajectory, interior temperature and gas pressure are discussed. The maximum values of the calculated components of the hydrodynamic force for three different radii at the same driving pressure were compared, while the optimum bubble radius was determined. The maximum value of the buoyancy force appears at the start of bubble collapse, earlier than the other forces whose maximum values appear at the moment of bubble collapse. We verified that for radii larger than the optimum radius, the temperature peak value decreases.

  17. On the ππ continuum in the nucleon form factors and the proton radius puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoferichter, M.; Kubis, B.; Ruiz de Elvira, J.; Hammer, H.-W.; Meißner, U.-G.

    2016-11-01

    We present an improved determination of the ππ continuum contribution to the isovector spectral functions of the nucleon electromagnetic form factors. Our analysis includes the most up-to-date results for the ππ→bar{N} N partial waves extracted from Roy-Steiner equations, consistent input for the pion vector form factor, and a thorough discussion of isospin-violating effects and uncertainty estimates. As an application, we consider the ππ contribution to the isovector electric and magnetic radii by means of sum rules, which, in combination with the accurately known neutron electric radius, are found to slightly prefer a small proton charge radius.

  18. On the ππ continuum in the nucleon form factors and the proton radius puzzle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoferichter, M.; Kubis, B.; Ruiz de Elvira, J.; Hammer, H.W.; Meissner, U.G.

    2016-01-01

    We present an improved determination of the ππ continuum contribution to the isovector spectral functions of the nucleon electromagnetic form factors. Our analysis includes the most up-to-date results for the ππ → anti NN partial waves extracted from Roy-Steiner equations, consistent input for the pion vector form factor, and a thorough discussion of isospin-violating effects and uncertainty estimates. As an application, we consider the ππ contribution to the isovector electric and magnetic radii by means of sum rules, which, in combination with the accurately known neutron electric radius, are found to slightly prefer a small proton charge radius. (orig.)

  19. Measuring Atmospheric Abundances and Rotation of a Brown Dwarf with a Measured Mass and Radius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkby, Jayne

    2015-08-01

    There are no cool brown dwarfs with both a well-characterized atmosphere and a measured mass and radius. LHS 6343, a brown dwarf transiting one member of an M+M binary in the Kepler field, provides the first opportunity to tie theoretical atmospheric models to the observed brown dwarf mass-radius diagram. We propose four half-nights of observations with NIRSPAO in 2015B to measure spectral features in LHS 6343 C by detecting the relative motions of absorption features during the system's orbit. In addition to abundances, we will directly measure the brown dwarf's projected rotational velocity and mass.

  20. On the ππ continuum in the nucleon form factors and the proton radius puzzle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoferichter, M. [University of Washington, Institute for Nuclear Theory, Seattle, WA (United States); Kubis, B.; Ruiz de Elvira, J. [Universitaet Bonn, Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik (Theorie) and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Bonn (Germany); Hammer, H.W. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Darmstadt (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI, Darmstadt (Germany); Meissner, U.G. [Universitaet Bonn, Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik (Theorie) and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Bonn (Germany); Institut fuer Kernphysik, Institute for Advanced Simulation, and Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Forschungszentrum Juelich, Juelich (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    We present an improved determination of the ππ continuum contribution to the isovector spectral functions of the nucleon electromagnetic form factors. Our analysis includes the most up-to-date results for the ππ → anti NN partial waves extracted from Roy-Steiner equations, consistent input for the pion vector form factor, and a thorough discussion of isospin-violating effects and uncertainty estimates. As an application, we consider the ππ contribution to the isovector electric and magnetic radii by means of sum rules, which, in combination with the accurately known neutron electric radius, are found to slightly prefer a small proton charge radius. (orig.)

  1. An Adaption Broadcast Radius-Based Code Dissemination Scheme for Low Energy Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shidi Yu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to the Software Defined Network (SDN technology, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs are getting wider application prospects for sensor nodes that can get new functions after updating program codes. The issue of disseminating program codes to every node in the network with minimum delay and energy consumption have been formulated and investigated in the literature. The minimum-transmission broadcast (MTB problem, which aims to reduce broadcast redundancy, has been well studied in WSNs where the broadcast radius is assumed to be fixed in the whole network. In this paper, an Adaption Broadcast Radius-based Code Dissemination (ABRCD scheme is proposed to reduce delay and improve energy efficiency in duty cycle-based WSNs. In the ABCRD scheme, a larger broadcast radius is set in areas with more energy left, generating more optimized performance than previous schemes. Thus: (1 with a larger broadcast radius, program codes can reach the edge of network from the source in fewer hops, decreasing the number of broadcasts and at the same time, delay. (2 As the ABRCD scheme adopts a larger broadcast radius for some nodes, program codes can be transmitted to more nodes in one broadcast transmission, diminishing the number of broadcasts. (3 The larger radius in the ABRCD scheme causes more energy consumption of some transmitting nodes, but radius enlarging is only conducted in areas with an energy surplus, and energy consumption in the hot-spots can be reduced instead due to some nodes transmitting data directly to sink without forwarding by nodes in the original hot-spot, thus energy consumption can almost reach a balance and network lifetime can be prolonged. The proposed ABRCD scheme first assigns a broadcast radius, which doesn’t affect the network lifetime, to nodes having different distance to the code source, then provides an algorithm to construct a broadcast backbone. In the end, a comprehensive performance analysis and simulation result shows that

  2. Collision free path generation in 3D with turning and pitch radius constraints for aerial vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schøler, F.; La Cour-Harbo, A.; Bisgaard, M.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we consider the problem of trajectory generation in 3D for uninhabited aerial systems (UAS). The proposed algorithm for trajectory generation allows us to find a feasible collision-free 3D trajectory through a number of waypoints in an environment containing obstacles. Our approach...... assumes that most of the aircraft structural and dynamic limitations can be formulated as a turn radius constraint, and that any two consecutive waypoints have line-of-sight. The generated trajectories are collision free and also satisfy a constraint on the minimum admissible turning radius, while...

  3. An estimation of the spatial coherency radius of a multimode laser beam by the spectral contrast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukhanov, I I

    1983-01-01

    The angular dependency of the spectral contrast behind a diffuser illuminated by an He/Ne laser beam at .63 micrometers on the number of transverse modes is investigated. It is demonstrated that over a wide range of scattering angles, the contrast is determined primarily by the number of transverse modes, i.e. by the radius of the spatial field correlation, and is only slightly dependent on the dimensions and shape of the beam as well as the intensity distribution in the beam. These results may be useful in developing a rapid indication method of the radius of the spatial correlation of laser beams.

  4. Small cities face greater impact from automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Morgan R; Sun, Lijun; Cebrian, Manuel; Youn, Hyejin; Rahwan, Iyad

    2018-02-01

    The city has proved to be the most successful form of human agglomeration and provides wide employment opportunities for its dwellers. As advances in robotics and artificial intelligence revive concerns about the impact of automation on jobs, a question looms: how will automation affect employment in cities? Here, we provide a comparative picture of the impact of automation across US urban areas. Small cities will undertake greater adjustments, such as worker displacement and job content substitutions. We demonstrate that large cities exhibit increased occupational and skill specialization due to increased abundance of managerial and technical professions. These occupations are not easily automatable, and, thus, reduce the potential impact of automation in large cities. Our results pass several robustness checks including potential errors in the estimation of occupational automation and subsampling of occupations. Our study provides the first empirical law connecting two societal forces: urban agglomeration and automation's impact on employment. © 2018 The Authors.

  5. Small cities face greater impact from automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lijun; Cebrian, Manuel; Rahwan, Iyad

    2018-01-01

    The city has proved to be the most successful form of human agglomeration and provides wide employment opportunities for its dwellers. As advances in robotics and artificial intelligence revive concerns about the impact of automation on jobs, a question looms: how will automation affect employment in cities? Here, we provide a comparative picture of the impact of automation across US urban areas. Small cities will undertake greater adjustments, such as worker displacement and job content substitutions. We demonstrate that large cities exhibit increased occupational and skill specialization due to increased abundance of managerial and technical professions. These occupations are not easily automatable, and, thus, reduce the potential impact of automation in large cities. Our results pass several robustness checks including potential errors in the estimation of occupational automation and subsampling of occupations. Our study provides the first empirical law connecting two societal forces: urban agglomeration and automation's impact on employment. PMID:29436514

  6. Planning for greater-confinement disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Meshkov, N.K.; Trevorrow, L.E.; Yu, C.

    1984-01-01

    This contribution is a progress report for preparation of a document that will summarize procedures and technical information needed to plan for and implement greater-confinement disposal (GCD) of low-level radioactive waste. Selection of a site and a facility design (Phase I), and construction, operation, and extended care (Phase II) will be covered in the document. This progress report is limited to Phase I. Phase I includes determination of the need for GCD, design alternatives, and selection of a site and facility design. Alternative designs considered are augered shafts, deep trenches, engineered structures, high-integrity containers, hydrofracture, and improved waste form. Design considerations and specifications, performance elements, cost elements, and comparative advantages and disadvantages of the different designs are covered. Procedures are discussed for establishing overall performance objectives and waste-acceptance criteria, and for comparative assessment of the performance and cost of the different alternatives. 16 references

  7. Greater confinement disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevorrow, L.E.; Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Merry-Libby, P.A.; Meshkov, N.K.; Yu, C.

    1985-01-01

    Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) includes a broad spectrum of different radionuclide concentrations, half-lives, and hazards. Standard shallow-land burial practice can provide adequate protection of public health and safety for most LLW. A small volume fraction (approx. 1%) containing most of the activity inventory (approx. 90%) requires specific measures known as greater-confinement disposal (GCD). Different site characteristics and different waste characteristics - such as high radionuclide concentrations, long radionuclide half-lives, high radionuclide mobility, and physical or chemical characteristics that present exceptional hazards - lead to different GCD facility design requirements. Facility design alternatives considered for GCD include the augered shaft, deep trench, engineered structure, hydrofracture, improved waste form, and high-integrity container. Selection of an appropriate design must also consider the interplay between basic risk limits for protection of public health and safety, performance characteristics and objectives, costs, waste-acceptance criteria, waste characteristics, and site characteristics

  8. Planning for greater-confinement disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Meshkov, N.K.; Trevorrow, L.E.; Yu, C.

    1984-01-01

    This contribution is a progress report for preparation of a document that will summarize procedures and technical information needed to plan for and implement greater-confinement disposal (GCD) of low-level radioactive waste. Selection of a site and a facility design (Phase I), and construction, operation, and extended care (Phase II) will be covered in the document. This progress report is limited to Phase I. Phase I includes determination of the need for GCD, design alternatives, and selection of a site and facility design. Alternative designs considered are augered shafts, deep trenches, engineered structures, high-integrity containers, hydrofracture, and improved waste form. Design considerations and specifications, performance elements, cost elements, and comparative advantages and disadvantages of the different designs are covered. Procedures are discussed for establishing overall performance objecties and waste-acceptance criteria, and for comparative assessment of the performance and cost of the different alternatives. 16 refs

  9. Experimental studies of electron capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, E.H.

    1983-01-01

    This thesis discusses the main results of recent experimental studies of electron capture in asymmetric collisions. Most of the results have been published, but the thesis also contains yet unpublished data, or data presented only in unrefereed conference proceedings. The thesis aims at giving a coherent discussion of the understanding of the experimental results, based first on simple qualitative considerations and subsequently on quantitative comparisons with the best theoretical calculations currently available. (Auth.)

  10. Testing the white dwarf mass-radius relationship with eclipsing binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, S. G.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Marsh, T. R.; Ashley, R. P.; Bours, M. C. P.; Breedt, E.; Burleigh, M. R.; Copperwheat, C. M.; Dhillon, V. S.; Green, M.; Hardy, L. K.; Hermes, J. J.; Irawati, P.; Kerry, P.; Littlefair, S. P.; McAllister, M. J.; Rattanasoon, S.; Rebassa-Mansergas, A.; Sahman, D. I.; Schreiber, M. R.

    2017-10-01

    We present high-precision, model-independent, mass and radius measurements for 16 white dwarfs in detached eclipsing binaries and combine these with previously published data to test the theoretical white dwarf mass-radius relationship. We reach a mean precision of 2.4 per cent in mass and 2.7 per cent in radius, with our best measurements reaching a precision of 0.3 per cent in mass and 0.5 per cent in radius. We find excellent agreement between the measured and predicted radii across a wide range of masses and temperatures. We also find the radii of all white dwarfs with masses less than 0.48 M⊙ to be fully consistent with helium core models, but they are on average 9 per cent larger than those of carbon-oxygen core models. In contrast, white dwarfs with masses larger than 0.52 M⊙ all have radii consistent with carbon-oxygen core models. Moreover, we find that all but one of the white dwarfs in our sample have radii consistent with possessing thick surface hydrogen envelopes (10-5 ≥ MH/MWD ≥ 10-4), implying that the surface hydrogen layers of these white dwarfs are not obviously affected by common envelope evolution.

  11. Determination of the radius of a self-pinched beam from its energy integral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, E.P.

    1980-01-01

    The total transverse energy (kinetic plus potential) of a self-pinched beam may be used to predict the final equilibrium radius when the beam is mismatched at injection. The dependence of potential energy on the current profile shape is characterized by a dimensionless parameter C(z), variations of which are correlated with the change of emittance

  12. Perimeter generating functions for the mean-squared radius of gyration of convex polygons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, Iwan

    2005-01-01

    We have derived long series expansions for the perimeter generating functions of the radius of gyration of various polygons with a convexity constraint. Using the series we numerically find simple (algebraic) exact solutions for the generating functions. In all cases the size exponent ν 1. (letter to the editor)

  13. Turnaround radius in an accelerated universe with quasi-local mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faraoni, Valerio; Lapierre-Léonard, Marianne; Prain, Angus, E-mail: vfaraoni@ubishops.ca, E-mail: mlapierre12@ubishops.ca, E-mail: angusprain@gmail.com [Physics Department, Bishop' s University, 2600 College Street, Sherbrooke, Québec, J1M 1Z7 Canada (Canada)

    2015-10-01

    We apply the Hawking-Hayward quasi-local energy construct to obtain in a rigorous way the turnaround radius of cosmic structures in General Relativity. A splitting of this quasi-local mass into local and cosmological parts describes the interplay between local attraction and cosmological expansion.

  14. Turnaround radius in an accelerated universe with quasi-local mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faraoni, Valerio; Lapierre-Léonard, Marianne; Prain, Angus

    2015-01-01

    We apply the Hawking-Hayward quasi-local energy construct to obtain in a rigorous way the turnaround radius of cosmic structures in General Relativity. A splitting of this quasi-local mass into local and cosmological parts describes the interplay between local attraction and cosmological expansion

  15. Determination of bone mineral density at distal radius measured by single photon absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomomitsu, Tatsushi; Yanagimoto, Shinichi; Hitomi, Go; Murakami, Akihiko; Suemori, Shinji; Yokobayashi, Tsuneo; Ishii, Koshi; Hiji, Hiroo

    1988-01-01

    We have discussed the index of the bone mineral density (BMD) at the distal radius measured by single photon absorptiometry. Initially, the shape at the distal radius was evaluated using an X-ray photogram of the forearm and a calculation formula of the cross-sectional area at the distal radius was performed using an X-CT photogram of the forearm. A new index for the bone mineral density (modified BMD, mBMD), bone mineral content/cross-sectional area, at the distal radius was obtained for 154 young normal subjects (20 ∼ 44 yrs.). No significant differences in the mBMD values between young normal males and females, except for the group 20 ∼ 24 year-old group, were observed. Furthermore, a significantly decreased in the mBMD values with aging was observed in females between the ages of 20 ∼ 24 and 40 ∼ 44. However, no significant changes in the mBMD values were recognized in the men. Thus, it was shown that the new BMD index, mBMD, was useful for evaluating the changes of the bone mass. (author)

  16. Sex determination from the radius and ulna in a modern South African sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrier, I L O; L'Abbé, E N

    2008-07-18

    With a large number of unidentified skeletal remains found in South Africa, the development of population specific osteometric standards is imperative. Forensic anthropologists need to have access to a variety of techniques to establish accurate demographic profiles from complete, fragmentary and/or commingled remains. No research has been done on the forearm of African samples, even though these bones have been shown to exhibit sexual dimorphism. The purpose of this paper is to develop discriminant function formulae to determine sex from the radius and ulna in a South African population. The sample consisted of 200 male and 200 female skeletons from the Pretoria Bone (University of Pretoria) and Raymond A. Dart (Witwatersrand University) collections. Sixteen standard anthropometric measurements were taken from the radius (9) and ulna (7) and subjected to stepwise and direct discriminant function analysis. Distal breadth, minimum mid-shaft diameter and maximum head diameter were the best discriminators of sex for the radius, while minimum mid-shaft diameter and olecranon breadth were selected for the ulna. Classification accuracy for the forearm ranged from 76 to 86%. The radius and ulna can be considered moderate discriminators for determining sex in a South African group. However, it is advised that these formulae are used in conjunction with additional methods to determine sex.

  17. Constraining the mass and radius of neutron stars in globular clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, A. W.; Heinke, C. O.; Bogdanov, S.; Li, C. K.; Ho, W. C. G.; Bahramian, A.; Han, S.

    2018-05-01

    We analyse observations of eight quiescent low-mass X-ray binaries in globular clusters and combine them to determine the neutron star mass-radius curve and the equation of state of dense matter. We determine the effect that several uncertainties may have on our results, including uncertainties in the distance, the atmosphere composition, the neutron star maximum mass, the neutron star mass distribution, the possible presence of a hotspot on the neutron star surface, and the prior choice for the equation of state of dense matter. The distance uncertainty is implemented in a new Gaussian blurring method that can be directly applied to the probability distribution over mass and radius. We find that the radius of a 1.4 solar mass neutron star is most likely from 10 to 14 km and that tighter constraints are only possible with stronger assumptions about the nature of the neutron stars, the systematics of the observations, or the nature of dense matter. Strong phase transitions in the equation of state are preferred, and in this case, the radius is likely smaller than 12 km. However, radii larger than 12 km are preferred if the neutron stars have uneven temperature distributions.

  18. Influence of radius of cylinder HTS bulk on guidance force in a maglev vehicle system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longcai, Zhang

    2014-07-01

    Bulk superconductors had great potential for various engineering applications, especially in a high-temperature superconducting (HTS) maglev vehicle system. In such a system, the HTS bulks were always exposed to AC external magnetic field, which was generated by the inhomogeneous surface magnetic field of the NdFeB guideway. In our previous work, it was observed that the guidance force of the YBCO bulk over the NdFeB guideway used in the HTS maglev vehicle system was decayed by the application of the AC external magnetic field. In this paper, we investigated the influence of the radius of the cylinder HTS bulk exposed to an AC magnetic field perturbation on the guidance force in the maglev vehicle system. From the results, it was found that the guidance force was stronger for the bulk with bigger radius and the guidance force decay rates of the bulks were approximately equal despite of the different radius in the maglev vehicle system. Therefore, in order to obtain higher guidance force in the maglev vehicle system, we could use the cylinder HTS bulks with the bigger radius.

  19. Goldberger-treiman relation and nucleon's mean square radius of strong interaction in the Skyrme model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Bingan

    1988-01-01

    In this letter it is shown that even in m π ≠ 0 case the Goldberger-Treiman relation is still hold in the Skyrme model. The mean square radius of strong interaction of nucleon 2 > s 1/2 is computed in the Skyrme model

  20. Addressing the missing matter problem in galaxies through a new fundamental gravitational radius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capozziello, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' E. Pancini' ' , Università di Napoli ' ' Federico II' ' , Compl. Univ. di Monte S. Angelo, Edificio G, Via Cinthia, I-80126, Napoli (Italy); Jovanović, P. [Astronomical Observatory, Volgina 7, P.O. Box 74, 11060 Belgrade (Serbia); Jovanović, V. Borka; Borka, D., E-mail: capozziello@na.infn.it, E-mail: pjovanovic@aob.rs, E-mail: vborka@vin.bg.ac.rs, E-mail: dusborka@vin.bg.ac.rs [Atomic Physics Laboratory (040), Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2017-06-01

    We demonstrate that the existence of a Noether symmetry in f ( R ) theories of gravity gives rise to a further gravitational radius, besides the standard Schwarzschild one, determining the dynamics at galactic scales. By this feature, it is possible to explain the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation and the rotation curve of gas-rich galaxies without the dark matter hypothesis.

  1. Peak incidence of distal radius fractures due to ice skating on natural ice in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lieshout, Arno P. W.; van Manen, Christiaan J.; du Pré, Karel J.; Kleinlugtenbelt, Ydo V.; Poolman, Rudolf W.; Goslings, J. Carel; Kloen, Peter

    2010-01-01

    An increase of distal radius fractures was seen in 2009 when an extended cold spell allowed natural ice skating in Amsterdam. This resulted in overload of our Emergency Departments and operating rooms. This study reports patient and fracture characteristics of these injuries. We also determined

  2. Two peg spade plate for distal radius fractures A novel technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharad M Hardikar

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The two peg volar spade plate provides a stable subchondral support in comminuted intraarticular fractures and maintains reduction in osteoporotic fractures of the distal radius. Early mobilization with this implant helps in restoring wrist motion and to prevent development of wrist stiffness.

  3. Transition to chaos for ballooning modes stabilized by finite Larmor radius effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiland, J; Wilhelmsson, H [Chalmers Tekniska Hoegskola, Goeteborg (Sweden). Institutionen foer Elektromagnetisk Faeltteori

    1983-08-01

    The nonlinear dynamics of interacting ballooning modes, stabilized by finite Larmor radius effects is analyzed in terms of a set of equations, which exhibit stochastic properties. These are explicitly shown to depend on the balance between shear and driving pressure force. The onset of bifurcations and chaotic behaviour are directly identified with certain values of parameters characterizing the physical system.

  4. Radius Determination of Solar-type Stars Using Asteroseismology: What to Expect from the Kepler Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stello, Dennis; Chaplin, William J.; Bruntt, Hans; Creevey, Orlagh L.; García-Hernández, Antonio; Monteiro, Mario J. P. F. G.; Moya, Andrés; Quirion, Pierre-Olivier; Sousa, Sergio G.; Suárez, Juan-Carlos; Appourchaux, Thierry; Arentoft, Torben; Ballot, Jerome; Bedding, Timothy R.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jørgen; Elsworth, Yvonne; Fletcher, Stephen T.; García, Rafael A.; Houdek, Günter; Jiménez-Reyes, Sebastian J.; Kjeldsen, Hans; New, Roger; Régulo, Clara; Salabert, David; Toutain, Thierry

    2009-08-01

    For distant stars, as observed by the NASA Kepler satellite, parallax information is currently of fairly low quality and is not complete. This limits the precision with which the absolute sizes of the stars and their potential transiting planets can be determined by traditional methods. Asteroseismology will be used to aid the radius determination of stars observed during NASA's Kepler mission. We report on the recent asteroFLAG hare-and-hounds Exercise#2, where a group of "hares" simulated data of F-K main-sequence stars that a group of "hounds" sought to analyze, aimed at determining the stellar radii. We investigated stars in the range 9 values of the artificial stars to within 3%, when the large frequency spacing is used. This is 5-10 times better than the results where seismology is not applied. These results give strong confidence that radius estimation can be performed to better than 3% for solar-like stars using automatic pipeline reduction. Even when the stellar distance and luminosity are unknown we can obtain the same level of agreement. Given the uncertainties used for this exercise we find that the input log g and parallax do not help to constrain the radius, and that T eff and metallicity are the only parameters we need in addition to the large frequency spacing. It is the uncertainty in the metallicity that dominates the uncertainty in the radius.

  5. Orientation illusions and heart-rate changes during short-radius centrifugation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hecht, H.; Kavelaars, J.; Cheung, C. C.; Young, L. R.

    2001-01-01

    Intermittent short-radius centrifugation is a promising countermeasure against the adverse effects of prolonged weightlessness. To assess the feasibility of this countermeasure, we need to understand the disturbing sensory effects that accompany some movements carried out during rotation. We tested

  6. Kinematics and early migration in single-radius mobile- and fixed-bearing total knee prostheses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolterbeek, N.; Garling, E.H.; Mertens, B.J.; Nelissen, R.G.H.H.; Valstar, E.R.

    2012-01-01

    Background The mobile-bearing variant of a single-radius design is assumed to provide more freedom of motion compared to the fixed-bearing variant because the insert does not restrict the natural movements of the femoral component. This would reduce the contact stresses and wear which in turn may

  7. Pole-strength of the earth from Magsat and magnetic determination of the core radius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorhies, G. V.; Benton, E. R.

    1982-01-01

    A model based on two days of Magsat data is used to numerically evaluate the unsigned magnetic flux linking the earth's surface, and a comparison of the 16.054 GWb value calculated with values from earlier geomagnetic field models reveals a smooth, monotonic, and recently-accelerating decrease in the earth's pole strength at a 50-year average rate of 8.3 MWb, or 0.052%/year. Hide's (1978) magnetic technique for determining the radius of the earth's electrically-conducting core is tested by (1) extrapolating main field models for 1960 and 1965 downward through the nearly-insulating mantle, and then separately comparing them to equivalent, extrapolated models of Magsat data. The two unsigned fluxes are found to equal the Magsat values at a radius which is within 2% of the core radius; and (2) the 1960 main field and secular variation and acceleration coefficients are used to derive models of 1930, 1940 and 1950. The same core magnetic radius value, within 2% of the seismic value, is obtained. It is concluded that the mantle is a nearly-perfect insulator, while the core is a perfect conductor, on the decade time scale.

  8. The ephemeris and variations of the accretion disc radius in IP Pegasi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, J.H.; Robinson, E.L.

    1989-01-01

    We present timings of 37 previously unpublished eclipses of the dwarf nova IP Pegasi, obtained in 1986 through to 1988, and combine these with earlier published timings in order to update the orbital ephemeris and to examine the behaviour of the accretion disc radius through the outburst cycle. (author)

  9. Angular deformation of radius and ulna treated by dynamic percutaneus osteogenesis distraction. Case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezende, C.M.F.; Melo, E.G.; Lamas, M.C.S.; Silva, C.A.

    2000-01-01

    The clinical exam of a male mongrel dog, 4-month-old, and 5.7kg of live weight, showed that the dog supported with the elbows and it was observed accentuated bilateral rotacional deformity of the radius and ulna. Radiographs of the radius and ulna revealed proximal fracture of the radius. After clinical and radiographic evaluation it was indicated the corrective osteotomy and distraction osteogenesis of the left foremember. The surgical procedure consisted in osteotomy in the diaphysis of the radius and ulna, and the utilization of external fixators composed by four Kirschner’s pins and two metallic thread bars, configuring a fixator type II, bilateral uniplanar dynamic. Before the fixation of the pins with acrylic, the fractured bony fragments were separated in approximately 0.5cm. Starting 10 days post surgery, the radial osteotomy site was distracted at a rate of 1.0mm every day for 30 days. The consolidation of the osteotomy site was observed radiographically 67 days after the intervention, when the fixator was removed. Similar procedure was accomplished in the right foremember at the age of 16 months. At this moment, it was necessary to remove a coins bony of approximately 1.0cm for correction of the limb angulation. At present, the dog shows normal function and support of the left foremember and light valgus deformity of the right foremember due to the broken implants [pt

  10. Mercury's radius change estimates revisited using high incidence angle MESSENGER data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Achille, G.; Popa, C.; Massironi, M.; Ferrari, S.; Mazzotta Epifani, E.; Zusi, M.; Cremonese, G.; Palumbo, P.

    2012-04-01

    Estimates of Mercury's radius decrease obtained using the amount of strain recorded by tectonics on the planet range from 0.5 km to 2 km. These latter figures appear too low with respect to the radius contraction (up to 5-6 km) predicted by the most accredited studies based on thermo-mechanical evolution models. For this reason, it has been suggested that there may be hidden strain accommodated by features yet unseen on Mercury. Indeed, as it has been already cautioned by previous studies, the identification of tectonic features on Mercury might be largely biased by the lighting geometry of the used basemaps. This limitation might have affected the results of the extrapolations for estimating the radius change. In this study, we mapped tectonic features at the terminator thus using images acquired at high sun incidence angle (>50°) that represents the optimal condition for their observation. In fact, images with long shadows enhance the topography and texture of the surface and are ideal to detect tectonic structures. This favorable illumination conditions allowed us to infer reliable measurements of spatial distribution (i.e. frequency, orientation, and areal density) of tectonic features which can be used to estimate the average contractional strain and planetary radius decrease. We digitized tectonic structures within a region extending for an area of about 12 million sq. km (~16% of planet's surface). More than 1300 tectonic lineaments were identified and interpreted to be compressional features (i.e. lobate scarps, wrinkle ridges, and high relief ridges) with a total length of more than 12300 km. Assuming that the extensional strain is negligible within the area, the average contractional strain calculated for the survey area is ~0.21-0.28% (~0.24% for θ=30°). This strain, extrapolated to the entire surface, corresponds to a contraction in radius of about 2.5-3.4 km (~2.9 km for θ=30°). Interestingly, the values of contractional strain and radius decrease

  11. Urban acid deposition in Greater Manchester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D.S.; Longhurst, J.W.S.; Gee, D.R.; Hare, S.E. (Manchester Polytechnic, Manchester (UK). Acid Rain Information Centre)

    1989-08-01

    Data are presented from a monitoring network of 18 bulk precipitation collectors and one wet-only collector in the urban area of Greater Manchester, in the north west of England. Weekly samples were analysed for all the major ions in precipitation along with gaseous nitrogen dioxide concentrations from diffusion tubes. Statistical analysis of the data shows significant spatial variation of non marine sulphate, nitrate, ammonium, acidity and calcium concentrations, and nitrogen dioxide concentrations. Calcium is thought to be responsible for the buffering of acidity and is of local origin. Wet deposition is the likely removal process for calcium in the atmosphere and probably by below cloud scavenging. Nitrate and ammonium concentrations and depositions show close spatial, temporal and statistical association. Examination of high simultaneous episodes of nitrate and ammonium deposition shows that these depositions cannot be explained in terms of trajectories and it is suggested that UK emissions of ammonia may be important. Statistical analysis of the relationships between nitrate and ammonium depositions, concentrations and precipitation amount suggest that ammonia from mesoscale sources reacts reversibly with nitric acid aerosol and is removed by below cloud scavenging. High episodes of the deposition of non marine sulphate are difficult to explain by trajectory analysis alone, perhaps suggesting local sources. In a comparison between wet deposition and bulk deposition, it was shown that only 15.2% of the non marine sulphur was dry deposited to the bulk precipitation collector. 63 refs., 86 figs., 31 tabs.

  12. Relation between second-order moment radius of focal spot and near field distribution of laser beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Xueyan; Su Yi; Ye Yidong; Guan Youguang

    2011-01-01

    In order to analyze the effect of aberration of amplitude and phase of laser beam on second-order moment radius of focal spot, based on the Fraunhofer formula for light wave scalar diffraction theory and the definition of second-order moment radius, the general expression for focal spot second-order moment radius depending on the complex amplitude of near field is derived. The second-order moment radius of the focal spot depending on intensity distribution and phase distribution of near field is derived, and its clear physical meaning is described. The second-order moment radius and the divergence angle of focal spot may be easily calculated with the second-order moment radius expression of focal spot. At last, the divergence angles of focal spots of several kinds of Gaussian laser beams are calculated directly, and the results are in accordance with those in the related references. (authors)

  13. A method for determining the radius of an open cluster from stellar proper motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Néstor; Alfaro, Emilio J.; López-Martínez, Fátima

    2018-04-01

    We propose a method for calculating the radius of an open cluster in an objective way from an astrometric catalogue containing, at least, positions and proper motions. It uses the minimum spanning tree in the proper motion space to discriminate cluster stars from field stars and it quantifies the strength of the cluster-field separation by means of a statistical parameter defined for the first time in this paper. This is done for a range of different sampling radii from where the cluster radius is obtained as the size at which the best cluster-field separation is achieved. The novelty of this strategy is that the cluster radius is obtained independently of how its stars are spatially distributed. We test the reliability and robustness of the method with both simulated and real data from a well-studied open cluster (NGC 188), and apply it to UCAC4 data for five other open clusters with different catalogued radius values. NGC 188, NGC 1647, NGC 6603, and Ruprecht 155 yielded unambiguous radius values of 15.2 ± 1.8, 29.4 ± 3.4, 4.2 ± 1.7, and 7.0 ± 0.3 arcmin, respectively. ASCC 19 and Collinder 471 showed more than one possible solution, but it is not possible to know whether this is due to the involved uncertainties or due to the presence of complex patterns in their proper motion distributions, something that could be inherent to the physical object or due to the way in which the catalogue was sampled.

  14. Fracture heuristics: surgical decision for approaches to distal radius fractures. A surgeon's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichlas, Florian; Tsitsilonis, Serafim; Kopf, Sebastian; Krapohl, Björn Dirk; Manegold, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of the present study is to develop a heuristic that could replace the surgeon's analysis for the decision on the operative approach of distal radius fractures based on simple fracture characteristics. Patients and methods: Five hundred distal radius fractures operated between 2011 and 2014 were analyzed for the surgeon's decision on the approach used. The 500 distal radius fractures were treated with open reduction and internal fixation through palmar, dorsal, and dorsopalmar approaches with 2.4 mm locking plates or underwent percutaneous fixation. The parameters that should replace the surgeon's analysis were the fractured palmar cortex, and the frontal and the sagittal split of the articular surface of the distal radius. Results: The palmar approach was used for 422 (84.4%) fractures, the dorsal approach for 39 (7.8%), and the combined dorsopalmar approach for 30 (6.0%). Nine (1.8%) fractures were treated percutaneously. The correlation between the fractured palmar cortex and the used palmar approach was moderate (r=0.464; p<0.0001). The correlation between the frontal split and the dorsal approach, including the dorsopalmar approach, was strong (r=0.715; p<0.0001). The sagittal split had only a weak correlation for the dorsal and dorsopalmar approach (r=0.300; p<0.0001). Discussion: The study shows that the surgical decision on the preferred approach is dictated through two simple factors, even in the case of complex fractures. Conclusion: When the palmar cortex is displaced in distal radius fractures, a palmar approach should be used. When there is a displaced frontal split of the articular surface, a dorsal approach should be used. When both are present, a dorsopalmar approach should be used. These two simple parameters could replace the surgeon's analysis for the surgical approach.

  15. The Assessment of Left Ventricular Time-Varying Radius Using Tissue Doppler Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fardin Mirbolouk

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Left ventricular twist/torsion is believed to be a sensitive indicator of systolic and diastolic performance. To obtain circumferential rotation using tissue Doppler imaging, we need to estimate the time-varying radius of the left ventricle throughout the cardiac cycle to convert the tangential velocity into angular velocity. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate accuracy of measured LV radius using tissue Doppler imaging throughout the cardiac cycle compared to two-dimensional (2D imaging. Methods: A total of 35 subjects (47±12 years old underwent transthoracic echocardiographic standard examinations. Left ventricular radius during complete cardiac cycle measured using tissue Doppler and 2D-imaging at basal and apical short axis levels. For this reason, the 2D-images and velocity-time data derived and transferred to a personal computer for off-line analysis. 2D image frames analyzed via a program written in the MATLAB software. Velocity-time data from anteroseptal at basal level (or anterior wall at apical level and posterior walls transferred to a spreadsheet Excel program for the radius calculations. Linear correlation and Bland-Altman analysis were calculated to assess the relationships and agreements between the tissue Doppler and 2D-measured radii throughout the cardiac cycle. Results: There was significant correlation between tissue Doppler and 2D-measured radii and the Pearson correlation coefficients were 0.84 to 0.97 (P<0.05. Bland-Altman analysis by constructing the 95% limits of agreement showed that the good agreements existed between the two methods. Conclusion: It can be concluded from our experience that the tissue Doppler imaging can reasonably estimate radius of the left ventricle throughout the cardiac cycle.

  16. MRI of fractures of the distal radius: comparison with conventional radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spence, L.D.; Eustace, S.

    1998-01-01

    Objective. To compare the evaluation of fractures of the distal radius with MRI and conventional radiographs. To demonstrate the ability of MRI to detect unsuspected soft tissue derangement accompanying this common injury. Design and patients. Twenty-one consecutive inpatients admitted following fracture of the distal radius underwent preoperative evaluation with both conventional radiographs and MRI. In each case, analysis was made of both the osseous and soft tissue injury. MRI findings were compared with those identified on conventional radiographs and at subsequent surgical fixation. Results. Of 21 patients with fractures of the distal radius, 20 had extension to the radiocarpal articulation, 14 had distal radio-ulnar joint extension and 5 had avulsion of the ulnar styloid.Occult carpal bone fractures accompanying fracture of the distal radius were identified in two patients: one of the capitate and the other of the second metacarpal base. Ten patients (48%) had associated soft tissue injury: six patients had scapholunate ligament rupture, two patients had disruption of the triangular fibrocartilage, one patient had extensor carpi ulnaris tenosynovitis and one patient had a tear of a dorsal radiocarpal ligament. Of five patients with ulnar styloid avulsions, none had evidence of triangular fibrocartilage tears. Conclusion. MRI affords better evaluation of osseous injury accompanying distal radial fractures than conventional radiographs. Intra-articular soft tissue injury accompanies distal radial fractures in almost 50% of cases. Scapholunate ligament disruption commonly accompanies intra-articular fracture through the lunate facet of the distal radius. Fracture of the ulnar styloid is infrequently associated with tear of the triangular fibrocartilage. (orig.)

  17. [Distal radius fractures--retrospective quality control after conservative and operative therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, C; Brendebach, L; Meier, R; Leutenegger, A

    2001-01-01

    The distal radius fracture is the most frequent fracture in the adult patient. The wide spectrum of different types of fracture and the coexisting factors make the choice for the optimal treatment difficult. As an interne quality control we retrospectively evaluated all patients with distal radius fractures treated in 1995 at our institution. The study included 69 adult patients with 71 distal radius fractures. After on average 26 months 58 patients with 59 fractures were clinically and radiologically evaluated. The patients were asked to give supplementary information about their follow-up treatment as well as any remaining physical difficulties and limitations in the daily life. All x-rays of the broken radius were carefully analysed and compared with the opposite side. The final results were evaluated according to the "Demerit Point System". Patients were treated with five different therapeutical methods. 76.3% of the patients showed a very good/good final result. In 56.7% of the cases secondary fracture dislocation occurred; the dislocation-rate of fractures treated with percutaneous k-wires was 93.3%! A clear correlation between secondary displacement and final results was found. A main factor for an optimal outcome is the anatomic restoration of length and axis of the distal radius as well as of joint congruency, also moderate angular deformities are well tolerated. Our collective showed an unexpected high rate of secondary displacement, especially in the k-wire group. The reasons for this unsatisfactory event are manifold: too optimistic indication, insufficient follow-up examination in the first four to six weeks, inconsequent change to a more stable fixation method in case of a secondary dislocation. The results of this retrospective evaluation had a major impact on our concept of treatment. The dorso-radial double-plate technique combined with bone graft will be more used in the future especially in younger patients. The new standardised concept is the

  18. MRI of fractures of the distal radius: comparison with conventional radiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spence, L.D.; Eustace, S. [Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Radiol.; Savenor, A.; Nwachuku, I.; Tilsley, J. [Department of Orthopedics, Boston Medical Center, Boston, MA 02118 (United States)

    1998-05-01

    Objective. To compare the evaluation of fractures of the distal radius with MRI and conventional radiographs. To demonstrate the ability of MRI to detect unsuspected soft tissue derangement accompanying this common injury. Design and patients. Twenty-one consecutive inpatients admitted following fracture of the distal radius underwent preoperative evaluation with both conventional radiographs and MRI. In each case, analysis was made of both the osseous and soft tissue injury. MRI findings were compared with those identified on conventional radiographs and at subsequent surgical fixation. Results. Of 21 patients with fractures of the distal radius, 20 had extension to the radiocarpal articulation, 14 had distal radio-ulnar joint extension and 5 had avulsion of the ulnar styloid.Occult carpal bone fractures accompanying fracture of the distal radius were identified in two patients: one of the capitate and the other of the second metacarpal base. Ten patients (48%) had associated soft tissue injury: six patients had scapholunate ligament rupture, two patients had disruption of the triangular fibrocartilage, one patient had extensor carpi ulnaris tenosynovitis and one patient had a tear of a dorsal radiocarpal ligament. Of five patients with ulnar styloid avulsions, none had evidence of triangular fibrocartilage tears. Conclusion. MRI affords better evaluation of osseous injury accompanying distal radial fractures than conventional radiographs. Intra-articular soft tissue injury accompanies distal radial fractures in almost 50% of cases. Scapholunate ligament disruption commonly accompanies intra-articular fracture through the lunate facet of the distal radius. Fracture of the ulnar styloid is infrequently associated with tear of the triangular fibrocartilage. (orig.) With 5 figs., 16 refs.

  19. STUDY OF REFLECTION COEFFICIENT DISTRIBUTION FOR ANTI-REFLECTION COATINGS ON SMALL-RADIUS OPTICAL PARTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Gubanova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with findings for the energy reflection coefficient distribution of anti- reflection coating along the surface of optical elements with a very small radius (2-12 mm. The factors influencing the magnitude of the surface area of the optical element, in which the energy reflection coefficient is constant, were detected. The main principles for theoretical models that describe the spectral characteristics of the multilayer interference coatings were used to achieve these objectives. The relative size of the enlightenment area is defined as the ratio of the radius for the optical element surface, where the reflection is less than a certain value, to its radius (ρ/r. The result of research is the following: this size is constant for a different value of the curvature radius for the optical element made of the same material. Its value is determined by the refractive index of material (nm, from which the optical element was made, and the design of antireflection coatings. For single-layer coatings this value is ρ/r = 0.5 when nm = 1.51; and ρ/r = 0.73 when nm = 1.75; for two-layer coatings ρ/r = 0.35 when nm = 1.51 and ρ/r = 0.41 when nm = 1.75. It is shown that with increasing of the material refractive index for the substrate size, the area of minimum reflection coefficient is increased. The paper considers a single-layer, two-layer, three-layer and five-layer structures of antireflection coatings. The findings give the possibility to conclude that equal thickness coverings formed on the optical element surface with a small radius make no equal reflection from the entire surface, and distribution of the layer thickness needs to be looked for, providing a uniform radiation reflection at all points of the spherical surface.

  20. Formation of negative hydrogen ion: polarization electron capture and nonthermal shielding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ki, Dae-Han; Jung, Young-Dae

    2012-09-07

    The influence of the nonthermal shielding on the formation of the negative hydrogen ion (H(-)) by the polarization electron capture are investigated in partially ionized generalized Lorentzian plasmas. The Bohr-Lindhard method has been applied to obtain the negative hydrogen formation radius and cross section as functions of the collision energy, de Broglie wave length, Debye length, impact parameter, and spectral index of the plasma. The result shows that the nonthermal character of the plasma enhances the formation radius of the negative hydrogen, especially, for small Debye radii. It is found that the nonthermal effect increases the formation cross section of the negative hydrogen. It is also found that the maximum position of the formation cross section approaches to the collision center with an increase of the spectral index. In addition, it is found that the formation cross section significantly decreases with an increase of the Debye length, especially, for small spectral indices.

  1. Formation of negative hydrogen ion: Polarization electron capture and nonthermal shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ki, Dae-Han; Jung, Young-Dae

    2012-01-01

    The influence of the nonthermal shielding on the formation of the negative hydrogen ion (H − ) by the polarization electron capture are investigated in partially ionized generalized Lorentzian plasmas. The Bohr-Lindhard method has been applied to obtain the negative hydrogen formation radius and cross section as functions of the collision energy, de Broglie wave length, Debye length, impact parameter, and spectral index of the plasma. The result shows that the nonthermal character of the plasma enhances the formation radius of the negative hydrogen, especially, for small Debye radii. It is found that the nonthermal effect increases the formation cross section of the negative hydrogen. It is also found that the maximum position of the formation cross section approaches to the collision center with an increase of the spectral index. In addition, it is found that the formation cross section significantly decreases with an increase of the Debye length, especially, for small spectral indices.

  2. Realistic costs of carbon capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Juaied, Mohammed (Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (US). Belfer Center for Science and International Affiaris); Whitmore, Adam (Hydrogen Energy International Ltd., Weybridge (GB))

    2009-07-01

    There is a growing interest in carbon capture and storage (CCS) as a means of reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. However there are substantial uncertainties about the costs of CCS. Costs for pre-combustion capture with compression (i.e. excluding costs of transport and storage and any revenue from EOR associated with storage) are examined in this discussion paper for First-of-a-Kind (FOAK) plant and for more mature technologies, or Nth-of-a-Kind plant (NOAK). For FOAK plant using solid fuels the levelised cost of electricity on a 2008 basis is approximately 10 cents/kWh higher with capture than for conventional plants (with a range of 8-12 cents/kWh). Costs of abatement are found typically to be approximately US$150/tCO2 avoided (with a range of US$120-180/tCO2 avoided). For NOAK plants the additional cost of electricity with capture is approximately 2-5 cents/kWh, with costs of the range of US$35-70/tCO2 avoided. Costs of abatement with carbon capture for other fuels and technologies are also estimated for NOAK plants. The costs of abatement are calculated with reference to conventional SCPC plant for both emissions and costs of electricity. Estimates for both FOAK and NOAK are mainly based on cost data from 2008, which was at the end of a period of sustained escalation in the costs of power generation plant and other large capital projects. There are now indications of costs falling from these levels. This may reduce the costs of abatement and costs presented here may be 'peak of the market' estimates. If general cost levels return, for example, to those prevailing in 2005 to 2006 (by which time significant cost escalation had already occurred from previous levels), then costs of capture and compression for FOAK plants are expected to be US$110/tCO2 avoided (with a range of US$90-135/tCO2 avoided). For NOAK plants costs are expected to be US$25-50/tCO2. Based on these considerations a likely representative range of costs of abatement from CCS

  3. Simultaneous Constraints on the Mass and Radius of Aql X–1 from Quiescence and X-Ray Burst Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhaosheng [Department of Physics, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan, 411105 (China); Falanga, Maurizio [International Space Science Institute, Hallerstrasse 6, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Chen, Li [Department of Astronomy, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Qu, Jinlu [Laboratory for Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, Beijing 100049 (China); Xu, Renxin, E-mail: lizhaosheng@xtu.edu.cn [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2017-08-10

    The measurement of neutron star mass and radius is one of the most direct ways to distinguish between various dense matter equations of state. The mass and radius of accreting neutron stars hosted in low-mass X-ray binaries can be constrained by several methods, including photospheric radius expansion from type I X-ray bursts and from quiescent spectra. In this paper, we apply for the first time these two methods simultaneously to constrain the mass and radius of Aql X–1. The quiescent spectra from Chandra and XMM-Newton , and photospheric radius expansion bursts from RXTE are used. The determination of the mass and radius of Aql X–1 is also used to verify the consistency between the two methods and to narrow down the uncertainties of the neutron star mass and radius. It is found that the distance to Aql X–1 should be in the range of 4.0–5.75 kpc, based on the overlapping confidence regions between photospheric radius expansion burst and quiescent spectra methods. In addition, we show that the mass and radius determined for the compact star in Aql X–1 are compatible with strange star equations of state and conventional neutron star models.

  4. Algal Energy Conversion and Capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazendonk, P.

    2015-12-01

    We address the potential for energy conversions and capture for: energy generation; reduction in energy use; reduction in greenhouse gas emissions; remediation of water and air pollution; protection and enhancement of soil fertility. These processes have the potential to sequester carbon at scales that may have global impact. Energy conversion and capture strategies evaluate energy use and production from agriculture, urban areas and industries, and apply existing and emerging technologies to reduce and recapture energy embedded in waste products. The basis of biocrude production from Micro-algal feedstocks: 1) The nutrients from the liquid fraction of waste streams are concentrated and fed into photo bioreactors (essentially large vessels in which microalgae are grown) along with CO2 from flue gasses from down stream processes. 2) The algae are processed to remove high value products such as proteins and beta-carotenes. The advantage of algae feedstocks is the high biomass productivity is 30-50 times that of land based crops and the remaining biomass contains minimal components that are difficult to convert to biocrude. 3) The remaining biomass undergoes hydrothermal liquefaction to produces biocrude and biochar. The flue gasses of this process can be used to produce electricity (fuel cell) and subsequently fed back into the photobioreactor. The thermal energy required for this process is small, hence readily obtained from solar-thermal sources, and furthermore no drying or preprocessing is required keeping the energy overhead extremely small. 4) The biocrude can be upgraded and refined as conventional crude oil, creating a range of liquid fuels. In principle this process can be applied on the farm scale to the municipal scale. Overall, our primary food production is too dependent on fossil fuels. Energy conversion and capture can make food production sustainable.

  5. Analysis of the radius and diameter protocols in terms of pricing telecommunication services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna M. Radonjić

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Accounting of telecommunication services is closely related to the functions of authentication and authorization. These functions are usually considered together and implemented within the same server using a common protocol. The most renowned protocols for authentication, authorization and accounting are the RADIUS and Diameter protocols.   AAA functions and related protocols   In this chapter, the accounting management architecture developed by IETF is presented. It includes the interaction between network elements, accounting servers and billing and charging servers. Accounting data can be used for management, planning and charging users as well as other (specific purposes. Authentication is the process of confirming a user's digital identity, usually through some type of identifiers and related data. Authorization determines whether a particular entity is authorized to perform an activity.   Basic Functions of the RADIUS Protocol   The RADIUS architecture is based on a client-server model. It uses UDP on the transport layer. Transactions between the client and the server are authenticated, which is achieved by using a common secret key that is never sent through the network. Given the limited resources available to network devices, RADIUS facilitates and centralizes charging end users, provides some protection against active attacks by unauthorized users and it has great support from different network equipment vendors. Although RADIUS is a widely accepted protocol for the mechanisms of authentication, authorization and accounting, it has certain shortcomings that may be caused by the protocol itself or by its poor implementation.   Architecture and Operation of the Diameter Protocol   Diameter is a scalable protocol designed by the IETF working group in order to eliminate shortcomings and functional limitations of the RADIUS protocol and eventually to replace it in the near future. Most of the basic Diameter mechanisms and its

  6. Active Traffic Capture for Network Forensics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaviero, Marco; Granova, Anna; Olivier, Martin

    Network traffic capture is an integral part of network forensics, but current traffic capture techniques are typically passive in nature. Under heavy loads, it is possible for a sniffer to miss packets, which affects the quality of forensic evidence.

  7. Negative muon capture in noble gas mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutson, R.L.; Knight, J.D.; Leon, M.; Schillaci, M.E.; Knowles, H.B.; Reidy, J.J.

    1980-01-01

    We have determined the probabilities of atomic negative muon capture in binary mixtures of the gases He, Ne, Ar, and Kr at partial pressures near five atmospheres. Relative capture rates were deduced from measured muonic X-ray yields. (orig.)

  8. Evaluation of bias associated with capture maps derived from nonlinear groundwater flow models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadler, Cara; Allander, Kip K.; Pohll, Greg; Morway, Eric D.; Naranjo, Ramon C.; Huntington, Justin

    2018-01-01

    The impact of groundwater withdrawal on surface water is a concern of water users and water managers, particularly in the arid western United States. Capture maps are useful tools to spatially assess the impact of groundwater pumping on water sources (e.g., streamflow depletion) and are being used more frequently for conjunctive management of surface water and groundwater. Capture maps have been derived using linear groundwater flow models and rely on the principle of superposition to demonstrate the effects of pumping in various locations on resources of interest. However, nonlinear models are often necessary to simulate head-dependent boundary conditions and unconfined aquifers. Capture maps developed using nonlinear models with the principle of superposition may over- or underestimate capture magnitude and spatial extent. This paper presents new methods for generating capture difference maps, which assess spatial effects of model nonlinearity on capture fraction sensitivity to pumping rate, and for calculating the bias associated with capture maps. The sensitivity of capture map bias to selected parameters related to model design and conceptualization for the arid western United States is explored. This study finds that the simulation of stream continuity, pumping rates, stream incision, well proximity to capture sources, aquifer hydraulic conductivity, and groundwater evapotranspiration extinction depth substantially affect capture map bias. Capture difference maps demonstrate that regions with large capture fraction differences are indicative of greater potential capture map bias. Understanding both spatial and temporal bias in capture maps derived from nonlinear groundwater flow models improves their utility and defensibility as conjunctive-use management tools.

  9. Osteosynthesis with long volar locking plates for meta- physeal-diaphyseal fractures of the distal radius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gogna Paritosh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: Metaphyseal-diaphyseal fractures of the distal radius are a major treatment dilemma and orthopaedic surgeons have to pay due consideration to restoration of anatomy of distal radius together with ro- tation of the radial shaft and maintenance of radial bow and interosseous space. We performed this study to evaluate the clinic-radiological outcome of metaphyseal-diaphyseal fractures of the distal radius treated with long volar locking plates. Methods: This prospective study involved 27 pa- tients (22 males and 5 females with metaphyseal-diaphy- seal fracture of the distal radius. Their mean age was (30.12± 11.48 years (range 19-52 years and the follow-up was 26.8 months (range 22-34 months. All patients underwent open reduction and internal fixation with a long volar locking plate. According to AO/OTA classification, there were 7 type A3, 13 type C2 and 7 type C3 fractures. Subjective assessment was done based on the disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (DASH questionnaire. Functional evaluation was done by measuring grip strength and range of motion around the wrist and the radiological determinants included radial angle, radial length, volar angle and ulnar variance. The final as- sessment was done according to Gartland and Werley scor- ing system. Results: Postoperative radiological parameters were well maintained throughout the trial, and there was signifi- cant improvement in the functional parameters from 6 weeks to final follow-up. The average DASH scores improved from 37.5 at 6 weeks to 4.2 at final follow-up. Final assessment using Gartland and Werley scoring system revealed 66.67% (n=18 excellent and 33.33% (n=9 good results. There was one case of superficial infection which responded to antibi- otics and another carpel tunnel syndrome which was ma- naged conservatively. Conclusion: Volar locking plate fixation for metaphy- seal-diaphyseal fractures of distal radius is associated with excellent to good

  10. CAPTURING REALITY AT CENTRE BLOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Boulanger

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Centre Block of Canada’s Parliament buildings, National Historic Site of Canada is set to undergo a major rehabilitation project that will take approximately 10 years to complete. In preparation for this work, Heritage Conservation Services (HCS of Public Services and Procurement Canada has been completing heritage documentation of the entire site which includes laser scanning of all interior rooms and accessible confined spaces such as attics and other similar areas. Other documentation completed includes detailed photogrammetric documentation of rooms and areas of high heritage value. Some of these high heritage value spaces present certain challenges such as accessibility due to the height and the size of the spaces. Another challenge is the poor lighting conditions, requiring the use of flash or strobe lighting to either compliment or completely eliminate the available ambient lighting. All the spaces captured at this higher level of detail were also captured with laser scanning. This allowed the team to validate the information and conduct a quality review of the photogrammetric data. As a result of this exercise, the team realized that in most, if not all cases, the photogrammetric data was more detailed and at a higher quality then the terrestrial laser scanning data. The purpose and motivation of this paper is to present these findings, as well provide the advantages and disadvantages of the two methods and data sets.

  11. Adaptive capture of expert knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, C.L.; Jones, R.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Hand, Un Kyong [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)]|[US Navy (United States)

    1995-05-01

    A method is introduced that can directly acquire knowledge-engineered, rule-based logic in an adaptive network. This adaptive representation of the rule system can then replace the rule system in simulated intelligent agents and thereby permit further performance-based adaptation of the rule system. The approach described provides both weight-fitting network adaptation and potentially powerful rule mutation and selection mechanisms. Nonlinear terms are generated implicitly in the mutation process through the emergent interaction of multiple linear terms. By this method it is possible to acquire nonlinear relations that exist in the training data without addition of hidden layers or imposition of explicit nonlinear terms in the network. We smoothed and captured a set of expert rules with an adaptive network. The motivation for this was to (1) realize a speed advantage over traditional rule-based simulations; (2) have variability in the intelligent objects not possible by rule-based systems but provided by adaptive systems: and (3) maintain the understandability of rule-based simulations. A set of binary rules was smoothed and converted into a simple set of arithmetic statements, where continuous, non-binary rules are permitted. A neural network, called the expert network, was developed to capture this rule set, which it was able to do with zero error. The expert network is also capable of learning a nonmonotonic term without a hidden layer. The trained network in feedforward operation is fast running, compact, and traceable to the rule base.

  12. Capturing Reality at Centre Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulanger, C.; Ouimet, C.; Yeomans, N.

    2017-08-01

    The Centre Block of Canada's Parliament buildings, National Historic Site of Canada is set to undergo a major rehabilitation project that will take approximately 10 years to complete. In preparation for this work, Heritage Conservation Services (HCS) of Public Services and Procurement Canada has been completing heritage documentation of the entire site which includes laser scanning of all interior rooms and accessible confined spaces such as attics and other similar areas. Other documentation completed includes detailed photogrammetric documentation of rooms and areas of high heritage value. Some of these high heritage value spaces present certain challenges such as accessibility due to the height and the size of the spaces. Another challenge is the poor lighting conditions, requiring the use of flash or strobe lighting to either compliment or completely eliminate the available ambient lighting. All the spaces captured at this higher level of detail were also captured with laser scanning. This allowed the team to validate the information and conduct a quality review of the photogrammetric data. As a result of this exercise, the team realized that in most, if not all cases, the photogrammetric data was more detailed and at a higher quality then the terrestrial laser scanning data. The purpose and motivation of this paper is to present these findings, as well provide the advantages and disadvantages of the two methods and data sets.

  13. Giant resonance effects in radiative capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snover, K.A.

    1979-01-01

    The technique of capture reaction studies of giant resonance properties is described, and a number of examples are given. Most of the recent work of interest has been in proton capture, in part because of the great utility (and availability) of polarized beams; most of the discussion concerns this reaction. Alpha capture, which has been a useful tool for exploring isoscalar E2 strength, and neutron capture are, however, also treated. 46 references, 14 figures

  14. The Effectiveness of Classroom Capture Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Maire B.; Burns, Colleen E.; Mitch, Nathan; Gomez, Melissa M.

    2012-01-01

    The use of classroom capture systems (systems that capture audio and video footage of a lecture and attempt to replicate a classroom experience) is becoming increasingly popular at the university level. However, research on the effectiveness of classroom capture systems in the university classroom has been limited due to the recent development and…

  15. Exploratory investigations of hypervelocity intact capture spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsou, P.; Griffiths, D. J.

    1993-01-01

    The ability to capture hypervelocity projectiles intact opens a new technique available for hypervelocity research. A determination of the reactions taking place between the projectile and the capture medium during the process of intact capture is extremely important to an understanding of the intact capture phenomenon, to improving the capture technique, and to developing a theory describing the phenomenon. The intact capture of hypervelocity projectiles by underdense media generates spectra, characteristic of the material species of projectile and capture medium involved. Initial exploratory results into real-time characterization of hypervelocity intact capture techniques by spectroscopy include ultra-violet and visible spectra obtained by use of reflecting gratings, transmitting gratings, and prisms, and recorded by photographic and electronic means. Spectrometry proved to be a valuable real-time diagnostic tool for hypervelocity intact capture events, offering understanding of the interactions of the projectile and the capture medium during the initial period and providing information not obtainable by other characterizations. Preliminary results and analyses of spectra produced by the intact capture of hypervelocity aluminum spheres in polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), and polyurethane (PU) foams are presented. Included are tentative emission species identifications, as well as gray body temperatures produced in the intact capture process.

  16. Marker-Free Human Motion Capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grest, Daniel

    Human Motion Capture is a widely used technique to obtain motion data for animation of virtual characters. Commercial optical motion capture systems are marker-based. This book is about marker-free motion capture and its possibilities to acquire motion from a single viewing direction. The focus...

  17. Cost-benefit analysis for invasive species control: the case of greater Canada goose Branta canadensis in Flanders (northern Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaas Reyns

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Sound decisions on control actions for established invasive alien species (IAS require information on ecological as well as socio-economic impact of the species and of its management. Cost-benefit analysis provides part of this information, yet has received relatively little attention in the scientific literature on IAS. Methods We apply a bio-economic model in a cost-benefit analysis framework to greater Canada goose Branta canadensis, an IAS with documented social, economic and ecological impacts in Flanders (northern Belgium. We compared a business as usual (BAU scenario which involved non-coordinated hunting and egg destruction with an enhanced scenario based on a continuation of these activities but supplemented with coordinated capture of moulting birds. To assess population growth under the BAU scenario we fitted a logistic growth model to the observed pre-moult capture population. Projected damage costs included water eutrophication and damage to cultivated grasslands and were calculated for all scenarios. Management costs of the moult captures were based on a representative average of the actual cost of planning and executing moult captures. Results Comparing the scenarios with different capture rates, different costs for eutrophication and various discount rates, showed avoided damage costs were in the range of 21.15 M€ to 45.82 M€ under the moult capture scenario. The lowest value for the avoided costs applied to the scenario where we lowered the capture rate by 10%. The highest value occurred in the scenario where we lowered the real discount rate from 4% to 2.5%. Discussion The reduction in damage costs always outweighed the additional management costs of moult captures. Therefore, additional coordinated moult captures could be applied to limit the negative economic impact of greater Canada goose at a regional scale. We further discuss the strengths and weaknesses of our approach and its potential application to other

  18. Cost-benefit analysis for invasive species control: the case of greater Canada goose Branta canadensis in Flanders (northern Belgium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casaer, Jim; De Smet, Lieven; Devos, Koen; Huysentruyt, Frank; Robertson, Peter A.; Verbeke, Tom

    2018-01-01

    Background Sound decisions on control actions for established invasive alien species (IAS) require information on ecological as well as socio-economic impact of the species and of its management. Cost-benefit analysis provides part of this information, yet has received relatively little attention in the scientific literature on IAS. Methods We apply a bio-economic model in a cost-benefit analysis framework to greater Canada goose Branta canadensis, an IAS with documented social, economic and ecological impacts in Flanders (northern Belgium). We compared a business as usual (BAU) scenario which involved non-coordinated hunting and egg destruction with an enhanced scenario based on a continuation of these activities but supplemented with coordinated capture of moulting birds. To assess population growth under the BAU scenario we fitted a logistic growth model to the observed pre-moult capture population. Projected damage costs included water eutrophication and damage to cultivated grasslands and were calculated for all scenarios. Management costs of the moult captures were based on a representative average of the actual cost of planning and executing moult captures. Results Comparing the scenarios with different capture rates, different costs for eutrophication and various discount rates, showed avoided damage costs were in the range of 21.15 M€ to 45.82 M€ under the moult capture scenario. The lowest value for the avoided costs applied to the scenario where we lowered the capture rate by 10%. The highest value occurred in the scenario where we lowered the real discount rate from 4% to 2.5%. Discussion The reduction in damage costs always outweighed the additional management costs of moult captures. Therefore, additional coordinated moult captures could be applied to limit the negative economic impact of greater Canada goose at a regional scale. We further discuss the strengths and weaknesses of our approach and its potential application to other IAS. PMID

  19. The core mass-radius relation for giants - A new test of stellar evolution theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joss, P. C.; Rappaport, S.; Lewis, W.

    1987-01-01

    It is demonstrated here that the measurable properties of systems containing degenerate dwarfs can be used as a direct test of the core mass-radius relation for moderate-mass giants if the final stages of the loss of the envelope of the progenitor giant occurred via stable critical lobe overflow. This relation directly probes the internal structure of stars at a relatively advanced evolutionary state and is only modestly influenced by adjustable parameters. The measured properties of six binary systems, including such diverse systems as Sirius and Procyon and two millisecond pulsars, are utilized to derive constraints on the empirical core mass-radius relation, and the constraints are compared to the theoretical relation. The possibility that the final stages of envelope ejection of the giant progenitor of Sirius B occurred via critical lobe overflow in historical times is considered.

  20. Limits on the effective quark radius from inclusive ep scattering at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramowicz, H. [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel). School of Physics; Max Planck Institute for Physics, Munich (Germany); Abt, I. [Max Planck Institute for Physics, Munich (Germany); Adamczyk, L. [AGH-Univ. of Science and Technology, Krakow (Poland). Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Sciences; Collaboration: ZEUS Collaboration; and others

    2016-04-15

    The high-precision HERA data allows searches up to TeV scales for Beyond the Standard Model contributions to electron-quark scattering. Combined measurements of the inclusive deep inelastic cross sections in neutral and charged current ep scattering corresponding to a luminosity of around 1 fb{sup -1} have been used in this analysis. A new approach to the beyond the Standard Model analysis of the inclusive ep data is presented; simultaneous fits of parton distribution functions together with contributions of ''new physics'' processes were performed. Results are presented considering a finite radius of quarks within the quark form-factor model. The resulting 95% C.L. upper limit on the effective quark radius is 0.43.10{sup -16} cm.

  1. Observations of the severity of notch-root radius in initiation of subcritical crack growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuter, W.G.; Eiholzer, C.R.; Tupper, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    Slow bend tests were conducted on Charpy specimens containing precracks or machined notches of 0.10 or 0.25 mm radius. The test specimens were fabricated from three heats of annealed Type 304 stainless steel. The purpose of these tests was to examine the effects of notch root radius, in very ductile materials, on initiation of subcritical crack growth. In addition, it was intended to establish the critical values of J, COD, etc. for the single-edge notch specimen for comparison with results obtained from specimens containing surface flaws. This paper will briefly describe only those results of the calculation for J. The tests were monitored by acoustic emission to identify the load corresponding to initiation of subcritical crack growth, by a crack-opening displacement gage (COD), by cross-head displacement, and by stop-action photography

  2. The influence of finite Larmor radius effects on the radial interchange motions of plasma filaments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jens; Garcia, Odd E.; Larsen, Jeppe Stærk

    2011-01-01

    The influence of finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects on the perpendicular convection of isolated particle density filaments driven by interchange motions in magnetized plasmas is investigated using a two-moment gyrofluid model. By means of numerical simulations on a two-dimensional, bi-periodic do......The influence of finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects on the perpendicular convection of isolated particle density filaments driven by interchange motions in magnetized plasmas is investigated using a two-moment gyrofluid model. By means of numerical simulations on a two-dimensional, bi......-periodic domain perpendicular to the magnetic field, it is demonstrated that the radial velocities of the blob-like filaments are roughly described by the inertial scaling, which prescribes a velocity proportional to the square root of the summed electron and ion pressures times the square root of the blob width...

  3. Finite grid radius and thickness effects on retarding potential analyzer measured suprathermal electron density and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knudsen, W.C.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of finite grid radius and thickness on the electron current measured by planar retarding potential analyzers (RPAs) is analyzed numerically. Depending on the plasma environment, the current is significantly reduced below that which is calculated using a theoretical equation derived for an idealized RPA having grids with infinite radius and vanishingly small thickness. A correction factor to the idealized theoretical equation is derived for the Pioneer Venus (PV) orbiter RPA (ORPA) for electron gases consisting of one or more components obeying Maxwell statistics. The error in density and temperature of Maxwellian electron distributions previously derived from ORPA data using the theoretical expression for the idealized ORPA is evaluated by comparing the densities and temperatures derived from a sample of PV ORPA data using the theoretical expression with and without the correction factor

  4. Cloud Liquid Water, Mean Droplet Radius and Number Density Measurements Using a Raman Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, David N.; Melfi, S. Harvey

    1999-01-01

    A new technique for measuring cloud liquid water, mean droplet radius and droplet number density is outlined. The technique is based on simultaneously measuring Raman and Mie scattering from cloud liquid droplets using a Raman lidar. Laboratory experiments on liquid micro-spheres have shown that the intensity of Raman scattering is proportional to the amount of liquid present in the spheres. This fact is used as a constraint on calculated Mie intensity assuming a gamma function particle size distribution. The resulting retrieval technique is shown to give stable solutions with no false minima. It is tested using Raman lidar data where the liquid water signal was seen as an enhancement to the water vapor signal. The general relationship of retrieved average radius and number density is consistent with traditional cloud physics models. Sensitivity to the assumed maximum cloud liquid water amount and the water vapor mixing ratio calibration are tested. Improvements to the technique are suggested.

  5. The Lamb shift in muonic hydrogen and the proton radius from effective field theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peset, Clara; Pineda, Antonio [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Grup de Fisica Teorica, Dept. Fisica and IFAE, Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain)

    2015-12-15

    We comprehensively analyse the theoretical prediction for the Lamb shift in muonic hydrogen, and the associated determination of the proton radius. We use effective field theories. This allows us to relate the proton radius with well-defined objects in quantum field theory, eliminating unnecessary model dependence. The use of effective field theories also helps us to organize the computation so that we can clearly state the parametric accuracy of the result. In this paper we review all (and check several of) the contributions to the energy shift of order α{sup 5}, as well as those that scale like α{sup 6} x logarithms in the context of non-relativistic effective field theories of QED. (orig.)

  6. A clinical study evaluating bone mineral mass in the radius during skeletal growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagino, Hiroshi

    1989-01-01

    Using 125-I single photon absorptiometry, bone mineral measurements were performed on 206 healthy Japanese children (2 to 19 years of age). Bone mineral content (BMC), bone width (BW) and BMC/BW values were determined for the radius at distal 1/6 site (metaphysis) and distal 1/3 site (diaphysis). BMC/BW values at both sites correlated well with body height and weight. Bone mass in the diaphysis (distal 1/3 site) increased linearly during the 2-19 years of skeletal growth, but bone mass in the metaphysis (1/6 site) increased steeply during the pubertal period. In children receiving glucocorticoid therapy, bone mass was reduced in proportion to the duration of drug administration. In children under anticonvulsant therapy, the yearly increse in bone mass was significantly low especially in those patients with poor physical activity levels. Bone mineral decrease in the radius occurred in the children with hypopituitalism, hypothyroidism (cretinism), hyperthyroidism and Turner's syndrome. (author)

  7. Effect of perturbation of convective energy transport on the luminosity and radius of the sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endal, A.S.; Twigg, L.W.

    1982-01-01

    The response of solar models to perturbations of the efficiency of convective energy transport is studied for a number of cases. Such perturbations primarily affect the shallow superadiabatic layer of the convective envelope (at depths 3 km below the photosphere). Independent of the details of the perturbation scheme, the resulting change in the solar radius (ΔR/R) is always very small compared to the change in luminosity (ΔL/L). This appears to be true for any physical mechanism of solar variability which operates in the outer layers of the convection zone. Changes of the solar radius have been inferred by Dunham et al. from historical observations of solar eclipses in 1715 and 1925. Considering the constraints on concurrent luminosity changes, this type of solar variability must be indicative of changes in the solar structure at substantial depths below the superadiabatic layer of the convective envelope

  8. Limits on the effective quark radius from inclusive ep scattering at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramowicz, H.; Abt, I.; Adamczyk, L.

    2016-04-01

    The high-precision HERA data allows searches up to TeV scales for Beyond the Standard Model contributions to electron-quark scattering. Combined measurements of the inclusive deep inelastic cross sections in neutral and charged current ep scattering corresponding to a luminosity of around 1 fb -1 have been used in this analysis. A new approach to the beyond the Standard Model analysis of the inclusive ep data is presented; simultaneous fits of parton distribution functions together with contributions of ''new physics'' processes were performed. Results are presented considering a finite radius of quarks within the quark form-factor model. The resulting 95% C.L. upper limit on the effective quark radius is 0.43.10 -16 cm.

  9. Limits on the effective quark radius from inclusive $ep$ scattering at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Abramowicz, H; Adamczyk, L; Adamus, M; Antonelli, S; Aushev, V; Behnke, O; Behrens, U; Bertolin, A; Bloch, I; Boos, EG; Brock, I; Brook, NH; Brugnera, R; Bruni, A; Bussey, PJ; Caldwell, A; Capua, M; Catterall, CD; Chwastowski, J; Ciborowski, J; Ciesielski, R; Cooper-Sarkar, AM; Corradi, M; Dementiev, RK; Devenish, RCE; Dusini, S; Foster, B; Gach, G; Gallo, E; Garfagnini, A; Geiser, A; Gizhko, A; Gladilin, LK; Golubkov, Yu A; Grzelak, G; Guzik, M; Hain, W; Hochman, D; Hori, R; Ibrahim, ZA; Iga, Y; Ishitsuka, M; Januschek, F; Jomhari, NZ; Kadenko, I; Kananov, S; Karshon, U; Kaur, P; Kisielewska, D; Klanner, R; Klein, U; Korzhavina, IA; Kotański, A; Kötz, U; Kovalchuk, N; Kowalski, H; Krupa, B; Kuprash, O; Kuze, M; Levchenko, BB; Levy, A; Limentani, S; Lisovyi, M; Lobodzinska, E; Löhr, B; Lohrmann, E; Longhin, A; Lontkovskyi, D; Lukina, OYu; Makarenko, I; Malka, J; Mohamad Idris, F; Mohammad Nasir, N; Myronenko, V; Nagano, K; Nobe, T; Nowak, RJ; Onishchuk, Yu; Paul, E; Perlański, W; Pokrovskiy, NS; Przybycien, M; Roloff, P; Ruspa, M; Saxon, DH; Schioppa, M; Schneekloth, U; Schörner-Sadenius, T; Shcheglova, LM; Shevchenko, R; Shkola, O; Shyrma, Yu; Singh, I; Skillicorn, IO; Słomiński, W; Solano, A; Stanco, L; Stefaniuk, N; Stern, A; Stopa, P; Sztuk-Dambietz, J; Tassi, E; Tokushuku, K; Tomaszewska, J; Tsurugai, T; Turcato, M; Turkot, O; Tymieniecka, T; Verbytskyi, A; Wan Abdullah, WAT; Wichmann, K; Wing, M; Yamada, S; Yamazaki, Y; Zakharchuk, N; Żarnecki, AF; Zawiejski, L; Zenaiev, O; Zhautykov, BO; Zotkin, DS; Bhadra, S; Gwenlan, C; Hlushchenko, O; Polini, A; Mastroberardino, A; Sukhonos, D

    2016-01-01

    The high-precision HERA data allows searches up to TeV scales for Beyond the Standard Model contributions to electron-quark scattering. Combined measurements of the inclusive deep inelastic cross sections in neutral and charged current $ep$ scattering corresponding to a luminosity of around 1 fb$^{-1}$ have been used in this analysis. A new approach to the beyond the Standard Model analysis of the inclusive $ep$ data is presented; simultaneous fits of parton distribution functions together with contributions of "new physics" processes were performed. Results are presented considering a finite radius of quarks within the quark form-factor model. The resulting 95% C.L. upper limit on the effective quark radius is $0.43\\cdot 10^{-16}$ cm.

  10. Joint polarization tracking and channel equalization based on radius-directed linear Kalman filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qun; Yang, Yanfu; Zhong, Kangping; Liu, Jie; Wu, Xiong; Yao, Yong

    2018-01-01

    We propose a joint polarization tracking and channel equalization scheme based on radius-directed linear Kalman filter (RD-LKF) by introducing the butterfly finite-impulse-response (FIR) filter in our previously proposed RD-LKF method. Along with the fast polarization tracking, it can also simultaneously compensate the inter-symbol interference (ISI) effects including residual chromatic dispersion and polarization mode dispersion. Compared with the conventional radius-directed equalizer (RDE) algorithm, it is demonstrated experimentally that three times faster convergence speed, one order of magnitude better tracking capability, and better BER performance is obtained in polarization division multiplexing 16 quadrature amplitude modulation system. Besides, the influences of the algorithm parameters on the convergence and the tracking performance are investigated by numerical simulation.

  11. Modelling the cutting edge radius size effect for force prediction in micro milling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bissacco, Giuliano; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Jan, Slunsky

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical model for cutting force prediction in micro milling, taking into account the cutting edge radius size effect, the tool run out and the deviation of the chip flow angle from the inclination angle. A parameterization according to the uncut chip thickness to cutting...... edge radius ratio is used for the parameters involved in the force calculation. The model was verified by means of cutting force measurements in micro milling. The results show good agreement between predicted and measured forces. It is also demonstrated that the use of the Stabler's rule...... is a reasonable approximation and that micro end mill run out is effectively compensated by the deflections induced by the cutting forces....

  12. Influences of nuclear containment radius on the aircraft impact force based on the Riera function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, T.; Wu, H., E-mail: abrahamhao@126.com; Fang, Q.; Gong, Z.M.

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • A fine aircraft model of A320 was built and verified by available limited prototype impacting tests. • The influences of aircraft longitudinal crushing strength on the impact process were analyzed. • The influences of NPP containment radius on the impact force were numerically studied. • The Riera function was modified by considering the radius effect of NPP containment. - Abstract: The aircraft impact force directly influences the local failure and global response of the nuclear power plant (NPP) containment, while the existing theoretical models and the field tests were almost based on the flat target. In order to analyze the radius effect of the circular sectional containment on the impact force, a fine FE model of the commercial aircraft A320 was established and validated by the available limited full-scale F-4 Phantom impact experiment. In order to determine the force to crush the A320 FE model, the influences of aircraft longitudinal crushing strength on the impact process were analyzed based on the Riera function. Considering the containment decaying effect to aircraft impact velocity, the impact impulse was theoretically calculated, while the influences of the losses of mass and energy were not included. The numerical simulations of A320 aircrafts impacting on simplified NPP containments with different radii were conducted, which could well reproduce the airframe crushing and debris scattering. By comparison of the simulated impact impulses and the calculation values by the Riera function, the coefficients corresponding to different containment radii are derived and a fitting formula is obtained. Finally, an improved Riera function dependent on the dimensionless ratio of nuclear containment radius and aircraft wingspan is proposed.

  13. Influence of Thread Root Radius on Maximum Local Stresses at Large Diameter Bolts under Axial Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cojocaru Vasile

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the thread root area of the threaded bolts submitted to axial loading occur local stresses, higher that nominal stresses calculated for the bolts. These local stresses can generate failure and can reduce the fatigue life of the parts. The paper is focused on the study of the influence of the thread root radius on the maximum local stresses. A large diameter trapezoidal bolt was subjected to a static analysis (axial loading using finite element simulation.

  14. DISCOVERY AND ATMOSPHERIC CHARACTERIZATION OF GIANT PLANET KEPLER-12b: AN INFLATED RADIUS OUTLIER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortney, Jonathan J.; Nutzman, Philip; Demory, Brice-Olivier; Désert, Jean-Michel; Buchhave, Lars A.; Charbonneau, David; Fressin, François; Rowe, Jason; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Jenkins, Jon M.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Isaacson, Howard; Howard, Andrew; Knutson, Heather A.; Ciardi, David; Gautier, Thomas N.; Batalha, Natalie M.; Bryson, Stephen T.; Howell, Steve B.; Everett, Mark

    2011-01-01

    We report the discovery of planet Kepler-12b (KOI-20), which at 1.695 ± 0.030 R J is among the handful of planets with super-inflated radii above 1.65 R J . Orbiting its slightly evolved G0 host with a 4.438 day period, this 0.431 ± 0.041 M J planet is the least irradiated within this largest-planet-radius group, which has important implications for planetary physics. The planet's inflated radius and low mass lead to a very low density of 0.111 ± 0.010 g cm –3 . We detect the occultation of the planet at a significance of 3.7σ in the Kepler bandpass. This yields a geometric albedo of 0.14 ± 0.04; the planetary flux is due to a combination of scattered light and emitted thermal flux. We use multiple observations with Warm Spitzer to detect the occultation at 7σ and 4σ in the 3.6 and 4.5 μm bandpasses, respectively. The occultation photometry timing is consistent with a circular orbit at e < 0.01 (1σ) and e < 0.09 (3σ). The occultation detections across the three bands favor an atmospheric model with no dayside temperature inversion. The Kepler occultation detection provides significant leverage, but conclusions regarding temperature structure are preliminary, given our ignorance of opacity sources at optical wavelengths in hot Jupiter atmospheres. If Kepler-12b and HD 209458b, which intercept similar incident stellar fluxes, have the same heavy-element masses, the interior energy source needed to explain the large radius of Kepler-12b is three times larger than that of HD 209458b. This may suggest that more than one radius-inflation mechanism is at work for Kepler-12b or that it is less heavy-element rich than other transiting planets.

  15. Long-term evolution of broken wakefields in finite radius plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Lotov, Konstantin; Petrenko, Alexey

    2014-01-01

    A novel effect of fast heating and charging a finite-radius plasma is discovered in the context of plasma wakefield acceleration. As the plasma wave breaks, the most of its energy is transferred to plasma electrons which create strong charge-separation electric field and azimuthal magnetic field around the plasma. The slowly varying field structure is preserved for hundreds of wakefield periods and contains (together with hot electrons) up to 80% of the initial wakefield energy.

  16. Review of Experimental and Theoretical Status of the Proton Radius Puzzle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, Richard J. [TRIUMF

    2017-01-01

    The discrepancy between the measured Lamb shift in muonic hydrogen and expectations from electron-proton scattering and regular hydrogen spectroscopy has become known as the proton radius puzzle, whose most “mundane” resolution requires a > 5σ shift in the value of the fundamental Rydberg constant. I briefly review the status of spectroscopic and scattering measurements, recent theoretical developments, and implications for fundamental physics.

  17. Pilot fire radius size and its variation regarding the uncertainty in fire risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argirov, J.

    1998-01-01

    The impact of a combustible load with limited amount of heat on the characteristics of fire generated local environment is considered. The combustible load apportionment on the floor and its ability to release the heat at a different rate regarding the temperatures and heat flux in zones formed in the NPP compartments is studied using calculations. Several ways of variation of a pilot fire radius in the same range are compared. (author)

  18. Magnetic nanoparticles formed in glasses co-doped with iron and larger radius elements

    OpenAIRE

    Edelman , Irina; Ivanova , Oxana; Ivantsov , Ruslan; Velikanov , D.; Zabluda , V.; Zubavichus , Y.; Veligzhanin , A.; Zaikovskiy , V.; Stepanov , S.; Artemenko , Alla; Curély , Jacques; Kliava , Janis

    2012-01-01

    International audience; A new type of nanoparticle-containing glasses based on borate glasses co-doped with low contents of iron and larger radius elements, Dy, Tb, Gd, Ho, Er, Y, and Bi, is studied. Heat treatment of these glasses results in formation of magnetic nanoparticles, radically changing their physical properties. Transmission electron microscopy and synchrotron radiation-based techniques: x-ray diffraction, extended x-ray absorption fine structure, x-ray absorption near-edge struct...

  19. THE IMPACT OF SURFACE TEMPERATURE INHOMOGENEITIES ON QUIESCENT NEUTRON STAR RADIUS MEASUREMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elshamouty, K. G.; Heinke, C. O.; Morsink, S. M.; Stevens, A. L. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, CCIS 4-181, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1 (Canada); Bogdanov, S., E-mail: alshamou@ualberta.ca [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, NY 10027 (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Fitting the thermal X-ray spectra of neutron stars (NSs) in quiescent X-ray binaries can constrain the masses and radii of NSs. The effect of undetected hot spots on the spectrum, and thus on the inferred NS mass and radius, has not yet been explored for appropriate atmospheres and spectra. A hot spot would harden the observed spectrum, so that spectral modeling tends to infer radii that are too small. However, a hot spot may also produce detectable pulsations. We simulated the effects of a hot spot on the pulsed fraction and spectrum of the quiescent NSs X5 and X7 in the globular cluster 47 Tucanae, using appropriate spectra and beaming for hydrogen atmosphere models, incorporating special and general relativistic effects, and sampling a range of system angles. We searched for pulsations in archival Chandra HRC-S observations of X5 and X7, placing 90% confidence upper limits on their pulsed fractions below 16%. We use these pulsation limits to constrain the temperature differential of any hot spots, and to then constrain the effects of possible hot spots on the X-ray spectrum and the inferred radius from spectral fitting. We find that hot spots below our pulsation limit could bias the spectroscopically inferred radius downward by up to 28%. For Cen X-4 (which has deeper published pulsation searches), an undetected hot spot could bias its inferred radius downward by up to 10%. Improving constraints on pulsations from quiescent LMXBs may be essential for progress in constraining their radii.

  20. THE IMPACT OF SURFACE TEMPERATURE INHOMOGENEITIES ON QUIESCENT NEUTRON STAR RADIUS MEASUREMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elshamouty, K. G.; Heinke, C. O.; Morsink, S. M.; Stevens, A. L.; Bogdanov, S.

    2016-01-01

    Fitting the thermal X-ray spectra of neutron stars (NSs) in quiescent X-ray binaries can constrain the masses and radii of NSs. The effect of undetected hot spots on the spectrum, and thus on the inferred NS mass and radius, has not yet been explored for appropriate atmospheres and spectra. A hot spot would harden the observed spectrum, so that spectral modeling tends to infer radii that are too small. However, a hot spot may also produce detectable pulsations. We simulated the effects of a hot spot on the pulsed fraction and spectrum of the quiescent NSs X5 and X7 in the globular cluster 47 Tucanae, using appropriate spectra and beaming for hydrogen atmosphere models, incorporating special and general relativistic effects, and sampling a range of system angles. We searched for pulsations in archival Chandra HRC-S observations of X5 and X7, placing 90% confidence upper limits on their pulsed fractions below 16%. We use these pulsation limits to constrain the temperature differential of any hot spots, and to then constrain the effects of possible hot spots on the X-ray spectrum and the inferred radius from spectral fitting. We find that hot spots below our pulsation limit could bias the spectroscopically inferred radius downward by up to 28%. For Cen X-4 (which has deeper published pulsation searches), an undetected hot spot could bias its inferred radius downward by up to 10%. Improving constraints on pulsations from quiescent LMXBs may be essential for progress in constraining their radii.

  1. Fixation via dorsal for complex fractures of radius distal with plate P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas, Sandra; Bocanegra, Sergio; Suarez, Fabio

    2002-01-01

    The existence of multiple alternatives in the handling of the complex fractures of the radius distal it constitutes a reflection of the challenge that these they represent as for the possibility of recovering an appropriate consistency to articulate and orientation and radial height. This prospective study included 13 patients assisted in the hospital military of Bogota, by means of internal fixation with plate π. This treatment alternative, it solves many present inconveniences with other methods and it allows the precocious postoperative rehabilitation

  2. Understanding the proton radius puzzle: Nuclear structure effects in light muonic atoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present calculations of nuclear structure effects to the Lamb shift in light muonic atoms. We adopt a modern ab-initio approach by combining state-of-the-art nuclear potentials with the hyperspherical harmonics method. Our calculations are instrumental to the determination of nuclear charge radii in the Lamb shift measurements, which will shed light on the proton radius puzzle.

  3. Local spectrum and local spectral radius of an operator at a fixed vector

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bračič, J.; Müller, Vladimír

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 194, č. 2 (2009), s. 155-162 ISSN 0039-3223 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/09/0473 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : surjectivity spectrum * local spectrum * spectral radius Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.645, year: 2009 http://journals.impan.pl/cgi-bin/doi?sm194-2-3

  4. Fracture configurations of the equine radius and tibia after a simulated kick

    OpenAIRE

    Fürst, Anton; Oswald, Susanne E; Jäggin, S; Piskoty, G; Michel, S; Auer, Jörg A

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this postmortem study was to determine the fracture configurations of the equine radius and tibia after a simulated kick. Fracture configurations of 35 radii and 36 tibiae from 19 adult horses were evaluated after a simulated kick in an experimental exvivo study. The bones were dissected, the proximal and distal ends were embedded in resin, fixed horizontally and preloaded in compression, and a steel impactor, designed to simulate a shod equine hoof, was dropped from a height...

  5. Is Bone Grafting Necessary in the Treatment of Malunited Distal Radius Fractures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disseldorp, Dominique J. G.; Poeze, Martijn; Hannemann, Pascal F. W.; Brink, Peter R. G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Open wedge osteotomy with bone grafting and plate fixation is the standard procedure for the correction of malunited distal radius fractures. Bone grafts are used to increase structural stability and to enhance new bone formation. However, bone grafts are also associated with donor site morbidity, delayed union at bone–graft interfaces, size mismatch between graft and osteotomy defect, and additional operation time. Purpose The goal of this study was to assess bone healing and secondary fracture displacement in the treatment of malunited distal radius fractures without the use of bone grafting. Methods Between January 1993 and December 2013, 132 corrective osteotomies and plate fixations without bone grafting were performed for malunited distal radius fractures. The minimum follow-up time was 12 months. Primary study outcomes were time to complete bone healing and secondary fracture displacement. Preoperative and postoperative radiographs during follow-up were compared with each other, as well as with radiographs of the uninjured side. Results All 132 osteotomies healed. In two cases (1.5%), healing took more than 4 months, but reinterventions were not necessary. No cases of secondary fracture displacement or hardware failure were observed. Significant improvements in all radiographic parameters were shown after corrective osteotomy and plate fixation. Conclusion This study shows that bone grafts are not required for bone healing and prevention of secondary fracture displacement after corrective osteotomy and plate fixation of malunited distal radius fractures. Level of evidence Therapeutic, level IV, case series with no comparison group PMID:26261748

  6. Characterization of Amylopectin irradiated by gamma rays using viscosity and radius gyration technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ku Sarah Syahidah Ku Muhamad

    2012-01-01

    Food irradiation is one of the most applicable methods that have been used in food industry especially to preserve food. Besides preservation of food, irradiation can also reduce microorganism, inhibit budding and others. However, this method can be misused by some irresponsible organization or person such as irradiate the food over the dose limit value. Therefore, the detection method is important to detect any misused in irradiation method. The objective of this research is to identify any changes in the structure of amylopectin by using radius gyration technique. Besides that, the viscosity of the sample is also determined by using Rheometer. The last objective of this research is to find a relationship between radius gyration and irradiation dose can be determined. Amylopectin and cassava powder were the sample in this research. The samples were irradiated in the gamma-cell at 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, and 10.0 kGy doses. 0 kGy were the controlled sample. The sample were made into gel to analysed using Rheometer and Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS). The viscosity of the sample were analysed by using Rheometer while the radius gyration of the sample were analysed by using SAXS. Hence, the result of this experiment is, the viscosity of amylopectin reduces as the doses increases. But, at 10 kGy, the viscosity of the cassava starch was increased significantly. For the SAXS analysis, it is shows that the graph for amylopectin were fluctuates. While, for cassava starch the radius gyration increases with doses. Hence, the rheometer technique is suitable to be develop as a detection method in food irradiation. Further research should be done to improve the detection technique in food irradiation. (author)

  7. On the Bonsall cone spectral radius and the approximate point spectrum

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Müller, Vladimír; Peperko, A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 10 (2017), s. 5337-5354 ISSN 1078-0947 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-00941S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Bonsall's cone spectral radius * local spectral radii * approximate point spectrum Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 1.099, year: 2016 http://aimsciences.org/ journals /displayArticlesnew.jsp?paperID=14323

  8. Mid-term functional outcome after the internal fixation of distal radius fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phadnis Joideep

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Distal radius fracture is a common injury with a variety of operative and non-operative management options. There remains debate as to the optimal treatment for a given patient and fracture. Despite the popularity of volar locking plate fixation, there are few large cohort or long term follow up studies to justify this modality. Our aim was to report the functional outcome of a large number of patients at a significant follow up time after fixation of their distal radius with a volar locking plate. Methods 180 patients with 183 fractures and a mean age of 62.4 years were followed up retrospectively at a mean of 30 months (Standard deviation = 10.4. Functional assessment was performed using the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH and modified MAYO wrist scores. Statistical analysis was performed to identify possible variables affecting outcome and radiographs were assessed to determine time to fracture union. Results The median DASH score was 2.3 and median MAYO score was 90 for the whole group. Overall, 133 patients (74% had a good or excellent DASH and MAYO score. Statistical analysis showed that no specific variable including gender, age, fracture type, post-operative immobilisation or surgeon grade significantly affected outcome. Complications occurred in 27 patients (15% and in 11 patients were major (6%. Conclusion This single centre large population series demonstrates good to excellent results in the majority of patients after volar locking plate fixation of the distal radius, with complication rates comparable to other non-operative and operative treatment modalities. On this basis we recommend this mode of fixation for distal radius fractures requiting operative intervention.

  9. The radius and mass of the close solar twin 18 Scorpii derived from asteroseismology and interferometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bazot, M.; Ireland, M.J.; Huber, D.

    2011-01-01

    Sco. We observed the star during 12 nights with HARPS for seismology and used the PAVO beam-combiner at CHARA for interferometry. An average large frequency separation 134.4 ± 0.3 μHz and angular and linear radiuses of 0.6759 ± 0.0062 mas and 1.010 ± 0.009 Rsun were estimated. We used these values...

  10. Theoretical calculation of rapid x-ray transients and radius expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starrfield, S.; Sparks, W.; Truran, J.; Kenyon, S.

    1984-01-01

    We present the results of a calculation of a thermonuclear runaway on a 10 km neutron star which produced a precursor, radius expansion, and after the envelope had begun to shrink, a seconds x-ray burst about 2500 second later. Although such an event has not yet been observed, decreasing the initial envelope mass should bring the calculations into better agreement with the observations

  11. External fixation is more suitable for intra-articular fractures of the distal radius in elderly patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chuang; Deng, Qiang; Pu, Hongwei; Cheng, Xinchun; Kan, Yuhua; Yang, Jing; Yusufu, Aihemaitijiang; Cao, Li

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the functional outcomes, psychological impact, and complication rates associated with external fixation and volar or dorsal plating in relation to the functional parameters following treatment of intra-articular fractures of the distal radius (IFDR) in patients older than 65 years. We hypothesized that using volar or dorsal plating would improve functional outcomes, but that it would be associated with more complications and equivalent functional outcomes when compared with the external fixation group. A total of 123 consecutive patients suffering from IFDR were recruited into the study. The patients were measured for clinical, radiological, and psychosocial functioning outcomes and were followed up after 1 week and 3, 6 and 12 months. After 3 months, the plating group had better pronation (P=0.001), supination, (P=0.047) and extension (P=0.043) scores. These differences were somewhat attenuated by 6 months and disappeared at 1 year. The plating group had a greater occurrence of wound infection (P=0.043), tendonitis, (P=0.024) and additional surgery compared with the external fixation group. The only TNO-AZL Adult Quality of Life scores in the plating group that were lower than those in the external fixation group were in the “gross motor” category (walking upstairs, bending over, walking 500 yards; P=0.023). Internal fixation was more advantageous than external fixation in the early rehabilitation period; after 1 year the outcomes were similar. The plating group showed significantly higher levels of wound infection and tendonitis and had a greater need for additional surgeries. PMID:27408765

  12. Probing the six - quark bag in the low - energy np→Dγ capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grach, I.; Shmatikov, M.

    1985-01-01

    The circular polarization P γ of γ-quanta radiated in the capture of polarized thermal neutrons by protons is discussed. The contributions to P γ coming form radiation of nucleons, meson-exchange currents and quarks in a six-quark bag are calculated. The value of P γ proves to be rapidly varying function of the radius r 0 of the six-quark bag. Comparison to the experimental value of P γ yields r 0 ≅ 1.0+1.3 F

  13. A Revised Broad-line Region Radius and Black Hole Mass for the Narrow-line Seyfert 1 NGC 4051

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denney, K. D.; Watson, L. C.; Peterson, B. M.

    2009-01-01

    ) radius and the optical continuum luminosity—the R BLR-L relationship. Our new measurements of the lag time between variations in the continuum and Hß emission line made from spectroscopic monitoring of NGC 4051 lead to a measured BLR radius of R BLR = 1.87+0.54 -0.50 light days and black hole mass of M...

  14. Radius expansion bursts from the neutron star transient XTE J1701-462; a new distance estimate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, D.; Homan, J.; Remillard, R.; Wijnands, R.

    2007-01-01

    A detailed spectral analysis of the second and third type-I X- ray bursts from the neutron star transient XTE J1701-462 (detected on July 20 and July 25, see also ATel #1165) reveals clear photospheric radius expansion in both of them. The bursts show radius expansion for about 2-3 seconds, with the

  15. Influence of the auditory canal number of segments and radius variation on the outer ear frequency response

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Thejane, T

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available number of segments and the radius-length mapping function were used. The use of a third order polynomial to further improve the relationship between the radius and the length of the ear canal is suggested for future research work....

  16. The reliability of AO classification for distal radius fracture, using CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, Yasuaki; Ono, Hiroshi; Furuta, Kazuhiko; Fujitani, Ryoutarou; Ota, Hiroyoshi

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability of the AO (Association for the Study of Internal Fixation) classification of distal radius fracture, using plain radiographs and 2 cross-sectional computed tomographic (CT) surface images. Five observers independently classified 32 distal radius fractures into 9 groups under AO classification. We established 4 methods for observation. First, using only two-directional radiographs; second, four-directional radiographs; third, CT (axial view) with four-directional radiographs; and fourth, CT (axial and sagittal views) with four-directional radiographs. Kappa statistics were used to establish the relative level of agreement between the observers. Interobserver reliability was poor in both first and second methods in which only plain radiographs were used (κ=0.30 and 0.23, respectively). Furthermore, reliability did not increase in the third method with the addition of 1 CT surface image (κ=0.29). In the fourth method, with the addition of 2 cross-sectional CT surface images, the reliability increased to a moderate level (κ=0.44). Interobserver reliability of the AO system of the classification of distal radius fractures was observed on using 2 cross-sectional CT surface images with four-directional radiographs. (author)

  17. Core-powered mass-loss and the radius distribution of small exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginzburg, Sivan; Schlichting, Hilke E.; Sari, Re'em

    2018-05-01

    Recent observations identify a valley in the radius distribution of small exoplanets, with planets in the range 1.5-2.0 R⊕ significantly less common than somewhat smaller or larger planets. This valley may suggest a bimodal population of rocky planets that are either engulfed by massive gas envelopes that significantly enlarge their radius, or do not have detectable atmospheres at all. One explanation of such a bimodal distribution is atmospheric erosion by high-energy stellar photons. We investigate an alternative mechanism: the luminosity of the cooling rocky core, which can completely erode light envelopes while preserving heavy ones, produces a deficit of intermediate sized planets. We evolve planetary populations that are derived from observations using a simple analytical prescription, accounting self-consistently for envelope accretion, cooling and mass-loss, and demonstrate that core-powered mass-loss naturally reproduces the observed radius distribution, regardless of the high-energy incident flux. Observations of planets around different stellar types may distinguish between photoevaporation, which is powered by the high-energy tail of the stellar radiation, and core-powered mass-loss, which depends on the bolometric flux through the planet's equilibrium temperature that sets both its cooling and mass-loss rates.

  18. Treatment of unstable intraarticular fracture of distal radius: POP casting with external fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ur Rahman, Obaid; Khan, Mohammad Qadeem; Rasheed, Haroon; Ahmad, Saleem

    2012-04-01

    To compare radiological and functional outcome of external fixation and distraction with conservative Plaster of Paris (POP) cast for unstable intra-articular fractures of the distal radius. The study was conducted on 60 patients with unstable intra-articular fracture of distal radius who reported to emergency or outpatient Orthopaedic Surgery department of Benazir Bhutto Hospital, Rawalpindi, between March and August 2007. They were divided into two equal groups: Group A and Group B, treated by Plaster of Paris cast, and external fixation with distraction respectively. The functional outcome in terms of freedom from pain, range of movement, grip power and deformity, and the radiological outcome of radial length, incongruity and radio-ulnar joint position were analysed at three months follow-up using a 3-point scoring scale. In Group A, 1 (3%) patient showed excellent result, 8 (27%) patients good results, 19 (63%) patients fair results and 2 (7%) patients poor result. In Group B, 14 (47%) patients showed excellent results, 11 (37%) patients good results, 4 (13%) patients fair results and 1 (3%) patient poor result. The outcome score of the Group B patients was significantly better compared to the Group A patients (p value advantages over conventional Plaster of Paris cast in the treatment of unstable intra-articular fractures of distal radius.

  19. Measurements of Physical Parameters of White Dwarfs: A Test of the Mass–Radius Relation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bédard, A.; Bergeron, P.; Fontaine, G., E-mail: bedard@astro.umontreal.ca, E-mail: bergeron@astro.umontreal.ca, E-mail: fontaine@astro.umontreal.ca [Département de Physique, Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128, Succ. Centre-Ville, Montréal, Québec H3C 3J7 (Canada)

    2017-10-10

    We present a detailed spectroscopic and photometric analysis of 219 DA and DB white dwarfs for which trigonometric parallax measurements are available. Our aim is to compare the physical parameters derived from the spectroscopic and photometric techniques, and then to test the theoretical mass–radius relation for white dwarfs using these results. The agreement between spectroscopic and photometric parameters is found to be excellent, especially for effective temperatures, showing that our model atmospheres and fitting procedures provide an accurate, internally consistent analysis. The values of surface gravity and solid angle obtained, respectively, from spectroscopy and photometry, are combined with parallax measurements in various ways to study the validity of the mass–radius relation from an empirical point of view. After a thorough examination of our results, we find that 73% and 92% of the white dwarfs are consistent within 1 σ and 2 σ confidence levels, respectively, with the predictions of the mass–radius relation, thus providing strong support to the theory of stellar degeneracy. Our analysis also allows us to identify 15 stars that are better interpreted in terms of unresolved double degenerate binaries. Atmospheric parameters for both components in these binary systems are obtained using a novel approach. We further identify a few white dwarfs that are possibly composed of an iron core rather than a carbon/oxygen core, since they are consistent with Fe-core evolutionary models.

  20. Determination of recombination radius in Si for binary collision approximation codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vizkelethy, Gyorgy; Foiles, Stephen M.

    2016-01-01

    Displacement damage caused by ions or neutrons in microelectronic devices can have significant effect on the performance of these devices. Therefore, it is important to predict not only the displacement damage profile, but also its magnitude precisely. Analytical methods and binary collision approximation codes working with amorphous targets use the concept of displacement energy, the energy that a lattice atom has to receive to create a permanent replacement. It was found that this “displacement energy” is direction dependent; it can range from 12 to 32 eV in silicon. Obviously, this model fails in BCA codes that work with crystalline targets, such as Marlowe. Marlowe does not use displacement energy; instead, it uses lattice binding energy only and then pairs the interstitial atoms with vacancies. Then based on the configuration of the Frenkel pairs it classifies them as close, near, or distant pairs, and considers the distant pairs the permanent replacements. Unfortunately, this separation is an ad hoc assumption, and the results do not agree with molecular dynamics calculations. After irradiation, there is a prompt recombination of interstitials and vacancies if they are nearby, within a recombination radius. In order to implement this recombination radius in Marlowe, we used the comparison of MD and Marlowe calculation in a range of ion energies in single crystal silicon target. The calculations showed that a single recombination radius of ∼7.4 Å in Marlowe for a range of ion energies gives an excellent agreement with MD.

  1. Nodule detection in digital chest radiography: Summary of the radius chest trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haakansson, M.; Baath, M.; Boerjesson, S.; Kheddache, S.; Grahn, A.; Ruschin, M.; Tingberg, A.; Mattson, S.; Maansson, L. G.

    2005-01-01

    As a part of the Europe-wide research project 'Unification of physical and clinical requirements for medical X-ray imaging' - governed by the Radiological Imaging Unification Strategies (RADIUS) Group - a major image quality trial was conducted by members of the group. The RADIUS chest trial aimed at thoroughly examining various aspects of nodule detection in digital chest radiography, such as the effects of nodule location, system noise, anatomical noise, and anatomical background. The main findings of the RADIUS chest trial concerning the detection of a lung nodule with a size in the order of 10 mm can be summarised as: (1) the detectability of the nodule is largely dependent on its location in the chest, (2) the system noise has a minor impact on the detectability at the dose levels used today, (3) the disturbance of the anatomical noise is larger than that of the system noise but smaller than that of the anatomical background and (4) the anatomical background acts as noise to a large extent and is the major image component affecting the detectability of the nodule. (authors)

  2. Sectio Aurea Conditions for Mityuk's Radius of Two-Connected Domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Kazantsev

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Connection of an exterior inverse boundary value problem with the critical points of some surface is one of the central themes in the theory of exterior inverse boundary value problems for analytic functions. In the simply connected case, such a surface is defined by the inner mapping radius; in the multiply connected one, by the function Ω(w such that M(w = (2π–1ln Ω(w is Mityuk's version of a generalized reduced module. In the present paper, the relation between the curvature of the surface Ω = Ω(w with the Schwarzian derivatives of the mapping functions and with the Bergman kernel functions k0(w,ω and l0(w,ω is established for an arbitrary multiply connected domain. When passing to two-connected domains, due to the choice of the ring as a canonical domain, we construct the conditions for the critical points of Mityuk's radius to concentrate on the golden section circle of the ring. Finally, we show that the minimal collection of the critical points of the Mityuk radius in the two-connected case, consisting of one maximum and one saddle, is attained for the linear-fractional solution of the exterior inverse boundary value problem.

  3. Dependence of yield of nuclear track-biosensors on track radius and analyte concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Arellano, H.; Muñoz H., G.; Fink, D.; Vacik, J.; Hnatowicz, V.; Alfonta, L.; Kiv, A.

    2018-04-01

    In swift heavy ion track-based polymeric biosensor foils with incorporated enzymes one exploits the correlation between the analyte concentration and the sensor current, via the enrichment of charged enzymatic reaction products in the track's confinement. Here we study the influence of the etched track radius on the biosensor's efficiency. These sensors are analyte-specific only if both the track radii and the analyte concentration exceed certain threshold values of ∼15 nm and ∼10-6 M (for glucose sensing), respectively. Below these limits the sensor signal stems un-specifically from any charge carrier. In its proper working regime, the inner track walls are smoothly covered by enzymes and the efficiency is practically radius independent. Theory shows that the measured current should be slightly sub-proportional to the analyte concentration; the measurements roughly reconfirm this. Narrower tracks (∼5-15 nm radius) with reduced enzyme coverage lead to decreasing efficiency. Tiny signals visible when the tracks are etched to effective radii between 0 and ∼5 nm are tentatively ascribed to enzymes bonded to surface-near nano-cracks in the polymer foil, resulting from its degradation due to aging, rather than to the tracks. Precondition for this study was the accurate determination of the etched track radii, which is possible only by a nanofluidic approach. This holds to some extent even for enzyme-covered tracks, though in this case most of the wall charges are compensated by enzyme bonding.

  4. THE STELLAR HALOS OF MASSIVE ELLIPTICAL GALAXIES. II. DETAILED ABUNDANCE RATIOS AT LARGE RADIUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, Jenny E.; Murphy, Jeremy D.; Graves, Genevieve J.; Gunn, James E.; Raskutti, Sudhir [Department of Astrophysics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Comerford, Julia M.; Gebhardt, Karl [Department of Astronomy, UT Austin, 1 University Station C1400, Austin, TX 71712 (United States)

    2013-10-20

    We study the radial dependence in stellar populations of 33 nearby early-type galaxies with central stellar velocity dispersions σ{sub *} ∼> 150 km s{sup –1}. We measure stellar population properties in composite spectra, and use ratios of these composites to highlight the largest spectral changes as a function of radius. Based on stellar population modeling, the typical star at 2R{sub e} is old (∼10 Gyr), relatively metal-poor ([Fe/H] ≈ –0.5), and α-enhanced ([Mg/Fe] ≈ 0.3). The stars were made rapidly at z ≈ 1.5-2 in shallow potential wells. Declining radial gradients in [C/Fe], which follow [Fe/H], also arise from rapid star formation timescales due to declining carbon yields from low-metallicity massive stars. In contrast, [N/Fe] remains high at large radius. Stars at large radius have different abundance ratio patterns from stars in the center of any present-day galaxy, but are similar to average Milky Way thick disk stars. Our observations are thus consistent with a picture in which the stellar outskirts are built up through minor mergers with disky galaxies whose star formation is truncated early (z ≈ 1.5-2)

  5. Acute flexor tendon injury following midshaft radius and ulna fractures in a paediatric patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Williams

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Delayed rupture of the extensor and flexor tendons are recognised complications of distal radius fractures. However, acute flexor tendon rupture in the context of forearm fractures is rare. A twelve-year-old female sustained midshaft fractures of the radius and ulna. Intra-operatively the flexor pollicis longus (FPL was found to be stripped from its musculotendinous junction at the level of the fracture fragment. The ruptured tendon was repaired using a modified Krackow technique at the time of fracture fixation. The repair was protected in plaster of Paris prior to referral to the paediatric hand clinic. The patient made a full recovery. Flexor tendon injury is a rare but potentially devastating consequence of acute forearm fractures. High energy trauma, significant volar angulation of the fracture fragment and clinical signs of flexor tendon injury should raise suspicion of this injury. A high index of suspicion in conjunction with repeat clinical examination of flexor tendon function should be performed before opting for closed management or intramedullary nailing in paediatric patients. Keywords: Acute, Flexor, Tendon, Fracture, Radius, Paediatric

  6. Effects of circumferential rigid wrist orthoses in rehabilitation of patients with radius fracture at typical site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurović Aleksandar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The use of orthoses is a questionable rehabilitation method for patients with the distal radius fracture at typical site. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of the rehabilitation on patients with radius fracture at the typical site, who wore circumferential static wrist orthoses, with those who did not wear them. Methods. Thirty patients were divided into 3 equal groups, 2 experimental groups, and 1 control group. The patients in the experimental groups were given the rehabilitation program of wearing serially manufactured (off-the-shelf, as well as custom-fit orthoses. Those in the control group did not wear wrist orthoses. Evaluation parameters were pain, edema, the range of the wrist motion, the quality of cylindrical, spherical, and pinch-spherical grasp, the strength of pinch and hand grasp, and patient's assessment of the effects of rehabilitation. Results. No significant difference in the effects of rehabilitation on the patients in experimental groups as opposed to control group was found. Patients in the first experimental group, and in control group were more satisfied with the effects of rehabilitation, as opposed to the patients in the second experimental group (p<0,05. Conclusion. The effects of circumferential static wrist orthoses in the rehabilitation of patients with distal radius fracture at the typical site were not clinically significant. There was no significant difference between the custom and off-the-shelf orthoses.

  7. Sensitive zone parameters and curvature radius evaluation for polymer optical fiber curvature sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal-Junior, Arnaldo G.; Frizera, Anselmo; José Pontes, Maria

    2018-03-01

    Polymer optical fibers (POFs) are suitable for applications such as curvature sensors, strain, temperature, liquid level, among others. However, for enhancing sensitivity, many polymer optical fiber curvature sensors based on intensity variation require a lateral section. Lateral section length, depth, and surface roughness have great influence on the sensor sensitivity, hysteresis, and linearity. Moreover, the sensor curvature radius increase the stress on the fiber, which leads on variation of the sensor behavior. This paper presents the analysis relating the curvature radius and lateral section length, depth and surface roughness with the sensor sensitivity, hysteresis and linearity for a POF curvature sensor. Results show a strong correlation between the decision parameters behavior and the performance for sensor applications based on intensity variation. Furthermore, there is a trade-off among the sensitive zone length, depth, surface roughness, and curvature radius with the sensor desired performance parameters, which are minimum hysteresis, maximum sensitivity, and maximum linearity. The optimization of these parameters is applied to obtain a sensor with sensitivity of 20.9 mV/°, linearity of 0.9992 and hysteresis below 1%, which represent a better performance of the sensor when compared with the sensor without the optimization.

  8. Geneva University - Measurement of the Lamb shift in muonic hydrogen: the proton radius puzzle

    CERN Multimedia

    2010-01-01

    GENEVA UNIVERSITY École de physique Département de physique nucléaire et corspusculaire 24, quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 GENEVA 4 Tel: (022) 379 62 73 Fax: (022) 379 69 92 Wednesday 12 May 2010 PARTICLE PHYSICS SEMINAR at 17.00 hrs – Stückelberg Auditorium Measurement of the Lamb shift in muonic hydrogen: the proton radius puzzle Dr Aldo Antogninia , CREMA Collaboration, Max Planck Institute, Germany At the Paul Scherrer Institut, Switzerland, we have measured several 2S-2P transition frequencies in muonic hydrogen (µp) and deuterium (µd) by means of laser spectroscopy. This results in an order of magnitude improvement on the rms charge radius values of the proton and the deuteron. Additionally the Zemach radii and the deuteron polarizability are also inferred. The new proton radius value is deduced with a relative accuracy of 0.1% but strongly disagrees from CODATA. The origin of this discrepancy is not yet known. It may come from theo...

  9. Theoretical distribution of load in the radius and ulna carpal joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez-Florez, Kalenia; Vergara-Amador, Enrique; de Las Casas, Estevam Barbosa; Garzón-Alvarado, Diego A

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to validate a model for the analysis of the load distribution through the wrist joint, subjected to forces on the axes of the metacarpals from distal to proximal for two different mesh densities. To this end, the Rigid Body Spring Model (RBSM) method was used on a three-dimensional model of the wrist joint, simulating the conditions when making a grip handle. The cartilage and ligaments were simulated as springs acting under compression and tension, respectively, while the bones were considered as rigid bodies. At the proximal end of the ulna the movement was completely restricted, and the radius was allowed to move only in the lateral/medial direction. With these models, we found the load distributions on each carpal articular surface of radius. Additionally, the results show that the percentage of the applied load transmitted through the radius was about 86% for one mesh and 88% for the coarser one; for the ulna it was 21% for one mesh and 18% for the coarser. The obtained results are comparable with previous outcomes reported in prior studies. The latter allows concluding that, in theory, the methodology can be used to describe the changes in load distribution in the wrist. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Critical radius and critical number of gas atoms for cavities containing a Van der Waals gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coghlan, W.A.; Mansur, L.K.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of gas on void nucleation and growth is particularly important for structural materials in fusion reactors because of the high production of helium by neutron-induced transmutation reactions. Gas reduces the critical radius for bias driven growth and there is a critical number of gas atoms, n/sub g/*, at which the critical radius is reduced essentially to zero. The significance of this is that the time interval to the accumulation of n/sub g/* gas atoms may determine the time to the onset of bias driven swelling where n/sub g/* is large. In previous papers these critical quantities were given for an ideal gas. Recently, we presented the results for a Van der Waals gas. Here the derivation of these relations is presented and further results of calculations are given. At low temperatures (high pressures) the results depart from those of the ideal gas, with the critical number affected more strongly than the critical radius. Comparisons are made with earlier calculations

  11. Laser confocal measurement system for curvature radius of lenses based on grating ruler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jiwei; Wang, Yun; Zhou, Nan; Zhao, Weirui; Zhao, Weiqian

    2015-02-01

    In the modern optical measurement field, the radius of curvature (ROC) is one of the fundamental parameters of optical lens. Its measurement accuracy directly affects the other optical parameters, such as focal length, aberration and so on, which significantly affect the overall performance of the optical system. To meet the demand of measurement instruments for radius of curvature (ROC) with high accuracy in the market, we develop a laser confocal radius measurement system with grating ruler. The system uses the peak point of the confocal intensity curve to precisely identify the cat-eye and confocal positions and then measure the distance between these two positions by using the grating ruler, thereby achieving the high-precision measurement for the ROC. The system has advantages of high focusing sensitivity and anti-environment disturbance ability. And the preliminary theoretical analysis and experiments show that the measuring repeatability can be up to 0.8 um, which can provide an effective way for the accurate measurement of ROC.

  12. A PROSPECTIVE STUDY OF CLINICAL OUTCOME AFTER USING LIGAMENTOTAXIS IN MANAGEMENT OF DISTAL RADIUS FRACTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrashekhar V. Mudgal

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND A study was done to evaluate the effect of the ligamentotaxis in the management of intraarticular fractures of the distal radius. MATERIALS AND METHODS 34 patients were studied prospectively between March 2014 and February 2016. All patients had intraarticular fracture of distal end of radius and all were treated with ligamentotaxis after closed reduction with fluoroscopic guidance. The follow-up period was 12 months. At the time of surgery, the mean age was 45.29 years. RESULTS In all fracture cases, the mean of fracture union was 5.8 weeks. During the final follow-up, the mean range of motion was 55.30 in flexion, 56.60 in extension, 21.0 in ulnar deviation, 9.00 in radial deviation, 70.30 in pronation and 67.10 in supination. According to the scoring system of Gartland and Werley, the clinical and functional outcomes showed that 15 patients (44.1% had excellent results, 14 (41.1% had good results, 3 (8.8% had fair results and 2 (5.8% had poor results. CONCLUSION Closed reduction under fluoroscopic image guidance and the ligamentotaxis is useful and effective in the treatment of intraarticular fractures of the distal radius.

  13. Novel Heuristics for Cell Radius Determination in WCDMA Systems and Their Application to Strategic Planning Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Esteve-Asensio

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose and compare three novel heuristics for the calculation of the optimal cell radius in mobile networks based on Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (WCDMA technology. The proposed heuristics solve the problem of the load assignment and cellular radius calculation. We have tested our approaches with experiments in multiservices scenarios showing that the proposed heuristics maximize the cell radius, providing the optimum load factor assignment. The main application of these algorithms is strategic planning studies, where an estimation of the number of Nodes B of the mobile operator, at a national level, is required for economic analysis. In this case due to the large number of different scenarios considered (cities, towns, and open areas other methods than simulation need to be considered. As far as we know, there is no other similar method in the literature and therefore these heuristics may represent a novelty in strategic network planning studies. The proposed heuristics are implemented in a strategic planning software tool and an example of their application for a case in Spain is presented. The proposed heuristics are used for telecommunications regulatory studies in several countries.

  14. Wave propagation near cyclotron resonance in the presence of large Larmor radius particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cairns, R.A.; Lashmore-Davies, C.N.; Holt, H.; McDonald, D.C.

    1995-02-01

    Absorption of waves propagating across an inhomogeneous magnetic field is of crucial importance for cyclotron resonance heating. When the Larmor radius of the resonant particles is small compared to the wavelength, then the propagation can be described by differential equations. These have been derived by a considerable number of authors, but a comparatively simple method of obtaining them has recently been given by Cairns et al [Phys. Fluids B3, 2953 (1991)] and, for the relativistic case which is relevant to electron cyclotron heating, by McDonald et al [Phys. Plasmas 1, 842 (1994)]. In a fusion plasma there may be a significant number of hot ions for which the Larmor radius is comparable to or larger than the perpendicular wavelength. It is important to be able to calculate the effect of these ions on ion cyclotron phenomena. In this case the system is described by integro-differential equations, the structure of which is essentially determined by the fact that the response at a given position is determined by the wave amplitude over a region whose width is of the order of a Larmor radius. The equations describing this situation have been obtained by Sauter and Vaclavik [Theory of Fusion Plasmas, Editrice Compositori, Bologna (1990) p. 403] and by Brambilla [Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion 33, 1029 (1991)]. Here we show how the simplified method referred to above can be adapted to this case and used to find various alternative forms for the equations. (author)

  15. Neutron capture therapy for melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coderre, J.A.; Glass, J.D.; Micca, P.; Fairchild, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    The development of boron-containing compounds which localize selectively in tumor may require a tumor-by-tumor type of approach that exploits any metabolic pathways unique to the particular type of tumor. Melanin-producing melanomas actively transport and metabolize aromatic amino acids for use as precursors in the synthesis of the pigment melanin. It has been shown that the boron-containing amino acid analog p-borono-phenylalanine (BPA) is selectively accumulated in melanoma tissue, producing boron concentrations in tumor that are within the range estimated to be necessary for successful boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). We report here the results of therapy experiments carried out at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR). 21 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Brownian motion using video capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmon, Reese; Robbins, Candace; Forinash, Kyle

    2002-01-01

    Although other researchers had previously observed the random motion of pollen grains suspended in water through a microscope, Robert Brown's name is associated with this behaviour based on observations he made in 1828. It was not until Einstein's work in the early 1900s however, that the origin of this irregular motion was established to be the result of collisions with molecules which were so small as to be invisible in a light microscope (Einstein A 1965 Investigations on the Theory of the Brownian Movement ed R Furth (New York: Dover) (transl. Cowper A D) (5 papers)). Jean Perrin in 1908 (Perrin J 1923 Atoms (New York: Van Nostrand-Reinhold) (transl. Hammick D)) was able, through a series of painstaking experiments, to establish the validity of Einstein's equation. We describe here the details of a junior level undergraduate physics laboratory experiment where students used a microscope, a video camera and video capture software to verify Einstein's famous calculation of 1905. (author)

  17. Cage-based performance capture

    CERN Document Server

    Savoye, Yann

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, highly-detailed animations of live-actor performances are increasingly easier to acquire and 3D Video has reached considerable attentions in visual media production. In this book, we address the problem of extracting or acquiring and then reusing non-rigid parametrization for video-based animations. At first sight, a crucial challenge is to reproduce plausible boneless deformations while preserving global and local captured properties of dynamic surfaces with a limited number of controllable, flexible and reusable parameters. To solve this challenge, we directly rely on a skin-detached dimension reduction thanks to the well-known cage-based paradigm. First, we achieve Scalable Inverse Cage-based Modeling by transposing the inverse kinematics paradigm on surfaces. Thus, we introduce a cage inversion process with user-specified screen-space constraints. Secondly, we convert non-rigid animated surfaces into a sequence of optimal cage parameters via Cage-based Animation Conversion. Building upon this re...

  18. Workshop on neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairchild, R.G.; Bond, V.P. (eds.)

    1986-01-01

    Potentially optimal conditions for Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT) may soon be in hand due to the anticipated development of band-pass filtered beams relatively free of fast neutron contaminations, and of broadly applicable biomolecules for boron transport such as porphyrins and monoclonal antibodies. Consequently, a number of groups in the US are now devoting their efforts to exploring NCT for clinical application. The purpose of this Workshop was to bring these groups together to exchange views on significant problems of mutual interest, and to assure a unified and effective approach to the solutions. Several areas of preclinical investigation were deemed to be necessary before it would be possible to initiate clinical studies. As neither the monomer nor the dimer of sulfhydryl boron hydride is unequivocally preferable at this time, studies on both compounds should be continued until one is proven superior.

  19. Neutron capture therapy for melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coderre, J.A.; Glass, J.D.; Micca, P.; Fairchild, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    The development of boron-containing compounds which localize selectively in tumor may require a tumor-by-tumor type of approach that exploits any metabolic pathways unique to the particular type of tumor. Melanin-producing melanomas actively transport and metabolize aromatic amino acids for use as precursors in the synthesis of the pigment melanin. It has been shown that the boron-containing amino acid analog p-borono-phenylalanine (BPA) is selectively accumulated in melanoma tissue, producing boron concentrations in tumor that are within the range estimated to be necessary for successful boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). We report here the results of therapy experiments carried out at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR). 21 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  20. Muon capture by helium-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascual de Sanz, R.

    1966-01-01

    In this paper we study the capture of a negative muon by H e 3 in the channel μ-+H e 3 +V. Following Primakoff we use the V-A theory of the weak interactions. We include also first order relativistic terms. To describe the initial and final nuclei we have used the most general wave function allowed by the Paul is exclusion principle, assuming that these nuclei are a mixture of an isospin doublet and quadruplet. For the part of the wave function depending on the inter nucleonic distances, we have taken four different function without hard-core, a gaussian and three kinds of Irving type. We present in several tables the results obtained varying g p /g v and g A /g y as well as the amplitudes of the fourteen terms forming the nuclear wave function. (Author) 35 refs

  1. Subsurface capture of carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blount, Gerald; Siddal, Alvin A.; Falta, Ronald W.

    2014-07-22

    A process and apparatus of separating CO.sub.2 gas from industrial off-gas source in which the CO.sub.2 containing off-gas is introduced deep within an injection well. The CO.sub.2 gases are dissolved in the, liquid within the injection well while non-CO.sub.2 gases, typically being insoluble in water or brine, are returned to the surface. Once the CO.sub.2 saturated liquid is present within the injection well, the injection well may be used for long-term geologic storage of CO.sub.2 or the CO.sub.2 saturated liquid can be returned to the surface for capturing a purified CO.sub.2 gas.

  2. Opportunity Captures 'Lion King' Panorama

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Opportunity Captures 'Lion King' Panorama (QTVR) This approximate true-color panorama, dubbed 'Lion King,' shows 'Eagle Crater' and the surrounding plains of Meridiani Planum. It was obtained by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's panoramic camera on sols 58 and 60 using infrared (750-nanometer), green (530-nanometer) and blue (430-nanometer) filters. This is the largest panorama obtained yet by either rover. It was taken in eight segments using six filters per segment, for a total of 558 images and more than 75 megabytes of data. Additional lower elevation tiers were added to ensure that the entire crater was covered in the mosaic. This panorama depicts a story of exploration including the rover's lander, a thorough examination of the outcrop, a study of the soils at the near-side of the lander, a successful exit from Eagle Crater and finally the rover's next desination, the large crater dubbed 'Endurance'.

  3. Workshop on neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairchild, R.G.; Bond, V.P.

    1986-01-01

    Potentially optimal conditions for Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT) may soon be in hand due to the anticipated development of band-pass filtered beams relatively free of fast neutron contaminations, and of broadly applicable biomolecules for boron transport such as porphyrins and monoclonal antibodies. Consequently, a number of groups in the US are now devoting their efforts to exploring NCT for clinical application. The purpose of this Workshop was to bring these groups together to exchange views on significant problems of mutual interest, and to assure a unified and effective approach to the solutions. Several areas of preclinical investigation were deemed to be necessary before it would be possible to initiate clinical studies. As neither the monomer nor the dimer of sulfhydryl boron hydride is unequivocally preferable at this time, studies on both compounds should be continued until one is proven superior

  4. State-selective electron capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunford, R.W.; Liu, C.J.; Berry, H.G.; Pardo, R.C.; Raphaelian, M.L.A.

    1988-01-01

    We report results from a new atomic physics program using the Argonne PII ECR ion source which is being built as part of the upgrade of the Argonne Tandem-Linear Accelerator (ATLAS). Our initial experiments have been aimed at studying state-selective electron capture in ion-atom collisions using the technique of Photon Emission Spectroscopy. We are extending existing cross section measurements at low energy ( 6+ and O 7+ on He and H 2 targets in the energy range from 1-105 keV/amu. We also present uv spectra obtained in collisions of O 6+ , O 5+ and N 5+ on a sodium target. 4 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  5. Radiative capture versus Coulomb dissociation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esbensen, H.; Physics

    2006-01-01

    Measurements of the Coulomb dissociation of 8 B have been used to infer the rate of the inverse radiative proton capture on 7 Be. The analysis is usually based on the assumptions that the two processes are related by detailed balance and described by E1 transitions. However, there are corrections to this relation. The Coulomb form factors for the two processes, for example, are not identical. There are also E2 transitions and higher-order effects in the Coulomb dissociation, and the nuclear induced breakup cannot always be ignored. While adding first-order E2 transitions enhances the decay energy spectrum, the other mechanisms cause a suppression at low relative energies. The net result may accidentally be close to the conventional first-order E1 calculation, but there are differences which cannot be ignored if accuracies of 10% or better are needed

  6. Radiative Capture versus Coulomb Dissociation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esbensen, Henning

    2006-01-01

    Measurements of the Coulomb dissociation of 8B have been used to infer the rate of the inverse radiative proton capture on 7Be. The analysis is usually based on the assumptions that the two processes are related by detailed balance and described by E1 transitions. However, there are corrections to this relation. The Coulomb form factors for the two processes, for example, are not identical. There are also E2 transitions and higher-order effects in the Coulomb dissociation, and the nuclear induced breakup cannot always be ignored. While adding first-order E2 transitions enhances the decay energy spectrum, the other mechanisms cause a suppression at low relative energies. The net result may accidentally be close to the conventional first-order E1 calculation, but there are differences which cannot be ignored if accuracies of 10% or better are needed

  7. Collisional Cascades Following Triton's Capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuk, Matija; Hamilton, Douglas P.; Stewart-Mukhopadhyay, Sarah T.

    2017-10-01

    Neptune's moon Triton is widely thought to have been captured from heliocentric orbit, most likely through binary dissociation (Agnor and Hamilton, 2006). Triton's original eccentric orbit must have been subsequently circularized by satellite tides (Goldreich et al. 1989). Cuk and Gladman (2005) found that Kozai oscillations make early tidal evolution inefficient, and have proposed that collisions between Triton and debris from pre-existing satellites was the dominant mechanism of shrinking Triton's large post-capture orbit. However, Cuk and Hamilton (DPS 2016), using numerical simulations and results of Stewart and Leinhardt (2012), have found that collisions between regular satellites are unlikely to be destructive, while collisions between prograde moons and Triton are certainly erosive if not catastrophic. An obvious outcome would be pre-existing moon material gradually grinding down Triton and making it reaccrete in the local Laplace plane, in conflict with Triton's large current inclination. We propose that the crucial ingredient for understanding the early evolution of the Neptunian system are the collisions between the moons and the prograde and retrograde debris originating from the pre-existing moons and Triton. In particular, we expect early erosive impact(s) on Triton to generate debris that will, in subsequent collisions, disrupt the regular satellites. If the retrograde material were to dominate at some planetocentric distances, the end result may be a large cloud or disk of retrograde debris that would be accreted by Triton, shrinking Triton's orbit. Some of the prograde debris could survive in a compact disk interior to Triton's pericenter, eventually forming the inner moons of Neptune. We will present results of numerical modeling of these complex dynamical processes at the meeting.

  8. Radiative muon capture on hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, D.H.; Ahmad, S.; Gorringe, T.P.; Hasinoff, M.D.; Larabee, A.J.; Waltham, C.E.; Armstrong, D.S.; Blecher, M.; Serna-Angel, A.; Azuelos, G.; Macdonald, J.A.; Poutissou, J.M.; Bertl, W.; Chen, C.Q.; Ding, Z.H.; Zhang, N.S.; Henderson, R.; McDonald, S.; Taylor, G.N.; Robertson, B.C.

    1989-01-01

    In the Standard Model, the weak interaction is purely V-A in character. However in semileptonic reactions the strong force induces additional couplings. One of these, the induced pseudoscalar coupling g p , is still very poorly determined experimentally. Using PCAC and the Goldberger-Treiman relation, one can obtain the estimate g p /g a = 6.8 for the nucleon. At present, the world average of 5 measurements of the rate of ordinary muon capture (each with an error in excess of 40%) yields g p /g a = 6.9 ± 1.5. Radiative Muon Capture (RMC) is considerably more sensitive to the pseudoscalar coupling. Due to the extremely small branching ratio (∼ 6 x 10 -8 ), the elementary reaction μ - p→ μnγ has never been measured. Effort to date has concentrated on nuclear RMC where the branching ratio is much larger, but the interpretation of these results is hindered by nuclear structure uncertainties. A measurement is being carried out at TRIUMF to determine the rate of RMC on hydrogen to a precision of 8% leading to a determination of g p with an error of 10%. The detection system is based on a large-volume drift chamber acting as a pair spectrometer. The drift chamber covers a solid angle of about 2π. At a magnetic field of 2.4 kG the acceptance for 70 MeV photons is about 0.9% using a 1.2 mm thick Pb photon converter. The expected photon energy resolution is about 10% FWHM. A detailed discussion of the systematic errors expected in the experiment and the preliminary results on the performance of the detector will be presented

  9. Small Particles Intact Capture Experiment (SPICE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishioka, Ken-Ji; Carle, G. C.; Bunch, T. E.; Mendez, David J.; Ryder, J. T.

    1994-01-01

    The Small Particles Intact Capture Experiment (SPICE) will develop technologies and engineering techniques necessary to capture nearly intact, uncontaminated cosmic and interplanetary dust particles (IDP's). Successful capture of such particles will benefit the exobiology and planetary science communities by providing particulate samples that may have survived unaltered since the formation of the solar system. Characterization of these particles may contribute fundamental data to our knowledge of how these particles could have formed into our planet Earth and, perhaps, contributed to the beginnings of life. The term 'uncontaminated' means that captured cosmic and IDP particles are free of organic contamination from the capture process and the term 'nearly intact capture' means that their chemical and elemental components are not materially altered during capture. The key to capturing cosmic and IDP particles that are organic-contamination free and nearly intact is the capture medium. Initial screening of capture media included organic foams, multiple thin foil layers, and aerogel (a silica gel); but, with the exception of aerogel, the requirements of no contamination or nearly intact capture were not met. To ensure no contamination of particles in the capture process, high-purity aerogel was chosen. High-purity aerogel results in high clarity (visual clearness), a useful quality in detection and recovery of embedded captured particles from the aerogel. P. Tsou at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) originally described the use of aerogel for this purpose and reported laboratory test results. He has flown aerogel as a 'GAS-can Lid' payload on STS-47 and is evaluating the results. The Timeband Capture Cell Experiment (TICCE), a Eureca 1 experiment, is also flying aerogel and is scheduled for recovery in late April.

  10. HAEMATOMA BLOCK- AN EFFECTIVE ALTERNATIVE TO GENERAL ANAESTHESIA FOR REDUCTION OF DISTAL RADIUS FRACTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhati Rani Mishra

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Most common fracture in elderly patients is distal radius fracture. The most common method of management is closed reduction and immobilisation. The aim of the study is to compare the analgesic effects of haematoma block and general anaesthesia for closed reduction of distal fracture of radius. MATERIALS AND METHODS A prospective randomised controlled study was carried out among 100 patients of age group between 15-70 years of either sex who had fracture distal radius between 2015-2016. The patients having multiple fractures, pathological fractures or suffering from any organic diseases were excluded from the study. After taking informed written consent, the patients were randomised into two equal groups. In group A, reduction of fracture was done following administration of IV propofol and in group B after infiltration with 2% lignocaine into fracture haematoma site. Pain score was compared by VAS before, during and after manipulation in both the groups. Time taken from presentation at emergency department to reduction and discharge from hospital was also compared. Statistical analysis was done by applying SPSS software. RESULTS 100 patients of mean age 42.5 years, male: female 43:57 with fracture distal radius were studied. Mean time from admission to fracture reduction in group A was 2.64±0.93 hours and in group B 0.90±0.45 hours (P=0.0001. Discharge time from hospital after reduction of fracture in group A was 4.24±0.94 hours and in group B 0.75±0.2 hours (P=0.0001. VAS during reduction in group A was 0 and in group B 0.98±0.8 (P=0.0001. 10 minutes after reduction VAS in group A was 2.28±0.24 and group B 0.72±0.45 (P=0.0001. CONCLUSION For closed reduction of distal radius fracture, haematoma block with lignocaine is safe and effective alternative to intravenous general anaesthesia with propofol.

  11. First data on growth and nucleic acid and protein content of field-captured Mediterranean bluefin (Thunnus thynnus and albacore (Thunnus alalunga tuna larvae: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto García

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The waters surrounding the Balearic archipelago are considered to be prime spawning habitats of the bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus and other tuna species such as albacore (T. alalunga in the Mediterranean. During the 2003 bluefin and albacore spawning season, a tuna larval survey (TUNIBAL 0703 was carried out to assess the distribution of bluefin larvae in relation to hydrographic mesoscale features. Tuna larvae were collected by means of surface plankton tows with a bongo gear with a quadrangular mouth measuring 1 m diagonally. The otolith microstructure of 157 and 71 field-captured larvae of Mediterranean bluefin and albacore, respectively, were analyzed to estimate the daily growth pattern. Furthermore, biochemical analysis to estimate DNA, RNA and protein content was done on another batch of 114 bluefin and 132 albacore larvae. The size range included pre-flexion to post-flexion larvae, from 2.8 to 8.6 mm in body length. bluefin and albacore larvae grew linearly in standard length (0.35 and 0.33 mm/day, respectively and potentially with respect to dry weight. No significant differences between species were observed in the size-weight relationship, or in the allometric relationship of body size and weight to otolith radius. However, the relationship of DNA and RNA to body size and weight showed a significant difference between species. Bluefin tuna larvae showed a greater nucleic acid content than albacore larvae. Protein content showed no significant differences with respect to body length.

  12. Carbon capture and storage: Fundamental thermodynamics and current technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, S.C.; Williamson, A.G.; Mason, I.G.

    2009-01-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is considered a leading technology for reducing CO 2 emissions from fossil-fuelled electricity generation plants and could permit the continued use of coal and gas whilst meeting greenhouse gas targets. However considerable energy is required for the capture, compression, transport and storage steps involved. In this paper, energy penalty information in the literature is reviewed, and thermodynamically ideal and 'real world' energy penalty values are calculated. For a sub-critical pulverized coal (PC) plant, the energy penalty values for 100% capture are 48.6% and 43.5% for liquefied CO 2 , and for CO 2 compressed to 11 MPa, respectively. When assumptions for supercritical plants were incorporated, results were in broad agreement with published values arising from process modelling. However, we show that energy use in existing capture operations is considerably greater than indicated by most projections. Full CCS demonstration plants are now required to verify modelled energy penalty values. However, it appears unlikely that CCS will deliver significant CO 2 reductions in a timely fashion. In addition, many uncertainties remain over the permanence of CO 2 storage, either in geological formations, or beneath the ocean. We conclude that further investment in CCS should be seriously questioned by policy makers.

  13. Environmental characteristics of shallow bottoms used by Greater Flamingo Phoenicopterus roseus in a northern Adriatic lagoon

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    Scarton Francesco

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of this century, Greater Flamingo Phoenicopterus roseus flocks have been observed regularly when feeding in the large extensions of shallow bottoms in the Lagoon of Venice (NE Italy, the largest lagoon along the Mediterranean. Nowadays thousands of flamingos are present throughout the year. Between 2013 and 2017 I collected data on the environmental features of the shallow bottoms used by feeding flocks, along with measurements of flight initiation distance (FID of Greater Flamingo in response to the approach of boats and pedestrians. Shallow bottoms were shown to be used when covered with approximately 10 to 60 cm of water. All the feeding sites were in open landscapes, with low occurrence of saltmarshes in a radius of 500 m. The bottoms were barely covered with seagrasses (<4% of the surface around the survey points and were mostly silty. Feeding flocks were on average 1.2 km far from the nearest road or dyke, while the mean distance from channels that could be used by boats was about 420 m. The mean FID caused by boats or pedestrians was 241 m ± 117 m (N = 31, ± 1 SD without significant differences between those for the two disturbance sources. The use of shallow bottoms by the Greater Flamingo appears governed primarily by the tidal cycle, but boat disturbance probably modifies this effect. According to FID values, a set-back distance of 465 m is suggested to reduce the disturbance caused by boats and pedestrians to the flamingo feeding flocks.

  14. Carbon dioxide capture and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, B.

    2011-01-01

    The author first highlights the reasons why storing carbon dioxide in geological formations could be a solution in the struggle against global warming and climate change. Thus, he comments various evolutions and prospective data about carbon emissions or fossil energy consumption as well as various studies performed by international bodies and agencies which show the interest of carbon dioxide storage. He comments the evolution of CO 2 contributions of different industrial sectors and activities, notably in France. He presents the different storage modes and methods which concern different geological formations (saline aquifers, abandoned oil or gas fields, not exploitable coal seams) and different processes (sorption, carbonation). He discusses the risks associated with these storages, the storable quantities, evokes some existing installations in different countries. He comments different ways to capture carbon dioxide (in post-combustion, through oxy-combustion, by pre-combustion) and briefly evokes some existing installations. He evokes the issue of transport, and discusses efficiency and cost aspects, and finally has few words on legal aspects and social acceptability

  15. A survey of the Carbon Capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jokrllova, J.; Cik, G.; Takacova, A.; Smolinska, M.

    2014-01-01

    The concentration of carbon dioxide, one of the most important representatives of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere continues to rise. Fossil fuels burned in thermal power plants currently represent 80% of total energy production around the world and are the largest point sources of CO 2 , accounting for approximately 40% of total CO 2 emissions. There are several options for reducing CO 2 emissions: reducing demand, improving production efficiency and carbon capture and storage (CCS, carbon capture and storage). Capture and storage of carbon dioxide is generally a three-step process: 1 st Capture and compression of combustion products, 2 nd transport (mostly pipeline) and 3 rd utilization (eg. production of urea, beverage industry, production of dry ice, etc.). Technologies for CO 2 capturing used in power plants burning fossil fuels can be divided into four groups, each of which requires a completely different approach to CO 2 capture.

  16. Does imminent threat capture and hold attention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, Ernst H W; Crombez, Geert; Van Damme, Stefaan; Verschuere, Bruno; De Houwer, Jan

    2004-09-01

    According to models of attention and emotion, threat captures and holds attention. In behavioral tasks, robust evidence has been found for attentional holding but not for attentional capture by threat. An important explanation for the absence of attentional capture effects is that the visual stimuli used posed no genuine threat. The present study investigated whether visual cues that signal an aversive white noise can elicit attentional capture and holding effects. Cues presented in an attentional task were simultaneously provided with a threat value through an aversive conditioning procedure. Response latencies showed that threatening cues captured and held attention. These results support recent views on attention to threat, proposing that imminent threat captures attention in everyone. (c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved

  17. Device of capturing for radioactive corrosion products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohara, Atsushi; Fukushima, Kimichika.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To increase the area of contact between the capturing materials for the radioactive corrosion products contained in the coolants and the coolants by producing stirred turbulent flows in the coolant flow channel of LMFBR type reactors. Constitution: Constituent materials for the nuclear fuel elements or the reactor core structures are activated under the neutron irradiation, corroded and transferred into the coolants. While capturing devices made of pure metal nickel are used for the elimination of the corrosion products, since the coolants form laminar flows due to the viscosity thereof near the surface of the capturing materials, the probability that the corrosion products in the coolants flowing through the middle portion of the channel contact the capturing materials is reduced. In this invention, rotating rolls and flow channels in which the balls are rotated are disposed at the upstream of the capturing device to forcively disturb the flow of the liquid sodium, whereby the radioactive corrosion products can effectively be captured. (Kamimura, M.)

  18. Accuracy of specimen-specific nonlinear finite element analysis for evaluation of distal radius strength in cadaver material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Yusuke; Kuniyoshi, Kazuki; Suzuki, Takane; Ogawa, Yasufumi; Sukegawa, Koji; Rokkaku, Tomoyuki; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2014-11-01

    Distal radius fracture, which often occurs in the setting of osteoporosis, can lead to permanent deformity and disability. Great effort has been directed toward developing noninvasive methods for evaluating the distal radius strength, with the goal of assessing fracture risk. The aim of this study was to evaluate distal radius strength using a finite element model and to gauge the accuracy of finite element model measurement using cadaver material. Ten wrists were obtained from cadavers with a mean age of 89.5 years at death. CT images of each wrist in an extended position were obtained. CT-based finite element models were prepared with Mechanical Finder software. Fracture on the models was simulated by applying a mechanical load to the palm in a direction parallel to the forearm axis, after which the fracture load and the site at which the fracture began were identified. For comparison, the wrists were fractured using a universal testing machine and the fracture load and the site of fracture were identified. The fracture load was 970.9 N in the finite element model group and 990.0 N in the actual measurement group. The site of the initial fracture was extra-articular to the distal radius in both groups. The finite element model was predictive for distal radius fracture when compared to the actual measurement. In this study, a finite element model for evaluation of distal radius strength was validated and can be used to predict fracture risk. We conclude that a finite element model is useful for the evaluation of distal radius strength. Knowing distal radius strength might avoid distal radius fracture because appropriate antiosteoporotic treatment can be initiated.

  19. New Adsorption Cycles for Carbon Dioxide Capture and Concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Ritter; Armin Ebner; Steven Reynolds Hai Du; Amal Mehrotra

    2008-07-31

    The objective of this three-year project was to study new pressure swing adsorption (PSA) cycles for CO{sub 2} capture and concentration at high temperature. The heavy reflux (HR) PSA concept and the use of a hydrotalcite like (HTlc) adsorbent that captures CO{sub 2} reversibly at high temperatures simply by changing the pressure were two key features of these new PSA cycles. Through the completion or initiation of nine tasks, a bench-scale experimental and theoretical program has been carried out to complement and extend the process simulation study that was carried out during Phase I (DE-FG26-03NT41799). This final report covers the entire project from August 1, 2005 to July 31, 2008. This program included the study of PSA cycles for CO{sub 2} capture by both rigorous numerical simulation and equilibrium theory analysis. The insight gained from these studies was invaluable toward the applicability of PSA for CO{sub 2} capture, whether done at ambient or high temperature. The rigorous numerical simulation studies showed that it is indeed possible to capture and concentrate CO{sub 2} by PSA. Over a wide range of conditions it was possible to achieve greater than 90% CO{sub 2} purity and/or greater than 90% CO{sub 2} recovery, depending on the particular heavy reflux (HR) PSA cycle under consideration. Three HR PSA cycles were identified as viable candidates for further study experimentally. The equilibrium theory analysis, which represents the upper thermodynamic limit of the performance of PSA process, further validated the use of certain HR PSA cycles for CO{sub 2} capture and concentration. A new graphical approach for complex PSA cycle scheduling was also developed during the course of this program. This new methodology involves a priori specifying the cycle steps, their sequence, and the number of beds, and then following a systematic procedure that requires filling in a 2-D grid based on a few simple rules, some heuristics and some experience. It has been

  20. Techniques for capturing bighorn sheep lambs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joshua B.; Walsh, Daniel P.; Goldstein, Elise J.; Parsons, Zachary D.; Karsch, Rebekah C.; Stiver, Julie R.; Cain, James W.; Raedeke, Kenneth J.; Jenks, Jonathan A.

    2014-01-01

    Low lamb recruitment is a major challenge facing managers attempting to mitigate the decline of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), and investigations into the underlying mechanisms are limited because of the inability to readily capture and monitor bighorn sheep lambs. We evaluated 4 capture techniques for bighorn sheep lambs: 1) hand-capture of lambs from radiocollared adult females fitted with vaginal implant transmitters (VITs), 2) hand-capture of lambs of intensively monitored radiocollared adult females, 3) helicopter net-gunning, and 4) hand-capture of lambs from helicopters. During 2010–2012, we successfully captured 90% of lambs from females that retained VITs to ≤1 day of parturition, although we noted differences in capture rates between an area of high road density in the Black Hills (92–100%) of South Dakota, USA, and less accessible areas of New Mexico (71%), USA. Retention of VITs was 78% with pre-partum expulsion the main cause of failure. We were less likely to capture lambs from females that expelled VITs ≥1 day of parturition (range = 80–83%) or females that were collared without VITs (range = 60–78%). We used helicopter net-gunning at several sites in 1999, 2001–2002, and 2011, and it proved a useful technique; however, at one site, attempts to capture lambs led to lamb predation by golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos). We attempted helicopter hand-captures at one site in 1999, and they also were successful in certain circumstances and avoided risk of physical trauma from net-gunning; however, application was limited. In areas of low accessibility or if personnel lack the ability to monitor females and/or VITs for extended periods, helicopter capture may provide a viable option for lamb capture.

  1. Measurements of neutron capture cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Yutaka

    1984-01-01

    A review of measurement techniques for the neutron capture cross sections is presented. Sell transmission method, activation method, and prompt gamma-ray detection method are described using examples of capture cross section measurements. The capture cross section of 238 U measured by three different prompt gamma-ray detection methods (large liquid scintillator, Moxon-Rae detector, and pulse height weighting method) are compared and their discrepancies are resolved. A method how to derive the covariance is described. (author)

  2. Nerve Stimulator Guided Axillary Block in Painless Reduction of Distal Radius Fractures; a Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Alimohammadi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Given the high prevalence of upper extremity fractures and increasing need to perform painless reduction in the emergency departments, the use of analgesic methods with fewer complications and more satisfaction appears to be essential. The aim of this study is comparison the nerve stimulator guided axillary block (NSAB with intravenous sedation in induction of analgesia for painless reduction of distal radius fractures. Methods: In the present randomized clinical trial, 60 patients (18-70 years of age suffered from distal radius fractures, were divided into two equal groups. One group received axillary nerve block by nerve stimulator guidance and the other procedural sedation and analgesia (PSA using midazolam/fentanyl. Onset of analgesia, duration of analgesic effect, total procedure time and pain scores were recorded using visual analogue scale (VAS and the outcomes were compared. Chi-squared and student t test were performed to evaluate differences between two groups. Results: Sixty patients were randomly divided into two groups (83.3% male. The mean age of patients was 31 ±0.7 years. While the onset of analgesia was significantly longer in the NSAB group, the mean total time of procedure was shorter than PSA (p<0.001. The NSAB group needed a shorter post-operative observation time (P<0.001. Both groups experienced equal pain relief before, during and after procedure (p>0.05. Conclusion: It seems that shorter post-operative monitoring time and consequently lesser total time of procedure, make nerve stimulator guided axillary block as an appropriate alternative for procedural sedation and analgesia in painless reduction of distal radius fractures in emergency department. 

  3. Distal radius fractures result in alterations in scapular kinematics: a three-dimensional motion analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayhan, Cigdem; Turgut, Elif; Baltaci, Gul

    2015-03-01

    Scapular motion is closely integrated with arm motion. Injury to a distal segment requires compensatory changes in the proximal segments leading to alterations in scapular motion. Since the effects of distal injuries on scapular kinematics remain unknown, in the present study we investigated the influences on scapular motion in patients with distal injuries. Sixteen subjects with a history of distal radius fracture and 20 asymptomatic healthy subjects (controls) participated in the study. Three-dimensional scapular and humeral kinematic data were collected on all 3 planes of shoulder elevation: frontal, sagittal, and scapular. All testing was performed in a single session; therefore, the sensors remained attached to the participants for all testing. The position and orientation data of the scapula at 30°, 60°, 90°, and 120° humerothoracic elevation and 120°, 90°, 60°, and 30° lowering were used for statistical comparisons. Independent samples t-test was used to compare the scapular internal/external rotation, upward/downward rotation, and anterior/posterior tilt between the affected side of subjects with a distal radius fracture and the dominant side of asymptomatic subjects at the same stage of humerothoracic elevation. Scapular internal rotation was significantly increased at 30° elevation (P=0.01), 90° elevation (P=0.03), and 30° lowering (P=0.03), and upward rotation was increased at 30° and 60° elevation (Pplane elevation. Scapular upward rotation and anterior tilt were significantly increased during 30° lowering on both the scapular (P=0.002 and 0.02, respectively) and sagittal planes (P=0.01 and 0.02. respectively). Patients with distal radius fractures exhibit altered scapular kinematics, which may further contribute to the development of secondary musculoskeletal pathologies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Attention capture without awareness in a non-spatial selection task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriet, Chris; Pandey, Mamata; Kawahara, Jun-Ichiro

    2017-02-01

    Distractors presented prior to a critical target in a rapid sequence of visually-presented items induce a lag-dependent deficit in target identification, particularly when the distractor shares a task-relevant feature of the target. Presumably, such capture of central attention is important for bringing a target into awareness. The results of the present investigation suggest that greater capture of attention by a distractor is not accompanied by greater awareness of it. Moreover, awareness tends to be limited to superficial characteristics of the target such as colour. The findings are interpreted within the context of a model that assumes sudden increases in arousal trigger selection of information for consolidation in working memory. In this conceptualization, prolonged analysis of distractor items sharing task-relevant features leads to larger target identification deficits (i.e., greater capture) but no increase in awareness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Jeans instability of magnetized quantum plasma: Effect of viscosity, rotation and finite Larmor radius corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Shweta; Sharma, Prerana; Chhajlani, R. K.

    2015-01-01

    The Jeans instability of self-gravitating quantum plasma is examined considering the effects of viscosity, finite Larmor radius (FLR) corrections and rotation. The analysis is done by normal mode analysis theory with the help of relevant linearized perturbation equations of the problem. The general dispersion relation is obtained using the quantum magneto hydrodynamic model. The modified condition of Jeans instability is obtained and the numerical calculations have been performed to show the effects of various parameters on the growth rate of Jeans instability

  6. Threshold and jet radius joint resummation for single-inclusive jet production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiaohui [Beijing Normal Univ. (China). Center of Advanced Quantum Studies; Moch, Sven-Olaf [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Ringer, Felix [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States). Nuclear Science Division

    2017-08-15

    We present the first threshold and jet radius jointly resummed cross section for single-inclusive hadronic jet production. We work at next-to-leading logarithmic accuracy and our framework allows for a systematic extension beyond the currently achieved precision. Longstanding numerical issues are overcome by performing the resummation directly in momentum space within Soft Collinear Effective Theory. We present the first numerical results for the LHC and observe an improved description of the available data. Our results are of immediate relevance for LHC precision phenomenology including the extraction of parton distribution functions and the QCD strong coupling constant.

  7. [APPLICATION OF BUTTERFLY SHAPED LOCKING COMPRESSION PLATE IN COMPLEX DISTAL RADIUS FRACTURES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zongyuan; Ma, Tao; Xia, Jiang; Hu, Caizhi; Xu, Lei

    2014-06-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of butterfly shaped locking compression plate for the treatment of complex distal radius fractures. Between June 2011 and January 2013, 20 cases of complex distal radius fractures were treated with butterfly shaped locking compression plate fixation. There were 11 males and 9 females with an average age of 54 years (range, 25-75 years). Injury was caused by falling in 10 cases, by traffic accident in 7 cases, and by falling from height in 3 cases. All of fractures were closed. According to AO classification system, there were 8 cases of type C1, 8 cases of type C2, and 4 cases of type C3. Of them, 9 cases had radial styloid process fracture, 4 cases had sigmoid notch fracture, and 7 cases had both radial styloid process fracture and sigmoid notch fracture. The mean interval between injury and operation was 5.2 days (range, 3-15 days). All incisions healed by first intention; no complications of infection and necrosis occurred. All cases were followed up 14 months on average (range, 10-22 months). All factures healed after 9.3 weeks on average (range, 6-11 weeks). No complications such as displacement of fracture, joint surface subsidence, shortening of the radius, and carpal tunnel syndrome were found during follow-up. At last follow-up, the mean palmar tilt angle was 10.2° (range, 7-15°), and the mean ulnar deviation angle was 21.8° (range, 17-24°). The mean range of motion of the wrist was 45.3° (range, 35-68°) in dorsal extension, 53.5° (range, 40-78°) in palmar flexion, 19.8° (range, 12-27°) in radial inclination, 26.6° (range, 18-31°) in ulnar inclination, 70.2° (range, 45-90°) in pronation, and 68.4° (range, 25-88°) in supination. According to the Dienst scoring system, the results were excellent in 8 cases, good in 10 cases, and fair in 2 cases, and the excellent and good rate was 90%. Treatment of complex distal radius fractures with butterfly shaped locking compression plate can reconstruct normal anatomic

  8. Measurement of Gaussian laser beam radius using the knife-edge technique: improvement on data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Marcos A. de; Silva, Rubens; Lima, Emerson de; Pereira, Daniel P.; Oliveira, Paulo C. de

    2009-01-01

    We revisited the well known Khosrofian and Garetz inversion algorithm [Appl. Opt.22, 3406-3410 (1983)APOPAI0003-6935] that was developed to analyze data obtained by the application of the traveling knife-edge technique. We have analyzed the approximated fitting function that was used for adjusting their experimental data and have found that it is not optimized to work with a full range of the experimentally-measured data. We have numerically calculated a new set of coefficients, which makes the approximated function suitable for a full experimental range, considerably improving the accuracy of the measurement of a radius of a focused Gaussian laser beam

  9. [ESTABLISHMENT OF A NEW RADIUS DEFECT MODEL BASED ON ULNA ANATOMICAL MEASUREMENT IN RABBITS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hanjiang; Guo, Ying; Mei, Wei

    2016-02-01

    To introduce a new bone defect model based on the anatomical measurement of radius and ulna in rabbits for offering a standard model for further tissue engineering research. Fifteen healthy 4-month-old New Zealand rabbits were selected for anatomic measurement and radiological measurement of the radius and ulna. Another 30 healthy 4-month-old New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into groups A, B, and C (n=10). The radius bone defect was created bilaterally in 3 groups. In group A, the periosteum and interosseous membranes were fully removed with jig-saw by approach between extensor carpi radialis muscle and musculus extensor digitorum. The periosteum and interosseous membranes were fully removed in group B, and only periosteum was removed in group C with electric-saw by approach between extensor carpi radialis muscle and flexor digitorum profundus based on anatomical analysis results of ulnar and radial measurement. The gross observation, X-ray, micro-CT three-dimensional reconstruction, bone mineral density (BMD), and bone mineral content (BMC) were observed and recorded at immediate and 15 weeks after operation. HE staining and Masson staining were performed to observe bone formation in the defect areas. Blood vessel injury (1 rabbit), tendon injury (2 rabbits), postoperative hematoma (1 rabbit), and infection (1 rabbit) occurred in group A, postoperative infection (1 rabbit) in group C, and no postoperative complications in group B; the complication rate of group A (50%) was significantly higher than that of groups B (0%) and C (10%) (P0.05). HE staining and Masson staining results showed bone formation in group A, with structure disturbance and sclerosis. New bone formed in groups B and C, cartilage cells were observed in the center of bone cells. The radius bone defect model established by approach between extensor carpi radialis muscle and flexor digitorum profundus is an ideal model because of better exposures, less intra-operative blood loss, less

  10. [Injury to the Scapholunate Ligament in Distal Radius Fractures: Peri-Operative Diagnosis and Treatment Results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajdoš, R; Pilný, J; Pokorná, A

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY Injury to the scapholunate ligament is frequently associated with a fracture of the distal radius. At present neither a unified concept of treatment nor a standard method of diagnosis in these concomitant injuries is available. The aim of the study was to evaluate a group of surgically treated patients with distal radius fractures in order to assess a contribution of combined conventional X-ray and intra-operative fluoroscopic examinations to the diagnosis of associated lesions and to compare short-term functional outcomes of sugically treated patients with those of patients treated conservatively. MATERIAL AND METHODS A group of patients undergoiong surgery for distal radius fractures using plate osteosynthesis was evaluated retrospectively. The peri-operative diagnosis of associated injury to the scapholunate ligament was based on pre-operative standard X-ray views and intra-operative fluoroscopy. The latter consisted of images of maximum radial and ulnar deviation as well as an image of the forearm in traction exerted manually along the long axis. All views were in postero-anterior projection. Results were read directly on the monitor of a fluoroscopic device after its calibration or were obtained by comparing the thickness of an attached Kirschner wire with the distance to be measured. Subsequently, pixels were converted to millimetres. When a scapholunate ligament injury was found and confirmed by examination of the contralateral wrist, the finding was verified by open reduction or arthroscopy. Both static and dynamic instabilities were treated together with the distal radius fracture at one-stage surgery. After surgery, the patients without ligament injury had the wrist immobilised for 4 weeks, then rehabilitation followed. In the patients with a damaged ligament, immobilisation in a short brace lasted until transarticular wires were removed. All patients were followed up for a year at least. At follow-up, the injured wrist was examined

  11. Scaling of energy confinement with minor radius, current and density in Doublet III Ohmically heated plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ejima, S.; Petrie, T.W.; Riviere, A.C.

    1982-01-01

    The dependence of plasma energy confinement on minor radius, density and plasma current is described for Ohmically heated near-circular plasmas in Doublet III. A wide range of parameters is used for the study of scaling laws; the plasma minor radius defined by the flux surface in contact with limiter is varied by a factor of 2 (a = 44, 32, and 23 cm), the line average plasma density, nsub(e)-bar, is varied by a factor of 20 from 0.5 to 10 x 10 13 cm -3 (nsub(e)-bar R 0 /Bsub(T) = 0.3 to 6 x 10 14 cm -2 .kG -1 ) and the plasma current, I, is varied by a factor of 6 from 120 to 718 kA. The range of the limiter safety factor, qsub(L), is from 2 to 12. - For plasmas with a = 23 and 32 cm, the scaling law at low nsub(e)-bar for the gross electron energy confinement time can be written as (s, cm) tausub(Ee)sup(G) approx.= 3.6 x 10 -19 nsub(e)-bar a 2 qsub(c)sup(3/4), where qsub(c) = 2πa 2 Bsub(T)/μ 0 IR 0 . For the 44-cm plasmas, tausub(Ee)sup(G) is about 1.8 times less than predicted by this scaling, possibly owing to the change in limiter configuration and small plasma-wall separation and/or the aspect ratio change. At high nsub(e)-bar, tausub(Ee)sup(G) saturates and in many cases decreases with nsub(e)-bar but increases with I in a classical-like manner. The dependence of tausub(Ee)sup(G) on a is considerably weakened. The confinement behaviour can be explained by taking an ion thermal conductivity 2 to 7 times that given by Hinton-Hazeltine's neoclassical theory with a lumped-Zsub(eff) impurity model. Within this range the enhancement factor increases with a or a/R 0 . The electron thermal conductivity evaluated at half-temperature radius where most of the thermal insulation occurs sharply increases with average current density within that radius, but does not depend on a within the uncertainties of the measurements. (author)

  12. The hadronic corrections to muonic hydrogen Lamb shift from ChPT and the proton radius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peset, Clara [Grup de Física Teòrica, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-01-22

    We obtain a model independent expression for the muonic hydrogen Lamb shift. The leading hadronic effects are controlled by the chiral theory, which allows for their model independent determination. We give their complete expression including the pion and Delta particles. Out of this analysis and the experimental measurement of the muonic hydrogen Lamb shift we determine the electromagnetic proton radius: r{sub p} = 0.8412(15) fm. This number is at 6.8σ variance with respect to the CODATA value. The parametric control of the uncertainties allows us to obtain a model independent determination of the error, which is dominated by hadronic effects.

  13. Analysis of neutron flux depression across the pellet radius in CANDU fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, K.S.; Suk, H.C.

    1998-08-01

    The TUBRNP model, originally developed to perform the analysis of the flux depression across the pellet radius in LWR fuel elements, was improved for the application to CANDU fuel elements. The improved model was verified through comparison with existing CANDU model named FLUXDEP in prediction for various fuel conditions. A sensitivity study was also performed to investigate the effects on the flux depression of fuel initial enrichment and burnup, the contents of isotopes U-234 and U-236 and pellet diameter. (author). 9 refs., 8 figs

  14. Determination of variations of the solar radius from solar eclipse observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofia, S.; Dunham, D. W.; Fiala, A. D.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes the method to determine the solar radius and its variations from observations made during total solar eclipses. In particular, the procedure to correct the spherical moon predictions for the effects of lunar mountains and valleys on the width and location of the path of totality is addressed in detail. The errors affecting this technique are addressed, a summary of the results of its application to three solar eclipses are presented, and the implications of the results on the constancy of the solar constant are described.

  15. Finite Larmor radius effects on the stability properties of internal modes of a z-pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aakerstedt, H.O.

    1987-01-01

    From the Vlasov-fluid model a set of approximate stability equations describing the stability of a cylindrically symmetric z-pinch is derived. The equations are derived in the limit of small gyroradius and include first order kinetic effects such as finite ion Larmor radius effects and resonant ion effects. Neglecting the resonant ion terms, we explicitly solve this set of equations for a constant current density profile leading to a dispersion relation. FLR effects are shown for the case of m=1 internal mode to be stabilizing and for large wavenumbers k, using a trial function approach, absolute stabilization is found. (author)

  16. Alignment Compensation for Bending Radius in TT40 and TI 8 Transfer Line Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Weterings, W

    2003-01-01

    The BEATCH file for the TI 8 transfer lines specifies the position of the bending magnets assuming that the beam enters and exits at the centre of the vacuum pipe. In order to distribute the deflected beam evenly inside the vacuum tube, the alignment has to be compensated by moving the magnets half of the beam deflection away from the centre of the bending radius. In this note the saggitas of the various TT40 and TI 8 magnets are calculated and the alignment displacements tabulated for future reference.

  17. Alignment Compensation for Bending Radius in TI 2 Transfer Line Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Weterings, W

    2004-01-01

    The optics file for the TI 2 transfer lines specifies the position of the bending magnets assuming that the beam enters and exists at the centre of the vacuum pipe. In order to disbribute the deflected beam evenly inside the vacuum tube, the alignment has to be compensated by moving the magnets half of the beam deflection away from the centre of the bending radius. In this note the saggitas of the various TI 2 magnets are calculated and the alignment displacements tabulated for future reference.

  18. [Treatment type C fracture of the distal radius with locking compression plate and external fixators].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiang; Zhao, You-ming; Chen, Lin; Ye, Cong-cong; Guo, Wei-jun; Wang, Bo

    2013-12-01

    To compare efficacy of unilateral external fixators and locking compression plates in treating type C fractures of the distal radius. From January 2009 to June 2010, 76 patients with distal radius fracture were treated with LCP and external fixators, 54 patients were followed up. Among them, 29 cases were male and 25 cases were female with an average age of 45.31 (ranged, 24 to 68) years old. There were 29 patients in LCP group. According to AO classification, 8 cases were type C1, 7 cases were type C2 and 14 cases were type C3. There were 25 cases in external fixators group. According to AO classification, 6 cases were type C1, 8 cases were type C2 and 11 cases were type C3. Radial height, volar tilt and radial inclination were compared, advanced Gartland-Werley scoring were used to assessed wrist joint function after 6 and 12 months' following up. Two cases were suffered from nail infection in external fixators group. Fifty-four patients were followed up from 12 to 24 months with an average of 21.3 months. Radial height was (9.60 +/- 0.72) mm, volar tilt was (9.55 +/- 0.80) degrees and radial inclination was (21.40 +/- 0.78) degrees in LCP group,while those were (9.40 +/- 0.70) mm, (9.47 +/- 0.71) degrees and (21.20 +/- 0.73) degrees in external fixtors group, and with no statistical significance (P>0.05). Advanced Gartland-Werley score after 6 months' following up was 3.31 +/- 1.17 in LCP group, 5.56 +/- 1.58 in external fixtors group, and with significant difference (t=-5.99,Pmeaning (t=-1.55, P>0.05). LCP and external fixtors can receive good curative effects in treating type C distal radius fracture, and LCP can obtain obviously short-term efficacy, while there is no significant difference between two groups in long-term results. For serious distal radius comminuted fracture which unable to plate internal fixation, external fixators is a better choice.

  19. Primary hyperparathyroidism associated with a giant cell tumor: One case in the distal radius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouzaa, M R; Bennis, A; Iken, M; Abouzzahir, A; Boussouga, M; Jaafar, A

    2015-10-01

    Hyperparathyroidism can present itself as brown tumors (or osteolytic expansive lesions) that usually disappear after normalization of calcium and phosphate levels. It rarely occurs simultaneously with a giant cell tumor. The authors report one case of a localized form at the distal radius in a patient being followed for primary hyperparathyroidism. The diagnostic challenges related to the clinical and radiological similarities of these two pathological entities are discussed, as they can lead to delays in therapeutic management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Attentional capture under high perceptual load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosman, Joshua D; Vecera, Shaun P

    2010-12-01

    Attentional capture by abrupt onsets can be modulated by several factors, including the complexity, or perceptual load, of a scene. We have recently demonstrated that observers are less likely to be captured by abruptly appearing, task-irrelevant stimuli when they perform a search that is high, as opposed to low, in perceptual load (Cosman & Vecera, 2009), consistent with perceptual load theory. However, recent results indicate that onset frequency can influence stimulus-driven capture, with infrequent onsets capturing attention more often than did frequent onsets. Importantly, in our previous task, an abrupt onset was present on every trial, and consequently, attentional capture might have been affected by both onset frequency and perceptual load. In the present experiment, we examined whether onset frequency influences attentional capture under conditions of high perceptual load. When onsets were presented frequently, we replicated our earlier results; attentional capture by onsets was modulated under conditions of high perceptual load. Importantly, however, when onsets were presented infrequently, we observed robust capture effects. These results conflict with a strong form of load theory and, instead, suggest that exposure to the elements of a task (e.g., abrupt onsets) combines with high perceptual load to modulate attentional capture by task-irrelevant information.

  1. What Determines State Capture in Poland?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Alwasiak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study examines the determinants of ex-ante state capture in Poland. Methodology: In order to establish the determinants of ex-ante state capture a logistic regression is estimated. Findings: The study shows that in Poland the majority of legal acts were passed with the aim to satisfy the interest of particular groups. Furthermore, the regression analysis shows that the likelihood of state capture increases during the period of higher economic growth and local elections. The likelihood of state capture, however, declines during presidential elections. The results we attribute to different interests of political parties in the period of local and presidential elections. Finally, we fi nd that the state capture increased over the years in Poland. Additionally, we show that the EU accession did not prevent state capture in Poland. In contrast, the fi nancial crisis of 2007 resulted in a wake-up effect and the likelihood of state capture declined in Poland. Research limitations: In the study we employ proxies for state capture, yet we assume that corruption is a widespread phenomenon in Poland. However, due to its nature corruption is very diffi cult to assess and measure. Originality: The study uses a unique dataset on ex-ante state capture that was identifi ed in the legal acts that have been passed in the period 1990–2011 in Poland.

  2. Customer relationship management captures intellectual capital for increased competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Van Zyl

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Today, with regards to tangible assets, the corporate playing field has become more or less level with competing organisations producing very similar products and services. The key differentiator for an organisation's offerings now depends upon an organisation's ability to capture and leverage intellectual capital (IC, and especially customer IC. Customers are an invaluable source of two kinds of IC: transactional and innovative. An organisation must implement customer relationship management (CRM initiatives in order to develop and maintain good relationships with customers and in so doing, be able to capture IC. This IC will enable an organisation to be more responsive to new and changing customer needs and preferences and to be better able to customize products and services according to more specific customer profiles: ultimately leading to increased market share, profitability and overall strategic competitiveness. The purpose of this article is to determine how good customer relationships allow for the capture and subsequent leveraging of customer IC for increased competitiveness. In order to fulfill this purpose, the concept of CRM is explored as well as how CRM allows for the capture of both transactional and innovative capital. The strategic benefits of the application of customer IC are then explored, together with an exposition of the CRM implementation challenges facing those organisations that wish to implement a CRM program to capture and leverage customer IC for increased competitiveness. This exploration involved an examination of contemporary literature, theories and business cases and subsequently revealed that CRM is a vital discipline/philosophy that must be implemented by any organisation wishing to achieve greater market efficiency and competitiveness. This competitiveness can only be achieved through the carefully managed unlocking, sharing and leveraging of both transactional and innovative customer intellectual capital.

  3. Shape isomer excitation by mu-minus capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, S.N.; Monard, J.A.; Nagamiya, S.

    1975-06-01

    In a search for back-decay gamma rays from the shape isomer in 238 U following mu-minus capture, no candidates have been found with yields greater than 2 percent of the muon stoppings. The intensities of the gamma rays are insufficient to permit definitive lifetime measurements of individual peaks; however, for 500-keV energy ranges of gamma ray pulses, lifetimes have been determined that give results consistent with recent electron lifetime measurements. (6 figures, 2 tables) (U.S.)

  4. A method to provide rapid in situ determination of tip radius in dynamic atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Sergio; Guang Li; Souier, Tewfik; Gadelrab, Karim; Chiesa, Matteo; Thomson, Neil H.

    2012-01-01

    We provide a method to characterize the tip radius of an atomic force microscopy in situ by monitoring the dynamics of the cantilever in ambient conditions. The key concept is that the value of free amplitude for which transitions from the attractive to repulsive force regimes are observed, strongly depends on the curvature of the tip. In practice, the smaller the value of free amplitude required to observe a transition, the sharper the tip. This general behavior is remarkably independent of the properties of the sample and cantilever characteristics and shows the strong dependence of the transitions on the tip radius. The main advantage of this method is rapid in situ characterization. Rapid in situ characterization enables one to continuously monitor the tip size during experiments. Further, we show how to reproducibly shape the tip from a given initial size to any chosen larger size. This approach combined with the in situ tip size monitoring enables quantitative comparison of materials measurements between samples. These methods are set to allow quantitative data acquisition and make direct data comparison readily available in the community.

  5. Investigating the Effect of Approach Angle and Nose Radius on Surface Quality of Inconel 718

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Singh, Dilbag; Kalsi, Nirmal S.

    2017-11-01

    This experimental work presents a surface quality evaluation of a Nickel-Cr-Fe based Inconel 718 superalloy, which has many applications in the aero engine and turbine components. However, during machining, the early wear of tool leads to decrease in surface quality. The coating on cutting tool plays a significant role in increasing the wear resistance and life of the tool. In this work, the aim is to study the surface quality of Inconel 718 with TiAlN-coated carbide tools. Influence of various geometrical parameters (tool nose radius, approach angle) and machining variables (cutting velocity, feed rate) on the quality of machined surface (surface roughness) was determined by using central composite design (CCD) matrix. The mathematical model of the same was developed. Analysis of variance was used to find the significance of the parameters. Results showed that the tool nose radius and feed were the main active factors. The present experiment accomplished that TiAlN-coated carbide inserts result in better surface quality as compared with uncoated carbide inserts.

  6. Estimates of the Hyperbolic Radius Gradient and Schwarz–Pick Inequalities for the Eccentric Annulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.Kh. Giniyatova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Let Ω and Π be hyperbolic domains in the complex plane C. By A(Ω, Π we shall designate the class of functions f which are holomorphic or meromorphic in Ω and such that f(Ω ϲ Π. Estimates of the higher derivatives |f(n(z| of the analytic functions from the class A(Ω, Π with the punishing factor Cn(Ω, Π is one of the main problems of geometric theory of functions. These estimates are commonly referred to as Schwarz–Pick inequalities. Many results concerning this problem have been obtained for simply connected domains. Therefore, the research interest in such problems for finitely connected domains is natural. As known, the constant C2(Ω, Π for any pairs of hyperbolic domains depends only on the hyperbolic radius gradient of the corresponding domains. The main result of this paper is estimates of the hyperbolic radius gradient and the punishing factor in the Schwarz–Pick inequality for the eccentric annulus. We also consider the extreme case – the randomly punctured circle.

  7. Effect of minimal length uncertainty on the mass-radius relation of white dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Arun; Nandy, Malay K.

    2018-06-01

    Generalized uncertainty relation that carries the imprint of quantum gravity introduces a minimal length scale into the description of space-time. It effectively changes the invariant measure of the phase space through a factor (1 + βp2) - 3 so that the equation of state for an electron gas undergoes a significant modification from the ideal case. It has been shown in the literature (Rashidi 2016) that the ideal Chandrasekhar limit ceases to exist when the modified equation of state due to the generalized uncertainty is taken into account. To assess the situation in a more complete fashion, we analyze in detail the mass-radius relation of Newtonian white dwarfs whose hydrostatic equilibria are governed by the equation of state of the degenerate relativistic electron gas subjected to the generalized uncertainty principle. As the constraint of minimal length imposes a severe restriction on the availability of high momentum states, it is speculated that the central Fermi momentum cannot have values arbitrarily higher than pmax ∼β - 1 / 2. When this restriction is imposed, it is found that the system approaches limiting mass values higher than the Chandrasekhar mass upon decreasing the parameter β to a value given by a legitimate upper bound. Instead, when the more realistic restriction due to inverse β-decay is considered, it is found that the mass and radius approach the values 1.4518 M⊙ and 601.18 km near the legitimate upper bound for the parameter β.

  8. M DWARF LUMINOSITY, RADIUS, AND α-ENRICHMENT FROM I-BAND SPECTRAL FEATURES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terrien, Ryan C.; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Bender, Chad F.; Deshpande, Rohit; Robertson, Paul, E-mail: rct151@psu.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2015-03-20

    Despite the ubiquity of M dwarfs and their growing importance to studies of exoplanets, Galactic evolution, and stellar structure, methods for precisely measuring their fundamental stellar properties remain elusive. Existing techniques for measuring M dwarf luminosity, mass, radius, or composition are calibrated over a limited range of stellar parameters or require expensive observations. We find a strong correlation between the K{sub S}-band luminosity (M{sub K}), the observed strength of the I-band sodium doublet absorption feature, and [Fe/H] in M dwarfs without strong Hα emission. We show that the strength of this feature, coupled with [Fe/H] and spectral type, can be used to derive M dwarf M{sub K} and radius without requiring parallax. Additionally, we find promising evidence that the strengths of the I-band sodium doublet and the nearby I-band calcium triplet may jointly indicate α-element enrichment. The use of these I-band features requires only moderate-resolution near-infrared spectroscopy to provide valuable information about the potential habitability of exoplanets around M dwarfs, and surface gravity and distance for M dwarfs throughout the Galaxy. This technique has immediate applicability for both target selection and candidate planet–host system characterization for exoplanet missions such as TESS and K2.

  9. Investigations on the Effect of Radius Rotor in Combined Darrieus-Savonius Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaprawi Sahim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Renewable sources of energy, abundant in availability, are needed to be exploited with adaptable technology. For wind energy, the wind turbine is very well adapted to generate electricity. Among the different typologies, small scale Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWT present the greatest potential for off-grid power generation at low wind speeds. The combined Darrieus-Savonius wind turbine is intended to enhance the performance of the Darrieus rotor in low speed. In combined turbine, the Savonius buckets are always attached at the rotor shaft and the Darrieus blades are installed far from the shaft which have arm attaching to the shaft. A simple combined turbine offers two rotors on the same shaft. The combined turbine that consists of two Darrieus and Savonius blades was tested in wind tunnel test section with constant wind velocity and its performance was assessed in terms of power and torque coefficients. The study gives the effect of the radius ratio between Savonius and Darrieus rotor on the performance of the turbine. The results show that there is a significant influence on the turbine performance if the radius ratio was changed.

  10. Measurement of humerus and radius bone mineral content in the term and preterm infant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyhmeister, N.R.; Linkhart, T.A.

    1988-01-01

    We compared two anatomic sites for single-photon absorptiometric measurement of bone mineral content (BMC) in term and preterm infants. The distal one third of the radius and the midportion of the humerus were evaluated for measurements of BMC with an unmodified, commercially available bone densitometer. We assessed reproducibility of BMC and bone width (BW) measurements and defined normal at-birth ranges of BMC, BW, and BMC/BW ratio for infants with gestational ages of 24 to 42 weeks. Humerus BMC correlated with gestational age, birth weight, and BW of patients and did not differ from humerus BMC values determined over the same range of gestational ages at another center. Representative serial measurements of two very low birth weight (VLBW) infants are presented to demonstrate the feasibility of using humerus BMC in longitudinal studies to assess changes in bone mineralization. We conclude that bone densitometer measurements of mid-humerus BMC can be successfully performed and are preferable to similar measurements of the radius for VLBW infants. Normal humerus BMC values were defined for use in diagnosis and evaluation of the efficacy of treatment in VLBW infants who are at high risk of developing osteopenia of prematurity

  11. Neutron-Star Radius from a Population of Binary Neutron Star Mergers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Sukanta; Chakravarti, Kabir; Rezzolla, Luciano; Sathyaprakash, B S; Takami, Kentaro

    2018-01-19

    We show how gravitational-wave observations with advanced detectors of tens to several tens of neutron-star binaries can measure the neutron-star radius with an accuracy of several to a few percent, for mass and spatial distributions that are realistic, and with none of the sources located within 100 Mpc. We achieve such an accuracy by combining measurements of the total mass from the inspiral phase with those of the compactness from the postmerger oscillation frequencies. For estimating the measurement errors of these frequencies, we utilize analytical fits to postmerger numerical relativity waveforms in the time domain, obtained here for the first time, for four nuclear-physics equations of state and a couple of values for the mass. We further exploit quasiuniversal relations to derive errors in compactness from those frequencies. Measuring the average radius to well within 10% is possible for a sample of 100 binaries distributed uniformly in volume between 100 and 300 Mpc, so long as the equation of state is not too soft or the binaries are not too heavy. We also give error estimates for the Einstein Telescope.

  12. Fiber Z-pinch experiments and calculations in the finite Larmor radius regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haines, M.G.; Dangor, A.E.; Coppins, M.

    1996-01-01

    The dense Z-pinch project at Imperial College is aimed at achieving radiative collapse to high density in a hydrogen plasma, and also to study plasmas close to controlled fusion conditions. To this end, the MAGPIE generator (2.4 MV, 1.25 Ω, and 200 ns) has been built and tested, and is now giving preliminary experimental data at 60% of full voltage for carbon and CD 2 fibers. These discharges are characterized by an initial radial expansion followed by the occurrence of m = 0 structures with transient X-ray emission from bright spots. Late in the discharge a disruption can occur, accompanied by hard X-ray emission from the anode due to an energetic electron beam and, in the case of CD 2 fibers, a neutron burst. Concomitant theoretical studies have solved the linear stability problem for a Z-pinch with large ion Larmor radii, showing that a reduction in growth rate of m = 0 and m = 1 modes to about 20% of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) value can occur for a parabolic density profile when the Larmor radius is optimally 20% of the pinch radius. Two-dimensional MHD simulations of Z-pinches in two extremes of focussed short-pulse laser-plasma interactions and of galactic jets reveal a nonlinear stabilizing effect in the presence of sheared flow. One-dimensional simulations show that at low line density the lower hybrid drift instability can lead to coronal radial expansion of a Z-pinch plasma. (Author)

  13. Clinical study evaluating bone mineral mass in the radius during skeletal growth. Single photon absorptiometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagino, Hiroshi

    1989-01-01

    Using 125-I single photon absorptiometry, bone mineral measurements were performed on 206 healthy Japanese children (2 to 19 years of age). Bone mineral content (BMC), bone width (BW) and BMC/BW values were determined for the radius at distal 1/6 site (metaphysis) and distal 1/3 site (diaphysis). BMC/BW values at both sites correlated well with body height and weight. Bone mass in the diaphysis (distal 1/3 site) increased linearly during the 2-19 years of skeletal growth, but bone mass in the metaphysis (1/6 site) increased steeply during the pubertal period. In children receiving glucocorticoid therapy, bone mass was reduced in proportion to the duration of drug administration. In children under anticonvulsant therapy, the yearly increse in bone mass was significantly low especially in those patients with poor physical activity levels. Bone mineral decrease in the radius occurred in the children with hypopituitalism, hypothyroidism (cretinism), hyperthyroidism and Turner's syndrome.

  14. Nodule detection in digital chest radiography: Introduction to the radius chest trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baath, M.; Haakansson, M.; Boerjesson, S.; Kheddache, S.; Grahn, A.; Ruschin, M.; Tingberg, A.; Mattsson, S.; Maansson, L. G.

    2005-01-01

    Most digital radiographic systems of today have wide latitude and are hence able to provide images with a small constraint on dose level. This opens up for an unprejudiced dose optimisation. However, in order to succeed in the optimisation task, good knowledge of the imaging and detection processes is needed. As a part of the European-wide research project 'unification of physical and clinical requirements for medical X-ray imaging - governed by the Radiological Imaging Unification Strategies (RADIUS) Group - a major image quality trial was conducted by members of the group. The RADIUS chest trial was focused on the detection of lung nodules in digital chest radiography with the aims of determining to what extent (1) the detection of a nodule is dependent on its location, (2) the system noise disturbs the detection of lung nodules, (3) the anatomical noise disturbs the detection of lung nodules and (4) the image background and anatomical background act as pure noise for the detection of lung nodules. The purpose of the present paper is to give an introduction to the trial and describe the framework and set-up of the investigation. (authors)

  15. Treatment of unstable distal radius fractures with Ilizarov circular, nonbridging external fixator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyllianakis, Minos; Mylonas, Spyros; Saridis, Alkis; Kallivokas, Alkiviadis; Kouzelis, Antonis; Megas, Panagiotis

    2010-03-01

    Unstable distal radius fractures remain a challenge for the treating orthopaedic surgeon. We present a retrospective follow-up study (mean follow-up 12.5 months) of 20 patients with 21 unstable distal radius fractures that were reduced in a closed manner and stabilized with a nonbridging Ilizarov external fixator. Subsequent insertion of olive wires for interfragmentary compression was performed in cases with intra-articular fractures. According to the overall evaluation proposed by Gartland and Werley scoring system 12 wrists were classified as excellent, 6 as good, 2 as fair and 1 as poor. Grade II pin-tract infection in distal fracture fragment was detected in 3 wires from a total of 78 (3.8%) and in 4 half pins out of a total of 9 (44.4%). Pronation was the most frequently impaired movement. This was restricted in 4 patients (19%) in whom a radioulnar transfixing wire was applied. Symptoms of irritation of superficial sensory branch of the radial nerve occurred in 3 patients with an olive wire applied in a closed manner in the distal fragment. Ilizarov method yields functional results comparable to that of other methods whilst it avoids wrist immobilization, open reduction and reoperation for implant removal. The method is associated with a low rate of major complication and satisfactory functional outcome. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Analyzing the effect of tool edge radius on cutting temperature in micro-milling process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Y. C.; Yang, K.; Zheng, K. N.; Bai, Q. S.; Chen, W. Q.; Sun, G. Y.

    2010-10-01

    Cutting heat is one of the important physical subjects in the cutting process. Cutting heat together with cutting temperature produced by the cutting process will directly have effects on the tool wear and the life as well as on the workpiece processing precision and surface quality. The feature size of the workpiece is usually several microns. Thus, the tiny changes of cutting temperature will affect the workpiece on the surface quality and accuracy. Therefore, cutting heat and temperature generated in micro-milling will have significantly different effect than the one in the traditional tools cutting. In this paper, a two-dimensional coupled thermal-mechanical finite element model is adopted to determine thermal fields and cutting temperature during the Micro-milling process, by using software Deform-2D. The effect of tool edge radius on effective stress, effective strain, velocity field and cutting temperature distribution in micro-milling of aluminum alloy Al2024-T6 were investigated and analyzed. Also, the transient cutting temperature distribution was simulated dynamically. The simulation results show that the cutting temperature in Micro-milling is lower than those occurring in conventional milling processes due to the small loads and low cutting velocity. With increase of tool edge radius, the maximum temperature region gradually occurs on the contact region between finished surfaced and flank face of micro-cutter, instead of the rake face or the corner of micro-cutter. And this phenomenon shows an obvious size effect.

  17. WHAT IS THE BEST RADIOGRAPHIC VIEW FOR "DIE PUNCH" DISTAL RADIUS FRACTURES? A CADAVER MODEL STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcochio, Diego Figueira; Crepaldi, Bruno Eiras; Trindade, Christiano Augusto; da Costa, Antonio Carlos; Chakkour, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    the aim of this study is try to show the best view for distal radius fractures so called die-punch fractures. There has been used a human cadaver radius bone from the Salvador Arena Tissue Bank. This bone was cleaned up after removing the soft tissues and osteotomies created displaced lunate fossa fractures of 0, 1, 2, 3 and 5 mm. We have fixed this fragment with adhesive tape. Then the joint deviation were significantly increased with step-offs of 1 mm. Radiographs were then taken into 5 different positions: postero-anterior view, lateral view, oblique views and tangencial view for each of the deviations. The resulting lunate fossa depression in each X-ray film was analyzed by the AutoCAD 2010® software. The tangencial view was the best one to see the 1mm and 3mm bone degrees and the second one view to see the 2mm and 5 mm degrees. The pronated oblique view was the best to see the 2mm degrees and the oblique supinated view wasn't able to see the degrees between 1 and 2mm. The tangencial view was the best one to see the 1mm and 3mm bone degrees and the second one view to see the 2mm and 5 mm degrees.

  18. Risk Factors Associated With Survival to Hospital Discharge of 54 Horses With Fractures of the Radius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Suzanne; Richardson, Dean; Boston, Ray; Schaer, Thomas P

    2015-11-01

    To determine (1) survival to discharge of horses with radial fractures (excluding osteochondral fragmentation of the distal aspect of the radius and stress fractures); and (2) risk factors affecting survival to hospital discharge in conservative and surgically managed fractures. Case series. Horses (n = 54). Medical records (1990-June 2012) and radiographs of horses admitted with radial fracture were reviewed. Horses with osteochondral fragmentation of the distal aspect of the radius or stress fractures were excluded. Evaluated risk factors were age, fracture configuration, surgical repair method, surgical duration, hospitalization time, implant failure rate, and surgical site infection (SSI) rate. Of 54 horses, overall survival to discharge was 50%. Thirteen (24%) were euthanatized on admission because of (1) fracture severity; (2) presence of an open fracture; or (3) financial constraints. Fourteen (26%) horses with minimally displaced incomplete fractures were conservatively managed and 12 (86%) survived to discharge. Twenty-seven (50%) horses had surgical treatment by open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) and 15 (56%) survived to hospital discharge. Open fractures were significantly more likely to develop SSI (P = .008), which also resulted in a 17-fold increase in implant failure (P horses with an open fracture did not survive to discharge. Outcome was also adversely affected by age (P 168 minutes (P fractures is good. Young horses have a good prognosis survival to discharge for ORIF, whereas ORIF in adult horses has a poor prognosis and SSI strongly correlates with catastrophic implant failure. © Copyright 2015 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  19. Examination of Skill Acquisition and Grader Bias in a Distal Radius Fracture Fixation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Matthew D; Adams, Julie E; Lender, Paul; Van Heest, Ann E; Shanedling, Janet R; Nuckley, David J; Bechtold, Joan E

    2018-03-01

    Primary: Assess the ability of faculty graders to predict the objectively measured strength of distal radius fracture fixation. Secondary: Compare resident skill variation and retention related to other knowable training data. Residents were allowed 60 minutes to stabilize a standardized distal radius fracture using an assigned fixed-angle volar plate. Faculty observed and subjectively graded the residents without providing real-time feedback. Objective biomechanical evaluation (construct strength and stiffness) was compared to subjective grades. Resident-specific characteristics (sex, PGY, and ACGME case log) were also used to compare the objective data. A simulated operating room in our laboratory. Post-graduate year 2, 3, 4, and 5 orthopedic residents. Primary: Faculty were not successful at predicting objectively measured fixation, and their subjective scoring suggests confirmation bias as PGY increased. Secondary: Resident year-in-training alone did not predict objective measures (p = 0.53), but was predictive of subjective scores (p external faculty unfamiliar with tested residents, might alter these results. Copyright © 2018 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Rheumatoid arthritis disease activity and disability affect the risk of serious infection events in RADIUS 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Arthur; Troum, Orrin; Hooper, Michele; Koenig, Andrew S; Chaudhari, Sandeep; Feng, Jingyuan; Wenkert, Deborah

    2013-08-01

    To determine whether disease activity and disability independently correlate with serious infection event (SIE) risk in a large rheumatoid arthritis (RA) cohort. The associations between SIE and Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI) and Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ-DI) in the Rheumatoid Arthritis Disease-Modifying Antirheumatic Drug Intervention and Utilization Study (RADIUS 1) cohort were evaluated using the Andersen-Gill model (a proportional HR model allowing > 1 event per patient). Of 4084 patients with 347 SIE, 271 patients experienced ≥ 1 SIE. A 5-unit CDAI increase and 0.4-unit HAQ-DI increase corresponded to an increase in SIE risk with and without covariate adjustments. A 5-unit CDAI increase corresponded with a 7.7% increased SIE risk (adjusted HR 1.077, 95% CI 1.044-1.112, p < 0.0001) and a 0.4-unit HAQ-DI increase with a 30.1% increased risk (adjusted HR 1.301, 95% CI 1.225-1.381, p < 0.0001). Categorical analysis showed that more severe RA activity (even after controlling for disability) and disability were associated with an increased SIE risk. Increased RA disease activity and disability were each associated with a significantly increased SIE risk in the RADIUS 1 cohort, which could not be completely accounted for by disability.

  1. Arthroscopic knotless anchor repair of triangular fibrocartilage in distal radius fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ruano, Á A; Najarro-Cid, F; Jiménez-Martín, A; Gómez de los Infantes-Troncoso, J G; Sicre-González, M

    2015-01-01

    Lesions of triangular fibrocartilage (TFC) are associated with distal radioulnar joint instability. Arthroscopic treatment of these lesions improves functional outcome of affected patients. The aim of the present work is to evaluate functional and occupational outcome of TCF repair using an arthroscopic knotless anchor device in patients with associated distal radius fracture. An observational, descriptive study was carried out between November 2011 and January 2014 including 21 patients with distal radius fracture and Palmer 1B lesions of TCF (Atzei class 2 and 3) that were treated by arthroscopic knotless anchor (PopLok® 2,8mm, ConMed, USA). Mean follow-up was 18 months. Functional (Mayo Wrist Score) and occupational outcome results were analyzed. Mean age of the group was 43.0±8.8 years, with 19% of the patients being female. There was an associated scapholunate lesion in 5 cases. Functional results reached a mean of 83.4±16.1 points onMayo Wrist Score. Mean sick-leave time was 153.16±48.5 days. Complete occupational reintegration was reached in 89.5% of cases. There were no postoperative complications. Arthroscopic knotless anchor repair of 1B TFC tears is a minimally invasive method of treatment that improves tension of fixation, avoiding subsequent loosen, in our experience, with few complications and good functional and occupational results. Copyright © 2014 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Aerodynamic performance investigation on waverider with variable blunt radius in hypersonic flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shibin; Wang, Zhenguo; Huang, Wei; Xu, Shenren; Yan, Li

    2017-08-01

    Waverider is an important candidate for the design of hypersonic vehicles. However, the ideal waverider cannot be manufactured because of its sharp leading edge, so the leading edge should be blunted. In the paper, the HMB solver and laminar flow model have been utilized to obtain the flow field properties around the blunt waverider with the freestream Mach number being 8.0, and several novel strategies have been suggested to improve the aerodynamic performance of blunt waverider. The numerical method has been validated against experimental data, and the Stanton number(St) of the predicted result has been analyzed. The obtained results show good agreement with the experimental data. Stmax decreases by 58% and L/D decreases by 8.2% when the blunt radius increases from 0.0002 m to 0.001 m. ;Variable blunt waverider; is a good compromise for aerodynamic performance and thermal insulation. The aero-heating characteristics are very sensitive to Rmax. The position of the smallest blunt radius has a great effect on the aerodynamic performance. In addition, the type of blunt leading edge has a great effect on the aero-heating characteristics when Rmax is fixed. Therefore, out of several designs, Type 4is the best way to achieve the good overall performance. The ;Variable blunt waverider; not only improves the aerodynamic performance, but also makes the aero-heating become evenly-distributed, leading to better aero-heating characteristics.

  3. Complications of resection and reconstruction in giant cell tumour of distal end of radius - An analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saraf S

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The bulk of literature on the subject focuses on the resection of the tumor followed by reconstruction using autologous fibula, however, papers analyzing the failures of this procedure are scanty. The aim is to analyze the various factors responsible for the failures. Methods: Study included 42 patients of aggressive GCT of distal radius, resected and reconstructed using nonvascularised autologous fibula. Host graft junction was fixed using screws (6, intramedullary nail (21 and plate (15. The minimum follow-up was 2 years or till a complication occurred requiring second surgery. Result: The major complications were recurrence in 6 cases (spillage of tumor tissue in 3, poor biopsy site 2, recurrence along the nail tract one case; failure of host graft union in 8 cases due to inadequate contact at host graft junction, poor implant selection, inadequate immobilization and infection; significant instability at wrist in 6 cases due to poor stabilization at carpo fibular junction in addition to inherent instability due to poor congruity between fibulocarpal articulations. Conclusion: Reconstruction of distal end of radius using auto fibula has much higher complication rates than usually believed. A meticulous planning and its execution is must to minimize the problems. Use of dynamic plate for host graft junction and fixation of fibular head to adjacent ulna/carpal bones improves the results.

  4. Constraints on the outer radius of the broad emission line region of active galactic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landt, Hermine; Ward, Martin J.; Elvis, Martin; Karovska, Margarita

    2014-03-01

    Here we present observational evidence that the broad emission line region (BELR) of active galactic nuclei (AGN) generally has an outer boundary. This was already clear for sources with an obvious transition between the broad and narrow components of their emission lines. We show that the narrow component of the higher-order Paschen lines is absent in all sources, revealing a broad emission line profile with a broad, flat top. This indicates that the BELR is kinematically separate from the narrow emission line region. We use the virial theorem to estimate the BELR outer radius from the flat top width of the unblended profiles of the strongest Paschen lines, Paα and Paβ, and find that it scales with the ionizing continuum luminosity roughly as expected from photoionization theory. The value of the incident continuum photon flux resulting from this relationship corresponds to that required for dust sublimation. A flat-topped broad emission line profile is produced by both a spherical gas distribution in orbital motion and an accretion disc wind if the ratio between the BELR outer and inner radius is assumed to be less than ˜100-200. On the other hand, a pure Keplerian disc can be largely excluded, since for most orientations and radial extents of the disc the emission line profile is double-horned.

  5. Measurement Of Neutron Radius In Lead By Parity Violating Scattering Flash ADC DAQ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Zafar [Christopher Newport Univ., Newport News, VA (United States)

    2012-06-01

    This dissertation reports the experiment PREx, a parity violation experiment which is designed to measure the neutron radius in 208Pb. PREx is performed in hall A of Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility from March 19th to June 21st. Longitudionally polarized electrons at energy 1 GeV scattered at and angle of θlab = 5.8 ° from the Lead target. Beam corrected pairty violaing counting rate asymmetry is (Acorr= 594 ± 50(stat) ± 9(syst))ppb at Q2 = 0.009068GeV 2. This dissertation also presents the details of Flash ADC Data Acquisition(FADC DAQ) system for Moller polarimetry in Hall A of Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. The Moller polarimeter measures the beam polarization to high precision to meet the specification of the PREx(Lead radius experiment). The FADC DAQ is part of the upgrade of Moller polarimetery to reduce the systematic error for PREx. The hardware setup and the results of the FADC DAQ analysis are presented

  6. Hummingbirds control turning velocity using body orientation and turning radius using asymmetrical wingbeat kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Tyson J G; Segre, Paolo S; Middleton, Kevin M; Altshuler, Douglas L

    2016-03-01

    Turning in flight requires reorientation of force, which birds, bats and insects accomplish either by shifting body position and total force in concert or by using left-right asymmetries in wingbeat kinematics. Although both mechanisms have been observed in multiple species, it is currently unknown how each is used to control changes in trajectory. We addressed this problem by measuring body and wingbeat kinematics as hummingbirds tracked a revolving feeder, and estimating aerodynamic forces using a quasi-steady model. During arcing turns, hummingbirds symmetrically banked the stroke plane of both wings, and the body, into turns, supporting a body-dependent mechanism. However, several wingbeat asymmetries were present during turning, including a higher and flatter outer wingtip path and a lower more deviated inner wingtip path. A quasi-steady analysis of arcing turns performed with different trajectories revealed that changes in radius were associated with asymmetrical kinematics and forces, and changes in velocity were associated with symmetrical kinematics and forces. Collectively, our results indicate that both body-dependent and -independent force orientation mechanisms are available to hummingbirds, and that these kinematic strategies are used to meet the separate aerodynamic challenges posed by changes in velocity and turning radius. © 2016 The Author(s).

  7. Study on the Optimal Equivalent Radius in Calculating the Heat Dissipation of Surrounding Rock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. T. Song

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The heat dissipation of surrounding rock of a non-circular roadway is computed using an equivalent circular roadway approach under three circumstances when the area, perimeter, or hydraulic diameter of the circular roadway is equal to the non-circular roadway to obtain the optimal equivalent radius. The differential equations of heat conduction for unstable surrounding rock are established in cylindrical and rectangular coordinate systems using dimensionless analysis method. The calculation formulas of heat dissipation capacity and heat transfer resistance are derived from differential equations. Based on the method of equivalent radius, the similarities and differences between non-circular and circular roadways in calculating the heat dissipation of surrounding rock are discussed. Using the finite volume method, the calculation models for non-circular and circular roadways in the heat dissipation of surrounding rock are also established, among the non-circular roadways including three circumstances, namely, trapezoid, rectangle, and arch. The relation errors of heat dissipation of the surrounding rock of the three equivalent circular roadway methods are investigated for the three non-circular roadways. Results show that the calculation approach with equal perimeters is the best for the heat dissipation of surrounding rock of non-circular roadways.

  8. M DWARF LUMINOSITY, RADIUS, AND α-ENRICHMENT FROM I-BAND SPECTRAL FEATURES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrien, Ryan C.; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Bender, Chad F.; Deshpande, Rohit; Robertson, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Despite the ubiquity of M dwarfs and their growing importance to studies of exoplanets, Galactic evolution, and stellar structure, methods for precisely measuring their fundamental stellar properties remain elusive. Existing techniques for measuring M dwarf luminosity, mass, radius, or composition are calibrated over a limited range of stellar parameters or require expensive observations. We find a strong correlation between the K S -band luminosity (M K ), the observed strength of the I-band sodium doublet absorption feature, and [Fe/H] in M dwarfs without strong Hα emission. We show that the strength of this feature, coupled with [Fe/H] and spectral type, can be used to derive M dwarf M K and radius without requiring parallax. Additionally, we find promising evidence that the strengths of the I-band sodium doublet and the nearby I-band calcium triplet may jointly indicate α-element enrichment. The use of these I-band features requires only moderate-resolution near-infrared spectroscopy to provide valuable information about the potential habitability of exoplanets around M dwarfs, and surface gravity and distance for M dwarfs throughout the Galaxy. This technique has immediate applicability for both target selection and candidate planet–host system characterization for exoplanet missions such as TESS and K2

  9. Effect of nose radius on forces, and process parameters in hot machining of Inconel 718 using finite element analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asit Kumar Parida

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the variation of nose radius on forces, cutting temperature, stress, has been studied using finite element modeling in hot turning operation of Inconel 718. Three values of nose radius were taken (0.4, 0.8 and 1.2 mm. Cutting force, thrust force, stress, and cutting temperature have been predicted using commercial DEFORM™ software at different cutting tool nose radius in both room and heated conditions. With the increase of tool nose radius in both room and elevated machining conditions the cutting force and thrust force increased. The cutting temperature, chip thickness and chip tool contact length also have been studied. In order to validate the numerical results an experimental analysis has been performed and good agreement between them has been observed

  10. The correlation of initial radiographic characteristics of distal radius fractures and injuries of the triangular fibrocartilage complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasapinova, K; Kamiloski, V

    2016-06-01

    Our purpose was to determine the correlation of initial radiographic parameters of a distal radius fracture with an injury of the triangular fibrocartilage complex. In a prospective study, 85 patients with surgically treated distal radius fractures were included. Wrist arthroscopy was used to identify and classify triangular fibrocartilage complex lesions. The initial radial length and angulation, dorsal angulation, ulnar variance and distal radioulnar distance were measured. Wrist arthroscopy identified a triangular fibrocartilage complex lesion in 45 patients. Statistical analysis did not identify a correlation with any single radiographic parameter of the distal radius fractures with the associated triangular fibrocartilage complex injuries. The initial radiograph of a distal radius fracture does not predict a triangular fibrocartilage complex injury. III. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Approximate solutions for radial travel time and capture zone in unconfined aquifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yangxiao; Haitjema, Henk

    2012-01-01

    Radial time-of-travel (TOT) capture zones have been evaluated for unconfined aquifers with and without recharge. The solutions of travel time for unconfined aquifers are rather complex and have been replaced with much simpler approximate solutions without significant loss of accuracy in most practical cases. The current "volumetric method" for calculating the radius of a TOT capture zone assumes no recharge and a constant aquifer thickness. It was found that for unconfined aquifers without recharge, the volumetric method leads to a smaller and less protective wellhead protection zone when ignoring drawdowns. However, if the saturated thickness near the well is used in the volumetric method a larger more protective TOT capture zone is obtained. The same is true when the volumetric method is used in the presence of recharge. However, for that case it leads to unreasonableness over the prediction of a TOT capture zone of 5 years or more. © 2011, The Author(s). Ground Water © 2011, National Ground Water Association.

  12. Visual Field Asymmetry in Attentional Capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Feng; Abrams, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the spatial distribution of involuntary attentional capture over the two visual hemi-fields. A new experiment, and an analysis of three previous experiments showed that distractors in the left visual field that matched a sought-for target in color produced a much larger capture effect than identical distractors in the…

  13. Capturing, annotating and reflecting video footage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckardt, Max Roald; Wagner, Johannes

    A presentation of interaction field data capturing setups for uninterrupted long term capturing. Two setups were described: the AMU forklift driving school with 17 cameras and the Digital Days 2016 at University College Nord in Aalborg with 16 kameras, 14 audio recorders, and two HDMI recorders....

  14. Atomic capture of negative mesons in hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, M.

    1979-01-01

    After a brief description of the present state of theoretical understanding of atomic capture of negative mesons, a very simple model calculation of negative muon capture by the simplest atoms, hydrogen is described. Also the possibility of generalizing these results to more complicated atoms and even molecules is noted. 15 references

  15. Contingent Attentional Capture by Conceptually Relevant Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyble, Brad; Folk, Charles; Potter, Mary C.

    2013-01-01

    Attentional capture is an unintentional shift of visuospatial attention to the location of a distractor that is either highly salient, or relevant to the current task set. The latter situation is referred to as contingent capture, in that the effect is contingent on a match between characteristics of the stimuli and the task-defined…

  16. Screen captures to support switching attention.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gellevij, M.R.M.; van der Meij, Hans

    2002-01-01

    The study set out to validate the supportive role of screen captures for switching attention. Forty-two participants learned how to work with Microsoft Excel with a paper manual. There were three types of manuals: a textual manual, a visual manual with full-screen captures, and a visual manual with

  17. Capture, transport and storage of CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Boer, B.

    2008-01-01

    The emission of greenhouse gas CO2 in industrial processes and electricity production can be reduced on a large scale. Available techniques include post-combustion, pre-combustion, the oxy-fuel process, CO2 fixation in industrial processes and CO2 mineralization. In the Netherlands, plans for CO2 capture are not developing rapidly (CCS - carbon capture and storage). [mk] [nl

  18. Carbon capture by hybrid separation processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Benthum, R.J.; van Kemenade, H.P.; Brouwers, J.J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Even though there is an increasing development of carbon capture technology over the last decade, large-scale implementation is still far from common practice, mainly caused by the energy intensiveness of carbon capture processes and the lack of regulation. In absence of strict regulation, less

  19. Optimizing variable radius plot size and LiDAR resolution to model standing volume in conifer forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram Kumar Deo; Robert E. Froese; Michael J. Falkowski; Andrew T. Hudak

    2016-01-01

    The conventional approach to LiDAR-based forest inventory modeling depends on field sample data from fixed-radius plots (FRP). Because FRP sampling is cost intensive, combining variable-radius plot (VRP) sampling and LiDAR data has the potential to improve inventory efficiency. The overarching goal of this study was to evaluate the integration of LiDAR and VRP data....

  20. Confusion noise from LISA capture sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barack, Leor; Cutler, Curt

    2004-01-01

    Captures of compact objects (COs) by massive black holes (MBHs) in galactic nuclei will be an important source for LISA, the proposed space-based gravitational wave (GW) detector. However, a large fraction of captures will not be individually resolvable - either because they are too distant, have unfavorable orientation, or have too many years to go before final plunge - and so will constitute a source of 'confusion noise', obscuring other types of sources. In this paper we estimate the shape and overall magnitude of the GW background energy spectrum generated by CO captures. This energy spectrum immediately translates to a spectral density S h capt (f) for the amplitude of capture-generated GWs registered by LISA. The overall magnitude of S h capt (f) is linear in the CO capture rates, which are rather uncertain; therefore we present results for a plausible range of rates. S h capt (f) includes the contributions from both resolvable and unresolvable captures, and thus represents an upper limit on the confusion noise level. We then estimate what fraction of S h capt (f) is due to unresolvable sources and hence constitutes confusion noise. We find that almost all of the contribution to S h capt (f) coming from white dwarf and neutron star captures, and at least ∼30% of the contribution from black hole captures, is from sources that cannot be individually resolved. Nevertheless, we show that the impact of capture confusion noise on the total LISA noise curve ranges from insignificant to modest, depending on the rates. Capture rates at the high end of estimated ranges would raise LISA's overall (effective) noise level [fS h eff (f)] 1/2 by at most a factor ∼2 in the frequency range 1-10 mHz, where LISA is most sensitive. While this slightly elevated noise level would somewhat decrease LISA's sensitivity to other classes of sources, we argue that, overall, this would be a pleasant problem for LISA to have: It would also imply that detection rates for CO captures