WorldWideScience

Sample records for greater bay area

  1. Breast cancer characteristics of Vietnamese women in the Greater San Francisco Bay Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Scarlett S; Phan, John C; Lin, Albert Y

    2002-03-01

    To examine breast cancer characteristics of women of Vietnamese ancestry living in the San Francisco Bay Area in comparison with those of other racial or ethnic groups in the same area. Data were obtained from the population-based Greater Bay Area Cancer Registry, part of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program. We included breast cancer cases diagnosed from 1988 to 1999 and compared the age at diagnosis, stage and histologic grade at diagnosis, estrogen- and progesterone-receptor status, and surgery types across racial or ethnic groups. We also modeled the effect of patient and clinical characteristics and hospital and physician on the racial or ethnic variations in surgery type. Vietnamese women were younger at diagnosis than other racial or ethnic subgroups (mean age, 51.0 years), with 49.6% of the diagnoses occurring in patients younger than 50. They were also significantly more likely to have received mastectomy for their in situ and localized tumors (61.1% having mastectomy) than women of other racial or ethnic groups. The increased likelihood of having mastectomy among Vietnamese women was not affected greatly by age, year of diagnosis, tumor stage, histologic grade, or physician, but was partly attributable to the hospital of diagnosis. The effects of a lower mean age at diagnosis and the reasons for an unexpectedly higher percentage of mastectomies in this Asian subgroup should be further explored.

  2. Serum biomarkers of polyfluoroalkyl compound exposure in young girls in Greater Cincinnati and the San Francisco Bay Area, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinney, Susan M.; Biro, Frank M.; Windham, Gayle C.; Herrick, Robert L.; Yaghjyan, Lusine; Calafat, Antonia M.; Succop, Paul; Sucharew, Heidi; Ball, Kathleen M.; Kato, Kayoko

    2014-01-01

    PFC serum concentrations were measured in 6–8 year-old girls in Greater Cincinnati (GC) (N = 353) and the San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA) (N = 351). PFOA median concentration was lower in the SFBA than GC (5.8 vs. 7.3 ng/mL). In GC, 48/51 girls living in one area had PFOA concentrations above the NHANES 95th percentile for children 12–19 years (8.4 ng/mL), median 22.0 ng/mL. The duration of being breast fed was associated with higher serum PFOA at both sites and with higher PFOS, PFHxS and Me-PFOSA-AcOH concentrations in GC. Correlations of the PFC analytes with each other suggest that a source upriver from GC may have contributed to exposures through drinking water, and water treatment with granular activated carbon filtration resulted in less exposure for SWO girls compared to those in NKY. PFOA has been characterized as a drinking water contaminant, and water treatment systems effective in removing PFCs will reduce body burdens. -- Highlights: • PFC serum concentrations were measured in 6–8 year-old girls. • Study sites in Greater Cincinnati (N = 353) and the San Francisco Bay Area (N = 351). • The duration of being breast fed was associated with higher serum PFOA. • Lower PFOA in girls living in areas with granular activated carbon water treatment. -- Serum concentrations of PFCs in young girls were higher in girls who had been breast fed longer, and lower in girls in areas with granular activated carbon municipal water treatment

  3. Urban Greening Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the San Francisco Bay Water Quality Project (SFBWQP) Urban Greening Bay Area, a large-scale effort to re-envision urban landscapes to include green infrastructure (GI) making communities more livable and reducing stormwater runoff.

  4. San Francisco Bay Interferometric Bathymetry: Area B

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — High resolution sonar data were collected over ultra-shallow areas of the San Francisco Bay estuary system. Bathymetric and acoustic backscatter data were collected...

  5. ASTER Images San Francisco Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    These images of the San Francisco Bay region were acquired on March 3, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. Each covers an area 60 kilometers (37 miles) wide and 75 kilometers (47 miles) long. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image the Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.Upper Left: The color infrared composite uses bands in the visible and reflected infrared. Vegetation is red, urban areas are gray; sediment in the bays shows up as lighter shades of blue. Thanks to the 15 meter (50-foot) spatial resolution, shadows of the towers along the Bay Bridge can be seen.Upper right: A composite of bands in the short wave infrared displays differences in soils and rocks in the mountainous areas. Even though these regions appear entirely vegetated in the visible, enough surface shows through openings in the vegetation to allow the ground to be imaged.Lower left: This composite of multispectral thermal bands shows differences in urban materials in varying colors. Separation of materials is due to differences in thermal emission properties, analogous to colors in the visible.Lower right: This is a color coded temperature image of water temperature, derived from the thermal bands. Warm waters are in white and yellow, colder waters are blue. Suisun Bay in the upper right is fed directly from the cold Sacramento River. As the water flows through San Pablo and San Francisco Bays on the way to the Pacific, the waters warm up.Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for

  6. Evaluating Bay Area Methane Emission Inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Marc [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Jeong, Seongeun [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    As a regulatory agency, evaluating and improving estimates of methane (CH4) emissions from the San Francisco Bay Area is an area of interest to the Bay Area Air Quality Management District (BAAQMD). Currently, regional, state, and federal agencies generally estimate methane emissions using bottom-up inventory methods that rely on a combination of activity data, emission factors, biogeochemical models and other information. Recent atmospheric top-down measurement estimates of methane emissions for the US as a whole (e.g., Miller et al., 2013) and in California (e.g., Jeong et al., 2013; Peischl et al., 2013) have shown inventories underestimate total methane emissions by ~ 50% in many areas of California, including the SF Bay Area (Fairley and Fischer, 2015). The goal of this research is to provide information to help improve methane emission estimates for the San Francisco Bay Area. The research effort builds upon our previous work that produced methane emission maps for each of the major source sectors as part of the California Greenhouse Gas Emissions Measurement (CALGEM) project (http://calgem.lbl.gov/prior_emission.html; Jeong et al., 2012; Jeong et al., 2013; Jeong et al., 2014). Working with BAAQMD, we evaluate the existing inventory in light of recently published literature and revise the CALGEM CH4 emission maps to provide better specificity for BAAQMD. We also suggest further research that will improve emission estimates. To accomplish the goals, we reviewed the current BAAQMD inventory, and compared its method with those from the state inventory from the California Air Resources Board (CARB), the CALGEM inventory, and recent published literature. We also updated activity data (e.g., livestock statistics) to reflect recent changes and to better represent spatial information. Then, we produced spatially explicit CH4 emission estimates on the 1-km modeling grid used by BAAQMD. We present the detailed activity data, methods and derived emission maps by sector

  7. LiveDiverse: Case study area, Greater Kruger South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nortje, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Livelihoods and Biodiversity in Developing Countries Case study area: Greater Kruger, South Africa January 2011 Kolhapur, India Where are we? HARDSHIP LIVELIHOODS NATURE & BIODIVERSITY BELIEFS & CULTURAL PRACTISE threesansinv foursansinv onesansinv...

  8. Bristol Bay, Alaska Subarea ESI: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive human-use data for Critical Habitats, Wildlife Refuges, National Park lands, and other management areas in the Bristol Bay Subarea....

  9. San Francisco Bay Multi-beam Bathymetry: Area A

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These multi-beam bathymetric data were collected over shallow subtidal areas in the San Francisco Bay estuary system. Bathymetric and acoustic backscatter data were...

  10. San Francisco Bay Interferometric Side Scan Imagery: Area A

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Backscatter imagery data were collected over shallow subtidal areas in the San Francisco Bay estuary system. Bathymetric and acoustic backscatter data were collected...

  11. Creating Safe Growth Strategies for the San Francisco Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report from a technical assistance project with the Association of Bay Area Governments to develop strategies to ensure that growth in the region is resilient to hazards such as earthquakes and sea level rise, but also affordable and transit accessible.

  12. San Francisco Bay Area Baseline Trash Loading Summary Results, San Francisco Bay Area CA, 2012, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The San Francisco Bay Area stormwater permit sets trash control guidelines for discharges through the storm drain system. The permit covers Alameda, Contra Costa,...

  13. Tectonic framework of the Hanoe Bay area, southern Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wannaes, K.O.; Floden, T.

    1994-06-01

    The tectonic framework and the general geologic development of the Hanoe Bay, from the Scanian coast in the west to south of Oeland in the east, has been investigated by means of reflection seismic methods. The Hanoe Bay is in this paper subdivided into four areas of different geologic settings. These are: 1) The Hanoe Bay slope, which forms a southward dipping continuation of the rigid Blekinge coastal plain. 2) The eastward dipping Kalmarsund Slope, which southwards from Oeland forms the western part of the Paleozoic Baltic Syneclise. 3) The Mesozoic Hanoe Bay Halfgraben, which forms the central and southern parts of the Hanoe Bay. The ongoing subsidence of the Halfgraben is estimated to be in the order of 20-60 m during the Quaternary. 4) The Yoldia Structural Element, which forms a deformed, tilted and possibly rotated block of Paleozoic bedrock located east of the Hanoe Bay Halfgraben. Two tectonic phases dominate the post-Paleozoic development of the Hanoe Bay, these are: 1) The Early Kimmerian phase, which initiated subsidence and reactivated older faults. 2) The Late Cretaceous phase, which is the main subsidence phase of the Hanoe Bay Halfgraben. The tectonic fault pattern of the Hanoe Bay is dominated by three directions, i.e. NW-SE, NE-SW and WNW-ESE. The two main tectonic elements of the area are the Kullen-Christiansoe Ridge System (NW-SE) and the Bornholm Gat Tectonic Zone (NE-SW). Sinistral strike-slip movements in order of 2-3 km are interpreted to have occurred along the Bornholm Gat Tectonic Zone during the late Cretaceous. 20 refs, 19 figs

  14. Use of renewable energy in the greater metropolitan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias Garcia, Rocio; Castro Gomez, Gustavo; Fallas Cordero, Kenneth; Grant Chaves, Samuel; Mendez Parrales, Tony; Parajeles Fernandez, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    A study is conducted on different renewable energy within the larger metropolitan area, selecting the most suitable for the area and the implementation for distributed generation. A research methodology is practiced type pretending gather the necessary information to make proposals selected of different type of energy. The geography of the greater metropolitan area is studied along with the different existing renewable energy: distributed generation, remote measurement of energy which is one of the elements of the concept of intelligent networks (Smart Grid) in the electricity sector, legislation of Costa Rica regarding the generation of renewable energy and environmental impact. An analysis of economic feasibility is covered for each of the proposals estimating current rates for leading distributors of a future value, concluding with the viability of projects for possible execution of the same. (author) [es

  15. The hydrogen village in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimmel, T.B.; Smith, R.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' A Hydrogen Village (H2V) is a public/private partnership with an objective to accelerate the commercialization of hydrogen and fuel cell technology in Canada and firmly position Canada as the international leader in this sector. The first Hydrogen Village is planned for the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) and will make use of existing hydrogen and fuel cell deployments to assist in its creation. This five year GTA Hydrogen Village program is planned to begin operations in 2004. The Hydrogen Village will demonstrate and deploy various hydrogen production and delivery techniques as well as fuel cells for stationary, transportation (mobile) and portable applications. This paper will provide an overview of the Hydrogen Village and identify the missions, objectives, members and progress within the H2V. (author)

  16. Conservation of biodiversity in the Sango Bay area, southern Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A series of biodiversity and socio-economic surveys carried out in the Sango Bay area of southern Uganda revealed high biodiversity values for some taxa in some sites. Use of this biodiversity and reliance on it by local communities was widespread. Biodiversity scores were given to all species and these were coupled with ...

  17. Solar for Your Present Home. San Francisco Bay Area Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnaby, Charles S.; And Others

    This publication provides information about present uses of solar energy for space, water, and swimming pool heating that are practical for the San Francisco Bay area. It attempts to provide interested persons with the information needed to make decisions regarding installations of solar heating systems. The point of view taken is that any…

  18. Interculturalism and Physical Cultural Diversity in the Greater Toronto Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuka Nakamura

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Greater Toronto Area (GTA is one of the most multicultural communities in the world. Frequently, this description is based on ethnic, linguistic, and culinary diversity. Physical cultural diversity, such as different sports, martial arts, forms of dance, exercise systems, and other physical games and activities, remains ignored and understudied. Based on a living database of the GTA’s physical cultural diversity, this study identifies the trajectories of the lifecycle of activities that have been introduced into the GTA’s physical culture by immigrants. These pathways differ based on whether the activity is offered in a separate setting, where individuals may be participating with other immigrants of the same ethnocultural group, or mixed settings, where people are participating with people from outside of their ethnocultural group. We argue that the diversity and the lifecycle trajectories of physical cultural forms in the GTA serve as evidence of interculturalism and the contribution by immigrants to the social and cultural life of Canada.

  19. Earthquakes and faults in the San Francisco Bay area (1970-2003)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Calzia, James P.; Walter, Stephen R.; Wong, Florence L.; Saucedo, George J.

    2004-01-01

    The map depicts both active and inactive faults and earthquakes magnitude 1.5 to 7.0 in the greater San Francisco Bay area. Twenty-two earthquakes magnitude 5.0 and greater are indicated on the map and listed chronologically in an accompanying table. The data are compiled from records from 1970-2003. The bathymetry was generated from a digital version of NOAA maps and hydrogeographic data for San Francisco Bay. Elevation data are from the USGS National Elevation Database. Landsat satellite image is from seven Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus scenes. Fault data are reproduced with permission from the California Geological Survey. The earthquake data are from the Northern California Earthquake Catalog.

  20. Deformed glacial deposits of Passamaquoddy Bay area, New Brunswick

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumarapeli, S.

    1990-03-01

    The New Brunswick-Maine border area, centred around Passamaquoddy Bay, is characterized by a distinctly higher level of seismic activity compared with the very low level background activity of the region. In this same general area, post-glacial deformation including faulting, has been observed in glaciofluvial and ice contact deposits and the possibility that these structures may in some way related to neotectonic movements in the area has been suggested. A study was undertaken to document these structures and to investigate their origin. The studies show that structures related to collapse of sediments due to melting of buried ice masses are the most prominent post-depositional structures in the glacial sediments. A second group of structures includes failure phenomena such as slumping. These require the action of a mechanism leading to reduction of sediment strength which could be achieved by seismic shaking. However, such failure phenomena could also be brought about by non-seismic processes, thus a unique interpretation of the origin of these structures is difficult, if not impossible. Since seismic shaking is the most effective, regionally extensive trigger of a broad group of failure phenomena in soft sediments, the related structures are usually spread over a large area, but are restricted to a very short time gap. Although the establishment of such space and time relationships may be feasible, for example in extensive lake deposits, it is difficult to do so in patchy laterally variable deposits such as the glacial deposits in Passamaquoddy Bay area

  1. Environmental Scan of the Greater Sacramento Area, 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Los Rios Community Coll. District, Sacramento, CA. Office of Planning and Research.

    This report provides a comprehensive look at the external environment impacting Los Rios Community College District (LRCCD) (California). It summarizes the social, economic, and political changes at the state and national levels, in general, and in the Sacramento-Yolo Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Area (CMSA) served by LRCCD, more…

  2. Greater Focus Needed on Alien Plant Impacts in Protected Areas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hulme, P. E.; Pyšek, Petr; Pergl, Jan; Jarošík, Vojtěch; Schaffner, U.; Vila, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 5 (2014), s. 459-466 ISSN 1755-263X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/11/1028 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : plant invasions * impact * protected areas Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 7.241, year: 2014

  3. Ospreys Use Bald Eagle Nests in Chesapeake Bay Area

    OpenAIRE

    Therres, Glenn D.; Chandler, Sheri K.

    1993-01-01

    Ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) and Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) share similar breeding habitat in the Chesapeake Bay area and elsewhere. The nests of these species are similar in size and appearance. Ospreys typically build large stick nests in dead trees or on man-made structures (C.J. Henny et al. 1974, Chesapeake Sci. 15:125-133; A.F. Poole 1989, Ospreys: a natural and unnatural history, Cambridge Univ. Press, NY), while Bald Eagles usually build larger nests in live trees (P.B. Woo...

  4. Petroleum possibilities of the James Bay Lowland area: Drilling in the James Bay Lowland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martison, N W

    1954-12-31

    Interest in the possible occurrence of petroleum and natural gas in the James Bay lowland arises from the presence there of Palaeozoic sedimentary formations resembling those in south-western Ontario. The first part of this report reviews earlier geologic surveys conducted in the lowland and reports results of field work and drill core studies 1946-51. It describes the area`s topography, climate, stratigraphy and palaeontology (Ordovician to Lower Cretaceous, plus Pleistocene and recent glacial deposits), structural geology, and evidence of petroleum. Lists of fossils and correlations are included. The appendices include a list of fossil locations and drill logs. The second part details the drilling programs carried out in the lowland by the Ontario Dept. of Mines, including detailed logs, as well as drilling carried out by some other organisations.

  5. 33 CFR 334.860 - San Diego Bay, Calif., Naval Amphibious Base; restricted area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Amphibious Base; restricted area. 334.860 Section 334.860 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS... Bay, Calif., Naval Amphibious Base; restricted area. (a) The Area. The water of the Pacific Ocean in Middle San Diego Bay in an area extending from the northern and eastern boundary of the Naval Amphibious...

  6. 33 CFR 162.15 - Manhasset Bay, N.Y.; seaplane restricted area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Manhasset Bay, N.Y.; seaplane... Bay, N.Y.; seaplane restricted area. (a) The restricted area. An area in Manhasset Bay between the... line bearing 166°50′ true from latitude 40°50′17.337 N, longitude 73°43′03.877 W, which point is on the...

  7. Status, trends, and changes in freshwater inflows to bay systems in the Corpus Christi Bay National Estuary Program study area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asquith, W.H.; Mosier, J. G.; Bush, P.W.

    1997-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study to quantify current (1983–93) mean freshwater inflows to the six bay systems (open water and wetlands) in the Corpus Christi Bay National Estuary Program study area, to test for historical temporal trends in inflows, and to quantify historical and projected changes in inflows. The report also addresses the adequacy of existing data to estimate freshwater inflows.

  8. When it happens again: impact of future San Francisco Bay area earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoback, M.; Boatwright, J.; Kornfield, L.; Scawthorn, C.; Rojahn, C.

    2005-12-01

    San Francisco Bay area earthquakes, like major floods and hurricanes, have the potential for massive damage to dense urban population centers concentrated in vulnerable zones-along active faults, in coastal regions, and along major river arteries. The recent destruction of Hurricane Katrina does have precedent in the destruction following the 1906 "San Francisco" earthquake and fire in which more than 3000 people were killed and 225,000 were left homeless in San Francisco alone, a city of 400,000 at the time. Analysis of a comprehensive set of damage reports from the magnitude (M) 7.9 1906 earthquake indicates a region of ~ 18,000 km2 was subjected to shaking of Modified Mercalli Intensity of VIII or more - motions capable of damaging even modern, well-built structures; more than 60,000 km2 was subjected to shaking of Intensity VII or greater - the threshold for damage to masonry and poorly designed structures. By comparison, Katrina's hurricane force winds and intense rainfall impacted an area of ~100,000 km2 on the Gulf Coast. Thus, the anticipated effects of a future major Bay Area quake to lives, property, and infrastructure are comparable in scale to Katrina. Secondary hazards (levee failure and flooding in the case of Katrina and fire following the 1906 earthquake) greatly compounded the devastation in both disasters. A recent USGS-led study concluded there is a 62% chance of one or more damaging (M6.7 or greater) earthquakes striking the greater San Francisco Bay area over the next 30 years. The USGS prepared HAZUS loss estimates for the 10 most likely forecast earthquakes which range in size from a M6.7 event on a blind thrust to the largest anticipated event, a M7.9 repeat of the 1906 earthquake. The largest economic loss is expected for a repeat of the 1906 quake. Losses in the Bay region for this event are nearly double those predicted for a M6.9 rupture of the entire Hayward Fault in the East Bay. However, because of high density of population along the

  9. Predicted Liquefaction in the Greater Oakland and Northern Santa Clara Valley Areas for a Repeat of the 1868 Hayward Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, T. L.; Noce, T. E.; Bennett, M. J.

    2008-12-01

    Probabilities of surface manifestations of liquefaction due to a repeat of the 1868 (M6.7-7.0) earthquake on the southern segment of the Hayward Fault were calculated for two areas along the margin of San Francisco Bay, California: greater Oakland and the northern Santa Clara Valley. Liquefaction is predicted to be more common in the greater Oakland area than in the northern Santa Clara Valley owing to the presence of 57 km2 of susceptible sandy artificial fill. Most of the fills were placed into San Francisco Bay during the first half of the 20th century to build military bases, port facilities, and shoreline communities like Alameda and Bay Farm Island. Probabilities of liquefaction in the area underlain by this sandy artificial fill range from 0.2 to ~0.5 for a M7.0 earthquake, and decrease to 0.1 to ~0.4 for a M6.7 earthquake. In the greater Oakland area, liquefaction probabilities generally are less than 0.05 for Holocene alluvial fan deposits, which underlie most of the remaining flat-lying urban area. In the northern Santa Clara Valley for a M7.0 earthquake on the Hayward Fault and an assumed water-table depth of 1.5 m (the historically shallowest water level), liquefaction probabilities range from 0.1 to 0.2 along Coyote and Guadalupe Creeks, but are less than 0.05 elsewhere. For a M6.7 earthquake, probabilities are greater than 0.1 along Coyote Creek but decrease along Guadalupe Creek to less than 0.1. Areas with high probabilities in the Santa Clara Valley are underlain by latest Holocene alluvial fan levee deposits where liquefaction and lateral spreading occurred during large earthquakes in 1868 and 1906. The liquefaction scenario maps were created with ArcGIS ModelBuilder. Peak ground accelerations first were computed with the new Boore and Atkinson NGA attenuation relation (2008, Earthquake Spectra, 24:1, p. 99-138), using VS30 to account for local site response. Spatial liquefaction probabilities were then estimated using the predicted ground motions

  10. 33 CFR 334.310 - Chesapeake Bay, Lynnhaven Roads; navy amphibious training area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chesapeake Bay, Lynnhaven Roads; navy amphibious training area. 334.310 Section 334.310 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....310 Chesapeake Bay, Lynnhaven Roads; navy amphibious training area. (a) The restricted area. Beginning...

  11. Determining Marine Renewable Energy Areas in the Bay of Fundy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsten, R.; Roc, T.; O'Flaherty-Sproul, M.

    2016-02-01

    The Bay of Fundy has the world's highest tides and several excellent sites for the development of in-stream tidal energy. In particular, Minas Passage in the upper Bay of Fundy has been identified as a site with the theoretical potential to produce over 2000 MW of power. Recently, the Nova Scotia government has enacted legislation to define Marine Renewable Energy Areas where tidal energy will be developed. As part of this process, the practical potential of the regions in the upper Bay of Fundy must be accurately quantified. To assist in this process, we have conducted a practical resource assement of the region. The resource asssesment includes an analysis of the hydrodynamic characteristics of the region. The assessment uses the simulations data from a high-resolution, multi-layered, unstructured-grid, coastal-ocean model (FVCOM). The numerical model has been validated through comparison to numerous measurements of tdial flow from ADCPs, surface drifters and X-band radar. The simulations data is used to estimate the power production of different turbine technologies across the study area. The technologies will have varying hub-height and power curves. Other characteristics of the flow (i.e., water depth, variation in flow) will be used to determine if sites are more or less suitable for turbine deployment. As well, the numerical data will be used to design practical layouts for turbine farms, that have suitable spacing of turbines to allow deployment and minimize the interaction of wakes. The final output will be a prediction of the number of turbines and the power production of an array for a given region. The results of the analysis of the simulation data will be processed into a series of GIS layers. These will be combined with other indications of suitability for deployment of a turbine array: for example, geo-technical, marine conditions, environmental factors, social factors, proximity to on-shore infrastructure etc. The final GIS tool will allow the user

  12. 33 CFR 334.761 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas. 334.761 Section 334.761 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.761 Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas. (a) The areas—(1...

  13. Patterns of alien plant invasion across coastal bay areas in southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai Ren; Qinfeng Guo; Hong Liu; Jing Li; Qianmei Zhang; Hualin Xu; Fanghong Xu

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of the ways in which levels of invasions by alien species are correlated with environmental factors is helpful to manage the negative impacts of these invasive species. Two tropical coastal areas in South China, Shenzhen Bay and Leizhou Bay, are national nature reserves, but they are threatened by invasive plants. Here, we investigated the level of...

  14. [Mercury concentration of fish in Tokyo Bay and the surrounding sea area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, R; Kashima, Y; Matsui, M; Okabe, T; Doi, R

    2001-07-01

    Total mercury in the muscles of three fish species was analyzed in fish caught in Tokyo Bay and the surrounding sea areas, Sagami Bay and Choshi. Tokyo Bay is a semi-closed sea area surrounded by Tokyo, Kanagawa and Chiba prefectures. Sagami Bay and Choshi are open to the Pacific Ocean. A total of 412 fish consisting of northern whiting (Sillago japonica), flatfish (Limanda yokohamae) and sardine (Sardinops melanosticta) were caught in these areas over a 6 months period from November 1998 to April 1999. Total mercury concentration ranged from 0.008-0.092 microgram/g (wet wt.) in northern whiting, 0.006-0.065 microgram/g in flatfish and 0.001-0.045 microgram/g in sardine. All concentrations were below the restriction limit of fish mercury in Japan, 0.4 microgram/g of total mercury concentration. A significant correlation was found between mercury concentrations and body length or body weight in northern whiting and flatfish, irrespective of the sea area. A correlation was also found between mercury concentration in fish and their feeding habits: among the 3 species caught in the same area, crustacean feeding northern whiting had the highest, polychaete feeding flatfish moderate, and plankton feeding sardine had the lowest mercury concentration. In a comparison of mercury concentration in the same species caught in different sea areas, a higher concentration was noted in fish caught in the semi-closed sea area of Tokyo Bay, than in fish caught in the open sea areas of Sagami Bay and Choshi. This difference was most marked in fish caught at the bottom of Tokyo Bay and we considered that the mercury concentration of seawater and sediment in these areas was the cause of mercury accumulation in fish. These findings suggest that improved water quality control and environmental monitoring is necessary in semi-closed sea areas such as Tokyo Bay.

  15. California Counties and San Francisco Bay Area Watershed Boundaries, California, 2012, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These data layers represent CA counties and the Bay Area Watersheds. These data layers aid in identifying counties and watersheds where the grant projects occur.

  16. San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit District (BART) climate change adaptation assessment pilot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate the impacts of climate change on the San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit District : (BART) infrastructure and to develop and implement adaptation strategies against those impacts. Climate change haza...

  17. Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Fuel Cell Bus Demonstration Results: Sixth Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    This report presents results of a demonstration of fuel cell electric buses (FCEBs) operating in Oakland, California. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) leads the Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) demonstration that includes 13 advanced-d...

  18. Analysis of Level of Technogenic Impact on Water Area of Uglovoy Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petukhov, V. I.; Petrova, E. A.; Losev, O. V.

    2017-11-01

    Industrial effluent discharge and man-induced soil fills play a decisive role in increased pollutant concentrations. Several areas which are unfavorable in terms of the heavy metal and oil product content have been identified by the environmental monitoring results in the Uglovoy Bay in February 2015. Maximum permissible concentrations (MPC) of heavy metals and oil products were exceeded in the northeastern part of the Uglovoy Bay in locations where the Peschanka River and the Aerodromnaya River drain into the sea. Integral heavy-metal index calculations showed that this area is the most polluted in the Uglovoy Bay. Other significantly polluted areas were identified off the Zima Yuzhnaya settlement in the mouth of the bay and in vicinity of the low-level bridge.

  19. Do Quiet Areas Afford Greater Health-Related Quality of Life than Noisy Areas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim N. Dirks

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available People typically choose to live in quiet areas in order to safeguard their health and wellbeing. However, the benefits of living in quiet areas are relatively understudied compared to the burdens associated with living in noisy areas. Additionally, research is increasingly focusing on the relationship between the human response to noise and measures of health and wellbeing, complementing traditional dose-response approaches, and further elucidating the impact of noise and health by incorporating human factors as mediators and moderators. To further explore the benefits of living in quiet areas, we compared the results of health-related quality of life (HRQOL questionnaire datasets collected from households in localities differentiated by their soundscapes and population density: noisy city, quiet city, quiet rural, and noisy rural. The dose-response relationships between noise annoyance and HRQOL measures indicated an inverse relationship between the two. Additionally, quiet areas were found to have higher mean HRQOL domain scores than noisy areas. This research further supports the protection of quiet locales and ongoing noise abatement in noisy areas.

  20. High Resolution Satellite Data reveals Massive Export of Carbon and Nitrogen-Rich Seagrass Wrack from Greater Florida Bay to the Open Ocean after Hurricane Irma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierssen, H. M.; Hedley, J. D.; Russell, B. J.; Vaudrey, J. M.; Perry, R. A.

    2017-12-01

    Episodic storms are known to be important drivers of ocean ecosystem processes, but the impacts are notoriously difficult to quantify with traditional sampling techniques. Here, we use stunning high spatial resolution satellite imagery from Sentinel 2A collected 13 September 2017, only days after Hurricane Irma passed directly over the Florida Keys, to quantify massive amounts of floating vegetative material. This Category 4 storm passed directly over the Florida Keys, bringing wind gusts over 35 m s-1 and creating turbulence in the water column that scoured the seafloor. The imagery reveals as initial estimate of 40 km2 of surface drifting material. Although the identity of the brown material cannot be fully determined without a hyperspectral sensor, the accumulations are consistent with our past research showing large aggregations of seagrass leaves or "wrack" advected under high winds from dense beds of Syringodium filiforme within Greater Florida Bay to the oceanic waters of the Atlantic. Using measurements of wrack collected from this area, we estimate that this single event corresponds to a total export of 9.7 x 1010 gC and 2.7 x 109 gN from the seagrass beds. This high amount of export is not considered typical for many types of tropical seagrass meadows that are thought to highly recycle nutrients within the beds. Elemental analysis of seagrass leaves from Greater Florida Bay is consistent with nitrogen-fixation in the beds, which could provide the means to sustain a large export of nitrogen from the meadows. As the wrack travels at the sea surface, some of these nutrients are exuded into the surrounding waters providing a nutrient subsidy of dissolved and particulate carbon and nitrogen and making the wrack an ecological hot spot for organisms. Although wrack can potentially remain floating for months, the ultimate fate of the wrack is to either wash ashore, providing connectivity between marine and terrestrial ecosystems, or sink to the seafloor. If most

  1. 75 FR 15343 - Regulated Navigation Area: Narragansett Bay, RI and Mount Hope Bay, RI and MA, Including the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-29

    ...: Narragansett Bay, RI and Mount Hope Bay, RI and MA, Including the Providence River and Taunton River AGENCY... River and Mount Hope Bay in the vicinity of the two Brightman Street bridges have not been adopted and... Island and Mt. Hope Bay, MA.'' The notice was prompted primarily by two events: (1) The U.S. Army Corps...

  2. Improved Storm Monitoring and Prediction for the San Francisco Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifelli, R.; Chandrasekar, V.; Anderson, M.; Davis, G.

    2017-12-01

    The Advanced Quantitative Precipitation Information (AQPI) System is a multi-faceted project to improve precipitation and hydrologic monitoring, prediction, and decision support for the San Francisco Bay Area. The Bay Area faces a multitude of threats from extreme events, including disrupted transportation from flooded roads and railroad lines, water management challenges related to storm water, river and reservoir management and storm-related damage demanding emergency response. The threats occur on spatial scales ranging from local communities to the entire region and time scales ranging from hours to days. These challenges will be exacerbated by future sea level rise, more extreme weather events and increased vulnerabilities. AQPI is a collaboration of federal, state and local governments with assistance from the research community. Led by NOAA's Earth System Research Laboratory, in partnership with the Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere, USGS, and Scripps, AQPI is a four-year effort funded in part by a grant from the California Department of Water Resource's Integrated Regional Water Management Program. The Sonoma County Water Agency is serving as the local sponsor of the project. Other local participants include the Santa Clara Valley Water District, San Francisco Public Utilities Commission, and the Bay Area Flood Protection Agencies Association. AQPI will provide both improved observing capabilities and a suite of numerical forecast models to produce accurate and timely information for benefit of flood management, emergency response, water quality, ecosystem services, water supply and transportation management for the Bay Area. The resulting information will support decision making to mitigate flood risks, secure water supplies, minimize water quality impacts to the Bay from combined sewer overflows, and have improved lead-time on coastal and Bay inundation from extreme storms like Atmospheric Rivers (ARs). The project is expected to

  3. Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in riverine and marine sediments of the Laizhou Bay area, North China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Xiaohui; Tang Jianhui; Chen Yingjun; Li Jun; Zhang Gan

    2011-01-01

    PCN congeners were analyzed in marine and riverine sediments of the Laizhou Bay area, North China. Concentrations of PCNs ranged from 0.12 to 5.1 ng g -1 dry weight (dw) with a mean value of 1.1 ng g -1 dw. The levels of PCNs varied largely, with industrial group approximately ten folds higher than those of the rural in riverine sediment. A strong impact by direct discharge from local factories was suggested. Similar compositional profiles were found within groups. High resemblance of compositional profiles between industrial samples and Halowax 1014 was observed. It was indicated that PCNs in riverine sediments were mainly from release of industrial usage, with additional contributions from industrial thermal process at certain sites. In marine sediments, it was suggested that PCNs along the coast of Laizhou Bay were mainly controlled by riverine input. While in the central bay, PCN distributions were possibly impacted by combined multiple factors. - Highlights: → We investigated the PCN levels both in the riverine and marine surface sediments of Laizhou Bay. → PCN concentrations in the river sediments of industrial group were ten times higher than in the rural group. → Leakage from industrial materials and thermal processes were the major sources. → PCNs in the coastal sites were more influenced by the river discharge. → In the centre bay, PCN distributions were possibly impacted by combined multiple factors. - A systematic sampling of riverine and marine sediments was conducted in Laizhou Bay area to investigate the distribution and possible sources of PCNs.

  4. New summer areas and mixing of two greater sandhill crane populations in the Intermountain West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Daniel P.; Grisham, Blake A.; Conring, Courtenay M.; Knetter, Jeffrey M.; Conway, Warren C.; Carleton, Scott A.; Boggie, Matthew A.

    2016-01-01

    Population delineation throughout the annual life cycle for migratory birds is needed to formulate regional and national management and conservation strategies. Despite being well studied continentally, connectivity of sandhill crane Grus canadensis populations throughout the western portion of their North American range remains poorly described. Our objectives were to 1) use global positioning system satellite transmitter terminals to identify summer distributions for the Lower Colorado River Valley Population of greater sandhill cranes Grus canadensis tabida and 2) determine whether intermingling occurs among any of the western greater sandhill crane populations: Rocky Mountain Population, Lower Colorado River Valley Population, and Central Valley Population. Capture and marking occurred during winter and summer on private lands in California and Idaho as well as on two National Wildlife Refuges: Cibola and Sonny Bono Salton Sea National Wildlife Refuges. A majority of marked greater sandhill cranes summered in what is established Lower Colorado River Valley Population breeding areas in northeastern Nevada and southwestern Idaho. A handful of greater sandhill cranes summered outside of traditional breeding areas in west-central Idaho around Cascade Reservoir near Donnelly and Cascade, Idaho. For example, a greater sandhill crane colt captured near Donnelly in July 2014 survived to winter migration and moved south to areas associated with the Rocky Mountain Population. The integration of the greater sandhill crane colt captured near Donnelly provides the first evidence of potential intermingling between the Lower Colorado River Population and Rocky Mountain Population. We suggest continued marking and banding efforts of all three western populations of greater sandhill cranes will accurately delineate population boundaries and connectivity and inform management decisions for the three populations.

  5. Higher Education's Influence on the Confessional Practices of Roman Catholic Laity in the Greater Miami Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Joseph L.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative phenomenological study of 20 Roman Catholic laypersons in the Greater Miami area investigated the phenomenon of transformation of confessional practice as a result of the undergraduate educational experience. By searching for meaning in each individual's story, two themes or factors and six sub themes emerged. The themes were…

  6. 77 FR 62437 - Regulated Navigation Area; Columbus Day Weekend, Biscayne Bay, Miami, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-15

    ... Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking RNA Regulated Navigation Area I. Regulatory History and Information On July 25, 2012, we published a Notice of... Bay Columbus Day regulated navigation area (RNA), established in 2011 and contained in 33 CFR 165.779...

  7. Paleontology and stratigraphy of the Upper Triassic Kamishak Formation in the Puale Bay-Cape Kekurnoi-Alinchak Bay area, Karluk C-4 and C-5 quadrangle

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the paleontological character and stratigraphy of the Kamishak Formation in the Puale Bay–Cape Kekurnoi–Alinchak Bay area, Karluk C-4 and C-5...

  8. Longitudinal study of urbanisation processes in peri-urban areas of Greater Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busck, Anne Gravsholt; Fertner, Christian; Kristensen, Lone Søderkvist

    Urbanisation processes increasingly influence the use of land and properties in rural areas. In peri-urban areas population composition changes as the areas offer attractive possibilities of other gainful activities than agriculture (OGA), and residential and recreational alternatives to both urban...... have become redundant because of structural changes in agriculture. As a consequence, the structural components of the areas (land cover and landscape elements) thus appear more resistant to changes than transition of the socio-economic system (declining number of full-time farmers and increasing...... property prices because of the attractiveness of land. This raises questions of the desired future of the peri-urban area of Greater Copenhagen, and about the effectiveness of the existing planning systems and its ability to protect agriculture land, which has been a main objective since the beginning...

  9. 78 FR 40651 - Regulated Navigation Area; Special Buzzards Bay Vessel Regulation, Buzzards Bay, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-08

    ... Carrier Program RNA Regulated Navigation Area RA Technical Risk Assessment VMRS Vessel Movement Reporting... avoid the fragmentation of regulatory regimes as a vessel transits across State [[Page 40652

  10. HEAVY METAL CONTENTS IN MARINE SEDIMENTS AND SEAWATER AT TOTOK BAY AREA, NORTH SULAWESI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delyuzar Ilahude

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The study area is located in north-eastern part of Tomini Bay, approximately 80 km south of Manado city, North Sulawesi. This area is closed to submarine tailing disposal system in Buyat Bay. Five marine sediment samples and four water samples from seawater and dig wells have been used for heavy metals (Hg, As, CN analyses by using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS. This study is a part of research conducted by Marine Geological Institute of Indonesia on morphological changes of seabed in the Totok Bay. The result shows that concentration of mercury (Hg in water samples taken from Ratatotok estuary is higher than standards stipulated Government Regulation (Peraturan Pemerintah/PP No. 82/2001. Meanwhile, concentration of arsenic (As is almost reaching its standard threshold, and conversely cyanide (CN concentration is low. This value of mercury (Hg concentration taken from Ratatotok estuary is much higher than water samples from of Buyat Bay estuary. Significant concentration of mercury (Hg analysed from those particular sampling sites indicated high mercury contamination. Therefore, further examination on ground water of dig wells is necessary, especially for mercury analysis (Hg. Furthermore, comparing the formerly obtained data of mercury concentration in the sediment, this particular study concludes that the sediments in the Totok Bay had contaminated by mercury from gold-processing of illegal mining.

  11. Evaluation and analysis of underground brine resources in the southern coastal area of Laizhou Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, M.; Zhu, H. T.; Feng, J.; Zhao, Q. S.

    2016-08-01

    The southern coastal districts of Laizhou Bay are some of the most important areas for underground brine exploitation in Shandong Province. Recently, these areas have been gradually developed by the underground brine mining industry. Such economic interest has led to brine exploitation so that underground brine resources are running out. Based on this phenomenon, this study describes the supply, runoff and draining conditions of the area by collecting and organizing the background information of the studied area. Hydrogeological parameters are then calculated according to pumping tests, and the amount of sustainable resources in the coastal areas of the Southern Bank of Laizhou Bay are then calculated based on the uniform distribution of wells. Under the circumstances of underground brine mining, the exploitation potential of the underground brine is evaluated in accordance with the calculation results of exploitation quantum. Finally, suggestions are provided for the sustainable exploitation of underground brine in the area.

  12. Seismic ground motion and hazard assessment of the Greater Accra Metropolitan Area, southeastern Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amponsah, P.E.; Banoeng-Yakubo, B.K.; Asiedu, D.; Vaccari, F.; Panza, G.F.

    2008-08-01

    The seismic ground motion of the Greater Accra Metropolitan area has been computed and the hazard zones assessed using a deterministic hybrid approach based on the modal summation and finite difference methods. The seismic ground motion along four profiles located in the Greater Accra Metropolitan Area has been modelled using the 1939 earthquake of magnitude 6.5(M L ) as the scenario earthquake. Synthetic seismic waveforms from which parameters for engineering design such as peak ground acceleration, velocity and spectral amplifications have been produced along the geological cross sections. From the seismograms computed, the seismic hazard of the metropolis, expressed in terms of peak ground acceleration and peak ground velocity have been estimated. The peak ground acceleration estimated in the study ranges from 0.14 - 0.57 g and the peak ground velocity from 9.2 - 37.1cms -1 . The presence of low velocity sediments gave rise to high peak values and amplifications. The maximum peak ground accelerations estimated are located in areas with low velocity formations such as colluvium, continental and marine deposits. Areas in the metropolis underlain by unconsolidated sediments have been classified as the maximum damage potential zone and those underlain by highly consolidated geological materials are classified as low damage potential zone. The results of the numerical simulation have been extended to all areas in the metropolis with similar geological formation. (author)

  13. Effects of the May 5-6, 1973, storm in the Greater Denver area, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Wallace R.

    1973-01-01

    Rain began falling on the Greater Denver area the evening of Saturday, May 5, 1973, and continued through most of Sunday, May 6. Below about 7,000 feet altitude, the precipitation was mostly rain; above that altitude, it was mostly snow. Although the rate of fall was moderate, at least 4 inches of rain or as much as 4 feet of snow accumulated in some places. Sustained precipitation falling at a moderate rate thoroughly saturated the ground and by midday Sunday sent most of the smaller streams into flood stage. The South Platte River and its major tributaries began to flood by late Sunday evening and early Monday morning. Geologic and hydrologic processes activated by the May 5-6 storm caused extensive damage to lands and to manmade structures in the Greater Denver area. Damage was generally most intense in areas where man had modified the landscape--by channel constrictions, paving, stripping of vegetation and topsoil, and oversteepening of hillslopes. Roads, bridges, culverts, dams, canals, and the like were damaged or destroyed by erosion and sedimentation. Streambanks and structures along them were scoured. Thousands of acres of croplands, pasture, and developed urban lands were coated with mud and sand. Flooding was intensified by inadequate storm sewers, blocked drains, and obstructed drainage courses. Saturation of hillslopes along the Front Range caused rockfalls, landslides, and mudflows as far west as Berthoud Pass. Greater attention to geologic conditions in land-use planning, design, and construction would minimize storm damage in the future.

  14. Does Wyoming's Core Area Policy Protect Winter Habitats for Greater Sage-Grouse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kurt T.; Beck, Jeffrey L.; Pratt, Aaron C.

    2016-10-01

    Conservation reserves established to protect important habitat for wildlife species are used world-wide as a wildlife conservation measure. Effective reserves must adequately protect year-round habitats to maintain wildlife populations. Wyoming's Sage-Grouse Core Area policy was established to protect breeding habitats for greater sage-grouse ( Centrocercus urophasianus). Protecting only one important seasonal habitat could result in loss or degradation of other important habitats and potential declines in local populations. The purpose of our study was to identify the timing of winter habitat use, the extent which individuals breeding in Core Areas used winter habitats, and develop resource selection functions to assess effectiveness of Core Areas in conserving sage-grouse winter habitats in portions of 5 Core Areas in central and north-central Wyoming during winters 2011-2015. We found that use of winter habitats occured over a longer period than current Core Area winter timing stipulations and a substantial amount of winter habitat outside of Core Areas was used by individuals that bred in Core Areas, particularly in smaller Core Areas. Resource selection functions for each study area indicated that sage-grouse were selecting habitats in response to landscapes dominated by big sagebrush and flatter topography similar to other research on sage-grouse winter habitat selection. The substantial portion of sage-grouse locations and predicted probability of selection during winter outside small Core Areas illustrate that winter requirements for sage-grouse are not adequately met by existing Core Areas. Consequently, further considerations for identifying and managing important winter sage-grouse habitats under Wyoming's Core Area Policy are warranted.

  15. The perceptions of inquiry held by greater Houston area science supervisors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Jon Michael

    The purpose of this study was to describe the perceptions of inquiry held by responding greater Houston area science supervisors. Leading science organizations proposed that students might be better served if students are mentally and physically engaged in the process of finding out about natural phenomena rather than by didactic modes of teaching and learning. During the past fifty years, inquiry-based instruction has become a significant theme of new science programs. Students are more likely to make connections between classroom exercises and their personal lives through the use of inquiry-based instruction. Learning becomes relevant to students. Conversely, traditional science instruction often has little or no connection to students' everyday lives (Papert, 1980). In short, inquiry-based instruction empowers students to become independent thinkers. The utilization of inquiry-based instruction is essential to a successful reform in science education. However, a reform's success is partly determined by the extent to which science supervisors know and understand inquiry and consequently promote its integration in the district's science curricula. Science supervisors have the role of providing curriculum and instructional support to science teachers and for implementing science programs. There is a fundamental need to assess the perceptions of inquiry held by greater Houston area science supervisors. Science supervisor refers to a class of job titles that include department chairperson, science specialist, science consultant, and science coordinator. The target population was greater Houston area science supervisors in Texas. This study suggests that there are three major implications for educational practice. First, there is the implication that responding greater Houston area science supervisors need an inclusive perception of inquiry. Second, responding greater Houston area science supervisors' perception of inquiry may affect the perceptions and understandings

  16. Job Sharing in the Schools: A Study of Nine Bay Area Districts. A Preliminary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Ways to Work, Palo Alto, CA.

    Under job sharing, two people share responsibility for one full-time position. Each person has a permanent, part-time job with salary and fringe benefits prorated according to hours worked. Job sharing has been available in some Bay Area school districts for the last four years. For this preliminary report, nine districts--Alum rock, Fremont,…

  17. 76 FR 31895 - Regulated Navigation Area; Magothy River, Sillery Bay, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ... navigation area (RNA) in certain waters of the Magothy River, in Sillery Bay, Maryland, on July 23, 2011. This RNA is necessary to provide for the safety of life, property and the environment. This RNA... number is 202-366-9329. To avoid duplication, please use only one of these four methods. See the ``Public...

  18. Networked but No System: Educational Innovation among Bay Area Jewish Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin Ross, Renee

    2017-01-01

    A widely read article from this journal explores innovative Jewish educational programs, initiatives, and organizations, arguing that these share a comdmitment to being "learner-centered" and recommending that a system be created to foster collaboration among them (Woocher, 2012). Using five San Francisco Bay Area-based…

  19. Study on the 90Sr absorption by agricultural plants grown in soil from Daya Bay and Qinshan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Wenhu; Hou Lanxin; Xu Shiming

    1991-03-01

    The soil around the Qinshan and Daya Bay nuclear power plants were used in this study. The 90 Sr was spread into the soil by irrigation. The amount of 90 Sr spread were 0.037, 0.37, 3.7 and 370 Bq per gram soil respectively. After being treated, the soil were employed to grow rice, wheat, rape, bean, asparagus lettuce, tomato and peas. The harvested plants were divided into seeds, stems and leaves, husks and roots to measure their radioactivity separately. The results showed that the amount of 90 Sr absorbed by the plants was directly proportional to the 90 Sr content in the soil. The absorbed 90 Sr was mainly distributed in the stems and leaves. The seeds absorbed the least amount of 90 Sr compared with the other portions. The old leaves absorbed greater 90 Sr than the buds. The accumulated 90 Sr per unit dry weight of all plants grown in the soil from Daya Bay area was greater than in the soil from Qinshan area. More than 80% of total 90 Sr was distributed in the top layer from 0 to 4 cm. The concentration factors of various plants were also given

  20. 33 CFR 334.635 - Hillsborough Bay and waters contiguous to MacDill Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hillsborough Bay and waters... Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.635 Hillsborough Bay and waters contiguous to MacDill Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area...

  1. 33 CFR 162.20 - Flushing Bay near La Guardia Airport, Flushing, N.Y.; restricted area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Flushing Bay near La Guardia Airport, Flushing, N.Y.; restricted area. 162.20 Section 162.20 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.20 Flushing Bay near La Guardia Airport, Flushing, N.Y.; restricted area. (a...

  2. 33 CFR 334.300 - Hampton Roads and Willoughby Bay, Norfolk Naval Base, naval restricted area, Norfolk, Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hampton Roads and Willoughby Bay, Norfolk Naval Base, naval restricted area, Norfolk, Virginia. 334.300 Section 334.300 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.300 Hampton Roads and Willoughby Bay, Norfolk Naval Base, naval restricted...

  3. Reconnaissance map showing thickness of volcanic ash deposits in the greater Hilo area, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan-Banks, Jane M.

    1983-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the thickness and distribution of volcanic ash deposits in the greater Hilo area, Hawaii, as a step toward evaluating their susceptibility to failure during earthquake shaking. On several occasions their instability has resulted in serious damage. For example, the 1868 earthquake (m=7+), following a prolonged rainy period, caused a debris flow of hillside ash deposits that killed 31 people in Wood Valley (Bringham, 1869). The 1973 Honomu earthquake (m=6.2) resulted in more damage from shaking to areas underlain by ash deposits in the older part of Hilo than in other areas, and soil slips in ash, as well as rockfalls, were common along the roads north of town (Nielsen and others, 1977). 

  4. Seismological and geological investigation for earthquake hazard in the Greater Accra Metropolitan Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doku, M. S.

    2013-07-01

    A seismological and geological investigation for earthquake hazard in the Greater Accra Metropolitan Area was undertaken. The research was aimed at employing a methematical model to estimate the seismic stress for the study area by generating a complete, unified and harmonized earthquake catalogue spanning 1615 to 2012. Seismic events were souced from Leydecker, G. and P. Amponsah, (1986), Ambraseys and Adams, (1986), Amponsah (2008), Geological Survey Department, Accra, Ghana, Amponsah (2002), National Earthquake Information Service, United States Geological Survey, Denver, Colorado 80225, USA, the International Seismological Centre and the National Data Centre of the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. Events occurring in the study area were used to create and Epicentral Intensity Map and a seismicity map of the study area after interpolation of missing seismic magnitudes. The least square method and the maximum likelihood estimation method were employed to evaluate b-values of 0.6 and 0.9 respectively for the study area. A thematic map of epicentral intensity superimposed on the geology of the study area was also developed to help understand the relationship between the virtually fractured, jointed and sheared geology and the seismic events. The results obtained are indicative of the fact that the stress level of GAMA has a telling effect on its seismicity and also the events are prevalents at fractured, jointed and sheared zones. (au)

  5. Evaluation of The Surface Ozone Concentrations In Greater Cairo Area With Emphasis On Helwan, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, A.; Kandil, A.T.; Abd Elmaged, S.M.; Mubarak, I.

    2011-01-01

    Various biogenic and anthropogenic sources emit huge quantities of surface ozone. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the surface ozone levels present at Helwan area in order to improve the knowledge and understanding troposphere processes. Surface Ozone has been measured at 2 sites at Helwan; these sites cover the most populated area in Helwan. Ozone concentration is continuously monitored by UV absorption photometry using the equipment O 3 41 M UV Photometric Ozone Analyzer. The daily maximum values of the ozone concentration in the greater Cairo area have approached but did not exceeded the critical levels during the year 2008. Higher ozone concentrations at Helwan are mainly due to the transport of ozone from regions further to the north of greater Cairo and to a lesser extent of ozone locally generated by photochemical smog process. The summer season has the largest diurnal variation, with the tendency of the daily ozone maxima occur in the late afternoon. The night time concentration of ozone was significantly higher at Helwan because there are no fast acting sinks, destroying ozone since the average night time concentration of ozone is maintained at 40 ppb at the site. No correlation between the diurnal total suspended particulate (TSP) matter and the diurnal cumulative ozone concentration was observed during the Khamasin period

  6. Beyond the Inventory: An Interagency Collaboration to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Greater Yellowstone Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandt, A.; Hotchkiss, E.; Fiebig, M.

    2010-10-01

    As one of the largest, intact ecosystems in the continental United States, land managers within the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) have recognized the importance of compiling and understanding agency greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The 10 Federal units within the GYA have taken an active role in compiling GHG inventories on a unit- and ecosystem-wide level, setting goals for GHG mitigation, and identifying mitigation strategies for achieving those goals. This paper details the processes, methodologies, challenges, solutions, and lessons learned by the 10 Federal units within the GYA throughout this ongoing effort.

  7. Hydrogeological Study of Mangrove Areas Around Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Gerson Cardoso da Silva Júnior;; Carlos Eduardo Braga; Ingrid de Carvalho Lage

    2003-01-01

    The study area covers part of the mangrove belt located around Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Representing a continental-marine transition, the mangrove ecosystem is very susceptible to environmental variations and impacts. The vegetation cover plays an important role in prevention of erosion and contamination processes in those areas. An ongoing extensive research effort in the Petrochemical Complex of Duque de Caxias, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, focuses on the man-induced cha...

  8. An empirical test of the 'shark nursery area concept' in Texas bays using a long-term fisheries-independent data set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froeschke, John T.; Stunz, Gregory W.; Sterba-Boatwright, Blair; Wildhaber, Mark L.

    2010-01-01

    Using a long-term fisheries-independent data set, we tested the 'shark nursery area concept' proposed by Heupel et al. (2007) with the suggested working assumptions that a shark nursery habitat would: (1) have an abundance of immature sharks greater than the mean abundance across all habitats where they occur; (2) be used by sharks repeatedly through time (years); and (3) see immature sharks remaining within the habitat for extended periods of time. We tested this concept using young-of-the-year (age 0) and juvenile (age 1+ yr) bull sharks Carcharhinus leucas from gill-net surveys conducted in Texas bays from 1976 to 2006 to estimate the potential nursery function of 9 coastal bays. Of the 9 bay systems considered as potential nursery habitat, only Matagorda Bay satisfied all 3 criteria for young-of-the-year bull sharks. Both Matagorda and San Antonio Bays met the criteria for juvenile bull sharks. Through these analyses we examined the utility of this approach for characterizing nursery areas and we also describe some practical considerations, such as the influence of the temporal or spatial scales considered when applying the nursery role concept to shark populations.

  9. Epidemiology of cytomegalovirus infection in pregnant women living in the Greater Romagna Area, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Billi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Aim of this study was to assess the incidence of Cytomegalovirus (CMV infection in pregnant women living in Romagna area, in North East Italy to implement the best management of this infection. Materials and Methods. In 2012, 23,727 serological tests for CMV IgG and IgM antibodies were performed in the Microbiology Unit, the Hub Laboratory of the Greater Romagna Area: 6931 were pregnant women. Results and Conclusions. 179 subjects were positive for CMV IgM antibodies: 82 were not pregnant; 97 were IgM positive during pregnancy or in the course of a pre-conception evaluation. The detected incidence of the CMV infection in pregnancy (calculated at 1.40% actually validates the literature data. This study’s findings clearly underline the usefulness of testing the CMV specific immune response in the pre-conception period or as early as possible during pregnancy.

  10. Uranium occurrences of the Thunder Bay-Nipigon-Marathon area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    During the 1981, 1982 and 1983 field seasons an inventory of all known uranium occurrences in the North Central Region of Ontario was undertaken. Three major categories of uranium occurrences were identified: uranium associated with the rocks of the Quetico Subprovince; uranium associated with the Proterozoic/Archean unconformity; and uranium associated with alkalic and carbonatite rocks of Late Precambrian age. Occurrences associated with the Quetico Belt are in white, albite-quartz-muscovite pegmatites. Occurrences associated with the Proterozoic/Archean unconformity are usually of high gradee (up to 12% U 3 O 8 ), nearly always hematized and are related to fault or shear zones proximal to the unconformity. Although of high grade, many of the unconformity related occurrences are very narrow (<1 m). Alkalic and carbonatite rocks of Late Precambrian age are an important source of uranium but possible metallurgical problems might downgrade their potential. The Quetico Subprovince is anomalously high in background uranium, and therefore contains important source rocks for uranium. Areas that have the highest potential for uranium deposits in the North Central Region are the Nipigon Basin area, and the areas underlain by the Gunflint and Rove Formations. All the high grade vein-type uranium deposits related to the unconformity are found within the Nipigon Basin. 126 refs

  11. Self-mastery among Chinese Older Adults in the Greater Chicago Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinqi Dong

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Self-mastery is an important psychological resource to cope with stressful situations. However, we have limited understanding of self-mastery among minority aging populations. Objective: This study aims to examine the presence and levels of self-mastery among U.S. Chinese older adults. Methods: Data were drawn from the PINE study, a population-based survey of U.S. Chinese older adults in the Greater Chicago area. Guided by a community-based participatory research approach, a total of 3,159 Chinese older adults aged 60 and above were surveyed. A Chinese version of the Self-Mastery Scale was used to assess self-mastery. Results: Out of the 7-item Chinese Self-Mastery Scale, approximately 42.8% to 87.5% of Chinese older adults experienced some degree of self-mastery in their lives. Older adults with no formal education and the oldest-old aged 85 and over had the lowest level of self-mastery in our study. A higher mastery level was associated with being married, having fewer children, better self-reported health status, better quality of life, and positive health changes. Conclusion: Although self-mastery is commonly experienced among the Chinese aging population in the Greater Chicago area, specific subgroups are still vulnerable. Future longitudinal studies are needed to improve the understanding of risk factors and outcomes associated with self-mastery among Chinese older adults.

  12. Bayes-Based Fault Discrimination in Wide Area Backup Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG, Z.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Multivariate statistical analysis is an effective tool to finish the fault location for electric power system. In Bayesian discriminant analysis as a subbranch, by the research of several populations, one can calculate the conditional probability that some samples belong to these populations, and compare the corresponding probability. The sample will be classified as population with maximum probability. In this paper, based on Bayesian discriminant analysis principle, a great number of simulation examples have confirmed that the results of Bayesian fault discriminant in wide area backup protection are accurate and reliable.

  13. GREATER HEMOCYTE BACTERICIDAL ACTIVITY IN OYSTERS (CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA) FROM A RELATIVELY CONTAMINATED SITE IN PENSACOLA BAY, FLORIDA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bivalve mollusks such as Crassostrea virginica inhabiting polluted estuaries and coastal areas may bioaccumulate high concentrations of contaminants without apparent ill effects. However, changes in putative internal defense activities have been associated with contaminant accumu...

  14. New fault picture points toward San Francisco Bay area earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, R. A.

    1989-01-01

    Recent earthquakes and a new way of looking at faults suggest that damaging earthquakes are closing in on the San Francisco area. Earthquakes Awareness Week 1989 in northern California started off with a bang on Monday, 3 April, when a magnitude 4.8 earthquake struck 15 kilometers northeast of San Jose. The relatively small shock-its primary damage was the shattering of an air-control tower window-got the immediate attention of three U.S Geological Survey seismologists in Menlo Park near San Francisco. David Oppenheimer, William Bakun, and Allan Lindh had forecast a nearby earthquake in a just completed report, and this, they thought, might be it. 

  15. 33 CFR 334.778 - Pensacola Bay and waters contiguous to the Naval Air Station, Pensacola, FL; restricted area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pensacola Bay and waters... Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.778 Pensacola Bay and waters contiguous to the Naval Air Station, Pensacola...

  16. Management of groundwater in urban centers: A case study; Greater Dammam Metropolitan Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abderrahman, Walid A.; Elamin, Abdalla S.; Al-Harazin, Ibrahim M.; Eqnaibi, Badie S.

    2007-01-01

    Effective management of groundwater resources in urban centers of arid regions is vital for sustainable development and groundwater protection especially with rapid growth of water demands under water stress conditions. Greater Dammam Metropolitan Area is a good example of rapid growing urban center due to comprehensive development and population growth. The water demand has increased by many times during the last three decades. Groundwater from local aquifers namely Dammam and Umm Er Radhuma, supplies more than 85% of the total water demands. The aquifers have been subjected to extensive and increasing groundwater pumping especially during last three decades. Negative impacts such as significant decline in water levels have been experienced in the area. A new groundwater management scheme in terms of improving the long-term water pumping policies is required for protection of the aquifers groundwater productivity. A special numerical simulation model of the multi-aquifer system including Dammam and Umm Er Radhuma aquifers has been developed to assess the behavior of the aquifer system under long term water stresses in Dammam Metropolitan Area. The developed numerical simulation model has been utilized to predict the responses of the aquifer system in terms of decline in terms of water level under different pumping schemes from the two aquifers during the next 30 years. The model results have postulated the importance of Umm Er Radhuma (UER) aquifer as a major water supply source to Dammam Metropolitan Area, as well as potential recharge source of more than 30% of the total water pumped from Dammam aquifer. These findings have been utilized in improving present and future groundwater management and conservation for the study area. Similar techniques can be used to improve the groundwater management in other parts of the country as well as other arid regions. (author)

  17. Development and validation of a lead emission inventory for the Greater Cairo area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Safar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies that investigate the environmental health risks to Cairo residents invariably conclude that lead is one of the area’s major health hazards. The Cairo Air Improvement Project (CAIP, which was implemented by a team led by Chemonics International, funded by USAID in partnership with the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA, started developing a lead emission inventory for the greater Cairo (GC area in 1998. The inventory contains a list by major source of the annual lead emissions in the GC area. Uses of the inventory and associated database include developing effective regulatory and control strategies, assessing emissions trends, and conducting modeling exercises. This paper describes the development of the current lead emissions inventory (1999–2010, along with an approach to develop site specific emission factors and measurements to validate the inventory. This paper discusses the major sources of lead in the GC area, which include lead smelters, Mazout (heavy fuel oil combustion, lead manufacturing batteries factories, copper foundries, and cement factories. Included will be the trend in the lead emissions inventory with regard to the production capacity of each source category. In addition, the lead ambient measurements from 1999 through 2010 are described and compared with the results of Source Attribution Studies (SAS conducted in 1999, 2002, and 2010. Due to EEAA/CAIP efforts, a remarkable decrease in more than 90% in lead emissions was attained for 2007.

  18. Urban mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) of dengue endemic communities in the Greater Puntarenas area, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Arguedas, Olger; Troyo, Adriana; Solano, Mayra E; Avendaño, Adrián; Beier, John C

    2009-12-01

    Field studies were conducted to determine the mosquito species richness in the urban area of Greater Puntarenas in Costa Rica. Two cross-sectional entomological surveys were performed in seven localities of Puntarenas: one survey was performed during the wet season and the other during the dry season. The sections evaluated were determined by applying a stratified cluster sampling method using satellite imagery, and a sample of 26 cells (100 x 100m) was selected for the study. The number of cells per locality was proportional to the area of each locality. The presence of mosquito larvae and pupae in water-filled artificial and natural containers was determined in each cell. Infestation was expressed as a diversity index per type of container (Ii). Eight types of larvae were identified (Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex interrogator, Culex nigripalpus, Culex corniger, Culex tarsalis, Limatus durhamii and Toxorhynchites theobaldi) and in two cases it was only possible to identify the genus (Culex sp. and Uranotaenia sp.). A. aegypti was the most common species followed by C. quinquefascitus. Diversity of wet environments can explain the co-occurrence of various culicid species in some localities. Although A. aegypti is the only documented disease vector in the area, C quinquefasciatus, C nigripalpus, and the other species of Culex could be considered potential vectors of other pathogens. The presence and ecology of all mosquito species should be studied to optimize surveillance and prevention of dengue and to prevent the emergence of other mosquito-transmitted diseases.

  19. Multimodal route choice models of public transport passengers in the Greater Copenhagen Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, Marie Karen; Nielsen, Otto Anker; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    Understanding route choice behavior is crucial to explain travelers’ preferences and to predict traffic flows under different scenarios. A growing body of literature has concentrated on public transport users without, however, concentrating on multimodal public transport networks because......,641 public transport users in the Greater Copenhagen Area.A two-stage approach consisting of choice set generation and route choice model estimation allowed uncovering the preferences of the users of this multimodal large-scale public transport network. The results illustrate the rates of substitution...... not only of the in-vehicle times for different public transport modes, but also of the other time components (e.g., access, walking, waiting, transfer) composing the door-to-door experience of using a multimodal public transport network, differentiating by trip length and purpose, and accounting...

  20. Examining social supply among nonmedical prescription stimulant users in the San Francisco Bay Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Fiona; Murphy, Sheigla; Sales, Paloma; Lau, Nicholas

    2018-04-01

    In the US, prescription stimulants are prescribed for a variety of conditions including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy. Over the last two decades, dramatic increases in stimulant prescriptions have led to greater availability and increased risk for diversion and nonmedical use. Our own and other investigators' findings indicate that many drug "suppliers" do not fit into the traditional image of drug "dealers." These suppliers typically do not identify themselves as "dealers," but instead understand their drug distribution as sharing with people they know. Coomber and colleagues' (2007; 2013) concept of "social supply" raises the question: When friends supply or facilitate supply of drugs to friends, is this really dealing? Further, if dealing and supplying are distinct kinds of social transactions, should different types of criminal justice approaches be applied? Social supply extends our understanding of drug dealing as a complex social activity. In this article, we examine the issue of social supply among nonmedical users of prescription stimulants. We conducted a 36-month National Institute on Drug Abuse-funded project to conduct a qualitative, mixed methods study of 150 adult nonmedical prescription stimulant users in the San Francisco Bay Area. We explore intersecting factors, including life stage and social location, that contribute to decisions to use prescription stimulants nonmedically, motivations to use, knowledge about risks and benefits of prescription stimulant use, any adverse health or social consequences experienced, availability, acquisition and diversion of prescription stimulants, and differences in attitudes and behaviours. For this analysis, we rely on participants' narratives concerning prescription stimulant acquisition practices and how they understood these interactions, purchases, and exchanges with the suppliers of prescription stimulants in their social networks. The authors argue that acknowledging the

  1. Smart Parking Management Field Test: A Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) District Parking Demonstration

    OpenAIRE

    Shaheen, Susan

    2005-01-01

    In almost every major city in the U.S. and internationally, parking problems are ubiquitous. It is well known that the limited availability of parking contributes to roadway congestion, air pollution, and driver frustration and that the cost of expanding traditional parking capacity is frequently prohibitive. However, less research has addressed the effect of insufficient parking at transit stations on transit use. In the San Francisco Bay Area, parking has recently been at or near capacity a...

  2. Smart Parking Management Pilot Project: A Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) District Parking Demonstration

    OpenAIRE

    Shaheen, Susan; Rodier, Caroline; Eaken, Amanda M.

    2005-01-01

    This report presents early findings from an application of advanced parking technologies to maximize existing parking capacity at the Rockridge BART station, which was launched in December 2004 in the East San Francisco Bay Area. The smart parking system includes traffic sensors that count the number of vehicles entering and exiting the parking lots at the station. A reservation system allows travelers to reserve spaces by Internet, personal digital assistant (PDA), phone, and cell phone. The...

  3. 33 CFR 334.1320 - Kuluk Bay, Adak, Alaska; naval restricted area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1320 Kuluk Bay, Adak...: Beginning on shore at latitude 51°55′00″ N, longitude 176°33′09″ W; thence due east to latitude 51°55′00″ N, longitude 176°33′09″ W; thence due south to latitude 51°51′55″ N longitude 176°31′09″ W; thence due west to...

  4. Analysis of Marketing and Customer Satisfaction in Base Housing Communities of the Monterey Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    in Seattle, Washington. The company claims to be based on four basic principles : “exceptional people, strong customer service, market knowledge, and...FtOrd.html Keller, K., & Kotler , P. (2009). A framework for marketing management. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc. Office of...SUBTITLE Analysis of Marketing and Customer Satisfaction in Base Housing Communities of the Monterey Bay Area 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S

  5. Spatial Assessment of Road Traffic Injuries in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA: Spatial Analysis Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Tehranchi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This research presents a Geographic Information Systems (GIS and spatial analysis approach based on the global spatial autocorrelation of road traffic injuries for identifying spatial patterns. A locational spatial autocorrelation was also used for identifying traffic injury at spatial level. Data for this research study were acquired from Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI based on 2004 and 2011. Moran’s I statistics were used to examine spatial patterns of road traffic injuries in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA. An assessment of Getis-Ord Gi* statistic was followed as to identify hot spots and cold spots within the study area. The results revealed that Peel and Durham have the highest collision rate for other motor vehicle with motor vehicle. Geographic weighted regression (GWR technique was conducted to test the relationships between the dependent variable, number of road traffic injury incidents and independent variables such as number of seniors, low education, unemployed, vulnerable groups, people smoking and drinking, urban density and average median income. The result of this model suggested that number of seniors and low education have a very strong correlation with the number of road traffic injury incidents.

  6. The Walking Renaissance: A Longitudinal Analysis of Walking Travel in the Greater Los Angeles Area, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Joh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Promoting walking travel is considered important for reducing automobile use and improving public health. Recent U.S. transportation policy has incentivized investments in alternative, more sustainable transportation modes such as walking, bicycling and transit in auto-oriented cities such as Los Angeles. Although many past studies have analyzed changes in walking travel across the U.S., there is little clarity on the drivers of change. We address this gap by conducting a longitudinal analysis of walking travel in the greater Los Angeles area from 2001 to 2009. We use travel diary and household data from regional and national surveys to analyze changes in walking trip shares and rates across our study area. Results show that walking has significantly increased across most of Los Angeles, and that increases in walking trips generally correspond with increases in population, employment, and transit service densities. Estimates from fixed-effects regression analysis generally suggest a positive association between population density and walking, and that higher increases in transit stop density are correlated with increased walking trips to and from transit stops. These findings illustrate how regional planning efforts to pursue a coordinated land use-transit planning strategy can help promote walking in auto-oriented or vehicle adopting cities.

  7. Consolidation of existing solid waste management plans in the Greater Toronto Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-08-01

    The municipalities of the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) will be implementing initiatives in solid waste management, in view of the fact that current landfill capacity is nearly exhausted. A consolidation of information is provided on the solid waste management plans, programs, and facilities within the GTA. In response to environmental concerns coupled with difficulties encountered in developing new solid waste disposal facilities, waste reduction, reuse, and recycling efforts are developing rapidly. Some of the measures currently implemented and under investigation include: curbside recycling programs for newspapers, glass, metal, and plastic containers; expanding recycling efforts to apartment buildings; expanding the kinds of materials collected through the curbside programs; improving recycling services in rural areas; public education and promotional programs; promotion of home composting; household hazardous waste programs; recovery of cardboard from commercial and industrial sources, coupled with bans on cardboard at landfills; recovery of selected waste building materials such as wood and drywall, coupled with bans on these materials at landfills; recovery of paper from office buildings; and programs to assist industries in waste reduction, reuse, and recycling. The solid wastes generated in the GTA are managed in a number of facilities including recycling centers, transfer stations, and landfill sites. A 410 tonne/day energy-from-waste facility has recently been approved for Peel Region and is planned to be constructed in the coming year. 21 refs., 1 fig., 14 tabs.

  8. Ambient Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Observations in the San Francisco Bay Area of California Using a Fixed-site Monitoring Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martien, P. T.; Guha, A.; Bower, J.; Perkins, I.; Randall, S.; Young, A.; Hilken, H.; Stevenson, E.

    2016-12-01

    The Bay Area Air Quality Management District is the greater San Francisco Bay metropolitan area's chief air quality regulatory agency. Aligning itself with the Governor's Executive Order S-3-05, the Air District has set a goal to reduce the region's GHG emissions by 80% below 1990 levels by the year 2050. The Air District's 2016 Clean Air Plan will lay out the agency's vision and actions to put the region on a path forward towards achieving the 2050 goal while also reducing air pollution and related health impacts. The 2016 Plan has three overarching objectives: 1) develop a multi-pollutant emissions control strategy, (2) reduce population exposure to harmful air pollutants, especially in vulnerable communities, and (3) protect climate through a comprehensive Regional Climate Protection Strategy. To accomplish one of 2016 Plan's control measures (SL3 - Greenhouse Gas Monitoring and Measurement Network), the Air District has set up a long-term, ambient GHG monitoring network at four sites. The first site is located north and upwind of the urban core at Bodega Bay by the Pacific Coast. It mostly receives clean marine inflow and serves as the regional background site. The other three sites are strategically located at regional exit points for Bay Area plumes that presumably contain well-mixed GHG enhancements from local sources. CO2 and CH4are being measured continuously at the fixed-sites, along with combustion tracer CO and other air pollutants. In the longer term, the network will allow the Air District to monitor ambient concentrations of GHGs and thus evaluate the effectiveness of its policy, regulation and enforcement efforts. We present data trends from the first year of operation of the fixed-site monitoring network including monthly and seasonal patterns, diurnal variations and regional enhancements at individual sites above background concentrations. We also locate an isotopic methane instrument (Picarro, G132-i) for a short duration (a week) at each of the

  9. High-resolution quantification of atmospheric CO2 mixing ratios in the Greater Toronto Area, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugliese, Stephanie C.; Murphy, Jennifer G.; Vogel, Felix R.; Moran, Michael D.; Zhang, Junhua; Zheng, Qiong; Stroud, Craig A.; Ren, Shuzhan; Worthy, Douglas; Broquet, Gregoire

    2018-03-01

    Many stakeholders are seeking methods to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in urban areas, but reliable, high-resolution inventories are required to guide these efforts. We present the development of a high-resolution CO2 inventory available for the Greater Toronto Area and surrounding region in Southern Ontario, Canada (area of ˜ 2.8 × 105 km2, 26 % of the province of Ontario). The new SOCE (Southern Ontario CO2 Emissions) inventory is available at the 2.5 × 2.5 km spatial and hourly temporal resolution and characterizes emissions from seven sectors: area, residential natural-gas combustion, commercial natural-gas combustion, point, marine, on-road, and off-road. To assess the accuracy of the SOCE inventory, we developed an observation-model framework using the GEM-MACH chemistry-transport model run on a high-resolution grid with 2.5 km grid spacing coupled to the Fossil Fuel Data Assimilation System (FFDAS) v2 inventories for anthropogenic CO2 emissions and the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) land carbon model C-TESSEL for biogenic fluxes. A run using FFDAS for the Southern Ontario region was compared to a run in which its emissions were replaced by the SOCE inventory. Simulated CO2 mixing ratios were compared against in situ measurements made at four sites in Southern Ontario - Downsview, Hanlan's Point, Egbert and Turkey Point - in 3 winter months, January-March 2016. Model simulations had better agreement with measurements when using the SOCE inventory emissions versus other inventories, quantified using a variety of statistics such as correlation coefficient, root-mean-square error, and mean bias. Furthermore, when run with the SOCE inventory, the model had improved ability to capture the typical diurnal pattern of CO2 mixing ratios, particularly at the Downsview, Hanlan's Point, and Egbert sites. In addition to improved model-measurement agreement, the SOCE inventory offers a sectoral breakdown of emissions

  10. High-resolution quantification of atmospheric CO2 mixing ratios in the Greater Toronto Area, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Pugliese

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Many stakeholders are seeking methods to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions in urban areas, but reliable, high-resolution inventories are required to guide these efforts. We present the development of a high-resolution CO2 inventory available for the Greater Toronto Area and surrounding region in Southern Ontario, Canada (area of  ∼ 2.8 × 105 km2, 26 % of the province of Ontario. The new SOCE (Southern Ontario CO2 Emissions inventory is available at the 2.5 × 2.5 km spatial and hourly temporal resolution and characterizes emissions from seven sectors: area, residential natural-gas combustion, commercial natural-gas combustion, point, marine, on-road, and off-road. To assess the accuracy of the SOCE inventory, we developed an observation–model framework using the GEM-MACH chemistry–transport model run on a high-resolution grid with 2.5 km grid spacing coupled to the Fossil Fuel Data Assimilation System (FFDAS v2 inventories for anthropogenic CO2 emissions and the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF land carbon model C-TESSEL for biogenic fluxes. A run using FFDAS for the Southern Ontario region was compared to a run in which its emissions were replaced by the SOCE inventory. Simulated CO2 mixing ratios were compared against in situ measurements made at four sites in Southern Ontario – Downsview, Hanlan's Point, Egbert and Turkey Point – in 3 winter months, January–March 2016. Model simulations had better agreement with measurements when using the SOCE inventory emissions versus other inventories, quantified using a variety of statistics such as correlation coefficient, root-mean-square error, and mean bias. Furthermore, when run with the SOCE inventory, the model had improved ability to capture the typical diurnal pattern of CO2 mixing ratios, particularly at the Downsview, Hanlan's Point, and Egbert sites. In addition to improved model–measurement agreement, the SOCE inventory offers a

  11. Assessing Greenhouse Gas emissions in the Greater Toronto Area using atmospheric observations (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, F. R.; Chan, E.; Huang, L.; Levin, I.; Worthy, D.

    2013-12-01

    Urban areas are said to be responsible for approximately 75% of anthropogenic Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) emissions while comprising only two percent of the land area [1]. This limited spatial expansion should facilitate a monitoring of anthropogenic GHGs from atmospheric observations. As major sources of emissions, cities also have a huge potential to drive emissions reductions. To effectively manage emissions, cities must however, first measure and report these publicly [2]. Modelling studies and measurements of CO2 from fossil fuel burning (FFCO2) in densely populated areas does, however, pose several challenges: Besides continuous in-situ observations, i.e. finding an adequate atmospheric transport model, a sufficiently fine-grained FFCO2 emission model and the proper background reference observations to distinguish the large-scale from the local/urban contributions to the observed FFCO2 concentration offsets ( ΔFFCO2) are required. Pilot studies which include the data from two 'sister sites*' in the vicinity of Toronto, Canada helped to derive flux estimates for Non-CO2 GHGs [3] and improve our understanding of urban FFCO2 emissions. Our 13CO2 observations reveal that the contribution of natural gas burning (mostly due to domestic heating) account for 80%×7% of FFCO2 emissions in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) during winter. Our 14CO2 observations in the GTA, furthermore, show that the local offset of CO2 (ΔCO2) between our two sister sites can be largely attributed to urban FFCO2 emissions. The seasonal cycle of the observed ΔFFCO2 in Toronto, combined with high-resolution atmospheric modeling, helps to independently assess the contribution from different emission sectors (transportation, primary energy and industry, domestic heating) as predicted by a dedicated city-scale emission inventory, which deviates from a UNFCCC-based inventory. [1] D. Dodman. 2009. Blaming cities for climate change? An analysis of urban greenhouse gas emissions inventories

  12. Metropolitan Transportation Commission, San Francisco Bay area : developing regional objectives and performance measures to improve system operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    The Metropolitan Transportation Commission (MTC) uses an objectives-driven, performance-based approach in its transportation planning for the San Francisco Bay Area. This approach focuses attention on transportation investments of highest priority. T...

  13. 2010 Northern San Francisco Bay Area Lidar: Portions of Alameda, Contra Costa, Marin, Napa, San Francisco, Solano, and Sonoma Counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) dataset is a survey of northern San Francisco Bay, California. The project area consists of approximately 437 square miles...

  14. Burial fluxes and source apportionment of carbon in culture areas of Sanggou Bay over the past 200 years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Sai; HUANG Jiansheng; YANG Qian; YANG Shu; YANG Guipeng; SUN Yao

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we assessed the burial fluxes and source appointment of different forms of carbon in core sediments collected from culture areas in the Sanggou Bay, and preliminarily analyzed the reasons for the greater proportion of inorganic carbon burial fluxes (BFTIC). The average content of total carbon (TC) in the Sanggou Bay was 2.14%. Total organic carbon (TOC) accounted for a small proportion in TC, more than 65% of which derived from terrigenous organic carbon (Ct), and while the proportion of marine-derived organic carbon (Ca) increased significantly since the beginning of large-scale aquaculture. Total inorganic carbon (TIC) accounted for 60%–75%of TC, an average of which was 60%, with a maximum up to 90% during flourishing periods (1880–1948) of small natural shellfish derived from seashells inorganic carbon (Shell-IC). The TC burial fluxes ranged from 31 g/(m2·a) to 895 g/(m2·a) with an average of 227 g/(m2·a), which was dominated by TIC (about 70%). Shell-IC was the main source of TIC and even TC. As the main food of natural shellfish, biogenic silica (BSi) negatively correlated with BFTIC through affecting shellfish breeding. BFTIC of Sta. S1, influenced greatly by the Yellow Sea Coastal Current, had a certain response to Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) in some specific periods.

  15. Vs30 mapping at selected sites within the Greater Accra Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nortey, Grace; Armah, Thomas K.; Amponsah, Paulina

    2018-06-01

    A large part of Accra is underlain by a complex distribution of shallow soft soils. Within seismically active zones, these soils hold the most potential to significantly amplify seismic waves and cause severe damage, especially to structures sited on soils lacking sufficient stiffness. This paper presents preliminary site classification for the Greater Accra Metropolitan Area of Ghana (GAMA), using experimental data from two-dimensional (2-D) Multichannel Analysis of Surface Wave (MASW) technique. The dispersive characteristics of fundamental mode Rayleigh type surface waves were utilized for imaging the shallow subsurface layers (approx. up to 30 m depth) by estimating the 1D (depth) and 2D (depth and surface location) shear wave velocities at 5 selected sites. The average shear wave velocity for 30 m depth (Vs30), which is critical in evaluating the site response of the upper 30 m, was estimated and used for the preliminary site classification of the GAM area, as per NEHRP (National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program). Based on the Vs30 values obtained in the study, two common site types C, and D corresponding to shallow (>6 m Lower velocity profiles are inferred for the residual soils (sandy to silty clays), derived from the Accraian Formation that lies mainly within Accra central. Stiffer soil sites lie to the north of Accra, and to the west near Nyanyano. The seismic response characteristics over the residual soils in the GAMA have become apparent using the MASW technique. An extensive site effect map and a more robust probabilistic seismic hazard analysis can now be efficiently built for the metropolis, by considering the site classes and design parameters obtained from this study.

  16. Opportunities for reducing greenhouse gas, energy use, and electricity use in the Greater Toronto area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-02-16

    The Clean Air Partnership (CAP) was interested in scanning and prioritizing energy efficiency opportunities to reduce energy use and the associated greenhouse gas emissions in the greater Toronto area (GTA). A study was conducted to scope out the most promising program directions for the GTA should government funding become available to launch the initiative, based on the relative technical potential of energy efficiency (and some fuel substitution) measures in the targeted sectors. A report to the Ontario Power Authority (OPA) focused on the residential and institutional sectors. These included new and existing residential buildings, condominiums and single-family homes, with special detail provided on appliances and central air conditioning; as well as municipal, university, school, and hospital buildings, with special attention towards measures to make street and traffic signal lighting more energy efficient. This letter provided a summary of findings. Next steps were also presented. It was recommended that three market transformation initiatives be designed and implemented to realize the technical potential for reductions in peak electricity and carbon dioxide emissions reductions. These three programs were discussed with reference to the energy efficient lighting collaborative; a green loan program for new homes and condominiums; and a community residential CDM program. A market transformation framework was also presented. It addressed the five key steps in the movement of a product from the manufacturer to the end user, namely availability; awareness; accessibility; affordability; and acceptance. 1 tab., 3 figs.

  17. Measurements of radiological background and some chemical pollutants in two areas of greater cairo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawfik, F.S.; Ramadan, A.; Abdel Aziz, M.A.; Aly, A.I.M.

    2002-01-01

    The present work aims to the evaluation of radiological background levels and chemical pollutants in greater cairo as the most dense populated city in Egypt. The meteorological data of a complete one year of Cairo city have been collected, investigated and processed to determined the behavior of the pollutants in the atmosphere and the sector that is strongly affected by the pollutants. Portable detector for measuring the radiological background was deployed in Nasr City, where two nuclear centers belonging to Atomic Energy Authority are located, to measure the radioactivity levels in the atmosphere and compare them with the international standard limits. Other detectors were deployed in Shobra El- Khema area to study two significant phenomena, the first is the formation of ozone through the photo-chemical oxidation, its level and its behavior in the atmosphere, taking into consideration the international standard limits. The second phenomenon is the impact of the black plume on the capital Cairo started on October (1999) and its association of pollutant levels increment, defining the nature and the site location of the pollutant source. The carbon monoxide concentrations (as an example), before and during the black plume, were calculated using Gaussian equation then compared with the measured data in Shobra El- Khema region. The other available instruments were used to measure nitrogen oxides, ozone and carbon monoxide

  18. Adolescent gambling in greater Athens area: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostopoulos, Dimitris C; Lazaratou, Helen; Paleologou, Mina P; Peppou, Lily E; Economou, Marina; Malliori, Melpomeni; Papadimitriou, George N; Papageorgiou, Charalampos

    2017-11-01

    Problem gambling in adolescents has recently emerged as a pressing public health concern. In this context and in light of the pervasive financial crisis in Greece, the present study aimed to explore adolescents' gambling involvement in Athens region to estimate the prevalence of its problematic form and to identify its risk/protective factors. A total of 2141 students were recruited from a representative sample of 51 schools located in greater Athens area. The presence of problem gambling was assessed through the use of the DSM-IV-MR-J questionnaire. Data were collected in the form of a self-reported questionnaire during one school hour. Results indicate that 1-year prevalence of high severity problem gambling was found to be 5.6%. Regarding the risk factors for problem gambling; male gender, parental engagement with gambling activities, living without the parents, low grades at school, foreign nationality and the referent absence of availability of food in the household, increased the risk of suffering from the disorder. Gambling behavior among adolescents constitutes a problem in Greece and highlights the need for designing and implementing appropriate preventive interventions, especially amid the ongoing financial crisis.

  19. Indoor air quality in the Greater Beirut area: a characterization and modeling assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Fadel, Mutasem; El-Hougeiri, Nisrine; Oulabi, Mawiya

    2003-01-01

    This report presents the assessment of IAQ at various environments selected from different geographic categories from the Greater Beirut area (GBA) in Lebanon. For this purpose, background information about indoor air quality was reviewed, existing conditions were characterized, an air-sampling program was implemented and mathematical modeling was conducted. Twenty-eight indoor buildings were selected from various geographic categories representing different environments (commercial and residential...). Indoor and outdoor air samples were collected and analyzed using carbon monoxide (CO), particulate matter (TSP), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) and total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) as indicators of indoor air pollution (IAP).Samples were further analyzed using the energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence technique (EDXRF) for the presence of major priority metals including iron (Fe), calcium (Ca), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu) and bromine (Br). Indoor and outdoor measured levels were compared to the American Society of Heating Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) and health-based National Ambient Air Quality standards (NAAQS), respectively. For the priority metals, on the other hand, indoor measured values were compared to occupational standards recommended by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)

  20. Seasonal Analysis of Microbial Communities in Precipitation in the Greater Tokyo Area, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Hiraoka

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The presence of microbes in the atmosphere and their transport over long distances across the Earth's surface was recently shown. Precipitation is likely a major path by which aerial microbes fall to the ground surface, affecting its microbial ecosystems and introducing pathogenic microbes. Understanding microbial communities in precipitation is of multidisciplinary interest from the perspectives of microbial ecology and public health; however, community-wide and seasonal analyses have not been conducted. Here, we carried out 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing of 30 precipitation samples that were aseptically collected over 1 year in the Greater Tokyo Area, Japan. The precipitation microbial communities were dominated by Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria and were overall consistent with those previously reported in atmospheric aerosols and cloud water. Seasonal variations in composition were observed; specifically, Proteobacteria abundance significantly decreased from summer to winter. Notably, estimated ordinary habitats of precipitation microbes were dominated by animal-associated, soil-related, and marine-related environments, and reasonably consistent with estimated air mass backward trajectories. To our knowledge, this is the first amplicon-sequencing study investigating precipitation microbial communities involving sampling over the duration of a year.

  1. Backyard chicken keeping in the Greater London Urban Area: welfare status, biosecurity and disease control issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabozhilova, I; Wieland, B; Alonso, S; Salonen, L; Häsler, B

    2012-01-01

    1. The aim of the study was to collect baseline data on welfare, biosecurity and diseases of backyard chickens kept in the Greater London Urban Area (GLUA), United Kingdom (UK). 2. A total of 65 backyard chicken flock-keepers were recruited from May to July 2010 through adverts on websites, at City farms, veterinary practices and pet feed stores and surveyed by means of a questionnaire. A total of 30 responses were suitable for analysis. 3. Information on keepers' and flocks' characteristics, housing and husbandry practices and owners' knowledge of health problems in chickens and zoonotic diseases was collected. A welfare assessment protocol was developed and the flocks assessed accordingly. 4. Results showed that chickens were generally provided with living conditions that allowed them to perform their natural behaviours. 5. Most of the flock owners did not comply with the regulations of the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) on the feeding of catering waste. 6. Disease prevention measures such as vaccination and biosecurity, including limiting the access of human visitors, wild birds and rodents to the flocks were rare. 7. A lack of avian and zoonotic disease knowledge and awareness among the owners has implications for disease control and highlights the need for improved communication between owners, authorities and veterinarians.

  2. Atmospheric Methane Enhancements Related with Natural Gas Usage in the Greater Houston Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, N. P.; Zheng, C.; Ye, W.; Czader, B.; Cohan, D. S.; Tittel, F. K.; Griffin, R. J.

    2017-12-01

    Natural gas (NG) usage as a replacement of oil and coal has increased significantly in the U.S in recent years. Despite the benefits associated with this fuel, leakage from NG distribution systems and in-use uncombusted NG (e.g., compressed natural gas vehicles) can be relevant sources of methane (CH4) emissions in urban centers. Methane, the main constituent of NG, is a potent greenhouse gas impacting the chemistry of the atmosphere, whose emission might outweigh the potential environmental advantages of NG use. Although the Greater Houston area (GHA) is the fifth-largest metropolitan area in the U.S, no studies on the potential impact of NG usage on atmospheric CH4 levels have been published in the scientific literature to date. In this work, a mobile-based study of CH4 and ethane (C2H6) concentration levels in eight residential zones with different expected probability of NG leakage in the GHA was conducted in the summer of 2016. A novel laser-based sensor system for simultaneous detection of CH4 and C2H6 was developed and deployed in a mid-sized vehicle, and monitoring of these gas species was conducted for over 14 days covering 250 road miles. Both linear discriminant and cluster analyses were performed to assess the spatial variability of atmospheric CH4 concentrations in the GHA. These analyses showed clear differences in the CH4 mixing ratios in an inter- and intra-neighborhood level and indicated the presence of high CH4 concentration clusters mainly located in the central and west central parts of the GHA. Source discrimination analyses based on orthogonal regression analysis and a Keeling-like plot method were conducted to establish the predominant origin of CH4 in the identified high concentration clusters and in over 30 CH4 concentration peaks observed during the field campaign. Results of these analyses indicate that thermogenic sources of CH4 (e.g., NG) were predominant in short-duration concentration spikes (lasting less than 10 minutes), while CH4

  3. MONITORING MANGROVE AREA IN BENOA BAY USING LANDSAT TM AND ETM + DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Luh Made Ari Sugianthi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove ecosystems are crucial for the management of some coastal resources in Indonesia. Thisresearch used Landsat TM 1994, Landsat ETM+ 2002 with the purpose to know mangrove area change foreight years, mangrove density and accuracy of image as source of data to mangrove area in Benoa Bay. Fromimage analysis that using maximum likelihood method, the mangrove is classified into 3 classes i.e.:mangroves with high density, medium density and low density. For the ground check, used single plotmethod by using 6 trees.The extent of mangrove area in Benoa Bay were 447.69 ha in 1994 and 622.08 ha in 2002. Thechange of the extent of mangrove area during 8 years (1994 – 2002 increased by 174.41 ha. The area ofdensities in 1994, high density was 225.15 ha, medium density was 122.48 ha and low density was 130.05ha. In 2002, high density was 262.8 ha, medium density was 265.95 ha, and low density was 133.30 ha.Based on the regression analysis between mangrove density and the value of interpretation, the density ofmangrove in Benoa Bay which the criteria of high density is 364.723 – 466.311 tree/ha, medium density is237.738 - 364.723 tree/ha and low density is 186.944 – 237.738 tree/ha. The determination coefficient (r2was 0.6312. Based on the regression analysis in 2002 used in interpretation of mangrove density in 1994,which the criteria of high density is 357.10 tree/ha –316.47 tree/ha, medium density is 273.29 tree/ha –316.47 tree/ha and low density is 252.98 tree/ha –273.29 tree/ha.The accuracy of the Landsat ETM+ 2002 for mangrove area classification in Benoa Bay was 90%.These values were above the acceptable limit of accuracy stated of 80 %, so that this classification accuracywas acceptable.

  4. Clinical evaluation of radiation oncology greater area database (ROGAD). From 1992 to 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harauchi, Hajime; Inamura, Kiyonari; Umeda, Tokuo

    2001-01-01

    Radiotherapy clinical records of 8,950 cases were collected from 251 hospitals in the period from 1992 to 1998 by the activity of Radiation Oncology Greater Area Database ROGAD under the Japanese Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology JASTRO, and their data were analyzed. Outlines of analysis are presented in this paper and other 5 papers in series. Also follow-up data of 814 cases by the 4th follow-up survey study carried out in 1998 were retrieved and examined. Case distribution survey according to ICD-O code for primary tumor region were worked out. Chronological change of case distribution during these seven years were examined and briefly stated in this paper. Case analyses in terms of 5 portions of topographical region were also done, and 5 papers together with this paper describe the results of the analyses. Data analysis comparison between ROGAD and the regular census revealed that the resulted analyses of collected clinical data by ROGAD from 1992 to 1998 indicated the real world of radiation therapy situation in Japan. One of the reason to state this is that ROGAD covers 34.7% of number of facilities and 36.1% of number of cases treated in Japan. The another reason is that we could reduce the rate of mis-registration and items of blanked registration by means of improvement of registration software with logical check. We made sure from our effort of this ROGAD activity for these 7 years experiences that continuation of the run of this database ROGAD would bring us much more accurate information on the radiation oncology situation in Japan. (author)

  5. Prevalence and risk factors for hyperthyroidism in Irish cats from the greater Dublin area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bree, Laura; Gallagher, Barbara A; Shiel, Robert E; Mooney, Carmel T

    2018-01-01

    Hyperthyroidism is common in older cats. Prevalence varies geographically, but is anecdotally considered low in Ireland. The aim of this study was to document prevalence of hyperthyroidism in older cats in the greater Dublin area of Ireland and to assess environmental and clinical associations for development and identification of the disease. Primary-care veterinary practices were requested to select cats aged 10 years or older where blood sampling was being performed for health screening or clinical investigations. Surplus serum/plasma samples were submitted to University College Dublin Diagnostic Endocrine Laboratory for total thyroxine (T 4 ) measurement. Cats were classified as hyperthyroid, equivocal or euthyroid based on a total T 4 concentration (reference interval, 15-60 nmol/L), of >60 nmol/L, 30-60 nmol/L or hyperthyroidism were excluded. A questionnaire completed by the client and veterinarian detailing historical and physical information was also required. Associations between categorical variables were analysed by Chi-square or Fisher's exact test and odds ratio (OR) calculated. A P value of hyperthyroid, 54 (10.6%) equivocal and 346 (68.2%) euthyroid. The presence of goitre ( P  weight loss ( P  hyperthyroidism. Cats with goitre were more likely to be diagnosed as hyperthyroid [OR 2.85, (95% CI 1.75-4.62] compared to those without. However, goitre was only palpated in 40 of 102 (39.2%) hyperthyroid cats. Increasing age was the only significant ( P  hyperthyroidism. A relationship between hyperthyroidism and sex, breed, lifestyle, parasite control, vaccination status or feeding habits was not identified. Hyperthyroidism is not uncommon in Irish cats. Age was the only significant risk factor for its development. The high proportion of hyperthyroid cats without palpable goitre (> 60%) may reflect failure to detect goitre and account for the perceived low prevalence of this condition in Ireland.

  6. A stratigraphic model to support remediation of groundwater contamination in the southern San Francisco Bay area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinpress, M.G.

    1993-01-01

    Some early regional studies in the southern San Francisco Bay Area applied the term 'older bay mud' to Wisconsin and older deposits thought to be estuarine in origin. This outdated interpretation has apparently contributed to an expectation of laterally-continuous aquifers and aquitards. In fact, heterogeneous alluvial deposits often create complex hydrogeologic settings that defy simple remedial approaches. A more useful stratigraphic model provides a foundation for conducting site investigations and assessing the feasibility of remediation. A synthesis of recent regional studies and drilling results at one site on the southwest margin of the Bay indicate that the upper quaternary stratigraphy consists of four primary units in the upper 200 feet of sediments (oldest to youngest): (1) Illinoian glacial-age alluvium (an important groundwater source); (2) Sangamon interglacial-age deposits, which include fine-grained alluvial deposits and estuarine deposits equivalent to the Yerba Buena Mud (a regional confining layer); (3) Wisconsin glacial-age alluvial fan and floodplain deposits; and (4) Holocene interglacial-age sediments, which include fine-grained alluvial and estuarine deposits equivalent to the 'younger bay mud'. Remedial investigations generally focus on groundwater contamination in the Wisconsin and Holocene alluvial deposits. Detailed drilling results indicate that narrow sand and gravel channels occur in anastomosing patterns within a Wisconsin to Holocene floodplain sequence dominated by interchannel silts and clays. The identification of these small-scale high-permeability conduits is critical to understanding and predicting contaminant transport on a local scale. Discontinuous site-specific aquitards do not provide competent separation where stacked channels occur and the correlation of aquitards over even small distance is often tenuous at best

  7. Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Fuel Cell Bus Demonstration Results. Fourth Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-07-02

    This report presents results of a demonstration of fuel cell electric buses (FCEB) operating in Oakland, California. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) leads the Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) demonstration, which includes 12 advanced-design fuel cell buses and two hydrogen fueling stations. The FCEBs in service at AC Transit are 40-foot, low-floor buses built by Van Hool with a hybrid electric propulsion system that includes a US Hybrid fuel cell power system and EnerDel lithium-based energy storage system. The buses began revenue service in May 2010.

  8. Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Fuel Cell Bus Demonstration Results: Fifth Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jeffers, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-06-01

    This report presents results of a demonstration of fuel cell electric buses (FCEB) operating in Oakland, California. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) leads the Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) demonstration, which includes 13 advanced-design fuel cell buses and two hydrogen fueling stations. The ZEBA partners are collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the buses in revenue service. NREL has published four previous reports describing operation of these buses. This report presents new and updated results covering data from January 2015 through December 2015.

  9. Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Fuel Cell Bus Demonstration: First Results Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2011-08-01

    This report documents the early implementation experience for the Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Demonstration, the largest fleet of fuel cell buses in the United States. The ZEBA Demonstration group includes five participating transit agencies: AC Transit (lead transit agency), Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority (VTA), Golden Gate Transit (GGT), San Mateo County Transit District (SamTrans), and San Francisco Municipal Railway (Muni). The ZEBA partners are collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the buses in revenue service.

  10. Modeling the Joint Labor-Commute Engagement Decisions of San Francisco Bay Area Residents

    OpenAIRE

    Ory, David T.; Mokhtarian, Patricia L.

    2005-01-01

    Using socio-demographic, personality, and attitudinal data from 1,680 residents of the San Francisco Bay Area, we develop and estimate binary, multinomial, and nested logit models of the choice to work or not, whether or not to work at home, and whether to commute all of the time or some of the time (either by only working part time, or by working a compressed work week, or by telecommuting some of the time). To our knowledge, these are the first models of all these choices simultaneously. Th...

  11. Improving Radar Quantitative Precipitation Estimation over Complex Terrain in the San Francisco Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifelli, R.; Chen, H.; Chandrasekar, V.

    2017-12-01

    A recent study by the State of California's Department of Water Resources has emphasized that the San Francisco Bay Area is at risk of catastrophic flooding. Therefore, accurate quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) and forecast (QPF) are critical for protecting life and property in this region. Compared to rain gauge and meteorological satellite, ground based radar has shown great advantages for high-resolution precipitation observations in both space and time domain. In addition, the polarization diversity shows great potential to characterize precipitation microphysics through identification of different hydrometeor types and their size and shape information. Currently, all the radars comprising the U.S. National Weather Service (NWS) Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) network are operating in dual-polarization mode. Enhancement of QPE is one of the main considerations of the dual-polarization upgrade. The San Francisco Bay Area is covered by two S-band WSR-88D radars, namely, KMUX and KDAX. However, in complex terrain like the Bay Area, it is still challenging to obtain an optimal rainfall algorithm for a given set of dual-polarization measurements. In addition, the accuracy of rain rate estimates is contingent on additional factors such as bright band contamination, vertical profile of reflectivity (VPR) correction, and partial beam blockages. This presentation aims to improve radar QPE for the Bay area using advanced dual-polarization rainfall methodologies. The benefit brought by the dual-polarization upgrade of operational radar network is assessed. In addition, a pilot study of gap fill X-band radar performance is conducted in support of regional QPE system development. This paper also presents a detailed comparison between the dual-polarization radar-derived rainfall products with various operational products including the NSSL's Multi-Radar/Multi-Sensor (MRMS) system. Quantitative evaluation of various rainfall products is achieved

  12. Geology and natural history of the San Francisco Bay area: A field-trip guidebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffer, Philip W.; Gordon, Leslie C.

    2001-01-01

    A National Association of Geoscience Teachers Far Western Section (NAGT-FWS) field conference is an ideal forum for learning about the geology and natural history of the San Francisco Bay area. We visit classic field sites, renew old friendships, and make new ones. This collection of papers includes field guides and road logs for all of the Bay-area trips held during the NAGT-FWS 2001 Fall Field Conference and supplemental chapters on other aspects of the area’s natural and human history. The trips touch on many aspects of the geology and natural hazards of the Bay area, especially urban problems associated with living on an active tectonic plate margin: earthquake faults, coastal erosion, landslides, and the utilization of land and natural resources. We hope this conference not only provides a two-day learning opportunity for conference participants but that students and educators will use this field guidebook for future teaching and research.Many thanks are due to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and San José State University (SJSU) for cohosting the conference. We are grateful to each of the field trip leaders for preparing the trips and writing the accompanying guides. We especially appreciate the many hours put in by the guidebook reviewers, Robert I. Tilling (USGS) and Paula Messina (SJSU), and to the USGS Western Publications Group for editing, layout, and web posting. Additional guidebook contributions include articles by John Galloway, Scott Starratt, Page Mosier, and Susan Toussaint. During the conference guest speakers include Robert I. Tilling (USGS Volcano Hazards Team) and Ross Stein (USGS Earthquake Hazards Team). Workshops prepared for the conference include GIS in the classroom, using USGS data by John Vogel (USGS) and Paula Messina (SJSU), and The Best of BAESI (Bay Area Earth Science Institute), a teacher training organization under the direction of Ellen Metzger (SJSU) and Richard Sedlock (SJSU). The conference provides an opportunity to

  13. Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Fuel Cell Bus Demonstration Results: Sixth Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, Matthew B. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jeffers, Matthew A. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-11

    This report presents results of a demonstration of fuel cell electric buses (FCEB) operating in Oakland, California. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) leads the Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) demonstration, which includes 13 advanced-design fuel cell buses and two hydrogen fueling stations. The ZEBA partners are collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the buses in revenue service. NREL has published five previous reports describing operation of these buses. This report presents new and updated results covering data from January 2016 through December 2016.

  14. The case of Iranian immigrants in the greater Toronto area: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dastjerdi Mahdieh

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Iranians comprise an immigrant group that has a very different cultural background from that of the mainstream Canadian population and speaks a language other than English or French; in this case mainly Farsi (Persian. Although Iranian immigrants in Toronto receive a high proportion of care from Farsi-speaking family physicians and health care providers than physicians who cannot speak Farsi, they are still not satisfied with the provided services. The purpose of this study was to identify the obstacles and issues Iranian immigrants faced in accessing health care services as seen through the eyes of Iranian health care professionals/providers and social workers working in Greater Toronto Area, Canada. Methods Narrative inquiry was used to capture and understand the obstacles this immigrant population faces when accessing health care services, through the lens of fifty Iranian health care professionals/providers and social workers. Thirty three health care professionals and five social workers were interviewed. To capture the essence of issues, individual interviews were followed by three focus groups consisting of three health care professionals and one social worker in each group. Results Three major themes emerged from the study: language barrier and the lack of knowledge of Canadian health care services/systems; lack of trust in Canadian health care services due to financial limitations and fear of disclosure; and somatization and needs for psychological supports. Conclusion Iranians may not be satisfied with the Canadian health care services due to a lack of knowledge of the system, as well as cultural differences when seeking care, such as fear of disclosure, discrimination, and mistrust of primary care. To attain equitable, adequate, and effective access to health care services, immigrants need to be educated and informed about the Canadian health care system and services it provides. It would be of great benefit to

  15. Wintertime aerosol chemical composition, volatility, and spatial variability in the greater London area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Xu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The composition of PM1 (particulate matter with diameter less than 1 µm in the greater London area was characterized during the Clean Air for London (ClearfLo project in winter 2012. Two high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometers (HR-ToF-AMS were deployed at a rural site (Detling, Kent and an urban site (North Kensington, London. The simultaneous and high-temporal resolution measurements at the two sites provide a unique opportunity to investigate the spatial distribution of PM1. We find that the organic aerosol (OA concentration is comparable between the rural and urban sites, but the contribution from different sources is distinctly different between the two sites. The concentration of solid fuel OA at the urban site is about twice as high as at the rural site, due to elevated domestic heating in the urban area. While the concentrations of oxygenated OA (OOA are well-correlated between the two sites, the OOA concentration at the rural site is almost twice that of the urban site. At the rural site, more than 70 % of the carbon in OOA is estimated to be non-fossil, which suggests that OOA is likely related to aged biomass burning considering the small amount of biogenic SOA in winter. Thus, it is possible that the biomass burning OA contributes a larger fraction of ambient OA in wintertime than what previous field studies have suggested. A suite of instruments was deployed downstream of a thermal denuder (TD to investigate the volatility of PM1 species at the rural Detling site. After heating at 250 °C in the TD, 40 % of the residual mass is OA, indicating the presence of non-volatile organics in the aerosol. Although the OA associated with refractory black carbon (rBC; measured by a soot-particle aerosol mass spectrometer only accounts for < 10 % of the total OA (measured by a HR-ToF-AMS at 250 °C, the two measurements are well-correlated, suggesting that the non-volatile organics have similar sources or have

  16. Sub-tidal benthic habitats of central San Francisco Bay and offshore Golden Gate area: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, H. Gary; Endris, Charles; Vallier, Tracy; Golden, Nadine E.; Cross, Jeffery; Ryan, Holly F.; Dieter, Bryan; Niven, Eric; Barnard, P.L.; Jaffee, B.E.; Schoellhamer, D.H.

    2013-01-01

    Deep-water potential estuarine and marine benthic habitat types were defined from a variety of new and interpreted data sets in central San Francisco Bay and offshore Golden Gate area including multibeam echosounder (MBES), side-scan sonar and bottom grab samples. Potential estuarine benthic habitats identified for the first time range from hard bedrock outcrops on island and mainland flanks and some Bay floor

  17. 33 CFR 165.1195 - Regulated Navigation Area; Humboldt Bay Bar Channel and Humboldt Bay Entrance Channel, Humboldt...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Entrance Channel, Humboldt Bay, California. (b) Definitions. As used in this section— COTP means the... person in charge of a vessel to which this notice applies shall obtain permission to cross within four... place during daylight hours, the vessel has only a single tow or no tow, the visibility at the bar is...

  18. 33 CFR 334.1160 - San Pablo Bay, Calif.; target practice area, Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... practice area, Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo. 334.1160 Section 334.1160 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1160 San Pablo Bay, Calif.; target practice area, Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo. (a..., Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo, California, will conduct target practice in the area at intervals...

  19. 33 CFR 334.660 - Gulf of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. 334.660 Section 334... Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The restricted area. A rectangular...

  20. Urban mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae of dengue endemic communities in the Greater Puntarenas area, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olger Calderón-Arguedas

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Field studies were conducted to determine the mosquito species richness in the urban area of Greater Puntarenas in Costa Rica. Two cross-sectional entomological surveys were performed in seven localities of Puntarenas: one survey was performed during the wet season and the other during the dry season. The sections evaluated were determined by applying a stratified cluster sampling method using satellite imagery, and a sample of 26 cells (100x100m was selected for the study. The number of cells per locality was proportional to the area of each locality. The presence of mosquito larvae and pupae in water-filled artificial and natural containers was determined in each cell. Infestation was expressed as a diversity index per type of container (Ii. Eight types of larvae were identified (Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex interrogator, Culex nigripalpus, Culex corniger, Culex tarsalis, Limatus durhamii and Toxorhynchites theobaldi and in two cases it was only possible to identify the genus (Culex sp. and Uranotaenia sp.. A. aegypti was the most common species followed by C. quinquefascitus. Diversity of wet environments can explain the co-occurrence of various culicid species in some localities. Although A. aegypti is the only documented disease vector in the area, C quinquefasciatus, C. nigripalpus, and the other species of Culex could be considered potential vectors of other pathogens. The presence and ecology of all mosquito species should be studied to optimize surveillance and prevention of dengue and to prevent the emergence of other mosquito-transmitted diseases. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (4: 1223-1234. Epub 2009 December 01.La riqueza de especies de mosquitos urbanos de la Gran Puntarenas (Puntarenas, Costa Rica fue evaluada por medio de análisis larvales. Dos encuestas entomológicas fueron realizadas en siete localidades de la Gran Puntarenas durante un año. Una de las encuestas fue realizada en la estación seca y la otra se llevó a

  1. Energy impacts of heat island reduction strategies in the Greater Toronto Area, Canada; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konopacki, Steven; Akbari, Hashem

    2001-01-01

    In 2000, the Toronto Atmospheric Fund (TAF) embarked on an initiative to quantify the potential benefits of Heat Island Reduction (HIR) strategies (shade trees, reflective roofs and pavements) in reducing cooling energy use in buildings, lowering the ambient air temperature and improve air quality. This report summarizes the efforts of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to assess the impacts of HIR measures on building cooling- and heating-energy use. We discuss our efforts to calculate annual energy savings and peak-power avoidance of HIR strategies in the building sector of the Greater Toronto Area. The analysis is focused on three major building types that offer most saving potentials: residence, office and retail store. Using an hourly building energy simulation model, we quantify the energy saving potentials of (1) using cool roofs on individual buildings[direct effect], (2) planting deciduous shade trees near south and west walls of building[direct effect], (3) planting coniferous wind-shielding vegetation near building[direct effect], (4) ambient cooling by a large-scale program of urban reforestation with reflective building roofs and pavements[indirect effect], (5) and the combined direct and indirect effects. Results show potential annual energy savings of over$11M (with uniform residential and commercial electricity and gas prices of$0.084/kWh and$5.54/GJ) could be realized by ratepayers from the combined direct and indirect effects of HIR strategies. Of that total, about 88 percent was from the direct impact roughly divided equally among reflective roofs, shade trees and wind-shielding, and the remainder (12 percent) from the indirect impact of the cooler ambient air temperature. The residential sector accounts for over half (59 percent) of the total, offices 13 percent and retail stores 28 percent. Savings from cool roofs were about 20 percent, shade trees 30 percent, wind shielding of tree 37 percent, and indirect effect 12 percent. These

  2. Nutritional status of alcoholics in Peri-urban areas of the greater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alcoholism is a common problem in developing countries. Epidemiological studies on the relationship among excessive alcohol consumption, malnutrition and anaemia are inconclusive. The present study examined the association between alcohol intake and nutritional status of alcoholics in the Greater Accra Region of ...

  3. Gis Based Analysis For Suitability Location Finding In The Residential Development Areas Of Greater Matara Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.K.G.M Madurika

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Urban Planning and Land utilization for the Residential is one of crucial factors in high density Cities. Many theories in Planning explain the Residential areas are moving to periphery areas in cities by its commercial development. Martara is one of developing city in Southern Sri Lanka and Residential land value are comparative high in city sub urban areas. In this study it is examined that where is the best locations for residential development in Grater Matara Region by using five criteria. GIS based Multi Criteria Method MCE method have been applied to find the suitable locations. The results of analysis have been shown that there are 5378.99 hectares area suitable within study area and however extremely importance areas only 1.40 hectares accordingly given criteria but very strongly importance and importance category have 1560.51 and 2468.22 respectively.

  4. Distribution characteristics of radium isotopes and their influence factors in the water of Jiaozhou Bay area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bo; Guo Zhanrong; Yuan Xiaojie; Zhang Bin; Ma Zhiyong; Liu Jie

    2014-01-01

    Background: The interaction between continental and oceanic process is much intense in coastal region. The terrestrial freshwater mixes with seawater here which leads to the chemical constituents in water undergo rapid change. Purpose: The aim is to analyze and study the distribution characteristics of 224 Ra and 226 Ra and their influence factors in the water of Jiaozhou Bay area. Methods: The water samples of 224 Ra and 226 Ra were collected from groundwater, river water and seawater around the Jiaozhou Bay from April to May, 2012. In the laboratory, the activities of 224 Ra absorbed on the Mn-fiber were measured through the continuous emanation method. Finally, the Mn-fiber was sealed for more than 7 days, and the activities of 226 Ra absorbed on the Mn-fiber were measured through the direct emanation method. Results: The results show that the activities of 224 Ra and 226 Ra in groundwater and river water are much higher in the granitic area which has higher concentration of 232 Th and 238 U. Because of mixing with seawater, the salinity of groundwater and river water in coastal region rises which leads to the increasing amounts of 224 Ra and 226 Ra desorbed from the particles, resulting in higher activities of 224 Ra and 226 Ra in coastal region. Affected by the input of river (dissolved and desorbed from suspended particles) and submarine groundwater discharge (SGD), the activities of 224 Ra and 226 Ra are relatively higher in nearshore seawater, then with the decay of 224 Ra and mixing dilution effect of the offshore seawater, the activities of 224 Ra gradually decrease from nearshore region to the open ocean. The activities of 226 Ra in the seawater of Jiaozhou Bay remain high-level values, and there are only a few zones of low 226 Ra activities. The main reasons are that the activities of 226 Ra from terrestrial freshwater are close to those from offshore seawater and the half-life of 226 Ra is very long. Conclusion: The activities of 224 Ra and 226 Ra in

  5. Characterization of soil salinization in typical estuarine area of the Jiaozhou Bay, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qifei; Xi, Min; Wang, Qinggai; Kong, Fanlong; Li, Yue

    2018-02-01

    In this study, the characteristics of soil salinization and the effects of main land use/land cover and other factors in typical estuarine area of the Jiaozhou Bay are investigated. Soil samples were collected in the parallel coastal zone, vertical coastal zone and longitudinal profile depth in the area to determine the soil salt content. The correlation analysis and principal component analysis are used to address the general characteristics of soil salinization in the study area. In the horizontal direction, there are moderate salinization, severe salinization and saline soil state. The farther from the sea (within 1.1 km), the lower the soil salinization degree. In the direction of longitudinal profile depth, there are severe salinization and saline soil state, and the soil salt content is accumulated in the surface and bottom. The Na+ and Cl- are the dominant cation and anion, respectively, the distributions of which are consistent with that of salt content. All the salinization indexes, except for soil pH, are of moderate/strong variability. The invasion of Spartina alterniflora results in the increase of soil salt content and salinization degree, the effects of which are mainly determined by the physiological characteristics and the growth years. The degree of soil salinization increased significantly in the aquaculture ponds, which is mainly caused by the use of chemicals. The correlation between soil salt content and Na+, Cl- is particularly significant. From the results of principal component analysis, Na+, Cl-, Ca2+, Mg2+ and SO42- could be used as main diagnostic factors for salinization in typical estuarine area of the Jiaozhou Bay. The effects of NaCl and sulfate on salt content further affect the degree of salinization in the estuarine area.

  6. Geophysical borehole logging in selected areas in the Greater Accra plains and the Densu river basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amartey, E. A.

    2009-06-01

    Geophysical borehole logging was complemented by Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) method to study fractured bedrock aquifer systems on the compounds of Ghana Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC), Water Research Institute (WRI) in the Accra Plains and the Hydrometric Station of the Department of Geology, University of Ghana at Buokrom in the Densu River Basin. Single-point resistance, resistivity and natural gamma logging in a total of nine boreholes were conducted to identify and characterize the various aquifers in the study areas. Results obtained from the single-point resistance and resistivity logs showed clearly the characteristics of water-bearing fracture zones in the various rock formations. The gamma logs obtained for each area were correlated to form hydrostratigraphic units to establish potential zones of high water-bearing fractures. VES modeled curves shows hydrogeological units of the geological formation which compares well with features obtained on the logs. The investigation identified fractured zone thicknesses of <1 m to 2 m at GAEC area, <1 m to 9 m at WRI area and <1 m to 10 m thicknesses at the Buokrom area. The fractured bedrock aquifers identified have been characterized based on their thicknesses as follows. Five minor (thickness < 5 m), two medium (thickness 5 m to 14 m) and three major (thickness ⩾15 m) fractures were identified at the GAEC area. At the WRI area three minor and five medium fractures were identified. Also four minor and five medium fractures were identified for the Buokrom area boreholes. (au)

  7. How Can Asian Snack FuLoi Plan Successful Entering to Greater Helsinki Area? : Market research

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Loc

    2014-01-01

    This thesis introduces the significant factors of market research and its importance when considering doing international business. Furthermore, it could be useful for investors who have same favour to enter Finnish market. The case company is Asian Snack FuLoi- a German food industry company looking for new market. The goal of this study was to investigate the possibility for a company to enter Finland in general and Greater Helsinki in particular. The thesis was structured with theor...

  8. Unintended de-marketing manages visitor demand in Greater Blue Mountains World Heritage Area

    OpenAIRE

    Burgin, Shelley; Hardiman, Nigel

    2014-01-01

    Kotler and Levy (1971, p.76) introduced the term ‘de-marketing’, defined as ‘that aspect of marketing that deals with discouraging customers in general or a certain class of customers in particular on either a temporary or permanent basis’. Subsequently, Groff (1998) interpreted the concept in the context of parks and recreation administration. Recently, Armstrong and Kern (2011) used the concept to underpin their investigation of visitor demand management within the Greater Blue Mountains Wo...

  9. Total mercury in water and sediment from Honda Bay area in Palawan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapauan, A.F.; Kapauan, P.A.; Tan, E.O.; Verceluz, F.P.

    1980-01-01

    This project is intended to pinpoint the sources of mercury contamination from the Honda Bay area in Palawan. Sampling sites were pinpointed which water and sediment samples were to be taken and kept in virgin polyethylene liter bottles. Analytical procedures were applied. The results of the analysis for total mercury content vary cosiderably from ml, less than 0.003 ng/9 to high of 0.419 ng/g with a considerable number of the sample going above the 0.100 ng/g level. Sediment samples also gave similar results, from a low of 0.004 ng/g to value higher than 2 ng/g round the jetty. It can be concluded, therefore, that the area surveyed is contaminated with mercury but not severely so. (author)

  10. Landscape pattern evolution of the north of Hangzhou bay coastal area in Shanghai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIANG Shuai

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1980s in Shanghai,fast economic development,rapid urbanization,population explosion,all of these phenomena are driving radical changes in landscape pattern of coastal area.The landscape pattern evolution at the coastal regions of the north of the Hangzhou bay is analysed based on the landscape ecology theory and method by using Fragstats 3.3 software.3S technology is utilized to interpretate the sensing images at three phase in 1994,2003,2007,and selected two landscape index of the landscape level to study six town from time and space on the contrast analysis.The results show that farmland landscape is the dominant landscape in research area,landscape diversity is high and shows ascendant trend;For 13 years,six towns’(street fragmentation degree increase,the Luchaogang town has the highest degree of fragmentation.

  11. Polychlorinated biphenyls in the exterior caulk of San Francisco Bay Area buildings, California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klosterhaus, Susan; McKee, Lester J; Yee, Donald; Kass, Jamie M; Wong, Adam

    2014-05-01

    Extensive evidence of the adverse impacts of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to wildlife, domestic animals, and humans has now been documented for over 40 years. Despite the ban on production and new use of PCBs in the United States in 1979, a number of fish consumption advisories remain in effect, and there remains considerable uncertainty regarding ongoing environmental sources and management alternatives. Using a blind sampling approach, 25 caulk samples were collected from the exterior of ten buildings in the San Francisco Bay Area and analyzed for PCBs using congener-specific gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and chlorine using portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF). PCBs were detected in 88% of the caulk samples collected from the study area buildings, with 40% exceeding 50 ppm. Detectable PCB concentrations ranged from 1 to 220,000 ppm. These data are consistent with previous studies in other cities that have identified relatively high concentrations of PCBs in concrete and masonry buildings built between 1950 and 1980. Portable XRF was not a good predictor of the PCB content in caulk and the results indicate that portable XRF analysis may only be useful for identifying caulk that contains low concentrations of Cl (≤ 10,000 ppm) and by extension low or no PCBs. A geographic information system-based approach was used to estimate that 10,500 kg of PCBs remain in interior and exterior caulk in buildings located in the study area, which equates to an average of 4.7 kg PCBs per building. The presence of high concentrations in the exterior caulk of currently standing buildings suggests that building caulk may be an ongoing source of PCBs to the San Francisco Bay Area environment. Further studies to expand the currently small international dataset on PCBs in caulking materials in buildings of countries that produced or imported PCBs appear justified in the context of both human health and possible ongoing environmental release. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier

  12. Environmental and energy assessment of new vehicle technologies in the Greater Athens Area

    OpenAIRE

    Xiouras, Christos; Angelis-Dimakis, Athanasios; Arampatzis, George; Assimacopoulos, Dionysis

    2011-01-01

    The transport sector in Greece has the largest share in the final energy consumption and the resulting emissions are one of the main sources of atmospheric pollution. This situation is worse in the region of Attica, where nearly half of the country’s private cars circulate in an area equal to 3% of the total country area; the region’s climatic and geomorphological characteristics further aggravate the environmental problem. \\ud This paper examines energy saving and environmental impacts reduc...

  13. GlobeLand30 shows little cropland area loss but greater fragmentation in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qiangyi; Hu, Qiong; van Vliet, Jasper; Verburg, Peter H.; Wu, Wenbin

    2018-04-01

    Understanding of cropland dynamics in a large geographical extent is mostly based on observations of area change, while the changes in landscape pattern are hardly assessed. The total amount of cropland in China has remained relatively stable in recent years, which might suggest there was little change. In this analysis, we combine the number of cropland patches (NP) with the total cropland area (TA) for a more comprehensive characterization of cropland change in China. We use GlobeLand30-a global land cover dataset with a 30 m resolution for the years 2000 and 2010-and characterize changes in TA and NP for each county as increase, stable, or decrease. This characterization shows that 703 out of 2420 counties experienced both cropland loss and increased fragmentation. The predominant cropland loss in these areas, especially in the North China Plain, is converted to artificial land. Another 212 are characterized by the opposite developments: an increase in cropland and decreased fragmentation. These counties, are mainly characterized by a conversion of forest areas and grassland areas. It suggests that the cropland conservation policy in China effectively protected the total cropland area in overall, but the consequences in terms of fragmentation might be underestimated. Counties with no obvious change in both indicators, measuring 279 counties, are mainly located in the Southeast. Our results are further compared with local level case studies: the fair consistency indicates alternatives of applying GlobeLand30 for analyzing landscape changes across scales and for cross-site comparisons.

  14. 33 CFR 334.720 - Gulf of Mexico, south from Choctawhatchee Bay; guided missiles test operations area, Headquarters...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico, south from..., DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.720 Gulf of Mexico, south from Choctawhatchee Bay; guided missiles test operations area, Headquarters Air Proving...

  15. Radioactivity levels in well water supplies within the greater Chicago area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristoff, L.M.; Lordi, D.T.; Lue-Hing, C.

    1976-01-01

    The radiological analysis of well water supplies within the geographical boundaries of the Metropolitan Sanitary District of Greater Chicago was prompted by the relatively high total alpha levels encountered in wastewaters of a MSDGC water reclamation plant as compared to the wastewaters of the other waste treatment plants. Consequently, 87 wells constituting 42 water supplies were sampled and analyzed for total alpha and beta radioactivity. The wells were grouped according to depth. In general, both total alpha and total beta radioactivity concentrations were found to be a function of well depth. The relatively higher total alpha and beta activities in the wastewaters to one of the treatment plants was attributed to the higher levels found in the well water supply. Comparison with the USEPA's Drinking Water Regulations for Radionuclides (July 9, 1976) showed the maximum total alpha level of 15 pCi/liter was exceeded in 3 wells and 32 of the deep well waters had total alpha level greater than 5 pCi/liter. The total beta level of 50 pCi/liter was exceeded in 8 wells

  16. Hydrogeological Study of Mangrove Areas Around Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson Cardoso da Silva Júnior;

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The study area covers part of the mangrove belt located around Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Representing a continental-marine transition, the mangrove ecosystem is very susceptible to environmental variations and impacts. The vegetation cover plays an important role in prevention of erosion and contamination processes in those areas. An ongoing extensive research effort in the Petrochemical Complex of Duque de Caxias, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, focuses on the man-induced changes in the physical environment (soils, groundwater flow system, type and volumes of contaminants, geochemical aspects and the consequences on the neighboring mangrove ecosystem. This article describes the importance of hydrogeological studies in mangrove areas as part of an appropriate environmental assessment, taking as an example an industrial dumping area located in that Petrochemical Complex. Field work included extensive drilling and sampling to obtain basic geological and hydrogeological parameters and data in the pilot area, such as hydraulic conductivity and piezometric heads; emphasizing the tracking of possible contamination by industrial effluents and the marine influence; validation of the conceptual model with mathematical models (numerical and analytical models was carried out. Results show the great importance of well conducted and detailed hydrogeological studies to properly address environmental problems caused by industrial plants in mangrove areas.

  17. Real-Time GPS Monitoring for Earthquake Rapid Assessment in the San Francisco Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemot, C.; Langbein, J. O.; Murray, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey Earthquake Science Center has deployed a network of eight real-time Global Positioning System (GPS) stations in the San Francisco Bay area and is implementing software applications to continuously evaluate the status of the deformation within the network. Real-time monitoring of the station positions is expected to provide valuable information for rapidly estimating source parameters should a large earthquake occur in the San Francisco Bay area. Because earthquake response applications require robust data access, as a first step we have developed a suite of web-based applications which are now routinely used to monitor the network's operational status and data streaming performance. The web tools provide continuously updated displays of important telemetry parameters such as data latency and receive rates, as well as source voltage and temperature information within each instrument enclosure. Automated software on the backend uses the streaming performance data to mitigate the impact of outages, radio interference and bandwidth congestion on deformation monitoring operations. A separate set of software applications manages the recovery of lost data due to faulty communication links. Displacement estimates are computed in real-time for various combinations of USGS, Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) and Bay Area Regional Deformation (BARD) network stations. We are currently comparing results from two software packages (one commercial and one open-source) used to process 1-Hz data on the fly and produce estimates of differential positions. The continuous monitoring of telemetry makes it possible to tune the network to minimize the impact of transient interruptions of the data flow, from one or more stations, on the estimated positions. Ongoing work is focused on using data streaming performance history to optimize the quality of the position, reduce drift and outliers by switching to the best set of stations within the network, and

  18. Succession in rocky intertidal benthic communities in areas with different pollution levels at Guanabara Bay (RJ-Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    Breves-Ramos, André; Lavrado, Helena Passeri; Junqueira, Andrea de Oliveira Ribeiro; Silva, Sérgio Henrique Gonçalves da

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe and compare the succession of intertidal benthic communities in two areas at Guanabara Bay, RJ, Brazil: Urca, an area submitted to moderated organic pollution and Catalão, an extremely polluted area. Three transects in each area were scraped one month before the beginning of this study in order to evaluate the recruitment (recruitment-treatments). Three other transects were monitored without manipulation (monitoring treatments). Species composition and re...

  19. Seasonal distribution of a podocopid ostracod in a thermally altered area of Tampa Bay, Florida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiles, C.D.; Blake, N.J.

    1976-01-01

    As part of a general ecological survey to determine the effects of a thermal effluent, quantitative samples of living benthic ostracods were collected from November 1973 through June 1974 and during August 1974 in the vicinity of a power plant located on Tampa Bay, Florida. Sampling stations were in the areas of maximum thermal influence and at a control site. For each sampling period, samples taken for organic carbon, salinity, sediment and water temperature, and dissolved oxygen showed that the areas were quite similar, except for temperature, which was found to have the greatest difference among stations of the effluent and ambient areas on a monthly basis. This study concentrates on the distribution of Haplocytheridea setipunctata, the dominant ostracod in the study area. Significant differences between population means were detected for all months except May and June. Maximum numbers of living H. setipunctata occurred at all stations in June, with densities of 55,000 individuals/m 2 in the area of thermal influence. A positive correlation of temperature with population density was found to occur from March through June at all stations. Temperature was found to play a significant role in limiting populations during the warmer months of the year. Carapaces of this ostracod were found to be depleted of calcium carbonate in individuals occurring in the thermal effluent

  20. Slicing up the San Francisco Bay Area: Block kinematics and fault slip rates from GPS-derived surface velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Alessio, M. A.; Johanson, I.A.; Burgmann, R.; Schmidt, D.A.; Murray, M.H.

    2005-01-01

    Observations of surface deformation allow us to determine the kinematics of faults in the San Francisco Bay Area. We present the Bay Area velocity unification (BA??VU??, "bay view"), a compilation of over 200 horizontal surface velocities computed from campaign-style and continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) observations from 1993 to 2003. We interpret this interseismic velocity field using a three-dimensional block model to determine the relative contributions of block motion, elastic strain accumulation, and shallow aseismic creep. The total relative motion between the Pacific plate and the rigid Sierra Nevada/Great Valley (SNGV) microplate is 37.9 ?? 0.6 mm yr-1 directed toward N30.4??W ?? 0.8?? at San Francisco (??2??). Fault slip rates from our preferred model are typically within the error bounds of geologic estimates but provide a better fit to geodetic data (notable right-lateral slip rates in mm yr-1: San Gregorio fault, 2.4 ?? 1.0; West Napa fault, 4.0 ?? 3.0; zone of faulting along the eastern margin of the Coast Range, 5.4 ?? 1.0; and Mount Diablo thrust, 3.9 ?? 1.0 of reverse slip and 4.0 ?? 0.2 of right-lateral strike slip). Slip on the northern Calaveras is partitioned between both the West Napa and Concord/ Green Valley fault systems. The total convergence across the Bay Area is negligible. Poles of rotation for Bay Area blocks progress systematically from the North America-Pacific to North America-SNGV poles. The resulting present-day relative motion cannot explain the strike of most Bay Area faults, but fault strike does loosely correlate with inferred plate motions at the time each fault initiated. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  1. Environmental And Area Support Capability Analysis For Seaweed Mariculture Development In Hading Bay Of East Flores Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominikus K. Da Costa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract East Flores regency has adequate marine resources potentials to develop seaweed aquaculture area. Animportant aspect of seaweed aquaculture is the site selection. Site selection is based on the marine area extent and its ecological quality. The objectives of the study were to analyze the water ecology and its support capability and to determine the best site for continuous seaweed mariculture in Hading Bay of East Flores Regency. The study used descriptive method. It was conducted in Hading Bay Lewolema District East Flores Regency in March 2015. Data analysis was done using GIS based on area suitability value and the method applied in the mariculture was long line method. Total Hading Bay water territory was864676 ha. Site Awas135345 ha site B was 474222 ha and site C was 255108 ha. Area with S1 category was 729331 ha extended in Site B and C. Area with S2 category was 135345 ha as extended in Site A. Water territory support capability was 778208 ha. The number of seaweed mariculture units was 194552 units and seaweed territory capacity was 99. Hading Bay waster has the capacity and area support capability for K. alvareziiseaweed mariculture site. Site A was categorized S2 on suitability class and site B and C were categorized S1 on suitability class. The results showed different quality of water territory in those three sites was not significant and still in normal range of K. alvarezii seaweed mariculture development.

  2. Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Fuel Cell Bus Demonstration Results: Third Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Post, M.

    2014-05-01

    This report presents results of a demonstration of 12 fuel cell electric buses (FCEB) operating in Oakland, California. The 12 FCEBs operate as a part of the Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Demonstration, which also includes two new hydrogen fueling stations. This effort is the largest FCEB demonstration in the United States and involves five participating transit agencies. The ZEBA partners are collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the buses in revenue service. NREL has published two previous reports, in August 2011 and July 2012, describing operation of these buses. New results in this report provide an update covering eight months through October 2013.

  3. Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Fuel Cell Bus Demonstration: Second Results Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2012-07-01

    This report presents results of a demonstration of 12 new fuel cell electric buses (FCEB) operating in Oakland, California. The 12 FCEBs operate as a part of the Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Demonstration, which also includes two new hydrogen fueling stations. This effort is the largest FCEB demonstration in the United States and involves five participating transit agencies. The ZEBA partners are collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the buses in revenue service. The first results report was published in August 2011, describing operation of these new FCEBs from September 2010 through May 2011. New results in this report provide an update through April 2012.

  4. Results of complex annual parasitological monitoring in the coastal area of Kola Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuklin, V. V.; Kuklina, M. M.; Kisova, N. E.; Maslich, M. A.

    2009-12-01

    The results of annual parasitological monitoring in the coastal area near the Abram-mys (Kola Bay, Barents Sea) are presented. The studies were performed in 2006-2007 and included complex examination of the intermediate hosts (mollusks and crustaceans) and definitive hosts (marine fish and birds) of the helminths. The biodiversity of the parasite fauna, seasonal dynamics, and functioning patterns of the parasite systems were investigated. The basic regularities in parasite circulation were assessed in relation to their life cycle strategies and the ecological features of the intermediate and definitive hosts. The factors affecting the success of parasite circulation in the coastal ecosystems were revealed through analysis of parasite biodiversity and abundance dynamics.

  5. User's guide to the LIRAQ model: an air pollution model for the San Francisco Bay Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacCracken, M.C.

    1975-01-01

    The Livermore Regional Air Quality (LIRAQ) model comprises a set of computer programs that have been integrated into an easily used tool for the air quality planner. To assemble and modify the necessary data files and to direct model execution, a problem formulation program has been developed that makes possible the setup of a wide variety of studies involving perturbation of the emission inventory, changes to the initial and boundary conditions, and different choices of grid size and problem domain. In addition to describing the types of air quality problems for which the LIRAQ model may be used, this User's Guide provides detailed information on how to set up and conduct model simulations. Also included are descriptions of the formats of input data files so that the LIRAQ model may be applied to regions other than the San Francisco Bay Area

  6. DNA Fingerprinting to monitor grizzly bear populations in the Greater Glacier Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Katherine; Dave, Schirokauer; Peterson, Kris; Waits, Lisette P.

    2001-01-01

    A study area of 8,100 km² (2 million acres) was established where 126 8 x 8 km (64 km²) grid cells were identified for placement of traps. Trapping was carried out during five 2- week trap sessions. Some 620 hair traps were placed in the field; samples were retrieved between May 19th and August 12th, 1998. Approximately 7,200 hair samples were collected that year. Hair was found at 80% of the traps where the average number of hair samples per trap site was 14. Forty percent of the samples had 5 or more hair follicles. Preliminary results of sampling indicate that DNA was extracted from 90-100% of the hair samples (N=300). Eight hundred miles of trail were surveyed between June 1 and October 9. Thirteen hundred hair samples were collected from rub trees along trails. Seven hundred scat samples were collected from trails.

  7. Understanding Urban Watersheds through Digital Interactive Maps, San Francisco Bay Area, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowers, J. M.; Ticci, M. G.; Mulvey, P.

    2014-12-01

    Dense urbanization has resulted in the "disappearance" of many local creeks in urbanized areas surrounding the San Francisco Bay. Long reaches of creeks now flow in underground pipes. Municipalities and water agencies trying to reduce non-point-source pollution are faced with a public that cannot see and therefore does not understand the interconnected nature of the drainage system or its ultimate discharge to the bay. Since 1993, we have collaborated with the Oakland Museum, the San Francisco Estuary Institute, public agencies, and municipalities to create creek and watershed maps to address the need for public understanding of watershed concepts. Fifteen paper maps are now published (www.museumca.org/creeks), which have become a standard reference for educators and anyone working on local creek-related issues. We now present digital interactive creek and watershed maps in Google Earth. Four maps are completed covering urbanized areas of Santa Clara and Alameda Counties. The maps provide a 3D visualization of the watersheds, with cartography draped over the landscape in transparent colors. Each mapped area includes both Present and Past (circa 1800s) layers which can be clicked on or off by the user. The Present layers include the modern drainage network, watershed boundaries, and reservoirs. The Past layers include the 1800s-era creek systems, tidal marshes, lagoons, and other habitats. All data are developed in ArcGIS software and converted to Google Earth format. To ensure the maps are interesting and engaging, clickable icons pop-up provide information on places to visit, restoration projects, history, plants, and animals. Maps of Santa Clara Valley are available at http://www.valleywater.org/WOW.aspx. Maps of western Alameda County will soon be available at http://acfloodcontrol.org/. Digital interactive maps provide several advantages over paper maps. They are seamless within each map area, and the user can zoom in or out, and tilt, and fly over to explore

  8. Geologic map of the greater Denver area, Front Range urban corridor, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Donald E.; Machette, Michael N.

    1979-01-01

    This digital map shows the areal extent of surficial deposits and rock stratigraphic units (formations) as compiled by Trimble and Machette from 1973 to 1977 and published in 1979 under the Front Range Urban Corridor Geology Program. Trimble and Machette compiled their geologic map from published geologic maps and unpublished geologic mapping having varied map unit schemes. A convenient feature of the compiled map is its uniform classification of geologic units that mostly matches those of companion maps to the north (USGS I-855-G) and to the south (USGS I-857-F). Published as a color paper map, the Trimble and Machette map was intended for land-use planning in the Front Range Urban Corridor. This map recently (1997-1999) was digitized under the USGS Front Range Infrastructure Resources Project. In general, the mountainous areas in the western part of the map exhibit various igneous and metamorphic bedrock units of Precambrian age, major faults, and fault brecciation zones at the east margin (5-20 km wide) of the Front Range. The eastern and central parts of the map (Colorado Piedmont) depict a mantle of unconsolidated deposits of Quaternary age and interspersed outcroppings of Cretaceous or Tertiary-Cretaceous sedimentary bedrock. The Quaternary mantle comprises eolian deposits (quartz sand and silt), alluvium (gravel, sand, and silt of variable composition), colluvium, and a few landslides. At the mountain front, north-trending, dipping Paleozoic and Mesozoic sandstone, shale, and limestone bedrock formations form hogbacks and intervening valleys.

  9. Hierarchical Bayes Small Area Estimation under a Unit Level Model with Applications in Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nageena Nazir

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available To studied Bayesian aspect of small area estimation using Unit level model. In this paper we proposed and evaluated new prior distribution for the ratio of variance components in unit level model rather than uniform prior. To approximate the posterior moments of small area means, Laplace approximation method is applied. This choice of prior avoids the extreme skewness, usually present in the posterior distribution of variance components. This property leads to more accurate Laplace approximation. We apply the proposed model to the analysis of horticultural data and results from the model are compared with frequestist approach and with Bayesian model of uniform prior in terms of average relative bias, average squared relative bias and average absolute bias. The numerical results obtained highlighted the superiority of using the proposed prior over the uniform prior. Thus Bayes estimators (with new prior of small area means have good frequentist properties such as MSE and ARB as compared to other traditional methods viz., Direct, Synthetic and Composite estimators.

  10. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Red Hook/Bay Ridge project areas, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinza, M.R.; Barrows, E.S.; Borde, A.B. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The objective of the Red HookIBay Ridge project was to evaluate proposed dredged material from these two areas to determine its suitability for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. Sediment samples were collected from the Red Hook/Bay Ridge project areas. Tests and analyses were conducted. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from the Red Hook/Bay Ridge project areas consisted of bulk sediment chemical analyses, chemical analyses of dredging site water and elutriate, water-column and benthic acute toxicity tests. Twenty-four individual sediment core samples were collected from these two areas and analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon (TOC). Three composite sediment samples, representing Red Hook Channel and the two Bay Ridge Reaches to be dredged, were analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and 1,4-dichlorobenzene. Dredging site water and elutriate water, which is prepared from the suspended-particulate phase (SPP) of the three Red Hook Bay Ridge sediment composites, were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBS. Benthic acute toxicity tests were performed. Water-column or SPP toxicity tests were performed. Bioaccumulation tests were also conducted.

  11. Providing Specialty Care for the Poor and Underserved at Student-Run Free Clinics in the San Francisco Bay Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Max Bolun; Xiong, Grace; Boggiano, Victoria Lynn; Ye, Patrick Peiyong; Lin, Steven

    2017-01-01

    This report describes the model of specialty clinics implemented at Stanford University's two student-run free clinics, Arbor Free Clinic and Pacific Free Clinic, in the San Francisco Bay Area. We describe our patient demographic characteristics and the specialty services provided. We discuss challenges in implementing specialty care at student-run free clinics.

  12. Evaluation of the genetic distinctiveness of Greater Sage-grouse in the Bi-State Planning Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to further characterize a distinct population of Greater Sage-grouse: the population located along the border between Nevada and California (Bi-State Planning Area) and centered around the Mono Basin. This population was previously determined to be genetically distinct from other Greater Sage-grouse populations across their range. Previous genetic work focused on characterizing genetic variation across the species' range and thereby used a coarse sampling approach for species characterization. The goal of this study was to investigate this population further by obtaining samples from breeding locations within the population and analyzing those samples with the same mitochondrial and microsatellite loci used in previous studies. Blood samples were collected in six locations within the Bi-State Planning Area. Genetic data from subpopulations were then compared with each other and also with two populations outside of the Bi-State Planning Area. Particular attention was paid to subpopulation boundaries and internal dynamics by drawing comparisons among particular regions within the Bi-State Planning Area and regions proximal to it. All newly sampled subpopulations contained mitochondrial haplotypes and allele frequencies that were consistent with the genetically unique Bi-State (Mono Basin) Greater Sage-grouse described previously. This reinforces the fact that this group of Greater Sage-grouse is genetically unique and warrants special attention. Maintaining the genetic integrity of this population could protect the evolutionary potential of this population of Greater Sage-grouse. Additionally, the White Mountains subpopulation was found to be significantly distinct from all other Bi-State subpopulations.

  13. Splitting and non splitting are pollution models photochemical reactions in the urban areas of greater Tehran area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidarinasab, A.; Dabir, B.; Sahimi, M.; Badii, Kh.

    2003-01-01

    During the past years, one of the most important problems has been air pollution in urban areas. In this regards, ozone, as one of the major products of photochemical reactions, has great importance. The term 'photochemical' is applied to a number of secondary pollutants that appear as a result of sun-related reactions, ozone being the most important one. So far various models have been suggested to predict these pollutants. In this paper, we developed the model that has been introduced by Dabir, et al. [4]. In this model more than 48 chemical species and 114 chemical reactions are involved. The result of this development, showed good to excellent agreement across the region for compounds such as O 3 , NO, NO 2 , CO, and SO 2 with regard to VOC and NMHC. The results of the simulation were compared with previous work [4] and the effects of increasing the number of components and reactions were evaluated. The results of the operator splitting method were compared with non splitting solving method. The result showed that splitting method with one-tenth time step collapsed with non splitting method (Crank-Nicolson, under-relaxation iteration method without splitting of the equation terms). Then we developed one dimensional model to 3-D and were compared with experimental data

  14. Phosphorus speciation, transformation, and preservation in the coastal area of Rushan Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Zang, Jiaye; Zhao, Chenying; Yu, Zhigang; Xu, Bochao; Li, Jingxi; Ran, Xiangbin

    2016-09-15

    Phosphorus (P) speciation, burial, and transformation are poorly constrained under low-oxygen conditions. Sequential chemical extraction techniques, in-situ incubation, and laboratory incubation were employed to explore P cycling in the low-oxygen area of coastal Rushan. The study determined that the total P concentrations in the coastal area of Rushan Bay were higher than those of other China shelf seas, and largely affected by anthropogenic activities. The phosphate (DRP) fluxes in the study area calculated using an incubation method (0-1960μmolm(-2)day(-)(1)) and measured based on pore water gradients (1.5-50.4μmolm(-2)day(-)(1)) were both highly correlated with oxygen conditions. Sediment incubations showed that DRP diffusion from the sediment mainly originates from Fe-P and Auth-P dissolution and that Org-P recycling contributed only a small portion of the total released P pool. The benthic phosphate flux can be 60 times higher under low bottom-water oxygen levels of 63-150μmolL(-1) than under oxygen levels exceeding 150μmolL(-1) in the study area. The P accumulation rates and burial efficiencies in this study area ranged from 16.5-33.3μmolcm(-2)year(-1) and 81.1-83.4%, respectively, and were regulated by the oxygen level and diffusive DRP flux. This study indicates that low oxygen levels between 63 and 150μmol significantly govern P transformation and preservation in the sediment and P pools in the water column. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Red Oak Research and Demonstration Area in Phelps Township, North Bay, Ontario-2004 to 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave Deugo; Andrée Morneault; Dianne Othmer; Megan Smith; Al Stinson; Murray Woods; Ian Kovacs; Ian Aho; Bill Parker; Rob Baker; Marinus Verwey; Guylaine Thauvette; Don Willis; Jeff Dech

    2006-01-01

    In July 2004, a large stand of red oak (Quercus rubra) was harvested in Phelps Township, North Bay District, North Bay, Ontario using the uniform shelterwood system. Most of the stand was harvested to retain 40 percent crown closure, while a very small portion was harvested to retain 70 percent crown closure. During tree marking, an active Northern...

  16. Temporal and spatial changes of microbial community in an industrial effluent receiving area in Hangzhou Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Chen, Lujun; Sun, Renhua; Dai, Tianjiao; Tian, Jinping; Zheng, Wei; Wen, Donghui

    2016-06-01

    Anthropogenic activities usually contaminate water environments, and have led to the eutrophication of many estuaries and shifts in microbial communities. In this study, the temporal and spatial changes of the microbial community in an industrial effluent receiving area in Hangzhou Bay were investigated by 454 pyrosequencing. The bacterial community showed higher richness and biodiversity than the archaeal community in all sediments. Proteobacteria dominated in the bacterial communities of all the samples; Marine_Group_I and Methanomicrobia were the two dominant archaeal classes in the effluent receiving area. PCoA and AMOVA revealed strong seasonal but minor spatial changes in both bacterial and archaeal communities in the sediments. The seasonal changes of the bacterial community were less significant than those of the archaeal community, which mainly consisted of fluctuations in abundance of a large proportion of longstanding species rather than the appearance and disappearance of major archaeal species. Temperature was found to positively correlate with the dominant bacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and negatively correlate with the dominant archaea, Marine_Group_I; and might be the primary driving force for the seasonal variation of the microbial community. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Composition and diversity of larval fish in the mangrove estuarine area of Marudu Bay, Sabah, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezagholinejad, Sadaf; Arshad, Aziz; Amin, S M Nurul; Ara, Roushon

    2016-07-01

    The composition of fish larvae and their diversity in different habitats are very important for fisheries management. Larval fishes were investigated in a mangrove estuary of Marudu Bay, Sabah, Malaysia from October 2012 to September 2013 at five different sites. Monthly samples of fish larvae were collected at five sampling sites by a plankton net with a mouth opening of 40.5 cm in diameter. In total, 3879 larval fish were caught in the investigated area. The mean density of ichthyoplankton at this area was 118 larvae/100 m(3). The fish larval assemblage comprised of 20 families whereas 13 families occurred at St1, 16 at St2, 16 at St3, 12 at St4 and 16 at St5. The top major families were Sillaginidae, Engraulidae, Mugilidae and Sparidae with Sillaginidae consisted 44% of total larval composition. St3 with 143 larvae/100 m(3) had the highest density amongst the stations which was due to higher abundance of Sillaginidae. Shannon-Wiener diversity index represented significant variation during monsoon and inter-monsoon seasons, peaking in the months December-January and May-June. However, Shannon-Wiener index, evenness and family richness showed significant differences among stations and months (p < 0.05).

  18. Examining and Comparing Earthquake Readiness in East San Francisco Bay Area Communities (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, N.; Bul, V.; Chavez, A.; Chin, W.; Cuff, K. E.; Girton, C.; Haynes, D.; Kelly, G.; Leon, G.; Ramirez, J.; Ramirez, R.; Rodriquez, F.; Ruiz, D.; Torres, J.

    2009-12-01

    Based on past experiences, the potential for casualties and mass destruction that can result from a high magnitude earthquake are well known. Nevertheless, given the East San Francisco Bay Area’s proximity to the Hayward and San Andreas faults, learning about earthquakes and disaster preparedness is of particular importance. While basic educational programs and materials are available both through emergency relief agencies and schools, little research has been done on their effectiveness. Because of the wide socioeconomic spread between communities in the East Bay, we decided to investigate understandings of issues related to disaster and earthquake preparedness among local populations based upon average household income. To accomplish this, we created a survey that was later uploaded to and implemented using Palm Treo Smart Phones. Survey locations were selected in such a way that they reflected the understandings of residents in a diverse set of socio-economic settings. Thus, these locations included a grocery store and nearby plaza in the Fruitvale district of Oakland, CA (zip=94601; median household income= 33,152), as well as the nearby town of Alameda, CA (zip=94502, median household income= 87,855). Preliminary results suggest that in terms of the objective questions on the survey, people from Alameda who participated in our study performed significantly better (difference in percentage correct greater than 10%) than the people from Fruitvale on two of the advanced earthquake knowledge questions. Interestingly enough, people in Fruitvale significantly outperformed people in Alameda on two of the basic earthquake knowledge questions. The final important finding was that while houses in Alameda tended to be newer and more often retrofitted than houses in Fruitvale, the people of the latter location tended to have a higher percentage of respondents claim confidence in the ability of their house to withstand a major earthquake. Based on preliminary results we

  19. Geochemistry of peat over kimberlites in the Attawapiskat area, James Bay Lowlands, northern Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattori, Keiko H. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Ottawa, 140 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5 (Canada)], E-mail: khattori@uOttawa.ca; Hamilton, Stewart [Ontario Geological Survey, Sudbury, Ontario, P3E 6B5 (Canada)

    2008-12-15

    The James Bay Lowlands, which is the SE part of the Hudson Bay Lowlands, Canada, and within the Paleozoic limestone terrane, is covered mostly by peatlands. Peat samples were examined in the Attawapiskat area, a region of discontinuous permafrost, where more than 19 kimberlite pipes have been found beneath a cover of peat (2-4 m thick) and Quaternary sediments (up to 20 m thick) of Tyrell Sea clay beds and glacial tills. Pore water at a depth of 40 cm in the peat has a consistently low pH, <4, and high Eh, {approx}290 mV, in the areas over limestones far from kimberlites. On the other hand, peat pore water close to kimberlites has a high pH, up to 6.7, and low Eh, down to 49 mV; the values of pH and Eh are inversely correlated. The high pH and low Eh close to kimberlites suggest active serpentinization of olivine in the underlying kimberlites. The bulk compositions of peat indicate precipitation of secondary CaCO{sub 3} and Fe-O-OH. The secondary carbonate contains high concentrations of kimberlite pathfinder elements, such as Ni, rare earth elements (REE) and Y. The ratios of metal concentrations extracted by ammonium acetate solution at pH 5 (AA5) to those in a total digestion confirm that a majority of the divalent cations are hosted by the secondary carbonate, whereas tri-, tetra- and penta-valent cations are not. As these charged cations are not leached in Enzyme Leach, they are most likely adsorbed on Fe-O-OH. The compositions of peat show spatial variation with the distribution of kimberlites, suggesting that they are influenced by the underlying rocks even through there are thick layers of tills and sediments between the bedrocks and peat. However, elevated concentrations of pathfinder elements of kimberlites in bulk peat samples and AA5 leach are not necessarily directly above kimberlites. The diffused metal anomalies around kimberlites are attributed to the dissolution-precipitation of secondary phases (carbonates and Fe-O-OH) in acidic and reduced waters

  20. Airborne Quantification of Methane Emissions in the San Francisco Bay Area of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, A.; Newman, S.; Martien, P. T.; Young, A.; Hilken, H.; Faloona, I. C.; Conley, S.

    2017-12-01

    The Bay Area Air Quality Management District, the San Francisco Bay Area's air quality regulatory agency, has set a goal to reduce the region's greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions 80% below 1990 levels by 2050, consistent with the State of California's climate protection goal. The Air District maintains a regional GHG emissions inventory that includes emissions estimates and projections which influence the agency's programs and regulatory activities. The Air District is currently working to better characterize methane emissions in the GHG inventory through source-specific measurements, to resolve differences between top-down regional estimates (Fairley and Fischer, 2015; Jeong et al., 2016) and the bottom-up inventory. The Air District funded and participated in a study in Fall 2016 to quantify methane emissions from a variety of sources from an instrumented Mooney aircraft. This study included 40 hours of cylindrical vertical profile flights that combined methane and wind measurements to derive mass emission rates. Simultaneous measurements of ethane provided source-apportionment between fossil-based and biological methane sources. The facilities sampled included all five refineries in the region, five landfills, two dairy farms and three wastewater treatment plants. The calculated mass emission rates were compared to bottom-up rates generated by the Air District and to those from facility reports to the US EPA as part of the mandatory GHG reporting program. Carbon dioxide emission rates from refineries are found to be similar to bottom-up estimates for all sources, supporting the efficacy of the airborne measurement methodology. However, methane emission estimates from the airborne method showed significant differences for some source categories. For example, methane emission estimates based on airborne measurements were up to an order of magnitude higher for refineries, and up to five times higher for landfills compared to bottom-up methods, suggesting significant

  1. The impact of industrial anthropization on mosquito (Diptera, Culicidae) communities in mangrove areas of Guanabara Bay (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, A S; Couri, M S; Florindo, L

    2012-02-01

    The effects of industrial anthropization on species composition and community diversity of Culicidae (Diptera) were studied in a mangrove area impacted by industrial activities as compared to a preserved area, both around Guanabara Bay in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Diversity, equitability, and species richness in Culicidae community differed between the studied areas. Indicator species analysis and correspondence analysis were carried out and indicated that the Sabethini, especially Wyeomyia (Phoniomyia) theobaldi Lane, Wyeomyia (Phoniomyia) fuscipes (Edwards), and a non-identified species of Wyeomyia sp. were associated to the preserved area, whereas Aedes taeniorhynchus Wiedemann and Aedes scapularis (Rondani) to the impacted area.

  2. The challenges of managing protected areas in tourist spaces: Samborombón Bay [Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cecilia Rigonat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Samborombón Bay [province of Buenos Aires, Argentina] is an interfase between the river-sea area [the mouth of the Río de la Plata in the Argentine Sea] and the land. The southern coastal strip of the bay has been systematically marginalized by the valuation processes which have dominated the region of the Pampas. However, various protected areas have been set up over the last 30 years, within different public [federal, provincial, municipal] and private [NGOs] jurisdictions. This paper seeks to stress the problems which have arisen around the territory's valuation and the management of the said protected areas, within the framework of the dominant economic activities [cattle-raising, fishing and tourism

  3. A study of riders' noise exposure on Bay Area Rapid Transit trains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinno, Alexis; Powell, Cynthia; King, Margaret Mary

    2011-02-01

    Excessive noise exposure may present a hazard to hearing, cardiovascular, and psychosomatic health. Mass transit systems, such as the Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) system, are potential sources of excessive noise. The purpose of this study was to characterize transit noise and riders' exposure to noise on the BART system using three dosimetry metrics. We made 268 dosimetry measurements on a convenience sample of 51 line segments. Dosimetry measures were modeled using linear and nonlinear multiple regression as functions of average velocity, tunnel enclosure, flooring, and wet weather conditions and presented visually on a map of the BART system. This study provides evidence of levels of hazardous levels of noise exposure in all three dosimetry metrics. L(eq) and L(max) measures indicate exposures well above ranges associated with increased cardiovascular and psychosomatic health risks in the published literature. L(peak) indicate acute exposures hazardous to adult hearing on about 1% of line segment rides and acute exposures hazardous to child hearing on about 2% of such rides. The noise to which passengers are exposed may be due to train-specific conditions (velocity and flooring), but also to rail conditions (velocity and tunnels). These findings may point at possible remediation (revised speed limits on longer segments and those segments enclosed by tunnels). The findings also suggest that specific rail segments could be improved for noise.

  4. Breast cancer among American Japanese in the San Francisco Bay area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, J E

    1977-12-01

    The Japanese-American population was particularly well suited for the study of cancer occurrence because: 1) An American-born population as well as the immigrant Japanese-American population could be studied; 2) good cancer incidence and mortality data from Japan could be compared with data from the United States; and 3) some differences in the rate of occurrence of several specific cancer sites in Japan as compared with the United States were striking. The most significant of these involved the gastrointestinal tract and sex organs. Data were presented concerning cancer incidence rates for the Japanese-American population of the San Francisco Bay area. The high gastric rates for the Japanese in Japan were reduced in a stepwise fashion in the immigrant Japanese-American population to the American-born Japanese who were approaching the low rate of the United States. Colon cancer rates, which were low in Japan, approached the rates in the United States in both the immigrants from Japan and in Japanese Americans. The low rates of cancers of the breast, uterine corpus, and ovary of Japanese women in Japan and for prostate cancer among men rapidly approached the higher rates for these cancer sites that existed in the United States. A study of nutritional factors related to the increase of cancer of the breast in Japanese Americans is being conducted.

  5. Proposed tethered unmanned aerial system for the detection of pollution entering the Chesapeake Bay area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, J.; McKay, J.; Evans, W.; Gadsden, S. Andrew

    2016-05-01

    This paper is based on a proposed unmanned aerial system platform that is to be outfitted with high-resolution sensors. The proposed system is to be tethered to a moveable ground station, which may be a research vessel or some form of ground vehicle (e.g., car, truck, or rover). The sensors include, at a minimum: camera, infrared sensor, thermal, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) camera, global positioning system (GPS), and a light-based radar (LIDAR). The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of existing methods for pollution detection of failing septic systems, and to introduce the proposed system. Future work will look at the high-resolution data from the sensors and integrating the data through a process called information fusion. Typically, this process is done using the popular and well-published Kalman filter (or its nonlinear formulations, such as the extended Kalman filter). However, future work will look at using a new type of strategy based on variable structure estimation for the information fusion portion of the data processing. It is hypothesized that fusing data from the thermal and NDVI sensors will be more accurate and reliable for a multitude of applications, including the detection of pollution entering the Chesapeake Bay area.

  6. Assessing the accuracy of weather radar to track intense rain cells in the Greater Lyon area, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, Florent; Chapon, Pierre-Marie; Comby, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    The Greater Lyon is a dense area located in the Rhône Valley in the south east of France. The conurbation counts 1.3 million inhabitants and the rainfall hazard is a great concern. However, until now, studies on rainfall over the Greater Lyon have only been based on the network of rain gauges, despite the presence of a C-band radar located in the close vicinity. Consequently, the first aim of this study was to investigate the hydrological quality of this radar. This assessment, based on comparison of radar estimations and rain-gauges values concludes that the radar data has overall a good quality since 2006. Given this good accuracy, this study made a next step and investigated the characteristics of intense rain cells that are responsible of the majority of floods in the Greater Lyon area. Improved knowledge on these rainfall cells is important to anticipate dangerous events and to improve the monitoring of the sewage system. This paper discusses the analysis of the ten most intense rainfall events in the 2001-2010 period. Spatial statistics pointed towards straight and linear movements of intense rainfall cells, independently on the ground surface conditions and the topography underneath. The speed of these cells was found nearly constant during a rainfall event, but depend from event to ranges on average from 25 to 66 km/h.

  7. Trace Elements Contamination and Human Health Risk Assessment in Drinking Water from the Agricultural and Pastoral Areas of Bay County, Xinjiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muyessar Turdi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Tap water samples were collected from 180 families in four agricultural (KYR: Keyir, KRW: Kariwak, YTR: Yatur, DW: Dawanqi and two pastoral areas (B: Bulong and Y: Yangchang in Bay County, Xinjiang, China, and levels of seven trace elements (Cd, Cr, As Ni, Pb, Zn, Se were analyzed using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS to assess potential health risks. Remarkable spatial variations of contamination were observed. Overall, the health risk was more severe for carcinogenic versus non-carcinogenic pollutants due to heavy metal. The risk index was greater for children overall (Cr > As > Cd and Zn > Se for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic elements, respectively. The total risk index was greater in agricultural areas (DW > KYR > YTR > KRW > B > Y. Total risk indices were greater where well water was the source versus fountain water; for the latter, the total health risk index was greater versus glacier water. Main health risk factors were Cr and As in DW, KYR, YTR, KRW, and B, and Zn, Cr, and As in the Y region. Overall, total trace element–induced health risk (including for DW adults was higher than acceptable (10−6 and lower than priority risk levels (10−4 (KYR, YTR, KRW, Y, and B. For DW children, total health risk reached 1.08 × 10−4, higher than acceptable and priority risk levels (10−4.

  8. Trace Elements Contamination and Human Health Risk Assessment in Drinking Water from the Agricultural and Pastoral Areas of Bay County, Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turdi, Muyessar; Yang, Linsheng

    2016-09-23

    Tap water samples were collected from 180 families in four agricultural (KYR: Keyir, KRW: Kariwak, YTR: Yatur, DW: Dawanqi) and two pastoral areas (B: Bulong and Y: Yangchang) in Bay County, Xinjiang, China, and levels of seven trace elements (Cd, Cr, As Ni, Pb, Zn, Se) were analyzed using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to assess potential health risks. Remarkable spatial variations of contamination were observed. Overall, the health risk was more severe for carcinogenic versus non-carcinogenic pollutants due to heavy metal. The risk index was greater for children overall (Cr > As > Cd and Zn > Se for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic elements, respectively). The total risk index was greater in agricultural areas (DW > KYR > YTR > KRW > B > Y). Total risk indices were greater where well water was the source versus fountain water; for the latter, the total health risk index was greater versus glacier water. Main health risk factors were Cr and As in DW, KYR, YTR, KRW, and B, and Zn, Cr, and As in the Y region. Overall, total trace element-induced health risk (including for DW adults) was higher than acceptable (10(-6)) and lower than priority risk levels (10(-4)) (KYR, YTR, KRW, Y, and B). For DW children, total health risk reached 1.08 × 10(-4), higher than acceptable and priority risk levels (10(-4)).

  9. Assessing the applicability of WRF optimal parameters under the different precipitation simulations in the Greater Beijing Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Zhenhua; Duan, Qingyun; Wang, Chen; Ye, Aizhong; Miao, Chiyuan; Gong, Wei

    2018-03-01

    Forecasting skills of the complex weather and climate models have been improved by tuning the sensitive parameters that exert the greatest impact on simulated results based on more effective optimization methods. However, whether the optimal parameter values are still work when the model simulation conditions vary, which is a scientific problem deserving of study. In this study, a highly-effective optimization method, adaptive surrogate model-based optimization (ASMO), was firstly used to tune nine sensitive parameters from four physical parameterization schemes of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to obtain better summer precipitation forecasting over the Greater Beijing Area in China. Then, to assess the applicability of the optimal parameter values, simulation results from the WRF model with default and optimal parameter values were compared across precipitation events, boundary conditions, spatial scales, and physical processes in the Greater Beijing Area. The summer precipitation events from 6 years were used to calibrate and evaluate the optimal parameter values of WRF model. Three boundary data and two spatial resolutions were adopted to evaluate the superiority of the calibrated optimal parameters to default parameters under the WRF simulations with different boundary conditions and spatial resolutions, respectively. Physical interpretations of the optimal parameters indicating how to improve precipitation simulation results were also examined. All the results showed that the optimal parameters obtained by ASMO are superior to the default parameters for WRF simulations for predicting summer precipitation in the Greater Beijing Area because the optimal parameters are not constrained by specific precipitation events, boundary conditions, and spatial resolutions. The optimal values of the nine parameters were determined from 127 parameter samples using the ASMO method, which showed that the ASMO method is very highly-efficient for optimizing WRF

  10. Assessment of daily intake of major and trace elements by inhabitants of potential radiation protection of greater Cairo area, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, A.B.

    2005-01-01

    Concentrations of K, Ca, U, Th, Cs, Sr, I, Al, Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, Ni and Cr were determined in vegetables, common foodstuffs and some animal products consumed by adult inhabitants of Greater Cairo Area. Some of these elements have chemical and biological similarity to some of the radionuclides abundantly encountered during nuclear power production and therefore data on these elements could provide important information on their biokinetic behavior. A total of 120 samples were analyzed using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS). Generally, highest contributions for the intake of micro nutrients (Cu, Mn and Ni) arise from broad bean, rice and wheat flour consumption. Meat, milk, eggs and some vegetables are the major sources of K, Ca, U, Th, Cs, Al, Cd and Pb. The medium daily intake for the adult inhabitants of greater Cairo area was found to be 1.98 g of K, 0.54 mg of Ca, 1.14 fig of U, 0.8 μg of Th, 5.2μg of Cs, 1.3 mg of Sr, 105 μg of 1, 3.2 mg of Mn, 0.9 mg of Cu, 5.7 mg of Al, 5, 2 x 10 -2 mg of Pb, 2.1x10 -3 mg of Cd, 7.7x10 -2 mg of Ni and 2.1 x 10 -2 mg of Cr. The lower daily intake of Ca, Th, Cs and I by adult inhabitants of greater Cairo area could be due to the significantly lower consumption of milk and milk products, which are rich in these elements. The significantly lower intake of calcium by adult inhabitants of greater Cairo area may lead to higher uptake of radiostrontium and could result in higher internal radiation dose. The use of highly sensitive and reliable analytical methods resulted in accurate assessment of the values recorded for thorium and uranium suggested that radiation dose from their ingestion at natural background levels, is likely to be lower than those included in ICRP data. Concerning micro nutrients, the recommended values of daily intake of Cu and Mn are conveniently supplied by the common diet; however for Cr is lower than the recommended daily allowance. Due to high metals concentrations

  11. Iron, Oil, and Emeryville: Resource Industrialization and Metropolitan Expansion in the San Francisco Bay Area, 1850-1900

    OpenAIRE

    Lunine, Seth

    2013-01-01

    Scholars have largely overlooked the formative role of industry in both California's economic development and the San Francisco Bay Area's metropolitan expansion during the late nineteenth century. Beginning in the early 1880s, leading firms in San Francisco's specialized industries, such as the iron and chemicals sectors, dispersed to the metropolitan periphery. This process of industrial suburbanization created an integrative metropolitan economy, as well as individual suburbs. In this di...

  12. Summary of Synoptic Meteorological Observations (SSMO). Australian Coastal Marine Areas. Volume 1. Area 1 - Princess Charlotte Bay. Area 2 - Cairns. Area 3 - Cumberland Islands. Area 4 - Rockhampton. Area 5 - Brisbane. Area 6 - Coffs Harbour. Area 7 - Sydney. Area 8 - Cape Howe NE

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-09-01

    Weather Service Detachment Asheville, N. C. 8. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBERf«) 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS National Climatic Center...Australian East Coast, Princess Charlotte Bay, Cairns, Cumberland Islands, Rockhampton, Brisbane, Coffs Harbour, Sydney and Cape Howe NE. ^ 20...OVER-ALL) 1»S«-1973 AREA 0006 COFFS HARBOUR 30.3S 193.36 fERCENT FR60UENCY OF MSATHER OCCURRENCE BY NINO OIRECTION

  13. Greater Sage-Grouse Habitat Use and Population Demographics at the Simpson Ridge Wind Resource Area, Carbon County, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory D. Johnson; Chad W. LeBeau; Ryan Nielsen; Troy Rintz; Jamey Eddy; Matt Holloran

    2012-03-27

    This study was conducted to obtain baseline data on use of the proposed Simpson Ridge Wind Resource Area (SRWRA) in Carbon County, Wyoming by greater sage-grouse. The first two study years were designed to determine pre-construction seasonally selected habitats and population-level vital rates (productivity and survival). The presence of an existing wind energy facility in the project area, the PacifiCorp Seven Mile Hill (SMH) project, allowed us to obtain some information on initial sage-grouse response to wind turbines the first two years following construction. To our knowledge these are the first quantitative data on sage-grouse response to an existing wind energy development. This report presents results of the first two study years (April 1, 2009 through March 30, 2011). This study was selected for continued funding by the National Wind Coordinating Collaborative Sage-Grouse Collaborative (NWCC-SGC) and has been ongoing since March 30, 2011. Future reports summarizing results of this research will be distributed through the NWCC-SGC. To investigate population trends through time, we determined the distribution and numbers of males using leks throughout the study area, which included a 4-mile radius buffer around the SRWRA. Over the 2-year study, 116 female greater sage-grouse were captured by spotlighting and use of hoop nets on roosts surrounding leks during the breeding period. Radio marked birds were located anywhere from twice a week to once a month, depending on season. All radio-locations were classified to season. We developed predictor variables used to predict success of fitness parameters and relative probability of habitat selection within the SRWRA and SMH study areas. Anthropogenic features included paved highways, overhead transmission lines, wind turbines and turbine access roads. Environmental variables included vegetation and topography features. Home ranges were estimated using a kernel density estimator. We developed resource selection

  14. Acquired Color Vision Defects and Hexane Exposure: A Study of San Francisco Bay Area Automotive Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckman, Stella; Eisen, Ellen A; Bates, Michael N; Liu, Sa; Haegerstrom-Portnoy, Gunilla; Hammond, S Katharine

    2016-06-01

    Occupational exposure to solvents, including n-hexane, has been associated with acquired color vision defects. Blue-yellow defects are most common and may be due to neurotoxicity or retinal damage. Acetone may potentiate the neurotoxicity of n-hexane. We present results on nonhexane solvent and hexane exposure and color vision from a cross-sectional study of 835 automotive repair workers in the San Francisco Bay Area, California (2007-2013). Cumulative exposure was estimated from self-reported work history, and color vision was assessed using the Lanthony desaturated D-15 panel test. Log-binomial regression was used to estimate prevalence ratios for color vision defects. Acquired color vision defects were present in 29% of participants, of which 70% were blue-yellow. Elevated prevalence ratios were found for nonhexane solvent exposure, with a maximum of 1.31 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.86, 2.00) for blue-yellow. Among participants aged ≤50 years, the prevalence ratio for blue-yellow defects was 2.17 (95% CI: 1.03, 4.56) in the highest quartile of nonhexane solvent exposure and 1.62 (95% CI: 0.97, 2.72) in the highest category of exposure to hexane with acetone coexposure. Cumulative exposures to hexane and nonhexane solvents in the highest exposure categories were associated with elevated prevalence ratios for color vision defects in younger participants. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. State of transition: Marijuana use among young adults in the San Francisco Bay Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Louisa M; Popova, Lucy; Ling, Pamela M

    2016-09-01

    California may vote on marijuana legalization in 2016. Young adults have the highest rates of marijuana use, but little is known about the correlates of use in this age group, including factors that may be affected by policy change. We investigated whether there are differences in marijuana use by sociodemographic characteristics, psychological distress, loneliness and social support, controlling for risk factors such as alcohol and cigarette use as well as perceived harm of marijuana. Bivariate and multivariable analysis of past 30day marijuana use using the 2014 San Francisco Bay Area Young Adult Health Survey, a probabilistic multi-mode survey of (N=1324) young adults (aged 18-26years) residing in Alameda and San Francisco Counties, stratified by race/ethnicity. 291 (27%) sample participants reported current marijuana use. Compared to non-Hispanic Whites (referent) Asian/Pacific Islander respondents were less likely to use marijuana (AOR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.22-0.80) while multiracial participants were twice as likely (AOR, 2.27; 95% CI, 1.06-4.85). Psychological distress was not related to marijuana use, but social support (AOR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.08-1.88) and loneliness (AOR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.09-1.86) were. Perceived harm of marijuana was inversely related to marijuana use (AOR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.51-0.70), while smoking cigarettes (AOR, 3.95; 95% CI, 2.28-6.84) and binge drinking (AOR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.03-1.24) were positively related. Legalization policies should include public education campaigns addressing potential harms of marijuana use particularly targeting multiracial young adults who also engage in other risk behaviors, such as cigarette smoking and binge drinking. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. EVALUATION OF TROPHIC STATUS OF AGRAKHAN BAY (THE NORTH CASPIAN SEA AS A PART OF ECOLOGICAL MONITORING OF SPECIALLY PROTECTED AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Gadzhiev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Aim. Hydrochemical composition of waters of Agrakhan Bay (the North Caspian Sea, degree of pollution, structure and quantitative characteristics of phytoplankton, zooplankton and zoobenthos is given in the paper. Evaluation of a trophic status of the bay and seasonal trophodynamics are given as a result of study.Material and methods. The study is based on original materials from expeditions of 2012 (Autumn and 2013 (Spring and Summer in Agrakhan Bay. The complex materials are collected on stations with distance 3.5 km. Totally was made 16 marine stations, where samples of water, phytoplankton, zooplankton and benthos were taken.Results. Agrakhan Bay is eutrophic by level of dissolved oxygen and its BOD. However, the oxygen deficiency is not observed. concentration of oxygen is high almost in all seasons, that has a beneficial effect on hydrobionts. Seasonal dynamics indicates that Agrakhansky bay is oligotrophic within a year, but its trophic status increases to mesotrophic and even to hypertrophic in some periods. The northern part ща the bay is eutrophic. Difference in trophic levels of different parts of the bay is the result of significant differences in depth and area of water surface.Conclusions. Anthropogenic impact on Agrakhan Bay increases its trophic status. Seasonal trophic level of Agrakhan Gulf except natural processes depends on the "purity" of the Terek River sediments, which are the main source of biogenic elements. Typically, the absolute concentration of biogenic elements in Agrakhan Bay increases with the increase of eutrophication.

  17. Evaluating Ambient Concentrations and Local Emissions of Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) in the San Francisco Bay Area of California Using a Comprehensive Fixed-site and Mobile Monitoring Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, A.; Bower, J. P.; Martien, P. T.; Randall, S.; Young, A.; Hilken, H.; Stevenson, E.

    2015-12-01

    The Bay Area Air Quality Management District (hence the Air District) is the greater San Francisco Bay metropolitan region's chief air quality regulatory agency. Aligning itself with Executive Order S-3-05, the Air District has set a goal to reduce the region's GHG emissions by 80% below 1990 levels by the year 2050. The Air District's 10-point Climate Action Work Program lays out the agency's priorities, actions and coordination with regional stakeholders. The Program has three core objectives: (1) to develop a technical and monitoring program to document the region's GHG sources and related emissions, (2) to implement a policy and rule-based approach to control and regulate GHG emissions, and finally, (3) to utilize local governance, incentives and partnerships to encourage GHG emissions reductions.As part of the technical program, the Air District has set up a long term, ambient GHG monitoring network at four sites. The first site is located north and upwind of the urban core at Bodega Bay by the Pacific Coast. It mostly receives clean marine inflow and serves as the regional background site. The other three sites are strategically located at regional exit points for Bay Area plumes that presumably contain GHG enhancements from local sources. These stations are at San Martin, located south of the San Jose metropolitan area; at Patterson Pass at the cross section with California's Central Valley; and at Bethel Island at the mouth of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. At all sites, carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) are being measured continuously, along with combustion tracer CO and other air pollutants. The GHG measurements are performed with high precision and fast laser instruments (Picarro Inc). In the longer term, the network will allow the Air District to monitor ambient concentrations of GHGs and thus evaluate the effectiveness of its policy, regulation and enforcement efforts. We present data from the sites in their first few months of operation and

  18. A GIS FOR THE ANTARCTIC SPECIALLY MANAGED AREA OF ADMIRALTY BAY,KING GEORGE ISLAND,ANTARCTICA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    ABSTRACT A GIS is proposed as a tool for the managing plan for the Antarctic specially managed area (ASMA) in Admiralty Bay.The ASMA comprises the area considered to be within the glacial drainage basin of the bay.Furthermore,it includes part of SSSI No.8 adjacent to the area but outside of the glacial drainage basin.Three stations and six refuges are located in the area.Using a SPOT satellite image map,the limits of the ASMA are marked and its area is re_calculated.It consists of 362 km2,including 186 km2 island ice field and small cirque glaciers and 32 km2 ice_free field.The rest comprises water of the bay and a small adjacent area (8 km2) of the Bransfield Strait. The ASMA_GIS will consists of 12 data layers ranging from the physiographic settings to the biological and administrative features.All data will be implemented into Arc/Info GIS according to the cartographic guidelines of the SCAR WG_GGI.First,five plans of information will be realised using a topographic database compiled from various sources and data from the revised bathymetric chart published by the Brazilian Navy Hydrographic Survey and also including: 1) Limits of the ASMA and protected areas;2) Glaciological features (e.g.drainage basin limits) and 3) Human presence (e.g.stations and historical sites).These basic GIS layers will be operational in early 2001.Then,additional data on the remaining layers (e.g.hydrology,geology and geomorphology) will be included from published sources. The ASMA_GIS will form an important database for environmental monitoring and studies surveying temporal changes of features such as glacier front positions or bird breading sites.

  19. Hydrogeology and geochemistry of aquifers underlying the San Lorenzo and San Leandro areas of the East Bay Plain, Alameda County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izbicki, John A.; Borchers, James W.; Leighton, David A.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Fields, Latoya; Galloway, Devin L.; Michel, Robert L.

    2003-01-01

    The East Bay Plain, on the densely populated eastern shore of San Francisco Bay, contains an upper aquifer system to depths of 250 feet below land surface and an underlying lower aquifer system to depths of more than 650 feet. Injection and recovery of imported water has been proposed for deep aquifers at two sites within the lower aquifer system. Successful operation requires that the injected water be isolated from surface sources of poor-quality water during storage and recovery. Hydraulic, geochemical, and isotopic data were used to evaluate the isolation of deeper aquifers. Ground-water responses to tidal changes in the Bay suggest that thick clay layers present within these deposits effectively isolate the deeper aquifers in the northern part of the study area from overlying surficial deposits. These data also suggest that the areal extent of the shallow and deep aquifers beneath the Bay may be limited in the northern part of the study area. Despite its apparent hydraulic isolation, the lower aquifer system may be connected to the overlying upper aquifer system through the corroded and failed casings of abandoned wells. Water-level measurements in observation wells and downward flow measured in selected wells during nonpumped conditions suggest that water may flow through wells from the upper aquifer system into the lower aquifer system during nonpumped conditions. The chemistry of water from wells in the East Bay Plain ranges from fresh to saline; salinity is greater than seawater in shallow estuarine deposits near the Bay. Water from wells completed in the lower aquifer system has higher pH, higher sodium, chloride, and manganese concentrations, and lower calcium concentrations and alkalinity than does water from wells completed in the overlying upper aquifer system. Ground-water recharge temperatures derived from noble-gas data indicate that highly focused recharge processes from infiltration of winter streamflow and more diffuse recharge processes from

  20. Ecology of Greater Sage-Grouse in the Bi-State Planning Area Final Report, September 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casazza, Michael L.; Overton, Cory T.; Farinha, Melissa A.; Torregrosa, Alicia; Fleskes, Joseph P.; Miller, Michael R.; Sedinger, James S.; Kolada, Eric J.

    2009-01-01

    Conservation efforts for greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), hereafter sage-grouse, are underway across the range of this species. Over 70 local working groups have been established and are implementing on-the-ground sage-grouse oriented conservation projects. Early on in this process, the California Department of Fish and Game (CDFG) recognized the need to join in these efforts and received funding from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) under the Candidate Species Conservation Program to help develop a species conservation plan for sage-grouse in the Mono County area. This conservation plan covers portions of Alpine, Mono, and Inyo counties in California and Douglas, Esmeralda, Lyon, and Mineral counties in Nevada. A concurrent effort underway through the Nevada Governor's Sage-grouse Conservation Team established Local Area Working Groups across Nevada and eastern California. The Mono County populations of sage-grouse were encompassed by the Bi-State Local Planning Area, which was comprised of six population management units (PMUs). The state agencies from California (CDFG) and Nevada (Nevada Department of Wildlife; NDOW) responsible for the management of sage-grouse agreed to utilize the process that had begun with the Nevada Governor's Team in order to develop local plans for conservation planning and implementation. Resources from the USFWS were applied to several objectives in support of the development of the Bi-State Local Area Sage-grouse Conservation Plan through a grant to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Objectives included: (1) participate in the development of the Bi-State Conservation Plan, (2) compile and synthesize existing sage-grouse data, (3) document seasonal movements of sage-grouse, (4) identify habitats critical to sage-grouse, (5) determine survival rates and identify causal factors of mortality, (6) determine nest success and brood success of sage-grouse, and (7) identify sage-grouse lek sites. Progress reports

  1. Habitat prioritization across large landscapes, multiple seasons, and novel areas: an example using greater sage-grouse in Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedy, Bradley C.; Doherty, Kevin E.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; O'Donnell, Michael S.; Beck, Jeffrey L.; Bedrosian, Bryan; Gummer, David; Holloran, Matthew J.; Johnson, Gregory D.; Kaczor, Nicholas W.; Kirol, Christopher P.; Mandich, Cheryl A.; Marshall, David; McKee, Gwyn; Olson, Chad; Pratt, Aaron C.; Swanson, Christopher C.; Walker, Brett L.

    2014-01-01

    Animal habitat selection is an important and expansive area of research in ecology. In particular, the study of habitat selection is critical in habitat prioritization efforts for species of conservation concern. Landscape planning for species is happening at ever-increasing extents because of the appreciation for the role of landscape-scale patterns in species persistence coupled to improved datasets for species and habitats, and the expanding and intensifying footprint of human land uses on the landscape. We present a large-scale collaborative effort to develop habitat selection models across large landscapes and multiple seasons for prioritizing habitat for a species of conservation concern. Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus, hereafter sage-grouse) occur in western semi-arid landscapes in North America. Range-wide population declines of this species have been documented, and it is currently considered as “warranted but precluded” from listing under the United States Endangered Species Act. Wyoming is predicted to remain a stronghold for sage-grouse populations and contains approximately 37% of remaining birds. We compiled location data from 14 unique radiotelemetry studies (data collected 1994–2010) and habitat data from high-quality, biologically relevant, geographic information system (GIS) layers across Wyoming. We developed habitat selection models for greater sage-grouse across Wyoming for 3 distinct life stages: 1) nesting, 2) summer, and 3) winter. We developed patch and landscape models across 4 extents, producing statewide and regional (southwest, central, northeast) models for Wyoming. Habitat selection varied among regions and seasons, yet preferred habitat attributes generally matched the extensive literature on sage-grouse seasonal habitat requirements. Across seasons and regions, birds preferred areas with greater percentage sagebrush cover and avoided paved roads, agriculture, and forested areas. Birds consistently preferred

  2. Groundwater impacts on surface water quality and nutrient loads in lowland polder catchments: monitoring the greater Amsterdam area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Liang; Rozemeijer, Joachim; van Breukelen, Boris M.; Ouboter, Maarten; van der Vlugt, Corné; Broers, Hans Peter

    2018-01-01

    The Amsterdam area, a highly manipulated delta area formed by polders and reclaimed lakes, struggles with high nutrient levels in its surface water system. The polders receive spatially and temporally variable amounts of water and nutrients via surface runoff, groundwater seepage, sewer leakage, and via water inlets from upstream polders. Diffuse anthropogenic sources, such as manure and fertiliser use and atmospheric deposition, add to the water quality problems in the polders. The major nutrient sources and pathways have not yet been clarified due to the complex hydrological system in lowland catchments with both urban and agricultural areas. In this study, the spatial variability of the groundwater seepage impact was identified by exploiting the dense groundwater and surface water monitoring networks in Amsterdam and its surrounding polders. A total of 25 variables (concentrations of total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), NH4, NO3, HCO3, SO4, Ca, and Cl in surface water and groundwater, N and P agricultural inputs, seepage rate, elevation, land-use, and soil type) for 144 polders were analysed statistically and interpreted in relation to sources, transport mechanisms, and pathways. The results imply that groundwater is a large source of nutrients in the greater Amsterdam mixed urban-agricultural catchments. The groundwater nutrient concentrations exceeded the surface water environmental quality standards (EQSs) in 93 % of the polders for TP and in 91 % for TN. Groundwater outflow into the polders thus adds to nutrient levels in the surface water. High correlations (R2 up to 0.88) between solutes in groundwater and surface water, together with the close similarities in their spatial patterns, confirmed the large impact of groundwater on surface water chemistry, especially in the polders that have high seepage rates. Our analysis indicates that the elevated nutrient and bicarbonate concentrations in the groundwater seepage originate from the decomposition of

  3. Groundwater impacts on surface water quality and nutrient loads in lowland polder catchments: monitoring the greater Amsterdam area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Amsterdam area, a highly manipulated delta area formed by polders and reclaimed lakes, struggles with high nutrient levels in its surface water system. The polders receive spatially and temporally variable amounts of water and nutrients via surface runoff, groundwater seepage, sewer leakage, and via water inlets from upstream polders. Diffuse anthropogenic sources, such as manure and fertiliser use and atmospheric deposition, add to the water quality problems in the polders. The major nutrient sources and pathways have not yet been clarified due to the complex hydrological system in lowland catchments with both urban and agricultural areas. In this study, the spatial variability of the groundwater seepage impact was identified by exploiting the dense groundwater and surface water monitoring networks in Amsterdam and its surrounding polders. A total of 25 variables (concentrations of total nitrogen (TN, total phosphorus (TP, NH4, NO3, HCO3, SO4, Ca, and Cl in surface water and groundwater, N and P agricultural inputs, seepage rate, elevation, land-use, and soil type for 144 polders were analysed statistically and interpreted in relation to sources, transport mechanisms, and pathways. The results imply that groundwater is a large source of nutrients in the greater Amsterdam mixed urban–agricultural catchments. The groundwater nutrient concentrations exceeded the surface water environmental quality standards (EQSs in 93 % of the polders for TP and in 91 % for TN. Groundwater outflow into the polders thus adds to nutrient levels in the surface water. High correlations (R2 up to 0.88 between solutes in groundwater and surface water, together with the close similarities in their spatial patterns, confirmed the large impact of groundwater on surface water chemistry, especially in the polders that have high seepage rates. Our analysis indicates that the elevated nutrient and bicarbonate concentrations in the groundwater seepage originate

  4. Operation of a real-time warning system for debris flows in the San Francisco bay area, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Raymond C.; Mark, Robert K.; Barbato, Gary; ,

    1993-01-01

    The United States Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Weather Service (NWS) have developed an operational warning system for debris flows during severe rainstorms in the San Francisco Bay region. The NWS makes quantitative forecasts of precipitation from storm systems approaching the Bay area and coordinates a regional network of radio-telemetered rain gages. The USGS has formulated thresholds for the intensity and duration of rainfall required to initiate debris flows. The first successful public warnings were issued during a severe storm sequence in February 1986. Continued operation of the warning system since 1986 has provided valuable working experience in rainfall forecasting and monitoring, refined rainfall thresholds, and streamlined procedures for issuing public warnings. Advisory statements issued since 1986 are summarized.

  5. Temperature profile data from BATHYTHERMOGRAPH (XBT) from the CATALUNA and other platforms in BAY OF BISCAY and other areas: 19840914 to 19850923 (NODC Accession 8600110)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using XBT casts from the CATALUNA and ALCALA GALIANO in the Bay of Biscay and other areas. Data were collected from 14...

  6. The effects of husband's alcohol consumption on married women in three low-income areas of Greater Mumbai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Marlene J; Kremelberg, David; Dwivedi, Purva; Verma, Supriya; Schensul, Jean J; Gupta, Kamla; Chandran, Devyani; Singh, S K

    2010-08-01

    Gender-based violence rooted in norms, socialization practices, structural factors, and policies that underlie men's abusive practices against married women in India is exacerbated by alcohol. The intersection of domestic violence, childhood exposure to alcohol and frustration, which contribute to drinking and its consequences including forced sex is explored through analysis of data obtained from 486 married men living with their wives in a low-income area of Greater Mumbai. SEM shows pathways linking work-related stress, greater exposure to alcohol as a child, being a heavy drinker, and having more sexual partners (a proxy for HIV risk). In-depth ethnographic interviews with 44 married women in the study communities reveal the consequences of alcohol on women's lives showing how married women associate alcohol use and violence with different patterns of drinking. The study suggests ways alcohol use leads from physical and verbal abuse to emotional and sexual violence in marriage. Implications for gendered multi-level interventions addressing violence and HIV risk are explored.

  7. Diurnal and Intra-Annual Variations in Greenhouse Gases at Fixed Sites in the San Francisco Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, S.; Guha, A.; Martien, P. T.; Bower, J.; Perkins, I.; Randall, S.; Young, A.; Stevenson, E.; Hilken, H.

    2017-12-01

    The Bay Area Air Quality Management District, the San Francisco Bay Area's air quality regulatory agency, has set a goal to reduce the region's greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to 80% below 1990 levels by 2050, consistent with the State of California's climate goals. Recently, the Air District's governing board adopted a 2017 Clean Air Plan which lays out the agency's vision and includes actions to put the region on a path towards achieving the 2050 goal while also reducing air pollution and related health impacts. The Plan includes GHG rule-making efforts, policy initiatives, local government partnerships, outreach, grants, and incentives, encompassing over 250 specific implementation actions across all economic sectors to effect ambitious emission reductions in the region. To track trends in atmospheric observations of GHGs and associated species and monitor changes in regional emission patterns, the Air District has established a fixed site network (CO2, CH4, CO) of one generally upwind site (Bodega Bay - on the coast north of Marin County) and three receptor sites (Bethel Island - east of the major refineries, in the Sacramento River Delta; Livermore - east of the bulk of the East Bay cities; and San Martin - south of the major city of San Jose). Having collected over a year of data for each of the fixed sites, the Air District is now investigating spatial and temporal variations in GHG emissions. Concentrating on variations in diurnal cycles, we see the commonly observed pattern of seasonal changes in diurnal amplitude at all sites, with larger variations during the winter than the summer, consistent with seasonally varying daily changes in planetary boundary layer heights. Investigations explore the weekday/weekend effect on the diurnal patterns and the effect of seasonal wind direction changes on the intra-annual variations of the local enhancements. The Air District is beginning to investigate the ways in which the fixed site network reflects the dominant

  8. Greater pre-stimulus effective connectivity from the left inferior frontal area to other areas is associated with better phonological decoding in dyslexic readers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard E Frye

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Functional neuroimaging studies suggest that neural networks that subserve reading are organized differently in dyslexic readers (DRs and typical readers (TRs, yet the hierarchical structure of these networks has not been well studied. We used Granger Causality (GC to examine the effective connectivity of the preparatory network that occurs prior to viewing a non-word stimulus that requires phonological decoding in 7 DRs and 10 TRs who were young adults. The neuromagnetic activity that occurred 500 ms prior to each rhyme trial was analyzed from sensors overlying the left and right inferior frontal areas (IFA, temporoparietal areas (TPA, and ventral occipitotemporal areas (VOTA within the low, medium, and high beta and gamma sub-bands. A mixed-model analysis determined whether connectivity to or from the left and right IFAs differed across connectivity direction (into vs. out of the IFAs, brain areas, reading group, and/or performance. Results indicated that greater connectivity in the low beta sub-band from the left IFA to other cortical areas was significantly related to better non-word rhyme discrimination in DRs but not TRs. This suggests that the left IFA is an important cortical area involved in compensating for poor phonological function in DRs. We suggest that the left IFA activates a wider-than usual network prior to each trial in the service of supporting otherwise effortful phonological decoding in DRs. The fact that the left IFA provides top-down activation to both posterior left hemispheres areas used by typical readers for phonological decoding and homologous right hemisphere areas is discussed. In contrast, within the high gamma sub-band, better performance was associated with decreased connectivity between the left IFA and other brain areas, in both reading groups. Overly strong gamma connectivity during the pre-stimulus period may interfere with subsequent transient activation and deactivation of sub-networks once the non

  9. The deep biosphere in terrestrial sediments in the Chesapeake Bay area, Virginia, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja eBreuker

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available For the first time quantitative data on the abundance of Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya in deep terrestrial sediments are provided using multiple methods (total cell counting, quantitative real-time PCR (Q-PCR and catalyzed reporter deposition – fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH. The oligotrophic (organic carbon content of ~ 0.2 % deep terrestrial sediments in the Chesapeake Bay area at Eyreville, Virginia, USA, were drilled and sampled up to a depth of 140 m in 2006. The possibility of contamination during drilling was checked using fluorescent microspheres. Total cell counts decreased from 109 to 106 cells per g dry weight (dw within the uppermost 20 m depth, and did not further decrease with depth below. A significant proportion of the total cell counts could be detected with CARD-FISH within the uppermost 7 m depth. The CARD-FISH numbers for Bacteria were about an order of magnitude higher than those for Archaea. The dominance of Bacteria over Archaea was confirmed by Q-PCR. The down core quantitative distribution of prokaryotic and eukaryotic small subunit ribosomal RNA genes as well as functional genes involved in different biogeochemical processes was revealed by Q-PCR for the uppermost 10 m and for 80-140 m depth. Eukarya and the Fe(III- and Mn(IV-reducing bacterial group Geobacteriaceae were almost only found in the uppermost meter (arable soil, where reactive iron was detected in higher amounts. The bacterial candidate division JS-1 and the classes Anaerolineae and Caldilineae of the phylum Chloroflexi, highly abundant in marine sediments, were found up to the maximum sampling depth in high copy numbers at this terrestrial site as well. A similar high abundance of the functional gene cbbL encoding for the large subunit of RubisCO suggests that autotrophic microorganisms could be relevant in addition to heterotrophs. The functional gene aprA of sulfate reducing bacteria was found within distinct layers up to ca. 100 m depth

  10. The deep biosphere in terrestrial sediments in the chesapeake bay area, virginia, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuker, Anja; Köweker, Gerrit; Blazejak, Anna; Schippers, Axel

    2011-01-01

    For the first time quantitative data on the abundance of Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya in deep terrestrial sediments are provided using multiple methods (total cell counting, quantitative real-time PCR, Q-PCR and catalyzed reporter deposition-fluorescence in situ hybridization, CARD-FISH). The oligotrophic (organic carbon content of ∼0.2%) deep terrestrial sediments in the Chesapeake Bay area at Eyreville, Virginia, USA, were drilled and sampled up to a depth of 140 m in 2006. The possibility of contamination during drilling was checked using fluorescent microspheres. Total cell counts decreased from 10(9) to 10(6) cells/g dry weight within the uppermost 20 m, and did not further decrease with depth below. Within the top 7 m, a significant proportion of the total cell counts could be detected with CARD-FISH. The CARD-FISH numbers for Bacteria were about an order of magnitude higher than those for Archaea. The dominance of Bacteria over Archaea was confirmed by Q-PCR. The down core quantitative distribution of prokaryotic and eukaryotic small subunit ribosomal RNA genes as well as functional genes involved in different biogeochemical processes was revealed by Q-PCR for the uppermost 10 m and for 80-140 m depth. Eukarya and the Fe(III)- and Mn(IV)-reducing bacterial group Geobacteriaceae were almost exclusively found in the uppermost meter (arable soil), where reactive iron was detected in higher amounts. The bacterial candidate division JS-1 and the classes Anaerolineae and Caldilineae of the phylum Chloroflexi, highly abundant in marine sediments, were found up to the maximum sampling depth in high copy numbers at this terrestrial site as well. A similar high abundance of the functional gene cbbL encoding for the large subunit of RubisCO suggests that autotrophic microorganisms could be relevant in addition to heterotrophs. The functional gene aprA of sulfate reducing bacteria was found within distinct layers up to ca. 100 m depth in low copy numbers

  11. Results of a modeling workshop concerning economic and environmental trends and concomitant resource management issues in the Mobile Bay area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, David B.; Andrews, Austin K.; Auble, Gregor T.; Ellison, Richard A.; Johnson, Richard A.; Roelle, James E.; Staley, Michael J.

    1982-01-01

    During the past decade, the southern regions of the U.S. have experienced rapid change which is expected to continue into the foreseeable future. Growth in population, industry, and resource development has been attributed to a variety of advantages such as an abundant and inexpensive labor force, a mild climate, and the availability of energy, water, land, and other natural resources. While this growth has many benefits for the region, it also creates the potential for increased air, water, and solid waste pollution, and modification of natural habitats. A workshop was convened to consider the Mobile Bay area as a site-specific case of growth and its environmental consequences in the southern region. The objectives of the modeling workshop were to: (1) identify major factors of economic development as they relate to growth in the area over the immediate and longer term; (2) identify major environmental and resource management issues associated with this expected growth; and (3) identify and characterize the complex interrelationships among economic and environmental factors. This report summarizes the activities and results of a modeling workshop concerning economic growth and concomitant resource management issues in the Mobile Bay area. The workshop was organized around construction of a simulation model representing the relationships between a series of actions and indicators identified by participants. The workshop model had five major components. An Industry Submodel generated scenarios of growth in several industrial and transportation sectors. A Human Population/Economy Submodel calculated human population and economic variables in response to employment opportunities. A Land Use/Air Quality Submodel tabulated changes in land use, shoreline use, and air quality. A Water Submodel calculated indicators of water quality and quantity for fresh surface water, ground water, and Mobile Bay based on discharge information provided by the Industry and Human

  12. Integrated Geoscience Studies in the Greater Yellowstone Area - Volcanic, Tectonic, and Hydrothermal Processes in the Yellowstone Geoecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Lisa A.

    2007-01-01

    Yellowstone National Park, rimmed by a crescent of older mountainous terrain, has at its core the Quaternary Yellowstone Plateau, an undulating landscape shaped by forces of volcanism, tectonism, and later glaciation. Its spectacular hydrothermal systems cap this landscape. From 1997 through 2003, the United States Geological Survey Mineral Resources Program conducted a multidisciplinary project of Yellowstone National Park entitled Integrated Geoscience Studies of the Greater Yellowstone Area, building on a 130-year foundation of extensive field studies (including the Hayden survey of 1871, the Hague surveys of the 1880s through 1896, the studies of Iddings, Allen, and Day during the 1920s, and NASA-supported studies starting in the 1970s - now summarized in USGS Professional Paper 729 A through G) in this geologically dynamic terrain. The project applied a broad range of scientific disciplines and state-of-the-art technologies targeted to improve stewardship of the unique natural resources of Yellowstone and enable the National Park Service to effectively manage resources, protect park visitors from geologic hazards, and better educate the public on geologic processes and resources. This project combined a variety of data sets in characterizing the surficial and subsurface chemistry, mineralogy, geology, geophysics, and hydrothermal systems in various parts of the park. The sixteen chapters presented herein in USGS Professional Paper 1717, Integrated Geoscience Studies in the Greater Yellowstone Area - Volcanic, Tectonic, and Hydrothermal Processes in the Yellowstone Geoecosystem, can be divided into four major topical areas: (1) geologic studies, (2) Yellowstone Lake studies, (3) geochemical studies, and (4) geophysical studies. The geologic studies include a paper by Ken Pierce and others on the influence of the Yellowstone hotspot on landscape formation, the ecological effects of the hotspot, and the human experience and human geography of the greater

  13. Long-term meteorologically independent trend analysis of ozone air quality at an urban site in the greater Houston area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botlaguduru, Venkata S V; Kommalapati, Raghava R; Huque, Ziaul

    2018-04-19

    ± 0.005 ppb/yr for the overall period of 1990-2016. Implications Statement The effectiveness of air emission controls can be evaluated by developing long-term air quality trends independent of meteorological influences. KZ filter technique is a well-established method to separate an air quality time-series into: short-term, seasonal and long-term components. This paper applies the KZ filter technique to MDA8 ozone data between 1990-2016 at an urban site in the Greater Houston area and estimates the variance accounted for, by the primary meteorological control variables. Estimates for linear trends of MDA8 ozone are calculated and underlying causes are investigated to provide a guidance for further investigation into air quality management of the Greater Houston Area.

  14. Variability and climate change trend in vegetation phenology of recent decades in the Greater Khingan Mountain area, Northeastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Tang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation phenology has been used in studies as an indicator of an ecosystem’s responses to climate change. Satellite remote sensing techniques can capture changes in vegetation greenness, which can be used to estimate vegetation phenology. In this study, a long-term vegetation phenology study of the Greater Khingan Mountain area in Northeastern China was performed by using the Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS normalized difference vegetation index version 3 (NDVI3g dataset from the years 1982–2012. After reconstructing the NDVI time series, the start date of the growing season (SOS, the end date of the growing season (EOS and the length of the growing season (LOS were extracted using a dynamic threshold method. The response of the variation in phenology with climatic factors was also analyzed. The results showed that the phenology in the study area changed significantly in the three decades between 1982 and 2012, including a 12.1-day increase in the entire region’s average LOS, a 3.3-day advance in the SOS and an 8.8-day delay in the EOS. However, differences existed between the steppe, forest and agricultural regions, with the LOSs of the steppe region, forest region and agricultural region increasing by 4.40 days, 10.42 days and 1.71 days, respectively, and a later EOS seemed to more strongly affect the extension of the growing season. Additionally, temperature and precipitation were closely correlated with the phenology variations. This study provides a useful understanding of the recent change in phenology and its variability in this high-latitude study area, and this study also details the responses of several ecosystems to climate change.

  15. Rainfall Estimation and Performance Characterization Using an X-band Dual-Polarization Radar in the San Francisco Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifelli, R.; Chen, H.; Chandra, C. V.

    2016-12-01

    The San Francisco Bay area is home to over 5 million people. In February 2016, the area also hosted the NFL Super bowl, bringing additional people and focusing national attention to the region. Based on the El Nino forecast, public officials expressed concern for heavy rainfall and flooding with the potential for threats to public safety, costly flood damage to infrastructure, negative impacts to water quality (e.g., combined sewer overflows) and major disruptions in transportation. Mitigation of the negative impacts listed above requires accurate precipitation monitoring (quantitative precipitation estimation-QPE) and prediction (including radar nowcasting). The proximity to terrain and maritime conditions as well as the siting of existing NEXRAD radars are all challenges in providing accurate, short-term near surface rainfall estimates in the Bay area urban region. As part of a collaborative effort between the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Earth System Research Laboratory, Colorado State University (CSU), and Santa Clara Valley Water District (SCVWD), an X-band dual-polarization radar was deployed in Santa Clara Valley in February of 2016 to provide support for the National Weather Service during the Super Bowl and NOAA's El Nino Rapid Response field campaign. This high-resolution radar was deployed on the roof of one of the buildings at the Penitencia Water Treatment Plant. The main goal was to provide detailed precipitation information for use in weather forecasting and assists the water district in their ability to predict rainfall and streamflow with real-time rainfall data over Santa Clara County especially during a potentially large El Nino year. The following figure shows the radar's coverage map, as well as sample reflectivity observations on March 06, 2016, at 00:04UTC. This paper presents results from a pilot study from February, 2016 to May, 2016 demonstrating the use of X-band weather radar for quantitative precipitation

  16. Report on Saginaw Bay Area Environmental Policy, Planning and Management survey. Final report, April 1991-March 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, C.; Zhao, W.; Edens, T.C.

    1992-04-01

    An environmental policy, planning, and management survey was conducted in the Saginaw Bay area in the Fall of 1991. The survey identified unemployment, factory closure and environmental quality degradation as the major economic and environmental problems in the area. Surface water contamination, excessive nutrients and zebra mussel infestation were the most serious problems affecting water quality. Soil erosion, excessive fertilization and pesticide applications were the most important non-point sources of water pollution. Toxic chemicals, phosphorus, suspended solids, heavy metals were the major water pollutants in the area. Pollution cleanup, land use planning, and control of zebra mussels were identified as the top implementation priorities for the area. Recommendations made by the respondents for improving environmental quality are summarized in the report.

  17. Hydrographic features of the gas hydrate studies survey area of cruise AASGH4 in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Charyulu, R; Fernandes, W.A.; Gawde, S.; Almeida, A.M.

    /2006 Technical Report on ?Hydrographic features of the gas hydrate studies survey area of cruise AASGH4 in the Bay of Bengal? R.J.K. Charyulu, William Fernandes, Sandeep Gawde and A.M. Almeida National Institute of Oceanography, (C.S.I.R.) Dona Paula.... Methodology for CTD data collection i) The CTD System: The CTD (conductivity, Temperature, Depth) system used in the gas hydrates study onboard AA ?Siderenko? for water column hydrographic data collection consists of C,T,D primary sensors...

  18. Knowledge of human papillomavirus infection and its prevention among adolescents and parents in the greater Milan area, Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consolo Silvia

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to be widely accepted by users, the implementation of a new health intervention requires them to be adequately informed about its clinical importance, benefits and risks. The aim of this study was to provide data on the knowledge of Italian adolescents and parents concerning human papillomavirus (HPV infection and its prevention in order to allow the development of adequate training programmes. Methods Between 2 May and 15 June 2008, we made a cross-sectional survey of 863 high school students and 2,331 parents of middle and high school students using two anonymously completed questionnaires covering the knowledge of HPV infection and related diseases, and attitudes to vaccinations. The approached schools were a convenience sample of the schools of the greater Milan area, Northern Italy. Results More mothers than fathers were aware that HPV infection could concern their children (58% vs 53%; p = 0.004 and were favourable towards vaccinating their children against HPV (68% vs 65%; p = 0.03; among the students, more females than males were aware that HPV infection could concern themselves (45% vs 26%; p vs 40%; p Conclusions Both students and parents seem to underestimate the likelihood of HPV infection, and this is associated with a lower propensity for vaccination. This is an important indication for future training programmes concerning HPV prevention designed to increase the acceptance of HPV vaccine in families.

  19. Quantification and mapping of urban fluxes under climate change: Application of WRF-SUEWS model to Greater Porto area (Portugal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafael, S; Martins, H; Marta-Almeida, M; Sá, E; Coelho, S; Rocha, A; Borrego, C; Lopes, M

    2017-05-01

    Climate change and the growth of urban populations are two of the main challenges facing Europe today. These issues are linked as climate change results in serious challenges for cities. Recent attention has focused on how urban surface-atmosphere exchanges of heat and water will be affected by climate change and the implications for urban planning and sustainability. In this study energy fluxes for Greater Porto area, Portugal, were estimated and the influence of the projected climate change evaluated. To accomplish this, the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) and the Surface Urban Energy and Water Balance Scheme (SUEWS) were applied for two climatological scenarios: a present (or reference, 1986-2005) scenario and a future scenario (2046-2065), in this case the Representative Concentration Pathway RCP8.5, which reflects the worst set of expectations (with the most onerous impacts). The results show that for the future climate conditions, the incoming shortwave radiation will increase by around 10%, the sensible heat flux around 40% and the net storage heat flux around 35%. In contrast, the latent heat flux will decrease about 20%. The changes in the magnitude of the different fluxes result in an increase of the net all-wave radiation by 15%. The implications of the changes of the energy balance on the meteorological variables are discussed, particularly in terms of temperature and precipitation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Fish assemblages in a coastal bay adjacent to a network of marine protected areas in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Pereira Cattani

    Full Text Available Abstract Baía Norte (North Bay in Santa Catarina State is considered a typical coastal bay and is surrounded by a network of Marine Protected Areas. The objectives of this study were to describe the composition of the demersal fish assemblage, identify seasonal and spatial structures on a fine scale and evaluate the role of habitat descriptors and abiotic variables affecting the fish assemblage structure. Seasonal samplings were conducted in 2005, using bottom trawls in six pre-established areas in Baía Norte in summer, fall, winter and spring. Simultaneously with each trawl, environmental data were collected with a multiparameter probe. Temporal and spatial differences in fish abundance were tested by a PERMANOVA. To illustratethe differences detected graphically we ran a canonical analysis of principal coordinates (CAP. The influence of environmental variables on the fish fauna was evaluated using a Distant Based Linear Model (DistLM with Akaike's information criterion (AIC. A total of 9,888 specimens, distributed in 27 families and 62 species, were collected. Citharichthys spilopterus was the most abundant species. PERMANOVA detected differences for abundance between seasons, areas and interaction among all the factors. The DISTLM selected temperature and pH. The results highlight seasonality as an important factor in the structuring of fish fauna of the study place.

  1. Replacing car trips by increasing bike and public transport in the greater Barcelona metropolitan area: a health impact assessment study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Rueda, D; de Nazelle, A; Teixidó, O; Nieuwenhuijsen, M J

    2012-11-15

    Estimate the health risks and benefits of mode shifts from car to cycling and public transport in the metropolitan area of Barcelona, Spain. We conducted a health impact assessment (HIA), creating 8 different scenarios on the replacement of short and long car trips, by public transport or/and bike. The primary outcome measure was all-cause mortality and change in life expectancy related to two different assessments: A) the exposure of travellers to physical activity, air pollution to particulate matter car trips, starting and ending in Barcelona City, to cycling (n=141,690) would be for the travellers who shift modes 1.15 additional deaths from air pollution, 0.17 additional deaths from road traffic fatality and 67.46 deaths avoided from physical activity resulting in a total of 66.12 deaths avoided. Fewer deaths would be avoided annually if half of the replaced trips were shifted to public transport (43.76 deaths). The annual health impact in the Barcelona City general population (n=1,630,494) of the 40% reduction in car trips would be 10.03 deaths avoided due to the reduction of 0.64% in exposure to PM2.5. The deaths (including travellers and general population) avoided in Barcelona City therefore would be 76.15 annually. Further health benefits would be obtained with a shift of 40% of the car trips from the Greater Barcelona Metropolitan which either start or end in Barcelona City to public transport (40.15 deaths avoided) or public transport and cycling (98.50 deaths avoided).The carbon dioxide reduction for shifting from car to other modes of transport (bike and public transport) in Barcelona metropolitan area was estimated to be 203,251t/CO₂ emissions per year. Interventions to reduce car use and increase cycling and the use of public transport in metropolitan areas, like Barcelona, can produce health benefits for travellers and for the general population of the city. Also these interventions help to reduce green house gas emissions. Copyright © 2012

  2. Are vegetated areas of mangroves attractive to juvenile and small fish? The case of Dongzhaigang Bay, Hainan Island, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mao; Huang, Zhenyuan; Shi, Fushan; Wang, Wenqing

    2009-11-01

    Well-developed aerial roots of mangroves make it difficult to study how fish utilize the mangrove forest as a habitat. In the present study, we compared the differences in fish assemblages in three major types of habitats of mangrove estuary (vegetated area, treeless mudflat, and creek) of a mangrove bay in Hainan Island, China, at different seasons during two consecutive years. Three types of gears, centipede net, gill net and cast net, were used in the different habitats of mangrove estuary and sampling efficiencies among gears were evaluated. Centipede nets were used in all the three types of habitats and cast nets and gill nets in treeless mudflats and creeks. Fish assemblages were dependent on gears used. Centipede net could efficiently catch fish occurring both inside and outside of vegetated areas efficiently. A total of 115 fish species in 51 families were collected. In terms of numbers of species per family, Gobiidae was the most diverse (17 species), followed by Mugilidae (5 species). Almost all of the fish were juvenile or small fish and few predators were recorded, implying low predation pressure in the bay. ANOVA analysis showed that significant seasonal and spatial variation existed in species richness, abundance, and biomass, which were less in the vegetated areas than those of treeless mudflats and creeks. The attraction of vegetated areas to fish was less than that of creeks and mudflats. Many species were specific to a particular habitat type, 4 species occurring exclusively in the creeks, 45 species occurring exclusively in the treeless mudflats, and 5 species occurring exclusively in the vegetated areas. The results indicated that mangrove estuaries were potentially attractive habitats for juvenile and small fish, but this attraction was accomplished by a connection of vegetated areas, treeless mudflats and creeks, not only by vegetated areas.

  3. An aerial radiological survey of the South Texas Project Electric Generating Station and surrounding area, Bay City, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.M.

    1988-12-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the South Texas Project Electric Generating Station (STPEGS) near Bay City, Texas, during the period 25 March to 4 April 1988. The purpose of the 259-square-kilometer (100-square-mile) survey was to document the terrestrial gamma environment of the plant and surrounding area. An exposure rate contour map at 1 meter above ground level (AGL) was constructed from the gamma data and overlaid on an aerial photograph and map of the area. Exposure rates were observed up to 10μR/h over land. No areas of enhanced exposure rates were observed. Ground-based exposure rate measurements and soil samples were obtained to support the aerial data. Oblique aerial photographs of the plant were also acquired during the survey. 9 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  4. Long path optical extinction and meteorology in the San Francisco bay area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porch, W M; Galloway, T R; Green, T J; Ellsaesser, H W

    1981-01-01

    Comparison of night-time long path extinction (25 km) across San Francisco Bay and local meteorological measurements at Oakland Airport revealed a dominant role of boundary layer mixing on visibility. Inversion depth and inversion depth multiplied by wind speed were both strongly inversely correlated with night-time atmospheric extinction. Oakland Airport wind speed and humidity showed little correlation with the extinction measurements. Stellar extinction was also found to be sensitive to mixing depth. This is important as visibility and turbidity trend studies rarely include mixing depth measurements. These results indicate the importance of developing instruments to use the same light source for remote sensing of atmospheric constituents, wind and humidity.

  5. Factors Influencing Health Service Utilization Among Asian Immigrant Nail Salon Workers in the Greater New York City Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jin Young; Chao, Ying-Yu; Yeung, Ka Man; Strauss, Shiela M

    2018-06-23

    Most nail salon workers in the greater New York City area are Asian immigrant women. They are exposed daily to potentially toxic chemicals and hazards in their workplace, making them more vulnerable for possible health problems. The study's primary purpose was to identify factors influencing past year healthcare utilization among Asian immigrant women working in nail salons. A cross-sectional study was conducted based on a modification of Andersen's behavioral model of healthcare utilization in which 148 Korean and Chinese immigrant women currently working in nail salons were surveyed. The questionnaire included: (1) individual health determinants, (2) health service utilization in the past year, and (3) work environment, work-related health concerns, and work-related health problems. Descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression models assessed factors related to past year healthcare utilization. Women who had health insurance (p < .01), a usual source of care (p < .01), low educational attainment (p < .05), and more work-related health symptoms (p < .05) were more likely to visit a primary care provider. Women who had health insurance (p < .01), a usual source of care (p < .05), and low educational attainment (p < .05), were also more likely to visit a woman's health provider. Korean (rather than Chinese) women (p < .05) and women who perceived themselves to be in fair/poor health (p < .05) were more likely to see a traditional provider of Eastern medicine. Asian immigrant women who work in nail salons have workplace health and safety concerns. They generally use Western rather than traditional medicine, with different factors related to these two types of medicine.

  6. Evaluation of daily intake for some elements of radiation protection concern by inhabitants of Greater Cairo Area, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed H.E. Monged

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of K, Ca, U, Th, Cs, Sr, I, Al, Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, Ni, Zn and Cr were determined in common foodstuffs consumed by adult inhabitants of Greater Cairo Area (GCA. Some of these elements have chemical and biological similarity to some of the radionuclides abundantly encountered during nuclear power production and therefore data on these elements could provide important information on their biokinetic behavior. A total of 120 samples were analyzed using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS. Highest contributions for the intake of micronutrients (Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn arise from broad bean, rice and wheat flour consumption. Meat, milk, eggs and some vegetables are the major sources of K, Ca, U, Th, Cs, Al, Cd and Pb intake. The medium daily intakes for the adult inhabitants of GCA from the analyzed elements were reported. The lower daily intake of Ca, Th, Cs and I by adult inhabitants of GCA could be due to significantly lower consumption of milk and milk products. The significantly lower intake of calcium by adult inhabitants of GCA may lead to higher uptake of radiostrontium and could result in perhaps higher internal radiation dose. The lower intake values obtained for thorium and uranium, which suggests that radiation dose from their ingestion at natural background levels, is likely to be lower than what may be concluded from International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP data. Concerning micronutrients, the recommended values of daily intake of Cu and Mn are conveniently supplied by diet; however, for Cr and Zn they are lower than the recommended daily allowance. Due to high metals concentrations and consumption rates, broad bean is the foodstuff that provided the highest ingestion rates of Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn, being therefore a very important source of micronutrients.

  7. Quantification and mapping of urban fluxes under climate change: Application of WRF-SUEWS model to Greater Porto area (Portugal)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafael, S., E-mail: sandra.rafael@ua.pt [CESAM & Department of Environment and Planning, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Martins, H. [CESAM & Department of Environment and Planning, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Rossby Centre, Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI), SE-60176 Norrköping (Sweden); Marta-Almeida, M. [Centro Oceanográfico A Coruña, Instituto Español de Oceanografía, A Coruña (Spain); Sá, E.; Coelho, S. [CESAM & Department of Environment and Planning, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Rocha, A. [CESAM & Department of Physics, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Borrego, C.; Lopes, M. [CESAM & Department of Environment and Planning, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2017-05-15

    Climate change and the growth of urban populations are two of the main challenges facing Europe today. These issues are linked as climate change results in serious challenges for cities. Recent attention has focused on how urban surface-atmosphere exchanges of heat and water will be affected by climate change and the implications for urban planning and sustainability. In this study energy fluxes for Greater Porto area, Portugal, were estimated and the influence of the projected climate change evaluated. To accomplish this, the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) and the Surface Urban Energy and Water Balance Scheme (SUEWS) were applied for two climatological scenarios: a present (or reference, 1986–2005) scenario and a future scenario (2046–2065), in this case the Representative Concentration Pathway RCP8.5, which reflects the worst set of expectations (with the most onerous impacts). The results show that for the future climate conditions, the incoming shortwave radiation will increase by around 10%, the sensible heat flux around 40% and the net storage heat flux around 35%. In contrast, the latent heat flux will decrease about 20%. The changes in the magnitude of the different fluxes result in an increase of the net all-wave radiation by 15%. The implications of the changes of the energy balance on the meteorological variables are discussed, particularly in terms of temperature and precipitation. - Highlights: • Assessment of energy fluxes behaviour under past period and medium-term climate change projection. • Evaluation of climate change at urban scale. • Meteorological variables alters the partitioning of the energy fluxes. • Changes in the partition of the annual energy balance are found between the two analysed periods. • Increase in the magnitude of sensible and storage heat fluxes.

  8. Growth of sand whiff Citharichthys arenaceus and bay whiff Citharichthys spilopterus (pleuronectiformes: bothidae) in Puerto Rico (greater antilles) and North Carolina (USA), with comments on growth rate comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyeux, Jean-Christophe; Miller, John M.; Aliaume, Catherine; Zerbi, Alfonso

    Sagittal otoliths from two bothid flatfish species ( Citharichthys arenaceus and C. spilopterus) collected in Puerto Rico were microstructurally examined and periodic increments counted. C. arenaceus length-at-age (33 to 246 days) data were best fitted by a Gompertz growth model whose parameters were estimated to be SL ∞ = 170 mm and K = 0.0166. Adult size is reached in less than one year. The peak period of hatching occurred in late spring, and settlement took place 39 days later. Due to a smaller age range (71 to 150 days), growth of C. spilopterus was described by a linear relationship with slope = 0.693 and intercept = -15.1 days. Hatching occurred in winter and spring. These two species showed no significant difference in age at settlement. After settlement, growth of C. spilopterus (0.69 mm·d -1 at 71 to 113 days old) was significantly slower than that of C. arenaceus (1.00 mm·d -1 at 71 to 113 days) possibly due to poorer environmental (abiotic or food-related) conditions during the dry, cool season (December-April). C. spilopterus from North Carolina, hatched in the same period, settled about two weeks older than in Puerto Rico. Growth after settlement was significantly slower in North Carolina (0.44 mm·d -1 at 71 to 113 days) than in Puerto Rico. Environmental conditions (including temperature), distance between spawning areas and settlement grounds, and/or food availability, might explain the dissimilarity in growth observed between the two geographic areas. We recommend absolute field growth to be compared by using growth rates obtained by deriving the growth curve formula.

  9. Air pollution and doctors' house calls for respiratory diseases in the Greater Paris area (2000–3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chardon, Benoit; Lefranc, Agnès; Granados, Denis; Grémy, Isabelle

    2007-01-01

    This study describes the short‐term relationships between the daily levels of PM10, PM2.5, NO2 and the number of doctors' house calls for asthma, upper respiratory diseases (URD) and lower respiratory diseases (LRD) in Greater Paris for the years 2000–3. Doctors' house calls are a relevant health indicator for the study of short‐term health effects of air pollution. Indeed, it is potentially more sensitive than indicators such as general hospital admissions due to the severity of diseases motivating the call. In this study, time‐series analysis was used. The daily numbers of doctor's house calls were adjusted for time trends, seasonal factors, day of the week, influenza, weather and pollen. Up to 15 days of lag between exposure and health effects was considered using distributed lag models. A total of about 1 760 000 doctors' house calls for all causes occurred during the study period, among which 8027 were for asthma, 52 928 for LRD and 74 845 for URD. No significant increase in risk was found between air pollution and doctors' house calls for asthma. No significant association was found between NO2 and doctors' house calls. An increase of 10 μg/m3 in the mean levels of PM10 and PM2.5 encountered during the 3 previous days was associated with an increase of 3% (0.8% and 5.3%) and 5.9% (2.9% and 9.0%) in the number of doctor's house calls for URD and LRD, respectively. Considering up to 15 days between exposure and health outcomes, effects persist until 4 days after exposure and then decrease progressively. No morbidity displacement was observed. This study shows a significant heath effect of ambient particles (PM2.5 and PM10). When compared to the RRs obtained for mortality or hospital admissions in the same area, the values of the RRs obtained in this study confirm the higher sensibility of doctor's house calls for respiratory diseases as a health indicator. PMID:17182644

  10. Air pollution and doctors' house calls for respiratory diseases in the Greater Paris area (2000-3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chardon, Benoit; Lefranc, Agnès; Granados, Denis; Grémy, Isabelle

    2007-05-01

    This study describes the short-term relationships between the daily levels of PM10, PM2.5, NO2 and the number of doctors' house calls for asthma, upper respiratory diseases (URD) and lower respiratory diseases (LRD) in Greater Paris for the years 2000-3. Doctors' house calls are a relevant health indicator for the study of short-term health effects of air pollution. Indeed, it is potentially more sensitive than indicators such as general hospital admissions due to the severity of diseases motivating the call. In this study, time-series analysis was used. The daily numbers of doctor's house calls were adjusted for time trends, seasonal factors, day of the week, influenza, weather and pollen. Up to 15 days of lag between exposure and health effects was considered using distributed lag models. A total of about 1,760,000 doctors' house calls for all causes occurred during the study period, among which 8027 were for asthma, 52,928 for LRD and 74,845 for URD. No significant increase in risk was found between air pollution and doctors' house calls for asthma. No significant association was found between NO2 and doctors' house calls. An increase of 10 microg/m3 in the mean levels of PM10 and PM2.5 encountered during the 3 previous days was associated with an increase of 3% (0.8% and 5.3%) and 5.9% (2.9% and 9.0%) in the number of doctor's house calls for URD and LRD, respectively. Considering up to 15 days between exposure and health outcomes, effects persist until 4 days after exposure and then decrease progressively. No morbidity displacement was observed. This study shows a significant heath effect of ambient particles (PM2.5 and PM10). When compared to the RRs obtained for mortality or hospital admissions in the same area, the values of the RRs obtained in this study confirm the higher sensibility of doctor's house calls for respiratory diseases as a health indicator.

  11. Meteorological and air quality impacts of increased urban albedo and vegetative cover in the Greater Toronto Area, Canada; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taha, Haider; Hammer, Hillel; Akbari, Hashem

    2002-01-01

    The study described in this report is part of a project sponsored by the Toronto Atmospheric Fund, performed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, to assess the potential role of surface property modifications on energy, meteorology, and air quality in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA), Canada. Numerical models were used to establish the possible meteorological and ozone air-quality impacts of increased urban albedo and vegetative fraction, i.e., ''cool-city'' strategies that can mitigate the urban heat island (UHI), significantly reduce urban energy consumption, and improve thermal comfort, particularly during periods of hot weather in summer. Mitigation is even more important during critical heat wave periods with possible increased heat-related hospitalization and mortality. The evidence suggests that on an annual basis cool-city strategies are beneficial, and the implementation of such measures is currently being investigated in the U.S. and Canada. We simulated possible scenari os for urban heat-island mitigation in the GTA and investigated consequent meteorological changes, and also performed limited air-quality analysis to assess related impacts. The study was based on a combination of mesoscale meteorological modeling, Lagrangian (trajectory), and photochemical trajectory modeling to assess the potential meteorological and ozone air-quality impacts of cool-city strategies. As available air-quality and emissions data are incompatible with models currently in use at LBNL, our air-quality analysis was based on photochemical trajectory modeling. Because of questions as to the accuracy and appropriateness of this approach, in our opinion this aspect of the study can be improved in the future, and the air-quality results discussed in this report should be viewed as relatively qualitative. The MM5 meteorological model predicts a UHI in the order of 2 to 3 degrees C in locations of maxima, and about 1 degree C as a typical value over most of the urban area

  12. Magnitude and frequency of flooding on small urban watersheds in the Tampa Bay area, west-central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, M.A.; Woodham, W.M.

    1983-01-01

    Hydrologic data collected on nine small urban watersheds in the Tampa Bay area of west-central Florida and a method for estimating peak discharges in the study area are described. The watersheds have mixed land use and range in size from 0.34 to 3.45 square miles. Watershed soils, land use, and storm-drainage system data are described. Urban development ranged from a sparsely populated area with open-ditch storm sewers and 19% impervious area to a completely sewered watershed with 61% impervious cover. The U.S. Geological Survey natural-basin and urban-watershed models were calibrated for the nine watersheds using 5-minute interval rainfall data from the Tampa, Florida, National Weather Service rain gage to simulate annual peak discharge for the period 1906-52. A log-Pearson Type III frequency analysis of the simulated annual maximum discharge was used to determine the 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, and 100-year flood discharges for each watershed. Flood discharges were related in a multiple-linear regression to drainage area, channel slope, detention storage area, and an urban-development factor determined by the extent of curb and gutter street drainage and storm-sewer system. The average standard error for the regional relations ranged from + or - 32 to + or - 42%. (USGS)

  13. Distribution of phytoplankton community in relation to environmental parameters in cage culture area of Sepanggar Bay, Sabah, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidik, Madihah Jaffar; Rashed-Un-Nabi, Md.; Azharul Hoque, Md.

    2008-11-01

    This paper covers spatial and temporal variation in phytoplankton communities and physico-chemical water properties in the cage culture area of Sepanggar Bay, Sabah, Malaysia based on field measurement conducted during July 2005 to January 2006 to study the spatial and temporal variation in phytoplankton communities and physico-chemical water properties of the bay. Phytoplankton samples and water parameters data were collected from five different stations located inside the bay during Southwest, Interseasonal and Northeast monsoons. Forty phytoplankton genera, representatives of 23 families, were found in the study area with a mean abundance of 1.55 ± 1.19 × 10 6 cells L -1. Most of these genera belong to diatoms (82.17%), Dinoflagellates (17.55%) and cyanobacteria (0.29%). Three genera were found to be dominant (>10%) in phytoplankton abundance and these were Coscinodiscus spp. (36.38%), Chaetoceros spp (17.65%) and Bacteriastrum spp. (10.98%). The most dominant genus was Coscinodiscus spp. which showed high abundance during all monsoons and stations (except Station 3). Among the seven environmental parameters tested in this study, water temperature, pH and suspended sediment concentration were found to be significantly different between monsoons. On the other hand, no significant differences were found between stations for the studied physico-chemical parameters. A clear differences in phytoplankton densities were observed between monsoons and stations with higher mean abundances during interseasonal monsoon (2.40 ± 1.37 × 10 6 cells L -1) and at station five (2.05 ± 0.74 × 10 6 cells L -1), respectively. Conversely, the diversity indices, both Shannon-Wiener (H) and Pielou (J), showed no significant difference throughout stations and monsoons (except (H) for monsoons). Analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) results demonstrated temporal differences in phytoplankton community structure with highly diverse phytoplankton assemblage. Through cluster analysis five

  14. Blood cadmium concentrations and environmental exposure sources in newcomer South and East Asian women in the Greater Toronto Area, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiseman, C.L.S.; Parnia, A.; Chakravartty, D.; Archbold, J.; Zawar, N.; Copes, R.; Cole, D.C.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Immigrant women are often identified as being particularly vulnerable to environmental exposures and health effects. The availability of biomonitoring data on newcomers is limited, thus, presenting a challenge to public health practitioners in the identification of priorities for intervention. Objectives: In fulfillment of data needs, the purpose of this study was to characterize blood concentrations of cadmium (Cd) among newcomer women of reproductive age (19–45 years of age) living in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA), Canada and to assess potential sources of environmental exposures. Methods: A community-based model, engaging peer researchers from the communities of interest, was used for recruitment and follow-up purposes. Blood samples were taken from a total of 211 newcomer women from South and East Asia, representing primary, regional origins of immigrants to the GTA, and environmental exposure sources were assessed via telephone survey. Metal concentrations were measured in blood samples (diluted with 0.5% (v/v) ammonium hydroxide and 0.1% (v/v) octylphenol ethoxylate) using a quadrupole ICP-MS. Survey questions addressed a wide range of environmental exposure sources, including dietary and smoking patterns and use of nutritional supplements, herbal products and cosmetics. Results: A geometric mean (GM) blood Cd concentration of 0.39 µg/L (SD:±2.07 µg/L) was determined for study participants (min/max: <0.045 µg /L (LOD)/2.36 µg/L). Several variables including low educational attainment (Relative Ratio (RR) (adjusted)=1.50; 95% CI 1.17–1.91), milk consumption (RR (adjusted)=0.86; 95% CI 0.76–0.97), and use of zinc supplements (RR (adjusted)=0.76; 95% CI 0.64–0.95) were observed to be significantly associated with blood Cd concentrations in the adjusted regression model. The variable domains socioeconomic status (R 2 adj =0.11) and country of origin (R 2 adj =0.236) were the strongest predictors of blood Cd. Conclusion: Blood Cd

  15. Measuring unemployment persistence of different labor force groups in the Greater São Paulo Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleomar Gomes da Silva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article makes use of ARFIMA models and unit root tests with structural breaks to examine the unemployment persistence of different labor forces in the Greater Metropolitan Area of São Paulo. To this purpose, not only is the region's open unemployment rate analyzed but it is also disaggregated by gender, age, color and position within the household. The period ranges from January 1985 to November 2008 and, despite using a range of estimation methods, the presence of a unit root cannot be rejected in general. The exceptions are the series related to Age 15-17 and over 40. But even in these cases the parameter "d" lies above 0.5. This is an indication that the unemployment rates in São Paulo can be defined as non stationary and the majority of the series are not mean-reverting. Therefore, the disinflation policies implemented by the Brazilian policymakers in the last two decades, as well as changes in real variables, have had long-lasting effects on the unemployment rates in São Paulo.Este artigo usa modelos ARFIMA e testes de raiz unitária com quebra estrutural para examinar o grau de persistência do desemprego de diferentes estratos da força de trabalho na Região Metropolitana de São Paulo. Para tanto, a taxa agregada desta região é examinada, como também sua desagregação por gênero, idade, raça e posição dentro da família. O período de análise vai de janeiro de 1985 a novembro 2008 e, apesar do uso de diferentes métodos de estimação, a hipótese de raiz unitária não é rejeitada em geral. As duas exceções são as séries relacionadas aos trabalhadores entre 15 e 17 anos e acima dos 40 anos. Mas, mesmo nestes dois casos, o parâmetro "d" fica acima de 0,5. Isso indica que não há estacionariedade e também não há reversão a uma média de longo prazo para a maioria das séries analisadas. Portanto, as políticas econômicas de combate à inflação das últimas duas décadas, assim como mudanças em vari

  16. Blood cadmium concentrations and environmental exposure sources in newcomer South and East Asian women in the Greater Toronto Area, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiseman, C.L.S., E-mail: clare.wiseman@utoronto.ca [School of the Environment, University of Toronto (Canada); Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto (Canada); Parnia, A.; Chakravartty, D. [Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto (Canada); Archbold, J. [Toronto Public Health (Canada); Zawar, N. [Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto (Canada); Copes, R. [Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto (Canada); Public Health Ontario (Canada); Cole, D.C. [School of the Environment, University of Toronto (Canada); Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto (Canada)

    2017-04-15

    Background: Immigrant women are often identified as being particularly vulnerable to environmental exposures and health effects. The availability of biomonitoring data on newcomers is limited, thus, presenting a challenge to public health practitioners in the identification of priorities for intervention. Objectives: In fulfillment of data needs, the purpose of this study was to characterize blood concentrations of cadmium (Cd) among newcomer women of reproductive age (19–45 years of age) living in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA), Canada and to assess potential sources of environmental exposures. Methods: A community-based model, engaging peer researchers from the communities of interest, was used for recruitment and follow-up purposes. Blood samples were taken from a total of 211 newcomer women from South and East Asia, representing primary, regional origins of immigrants to the GTA, and environmental exposure sources were assessed via telephone survey. Metal concentrations were measured in blood samples (diluted with 0.5% (v/v) ammonium hydroxide and 0.1% (v/v) octylphenol ethoxylate) using a quadrupole ICP-MS. Survey questions addressed a wide range of environmental exposure sources, including dietary and smoking patterns and use of nutritional supplements, herbal products and cosmetics. Results: A geometric mean (GM) blood Cd concentration of 0.39 µg/L (SD:±2.07 µg/L) was determined for study participants (min/max: <0.045 µg /L (LOD)/2.36 µg/L). Several variables including low educational attainment (Relative Ratio (RR) (adjusted)=1.50; 95% CI 1.17–1.91), milk consumption (RR (adjusted)=0.86; 95% CI 0.76–0.97), and use of zinc supplements (RR (adjusted)=0.76; 95% CI 0.64–0.95) were observed to be significantly associated with blood Cd concentrations in the adjusted regression model. The variable domains socioeconomic status (R{sup 2}{sub adj}=0.11) and country of origin (R{sup 2}{sub adj}=0.236) were the strongest predictors of blood Cd. Conclusion

  17. Greater than the sum of their parts: Exploring the environmental complementarity of state, private and community protected areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiphaine Leménager

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In a context of unprecedented environmental crisis, protected areas are expected to play a central role. Although considerable work has been done to understand the effectiveness of different types of protected area, there has been limited investigation of how a combination of different types of protected area within a system affects its overall environmental outcomes. Defining and using the concept of environmental complementarity, the paper explores whether or not the presence of private, state and community protected areas in a landscape has a positive effect on biodiversity conservation outcomes. Based on a Kenyan case study, it emphasizes the important and currently undervalued role of state protected areas and shows that other types of protected area can be analyzed as being a support. It suggests there is a complex array of complementarities between community, state and private protected areas. Differences in management capacity, staff skills, social acceptability, access to financial resources, tourism products, ecological resources, etc. between types of protected area were found to drive additionality and synergistic complementarities that undeniably contribute to strengthening the overall protected area system and increasing its resilience, as well as its capacity to generate environmental outcomes. Keywords: Biodiversity, Protected area, Environmental complementarity, Strategies

  18. Effectiveness of marine protected areas in managing the drivers of ecosystem change: a case of Mnazi Bay Marine Park, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machumu, Milali Ernest; Yakupitiyage, Amararatne

    2013-04-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are being promoted in Tanzania to mitigate the drivers of ecosystem change such as overfishing and other anthropogenic impacts on marine resources. The effectiveness of MPAs in managing those drivers was assessed in three ecological zones, seafront, mangrove, and riverine of Mnazi Bay Marine Park, using Participatory Community Analysis techniques, questionnaire survey, checklist and fishery resource assessment methods. Eleven major drivers of ecosystem change were identified. Resource dependence had a major effect in all ecological zones of the park. The results indicated that the park's legislations/regulations, management procedures, and conservation efforts are reasonably effective in managing its resources. The positive signs accrued from conservation efforts have been realized by the communities in terms of increased catch/income, awareness and compliance. However, some natural and anthropogenic drivers continued to threaten the park's sustainability. Furthermore, implementation of resource use and benefit sharing mechanisms still remained a considerable challenge to be addressed.

  19. Environmental protection and management: A water pollution case study within the Greater Blue Mountains World Heritage Area, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, I.A.; Wright, S.; Graham, K.; Burgin, S. [University of Western Sydney, Penrith, NSW (Australia)

    2011-01-15

    The Grose River is contained almost entirely within a World Heritage Area. While sewage pollution in the area has been addressed, pollution at damaging levels continues from a disused coal mine, closed in 1997. Despite some surface rehabilitation, no action has occurred to remediate zinc polluted waters emanating from the mine. We examine the historical regulation and management of the Australian Commonwealth and New South Wales governments and highlight gaps in both regulatory systems. We conclude that there is an urgent need to improve regulation of water pollution, mining and management of the environment in highly valued world heritage areas.

  20. Comparing sediment quality in Spanish littoral areas affected by acute (Prestige, 2002) and chronic (Bay of Algeciras) oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales-Caselles, C.; Kalman, J.; Riba, I.; DelValls, T.A.

    2007-01-01

    The quality of sediments collected from two areas of the Spanish coast affected by different sources of contaminants has been compared in this study. The areas studied are the coast of Galicia affected by the oil spill from the tanker Prestige (November 2002) and the Gulf of Cadiz which suffers continuous inputs of contaminants from industries located in the area and from oil spills. Contamination by several chemicals (metals, PCBs and PAHs) that bind to sediments was analyzed, and two toxicity tests (Microtox[reg]) and amphipod 10-day bioassay) were conducted. PAHs were identified as the compounds responsible for the toxic effects. Results show differences between an acute impact related to the sinking of the tanker Prestige and the chronic impact associated with continuous oil spills associated with the maritime and industrial activities in the Bay of Algeciras, this being the most polluted part of the two coastal areas studied in this work. - Littoral sediments affected by low or moderated but continuous oil spills are more polluted than those affected by accidental oil spills such as the Prestige

  1. Contested Campuses: Politics, race, and the battles over public education in the Greater Los Angeles Area, 1949-1972

    OpenAIRE

    Kovalesky, Brian Robert

    2017-01-01

    In the late 1950s and early 1960s, during the height of protests and actions by civil rights activists against de facto school segregation in the Los Angeles area, the residents of a group of small cities fought to break away from the Los Angeles City Schools and create a new, independent school district. If established, the district would serve white pupils nearly exclusively, preserving and reinforcing racially segregated schools in the area. Proponents of the plan were residents of the maj...

  2. Ichthyofauna in an estuary of the Mataripe area, Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    June Ferraz Dias

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The community structure and dynamics as well as some biological parameters of selected species of the ichthyofauna of the Mataripe estuarine region affected by the Landulfo Alves Oil Refinery (RLAM were analyzed. Twenty stations were sampled with a gillnet in five different periods: August and December 2003, March and July/August 2004 and January 2005. Thirty-five actinopterygian species and one elasmobranch species were recorded, Oligoplites saurus, Diapterus rhombeus, Lutjanus synagris and Scomberomorus brasiliensis among them, on all the campaigns. A total of 1368 specimens, weighing 36.10 kg, were caught. The ichthyofauna total biomass was greater, in weight, on the eastern side of the study region, especially at the stations close to the shoals/reefs and the rocky bottom. A similar pattern was also observed for the diversity values. In general, low evenness and diversity were observed in the area studied, possibly as a result of the fishing gear used. D. rhombeus juveniles dominated in all but one of the samplings (July 2004, in which latter Cyclichthys spinosus was dominant. Carangids and species associated with consolidated bottoms were observed, although in small numbers, throughout the study period. In spite of the limitations imposed by the gear used for sampling, the estuarine area influenced by the RLAM was seen to play a role as a growth area for the great majority of species, especially the mojarra (D. rhombeus, but it offers no fishing potential due to the prevalence of young and small individuals. Evidence of imminent spawning was recorded for Pomadasys corvinaeformis in August 2003, and recent spawning in March 2004 for Oligoplites saurus. Further, mature individuals occurred in insufficient numbers to permit population level evaluation.A estrutura e dinâmica da ictiofauna amostrada na região estuarina de Mataripe sob a influência da Refinaria Landulpho Alves-Mataripe (RLAM foi analisada. Vinte estações foram amostradas com

  3. Environmental Assessment for Ongoing and Future Operations at U.S. Navy Dabob Bay and Hood Canal Military Operating Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-01

    well as being cultivated in aquaculture operations in Puget Sound, including Hood Canal and Dabob Bay (Figure 3.4-2). Pacific oysters (Crassostrea...gigas) are widely cultivated in aquaculture operations in Puget Sound. Commercial oyster beds exist in Dabob Bay, mostly at the north end. Dabob Bay... Ecotoxicology of metals in aquatic sediments: binding and release, bioavailability, risk assessment, and remediation. Canadian Journal of

  4. Mood Sensitivity to Seasonal Changes in African College Students Living in the Greater Washington D.C. Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Guzman

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to estimate the degree of seasonality and prevalence of winter- and summer-type seasonal affective disorder (SAD in African immigrant college students in comparison with African American peers. A convenience sample of 246 African immigrants and 599 African Americans studying in Washington, D.C. completed the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ, which was used to calculate a global seasonality score (GSS and to estimate the prevalence of winter- and summer-type SAD. Degree of seasonality was related to a complex interaction between having general awareness of SAD, ethnicity, and gender. A greater percentage of African students reported experiencing a problem with seasonal changes relative to African American students, and had summer SAD, but the groups did not differ on GSS and winter SAD. African students reported more difficulties with seasonal changes than their African American peers, which could represent a manifestation of incomplete acclimatization to a higher latitude and temperate climate. As Africans also had a greater rate of summer SAD, this argues against acclimatization to heat.

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY OF LIVESTOCK PRODUCTS IN THE ECONOMIC AND GEOGRAPHIC AREAS OF THE AZERBAIJAN PART OF THE GREATER CAUCASUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. M. Jafarova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim is to study the political, economic and environmental aspects of food security, which is an important component of national security; to study the issues of the use of environmentally friendly agricultural products, as well as the environmental safety of livestock products.Methods. Determination of the dynamics of livestock production on the basis of the comparative statistical analysis, the study of animal breeding territorial organization through a systematic approach.Results. The region has favorable conditions for the production of ecologically clean agricultural products, using environmentally friendly feed. We should develop manufacturing industries to meet international standards and provide the population with healthy food.Conclusion. We revealed the ecological safety of livestock products in the economic and geographic regions of the Azerbaijan part of the Greater Caucasus.

  6. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) levels in transformer oils from selected transformers in sensitive areas in the Greater Accra Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buah-Kwofie, A.

    2009-02-01

    Knowledge of PCBs and the adverse effects on humans and the environment have been assessed among Electricity Company of Ghana (ECG) staff members, Volta River Authority (VRA) staff members and the general public. Evidence obtained shows that, Staff members of the technical departments of ECG/VRA (71.4 %) as well as a few welders (16.7 %) have come in contact with the transformer oil that may possibly contain PCBs. About fifty six percent (55.6 %) of the ECG/VRA staff members do not wear any protective gears when working on these transformers thus exposing themselves to PCBs. About twenty seven percent (27.3 %) of the management staff members of ECG/VRA are not aware of the adverse health effects caused by PCBs. Using PCB test kits (CLOR-N-OIL) developed by Dexsil Company of USA, 17 out of the 80 transformers screened for PCB contaminated oils, tested positive as containing PCBs levels greater than 50 ppm. Neutron Activation Analysis and gamma ray spectroscopy using Canberra HPGe detector coupled to MAESTRO 32 software has been used to determine the total chlorine content in 22 of the transformer oil samples screened using the test kits, including the 17 samples that tested positive using the test kits. The total chlorine content measured in the transformer oils that tested positive by the test kit was in the range of 71.34 ± 8.63 with 6 - 7.5 % accuracy. This being deduced that using NAA, total chlorine greater than 71.34 ppm is an indication of PCB contamination. NAA thus provides a faster and efficient way of analyzing transformer oil samples for possible PCB contamination

  7. Investigating the fate of microplastics in the San Diego Bay area: A paleoenvironmental approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, R. M.; Hangsterfer, A.; Bhattacharya, A.

    2017-12-01

    Microplastics in marine waste surveys compare the observed amount of microplastic debris in the ocean with constructed models to determine availability of microplastics in the ocean. However, most of these studies have been constrained in the surface ocean and the surveys have found a substantial difference between estimated and observed amount of microplastic in the ocean. One possible reason could be that microplastics are settling along continental shelves or the ocean bottom. Via this research we have collected samples to study marine sediments (collected from increasing depth along the continental shelf around San Diego) for microplastics. Our goal is to determine the relationship between density and microplastic distribution. The main objective is to investigate sinks of microplastic (plastic products sizes less than 1 mm) along continental shelves; more specifically, this small study aims to investigate (a) what are the dominant types of microplastics (for example, heavy plastic or light plastic), (b) shapes of microplastics derived from commonly used heavy and light plastics, (c) is there specific locations (for example floating in water column vs. settling ocean floor along the continental shelves, which would be the first places where one might expect microplastics (that are delivered via river systems or from beaches) typically and finally, (d) is there any marine environmental preference between light and heavy microplastics. In this study, we provide observational evidence about the poorly understood fate of microplastics in the ocean as well as lend itself to the question: if and how long microplastics remain bioavailable. We have targeted four marine environments along San Diego that encompass several important connections between land and the ocean:Bays, river mouth, upwelling region and shelf. At each site listed above, we take four sets of 1-2ft cores: 20ft , 40ft, 60ft, 80ft. We combine traditional measurements (pH, salinity, density, DOC, N, P

  8. 77 FR 65521 - Determination of Attainment for the San Francisco Bay Area Nonattainment Area for the 2006 Fine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-29

    ... available only at the hard copy location (e.g., copyrighted material), and some may not be publicly available at either location (e.g., CBI). To inspect the hard copy materials, please schedule an appointment... Monitoring Stations (SLAMS) in a nonattainment area and entered into the AQS database. Data from air monitors...

  9. Solid Waste Management in Greater Shillong Planning Area (GSPA) Using Spatial Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis for Site Suitability Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mipun, B. S.; Hazarika, R.; Mondal, M.; Mukhopadhyay, S.

    2015-04-01

    In Shillong city the existing solid waste management system is mobile waste bins (72%). About 12 percent burn the waste generated by them. Door to door collection is about 5 percent. Over 2 percent households throw the wastes in the open space. Another 9 percent households throw their wastes into the waste bins located in the neighbourhood. The local headman takes care about half of the household's wastes, while Municipality takes care about 34 percent households. About 10 percent households are ignorant about the collection and disposal of wastes. Some NGO's takes care about 5 percent household's wastes. Awareness about segregation of waste into organic and non-bio degradable waste is 64 percent and a significant numbers do the segregation. In Shillong Municipality Board (SMB) area collects 45.91% (78.42 MT) waste, outside SMB area collection is 32.61% (45.99 MT) and entire GSPA the percentage of garbage collected is 41percent. The only dumping ground in GSPA is Marten, Mawiong, and the capacity to hold garbage is decreasing due to limited landfill. The sanitary landfill site is 5.0 acres that it is not enough to meet the demand. Out of he total area 170.69 sq. km. (GSPA) only 25.67% is most suitable and 18.58% is unsuitable to set up a new landfill area. Eastern part of the GSPA, is most suitable, which fulfils the entire criterion adopted in this study. In this the best-stated criterion are land cover (vacant space), slope (2000m) and elevation (1300-1500m). The eastern part of the GSPA is most suitable landfill location.

  10. Range-wide network of priority areas for greater sage-grouse - a design for conserving connected distributions or isolating individual zoos?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crist, Michele R.; Knick, Steven T.; Hanser, Steven E.

    2015-09-08

    The network of areas delineated in 11 Western States for prioritizing management of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) represents a grand experiment in conservation biology and reserve design. We used centrality metrics from social network theory to gain insights into how this priority area network might function. The network was highly centralized. Twenty of 188 priority areas accounted for 80 percent of the total centrality scores. These priority areas, characterized by large size and a central location in the range-wide distribution, are strongholds for greater sage-grouse populations and also might function as sources. Mid-ranking priority areas may serve as stepping stones because of their location between large central and smaller peripheral priority areas. The current network design and conservation strategy has risks. The contribution of almost one-half (n = 93) of the priority areas combined for less than 1 percent of the cumulative centrality scores for the network. These priority areas individually are likely too small to support viable sage-grouse populations within their boundary. Without habitat corridors to connect small priority areas either to larger priority areas or as a clustered group within the network, their isolation could lead to loss of sage-grouse within these regions of the network. 

  11. Preliminary identification of potentially disruptive scenarios at the Greater Confinement Disposal Facility, Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzowski, R.V.; Newman, G.

    1993-12-01

    The Greater Confinement Disposal location is being evaluated to determine whether defense-generated transuranic waste buried at this location complies with the Containment Requirements established by the US Environmental Protection Agency. One step in determining compliance is to identify those combinations of events and processes (scenarios) that define possible future states of the disposal system for which performance assessments must be performed. An established scenario-development procedure was used to identify a comprehensive set of mutually exclusive scenarios. To assure completeness, 761 features, events, processes, and other listings (FEPS) were compiled from 11 references. This number was reduced to 205 primarily through the elimination of duplications. The 205 FEPs were screened based on site-specific, goal-specific, and regulatory criteria. Four events survived screening and were used in preliminary scenario development: (1) exploratory drilling penetrates a GCD borehole, (2) drilling of a withdrawal/injection well penetrates a GCD borehole, (3) subsidence occurs at the RWMS, and (4) irrigation occurs at the RWMS. A logic diagram was used to develop 16 scenarios from the four events. No screening of these scenarios was attempted at this time. Additional screening of the currently retained events and processes will be based on additional data and information from site-characterization activities. When screening of the events and processes is completed, a final set of scenarios will be developed and screened based on consequence and probability of occurrence

  12. 75 FR 53266 - United States Army Restricted Area, Designated Portions of Eagle Bay and Eagle River, Fort...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ... Richardson, Alaska as well as an adjacent portion of Eagle Bay in the Knik Arm. More specifically, the... affected waters of Eagle Bay and Eagle River in order to enhance safety and security. This portion of Eagle... B. Olson), 441 G Street, NW., Washington, DC 20314-1000. Hand Delivery/Courier: Due to security...

  13. Trace/heavy metal pollution monitoring in estuary and coastal area of Bay of Bengal, Bangladesh and implicated impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibria, Golam; Hossain, Md Maruf; Mallick, Debbrota; Lau, T C; Wu, Rudolf

    2016-04-15

    Using artificial mussels (AMs), this study reports and compares time-integrated level of eleven trace metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, U, Zn) in Karnafuli River estuary and coastal area of the Bay of Bengal, Bangladesh. Through this study, "hot spots" of metal pollution were identified. The results may demonstrate that the Karnafuli Estuary, and adjacent coastal area of Chittagong, Bangladesh are highly polluted by high risk metals (cadmium, chromium, copper, mercury, nickel, lead, uranium). Agricultural, domestic and industrial wastes directly discharged into the waterways have been identified as the main causes of metal pollution in Chittagong, Bangladesh. The high level of metal pollution identified may impact on local water quality, and seafood catch, livelihoods of people and public health resulting from seafood consumption. There is a need for regular monitoring to ascertain that local water quality with respect to metal levels are within acceptable levels to safeguards both environmental health and public health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. California; Bay Area Air Quality Management District; Proposed Approval of Stationary Sources New Source Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is making an interim final determination to defer imposition of sanctions based on a proposed determination that CARB submitted rules on behalf of BAAQMD that satisfy part D of the Clean Air Act for areas under the jurisdiction of the BAAQMD.

  15. California; Bay Area Air Quality Management District; Determination To Defer Sanctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is making an interim final determination to defer imposition of sanctions based on a proposed determination that CARB submitted rules on behalf of BAAQMD that satisfy part D of the Clean Air Act for areas under the jurisdiction of the BAAQMD.

  16. Greenhouse Gas Source Detection and Attribution in the San Francisco Bay Area of California Using a Mobile Measurement Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martien, P. T.; Guha, A.; Newman, S.; Young, A.; Bower, J.; Perkins, I.; Randall, S.; Stevenson, E.; Hilken, H.

    2017-12-01

    The Bay Area Air Quality Management District, the San Francisco Bay Area's air quality regulatory agency, has set a goal to reduce the region's greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions 80% below 1990 levels by 2050, consistent with the State of California's climate goals. Recently, the Air District's governing board adopted a 2017 Clean Air Plan advancing the agency's vision and including actions to put the region on a path to achieving the 2050 goal while also reducing air pollution and related health impacts. The Plan includes GHG rule-making efforts, policy initiatives, local government partnerships, outreach, grants and incentives, encompassing over 250 specific implementation actions across all economic sectors to effect ambitious emission reductions in the region. To support the 2017 Plan, the Air District has built a mobile measurement platform (GHG research van) to perform targeted CH4 emissions hotspot detection and source attribution. Instruments in the van measure CH4, CO2 and N2O in ambient plumes. Coincident measurements of source tracers like isotopic methane (13C - CH4), CO and ethane (C2H6) provide the capability to distinguish between biogenic, combustion-based and fossil-based fugitive methane sources. We report observations of CH4 plumes from source-specific measurements in and around facilities including a wastewater treatment plant, a composting operation, a waste-to-energy anaerobic digestion plant and a few refineries. We performed leak surveys inside several electric utility-operated facilities including a power plant and an underground natural gas storage facility. We sampled exhaust from a roadway tunnel and computed fleet-averaged automobile-related CH4 and N2O emission factors. We used tracer-to-tracer emission ratios to create chemical signatures of emissions from each sampled source category. We compare measurement-based ratios with those used to derive the regional GHG inventory. Data from these and other sources will lead to an improved

  17. A spatial database of bedding attitudes to accompany Geologic map of the greater Denver area, Front Range Urban Corridor, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Donald E.; Machette, Michael N.; Brandt, Theodore R.; Moore, David W.; Murray, Kyle E.

    2003-01-01

    This digital map shows bedding attitude symbols display over the geographic extent of surficial deposits and rock stratigraphic units (formations) as compiled by Trimble and Machette 1973-1977 and published in 1979 (U.S. Geological Survey Map I-856-H) under the Front Range Urban Corridor Geology Program. Trimble and Machette compiled their geologic map from published geologic maps and unpublished geologic mapping having varied map unit schemes. A convenient feature of the compiled map is its uniform classification of geologic units that mostly matches those of companion maps to the north (USGS I-855-G) and to the south (USGS I-857-F). Published as a color paper map, the Trimble and Machette map was intended for land-use planning in the Front Range Urban Corridor. This map recently (1997-1999), was digitized under the USGS Front Range Infrastructure Resources Project (see cross-reference). In general, the mountainous areas in the west part of the map exhibit various igneous and metamorphic bedrock units of Precambrian age, major faults, and fault brecciation zones at the east margin (5-20 km wide) of the Front Range. The eastern and central parts of the map (Colorado Piedmont) depict a mantle of unconsolidated deposits of Quaternary age and interspersed outcroppings of Cretaceous or Tertiary-Cretaceous sedimentary bedrock. The Quaternary mantle is comprised of eolian deposits (quartz sand and silt), alluvium (gravel, sand, and silt of variable composition), colluvium, and few landslides. At the mountain front, north-trending, dipping Paleozoic and Mesozoic sandstone, shale, and limestone bedrock formations form hogbacks and intervening valleys.

  18. Effectiveness of a San Francisco Bay area community education program on reducing home energy use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Ellen M.

    In order to promote the adoption of home energy reduction practices and mitigate the climate impact of the collective greenhouse gas emissions generated by consumers, it is critical to identify an effective educational approach. A community-based educational intervention model that employs norms, information, commitment, feedback, and face-to-face communication strategies was examined for its ability to motivate changes in everyday energy-use behavior in two communities compared to a control group. A follow up study was also conducted to evaluate whether behaviors adopted as a result of the intervention were long lasting, and whether the community-focused features of the intervention were motivating to participants. Results showed that a greater number of individuals participated in the intervention over its five-month duration, reported significantly higher numbers of adopted behaviors, and maintained more adopted behaviors post-intervention than did people in the control group. In addition, intervention participants reported that some of the community-based features of the intervention motivated their behavior changes. These findings lend support to a number of social and community psychology theories about how to design effective interventions by leveraging social awareness and support.

  19. Using Remote Sensing to Evaluate Wetland Recovery in the Northern Tampa Bay Area Following Reduction in Groundwater Withdrawals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Amor

    In the past, the Northern Tampa Bay Area (NTBA) wetlands saw severe declines in hydrologic conditions due to excessive groundwater withdrawal rates. Eventually these rates were reduced to allow the wetlands to recover. To monitor this recovery, the Southwest Florida Water Management district (SWFWMD) set up a fieldwork based scoring methodology, called the Wetlands Assessment Procedure (WAP). WAP has been used in many studies of the area since groundwater withdrawal reductions; with many of those studies finding the recovery to be mixed at best. However, these studies were very limited in the number of wetlands they could assess due to the limitations of fieldwork. Therefore, it was proposed that remotely sensed variables associated with water consumption and stress be used to assess the recovery of the NTBA wetlands, as remote sensing allows for efficient assessments of targets over large area. Utilizing ASTER imagery scenes from 2005 and 2014, 211 wetlands' remotely sensed responses of NDVI, Land Surface Temperature (LST), and Evapotranspiration (ET) were mapped and statistically examined for trends indicating improvement or decline. Furthermore, a subset of WAP scores for the two years were examined and compared to the remotely sensed values. The results were contradictory, with remotely sensed responses showing an improvement over the time period, WAP scores indicating a decline in hydrologic conditions, and the two methods showing little to no fit when modeled against each other. As such, it is believed at this time that the remotely sensed method is not suitable for measuring the indicators of wetland recovery used in the WAP methodology.

  20. On the formation of coastal polynyas in the area of Commonwealth Bay, Eastern Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendler, Gerd; Gilmore, Dan; Curtis, Jan

    Antarctica's King George V Land and Adélie Land were first explored by Sir Douglas Mawson and his party during their 1911-1913 expedition. They were astounded by the strength of the katabatic wind, which is so dominant in this area. These strong offshore winds can move the sea ice away from shore, forming coastal polynya, not only in summer but even in midwinter. Poor visibility due to darkness and frequently occurring blowing snow make the study of these polynyas from land-based observations difficult. Recently, coverage of this area by synthetic aperture radar (SAR) satellite imagery, which has a high resolution of 40 m (pixel size 12.5 m), gave additional insight into the characteristics of these polynyas. This high resolution is needed because the width of the polynya is small (10 km or so). Furthermore, of special importance is the fact that SAR data can be obtained during darkness and overcast conditions. Following original Russian work, we modified a simple model for wind-driven coastal polynyas, using actual meteorological data from our coastal automatic weather stations as input. Using mean monthly data for the stations, we show that coastal polynyas are to be expected in the windiest area (Cape Denison-Port Martin); while to the west (Dumont d'Urville) and east (Penguin Point), the average conditions do not produce them. Here, they occur only during strong and long-lasting storms. Our observational data of the polynyas as viewed from SAR and advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) confirm these findings.

  1. Hepatitis B and liver cancer knowledge and preventive practices among Asian Americans in the San Francisco Bay Area, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Charlotte A; Lin, Steven Y; So, Samuel K; Chang, Ellen T

    2007-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection causes liver cancer and disproportionately affects the Asian community in the U.S. In order to advance HBV and liver cancer awareness and prevention, it is important to identify existing gaps in knowledge and preventive practices among Asian Americans. Therefore, the authors administered a written questionnaire to 199 adults in the Asian-American community of the San Francisco Bay Area, California. Although the majority of adults had at least a college education, knowledge regarding HBV transmission, prevention, symptoms, risks, and occurrence was low. Fewer than 60% reported having been tested for HBV, only 31% reported having been vaccinated against HBV, and only 44% reported having had their children vaccinated. Asians, especially those born in China or Southeast Asia, had significantly poorer knowledge regarding HBV and liver cancer than non-Asians. Those with higher knowledge levels were significantly more likely to have been tested for HBV and to have had their children vaccinated. Younger adults, women, Caucasians, more highly educated individuals, those not born in China or Hong Kong, and those with a personal or family history of liver disease were more likely to have taken preventive action against HBV. Our results suggest that HBV and liver cancer knowledge among Asian Americans, especially Chinese Americans, is poor, and that better knowledge is associated with increased preventive practices. Thus, there is a need for increased HBV education and improved community-based interventions to prevent HBV-related liver disease in the high-risk Asian-American community.

  2. Sociodemographic Factors Associated With Trans*female Youth's Access to Health Care in the San Francisco Bay Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Elizabeth A; Jin, Harry; Auerswald, Colette L; Wilson, Erin C

    2017-08-01

    Trans*female youth (TFY) are an underserved population at risk for a variety of poor health outcomes, in part related to barriers to accessing health and mental health care. We conducted a secondary analysis of data collected with 250 TFY aged 16-24 years in the San Francisco Bay Area from 2012 to 2014. Logistic regression was used to test associations between sociodemographic variables and barriers to gender identity-based medical and mental health care. Having a history of unstable housing was associated with significantly higher odds of problems accessing both medical care (odds ratio: 2.16, 95% confidence interval: 1.12-4.13) and mental health care due to gender identity (odds ratio 2.65, 95% confidence interval: 1.08-6.45). Conversely, identifying as genderqueer/genderfluid, Latina, or living in dependent housing was associated with access to either medical or mental health care. Interventions are needed to address housing and discrimination barring access to health care among TFY. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Color Shaded-Relief and Surface-Classification Maps of the Fish Creek Area, Harrison Bay Quadrangle, Northern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, John L.; Garrity, Christopher P.; Houseknecht, David W.; Amoroso, Lee; Meares, Donald C.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The northeastern part of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA) has become an area of active petroleum exploration during the past five years. Recent leasing and exploration drilling in the NPRA requires the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to manage and monitor a variety of surface activities that include seismic surveying, exploration drilling, oil-field development drilling, construction of oil-production facilities, and construction of pipelines and access roads. BLM evaluates a variety of permit applications, environmental impact studies, and other documents that require rapid compilation and analysis of data pertaining to surface and subsurface geology, hydrology, and biology. In addition, BLM must monitor these activities and assess their impacts on the natural environment. Timely and accurate completion of these land-management tasks requires elevation, hydrologic, geologic, petroleum-activity, and cadastral data, all integrated in digital formats at a higher resolution than is currently available in nondigital (paper) formats. To support these land-management tasks, a series of maps was generated from remotely sensed data in an area of high petroleum-industry activity (fig. 1). The maps cover an area from approximately latitude 70?00' N. to 70?30' N. and from longitude 151?00' W. to 153?10' W. The area includes the Alpine oil field in the east, the Husky Inigok exploration well (site of a landing strip) in the west, many of the exploration wells drilled in NPRA since 2000, and the route of a proposed pipeline to carry oil from discovery wells in NPRA to the Alpine oil field. This map area is referred to as the 'Fish Creek area' after a creek that flows through the region. The map series includes (1) a color shaded-relief map based on 5-m-resolution data (sheet 1), (2) a surface-classification map based on 30-m-resolution data (sheet 2), and (3) a 5-m-resolution shaded relief-surface classification map that combines the shaded

  4. Marine bioearosol in the area of Gdańsk Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Michalska

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Formation of bioaerosol is an important process of mass and energy exchange between sea and atmosphere by means of droplets of marine dust. Studies on aerosol activity of the sea was developed in the last decades of the 20 th century. Those studies revealed that concentrations of bacteria in aerosol droplets were hundreds times higher than their concentrations in superficial parts of seawater. The research also proved that aerosol activity of the sea can influence the sanitary condition of the air, especially at the seacoast areas. Surveys of air structure in coastal regions were performed on the Tricity beaches as well as in Sobieszewo and Komary. Atmospheric air sampling stations in the marine zone were located on the Gulf of Gdansk at the Vistula river mouth. Air samples were collected from the front platform on the ship R/V Baltica at 4m above the sea surface. The air samples were collected by filtration method using Sartorius apparatus. Airborne microbes were deposited onto sterile gelatine Sartorius filters. All filters were exposed directly towards the oncoming wind. After sampling, the exposed filters were placed onto the agar media on Petri plates and incubated. All measurement results were depicted in (CFU/m3 i.e. colony forming units in 1 m3 of the examined air. Meteorological measurements included: temperature, humidity, wind speed and direction. The obtained results revealed that statistically significant trends were observed between the total number of bacteria or moulds and a season of sampling. The greatest number of microorganisms was noted in spring and autumn. Correlation analysis showed that statistically significant relationship exists between microbial abundance and the wind direction or speed and location of sampling site. Large quantities of fungal spores was detected in the areas of Gdynia and Gdansk - Brzeêno when south-west winds were blowing from the land. The highest number of bacteria were observed at the sampling

  5. Coordinating water conservation efforts through tradable credits: A proof of concept for drought response in the San Francisco Bay area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Patricia; Ajami, Newsha; Sun, Yujie

    2017-09-01

    Water utilities are increasingly relying on water efficiency and conservation to extend the availability of supplies. Despite spatial and institutional interdependency of many utilities, these demand-side management initiatives have traditionally been tackled by individual utilities operating in isolation. In this study, we introduce a policy framework for water conservation credits that enables collaboration at the regional scale. Under the proposed approach, utilities have the flexibility to invest in water conservation measures that are appropriate for their specific service area. When utilities have insufficient capacity for local cost-effective measures, they may opt to purchase credits, contributing to fund subsidies for utilities that do have that capacity and can provide the credits, while the region as a whole benefits from more reliable water supplies. This work aims to provide insights on the potential impacts of a water conservation credit policy framework when utilities are given the option to collaborate in their efforts. We model utility decisions as rational cost-minimizing actors subject to different decision-making dynamics and water demand scenarios, and demonstrate the institutional characteristics needed for the proposed policy to be effective. We apply this model to a counterfactual case study of water utility members of the Bay Area Water Supply and Conservation Agency in California during the drought period of June 2015 to May 2016. Our scenario analysis indicates that when the institutional structure and incentives are appropriately defined, water agencies can achieve economic benefits from collaborating in their conservation efforts, especially if they coordinate more closely in their decision-making.

  6. Seasonal functioning and dynamics of Caulerpa prolifera meadows in shallow areas: An integrated approach in Cadiz Bay Natural Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara, Juan J.; García-Sánchez, M. Paz; Olivé, Irene; García-Marín, Patricia; Brun, Fernando G.; Pérez-Lloréns, J. Lucas; Hernández, Ignacio

    2012-10-01

    The rhizophyte alga Caulerpa prolifera thrives in dense monospecific stands in the vicinity of meadows of the seagrass Cymodocea nodosa in Cadiz Bay Natural Park. The seasonal cycle of demographic and biometric properties, photosynthesis, and elemental composition (C:N:P) of this species were monitored bimonthly from March 2004 to March 2005. The number of primary assimilators peaked in spring as consequence of the new recruitment, reaching densities up to 104 assimilators·m-2. A second peak was recorded in late summer, with a further decrease towards autumn and winter. Despite this summer maximum, aboveground biomass followed a unimodal pattern, with a spring peak about 400 g dry weight·m-2. In conjunction to demographic properties of the population, a detailed biometric analysis showed that the percentage of assimilators bearing proliferations and the number of proliferations per assimilator were maximal in spring (100% and c.a. 17, respectively), and decreased towards summer and autumn. The size of the primary assimilators was minimal in spring (May) as a result of the new recruitments. However, the frond area per metre of stolon peaked in early spring and decreased towards the remainder of the year. The thallus area index (TAI) was computed from two different, independent approaches which both produced similar results, with a maximum TAI recorded in spring (transient values up to 18 m2·m-2). The relative contribution of primary assimilators and proliferations to TAI was also assessed. Whereas the number of proliferations accounted for most of the TAI peak in spring, its contribution decreased during the year, to a minimum in winter, where primary assimilators were the main contributors to TAI. The present study represents the first report of the seasonal dynamics of C. prolifera in south Atlantic Spanish coasts, and indicates the important contribution of this primary producer in shallow coastal ecosystems.

  7. [Pollution by heavy metals in the petrochemical sewage waters of the sea area of Daya Bay and assessment on potential ecological risks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shan-Nan; Li, Chun-Hou; Xu, Jiao-Jiao; Xiao, Ya-Yuan; Lin, Lin; Huang, Xiao-Ping

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to gain a clear understanding on the status of pollution by heavy metals in the petrochemical sewage and the potential ecological risk caused by heavy metal pollution in the sea area of Daya Bay. The contents and spatial distributions of heavy metals including Zn, Pb, Cu, Cd, Cr, As and Hg in seawater, sediment and fishes collected from Daya Bay were analyzed. The comprehensive pollution index (CPI) and ecological risk indexes (ERIs) were used to evaluate the contaminated severity and potential ecological risks of heavy metals in seawater and sediment. The results showed that the contents of these heavy metals, except for those of Zn and Pb, in several stations set in Daya Bay from 2011 to 2012 were relatively low, which were lower than the quality standard of class I according to the China National Standard Criteria for Seawater Quality, suggesting that the seawater in Daya Bay has not been polluted yet by these heavy metals. The average CPI of heavy metals in seawater during flooding season (0.72) was higher than that during dry season (0.38) whereas the average CPI of heavy metals in sediment during dry season (7.77) was higher than that during flooding season (5.70). Hg was found to be the primary contaminating heavy metal in sediment during dry season, which was followed by As and Zn whereas during flooding season, Hg was the primary contaminating metal in sediment, followed by Zn and Cu. The contents of these 7 heavy metals in fishes collected from the surveyed areas were lower than those of the standard requirements. A correlation analysis indicated that there were significant differences in the correlations between the midst of the heavy metals in sea water and the different periods. The ERIs of heavy metals in sediment during dry season (129.20) was higher than that during flooding season (102.86), and 25% of the sampling sites among all stations were under the risk of high-level alarm. The potential ERIs of heavy metals in sediment in

  8. Memory and Nostalgia in Youth Music Cultures: Finding the Vibe in the San Francisco Bay Area Rave Scene, 2002-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen M Wu

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In the wake of the major commercial success of rave scenes in the San Francisco Bay Area, accompanied by an increasing crackdown on venues and promoters in the electronic dance music scene, this article follows the “death” of a rave scene and looks at some of the ways young people imagined and engaged with rave culture during that time. Looking specifically at how young people utilized remembrances and nostalgia to imbue their experiences with social meaning, the author provides a tentative case study on youth cultural formation in the late modern era. The article draws upon fieldwork and interviews conducted in the San Francisco Bay Area between 2002-2004.

  9. Multiple-land use practices in transfrontier conservation areas: the case of Greater Mapungubwe straddling parts of Botswana, South Africa and Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinthumule Ndidzulafhi Innocent

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Transfrontier Conservation Areas (TFCAs have recently emerged as the 21st century approach to managing protected areas in southern Africa. Unlike national parks and other protected areas that place emphasis only on the protection of plant and animal species within their borders, transfrontier conservation areas promote conservation beyond the borders of protected areas. Consequently, this mega-conservation initiative encourage multiple land-use practices with the purpose of improving rural livelihoods whilst promoting biodiversity conservation. Thus, land parcels under different forms of tenure are brought together into a common nature conservation project. This study argues that the integration of various land-use practices within one area benefits conservation goals at the expense of local communities and irrigation farmers. To substantiate this argument, the study draws on fieldwork material collected in the Greater Mapungubwe Transfrontier Conservation Area spanning parts of Botswana, South Africa and Zimbabwe. The study concludes that multiple-land use practices in transfrontier conservation areas is only promoted by wildlife managers to gain access to extra land.

  10. Summer at the beach: spatio-temporal patterns of white shark occurrence along the inshore areas of False Bay, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kock, Alison A; Photopoulou, Theoni; Durbach, Ian; Mauff, Katya; Meÿer, Michael; Kotze, Deon; Griffiths, Charles L; O'Riain, M Justin

    2018-01-01

    Understanding white shark ( Carcharodon carcharias ) habitat use in coastal areas adjacent to large cities, is an important step when formulating potential solutions to the conservation conflict that exists between humans and large predatory sharks. In this study, we present the findings of a 2.5-year study of white shark occurrence and movement patterns adjacent to the City of Cape Town in False Bay, South Africa, with a focus on spring and summer months. Fifty-one white sharks were monitored annually at three offshore and twelve inshore sites by VR2 acoustic receivers, over 975 days from 1 May 2005 to 31 December 2007. Occurrence patterns at inshore sites during spring and summer were analysed using a generalized additive mixed model (GAMM) with a spatial term (longitude, latitude), time of day and year included as explanatory variables for site use. We found that sharks occurred more frequently at inshore sites along the northern and northwestern shores, compared to the rest of the bay, and they transitioned most frequently between four adjacent beach sites that encompass the most popular recreational water use areas in Cape Town. There was significant diel variation, with higher shark occurrence around midday, and a peak in shark occurrence in 2005, when human-shark interactions also peaked. However, we found no effect of shark size on occurrence patterns at inshore sites. White sharks showed the highest levels of occurrence at specific inshore sites between Muizenberg and Strandfontein beach, and thus inclusion of these sites within False Bay's marine protected area (MPA) network or recognition as Ecological or Biological Significant Areas (EBSAs) should be a future consideration. These insights into white shark habitat use at inshore sites in False Bay are important for successfully applying the principles of marine spatial planning (MSP) and for making science-based policy decisions. Furthermore, this information can be used to reduce potential shark

  11. Satellite monitoring of urban sprawl and assessment of its potential environmental impact in the Greater Toronto Area between 1985 and 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furberg, Dorothy; Ban, Yifang

    2012-12-01

    This research investigates urban sprawl in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) between 1985 and 2005 and the nature of the resulting landscape fragmentation, particularly with regard to the Oak Ridges Moraine (ORM), an ecologically important area for the region. Six scenes of Landsat TM imagery were acquired in summer of 1985, 1995, and 2005. These images and their texture measures were classified into eight land cover classes with very satisfactory final overall accuracies (93-95 %). Analysis of the classifications indicated that urban areas grew by 20 % between 1985 and 1995 and by 15 % between 1995 and 2005. Landscape fragmentation due to spatio-temporal land cover changes was evaluated using urban compactness indicators and landscape metrics, and results from the latter were used to draw conclusions about probable environmental impact. The indicator results showed that urban proportions increased in nearly all areas outside of the metropolitan center, including on portions of the ORM. The landscape metrics reveal that low density urban areas increased significantly in the GTA between 1985 and 2005, mainly at the expense of agricultural land. The metric results indicate increased vulnerability and exposure to adverse effects for natural and semi-natural land cover through greater contrast and lowered connectivity. The degree of urban perimeter increased around most environmentally significant areas in the region. Changes like these negatively impact species and the regional water supply in the GTA. Further investigation into specific environmental impacts of urban expansion in the region and which areas on the ORM are most at risk is recommended.

  12. Radiocarbon Analysis to Calculate New End-Member Values for Biomass Burning Source Samples Specific to the Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, S.; Kirchstetter, T.; Fairley, D.; Sheesley, R. J.; Tang, X.

    2017-12-01

    Elemental carbon (EC), also known as black carbon or soot, is an important particulate air pollutant that contributes to climate forcing through absorption of solar radiation and to adverse human health impacts through inhalation. Both fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning, via residential firewood burning, agricultural burning, wild fires, and controlled burns, are significant sources of EC. Our ability to successfully control ambient EC concentrations requires understanding the contribution of these different emission sources. Radiocarbon (14C) analysis has been increasingly used as an apportionment tool to distinguish between EC from fossil fuel and biomass combustion sources. However, there are uncertainties associated with this method including: 1) uncertainty associated with the isolation of EC to be used for radiocarbon analysis (e.g., inclusion of organic carbon, blank contamination, recovery of EC, etc.) 2) uncertainty associated with the radiocarbon signature of the end member. The objective of this research project is to utilize laboratory experiments to evaluate some of these uncertainties, particularly for EC sources that significantly impact the San Francisco Bay Area. Source samples of EC only and a mix of EC and organic carbon (OC) were produced for this study to represent known emission sources and to approximate the mixing of EC and OC that would be present in the atmosphere. These samples include a combination of methane flame soot, various wood smoke samples (i.e. cedar, oak, sugar pine, pine at various ages, etc.), meat cooking, and smoldering cellulose smoke. EC fractions were isolated using a Sunset Laboratory's thermal optical transmittance carbon analyzer. For 14C analysis, samples were sent to Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution for isotope analysis using an accelerated mass spectrometry. End member values and uncertainties for the EC isolation utilizing this method will be reported.

  13. How food insecurity contributes to poor HIV health outcomes: Qualitative evidence from the San Francisco Bay Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittle, Henry J; Palar, Kartika; Seligman, Hilary K; Napoles, Tessa; Frongillo, Edward A; Weiser, Sheri D

    2016-12-01

    Food-insecure people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) consistently exhibit worse clinical outcomes than their food-secure counterparts. This relationship is mediated in part through non-adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART), sub-optimal engagement in HIV care, and poor mental health. An in-depth understanding of how these pathways operate in resource-rich settings, however, remains elusive. We aimed to understand the relationship between food insecurity and HIV health among low-income individuals in the San Francisco Bay Area using qualitative methods. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 34 low-income PLHIV receiving food assistance from a non-profit organization. Interviews explored experiences with food insecurity and its perceived effects on HIV-related health, mental health, and health behaviors including taking ART and attending clinics. Thematic content analysis of transcripts followed an integrative inductive-deductive approach. Food insecurity was reported to contribute to poor ART adherence and missing scheduled clinic visits through various mechanisms, including exacerbated ART side effects in the absence of food, physical feelings of hunger and fatigue, and HIV stigma at public free-meal sites. Food insecurity led to depressive symptoms among participants by producing physical feelings of hunger, aggravating pre-existing struggles with depression, and nurturing a chronic self-perception of social failure. Participants further explained how food insecurity, depression, and ART non-adherence could reinforce each other in complex interactions. Our study demonstrates how food insecurity detrimentally shapes HIV health behavior and outcomes through complex and interacting mechanisms, acting via multiple socio-ecological levels of influence in this setting. The findings emphasize the need for broad, multisectoral approaches to tackling food insecurity among urban poor PLHIV in the United States. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  14. Metals and pesticides in commercial bivalve mollusc production areas in the North and South Bays, Santa Catarina (Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, R V; Garbossa, L H P; Campos, C J A; Vianna, L F de N; Vanz, A; Rupp, G S

    2016-04-15

    Concentrations of heavy metals were quantified in mussels Perna perna and Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas in 28 cultivation sites in the North and South Bays, SC (Brazil). Concentrations of pesticides were also quantified in these bivalve, water and sediment samples collected in 14 cultivation sites on four occasions in the period October 2012-October 2013. Pesticides were not detected in any of the mussel, oyster, water or sediment samples. The South Bay was found to be generally more contaminated with As while the North Bay showed higher concentrations of Ni. Concentrations of Pb and Cd were below the limit of detection of the method (0.5mg/kg) in all samples. Mussels accumulated more As and Ni than oysters, while the opposite was observed for Cu. Metal concentrations were below the maximum levels for foodstuffs specified in the Brazilian legislation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The behaviour of ozone and peroxyacetyl nitrate concentrations for different wind regimes during the MEDCAPHOT-TRACE campaign in the greater area of Athens, Greece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suppan, P.; Fabian, P.; Vyras, L.

    1998-01-01

    As a part of an international experimental field campaign, the association of air pollution with sea breeze circulation in the Greater Athens Area (GAA) is discussed on the basis of the behaviour of ozone and peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN). During typical sea breeze days inside the Athens basin the o...... a straight line across the Athens basin ranging From the island of Aegina in the Gulf of Saronikos to the northern border of the GAA show distinct peaks due to the pollution cloud NEPHOS. (C) 1998 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....... the ozone levels reach values up to 66% greater than values outside the basin. There is also an increase in ozone and PAN mixing ratios from the south to the north and from lower to higher locations, within the GAA. On-line PAN-measurements with a time resolution of 5 min at three sites located almost along...

  16. Succession in rocky intertidal benthic communities in areas with different pollution levels at Guanabara Bay (RJ-Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Breves-Ramos

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe and compare the succession of intertidal benthic communities in two areas at Guanabara Bay, RJ, Brazil: Urca, an area submitted to moderated organic pollution and Catalão, an extremely polluted area. Three transects in each area were scraped one month before the beginning of this study in order to evaluate the recruitment (recruitment-treatments. Three other transects were monitored without manipulation (monitoring treatments. Species composition and relative abundance were evaluated monthly between September and December, 2000. A total of 26 species was found at Urca and 13 at Catalão. The percent cover of the most abundant organisms was not similar between treatments at Urca after four months, while in Catalão, the similarity was 72% in the second month. The faster community development and recovery at the most polluted area was probably related to the existence of simple and resilient communities in more impacted areas.O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever e comparar a sucessão das comunidades bentônicas da região entre-marés, em duas áreas na Baía de Guanabara, RJ, Brasil: Urca, uma área sujeita a moderado nível de poluição orgânica, e Catalão, uma área extremamente poluída. Em cada área, três transectos verticais foram raspados um mês antes do início do estudo, para se avaliar o recrutamento dos organismos (tratamento Recrutamento, enquanto três outros transectos foram monitorados sem manipulação (tratamento Monitoramento. A porcentagem de cobertura dos organismos foi avaliada pelo método de interseção. A composição específica e a abundância relativa dos organismos foram avaliadas mensalmente entre Setembro e Dezembro de 2000. Um total de 26 espécies foi encontrado na Urca, enquanto 13 foram encontradas no Catalão. Após quatro meses, a composição específica observada no recrutamento na Urca foi muito similar (76% a observada no monitoramento. No Catalão, três meses

  17. 33 CFR 100.919 - International Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false International Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI. 100.919 Section 100.919 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI. (a) Regulated Area. A regulated area is established to include all...

  18. Detection of erosion events using 10Be profiles: Example of the impact of agriculture on soil erosion in the Chesapeake Bay area (U.S.A.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valette-Silver, J.N.; Brown, L.; Pavich, M.; Klein, J.; Middleton, R.

    1986-01-01

    10 Be concentration, total carbon and grain-size were measured in cores collected in undisturbed estuarine sediments of three tributaries of the Chesapeake Bay. These cores were previously studied by Davis and Brush for pollen content, age and sedimentation rate. In this work, we compare the results obtained for these various analyses. In the cores, we observed two increases in 10 Be concentration concomitant with two major changes in the pollen composition of the sediments. These two pollen changes each correspond to well-dated agricultural horizons reflecting different stages in the introduction of European farming techniques. In the Chesapeake Bay area, the agricultural development, associated with forest clearing, appears to have triggered the erosion, transport, and sedimentation into the river mouths of large quantities of 10 Be-rich soils. This phenomenon explains the observed rise in the sedimentation rate associated with increases in agricultural land-use. (orig.)

  19. SEASONAL DISTRIBUTION OF YELLOW-LEGGED GULL (LARUS CACHINNANS PALLAS, 1811 OF ISLANSDS OF OBITOCHNAYA BAY (NORTH-WEST AZOV SEA AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubinina U.U.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Considered territorial connection of Yellow-legged gull in breeding colony on islands Obitochnaya Bay. Analysis of the basic stages of the annual life cycle of Larus cachinnans Pallas, 1811 with taking into account the seasonal characteristics of each age group of seagulls (young, immature, adult. Based on this data set direction and distance of displacement, among whom were identified intra-continental migrations, domestic migrations within the territory of Ukraine and migrations within the nesting area. Settlement species on islands Obitochnaya Bay characterized by: high degree conservatism of adult Yellow-legged gull a wide range in season after nesting migrations and variance of young birds, the exchange of individuals between neighbouring settlements and the establishment of new colonies at the expense of immature individuals.

  20. Humboldt Bay Orthoimages

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of 0.5-meter pixel resolution, four band orthoimages covering the Humboldt Bay area. An orthoimage is remotely sensed image data in which...

  1. Simulation of ridesourcing using agent-based demand and supply regional models : potential market demand for first-mile transit travel and reduction in vehicle miles traveled in the San Francisco Bay Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we use existing modeling tools and data from the San Francisco Bay Area : (California) to understand the potential market demand for a first mile transit access service : and possible reductions in vehicle miles traveled (VMT) (a...

  2. Red Knots (Calidris canutus piersmai and C. c. rogersi) depend on a small threatened staging area in Bohai Bay, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogers, Danny I.; Yang, Hong-Yan; Hassell, Chris J.; Boyle, Adrian N.; Rogers, Ken G.; Chen, Bing; Zhang, Zheng-Wang; Piersma, Theunis

    2010-01-01

    We monitored numbers of Red Knots (Calidris canutus) staging in Bohai Bay, China (39 degrees 02'N, 118 degrees 15'E) on northward migration. Knots were identified to subspecies, and we systematically searched for colour-banded birds from the non-breeding grounds. We modelled migratory turnover, and

  3. Social vulnerabilities and health conditions of arrestees in the Greater Paris area, France, in 2013: a multicentre cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdier, Emilie; Denis, Céline; Bourokba, Nacer; Chauvin, Pierre; Chariot, Patrick

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the health and social conditions of arrestees, as compared to the general population. We studied a sample of 600 adult arrestees in three locations in the Greater Paris area, prospectively included (February-May 2013). A descriptive analysis has been performed, then prevalence was estimated using an indirect standardisation according to age, based on data from a population-based, representative survey in the same area. Arrestees had a median age of 31 years; 92% were males. As compared to the general population, arrestees had a lower level of education (8.6 vs. 7.6%, p analysis of male arrestees and males from the general population showed that the former had worse social and health conditions. These results argue for widespread medical interventions on all arrestees. Medical examination during detention could act as a gateway to health care and social support.

  4. Risk assessment of herbicides and booster biocides along estuarine continuums in the Bay of Vilaine area (Brittany, France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caquet, Th; Roucaute, M; Mazzella, N; Delmas, F; Madigou, C; Farcy, E; Burgeot, Th; Allenou, J-P; Gabellec, R

    2013-02-01

    A 2-year study was implemented to characterize the contamination of estuarine continuums in the Bay of Vilaine area (NW Atlantic Coast, Southern Brittany, France) by 30 pesticide and biocide active substances and metabolites. Among these, 11 triazines (ametryn, atrazine, desethylatrazine, desethylterbuthylazine, desisopropyl atrazine, Irgarol 1051, prometryn, propazine, simazine, terbuthylazine, and terbutryn), 10 phenylureas (chlortoluron, diuron, 1-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-3-methylurea, fenuron, isoproturon, 1-(4-isopropylphenyl)-3-methylurea, 1-(4-isopropylphenyl)-urea, linuron, metoxuron, and monuron), and 4 chloroacetanilides (acetochlor, alachlor, metolachlor, and metazachlor) were detected at least once. The objectives were to assess the corresponding risk for aquatic primary producers and to provide exposure information for connected studies on the responses of biological parameters in invertebrate sentinel species. The risk associated with contaminants was assessed using risk quotients based on the comparison of measured concentrations with original species sensitivity distribution-derived hazardous concentration values. For EU Water Framework Directive priority substances, results of monitoring were also compared with regulatory Environmental Quality Standards. The highest residue concentrations and risks for primary producers were recorded for diuron and Irgarol 1051 in Arzal reservoir, close to a marina. Diuron was present during almost the all survey periods, whereas Irgarol 1051 exhibited a clear seasonal pattern, with highest concentrations recorded in June and July. These results suggest that the use of antifouling biocides is responsible for a major part of the contamination of the lower part of the Vilaine River course for Irgarol 1051. For diuron, agricultural sources may also be involved. The presence of isoproturon and chloroacetanilide herbicides on some dates indicated a significant contribution of the use of plant protection products in

  5. Ethno-Demographic Processes in the North-East Black Sea Area in the 19th – Early 21th Centuries (through the Example of Greater Sochi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr A. Cherkasov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines ethno-demographic processes in the north-east Black Sea area, more specifically the territory of Greater Sochi, in the 19th – early 21th centuries. In writing the article, the authors have relied on archive materials from the archives department of the administration of the city of Novorossiysk and the archives department of the administration of the city of Sochi. The authors have consulted reference pre-revolution literature, Soviet-era and present-day population censuses, as well as the findings of present-day research studies. The methodological basis of this study are the principles of historicism, objectivity, and systemicity, which helps to get an insight into the general patterns and regional peculiarities in the demographic development of the major ethnicities in the north-east Black Sea area in the 19th-20th centuries. The authors touch upon the process of colonization of the territory and its ethnic composition. In the end, the authors come to the conclusion that the ethno-demographic picture of Greater Sochi had been forming in a complicated fashion. As a consequence, in the second half of the 19th century, following the Caucasian War, the territory had to be repopulated. Resettlement flows from different locations in the Russian Empire and overseas had formed by 1917 an ethno-picture that featured Russians and Armenians as two principal ethnicities. The authors note that this picture has not changed in a major way to this day.

  6. Simulated effects of projected ground-water withdrawals in the Floridan aquifer system, greater Orlando metropolitan area, east-central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Louis C.; Halford, Keith J.

    1999-01-01

    Ground-water levels in the Floridan aquifer system within the greater Orlando metropolitan area are expected to decline because of a projected increase in the average pumpage rate from 410 million gallons per day in 1995 to 576 million gallons per day in 2020. The potential decline in ground-water levels and spring discharge within the area was investigated with a calibrated, steady-state, ground-water flow model. A wetter-than-average condition scenario and a drought-condition scenario were simulated to bracket the range of water-levels and springflow that may occur in 2020 under average rainfall conditions. Pumpage used to represent the drought-condition scenario totaled 865 million gallons per day, about 50 percent greater than the projected average pumpage rate in 2020. Relative to average 1995 steady-state conditions, drawdowns simulated in the Upper Floridan aquifer exceeded 10 and 25 feet for wet and dry conditions, respectively, in parts of central and southwest Orange County and in north Osceola County. In Seminole County, drawdowns of up to 20 feet were simulated for dry conditions, compared with 5 to 10 feet simulated for wet conditions. Computed springflow was reduced by 10 percent for wet conditions and by 38 percent for dry conditions, with the largest reductions (28 and 76 percent) occurring at the Sanlando Springs group. In the Lower Floridan aquifer, drawdowns simulated in southwest Orange County exceeded 20 and 40 feet for wet and dry conditions, respectively.

  7. Seasonal, Spatial Distribution and Ecological Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Surface Sediments from a Watershed Area in Gonghu Bay in Taihu Lake, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peifang Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface sediments from five stations within Gonghu Bay in Taihu Lake, China, were sampled for seasonal and spatial metal contamination analysis variations and ecological risks assessment from April 2009 to January 2010. The Contamination Factor (CF and geo-accumulation index (Igeo indicated that the sediments in Gonghu Bay ranged from unpolluted to moderately polluted, except for Cd. The one-way ANOVA analysis results showed that the Pb, Zn, Cr, and Cu concentrations were higher at station 3 (lake inlet and the Cr, Pb, and Zn concentrations were significantly higher in the spring. Additionally, using BCR¡¦s sequential extraction, the results showed that the fractionated metals Zn and Cd were observed as bioavailable fractions in the sediments, which could have potential moderate mobility in the water system. There was a significant increase in the bioavailable form during winter. The ratio of secondary and primary phrase (RSP decreased according to the order Zn > Cu > Ni > Pb > Cd > Cr. Finally, these results indicated that the sediments of Gonghu Bay were polluted by Cd, Zn, and Cu, which provides a scientific basis for effectively protecting sediments in watershed areas from long-term heavy metal accumulation.

  8. The distribution feature of size-fractionated chlorophyll a and primary productivity in Prydz Bay and its north sea area during the austral summer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘子琳; 陈忠元

    2003-01-01

    The investigation of size-fractionated chlorophyll a and primary productivity were carried out in three longitudinal sections (63°-69°12′S, 70°30′E, 73°E and 75(30′E) at December 18 -26, 1998 and January 12 -18, 1999 in Prydz Bay and its north sea area, Antarctica. The results showed that surface chlorophyll a concentration were 0.16 - 3.99 μg dm -3. The high values of chlorophyll a concentration ( more than 3.5 μg dm -3 ) were in Prydz Bay and in the west Ladies Bank. The average chlorophyll a concentration at sub-surface layer was higher than that at surface layer; its concentration at the deeper layers of 50 m decreased with increasing depth and that at 200 m depth was only 0.01 -0.95 μg dm-3. The results of size-fractionated chlorophyll a showed that the contribution of the netplanktion to total chlorophyll a was 56% , those of the nanoplankton and the picoplankton were 24% and 20% respectively in the surveyed area. The potential primary productivity at the euphotic zone in the surveyed area was 0. 11 - 11.67 mgC m-3 h -1 and average value was 2.00 ±2.80 mgC m-3h-1. The in-situ productivity in the bay and the continental shelf was higher and that in the deep-sea area was lower. The assimilation number of ted primary productivity show that the contribution of the netplanktion to total productivity was 58% , those of the nanoplankton and the picoplankton were 26% and 16% respectively. The cell abundance of phytoplankton was 1. 6 + 103 - 164. 8 + 103 cell dm-3 in the surface water.

  9. Complex fold and thrust belt structural styles: Examples from the Greater Juha area of the Papuan Fold and Thrust Belt, Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Luke; Hill, Kevin; McLaren, Sandra; Hanani, Amanda

    2017-07-01

    The remote and inhospitable Papuan Fold Belt in Papua New Guinea is one of the youngest yet least well-documented fold and thrust belts on Earth. Within the frontal Greater Juha area we have carried out >100 km of geological traverses and associated analyses that have added significantly to the contemporary geological and geophysical dataset. Our structural analysis provides evidence of major inversion, detachment and triangle zone faults within the uplifted Eastern Muller Ranges. We have used the dataset to develop a quasi-3D model for the Greater Juha area, with associated cross-sections revealing that the exposed Cenozoic Darai Limestone is well-constrained with very low shortening of 12.6-21.4% yet structures are elevated up to 7 km above regional. We suggest the inversion of pre-existing rift architecture is the primary influence on the evolution of the area and that structures link to the surface via triangle zones and detachment faults within the incompetent Mesozoic passive-margin sedimentary sequence underlying competent Darai Limestone. Arc-normal oriented structures, dominantly oblique dextral, up-to-the-southeast, are pervasive across a range of scales and are here interpreted to relate at depth to weakened pre-existing basement cross-structures. It is proposed that Palaeozoic basement fabric controlled the structural framework of the basin during Early Mesozoic rifting forming regional-scale accommodation zones and related local-scale transfer structures that are now expressed as regional-scale arc-normal lineaments and local-scale arc-normal structures, respectively. Transfer structures, including complexly breached relay ramps, utilise northeast-southwest striking weaknesses associated with the basement fabric, as a mechanism for accommodating displacement along major northwest-southeast striking normal faults. These structures have subsequently been inverted to form arc-normal oriented zones of tear faulting that accommodate laterally variable

  10. Risk assessment and management of brucellosis in the southern greater Yellowstone area (I): A citizen-science based risk model for bovine brucellosis transmission from elk to cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Mandy; Peck, Dannele; Scurlock, Brandon; Logan, Jim; Robinson, Timothy; Cook, Walt; Boroff, Kari; Schumaker, Brant

    2016-09-15

    Livestock producers and state wildlife agencies have used multiple management strategies to control bovine brucellosis in the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA). However, spillover from elk to domestic bison and cattle herds continues to occur. Although knowledge is increasing about the location and behavior of elk in the SGYA, predicting spatiotemporal overlap between elk and cattle requires locations of livestock operations and observations of elk contact by producers. We queried all producers in a three-county area using a questionnaire designed to determine location of cattle and whether producers saw elk comingle with their animals. This information was used to parameterize a spatially-explicit risk model to estimate the number of elk expected to overlap with cattle during the brucellosis transmission risk period. Elk-cattle overlap was predicted in areas further from roads and forest boundaries in areas with wolf activity, with higher slopes, lower hunter densities, and where the cost-distance to feedgrounds was very low or very high. The model was used to estimate the expected number of years until a cattle reactor will be detected, under alternative management strategies. The model predicted cattle cases every 4.28 years in the highest risk herd unit, a higher prediction than the one case in 26 years we have observed. This difference likely indicates that ongoing management strategies are at least somewhat effective in preventing potential elk-cattle brucellosis transmission in these areas. Using this model, we can infer the expected effectiveness of various management strategies for reducing the risk of brucellosis spillover from elk to cattle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Early Holocene estuary development of the Hesselø Bay area, southern Kattegat, Denmark and its implication for Ancylus Lake drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendixen, Carina; Boldreel, Lars Ole; Jensen, Jørn Bo; Bennike, Ole; Hübscher, Christian; Clausen, Ole Rønø

    2017-12-01

    High-resolution shallow seismic data, sediment core information, radiocarbon dating and sequence stratigraphy have been used to interpret the late glacial to early Holocene geological evolution of Hesselø Bay in the southern Kattegat, Denmark. A reconstruction of the early Holocene coastal environment and a description of coastal processes associated with a river outlet into the bay are presented. Weichselian glacial deposits form the lowermost interpreted unit, covered by late glacial (LG) and postglacial (PG, Holocene) sediments. A funnel-shaped estuary existed at the mouth of channels in the period 10.3-9.2 cal. ka BP; the channels drained water from south to north. The early PG is characterised by estuarine and coastal deposits. The early Holocene bars that developed in the estuary are preserved as morphological features on the present-day seabed, possibly as a result of rapid relative sea-level rise. The estuary existed simultaneously with the occurrence and drainage of the Ancylus Lake. The drainage of this lake occurred through the Dana River (palaeo-Great Belt channel) into the southern Kattegat and then into the study area. The level of the Ancylus Lake in the Baltic Sea region dropped significantly at about 10.2 cal. ka BP at the same time as the estuary developed in the Kattegat region. One outcome of the present study is an enhanced understanding of the Ancylus Lake drainage path. No evidence of major erosion is seen, which indicates non-catastrophic continuous water flow from the south without major drainage events of the Ancylus Lake to the southern Kattegat. During the Littorina transgression, coastal estuarine conditions characterized the Hesselø Bay area where elongated ridges formed a bar system. As the Littorina transgression continued, back-stepping of the bar system and coastline occurred. When the transgression breached the Great Belt threshold, flooding caused major erosion throughout the study area.

  12. [The origin and quality of water for human consumption: the health of the population residing in the Matanza-Riachuelo river basin area in Greater Buenos Aires].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteverde, Malena; Cipponeri, Marcos; Angelaccio, Carlos; Gianuzzi, Leda

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the origin and quality of water used for consumption in a sample of households in Matanza-Riachuelo river basin area in Greater Buenos Aires, Argentina. The results of drinking water by source indicated that 9% of water samples from the public water system, 45% of bottled water samples and 80% of well water samples were not safe for drinking due to excess content of coliforms, Escherichia coli or nitrates. Individuals living in households where well water is the main source of drinking water have a 55% higher chance of suffering a water-borne disease; in the cases of diarrheas, the probability is 87% higher and in the case of dermatitis, 160% higher. The water for human consumption in this region should be provided by centralized sources that assure control over the quality of the water.

  13. Monitoring and evaluation of foods and waters in the planed emergency area of Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant by γ spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Qiong; Guo Jianying; Shao Xianzhang; Zhao Qiufen

    1999-07-01

    The detection results of foods and waters that are adopted in the planed emergency area of Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) in 1996 and measured by γ spectrometry are reported and compared with the level of background radioactivity before the operation of the NPP. With national standards concerned, the detection results have been reviewed. And it is shown that there has been negligible radioactive environmental pollution found around NPP in the passed several years. Possible sources of slight level pollution of 110m Ag that is almost only detected are discussed. Some suggestions on detection programme and studies of methodology henceforth are put forward

  14. Don’t Work, Work at Home, or Commute? Discrete Choice Models of the Decision for San Francisco Bay Area Residents

    OpenAIRE

    Ory, D T; Mokhtarian, Patricia L

    2005-01-01

    Using socio-demographic, personality, and attitudinal data from 1,680 residents of the San Francisco Bay Area, we develop and estimate binary, multinomial, and nested logit models of the choice to work or not, whether or not to work at home, and whether to commute all of the time or some of the time (either by only working part time, or by working a compressed work week, or by telecommuting some of the time). To our knowledge, these are the first models of all these choices simultaneously. Th...

  15. Plastic litter in sediments from the Croatian marine protected area of the natural park of Telaščica bay (Adriatic Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blašković, Andrea; Fastelli, Paolo; Čižmek, Hrvoje; Guerranti, Cristiana; Renzi, Monia

    2017-01-15

    This paper reports baseline levels of litter (macro, meso and microplastics) in sediments collected from different areas of the Croatian MPA of the Natural Park of Telaščica bay (Adriatic Sea, GSA n. 17). The distribution of total abundance according to size, for all analysed locations evidences that microplastics are the dominant fraction concerning item's numbers. In all analysed samples no macroplastics were found, while microplastics are 88.71% and mesoplastics are 11.29% of the total. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopes of tap water reveal structure of the San Francisco Bay Area's water system and adjustments during a major drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipple, Brett J; Jameel, Yusuf; Chau, Thuan H; Mancuso, Christy J; Bowen, Gabriel J; Dufour, Alexis; Chesson, Lesley A; Ehleringer, James R

    2017-08-01

    Water availability and sustainability in the Western United States is a major flashpoint among expanding communities, growing industries, and productive agricultural lands. This issue came to a head in 2015 in the State of California, when the State mandated a 25% reduction in urban water use following a multi-year drought that significantly depleted water resources. Water demands and challenges in supplying water are only expected to intensify as climate perturbations, such as the 2012-2015 California Drought, become more common. As a consequence, there is an increased need to understand linkages between urban centers, water transport and usage, and the impacts of climate change on water resources. To assess if stable hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios could increase the understanding of these relationships within a megalopolis in the Western United States, we collected and analyzed 723 tap waters across the San Francisco Bay Area during seven collection campaigns spanning 21 months during 2013-2015. The San Francisco Bay Area was selected as it has well-characterized water management strategies and the 2012-2105 California Drought dramatically affected its water resources. Consistent with known water management strategies and previously collected isotope data, we found large spatiotemporal variations in the δ 2 H and δ 18 O values of tap waters within the Bay Area. This is indicative of complex water transport systems and varying municipality-scale management decisions. We observed δ 2 H and δ 18 O values of tap water consistent with waters originating from snowmelt from the Sierra Nevada Mountains, local precipitation, ground water, and partially evaporated reservoir sources. A cluster analysis of the isotope data collected in this study grouped waters from 43 static sampling sites that were associated with specific water utility providers within the San Francisco Bay Area and known management practices. Various management responses to the drought, such as

  17. Hydrogeology, hydraulic characteristics, and water-quality conditions in the surficial, Castle Hayne and Peedee aquifers of the greater New Hanover County area, North Carolina, 2012-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSwain, Kristen Bukowski; Gurley, Laura N.; Antolino, Dominick J.

    2014-01-01

    A major issue facing the greater New Hanover County, North Carolina, area is the increased demand for drinking water resources as a result of rapid growth. The principal sources of freshwater supply in the greater New Hanover County area are withdrawals of surface water from the Cape Fear River and groundwater from the underlying Castle Hayne and Peedee aquifers. Industrial, mining, irrigation, and aquaculture groundwater withdrawals increasingly compete with public-supply utilities for freshwater resources. Future population growth and economic expansion will require increased dependence on high-quality sources of fresh groundwater. An evaluation of the hydrogeology and water-quality conditions in the surficial, Castle Hayne, and Peedee aquifers was conducted in New Hanover, eastern Brunswick, and southern Pender Counties, North Carolina. A hydrogeologic framework was delineated by using a description of the geologic and hydrogeologic units that compose aquifers and their confining units. Current and historic water-level, water-quality, and water-isotope data were used to approximate the present boundary between freshwater and brackish water in the study area. Water-level data collected during August–September 2012 and March 2013 in the Castle Hayne aquifer show that recharge areas with the highest groundwater altitudes are located in central New Hanover County, and the lowest are located in a discharge area along the Atlantic Ocean. Between 1964 and 2012, groundwater levels in the Castle Hayne aquifer in central New Hanover County have rebounded by about 10 feet, but in the Pages Creek area groundwater levels declined in excess of 20 feet. In the Peedee aquifer, the August–September 2012 groundwater levels were affected by industrial withdrawals in north-central New Hanover County. Groundwater levels in the Peedee aquifer declined more than 20 feet between 1964 and 2012 in northeastern New Hanover County because of increased withdrawals. Vertical gradients

  18. Environmental damage costs from airborne pollution of industrial activities in the greater Athens, Greece area and the resulting benefits from the introduction of BAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirasgedis, S.; Hontou, V.; Georgopoulou, E.; Sarafidis, Y.; Gakis, N.; Lalas, D.P.; Loukatos, A.; Gargoulas, N.; Mentzis, A.; Economidis, D.; Triantafilopoulos, T.; Korizi, K.; Mavrotas, G.

    2008-01-01

    Attributing costs to the environmental impacts associated with industrial activities can greatly assist in protecting human health and the natural environment as monetary values are capable of directly influencing technological and policy decisions without changing the rules of the market. This paper attempts to estimate the external cost attributable to the atmospheric pollution from 'medium and high environmental burden' industrial activities located in the greater Athens area and the benefits from Best Available Techniques (BAT) introduction. To this end a number of typical installations were defined to be used in conjunction with the Impact Pathway Approach developed in the context of the ExternE project to model all industrial sectors/sub-sectors located in the area of interest. Total environmental externalities due to air pollutants emitted by these industrial activities were found to reach 211 M Euro per year, associated mainly with human mortality and morbidity due to PM 10 emissions, as well as with climate change impacts due to CO 2 emissions for which non-metallic minerals and oil processing industries are the main sources. The results obtained can be used as the basis for an integrated evaluation of potential BAT, taking into account not only private costs and benefits but also the environmental externalities, thus leading to policy decisions that maximize social welfare in each industrial sector/sub-sector

  19. Amputation history and rehabilitation of black men living in the greater Durban area who have had traumatic amputations of the lower limb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Kubheka

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available A survey was undertaken amongst twenty five black men living in the greater Durban area who had had amputations of the lower limbs. The type of amputation care and the rehabilitation programme they underwent post-operatively is described. The sample included men from 24 to 50 years of age, of whom the majority were from rural areas. The amputation care intra and post-operatively was marked by the lack of emotional preparation pre-operatively, and lack of rehabilitation information and teaching afterwards. Most respondents had to find information for themselves. This lack of information and teaching seemed to impede physical rehabilitation, with stump sores and limited use of prostheses being the main problems. Vocational rehabilitation was almost totally absent. In contrast to the twenty two respondents who worked before their amputations, only four worked afterwards. The majority had to support their families alone; sixteen of them were totally reliant on a Disability Grant. These problems lead to social isolation, depression, loneliness and other psycho-social problems.

  20. Amputation history and rehabilitation of black men living in the greater Durban area who have had traumatic amputations of the lower limb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Kubheka

    1995-05-01

    Full Text Available A survey was undertaken amongst twenty five black men living in the greater Durban area who had had amputations of the lower limbs. The type of amputation care and the rehabilitation programme they underwent post-operatively is described. The sample included men from 24 to 50 years of age, of whom the majority were from rural areas. The amputation care intra and post-operatively was marked by the lack of emotional preparation pre-operatively, and lack of rehabilitation information and teaching afterwards. Most respondents had to find information for themselves. This lack of information and teaching seemed to impede physical rehabilitation, with stump sores and limited use of prostheses being the main problems. Vocational rehabilitation was almost totally absent. In contrast to the twenty two respondents who worked before their amputations, only four worked afterwards. The majority had to support their families alone; sixteen of them were totally reliant on a Disability Grant. These problems lead to social isolation, depression, loneliness and other psycho-social problems.

  1. Groundwater quality in the shallow aquifers of the Monterey Bay, Salinas Valley, and adjacent highland areas, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Carmen

    2018-05-30

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The shallow aquifers of the groundwater basins around Monterey Bay, the Salinas Valley, and the highlands adjacent to the Salinas Valley constitute one of the study units.

  2. Diffusion of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Across the Sediment-Water Interface and In Seawater at Aquaculture Areas of Daya Bay, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangju Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the yearly increasing marine culture activities in floating cages in Daya Bay, China, the effects of pollution may overlap and lead to more severe water environmental problems. In order to track the impacts of the marine culture in floating cages on water environment, sediments and overlying water were sampled by cylindrical samplers at three representative aquaculture areas of Daya Bay. The water content, porosity, density of sediments as well as the vertical distributions of ammonia nitrogen and active phosphate in pore water along sediments depth were measured. The release rate and annual released quantity of the nutrients across sediment-water interface were calculated using Fick’s Law. A horizontal two-dimensional mathematical model was developed to compute the spatial and temporal distributions of the nutrients in seawater after being released across the sediment-water interface. The results showed that the sediments, with a high content and a large annual released quantity of nitrogen and phosphorus, constitute a potential inner source of seawater pollution. Influenced by tide and water depth, the scope of diffusion and migration of the nutrients appears as a long belt which is about 1 km long and 50 m wide. Seawater in this area is vulnerable to eutrophication.

  3. Acoustic Imaging of Selected Areas of Gdansk Bay with the Aid of Parametric Echosounder and Side-Scan Sonar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grelowska Grażyna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents and analyses the data recorded during sounding of the Gdansk Bay seabed with the aid of a parametric echosounder and a side-scan sonar. The accuracy of seabed structure examination, as a condition for obtaining valuable results, requires correct configuration of echolocation devices and proper calibration of peripheral devices, such as the survey unit geographical position sensor - GPS, the navigation unit, the MRU-Z sensor of pitch, roll and heave, and the sound velocity meter, which deliver the data to the bathymetric measurement system. Parametric seabed profilers deliver two types of data: the envelope, and the detailed echo signal without processing. The envelope is used for data visualisation in the form of online echograms, while the echo signal is stored for further analyses, to be performed using dedicated software or, after relevant conversion, in arbitrary programming environment1. The presented data analysis is illustrated by selected sample images recorded by the parametric echosounder and the side-scan sonar during Gdansk Bay sounding.

  4. Public acceptance of management actions and judgments of responsibility for the wolves of the southern Greater Yellowstone Area: Report to Grand Teton National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jonathan G.; Johnson, S. Shea; Shelby, Lori B.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction Wolves of Grand Teton National Park and the Greater Yellowstone Area Gray wolves (Canis lupus) appeared in Grand Teton National Park (GRTE) in October of 1998, two years after being reintroduced to Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Since that time, five packs have been within the GRTE borders - Gros Ventre Pack, Nez Perce Pack, Yellowstone Delta Pack, Teton Pack, and Green River Pack (Table 1). Wolves in the Greater Yellowstone Area are increasing and spreading out geographically (USFWS and others, 2004). This dispersion was demonstrated recently by the death of a 2-year-old female wolf from the Swan Lake pack on I-70 in Colorado (June 7, 2004; http://mountain-prairie.USFWS.gov/pressrel /04-43.htm). The organization of wolf packs in the GYA is dynamic and highly structured. In 2003, for example, a wolf from the Teton Pack joined with the Green River Pack, and several young wolves left the Teton Pack and moved south (USFWS and others, 2004). Pack size (averaging five to ten members) is dependent on hunting efficiency, which depends on prey size, type, and density. Each pack defends home ranges of several hundred square miles. The social structure of the pack is based on a breeding pair (an alpha male and female). Other wolves in the pack can be categorized as betas (males and/or females second in rank to the alphas), subordinates, pups, and occasional omegas (outcasts). Because generally only the alpha pair breeds, subordinate wolves of reproductive age must disperse from their packs and form new associations in order to breed. (http://www.nps.gov/grte/wolf/biolo.htm). The reintroduced wolves are classified by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) as "nonessential experimental" under section 10(j) of the Endangered Species Act. The recovery criteria for the GYA wolves were met in 2002 for removing the wolves from the Endangered Species List (30 or more breeding pairs). Currently, the USFWS manages wolf populations in the GYA until delisting occurs

  5. Application of year-round atmospheric transmission data, collected with the MSRT multiband transmissometer during the FATMOSE trial in the False Bay area

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Arie N.; van Eijk, Alexander M. J.; Cohen, Leo H.; Fritz, Peter J.; Gunter, Willem H.; Vrahimis, George; October, Faith J.

    2011-09-01

    The FATMOSE trial (False Bay Atmospheric Experiment) is a continuation of the cooperative work between TNO and IMT on atmospheric propagation and point target detection and identification in a maritime environment, South Africa). The atmospheric transmission, being of major importance for target detection, was measured with the MSRT multiband optical/IR transmissometer over a path of 15.7 km over sea. Simultaneously a set of instruments was installed on a midpath lighthouse for collection of local meteorological data, including turbulence, scintillation, sea surface temperature and visibility. The multiband transmission data allow the retrieval of the size distribution (PSD) of the particles (aerosols) in the transmission path. The retrieved PSD's can be correlated with the weather data such as windspeed, wind direction, relative humidity and visibility. This knowledge will lead to better atmospheric propagation models. The measurement period covered nearly a full year, starting in November 2009 and ending in October 2010. The False Bay site is ideal for studies on propagation effects over sea because of the large variety of weather conditions, including high windspeed, expected from the South East with maritime air masses, as well as Northerly winds, expected to bring warm and dry air from the continent. From an operational point of view the False Bay area is interesting, being representative for the scenery around the African coast with warships in an active protecting role in the battle against piracy. The yearround transmission data are an important input for range performance calculations of electro-optical sensors against maritime targets. The data support the choice of the proper spectral band and contain statistical information about the detection ranges to be expected. In this paper details on the instrumentation will be explained as well as the methods of calibration and PSD retrieval. Data are presented for various weather conditions, showing

  6. Violence prevention and municipal licensing of indoor sex work venues in the Greater Vancouver Area: narratives of migrant sex workers, managers and business owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Solanna; Jia, Jessica Xi; Liu, Vivian; Chattier, Jill; Krüsi, Andrea; Allan, Sarah; Maher, Lisa; Shannon, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Using a socio-ecological, structural determinants framework, this study assesses the impact of municipal licensing policies and related policing practices across the Greater Vancouver Area (Canada) on the risk of violence within indoor sex work venues. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 46 migrant/immigrant sex workers, managers and owners of licensed indoor sex work establishments and micro-brothels. Findings indicate that policing practices and licensing requirements increase sex workers' risk of violence and conflict with clients and result in heightened stress, an inability to rely on police support, lost income and the displacement of sex workers to more hidden informal work venues. Prohibitive licensing and policing practices prevent sex workers, managers and owners from adopting safer workplace measures and exacerbate health and safety risks for sex workers. This study provides critical evidence of the negative public health implications of prohibitive municipal licensing in the context of a criminalised and enforcement-based approach to sex work. Workplace safety recommendations include the decriminalisation of sex work and the elimination of disproportionately high fees for licences, criminal record restrictions, door lock restrictions, employee registration requirements and the use of police as licensing inspectors.

  7. Adjustment of Daily Activities: the Influence of Smartphone Adoption on the Travel Pattern of Mobile Professionals in the Greater Jakarta Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloriani Novita Christin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The swift augmentation in the adoption of smartphones, the gadget that resulted from the convergence of Information and Communication Technology (ICT, potentially transforms people's life in myriad dimensions. One potential change induced by smartphones, is how people restructure their daily agenda and consecutively influence their travel pattern. To understand it, this study theoretically reviews mobile professional work, smartphone adoption, and how people conduct their mobile interaction, planning and execution of daily activities. Mobile professionals, the cohort of professionals that spend more than 20% of their total working time moving around out of their work environment; they are important beneficiaries of smartphones and have been chosen as the target of this study. Empirical results of mobile professionals´ experiences in the Greater Jakarta Area are presented at this juncture. Furthermore, their adjustment of activities as a dynamic response to receiving extensive information via smartphones is also analysed. The results indicate that there is a strong adjustment of daily activities by mobile professionals. Through those changes, the transformation of daily travel patterns related to the activity is also brought about by the use of this high-end ICT contrivance.

  8. Strategic responses to fiscal constraints: a health policy analysis of hospital-based ambulatory physical therapy services in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Michel D; Verrier, Molly C; Williams, A Paul; Zakus, David; Deber, Raisa B

    2009-01-01

    Ambulatory physical therapy (PT) services in Canada are required to be insured under the Canada Health Act, but only if delivered within hospitals. The present study analyzed strategic responses used by hospitals in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) to deliver PT services in an environment of fiscal constraint. Key informant interviews (n = 47) were conducted with participants from all hospitals located within the GTA. Two primary strategic responses were identified: (1) "load shedding" through the elimination or reduction of services, and (2) "privatization" through contracting out or creating internal for-profit subsidiary clinics. All hospitals reported reductions in service delivery between 1996 and 2003, and 15.0% (7/47 hospitals) fully eliminated ambulatory services. Although only one of 47 hospitals contracted out services, another 15.0% (7/47) reported that for-profit subsidiary clinics were created within the hospital in order to access other more profitable forms of quasi-public and private funding. Strategic restructuring of services, aimed primarily at cost containment, may have yielded short-term financial savings but has also created a ripple effect across the continuum of care. Moreover, the rise of for-profit subsidiary clinics operating within not-for-profit hospitals has emerged without much public debate and with little research to evaluate its impact.

  9. Short-term effects of airborne pollens on asthma attacks as seen by general practitioners in the Greater Paris area, 2003-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Bich Tram; Tual, Séverine; Turbelin, Clément; Pelat, Camille; Cecchi, Lorenzo; D'Amato, Gennaro; Blanchon, Thierry; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella

    2010-09-01

    To investigate for the first time the short-term effects of airborne pollen counts on general practitioner (GP) consultations for asthma attacks in the Greater Paris area between 2003-2007. Counts were available for common pollens (Betula, Cupressa, Fraxinus and Poaceae). Weekly data on GP visits for asthma attacks were obtained from the French GP Sentinel Network. A quasi-Poisson regression with generalised additive models was implemented. Short-term effects of pollen counts were assessed using single and multi-pollen models after adjustment for air pollution and influenza. A mean weekly incidence rate of 25.4 cases of asthma attacks per 100,000 inhabitants was estimated during the study period. The strongest significant association between asthma attacks and pollen counts was registered for grass (Poaceae) in the same week of asthma attacks, with a slight reduction of the effect observed in the multi-pollen model. Adjusted relative risk for Poaceae was 1.54 (95% CI: 1.33-1.79) with an inter-quartile range increase of 17.6 grains/m3 during the pollen season. For the first time, a significant short-term association was observed between Poaceae pollen counts and consultations for asthma attacks as seen by GPs. These findings need to be confirmed by more consistent time-series and investigations on a daily basis.

  10. Bat response to carolina bays and wetland restoration in the southeastern U.S. Coastal Plain.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, Jennifer M.; Michael A. Menzel; John C. Kilgo; W. Mark Ford; ; John W. Edwards.

    2005-09-01

    Abstract: Bat activity in the southeastern United States is concentrated over riparian areas and wetland habitats. The restoration and creation of wetlands for mitigation purposes is becoming common in the Southeast. Understanding the effects of these restoration efforts on wetland flora and fauna is thus becoming increasingly important. Because bats (Order: Chiroptera) consist of many species that are of conservation concern and are commonly associated with wetland and riparian habitats in the Southeast (making them a good general indicator for the condition of wetland habitats), we monitored bat activity over restored and reference Carolina bays surrounded by pine savanna (Pinus spp.) or mixed pine-hardwood habitat types at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. In order to determine how wetland restoration efforts affected the bat community, we monitored bat activity above drained Carolina bays pre- and post-restoration. Our results indicate that bat activity was greater over reference (i.e., undrained) than drained bays prior to the restorative efforts. One year following combined hydrologic and vegetation treatment, however, bat activity was generally greater over restored than reference bays. Bat activity was also greater over both reference and restored bays than in random, forested interior locations. We found significantly more bat activity after restoration than prior to restoration for all but one species in the treatment bays, suggesting that Carolina bay restoration can have almost immediate positive impacts on bat activity.

  11. Particle count and black carbon measurements at schools in Las Vegas, NV and in the greater Salt Lake City, UT area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Steven G; Vaughn, David L; Roberts, Paul T

    2017-11-01

    As part of two separate studies aimed to characterize ambient pollutant concentrations at schools in urban areas, we compare black carbon and particle count measurements at Adcock Elementary in Las Vegas, NV (April-June 2013), and Hunter High School in the West Valley City area of greater Salt Lake City, UT (February 2012). Both schools are in urban environments, but Adcock Elementary is next to the U.S. 95 freeway. Black carbon (BC) concentrations were 13% higher at Adcock compared to Hunter, while particle count concentrations were 60% higher. When wind speeds were low-less than 2 m/sec-both BC and particle count concentrations were significantly higher at Adcock, while concentrations at Hunter did not have as strong a variation with wind speed. When wind speeds were less than 2 m/sec, emissions from the adjacent freeway greatly affected concentrations at Adcock, regardless of wind direction. At both sites, BC and particle count concentrations peaked in the morning during commute hours. At Adcock, particle count also peaked during midday or early afternoon, when BC was low and conditions were conducive to new particle formation. While this midday peak occurred at Adcock on roughly 45% of the measured days, it occurred on only about 25% of the days at Hunter, since conditions for particle formation (higher solar radiation, lower wind speeds, lower relative humidity) were more conducive at Adcock. Thus, children attending these schools are likely to be exposed to pollution peaks during school drop-off in the morning, when BC and particle count concentrations peak, and often again during lunchtime recess when particle count peaks again. Particle count concentrations at two schools were shown to typically be independent of BC or other pollutants. At a school in close proximity to a major freeway, particle count concentrations were high during the midday and when wind speeds were low, regardless of wind direction, showing a large area of effect from roadway emissions

  12. Determination of the sedimentation rates in the Sepetiba bay northeastern area by using dating with the excesses 210 Pb radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forte, Cristiane Maria Sampaio

    1996-01-01

    210 Pb dating, using two modes of data analysis, CIC and CRS, was used to determine sedimentation in the North East part of Sepetiba Bay. 210 Pb was leached from samples using dilute HBr and subsequently separated onto anionic exchange columns, followed by re-extraction and precipitation as Pb CrO 4 . The original method was modified by the introduction of a pre-digestion step whose purpose was to liberate the lead bound as sulphide. The sedimentation rates found o.68 - 0.98 cm.y -1 were moderate, compared to other authors estimates. Dating using the CRS model showed a maximum rate of sedimentation in the period between 1954 and 1977, when the riverine input was probably at its greatest. The CRS model appears to be more applicable to the data, since it works over longer periods and allows for variations in sedimentation rate. (author)

  13. Investigation of vertical and horizontal transport processes and their influence on the concentration of aerosols and ozone over the greater Berlin area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, E.; Kerschbaumer, A.; Beekmann, M.; Neißner, F.

    2003-04-01

    Urban emissions of particulate matter and precursors of ozone are very important in relation to the EU-council directives and national pollution abatement strategies. Knowledge about the contribution of anthropogenic urban sources and about long range transport of polluted air to local concentrations is needed for any reduction strategy. Thus, within the German Atmospheric Research Program AFO2000 a project has been started to investigate the formation and transport of PM10/PM2.5 in the greater Berlin area by sampling and analysing PM, using LIDAR as well as physico-chemical measurements to determine density, partical size distribution and chemical composition of the aerosol. Participants are: Freie Universität Berlin, Institute for Meteorology BTU Cottbus, Air Chemistry Department Elight Laser Systems GmbH Freie Universität Berlin, Physics Department Environmental Administration, Berlin Government with an additional PM campaign Measurements at central Berlin monitoring stations exceed standard PM10 tresholds. Therefore, it is important to get a better knowledge about PM sources within and outside the city. Long term applications of the chemical transport model with an aerosol-module REM3/Calgrid is used to explain transport, formation and deposition processes. Backward and forward trajectories are used to determine source/receptor relationships between the observations and European wide emission maps for ozone, precursors and PM10 and PM2,5 by correlation between observed primary aerosols in Berlin and possible sources. The measurements obtained within the project are also used to validate REM3/Calgrid with special respect to SO4, NO3, NH4 and ozone precursors.

  14. The new open Flexible Emission Inventory for Greece and the Greater Athens Area (FEI-GREGAA): Account of pollutant sources and their importance from 2006 to 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fameli, Kyriaki-Maria; Assimakopoulos, Vasiliki D.

    2016-07-01

    Photochemical and particulate pollution problems persist in Athens as they do in various European cities, despite measures taken. Although, for many cities, organized and updated pollutant emissions databases exist, as well as infrastructure for the support of policy implementation, this is not the case for Greece and Athens. So far abstract efforts to create inventories from temporal and spatial annual low resolution data have not lead to the creation of a useful database. The objective of this study was to construct an emission inventory in order to examine the emission trends in Greece and the Greater Athens Area for the period 2006-2012 on a spatial scale of 6 × 6 km2 and 2 × 2 km2, respectively and on a temporal scale of 1 h. Emissions were calculated from stationary combustion sources, transportation (road, navigation and aviation), agriculture and industry obtained from official national and European sources. Moreover, new emission factors were calculated for road transport and aviation. The final database named F.E.I. - GREGAA (Flexible Emission Inventory for GREece and the GAA) is open-structured so as to receive data updates, new pollutants, various emission scenarios and/or different emission factors and be transformed for any grid spacing. Its main purpose is to be used in applications with photochemical models to contribute to the investigation on the type of sources and activities that lead to the configuration of air quality. Results showed a decreasing trend in CO, NOx and VOCs-NMVOCs emissions and an increasing trend from 2011 onwards in PM10 emissions. Road transport and small combustion contribute most to CO emissions, road transport and navigation to NOx and small combustion and industries to PM10. The onset of the economic crisis can be seen from the reduction of emissions from industry and the increase of biomass burning for heating purposes.

  15. A feasibility study of a culturally and gender-specific dance to promote physical activity for South Asian immigrant women in the greater Toronto area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahabi, Mandana; Damba, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    Despite ample evidence demonstrating the protective effect of physical activity, the uptake of regular physical activity among South Asian (SA) women remains relatively low. The purpose of this study was to explore the feasibility and health impacts of implementing a culture- and gender-specific physical activity among SA immigrant women residing in Greater Toronto Area (GTA) in Ontario, Canada. A community-based mixed methods approach combining cohort pretest and posttest design and qualitative methods employing in depth interviews was used. Twenty-seven SA women from the GTA participated in a 6-week, 2 days per week, Bollywood Dance exercise program led by a female SA instructor. The participation rate was considerably high (85%) and approximately 82% of the participants attended 10 or more of the classes offered. The participants' physical measurements (weight, waist and hip, and body mass index) decreased, although not significantly, over the 6-week period and there was an improvement in their physical, mental, and social health. During the face-to-face interviews, participants reported feeling less stressed and tired, being more mentally and physically robust, and having a sense of fulfillment and self-satisfaction. The only common criticism expressed was that the 6-week duration of the intervention was too short. The results showed that the Bollywood Dance was a feasible strategy in engaging SA immigrant women in physical activity. The key aspects when designing culture- and gender-specific dance interventions include community participation and active engagement in planning and implementation of the program, a supportive environment, same gender and culturally attuned dance instructor, easy access, and minimal to no cost. Copyright © 2015 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Occupational dust exposure and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma risk in a population-based case–control study conducted in the greater Boston area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langevin, Scott M; McClean, Michael D; Michaud, Dominique S; Eliot, Melissa; Nelson, Heather H; Kelsey, Karl T

    2013-01-01

    Head and neck cancers account for an estimated 549,000 global cancer diagnoses each year. While tobacco use, alcohol consumption, and HPV16 infection are considered to be the major risk factors for this disease, occupational risk factors, including exposure to asbestos, have also been described, although dust exposures other than asbestos have been historically understudied. We have investigated the relationship between occupational exposures to five types of dusts, including sawdust, concrete dust, leather dust, metal dust, and chimney soot, and head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) in the greater Boston area. We report findings from a population-based case–control study involving 951 incident HNSCC cases and 1193 controls, frequency matched on age (±3 years), sex, and town/neighborhood of residence. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the association between occupational exposure to each type of dust and HNSCC, overall and by primary tumor site. After adjusting for age, sex, race, smoking, alcohol consumption, education, and HPV16 serology, laryngeal carcinoma risk increased for each decade of occupational exposure to sawdust (OR = 1.2, 95% CI: 1.0, 1.3) and metal dust (OR = 1.2, 95% CI: 1.0, 1.4); and HNSCC risk increased for each decade of occupational leather dust exposure (OR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.2, 1.9). We have provided evidence for an association between occupational sawdust and metal dust and laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma, and leather dust and HNSCC, with increasing risk with longer duration at the exposed occupation

  17. Weaknesses and capacities affecting the Prehospital emergency care for victims of road traffic incidents in the greater Kampala metropolitan area: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balikuddembe, Joseph Kimuli; Ardalan, Ali; Khorasani-Zavareh, Davoud; Nejati, Amir; Raza, Owais

    2017-10-03

    Pre-hospital emergency care is a vital and integral component of health systems particularly in the resource constrained countries like Uganda. It can help to minimize deaths, injuries, morbidities, disabilities and trauma caused by the road traffic incidents (RTIs). This study identifies the weaknesses and capacities affecting the pre-hospital emergency care for the victims of RTIs in the Greater Kampala Metropolitan Area (GKMA). A cross-sectional study was conducted in the GKMA using a three-part structured questionnaire. Data related to the demographics, nature of RTIs and victims' pre-hospital experience and existing Emergency Medical Services (EMS) were collected from victims and EMS specialists in 3 hospitals and 5 EMS institutions respectively. Data was descriptively analyzed, and after the principal component analysis was employed to identify the most influential weaknesses and capacities affecting the pre-hospital emergency care for the victims of RTI in the GKMA. From 459 RTI victims (74.7% males and 25.3% females) and 23 EMS specialists (91.3% males and 8.7% females) who participated in the study between May and June 2016, 4 and 5 key weaknesses and capacities respectively were identified to affect the pre-hospital emergency care for RTI victims in the GKMA. Although some strengths exist like ambulance facilitation, EMS structuring, coordination and others), the key weaknesses affecting the pre-hospital care for victims were noted to relate to absence of predefined EMS systems particularly in the GKMA and Uganda as a whole. They were identified to involve poor quality first aid treatment; insufficient skills/training of the first responders; inadequate EMS resources; and avoidable delays to respond and transport RTI victims to medical facilities. Though some strengths exist, the weaknesses affecting prehospital care for RTI victims primarily emanate from the absence of predefined and well-organized EMS systems in the GKMA and Uganda as a whole.

  18. Occupational dust exposure and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma risk in a population-based case-control study conducted in the greater Boston area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langevin, Scott M; McClean, Michael D; Michaud, Dominique S; Eliot, Melissa; Nelson, Heather H; Kelsey, Karl T

    2013-12-01

    Head and neck cancers account for an estimated 549,000 global cancer diagnoses each year. While tobacco use, alcohol consumption, and HPV16 infection are considered to be the major risk factors for this disease, occupational risk factors, including exposure to asbestos, have also been described, although dust exposures other than asbestos have been historically understudied. We have investigated the relationship between occupational exposures to five types of dusts, including sawdust, concrete dust, leather dust, metal dust, and chimney soot, and head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) in the greater Boston area. We report findings from a population-based case-control study involving 951 incident HNSCC cases and 1193 controls, frequency matched on age (±3 years), sex, and town/neighborhood of residence. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the association between occupational exposure to each type of dust and HNSCC, overall and by primary tumor site. After adjusting for age, sex, race, smoking, alcohol consumption, education, and HPV16 serology, laryngeal carcinoma risk increased for each decade of occupational exposure to sawdust (OR = 1.2, 95% CI: 1.0, 1.3) and metal dust (OR = 1.2, 95% CI: 1.0, 1.4); and HNSCC risk increased for each decade of occupational leather dust exposure (OR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.2, 1.9). We have provided evidence for an association between occupational sawdust and metal dust and laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma, and leather dust and HNSCC, with increasing risk with longer duration at the exposed occupation. © 2013 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Risk assessment and management of brucellosis in the southern greater Yellowstone area (II): Cost-benefit analysis of reducing elk brucellosis prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroff, Kari; Kauffman, Mandy; Peck, Dannele; Maichak, Eric; Scurlock, Brandon; Schumaker, Brant

    2016-11-01

    Recent cases of bovine brucellosis (Brucella abortus) in cattle (Bos taurus) and domestic bison (Bison bison) of the southern Greater Yellowstone Area (SGYA) have been traced back to free-ranging elk (Cervus elaphus). Several management activities have been implemented to reduce brucellosis seroprevalence in elk, including test-and-slaughter, low-density feeding at elk winter feedgrounds, and elk vaccination. It is unclear which of these activities are most cost-effective at reducing the risk of elk transmitting brucellosis to cattle. In a companion paper, a stochastic risk model was used to translate a reduction in elk seroprevalence to a reduction in the risk of transmission to cattle. Here, we use those results to estimate the expected economic benefits and costs of reducing seroprevalence in elk using three different management activities: vaccination of elk with Brucella strain 19 (S19), low-density feeding of elk, and elk test-and-slaughter. Results indicate that the three elk management activities yield negative expected net benefits, ranging from -$2983 per year for low-density feeding to -$595,471 per year for test-and-slaughter. Society's risk preferences will determine whether strategies that generate small negative net benefit, such as low-density feeding, are worth implementing. However, activities with large negative net benefits, such as test-and-slaughter and S19 vaccination, are unlikely to be economically worthwhile. Given uncertainty about various model parameters, we identify some circumstances in which individual management activities might generate positive expected net benefit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. 78 FR 27126 - East Bay, St. Andrews Bay and the Gulf of Mexico at Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida; Restricted...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers 33 CFR Part 334 East Bay, St. Andrews Bay and the Gulf of Mexico at Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida; Restricted Areas AGENCY: U.S. Army... read as follows: Sec. 334.665 East Bay, St. Andrews Bay and the Gulf of Mexico, Restricted Areas...

  1. SEISMIC BEHAVIOR OF THE TOKYO BAY AREA DURING THE 2011 OFF THE PACIFIC COAST OF TOHOKU EARTHQUAKE USING DOWNHOLE ARRAY RECORDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Takaaki; Konagai, Kazuo; Katagiri, Toshihiko

    Underground motions within a hard diluvial stratum were obtained in the March 11th 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake at a downhole in the Tokyo Bay area, which has suffered serious sand-liquefaction over its long 42km2 stretch. The motions in the diluvial sand deposit are characterized by their (1) long dura-tion times with 6 to 8s components surpassing others, (2) moderate amplitude of 51.1 cm/s2 in PGA, which is estimated to have resulted in moderate average strains of 8 to 9 × 10-4 and 5 to 7 × 10-4 over shal-low -2 to -30m and deep -30 to -77m soil deposits, respectively. The peak strain reached in the interior of soil was estimated to be about 1.3 × 10-3.

  2. Concentrations and human health implications of heavy metals in wild aquatic organisms captured from the core area of Daya Bay's Fishery Resource Reserve, South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yang-Guang; Huang, Hong-Hui; Lin, Qin

    2016-07-01

    Heavy metal concentrations in edible organisms from the core area of Daya Bay's Fishery Resource Reserve, South China Sea, were determined. Samples of 14 crustacean, fish, and shellfish species were collected and analyzed. The As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn concentrations were 0.18-1.16, 0.002-0.919, 0.40-2.85, 0.07-4.10, 0.004-0.055, 0.14-1.19, 0.014-0.070, and 4.57-15.94μg/g wet weight, respectively. The As concentrations were higher than the Chinese maximum permissible levels in all of the fish and shellfish species and two crustacean species, indicating that consumption of these wild species by humans may pose health risks. However, calculations of the health risks posed to humans indicated that no significant adverse health effects would be associated with consuming these species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Chesapeake Bay plume dynamics from LANDSAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munday, J. C., Jr.; Fedosh, M. S.

    1981-01-01

    LANDSAT images with enhancement and density slicing show that the Chesapeake Bay plume usually frequents the Virginia coast south of the Bay mouth. Southwestern (compared to northern) winds spread the plume easterly over a large area. Ebb tide images (compared to flood tide images) show a more dispersed plume. Flooding waters produce high turbidity levels over the shallow northern portion of the Bay mouth.

  4. Mississippi-Louisiana Estuarine Area Study: Salinity and Circulation at and Near Bay Boudreau in Biloxi Marshes Eastern Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-01

    Bay Boudreau Plot of SALN4O6O*ATE. Legend: A a I obs, 5 2 abs, etc. 30+ A BA IANS A Ab At 20. AAM BC Be B A AAA A ACCA I B A A SALN4O66 I AA A BA A...Lake River R**2 Wt Pontchartrain R**2 wt Weights for Station 4 PO 0.60 0.24 LPO 0.48 0.19 P1 0.91 0.36 LPI 0.90 0.36 P2 0.56 0.22 LP2 0.59 0.23 P3 0.32...0.13 LP3 0.38 0.15 P4 0.10 0.04 LP4 0.17 0.07 Weights for Stations 5 and 8 PO 0.41 0.22 LPO 0.33 0.17 P1 0.70 0.37 LPI 0.75 0.40 P2 0.48 0.25 LP2 0.47

  5. Harmful algal blooms and Vibrio spp. association in fishing and marine farming areas of mollusk bivalves in Sechura and Pisco bays, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Orozco

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Between February 2010 and May 2014, 22 surveys in Pisco and 16 in Sechura were conducted; both are major areas for shellfish production and mariculture in Peru. The incidence of Vibrio in seawater was monitored during algal blooms and in their absence. Environmental parameters such as temperature and nutrients were measured. In Sechura, Pseudo-nitzschia seriata and Protoperidinium depressum caused algal blooms and were dominant throughout the evaluation period. The temperatures in this area ranged from 21.8 to 25.3 °C. In Pisco, the harmful algal bloom-forming Akashiwo sanguinea, Messodinium rubrum, and Prorocentrum minimum and the dinoflagellate Cochlodinium polikrykoides were most prevalent. Harmful algal blooms occurred when temperatures were between 17.1 and 23.3 °C, with phosphates ranging 1.22 - 6.85 µM and nitrates 0.15 - 7.85 µM. In May 2012, the dinoflagellate Alexandrium peruvianum caused an algal bloom, with temperatures ranging 18.0 to 23.2 °C, phosphate values from 0.73 to 11.56 µM, and nitrates from 0.76 to 9.81 µM. Coliforms were low, < 2 - 23 MPN/100 ml, in both bays throughout the study period. Vibrio alginolyticus was the dominant Vibrio spp. predominated in both bays, while V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus were detected in Pisco, where warmer sea temperatures are common and severe infections cases by seafood ingestion has been associated with a pathogen V. parahaemolyticus.

  6. Is drinking water a risk factor for endemic cryptosporidiosis? A case-control study in the immunocompetent general population of the San Francisco Bay Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadle Joelle

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cryptosporidiosis, caused by Cryptosporidium, is an enteric illness that has received much attention as an infection of immunocompromised persons as well as in community outbreaks (frequently waterborne. There are, however, no studies of the risk factors for sporadic community-acquired cryptosporidiosis in the immunocompetent US population. We undertook a case-control study in the San Francisco Bay Area as part of a national study sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to ascertain the major routes of transmission for endemic cryptosporidiosis, with an emphasis on evaluating risk from drinking water. Methods Cases were recruited from a population-based, active surveillance system and age-matched controls were recruited using sequential random-digit dialing. Cases (n = 26 and controls (n = 62 were interviewed by telephone using a standardized questionnaire that included information about the following exposures: drinking water, recreational water, food items, travel, animal contact, and person-to-person fecal contact, and (for adults sexual practices. Results In multivariate conditional logistic regression analyses no significant association with drinking water was detected. The major risk factor for cryptosporidiosis in the San Francisco Bay Area was travel to another country (matched odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: 24.1 [2.6, 220]. Conclusion The results of this study do not support the hypothesis that drinking water is an independent risk factor for cryptosporidiosis among the immunocompetent population. These findings should be used to design larger studies of endemic cryptosporidiosis to elucidate the precise mechanisms of transmission, whether waterborne or other.

  7. Regional decision-makers as potential users of Extreme Weather Event Attribution - Case studies from the German Baltic Sea coast and the Greater Paris area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Schwab

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Extreme Event Attribution has raised increasing attention in climate science in the last years. It means to judge the extent to which certain weather-related extreme events have changed due to human influences on climate with probabilistic statements. Extreme Event Attribution is often anticipated to spur more than just scientific ambition. It is able to provide answers to a commonly asked questions after extreme events, namely, ‘can we blame it on climate change’ and is assumed to support decision-making of various actors engaged in climate change mitigation and adaptation. More in-depth research is widely lacking about who these actors are; in which context they can make use of it; and what requirements they have, to be able to actually apply Extreme Event Attribution. We have therefore addressed these questions with two empirical case studies looking at regional decision-makers who deal with storm surge risks in the German Baltic Sea region and heat waves in the Greater Paris area. Stakeholder interviews and workshops reveal that fields of application and requirements are diverse, difficult to explicitly identify, and often clearly associated with stakeholders' specific mandate, the hazard background, and the regional socio-economic setting. Among the considered stakeholders in the Baltic Sea region, Extreme Event Attribution is perceived to be most useful to awareness-raising, in particular for climate change mitigation. They emphasised the importance of receiving understandable information - and that, rather later, but with smaller uncertainties than faster, but with higher uncertainties. In the Paris case, we typically talked to people engaged in adaptation with expertise in terms of climate science, but narrowly defined mandates which is typical for the Paris-centred political system with highly specialised public experts. The interviewees claimed that Extreme Event Attribution is most useful to political leverage and public

  8. Paleoseismic and Paleogeographic Reconstruction of the Central Coastal of Ecuador: Insights from Quaternary Geological Data for the Jaramijó bay area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunga, K.; Maurizio, M.; Garces, D.; Quiñonez, M. F.; Peña, G. E.

    2015-12-01

    Late Holocene sequences of loose to weakly consolidated sand and clay sediments intercalated with volcanic-ash layers (particles transported by fall-out), are outcrops on a sea cliff in the Jaramijó bay area (situated 7 km away in the East direction from Manta city, Manabí, at the middle section of Ecuador's Pacific coastline). The main geomorphologic feature in the site is the wave-cut beach platform permanently exposed at the lowest tides and an 18 m-high coastal cliff retreat with an estimated rate of ca. 2.5 meter/year (Chunga, 2014). One of the most remarkable geoarchaeological evidences found in this outcrop, it is the remains of two large bones (ie., radius and radial) of the human forearm of ca. 800 years ago (with archaeological vestiges of the Manteña culture) covered by a 8 to 25 cm-thick volcanic ash layer, stratigraphically at the top, an erosive contact with chaotic deposition of medium to fine-grained sand which indicates a potential tsunami deposit. Moreover, several volcanic ash and lahar layers are well distinguished on the sea cliff, which are associated with pyroclastic products transported as lahars from the Quilotoa and Cotopaxi, Pululahua volcanic structures (northern Andes in Ecuador) situated at a distance between of 150-190 kilometers (Mothes and Hall, 2008; Usselman, 2006). It is not excluded that previous pre-Columbian cultures also have been displaced in the last 2,000 years by disastrous geological events such as subduction earthquakes, local tsunami and volcanic lahar-ash deposits. All of these stratigraphic and palaeoseismologic features will allow us to understand the catastrophic geological events that abruptly shaped the landscape, furthermore, to investigate the changes of moderate to high Late Holocene progradation rates of the Jaramijó bay coastline.

  9. A Global Talent Magnet: How a San Francisco/Bay Area Global Higher Education Hub Could Advance California's Comparative Advantage in Attracting International Talent and Further Build US Economic Competitiveness. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.9.11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass, John; Edelstein, Richard; Hoareau, Cecile

    2011-01-01

    During the 2009-10 academic year international students generated more than $18.8 billion in net income into the US economy. California alone had nearly 100,000 international students with an economic impact of nearly $3.0 billion. In this paper, we outline a strategy for the San Francisco/Bay Area to double the number of international students…

  10. Distribution of creep in the northern San Francisco Bay Area illuminated by repeating earthquakes and InSAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funning, G.; Shakibay Senobari, N.; Swiatlowski, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    Surface observations of fault creep in the region north of San Francisco Bay are sporadic. While there are long-standing instances of creep-affected infrastructure on the Maacama and Bartlett Springs faults, the lateral and depth extents of creep on these and other faults in the region remain a question. Here, we supplement this sparse existing observation set with additional information from repeating earthquake sequences (REs) and InSAR, to illuminate, and significantly improve our knowledge of, creep across the region. Repeating earthquakes have long been considered indicators of creep on faults. We present the results of an extensive similarity search through over 600,000 archived waveforms from 43,000 events using a fast algorithm; from this we can identify 39 periodic repeating sequences and over 80 nonperiodic repeated event groups. We compare these with decadal line-of-sight velocity measurements made by applying the StaMPS time series InSAR code to ERS and Envisat data covering the region, that can be used to identify surface creep on faults. On the Rodgers Creek, Maacama and Bartlett Springs faults, both InSAR and REs show corroborating evidence for creep at locations where it was previously inferred. The REs additionally provide information on its depth extent. On the Maacama fault, we find REs extending almost to the southern limit of the mapped fault trace, south of Cloverdale, suggesting that creep may be pervasive on the fault. We can also identify structural complexity both in the stepover region with the Rodgers Creek fault, and in the northern segment of the fault close to Willits, potentially indicating parallel and/or down-dip branching creeping structures in both locations. REs on the Bartlett Springs fault indicate creep that extends across the full down-dip width of the brittle fault; here the proximity of InSAR creep rate estimates and a shallow RE sequence may permit a calibration of the RE `creepmeter', allowing us to estimate creep rates

  11. Mobile Bay turbidity study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crozier, G. F.; Schroeder, W. W.

    1978-01-01

    The termination of studies carried on for almost three years in the Mobile Bay area and adjacent continental shelf are reported. The initial results concentrating on the shelf and lower bay were presented in the interim report. The continued scope of work was designed to attempt a refinement of the mathematical model, assess the effectiveness of optical measurement of suspended particulate material and disseminate the acquired information. The optical characteristics of particulate solutions are affected by density gradients within the medium, density of the suspended particles, particle size, particle shape, particle quality, albedo, and the angle of refracted light. Several of these are discussed in detail.

  12. Greater oil investment opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arenas, Ismael Enrique

    1997-01-01

    Geologically speaking, Colombia is a very attractive country for the world oil community. According to this philosophy new and important steps are being taken to reinforce the oil sector: Expansion of the exploratory frontier by including a larger number of sedimentary areas, and the adoption of innovative contracting instruments. Colombia has to offer, Greater economic incentives for the exploration of new areas to expand the exploratory frontier, stimulation of exploration in areas with prospectivity for small fields. Companies may offer Ecopetrol a participation in production over and above royalties, without it's participating in the investments and costs of these fields, more favorable conditions for natural gas seeking projects, in comparison with those governing the terms for oil

  13. Chesapeake Bay under stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    According to extensive data obtained over its 13,000 km of shoreline, the Chesapeake Bay has been suffering a major, indeed unprecedented, reduction in submerged vegetation. Chesapeake Bay is alone in experiencing decline in submerged vegetation. Other estuary systems on the east coast of the United States are not so affected. These alarming results were obtained by the synthesis of the findings of numerous individual groups in addition to large consortium projects on the Chesapeake done over the past decade. R. J. Orth and R. A. Moore of the Virginia Institute of Marine Science pointed to the problem of the severe decline of submerged grasses on the Bay and along its tributaries. In a recent report, Orth and Moore note: “The decline, which began in the 1960's and accelerated in the 1970's, has affected all species in all areas. Many major river systems are now totally devoid of any rooted vegetation” (Science, 222, 51-53, 1983).

  14. Comparison between lead levels in dandelions grown in an ultra-clean lab environment (baseline) and those collected from the San Francisco Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojero, J.; Odigie, K. O.; Hibdon, S.; Flegal, A. R.

    2011-12-01

    This study is aimed at establishing the baseline (natural) levels of lead in dandelions (Taraxacum officinale) grown in an ultra-clean environment. Dandelions have been used extensively as biomonitors of environmental lead levels since their distribution is global and they can be easily collected. However, industrial lead contamination is so pervasive that even dandelions from the most remote areas in the world may be contaminated with industrial lead. Therefore, this work will test the hypothesis that "natural" lead levels in dandelions are lower than any previously published values - by growing them in a HEPA filtered air (Class 100) trace metal clean room with high purity (18 MΩ cm) water. Concentrations and isotopic compositions of lead in the clean-room grown dandelions will be compared to values in literature and to those of lead in dandelions collected from San Francisco Bay Area. Lead is a dense, ductile, and highly malleable metal that is found naturally in our environment. Due to its properties it is currently highly used in building construction, in ceramic glazes, lead chromate and in PVC plastic used to coat electrical cords. The uses of lead have included paint, leather tanning, and being used as an additive to gasoline prior to the mid 1970's, as well as others. Due to its many uses, humans are susceptible to lead regularly through various means of exposure from air, water and soil, often leading to lead toxicity.

  15. Distributions of dissolved monosaccharides and polysaccharides in the surface microlayer and surface water of the Jiaozhou Bay and its adjacent area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan-Ping; Yang, Gui-Peng; Lu, Xiao-Lan; Ding, Hai-Bing; Zhang, Hong-Hai

    2013-07-01

    Sea surface microlayer (SML) samples and corresponding bulk surface water (SW) samples were collected in the Jiaozhou Bay and its adjacent area in July and November 2008. The average concentrations of dissolved monosaccharides (MCHO) and polysaccharides (PCHO) revealed similar temporal variability, with higher concentrations during the green-tide period (in July) than during the non-green-tide period (in November). Average enrichment factors (EF) of MCHO and PCHO, defined as the ratio of the concentration in the SML to that in the SW, were 1.3 and 1.4 in July, respectively, while those values in November were 1.9 and 1.6. Our data also showed that the concentrations of MCHO and PCHO in the SML were strongly correlated with those in the SW, indicating that most of the organic materials in the SML came from the SW. The total dissolved carbohydrate concentrations (TDCHO) in the bulk surface water were closely correlated with salinity during the cruises (July: r=-0.580, n=18, P=0.01; November: r=-0.679, n=26, P<0.001), suggesting that riverine input had an important effect on the distribution of TDCHO in surface seawater of the study area.

  16. The epidemiology and surveillance response to pandemic influenza A (H1N1) among local health departments in the San Francisco Bay Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enanoria, Wayne T A; Crawley, Adam W; Tseng, Winston; Furnish, Jasmine; Balido, Jeannie; Aragón, Tomás J

    2013-03-27

    Public health surveillance and epidemiologic investigations are critical public health functions for identifying threats to the health of a community. Very little is known about how these functions are conducted at the local level. The purpose of the Epidemiology Networks in Action (EpiNet) Study was to describe the epidemiology and surveillance response to the 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) by city and county health departments in the San Francisco Bay Area in California. The study also documented lessons learned from the response in order to strengthen future public health preparedness and response planning efforts in the region. In order to characterize the epidemiology and surveillance response, we conducted key informant interviews with public health professionals from twelve local health departments in the San Francisco Bay Area. In order to contextualize aspects of organizational response and performance, we recruited two types of key informants: public health professionals who were involved with the epidemiology and surveillance response for each jurisdiction, as well as the health officer or his/her designee responsible for H1N1 response activities. Information about the organization, data sources for situation awareness, decision-making, and issues related to surge capacity, continuity of operations, and sustainability were collected during the key informant interviews. Content and interpretive analyses were conducted using ATLAS.ti software. The study found that disease investigations were important in the first months of the pandemic, often requiring additional staff support and sometimes forcing other public health activities to be put on hold. We also found that while the Incident Command System (ICS) was used by all participating agencies to manage the response, the manner in which it was implemented and utilized varied. Each local health department (LHD) in the study collected epidemiologic data from a variety of sources, but only case reports

  17. Fission-track ages of the Tokai Group and associate formations in the east coast areas of Ise Bay and their significance in geohistory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makinouchi, Takeshi; Danhara, Toru; Isoda, Kunitoshi.

    1983-01-01

    Fission-track ages of volcanic ash layers within the Tokai Group and associate formations in the east coast areas of Ise Bay are obtained by grain-by-grain method with which individual ages for the respective zircon grains are measured. They are as follows; 1) a volcanic ash layer in the Karayama Formation (tentative age: 1.9 +- 0.4 Ma). Among the zircon grains in this layer, essential ones occupy only 1 per cent, and the others are accidental. 2) Ohtani volcanic ash layer (4.3 +- 0.6 Ma). 3) Kosugaya volcanic ash layer (4.0 +- 0.5 Ma). 4) Kaminoma volcanic ash layer (5.3 +- 0.4 Ma). 5) A volcanic ash layer in the Toyoura Formation seems to be older than 10 Ma. 6) Zircon grains in the Kofu volcanic ash layer (Tokai Group) include two types of spontaneous namely track, clear and vague ones. The latter vague tracks are shorter and thiner, and seem to suffer thermal annealing. The ages obtained have clarified the following Points; a) The tentative age, 1.9 Ma, of the ''Karayama'' volcanic ash layer suggests the existence of unknown Plio-Pleistocene sediment in the Nagoya area. b) The sedimentary basin of Lake Tokai was formed in the latest Miocene, about 6.5 Ma. Generation of the basin coincides approximately with the stage of synchronous and abrupt change in sedimentation rate in sedimentary basins on the Pacific side of central and southern Japan. c) The Tokai Group in Chita (Tokoname Group) intercalates the Gilbert/Epoch 5 boundary in the paleomagnetic chronology in the middle horizon of the group. d) Average rate of sedimentation is about 1 m/10 4 yrs in the marginal areas of the basin, and 3-5 m/10 4 yrs in the central areas. (author)

  18. 75 FR 8297 - Tongass National Forest, Thorne Bay Ranger District, Thorne Bay, AK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ..., Thorne Bay, AK AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Cancellation of Notice of intent to prepare an... Roberts, Zone Planner, Thorne Bay Ranger District, Tongass National Forest, P.O. Box 19001, Thorne Bay, AK 99919, telephone: 907-828-3250. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The 47,007-acre Kosciusko Project Area is...

  19. San Francisco Bay Area CHARG: Coastal Hazards Adaptation Resiliency Group, a Multi-Jurisdictional Collaboration to Develop Innovative Regional Solutions to Address Sea Level Rise and Improve Shoreline Resiliency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, R.

    2017-12-01

    For a challenge as complex and far-reaching as sea level rise and improving shoreline resiliency, strong partnerships between scientists, elected officials, decision-makers, and the general public are the only way that effective solutions can be developed. The San Francisco Bay, like many similar sheltered water coastal environments (for example, Galveston Bay, Tampa Bay, or Venetian Lagoon) offers a unique opportunity for multiple jurisdictions to collaborate to address sea level rise on a regional basis. For the San Francisco Bay, significant scientific progress has been made in building a real-time simulation model for riverine and Bay hydrodynamics. Other major scientific initiatives, such as morphology mapping, shoreline mapping, and a sediment budget are also underway. In 2014, leaders from the Bay Area science, engineering, planning, policy, elected, and regulatory communities representing jurisdictions around the Bay joined together to address sea level rise. The group includes people from local, regional, state, and federal agencies and organizations. Together, CHARG (Coastal Hazards Adaptation Resiliency Group) established a collective vision and approach to implementing regional solutions. Decision-makers within many Bay Area jurisdictions are motivated to show demonstrable progress toward addressing sea level rise. However, the cost to implement shoreline resiliency solutions will be very large, and must be founded on strong science.CHARG is now tackling several key technical challenges. One is to develop science-based guidelines for local jurisdictions to determine when a project is local, sub-regional, or regional. Concurrently, several organizations are planning or implementing pilot shoreline resiliency projects and other programs. Many creative regional solutions are possible in a sheltered water environment that simply would not be feasible along the open coast. By definition, these solutions cannot be undertaken by one entity alone. Large

  20. Causal Bayes Model of Mathematical Competence in Kindergarten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božidar Tepeš

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper authors define mathematical competences in the kindergarten. The basic objective was to measure the mathematical competences or mathematical knowledge, skills and abilities in mathematical education. Mathematical competences were grouped in the following areas: Arithmetic and Geometry. Statistical set consisted of 59 children, 65 to 85 months of age, from the Kindergarten Milan Sachs from Zagreb. The authors describe 13 variables for measuring mathematical competences. Five measuring variables were described for the geometry, and eight measuring variables for the arithmetic. Measuring variables are tasks which children solved with the evaluated results. By measuring mathematical competences the authors make causal Bayes model using free software Tetrad 5.2.1-3. Software makes many causal Bayes models and authors as experts chose the model of the mathematical competences in the kindergarten. Causal Bayes model describes five levels for mathematical competences. At the end of the modeling authors use Bayes estimator. In the results, authors describe by causal Bayes model of mathematical competences, causal effect mathematical competences or how intervention on some competences cause other competences. Authors measure mathematical competences with their expectation as random variables. When expectation of competences was greater, competences improved. Mathematical competences can be improved with intervention on causal competences. Levels of mathematical competences and the result of intervention on mathematical competences can help mathematical teachers.

  1. Automation in tube finishing bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatnagar, Prateek; Satyadev, B.; Raghuraman, S.; Syama Sundara Rao, B.

    1997-01-01

    Automation concept in tube finishing bay, introduced after the final pass annealing of PHWR tubes resulted in integration of number of sub-systems in synchronisation with each other to produce final cut fuel tubes of specified length, tube finish etc. The tube finishing bay which was physically segregated into four distinct areas: 1. tube spreader and stacking area, 2. I.D. sand blasting area, 3. end conditioning, wad blowing, end capping and O.D. wet grinding area, 4. tube inspection, tube cutting and stacking area has been studied

  2. The application of stereo-video technology for the assessment on population change of black rockfish Sebastes schlegeli in a vessel reef area in Haizhou Bay, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Xu, Qiang; Xu, Qinzeng; Zhang, Yingqiu; Yang, Hongsheng

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of population structure and abundance of fish assemblages associated with artificial reefs (ARs) is an important aspect of AR management. In the present study, we used a Dive-Operated Stereo Video (stereo-DOV) technique to assess the population structure and abundance of Sebastes schlegeli associated with two metallic, and three wooden, vessel reefs in Haizhou Bay during 2012 and 2013. The study used video systems to obtain length measurements and estimates of abundance. The size composition of S. schlegeli differed among reefs and individuals around vessel reefs were all adults, with total lengths (TL) of >20 cm. Juvenile fish were encountered by divers in a rocky area near the island away from the vessel reefs. The largest individual S. schlegeli (with the highest TL) among five reefs were found around a metallic vessel reef in both 2012 and 2013. TL of S. s chlegeli from all reefs increased by an average of 3.2 cm ( P<0.05) from 2012 to 2013, with an estimated mean weight increase of 250.4 g ( P<0.05). The video survey also indicated a decrease in the biomass of schools near two metallic vessels between the years. Stereo-video technology was found to be suitable for rockfish surveys around the reefs.

  3. One-Dimensional Convolutional Neural Network Land-Cover Classification of Multi-Seasonal Hyperspectral Imagery in the San Francisco Bay Area, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Guidici

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a 1-D Convolutional Neural Network (CNN architecture was developed, trained and utilized to classify single (summer and three seasons (spring, summer, fall of hyperspectral imagery over the San Francisco Bay Area, California for the year 2015. For comparison, the Random Forests (RF and Support Vector Machine (SVM classifiers were trained and tested with the same data. In order to support space-based hyperspectral applications, all analyses were performed with simulated Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI imagery. Three-season data improved classifier overall accuracy by 2.0% (SVM, 1.9% (CNN to 3.5% (RF over single-season data. The three-season CNN provided an overall classification accuracy of 89.9%, which was comparable to overall accuracy of 89.5% for SVM. Both three-season CNN and SVM outperformed RF by over 7% overall accuracy. Analysis and visualization of the inner products for the CNN provided insight to distinctive features within the spectral-temporal domain. A method for CNN kernel tuning was presented to assess the importance of learned features. We concluded that CNN is a promising candidate for hyperspectral remote sensing applications because of the high classification accuracy and interpretability of its inner products.

  4. Report on earth science studies at the Mt. Riiser-Larsen area, Amundsen Bay, Enderby Land, 2000-2001 (JARE-42

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoru Funaki

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Five members of the summer party of the 42nd Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE-42 stayed in the Mt. Riiser-Larsen area, Amundsen Bay, Enderby Land, Antarctica, from December 18, 2000 to February 18, 2001 for paleomagnetism, geochronology, electromagnetic and magnetic surveys. A resident hut was built beside the generator hut constructed by JARE-38 in the camp. For the paleomagnetic study, 741 samples from 86 sites were collected in addition to the data of susceptibility and distribution of magnetite-quartz gneiss. 187 samples of felsic gneisses and basic dike rocks were collected for the geochronology. The high conductivity layer between 8 and 28 km was elucidated by the magnetotelluric method applied to samples obtained from 5 sites on the moraine field and 1 site on Richardson Lake. Strong magnetic anomalies up to 7000 nT were observed along gneissosity and dike intrusions by the magnetic survey. The weather was relatively mild during 63 days, although the maximum wind speed reached 50.7m/s. The camp was maintained without major accidents or trouble. After the work was completed, the camp facilities at Mt. Riiser-Larsen and Tonagh Island were completely withdrawn for environmental protection.

  5. Mex Bay

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2015-02-23

    Feb 23, 2015 ... surveys to assess the vulnerability of the most important physical and eutrophication parameters along. El- Mex Bay coast. As a result of increasing population and industrial development, poorly untreated industrial waste, domestic sewage, shipping industry and agricultural runoff are being released to the.

  6. Shifting shoals and shattered rocks : How man has transformed the floor of west-central San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, John L.; Wong, Florence L.; Carlson, Paul R.

    2004-01-01

    subembayments--north bay (San Pablo and Suisun Bays), central bay, and south bay--each characterized by a central area of open water surrounded by intertidal mudflats and marshes. Central bay includes Alcatraz and Angel Islands and also a number of submerged bedrock knobs that protrude through the sediment of the bay floor and rise to within about 40 feet (12 m) of the water surface. The most prominent of these are Harding, Shag, Arch, and Blossom Rocks. These rocks have been lowered by blasting several times in the past, but they remain a potential hazard to shipping because newer cargo vessels are designed with increasingly deeper drafts. Central bay's location adjacent to two major population and commerce centers, San Francisco and Oakland, subjects it to greater human influences than less developed parts of the estuary. The western part of central San Francisco Bay is adjacent to the Golden Gate, the estuary's outlet to the Pacific Ocean. The changing submarine topography of the west-central bay, as well as its geology, form the main focus of this book.

  7. Distribution and geochemical speciation of heavy metals in sediments from coastal area suffered rapid urbanization, a case study of Shantou Bay, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Yongmin; Yang, Yang; Gu, Jiguang; Zhao, Jiangang

    2013-03-15

    Eight metals in sediment samples at 15 sites from the Shantou Bay were analyzed with BCR sequential extraction protocol to obtain the metal distribution patterns in the bay. The results showed that the heavy metal pollutions in upper bay were more severe than in middle and down reaches of the bay. Both total and non-residual fractions of metals with a exception of Mn showed a seaward decrease trend. More than 54% of the total concentrations of Cd, Mn and Zn existed in the acid soluble fraction. Ni, Co, Cr and Fe mainly (more than 51%) occurred in the residual fraction. While Pb and Cu dominantly presented in the reducible (50%) and oxidable (33%) fraction respectively. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that the heavy metals in the non-residual fractions resulted from largely anthropogenic sources, including river input, city runoff and port discharge. These contributing sources are highlighted by cluster analysis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Economic Crisis and Portuguese National Health Service Physicians: Findings from a Descriptive Study of Their Perceptions and Reactions from Health Care Units in the Greater Lisbon Area

    OpenAIRE

    Inês Rego; Giuliano Russo; Luzia Gonçalves; Julian Perelman; Pedro Pita Barros

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: In Europe, scant scientific evidence exists on the impact of economic crisis on physicians. This study aims at understanding the adjustments made by public sector physicians to the changing conditions, and their perceptions on the market for medical services in the Lisbon metropolitan area. Material and Methods: A random sample of 484 physicians from São José Hospital and health center groups in Cascais and Amadora, to explore their perceptions of the economic crisis, and the...

  9. Suprabenthic assemblages from the Capbreton area (SE Bay of Biscay). Faunal recovery after a canyon turbidity disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frutos, Inmaculada; Sorbe, Jean Claude

    2017-12-01

    In the Capbreton area, suprabenthic assemblages were sampled with a sledge towed over the bottom, at different sites located within the upper part of a 'gouf-type' canyon (8 hauls between 642 m and 797 m, on the axis of the thalweg or on flat perched flank terraces such as site K), on the northern adjacent open slope (2 hauls between 500 and 567 m) and on the northern adjacent shelf margin (2 hauls between 151 m and 158 m). A multivariate analysis carried on the faunal data discriminated different assemblages in this area: a near-canyon shelf assemblage (55 species, mainly amphipods and decapods; 3496 ind./100 m2, 40% mysids; dominant species: Nyctiphanes couchii, Leptomysis gracilis, Weswoodilla rectirostris, Anchialina agilis, Scopelocheirus hopei and Philocheras bispinosus); an open slope assemblage (111 species, mainly amphipods and isopods; 249 ind./100 m2, 36% amphipods; dominant species: Disconectes phalangium, Munnopsurus atlanticus and Boreomysis arctica); a canyon E assemblage (129 species, mainly amphipods, mysids and cumaceans; 1172 ind./100 m2, 58% amphipods; dominant species: Melphidippa sp. B, Chelator insignis); a canyon E' assemblage (107 species, mainly amphipods and mysids; 507 ind./100 m2, 73% amphipods; dominant species: Cleonardopsis carinata, Bonnierella abyssorum, Rhachotropis caeca and Arcturopsis giardi); and a temporary canyon assemblage at site K (34 species, mainly amphipods and mysids; 899 ind./100 m2, 85% amphipods; dominant species: Tmetomyx similis, Caeconyx caeculus, Nebalia sp. A and Cleonardopsis carinata). Site K was sampled only four months after a turbidity event, detected on sediment cores (18 cm thick Bouma sequence) taken during the same cruise and triggered by the violent storm ('ouragan Martin', wind up to 200 km/h) which affected the French Atlantic coast on 27 December 1999. The corresponding suprabenthic assemblage showed evidence of deep structural changes after this catastrophic event, characterized by relative low

  10. Use of a scenario-development procedure to identify potentially disruptive scenarios, Greater Confinement Disposal facility, Area 5, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzowski, R.V.; Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM

    1994-01-01

    The Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) facility includes four boreholes that contain transuranic (TRLT) waste. Presence of the TRU waste means that this facility must comply with the US Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Waste-Final Rule 40 CFR Part 191. To comply with the Containment Requirements of this rule, all potentially disruptive events and processes, and by implication all potentially disruptive combinations of events and processes (scenarios), must be identified for possible inclusion in performance assessments. Screening of the FEPs identified four events for scenario development: exploratory drilling for natural resources, drilling withdrawal wells, irrigation, and subsidence. Recent environmental-isotope analyses of the vadose zone suggest that radionuclide transport from the boreholes to the water table by infiltration is not a feasible transport mechanism within the time frame of regulatory concern. For this reason, the event of drilling withdrawal wells was merged with exploratory drilling for resources. The descriptions of the remaining three events were modified slightly to aid in estimation of event probabilities and consequence analyses. The three events are: exploratory drilling for resources penetrates a TRU borehole, irrigation occurs at the Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS), and subsidence occurs at the RWMS. Use of a logic diagram with these three events resulted in the construction of eight scenarios, including base-case (undisturbed) conditions. Screening these scenarios at this stage of scenario development was beyond the scope of this task. Based on the implementation assumptions, this scenario-development procedure produced a comprehensive set of mutually exclusive scenarios that are reproducible and auditable for use in GCD performance assessments

  11. Evaluation of mangrove ecosystem service functions of Ximen Island Marine Specially Protected Areas in Yueqing Bay, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D. G.; Sun, L.; Tan, Y. H.; Shi, A. Q.; Cheng, J.

    2017-08-01

    Taking the mangrove ecosystem of Ximen Island National Marine Specially Protected Areas as the research object, the ecological service value of the mangrove forest was evaluated and analyzed using a market value method, an ecological value method and a carbon tax method. The results showed that the ecosystem service value of the mangrove forest on Ximen Island is worth a total of 16,104,000 CNY/a. Among the value of individual ecosystem services, the direct value of material production function and leisure function reached 1,385,000 CNY/a, with a ratio of 8.6%. The indirect value of disturbance regulation, gas regulation, water purification, habitat function and culture research reached 14,719,000 CNY/a, with a ratio of 91.4%. Among the above sub-items, the proportion of disturbance regulation value, habitat function value and cultural research function value reached 78.8%, which reflects the important scientific value and ecological value of the Ximen Island mangrove ecosystem, especially its vital importance in providing a habitat for birds and playing a role in disaster prevention and mitigation.

  12. Timing of the deposition of uppermost Cretaceous and Paleocene coal-bearing deposits in the Greater Glendive area, Montana and North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    With the aid of a grant from the National Geographic Society, a cooperative agreement with the State University of New York at Stony Brook, and contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Late Cretaceous and Paleocene geologic and paleontologic field studies were undertaken in Makoshika, State Park and vicinity, Dawson County, Montana. This region was chosen as a study area because of its potential for yielding new fossil localities and extensive exposures both above and below the K/T boundary, as suggested by previous research by David W. Krause and Joseph H. Hartman. Related field studies were also undertaken in areas adjacent to the Cedar Creek Anticline in North Dakota. This work was part of ongoing research to document change in the composition of mammalian and molluscan faunas during the Late Cretaceous and Paleocene and to relate observed patterns to floral and invertebrate changes in composition. This study focuses on the record of mammals and mollusks in the Makoshika stratigraphic section and places old and new observations into a paleomagnetic and palynomorph framework. Of particular interest is the appearance and diversification of archaic ungulate mammals. Simultaneous dinosaur extinction with ungulate radiation has been invoked in gradual, as opposed to catastrophic, models of faunal change at the K/T boundary. However, supposed Cretaceous localities bearing archaic ungulates and other mammals of {open_quotes}Paleocene aspect{close_quotes} may be the product of faunal reworking. Elsewhere in the Williston Basin (e.g., Garfield and McCone Counties, Montana), the molluscan record of uppermost Cretaceous and Paleocene strata indicates the extinction of all of the highly sculptured unionid bivalves just prior to the onset of coal swamps and subsequent coal formation.

  13. Stress-based aftershock forecasts made within 24h post mainshock: Expected north San Francisco Bay area seismicity changes after the 2014M=6.0 West Napa earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Thomas E.; Segou, Margaret; Sevilgen, Volkan; Milner, Kevin; Field, Edward; Toda, Shinji; Stein, Ross S.

    2014-01-01

    We calculate stress changes resulting from the M= 6.0 West Napa earthquake on north San Francisco Bay area faults. The earthquake ruptured within a series of long faults that pose significant hazard to the Bay area, and we are thus concerned with potential increases in the probability of a large earthquake through stress transfer. We conduct this exercise as a prospective test because the skill of stress-based aftershock forecasting methodology is inconclusive. We apply three methods: (1) generalized mapping of regional Coulomb stress change, (2) stress changes resolved on Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast faults, and (3) a mapped rate/state aftershock forecast. All calculations were completed within 24 h after the main shock and were made without benefit of known aftershocks, which will be used to evaluative the prospective forecast. All methods suggest that we should expect heightened seismicity on parts of the southern Rodgers Creek, northern Hayward, and Green Valley faults.

  14. [Economic Crisis and Portuguese National Health Service Physicians: Findings from a Descriptive Study of Their Perceptions and Reactions from Health Care Units in the Greater Lisbon Area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rego, Inês; Russo, Giuliano; Gonçalves, Luzia; Perelman, Julian; Pita Barros, Pedro

    2017-04-28

    In Europe, scant scientific evidence exists on the impact of economic crisis on physicians. This study aims at understanding the adjustments made by public sector physicians to the changing conditions, and their perceptions on the market for medical services in the Lisbon metropolitan area. A random sample of 484 physicians from São José Hospital and health center groups in Cascais and Amadora, to explore their perceptions of the economic crisis, and the changes brought to their workload. This paper provides a descriptive statistical analysis of physicians' responses. In connection to the crisis, our surveyed physicians perceived an increase in demand but a decrease of supply of public health services, as well as an increase in the supply of health services by the private sector. Damaging government policies for the public sector, and the rise of private services and insurance providers were identified as game changers for the sector. Physicians reported a decrease in public remuneration (- 30.5%) and a small increase of public sector hours. A general reduction in living standard was identified as the main adaptation strategy to the crisis. Passion for the profession, its independence and flexibility, were the most frequently mentioned compensating factors. A percentage of 15% of physicians declared considering migration as a possibility for the near future. The crisis has brought non-negligible changes to physicians' working conditions and to the wider market for medical services in Portugal. The physicians' intrinsic motivation for the professions helped counterbalance salary cuts and deteriorating working conditions.

  15. What are the fluxes of greenhouse gases from the greater Los Angeles area as inferred from top-down remote sensing studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedelius, J.; Wennberg, P. O.; Wunch, D.; Roehl, C. M.; Podolske, J. R.; Hillyard, P.; Iraci, L. T.

    2017-12-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from California's South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) have been studied extensively using a variety of tower, aircraft, remote sensing, emission inventory, and modeling studies. It is impractical to survey GHG fluxes from all urban areas and hot-spots to the extent the SoCAB has been studied, but it can serve as a test location for scaling methods globally. We use a combination of remote sensing measurements from ground (Total Carbon Column Observing Network, TCCON) and space-based (Observing Carbon Observatory-2, OCO-2) sensors in an inversion to obtain the carbon dioxide flux from the SoCAB. We also perform a variety of sensitivity tests to see how the inversion performs using different model parameterizations. Fluxes do not significantly depend on the mixed layer depth, but are sensitive to the model surface layers (top-down than bottom-up fluxes highlight the need for additional work on both approaches. Higher top-down fluxes could arise from sampling bias, model bias, or may show bottom-up values underestimate sources. Lessons learned here may help in scaling up inversions to hundreds of urban systems using space-based observations.

  16. Construction of transmission pipeline across Osaka bay area -pipeline construction by shield tunnel under seabed-; Construction d'un gazoduc dans la zone de la baie d'Osaka - tunnel de protection sous-marin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takashi, AIhara [Osaka Gas Co., Ltd (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    Osaka Gas has been constructing a transmission gas pipeline across Osaka Bay Area with Osaka Port that has busy traffic. The company met several technical problems on the construction-design with measures against the subsidence of reclaimed land, anti-seismic measures, for example, in designing the pipeline construction by shield tunnel under seabed. This paper introduces the solutions to the technical problems. (authors)

  17. The psycho-sociological impact of a large technological development on a rural area with specific reference to the Mossel Bay area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waal, H.S. de.

    1989-05-01

    The public acceptability of large technological developments was studied. A socio-economic baseline profile of the community was compiled in an attempt to measure the inherent ability of a community to adjust to changes brought about by large developments. The framework within which the study was conducted included the demographic composition, the economic activity, the infrastructure of the private and public sectors, the organisational composition of the community, the expectations members of the community had in respect of the possible developments, the attitudes of the community towards itself, as well as towards outsiders and finally, the degree of solidarity that exists amongst them in respect of these attitudes. With information regarding the intended developments, certain extrapolations were made in respect of possible tendencies and changes that may come about in the demographic composition of the community. In the light of these predictions certain potential future problems were identified and pre-emptive recommendations were made accordingly. Of the most important observations that can be made is the fact that the methods used were adequate to achieve a detailed baseline profile of the community, its qualities, attitudes and expectations. The detail was sufficient to enable the researcher to compare the communities living in the different residential areas. Information gathered from interviews with leading figures turned out to be a useful tool in the verification of data gathered by way of questionnaires. 71 figs., 110 tabs., 176 refs

  18. Application of State of the Art Modeling Techniques to Predict Flooding and Waves for a Coastal Area within a Protected Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm L. Spaulding

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs are developed by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA to provide guidance in establishing the risk to structures and infrastructure from storm surge sand associated waves in the coastal zone. The maps are used by state agencies and municipalities to help guide coastal planning and establish the minimum elevation and construction standards for new or substantially improved structures. A summary of the methods used and a comparison with the results of 2013 FIRM mapping are presented for Warwick, Rhode Island (RI, a coastal community located within Narragansett Bay. Because of its location, Warwick is protected from significant coastal erosion and wave attacks, but is subject to surge amplification. Concerns surrounding the FEMA methods used in the 2013 FIRM analysis are put in context with the National Research Council’s (NRC 2009 review of the FEMA coastal mapping program. New mapping is then performed using state of the art, fully coupled surge and wave modeling, and data analysis methods, to address the NRC concerns. The new maps and methodologies are in compliance with FEMA regulations and guidelines. This new approach makes extensive use of the numerical modeling results from the recent US Army Corp of Engineers, North Atlantic Coast Comprehensive Study (NACCS, 2015. Revised flooding maps are presented and compared to the 2013 FIRM maps, to provide insight into the differences. The new maps highlight the importance of developing better estimates of surge dynamics and the advancement in nearshore mapping of waves in flood inundated areas by the use of state of the art, two-dimensional, wave transformation models.

  19. Planktonic copepod community in the neritic area south western part of Tunis bay influenced by Meliane river supplies (south western Mediterranean sea)

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Lamine, Y.; Daly Yahia Kefi, O.; Daly Yahia, N.

    2012-01-01

    The Tunis bay is located in the North Estern coast of Tunisia and receives in its Western part flows from Meliane River. Our study aims to describe the composition and the spatiotemporal distribution of planktonic copepods in the bay in order to identify the effect of the Meliane River supplies on the community. A grid of 19 stations was investigated monthly from July 2004 to December 2004 using a 160 μm mesh size plankton net, towed obliquely from the bottom to the surface. The planktonic co...

  20. USGS Tampa Bay Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, K.K.; Cronin, T. M.; Crane, M.; Hansen, M.; Nayeghandi, A.; Swarzenski, P.; Edgar, T.; Brooks, G.R.; Suthard, B.; Hine, A.; Locker, S.; Willard, D.A.; Hastings, D.; Flower, B.; Hollander, D.; Larson, R.A.; Smith, K.

    2007-01-01

    Many of the nation's estuaries have been environmentally stressed since the turn of the 20th century and will continue to be impacted in the future. Tampa Bay, one the Gulf of Mexico's largest estuaries, exemplifies the threats that our estuaries face (EPA Report 2001, Tampa Bay Estuary Program-Comprehensive Conservation and Management Plan (TBEP-CCMP)). More than 2 million people live in the Tampa Bay watershed, and the population constitutes to grow. Demand for freshwater resources, conversion of undeveloped areas to resident and industrial uses, increases in storm-water runoff, and increased air pollution from urban and industrial sources are some of the known human activities that impact Tampa Bay. Beginning on 2001, additional anthropogenic modifications began in Tampa Bat including construction of an underwater gas pipeline and a desalinization plant, expansion of existing ports, and increased freshwater withdrawal from three major tributaries to the bay. In January of 2001, the Tampa Bay Estuary Program (TBEP) and its partners identifies a critical need for participation from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in providing multidisciplinary expertise and a regional-scale, integrated science approach to address complex scientific research issue and critical scientific information gaps that are necessary for continued restoration and preservation of Tampa Bay. Tampa Bay stakeholders identified several critical science gaps for which USGS expertise was needed (Yates et al. 2001). These critical science gaps fall under four topical categories (or system components): 1) water and sediment quality, 2) hydrodynamics, 3) geology and geomorphology, and 4) ecosystem structure and function. Scientists and resource managers participating in Tampa Bay studies recognize that it is no longer sufficient to simply examine each of these estuarine system components individually, Rather, the interrelation among system components must be understood to develop conceptual and

  1. Estimation and Simulation of Inter-station Green's Functions in the Beppu-Bay Area, Oita Prefecture, Southwest Japan: the Effect of Sedimentary Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashida, T.; Yoshimi, M.; Komatsu, M.; Takenaka, H.

    2017-12-01

    Continuous long-term observations of ambient noise (microseisms) were performed from August 2014 to February 2017 in the Beppu-Bay area, Oita prefecture, to investigate S-wave velocity structure of deep sedimentary basin (Hayashida et al., 2015SSJ; Yoshimi and Hayashida, 2017WCEE). The observation array consists of 12 broadband stations with an average spacing of 12 km. We applied the seismic interferometry technique to the ambient noise data and derived nine-component ambient noise cross-correlation functions (Z-R, Z-T, Z-Z, R-R, R-T, R-Z, T-R, T-T, and T-Z components) between 66 pairs of stations (distance of 6.4 km to 65.2 km). We assumed the stacked cross-correlation functions as "observed Green's functions" between two stations and estimated group velocities of Rayleigh and Love waves in the frequency between 0.2 and 0.5 Hz (Hayashida et al., 2017AGU-JpGU). Theoretical Green's functions for all stations pairs were also calculated using the finite difference method (HOT-FDM, Nakamura et al., 2012BSSA), with an existing three-dimensional basin structure model (J-SHIS V2) with land and seafloor topography and a seawater layer (Okunaka et al., 2016JpGU) and a newly constructed basin structure model of the target area (Yoshimi et al., 2017AGU). The comparisons between observed and simulated Green's functions generally show good agreements in the frequency range between 0.2 and 0.5 Hz. On the other hand, both observed and simulated Green's functions for some station pairs whose traverse lines run across the deeper part of the sedimentary basin (> 2000 m) show prominent later phases that might be generated and propagated inside the basin. This indicates that the understanding of the phase generation and propagation processes can be a key factor to validate the basin structure model and we investigated the characteristics of the later phases, such as its particle motions and arrival times, using observed and simulated Green's functions in detail. Acknowledgements

  2. Computational Approach for Improving Three-Dimensional Sub-Surface Earth Structure for Regional Earthquake Hazard Simulations in the San Francisco Bay Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, A. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-09-25

    In our Exascale Computing Project (ECP) we seek to simulate earthquake ground motions at much higher frequency than is currently possible. Previous simulations in the SFBA were limited to 0.5-1 Hz or lower (Aagaard et al. 2008, 2010), while we have recently simulated the response to 5 Hz. In order to improve confidence in simulated ground motions, we must accurately represent the three-dimensional (3D) sub-surface material properties that govern seismic wave propagation over a broad region. We are currently focusing on the San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA) with a Cartesian domain of size 120 x 80 x 35 km, but this area will be expanded to cover a larger domain. Currently, the United States Geologic Survey (USGS) has a 3D model of the SFBA for seismic simulations. However, this model suffers from two serious shortcomings relative to our application: 1) it does not fit most of the available low frequency (< 1 Hz) seismic waveforms from moderate (magnitude M 3.5-5.0) earthquakes; and 2) it is represented with much lower resolution than necessary for the high frequency simulations (> 5 Hz) we seek to perform. The current model will serve as a starting model for full waveform tomography based on 3D sensitivity kernels. This report serves as the deliverable for our ECP FY2017 Quarter 4 milestone to FY 2018 “Computational approach to developing model updates”. We summarize the current state of 3D seismic simulations in the SFBA and demonstrate the performance of the USGS 3D model for a few selected paths. We show the available open-source waveform data sets for model updates, based on moderate earthquakes recorded in the region. We present a plan for improving the 3D model utilizing the available data and further development of our SW4 application. We project how the model could be improved and present options for further improvements focused on the shallow geotechnical layers using dense passive recordings of ambient and human-induced noise.

  3. Gravity Data for the Greater Portland Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (1,522 records) were compiled by the Portland State University. This data base was received in August 1990. Principal gravity parameters...

  4. Application of year-round atmospheric transmission data, collected with the MSRT multiband transmissometer during the FATMOSE trial in the False Bay area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, A.N. de; Eijk, A.M.J. van; Cohen, L.H.; Fritz, P.J.; Gunter, W.H.; Vrahimisb, G.; Faith, J.

    2011-01-01

    The FATMOSE trial (False Bay Atmospheric Experiment) is a continuation of the cooperative work between TNO and IMT on atmospheric propagation and point target detection and identification in a maritime environment (South Africa). The atmospheric transmission, being of major importance for target

  5. Geologic Map of the Cascade Head Area, Northwestern Oregon Coast Range (Neskiwin, Nestucca Bay, Hebo, and Dolph 7.5 minute Quadrangles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snavely, Parke D.; Niem, Alan; Wong, Florence L.; MacLeod, Norman S.; Calhoun, Tracy K.; Minasian, Diane L.; Niem, Wendy

    1996-01-01

    The geology of the Cascade Head area bridges the geology in the Tillamook Highlands to the north (Wells and others, 1994; 1995) with that of the Newport Embayment on the south (Snavely and others, 1976 a,b,c). The four 7.5-minute quadrangles (Neskowin, Nestucca Bay, Hebo, and Dolph) which comprise the Cascade Head area include significant stratigraphic, structural, and igneous data that are essential in unraveling the geology of the northern and central part of the Oregon Coast Range and of the adjacent continental shelfEarlier studies (Snavely and Vokes, 1949) were of a broad reconnaissance nature because of limited access in this rugged, densely forested part of the Siuslaw National Forest. Also, numerous thick sills of late middle Eocene diabase and middle Miocene basalt mask the Eocene stratigraphic relationships. Previous mapping was hampered by a lack of precise biostratigraphic data. However, recent advances in biostratigraphy and radiometric age dating and geochemistry have provided the necessary tools to decipher stratigraphic and structural relationships in the Eocene sedimentary and volcanic rock sequences (W.W. Rau, personal communication, 1978 to 1988; Bukry and Snavely, 1988). Many important stratigraphic and igneous relationships are displayed within the Casacde Head area: (1) turbidite sandstone of the middle Eocene Tyee Formation, which is widespread in the central and southern part of the Oregon Coast Range (Snavely and others, 1964), was not deposited in the western part of the Cascade Head, and is of limited extent north of the map area (Wells and others, 1994); (2) the late middle Eocene Yamhill Formation, which crops out along the west and east flank of the Oregon Coast Range, overlaps older strata and overlies an erosional unconformity on the lower Eocene Siletz River Volcanics (Snavely and others, 1990; 1991); (3) thick sills of late middle Eocene diabase (43 Ma) are widespread in the Cascade Head area and also form much of the eastern

  6. Thatcher Bay, Washington, Nearshore Restoration Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breems, Joel; Wyllie-Echeverria, Sandy; Grossman, Eric E.; Elliott, Joel

    2009-01-01

    The San Juan Archipelago, located at the confluence of the Puget Sound, the Straits of Juan de Fuca in Washington State, and the Straits of Georgia, British Columbia, Canada, provides essential nearshore habitat for diverse salmonid, forage fish, and bird populations. With 408 miles of coastline, the San Juan Islands provide a significant portion of the available nearshore habitat for the greater Puget Sound and are an essential part of the regional efforts to restore Puget Sound (Puget Sound Shared Strategy 2005). The nearshore areas of the San Juan Islands provide a critical link between the terrestrial and marine environments. For this reason the focus on restoration and conservation of nearshore habitat in the San Juan Islands is of paramount importance. Wood-waste was a common by-product of historical lumber-milling operations. To date, relatively little attention has been given to the impact of historical lumber-milling operations in the San Juan Archipelago. Thatcher Bay, on Blakely Island, located near the east edge of the archipelago, is presented here as a case study on the restoration potential for a wood-waste contaminated nearshore area. Case study components include (1) a brief discussion of the history of milling operations. (2) an estimate of the location and amount of the current distribution of wood-waste at the site, (3) a preliminary examination of the impacts of wood-waste on benthic flora and fauna at the site, and (4) the presentation of several restoration alternatives for the site. The history of milling activity in Thatcher Bay began in 1879 with the construction of a mill in the southeastern part of the bay. Milling activity continued for more than 60 years, until the mill closed in 1942. Currently, the primary evidence of the historical milling operations is the presence of approximately 5,000 yd3 of wood-waste contaminated sediments. The distribution and thickness of residual wood-waste at the site was determined by using sediment

  7. Creating a monthly time series of the potentiometric surface in the Upper Floridan aquifer, Northern Tampa Bay area, Florida, January 2000-December 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Terrie M.; Fouad, Geoffrey G.

    2014-01-01

    In Florida’s karst terrain, where groundwater and surface waters interact, a mapping time series of the potentiometric surface in the Upper Floridan aquifer offers a versatile metric for assessing the hydrologic condition of both the aquifer and overlying streams and wetlands. Long-term groundwater monitoring data were used to generate a monthly time series of potentiometric surfaces in the Upper Floridan aquifer over a 573-square-mile area of west-central Florida between January 2000 and December 2009. Recorded groundwater elevations were collated for 260 groundwater monitoring wells in the Northern Tampa Bay area, and a continuous time series of daily observations was created for 197 of the wells by estimating missing daily values through regression relations with other monitoring wells. Kriging was used to interpolate the monthly average potentiometric-surface elevation in the Upper Floridan aquifer over a decade. The mapping time series gives spatial and temporal coherence to groundwater monitoring data collected continuously over the decade by three different organizations, but at various frequencies. Further, the mapping time series describes the potentiometric surface beneath parts of six regionally important stream watersheds and 11 municipal well fields that collectively withdraw about 90 million gallons per day from the Upper Floridan aquifer. Monthly semivariogram models were developed using monthly average groundwater levels at wells. Kriging was used to interpolate the monthly average potentiometric-surface elevations and to quantify the uncertainty in the interpolated elevations. Drawdown of the potentiometric surface within well fields was likely the cause of a characteristic decrease and then increase in the observed semivariance with increasing lag distance. This characteristic made use of the hole effect model appropriate for describing the monthly semivariograms and the interpolated surfaces. Spatial variance reflected in the monthly

  8. Food insecurity, chronic illness, and gentrification in the San Francisco Bay Area: An example of structural violence in United States public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittle, Henry J; Palar, Kartika; Hufstedler, Lee Lemus; Seligman, Hilary K; Frongillo, Edward A; Weiser, Sheri D

    2015-10-01

    Food insecurity continues to be a major challenge in the United States, affecting 49 million individuals. Quantitative studies show that food insecurity has serious negative health impacts among individuals suffering from chronic illnesses, including people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV). Formulating effective interventions and policies to combat these health effects requires an in-depth understanding of the lived experience and structural drivers of food insecurity. Few studies, however, have elucidated these phenomena among people living with chronic illnesses in resource-rich settings, including in the United States. Here we sought to explore the experiences and structural determinants of food insecurity among a group of low-income PLHIV in the San Francisco Bay Area. Thirty-four semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with low-income PLHIV receiving food assistance from a local non-profit in San Francisco and Alameda County, California, between April and June 2014. Interview transcripts were coded and analysed according to content analysis methods following an inductive-deductive approach. The lived experience of food insecurity among participants included periods of insufficient quantity of food and resultant hunger, as well as long-term struggles with quality of food that led to concerns about the poor health effects of a cheap diet. Participants also reported procuring food using personally and socially unacceptable strategies, including long-term dependence on friends, family, and charity; stealing food; exchanging sex for food; and selling controlled substances. Food insecurity often arose from the need to pay high rents exacerbated by gentrification while receiving limited disability income--​a situation resulting in large part from the convergence of long-standing urban policies amenable to gentrification and an outdated disability policy that constrains financial viability. The experiences of food insecurity described by participants in this

  9. Seasonal changes in the communities of photosynthetic picoeukaryotes in Ofunato Bay as revealed by shotgun metagenomic sequencing

    KAUST Repository

    Rashid, Jonaira

    2018-04-30

    Small photosynthetic eukaryotes play important roles in oceanic food webs in coastal regions. We investigated seasonal changes in the communities of photosynthetic picoeukaryotes (PPEs) of the class Mamiellophyceae, including the genera Bathycoccus, Micromonas and Ostreococcus, in Ofunato Bay, which is located in northeastern Japan and faces the Pacific Ocean. The abundances of PPEs were assessed over a period of one year in 2015 at three sampling stations, KSt. 1 (innermost bay area), KSt. 2 (middle bay area) and KSt. 3 (bay entrance area) at depths of 1 m (KSt. 1, KSt. 2 and KSt. 3), 8 m (KSt. 1) or 10 m (KSt. 2 and KSt. 3) by employing MiSeq shotgun metagenomic sequencing. The total abundances of Bathycoccus, Ostreococcus and Micromonas were in the ranges of 42–49%, 35–49% and 13–17%, respectively. Considering all assayed sampling stations and depths, seasonal changes revealed high abundances of PPEs during the winter and summer and low abundances during late winter to early spring and late summer to early autumn. Bathycoccus was most abundant in the winter, and Ostreococcus showed a high abundance during the summer. Another genus, Micromonas, was relatively low in abundance throughout the study period. Taken together with previously suggested blooming periods of phytoplankton, as revealed by chlorophyll a concentrations in Ofunato Bay during spring and late autumn, these results for PPEs suggest that greater phytoplankton blooming has a negative influence on the seasonal occurrences of PPEs in the bay.

  10. Seasonal changes in the communities of photosynthetic picoeukaryotes in Ofunato Bay as revealed by shotgun metagenomic sequencing

    KAUST Repository

    Rashid, Jonaira; Kobiyama, Atsushi; Reza, Md. Shaheed; Yamada, Yuichiro; Ikeda, Yuri; Ikeda, Daisuke; Mizusawa, Nanami; Ikeo, Kazuho; Sato, Shigeru; Ogata, Takehiko; Kudo, Toshiaki; Kaga, Shinnosuke; Watanabe, Shiho; Naiki, Kimiaki; Kaga, Yoshimasa; Mineta, Katsuhiko; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Gojobori, Takashi; Watabe, Shugo

    2018-01-01

    Small photosynthetic eukaryotes play important roles in oceanic food webs in coastal regions. We investigated seasonal changes in the communities of photosynthetic picoeukaryotes (PPEs) of the class Mamiellophyceae, including the genera Bathycoccus, Micromonas and Ostreococcus, in Ofunato Bay, which is located in northeastern Japan and faces the Pacific Ocean. The abundances of PPEs were assessed over a period of one year in 2015 at three sampling stations, KSt. 1 (innermost bay area), KSt. 2 (middle bay area) and KSt. 3 (bay entrance area) at depths of 1 m (KSt. 1, KSt. 2 and KSt. 3), 8 m (KSt. 1) or 10 m (KSt. 2 and KSt. 3) by employing MiSeq shotgun metagenomic sequencing. The total abundances of Bathycoccus, Ostreococcus and Micromonas were in the ranges of 42–49%, 35–49% and 13–17%, respectively. Considering all assayed sampling stations and depths, seasonal changes revealed high abundances of PPEs during the winter and summer and low abundances during late winter to early spring and late summer to early autumn. Bathycoccus was most abundant in the winter, and Ostreococcus showed a high abundance during the summer. Another genus, Micromonas, was relatively low in abundance throughout the study period. Taken together with previously suggested blooming periods of phytoplankton, as revealed by chlorophyll a concentrations in Ofunato Bay during spring and late autumn, these results for PPEs suggest that greater phytoplankton blooming has a negative influence on the seasonal occurrences of PPEs in the bay.

  11. Over 100 years of environmental change recorded by foraminifers and sediments in Mobile Bay, Alabama, Gulf of Mexico, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterman, Lisa E.; Smith, Christopher G.

    2012-12-01

    The marine microfauna of Mobile Bay has been profoundly influenced by the development and expansion of the primary shipping channel over the last ˜100 years. Foraminifers and sediments from seven box cores with excess lead-210 chronology document that channel dredging and spoil disposal have altered circulation, reduced estuarine mixing, changed sedimentation patterns, and caused a faunal turnover within the bay. Beginning in the late 1800s, changes in estuarine mixing allowed for greater low-pH freshwater influence in the bay, and ultimately began environmental changes that resulted in the loss of calcareous foraminifers. By the early 1900s, box cores throughout Mobile Bay record a ˜100-year trend of increasing calcareous test dissolution that continues to the present. Since the completion of the current shipping channel in the 1950s, restricted tidal flushing and increased terrestrial organic matter, documented by carbon-to-nitrogen ratios, stimulated an increase in agglutinated foraminiferal densities. However, in deeper areas of the bay, hypoxic water has negatively impacted the marine microfauna. Comparisons of the present-day foraminiferal assemblage with foraminifers collected in the early 1970s indicate that the continued biologic loss of calcareous foraminifers in the bay has allowed the introduction of a new agglutinated foraminiferal species into the bay.

  12. Concentrations of metals in blood and feathers of nestling ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) in Chesapeake and Delaware Bays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, B.A.; Golden, N.H.; Toschik, P.C.; McGowan, P.C.; Custer, T.W.

    2008-01-01

    In 2000, 2001, and 2002, blood and feather samples were collected from 40-45-day-old nestling ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) from Chesapeake Bay and Delaware Bay and River. Concentrations of 18 metals, metalloids, and other elements were determined in these samples by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy, and Hg concentrations were measured by cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy. When compared to concurrent reference areas (South, West, and Rhode Rivers), mean As and Hg concentrations in blood were greater (p nestlings from the highly industrialized Elizabeth River compared to the rural reference area. When compared to the concurrent reference area, mean Al, Ba, Hg, Mn, and Pb concentrations in feathers were substantially greater (p nestlings from northern Delaware Bay and River had greater concentrations (p nestling feathers from Delaware were frequently greater than in the Chesapeake. The present findings and those of related reproductive studies suggest that concentrations of several heavy metals (e.g., Cd, Hg, Pb) in nestling blood and feathers from Chesapeake and Delaware Bays were below toxicity thresholds and do not seem to be affecting chick survival during the nestling period.

  13. Bird surveys at McKinley Bay and Hutchison Bay, Northwest Territories, in 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornish, B J; Dickson, D L; Dickson, H L

    1992-03-01

    McKinley Bay is a shallow protected bay along the eastern Beaufort Sea coast which provides an important habitat for diving ducks. Since 1979, the bay has been the site of a winter harbor and support base for oil and gas exploraton in the Beaufort Sea. Aerial surveys for bird abundance and distribution were conducted in August 1991 as a continuation of long-term monitoring of birds in McKinley Bay and Hutchison Bay, a nearby area used as a control. The main objectives of the 1991 surveys were to expand the set of baseline data on natural annual fluctuations in diving duck numbers, and to determine if numbers of diving ducks had changed since the initial 1981-85 surveys. On the day with the best survey conditions, the population of diving ducks at McKinley bay was estimated at ca 32,000, significantly more than 1981-85. At Hutchison Bay, there were an estimated 11,000 ducks. As in previous years, large numbers of diving ducks were observed off Atkinson Point at the northwest corner of McKinley Bay, at the south end of the bay, and in the northeast corner near a long spit. Most divers in Hutchison Bay were at the west side. Diving ducks, primarily Oldsquaw and scoter, were the most abundant bird group in the study area. Observed distribution patterns of birds are discussed with reference to habitat preferences. 16 refs., 7 figs., 30 tabs.

  14. Effects of November 8, 1980 earthquake on Humboldt Bay Power Plant and Eureka, California area. Reconnaissance report 13 Nov-14 Nov 80

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herring, K.S.; Rooney, V.; Chokshi, N.C.

    1981-06-01

    On November 8, 1980, an earthquake of a reported surface wave magnitude of 7.0 occurred off the coast of California, west of Eureka and the Humboldt Bay Power Plant. Three NRC staff members visited the site the following week to survey any damage associated with the earthquake, with the objective of using collected data to assist the NRR staff in ongoing seismic evaluations of older operating nuclear power plant facilities. This report contains their observations. They concluded that the effects of the earthquake on Humboldt Bay Power Plant Unit 3 were minimal and did not endanger the health and safety of the public. They recommended that improvements be made to seismic recording equipment and that generic preparation for future post-earthquake reconnaissance trips be made before the actual occurrence of earthquakes

  15. Early Holocene estuary development of the Hesselø Bay area, southern Kattegat, Denmark and its implication for Ancylus Lake drainage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Carina; Boldreel, Lars Ole; Jensen, Jørn Bo

    2017-01-01

    environment and a description of coastal processes associated with a river outlet into the bay are presented. Weichselian glacial deposits form the lowermost interpreted unit, covered by late glacial (LG) and postglacial (PG, Holocene) sediments. A funnel-shaped estuary existed at the mouth of channels......High-resolution shallow seismic data, sediment core information, radiocarbon dating and sequence stratigraphy have been used to interpret the late glacial to early Holocene geological evolution of Hesselø Bay in the southern Kattegat, Denmark. A reconstruction of the early Holocene coastal...... in the period 10.3–9.2 cal. ka BP; the channels drained water from south to north. The early PG is characterised by estuarine and coastal deposits. The early Holocene bars that developed in the estuary are preserved as morphological features on the present-day seabed, possibly as a result of rapid relative sea...

  16. Mesozooplankton community in the Bay of Bengal (India): Spatial variability during the summer monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, V.; Ramaiah, N.

    Bay had higher mesozooplankton biomass, copepod species richness and diversity than in the Western Bay. Although zooplankton biomass and densities were greater at the eddy stations, correlation between zooplankton and chl a was not statistically...

  17. Elemental analysis of Uranouchi bay seabed sludge using PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabir, M. Hasnat; Narusawa, Tadashi; Nishiyama, Fumitaka; Sumi, Katsuhiro

    2006-01-01

    Elemental analyses were carried out for the seabed sludge collected from Uranouchi bay (Kochi, Japan) using Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). Seabed-sludge contamination with heavy metals as well as toxic elements becomes one of the most serious environmental problems. The aim of the present study is to investigate the polluted areas in the bay by heavy and toxic elements. As a results of analyses of samples collected from eleven different places in the bay, seventeen elements including toxic ones were detected. The results suggest that the center region of the bay is seriously contaminated by heavy and toxic elements in comparison with the other areas in the bay. (author)

  18. 33 CFR 110.120 - San Luis Obispo Bay, Calif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false San Luis Obispo Bay, Calif. 110... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.120 San Luis Obispo Bay, Calif. (a) Area A-1. Area A-1 is the water area bounded by the San Luis Obispo County wharf, the shoreline, a line drawn...

  19. Radiation monitoring. Quarterly report for the Greater Manchester Fire and Civil Defence Authority and the Manchester Area Pollution Advisory Council. Manchester Area Gamma Radiation Air Monitoring System (MANAGRAMS), report covering period of 3 months 1 January to 31 March 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Gamma radiation monitoring data from nine outstations in the Manchester area for the period 01/01/96 to 31/03/96 are presented. For each station there is a summary table, a background radiation graph showing 6 hour mean levels and a windrose graph showing the direction of the wind as a percentage of the total. A line graph comparison between stations is provided for the background 6 hour mean levels and a bar chart comparison of total dose. Graphs of temperature and barometric pressure taken from extra sensors at the Trafford station are presented. (UK)

  20. Understanding nutrients in the Chesapeake Bay watershed and implications for management and restoration: the Eastern Shore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ator, Scott W.; Denver, Judith M.

    2015-03-12

    The Eastern Shore includes only a small part of the Chesapeake Bay watershed, but contributes disproportionately large loads of the excess nitrogen and phosphorus that have contributed to ecological and economic degradation of the bay in recent decades. Chesapeake Bay is the largest estuary in the United States and a vital ecological and economic resource. The bay and its tributaries have been degraded in recent decades by excessive nitrogen and phosphorus in the water column, however, which cause harmful algal blooms and decreased water clarity, submerged aquatic vegetation, and dissolved oxygen. The disproportionately large nitrogen and phosphorus yields from the Eastern Shore to Chesapeake Bay are attributable to human land-use practices as well as natural hydrogeologic and soil conditions. Applications of nitrogen and phosphorus compounds to the Eastern Shore from human activities are intensive. More than 90 percent of nitrogen and phosphorus reaching the land in the Eastern Shore is applied as part of inorganic fertilizers or manure, or (for nitrogen) fixed directly from the atmosphere in cropland. Also, hydrogeologic and soil conditions promote the movement of these compounds from application areas on the landscape to groundwater and (or) surface waters, and the proximity of much of the Eastern Shore to tidal waters limits opportunities for natural removal of these compounds in the landscape. The Eastern Shore only includes 7 percent of the Chesapeake Bay watershed, but receives nearly twice as much nitrogen and phosphorus applications (per area) as the remainder of the watershed and yields greater nitrogen and phosphorus, on average, to the bay. Nitrogen and phosphorus commonly occur in streams at concentrations that may adversely affect aquatic ecosystems and have increased in recent decades.

  1. Delaware River and Upper Bay Sediment Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The area of coverage consists of 192 square miles of benthic habitat mapped from 2005 to 2007 in the Delaware River and Upper Delaware Bay. The bottom sediment map...

  2. Corpus ChristiEast Matagorda Bay 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Patterns of habitat utilization were compared among transplanted and natural Spartina alterniflora marshes in the Halls Lake area of Chocolate Bay in the Galveston...

  3. Contaminant transport in Massachusetts Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butman, Bradford

    Construction of a new treatment plant and outfall to clean up Boston Harbor is currently one of the world's largest public works projects, costing about $4 billion. There is concern about the long-term impact of contaminants on Massachusetts Bay and adjacent Gulf of Maine because these areas are used extensively for transportation, recreation, fishing, and tourism, as well as waste disposal. Public concern also focuses on Stellwagen Bank, located on the eastern side of Massachusetts Bay, which is an important habitat for endangered whales. Contaminants reach Massachusetts Bay not only from Boston Harbor, but from other coastal communities on the Gulf of Maine, as well as from the atmosphere. Knowledge of the pathways, mechanisms, and rates at which pollutants are transported throughout these coastal environments is needed to address a wide range of management questions.

  4. Paleoenvironment interpretation of a 1760 years B.P. old sediment in a mangrove area of the Bay of Guanabara, using pollen analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barth Ortrud M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A sediment sample was obtained at 122 cm from the top of a drilling core in the Guapimirim mangrove, Bay of Guanabara, and analyzed using pollen analysis. This muddy core reached a sandy ground at 133 cm. 14C datation got the age of 1760 ? 50 years B.P. The most frequent pollen grains were mangrove species of Rhizophora mangle, Laguncularia racemosa and Avicennia schaueriana. "Restinga" and tropical rain forest vegetation was recognized behind the mangrove. After the last sea transgression at 2500 years B.P., the water level lowered to its actual size, allowing the installation of this mangrove.

  5. Paleoenvironment interpretation of a 1760 years B.P. old sediment in a mangrove area of the Bay of Guanabara, using pollen analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Barth, Ortrud M.; São-Thiago, Luiz E.U.; Barros, Marcia A.

    2006-01-01

    A sediment sample was obtained at 122 cm from the top of a drilling core in the Guapimirim mangrove, Bay of Guanabara, and analyzed using pollen analysis. This muddy core reached a sandy ground at 133 cm. 14C datation got the age of 1760 ± 50 years B.P. The most frequent pollen grains were mangrove species of Rhizophora mangle, Laguncularia racemosa and Avicennia schaueriana. "Restinga" and tropical rain forest vegetation was recognized behind the mangrove. After the last sea transgression at...

  6. Greater autonomy at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtman, I.L.D.

    2004-01-01

    In the past 10 years, workers in the Netherlands increasingly report more decision-making power in their work. This is important for an economy in recession and where workers face greater work demands. It makes work more interesting, creates a healthier work environment, and provides opportunities

  7. A Glance at Bohai Bay Oil Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Shoubai

    1995-01-01

    @@ Chinese oil industry keeps on developing in 1994. The oil production of Bohai Bay Oil Province located in East China also keeps on growing. Geologically,the total area of Bohai Bay Basin is about 200 000 km2 and the main structural units are: Liaohe Depression, Huanghua Depression,Jizhong Depression, Linqing Depression, Jiyang Depression, Changwei Depression, Bozhong Depression,Chengning Uplift and Cangjing Uplift (see figure 1). Area of the main structural units is listed in following:

  8. Assessments of urban growth in the Tampa Bay watershed using remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, G.; Crane, M.

    2005-01-01

    Urban development has expanded rapidly in the Tampa Bay area of west-central Florida over the past century. A major effect associated with this population trend is transformation of the landscape from natural cover types to increasingly impervious urban land. This research utilizes an innovative approach for mapping urban extent and its changes through determining impervious surfaces from Landsat satellite remote sensing data. By 2002, areas with subpixel impervious surface greater than 10% accounted for approximately 1800 km2, or 27 percent of the total watershed area. The impervious surface area increases approximately three-fold from 1991 to 2002. The resulting imperviousness data are used with a defined suite of geospatial data sets to simulate historical urban development and predict future urban and suburban extent, density, and growth patterns using SLEUTH model. Also examined is the increasingly important influence that urbanization and its associated imperviousness extent have on the individual drainage basins of the Tampa Bay watershed.

  9. 76 FR 28309 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Sturgeon Bay, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... vehicular traffic congestion would not develop on downtown Sturgeon Bay streets due to unscheduled bridge... schedules during the peak tourist and navigation seasons to provide for the efficient movement of vehicular... between Lake Michigan and Green Bay. The area experiences a significant increase in vehicular and vessel...

  10. Preliminary approach to the construction of a Scale of Adherence to the Principles of Criminal Law (SAPCL. A pilot study in the Greater Metropolitan area of Concepción, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Javier Fuentealba Carrasco

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the psychometric properties of the “Scale of adherence to the principles of Criminal Law” of a pilot study applied to a consecutive sample of 369 cases in the Greater Metropolitan Area of Concepción, Chile. The logic behind the construction of the instrument and its structure is described, focusing on exposing the properties of construct validity through EFA and convergent validity through an inverse correlation with a scale of perceived insecurity. In terms of reliability, we present Cronbach’s Alpha for the General Scale and for each subscale generated. It concludes with the scope, limitations and projections of the scale, as well as suggestions for its expansion and potential for application in other contexts.

  11. Persistent organic pollutants and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in penguins of the genus Pygoscelis in Admiralty Bay - An Antarctic specially managed area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montone, Rosalinda C; Taniguchi, Satie; Colabuono, Fernanda I; Martins, César C; Cipro, Caio Vinícius Z; Barroso, Hileia S; da Silva, Josilene; Bícego, Márcia C; Weber, Rolf R

    2016-05-15

    Persistent organic pollutants were assessed in fat samples of the Gentoo (Pygoscelis papua), Chinstrap (Pygoscelis antarcticus) and Adélie (Pygoscelis adeliae) penguins collected during the austral summers of 2005/06 and 2006/07 in Admiralty Bay, King George Island, Antarctica. The predominant organic pollutants were PCB (114 to 1115), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (60.1 to 238.7), HCB (penguins. Chicks of all three species showed similar profiles of PCB congeners, with predominance of lower chlorinated compounds. The distribution of PAHs was similar in all birds, with a predominance of naphthalene and alkyl-naphthalene, which are the main constituents of arctic diesel fuel. These data contribute to the monitoring of the continued exposure to organic pollutants in the Antarctic biota. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Dissolved oxygen content as an index of water quality in San Vicente Bay, Chile (36 degrees 45'S).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Anny; Ahumada, Ramón; Pérez, Claudio

    2002-08-01

    The present report describes some effects of industrial and municipal effluents on the waters of San Vicente Bay. Analyses of the main substances contained in the fishing industry effluent suggest rating criteria based on the oxygen saturation of the water as an assessment of organic pollution. Six cruises were carried out throughout the Bay, from June to December 1996. Water samples were analyzed for dissolved oxygen, oil and grease content, and sediment samples for organic matter content. Water parameters (salinity, temperature) were used to characterize the Bay's hydrography, and to calculate values for oxygen saturation. The measurements demonstrated a local broad range of oxygen deficit, with a maximum of 45% in the winter to 95% in the spring. In November more than 65% of the Bay's area showed oxygen deficits greater than 40%. Organic matter was unusually high in sediments along the northern sector of the Bay. The results suggest that the oxygen depletion was a representative parameter for establishing a relative scale of water quality in this Bay.

  13. Greater-confinement disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevorrow, L.E.; Schubert, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    Greater-confinement disposal (GCD) is a general term for low-level waste (LLW) disposal technologies that employ natural and/or engineered barriers and provide a degree of confinement greater than that of shallow-land burial (SLB) but possibly less than that of a geologic repository. Thus GCD is associated with lower risk/hazard ratios than SLB. Although any number of disposal technologies might satisfy the definition of GCD, eight have been selected for consideration in this discussion. These technologies include: (1) earth-covered tumuli, (2) concrete structures, both above and below grade, (3) deep trenches, (4) augered shafts, (5) rock cavities, (6) abandoned mines, (7) high-integrity containers, and (8) hydrofracture. Each of these technologies employ several operations that are mature,however, some are at more advanced stages of development and demonstration than others. Each is defined and further described by information on design, advantages and disadvantages, special equipment requirements, and characteristic operations such as construction, waste emplacement, and closure

  14. POTENTIAL HAZARDS OF SEDIMENT IN KENDARI BAY, SOUTHEAST SULAWESI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Adi Kristanto

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Kendari bay is located in front of Kendari city. There are two harbors in the inner part of bay which very important to support economic activities such as shipping and passenger transportation. The result of coastal characteristic mapping and physical oceanography survey show various coastal morphology, vegetation, weathering processes, sedimentation, currents, and water depth and sea floor morphology. Kendari bay is an enclosed bay; the area is wide in the inner part and narrow in mouth of bay (outlet, the morphology look like a bottle’s neck. Numerous mouth rivers are concentrate around the bay. The rivers load material from land since erosion on land is intensive enough. There is indication that sediment supplies from land trough river mouth not equivalent with outlet capacity. Sediment load is trapped in the inner bay caused the outlet morphology. So high sediment rate play an important role in the process of shallow of water depth in Kendari bay. This condition make the Kendari bay is a prone area of sediment hazard due to height rate of sedimentary process. Therefore, to anticipate the hazards, precaution should be taken related to the Kendari bay as the center of activities in southeast of Sulawesi. The further survey is needed such as marine geotechnique and on land environmental to collect data, which can be used as database for development planning. Key words: Potential hazard, sediment, Kendari Bay Teluk

  15. Concentrations of heavy metals in sediment and organisms during a harmful algal bloom (HAB) at Kun Kaak Bay, Sonora, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Hernandez, Jaqueline [Centro de investigacion en Alimentacion y Desarrollo AC (CIAD) Guaymas Unit, Carretera al Varadero Nal. Km 6.6, Apdo. Postal 284, CP 85480 Guaymas, Sonora (Mexico)]. E-mail: jaqueline@cascabel.ciad.mx; Garcia-Rico, Leticia [Centro de investigacion en Alimentacion y Desarrollo AC (CIAD), Carretera a la Victoria Km 0.6, Apdo. Postal 1735, CP 83000 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)]. E-mail: lgarciar@cascabel.ciad.mx; Jara-Marini, Martin E. [Centro de investigacion en Alimentacion y Desarrollo AC (CIAD), Carretera a la Victoria Km 0.6, Apdo. Postal 1735, CP 83000 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)]. E-mail: mjara@cascabel.ciad.mx; Barraza-Guardado, Ramon [Departamento de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnologicas de la Universidad de Sonora (DICTUS), Rosales y Ninos Heroes s/n Col. Centro, CP 83000 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)]. E-mail: rbarraza@rtn.uson.mx; Hudson Weaver, Amy [Comunidad y Biodiversidad AC - COBI, Terminacion Bahia de Bacochibampo s/m, Fraccionamiento Lomas de Cortes, CP 85450 Guaymas, Sonora (Mexico)]. E-mail: ahw@cobi.org.mx

    2005-07-01

    In early April 2003, fishermen from Kino Bay Sonora alerted us about a massive die-off of fish and mollusks occurring at Kun Kaak Bay. Phytoplankton samples taken on 17 May 2003 reported the presence of a harmful algal bloom composed of Chatonella marina, Chatonella cf. ovata, Gymnodinium catenatum and Gymnodinium sanguineum. On 22 of May, we collected samples of water, sediment and organisms at the affected area. Physicochemical parameters and nutrients were measured in water samples from different depths. Sediment and benthic organisms were analyzed for Cd, Cu, Zn, Pb and Hg. We found concentrations of heavy metals higher than background levels for this area. Cadmium and Lead concentrations in sediment from the HAB area were up to 6x greater than background levels and Cd in mollusks was 8x greater than regulations allow. A relationship between elevated Cd and Pb concentrations in sediment and the survival of toxic dinoflagellates is suspected.

  16. Concentrations of heavy metals in sediment and organisms during a harmful algal bloom (HAB) at Kun Kaak Bay, Sonora, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Hernandez, Jaqueline; Garcia-Rico, Leticia; Jara-Marini, Martin E.; Barraza-Guardado, Ramon; Hudson Weaver, Amy

    2005-01-01

    In early April 2003, fishermen from Kino Bay Sonora alerted us about a massive die-off of fish and mollusks occurring at Kun Kaak Bay. Phytoplankton samples taken on 17 May 2003 reported the presence of a harmful algal bloom composed of Chatonella marina, Chatonella cf. ovata, Gymnodinium catenatum and Gymnodinium sanguineum. On 22 of May, we collected samples of water, sediment and organisms at the affected area. Physicochemical parameters and nutrients were measured in water samples from different depths. Sediment and benthic organisms were analyzed for Cd, Cu, Zn, Pb and Hg. We found concentrations of heavy metals higher than background levels for this area. Cadmium and Lead concentrations in sediment from the HAB area were up to 6x greater than background levels and Cd in mollusks was 8x greater than regulations allow. A relationship between elevated Cd and Pb concentrations in sediment and the survival of toxic dinoflagellates is suspected

  17. Concentrations of heavy metals in sediment and organisms during a harmful algal bloom (HAB) at Kun Kaak Bay, Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Hernández, Jaqueline; García-Rico, Leticia; Jara-Marini, Martin E; Barraza-Guardado, Ramón; Hudson Weaver, Amy

    2005-07-01

    In early April 2003, fishermen from Kino Bay Sonora alerted us about a massive die-off of fish and mollusks occurring at Kun Kaak Bay. Phytoplankton samples taken on 17 May 2003 reported the presence of a harmful algal bloom composed of Chatonella marina, Chatonella cf. ovata, Gymnodinium catenatum and Gymnodinium sanguineum. On 22 of May, we collected samples of water, sediment and organisms at the affected area. Physicochemical parameters and nutrients were measured in water samples from different depths. Sediment and benthic organisms were analyzed for Cd, Cu, Zn, Pb and Hg. We found concentrations of heavy metals higher than background levels for this area. Cadmium and Lead concentrations in sediment from the HAB area were up to 6x greater than background levels and Cd in mollusks was 8x greater than regulations allow. A relationship between elevated Cd and Pb concentrations in sediment and the survival of toxic dinoflagellates is suspected.

  18. Over 100 years of environmental change recorded by foraminifers and sediments in a large Gulf of Mexico estuary, Mobile Bay, AL, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterman, Lisa E.; Smith, Christopher G.

    2012-01-01

    The marine microfauna of Mobile Bay has been profoundly influenced by the development and expansion of the primary shipping channel over the last ˜100 years. Foraminifers and sediments from seven box cores with excess lead-210 chronology document that channel dredging and spoil disposal have altered circulation, reduced estuarine mixing, changed sedimentation patterns, and caused a faunal turnover within the bay. Beginning in the late 1800s, changes in estuarine mixing allowed for greater low-pH freshwater influence in the bay, and ultimately began environmental changes that resulted in the loss of calcareous foraminifers. By the early 1900s, box cores throughout Mobile Bay record a ˜ 100-year trend of increasing calcareous test dissolution that continues to the present. Since the completion of the current shipping channel in the 1950s, restricted tidal flushing and increased terrestrial organic matter, documented by carbon-to-nitrogen ratios, stimulated an increase in agglutinated foraminiferal densities. However, in deeper areas of the bay, hypoxic water has negatively impacted the marine microfauna. Comparisons of the present-day foraminiferal assemblage with foraminifers collected in the early 1970s indicate that the continued biologic loss of calcareous foraminifers in the bay has allowed the introduction of a new agglutinated foraminiferal species into the bay.

  19. Wolverine in Greater Yellowstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerry Murphy; Jason Wilmot; Jeff Copeland; Dan Tyers; John. Squires

    2011-01-01

    The wolverine is one of the least studied carnivores in North America, particularly in the contiguous United States where it occurs at the southern extent of its range. This project documented the distribution of wolverines in the eastern portion of Yellowstone National Park and adjoining areas of national forest and their population characteristics, habitat...

  20. More features, greater connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Sarah

    2015-09-01

    Changes in our political infrastructure, the continuing frailties of our economy, and a stark growth in population, have greatly impacted upon the perceived stability of the NHS. Healthcare teams have had to adapt to these changes, and so too have the technologies upon which they rely to deliver first-class patient care. Here Sarah Hunt, marketing co-ordinator at Aid Call, assesses how the changing healthcare environment has affected one of its fundamental technologies - the nurse call system, argues the case for wireless such systems in terms of what the company claims is greater adaptability to changing needs, and considers the ever-wider range of features and functions available from today's nurse call equipment, particularly via connectivity with both mobile devices, and ancillaries ranging from enuresis sensors to staff attack alert 'badges'.

  1. Appearance and water quality of turbidity plumes produced by dredging in Tampa Bay, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Carl R.; Michaelis, D.M.

    1984-01-01

    near the mouth of Tampa Bay produced a two-part or separated plume. Flow acceleration contracted the width of the visible plume, and subsequent flow deceleration caused plume expansion. The two wide segments of the plume appeared to be separated from each other because of the intervening narrow part. Waters ambient to the plumes were tested for clarity in two sections of Tampa Bay. Ambient-water transparency in Tampa Bay was about three times greater near its mouth, in South Tampa Bay, than near its head, in Hillsborough Bay. Two other measures of water clarity, turbidity and suspended solids, showed no statistically significant difference between the two areas, however, indicating that transparency is a more sensitive measure of ambient water clarity than either turbidity or suspended solids. The nutrient and metal concentrations for samples of plume water and water ambient to the plumes in Tampa Bay were statistically equivalent, indicating no detectable changes due to dredging. The concentrations of dissolved copper, lead, mercury, and total mercury, however, were greater in plumes in Hillsborough Bay than in South Tampa Bay. In Hillsborough Bay, six occurrences of the herbicide 2,4-D at concentrations near the detection limit, 0.01 to 0.05 micrograms per liter, were unrelated to dredging activity. Data recorded for longer than the study period indicate that from 1976 through 1979 few average turbidity characteristics in South Tampa and Hillsborough Bays can be directly attributed to dredging operation

  2. San Francisco Bay Long Term Management Strategy for Dredging

    Science.gov (United States)

    The San Francisco Bay Long Term Management Strategy (LTMS) is a cooperative effort to develop a new approach to dredging and dredged material disposal in the San Francisco Bay area. The LTMS serves as the Regional Dredging Team for the San Francisco area.

  3. Accumulation and distribution of trace metals and radionuclides in marine organisms (particularly Tapes decussatus L.) in the Izmir bay area, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geldiay, R.; Uysal, H.

    1976-01-01

    The shell fish Tapes decussatus has economic importance as a product from Izmir bay. The concentrations of trace metals (Cu, Mn, Zn, Fe, Pb, Co, Cr, Hg, Cd) in this organism have been determined in relation to different localities with polluted and non-polluted waters. Measurement of levels and trends of these trace elements are important in the context of public health. Seasonal as well as spatial variation of 65 Zn and 115 Cd in the organs and tissues of T. decussatus were determined. A comparison of the concentration of trace elements in natural conditions with that in laboratory conditions was made using radioisotopes. The concentrations of trace elements in T. decussatus varied according to the tissues and organs of the body, the size of the animal, the locality of sampling and the season of the year. Bio-concentrations of radioactive 65 Zn and 115 Cd were also observed to vary according to the tissues and organs of the animal. Pathways of the trace elements were also studied using radioisotopes ( 65 Zn and 115 Cd). The effects of toxicity of the stable elements on their uptake and loss were also determined. The toxic effects of different concentrations on the uptake and loss of 65 Zn and 115 Cd were studied. (author)

  4. 33 CFR 334.200 - Chesapeake Bay, Point Lookout to Cedar Point; aerial and surface firing range and target area, U...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degrees 09 minutes 26 seconds identified as Hannibal Target. (3) The regulations. Nonexplosive projectiles and bombs will be dropped at frequent intervals in the target areas. Hooper and Hannibal target areas...

  5. Clinical treatment outcomes of tuberculosis treated with the basic regimen recommended by the Brazilian National Ministry of Health using fixed-dose combination tablets in the greater metropolitan area of Goiânia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Anna Carolina Galvão; Silva Júnior, José Laerte Rodrigues da; Conde, Marcus Barreto; Rabahi, Marcelo Fouad

    2013-01-01

    To describe the rates of cure, treatment failure, and treatment abandonment obtained with the basic regimen recommended by the Brazilian National Ministry of Health (rifampin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol for two months, followed by isoniazid and rifampin for four months) involving the use of fixed-dose combination tablets (self-administered treatment), as well as to describe adverse events and their potential impact on treatment outcomes. This was a descriptive study based on prospective data obtained from the medical records of tuberculosis patients (> 18 years of age) treated with the basic regimen at either of two primary health care facilities in the greater metropolitan area of Goiânia, Brazil. The study sample comprised 40 tuberculosis patients. The rate of cure was 67.5%, the rate of treatment abandonment was 17.5%, and there were no cases of treatment failure. Of the 40 patients in the sample, 19 (47%) reported adverse reactions, which were mild and moderate, respectively, in 87% and 13% of the cases. It was not necessary to alter the regimen or discontinue the treatment in any of the cases evaluated. The rate of cure obtained with the self-administered, fixed-dose combination tablet form of the new basic regimen was similar to the historical rates of cure obtained with the previous regimen. The rate of treatment abandonment in our sample was much higher than that considered appropriate (up to 5%).

  6. Clinical treatment outcomes of tuberculosis treated with the basic regimen recommended by the Brazilian National Ministry of Health using fixed-dose combination tablets in the greater metropolitan area of Goiânia, Brazil *

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Anna Carolina Galvão; da Silva, José Laerte Rodrigues; Conde, Marcus Barreto; Rabahi, Marcelo Fouad

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the rates of cure, treatment failure, and treatment abandonment obtained with the basic regimen recommended by the Brazilian National Ministry of Health-rifampin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol for two months, followed by isoniazid and rifampin for four months-involving the use of fixed-dose combination tablets (self-administered treatment), as well as to describe adverse events and their potential impact on treatment outcomes. METHODS: This was a descriptive study based on prospective data obtained from the medical records of tuberculosis patients (≥ 18 years of age) treated with the basic regimen at either of two primary health care facilities in the greater metropolitan area of Goiânia, Brazil. RESULTS: The study sample comprised 40 tuberculosis patients. The rate of cure was 67.5%, the rate of treatment abandonment was 17.5%, and there were no cases of treatment failure. Of the 40 patients in the sample, 19 (47%) reported adverse reactions, which were mild and moderate, respectively, in 87% and 13% of the cases. It was not necessary to alter the regimen or discontinue the treatment in any of the cases evaluated. CONCLUSIONS: The rate of cure obtained with the self-administered, fixed-dose combination tablet form of the new basic regimen was similar to the historical rates of cure obtained with the previous basic regimen. The rate of treatment abandonment in our sample was much higher than that considered appropriate (up to 5%). PMID:23503489

  7. Persistent organochlorine pollutants in eggs of colonial waterbirds from Galveston Bay and East Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, D.S.; Mora, M.A.; Sericano, J.L.; Blankenship, Alan L.; Kannan, K.; Giesy, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    Eggs of neotropic cormorants (Phalacrocorax brasilianus), black-crowned night herons (Nycticorax nycticorax), and great egrets (Ardea alba) nesting on several locations in Galveston Bay (TX, USA) and at two control sites outside the bay were collected during April–May 1996 and analyzed for chlorinated pesticides, PCBs, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and polychlor-inated dibenzofurans. Additionally, concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQs) were determined by use of relative potency factors (TEQs) or the H4IIE-luc bioassay TCDD-EQs. Concentrations of 1,1,-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlo-rophenyl)ethylene (DDE) were greater in eggs of neotropic cormorants from Alexander Island (mean = 1,040 ng/g wet wt) in the Houston Ship Channel (Houston, TX, USA) and in those from Telfair Island (mean = 1,460 ng/g wet wt), a reference location outside the bay, than in most locations inside the bay (mean range = 119–453 ng/g wet wt). Mean PCB concentrations were greater in eggs of neotropic cormorants from Alexander Island (mean = 5,720 ng/g wet wt) than in eggs of cormorants from areas farther away from the ship channel, including two reference sites outside the bay (mean range = 404–3,140 ng/g wet wt). The TCDD was the main dioxin congener detected in eggs from all locations within Galveston Bay. Instrumental TEQs in eggs ranged from 67 pg/g wet weight at control sites to 452 pg/g wet weight at Alexander Island. Concentrations of TCDD-EQs determined in the H4IIE assay were correlated with instrumental TEQs and were greater in eggs of cormorants from islands within the bay, although these were farther away from the ship channel. Overall, concentrations of DDE, PCBs, TCDD, and TCDD-EQs were less than the threshold levels known to affect reproduction. However, some eggs contained concentrations of total PCBs or DDE greater than what would elicit adverse effects on birds. No identifiable deformities or abnormalities were detected in embryos

  8. A crisis in waste management, economic vitality, and a coastal marine environment: Boston Harbor and Massachusetts Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manheim, F.T.; Butman, B.

    1994-01-01

    Discharge of sewage sludge and effluent from 43 communities in the greater Boston metropolitan area has helped make the harbor one of the most polluted in the nation. As part of a court-mandated plan to end pollution of the harbor, effluent will no longer be discharged into the harbor, but instead, by 1995 it will be discharged into Massachusetts Bay through a record-long 15.34 km tunnel. By the year 2000 all of the sewage is scheduled to recive full secondary treatment. The public is concerned about long-term effects of the new ocean outfall on the environment, including Cape Cod Bay and Stellwagen Bank, which is an important habitat for whales and a newly designated national marine sanctuary. The bay has been additionally stressed by dumping of low-level radioactive and other hazardous wastes during the 1950s and 1960s. -from Authors

  9. EnviroAtlas - Green Bay, WI - Meter-Scale Urban Land Cover (MULC) Data (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Green Bay, WI Meter-Scale Urban Land Cover (MULC) dataset comprises 936 km2 around the city of Green Bay, surrounding towns, tribal lands and rural areas in...

  10. Bristol Bay, Alaska Subarea ESI: T_MAMMAL (Terrestrial Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for brown bears in the Bristol Bay Subarea. The Subarea includes marine and coastal areas of Bristol Bay...

  11. Bay of Fundy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The highest tides on Earth occur in the Minas Basin, the eastern extremity of the Bay of Fundy, Nova Scotia, Canada, where the tide range can reach 16 meters when the various factors affecting the tides are in phase. The primary cause of the immense tides of Fundy is a resonance of the Bay of Fundy-Gulf of Maine system. The system is effectively bounded at this outer end by the edge of the continental shelf with its approximately 40:1 increase in depth. The system has a natural period of approximately 13 hours, which is close to the 12h25m period of the dominant lunar tide of the Atlantic Ocean. Like a father pushing his daughter on a swing, the gentle Atlantic tidal pulse pushes the waters of the Bay of Fundy-Gulf of Maine basin at nearly the optimum frequency to cause a large to-and-fro oscillation. The greatest slosh occurs at the head (northeast end) of the system. The high tide image (top) was acquired April 20, 2001, and the low tide image (bottom) was acquired September 30, 2002. The images cover an area of 16.5 by 21 km, and are centered near 64 degrees west longitude and 45.5 degrees north latitude. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying

  12. 33 CFR 165.1182 - Safety/Security Zone: San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, and Suisun Bay, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety/Security Zone: San... Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY... Areas Eleventh Coast Guard District § 165.1182 Safety/Security Zone: San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay...

  13. 33 CFR 334.1050 - Oakland Outer Harbor adjacent to the Military Ocean Terminal, Bay Area, Pier No. 8 (Port of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1050 Oakland Outer Harbor adjacent to... at 50 FR 42696, Oct. 22, 1985; 51 FR 25198, July 11, 1986, as amended at 62 FR 17557, Apr. 10, 1997] ...

  14. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sewage effluent, continental and coastal waters from the Northwestern Mediterrean Sea: Comparison between two contrasted catchment areas (Marseilles Bay and Vermeille coast)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guigue, Catherine; Ferretto, Nicolas; Méjanelle, Laurence; Tedetti, Marc; Ghiglione, Jean-François; Goutx, Madeleine

    2014-05-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analysed from sewage treatment plant waters and surface waters collected in continental (rivers), harbour and off-shore marine sites from Marseilles Bay and Vermeille coastal areas between 2009 and 2013 (Northwestern Mediterranean Sea, France). After collection, water samples were first filtered on glass fiber filters, then PAHs from the dissolved phase were extracted using liquid-liquid or solid phase extraction (SPE) methods, while those from particles were treated according to Bligh and Dyer method. After a possible purification step, extracts were analysed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Regardless of the study area, dissolved and particulate PAH (18 parents + alkylated homologues) concentration averages were 150.2 ± 140.5 ng l-1and 39.4 ± 71.2 ng l-1, respectively. Interestingly, the concentration in dissolved PAHs was on average 3.8 higher than the concentration in particulate PAHs. In addition, a gradient of PAH concentrations was observed from coastal waters with the highest values in harbours and outlet sewage effluents and the lowest values in off-shore marine waters. Intermediate concentrations were recorded in continental waters. In the Marseilles Bay, dissolved PAH concentrations were significantly higher and associated to increased signatures of unburned and combusted fossil fuels, mainly from heating, during the cold period (November-April). In contrast, unburned petroleum signature dominated in the warm period (May-October), emphasizing the intense shipping traffic and urban/industrial activities occurring in one of the largest Mediterranean harbour and city. Conversely, in the Vermeille coastal waters, dissolved PAH concentrations were higher during the warm period when particulate PAHs displayed the lowest concentrations, suggesting a seasonal related partition between dissolved and particulate PAHs. In addition, in the Vermeille coastal waters, PAHs were dominated by

  15. [Autoerotic fatalities in Greater Dusseldorf].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Benno; Hellen, Florence; Borchard, Nora; Huckenbeck, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Autoerotic fatalities in the Greater Dusseldorf area correspond to the relevant medicolegal literature. Our results included exclusively young to middle-aged, usually single men who were found dead in their city apartments. Clothing and devices used showed a great variety. Women's or fetish clothing and complex shackling or hanging devices were disproportionately frequent. In most cases, death occurred due to hanging or ligature strangulation. There was no increased incidence of underlying psychiatric disorders. In most of the deceased no or at least no remarkable alcohol intoxication was found. Occasionally, it may be difficult to reliably differentiate autoerotic accidents, accidents occurring in connection with practices of bondage & discipline, dominance & submission (BDSM) from natural death, suicide or homicide.

  16. eBay.com

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engholm, Ida

    2014-01-01

    Celebrated as one of the leading and most valuable brands in the world, eBay has acquired iconic status on par with century-old brands such as Coca-Cola and Disney. The eBay logo is now synonymous with the world’s leading online auction website, and its design is associated with the company...

  17. Os níveis de saúde na região da Grande São Paulo Health levels in the area of the "Greater São Paulo" (Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Yunes

    1970-12-01

    (proportional deaths ratio tended to a normal form of a "J", which demonstrated a regular health level of the studied are. According to the main causes of death, health levels showed an inadequate condition, for, although Circulatory Diseases and Neoplasm are the two main causes of death, even in developed countries, next comes Childhood Diseases, Respiratory Diseases, Digestive System Diseases and Infection and Parasitoses Diseases like in underdeceloped ares. The area of the Greater São Paulo (Brazil itself in an intermediate position between developed and underdeveloped countries according to the causes of death that occurs in its area. Tuberculoses, Measles, Siphilis, Tetanus, Dysenteria, Whooping Cough and Diphteria were among the communicable diseases the main causes of death. The infantil mortality rate since 1961 (61.34/1000 had increased rapidly and had reached 74.92/1000 live birth in 1967. This increase was caused either by neo-natal or post-neonatal mortality. The trends happened to the city and to the State of S. Paulo, showing in this way an agravation in the health levels. Such event is unvailable with the characteristics of the area of the Greater S. Paulo (Brazil, since this is the most urbanized and social-economical developed region, not only of the State of S. Paulo, but also of Brazil, and may be of Latin America. Among the main causes of death in the infant mortality rate, appears in decreasing order, prenatal, natal and neonatal deaths, Digestive system Diseases, Respiratory Diseases and Infection Diseases. Among the main Communicable Diseases in the infant mortality period appears Measles, Whooping Cough, Tetanus, Tuberculoses, Dysenteria, Meningococcus Infections, Smallpox and Encephalites. Among the main predisponent factors, were pointed out poor maternal and infant care, lack of maternity beds to indigent people, high proportion of home deliveries, lack of qualified persons to attend infant care, inadequate enviromental health (40% of population

  18. Nutrient and chlorophyll a anomaly in red-tide periods of 2003-2008 in Sishili Bay, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yanju; Tang, Danling; Yu, Long; Xing, Qianguo

    2011-05-01

    Sishili Bay is the most important aquiculture and tourism area for the city of Yantai, China; however, red tides occurred frequently and have caused huge economic losses in this bay in recent years. To gain a better understanding of the local ecological environments in the bay, we conducted this research between 2003 and 2008 to analyze variations in nutrients and chlorophyll (chl- a) during high frequency red tide period (May to September). The results show that the chl- a concentration increased from 2.70 in 2003 to 7.26 mg/m3 in 2008, while the concentration of total inorganic nitrogen (TIN) and silicate (SiO3-Si) increased lineally from 5.18 and 1.45 μmol/L in 2003 to 18.57 and 9.52 μmol/L in 2008, respectively, and the annual phosphate (PO4-P) varied between 0.15 and 0.46 μmol/L. Special attention was given to a red tide in August 2007 occurred when water temperature was high and nutrient concentrations increased sharply because of a heavy rainfall. Overall, the results show the P limitation in Sishili Bay, and reveal that red tides were caused by eutrophication from terrestrial inputs and local warm weather, particularly during rainy periods. Therefore, to control red tide, greater efforts should be made to reduce sewage discharges into Sishili Bay, particularly during rainfall seasons.

  19. Air quality environmental assessment of the Horseshoe Bay Terminal Improvement Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-09-01

    The proposed improvement project for British Columbia's Horseshoe Bay Ferry Terminal incorporates specific measures to protect the air quality of the area, the environment and public health. The ferry terminal handles over 2.5 million vehicles and 7 million passengers per year. The upgrades are intended to improve terminal operations, increase safety and reduce traffic congestion through residential and commercial portions of the Horseshoe Bay area as well as Highway 99 traffic. The toll booths will be relocated about 25 m further away from the nearby elementary school to further protect air quality at the school. A study was conducted in which vehicular emissions from the operation of the ferry terminal prior to the proposed improvement project were modelled to predict the effect of vehicular emissions on ambient air quality levels in the area and to ensure that maximum acceptable objectives are met for gaseous air pollutants, including carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxides, as well as inhalable and fine particulates. The British Columbia Ferry Corp. will work jointly with the Greater Vancouver Regional District to install continuous monitors for at least one year after the project is completed. Based on the analysis of the report, the air quality in the Horseshoe Bay area would not suffer major adverse environmental or public health affects from the proposed improvement project.

  20. Epidemiology of palpable goiter in Greater Buenos Aires, an iodine-sufficient area Epidemiología del bocio palpable en el Gran Buenos Aires, un área suficiente en yodo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Niepomniszcze

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available The Hospital de Clínicas organized a free program of goiter detection by palpation. This campaign was aimed at the population of the metropolitan area of Greater Buenos Aires (11 million inhabitants, with the prerequisite that each participant should be quite unaware whether he/she was a carrier of any thyroid disease. Attendees were split into two groups, i.e., Random and Induced. The former consisted of 542 individuals who came to consultation due to mere curiosity, while the latter involved 500 subjects, comprising consanguineous family members of patients with thyroid disorders and also individuals who suffered from other ailments. Ages ranged from 2 to 85 years. In the Random Group, goiter prevalence of 8.7% was observed, while in the Induced Group it climbed to 14.4%. Since both groups were mostly made up of women (87.2%, a correction based on the masculinity index was applied to members of the Random Group. Thus, the total observed prevalence of goiter was 6%, diffuse goiters corresponding to 3.5% and nodular ones to 2.5%. The frequency of nodules increased with age, 90.5% occurring in those over 40 years. In the Induced Group, goiter prevalence among relatives of patients with thyroid disorders proved to be 13.1%, rising to 17.8% in those who suffered from other complaints. The epidemic data presented herein are the first arising from a screening survey carried out in a large iodine-sufficient population of the southernmost tip of the American continent. These results are useful to build up the world map of goiter prevalence in non-endemic areas.El Hospital de Clínicas organizó un programa gratuito para la detección de bocio por palpación. Esta campaña estuvo dirigida a la población del área metropolitana del Gran Buenos Aires, con el prerrequisito de que cada participante debía desconocer si padecía alguna enfermedad tiroidea. De acuerdo a las motivaciones que llevaron a los pacientes a la evaluación, se dividieron en 2

  1. Presence of selected chemicals of emerging concern in water and bottom sediment from the St. Louis River, St. Louis Bay, and Superior Bay, Minnesota and Wisconsin, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Victoria G.; Lee, Kathy E.; Kieta, Kristen A.; Elliott, Sarah M.

    2012-01-01

    The St. Louis Bay of Lake Superior receives substantial urban runoff, wastewater treatment plant effluent, and industrial effluent. In 1987, the International Joint Commission designated the St. Louis Bay portion of the lower St. Louis River as one of the Great Lakes Areas of Concern. Concerns exist about the potential effects of chemicals of emerging concern on aquatic biota because many of these chemicals, including endocrine active chemicals, have been shown to affect the endocrine systems of fish. To determine the occurrence of chemicals of emerging concern in the St. Louis River, the St. Louis Bay, and Superior Bay, the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency and the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources collected water and bottom-sediment samples from 40 sites from August through October 2010. The objectives of this study were to (1) identify the extent to which chemicals of emerging concern, including pharmaceuticals, hormones, and other organic chemicals, occur in the St. Louis River, St. Louis Bay, and Superior Bay, and (2) identify the extent to which the chemicals may have accumulated in bottom sediment of the study area. Samples were analyzed for selected wastewater indicators, hormones, sterols, bisphenol A, and human-health pharmaceuticals. During this study, 33 of 89 chemicals of emerging concern were detected among all water samples collected and 56 of 104 chemicals of emerging concern were detected in bottom-sediment samples. The chemical N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET) was the most commonly detected chemical in water samples and 2,6-dimethylnaphthalene was the most commonly detected chemical in bottom-sediment samples. In general, chemicals of emerging concern were detected at a higher frequency in bottom-sediment samples than in water samples. Estrone (a steroid hormone) and hexahydrohexamethyl cyclopentabensopyran (a synthetic fragrance) were the most commonly detected endocrine active chemicals in

  2. Foreign Language Folio. A Guide to Cultural Resources and Field Trip Opportunities in the San Francisco Bay Area for Teachers and Students of Foreign Languages, 1983-85.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Tony, Ed.; O'Connor, Roger, Ed.

    A listing of San Francisco area cultural resources and opportunities of use to foreign language teachers is presented. Included are the following: museums and galleries, schools, art sources, churches, clubs, cultural centers and organizations, publications and publishing companies, restaurants, food stores and markets, travel and tourism,…

  3. Mycosporine-like amino acids and xanthophyll-cycle pigments favour a massive spring bloom development of the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum in Grande Bay (Argentina), an ozone hole affected area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreto, José I.; Carignan, Mario O.; Montoya, Nora G.; Cozzolino, Ezequiel; Akselman, Rut

    2018-02-01

    In Grande Bay (Southern Patagonian Shelf) in a eutrophic and recirculating area slightly stratified during spring, we observed an intense (up to 1 × 107 cells L- 1) and shallow, quasi mono-specific bloom of the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum. Peridinin was the most abundant carotenoid, but the relative amounts of the xanthophyll cycle carotenoids (diadinoxanthin + diatoxanthin = DT) to light-harvesting pigments were high (DT/Chl a ratio = 0.32 and DT/peridinin ratio = 0.40). Shinorine, usujirene, palythene, mycosporine-serine-glycine methyl ester and palythenic acid were the primary mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs), followed by mycosporine-glycine, palythine, and porphyra-334. The ΣMAAs/Chl a ratios (up to 27.9 nmol/nmol) were in the upper range reported either in nutrient-replete dinoflagellate cultures or natural populations. We monitored, from space (using satellite ocean colour data), the spatial and temporal bloom variability (from September 22 to October 31, 2005) using an approach to discriminate dinoflagellate from diatom blooms. The results indicated that an intense diatom bloom started in early spring but was rapidly replaced by an intense bloom of the dinoflagellate P. minimum, although the nutrient concentrations were apparently not limiting. The most notorious change in this period was a sharp increase in the levels of solar UVB radiation (UVB index 9.0) as a consequence of the overpass of the polar vortex over this area. We postulated that the synthesis and accumulation of MAAs and xanthophyll pigments, were competitive advantages for the opportunistic red tide dinoflagellate P. minimum over the sensitive diatoms, favouring the development of their surface blooms in this seasonally solar UVB radiation (UVBR) affected area.

  4. Occurrence and distribution of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in surface water and sediment of a tropical coastal area (Bay of Bengal coast, Bangladesh).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibullah-Al-Mamun, Md; Ahmed, Md Kawser; Raknuzzaman, Mohammad; Islam, Md Saiful; Negishi, Junya; Nakamichi, Shihori; Sekine, Makoto; Tokumura, Masahiro; Masunaga, Shigeki

    2016-11-15

    This study reports the first evidence of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in surface waters and sediments collected from the coastal area of Bangladesh. Fifteen target PFAAs, including C4-14-PFCAs (perfluoroalkyl carboxylates) and C4, C6, C8, and C10-PFSAs (perfluoroalkyl sulfonates), were quantified by HPLC-MS/MS. The ΣPFAAs in surface water and sediment samples were in the range of 10.6 to 46.8ng/L and 1.07 to 8.15ng/gdw, respectively. PFOA in water (3.17-27.8ng/L) and PFOS in sediment samples (0.60-1.14ng/gdw) were found to be the most abundant PFAAs, and these concentrations were comparable to or less than most other reported values, particularly those recorded from the coastal areas of China, Japan, Korea and Spain. The majority of the monitored PFAAs did not show clear seasonal variation. The southeastern part (Cox's Bazar and Chittagong) of the Bangladeshi coastal area was more contaminated with PFAAs than the southern (Meghna Estuary) and southwestern parts (Sundarbans). Industrial and municipal wastewater effluents, ship breaking and port activities were identified as potential sources of the PFAA contamination in this region. Field-based sediment water distribution coefficients (KD) were calculated and corrected for organic carbon content (KOC), which reduced the variability between samples. The values of log KD (1.63-2.88) and log KOC (4.02-5.16) were higher than previously reported values, which may indicate that the partitioning of PFAAs in a tropical coastal ecosystem is different from other ecosystems, such as temperate and sub-tropical regions. Although a preliminary environmental hazard assessment indicated that PFOA or PFOS levels do not currently exceed the acute safety thresholds, we should keep in mind that they are bioavailable and can accumulate in the food chain. Therefore, the ubiquity of PFAAs in the coastal area of Bangladesh warrants further studies characterizing their specific sources and the potential long-term risks they present to both

  5. Delineation of surf scoter habitat in Chesapeake Bay, Maryland: macrobenthic and sediment composition of surf scoter feeding sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, D.M.; Perry, M.C.

    2005-01-01

    Surveys of surf scoters (Melanitta perspicillata) along the Atlantic coast of the United States have shown population declines in recent decades. The Chesapeake Bay has traditionally been a key wintering area for surf scoters. Past and present research has shown that bivalves constitute a major food item for seaducks in the Chesapeake Bay, with surf scoters feeding primarily on hooked mussel (Ischadium recurvum) and dwarf surf clam (Mulinia lateralis). Degraded water quality conditions in the Chesapeake Bay have been well documented and have been shown to greatly influence the composition of benthic communities. Large concentrations of feeding surf scoters (>500 individuals) in the Bay were determined through monthly boat surveys. Locations consistently lacking surf scoters were also determined. Macrobenthos were seasonally sampled at 3 locations containing scoters and 3 locations without scoters. A 1 kilometer square grid was superimposed over each location using GIS and sampling sites within the square were randomly chosen. Benthos were sampled at each site using SCUBA and a meter square quadrat. Biomass and size class estimates were determined for all bivalves within each kilometer square. Results indicated that scoter feeding sites contained significantly greater biomass of M. lateralis, I. recurvum, and Gemma gemma than locations where no scoters were present. Substrate differences were also detected, with scoter feeding sites being composed of a sand/shell mix while non-scoter sites consisted primarily of mud. This data indicates that surf scoters in the Chesapeake Bay are selecting areas with high densities of preferred food items, potentially maximizing there foraging energetics. In addition, two scoter feeding sites also contained a patchwork of eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) and oyster shell, on which much of the I. recurvum was attached. This suggests the possibility that surf scoters utilize eastern oyster habitat and the dramatic depletion of

  6. Influence of net freshwater supply on salinity in Florida Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttle, William K.; Fourqurean, James W.; Cosby, Bernard J.; Zieman, Joseph C.; Robblee, Michael B.

    2000-01-01

    An annual water budget for Florida Bay, the large, seasonally hypersaline estuary in the Everglades National Park, was constructed using physically based models and long‐term (31 years) data on salinity, hydrology, and climate. Effects of seasonal and interannual variations of the net freshwater supply (runoff plus rainfall minus evaporation) on salinity variation within the bay were also examined. Particular attention was paid to the effects of runoff, which are the focus of ambitious plans to restore and conserve the Florida Bay ecosystem. From 1965 to 1995 the annual runoff from the Everglades into the bay was less than one tenth of the annual direct rainfall onto the bay, while estimated annual evaporation slightly exceeded annual rainfall. The average net freshwater supply to the bay over a year was thus approximately zero, and interannual variations in salinity appeared to be affected primarily by interannual fluctuations in rainfall. At the annual scale, runoff apparently had little effect on the bay as a whole during this period. On a seasonal basis, variations in rainfall, evaporation, and runoff were not in phase, and the net freshwater supply to the bay varied between positive and negative values, contributing to a strong seasonal pattern in salinity, especially in regions of the bay relatively isolated from exchanges with the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean. Changes in runoff could have a greater effect on salinity in the bay if the seasonal patterns of rainfall and evaporation and the timing of the runoff are considered. One model was also used to simulate spatial and temporal patterns of salinity responses expected to result from changes in net freshwater supply. Simulations in which runoff was increased by a factor of 2 (but with no change in spatial pattern) indicated that increased runoff will lower salinity values in eastern Florida Bay, increase the variability of salinity in the South Region, but have little effect on salinity in the Central

  7. Biscayne Bay Alongshore Epifauna

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Field studies to characterize the alongshore epifauna (shrimp, crabs, echinoderms, and small fishes) along the western shore of southern Biscayne Bay were started in...

  8. Bathymetry in Jobos Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 4x4 meter resolution bathymetric surface for Jobos Bay, Puerto Rico (in NAD83 UTM 19 North). The depth values are in meters referenced to the...

  9. Hammond Bay Biological Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Hammond Bay Biological Station (HBBS), located near Millersburg, Michigan, is a field station of the USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC). HBBS was established by...

  10. Discharge between San Antonio Bay and Aransas Bay, southern Gulf Coast, Texas, May-September 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Jeffery W.

    2001-01-01

    Along the Gulf Coast of Texas, many estuaries and bays are important habitat and nurseries for aquatic life. San Antonio Bay and Aransas Bay, located about 50 and 30 miles northeast, respectively, of Corpus Christi, are two important estuarine nurseries on the southern Gulf Coast of Texas (fig. 1). According to the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, “Almost 80 percent of the seagrasses [along the Texas Gulf Coast] are located in the Laguna Madre, an estuary that begins just south of Corpus Christi Bay and runs southward 140 miles to South Padre Island. Most of the remaining seagrasses, about 45,000 acres, are located in the heavily traveled San Antonio, Aransas and Corpus Christi Bay areas” (Shook, 2000).Population growth has led to greater demands on water supplies in Texas. The Texas Water Development Board, the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, and the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission have the cooperative task of determining inflows required to maintain the ecological health of the State’s streams, rivers, bays, and estuaries. To determine these inflow requirements, the three agencies collect data and conduct studies on the need for instream flows and freshwater/ saline water inflows to Texas estuaries.To assist in the determination of freshwater inflow requirements, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Texas Water Development Board, conducted a hydrographic survey of discharge (flow) between San Antonio Bay and Aransas Bay during the period May–September 1999. Automated instrumentation and acoustic technology were used to maximize the amount and quality of data that were collected, while minimizing personnel requirements. This report documents the discharge measured at two sites between the bays during May–September 1999 and describes the influences of meteorologic (wind and tidal) and hydrologic (freshwater inflow) conditions on discharge between the two bays. The movement of water between the bays is

  11. Roebuck Bay Invertebrate and bird Mapping 2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piersma, Theunis; Pearson, Grant B.; Hickey, Robert; Dittmann, Sabine; Rogers, Danny I.; Folmer, Eelke; Honkoop, Pieter; Drent, Jan; Goeij, Petra de; Marsh, Loisette

    2006-01-01

    1. This is a report on a survey of the benthic ecology of the intertidal flats along the northern shores of Roebuck Bay in June 2006. In the period 11-20 June we mapped both the invertebrate macrobenthic animals (those retained by a 1 mm sieve) over the whole of the northern intertidal area of

  12. Subtidal distribution of Exxon Valdez oil in two bays in Prince William Sound, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, D.S.; Gilfillan, E.S.; Boehm, P.D.; Bence, A.E.; Burns, W.A.; Mankiewicz, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    This 1991 study assessed the subtidal fate of the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 2 bays. A subtidal stratified random sampling design compared stations in the oiled Bay of Isles with stations in the reference Drier Bay. Thirty-five random sampling stations over 3 depth zones in each of the oiled and reference bays enabled generalization of the results. 12 non-randomly chosen stations were also sampled in the two bays. Sediment samples were analyzed for saturate and aromatic hydrocarbons, grain size and organic carbon. The statistical comparisons between the oiled and reference bays were based on PAH analyses. Four types of PAH were identified in the two bays; Alaska North Slope (ANS) petrogenic spill PAH; seep-derived natural petrogenic background PAH; pyrogenic PAH; and diagenetic PAH (perylene). The Bay of Isles sediments contained significantly higher levels of weathered ANS-PAH than Drier Bay. These levels were generally small compared with those of the petrogenic background PAH naturally present. The concentration of the natural petrogenic PAH component increased with increasing depth zone for each bay. Drier Bay, a location of past cannery and mining activity, had significantly greater levels of pyrogenic PAH than the Bay of Isles. All sediment PAH concentrations were well below the 4,000 ng/g total PAH concentration reported in the literature as a sublethal toxicity threshold value in sediments. The highest sediment ANSPAH concentration (201 ng/g) was 20 times lower than this value

  13. Monitoring of bird abundance and distribution at McKinley Bay and Hutchison Bay, Northwest Territories, 1981 to 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornish, B J; Dickson, D L

    1994-04-01

    McKinley Bay has been identified as a preferred site for a harbor to support oil and gas production in the Beaufort Sea. As the bay is a molting area for several species of diving duck, a study was initiated to monitor the effect of harbor development on birds using the bay. Baseline information on the natural annual fluctuations in the number of birds were collected for nine years at McKinley Bay and eight years at neighboring Hutchinson Bay, an area chosen as the control. The final report of the predevelopment phase of the monitoring study is presented, including results of the 1993 surveys and a summary of results of all years of surveys. There were significantly more diving ducks in McKinley Bay in early August 1990 to 1993, on average, than from 1981 to 1985. No statistically significant change in total diving ducks was noted at Hutchinson Bay. Numbers of species of divers varied substantially between years at the two bays but not to the same degree. Significantly more Pacific loons, red-throated loons, and northern pintails were recorded in the 1990-1993 surveys at McKinley Bay than in earlier surveys. Potential explanations for the large between-year fluctuations in diving duck numbers are discussed. The variations may be due to bird responses to changes in the physical environment or related to the limitations of the aerial survey techniques used. Because of the large natural fluctuations in numbers of molting diving ducks using these bays in early August, it will be difficult to detect future impacts of industrial disturbance, even when sources of survey bias are minimized. It is concluded that aerial surveys of molting diving ducks in the two bays are unsuitable for monitoring the effects of industrial development. 41 refs., 7 figs., 23 tabs.

  14. Delaware Bay, Delaware Sediment Distribution 2003 to 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The area of coverage consists of 38 square miles of benthic habitat mapped from 2003 to 2004 along the middle to lower Delaware Bay Coast. The bottom sediment map...

  15. Southern Monterey Bay Littoral Cell CRSMP Proposed Receiver Site 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Given the location of the critical areas of erosion and the need to avoid adverse impacts to local sensitive habitat, the Southern Monterey Bay Coastal RSM Plan...

  16. Southern Monterey Bay Littoral Cell CRSMP Proposed Receiver Site 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Given the location of the critical areas of erosion and the need to avoid adverse impacts to local sensitive habitat, the Southern Monterey Bay Coastal RSM Plan...

  17. Changing Salinity Patterns in Biscayne Bay, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2004-01-01

    Biscayne Bay, Fla., is a 428-square-mile (1,109-square-kilometer) subtropical estuarine ecosystem that includes Biscayne National Park, the largest marine park in the U.S. national park system (fig. 1). The bay began forming between 5,000 and 3,000 years ago as sea level rose and southern Florida was flooded. Throughout most of its history, the pristine waters of the bay supported abundant and diverse fauna and flora, and the bay was a nursery for the adjacent coral-reef and marine ecosystems. In the 20th century, urbanization of the Miami-Dade County area profoundly affected the environment of the bay. Construction of powerplants, water-treatment plants, and solid-waste sites and large-scale development along the shoreline stressed the ecosystem. Biscayne National Monument was established in 1968 to ?preserve and protect for the education, inspiration, recreation and enjoyment of present and future generations a rare combination of terrestrial, marine, and amphibious life in a tropical setting of great natural beauty? (Public Law 90?606). The monument was enlarged in 1980 and designated a national park.

  18. Environmental and Sanitary Conditions of Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro

    OpenAIRE

    Fistarol, Giovana O.; Coutinho, Felipe H.; Moreira, Ana Paula B.; Venas, Tain?; C?novas, Alba; de Paula, S?rgio E. M.; Coutinho, Ricardo; de Moura, Rodrigo L.; Valentin, Jean Louis; Tenenbaum, Denise R.; Paranhos, Rodolfo; do Valle, Rog?rio de A. B.; Vicente, Ana Carolina P.; Amado Filho, Gilberto M.; Pereira, Renato Crespo

    2015-01-01

    Guanabara Bay is the second largest bay in the coast of Brazil, with an area of 384 km2. In its surroundings live circa 16 million inhabitants, out of which 6 million live in Rio de Janeiro city, one of the largest cities of the country, and the host of the 2016 Olympic Games. Anthropogenic interference in Guanabara Bay area started early in the XVI century, but environmental impacts escalated from 1930, when this region underwent an industrialization process. Herein we present an overview of...

  19. Environmental and sanitary conditions of Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro

    OpenAIRE

    Giovana De Oliveira Fistarol; Felipe H. Coutinho; Ana Paula Barbosa Moreira; Tainá eVenas; Alba eCanovas; Sergio E M de Paula Jr; Ricardo eCoutinho; Rodrigo L de Moura; Jean L Valentin; Denise R Tenenbaum; Rodolfo eParanhos; Rogerio eValle; Rogerio eValle; Cristiane eTHOMPSON; Paulo eSalomon

    2015-01-01

    Guanabara Bay is the second largest bay in the coast of Brazil, with an area of 384 km2. In its surroundings live circa 16 million inhabitants, out of which 6 million live in Rio de Janeiro city, one of the largest cities of the country, and the host of the 2016 Olympic Games. Anthropogenic interference in Guanabara Bay area started early in the XVI century, but environmental impacts escalated from 1930, when this region underwent an industrialization process. Herein we present an overview of...

  20. Discharge, water-quality characteristics, and nutrient loads from McKay Bay, Delaney Creek, and East Bay, Tampa, Florida, 1991-1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoker, Y.E.; Levesque, V.A.; Fritz, E.M.

    1996-01-01

    Bay, -437 to 3,780 cubic feet per second. Water quality in McKay Bay, Delaney Creek, and East Bay varies vertically, areally, and seasonally. Specific conductance and concentrations of phosphorus and ammonia nitrogen were greater near the bottom than near the surface at the head and mouth of East Bay. Concentrations of total nitrogen and ammonia plus organic nitrogen generally were greater at the head of East Bay than at the mouth, indicating that McKay Bay is the primary source of nitrogen to East Bay. Concentrations of total ammonia nitrogen, nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen, phosphorus, orthophosphorus, and suspended solids and values of turbidity and specific conductance generally were greater at the mouth of East Bay than at the head. The greatest concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus were measured in Delaney Creek. In East Bay and McKay Bay, the greatest concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus, and ammonia plus organic nitrogen occurred in summer, whereas turbidity, specific conductance, and concentrations of suspended solids were greater in winter. The greatest daily mean loads from McKay Bay and East Bay occurred in late June 1992 and April and May 1993 and coincided with periods of daily mean discharge greater than about 2,000 cubic feet per second. Although concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus were greater in Delaney Creek than in McKay Bay and East Bay, loads were minimal because of minimal discharges from Delaney Creek. Monthly loads of total nitrogen ranged from about 20 tons to about 83 tons at McKay Bay; from about 1 ton to 4.2 tons at Delaney Creek; and from about 17 tons to 76 tons at the mouth of East Bay. Monthly loads of phosphorus ranged from about 11 tons to about 45 tons at McKay Bay; from about 0.62 ton to 2.6 tons at Delaney Creek; and from about 10 tons to about 45 tons at the mouth of East Bay. The results of this study indicate that nitrogen and phosphorus loads from the basin draining directly to East Bay (excluding loads from the McKa

  1. Waste management in Greater Vancouver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrusca, K. [Greater Vancouver Regional District, Burnaby, BC (Canada); Richter, R. [Montenay Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada)]|[Veolia Environmental Services, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    An outline of the Greater Vancouver Regional District (GVRD) waste-to-energy program was presented. The GVRD has an annual budget for solid waste management of $90 million. Energy recovery revenues from solid waste currently exceed $10 million. Over 1,660,00 tonnes of GVRD waste is recycled, and another 280,000 tonnes is converted from waste to energy. The GVRD waste-to-energy facility combines state-of-the-art combustion and air pollution control, and has processed over 5 million tonnes of municipal solid waste since it opened in 1988. Its central location minimizes haul distance, and it was originally sited to utilize steam through sales to a recycle paper mill. The facility has won several awards, including the Solid Waste Association of North America award for best facility in 1990. The facility focuses on continual improvement, and has installed a carbon injection system; an ammonia injection system; a flyash stabilization system; and heat capacity upgrades in addition to conducting continuous waste composition studies. Continuous air emissions monitoring is also conducted at the plant, which produces a very small percentage of the total air emissions in metropolitan Vancouver. The GVRD is now seeking options for the management of a further 500,000 tonnes per year of solid waste, and has received 23 submissions from a range of waste energy technologies which are now being evaluated. It was concluded that waste-to-energy plants can be located in densely populated metropolitan areas and provide a local disposal solution as well as a source of renewable energy. Other GVRD waste reduction policies were also reviewed. refs., tabs., figs.

  2. 75 FR 11837 - Chesapeake Bay Watershed Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Commodity Credit Corporation Chesapeake Bay Watershed Initiative AGENCY...: Notice of availability of program funds for the Chesapeake Bay Watershed Initiative. SUMMARY: The... through the Chesapeake Bay Watershed Initiative for agricultural producers in the Chesapeake Bay watershed...

  3. 33 CFR 100.124 - Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York. 100.124 Section 100.124 Navigation and Navigable... NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.124 Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York...

  4. Butterfly valves: greater use in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCoy, M.

    1975-01-01

    Improvements in butterfly valves, particularly in the areas of automatic control and leak tightness are described. The use of butterfly valves in nuclear power plants is discussed. These uses include service in component cooling, containment cooling, and containment isolation. The outlook for further improvements and greater uses is examined. (U.S.)

  5. Greater Somalia, the never-ending dream?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoppi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an historical analysis of the concept of Greater Somalia, the nationalist project that advocates the political union of all Somali-speaking people, including those inhabiting areas in current Djibouti, Ethiopia and Kenya. The Somali territorial unification project of “lost...

  6. San Francisco Bay Area Cargo Forecast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    typically moved by container.* Trend line regression equations were developed from this data that show a long and stable history of high growth on...216.7 2 A Mazda 65.4 35.4 50.6 75.3 i56.5 Subaru 41.6 18.4 80.8 103.2 :27.9 Fiat 100.5 51.5 63.5 50.4 53.9 Volvo 60.3 43.9 46.8 50.9 56.) Total 1,577.0

  7. The HayWired Scenario - How Can the San Francisco Bay Region Bounce Back Better?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudnut, K. W.; Wein, A. M.; Cox, D. A.; Perry, S. C.; Porter, K.; Johnson, L. A.; Strauss, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    The HayWired scenario is a hypothetical yet scientifically realistic and quantitative depiction of a moment magnitude (Mw) 7.0 earthquake occurring on April 18, 2018, at 4:18 p.m. on the Hayward Fault in the east bay part of the San Francisco Bay area, California. The hypothetical earthquake has its epicenter in Oakland, and strong ground shaking from the scenario causes a wide range of severe impacts throughout the greater bay region. In the scenario, the Hayward Fault is ruptured along its length for 83 kilometers (about 52 miles). Building on a decades-long series of efforts to reduce earthquake risk in the SF Bay area, the hypothetical HayWired earthquake is used to examine the well-known earthquake hazard of the Hayward Fault, with a focus on newly emerging vulnerabilities. After a major earthquake disaster, reestablishing water services and food-supply chains are, of course, top priorities. However, problems associated with telecommunication outages or "network congestion" will increase and become more urgent as the bay region deepens its reliance on the "Internet of Things." Communications at all levels are crucial during incident response following an earthquake. Damage to critical facilities (such as power plants) from earthquake shaking and to electrical and telecommunications wires and fiber-optic cables that are severed where they cross a fault rupture can trigger cascading Internet and telecommunications outages, and restoring these services is crucially important for emergency-response coordination. Without good communications, emergency-response efficiency is reduced, and as a result, life-saving response functions can be compromised. For these reasons, the name HayWired was chosen for this scenario to emphasize the need to examine our interconnectedness and reliance on telecommunications and other lifelines (such as water and electricity). Earthquake risk in the SF Bay area has been greatly reduced as a result of previous concerted efforts; for

  8. Energy Efficiency Feasibility Study and Resulting Plan for the Bay Mills Indian Community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushman, Chris [Inter-Tribal Council of Michigan, Inc., Sault Ste. Marie, MI (United States). Environmental Services Division

    2014-03-01

    In 2011 the Inter-Tribal Council of Michigan, Inc. was awarded an Energy Efficiency Development and Deployment in Indian Country grant from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Tribal Energy Program. This grant aimed to study select Bay Mills Indian Community community/government buildings to determine what is required to reduce each building’s energy consumption by 30%. The Bay Mills Indian Community (BMIC) buildings with the largest expected energy use were selected for this study and included the Bay Mills Ellen Marshall Health Center building, Bay Mills Indian Community Administration Building, Bay Mills Community College main campus, Bay Mills Charter School and the Waishkey Community Center buildings. These five sites are the largest energy consuming Community buildings and comprised the study area of this project titled “Energy Efficiency Feasibility Study and Resulting Plan for the Bay Mills Indian Community”. The end objective of this study, plan and the Tribe is to reduce the energy consumption at the Community’s most energy intensive buildings that will, in turn, reduce emissions at the source of energy production, reduce energy expenditures, create long lasting energy conscious practices and positively affect the quality of the natural environment. This project’s feasibility study and resulting plan is intended to act as a guide to the Community’s first step towards planned energy management within its buildings/facilities. It aims to reduce energy consumption by 30% or greater within the subject facilities with an emphasis on energy conservation and efficiency. The energy audits and related power consumption analyses conducted for this study revealed numerous significant energy conservation and efficiency opportunities for all of the subject sites/buildings. In addition, many of the energy conservation measures require no cost and serve to help balance other measures requiring capital investment. Reoccurring deficiencies relating to heating

  9. Geochemistry of sediments in the Back Bay and Yellowknife Bay of the Great Slave Lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mudroch, A.; Joshi, S.R.; Sutherland, D.; Mudroch, P.; Dickson, K.M.

    1989-01-01

    Gold mining activities have generated wastes with high concentrations of arsenic and zinc in the vicinity of Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, Canada. Some of the waste material has been discharged into Yellowknife Bay of Great Slave Lake. Concentrations of arsenic and zinc were determined in sediment cores collected at the depositional areas of Yellowknife Bay. Sedimentation rates were estimated using two different radiometric approaches: the depth profiles of cesium 137 and lead 210. Geochemical analysis of the sediment cores indicated input of similar material into sampling areas over the past 50 yr. Age profiles of the sediment constructed from the radionuclide measurements were used to determine historical trends of arsenic and zinc inputs into Yellowknife Bay. The historical record was in good agreement with implemented remedial actions and the usage patterns of both elements. 16 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  10. Using Benthic Macroinvertebrate and Fish Communities as Bioindicators of the Tanshui River Basin Around the Greater Taipei Area — Multivariate Analysis of Spatial Variation Related to Levels of Water Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuh-Sen Young

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available After decades of strict pollution control and municipal sewage treatment, the water quality of the Tanshui River increased significantly after pollution mitigation as indicated by the River Pollution Index (RPI. The pollution level of the estuarine region decreased from severe pollution to mostly moderately impaired. The most polluted waters are presently restricted to a flow track length between 15–35 km relative to the river mouth. From July 2011 to September 2012, four surveys of fish and benthic macroinvertebrates were conducted at 45 sampling sites around the Tanshui River basin. The pollution level of all the study area indicated by the RPI could also be explained by the Family Biotic Index (FBI and Biotic Index (BI from the benthic macroinvertebrate community, and the Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI of the fish community. The result of canonical correlation analysis between aquatic environmental factors and community structure indicated that the community structure was closely related to the level of water pollution. Fish species richness in the estuarine area has increased significantly in recent years. Some catadromous fish and crustaceans could cross the moderate polluted water into the upstream freshwater, and have re-colonized their populations. The benthic macroinvertebrate community relying on the benthic substrate of the estuarine region is still very poor, and the water layer was still moderately polluted.

  11. Using benthic macroinvertebrate and fish communities as bioindicators of the Tanshui River basin around the greater Taipei area - multivariate analysis of spatial variation related to levels of water pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Shuh-Sen; Yang, Hsi-Nan; Huang, Da-Ji; Liu, Su-Miao; Huang, Yueh-Han; Chiang, Chung-Ting; Liu, Jin-Wei

    2014-07-14

    After decades of strict pollution control and municipal sewage treatment, the water quality of the Tanshui River increased significantly after pollution mitigation as indicated by the River Pollution Index (RPI). The pollution level of the estuarine region decreased from severe pollution to mostly moderately impaired. The most polluted waters are presently restricted to a flow track length between 15-35 km relative to the river mouth. From July 2011 to September 2012, four surveys of fish and benthic macroinvertebrates were conducted at 45 sampling sites around the Tanshui River basin. The pollution level of all the study area indicated by the RPI could also be explained by the Family Biotic Index (FBI) and Biotic Index (BI) from the benthic macroinvertebrate community, and the Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) of the fish community. The result of canonical correlation analysis between aquatic environmental factors and community structure indicated that the community structure was closely related to the level of water pollution. Fish species richness in the estuarine area has increased significantly in recent years. Some catadromous fish and crustaceans could cross the moderate polluted water into the upstream freshwater, and have re-colonized their populations. The benthic macroinvertebrate community relying on the benthic substrate of the estuarine region is still very poor, and the water layer was still moderately polluted.

  12. Using Benthic Macroinvertebrate and Fish Communities as Bioindicators of the Tanshui River Basin Around the Greater Taipei Area — Multivariate Analysis of Spatial Variation Related to Levels of Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Shuh-Sen; Yang, Hsi-Nan; Huang, Da-Ji; Liu, Su-Miao; Huang, Yueh-Han; Chiang, Chung-Ting; Liu, Jin-Wei

    2014-01-01

    After decades of strict pollution control and municipal sewage treatment, the water quality of the Tanshui River increased significantly after pollution mitigation as indicated by the River Pollution Index (RPI). The pollution level of the estuarine region decreased from severe pollution to mostly moderately impaired. The most polluted waters are presently restricted to a flow track length between 15–35 km relative to the river mouth. From July 2011 to September 2012, four surveys of fish and benthic macroinvertebrates were conducted at 45 sampling sites around the Tanshui River basin. The pollution level of all the study area indicated by the RPI could also be explained by the Family Biotic Index (FBI) and Biotic Index (BI) from the benthic macroinvertebrate community, and the Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) of the fish community. The result of canonical correlation analysis between aquatic environmental factors and community structure indicated that the community structure was closely related to the level of water pollution. Fish species richness in the estuarine area has increased significantly in recent years. Some catadromous fish and crustaceans could cross the moderate polluted water into the upstream freshwater, and have re-colonized their populations. The benthic macroinvertebrate community relying on the benthic substrate of the estuarine region is still very poor, and the water layer was still moderately polluted. PMID:25026081

  13. Bird surveys at McKinley Bay and Hutchinson Bay, Northwest Territories, in 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornish, B J; Dickson, D L; Dickson, H L

    1991-03-01

    Monitoring surveys of bird abundance and distribution were conducted in 1990 at McKinley Bay in the Northwest Territories, the site of a winter harbour for drillships and the proposed location for a major year-round support base for oil and gas exploration. Primary objectives of the survey were to determine whether diving duck numbers had changed since the initial phase of the study from 1981-1985, and to provide additional baseline data on natural annual fluctuations in diving duck numbers. Three aerial surveys at each bay were carried out using techniques identical to those in previous years. On 5 August 1990, when survey conditions were considered best of the three surveys, more than twice as many diving ducks were found in McKinley Bay and Hutchinson Bay than on average during the five years of 1981-1985. Old squaw and scooters comprised ca 90% of the diving ducks observed, and both species showed significant increases in numbers. The increase in abundance of diving ducks was likely unrelated to industrial activity in the area since a similar increase occurred in the control area, Hutchinson Bay. Many factors, including both environmental factors such as those affecting nesting success and timing of the moult, and factors related to the survey methods, could be involved in causing the large fluctuations observed. 9 refs., 8 figs., 10 tabs.

  14. Bird surveys at McKinley Bay and Hutchinson Bay, Northwest Territories, in 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornish, B.J.; Dickson, D.L.; Dickson, H.L.

    1991-01-01

    Monitoring surveys of bird abundance and distribution were conducted in 1990 at McKinley Bay in the Northwest Territories, the site of a winter harbour for drillships and the proposed location for a major year-round support base for oil and gas exploration. Primary objectives of the survey were to determine whether diving duck numbers had changed since the initial phase of the study from 1981-1985, and to provide additional baseline data on natural annual fluctuations in diving duck numbers. Three aerial surveys at each bay were carried out using techniques identical to those in previous years. On 5 August 1990, when survey conditions were considered best of the three surveys, more than twice as many diving ducks were found in McKinley Bay and Hutchinson Bay than on average during the five years of 1981-1985. Old squaw and scooters comprised ca 90% of the diving ducks observed, and both species showed significant increases in numbers. The increase in abundance of diving ducks was likely unrelated to industrial activity in the area since a similar increase occurred in the control area, Hutchinson Bay. Many factors, including both environmental factors such as those affecting nesting success and timing of the moult, and factors related to the survey methods, could be involved in causing the large fluctuations observed. 9 refs., 8 figs., 10 tabs

  15. Movements and habitat use locations of manatees within Kings Bay Florida during the Crystal River National Wildlife Refuge winter season (November 15–March 31)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slone, Daniel H.; Butler, Susan M.; Reid, James P.

    2018-04-06

    Kings Bay, Florida, is one of the most important natural winter habitat locations for the federally threatened Trichechus manatus latirostris (Florida manatee). Crystal River National Wildlife Refuge was established in 1983 specifically to provide protection for manatees and their critical habitat. To aid managers at the refuge and other agencies with this task, spatial analyses of local habitat use locations and travel corridors of manatees in Kings Bay during manatee season (November 15–March 31) are presented based on Global Positioning System telemetry of 41 manatees over a 12-year timespan (2006−18). Local habitat use areas and travel corridors differed spatially when Gulf of Mexico water temperatures were cold (less than or equal to 17 degrees Celsius) versus when they were warm (greater than 17 degrees Celsius). During times of cold water, manatees were found in higher concentrations in the main springs and canals throughout the eastern side of the bay, whereas when waters were warm, they were found more generally throughout the bay and into Crystal River, except for the central open part of the bay and the southwest corner.

  16. Urban Noise Modelling in Boka Kotorska Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Nikolić

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Traffic is the most significant noise source in urban areas. The village of Kamenari in Boka Kotorska Bay is a site where, in a relatively small area, road traffic and sea (ferry traffic take place at the same time. Due to the specificity of the location, i.e. very rare synergy of sound effects of road and sea traffic in the urban area, as well as the expressed need for assessment of noise level in a simple and quick way, a research was conducted, using empirical methods and statistical analysis methods, which led to the creation of acoustic model for the assessment of equivalent noise level (Leq. The developed model for noise assessment in the Village of Kamenari in Boka Kotorska Bay quite realistically provides data on possible noise levels at the observed site, with very little deviations in relation to empirically obtained values.

  17. Contaminación fecal en varios ríos de la Gran Área Metropolitana y la Península de Osa Fecal contamination in several rivers of the Greater Metropolitan Area and the Osa Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Calvo Brenes

    2012-12-01

    contaminados. Los ríos María Aguilar, Torres y Segundo, que poseen alta densidad poblacional, muestran altos niveles de contaminación prácticamente durante todo el año. El resto de los ríos estudiados muestra niveles no aptos para actividades recreativas durante el periodo de invierno, mientras que en el verano presentan niveles aceptables.Contamination of rivers in Costa Rica is an issue that requires special attention. The term “river con- tamination” means the incorporation of strange matter such as microorganisms (total and fecal coliforms, chemical products (soaps, fertilizers, pesti- cides, heavy metals (such as chrome, lead, mercury, or organic matter, the last one coming from soil through superficial water runoff as well as domestic wastewaters. All of them deteriorate the water qua- lity and reduce the different water usage of rivers. Water resources are important not only for pre- servation of human life but also for animal and plant preservation. Costa Rica is worldwide known as a country with an outstanding biodiversity. Even though, the Great Metropolitan Area has most of its rivers severely contaminated, according to the water quality classification Holland index. In this research, the fecal coliform content was analy- zed in 10 different rivers located in the provinces of San José, Alajuela, Heredia, Cartago, as well as Península de Osa. For the purpose of correlating fecal coliforms content with population density, tres different sampling areas were added to each river: the high level zone close to the river origin, the middle sampling area, and the lower level area closer to the river mouth. It was found that middle and high population density areas are highly contaminated with fecal coliforms. Some of them surpass the permissible maximum level permitted for recreational primary contact activities, according to national regulations. It was also determined that lower population den- sity zones, such as Tigre and Rincón rivers of the Península de

  18. Observations and a linear model of water level in an interconnected inlet-bay system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aretxabaleta, Alfredo; Ganju, Neil K.; Butman, Bradford; Signell, Richard

    2017-01-01

    A system of barrier islands and back-barrier bays occurs along southern Long Island, New York, and in many coastal areas worldwide. Characterizing the bay physical response to water level fluctuations is needed to understand flooding during extreme events and evaluate their relation to geomorphological changes. Offshore sea level is one of the main drivers of water level fluctuations in semienclosed back-barrier bays. We analyzed observed water levels (October 2007 to November 2015) and developed analytical models to better understand bay water level along southern Long Island. An increase (∼0.02 m change in 0.17 m amplitude) in the dominant M2 tidal amplitude (containing the largest fraction of the variability) was observed in Great South Bay during mid-2014. The observed changes in both tidal amplitude and bay water level transfer from offshore were related to the dredging of nearby inlets and possibly the changing size of a breach across Fire Island caused by Hurricane Sandy (after December 2012). The bay response was independent of the magnitude of the fluctuations (e.g., storms) at a specific frequency. An analytical model that incorporates bay and inlet dimensions reproduced the observed transfer function in Great South Bay and surrounding areas. The model predicts the transfer function in Moriches and Shinnecock bays where long-term observations were not available. The model is a simplified tool to investigate changes in bay water level and enables the evaluation of future conditions and alternative geomorphological settings.

  19. Richards Bay effluent pipeline

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lord, DA

    1986-07-01

    Full Text Available of major concern identified in the effluent are the large volume of byproduct calcium sulphate (phosphogypsum) which would smother marine life, high concentrations of fluoride highly toxic to marine life, heavy metals, chlorinated organic material... ........................ 9 THE RICHARDS BAY PIPELINE ........................................ 16 Environmental considerations ................................... 16 - Phosphogypsum disposal ................................... 16 - Effects of fluoride on locally occurring...

  20. Bayes and Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, F.

    2017-01-01

    The dissertation consists of research in three subjects in two themes—Bayes and networks: The first studies the posterior contraction rates for the Dirichlet-Laplace mixtures in a deconvolution setting (Chapter 1). The second subject regards the statistical inference in preferential attachment

  1. 33 CFR 165.757 - Safety Zones; Ports of Ponce, Tallaboa, and Guayanilla, Puerto Rico and Limetree Bay, St. Croix...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Tallaboa, and Guayanilla, Puerto Rico and Limetree Bay, St. Croix, U.S.V.I. 165.757 Section 165.757... Guayanilla, Puerto Rico and Limetree Bay, St. Croix, U.S.V.I. (a) Location. The following areas are... Bay, St. Croix, U.S.V.I. A 100-yard radius surrounding all Liquefied Hazardous Gas (LHG) vessels with...

  2. 75 FR 54771 - Safety Zone; Thunder on the Bay, Chesapeake Bay, Buckroe Beach Park, Hampton, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ... navigable waters of the Chesapeake Bay within the area bounded by a 210-foot radius circle centered on... are technical standards (e.g., specifications of materials, performance, design, or operation; test... cumulatively have a significant effect on the human environment. This rule is categorically excluded, under...

  3. Characterization of Dredged Oyster Shell Deposits at Mobile Bay, Alabama Using Geophysical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley C. Nwokebuihe

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The need for disposing materials dredged from ship channels is a common problem in bays and lagoons. This study is aimed at investigating the suitability of scour features produced by dredging oyster shell deposits in Mobile Bay, Alabama, to dispose excavated channel material. A study area approximately 740 by 280 m lying about 5 km east of Gaillard Island was surveyed using underwater electrical resistivity tomography (UWERT and continuous electrical resistivity profiling (CERP tools. The geophysical survey was conducted with the intent to map scour features created by oyster shell dredging activities in the bay between 1947 and 1982. The geoelectrical surveys show that oyster beds are characterized by high resistivity values greater than 1.1 ohm.m while infilled dredge cuts show lower resistivity, generally from 0.6 to 1.1 ohm.m. The difference in resistivity mainly reflects the lithology and the consolidation of the shallow sediments: consolidated silty clay and sandy sediments rich in oyster shell deposits (with less clay content overlying unconsolidated clayey materials infilling the scours. Results show that most of the infilled dredge cuts are mostly distributed in the north-south direction. Considering that the scours are generally up to 6 m deep across the survey location, it is estimated that about 0.8 million cubic meters of oyster shells and overlying strata were dredged from the survey location.

  4. Sustainable development in the Hudson Bay/James Bay bioregion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    An overview is presented of projects planned for the James Bay/Hudson Bay region, and the expected environmental impacts of these projects. The watershed of James Bay and Hudson Bay covers well over one third of Canada, from southern Alberta to central Ontario to Baffin Island, as well as parts of north Dakota and Minnesota in the U.S.A. Hydroelectric power developments that change the timing and rate of flow of fresh water may cause changes in the nature and duration of ice cover, habitats of marine mammals, fish and migratory birds, currents into and out of Hudson Bay/James Bay, seasonal and annual loads of sediments and nutrients to marine ecosystems, and anadromous fish populations. Hydroelectric projects are proposed for the region by Quebec, Ontario and Manitoba. In January 1992, the Canadian Arctic Resources Committee (CARC), the Environmental Committee of Sanikuluaq, and the Rawson Academy of Arctic Science will launch the Hudson Bay/James Bay Bioregion Program, an independent initiative to apply an ecosystem approach to the region. Two main objectives are to provide a comprehensive assessment of the cumulative impacts of human activities on the marine and freshwater ecosystems of the Hudson Bay/James Bay bioregion, and to foster sustainable development by examining and proposing cooperative processes for decision making among governments, developers, aboriginal peoples and other stakeholders. 1 fig

  5. NUMERICAL MODELS AS TOOLS TO UNDERSTAND THE DYNAMICS IN BAYS: CASE OF STUDY CHETUMAL BAY, QUINTANA ROO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Avalos-Cueva

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study performed the simulation of currents generated by the wind on the Bay of Chetumal, Quintana Roo through the use of a stationary shallow-water model. A homogeneous climatic wind was used for the entire Bay, with a velocity of 3m·s-1 , and directions North, South, Northeast, Northwest, East, Southeast, Southwest and West. The results showed a rather complex dynamics in Chetumal Bay, in which important turns were observed in deep areas, with speeds reaching up to 13 cm·s-1 .

  6. Assessment for water quality by artificial neural network in Daya Bay, South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mei-Lin; Wang, You-Shao; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2015-10-01

    In this study, artificial neural network such as a self-organizing map (SOM) was used to assess for the effects caused by climate change and human activities on the water quality in Daya Bay, South China Sea. SOM has identified the anthropogenic effects and seasonal characters of water quality. SOM grouped the four seasons as four groups (winter, spring, summer and autumn). The Southeast Asian monsoons, northeasterly from October to the next April and southwesterly from May to September have also an important influence on the water quality in Daya Bay. Spatial pattern is mainly related to anthropogenic activities and hydrodynamics conditions. In spatial characteristics, the water quality in Daya Bay was divided into two groups by chemometrics. The monitoring stations (S3, S8, S10 and S11) were in these area (Dapeng Ao, Aotou Harbor) and northeast parts of Daya Bay, which are areas of human activity. The thermal pollution has been observed near water body in Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant (S5). The rest of the monitoring sites were in the south, central and eastern parts of Daya Bay, which are areas that experience water exchanges from South China Sea. The results of this study may provide information on the spatial and temporal patterns in Daya Bay. Further research will be carry out more research concerning functional changes in the bay ecology with respect to changes in climatic factor, human activities and bay morphology in Daya Bay.

  7. Seafloor geomorphology of western Antarctic Peninsula bays: a signature of ice flow behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. P. Munoz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Glacial geomorphology is used in Antarctica to reconstruct ice advance during the Last Glacial Maximum and subsequent retreat across the continental shelf. Analogous geomorphic assemblages are found in glaciated fjords and are used to interpret the glacial history and glacial dynamics in those areas. In addition, understanding the distribution of submarine landforms in bays and the local controls exerted on ice flow can help improve numerical models by providing constraints through these drainage areas. We present multibeam swath bathymetry from several bays in the South Shetland Islands and the western Antarctic Peninsula. The submarine landforms are described and interpreted in detail. A schematic model was developed showing the features found in the bays: from glacial lineations and moraines in the inner bay to grounding zone wedges and drumlinoid features in the middle bay and streamlined features and meltwater channels in the outer bay areas. In addition, we analysed local variables in the bays and observed the following: (1 the number of landforms found in the bays scales to the size of the bay, but the geometry of the bays dictates the types of features that form; specifically, we observe a correlation between the bay width and the number of transverse features present in the bays. (2 The smaller seafloor features are present only in the smaller glacial systems, indicating that short-lived atmospheric and oceanographic fluctuations, responsible for the formation of these landforms, are only recorded in these smaller systems. (3 Meltwater channels are abundant on the seafloor, but some are subglacial, carved in bedrock, and some are modern erosional features, carved on soft sediment. Lastly, based on geomorphological evidence, we propose the features found in some of the proximal bay areas were formed during a recent glacial advance, likely the Little Ice Age.

  8. Seafloor geomorphology of western Antarctic Peninsula bays: a signature of ice flow behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Yuribia P.; Wellner, Julia S.

    2018-01-01

    Glacial geomorphology is used in Antarctica to reconstruct ice advance during the Last Glacial Maximum and subsequent retreat across the continental shelf. Analogous geomorphic assemblages are found in glaciated fjords and are used to interpret the glacial history and glacial dynamics in those areas. In addition, understanding the distribution of submarine landforms in bays and the local controls exerted on ice flow can help improve numerical models by providing constraints through these drainage areas. We present multibeam swath bathymetry from several bays in the South Shetland Islands and the western Antarctic Peninsula. The submarine landforms are described and interpreted in detail. A schematic model was developed showing the features found in the bays: from glacial lineations and moraines in the inner bay to grounding zone wedges and drumlinoid features in the middle bay and streamlined features and meltwater channels in the outer bay areas. In addition, we analysed local variables in the bays and observed the following: (1) the number of landforms found in the bays scales to the size of the bay, but the geometry of the bays dictates the types of features that form; specifically, we observe a correlation between the bay width and the number of transverse features present in the bays. (2) The smaller seafloor features are present only in the smaller glacial systems, indicating that short-lived atmospheric and oceanographic fluctuations, responsible for the formation of these landforms, are only recorded in these smaller systems. (3) Meltwater channels are abundant on the seafloor, but some are subglacial, carved in bedrock, and some are modern erosional features, carved on soft sediment. Lastly, based on geomorphological evidence, we propose the features found in some of the proximal bay areas were formed during a recent glacial advance, likely the Little Ice Age.

  9. Eutrophication influence on phytoplankton community composition in three bays on the eastern Adriatic coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Bužančić

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study shows the influence of eutrophication pressure on the phytoplankton community structure, abundance and biodiversity in the investigated bays with different hydromorphological features. Šibenik Bay is a highly stratified estuary of the karstic river Krka; Kaštela Bay is a semi-enclosed coastal bay, which is influenced by the relatively small river Jadro; and Mali Ston Bay is located at the Neretva River estuary, the largest river on the eastern part of the Adriatic Sea. All of the areas are affected by urban pressure, which is reflected in the trophic status of the waters. The greatest anthropogenic influence was found in Kaštela Bay while the lowest influence was found in Mali Ston Bay. In this study, the highest biomass concentration and maximum abundance of phytoplankton were recorded at the stations under the strongest anthropogenic influence. Those stations show a dominance of abundance compared to the biomass and a dominance of opportunistic species, which is reflected in the lower biodiversity of phytoplankton community. Diatoms were the most represented group of the phytoplankton community in all three bays, followed by the dinoflagellates. Diatoms that were highlighted as significant for the difference between the bays were Skeletonema marinoi in Šibenik Bay, Leptocylindrus minimus in Kaštela Bay and the genus Chaetoceros spp. in Mali Ston Bay. Dinoflagellates were more abundant at the stations under the strongest anthropogenic influence, and most significant were Prorocentrum triestinum in Kaštela Bay and Gymnodinium spp. in Šibenik Bay and Mali Ston Bay.

  10. Sediment Characterization in St. Alban's Bay, VT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nethercutt, S.; Manley, T.; Manley, P.

    2017-12-01

    St. Alban's Bay within Lake Champlain is plagued with harmful algal blooms. With future intensification due to climate change, a multidisciplinary program (BREE-Basin Resilience to Extreme Events) was initiated in 2016. In order to assess the mobilization of harmful nutrients from sediment resuspension events and riverine input, 74 sediment samples were collected in a grid fashion throughout St. Alban's Bay. Sediments were deflocculated and analyzed using a LA920 Horiba laser scattering particle size distribution analyzer to define the frequency of sediment sizes from clay to sand. Gridded surfaces of mean sortable silt percentage, silt percentage, sand percentage, and clay percentage were used to represent the sediment distribution of the region. A plot of diameter versus frequency showed the bimodal nature of some of the sediments, with one peak at about 10 microns diameter (silt) and the second at about 525 microns diameter (sand). The data showed an extremely low percentage of clay relative to that of sand and silt. The highest frequencies of sortable silt, which represents the most easily mobilized particle size, are found in the deepest areas of the bay, suggesting that these regions are where dominant bottom flow occurs. The high occurrence of sortable silt in the St. Alban's Bay does suggest that sediment mobilization, and therefore nutrient mobilization has the potential to occur. These data combined with high-resolution multibeam and hydrodynamic data will allow for future models of water flow and remobilization studies in the future.

  11. Small cities face greater impact from automation

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Morgan R.; Sun, Lijun; Cebrian, Manuel; Youn, Hyejin; Rahwan, Iyad

    2017-01-01

    The city has proven to be the most successful form of human agglomeration and provides wide employment opportunities for its dwellers. As advances in robotics and artificial intelligence revive concerns about the impact of automation on jobs, a question looms: How will automation affect employment in cities? Here, we provide a comparative picture of the impact of automation across U.S. urban areas. Small cities will undertake greater adjustments, such as worker displacement and job content su...

  12. Life history of lake herring of Green Bay, Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stanford H.

    1956-01-01

    Although the lake herring has been an important contributor to the commercial fish production of Green Bay, little has been known about it. This study is based on field observations and data from about 6,500 lake herring collected over the period 1948 to 1952. Relatively nonselective commercial pound nets were a primary source of material for the study of age and growth. Commercial and experimental gill nets were used to obtain data on gear selectivity and vertical distribution. Scales were employed to investigate age and growth. Age group IV normally dominated commercial catches during the first half of the calendar year and age group III the last half. At these ages the fish averaged about 10.5 inches in length. The season's growth started in May, was most rapid in July, and terminated near the end of October. The sexes grew at the same rate. Selectivity of fishing gear was found to influence the estimation of growth. Geographical and annual differences in growth are shown. Factors that might contribute to discrepancies in calculated growth are evaluated. Possible real and apparent causes of growth compensation are given. The relation between length and weight is shown to vary with sex, season, year, and method of capture. Females were relatively more plentiful in commercial catches in February than in May through December. The percentage of females decreased with increase in age in pound-net catches but increased with age in gill-net samples. Within a year class the percentage of females decreased with increase in age. Most Green Bay lake herring mature during their second or third year of life. They are pelagic spawners with most intensive spawning over shallow areas. Spawning takes place between mid-November and mid-December, and eggs hatch in April and May. Lake herring ovaries contained from 3,500 to 11,200 eggs (averaged 6,375). Progress of spawning by age, sex, and length is given. Lake herring were distributed at all depths in Green Bay in early May, were

  13. Small hydro-electric potential west Poverty Bay region. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-07-01

    This study has identified six schemes in the Bay of Plenty Electric Power Board area and two in the Poverty Bay Electric Power Board area, of which five and one respectively are below the economic limit of $2400/kW suggested by the Ministry of Works and Development as of December 1979. Of these, only three appear both economic and environmentally acceptable.

  14. Water quality of Tampa Bay, Florida, June 1972-May 1976

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Carole L.; Goodwin, Carl R.

    1980-01-01

    A comprehensive assessment of the water quality of Tampa Bay, Florida, was initiated in 1970 to provide background information to evaluate the effects of widening and deepening the ship channel to the port of Tampa. This report provides results of water-quality sampling in the bay from 1972 to 1976, prior to dredging. Measurements of temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, turbidity, specific conductance, biochemical oxygen demand, and total organic carbon were made as well as measurements for several nutrient, metal, and pesticide parameters. Many parameters were measured at as many as three points in the vertical. These data indicate that Tampa Bay is well-mixed vertically with little density stratification. Time histories of average temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, turbidity, specific conductance and nutrient values within four subareas of Tampa Bay are given to reveal seasonal or other trends during the period of record. Temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, turbidity, specific conductance, nutrient, biochemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon, and metal data are also presented as areal distributions. Nutrient concentrations were generally higher in Hillsborough Bay than in other sub-areas of Tampa Bay. Biochemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon, and total organic nitrogen distribution patterns show regions of highest concentrations to be along bay shorelines near population centers. Of the metals analyzed, all were present in concentrations of less than 1 milligram per liter. (USGS)

  15. Studies of movement of sediments in Santos bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandeira, J.V.; Aun, P.E.; Bomtempo, V.L.; Salim, L.H.; Minardi, P.S.P.; Santos, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    In the years of 1973, 74, 80, 81 and 85 several studies were performed at Santos bay, using radioactive tracers, with the following main objectives: to evaluate the behaviour (on the bottom and in suspension) of the mixture of silt and clay which is dredged from the estuary and from its access channel and dumped at pre-determined sites, in the bay and surrounding regions, with the objective of optimizing dredging disposal operations; to quantify the movement of sandy sediments on the bottom, in 3 areas of the bay, in summer and winter conditions, to obtain pertinent information related to the siltation of the access channel. As results of these studies, it was found that: the ancient dumping site, near Itaipu Point, in the western limit of the bay, was inadequate, since the material could return to the bay and to the estuary. The dumping site was moved to a region at the south of Moela Island, located eastwards relative to the bay, which brought substantial economies in dredging works; the bottom sediment transport was quantified, following clouds of tagged materials for about 8 months, thus obtaining important conclusions about transport rates in different regions of the bay. An analysis of the intervening hydrodynamic agents is also presented. (author) (L.J.C.)

  16. 137Cs and 210Pb distribution in Manila Bay sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sta. Maria, Efren J.; Madrid, Jordan F.; Olivares, Ryan U.; Bulos, Adelina DM; Dayaon, Jennyvi P.; Asa, Anie Day DC; Sombrito, Elvira Z.

    2011-01-01

    Two radionuclides were measured in surface sediment samples taken from geographically distributed sections of Manila Bay, namely cesium-137 ( 137 Cs) and lead-210 ( 210 Pb). Results indicated a noticeable change in the radioactivity concentration levels in sediments collected in 2005 and 2010, with a median concentration of 1.0 and 2.64 Bq kg -1 , respectively. Higher levels of 137 Cs radioactivity were measured in the northern and inner portion of the bay adjacent to major river systems, agricultural and highly industrialized urban areas. 137 Cs isotope increased in activity in most of the samples especially in the northwestern areas of Bataan and Pampanga with five times more than the activity from the first sampling measurements. Nevertheless, radioactivity concentrations observed in surface sediments along the bay are within the range of radioactivity in several areas monitored in the Northern Hemisphere. The country has been frequented by tropical cyclones and storms that have caused erosion, which may have introduced elevated material input in the bay. In addition, wind-driven circulation especially in the shallower areas of the bay is a possibility for the substantial sediment movement and accumulation along this coast. Conversely, areas with higher 137 Cs have lower values of 210 Pb. In an undisturbed environment, 210 Pb deposition values are assumed nearly constant. Hence, changes in the radioactivity concentration levels of these radionuclides can be an indicator of pollution input from land-based sources, sediment movement and reworking in the coastal areas. At present, there is very limited information on the radioactivity level of various radioisotopes in Manila Bay.The data obtained are benchmark values against which changes that will be occurring in the bay can be assessed. (author)

  17. Superincentive public transport contracting in the greater Amsterdam area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, B.; Van de Velde, D.M.

    2009-01-01

    All suburban/regional bus services around Amsterdam City have been submitted to competitive tendering. This is done under a very innovative form of revenue-based contract that can be classified as a ‘super incentive’ contract. Payments to operators (‘subsidies’) are based on realised passenger

  18. Holocene evolution of Apalachicola Bay, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterman, L.E.; Twichell, D.C.; Poore, R.Z.

    2009-01-01

    A program of geophysical mapping and vibracoring was conducted to better understand the geologic evolution of Apalachicola Bay. Analyses of the geophysical data and sediment cores along with age control provided by 34 AMS 14C dates on marine shells and wood reveal the following history. As sea level rose in the early Holocene, fluvial deposits filled the Apalachicola River paleochannel, which extended southward under the central part of the bay and seaward across the continental shelf. Sediments to either side of the paleochannel contain abundant wood fragments, with dates documenting that those areas were forested at 8,000 14C years b.p. As sea level continued to rise, spits formed of headland prodelta deposits. Between ???6,400 and ???2,500 14C years b.p., an Apalachicola prodelta prograded and receded several times across the inner shelf that underlies the western part of the bay. An eastern deltaic lobe was active for a shorter time, between ???5,800 and 5,100 14C years b.p. Estuarine benthic foraminiferal assemblages occurred in the western bay as early as 6,400 14C years b.p., and indicate that there was some physical barrier to open-ocean circulation and shelf species established by that time. It is considered that shoals formed in the region of the present barrier islands as the rising sea flooded an interstream divide. Estuarine conditions were established very early in the post-glacial flooding of the bay. ?? 2009 US Government.

  19. Stereo photo series for quantifying natural fuels.Volume XIII: grasslands, shrublands, oak-bay woodlands, and eucalyptus forests in the East Bay of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton S. Wright; Robert E. Vihnanek

    2014-01-01

    Four series of photographs display a range of natural conditions and fuel loadings for grassland, shrubland, oak-bay woodland, and eucalyptus forest ecosystems on the eastern slopes of the San Francisco Bay area of California. Each group of photos includes inventory information summarizing vegetation composition, structure, and loading; woody material loading and...

  20. 33 CFR 165.1187 - Security Zones; Golden Gate Bridge and the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge, San Francisco Bay...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Limited Access Areas Eleventh Coast Guard District § 165.1187 Security Zones; Golden Gate Bridge and the... Golden Gate Bridge and the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge, in San Francisco Bay, California. (b... siren, radio, flashing light, or other means, the operator of a vessel shall proceed as directed. [COTP...

  1. Social and environmental impacts of the James Bay hydroelectric project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornig, J.F.

    1999-01-01

    The book, which is an analysis and not an advocacy, examines the anatomy of the controversy that has swirled around the James Bay project - the La Grande and Great Whale projects combined - from the 1970s to the 1990s, and seeks, in the process, to determine whether there are lessons that can be learned from such an analysis that are applicable to other cases as well as to James Bay itself. The contributors are interested, at one and the same time, in finding ways to integrate the knowledge of natural scientists and social scientists to deepen the understanding of human/environment relations and to link science and policy to encourage a productive dialogue between practitioners and scholars in this increasingly important area of inquiry. The contributor's papers include the following: introduction to the issues; hydroelectric power development at James Bay: establishing a frame of reference; James Bay: environmental considerations for building large hydroelectric dams and reservoirs in Quebec; elevated mercury in fish as a result of the James Bay hydroelectric power development: perception and reality; the Cree people of James Bay: assessing the social impacts of hydroelectric dams and reservoirs; culture, social change, and Cree opposition to the James Bay hydroelectric development; and the impact of James Bay hydroelectric development on the art and craft of the James Bay Cree. The authors of the volume have attempted to stand back and examine just a few of these issues from the perspective of a variety of disciplines, and their purpose is to inform and stimulate thoughtful consideration by providing an overall perspective that might might serve to broaden the context in which specific issues can be debated. refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs

  2. BCDC Bay Trail Alignment 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The Bay Trail provides easily accessible recreational opportunities for outdoor enthusiasts, including hikers, joggers, bicyclists and skaters. It also offers a...

  3. Planning for greater confinement disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Meshkov, N.K.; Trevorrow, L.E.; Yu, C.

    1985-01-01

    A report that provides guidance for planning for greater-confinement disposal (GCD) of low-level radioactive waste is being prepared. The report addresses procedures for selecting a GCD technology and provides information for implementing these procedures. The focus is on GCD; planning aspects common to GCD and shallow-land burial are covered by reference. Planning procedure topics covered include regulatory requirements, waste characterization, benefit-cost-risk assessment and pathway analysis methodologies, determination of need, waste-acceptance criteria, performance objectives, and comparative assessment of attributes that support these objectives. The major technologies covered include augered shafts, deep trenches, engineered structures, hydrofracture, improved waste forms, and high-integrity containers. Descriptive information is provided, and attributes that are relevant for risk assessment and operational requirements are given. 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Environmental and Sanitary Conditions of Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fistarol, Giovana O.; Coutinho, Felipe H.; Moreira, Ana Paula B.; Venas, Tainá; Cánovas, Alba; de Paula, Sérgio E. M.; Coutinho, Ricardo; de Moura, Rodrigo L.; Valentin, Jean Louis; Tenenbaum, Denise R.; Paranhos, Rodolfo; do Valle, Rogério de A. B.; Vicente, Ana Carolina P.; Amado Filho, Gilberto M.; Pereira, Renato Crespo; Kruger, Ricardo; Rezende, Carlos E.; Thompson, Cristiane C.; Salomon, Paulo S.; Thompson, Fabiano L.

    2015-01-01

    Guanabara Bay is the second largest bay in the coast of Brazil, with an area of 384 km2. In its surroundings live circa 16 million inhabitants, out of which 6 million live in Rio de Janeiro city, one of the largest cities of the country, and the host of the 2016 Olympic Games. Anthropogenic interference in Guanabara Bay area started early in the XVI century, but environmental impacts escalated from 1930, when this region underwent an industrialization process. Herein we present an overview of the current environmental and sanitary conditions of Guanabara Bay, a consequence of all these decades of impacts. We will focus on microbial communities, how they may affect higher trophic levels of the aquatic community and also human health. The anthropogenic impacts in the bay are flagged by heavy eutrophication and by the emergence of pathogenic microorganisms that are either carried by domestic and/or hospital waste (e.g., virus, KPC-producing bacteria, and fecal coliforms), or that proliferate in such conditions (e.g., vibrios). Antibiotic resistance genes are commonly found in metagenomes of Guanabara Bay planktonic microorganisms. Furthermore, eutrophication results in recurrent algal blooms, with signs of a shift toward flagellated, mixotrophic groups, including several potentially harmful species. A recent large-scale fish kill episode, and a long trend decrease in fish stocks also reflects the bay’s degraded water quality. Although pollution of Guanabara Bay is not a recent problem, the hosting of the 2016 Olympic Games propelled the government to launch a series of plans to restore the bay’s water quality. If all plans are fully implemented, the restoration of Guanabara Bay and its shores may be one of the best legacies of the Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro. PMID:26635734

  5. Defining a data management strategy for USGS Chesapeake Bay studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladino, Cassandra

    2013-01-01

    The mission of U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) Chesapeake Bay studies is to provide integrated science for improved understanding and management of the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem. Collective USGS efforts in the Chesapeake Bay watershed began in the 1980s, and by the mid-1990s the USGS adopted the watershed as one of its national place-based study areas. Great focus and effort by the USGS have been directed toward Chesapeake Bay studies for almost three decades. The USGS plays a key role in using “ecosystem-based adaptive management, which will provide science to improve the efficiency and accountability of Chesapeake Bay Program activities” (Phillips, 2011). Each year USGS Chesapeake Bay studies produce published research, monitoring data, and models addressing aspects of bay restoration such as, but not limited to, fish health, water quality, land-cover change, and habitat loss. The USGS is responsible for collaborating and sharing this information with other Federal agencies and partners as described under the President’s Executive Order 13508—Strategy for Protecting and Restoring the Chesapeake Bay Watershed signed by President Obama in 2009. Historically, the USGS Chesapeake Bay studies have relied on national USGS databases to store only major nationally available sources of data such as streamflow and water-quality data collected through local monitoring programs and projects, leaving a multitude of other important project data out of the data management process. This practice has led to inefficient methods of finding Chesapeake Bay studies data and underutilization of data resources. Data management by definition is “the business functions that develop and execute plans, policies, practices and projects that acquire, control, protect, deliver and enhance the value of data and information.” (Mosley, 2008a). In other words, data management is a way to preserve, integrate, and share data to address the needs of the Chesapeake Bay studies to better

  6. Humic Substances from Manila Bay and Bolinao Bay Sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elma Llaguno

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The C,H,N composition of sedimentary humic acids (HA extracted from three sites in Manila Bay and six sites in Bolinao Bay yielded H/C atomic ratios of 1.1-1.4 and N/C atomic ratios of 0.09 - 0.16. The Manila Bay HA's had lower H/C and N/C ratios compared to those from Bolinao Bay. The IR spectra showed prominent aliphatic C-H and amide I and II bands. Manila Bay HA's also had less diverse molecular composition based on the GC-MS analysis of the CuO and alkaline permanganate oxidation products of the humic acids.

  7. Derivation of Delaware Bay tidal parameters from space shuttle photography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Quanan; Yan, Xiaohai; Klemas, V.

    1993-01-01

    The tide-related parameters of the Delaware Bay are derived from space shuttle time-series photographs. The water areas in the bay are measured from interpretation maps of the photographs with a CALCOMP 9100 digitizer and ERDAS Image Processing System. The corresponding tidal levels are calculated using the exposure time annotated on the photographs. From these data, an approximate function relating the water area to the tidal level at a reference point is determined. Based on the function, the water areas of the Delaware Bay at mean high water (MHW) and mean low water (MLW), below 0 m, and for the tidal zone are inferred. With MHW and MLW areas and the mean tidal range, the authors calculate the tidal influx of the Delaware Bay, which is 2.76 x 1O 9 m 3 . Furthermore, the velocity of flood tide at the bay mouth is determined using the tidal flux and an integral of the velocity distribution function at the cross section between Cape Henlopen and Cape May. The result is 132 cm/s, which compares well with the data on tidal current charts

  8. Evaluation of effects of changes in canal management and precipitation patterns on salinity in Biscayne Bay, Florida, using an integrated surface-water/groundwater model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, Melinda A.; Swain, Eric D.; Wang, John D.; Dixon, Joann

    2012-01-01

    Biscayne National Park, located in Biscayne Bay in southeast Florida, is one of the largest marine parks in the country and sustains a large natural marine fishery where numerous threatened and endangered species reproduce. In recent years, the bay has experienced hypersaline conditions (salinity greater than 35 practical salinity units) of increasing magnitude and duration. Hypersalinity events were particularly pronounced during April to August 2004 in nearshore areas along the southern and middle parts of the bay. Prolonged hypersaline conditions can cause degradation of water quality and permanent damage to, or loss of, brackish nursery habitats for multiple species of fish and crustaceans as well as damage to certain types of seagrasses that are not tolerant of extreme changes in salinity. To evaluate the factors that contribute to hypersalinity events and to test the effects of possible changes in precipitation patterns and canal flows into Biscayne Bay on salinity in the bay, the U.S. Geological Survey constructed a coupled surface-water/groundwater numerical flow model. The model is designed to account for freshwater flows into Biscayne Bay through the canal system, leakage of salty bay water into the underlying Biscayne aquifer, discharge of fresh and salty groundwater from the Biscayne aquifer into the bay, direct effects of precipitation on bay salinity, indirect effects of precipitation on recharge to the Biscayne aquifer, direct effects of evapotranspiration (ET) on bay salinity, indirect effects of ET on recharge to the Biscayne aquifer, and maintenance of mass balance of both water and solute. The model was constructed using the Flow and Transport in a Linked Overland/Aquifer Density Dependent System (FTLOADDS) simulator, version 3.3, which couples the two-dimensional, surface-water flow and solute-transport simulator SWIFT2D with the density-dependent, groundwater flow an solute-transport simulator SEAWAT. The model was calibrated by a trial

  9. Measuring Macrobenthos Biodiversity at Oyster Aquaculture Sites in the Delaware Inland Bays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuoco, M. J.; Ozbay, G.

    2016-12-01

    The Delaware Inland Bays consists of three shallow coastal bays located in the southern portion of Delaware. Anthropogenic activities have led to the degradation of water quality, because the bays are surrounded by highly developed areas and have low flushing rates. This results in loss of biodiversity and abundance of organisms. Ongoing degradation of the bays has led to a dramatic decline in local oyster populations since the late 1800s. Oysters are keystone species, which provide habitats for organisms and help to improve water quality. This study aims to find if the introduction of oyster aquaculture improves local biodiversity and abundance of macrobenthos. The study was conducted in Rehoboth Bay, Indian River Bay and Little Assawoman Bay. Aquaculture gear was placed at one location in each of the bays and 24 sediment core samples were taken once a month. From these core samples all worms were fixed and stained in a 10% Formalin Rose Bengal solution and preserved in 70% Ethanol for later identification. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis of oyster tissue will also be performed to assess the health of the bay. The goals of this research are to better understand the role of oyster aquaculture in restoring the viability and health of the Delaware Inland Bays.

  10. Variation of phytoplankton biomass and primary production in Daya Bay during spring and summer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Xingyu; Huang Liangmin; Zhang Jianlin; Huang, Xiaoping; Zhang Junbin; Yin Jianqiang; Tan Yehui; Liu Sheng

    2004-01-01

    Environmental factors, phytoplankton biomass (Chl a) and primary production of two water areas in Daya Bay (Dapeng'ao Bay and Aotou Bay) were investigated during the transition period from spring to summer. Chl a ranged from 3.20 to 13.62 and 13.43 to 26.49 mg m -3 in Dapeng'ao Bay and Aotou Bay respectively, if data obtained during red tides are excluded. Primary production varied between 239.7 and 1001.4 mgC m -2 d -1 in Dapeng'ao Bay. The regional distribution of Chl a and primary production were mostly consistent from spring to summer in both bays. Seasonal transition characters have been found in Daya Bay from spring to summer, including high values of DO, nitrate and silicate. Size structures of phytoplankton and its primary production do not change very much from spring to summer, with micro-phytoplankton dominating and contributing about 50% of the whole. In Daya Bay, phytoplankton is limited by nitrogen in spring, and by phosphate in summer. Artificial impacts are evident from high temperature effluent from nuclear power stations, aquaculture and sewage. During the investigation, a red tide occurred in Aotou Bay, with a maximum Chl a of 103.23 mg m -3 at surface and primary production of 2721.9 mgC m -2 d -1 in the red tide center. Raised water temperature and nutrient supply from land-sources help to stimulate annual red tides

  11. Topobathymetric model of Mobile Bay, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, Jeffrey J.; Brock, John C.; Howard, Daniel M.; Gesch, Dean B.; Bonisteel-Cormier, Jamie M.; Travers, Laurinda J.

    2013-01-01

    Topobathymetric Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) are a merged rendering of both topography (land elevation) and bathymetry (water depth) that provides a seamless elevation product useful for inundation mapping, as well as for other earth science applications, such as the development of sediment-transport, sea-level rise, and storm-surge models. This 1/9-arc-second (approximately 3 meters) resolution model of Mobile Bay, Alabama was developed using multiple topographic and bathymetric datasets, collected on different dates. The topographic data were obtained primarily from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Elevation Dataset (NED) (http://ned.usgs.gov/) at 1/9-arc-second resolution; USGS Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) data (2 meters) (http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/400/); and topographic lidar data (2 meters) and Compact Hydrographic Airborne Rapid Total Survey (CHARTS) lidar data (2 meters) from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) (http://www.csc.noaa.gov/digitalcoast/data/coastallidar/). Bathymetry was derived from digital soundings obtained from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA) National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) (http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/mgg/geodas/geodas.html) and from water-penetrating lidar sources, such as EAARL and CHARTS. Mobile Bay is ecologically important as it is the fourth largest estuary in the United States. The Mobile and Tensaw Rivers drain into the bay at the northern end with the bay emptying into the Gulf of Mexico at the southern end. Dauphin Island (a barrier island) and the Fort Morgan Peninsula form the mouth of Mobile Bay. Mobile Bay is 31 miles (50 kilometers) long by a maximum width of 24 miles (39 kilometers) with a total area of 413 square miles (1,070 square kilometers). The vertical datum of the Mobile Bay topobathymetric model is the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD 88). All the topographic datasets were originally referenced to NAVD 88 and no transformations

  12. The dynamics of İzmir Bay under the effects of wind and thermohaline forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayın, Erdem; Eronat, Canan

    2018-04-01

    The dominant circulation pattern of İzmir Bay on the Aegean Sea coast of Turkey is studied taking into consideration the influence of wind and thermohaline forces. İzmir Bay is discussed by subdividing the bay into outer, middle and inner areas. Wind is the most important driving force in the İzmir coastal area. There are also thermohaline forces due to the existence of water types of different physical properties in the bay. In contrast to the two-layer stratification during summer, a homogeneous water column exists in winter. The free surface version of the Princeton model (Killworth's 3-D general circulation model) is applied, with the input data obtained through the measurements made by the research vessel K. Piri Reis. As a result of the simulations with artificial wind, the strong consistent wind generates circulation patterns independent of the seasonal stratification in the bay. Wind-driven circulation causes cyclonic or anticyclonic movements in the middle bay where the distinct İzmir Bay Water (IBW) forms. Cyclonic movement takes place under the influence of southerly and westerly winds. On the other hand, northerly and easterly winds cause an anticyclonic movement in the middle bay. The outer and inner bay also have the wind-driven recirculation patterns expected.

  13. 33 CFR 110.31 - Hull Bay and Allerton Harbor at Hull, Mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hull Bay and Allerton Harbor at Hull, Mass. 110.31 Section 110.31 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.31 Hull Bay and Allerton Harbor at...

  14. 77 FR 65815 - Expansion of Fagatele Bay National Marine Sanctuary, Regulatory Changes, and Sanctuary Name...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    .... 070726412-1300-02] RIN 0648-BA24 Expansion of Fagatele Bay National Marine Sanctuary, Regulatory Changes, and Sanctuary Name Change; Notice of Effective Date AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries... geographical areas to the sanctuary and change the name of the Fagatele Bay National Marine Sanctuary (FBNMS or...

  15. 77 FR 60302 - Special Local Regulations; Red Bull Flugtag Miami, Biscayne Bay; Miami, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ... received without jeopardizing the safety or security of people, places or vessels. 7. Unfunded Mandates... waters of Biscayne Bay, Miami, FL between Bayfront Park and the Intercontinental-Miami Hotel encompassed... Area. All waters of Biscayne Bay, Miami, FL between Bayfront Park and the Intercontinental-Miami Hotel...

  16. DEVELOP Chesapeake Bay Watershed Hydrology - UAV Sensor Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley, S. D.; Baruah, A.

    2008-12-01

    The Chesapeake Bay is the largest estuary in the United States, with a watershed extending through six states and the nation's capital. Urbanization and agriculture practices have led to an excess runoff of nutrients and sediment into the bay. Nutrients and sediment loading stimulate the growth of algal blooms associated with various problems including localized dissolved oxygen deficiencies, toxic algal blooms and death of marine life. The Chesapeake Bay Program, among other stakeholder organizations, contributes greatly to the restoration efforts of the Chesapeake Bay. These stakeholders contribute in many ways such as monitoring the water quality, leading clean-up projects, and actively restoring native habitats. The first stage of the DEVELOP Chesapeake Bay Coastal Management project, relating to water quality, contributed to the restoration efforts by introducing NASA satellite-based water quality data products to the stakeholders as a complement to their current monitoring methods. The second stage, to be initiated in the fall 2008 internship term, will focus on the impacts of land cover variability within the Chesapeake Bay Watershed. Multiple student led discussions with members of the Land Cover team at the Chesapeake Bay Program Office in the DEVELOP GSFC 2008 summer term uncovered the need for remote sensing data for hydrological mapping in the watershed. The Chesapeake Bay Program expressed in repeated discussions on Land Cover mapping that significant portions of upper river areas, streams, and the land directly interfacing those waters are not accurately depicted in the watershed model. Without such hydrological mapping correlated with land cover data the model will not be useful in depicting source areas of nutrient loading which has an ecological and economic impact in and around the Chesapeake Bay. The fall 2008 DEVELOP team will examine the use of UAV flown sensors in connection with in-situ and Earth Observation satellite data. To maximize the

  17. Contents of some heavy metals in plants from Saginaw Bay (Lake Huron) and some small lakes in wilderness areas of Michigan's Upper Peninsula as analyzed by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, J.R.; Kaufman, P.B.; Jones, J.D.; Estabrook, G.F.; Ghosheh, N.S.; Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor; Eastern Michigan University, Ypsilanti

    1982-01-01

    The highest concentrations of heavy metals occured in plants collected near the mouth of the Saginaw River. The alga, Cladophora sp., and the flowering plant, Typha augustifolia (cat-tail), are notable for the high concentration of heavy metals. In addition, several other species that were sampled from small lakes in Michigan's Upper Peninsula contained higher concentrations of certain metals (Ba, Cr, Rb) than from any samples obtained from Saginaw Bay. Different organs of the same species, or of the same plant, such as cut-tail, vary widely in concentrations of the same element. A computer-derived analysis of our data is presented, and the implications of our results as they relate to pollution by heavy metals in fresh-water lakes is discussed. (author)

  18. Contents of some heavy metals in plants from Saginaw Bay (Lake Huron) and some small lakes in wilderness areas of Michigan's Upper Peninsula as analyzed by neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, J.R. (Cranbrook Institute of Science, Bloomfield Hill (USA)); Kaufman, P.B.; Jones, J.D.; Estabrook, G.F.; Ghosheh, N.S. (Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor (USA); Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor (USA). Michigan Memorial Phoenix Project; Eastern Michigan University, Ypsilanti (USA). Department of Biology)

    1982-01-01

    The highest concentrations of heavy metals occured in plants collected near the mouth of the Saginaw River. The alga, Cladophora sp., and the flowering plant, Typha augustifolia (cat-tail), are notable for the high concentration of heavy metals. In addition, several other species that were sampled from small lakes in Michigan's Upper Peninsula contained higher concentrations of certain metals (Ba, Cr, Rb) than from any samples obtained from Saginaw Bay. Different organs of the same species, or of the same plant, such as cut-tail, vary widely in concentrations of the same element. A computer-derived analysis of our data is presented, and the implications of our results as they relate to pollution by heavy metals in fresh-water lakes is discussed.

  19. Structure of the Kasbah fold zone (Agadir bay, Morocco). Implications on the chronology of the recent tectonics of the western High Atlas and on the seismic hazard of the Agadir area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mridekh, A.; Medina, F.; Mhammdi, N.; Samaka, F.; Bouatmani, R.

    2009-07-01

    Detailed re-interpretation of the north-eastern segment of a profile realized across the Agadir bay along a NE-SW trend and crosscutting the main structures, together with analysis of available isochron maps, allowed us to retrace the geological history of the offshore western High Atlas. Two tectonostratigraphic sequences were distinguished: Unit II, which displays a simple structure, laying un conformably on Unit I, with a more complex structure dominated by a reverse fault (F1) striking E-W with a dip to the north. Correlation to boreholes Souss-1 and AGM-1 allowed us to assign Unit I to the Triassic Palaeogene and Unit II to the Miocene Present. The NE fault block shows a ramp-flat fault plane (F2) with an overlying SW-vergent fold that can be interpreted as a fault-bend fold. Three main stages were distinguished: (1) during the Cretaceous, F1 could have been a syn depositional normal fault with the NE block moving downwards; (2) towards the beginning of the Tertiary, the displacement of plane F2 induced the development of a fault-bend fold and erosion of the forelimb and hinge of the fold; displacement along F2 was transferred to fault F1; (3) afterwards, during the Miocene, reverse motion of F1 deformed and tilted the plane F2 and accentuated the folded structure. This evolution is typical for a frontal basin above a fault-related fold. Evaluation of the thickness and bed depth differences shows that the largest growth rate was recorded in Late Miocene times. Seismic activity recorded in the Agadir bay appears to be clearly related to this fault zone, as inferred from focal mechanisms. Seismic moment evaluation suggests that earthquakes of magnitude Mw=6 are likely to occur, but could not be much larger because of the fault segmentation geometry of the High Atlas Front. (Author) 53 refs.

  20. INDUSTRIAL LAND DEVELOPMENT AND MANUFACTURING DECONCENTRATION IN GREATER JAKARTA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hudalah, Delik; Viantari, Dimitra; Firman, Tommy; Woltjer, Johan

    2013-01-01

    Industrial land development has become a key feature of urbanization in Greater Jakarta, one of the largest metropolitan areas in Southeast Asia. Following Suharto's market-oriented policy measures in the late 1980s, private developers have dominated the land development projects in Greater Jakarta.

  1. Cambridge Bay: Six years later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edworthy, J.

    1992-01-01

    The story of a wind energy project in Cambridge Bay, Northwest Territories, is presented from the perspective of the company that supplied the equipment and supported the project through its life. The project was intended to demonstrate the technical, economic, institutional, and operational issues and barriers to the use of wind power in remote communities. The system, involving four Carter Model 25 units each rated at 25 kW, was installed in 1987 and commissioned in January 1988. Shortly thereafter, the Northern Canada Power Commission (which requested the project in the first place) was taken over by the territorial administration, and employee continuity was disrupted. At about the same time, Federal support for the project decreased. Technical problems included a transformer failure, a generator failure, and a failed yaw tube which turned out to be lightly designed and poorly made. The Carter turbine company also went out of business, making spare parts difficult to obtain. The utility organization changed abruptly in summer 1991 with the arrival of a new area superintendent who did not support the project. The wind farm was shut down in 1992. The project generated a total of 160,982 kWh with over 71% availability. The positive and negative results from the project are summarized and recommendations are made for future Arctic wind power projects. 2 figs., 1 tab

  2. Bayes estimation of the general hazard rate model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarhan, A.

    1999-01-01

    In reliability theory and life testing models, the life time distributions are often specified by choosing a relevant hazard rate function. Here a general hazard rate function h(t)=a+bt c-1 , where c, a, b are constants greater than zero, is considered. The parameter c is assumed to be known. The Bayes estimators of (a,b) based on the data of type II/item-censored testing without replacement are obtained. A large simulation study using Monte Carlo Method is done to compare the performance of Bayes with regression estimators of (a,b). The criterion for comparison is made based on the Bayes risk associated with the respective estimator. Also, the influence of the number of failed items on the accuracy of the estimators (Bayes and regression) is investigated. Estimations for the parameters (a,b) of the linearly increasing hazard rate model h(t)=a+bt, where a, b are greater than zero, can be obtained as the special case, letting c=2

  3. Contaminant exposure of birds nesting in Green Bay, Wisconsin, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Thomas W; Dummer, Paul M; Custer, Christine M; Franson, J Christian; Jones, Michael

    2014-08-01

    In earlier studies, elevated concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) were reported in double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) eggs and tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) eggs and nestlings collected from lower Green Bay (WI, USA) in 1994 and 1995 and black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) eggs collected in 1991. Comparable samples collected in 2010 and 2011 indicated that concentrations of PCBs were 35%, 62%, 70%, and 88% lower than in the early 1990s in tree swallow eggs, tree swallow nestlings, double-crested cormorant eggs, and black-crowned night-heron eggs, respectively; concentrations of DDE were 47%, 43%, 51%, and 80% lower, respectively. These declines are consistent with regional contaminant trends in other species. Concentrations of PCBs were higher in herring gull (Larus argentatus) than in black-crowned night-heron eggs collected from Green Bay in 2010; PCB concentrations in double-crested cormorant and tree swallow eggs were intermediate. The estimated toxicity of the PCB mixture in eggs of the insectivorous tree swallow was the equal to or greater than toxicity in the 3 piscivorous bird species. A multivariate analysis indicated that the composition percentage of lower-numbered PCB congeners was greater in eggs of the insectivorous tree swallow than in eggs of the 3 piscivorous species nesting in Green Bay. Dioxin and furan concentrations and the toxicity of these chemicals were also higher in tree swallows than these other waterbird species nesting in Green Bay. Published 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) reproduction and seedling colonization after Hurricane Charley: Comparisons of Charlotte Harbor and Tampa Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proffitt, C.E.; Milbrandt, E.C.; Travis, S.E.

    2006-01-01

    Reproductive aspects of life history are known to be important in recovery following disturbance in many plant species although this has not been well studied in mangroves. Hurricane Charley devastated large areas of mangroves in Charlotte Harbor, Florida, in August 2004. We surveyed 6 forests in Charlotte Harbor (2002, 2003, and 2005) and 16 in Tampa Bay, Florida (2001, 2002, 2003, and 2005) for total numbers of reproducing trees and trees heterozygotic for albinism that produce both normal and albino propagules. Tree size (estimated height and diameter at breast height) was also recorded for sentinel heterozygotic trees. Total number of reproducing trees km-1 was used as an index of reproductive output of the population, and deviation from the 3:1 (normal:albino propagules) ratio on heterozygotic trees expected with 100% selfing was used to estimate outcrossing. Numbers of Rhizophora mangle reproducing trees km-1 of shoreline in Charlotte Harbor were reduced by an order of magnitude following Hurricane Charley, while numbers of reproducing trees in Tampa Bay were similar to those of previous years. Reduced reproduction in Charlotte Harbor was accompanied by fewer new recruits in plots on Sanibel and Captiva Islands. Numbers of new recruits after the storm also tended to be fewer in plots where canopy loss was greater. More new recruits occurred in sites that had higher densities of pre-storm Rhizophora seedlings and greater relative dominance by Rhizophora. Outcrossing of sentinel trees was 2.5 times greater in Charlotte Harbor (mean site-1 = 33.6 ?? 6.7%; with 17% of forest sites completely selfing) than in Tampa Bay (mean site-1 = 13.4 ?? 4.7%; with 40% of sites completely selfing), although the implications for seedling recruitment of this difference are not known. ?? 2006 Estuarine Research Federation.

  5. Lavaca Bay 1985-1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Samples were collected from October 15, 1985 through June 12, 1987 in emergent marsh and non-vegetated habitats throughout the Lavaca Bay system to characterize...

  6. FL BAY SPECTROUT-DIET

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Juvenile spotted seatrout and other sportfish are being monitored annually over a 6-mo period in Florida Bay to assess their abundance over time relative to...

  7. Organic carbon balance and net ecosystem metabolism in Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, W.M.; Smith, E.M.; Marvin-DiPasquale, M.; Boynton, W.R.

    1997-01-01

    The major fluxes of organic carbon associated with physical transport and biological metabolism were compiled, analyzed and compared for the mainstem portion of Chesapeake Bay (USA). In addition, 5 independent methods were used to calculate the annual mean net ecosystem metabolism (NEM = production - respiration) for the integrated Bay. These methods, which employed biogeochemical models, nutrient mass-balances anti summation of individual organic carbon fluxes, yielded remarkably similar estimates, with a mean NEM of +50 g C m-2 yr-1 (?? SE = 751, which is approximately 8% of the estimated annual average gross primary production. These calculations suggest a strong cross-sectional pattern in NEM throughout the Bay, wherein net heterotrophic metabolism prevails in the pelagic zones of the main channel, while net autotrophy occurs in the littoral zones which flank the deeper central area. For computational purposes, the estuary was separated into 3 regions along the land-sea gradient: (1) the oligohaline Upper Bay (11% of total area); (2) the mesohaline Mid Bay (36% of area); and (3) the polyhaline Lower Bay (53% of area). A distinct regional trend in NEM was observed along this salinity gradient, with net here(atrophy (NEM = 87 g C m-2 yr-1) in the Upper Bay, balanced metabolism in the Mid Bay and net autotrophy (NEM = +92 g C m-2 yr-1) in the Lower Bay. As a consequence of overall net autotrophy, the ratio of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) to total organic nitrogen (TON) changed from DIN:TON = 5.1 for riverine inputs to DIN:TON = 0.04 for water exported to the ocean. A striking feature of this organic C mass-balance was the relative dominance of biologically mediated metabolic fluxes compared to physical transport fluxes. The overall ratio of physical TOC inputs (1) to biotic primary production (P) was 0.08 for the whole estuary, but varied dramatically from 2.3 in the Upper Bay to 0.03 in the Mid and Lower Bay regions. Similarly, ecosystem respiration was

  8. Bird communities of contrasting semi-natural habitats of Lac bay, Bonaire, during the fall migration season, 2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debrot, A.O.; Bemmelen, van R.S.A.; Ligon, J.

    2013-01-01

    The mangrove and seagrass lagoon of Lac Bay on Bonaire covers an area of roughly 700 ha. It is home to endangered green sea turtles, Chelonia mydas, and the Caribbean queen conch, Strombus gigas, and is a roosting and breeding area for several birds. Based on its nature values this 7 km2 bay has

  9. Women at greater risk of HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahathir, M

    1997-04-01

    Although many people believe that mainly men get infected with HIV/AIDS, women are actually getting infected at a faster rate than men, especially in developing countries, and suffer more from the adverse impact of AIDS. As of mid-1996, the Joint UN Program on AIDS estimated that more than 10 million of the 25 million adults infected with HIV since the beginning of the epidemic are women. The proportion of HIV-positive women is growing, with almost half of the 7500 new infections daily occurring among women. 90% of HIV-positive women live in a developing country. In Asia-Pacific, 1.4 million women have been infected with HIV out of an estimated total 3.08 million adults from the late 1970s until late 1994. Biologically, women are more vulnerable than men to infection because of the greater mucus area exposed to HIV during penile penetration. Women under age 17 years are at even greater risk because they have an underdeveloped cervix and low vaginal mucus production. Concurrent sexually transmitted diseases increase the risk of HIV transmission. Women's risk is also related to their exposure to gender inequalities in society. The social and economic pressures of poverty exacerbate women's risk. Prevention programs are discussed.

  10. Small cities face greater impact from automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Morgan R; Sun, Lijun; Cebrian, Manuel; Youn, Hyejin; Rahwan, Iyad

    2018-02-01

    The city has proved to be the most successful form of human agglomeration and provides wide employment opportunities for its dwellers. As advances in robotics and artificial intelligence revive concerns about the impact of automation on jobs, a question looms: how will automation affect employment in cities? Here, we provide a comparative picture of the impact of automation across US urban areas. Small cities will undertake greater adjustments, such as worker displacement and job content substitutions. We demonstrate that large cities exhibit increased occupational and skill specialization due to increased abundance of managerial and technical professions. These occupations are not easily automatable, and, thus, reduce the potential impact of automation in large cities. Our results pass several robustness checks including potential errors in the estimation of occupational automation and subsampling of occupations. Our study provides the first empirical law connecting two societal forces: urban agglomeration and automation's impact on employment. © 2018 The Authors.

  11. Small cities face greater impact from automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lijun; Cebrian, Manuel; Rahwan, Iyad

    2018-01-01

    The city has proved to be the most successful form of human agglomeration and provides wide employment opportunities for its dwellers. As advances in robotics and artificial intelligence revive concerns about the impact of automation on jobs, a question looms: how will automation affect employment in cities? Here, we provide a comparative picture of the impact of automation across US urban areas. Small cities will undertake greater adjustments, such as worker displacement and job content substitutions. We demonstrate that large cities exhibit increased occupational and skill specialization due to increased abundance of managerial and technical professions. These occupations are not easily automatable, and, thus, reduce the potential impact of automation in large cities. Our results pass several robustness checks including potential errors in the estimation of occupational automation and subsampling of occupations. Our study provides the first empirical law connecting two societal forces: urban agglomeration and automation's impact on employment. PMID:29436514

  12. Recent results from Daya Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chua Ming-chung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Utilizing powerful nuclear reactors as antineutrino sources, high mountains to provide ample shielding from cosmic rays in the vicinity, and functionally identical detectors with large target volume for near-far relative measurement, the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment has achieved unprecedented precision in measuring the neutrino mixing angle θ13 and the neutrino mass squared difference |Δm2ee|. I will report the latest Daya Bay results on neutrino oscillations and light sterile neutrino search.

  13. Plant diversity and biomass of Marudu bay mangroves in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanum, F.; Kudus, K.A.; Saari, N.S

    2012-01-01

    The mangroves of Marudu Bay in the state of Sabah is situated at the tip of Borneo Island, and at the southern limit of the Coral Triangle whose waters hold the highest diversity of corals, fish, molluscks, crustaceans and marine plant species in the world. The ecosystem shows a deterioration due to unsustainable fishing, pollution and encroachment, and these are impacting the Marudu Bay coastal communities economically. Fishing is the major economic activity here. Realising the importance of conserving the mangroves to uplift the socio-economic livelihood of the coastal community, a resource inventory of the mangroves and its productivity study were carried out. A total of 16 plant species in 12 genera and 9 families were identified. It was also found that 0.7 ha is capable of capturing all the species in the mangrove forest. The mangrove forests of Marudu Bay are dominated by Rhizopora apiculata and R. mucronata. The highest Importance Value index (IVI) was given by Rhizophora mucronata. Total Above Ground Biomass (TAGB) for 1-ha of mangrove forest in Marudu Bay was estimated to be 98.4 t/ha. It was found in other parallel studies that the mangroves of Marudu Bay are productive ecosystems that provide valuable habitats, nurseries and spawning grounds for various commercially important species of fish and invertebrates such as shrimp besides many species of wildlife. The mangroves at Marudu Bay are not only aesthetically attractive but provide opportunities for ecotourism activities that can be undertaken by the local community inhabiting the area to uplift their meagre income, These activities include mangrove cruising, recreational fishing, educational tourism and mangrove honey production, amongst others. This way, the degradation of the mangrove in Marudu Bay can be halted and reversed. (author)

  14. The exotic mute swan (Cygnus olor) in Chesapeake Bay, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, M.C.; Perry, M.C.

    2002-01-01

    The exotic mute swan (Cygnus olor) has increased its population size in Chesapeake Bay (Maryland and Virginia) to approximately 4,500 since 1962 when five swans were released in the Bay. The Bay population of mute swans now represents 30% of the total Atlantic Flyway population (12,600) and has had a phenomenal increase of 1,200% from 1986 to 1999. Unlike the tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus) that migrate to the Bay for the winter, the mute swan is a year-long resident, and, therefore, reports of conflicts with nesting native waterbirds and the consumption of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) have raised concerns among resource managers. Populations of black skimmers (Rynchops niger) and least terns (Sterna antillarum) nesting on beaches and oyster shell bars have been eliminated by molting mute swans. Although data on the reduction of SAV by nesting mute swans and their offspring during the spring and summer are limited, food habits data show that mute swans rely heavily on SAV during these months. Widgeon grass (Ruppia maritima) constituted 56% and eel grass (Zostera marina) constituted 43% of the gullet food of mute swans. Other SAV and invertebrates (including bryozoans, shrimp, and amphipods) formed a much smaller amount of the food percentage (1%). Invertebrates are believed to have been selected accidently within the vegetation eaten by the swans. Corn (Zea mays) fed to swans by Bay residents during the winter probably supplement limited vegetative food resources in late winter. A program to control swan numbers by the addling of eggs and the killing of adult swans has been a contentious issue with some residents of the Bay area. A management plan is being prepared by a diverse group of citizens appointed by the Governor to advise the Maryland Department of Natural Resources on viable and optimum options to manage mute swans in the Maryland portion of Chesapeake Bay. Hopefully, the implementation of the plan will alleviate the existing conflicts to the

  15. A field study of littoral processes in Estero Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingler, J.R.; Anima, R.J.; Molzan, D.E.; Luepke, Gretchen; Peterson, C.L.

    1982-01-01

    Estero Bay, which lies on the central California coast, has rocky headlands at both ends and sandy beaches within it. The shoreline of the bay has adjusted to be in equilibrium with the predominant wave climate, which is from the northwest. Because of its present shoreline configuration, the net southward littoral transport found along much of the California coast does not occur within Estero Bay. Instead, the sand primarily moves on- and offshore with a reversing longshore component. This sand transport pattern produces a littoral cell within Estero Bay even though there is no submarine canyon in the area. The primary sand sinks for this cell appear to be the sand spit south of Morro Rock and the entrance to Morro Bay itself, although this opinion was not experimentally verified. Field work during one summer (1978) and the following winter (1979) produced baseline data on the profile of and grain-size distribution across the littoral zone. In the offshore part of the littoral zone we also studied ripple size and type, internal structure, depth of erosion, and mineralogy. Although these data, which were collected along nine transects spaced 2 km apart, are inadequate to yield transport and energy rates, they indicate a northward decrease in wave energy within Estero Bay and a mixing of the sediments in the offshore. Box core and rod height data from grid points in seven meters of water showed that on the order of a meter of erosion occurred in the central part of the bay between the two sampling periods. Offshore, the data were incomplete, but at one station, in 17 m of water, at least 20 cm of erosion occurred.

  16. Changes in Landscape Pattern of Wetland around Hangzhou Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wenpeng; Li, Yuan; Xu, Dan; Zeng, Ying

    2018-04-01

    Hangzhou Bay is an important estuarial coastal wetland, which offers a large number of land and ecological resources. It plays a significant role in the sustainable development of resources, environment and economy. In this paper, based on the remote sensing images in 1996, 2005 and 2013, we extracted the coastal wetland data and analyzed the wetland landscape pattern of the Hangzhou Bay in the past 20 years. The results show that: (1) the area of coastal wetland is heading downwards in the recent decades. Paddy field and the coastal wetland diminish greatly. (2) the single dynamic degree of wetland of the Hangzhou Bay displays that paddy fields and coastal wetlands are shrinking, but lakes, reservoirs and ponds are constantly expanding. (3) the wetland landscape pattern index shows that total patch area of the coastal wetland and paddy fields have gradually diminished. The Shannon diversity index, the Shannon evenness index as well as the landscape separation index of the coastal wetlands in the Hangzhou Bay increase steadily. The landscape pattern in the study area has shown a trend of high fragmentation, dominance decreases, but some dominant landscape still exist in this region. (4) Urbanization and natural factors lead to the reduction of wetland area. Besides the pressure of population is a major threat to the wetland. The study will provide scientific basis for long-term planning for this region.

  17. Ecological studies of Ulva reticulata Forsskal in Chapora bay (Goa)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.; Dhargalkar, V.K.

    The patchy occurrence of Ulva reticulata Forskal along the west coast of India lead to its ecological studies. The total annual yield of . reticulata calculated for 3800 sq. m. area of the bay amounts to 6.74 tonnes wet weight and 0.932 tonnes dry...

  18. 33 CFR 110.95 - Newport Bay Harbor, Calif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 268° from Lido Isle East Light 2, this line being the northwest line of the main fairway; west of the... of a line bearing 268° from Newport Bay Channel Light 11, this line being the south line of the main... Channel Light 11, this line being the southerly line of the main fairway. Note: This area is reserved for...

  19. Principal Component Surface (2011) for Fish Bay, St. John

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 0.3x0.3 meter principal component analysis (PCA) surface for areas inside Fish Bay, St. John in the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI). It was...

  20. Principal Component Surface (2011) for Coral Bay, St. John

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 0.3x0.3 meter principal component analysis (PCA) surface for areas inside Coral Bay, St. John in the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI). It was...