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Sample records for greater acute sleep

  1. College Students with ADHD at Greater Risk for Sleep Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaultney, Jane F.

    2014-01-01

    The pediatric literature indicates that children with ADHD are at greater risk for sleep problems, daytime sleepiness, and some sleep disorders than children with no diagnosed disability. It has not been determined whether this pattern holds true among emerging adults, and whether comorbid sleep disorders with ADHD predict GPA. The present study…

  2. High self-perceived exercise exertion before bedtime is associated with greater objectively assessed sleep efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Serge; Kalak, Nadeem; Gerber, Markus; Kirov, Roumen; Pühse, Uwe; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith

    2014-09-01

    To assess the association between self-perceived exercise exertion before bedtime and objectively measured sleep. Fifty-two regularly exercising young adults (mean age, 19.70 years; 54% females) underwent sleep electroencephalographic recordings 1.5 h after completing moderate to vigorous exercise in the evening. Before sleeping, participants answered questions regarding degree of exertion of the exercise undertaken. Greater self-perceived exertion before bedtime was associated with higher objectively assessed sleep efficiency (r = 0.69, P associated with more deep sleep, shortened sleep onset time, fewer awakenings after sleep onset, and shorter wake duration after sleep onset. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that objective sleep efficiency was predicted by increased exercise exertion, shortened sleep onset time, increased deep sleep, and decreased light sleep. Against expectations and general recommendations for sleep hygiene, high self-perceived exercise exertion before bedtime was associated with better sleep patterns in a sample of healthy young adults. Further studies should also focus on elderly adults and adults suffering from insomnia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Sleep modifications in acute transient global amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Marca, Giacomo; Mazza, Marianna; Losurdo, Anna; Testani, Elisa; Broccolini, Aldobrando; Frisullo, Giovanni; Marano, Giuseppe; Morosetti, Roberta; Pilato, Fabio; Profice, Paolo; Vollono, Catello; Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo

    2013-09-15

    Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a temporary memory loss characterized by an abrupt onset of antero-grade and retrograde amnesia, totally reversible. Since sleep plays a major role in memory consolidation, and in the storage of memory-related traces into the brain cortex, the aims of the present study were: (1) to evaluate changes in sleep macro-structure in TGA; (2) to assess modifications in sleep micro-structure in TGA, with particular reference to the arousal EEG and to cyclic alternating pattern (CAP); (3) to compare sleep parameters in TGA patients with a control group of patients with acute ischemic events ("minor stroke" or transient ischemic attack [TIA]) clinically and neuroradiologically "similar" to the TGA. TGA GROUP: 17 patients, (8 men and 9 women, 60.2 ± 12.5 years). Stroke or TIA (SoT) group: 17 patients hospitalized in the Stroke Unit for recent onset of minor stroke or TIA with hemispheric localization; healthy controls (HC) group: 17 healthy volunteers, matched for age and sex. Patients and controls underwent full-night polysomnography. In the multivariate analysis (conditions TGA, SoT, and HC) a significant effect of the condition was observed for sleep efficiency index, number of awakenings longer 1 min, REM latency, CAP time, and CAP rate. TGA and SoT differed only for CAP time and CAP rate, which were lower in the TGA group. Microstructural modification associated with tga could be consequent to: (1) hippocampal dysfunction and memory impairment; (2) impairment of arousal-related structures (in particular, cholinergic pathways); (3) emotional distress.

  4. Acute Sleep Deprivation Enhances Post-Infection Sleep and Promotes Survival during Bacterial Infection in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Tzu-Hsing; Williams, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep is known to increase as an acute response to infection. However, the function of this behavioral response in host defense is not well understood. To address this problem, we evaluated the effect of acute sleep deprivation on post-infection sleep and immune function in Drosophila. Setting: Laboratory. Participants: Drosophila melanogaster. Methods and Results: Flies were subjected to sleep deprivation before (early DEP) or after (late DEP) bacterial infection. Relative to a non-deprived control, flies subjected to early DEP had enhanced sleep after infection as well as increased bacterial clearance and survival outcome. Flies subjected to late DEP experienced enhanced sleep following the deprivation period, and showed a modest improvement in survival outcome. Continuous DEP (early and late DEP) throughout infection also enhanced sleep later during infection and improved survival. However, improved survival in flies subjected to late or continuous DEP did not occur until after flies had experienced sleep. During infection, both early and late DEP enhanced NFκB transcriptional activity as measured by a luciferase reporter (κB-luc) in living flies. Early DEP also increased NFκB activity prior to infection. Flies that were deficient in expression of either the Relish or Dif NFκB transcription factors showed normal responses to early DEP. However, the effect of early DEP on post-infection sleep and survival was abolished in double mutants, which indicates that Relish and Dif have redundant roles in this process. Conclusions: Acute sleep deprivation elevated NFκB-dependent activity, increased post-infection sleep, and improved survival during bacterial infection. Citation: Kuo TH, Williams JA. Acute sleep deprivation enhances post-infection sleep and promotes survival during bacterial infection in Drosophila. SLEEP 2014;37(5):859-869. PMID:24790264

  5. What drives sleep-dependent memory consolidation: greater gain or less loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenn, Kimberly M; Hambrick, David Z

    2013-06-01

    When memory is tested after a delay, performance is typically better if the retention interval includes sleep. However, it is unclear what accounts for this well-established effect. It is possible that sleep enhances the retrieval of information, but it is also possible that sleep protects against memory loss that normally occurs during waking activity. We developed a new research approach to investigate these possibilities. Participants learned a list of paired-associate items and were tested on the items after a 12-h interval that included waking or sleep. We analyzed the number of items gained versus the number of items lost across time. The sleep condition showed more items gained and fewer items lost than did the wake condition. Furthermore, the difference between the conditions (favoring sleep) in lost items was greater than the difference in gain, suggesting that loss prevention may primarily account for the effect of sleep on declarative memory consolidation. This finding may serve as an empirical constraint on theories of memory consolidation.

  6. Sleep quality but not sleep quantity effects on cortisol responses to acute psychosocial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Sarah M; Lupis, Sarah B; Gianferante, Danielle; Rohleder, Nicolas; Wolf, Jutta M

    2015-01-01

    Given the well-documented deleterious health effects, poor sleep has become a serious public health concern and increasing efforts are directed toward understanding underlying pathways. One potential mechanism may be stress and its biological correlates; however, studies investigating the effects of poor sleep on a body's capacity to deal with challenges are lacking. The current study thus aimed at testing the effects of sleep quality and quantity on cortisol responses to acute psychosocial stress. A total of 73 college-aged adults (44 females) were investigated. Self-reported sleep behavior was assessed via the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and salivary cortisol responses to the Trier Social Stress Test were measured. In terms of sleep quality, we found a significant three-way interaction, such that relative to bad sleep quality, men who reported fairly good or very good sleep quality showed blunted or exaggerated cortisol responses, respectively, while women's stress responses were less dependent on their self-reported sleep quality. Contrarily, average sleep duration did not appear to impact cortisol stress responses. Lastly, participants who reported daytime dysfunctions (i.e. having trouble staying awake or keeping up enthusiasm) also showed a trend to blunted cortisol stress responses compared to participants who did not experience these types of daytime dysfunctions. Overall, the current study suggests gender-specific stress reactivity dysfunctions as one mechanism linking poor sleep with detrimental physical health outcomes. Furthermore, the observed differential sleep effects may indicate that while the body may be unable to maintain normal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal functioning in an acute psychosocial stress situation after falling prey to low sleep quality, it may retain capacities to deal with challenges during extended times of sleep deprivation.

  7. Sleep impairment and prognosis of acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clark, Alice; Lange, Theis; Hallqvist, Johan

    2014-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: Impaired sleep is an established risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease, whereas less is known about how impaired sleep affects cardiovascular prognosis. The aim of this study is to determine how different aspects of impaired sleep affect the risk of case fata...... assessment that could benefit secondary cardiovascular prevention. CITATION: Clark A, Lange T, Hallqvist J, Jennum P, Rod NH. Sleep impairment and prognosis of acute myocardial infarction: a prospective cohort study. SLEEP 2014;37(5):851-858....... registries. In women, disturbed sleep showed a consistently higher risk of long-term cardiovascular events: AMI (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.69; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.95-3.00), stroke (HR = 2.61; 95% CI: 1.19-5.76), and heart failure (HR = 2.43; 95% CI: 1.18-4.97), whereas no clear effect of impaired...

  8. Greater Effect of East versus West Travel on Jet Lag, Sleep, and Team Sport Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Peter M; Knez, Wade; Crowcroft, Stephen; Mendham, Amy E; Miller, Joanna; Sargent, Charlie; Halson, Shona; Duffield, Rob

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to determine the recovery timeline of sleep, subjective jet lag and fatigue, and team sport physical performance after east and west long-haul travel. Ten physically trained men underwent testing at 0900 h and 1700 h local time on four consecutive days 2 wk before outbound travel (BASE), and the first 4 d after 21 h of outbound (WEST) and return (EAST) air travel across eight time zones between Australia and Qatar. Data collection included performance (countermovement jump, 20-m sprint, and Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 [YYIR1] test) and perceptual (jet lag, motivation, perceived exertion, and physical feeling) measures. In addition, sleep was measured via wrist activity monitors and self-report diaries throughout the aforementioned data collection periods. Compared with the corresponding day at BASE, the reduction in YYIR1 distance after EAST was significantly different from the increase in WEST on day 1 after travel (P sleep onset and offset were significantly later and mean time in bed and sleep duration were significantly reduced across the 4 d in EAST compared with BASE and WEST (P sport physical performance. Specifically, east travel has a greater detrimental effect on sleep, subjective jet lag, fatigue, and motivation. Consequently, maximal and intermittent sprint performance is also reduced after east travel, particularly within 72 h after arrival.

  9. Acute sleep deprivation enhances post-infection sleep and promotes survival during bacterial infection in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Tzu-Hsing; Williams, Julie A

    2014-05-01

    Sleep is known to increase as an acute response to infection. However, the function of this behavioral response in host defense is not well understood. To address this problem, we evaluated the effect of acute sleep deprivation on post-infection sleep and immune function in Drosophila. Laboratory. Drosophila melanogaster. Flies were subjected to sleep deprivation before (early DEP) or after (late DEP) bacterial infection. Relative to a non-deprived control, flies subjected to early DEP had enhanced sleep after infection as well as increased bacterial clearance and survival outcome. Flies subjected to late DEP experienced enhanced sleep following the deprivation period, and showed a modest improvement in survival outcome. Continuous DEP (early and late DEP) throughout infection also enhanced sleep later during infection and improved survival. However, improved survival in flies subjected to late or continuous DEP did not occur until after flies had experienced sleep. During infection, both early and late DEP enhanced NFκB transcriptional activity as measured by a luciferase reporter (κB-luc) in living flies. Early DEP also increased NFκB activity prior to infection. Flies that were deficient in expression of either the Relish or Dif NFκB transcription factors showed normal responses to early DEP. However, the effect of early DEP on post-infection sleep and survival was abolished in double mutants, which indicates that Relish and Dif have redundant roles in this process. Acute sleep deprivation elevated NFκB-dependent activity, increased post-infection sleep, and improved survival during bacterial infection.

  10. Cardiovascular reactivity to acute psychological stress following sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzen, Peter L; Gianaros, Peter J; Marsland, Anna L; Hall, Martica H; Siegle, Greg J; Dahl, Ronald E; Buysse, Daniel J

    2011-10-01

    Psychological stress and sleep disturbances are highly prevalent and are both implicated in the etiology of cardiovascular diseases. Given the common co-occurrence of psychological distress and sleep disturbances including short sleep duration, this study examined the combined effects of these two factors on blood pressure reactivity to immediate mental challenge tasks after well-rested and sleep-deprived experimental conditions. Participants (n = 20) were healthy young adults free from current or past sleep, psychiatric, or major medical disorders. Using a within-subjects crossover design, we examined acute stress reactivity under two experimental conditions: after a night of normal sleep in the laboratory and after a night of total sleep deprivation. Two standardized psychological stress tasks were administered, a Stroop color-word naming interference task and a speech task, which were preceded by a prestress baseline period and followed by a poststress recovery period. Each period was 10 minutes in duration, and blood pressure recordings were collected every 2.5 minutes throughout each period. Mean blood pressure responses during stress and recovery periods were examined with a mixed-effects analysis of covariance, controlling for baseline blood pressure. There was a significant interaction between sleep deprivation and stress on systolic blood pressure (F(2,82.7) = 4.05, p = .02). Systolic blood pressure was higher in the sleep deprivation condition compared with the normal sleep condition during the speech task and during the two baseline periods. Sleep deprivation amplified systolic blood pressure increases to psychological stress. Sleep loss may increase cardiovascular risk by dysregulating stress physiology.

  11. Acute partial sleep deprivation increases food intake in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brondel, Laurent; Romer, Michael A; Nougues, Pauline M; Touyarou, Peio; Davenne, Damien

    2010-06-01

    Acute partial sleep deprivation increases plasma concentrations of ghrelin and decreases those of leptin. The objective was to observe modifications in energy intake and physical activity after acute partial sleep deprivation in healthy men. Twelve men [age: 22 +/- 3 y; body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 22.30 +/- 1.83] completed a randomized 2-condition crossover study. During the first night of each 48-h session, subjects had either approximately 8 h (from midnight to 0800) or approximately 4 h (from 0200 to 0600) of sleep. All foods consumed subsequently (jam on buttered toast for breakfast, buffet for lunch, and a free menu for dinner) were eaten ad libitum. Physical activity was recorded by an actimeter. Feelings of hunger, perceived pleasantness of the foods, desire to eat some foods, and sensation of sleepiness were also evaluated. In comparison with the 8-h sleep session, subjects consumed 559 +/- 617 kcal (ie, 22%) more energy on the day after sleep restriction (P < 0.01), and preprandial hunger was higher before breakfast (P < 0.001) and dinner (P < 0.05). No change in the perceived pleasantness of the foods or in the desire to eat the foods was observed. Physical activity from 1215 to 2015 was higher after sleep restriction than after 8 h of sleep (P < 0.01), even though the sensation of sleepiness was more marked (P < 0.01). One night of reduced sleep subsequently increased food intake and, to a lesser extent, estimated physical activity-related energy expenditure in healthy men. These experimental results, if confirmed by long-term energy balance measurements, suggest that sleep restriction could be a factor that promotes obesity. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00986492.

  12. Acute sleep deprivation increases food purchasing in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Colin D; Nilsson, Emil K; Nilsson, Victor C; Cedernaes, Jonathan; Rångtell, Frida H; Vogel, Heike; Dickson, Suzanne L; Broman, Jan-Erik; Hogenkamp, Pleunie S; Schiöth, Helgi B; Benedict, Christian

    2013-12-01

    To investigate if acute sleep deprivation affects food purchasing choices in a mock supermarket. On the morning after one night of total sleep deprivation (TSD) or after one night of sleep, 14 normal-weight men were given a fixed budget (300 SEK-approximately 50 USD). They were instructed to purchase as much as they could out of a possible 40 items, including 20 high-caloric foods (>2 kcal/g) and 20 low-caloric foods (foods were then varied (75%, 100% (reference price), and 125%) to determine if TSD affects the flexibility of food purchasing. Before the task, participants received a standardized breakfast, thereby minimizing the potential confound produced by hunger. In addition, morning plasma concentrations of the orexigenic hormone ghrelin were measured under fasting conditions. Independent of both type of food offered and price condition, sleep-deprived men purchased significantly more calories (+9%) and grams (+18%) of food than they did after one night of sleep (both P food purchasing. This experiment demonstrates that acute sleep loss alters food purchasing behavior in men. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  13. Dysphagia and Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Acute, First-Ever, Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losurdo, Anna; Brunetti, Valerio; Broccolini, Aldobrando; Caliandro, Pietro; Frisullo, Giovanni; Morosetti, Roberta; Pilato, Fabio; Profice, Paolo; Giannantoni, Nadia Mariagrazia; Sacchetti, Maria Luisa; Testani, Elisa; Vollono, Catello; Della Marca, Giacomo

    2018-03-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and dysphagia are common in acute stroke and are both associated with increased risk of complications and worse prognosis. The aims of the present study were (1) to evaluate the prevalence of OSA and dysphagia in patients with acute, first-ever, ischemic stroke; (2) to investigate their clinical correlates; and (3) to verify if these conditions are associated in acute ischemic stroke. We enrolled a cohort of 140 consecutive patients with acute-onset (<48 hours), first-ever ischemic stroke. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging scans confirmed the diagnosis. Neurological deficit was measured using the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) by examiners trained and certified in the use of this scale. Patients underwent a clinical evaluation of dysphagia (Gugging Swallowing Screen) and a cardiorespiratory sleep study to evaluate the presence of OSA. There are 72 patients (51.4%) with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA+), and there are 81 patients (57.8%) with dysphagia (Dys+). OSA+ patients were significantly older (P = .046) and had greater body mass index (BMI) (P = .002), neck circumference (P = .001), presence of diabetes (P = .013), and hypertension (P < .001). Dys+ patients had greater NIHSS (P < .001), lower Alberta Stroke Programme Early CT Score (P < .001), with greater BMI (P = .030). The association of OSA and dysphagia was greater than that expected based on the prevalence of each condition in acute stroke (P < .001). OSA and dysphagia are associated in first-ever, acute ischemic stroke. Copyright © 2018 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Acute toxicity and sleep-wake EEG analysis of Stachtarpheta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of systemic administration of TASC on sleep architecture in rats was also evaluated in Sprague-Dawley rats that were chronically implanted with electrodes for electroencephalogram (EEG) and electromyogram (EMG) recording. The acute toxicity test revealed no lethal effect with doses of SCCR (up to 2000 ...

  15. Acute stress alters autonomic modulation during sleep in women approaching menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zambotti, Massimiliano; Sugarbaker, David; Trinder, John; Colrain, Ian M; Baker, Fiona C

    2016-04-01

    Hot flashes, hormones, and psychosocial factors contribute to insomnia risk in the context of the menopausal transition. Stress is a well-recognized factor implicated in the pathophysiology of insomnia; however the impact of stress on sleep and sleep-related processes in perimenopausal women remains largely unknown. We investigated the effect of an acute experimental stress (impending Trier Social Stress Task in the morning) on pre-sleep measures of cortisol and autonomic arousal in perimenopausal women with and without insomnia that developed in the context of the menopausal transition. In addition, we assessed the macro- and micro-structure of sleep and autonomic functioning during sleep. Following adaptation to the laboratory, twenty two women with (age: 50.4 ± 3.2 years) and eighteen women without (age: 48.5 ± 2.3 years) insomnia had two randomized in-lab overnight recordings: baseline and stress nights. Anticipation of the task resulted in higher pre-sleep salivary cortisol levels and perceived tension, faster heart rate and lower vagal activity, based on heart rate variability measures, in both groups of women. The effect of the stress manipulation on the autonomic nervous system extended into the first 4 h of the night in both groups. However, vagal tone recovered 4-6 h into the stress night in controls but not in the insomnia group. Sleep macrostructure was largely unaltered by the stress, apart from a delayed latency to REM sleep in both groups. Quantitative analysis of non-rapid eye movement sleep microstructure revealed greater electroencephalographic (EEG) power in the beta1 range (15-≤23 Hz), reflecting greater EEG arousal during sleep, on the stress night compared to baseline, in the insomnia group. Hot flash frequency remained similar on both nights for both groups. These results show that pre-sleep stress impacts autonomic nervous system functioning before and during sleep in perimenopausal women with and without insomnia. Findings also indicate

  16. Effects of Acute Sleep Deprivation Resulting from Night Shift Work on Young Doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanches, Inês; Teixeira, Fátima; dos Santos, José Moutinho; Ferreira, António Jorge

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate sleep deprivation and its effects on young physicians in relation to concentration capacity and psychomotor performance. Eighteen physicians aged 26 - 33 years were divided into 2 groups: non-sleep deprived group (with no night work) and sleep deprived group (minimum 12 hour of night work/week). We applied Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index to screen the presence of sleep pathology and Epworth Sleepiness Scale to evaluate subjective daytime sleepiness; we used actigraphy and sleep diary to assess sleep hygiene and standard sleep-wake cycles. To demonstrate the effects of sleep deprivation, we applied Toulouse-Piéron's test (concentration test) and a battery of three reaction time tasks after the night duty. Sleep deprived group had higher daytime sleepiness on Epworth Sleepiness Scale (p sleep deprivation was higher (p sleep during the period of night duty was 184.2 minutes to sleep deprived group and 397.7 minutes to non-sleep deprived group (p sleep deprived group had more omissions (p Sleep deprived group; in reaction to instruction test the sleep deprived group showed worse perfection index (p sleep deprivation resulting from nocturnal work in medical professions is associated with a reduction in attention and concentration and delayed response to stimuli. This may compromise patient care as well as the physician's health and quality of life. It is essential to study the effects of acute sleep deprivation on the cognitive abilities and performance of health professionals.

  17. During early and mid-adolescence, greater mental toughness is related to increased sleep quality and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Serge; Kalak, Nadeem; Gerber, Markus; Clough, Peter J; Lemola, Sakari; Pühse, Uwe; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the association between mental toughness, subjective sleep, physical activity, and quality of life during early and mid-adolescence. A total of 1475 participants (mean age = 13.4 years; range: 11-16 years) took part in the study. They completed questionnaires related to mental toughness, physical activity, subjective sleep, and quality of life. Greater mental toughness was related to more favorable quality of life and increased subjective sleep. Mental toughness was not related to physical activity. Increased mental toughness, favorable quality of life, and sleep are related during early and mid-adolescence. Against our expectations, mental toughness was not related to physical activity. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Frontal Underactivation During Working Memory Processing in Adults With Acute Partial Sleep Deprivation: A Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael K. Yeung

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with partial sleep deprivation may have working memory (WM impairment, but the underlying neural mechanism of this phenomenon is relatively unknown. The present study examined neural processing during WM performance in individuals with and without partial sleep deprivation using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS. Forty college students (10 males were equally split into Sufficient Sleep (SS and Insufficient Sleep (IS groups based on self-reports of previous night's sleep duration. Participants in the SS group obtained the recommended amounts of sleep according to various sleep organizations (i.e., >7.0 h, whereas those in the IS group obtained amounts of sleep no greater than the lower limit of the recommendation (i.e., ≤7.0 h. All participants underwent an n-back paradigm with a WM load (i.e., 3-back and a control condition (i.e., 0-back while their prefrontal hemodynamics were recorded by NIRS. The IS and SS groups performed the tasks comparably well. However, unlike the SS group, which exhibited bilateral frontal activation indicated by increased oxyhemoglobin concentration and decreased deoxyhemoglobin concentration during WM processing (i.e., 3-back > 0-back, the IS group did not exhibit such activation. In addition, levels of WM-related frontal activation, especially those on the left side, correlated with sleep duration the night before, even when habitual sleep duration was controlled for. The findings suggest the presence of frontal lobe dysfunction in the absence of evident WM difficulties in individuals with acute partial sleep deprivation. They also highlight the importance of a good night's sleep to brain health.

  19. Acute Sleep Deprivation Blocks Short- and Long-Term Operant Memory in Aplysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Harini C; Gandour, Catherine E; Ramos, Joshua L; Wrinkle, Mariah C; Sanchez-Pacheco, Joseph J; Lyons, Lisa C

    2016-12-01

    Insufficient sleep in individuals appears increasingly common due to the demands of modern work schedules and technology use. Consequently, there is a growing need to understand the interactions between sleep deprivation and memory. The current study determined the effects of acute sleep deprivation on short and long-term associative memory using the marine mollusk Aplysia californica , a relatively simple model system well known for studies of learning and memory. Aplysia were sleep deprived for 9 hours using context changes and tactile stimulation either prior to or after training for the operant learning paradigm, learning that food is inedible (LFI). The effects of sleep deprivation on short-term (STM) and long-term memory (LTM) were assessed. Acute sleep deprivation prior to LFI training impaired the induction of STM and LTM with persistent effects lasting at least 24 h. Sleep deprivation immediately after training blocked the consolidation of LTM. However, sleep deprivation following the period of molecular consolidation did not affect memory recall. Memory impairments were independent of handling-induced stress, as daytime handled control animals demonstrated no memory deficits. Additional training immediately after sleep deprivation failed to rescue the induction of memory, but additional training alleviated the persistent impairment in memory induction when training occurred 24 h following sleep deprivation. Acute sleep deprivation inhibited the induction and consolidation, but not the recall of memory. These behavioral studies establish Aplysia as an effective model system for studying the interactions between sleep and memory formation. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  20. Trajectories of sleep changes during the acute phase of traumatic brain injury: A 7-day actigraphy study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Yean Chiu

    2013-09-01

    Conclusion: Poor sleep efficiency and longer sleep duration are common symptoms in acute TBI patients. Both head injury severity and age predicted the trajectories of daytime and 24-hour sleep duration during the acute phase of TBI, whereas gender predicted the trajectories of 24-hour sleep duration in the mild TBI subgroup.

  1. Gray matter-specific changes in brain bioenergetics after acute sleep deprivation: a 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy study at 4 Tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, David T; Trksak, George H; Jensen, J Eric; Penetar, David M; Ravichandran, Caitlin; Riedner, Brady A; Tartarini, Wendy L; Dorsey, Cynthia M; Renshaw, Perry F; Lukas, Scott E; Harper, David G

    2014-12-01

    A principal function of sleep may be restoration of brain energy metabolism caused by the energetic demands of wakefulness. Because energetic demands in the brain are greater in gray than white matter, this study used linear mixed-effects models to examine tissue-type specific changes in high-energy phosphates derived using 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) after sleep deprivation and recovery sleep. Experimental laboratory study. Outpatient neuroimaging center at a private psychiatric hospital. A total of 32 MRS scans performed in eight healthy individuals (mean age 35 y; range 23-51 y). Phosphocreatine (PCr) and β-nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) were measured using 31P MRS three dimensional-chemical shift imaging at high field (4 Tesla) after a baseline night of sleep, acute sleep deprivation (SD), and 2 nights of recovery sleep. Novel linear mixed-effects models were constructed using spectral and tissue segmentation data to examine changes in bioenergetics in gray and white matter. PCr increased in gray matter after 2 nights of recovery sleep relative to SD with no significant changes in white matter. Exploratory analyses also demonstrated that increases in PCr were associated with increases in electroencephalographic slow wave activity during recovery sleep. No significant changes in β-NTP were observed. These results demonstrate that sleep deprivation and subsequent recovery-induced changes in high-energy phosphates primarily occur in gray matter, and increases in PCr after recovery sleep may be related to sleep homeostasis. © 2014 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  2. The effect of an acute sleep hygiene strategy following a late-night soccer match on recovery of players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullagar, Hugh; Skorski, Sabrina; Duffield, Rob; Meyer, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Elite soccer players are at risk of reduced recovery following periods of sleep disruption, particularly following late-night matches. It remains unknown whether improving sleep quality or quantity in such scenarios can improve post-match recovery. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of an acute sleep hygiene strategy (SHS) on physical and perceptual recovery of players following a late-night soccer match. In a randomised cross-over design, two highly-trained amateur teams (20 players) played two late-night (20:45) friendly matches against each other seven days apart. Players completed an SHS after the match or proceeded with their normal post-game routine (NSHS). Over the ensuing 48 h, objective sleep parameters (sleep duration, onset latency, efficiency, wake episodes), countermovement jump (CMJ; height, force production), YoYo Intermittent Recovery test (YYIR2; distance, maximum heart rate, lactate), venous blood (creatine kinase, urea and c-reactive protein) and perceived recovery and stress markers were collected. Sleep duration was significantly greater in SHS compared to NSHS on match night (P = 0.002, d = 1.50), with NSHS significantly less than baseline (P sleep onset latency (P = 0.12), efficiency (P = 0.39) or wake episode duration (P = 0.07). No significant differences were observed between conditions for any physical performance or venous blood marker (all P > 0.05); although maximum heart rate during the YYIR2 was significantly higher in NSHS than SHS at 36 h post-match (P = 0.01; d = 0.81). There were no significant differences between conditions for perceptual "overall recovery" (P = 0.47) or "overall stress" (P = 0.17). Overall, an acute SHS improved sleep quantity following a late-night soccer match; albeit without any improvement in physical performance, perceptual recovery or blood-borne markers of muscle damage and inflammation.

  3. Acute versus chronic partial sleep deprivation in middle-aged people: differential effect on performance and sleepiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Pierre; Sagaspe, Patricia; Prague, Mélanie; Tassi, Patricia; Capelli, Aurore; Bioulac, Bernard; Commenges, Daniel; Taillard, Jacques

    2012-07-01

    To evaluate the effects of acute sleep deprivation and chronic sleep restriction on vigilance, performance, and self-perception of sleepiness. Habitual night followed by 1 night of total sleep loss (acute sleep deprivation) or 5 consecutive nights of 4 hr of sleep (chronic sleep restriction) and recovery night. Eighteen healthy middle-aged male participants (age [(± standard deviation] = 49.7 ± 2.6 yr, range 46-55 yr). Multiple sleep latency test trials, Karolinska Sleepiness Scale scores, simple reaction time test (lapses and 10% fastest reaction times), and nocturnal polysomnography data were recorded. Objective and subjective sleepiness increased immediately in response to sleep restriction. Sleep latencies after the second and third nights of sleep restriction reached levels equivalent to those observed after acute sleep deprivation, whereas Karolinska Sleepiness Scale scores did not reach these levels. Lapse occurrence increased after the second day of sleep restriction and reached levels equivalent to those observed after acute sleep deprivation. A statistical model revealed that sleepiness and lapses did not progressively worsen across days of sleep restriction. Ten percent fastest reaction times (i.e., optimal alertness) were not affected by acute or chronic sleep deprivation. Recovery to baseline levels of alertness and performance occurred after 8-hr recovery night. In middle-aged study participants, sleep restriction induced a high increase in sleep propensity but adaptation to chronic sleep restriction occurred beyond day 3 of restriction. This sleepiness attenuation was underestimated by the participants. One recovery night restores daytime sleepiness and cognitive performance deficits induced by acute or chronic sleep deprivation. Philip P; Sagaspe P; Prague M; Tassi P; Capelli A; Bioulac B; Commenges D; Taillard J. Acute versus chronic partial sleep deprivation in middle-aged people: differential effect on performance and sleepiness. SLEEP 2012;35(7):997-1002.

  4. Effects of acute sleep deprivation on motor and reversal learning in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Andrew W; Kang, Mihwa; Ramesh, Priyanka V; Klann, Eric

    2014-10-01

    Sleep supports the formation of a variety of declarative and non-declarative memories, and sleep deprivation often impairs these types of memories. In human subjects, natural sleep either during a nap or overnight leads to long-lasting improvements in visuomotor and fine motor tasks, but rodent models recapitulating these findings have been scarce. Here we present evidence that 5h of acute sleep deprivation impairs mouse skilled reach learning compared to a matched period of ad libitum sleep. In sleeping mice, the duration of total sleep time during the 5h of sleep opportunity or during the first bout of sleep did not correlate with ultimate gain in motor performance. In addition, we observed that reversal learning during the skilled reaching task was also affected by sleep deprivation. Consistent with this observation, 5h of sleep deprivation also impaired reversal learning in the water-based Y-maze. In conclusion, acute sleep deprivation negatively impacts subsequent motor and reversal learning and memory. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Intraindividual Increase of Homeostatic Sleep Pressure Across Acute and Chronic Sleep Loss: A High-Density EEG Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maric, Angelina; Lustenberger, Caroline; Werth, Esther; Baumann, Christian R; Poryazova, Rositsa; Huber, Reto

    2017-09-01

    To compare intraindividually the effects of acute sleep deprivation (ASD) and chronic sleep restriction (CSR) on the homeostatic increase in slow wave activity (SWA) and to relate it to impairments in basic cognitive functioning, that is, vigilance. The increase in SWA after ASD (40 hours of wakefulness) and after CSR (seven nights with time in bed restricted to 5 hours per night) relative to baseline sleep was assessed in nine healthy, male participants (age = 18-26 years) by high-density electroencephalography. The SWA increase during the initial part of sleep was compared between the two conditions of sleep loss. The increase in SWA was related to the increase in lapses of vigilance in the psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) during the preceding days. While ASD induced a stronger increase in initial SWA than CSR, the increase was globally correlated across the two conditions in most electrodes. The increase in initial SWA was positively associated with the increase in PVT lapses. The individual homeostatic response in SWA is globally preserved across acute and chronic sleep loss, that is, individuals showing a larger increase after ASD also do so after CSR and vice versa. Furthermore, the increase in SWA is globally correlated to vigilance impairments after sleep loss over both conditions. Thus, the increase in SWA might therefore provide a physiological marker for individual differences in performance impairments after sleep loss. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. How Acute Total Sleep Loss Affects the Attending Brain: A Meta-Analysis of Neuroimaging Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ning; Dinges, David F.; Basner, Mathias; Rao, Hengyi

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Attention is a cognitive domain that can be severely affected by sleep deprivation. Previous neuroimaging studies have used different attention paradigms and reported both increased and reduced brain activation after sleep deprivation. However, due to large variability in sleep deprivation protocols, task paradigms, experimental designs, characteristics of subject populations, and imaging techniques, there is no consensus regarding the effects of sleep loss on the attending brain. The aim of this meta-analysis was to identify brain activations that are commonly altered by acute total sleep deprivation across different attention tasks. Design: Coordinate-based meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies of performance on attention tasks during experimental sleep deprivation. Methods: The current version of the activation likelihood estimation (ALE) approach was used for meta-analysis. The authors searched published articles and identified 11 sleep deprivation neuroimaging studies using different attention tasks with a total of 185 participants, equaling 81 foci for ALE analysis. Results: The meta-analysis revealed significantly reduced brain activation in multiple regions following sleep deprivation compared to rested wakefulness, including bilateral intraparietal sulcus, bilateral insula, right prefrontal cortex, medial frontal cortex, and right parahippocampal gyrus. Increased activation was found only in bilateral thalamus after sleep deprivation compared to rested wakefulness. Conclusion: Acute total sleep deprivation decreases brain activation in the fronto-parietal attention network (prefrontal cortex and intraparietal sulcus) and in the salience network (insula and medial frontal cortex). Increased thalamic activation after sleep deprivation may reflect a complex interaction between the de-arousing effects of sleep loss and the arousing effects of task performance on thalamic activity. Citation: Ma N, Dinges DF, Basner M, Rao H. How acute total

  7. Acute sleep restriction reduces insulin sensitivity in adolescent boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klingenberg, Lars; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Holmbäck, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    Short sleep duration has been linked to impaired glucose metabolism in many experimental studies. Moreover, studies have reported indications of an increased metabolic stress following sleep restriction.......Short sleep duration has been linked to impaired glucose metabolism in many experimental studies. Moreover, studies have reported indications of an increased metabolic stress following sleep restriction....

  8. Investigating the effect of acute sleep deprivation on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis response to a psychosocial stressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Ivan; Lopez-Duran, Nestor

    2017-05-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been previously identified as one potential mechanism that may explain the link between sleep deprivation and negative health outcomes. However, few studies have examined the direct association between sleep deprivation and HPA-axis functioning, particularly in the context of stress. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to investigate the relationship between acute sleep deprivation and HPA-axis reactivity to a psychosocial stressor. Participants included 40 healthy, young adults between the ages of 18-29. The current protocol included spending two nights in the laboratory. After an adaptation night (night 1), participants were randomized into either a sleep deprivation condition (29 consecutive hours awake) or a control condition (night 2). Following the second night, all participants completed the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Salivary cortisol was collected before, during, and after the TSST. Results indicated that there were significant group differences in cortisol stress reactivity. Specifically, compared to participants in the control condition, participants in the sleep deprivation condition had greater baseline (i.e., pre-stress) cortisol, yet a blunted cortisol response to the TSST. Taken together, a combination of elevated baseline cortisol (and its subsequent effect on HPA-axis regulatory processes) and a relative 'ceiling' on the amount of cortisol a laboratory stressor can produce may explain why participants in the sleep deprivation condition demonstrated blunted cortisol responses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Impact of Acute Sleep Deprivation on Sarcasm Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Deliens, Ga?tane; Stercq, Fanny; Mary, Alison; Slama, Hichem; Cleeremans, Axel; Peigneux, Philippe; Kissine, Mikhail

    2015-01-01

    There is growing evidence that sleep plays a pivotal role on health, cognition and emotional regulation. However, the interplay between sleep and social cognition remains an uncharted research area. In particular, little is known about the impact of sleep deprivation on sarcasm detection, an ability which, once altered, may hamper everyday social interactions. The aim of this study is to determine whether sleep-deprived participants are as able as sleep-rested participants to adopt another pe...

  10. Effects of acute sleep deprivation and caffeine supplementation on anaerobic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joss Moore

    Full Text Available Purpose: Athletes involved in team sports may be subject to varying degrees of sleep deprivation either before or after training and competition. Despite the belief among athletes and coaches of the importance of adequate sleep for ensuing performance, the effect of sleep loss on team-sport anaerobic performance remains unclear. There is conflicting evidence in the scientific literature as to the impact of acute sleep deprivation and caffeine supplementation on anaerobic performance indices. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of 24 hours of acute sleep deprivation on anaerobic performance and the effect of caffeine supplementation on anaerobic performance in the sleep deprived state. Methods: 11 club level games players (n=11, 25±4 yr, 178±7.5 cm, 80.2±10.4 kg, 15.1±5.6% body fat participated in a repeated measures double-blinded placebo control trial. Following familiarisation, each participant returned for testing on three separate occasions. One of the testing sessions took place following a night of normal sleep and the other two sessions took place following 24 hours of sleep deprivation with supplementation of either placebo or 6 mg.kg- 1 of caffeine. During each testing session participants performed the vertical jump height, 20-m straight sprint, Illinois speed agility test and 5-m shuttle run. Results: No significant differences were detected comparing non sleep deprived and sleep deprived interventions in any of the assessed outcome measures. There were also no significant differences observed in any of the outcome measures when comparing caffeine and placebo data in the sleep deprived state. Conclusion: In this cohort of athletes, a 24-h period of acute sleep deprivation did not have any significant impact on anaerobic performance. Caffeine also did not have any effect of on anaerobic performance in the sleep-deprived state.

  11. Effects of acute sleep deprivation and caffeine supplementation on anaerobic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Joss; McDonald, Ciaran; McIntyre, Alan; Carmody, Kevin; Donne, Bernard

    2018-01-01

    Athletes involved in team sports may be subject to varying degrees of sleep deprivation either before or after training and competition. Despite the belief among athletes and coaches of the importance of adequate sleep for ensuing performance, the effect of sleep loss on team-sport anaerobic performance remains unclear. There is conflicting evidence in the scientific literature as to the impact of acute sleep deprivation and caffeine supplementation on anaerobic performance indices. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of 24 hours of acute sleep deprivation on anaerobic performance and the effect of caffeine supplementation on anaerobic performance in the sleep deprived state. 11 club level games players (n=11, 25±4 yr, 178±7.5 cm, 80.2±10.4 kg, 15.1±5.6% body fat) participated in a repeated measures double-blinded placebo control trial. Following familiarisation, each participant returned for testing on three separate occasions. One of the testing sessions took place following a night of normal sleep and the other two sessions took place following 24 hours of sleep deprivation with supplementation of either placebo or 6 mg.kg- 1 of caffeine. During each testing session participants performed the vertical jump height, 20-m straight sprint, Illinois speed agility test and 5-m shuttle run. No significant differences were detected comparing non sleep deprived and sleep deprived interventions in any of the assessed outcome measures. There were also no significant differences observed in any of the outcome measures when comparing caffeine and placebo data in the sleep deprived state. In this cohort of athletes, a 24-h period of acute sleep deprivation did not have any significant impact on anaerobic performance. Caffeine also did not have any effect of on anaerobic performance in the sleep-deprived state.

  12. How acute total sleep loss affects the attending brain: a meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ning; Dinges, David F; Basner, Mathias; Rao, Hengyi

    2015-02-01

    Attention is a cognitive domain that can be severely affected by sleep deprivation. Previous neuroimaging studies have used different attention paradigms and reported both increased and reduced brain activation after sleep deprivation. However, due to large variability in sleep deprivation protocols, task paradigms, experimental designs, characteristics of subject populations, and imaging techniques, there is no consensus regarding the effects of sleep loss on the attending brain. The aim of this meta-analysis was to identify brain activations that are commonly altered by acute total sleep deprivation across different attention tasks. Coordinate-based meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies of performance on attention tasks during experimental sleep deprivation. The current version of the activation likelihood estimation (ALE) approach was used for meta-analysis. The authors searched published articles and identified 11 sleep deprivation neuroimaging studies using different attention tasks with a total of 185 participants, equaling 81 foci for ALE analysis. The meta-analysis revealed significantly reduced brain activation in multiple regions following sleep deprivation compared to rested wakefulness, including bilateral intraparietal sulcus, bilateral insula, right prefrontal cortex, medial frontal cortex, and right parahippocampal gyrus. Increased activation was found only in bilateral thalamus after sleep deprivation compared to rested wakefulness. Acute total sleep deprivation decreases brain activation in the fronto-parietal attention network (prefrontal cortex and intraparietal sulcus) and in the salience network (insula and medial frontal cortex). Increased thalamic activation after sleep deprivation may reflect a complex interaction between the de-arousing effects of sleep loss and the arousing effects of task performance on thalamic activity. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  13. Acute physical exercise under hypoxia improves sleep, mood and reaction time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aquino-Lemos, Valdir; Santos, Ronaldo Vagner T; Antunes, Hanna Karen Moreira; Lira, Fabio S; Luz Bittar, Irene G; Caris, Aline V; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Tulio

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to assess the effect of two sessions of acute physical exercise at 50% VO2peak performed under hypoxia (equivalent to an altitude of 4500 m for 28 h) on sleep, mood and reaction time. Forty healthy men were randomized into 4 groups: Normoxia (NG) (n = 10); Hypoxia (HG) (n = 10); Exercise under Normoxia (ENG) (n = 10); and Exercise under Hypoxia (EHG) (n = 10). All mood and reaction time assessments were performed 40 min after awakening. Sleep was reassessed on the first day at 14 h after the initiation of hypoxia; mood and reaction time were measured 28 h later. Two sessions of acute physical exercise at 50% VO2peak were performed for 60 min on the first and second days after 3 and 27 h, respectively, after starting to hypoxia. Improved sleep efficiency, stage N3 and REM sleep and reduced wake after sleep onset were observed under hypoxia after acute physical exercise. Tension, anger, depressed mood, vigor and reaction time scores improved after exercise under hypoxia. We conclude that hypoxia impairs sleep, reaction time and mood. Acute physical exercise at 50% VO2peak under hypoxia improves sleep efficiency, reversing the aspects that had been adversely affected under hypoxia, possibly contributing to improved mood and reaction time.

  14. Neuropsychological Function in Patients With Acute Tetraplegia and Sleep Disordered Breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schembri, Rachel; Spong, Jo; Graco, Marnie; Berlowitz, David J

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the relationship between apnea severity and neuropsychological function in patients with acute-onset tetraplegia and sleep disordered breathing. Polysomnography and neuropsychological testing were performed on 104 participants (age M = 45.60, SD = 16.38; 10 female) across 11 international sites, 2 months postinjury (M = 60.70 days, SD = 39.48). Neuropsychological tests assessed attention, information processing, executive function, memory, learning, mood, and quality of life. More severe sleep apnea was associated with poorer attention, information processing, and immediate recall. Deficits did not extend to memory. Higher preinjury intelligence and being younger reduced the associations with sleep disordered breathing; however, these protective factors were insufficient to counter the damage to attention, immediate recall, and information processing associated with sleep disordered breathing. These data suggest that new spinal cord injury may function as a model of "acute sleep apnea" and that more widespread sleep apnea-related deficits, including memory, may only be seen with longer exposure to apnea. These findings have important implications for functioning and skill acquisition during rehabilitation and, as such, highlight the importance of sleep health following tetraplegia. © Sleep Research Society 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Impact of Acute Sleep Deprivation on Sarcasm Detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaétane Deliens

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence that sleep plays a pivotal role on health, cognition and emotional regulation. However, the interplay between sleep and social cognition remains an uncharted research area. In particular, little is known about the impact of sleep deprivation on sarcasm detection, an ability which, once altered, may hamper everyday social interactions. The aim of this study is to determine whether sleep-deprived participants are as able as sleep-rested participants to adopt another perspective in gauging sarcastic statements. At 9am, after a whole night of sleep (n = 15 or a sleep deprivation night (n = 15, participants had to read the description of an event happening to a group of friends. An ambiguous voicemail message left by one of the friends on another's phone was then presented, and participants had to decide whether the recipient would perceive the message as sincere or as sarcastic. Messages were uttered with a neutral intonation and were either: (1 sarcastic from both the participant's and the addressee's perspectives (i.e. both had access to the relevant background knowledge to gauge the message as sarcastic, (2 sarcastic from the participant's but not from the addressee's perspective (i.e. the addressee lacked context knowledge to detect sarcasm or (3 sincere. A fourth category consisted in messages sarcastic from both the participant's and from the addressee's perspective, uttered with a sarcastic tone. Although sleep-deprived participants were as accurate as sleep-rested participants in interpreting the voice message, they were also slower. Blunted reaction time was not fully explained by generalized cognitive slowing after sleep deprivation; rather, it could reflect a compensatory mechanism supporting normative accuracy level in sarcasm understanding. Introducing prosodic cues compensated for increased processing difficulties in sarcasm detection after sleep deprivation. Our findings support the hypothesis that sleep

  16. Impact of Acute Sleep Deprivation on Sarcasm Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deliens, Gaétane; Stercq, Fanny; Mary, Alison; Slama, Hichem; Cleeremans, Axel; Peigneux, Philippe; Kissine, Mikhail

    2015-01-01

    There is growing evidence that sleep plays a pivotal role on health, cognition and emotional regulation. However, the interplay between sleep and social cognition remains an uncharted research area. In particular, little is known about the impact of sleep deprivation on sarcasm detection, an ability which, once altered, may hamper everyday social interactions. The aim of this study is to determine whether sleep-deprived participants are as able as sleep-rested participants to adopt another perspective in gauging sarcastic statements. At 9am, after a whole night of sleep (n = 15) or a sleep deprivation night (n = 15), participants had to read the description of an event happening to a group of friends. An ambiguous voicemail message left by one of the friends on another's phone was then presented, and participants had to decide whether the recipient would perceive the message as sincere or as sarcastic. Messages were uttered with a neutral intonation and were either: (1) sarcastic from both the participant's and the addressee's perspectives (i.e. both had access to the relevant background knowledge to gauge the message as sarcastic), (2) sarcastic from the participant's but not from the addressee's perspective (i.e. the addressee lacked context knowledge to detect sarcasm) or (3) sincere. A fourth category consisted in messages sarcastic from both the participant's and from the addressee's perspective, uttered with a sarcastic tone. Although sleep-deprived participants were as accurate as sleep-rested participants in interpreting the voice message, they were also slower. Blunted reaction time was not fully explained by generalized cognitive slowing after sleep deprivation; rather, it could reflect a compensatory mechanism supporting normative accuracy level in sarcasm understanding. Introducing prosodic cues compensated for increased processing difficulties in sarcasm detection after sleep deprivation. Our findings support the hypothesis that sleep deprivation might

  17. Greater Occipital Nerve Block for Acute Treatment of Migraine Headache: A Large Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Sorcha M; Mookadam, Farouk; Cha, Stephen S; Freeman, John A; Starling, Amaal J; Mookadam, Martina

    2018-01-01

    Greater occipital nerve (GON) blocks are frequently used to treat migraine headaches, although a paucity of supporting clinical evidence exists. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of GON block in acute treatment of migraine headache, with a focus on pain relief. This retrospective cohort study was undertaken between January 2009 and August 2014 and included patients who underwent at least 1 GON block and attended at least 1 follow-up appointment. Change in the 11-point numeric pain rating scale (NPRS) was used to assess the response to GON block. Response was defined as "minimal" (50% NPRS point reduction). A total of 562 patients met inclusion criteria; 423 were women (75%). Mean age was 58.6 ± 16.7 years. Of these 562, 459 patients (82%) rated their response to GON block as moderate or significant. No statistically significant relationship existed between previous treatment regimens and response to GON block. GON block was equally effective across the different age and sex groups. Greater occipital block seems to be an effective option for acute management of migraine headache, with promising reductions in pain scores. © Copyright 2018 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  18. Acute sleep deprivation increases portion size and affects food choice in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogenkamp, Pleunie S; Nilsson, Emil; Nilsson, Victor C; Chapman, Colin D; Vogel, Heike; Lundberg, Lina S; Zarei, Sanaz; Cedernaes, Jonathan; Rångtell, Frida H; Broman, Jan-Erik; Dickson, Suzanne L; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M; Benedict, Christian; Schiöth, Helgi B

    2013-09-01

    Acute sleep loss increases food intake in adults. However, little is known about the influence of acute sleep loss on portion size choice, and whether this depends on both hunger state and the type of food (snack or meal item) offered to an individual. The aim of the current study was to compare portion size choice after a night of sleep and a period of nocturnal wakefulness (a condition experienced by night-shift workers, e.g. physicians and nurses). Sixteen men (age: 23 ± 0.9 years, BMI: 23.6 ± 0.6 kg/m(2)) participated in a randomized within-subject design with two conditions, 8-h of sleep and total sleep deprivation (TSD). In the morning following sleep interventions, portion size, comprising meal and snack items, was measured using a computer-based task, in both fasted and sated state. In addition, hunger as well as plasma levels of ghrelin were measured. In the morning after TSD, subjects had increased plasma ghrelin levels (13%, p=0.04), and chose larger portions (14%, p=0.02), irrespective of the type of food, as compared to the sleep condition. Self-reported hunger was also enhanced (pchoice after sleep loss depend on both an individual's hunger status, and the type of food offered. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The effects of acute sleep restriction on adolescents' pedestrian safety in a virtual environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Aaron L; Avis, Kristin T; Schwebel, David C

    2013-12-01

    Over 8,000 American adolescents ages 14-15 years require medical attention owing to pedestrian injury annually. Cognitive factors contributing to pedestrian safety include reaction time, impulsivity, risk taking, attention, and decision making. These characteristics are also influenced by sleep restriction. Experts recommend that adolescents obtain 8.5 hours of uninterrupted sleep each night, but most American adolescents do not. Inadequate sleep may place adolescents at risk for pedestrian injury. Using a within-subjects design, 55 14- and 15-year-olds engaged in a virtual reality pedestrian environment under two conditions, scheduled a week apart: sleep-restricted (4 hours' sleep the previous night) and adequate sleep (8.5 hours). Sleep was assessed using actigraphy and pedestrian behavior via four outcome measures: time to initiate crossing, time before contact with vehicle while crossing, virtual hits or close calls and attention to traffic (looks left and right). While acutely sleep restricted, adolescents took more time to initiate pedestrian crossings, crossed with less time before contact with vehicles, experienced more virtual hits or close calls, and looked left and right more often compared with when adequately rested. Results were maintained after controlling for age, gender, ethnicity, and average total sleep duration before each condition. Adolescent pedestrian behavior in the simulated virtual environment was markedly different, and generally more risky, when acutely sleep restricted compared with adequately rested. Inadequate sleep may influence cognitive functioning to the extent that pedestrian safety is jeopardized among adolescents capable of crossing streets safely when rested. Policy decisions might be educated by these results. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of acute caffeine withdrawal on Short Category Test performance in sleep-deprived individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killgore, William D S; Kahn-Greene, Ellen T; Killgore, Desiree B; Kamimori, Gary H; Balkin, Thomas J

    2007-12-01

    Caffeine is a popular stimulant often used to counter the effects of sleep loss and fatigue. Withdrawal from caffeine may produce mild declines in simple cognitive capacities such as attention and concentration, but it is unclear whether more complex cognitive functions, such as abstract reasoning or concept formation, may be similarly affected. To assess the effect of acute caffeine withdrawal on executive functioning during sleep deprivation, 26 healthy volunteers were administered in double-blind form either repeated doses of caffeine or placebo over two nights of continuous wakefulness. The 108-item Short Category Test was administered after 56 hr. of total sleep deprivation (9 hr. post-caffeine administration). The caffeine group scored significantly more poorly, making approximately 57% more errors on the test than the placebo group. These findings suggest that acute caffeine withdrawal during prolonged sleep deprivation has an adverse effect on abstract reasoning and concept formation.

  1. UEffect of acute sleep deprivation on concentration and mood states with a controlled effect of experienced stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Kajtna

    2011-05-01

    Conclusions: As previous studies have shown, mood changes rather than decreased concentration occur after acute sleep deprivation – cognitive abilities seem to be more resistant to sleep deprivation. Further studies with longer sleep deprivation should show how long it takes to disrupt our concentration and higher cognitive abilities.

  2. Habitual 'sleep credit' is associated with greater grey matter volume of the medial prefrontal cortex, higher emotional intelligence and better mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Mareen; Webb, Christian A; Deldonno, Sophie R; Kipman, Maia; Schwab, Zachary J; Weiner, Melissa R; Killgore, William D S

    2013-10-01

    In modern society, people often fail to obtain the amount of sleep that experts recommend for good health and performance. Insufficient sleep can lead to degraded cognitive performance and alterations in emotional functioning. However, most people also acknowledge that on a regular basis they obtain more sleep than they subjectively perceive they need at a minimum to stave off performance decrements, a construct we describe as subjective 'sleep credit'. Few people would contest the notion that getting more sleep is better, but data on both behavioural and neuroanatomical correlates of 'sleep credit' are surprisingly limited. We conducted a voxel-based morphometric study to assess cerebral grey matter correlates of habitually sleeping more than one's subjective requirements. We further tested whether these structural correlates are associated with perceived emotional intelligence and indices of psychopathology while controlling for age, gender, and total intracranial volume. In a sample of 55 healthy adults aged 18-45 years (28 males, 27 females), whole-brain multiple regression showed that habitual subjective 'sleep credit' was correlated positively with grey matter volume within regions of the left medial prefrontal cortex and right orbitofrontal gyrus. Volumes were extracted and regressed against self-report emotion and psychopathology indices. Only grey matter volume of the medial prefrontal cortex cluster correlated with greater emotional intelligence and lower scores on several indices of psychopathology. Findings converge with previous evidence of the role of the medial prefrontal cortex in the relationship between sleep and emotional functioning, and suggest that behaviour and brain structure vary with habitual 'sleep credit'. © 2013 European Sleep Research Society.

  3. A Greater Extent of Insomnia Symptoms and Physician-Recommended Sleep Medication Use Predict Fall Risk in Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tuo-Yu; Lee, Soomi; Buxton, Orfeu M

    2017-11-01

    Cross-sectional studies suggest that insomnia symptoms are associated with falls in later life. This longitudinal study examines the independent and interactive effects of the extent of insomnia symptoms (i.e., multiple co-existing insomnia symptoms) and sleep medications on fall risk over a 2-year follow-up among community-dwelling older adults. Using data from the Health and Retirement Study (2006-2014, N = 6882, Mage = 74.5 years ± 6.6 years), we calculated the extent of insomnia symptoms (range = 0-4) participants reported (i.e., trouble falling asleep, waking up during the night, waking up too early, and not feeling rested). At each wave, participants reported recent sleep medications use and falls since the last wave, and were evaluated for balance and walking speed. A greater burden of insomnia symptoms and using physician-recommended sleep medications at baseline independently predicted falling after adjusting for known risk factors of falling. The effects of insomnia symptoms on fall risk differed by sleep medications use. The extent of insomnia symptoms exhibited a positive, dose-response relation with risk of falling among those not using sleep medications. Older adults using physician-recommended sleep medications exhibited a consistently higher fall risk irrespective of the extent of insomnia symptoms. The number of insomnia symptoms predicts 2-year fall risk in older adults. Taking physician-recommended sleep medications increases the risks for falling in older adults, irrespective of the presence of insomnia symptoms. Future efforts should be directed toward treating insomnia symptoms, and managing and selecting sleep medications effectively to decrease the risk of falling in older adults. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Decreased reaction time variability is associated with greater cardiovascular responses to acute stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawrzyniak, Andrew J; Hamer, Mark; Steptoe, Andrew; Endrighi, Romano

    2016-05-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) responses to mental stress are prospectively associated with poor CV outcomes. The association between CV responses to mental stress and reaction times (RTs) in aging individuals may be important but warrants further investigation. The present study assessed RTs to examine associations with CV responses to mental stress in healthy, older individuals using robust regression techniques. Participants were 262 men and women (mean age = 63.3 ± 5.5 years) from the Whitehall II cohort who completed a RT task (Stroop) and underwent acute mental stress (mirror tracing) to elicit CV responses. Blood pressure, heart rate, and heart rate variability were measured at baseline, during acute stress, and through a 75-min recovery. RT measures were generated from an ex-Gaussian distribution that yielded three predictors: mu-RT, sigma-RT, and tau-RT, the mean, standard deviation, and mean of the exponential component of the normal distribution, respectively. Decreased intraindividual RT variability was marginally associated with greater systolic (B = -.009, SE = .005, p = .09) and diastolic (B = -.004, SE = .002, p = .08) blood pressure reactivity. Decreased intraindividual RT variability was associated with impaired systolic blood pressure recovery (B = -.007, SE = .003, p = .03) and impaired vagal tone (B = -.0047, SE = .0024, p = .045). Study findings offer tentative support for an association between RTs and CV responses. Despite small effect sizes and associations not consistent across predictors, these data may point to a link between intrinsic neuronal plasticity and CV responses. © 2016 The Authors. Psychophysiology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  5. The Acute Effects of Intermittent Light Exposure in the Evening on Alertness and Subsequent Sleep Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Minqi; Ma, Ning; Zhu, Yingying; Su, Ying-Chu; Chen, Qingwei; Hsiao, Fan-Chi; Ji, Yanran; Yang, Chien-Ming; Zhou, Guofu

    2018-03-15

    Exposure to bright light is typically intermittent in our daily life. However, the acute effects of intermittent light on alertness and sleep have seldom been explored. To investigate this issue, we employed within-subject design and compared the effects of three light conditions: intermittent bright light (30-min pulse of blue-enriched bright light (~1000 lux, ~6000 K) alternating with 30-min dim normal light (~5 lux, ~3600 K) three times); continuous bright light; and continuous dim light on subjective and objective alertness and subsequent sleep structure. Each light exposure was conducted during the three hours before bedtime. Fifteen healthy volunteers (20 ± 3.4 years; seven males) were scheduled to stay in the sleep laboratory for four separated nights (one for adaptation and the others for the light exposures) with a period of at least one week between nights. The results showed that when compared with dim light, both intermittent light and continuous bright light significantly increased subjective alertness and decreased sleep efficiency (SE) and total sleep time (TST). Intermittent light significantly increased objective alertness than dim light did during the second half of the light-exposure period. Our results suggested that intermittent light was as effective as continuous bright light in their acute effects in enhancing subjective and objective alertness and in negatively impacting subsequent sleep.

  6. The Acute Effects of Intermittent Light Exposure in the Evening on Alertness and Subsequent Sleep Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minqi Yang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to bright light is typically intermittent in our daily life. However, the acute effects of intermittent light on alertness and sleep have seldom been explored. To investigate this issue, we employed within-subject design and compared the effects of three light conditions: intermittent bright light (30-min pulse of blue-enriched bright light (~1000 lux, ~6000 K alternating with 30-min dim normal light (~5 lux, ~3600 K three times; continuous bright light; and continuous dim light on subjective and objective alertness and subsequent sleep structure. Each light exposure was conducted during the three hours before bedtime. Fifteen healthy volunteers (20 ± 3.4 years; seven males were scheduled to stay in the sleep laboratory for four separated nights (one for adaptation and the others for the light exposures with a period of at least one week between nights. The results showed that when compared with dim light, both intermittent light and continuous bright light significantly increased subjective alertness and decreased sleep efficiency (SE and total sleep time (TST. Intermittent light significantly increased objective alertness than dim light did during the second half of the light-exposure period. Our results suggested that intermittent light was as effective as continuous bright light in their acute effects in enhancing subjective and objective alertness and in negatively impacting subsequent sleep.

  7. Intermediate stage of sleep and acute cerveau isolé preparation in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    User, P; Gioanni, H; Gottesmann, C

    1980-01-01

    The acute cerveau isole rat shows spindle bursts of large amplitude alternating with low voltage activity in the frontal cortex and continuous theta rhythm in the dorsal hippocampus. These patterns closely resemble an "intermediate" stage of sleep-waking cycle, when the forebrain structures seem to be functionally disconnected from the brainstem.

  8. Rapid eye movement-sleep is reduced in patients with acute uncomplicated diverticulitis—an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenxi Huang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Sleep disturbances are commonly found in patients in the postoperative period. Sleep disturbances may give rise to several complications including cardiopulmonary instability, transient cognitive dysfunction and prolonged convalescence. Many factors including host inflammatory responses are believed to cause postoperative sleep disturbances, as inflammatory responses can alter sleep architecture through cytokine-brain interactions. Our aim was to investigate alteration of sleep architecture during acute infection and its relationships to inflammation and clinical symptoms.Materials & Methods. In this observational study, we included patients with acute uncomplicated diverticulitis as a model to investigate the isolated effects of inflammatory responses on sleep. Eleven patients completed the study. Patients were admitted and treated with antibiotics for two nights, during which study endpoints were measured by polysomnography recordings, self-reported discomfort scores and blood samples of cytokines. One month later, the patients, who now were in complete remission, were readmitted and the endpoints were re-measured (the baseline values.Results. Total sleep time was reduced 4% and 7% the first (p = 0.006 and second (p = 0.014 nights of diverticulitis, compared to baseline, respectively. The rapid eye movement sleep was reduced 33% the first night (p = 0.016, compared to baseline. Moreover, plasma IL-6 levels were correlated to non-rapid eye movement sleep, rapid eye movement sleep and fatigue.Conclusion. Total sleep time and rapid eye movement sleep were reduced during nights with active diverticulitis and correlated with markers of inflammation.

  9. Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Institute (NHLBI). 1 Mood. Sleep affects your mood. Insufficient sleep can cause irritability that can lead to trouble with relationships, ... basics/understanding_sleep.htm#dynamic_activity Centers for Disease ... insufficient rest or sleep among adults—United States, 2008. MMWR, 58 (42), ...

  10. Impact of Sleeping Altitude on Symptoms of Acute Mountain Sickness on Mt. Fuji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Masahiro; Uno, Tadashi; Endo, Junko; Handa, Yoko; Hasegawa, Tatsuya

    2018-05-09

    Horiuchi, Masahiro, Tadashi Uno, Junko Endo, Yoko Handa, and Tatsuya Hasegawa. Impact of sleeping altitude on symptoms of acute mountain sickness on Mt. Fuji. High Alt Med Biol. 00:000-000, 2018. We sought to investigate the factors influencing acute mountain sickness (AMS) on Mt. Fuji in Japan, in particular, to assess the effects of sleeping altitude, by means of a questionnaire survey. This study involved 1932 participants who climbed Mt. Fuji, and obtained information regarding sex, age, and whether participants stayed at the mountain lodges. The AMS survey excluded the perceived sleep difficulties assessed with the Lake Louise Scoring (LLS) system for all climbers. The overall prevalence of AMS was 31.6% for all participants (LLS score ≥3 with headache, excluding sleep difficulties). A univariate analysis revealed that overnight stay at Mt. Fuji was associated with an increased prevalence of AMS, but that sex and age were not. For overnight lodgers, the mean sleeping altitude in participants with AMS was slightly higher than that in participants without AMS (p lodge, especially one above 2870 m, may be associated with an increased prevalence of AMS on Mt. Fuji.

  11. Trouble Sleeping Associated With Lower Work Performance and Greater Health Care Costs: Longitudinal Data From Kansas State Employee Wellness Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Siu-kuen Azor; Grandner, Michael A

    2015-10-01

    To examine the relationships between employees' trouble sleeping and absenteeism, work performance, and health care expenditures over a 2-year period. Utilizing the Kansas State employee wellness program (EWP) data set from 2008 to 2009, multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted with trouble sleeping as the predictor and absenteeism, work performance, and health care costs as the outcomes. EWP participants (N = 11,698 in 2008; 5636 followed up in 2009) who had higher levels of sleep disturbance were more likely to be absent from work (all P work performance ratings (all P health care costs (P work attendance, work performance, and health care costs.

  12. Trouble Sleeping Associated with Lower Work Performance and Greater Healthcare Costs: Longitudinal Data from Kansas State Employee Wellness Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Siu-kuen Azor; Grandner, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationships between employees’ trouble sleeping and absenteeism, work performance, and healthcare expenditures over a two year period. Methods Utilizing the Kansas State employee wellness program (EWP) dataset from 2008–2009, multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted with trouble sleeping as the predictor and absenteeism, work performance, and healthcare costs as the outcomes. Results EWP participants (N=11,698 in 2008; 5,636 followed up in 2009) who had higher levels of sleep disturbance were more likely to be absent from work (all p performance ratings (all p performance, and healthcare costs. PMID:26461857

  13. Distinct effects of acute and chronic sleep loss on DNA damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, M L; Ribeiro, D A; Bergamaschi, C T; Alvarenga, T A; Silva, A; Zager, A; Campos, R R; Tufik, S

    2009-04-30

    The aim of this investigation was to evaluate genetic damage induced in male rats by experimental sleep loss for short-term (24 and 96 h) and long-term (21 days) intervals, as well as their respective recovery periods in peripheral blood, brain, liver and heart tissue by the single cell gel (comet) assay. Rats were paradoxically deprived of sleep (PSD) by the platform technique for 24 or 96 h, or chronically sleep-restricted (SR) for 21 days. We also sought to verify the time course of their recovery after 24 h of rebound sleep. The results showed DNA damage in blood cells of rats submitted to PSD for 96 h. Brain tissue showed extensive genotoxic damage in PSD rats (both 24 and 96 h), though the effect was more pronounced in the 96 h group. Rats allowed to recover from the PSD-96 h and SR-21 days treatments showed DNA damage as compared to negative controls. Liver and heart did not display any genotoxicity activity. Corticosterone concentrations were increased after PSD (24 and 96 h) relative to control rats, whereas these levels were unaffected in the SR group. Collectively, these findings reveal that sleep loss was able to induce genetic damage in blood and brain cells, especially following acute exposure. Since DNA damage is an important step in events leading to genomic instability, this study represents a relevant contribution to the understanding of the potential health risks associated with sleep deprivation.

  14. Comparing the Effect of Foot Reflexology Massage, Foot Bath and Their Combination on Quality of Sleep in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Rahmani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Many patients in coronary care unit (CCU suffer from decreased sleep quality caused by environmental and mental factors. This study compared the efficacy of foot reflexology massage, foot bath, and a combination of them on the quality of sleep of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS. Methods: This quasi-experimental study was implemented on ACS patients in Iran. Random sampling was used to divide the patients into four groups of 35 subjects. The groups were foot reflexology massage, foot bath, a combination of the two and the control group. Sleep quality was measured using the Veran Snyder-Halpern questionnaire. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 13. Results: The mean age of the four groups was 61.22 (11.67 years. The mean sleep disturbance in intervention groups (foot reflexology massage and foot bath groups during the second and third nights was significantly less than before intervention. The results also showed a greater reduction in sleep disturbance in the combined group than in the other groups when compared to the control group. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the intervention of foot bath and massage are effective in reducing sleep disorders and there was a synergistic effect when used in combination. This complementary care method can be recommended to be implemented by CCU nurses.

  15. Comparing the Effect of Foot Reflexology Massage, Foot Bath and Their Combination on Quality of Sleep in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Ali; Naseri, Mahdi; Salaree, Mohammad Mahdi; Nehrir, Batool

    2016-12-01

    Introduction: Many patients in coronary care unit (CCU) suffer from decreased sleep quality caused by environmental and mental factors. This study compared the efficacy of foot reflexology massage, foot bath, and a combination of them on the quality of sleep of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Methods: This quasi-experimental study was implemented on ACS patients in Iran. Random sampling was used to divide the patients into four groups of 35 subjects. The groups were foot reflexology massage, foot bath, a combination of the two and the control group. Sleep quality was measured using the Veran Snyder-Halpern questionnaire. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 13. Results: The mean age of the four groups was 61.22 (11.67) years. The mean sleep disturbance in intervention groups (foot reflexology massage and foot bath groups) during the second and third nights was significantly less than before intervention. The results also showed a greater reduction in sleep disturbance in the combined group than in the other groups when compared to the control group. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the intervention of foot bath and massage are effective in reducing sleep disorders and there was a synergistic effect when used in combination. This complementary care method can be recommended to be implemented by CCU nurses.

  16. Rapid eye movement-sleep is reduced in patients with acute uncomplicated diverticulitis—an observational study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Chenxi; Alamili, Mahdi; Nielsen, Claus Henrik

    2015-01-01

    responses are believed to cause postoperative sleep disturbances, as inflammatory responses can alter sleep architecture through cytokine-brain interactions. Our aim was to investigate alteration of sleep architecture during acute infection and its relationships to inflammation and clinical symptoms......Introduction. Sleep disturbances are commonly found in patients in the postoperative period. Sleep disturbances may give rise to several complications including cardiopulmonary instability, transient cognitive dysfunction and prolonged convalescence. Many factors including host inflammatory....... Materials & Methods. In this observational study, we included patients with acute uncomplicated diverticulitis as a model to investigate the isolated effects of inflammatory responses on sleep. Eleven patients completed the study. Patients were admitted and treated with antibiotics for two nights, during...

  17. Very early screening for sleep-disordered breathing in acute coronary syndrome in patients without acute heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Broecke, Sandra; Jobard, Olivier; Montalescot, Gilles; Bruyneel, Marie; Ninane, Vincent; Arnulf, Isabelle; Similowski, Thomas; Attali, Valérie

    2014-12-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is frequently associated with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Screening of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) has not been previously evaluated in ACS within 72 h in intensive care settings and its management could potentially enhance patients' prognosis. This pilot study assessed the feasibility of SDB screening at the early phase of ACS. All consecutive patients admitted to the coronary care unit (CCU) for ACS without acute heart failure underwent one overnight-attended polysomnography (PSG) within 72 h after admission. A telemonitoring (TM) system was set up to remotely monitor the signals and repair faulty sensors. The 27 recordings were analyzed as respiratory polygraphy (RP) and as PSG, and the results were compared. The TM system allowed successful intervention in 48% of recordings, resulting in excellent quality PSG for 89% of cases. The prevalence of SDB [apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) ≥ 15/h] was 82% and mainly consisted of central SDB and periodic breathing, except three patients with OSA. Compared with PSG, RP underestimated AHI, probably due to the poor sleep efficiency, reduction of slow-wave sleep, and alteration of rapid eye movement sleep. An early SDB screening by remote-attended PSG is feasible in ACS patients shortly after admission to CCU. The TM enhanced the quality of PSG. A high prevalence of central SDB was noticed, for which the etiology remains unknown. Further large-scale studies are needed to determine whether central SDB is an incidental finding in early ACS and whether the presence and severity of SDB have a prognostic impact. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Sleep Problems Before and After Acute Myocardial Infarction: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belguzar Kara

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The purpose of this study was to compare patients’ sleep problems before and after acute myocardial infarction (AMI and also to determine factors affecting sleep problems in patients undergoing AMI. METHOD: This cross-sectional study was conducted at the Coronary Intensive Care Unit in a training hospital between January 1 and April 30, 2007. The sample of the study was composed of 26 patients with a first-ever AMI. Data were collected by using a questionnaire to determine the patient and illness-related descriptive characteristics and the Post Sleep Inventory Scale (PSIS. The Shapiro-Wilks test, descriptive statistics, paired samples t test, Mann Whitney U test, Wilcoxon test, reliability analysis and correlation analysis were used to analyze the data. RESULTS: The mean age of the study group was 53.2 ± 12.6 years and approximately 81% were males. The patients’ mean bedtime (t= -3.422, p= 0.001, quality of nocturnal sleep (t= -3.221, p= 0.001, awakening (t =-3.533, p<0.001 and total PSIS scores (t= -5.652, p<0.001 were significantly higher after AMI compared to before AMI. The mean PSIS scores of patients undergoing AMI were statistically significant different by gender (z= -2.164, p= 0.030 and working status (z= -2.171, p= 0.030. There was a negative correlation between the PSIS score and haemoglobin and haematocrit values (r= -0.503, p<0.01; r= -0.473, p<0.05; respectively. CONCLUSION: There were differences in the patients’ reported sleep problems between before and after AMI. The results of this study showed that sleep problems were more common among women, patients not working and those with anemia. Nurses should be aware of the sleep problems and factors that affect to sleep problems. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(6.000: 687-694

  19. Effect of Acute Intermittent CPAP Depressurization during Sleep in Obese Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Jonathan C; Unnikrishnan, Dileep; Schneider, Hartmut; Kirkness, Jason; Schwartz, Alan R; Smith, Philip L; Polotsky, Vsevolod Y

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) describes intermittent collapse of the airway during sleep, for which continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is often prescribed for treatment. Prior studies suggest that discontinuation of CPAP leads to a gradual, rather than immediate return of baseline severity of OSA. The objective of this study was to determine the extent of OSA recurrence during short intervals of CPAP depressurization during sleep. Nine obese (BMI = 40.4 ± 3.5) subjects with severe OSA (AHI = 88.9 ± 6.8) adherent to CPAP were studied during one night in the sleep laboratory. Nasal CPAP was delivered at therapeutic (11.1 ± 0.6 cm H20) or atmospheric pressure, in alternating fashion for 1-hour periods during the night. We compared sleep architecture and metrics of OSA during CPAP-on and CPAP-off periods. 8/9 subjects tolerated CPAP withdrawal. The average AHI during CPAP-on and CPAP-off periods was 3.6 ± 0.6 and 15.8 ± 3.6 respectively (p<0.05). The average 3% ODI during CPAP-on and CPAP-off was 4.7 ± 2 and 20.4 ± 4.7 respectively (p<0.05). CPAP depressurization also induced more awake (p<0.05) and stage N1 (p<0.01) sleep, and less stage REM (p<0.05) with a trend towards decreased stage N3 (p = 0.064). Acute intermittent depressurization of CPAP during sleep led to deterioration of sleep architecture but only partial re-emergence of OSA. These observations suggest carryover effects of CPAP.

  20. Effect of Acute Intermittent CPAP Depressurization during Sleep in Obese Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan C Jun

    Full Text Available Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA describes intermittent collapse of the airway during sleep, for which continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP is often prescribed for treatment. Prior studies suggest that discontinuation of CPAP leads to a gradual, rather than immediate return of baseline severity of OSA. The objective of this study was to determine the extent of OSA recurrence during short intervals of CPAP depressurization during sleep.Nine obese (BMI = 40.4 ± 3.5 subjects with severe OSA (AHI = 88.9 ± 6.8 adherent to CPAP were studied during one night in the sleep laboratory. Nasal CPAP was delivered at therapeutic (11.1 ± 0.6 cm H20 or atmospheric pressure, in alternating fashion for 1-hour periods during the night. We compared sleep architecture and metrics of OSA during CPAP-on and CPAP-off periods.8/9 subjects tolerated CPAP withdrawal. The average AHI during CPAP-on and CPAP-off periods was 3.6 ± 0.6 and 15.8 ± 3.6 respectively (p<0.05. The average 3% ODI during CPAP-on and CPAP-off was 4.7 ± 2 and 20.4 ± 4.7 respectively (p<0.05. CPAP depressurization also induced more awake (p<0.05 and stage N1 (p<0.01 sleep, and less stage REM (p<0.05 with a trend towards decreased stage N3 (p = 0.064.Acute intermittent depressurization of CPAP during sleep led to deterioration of sleep architecture but only partial re-emergence of OSA. These observations suggest carryover effects of CPAP.

  1. Repeated exposure to conditioned fear stress increases anxiety and delays sleep recovery following exposure to an acute traumatic stressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin N Greenwood

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Repeated stressor exposure can sensitize physiological responses to novel stressors and facilitate the development of stress-related psychiatric disorders including anxiety. Disruptions in diurnal rhythms of sleep-wake behavior accompany stress-related psychiatric disorders and could contribute to their development. Complex stressors that include fear-eliciting stimuli can be a component of repeated stress experienced by humans, but whether exposure to repeated fear can prime the development of anxiety and sleep disturbances is unknown. In the current study, adult male F344 rats were exposed to either control conditions or repeated contextual fear conditioning for 22 days followed by exposure to either no, mild (10, or severe (100 acute uncontrollable tail shock stress. Exposure to acute stress produced anxiety-like behavior as measured by a reduction in juvenile social exploration and exaggerated shock-elicited freezing in a novel context. Prior exposure to repeated fear enhanced anxiety-like behavior as measured by shock-elicited freezing, but did not alter social exploratory behavior. The potentiation of anxiety produced by prior repeated fear was temporary; exaggerated fear was present 1 day but not 4 days following acute stress. Interestingly, exposure to acute stress reduced REM and NREM sleep during the hours immediately following acute stress. This initial reduction in sleep was followed by robust REM rebound and diurnal rhythm flattening of sleep / wake behavior. Prior repeated fear extended the acute stress-induced REM and NREM sleep loss, impaired REM rebound, and prolonged the flattening of the diurnal rhythm of NREM sleep following acute stressor exposure. These data suggest that impaired recovery of sleep / wake behavior following acute stress could contribute to the mechanisms by which a history of prior repeated stress increases vulnerability to subsequent novel stressors and stress-related disorders.

  2. Objective sleep disturbances are associated with greater waking resting-state connectivity between the retrosplenial cortex/ hippocampus and various nodes of the default mode network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regen, Wolfram; Kyle, Simon D; Nissen, Christoph; Feige, Bernd; Baglioni, Chiara; Hennig, Jürgen; Riemann, Dieter; Spiegelhalder, Kai

    2016-08-01

    Psychological models highlight the bidirectional role of self-referential processing, introspection, worry and rumination in the development and maintenance of insomnia; however, little is known about the underlying neural substrates. Default mode network (DMN) functional connectivity has been previously linked to these cognitive processes. We used fMRI to investigate waking DMN functional connectivity in a well-characterized sample of patients with primary insomnia (PI) and good sleeper controls. We included 20 patients with PI (8 men and 12 women, mean age 42.7 ± 13.4 yr) and 20 controls (8 men and 12 women, mean age 44.1 ± 10.6 yr) in our study. While no between-group differences in waking DMN connectivity were observed, exploratory analyses across all participants suggested that greater waking connectivity between the retrosplenial cortex/hippocampus and various nodes of the DMN was associated with lower sleep efficiency, lower amounts of rapid eye movement sleep and greater sleep-onset latency. Owing to the cross-sectional nature of the study, conclusions about causality cannot be drawn. As sleep disturbances represent a transdiagnostic symptom that is characteristic of nearly all psychiatric disorders, our results may hold particular relevance to previous findings of increased DMN connectivity levels in patients with psychiatric disorders.

  3. Acute effect of methyl bromide on sleep-wakefulness and its

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, S; Arito, H; Abuku, S; Imamiya, S

    1986-01-01

    In an attempt to clarify the acute effects of methyl bromide on the central nervous system, abnormal electrocorticographic activity and changes in sleep-wakefulness and its circadian rhythms were investigated after a single injection of methyl bromide. The effects of possible hydrolyzed products of methyl bromide, methanol and bromine ions on sleep and its rhythms were also examined. It was found that the hydrolyzed products of methyl bromide, bromine ions and methanol exerted little effect on the amounts of wakefulness (W), non-REM sleep (NREMS) and REM sleep (REMS) at the same molar dose as 45 mg methyl bromide/kg. Thus, it can be concluded that the methyl bromide-induced changes in sleep-wakefulness and its circadian rhythms are due to methyl bromide and not to the hydrolyzed products. It was also found that amounts of W, NREMS and REMS were changed dose-dependently after a single injection of methyl bromide and that methyl bromide significantly disrupted the circadian REMS rhythm. 17 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  4. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA): a complication of acute infectious mononucleosis infection in a child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jeffrey

    2014-03-01

    Independently, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and infectious mononucleosis are not uncommon in the pediatric population, but acute onset of OSA, as a respiratory complication in the setting of acute EBV infection is extremely uncommon. Previous reports of this clinical entity are sparse and from nearly two decades ago. Urgent adenotonsillectomy was commonly advocated. This complication may be managed medically with systemic corticosteroids and non-invasive continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), and a case is presented to highlight an updated management approach to this rarely encountered clinical problem in children. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Acute administration of fluoxetine normalizes rapid eye movement sleep abnormality, but not depressive behaviors in olfactory bulbectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Qun; Tu, Zhi-Cai; Xu, Xing-Yuan; Li, Rui; Qu, Wei-Min; Urade, Yoshihiro; Huang, Zhi-Li

    2012-01-01

    In humans, depression is associated with altered rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. However, the exact nature of the relationship between depressive behaviors and sleep abnormalities is debated. In this study, bilateral olfactory bulbectomy (OBX) was carried out to create a model of depression in rats. The sleep-wake profiles were assayed using a cutting-edge sleep bioassay system, and depressive behaviors were evaluated by open field and forced swimming tests. The monoamine content and monoamine metabolite levels in the brain were determined by a HPLC-electrochemical detection system. OBX rats exhibited a significant increase in REM sleep, especially between 15:00 and 18:00 hours during the light period. Acute treatment with fluoxetine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) immediately abolished the OBX-induced increase in REM sleep, but hyperactivity in the open field test and the time spent immobile in the forced swimming test remained unchanged. Neurochemistry studies revealed that acute administration of fluoxetine increased serotonin (5-HT) levels in the hippocampus, thalamus, and midbrain and decreased levels of the 5-HT metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA). The ratio of 5-HIAA to 5-HT decreased in almost all regions of the brain. These results indicate that acute administration of fluoxetine can reduce the increase in REM sleep but does not change the depressive behaviors in OBX rats, suggesting that there was no causality between REM sleep abnormalities and depressive behaviors in OBX rats. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Neurochemistry © 2011 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  6. Working hours, sleep duration and the risk of acute coronary heart disease: a case-control study of middle-aged men in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yawen; Du, Chung-Li; Hwang, Juey-Jen; Chen, I-Shin; Chen, Ming-Fong; Su, Ta-Chen

    2014-02-15

    This study aimed to examine whether long working hours and short sleep duration were associated with an increased risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) or severe coronary heart diseases (SCHD), independent of established psychosocial work-related factors. A case-control study was conducted. Cases were 322 men, aged working hours and daily hours of sleep were calculated. Men with average working hours longer than 60 h/week were found to have significantly increased risks for total CHD (OR=2.2) as compared to those with weekly working hours in 40-48 h, and those with daily hours of sleep fewer than 6 h were found to have increased risks for CHD (OR=3.0) as compared to those with sleeping hours in 6-9 h. Restriction to confirmed AMI yielded a greater risk and these associations remained consistent with adjustment of smoking status, body mass index and psychosocial work factors including job demands, job control, workplace justice, job insecurity and shift work. The results support the hypothesis that long working hours and short sleep duration contribute independently to the risk of cardiovascular diseases in men. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Haemangiopericytoma of greater omentum. A rare cause of acute abdominal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovino, A; Basso, L; Di Giacomo, G; Codacci Pisanelli, M; Basile, U; De Toma, G

    2003-12-01

    Haemangiopericytoma (HPT) is a rare neoplasm that can occur in any part of the human body. In this report, we describe the case of a patient with sudden severe upper abdominal pain caused by primary HPT in the greater omentum.

  8. Heritability of Performance Deficit Accumulation During Acute Sleep Deprivation in Twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuna, Samuel T.; Maislin, Greg; Pack, Frances M.; Staley, Bethany; Hachadoorian, Robert; Coccaro, Emil F.; Pack, Allan I.

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: To determine if the large and highly reproducible interindividual differences in rates of performance deficit accumulation during sleep deprivation, as determined by the number of lapses on a sustained reaction time test, the Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT), arise from a heritable trait. Design: Prospective, observational cohort study. Setting: Academic medical center. Participants: There were 59 monozygotic (mean age 29.2 ± 6.8 [SD] yr; 15 male and 44 female pairs) and 41 dizygotic (mean age 26.6 ± 7.6 yr; 15 male and 26 female pairs) same-sex twin pairs with a normal polysomnogram. Interventions: Thirty-eight hr of monitored, continuous sleep deprivation. Measurements and Results: Patients performed the 10-min PVT every 2 hr during the sleep deprivation protocol. The primary outcome was change from baseline in square root transformed total lapses (response time ≥ 500 ms) per trial. Patient-specific linear rates of performance deficit accumulation were separated from circadian effects using multiple linear regression. Using the classic approach to assess heritability, the intraclass correlation coefficients for accumulating deficits resulted in a broad sense heritability (h2) estimate of 0.834. The mean within-pair and among-pair heritability estimates determined by analysis of variance-based methods was 0.715. When variance components of mixed-effect multilevel models were estimated by maximum likelihood estimation and used to determine the proportions of phenotypic variance explained by genetic and nongenetic factors, 51.1% (standard error = 8.4%, P sleep deprivation. Citation: Kuna ST; Maislin G; Pack FM; Staley B; Hachadoorian R; Coccaro EF; Pack AI. Heritability of performance deficit accumulation during acute sleep deprivation in twins. SLEEP 2012;35(9):1223-1233. PMID:22942500

  9. Effects of Partial and Acute Total Sleep Deprivation on Performance across Cognitive Domains, Individuals and Circadian Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, June C.; Groeger, John A.; Santhi, Nayantara; Arbon, Emma L.; Lazar, Alpar S.; Hasan, Sibah; von Schantz, Malcolm; Archer, Simon N.; Dijk, Derk-Jan

    2012-01-01

    Background Cognitive performance deteriorates during extended wakefulness and circadian phase misalignment, and some individuals are more affected than others. Whether performance is affected similarly across cognitive domains, or whether cognitive processes involving Executive Functions are more sensitive to sleep and circadian misalignment than Alertness and Sustained Attention, is a matter of debate. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a 2 × 12-day laboratory protocol to characterize the interaction of repeated partial and acute total sleep deprivation and circadian phase on performance across seven cognitive domains in 36 individuals (18 males; mean ± SD of age = 27.6±4.0 years). The sample was stratified for the rs57875989 polymorphism in PER3, which confers cognitive susceptibility to total sleep deprivation. We observed a deterioration of performance during both repeated partial and acute total sleep deprivation. Furthermore, prior partial sleep deprivation led to poorer cognitive performance in a subsequent total sleep deprivation period, but its effect was modulated by circadian phase such that it was virtually absent in the evening wake maintenance zone, and most prominent during early morning hours. A significant effect of PER3 genotype was observed for Subjective Alertness during partial sleep deprivation and on n-back tasks with a high executive load when assessed in the morning hours during total sleep deprivation after partial sleep loss. Overall, however, Subjective Alertness and Sustained Attention were more affected by both partial and total sleep deprivation than other cognitive domains and tasks including n-back tasks of Working Memory, even when implemented with a high executive load. Conclusions/Significance Sleep loss has a primary effect on Sleepiness and Sustained Attention with much smaller effects on challenging Working Memory tasks. These findings have implications for understanding how sleep debt and circadian rhythmicity

  10. Cell Death Biomarkers and Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Implications in the Acute Coronary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauça, Josep Miquel; Yañez, Aina; Fueyo, Laura; de la Peña, Mónica; Pierola, Javier; Sánchez-de-la-Torre, Alicia; Mediano, Olga; Cabriada-Nuño, Valentín; Masdeu, María José; Teran-Santos, Joaquin; Duran-Cantolla, Joaquin; Masa, Juan Fernando; Abad, Jorge; Sanchez-de-la-Torre, Manuel; Barbé, Ferran; Barceló, Antònia

    2017-05-01

    Nucleosomes and cell-free double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) have been suggested as promising biomarkers in cell death-related diseases, such as acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Currently, the impact of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in patients with ACS is unclear. Our aim was to evaluate the relationship between OSA, dsDNA, and nucleosomes and to assess their potential implication in the development of ACS. Up to 549 patients were included in the study and divided into four groups (145 ACS; 290 ACS + OSA; 62 OSA; 52 controls). All patients underwent a sleep study, and serum concentrations of dsDNA and nucleosomes were measured. Nucleosome and dsDNA levels were higher in patients with OSA than in controls (nucleosomes: 1.47 ± 0.88 arbitary units [AU] vs. 1.00 ± 0.33 AU; p Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Skill execution and sleep deprivation: effects of acute caffeine or creatine supplementation - a randomized placebo-controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kilduff Liam P

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated the effects of sleep deprivation with or without acute supplementation of caffeine or creatine on the execution of a repeated rugby passing skill. Method Ten elite rugby players completed 10 trials on a simple rugby passing skill test (20 repeats per trial, following a period of familiarisation. The players had between 7-9 h sleep on 5 of these trials and between 3-5 h sleep (deprivation on the other 5. At a time of 1.5 h before each trial, they undertook administration of either: placebo tablets, 50 or 100 mg/kg creatine, 1 or 5 mg/kg caffeine. Saliva was collected before each trial and assayed for salivary free cortisol and testosterone. Results Sleep deprivation with placebo application resulted in a significant fall in skill performance accuracy on both the dominant and non-dominant passing sides (p Conclusion Acute sleep deprivation affects performance of a simple repeat skill in elite athletes and this was ameliorated by a single dose of either caffeine or creatine. Acute creatine use may help to alleviate decrements in skill performance in situations of sleep deprivation, such as transmeridian travel, and caffeine at low doses appears as efficacious as higher doses, at alleviating sleep deprivation deficits in athletes with a history of low caffeine use. Both options are without the side effects of higher dose caffeine use.

  12. Epigenomics of Total Acute Sleep Deprivation in Relation to Genome-Wide DNA Methylation Profiles and RNA Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Emil K; Boström, Adrian E; Mwinyi, Jessica; Schiöth, Helgi B

    2016-06-01

    Despite an established link between sleep deprivation and epigenetic processes in humans, it remains unclear to what extent sleep deprivation modulates DNA methylation. We performed a within-subject randomized blinded study with 16 healthy subjects to examine the effect of one night of total sleep deprivation (TSD) on the genome-wide methylation profile in blood compared with that in normal sleep. Genome-wide differences in methylation between both conditions were assessed by applying a paired regression model that corrected for monocyte subpopulations. In addition, the correlations between the methylation of genes detected to be modulated by TSD and gene expression were examined in a separate, publicly available cohort of 10 healthy male donors (E-GEOD-49065). Sleep deprivation significantly affected the DNA methylation profile both independently and in dependency of shifts in monocyte composition. Our study detected differential methylation of 269 probes. Notably, one CpG site was located 69 bp upstream of ING5, which has been shown to be differentially expressed after sleep deprivation. Gene set enrichment analysis detected the Notch and Wnt signaling pathways to be enriched among the differentially methylated genes. These results provide evidence that total acute sleep deprivation alters the methylation profile in healthy human subjects. This is, to our knowledge, the first study that systematically investigated the impact of total acute sleep deprivation on genome-wide DNA methylation profiles in blood and related the epigenomic findings to the expression data.

  13. The Effects of Acute Stress-Induced Sleep Disturbance on Acoustic Trauma-Induced Tinnitus in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiwen Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic tinnitus is a debilitating condition and often accompanied by anxiety, depression, and sleep disturbance. It has been suggested that sleep disturbance, such as insomnia, may be a risk factor/predictor for tinnitus-related distress and the two conditions may share common neurobiological mechanisms. This study investigated whether acute stress-induced sleep disturbance could increase the susceptibility to acoustic trauma-induced tinnitus in rats. The animals were exposed to unilateral acoustic trauma 24 h before sleep disturbance being induced using the cage exchange method. Tinnitus perception was assessed behaviourally using a conditioned lick suppression paradigm 3 weeks after the acoustic trauma. Changes in the orexin system in the hypothalamus, which plays an important role in maintaining long-lasting arousal, were also examined using immunohistochemistry. Cage exchange resulted in a significant reduction in the number of sleep episodes and acoustic trauma-induced tinnitus with acoustic features similar to a 32 kHz tone at 100 dB. However, sleep disturbance did not exacerbate the perception of tinnitus in rats. Neither tinnitus alone nor tinnitus plus sleep disturbance altered the number of orexin-expressing neurons. The results suggest that acute sleep disturbance does not cause long-term changes in the number of orexin neurons and does not change the perception of tinnitus induced by acoustic trauma in rats.

  14. Eveningness and Later Sleep Timing Are Associated with Greater Risk for Alcohol and Marijuana Use in Adolescence: Initial Findings from the National Consortium on Alcohol and Neurodevelopment in Adolescence Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasler, Brant P; Franzen, Peter L; de Zambotti, Massimiliano; Prouty, Devin; Brown, Sandra A; Tapert, Susan F; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Pohl, Kilian M; Sullivan, Edith V; De Bellis, Michael D; Nagel, Bonnie J; Baker, Fiona C; Colrain, Ian M; Clark, Duncan B

    2017-06-01

    Abundant cross-sectional evidence links eveningness (a preference for later sleep-wake timing) and increased alcohol and drug use among adolescents and young adults. However, longitudinal studies are needed to examine whether eveningness is a risk factor for subsequent alcohol and drug use, particularly during adolescence, which is marked by parallel peaks in eveningness and risk for the onset of alcohol use disorders. This study examined whether eveningness and other sleep characteristics were associated with concurrent or subsequent substance involvement in a longitudinal study of adolescents. Participants were 729 adolescents (368 females; age 12 to 21 years) in the National Consortium on Alcohol and Neurodevelopment in Adolescence study. Associations between the sleep variables (circadian preference, sleep quality, daytime sleepiness, sleep timing, and sleep duration) and 3 categorical substance variables (at-risk alcohol use, alcohol bingeing, and past-year marijuana use [y/n]) were examined using ordinal and logistic regression with baseline age, sex, race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and psychiatric problems as covariates. At baseline, greater eveningness was associated with greater at-risk alcohol use, greater bingeing, and past-year use of marijuana. Later weekday and weekend bedtimes, but not weekday or weekend sleep duration, showed similar associations across the 3 substance outcomes at baseline. Greater baseline eveningness was also prospectively associated with greater bingeing and past-year use of marijuana at the 1-year follow-up, after covarying for baseline bingeing and marijuana use. Later baseline weekday and weekend bedtimes, and shorter baseline weekday sleep duration, were similarly associated with greater bingeing and past-year use of marijuana at the 1-year follow-up after covarying for baseline values. Findings suggest that eveningness and sleep timing may be under recognized risk factors and future areas of intervention for

  15. Association between short sleep and body mass index, hypertension among acute coronary syndrome patients in coronary care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepahvand, Elham; Jalali, Rostam; Mirzaei, Maryam; Kargar Jahromi, Marzieh

    2014-11-26

    Patients with coronary diseases admitted to special care unit often suffer from sleep disorders, which may cause physiological changes and adversely affect patient's health. The relationship between sleep disorders and obesity is an important factor in studies on sleep disorders and other chronic diseases in all groups, including cardiovascular diseases. Understanding this relationship may increase the chance of progress in effective medical interventions in sleep disorders and obesity. This study was designed to evaluate the association between short sleep and Body Mass Index (BMI), hypertension among acute coronary syndrome patients. In this descriptive analytical study, 221 coronary patients admitted to coronary care unit and general wards were investigated. Data were collected through a researcher-made questionnaire whose validity and reliability had been confirmed. Data were analyzed with SPSS-16 software. A total of 221 patients with acute coronary diseases (including myocardial infarction and angina pectoris) with a mean age of 61.27 years were studied, of whom 61.5% were male and 38.5% were female. A significant association was observed between short sleep and higher BMI (P=0.000). About half the patients (49.3%) had a history of hypertension, and sleep disorders were also significantly related to hypertension (P=0.006). In this study, sleep disorders were patients' main complaint. Researchers found that patients with less than 5 hours or more than 9 hours sleep at night were more likely to have hypertension compared to patients that slept 7-8 hours. Lack of sleep affects metabolism, and daily energy expenditure reduces with increased immobility. In this study, a significant relationship was observed between BMI and sleep duration among hospitalized patients in coronary care unit (P=0.000), and sleep disorders increased with higher BMI. Short of sleep increases sympathetic tonus, cortisol level, and activation of inflammatory pathways, impairing glucose

  16. Auto-titrating continuous positive airway pressure treatment for obstructive sleep apnoea after acute quadriplegia (COSAQ): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlowitz, David J; Ayas, Najib; Barnes, Maree; Brown, Douglas J; Cistulli, Peter A; Geraghty, Tim; Graham, Alison; Lee, Bonsan Bonne; Morris, Meg; O'Donoghue, Fergal; Rochford, Peter D; Ross, Jack; Singhal, Balraj; Spong, Jo; Wadsworth, Brooke; Pierce, Robert J

    2013-06-19

    Quadriplegia is a severe, catastrophic injury that predominantly affects people early in life, resulting in lifelong physical disability. Obstructive sleep apnoea is a direct consequence of quadriplegia and is associated with neurocognitive deficits, sleepiness and reduced quality of life. The usual treatment for sleep apnoea is nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP); however, this is poorly tolerated in quadriplegia. To encourage patients to use this therapy, we have to demonstrate that the benefits outweigh the inconvenience. We therefore propose a prospective, multinational randomized controlled trial of three months of CPAP for obstructive sleep apnoea after acute quadriplegia. Specialist spinal cord injury centres across Australia, New Zealand, the UK and Canada will recruit medically stable individuals who have sustained a (new) traumatic quadriplegia (complete or incomplete second cervical to first thoracic level lesions). Participants will be screened for obstructive sleep apnoea using full, portable sleep studies. Those with an apnoea hypopnoea index greater than 10 per hour will proceed to an initial three-night trial of CPAP. Those who can tolerate CPAP for at least 4 hours on at least one night of the initial trial will be randomized to either usual care or a 3-month period of auto-titrating CPAP. The primary hypothesis is that nocturnal CPAP will improve neuropsychological functioning more than usual care alone. The secondary hypothesis is that the magnitude of improvement of neuropsychological function will be predicted by the severity of baseline sleepiness measures, sleep fragmentation and sleep apnoea. Neuropsychological tests and full polysomnography will be performed at baseline and 3 months with interim measures of sleepiness and symptoms of autonomic dysfunction measured weekly. Spirometry will be performed monthly. Neuropsychological tests will be administered by blinded assessors. Recruitment commenced in July 2009. The results of

  17. Exercisers achieve greater acute exercise-induced mood enhancement than nonexercisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Martin D; Hoffman, Debi Rufi

    2008-02-01

    To determine whether a single session of exercise of appropriate intensity and duration for aerobic conditioning has a different acute effect on mood for nonexercisers than regular exercisers. Repeated-measures design. Research laboratory. Adult nonexercisers, moderate exercisers, and ultramarathon runners (8 men, 8 women in each group). Treadmill exercise at self-selected speeds to induce a rating of perceived exertion (RPE) of 13 (somewhat hard) for 20 minutes, preceded and followed by 5 minutes at an RPE of 9 (very light). Profile of Mood States before and 5 minutes after exercise. Vigor increased by a mean +/- standard deviation of 8+/-7 points (95% confidence interval [CI], 5-12) among the ultramarathon runners and 5+/-4 points (95% CI, 2-9) among the moderate exercisers, with no improvement among the nonexercisers. Fatigue decreased by 5+/-6 points (95% CI, 2-8) for the ultramarathon runners and 4+/-4 points (95% CI, 1-7) for the moderate exercisers, with no improvement among the nonexercisers. Postexercise total mood disturbance decreased by a mean of 21+/-16 points (95% CI, 12-29) among the ultramarathon runners, 16+/-10 points (95% CI, 7-24) among the moderate exercisers, and 9+/-13 points (95% CI, 1-18) among the nonexercisers. A single session of moderate aerobic exercise improves vigor and decreases fatigue among regular exercisers but causes no change in these scores for nonexercisers. Although total mood disturbance improves postexercise in exercisers and nonexercisers, regular exercisers have approximately twice the effect as nonexercisers. This limited postexercise mood improvement among nonexercisers may be an important deterrent for persistence with an exercise program.

  18. The Impact of Sleep Restriction and Simulated Physical Firefighting Work on Acute Inflammatory Stress Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolkow, Alexander; Ferguson, Sally A; Vincent, Grace E; Larsen, Brianna; Aisbett, Brad; Main, Luana C

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect restricted sleep has on wildland firefighters' acute cytokine levels during 3 days and 2 nights of simulated physical wildfire suppression work. Firefighters completed multiple days of physical firefighting work separated by either an 8-h (Control condition; n = 18) or 4-h (Sleep restriction condition; n = 17) sleep opportunity each night. Blood samples were collected 4 times a day (i.e., 06:15, 11:30, 18:15, 21:30) from which plasma cytokine levels (IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-4, IL-10) were measured. The primary findings for cytokine levels revealed a fixed effect for condition that showed higher IL-8 levels among firefighters who received an 8-h sleep each night. An interaction effect demonstrated differing increases in IL-6 over successive days of work for the SR and CON conditions. Fixed effects for time indicated that IL-6 and IL-4 levels increased, while IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-8 levels decreased. There were no significant effects for IL-10 observed. Findings demonstrate increased IL-8 levels among firefighters who received an 8-h sleep when compared to those who had a restricted 4-h sleep. Firefighters' IL-6 levels increased in both conditions which may indicate that a 4-h sleep restriction duration and/or period (i.e., 2 nights) was not a significant enough stressor to affect this cytokine. Considering the immunomodulatory properties of IL-6 and IL-4 that inhibit pro-inflammatory cytokines, the rise in IL-6 and IL-4, independent of increases in IL-1β and TNF-α, could indicate a non-damaging response to the stress of simulated physical firefighting work. However, given the link between chronically elevated cytokine levels and several diseases, further research is needed to determine if firefighters' IL-8 and IL-6 levels are elevated following repeated firefighting deployments across a fire season and over multiple fire seasons.

  19. High risk for obstructive sleep apnea in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Renata Silva Andrechuk

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: to stratify the risk for obstructive sleep apnea in patients with acute myocardial infarction, treated at a public, tertiary, teaching hospital of the state of São Paulo, Brazil, and to identify related sociodemographic and clinical factors.Method: cross-sectional analytical study with 113 patients (mean age 59.57 years, 70.8% male. A specific questionnaire was used for the sociodemographic and clinical characterization and the Berlin Questionnaire for the stratification of the risk of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.Results: the prevalence of high risk was 60.2% and the outcome of clinical worsening during hospitalization was more frequent among these patients. The factors related to high risk were body mass index over 30 kg/m2, arterial hypertension and waist circumference indicative of cardiovascular risk, while older age (60 years and over constituted a protective factor.Conclusion: considering the high prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea and its relation to clinical worsening, it is suggested that nurses should monitor, in their clinical practice, people at high risk for this syndrome, guiding control measures of modifiable factors and aiming to prevent the associated complications, including worsening of cardiovascular diseases.

  20. Perceived inadequate care and excessive overprotection during childhood are associated with greater risk of sleep disturbance in adulthood: the Hisayama Study

    OpenAIRE

    Shibata, Mao; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Anno, Kozo; Kawata, Hiroshi; Iwaki, Rie; Sawamoto, Ryoko; Kubo, Chiharu; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Sudo, Nobuyuki; Hosoi, Masako

    2016-01-01

    Background Sleep disturbance and poor sleep quality are major health problems worldwide. One potential risk factor for the development and maintenance of sleep disturbance is the parenting style experienced during childhood. However, its role in sleep disturbance in adulthood has not yet been estimated. This Japanese population study was done to clarify the relation between the parenting styles ?care? and ?overprotection? during childhood and sleep disturbance in adulthood. Methods A total of...

  1. Acute Short-Term Sleep Deprivation Does Not Affect Metacognitive Monitoring Captured by Confidence Ratings: A Systematic Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Simon A.; Martin, Gregory D.; Aidman, Eugene; Kleitman, Sabina

    2018-01-01

    This article presents the results of a systematic review of the literature surrounding the effects that acute sleep deprivation has on metacognitive monitoring. Metacognitive monitoring refers to the ability to accurately assess one's own performance and state of knowledge. The mechanism behind this assessment is captured by subjective feelings of…

  2. Effect of obstructive sleep apnea on response to cognitive behavior therapy for depression after an acute myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freedland, Kenneth E.; Carney, Robert M.; Hayano, Junichiro; Steinmeyer, Brian C.; Reese, Rebecca L.; Roest, Annelieke M.

    Objective: To determine whether obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) interferes with cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for depression in patients with coronary heart disease. Methods: Patients who were depressed within 28 days after an acute myocardial infarction (MI) were enrolled in the Enhancing Recovery

  3. Fas Ligand Has a Greater Impact than TNF-α on Apoptosis and Inflammation in Ischemic Acute Kidney Injury

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    Kengo Furuichi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Fas ligand (FasL and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α are major pro-apoptotic molecules and also induce inflammation through cytokine and chemokine production. Although precise intracellular mechanisms of action have been reported for each molecule, the differential impact of these molecules on kidney injury in vivo still requires clarification. Methods: We explored the differential impact of FasL and TNF-α upon apoptosis and inflammation in ischemic acute kidney injury using neutralizing anti-FasL antibodies and TNF-α receptor 1 (TNFR1-deficient mice. Results: TNFR1 deficiency was associated with a lesser anti-inflammatory effect upon leukocyte infiltration and tubular necrosis than treatment with anti-FasL antibody. Furthermore, the number of TUNEL-positive cells was significantly reduced in anti-FasL antibody-treated mice, whereas it was only partially diminished in TNFR1-deficient mice. In vitro studies confirmed these findings. FasL administration induced both apoptosis and cytokine/chemokine production from cultured tubular epithelial cells. However, TNF-α had a limited effect upon tubular epithelial cells. Conclusion: In ischemic acute kidney injury, FasL has a greater impact than TNF-α on the apoptosis and inflammatory reaction through cytokine/chemokine production from tubular epithelial cells.

  4. Anterior ST segment depression in acute inferior myocardial infarction as a marker of greater inferior, apical, and posterolateral damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruddy, T.D.; Yasuda, T.; Gold, H.K.; Leinbach, R.C.; Newell, J.B.; McKusick, K.A.; Boucher, C.A.; Strauss, H.W.

    1986-01-01

    The clinical significance of anterior precordial ST segment depression during acute inferior myocardial infarction was evaluated in 67 consecutive patients early after onset of symptoms with gated blood pool scans, thallium-201 perfusion images, and 12-lead ECGs. Patients with anterior ST depression (n = 33) had depressed mean values for left ventricular ejection fraction (54 +/- 2% [mean +/- S.E.M.] vs 59 +/- 2%; p = 0.02), cardiac index (3.1 +/- 0.2 vs 3.6 +/- 0.2 L/m2; p = 0.03), and ratio of systolic blood pressure to end-systolic volume (2.0 +/- 0.1 vs 2.5 +/- 0.3 mm Hg/ml; p = 0.04) compared to patients with no anterior ST depression (n = 34). Patients with anterior ST depression had (1) lower mean wall motion values for the inferior, apical, and inferior posterolateral segments (p less than 0.05) and (2) greater reductions in thallium-201 uptake in the inferior and posterolateral regions (p less than 0.05). However, anterior and septal (1) wall motion and (2) thallium-201 uptake were similar in patients with and without ST depression. Thus, anterior precordial ST segment depression in patients with acute inferior wall myocardial infarction represents more than a reciprocal electrical phenomenon. It identifies patients with more severe wall motion impairment and greater hypoperfusion of the inferior and adjacent segments. The poorer global left ventricular function in these patients is a result of more extensive inferior infarction and not of remote septal or anterior injury

  5. Acute total sleep deprivation potentiates amphetamine-induced locomotor-stimulant effects and behavioral sensitization in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Luis P; Fukushiro, Daniela F; Hollais, André W; Mári-Kawamoto, Elisa; Costa, Jacqueline M; Berro, Laís F; Aramini, Tatiana C F; Wuo-Silva, Raphael; Andersen, Monica L; Tufik, Sergio; Frussa-Filho, Roberto

    2014-02-01

    It has been demonstrated that a prolonged period (48 h) of paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) potentiates amphetamine (AMP)-induced behavioral sensitization, an animal model of addiction-related neuroadaptations. In the present study, we examined the effects of an acute short-term deprivation of total sleep (TSD) (6h) on AMP-induced behavioral sensitization in mice and compared them to the effects of short-term PSD (6 h). Three-month-old male C57BL/6J mice underwent TSD (experiment 1-gentle handling method) or PSD (experiment 2-multiple platforms method) for 6 h. Immediately after the sleep deprivation period, mice were tested in the open field for 10 min under the effects of saline or 2.0 mg/kg AMP. Seven days later, to assess behavioral sensitization, all of the mice received a challenge injection of 2.0 mg/kg AMP and were tested in the open field for 10 min. Total, peripheral, and central locomotion, and grooming duration were measured. TSD, but not PSD, potentiated the hyperlocomotion induced by an acute injection of AMP and this effect was due to an increased locomotion in the central squares of the apparatus. Similarly, TSD facilitated the development of AMP-induced sensitization, but only in the central locomotion parameter. The data indicate that an acute period of TSD may exacerbate the behavioral effects of AMP in mice. Because sleep architecture is composed of paradoxical and slow wave sleep, and 6-h PSD had no effects on AMP-induced hyperlocomotion or sensitization, our data suggest that the deprivation of slow wave sleep plays a critical role in the mechanisms that underlie the potentiating effects of TSD on both the acute and sensitized addiction-related responses to AMP. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Research Article. Characteristics of Sleep Apnea Assessed Before Discharge in Patients Hospitalized with Acute Heart Failure

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    Kocsis Ildikó

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Evaluation of the characteristics of sleep apnea (SA in patients hospitalized with acute heart failure, considering that undiagnosed SA could contribute to early rehospitalization. Methods. 56 consecutive patients (13 women, 43 men, mean age 63.12 years with acute heart failure, in stable condition, underwent nocturnal polygraphy before hospital discharge. The type and severity of SA was determined. Besides descriptive statistics, correlations between the severity of SA and clinical and paraclinical characteristics were also analyzed (t-test, chi-square test, significancy at alpha 30/h. The apnea was predominantly obstructive (32 cases vs. 12 with central SA. Comparing the patients with mild or no SA with those with severe SA, we did not find statistically significant correlations (p>0.05 between the severity of SA and the majority of main clinical and paraclinical characteristics - age, sex, BMI, cardiac substrates of heart failure, comorbidities. Paradoxically, arterial hypertension (p=0.028 and atrial fibrillation (p=0.041 were significantly more prevalent in the group with mild or no SA. Conclusions. Before discharge, in the majority of patients hospitalized with acute heart failure moderate and severe SA is present, and is not related to the majority of patient related factors. Finding of significant SA in this setting is important, because its therapy could play an important role in preventing readmissions and improving prognosis.

  7. Objectively Assessed Sleep Variability as an Acute Warning Sign of Suicidal Ideation in a Longitudinal Evaluation of Young Adults at High Suicide Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernert, Rebecca A; Hom, Melanie A; Iwata, Naomi G; Joiner, Thomas E

    2017-06-01

    Young adults attempt suicide at disproportionately high rates relative to other groups and demonstrate high rates of sleep disturbance. No study has yet prospectively evaluated disturbed sleep as an acute indicator of risk using an objective index of sleep. We investigated objective and subjective parameters of disturbed sleep as a warning sign of suicidal ideation among young adults over an acute period. A longitudinal study across a 21-day observation period and 3 time points. Fifty of 4,847 participants (aged 18-23 years) were prescreened from a university undergraduate research pool (February 2007-June 2008) on the basis of suicide attempt history and recent suicidal ideation. Actigraphic and subjective sleep parameters were evaluated as acute predictors of suicidal ideation (Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation), with adjustment for baseline symptoms. Hierarchical regression analyses were employed to predict residual change scores. Ninety-six percent of participants (n = 48) endorsed a suicide attempt history. Mean actigraphy values revealed objectively disturbed sleep parameters; 78% (n = 39) and 36% (n = 18) endorsed clinically significant insomnia and nightmares, respectively. When results were controlled for baseline suicidal and depressive symptoms, actigraphic and subjective sleep parameters predicted suicidal ideation residual change scores at 7- and 21-day follow-ups (P defined variability in sleep timing, insomnia, and nightmares predicted increases in suicidal ideation (P < .05). In a test of competing risk factors, sleep variability outperformed depressive symptoms in the longitudinal prediction of suicidal ideation across time points (P < .05). Objectively and subjectively measured sleep disturbances predicted acute suicidal ideation increases in this population, independent of depressed mood. Self-reported insomnia and nightmares and actigraphically assessed sleep variability emerged as acute warning signs of suicidal ideation. These findings highlight

  8. SOS score: an optimized score to screen acute stroke patients for obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilo, Millene R; Sander, Heidi H; Eckeli, Alan L; Fernandes, Regina M F; Dos Santos-Pontelli, Taiza E G; Leite, Joao P; Pontes-Neto, Octavio M

    2014-09-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is frequent in acute stroke patients, and has been associated with higher mortality and worse prognosis. Polysomnography (PSG) is the gold standard diagnostic method for OSA, but it is impracticable as a routine for all acute stroke patients. We evaluated the accuracy of two OSA screening tools, the Berlin Questionnaire (BQ), and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) when administered to relatives of acute stroke patients; we also compared these tools against a combined screening score (SOS score). Ischemic stroke patients were submitted to a full PSG at the first night after onset of symptoms. OSA severity was measured by apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). BQ and ESS were administered to relatives of stroke patients before the PSG and compared to SOS score for accuracy and C-statistics. We prospectively studied 39 patients. OSA (AHI ≥10/h) was present in 76.9%. The SOS score [area under the curve (AUC): 0.812; P = 0.005] and ESS (AUC: 0.789; P = 0.009) had good predictive value for OSA. The SOS score was the only tool with significant predictive value (AUC: 0.686; P = 0.048) for severe OSA (AHI ≥30/h), when compared to ESS (P = 0.119) and BQ (P = 0.191). The threshold of SOS ≤10 showed high sensitivity (90%) and negative predictive value (96.2%) for OSA; SOS ≥20 showed high specificity (100%) and positive predictive value (92.5%) for severe OSA. The SOS score administered to relatives of stroke patients is a useful tool to screen for OSA and may decrease the need for PSG in acute stroke setting. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Sleeping to fuel the immune system: mammalian sleep and resistance to parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opp Mark R

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sleep is an enigma. Why animals forgo eating and reproducing, while potentially increasing their risk of predation remains unknown. Although some may question whether all animals sleep, it is clear that all living organisms possess defenses against attack by pathogens. Immune responses of humans and animals are impaired by sleep loss, and responses to immune challenge include altered sleep. Thus, sleep is hypothesized to be a component of the acute phase response to infection and to function in host defense. Examining phylogenetic relationships among sleep parameters, components of the mammalian immune system and resistance to infection may provide insight into the evolution of sleep and lead to a greater appreciation for the role of sleep in host defense.

  10. Sleep-Wake Patterns during the Acute Phase after First-Ever Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda N. Bakken

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the pattern of day and night sleep and explores relationships between these patterns and sociodemographic and clinical factors as well as sleep environmental context and the patient's subjective sleep quality. Data from 110 patients with first-ever stroke was collected by structured interview surveys, medical record, and objective estimated sleep data from wrist actigraphy. The variability in estimated sleep is large. Half the patients slept either 8 hours per night, and 78% had more than nine awakenings per night. Men slept less than women, and patients sleeping at home had fewer awakenings than those who slept in hospital. It was estimated sleep during daytime in all, except 4, patients. Longer stay in hospital was related to more daytime sleep, and the subjective sleep quality correlated with estimated sleep time, wake time, and wake percentage.

  11. Poor sleep quality is associated with greater circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines and severity and frequency of chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) symptoms in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milrad, Sara F; Hall, Daniel L; Jutagir, Devika R; Lattie, Emily G; Ironson, Gail H; Wohlgemuth, William; Nunez, Maria Vera; Garcia, Lina; Czaja, Sara J; Perdomo, Dolores M; Fletcher, Mary Ann; Klimas, Nancy; Antoni, Michael H

    2017-02-15

    Poor sleep quality has been linked to inflammatory processes and worse disease outcomes in the context of many chronic illnesses, but less is known in conditions such as chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME). This study examines the relationships between sleep quality, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and CFS/ME symptoms. Sixty women diagnosed with CFS/ME were assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Fatigue Symptom Inventory (FSI) and Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-based CFS/ME symptom questionnaires. Circulating plasma pro-inflammatory cytokine levels were measured by ELISA. Multiple regression analyses examined associations between sleep, cytokines and symptoms, controlling for age, education, and body mass index. Poor sleep quality (PSQI global score) was associated with greater pro-inflammatory cytokine levels: interleukin-1β (IL-1β) (β=0.258, p=0.043), IL-6 (β=0.281, p=0.033), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) (β=0.263, p=0.044). Worse sleep quality related to greater fatigue severity (β=0.395, p=0.003) and fatigue-related interference with daily activities (β=0.464, p<0.001), and more severe and frequent CDC-defined core CFS/ME symptoms (β=0.499, p<0.001, and β=0.556, p<0.001, respectively). Results underscore the importance of managing sleep-related difficulties in this patient population. Further research is needed to identify the etiology of sleep disruptions in CFS/ME and mechanistic factors linking sleep quality to symptom severity and inflammatory processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The Association of Lesion Location and Sleep Related Breathing Disorder in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisse, Anna Lena; Kemmling, André; Teuber, Anja; Wersching, Heike; Young, Peter; Dittrich, Ralf; Ritter, Martin; Dziewas, Rainer; Minnerup, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Sleep related breathing disorders (SRBD) are common in patients with ischemic stroke and are associated with poor outcome. SRBD after stroke were assumed to be a direct consequence of injury of specific central nervous system structures. However, whether specific locations of ischemic infarcts cause SRBD is yet unknown. We therefore investigated the association of ischemic lesion location with SRBD. Patients with acute ischemic stroke treated on our stroke unit were included in a prospective observational study. All patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and polygraphy in the acute phase after stroke. SRBD was defined by an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) ≥10. MRI were evaluated using standardized maps to depict voxel-wise probability distribution of infarction for patients with and without SRBD. Groups were compared using logistic regression analysis. Of 142 patients included, 86 (59%) had a SRBD. Age, body mass index and prevalence of arterial hypertension were significantly higher in patients with SRBD. There was no statistically significant association between any lesion location and SRBD. We found no association of lesion location and SRBD in stroke patients, whereas established risk factors for SRBD, known from general population, were significantly associated with SRBD. Given the high prevalence of SRBD in stroke patients, these findings suggest that cerebral ischemia facilitates the occurrence of SRBD in patients with pre-existing risk factors rather than causing it by damaging specific central nervous system structures. Our findings can be used to identify stroke patients who might benefit from polygraphy screening.

  13. Perceived inadequate care and excessive overprotection during childhood are associated with greater risk of sleep disturbance in adulthood: the Hisayama Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Mao; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Anno, Kozo; Kawata, Hiroshi; Iwaki, Rie; Sawamoto, Ryoko; Kubo, Chiharu; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Sudo, Nobuyuki; Hosoi, Masako

    2016-07-07

    Sleep disturbance and poor sleep quality are major health problems worldwide. One potential risk factor for the development and maintenance of sleep disturbance is the parenting style experienced during childhood. However, its role in sleep disturbance in adulthood has not yet been estimated. This Japanese population study was done to clarify the relation between the parenting styles "care" and "overprotection" during childhood and sleep disturbance in adulthood. A total of 702 community-dwelling Japanese residents aged ≥ 40 years were assessed in 2011 for their perceptions of the parenting style of their parents by use of the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) and for sleep disturbance by use of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). The odds ratio (OR) for sleep disturbance (a global PSQI score > 5) was calculated using a logistic regression model. The prevalence of sleep disturbance was 29 %. After adjusting for sociodemographic, lifestyle, and physical factors in a comparison with the optimal parenting styles (high care and low overprotection), the ORs for sleep disturbance by men were significantly higher for low paternal care, by 2.49 times (95 % confidence interval [CI]: 1.21-5.09), and for high overprotection, by 2.40 times (95 % CI: 1.19-4.85), while the ORs were not significant for low maternal care and high overprotection. For women the only significant factor was high maternal overprotection, by 1.62 times (95 % CI: 1.05-2.52), while the ORs were not significant for low maternal care, low paternal care and high paternal overprotection. The association remained significant for high paternal overprotection for men after additionally controlling for depression. This study suggests that parenting style, especially inadequate care and excessive overprotection during childhood, is related to sleep disturbance in adulthood and that the association is much more significant for parents of the same sex as the child.

  14. Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Brain Bioenergetics, Sleep, and Cognitive Performance in Cocaine-Dependent Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trksak, George H.; Bracken, Bethany K.; Jensen, J. Eric; Plante, David T.; Penetar, David M.; Tartarini, Wendy L.; Maywalt, Melissa A.; Dorsey, Cynthia M.; Renshaw, Perry F.; Lukas, Scott E.

    2013-01-01

    In cocaine-dependent individuals, sleep is disturbed during cocaine use and abstinence, highlighting the importance of examining the behavioral and homeostatic response to acute sleep loss in these individuals. The current study was designed to identify a differential effect of sleep deprivation on brain bioenergetics, cognitive performance, and sleep between cocaine-dependent and healthy control participants. 14 healthy control and 8 cocaine-dependent participants experienced consecutive nights of baseline, total sleep deprivation, and recovery sleep in the research laboratory. Participants underwent [31]P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) brain imaging, polysomnography, Continuous Performance Task, and Digit Symbol Substitution Task. Following recovery sleep, [31]P MRS scans revealed that cocaine-dependent participants exhibited elevated global brain β-NTP (direct measure of adenosine triphosphate), α-NTP, and total NTP levels compared to those of healthy controls. Cocaine-dependent participants performed worse on the Continuous Performance Task and Digit Symbol Substitution Task at baseline compared to healthy control participants, but sleep deprivation did not worsen cognitive performance in either group. Enhancements of brain ATP levels in cocaine dependent participants following recovery sleep may reflect a greater impact of sleep deprivation on sleep homeostasis, which may highlight the importance of monitoring sleep during abstinence and the potential influence of sleep loss in drug relapse. PMID:24250276

  15. Acute sleep deprivation and circadian misalignment associated with transition onto the first night of work impairs visual selective attention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayantara Santhi

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Overnight operations pose a challenge because our circadian biology promotes sleepiness and dissipates wakefulness at night. Since the circadian effect on cognitive functions magnifies with increasing sleep pressure, cognitive deficits associated with night work are likely to be most acute with extended wakefulness, such as during the transition from a day shift to night shift.To test this hypothesis we measured selective attention (with visual search, vigilance (with Psychomotor Vigilance Task [PVT] and alertness (with a visual analog scale in a shift work simulation protocol, which included four day shifts followed by three night shifts. There was a nocturnal decline in cognitive processes, some of which were most pronounced on the first night shift. The nighttime decrease in visual search sensitivity was most pronounced on the first night compared with subsequent nights (p = .04, and this was accompanied by a trend towards selective attention becoming 'fast and sloppy'. The nighttime increase in attentional lapses on the PVT was significantly greater on the first night compared to subsequent nights (p<.05 indicating an impaired ability to sustain focus. The nighttime decrease in subjective alertness was also greatest on the first night compared with subsequent nights (p<.05.These nocturnal deficits in attention and alertness offer some insight into why occupational errors, accidents, and injuries are pronounced during night work compared to day work. Examination of the nighttime vulnerabilities underlying the deployment of attention can be informative for the design of optimal work schedules and the implementation of effective countermeasures for performance deficits during night work.

  16. Short-term memory deficits correlate with hippocampal-thalamic functional connectivity alterations following acute sleep restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chengyang, Li; Daqing, Huang; Jianlin, Qi; Haisheng, Chang; Qingqing, Meng; Jin, Wang; Jiajia, Liu; Enmao, Ye; Yongcong, Shao; Xi, Zhang

    2017-08-01

    Acute sleep restriction heavily influences cognitive function, affecting executive processes such as attention, response inhibition, and memory. Previous neuroimaging studies have suggested a link between hippocampal activity and short-term memory function. However, the specific contribution of the hippocampus to the decline of short-term memory following sleep restriction has yet to be established. In the current study, we utilized resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the association between hippocampal functional connectivity (FC) and the decline of short-term memory following total sleep deprivation (TSD). Twenty healthy adult males aged 20.9 ± 2.3 years (age range, 18-24 years) were enrolled in a within-subject crossover study. Short-term memory and FC were assessed using a Delay-matching short-term memory test and a resting-state fMRI scan before and after TSD. Seed-based correlation analysis was performed using fMRI data for the left and right hippocampus to identify differences in hippocampal FC following TSD. Subjects demonstrated reduced alertness and a decline in short-term memory performance following TSD. Moreover, fMRI analysis identified reduced hippocampal FC with the superior frontal gyrus (SFG), temporal regions, and supplementary motor area. In addition, an increase in FC between the hippocampus and bilateral thalamus was observed, the extent of which correlated with short-term memory performance following TSD. Our findings indicate that the disruption of hippocampal-cortical connectivity is linked to the decline in short-term memory observed after acute sleep restriction. Such results provide further evidence that support the cognitive impairment model of sleep deprivation.

  17. Acute Sleep Loss Induces Tissue-Specific Epigenetic and Transcriptional Alterations to Circadian Clock Genes in Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedernaes, Jonathan; Osler, Megan E; Voisin, Sarah; Broman, Jan-Erik; Vogel, Heike; Dickson, Suzanne L; Zierath, Juleen R; Schiöth, Helgi B; Benedict, Christian

    2015-09-01

    Shift workers are at increased risk of metabolic morbidities. Clock genes are known to regulate metabolic processes in peripheral tissues, eg, glucose oxidation. This study aimed to investigate how clock genes are affected at the epigenetic and transcriptional level in peripheral human tissues following acute total sleep deprivation (TSD), mimicking shift work with extended wakefulness. In a randomized, two-period, two-condition, crossover clinical study, 15 healthy men underwent two experimental sessions: x sleep (2230-0700 h) and overnight wakefulness. On the subsequent morning, serum cortisol was measured, followed by skeletal muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies for DNA methylation and gene expression analyses of core clock genes (BMAL1, CLOCK, CRY1, PER1). Finally, baseline and 2-h post-oral glucose load plasma glucose concentrations were determined. In adipose tissue, acute sleep deprivation vs sleep increased methylation in the promoter of CRY1 (+4%; P = .026) and in two promoter-interacting enhancer regions of PER1 (+15%; P = .036; +9%; P = .026). In skeletal muscle, TSD vs sleep decreased gene expression of BMAL1 (-18%; P = .033) and CRY1 (-22%; P = .047). Concentrations of serum cortisol, which can reset peripheral tissue clocks, were decreased (2449 ± 932 vs 3178 ± 723 nmol/L; P = .039), whereas postprandial plasma glucose concentrations were elevated after TSD (7.77 ± 1.63 vs 6.59 ± 1.32 mmol/L; P = .011). Our findings demonstrate that a single night of wakefulness can alter the epigenetic and transcriptional profile of core circadian clock genes in key metabolic tissues. Tissue-specific clock alterations could explain why shift work may disrupt metabolic integrity as observed herein.

  18. Effects of acute sleep deprivation on state anxiety levels: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Gabriel Natan; Bezerra, Andreia Gomes; Tufik, Sergio; Andersen, Monica Levy

    2016-08-01

    Increased anxiety levels have been widely recognized as one of the most important consequences of sleep deprivation. However, despite this general consensus, there are still aspects of this relationship, such as the extent of the anxiogenic potential and the specific effects of different types of sleep deprivation, which remain unclear. As no broad review has been undertaken to evaluate this relationship, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis regarding the effects of sleep deprivation on state anxiety. Our search strategy encompassed two databases - Pubmed/Medline and Scopus - through which we were able to identify 756 articles. After the selection process, 18 articles, encompassing 34 experiments, composed our final sample. Our analyses indicate that sleep deprivation, whether total or not, leads to a significant increase in state anxiety levels, but sleep restriction does not. Regarding the effect of the length of the period of sleep deprivation, no significant results were observed, but there was a notable tendency for an increase in anxiety in longer sleep deprivations. With regard to tools, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) seems to be the best one to measure sleep-induced anxiogenesis, while the Profile of Mood States (POMS) presented inconclusive results. In conclusion, it can be affirmed that sleep deprivation induces a state of increased anxiety, with similar results also in the case of total sleep deprivation; however, results in more specific experimental conditions are not definitive. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Meta-Analysis of the Antidepressant Effects of Acute Sleep Deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Elaine M; Rao, Hengyi; Dinges, David F; Smith, Rachel V; Goel, Namni; Detre, John A; Basner, Mathias; Sheline, Yvette I; Thase, Michael E; Gehrman, Philip R

    To provide a quantitative meta-analysis of the antidepressant effects of sleep deprivation to complement qualitative reviews addressing response rates. English-language studies from 1974 to 2016 using the keywords sleep deprivation and depression searched through PubMed and PsycINFO databases. A total of 66 independent studies met criteria for inclusion: conducted experimental sleep deprivation, reported the percentage of the sample that responded to sleep deprivation, provided a priori definition of antidepressant response, and did not seamlessly combine sleep deprivation with other therapies (eg, chronotherapeutics, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation). Data extracted included percentage of responders, type of sample (eg, bipolar, unipolar), type of sleep deprivation (eg, total, partial), demographics, medication use, type of outcome measure used, and definition of response (eg, 30% reduction in depression ratings). Data were analyzed with meta-analysis of proportions and a Poisson mixed-effects regression model. The overall response rate to sleep deprivation was 45% among studies that utilized a randomized control group and 50% among studies that did not. The response to sleep deprivation was not affected significantly by the type of sleep deprivation performed, the nature of the clinical sample, medication status, the definition of response used, or age and gender of the sample. These findings support a significant effect of sleep deprivation and suggest the need for future studies on the phenotypic nature of the antidepressant response to sleep deprivation, on the neurobiological mechanisms of action, and on moderators of the sleep deprivation treatment response in depression. © Copyright 2017 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  20. Unusual cause of acute abdomen in a child--torsion of greater omentum: report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogorelić, Zenon; Katić, Josip; Gudelj, Karla; Mrklić, Ivana; Vilović, Katarina; Perko, Zdravko

    2015-08-01

    Torsion of the omentum is twisting along its long axis and a rare cause of acute abdomen. Depending on associated conditions, it is classified as primary and secondary. It may mimic different pathologies presenting as acute abdomen, most common of them being acute appendicitis. Current choice for management of omental torsion is laparoscopic surgery. We present two cases of omental torsion of two boys who presented with abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting and underwent emergency laparoscopy. Omental torsion is very rare, and its diagnosis is usually made only after surgery. At laparoscopy, omental torsion is suspected when the appendix is normal and the symptoms and findings of torsion are present. Laparoscopy is a safe and effective approach for the diagnosis and management of omental torsion, with the advantages of reduced postoperative pain and hospital stay. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Comparing the Effect of Foot Reflexology Massage, Foot Bath and Their Combination on Quality of Sleep in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Rahmani; Mahdi Naseri; Mohammad Mahdi Salaree; Batool Nehrir

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Many patients in coronary care unit (CCU) suffer from decreased sleep quality caused by environmental and mental factors. This study compared the efficacy of foot reflexology massage, foot bath, and a combination of them on the quality of sleep of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Methods: This quasi-experimental study was implemented on ACS patients in Iran. Random sampling was used to divide the patients into four groups ...

  2. The effect of MElatonin on Depressive symptoms, Anxiety, CIrcadian and Sleep disturbances in patients after acute coronary syndrome (MEDACIS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Michael Tvilling; Isbrand, Anders; Andersen, Ulla Overgaard

    2017-01-01

    , Anxiety, CIrcadian and Sleep disturbances in patients after acute coronary syndrome" trial (MEDACIS) is a multicenter, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial. A total of 240 patients with ACS and no depressive symptoms will be included in the trial for treatment with either 25 mg...... melatonin or placebo for a 12-week period. Development and severity of depressive symptoms will be evaluated using Major Depression Inventory every 2 weeks with the purpose of investigating the potential preventive effect of melatonin on depressive symptoms. DISCUSSION: Previously, only selective serotonin...

  3. Effect of Acute Intermittent CPAP Depressurization during Sleep in Obese Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Jonathan C.; Unnikrishnan, Dileep; Schneider, Hartmut; Kirkness, Jason; Schwartz, Alan R.; Smith, Philip L.; Polotsky, Vsevolod Y.

    2016-01-01

    Background Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) describes intermittent collapse of the airway during sleep, for which continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is often prescribed for treatment. Prior studies suggest that discontinuation of CPAP leads to a gradual, rather than immediate return of baseline severity of OSA. The objective of this study was to determine the extent of OSA recurrence during short intervals of CPAP depressurization during sleep. Methods Nine obese (BMI = 40.4 ± 3.5) subjects with severe OSA (AHI = 88.9 ± 6.8) adherent to CPAP were studied during one night in the sleep laboratory. Nasal CPAP was delivered at therapeutic (11.1 ± 0.6 cm H20) or atmospheric pressure, in alternating fashion for 1-hour periods during the night. We compared sleep architecture and metrics of OSA during CPAP-on and CPAP-off periods. Results 8/9 subjects tolerated CPAP withdrawal. The average AHI during CPAP-on and CPAP-off periods was 3.6 ± 0.6 and 15.8 ± 3.6 respectively (pCPAP-on and CPAP-off was 4.7 ± 2 and 20.4 ± 4.7 respectively (pCPAP depressurization also induced more awake (pCPAP during sleep led to deterioration of sleep architecture but only partial re-emergence of OSA. These observations suggest carryover effects of CPAP. PMID:26731735

  4. Mechanisms for greater insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in normal and insulin-resistant skeletal muscle after acute exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Enhanced skeletal muscle and whole body insulin sensitivity can persist for up to 24–48 h after one exercise session. This review focuses on potential mechanisms for greater postexercise and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (ISGU) by muscle in individuals with normal or reduced insulin sensitivity. A model is proposed for the processes underlying this improvement; i.e., triggers initiate events that activate subsequent memory elements, which store information that is relayed to mediators, which translate memory into action by controlling an end effector that directly executes increased insulin-stimulated glucose transport. Several candidates are potential triggers or memory elements, but none have been conclusively verified. Regarding potential mediators in both normal and insulin-resistant individuals, elevated postexercise ISGU with a physiological insulin dose coincides with greater Akt substrate of 160 kDa (AS160) phosphorylation without improved proximal insulin signaling at steps from insulin receptor binding to Akt activity. Causality remains to be established between greater AS160 phosphorylation and improved ISGU. The end effector for normal individuals is increased GLUT4 translocation, but this remains untested for insulin-resistant individuals postexercise. Following exercise, insulin-resistant individuals can attain ISGU values similar to nonexercising healthy controls, but after a comparable exercise protocol performed by both groups, ISGU for the insulin-resistant group has been consistently reported to be below postexercise values for the healthy group. Further research is required to fully understand the mechanisms underlying the improved postexercise ISGU in individuals with normal or subnormal insulin sensitivity and to explain the disparity between these groups after similar exercise. PMID:26487009

  5. Acute Kynurenine Challenge Disrupts Sleep-Wake Architecture and Impairs Contextual Memory in Adult Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocivavsek, Ana; Baratta, Annalisa M; Mong, Jessica A; Viechweg, Shaun S

    2017-11-01

    Tryptophan metabolism via the kynurenine pathway may represent a key molecular link between sleep loss and cognitive dysfunction. Modest increases in the kynurenine pathway metabolite kynurenic acid (KYNA), which acts as an antagonist at N-methyl-d-aspartate and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the brain, result in cognitive impairments. As glutamatergic and cholinergic neurotransmissions are critically involved in modulation of sleep, our current experiments tested the hypothesis that elevated KYNA adversely impacts sleep quality. Adult male Wistar rats were treated with vehicle (saline) and kynurenine (25, 50, 100, and 250 mg/kg), the direct bioprecursor of KYNA, intraperitoneally at zeitgeber time (ZT) 0 to rapidly increase brain KYNA. Levels of KYNA in the brainstem, cortex, and hippocampus were determined at ZT 0, ZT 2, and ZT 4, respectively. Analyses of vigilance state-related parameters categorized as wake, rapid eye movement (REM), and non-REM (NREM) as well as spectra power analysis during NREM and REM were assessed during the light phase. Separate animals were tested in the passive avoidance paradigm, testing contextual memory. When KYNA levels were elevated in the brain, total REM duration was reduced and total wake duration was increased. REM and wake architecture, assessed as number of vigilance state bouts and average duration of each bout, and theta power during REM were significantly impacted. Kynurenine challenge impaired performance in the hippocampal-dependent contextual memory task. Our results introduce kynurenine pathway metabolism and formation of KYNA as a novel molecular target contributing to sleep disruptions and cognitive impairments. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Chronic Low Quality Sleep Impairs Postural Control in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Fabianne; Gonçalves, Bruno da Silva B; Abranches, Isabela Lopes Laguardia; Abrantes, Ana Flávia; Forner-Cordero, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    The lack of sleep, both in quality and quantity, is an increasing problem in modern society, often related to workload and stress. A number of studies have addressed the effects of acute (total) sleep deprivation on postural control. However, up to date, the effects of chronic sleep deficits, either in quantity or quality, have not been analyzed. Thirty healthy adults participated in the study that consisted of registering activity with a wrist actigraph for more than a week before performing a series of postural control tests. Sleep and circadian rhythm variables were correlated and the sum of activity of the least active 5-h period, L5, a rhythm variable, obtained the greater coefficient value with sleep quality variables (wake after sleep onset WASO and efficiency sleep). Cluster analysis was performed to classify subjects into two groups based on L5 (low and high). The balance tests scores used to asses postural control were measured using Biodex Balance System and were compared between the two groups with different sleep quality. The postural tests were divided into dynamic (platform tilt with eyes open, closed and cursor) and static (clinical test of sensory integration). The results showed that during the tests with eyes closed, the group with worse sleep quality had also worse postural control performance. Lack of vision impairs postural balance more deeply in subjects with chronic sleep inefficiency. Chronic poor sleep quality impairs postural control similarly to total sleep deprivation.

  7. Chronic Low Quality Sleep Impairs Postural Control in Healthy Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabianne Furtado

    Full Text Available The lack of sleep, both in quality and quantity, is an increasing problem in modern society, often related to workload and stress. A number of studies have addressed the effects of acute (total sleep deprivation on postural control. However, up to date, the effects of chronic sleep deficits, either in quantity or quality, have not been analyzed. Thirty healthy adults participated in the study that consisted of registering activity with a wrist actigraph for more than a week before performing a series of postural control tests. Sleep and circadian rhythm variables were correlated and the sum of activity of the least active 5-h period, L5, a rhythm variable, obtained the greater coefficient value with sleep quality variables (wake after sleep onset WASO and efficiency sleep. Cluster analysis was performed to classify subjects into two groups based on L5 (low and high. The balance tests scores used to asses postural control were measured using Biodex Balance System and were compared between the two groups with different sleep quality. The postural tests were divided into dynamic (platform tilt with eyes open, closed and cursor and static (clinical test of sensory integration. The results showed that during the tests with eyes closed, the group with worse sleep quality had also worse postural control performance. Lack of vision impairs postural balance more deeply in subjects with chronic sleep inefficiency. Chronic poor sleep quality impairs postural control similarly to total sleep deprivation.

  8. Sleep loss and acute drug abuse can induce DNA damage in multiple organs of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarenga, T A; Ribeiro, D A; Araujo, P; Hirotsu, C; Mazaro-Costa, R; Costa, J L; Battisti, M C; Tufik, S; Andersen, M L

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to characterize the genetic damage induced by paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) in combination with cocaine or ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine; MDMA) in multiple organs of male mice using the single cell gel (comet) assay. C57BL/6J mice were submitted to PSD by the platform technique for 72 hours, followed by drug administration and evaluation of DNA damage in peripheral blood, liver and brain tissues. Cocaine was able to induce genetic damage in the blood, brain and liver cells of sleep-deprived mice at the majority of the doses evaluated. Ecstasy also induced increased DNA migration in peripheral blood cells for all concentrations tested. Analysis of damaged cells by the tail moment data suggests that ecstasy is a genotoxic chemical at the highest concentrations tested, inducing damage in liver or brain cells after sleep deprivation in mice. Taken together, our results suggest that cocaine and ecstasy/MDMA act as potent genotoxins in multiple organs of mice when associated with sleep loss.

  9. Heritability of performance deficit accumulation during acute sleep deprivation in twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuna, Samuel T; Maislin, Greg; Pack, Frances M; Staley, Bethany; Hachadoorian, Robert; Coccaro, Emil F; Pack, Allan I

    2012-09-01

    To determine if the large and highly reproducible interindividual differences in rates of performance deficit accumulation during sleep deprivation, as determined by the number of lapses on a sustained reaction time test, the Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT), arise from a heritable trait. Prospective, observational cohort study. Academic medical center. There were 59 monozygotic (mean age 29.2 ± 6.8 [SD] yr; 15 male and 44 female pairs) and 41 dizygotic (mean age 26.6 ± 7.6 yr; 15 male and 26 female pairs) same-sex twin pairs with a normal polysomnogram. Thirty-eight hr of monitored, continuous sleep deprivation. Patients performed the 10-min PVT every 2 hr during the sleep deprivation protocol. The primary outcome was change from baseline in square root transformed total lapses (response time ≥ 500 ms) per trial. Patient-specific linear rates of performance deficit accumulation were separated from circadian effects using multiple linear regression. Using the classic approach to assess heritability, the intraclass correlation coefficients for accumulating deficits resulted in a broad sense heritability (h(2)) estimate of 0.834. The mean within-pair and among-pair heritability estimates determined by analysis of variance-based methods was 0.715. When variance components of mixed-effect multilevel models were estimated by maximum likelihood estimation and used to determine the proportions of phenotypic variance explained by genetic and nongenetic factors, 51.1% (standard error = 8.4%, P performance deficit accumulations on PVT during sleep deprivation.

  10. Sleep Sleeping Patch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The Sleep Sleeping Patch is a new kind of external patch based on modern sleep medicine research achievements, which uses the internationally advanced transdermal therapeutic system (TTS). The Sleep Sleeping Patch transmits natural sleep inducers such as peppermint and liquorice extracts and melatonin through the skin to induce sleep. Clinical research proves that the Sleep Sleeping Patch can effectively improve insomnia and the quality of sleep. Highly effective: With the modern TTS therapy,

  11. Acute Heroin Abstinence in Man. 1. Changes in Behavior and Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    reading, etc. Playing guitar quietly, watching television, looking around, reading, looking at books and listening to tapes were all scored as quiet...various behaviors including the signs and symp- l toms of withdrawal. Electroencephalographic (EEG) data were scored into awake and sleep stages according...Series 100), and subsequently played back onto paper records for manual scoring . In order to save on the number of telemetry channels and attached

  12. Urinary Metabolite Profiles May be Predictive of Cognitive Performance Under Conditions of Acute Sleep Deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    h sleep deprivation period indicating time-blocks for cognitive testing, meals (B, breakfast; L, lunch; D, dinner ) and urine collections (U). See...8 h overnight fast, subjects were allowed to eat ad libi- tum (except those food items noted above as pre-study die- tary restricted) for breakfast...dard meals of 2400 calories/day ( dinner at 1900 h, break- fast at 0700 h, and lunch at 1100 h) were provided during the 24 h and 15 minute repeated

  13. [How to characterize and treat sleep complaints in bipolar disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffroy, P A; Micoulaud Franchi, J-A; Lopez, R; Poirot, I; Brion, A; Royant-Parola, S; Etain, B

    2017-08-01

    Sleep complaints are very common in bipolar disorders (BD) both during acute phases (manic and depressive episodes) and remission (about 80 % of patients with remitted BD have poor sleep quality). Sleep complaints during remission are of particular importance since they are associated with more mood relapses and worse outcomes. In this context, this review discusses the characterization and treatment of sleep complaints in BD. We examined the international scientific literature in June 2016 and performed a literature search with PubMed electronic database using the following headings: "bipolar disorder" and ("sleep" or "insomnia" or "hypersomnia" or "circadian" or "apnoea" or "apnea" or "restless legs"). Patients with BD suffer from sleep and circadian rhythm abnormalities during major depressive episodes (insomnia or hypersomnia, nightmares, nocturnal and/or early awakenings, non-restorative sleep) and manic episodes (insomnia, decreased need for sleep without fatigue), but also some of these abnormalities may persist during remission. These remission phases are characterized by a reduced quality and quantity of sleep, with a longer sleep duration, increased sleep latency, a lengthening of the wake time after sleep onset (WASO), a decrease of sleep efficiency, and greater variability in sleep/wake rhythms. Patients also present frequent sleep comorbidities: chronic insomnia, sleepiness, sleep phase delay syndrome, obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS), and restless legs syndrome (RLS). These disorders are insufficiently diagnosed and treated whereas they are associated with mood relapses, treatment resistance, affect cognitive global functioning, reduce the quality of life, and contribute to weight gain or metabolic syndrome. Sleep and circadian rhythm abnormalities have been also associated with suicidal behaviors. Therefore, a clinical exploration with characterization of these abnormalities and disorders is essential. This exploration should be

  14. Longitudinal and Temporal Associations Between Daily Pain and Sleep Patterns After Major Pediatric Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbitts, Jennifer A; Zhou, Chuan; Narayanan, Arthi; Palermo, Tonya M

    2017-06-01

    Approximately 20% of children develop persistent pain after major surgery. Sleep disruption has been implicated as a predictor of children's acute postsurgical pain. However, perioperative sleep patterns have not been longitudinally assessed, and the role of sleep in persistence of postsurgical pain has not been explored. We aimed to examine sleep patterns over 4 months in children having major surgery, and temporal relationships between daily sleep and pain. Sixty children age 10 to 18 (mean = 14.7) years having major surgery completed 7 days of actigraphy sleep monitoring (sleep duration, efficiency), twice daily electronic diaries (sleep quality, pain intensity, medication use), and validated questionnaires at presurgery, 2 weeks, and 4 months postsurgery. Generalized linear models, controlling for age, sex, naps, and medication, showed sleep quality (β [B] = -.88, P sleep quality was significantly associated with greater next day pain intensity (B = -.15, P = .005). Sleep duration and efficiency were not associated with subsequent pain; daytime pain was not associated with subsequent sleep. Findings suggest sleep quality may be an important target for intervention after surgery in children; research is needed to understand how other sleep parameters may relate to recovery. This study assessed longitudinal sleep patterns over 4 months after major pediatric surgery using actigraphy, diaries, and validated measures. Sleep quality and efficiency were significantly reduced at 2 weeks. Poorer sleep quality was associated with greater next day pain intensity suggesting that sleep quality may be an important target for intervention. Copyright © 2017 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. MEDEX2015: Greater Sea-Level Fitness Is Associated with Lower Sense of Effort During Himalayan Trekking Without Worse Acute Mountain Sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, Gabriella M K; Macdonald, Jamie H; Smith, Matthew; Jackson, Anna R; Callender, Nigel; Newcombe, Hannah K; Storey, Heather M; Willis, Sebastian; van den Beukel, Jojanneke; Woodward, Jonathan; Pollard, James; Wood, Benjamin; Newton, Victoria; Virian, Jana; Haswell, Owen; Oliver, Samuel J

    2017-06-01

    Rossetti, Gabriella M.K., Jamie H. Macdonald, Matthew Smith, Anna R. Jackson, Nigel Callender, Hannah K. Newcombe, Heather M. Storey, Sebastian Willis, Jojanneke van den Beukel, Jonathan Woodward, James Pollard, Benjamin Wood, Victoria Newton, Jana Virian, Owen Haswell, and Samuel J. Oliver. MEDEX2015: Greater sea-level fitness is associated with lower sense of effort during Himalayan trekking without worse acute mountain sickness. High Alt Med Biol. 18:152-162, 2017.-This study examined the complex relationships of fitness and hypoxic sensitivity with submaximal exercise responses and acute mountain sickness (AMS) at altitude. Determining these relationships is necessary before fitness or hypoxic sensitivity tests can be recommended to appraise individuals' readiness for altitude. Forty-four trekkers (26 men; 18 women; 20-67 years) completed a loaded walking test and a fitness questionnaire in normoxia to measure and estimate sea-level maximal aerobic capacity (maximum oxygen consumption [[Formula: see text]O 2max ]), respectively. Participants also completed a hypoxic exercise test to determine hypoxic sensitivity (cardiac, ventilatory, and arterial oxygen saturation responses to acute hypoxia, fraction of inspired oxygen [Fio 2 ] = 0.112). One month later, all participants completed a 3-week trek to 5085 m with the same ascent profile. On ascent to 5085 m, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE ascent ), fatigue by Brunel Mood Scale, and AMS were recorded daily. At 5085 m, RPE during a fixed workload step test (RPE fixed ) and step rate during perceptually regulated exercise (STEP RPE35 ) were recorded. Greater sea-level [Formula: see text]O 2max was associated with, and predicted, lower sense of effort (RPE ascent ; r = -0.43; p sea-level fitness reported less effort during simulated and actual trekking activities, had better mood (less fatigue), and chose a higher step rate during perceptually regulated exercise, but did not suffer from worse AMS

  16. Acute sleep deprivation preconditions the heart against ischemia/ reperfusion injury: the role of central GABA-A receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsa, Hoda; Imani, Alireza; Faghihi, Mahdieh; Riahi, Esmail; Badavi, Mohammad; Shakoori, Abbas; Rastegar, Tayebeh; Aghajani, Marjan; Rajani, Sulail Fatima

    2017-11-01

    Central γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurotransmission modulates cardiovascular functions and sleep. Acute sleep deprivation (ASD) affects functions of various body organs via different mechanisms. Here, we evaluated the effect of ASD on cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI), and studied the role of GABA-A receptor inhibition in central nucleus of amygdala (CeA) by assessing nitric oxide (NO) and oxidative stress. The CeA in sixty male Wistar rats was cannulated for saline or bicuculline (GABA-A receptor antagonist) administration. All animals underwent 30 min of coronary occlusion (ischemia), followed by 2 hr reperfusion (IR). The five experimental groups (n=12) included are as follows: IR: received saline; BIC+IR: received Bicuculline; MLP+IR: received saline, followed by the placement of animals in an aquarium with multiple large platforms; ASD+IR: underwent ASD in an aquarium with multiple small platforms; and BIC+ASD+IR: received bicuculline prior to ASD. Bicuculline administration increased the malondialdehyde levels and infarct size, and decreased the NO metabolites levels and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene expression in infarcted and non-infarcted areas in comparison to IR group. ASD reduced malondialdehyde levels and infarct size and increased NO metabolites, corticosterone levels and eNOS expression in infarcted and non-infarcted areas as compared to the IR group. Levels of malondialdehyde were increased while levels of NO metabolites, corticosterone and eNOS expression in infarcted and non-infarcted areas were reduced in the BIC+ASD+IR as compared to the ASD+IR group. Blockade of GABA-A receptors in the CeA abolishes ASD-induced cardioprotection by suppressing oxidative stress and NO production.

  17. Acute sleep deprivation preconditions the heart against ischemia/ reperfusion injury: the role of central GABA-A receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoda Parsa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Central γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA neurotransmission modulates cardiovascular functions and sleep. Acute sleep deprivation (ASD affects functions of various body organs via different mechanisms. Here, we evaluated the effect of ASD on cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI, and studied the role of GABA-A receptor inhibition in central nucleus of amygdala (CeA by assessing nitric oxide (NO and oxidative stress. Materials and Methods: The CeA in sixty male Wistar rats was cannulated for saline or bicuculline (GABA-A receptor antagonist administration. All animals underwent 30 min of coronary occlusion (ischemia, followed by 2 hr reperfusion (IR. The five experimental groups (n=12 included are as follows: IR: received saline; BIC+IR: received Bicuculline; MLP+IR: received saline, followed by the placement of animals in an aquarium with multiple large platforms; ASD+IR: underwent ASD in an aquarium with multiple small platforms; and BIC+ASD+IR: received bicuculline prior to ASD. Results: Bicuculline administration increased the malondialdehyde levels and infarct size, and decreased the NO metabolites levels and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS gene expression in infarcted and non-infarcted areas in comparison to IR group. ASD reduced malondialdehyde levels and infarct size and increased NO metabolites, corticosterone levels and eNOS expression in infarcted and non-infarcted areas as compared to the IR group. Levels of malondialdehyde were increased while levels of NO metabolites, corticosterone and eNOS expression in infarcted and non-infarcted areas were reduced in the BIC+ASD+IR as compared to the ASD+IR group. Conclusion: Blockade of GABA-A receptors in the CeA abolishes ASD-induced cardioprotection by suppressing oxidative stress and NO production.

  18. Epigenomics of Total Acute Sleep Deprivation in Relation to Genome-Wide DNA Methylation Profiles and RNA Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Emil K.; Bostr?m, Adrian E.; Mwinyi, Jessica; Schi?th, Helgi B.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Despite an established link between sleep deprivation and epigenetic processes in humans, it remains unclear to what extent sleep deprivation modulates DNA methylation. We performed a within-subject randomized blinded study with 16 healthy subjects to examine the effect of one night of total sleep deprivation (TSD) on the genome-wide methylation profile in blood compared with that in normal sleep. Genome-wide differences in methylation between both conditions were assessed by applyin...

  19. The Degree of Radiation-Induced DNA Strand Breaks Is Altered by Acute Sleep Deprivation and Psychological Stress and Is Associated with Cognitive Performance in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Villanueva, Maria; von Scheven, Gudrun; Feiveson, Alan; Bürkle, Alexander; Wu, Honglu; Goel, Namni

    2018-03-27

    Sleep deprivation is associated with impaired immune responses, cancer, and morbidity and mortality, and can degrade cognitive performance, although individual differences exist in such responses. Sleep deprivation induces DNA strand breaks and DNA base oxidation in animals, and psychological stress is associated with increased DNA damage in humans. It remains unknown whether sleep deprivation or psychological stress in humans affects DNA damage response from environmental stressors, and whether these responses predict cognitive performance during sleep deprivation. Sixteen healthy adults (ages 29-52;mean age±SD, 36.4±7.1 years;7 women) participated in a 5-day experiment involving two 8 hour time-in-bed [TIB] baseline nights, followed by 39 hours total sleep deprivation (TSD), and two 8-10 hour TIB recovery nights. A modified Trier Social Stress Test was conducted on the day after TSD. Psychomotor Vigilance Tests measured behavioral attention. DNA damage was assessed in blood cells collected at 5 time points, and blood cells were irradiated ex-vivo. TSD, alone or in combination with psychological stress, did not induce significant increases in DNA damage. By contrast, radiation-induced DNA damage decreased significantly in response to TSD, but increased back to baseline when combined with psychological stress. Cognitively-vulnerable individuals had more radiation-induced DNA strand breaks before TSD, indicating their greater sensitivity to DNA damage from environmental stressors. Our results provide novel insights into the molecular consequences of sleep deprivation, psychological stress, and performance vulnerability. They are important for situations involving sleep loss, radiation exposure and cognitive deficits, including cancer therapy, environmental toxicology, and space medicine.

  20. Ostriches sleep like platypuses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A Lesku

    Full Text Available Mammals and birds engage in two distinct states of sleep, slow wave sleep (SWS and rapid eye movement (REM sleep. SWS is characterized by slow, high amplitude brain waves, while REM sleep is characterized by fast, low amplitude waves, known as activation, occurring with rapid eye movements and reduced muscle tone. However, monotremes (platypuses and echidnas, the most basal (or 'ancient' group of living mammals, show only a single sleep state that combines elements of SWS and REM sleep, suggesting that these states became temporally segregated in the common ancestor to marsupial and eutherian mammals. Whether sleep in basal birds resembles that of monotremes or other mammals and birds is unknown. Here, we provide the first description of brain activity during sleep in ostriches (Struthio camelus, a member of the most basal group of living birds. We found that the brain activity of sleeping ostriches is unique. Episodes of REM sleep were delineated by rapid eye movements, reduced muscle tone, and head movements, similar to those observed in other birds and mammals engaged in REM sleep; however, during REM sleep in ostriches, forebrain activity would flip between REM sleep-like activation and SWS-like slow waves, the latter reminiscent of sleep in the platypus. Moreover, the amount of REM sleep in ostriches is greater than in any other bird, just as in platypuses, which have more REM sleep than other mammals. These findings reveal a recurring sequence of steps in the evolution of sleep in which SWS and REM sleep arose from a single heterogeneous state that became temporally segregated into two distinct states. This common trajectory suggests that forebrain activation during REM sleep is an evolutionarily new feature, presumably involved in performing new sleep functions not found in more basal animals.

  1. Acute Effect of Alcohol Intake on Cardiovascular Autonomic Regulation During the First Hours of Sleep in a Large Real-World Sample of Finnish Employees: Observational Study.

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    Pietilä, Julia; Helander, Elina; Korhonen, Ilkka; Myllymäki, Tero; Kujala, Urho M; Lindholm, Harri

    2018-03-16

    Sleep is fundamental for good health, and poor sleep has been associated with negative health outcomes. Alcohol consumption is a universal health behavior associated with poor sleep. In controlled laboratory studies, alcohol intake has been shown to alter physiology and disturb sleep homeostasis and architecture. The association between acute alcohol intake and physiological changes has not yet been studied in noncontrolled real-world settings. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of alcohol intake on the autonomic nervous system (ANS) during sleep in a large noncontrolled sample of Finnish employees. From a larger cohort, this study included 4098 subjects (55.81%, 2287/4098 females; mean age 45.1 years) who had continuous beat-to-beat R-R interval recordings of good quality for at least 1 day with and for at least 1 day without alcohol intake. The participants underwent continuous beat-to-beat R-R interval recording during their normal everyday life and self-reported their alcohol intake as doses for each day. Heart rate (HR), HR variability (HRV), and HRV-derived indices of physiological state from the first 3 hours of sleep were used as outcomes. Within-subject analyses were conducted in a repeated measures manner by studying the differences in the outcomes between each participant's days with and without alcohol intake. For repeated measures two-way analysis of variance, the participants were divided into three groups: low (≤0.25 g/kg), moderate (>0.25-0.75 g/kg), and high (>0.75 g/kg) intake of pure alcohol. Moreover, linear models studied the differences in outcomes with respect to the amount of alcohol intake and the participant's background parameters (age; gender; body mass index, BMI; physical activity, PA; and baseline sleep HR). Alcohol intake was dose-dependently associated with increased sympathetic regulation, decreased parasympathetic regulation, and insufficient recovery. In addition to moderate and high alcohol doses, the

  2. Assessment of Sleep Quantity and Sleep Disturbances During Recovery From Sports-Related Concussion in Youth Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdaugh, Donna L; Ono, Kim E; Reisner, Andrew; Burns, Thomas G

    2018-05-01

    To determine the relation between sleep quantity and sleep disturbances on symptoms and neurocognitive ability during the acute phase (sports-related concussion (SRC; >21d). Prospective inception cohort study. General community setting of regional middle and high schools. A sample (N=971) including youth athletes with SRC (n=528) and controls (n=443) (age, 10-18y). Not applicable. Athletes completed the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing battery. Partial correlation analyses and independent t tests were conducted to assess sleep quantity the night before testing. Multivariate analysis of covariance was used to assess sleep disturbances and their interaction with age. Less sleep quantity was correlated with greater report of cognitive (P=.001) and neuropsychological (P=.024) symptoms specific to prolonged recovery from SRC. Sleep disturbances significantly affect each migraine, cognitive, and neuropsychological symptoms (Psleep disturbances and age (P=.04) at >21 days post-SRC. Findings emphasize that the continued presence of low sleep quantity and sleep disturbances in youth athletes with SRC should be a specific indicator to health professionals that these athletes are at an increased risk of protracted recovery. Further research should identify additional factors that may interact with sleep to increase the risk of protracted recovery. Copyright © 2018 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Acute response to 7-day therapy with CPAP in patients with moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea and cardiac arrhytmia

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    Jerónimo Campos

    Full Text Available Introduction: Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA has been associated with an elevated risk of cardiac arrhythmia. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP is the selected treatment for moderate to severe OSA and could improve arrhythmias in the long term. However, the acute effect of CPAP has not been studied in detail. Methods: We conducted a prospective study with 25 patients with moderate to severe OSA diagnosed by home respiratory polygraphy (RP and arrhythmia and/or pauses in 24-hour Holter ECG. We analyzed inflammatory parameters and the rate of arrhythmias/pauses after 7 days of auto-adjusting CPAP. Results: 92.5% of the patients were men with a mean age of 61.7±1.9 years. Body mass index (BMI was 59.5±2.2 kg/m2, with a mean apnea hypopnea index (AHI of 37.7±3.8 events/hour (ev/h, and a residual AHI (AHIr of 5.3±0.53 ev/h. After short treatment with CPAP we observed a tendency to improvement in both the severity and number of ventricular extrasystoles (VE (1595.0±850.3 vs. 926.4±434.5 respectively, pauses and the inflammatory parameters (CRP 3.9±3.1 vs. 1.7±1.2, glycemia 131.4±11.6 vs. 121.9±9.8, HOMA 24.4±3.1 vs. 21.7±2.8, insulin 7.6±1.4 vs. 7.2±1.2 (p>0.5. Conclusion: We didn't find significant changes in pauses, VE and inflammatory parameters with CPAP short therapy in CPAP naive patients recently diagnosed with OSA.

  4. No Acute Effects of Cannabidiol on the Sleep-Wake Cycle of Healthy Subjects: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Ila M P; Guimaraes, Francisco S; Eckeli, Alan; Crippa, Ana C S; Zuardi, Antonio W; Souza, Jose D S; Hallak, Jaime E; Crippa, José A S

    2018-01-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD) is a component of Cannabis sativa that has a broad spectrum of potential therapeutic effects in neuropsychiatric and other disorders. However, few studies have investigated the possible interference of CBD on the sleep-wake cycle. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a clinically anxiolytic dose of CBD on the sleep-wake cycle of healthy subjects in a crossover, double-blind design. Twenty-seven healthy volunteers that fulfilled the eligibility criteria were selected and allocated to receive either CBD (300 mg) or placebo in the first night in a double-blind randomized design (one volunteer withdrew from the study). In the second night, the same procedure was performed using the substance that had not been administered in the previous occasion. CBD or placebo were administered 30 min before the start of polysomnography recordings that lasted 8 h. Cognitive and subjective measures were performed immediately after polysomnography to assess possible residual effects of CBD. The drug did not induce any significant effect ( p > 0.05). Different from anxiolytic and antidepressant drugs such as benzodiazepines and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, acute administration of an anxiolytic dose of CBD does not seem to interfere with the sleep cycle of healthy volunteers. The present findings support the proposal that CBD do not alter normal sleep architecture. Future studies should address the effects of CBD on the sleep-wake cycle of patient populations as well as in clinical trials with larger samples and chronic use of different doses of CBD. Such studies are desirable and opportune.

  5. No Acute Effects of Cannabidiol on the Sleep-Wake Cycle of Healthy Subjects: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ila M. P. Linares

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Cannabidiol (CBD is a component of Cannabis sativa that has a broad spectrum of potential therapeutic effects in neuropsychiatric and other disorders. However, few studies have investigated the possible interference of CBD on the sleep-wake cycle. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a clinically anxiolytic dose of CBD on the sleep-wake cycle of healthy subjects in a crossover, double-blind design. Twenty-seven healthy volunteers that fulfilled the eligibility criteria were selected and allocated to receive either CBD (300 mg or placebo in the first night in a double-blind randomized design (one volunteer withdrew from the study. In the second night, the same procedure was performed using the substance that had not been administered in the previous occasion. CBD or placebo were administered 30 min before the start of polysomnography recordings that lasted 8 h. Cognitive and subjective measures were performed immediately after polysomnography to assess possible residual effects of CBD. The drug did not induce any significant effect (p > 0.05. Different from anxiolytic and antidepressant drugs such as benzodiazepines and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, acute administration of an anxiolytic dose of CBD does not seem to interfere with the sleep cycle of healthy volunteers. The present findings support the proposal that CBD do not alter normal sleep architecture. Future studies should address the effects of CBD on the sleep-wake cycle of patient populations as well as in clinical trials with larger samples and chronic use of different doses of CBD. Such studies are desirable and opportune.

  6. Impact of sleep, fatigue, and systemic inflammation on neurocognitive and behavioral outcomes in long-term survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Yin Ting; Brinkman, Tara M; Mulrooney, Daniel A; Mzayek, Yasmin; Liu, Wei; Banerjee, Pia; Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Angela; Srivastava, Deokumar; Pui, Ching-Hon; Robison, Leslie L; Hudson, Melissa M; Krull, Kevin R

    2017-09-01

    Long-term survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are at risk for neurocognitive impairment, which may be associated with fatigue, sleep problems, systemic inflammation, and oxidative stress. We examined these associations among survivors of childhood ALL treated with chemotherapy only. Survivors of childhood ALL (male, n = 35 and female, n = 35; mean age, 14.3 years [standard deviation, 4.7 years] and mean years from diagnosis, 7.4 years [standard deviation, 1.9 years]) completed neurocognitive testing, behavioral ratings, and reported sleep quality and fatigue symptoms 5 years after diagnosis. Serum was collected concurrently and assayed for interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), malondialdehyde, myeloperoxidase, and oxidized low-density lipoprotein. General linear modeling was used to assess associations among biomarkers and functional outcomes, adjusting for age and stratified by sex. Survivors performed worse than population norms on executive function and processing speed and reported more behavioral problems (P fatigue was associated with poor executive function (r = 0.41; P = .02), processing speed (r = 0.56; P fatigue measures were observed. Neurocognitive function in female survivors of childhood ALL appears more susceptible to the effects of sleep disturbance and fatigue. Systemic inflammation may play a role in neurocognitive impairment and behavioral symptoms. Cancer 2017;123:3410-9. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  7. Multimodal Emotion Recognition Is Resilient to Insufficient Sleep: Results From Cross-Sectional and Experimental Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holding, Benjamin C; Laukka, Petri; Fischer, Håkan; Bänziger, Tanja; Axelsson, John; Sundelin, Tina

    2017-11-01

    Insufficient sleep has been associated with impaired recognition of facial emotions. However, previous studies have found inconsistent results, potentially stemming from the type of static picture task used. We therefore examined whether insufficient sleep was associated with decreased emotion recognition ability in two separate studies using a dynamic multimodal task. Study 1 used a cross-sectional design consisting of 291 participants with questionnaire measures assessing sleep duration and self-reported sleep quality for the previous night. Study 2 used an experimental design involving 181 participants where individuals were quasi-randomized into either a sleep-deprivation (N = 90) or a sleep-control (N = 91) condition. All participants from both studies were tested on the same forced-choice multimodal test of emotion recognition to assess the accuracy of emotion categorization. Sleep duration, self-reported sleep quality (study 1), and sleep deprivation (study 2) did not predict overall emotion recognition accuracy or speed. Similarly, the responses to each of the twelve emotions tested showed no evidence of impaired recognition ability, apart from one positive association suggesting that greater self-reported sleep quality could predict more accurate recognition of disgust (study 1). The studies presented here involve considerably larger samples than previous studies and the results support the null hypotheses. Therefore, we suggest that the ability to accurately categorize the emotions of others is not associated with short-term sleep duration or sleep quality and is resilient to acute periods of insufficient sleep. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Sleep and protein synthesis-dependent synaptic plasticity: impacts of sleep loss and stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grønli, Janne; Soulé, Jonathan; Bramham, Clive R.

    2014-01-01

    Sleep has been ascribed a critical role in cognitive functioning. Several lines of evidence implicate sleep in the consolidation of synaptic plasticity and long-term memory. Stress disrupts sleep while impairing synaptic plasticity and cognitive performance. Here, we discuss evidence linking sleep to mechanisms of protein synthesis-dependent synaptic plasticity and synaptic scaling. We then consider how disruption of sleep by acute and chronic stress may impair these mechanisms and degrade sleep function. PMID:24478645

  9. Acute Sleep Deprivation Induces a Local Brain Transfer Information Increase in the Frontal Cortex in a Widespread Decrease Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Joan F; Romero, Sergio; Mañanas, Miguel A; Alcalá, Marta; Antonijoan, Rosa M; Giménez, Sandra

    2016-04-14

    Sleep deprivation (SD) has adverse effects on mental and physical health, affecting the cognitive abilities and emotional states. Specifically, cognitive functions and alertness are known to decrease after SD. The aim of this work was to identify the directional information transfer after SD on scalp EEG signals using transfer entropy (TE). Using a robust methodology based on EEG recordings of 18 volunteers deprived from sleep for 36 h, TE and spectral analysis were performed to characterize EEG data acquired every 2 h. Correlation between connectivity measures and subjective somnolence was assessed. In general, TE showed medium- and long-range significant decreases originated at the occipital areas and directed towards different regions, which could be interpreted as the transfer of predictive information from parieto-occipital activity to the rest of the head. Simultaneously, short-range increases were obtained for the frontal areas, following a consistent and robust time course with significant maps after 20 h of sleep deprivation. Changes during sleep deprivation in brain network were measured effectively by TE, which showed increased local connectivity and diminished global integration. TE is an objective measure that could be used as a potential measure of sleep pressure and somnolence with the additional property of directed relationships.

  10. Acute Sleep Deprivation Induces a Local Brain Transfer Information Increase in the Frontal Cortex in a Widespread Decrease Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan F. Alonso

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sleep deprivation (SD has adverse effects on mental and physical health, affecting the cognitive abilities and emotional states. Specifically, cognitive functions and alertness are known to decrease after SD. The aim of this work was to identify the directional information transfer after SD on scalp EEG signals using transfer entropy (TE. Using a robust methodology based on EEG recordings of 18 volunteers deprived from sleep for 36 h, TE and spectral analysis were performed to characterize EEG data acquired every 2 h. Correlation between connectivity measures and subjective somnolence was assessed. In general, TE showed medium- and long-range significant decreases originated at the occipital areas and directed towards different regions, which could be interpreted as the transfer of predictive information from parieto-occipital activity to the rest of the head. Simultaneously, short-range increases were obtained for the frontal areas, following a consistent and robust time course with significant maps after 20 h of sleep deprivation. Changes during sleep deprivation in brain network were measured effectively by TE, which showed increased local connectivity and diminished global integration. TE is an objective measure that could be used as a potential measure of sleep pressure and somnolence with the additional property of directed relationships.

  11. Alcohol and the sleeping brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colrain, Ian M; Nicholas, Christian L; Baker, Fiona C

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol acts as a sedative that interacts with several neurotransmitter systems important in the regulation of sleep. Acute administration of large amounts of alcohol prior to sleep leads to decreased sleep-onset latency and changes in sleep architecture early in the night, when blood alcohol levels are high, with subsequent disrupted, poor-quality sleep later in the night. Alcohol abuse and dependence are associated with chronic sleep disturbance, lower slow-wave sleep, and more rapid-eye-movement sleep than normal, that last long into periods of abstinence and may play a role in relapse. This chapter outlines the evidence for acute and chronic alcohol effects on sleep architecture and sleep electroencephalogram, evidence for tolerance with repeated administration, and possible underlying neurochemical mechanisms for alcohol's effects on sleep. Also discussed are sex differences as well as effects of alcohol on sleep homeostasis and circadian regulation. Evidence for the role of sleep disruption as a risk factor for developing alcohol dependence is discussed in the context of research conducted in adolescents. The utility of sleep-evoked potentials in the assessment of the effects of alcoholism on sleep and the brain and in abstinence-mediated recovery is also outlined. The chapter concludes with a series of questions that need to be answered to determine the role of sleep and sleep disturbance in the development and maintenance of problem drinking and the potential beneficial effects of the treatment of sleep disorders for maintenance of abstinence in alcoholism. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of Preseason Training on the Sleep Characteristics of Professional Rugby League Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Heidi R; Delaney, Jace A; Duthie, Grant M; Dascombe, Ben J

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the influence of daily and exponentially weighted moving training loads on subsequent nighttime sleep. Sleep of 14 professional rugby league athletes competing in the National Rugby League was recorded using wristwatch actigraphy. Physical demands were quantified using GPS technology, including total distance, high-speed distance, acceleration/deceleration load (SumAccDec; AU), and session rating of perceived exertion (AU). Linear mixed models determined effects of acute (daily) and subacute (3- and 7-d) exponentially weighted moving averages (EWMA) on sleep. Higher daily SumAccDec was associated with increased sleep efficiency (effect-size correlation; ES = 0.15; ±0.09) and sleep duration (ES = 0.12; ±0.09). Greater 3-d EWMA SumAccDec was associated with increased sleep efficiency (ES = 0.14; ±0.09) and an earlier bedtime (ES = 0.14; ±0.09). An increase in 7-d EWMA SumAccDec was associated with heightened sleep efficiency (ES = 0.15; ±0.09) and earlier bedtimes (ES = 0.15; ±0.09). The direction of the associations between training loads and sleep varied, but the strongest relationships showed that higher training loads increased various measures of sleep. Practitioners should be aware of the increased requirement for sleep during intensified training periods, using this information in the planning and implementation of training and individualized recovery modalities.

  13. Age-related influences of prior sleep on brain activation during verbal encoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle B Jonelis

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Disrupted sleep is more common in older adults (OA than younger adults (YA, often co-morbid with other conditions. How these sleep disturbances affect cognitive performance is an area of active study. We examined whether brain activation during verbal encoding correlates with sleep quantity and quality the night before testing in a group of healthy OA and YA. Twenty-seven OA (ages 59-82 and twenty-seven YA (ages 19-36 underwent one night of standard polysomnography. Twelve hours post-awakening, subjects performed a verbal encoding task while undergoing functional MRI. Analyses examined the group (OA vs. YA by prior sleep quantity (Total Sleep Time (TST or quality (Sleep Efficiency (SE interaction on cerebral activation, controlling for performance. Longer TST promoted higher levels of activation in the bilateral anterior parahippocampi in OA and lower activation levels in the left anterior parahippocampus in YA. Greater SE promoted higher activation levels in the left posterior parahippocampus and right inferior frontal gyrus in YA, but not in OA. The roles of these brain regions in verbal encoding suggest, in OA, longer sleep duration may facilitate functional compensation during cognitive challenges. By contrast, in YA, shorter sleep duration may necessitate functional compensation to maintain cognitive performance, similar to what is seen following acute sleep deprivation. Additionally, in YA, better sleep quality may improve semantic retrieval processes, thereby aiding encoding.

  14. Shining evolutionary light on human sleep and sleep disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, Charles L; Samson, David R; Krystal, Andrew D

    2016-01-01

    Sleep is essential to cognitive function and health in humans, yet the ultimate reasons for sleep-i.e. 'why' sleep evolved-remain mysterious. We integrate findings from human sleep studies, the ethnographic record, and the ecology and evolution of mammalian sleep to better understand sleep along the human lineage and in the modern world. Compared to other primates, sleep in great apes has undergone substantial evolutionary change, with all great apes building a sleeping platform or 'nest'. Further evolutionary change characterizes human sleep, with humans having the shortest sleep duration, yet the highest proportion of rapid eye movement sleep among primates. These changes likely reflect that our ancestors experienced fitness benefits from being active for a greater portion of the 24-h cycle than other primates, potentially related to advantages arising from learning, socializing and defending against predators and hostile conspecifics. Perspectives from evolutionary medicine have implications for understanding sleep disorders; we consider these perspectives in the context of insomnia, narcolepsy, seasonal affective disorder, circadian rhythm disorders and sleep apnea. We also identify how human sleep today differs from sleep through most of human evolution, and the implications of these changes for global health and health disparities. More generally, our review highlights the importance of phylogenetic comparisons in understanding human health, including well-known links between sleep, cognitive performance and health in humans. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Foundation for Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health.

  15. High Intensity Interval Training Leads to Greater Improvements in Acute Heart Rate Recovery and Anaerobic Power as High Volume Low Intensity Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöggl, Thomas L.; Björklund, Glenn

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to explore if training regimes utilizing diverse training intensity distributions result in different responses on neuromuscular status, anaerobic capacity/power and acute heart rate recovery (HRR) in well-trained endurance athletes. Methods: Thirty-six male (n = 33) and female (n = 3) runners, cyclists, triathletes and cross-country skiers [peak oxygen uptake: (VO2peak): 61.9 ± 8.0 mL·kg−1·min−1] were randomly assigned to one of three groups (blocked high intensity interval training HIIT; polarized training POL; high volume low intensity oriented control group CG/HVLIT applying no HIIT). A maximal anaerobic running/cycling test (MART/MACT) was performed prior to and following a 9-week training period. Results: Only the HIIT group achieved improvements in peak power/velocity (+6.4%, P 0.05). Acute HRR was improved in HIIT (11.2%, P = 0.002) and POL (7.9%, P = 0.023) with no change in the HVLIT oriented control group. Conclusion: Only a training regime that includes a significant amount of HIIT improves the neuromuscular status, anaerobic power and the acute HRR in well-trained endurance athletes. A training regime that followed more a low and moderate intensity oriented model (CG/HVLIT) had no effect on any performance or HRR outcomes. PMID:28824457

  16. High Intensity Interval Training Leads to Greater Improvements in Acute Heart Rate Recovery and Anaerobic Power as High Volume Low Intensity Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas L. Stöggl

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the current study was to explore if training regimes utilizing diverse training intensity distributions result in different responses on neuromuscular status, anaerobic capacity/power and acute heart rate recovery (HRR in well-trained endurance athletes.Methods: Thirty-six male (n = 33 and female (n = 3 runners, cyclists, triathletes and cross-country skiers [peak oxygen uptake: (VO2peak: 61.9 ± 8.0 mL·kg−1·min−1] were randomly assigned to one of three groups (blocked high intensity interval training HIIT; polarized training POL; high volume low intensity oriented control group CG/HVLIT applying no HIIT. A maximal anaerobic running/cycling test (MART/MACT was performed prior to and following a 9-week training period.Results: Only the HIIT group achieved improvements in peak power/velocity (+6.4%, P < 0.001 and peak lactate (P = 0.001 during the MART/MACT, while, unexpectedly, in none of the groups the performance at the established lactate concentrations (4, 6, 10 mmol·L−1 was changed (P > 0.05. Acute HRR was improved in HIIT (11.2%, P = 0.002 and POL (7.9%, P = 0.023 with no change in the HVLIT oriented control group.Conclusion: Only a training regime that includes a significant amount of HIIT improves the neuromuscular status, anaerobic power and the acute HRR in well-trained endurance athletes. A training regime that followed more a low and moderate intensity oriented model (CG/HVLIT had no effect on any performance or HRR outcomes.

  17. High Intensity Interval Training Leads to Greater Improvements in Acute Heart Rate Recovery and Anaerobic Power as High Volume Low Intensity Training

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas L. Stöggl; Glenn Björklund; Glenn Björklund

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to explore if training regimes utilizing diverse training intensity distributions result in different responses on neuromuscular status, anaerobic capacity/power and acute heart rate recovery (HRR) in well-trained endurance athletes.Methods: Thirty-six male (n = 33) and female (n = 3) runners, cyclists, triathletes and cross-country skiers [peak oxygen uptake: (VO2peak): 61.9 ± 8.0 mL·kg−1·min−1] were randomly assigned to one of three groups (blocked high ...

  18. Sleep Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the day, even if you have had enough sleep? You might have a sleep disorder. The most common kinds are Insomnia - a hard time falling or staying asleep Sleep apnea - breathing interruptions during sleep Restless legs syndrome - ...

  19. Sleep Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Sleep Problems Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... 101 KB) En Español Medicines to Help You Sleep Tips for Better Sleep Basic Facts about Sleep ...

  20. Physical neighborhood and social environment, beliefs about sleep, sleep hygiene behaviors, and sleep quality among African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Soohyun; Whittemore, Robin; Jung, Sunyoung; Latkin, Carl; Kershaw, Trace; Redeker, Nancy S

    2018-06-01

    African Americans (AAs) have a higher prevalence of sleep disorders than other racial/ethnic groups. However, little is known about the relationships among individual and neighborhood factors related to sleep quality in AAs. The purposes of this study were to (1) describe beliefs about sleep, sleep hygiene behaviors, and sleep quality among AAs; and (2) examine the relationships among sociodemographic characteristics, neighborhood environment, beliefs about sleep, sleep hygiene behaviors, and sleep quality. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 252 AA men and women in the Greater New Haven, CT, USA community. We assessed their sociodemographic characteristics, neighborhood environment, beliefs about sleep, sleep hygiene, and sleep quality with the following measures, respectively: the Neighborhood Environment Scale, the brief version of Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep, the Sleep Hygiene Practice Scale, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. We performed descriptive statistics, correlations and multiple hierarchical regression. About 72% of the participants (mean age: 53.88 ± 14.17 years, 77.8% women) reported experiencing sleep disturbance. People with poor sleep quality were more likely to report poorer neighborhood social environment (social cohesion), poorer overall neighborhood environment, more dysfunctional beliefs toward sleep, and poorer sleep hygiene than those who had good sleep quality. In the final multivariate model that controlled for a number of chronic comorbid conditions, neighborhood environment, beliefs about sleep, and sleep hygiene behaviors were significantly associated with sleep quality. Future efforts are needed to improve sleep among AAs by considering both the individual's belief about sleep, sleep hygiene behaviors and neighborhood factors. Copyright © 2018 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Acute attenuation of fatigue after sodium bicarbonate supplementation does not manifest into greater training adaptations after 10-weeks of resistance training exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Jason C; Marshall, Paul W M; Finn, Harrison; Cross, Rebecca; Mudie, Kurt

    2018-01-01

    In two concurrent studies, we aimed to a) confirm the acute effect of 0.3 g·kg-1 body weight (BW) sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) supplementation on central and peripheral mechanisms associated with explosive power (Study 1) and b) determine whether chronic NaHCO3 supplementation would improve the adaptive response of the neuromuscular system during a 10-week resistance training program (Study 2). Eight resistance trained participants volunteered after providing written consent. The experimental design consisted of a week of baseline testing, followed by ten weeks of training with progress measures performed in Week 5. Study 1 involved neuromuscular measurements before and after the leg extension portion of a power based training session performed in Week 1. Changes in maximal torque (MVT) and rates of torque development (RTD), along with other variables derived from femoral nerve stimulation (e.g. voluntary activation, neural recruitment) were analysed to determine the extent of fatigue under NaHCO3 or placebo conditions. Changes in these same variables, coupled with functional 1-repetition maximum leg extension strength, were measured in Study 2 from baseline (Week 0) to Week 5, and again at Week 10. In Study 1, we observed a decline after the leg extension task in both MVT (~ 30%) and rates of torque production (RTD) irrespective of acid-base status, however the decline in maximal RTD (RTDMAX) was nearly 20% less in the NaHCO3 condition when compared to placebo (mean difference of 294.8 ± 133.4 Nm·s-1 (95% CI -583.1 to -6.5 Nm, p < 0.05)). The primary finding in Study 2, however, suggests that introducing NaHCO3 repeatedly during a 10-week RT program does not confer any additional benefit to the mechanisms (and subsequent adaptive processes) related to explosive power production.

  2. Acute attenuation of fatigue after sodium bicarbonate supplementation does not manifest into greater training adaptations after 10-weeks of resistance training exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason C Siegler

    Full Text Available In two concurrent studies, we aimed to a confirm the acute effect of 0.3 g·kg-1 body weight (BW sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3 supplementation on central and peripheral mechanisms associated with explosive power (Study 1 and b determine whether chronic NaHCO3 supplementation would improve the adaptive response of the neuromuscular system during a 10-week resistance training program (Study 2.Eight resistance trained participants volunteered after providing written consent. The experimental design consisted of a week of baseline testing, followed by ten weeks of training with progress measures performed in Week 5. Study 1 involved neuromuscular measurements before and after the leg extension portion of a power based training session performed in Week 1. Changes in maximal torque (MVT and rates of torque development (RTD, along with other variables derived from femoral nerve stimulation (e.g. voluntary activation, neural recruitment were analysed to determine the extent of fatigue under NaHCO3 or placebo conditions. Changes in these same variables, coupled with functional 1-repetition maximum leg extension strength, were measured in Study 2 from baseline (Week 0 to Week 5, and again at Week 10.In Study 1, we observed a decline after the leg extension task in both MVT (~ 30% and rates of torque production (RTD irrespective of acid-base status, however the decline in maximal RTD (RTDMAX was nearly 20% less in the NaHCO3 condition when compared to placebo (mean difference of 294.8 ± 133.4 Nm·s-1 (95% CI -583.1 to -6.5 Nm, p < 0.05. The primary finding in Study 2, however, suggests that introducing NaHCO3 repeatedly during a 10-week RT program does not confer any additional benefit to the mechanisms (and subsequent adaptive processes related to explosive power production.

  3. Aging induced ER stress alters sleep and sleep homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Marishka K.; Chan, May T.; Zimmerman, John E.; Pack, Allan I.; Jackson, Nicholas E.; Naidoo, Nirinjini

    2013-01-01

    Alterations in the quality, quantity and architecture of baseline and recovery sleep have been shown to occur during aging. Sleep deprivation induces endoplasmic reticular (ER) stress and upregulates a protective signaling pathway termed the unfolded protein response (UPR). The effectiveness of the adaptive UPR is diminished by age. Previously, we showed that endogenous chaperone levels altered recovery sleep in Drosophila melanogaster. We now report that acute administration of the chemical ...

  4. Sleep-dependent memory consolidation in patients with sleep disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipolli, Carlo; Mazzetti, Michela; Plazzi, Giuseppe

    2013-04-01

    Sleep can improve the off-line memory consolidation of new items of declarative and non-declarative information in healthy subjects, whereas acute sleep loss, as well as sleep restriction and fragmentation, impair consolidation. This suggests that, by modifying the amount and/or architecture of sleep, chronic sleep disorders may also lead to a lower gain in off-line consolidation, which in turn may be responsible for the varying levels of impaired performance at memory tasks usually observed in sleep-disordered patients. The experimental studies conducted to date have shown specific impairments of sleep-dependent consolidation overall for verbal and visual declarative information in patients with primary insomnia, for verbal declarative information in patients with obstructive sleep apnoeas, and for visual procedural skills in patients with narcolepsy-cataplexy. These findings corroborate the hypothesis that impaired consolidation is a consequence of the chronically altered organization of sleep. Moreover, they raise several novel questions as to: a) the reversibility of consolidation impairment in the case of effective treatment, b) the possible negative influence of altered prior sleep also on the encoding of new information, and c) the relationships between altered sleep and memory impairment in patients with other (medical, psychiatric or neurological) diseases associated with quantitative and/or qualitative changes of sleep architecture. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Sleep Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek Kornum, Birgitte; Mignot, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    mediates circadian regulation of sleep. Misalignment with the rhythm of the sun results in circadian disorders and jet lag. The molecular basis of homeostatic sleep regulation is mostly unknown. A network of mutually inhibitory brain nuclei regulates sleep states and sleep-wake transitions. Abnormalities...... in these networks create sleep disorders, including rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, sleep walking, and narcolepsy. Physiological changes associated with sleep can be imbalanced, resulting in excess movements such as periodic leg movements during sleep or abnormal breathing in obstructive sleep apneas....... As every organ in the body is affected by sleep directly or indirectly, sleep and sleep-associated disorders are frequent and only now starting to be understood....

  6. Recurrent acute pulmonary oedema after aortic and mitral valve surgery due to trachea malacia and obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sankatsing, S. U. C.; Hanselaar, W. E. J. J.; van Steenwijk, R. P.; Van der Sloot, J. A. P.; Broekhuis, E.; Kok, W. E. M.

    2008-01-01

    In this report we describe a patient with recurrent episodes of acute pulmonary oedema after aortic and mitral valve surgery. The first episode of pulmonary oedema was caused by mitral valve dysfunction. The second episode of pulmonary oedema was not clearly associated with a mitral valve problem,

  7. Sleep Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Sleep Quiz Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents ... on. Photo: iStock Take the National Center on Sleep Disorders Research Sleep Quiz TRUE OR FALSE ? _____1. ...

  8. Repeated sleep restriction in rats leads to homeostatic and allostatic responses during recovery sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngsoo; Laposky, Aaron D; Bergmann, Bernard M; Turek, Fred W

    2007-06-19

    Recent studies indicate that chronic sleep restriction can have negative consequences for brain function and peripheral physiology and can contribute to the allostatic load throughout the body. Interestingly, few studies have examined how the sleep-wake system itself responds to repeated sleep restriction. In this study, rats were subjected to a sleep-restriction protocol consisting of 20 h of sleep deprivation (SD) followed by a 4-h sleep opportunity each day for 5 consecutive days. In response to the first 20-h SD block on day 1, animals responded during the 4-h sleep opportunity with enhanced sleep intensity [i.e., nonrapid eye movement (NREM) delta power] and increased rapid eye movement sleep time compared with baseline. This sleep pattern is indicative of a homeostatic response to acute sleep loss. Remarkably, after the 20-h SD blocks on days 2-5, animals failed to exhibit a compensatory NREM delta power response during the 4-h sleep opportunities and failed to increase NREM and rapid eye movement sleep times, despite accumulating a sleep debt each consecutive day. After losing approximately 35 h of sleep over 5 days of sleep restriction, animals regained virtually none of their lost sleep, even during a full 3-day recovery period. These data demonstrate that the compensatory/homeostatic sleep response to acute SD does not generalize to conditions of chronic partial sleep loss. We propose that the change in sleep-wake regulation in the context of repeated sleep restriction reflects an allostatic process, and that the allostatic load produced by SD has direct effects on the sleep-wake regulatory system.

  9. Aging induced ER stress alters sleep and sleep homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Marishka K.; Chan, May T.; Zimmerman, John E.; Pack, Allan I.; Jackson, Nicholas E.; Naidoo, Nirinjini

    2014-01-01

    Alterations in the quality, quantity and architecture of baseline and recovery sleep have been shown to occur during aging. Sleep deprivation induces endoplasmic reticular (ER) stress and upregulates a protective signaling pathway termed the unfolded protein response (UPR). The effectiveness of the adaptive UPR is diminished by age. Previously, we showed that endogenous chaperone levels altered recovery sleep in Drosophila melanogaster. We now report that acute administration of the chemical chaperone sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (PBA) reduces ER stress and ameliorates age-associated sleep changes in Drosophila. PBA consolidates both baseline and recovery sleep in aging flies. The behavioral modifications of PBA are linked to its suppression of ER stress. PBA decreased splicing of x-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) and upregulation of phosphorylated elongation initiation factor 2 α (p-eIF2α), in flies that were subjected to sleep deprivation. We also demonstrate that directly activating ER stress in young flies fragments baseline sleep and alters recovery sleep. Alleviating prolonged/sustained ER stress during aging contributes to sleep consolidation and improves recovery sleep/ sleep debt discharge. PMID:24444805

  10. Aging induced endoplasmic reticulum stress alters sleep and sleep homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Marishka K; Chan, May T; Zimmerman, John E; Pack, Allan I; Jackson, Nicholas E; Naidoo, Nirinjini

    2014-06-01

    Alterations in the quality, quantity, and architecture of baseline and recovery sleep have been shown to occur during aging. Sleep deprivation induces endoplasmic reticular (ER) stress and upregulates a protective signaling pathway termed the unfolded protein response. The effectiveness of the adaptive unfolded protein response is diminished by age. Previously, we showed that endogenous chaperone levels altered recovery sleep in Drosophila melanogaster. We now report that acute administration of the chemical chaperone sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (PBA) reduces ER stress and ameliorates age-associated sleep changes in Drosophila. PBA consolidates both baseline and recovery sleep in aging flies. The behavioral modifications of PBA are linked to its suppression of ER stress. PBA decreased splicing of X-box binding protein 1 and upregulation of phosphorylated elongation initiation factor 2 α, in flies that were subjected to sleep deprivation. We also demonstrate that directly activating ER stress in young flies fragments baseline sleep and alters recovery sleep. Alleviating prolonged or sustained ER stress during aging contributes to sleep consolidation and improves recovery sleep or sleep debt discharge. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Sleep, circadian rhythms, and schizophrenia: where we are and where we need to go.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrave, Jan; Wulff, Katharina; Gehrman, Philip

    2018-05-01

    The review is designed to give an overview of the latest developments in research exploring the relationship between sleep and psychosis, with particular attention paid to the evidence for a causal relationship between the two. The most interesting avenues currently in pursuit are focused upon sleep spindle deficits which may hallmark an endophenotype; explorations of the continuum of psychotic experiences, and experimental manipulations to explore the evidence for bidirectional causality; inflammatory markers, psychosis and sleep disturbances and finally, treatment approaches for sleep in psychosis and the subsequent impact on positive experiences. Globally, large surveys and tightly controlled sleep deprivation or manipulation experiments provide good evidence for a cause-and-effect relationship between sleep and subclinical psychotic experiences. The evidence for cause-and-effect using a interventionist-causal model is more ambiguous; it would appear treating insomnia improves psychotic experiences in an insomnia cohort but not in a cohort with schizophrenia. This advocates the necessity for mechanism-driven research with dimensional approaches and in depth phenotyping of circadian clock-driven processes and sleep regulating functions. Such an approach would lead to greater insight into the dynamics of sleep changes in healthy and acute psychosis brain states.

  12. ISSLS PRIZE IN CLINICAL SCIENCE 2018: longitudinal analysis of inflammatory, psychological, and sleep-related factors following an acute low back pain episode-the good, the bad, and the ugly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klyne, David M; Barbe, Mary F; van den Hoorn, Wolbert; Hodges, Paul W

    2018-04-01

    Prospective longitudinal study. To determine whether systemic cytokines and C-reactive protein (CRP) during an acute episode of low back pain (LBP) differ between individuals who did and did not recover by 6 months and to identify sub-groups based on patterns of inflammatory, psychological, and sleep features associated with recovery/non-recovery. Systemic inflammation is observed in chronic LBP and may contribute to the transition from acute to persistent LBP. Longitudinal studies are required to determine whether changes present early or develop over time. Psychological and/or sleep-related factors may be related. Individuals within 2 weeks of onset of acute LBP (N = 109) and pain-free controls (N = 55) provided blood for assessment of CRP, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1β, and completed questionnaires related to pain, disability, sleep, and psychological status. LBP participants repeated measurements at 6 months. Biomarkers were compared between LBP and control participants at baseline, and in longitudinal (baseline/6 months) analysis, between unrecovered (≥pain and disability), partially recovered (reduced pain and/or disability) and recovered (no pain and disability) participants at 6 months. We assessed baseline patterns of inflammatory, psychological, sleep, and pain data using hierarchical clustering and related the clusters to recovery (% change in pain) at 6 months. CRP was higher in acute LBP than controls at baseline. In LBP, baseline CRP was higher in the recovered than non-recovered groups. Conversely, TNF was higher at both time-points in the non-recovered than recovered groups. Two sub-groups were identified that associated with more ("inflammatory/poor sleep") or less ("high TNF/depression") recovery. This is the first evidence of a relationship between an "acute-phase" systemic inflammatory response and recovery at 6 months. High inflammation (CRP/IL-6) was associated with good recovery, but specific

  13. Sleep loss produces false memories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Diekelmann

    Full Text Available People sometimes claim with high confidence to remember events that in fact never happened, typically due to strong semantic associations with actually encoded events. Sleep is known to provide optimal neurobiological conditions for consolidation of memories for long-term storage, whereas sleep deprivation acutely impairs retrieval of stored memories. Here, focusing on the role of sleep-related memory processes, we tested whether false memories can be created (a as enduring memory representations due to a consolidation-associated reorganization of new memory representations during post-learning sleep and/or (b as an acute retrieval-related phenomenon induced by sleep deprivation at memory testing. According to the Deese, Roediger, McDermott (DRM false memory paradigm, subjects learned lists of semantically associated words (e.g., "night", "dark", "coal",..., lacking the strongest common associate or theme word (here: "black". Subjects either slept or stayed awake immediately after learning, and they were either sleep deprived or not at recognition testing 9, 33, or 44 hours after learning. Sleep deprivation at retrieval, but not sleep following learning, critically enhanced false memories of theme words. This effect was abolished by caffeine administration prior to retrieval, indicating that adenosinergic mechanisms can contribute to the generation of false memories associated with sleep loss.

  14. BDNF in sleep, insomnia, and sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Karen; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Eckert, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The protein brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a member of the neurotrophin family of growth factors involved in plasticity of neurons in several brain regions. There are numerous evidence that BDNF expression is decreased by experiencing psychological stress and that, accordingly, a lack of neurotrophic support causes major depression. Furthermore, disruption in sleep homeostatic processes results in higher stress vulnerability and is often associated with stress-related mental disorders. Recently, we reported, for the first time, a relationship between BDNF and insomnia and sleep deprivation (SD). Using a biphasic stress model as explanation approach, we discuss here the hypothesis that chronic stress might induce a deregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system. In the long-term it leads to sleep disturbance and depression as well as decreased BDNF levels, whereas acute stress like SD can be used as therapeutic intervention in some insomniac or depressed patients as compensatory process to normalize BDNF levels. Indeed, partial SD (PSD) induced a fast increase in BDNF serum levels within hours after PSD which is similar to effects seen after ketamine infusion, another fast-acting antidepressant intervention, while traditional antidepressants are characterized by a major delay until treatment response as well as delayed BDNF level increase. Key messages Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a key role in the pathophysiology of stress-related mood disorders. The interplay of stress and sleep impacts on BDNF level. Partial sleep deprivation (PSD) shows a fast action on BDNF level increase.

  15. Sleep Deprivation and Recovery Sleep Prior to a Noxious Inflammatory Insult Influence Characteristics and Duration of Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanini, Giancarlo

    2016-01-01

    Insufficient sleep and chronic pain are public health epidemics. Sleep loss worsens pain and predicts the development of chronic pain. Whether previous, acute sleep loss and recovery sleep determine pain levels and duration remains poorly understood. This study tested whether acute sleep deprivation and recovery sleep prior to formalin injection alter post-injection pain levels and duration. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 48) underwent sleep deprivation or ad libitum sleep for 9 hours. Thereafter, rats received a subcutaneous injection of formalin or saline into a hind paw. In the recovery sleep group, rats were allowed 24 h between sleep deprivation and the injection of formalin. Mechanical and thermal nociception were assessed using the von Frey test and Hargreaves' method. Nociceptive measures were performed at 1, 3, 7, 10, 14, 17 and 21 days post-injection. Formalin caused bilateral mechanical hypersensitivity (allodynia) that persisted for up to 21 days post-injection. Sleep deprivation significantly enhanced bilateral allodynia. There was a synergistic interaction when sleep deprivation preceded a formalin injection. Rats allowed a recovery sleep period prior to formalin injection developed allodynia only in the injected limb, with higher mechanical thresholds (less allodynia) and a shorter recovery period. There were no persistent changes in thermal nociception. The data suggest that acute sleep loss preceding an inflammatory insult enhances pain and can contribute to chronic pain. The results encourage studies in a model of surgical pain to test whether enhancing sleep reduces pain levels and duration. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  16. Caffeine: sleep and daytime sleepiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehrs, Timothy; Roth, Thomas

    2008-04-01

    Caffeine is one of the most widely consumed psychoactive substances and it has profound effects on sleep and wake function. Laboratory studies have documented its sleep-disruptive effects. It clearly enhances alertness and performance in studies with explicit sleep deprivation, restriction, or circadian sleep schedule reversals. But, under conditions of habitual sleep the evidence indicates that caffeine, rather then enhancing performance, is merely restoring performance degraded by sleepiness. The sleepiness and degraded function may be due to basal sleep insufficiency, circadian sleep schedule reversals, rebound sleepiness, and/or a withdrawal syndrome after the acute, over-night, caffeine discontinuation typical of most studies. Studies have shown that caffeine dependence develops at relatively low daily doses and after short periods of regular daily use. Large sample and population-based studies indicate that regular daily dietary caffeine intake is associated with disturbed sleep and associated daytime sleepiness. Further, children and adolescents, while reporting lower daily, weight-corrected caffeine intake, similarly experience sleep disturbance and daytime sleepiness associated with their caffeine use. The risks to sleep and alertness of regular caffeine use are greatly underestimated by both the general population and physicians.

  17. translin is required for metabolic regulation of sleep

    OpenAIRE

    Murakami, Kazuma; Yurgel, Maria E.; Stahl, Bethany A.; Masek, Pavel; Mehta, Aradhana; Heidker, Rebecca; Bollinger, Wesley; Gingras, Robert M.; Kim, Young-Joon; Ja, William W.; Suter, Beat; DiAngelo, Justin R.; Keene, Alex C.

    2016-01-01

    Dysregulation of sleep or feeding has enormous health consequences. In humans, acute sleep loss is associated with increased appetite and insulin insensitivity, while chronically sleep-deprived individuals are more likely to develop obesity, metabolic syndrome, type II diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Conversely, metabolic state potently modulates sleep and circadian behavior; yet, the molecular basis for sleep-metabolism interactions remains poorly understood. Here, we describe the iden...

  18. Altered sleep composition after traumatic brain injury does not affect declarative sleep-dependent memory consolidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janna eMantua

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with a history of traumatic brain injury (TBI often report sleep disturbances, which may be caused by changes in sleep architecture or reduced sleep quality (greater time awake after sleep onset, poorer sleep efficiency, and sleep stage proportion alterations. Sleep is beneficial for memory formation, and herein we examine whether altered sleep physiology following TBI has deleterious effects on sleep-dependent declarative memory consolidation. Participants learned a list of word pairs in the morning or evening, and recall was assessed 12-hrs later, following an interval awake or with overnight sleep. Young adult participants (18-22 yrs were assigned to one of four experimental groups: TBI Sleep (n=14, TBI Wake (n=12, non-TBI Sleep (n=15, non-TBI Wake (n=15. Each TBI participant was >1 yr post-injury. Sleep physiology was measured with polysomnography. Memory consolidation was assessed by comparing change in word-pair recall over 12-hr intersession intervals. The TBI group spent a significantly greater proportion of the night in SWS than the non-TBI group at the expense of NREM1. The TBI group also had marginally lower EEG delta power during SWS in the central region. Intersession changes in recall were greater for intervals with sleep than without sleep in both groups. However, despite abnormal sleep stage proportions for individuals with a TBI history, there was no difference in the intersession change in recall following sleep for the TBI and non-TBI groups. In both Sleep groups combined, there was a positive correlation between Intersession Change and the proportion of the night in NREM2 + SWS. Overall, sleep composition is altered following TBI but such deficits do not yield insufficiencies in sleep-dependent memory consolidation.

  19. Sex Differences in the Risk of Developing Acute Coronary Syndrome in Patients With Sleep Disorders: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Wei-Sheng; Lin, Hsuan-Hung

    2017-09-01

    Studies that focus on the relationship between sex and the risk of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) are scant. The current study investigated the effects of sex differences in the risk of developing ACS in patients with sleep disorders (SDs). This longitudinal population-based cohort study evaluated the incidence and risk of ACS development in 40,232 men and 65,519 women newly diagnosed with SDs between 2002 and 2008 from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database. The follow-up period began from the entry date and ended on the date of an ACS event or December 31, 2010. Univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression models were conducted to estimate the sex differences in the risk of ACS. Men with SDs exhibited an increased incidence of ACS compared with women with SDs in all age- and comorbidity-specific subgroups. After covariates were adjusted, the men with SDs exhibited a 1.48-fold adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) of ACS compared with the women with SDs (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.36-1.60). After age group stratification, the men with SDs in the young adult group exhibited the highest risk of subsequent ACS development compared with the women with SDs (aHR = 2.07, 95% CI = 1.69-2.55), followed by those in middle-aged adults (aHR = 1.52, 95% CI = 1.32-1.76) and older adults groups (aHR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.11-1.39). This study determined that men with SDs, particularly young men, are at a higher risk of subsequent ACS development compared with women with SDs.

  20. Cyclooxygenases 1 and 2 differentially regulate blood pressure and cerebrovascular responses to acute and chronic intermittent hypoxia: implications for sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudin, Andrew E; Pun, Matiram; Yang, Christina; Nicholl, David D M; Steinback, Craig D; Slater, Donna M; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine E; Hanly, Patrick J; Ahmed, Sofia B; Poulin, Marc J

    2014-05-09

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease resulting from intermittent hypoxia (IH)-induced inflammation. Cyclooxygenase (COX)-formed prostanoids mediate the inflammatory response, and regulate blood pressure and cerebral blood flow (CBF), but their role in blood pressure and CBF responses to IH is unknown. Therefore, this study's objective was to determine the role of prostanoids in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular responses to IH. Twelve healthy, male participants underwent three, 6-hour IH exposures. For 4 days before each IH exposure, participants ingested a placebo, indomethacin (nonselective COX inhibitor), or Celebrex(®) (selective COX-2 inhibitor) in a double-blind, randomized, crossover study design. Pre- and post-IH blood pressure, CBF, and urinary prostanoids were assessed. Additionally, blood pressure and urinary prostanoids were assessed in newly diagnosed, untreated OSA patients (n=33). Nonselective COX inhibition increased pre-IH blood pressure (P ≤ 0.04) and decreased pre-IH CBF (P=0.04) while neither physiological variable was affected by COX-2 inhibition (P ≥ 0.90). Post-IH, MAP was elevated (P ≤ 0.05) and CBF was unchanged with placebo and nonselective COX inhibition. Selective COX-2 inhibition abrogated the IH-induced MAP increase (P=0.19), but resulted in lower post-IH CBF (P=0.01). Prostanoids were unaffected by IH, except prostaglandin E2 was elevated with the placebo (P=0.02). Finally, OSA patients had elevated blood pressure (P ≤ 0.4) and COX-1 formed thromboxane A2 concentrations (P=0.02). COX-2 and COX-1 have divergent roles in modulating vascular responses to acute and chronic IH. Moreover, COX-1 inhibition may mitigate cardiovascular and cerebrovascular morbidity in OSA. www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01280006.

  1. Do Older Adults Need Sleep? A Review of Neuroimaging, Sleep, and Aging Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scullin, Michael K

    2017-09-01

    Sleep habits, sleep physiology, and sleep disorders change with increasing age. However, there is a longstanding debate regarding whether older adults need sleep to maintain health and daily functioning (reduced-sleep-need view). An alternative possibility is that all older adults need sleep, but that many older adults have lost the ability to obtain restorative sleep (reduced-sleep-ability view). Prior research using behavioral and polysomnography outcomes has not definitively disentangled the reduced-sleep-need and reduced-sleep-ability views. Therefore, this review examines the neuroimaging literature to determine whether age-related changes in sleep cause-or are caused by-age-related changes in brain structure, function, and pathology. In middle-aged and older adults, poorer sleep quality, greater nighttime hypoxia, and shorter sleep duration related to cortical thinning in frontal regions implicated in slow wave generation, in frontoparietal networks implicated in cognitive control, and in hippocampal regions implicated in memory consolidation. Furthermore, poor sleep quality was associated with higher amyloid burden and decreased connectivity in the default mode network, a network that is disrupted in the pathway to Alzheimer's disease. All adults need sleep, but cortical thinning and amyloidal deposition with advancing age may weaken the brain's ability to produce restorative sleep. Therefore, sleep in older adults may not always support identical functions for physical, mental, and cognitive health as in young adults.

  2. Sleep physiology in toddlers: Effects of missing a nap on subsequent night sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan M. Lassonde

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The shift from a biphasic to a monophasic sleep schedule is a fundamental milestone in early childhood. This transition, however, may result in periods of acute sleep loss as children may nap on some but not all days. Although data indicating the behavioral consequences of nap deprivation in young children are accumulating, little is known about changes to sleep neurophysiology following daytime sleep loss. This study addresses this gap in knowledge by examining the effects of acute nap deprivation on subsequent nighttime sleep electroencephalographic (EEG parameters in toddlers. Healthy children (n=25; 11 males; ages 30–36 months followed a strict sleep schedule for ≥5 days before sleep EEG recordings performed on 2 non-consecutive days: one after 13 h of prior wakefulness and another at the same clock time but preceded by a daytime nap. Total slow-wave energy (SWE was computed as cumulative slow-wave activity (SWA; EEG power in 0.75–4.5 Hz range over time. Nap and subsequent night SWE were added and compared to SWE of the night after a missed nap. During the night following a missed nap, children fell asleep faster (11.9±8.7 min versus 37.3±22.1 min; d=1.6, p=0.01, slept longer (10.1±0.7 h versus 9.6±0.6 h; d=0.7, p<0.01 and exhibited greater SWA (133.3±37.5% versus 93.0±4.7%; d=0.9, p<0.01 compared to a night after a daytime nap. SWE for combined nap and subsequent night sleep did not significantly differ from the night following nap deprivation (12141.1±3872.9 μV²*h versus 11,588±3270.8 μV²*h; d=0.6, p=0.12. However, compared to a night following a missed nap, children experienced greater time in bed (13.0±0.8 h versus 10.9±0.5 h; d=3.1, p<0.01 and total sleep time (11.2±0.8 h versus 10.1±0.7 h; d=1.4, p<0.01. Shorter sleep latency, longer sleep duration, and increased SWA in the night following a missed nap indicate that toddlers experience a physiologically meaningful homeostatic challenge after prolonged

  3. Sleep deprivation suppresses aggression in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, Matthew S; Mainwaring, Benjamin; Yue, Zhifeng; Sehgal, Amita

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disturbances negatively impact numerous functions and have been linked to aggression and violence. However, a clear effect of sleep deprivation on aggressive behaviors remains unclear. We find that acute sleep deprivation profoundly suppresses aggressive behaviors in the fruit fly, while other social behaviors are unaffected. This suppression is recovered following post-deprivation sleep rebound, and occurs regardless of the approach to achieve sleep loss. Genetic and pharmacologic approaches suggest octopamine signaling transmits changes in aggression upon sleep deprivation, and reduced aggression places sleep-deprived flies at a competitive disadvantage for obtaining a reproductive partner. These findings demonstrate an interaction between two phylogenetically conserved behaviors, and suggest that previous sleep experiences strongly modulate aggression with consequences for reproductive fitness. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07643.001 PMID:26216041

  4. Discrimination, Other Psychosocial Stressors, and Self-Reported Sleep Duration and Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slopen, Natalie; Williams, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To advance understanding of the relationship between discrimination and sleep duration and difficulties, with consideration of multiple dimensions of discrimination, and attention to concurrent stressors; and to examine the contribution of discrimination and other stressors to racial/ ethnic differences in these outcomes. Design: Cross-sectional probability sample. Setting: Chicago, IL. Participants: There were 2,983 black, Hispanic, and white adults. Measurements and Results: Outcomes included self-reported sleep duration and difficulties. Discrimination, including racial and nonracial everyday and major experiences of discrimination, workplace harassment and incivilities, and other stressors were assessed via questionnaire. In models adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, greater exposure to racial (β = -0.14)) and nonracial (β = -0.08) everyday discrimination, major experiences of discrimination attributed to race/ethnicity (β = -0.17), and workplace harassment and incivilities (β = -0.14) were associated with shorter sleep (P stressors (i.e., acute events, childhood adversity, and financial, community, employment, and relationship stressors). Racial (β = 0.04) and non-racial (β = 0.05) everyday discrimination and racial (β = 0.04) and nonracial (β = 0.04) major experiences of discrimination, and workplace harassment and incivilities (β = 0.04) were also associated with more (log) sleep difficulties, and associations between racial and nonracial everyday discrimination and sleep difficulties remained after adjustment for other stressors (P 0.05). Conclusions: Discrimination was associated with shorter sleep and more sleep difficulties, independent of socioeconomic status and other stressors, and may account for some of the racial/ethnic differences in sleep. Citation: Slopen N; Williams DR. Discrimination, other psychosocial stressors, and self-reported sleep duration and difficulties. SLEEP 2014;37(1):147-156. PMID:24381373

  5. Healthy Sleep Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sleep Apnea Testing CPAP Healthy Sleep Habits Healthy Sleep Habits Your behaviors during the day, and especially ... team at an AASM accredited sleep center . Quick Sleep Tips Follow these tips to establish healthy sleep ...

  6. Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... find out more. Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a ... find out more. Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a ...

  7. Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... find out more. Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a ... find out more. Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a ...

  8. Sleep, immunity and inflammation in gastrointestinal disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Tauseef; Choe, James; Awab, Ahmed; Wagener, Theodore L; Orr, William C

    2013-01-01

    Sleep disorders have become a global issue, and discovering their causes and consequences are the focus of many research endeavors. An estimated 70 million Americans suffer from some form of sleep disorder. Certain sleep disorders have been shown to cause neurocognitive impairment such as decreased cognitive ability, slower response times and performance detriments. Recent research suggests that individuals with sleep abnormalities are also at greater risk of serious adverse health, economic ...

  9. Sleep Apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep apnea is a common disorder that causes your breathing to stop or get very shallow. Breathing ... an hour. The most common type is obstructive sleep apnea. It causes your airway to collapse or ...

  10. Sleep Apnea–Hypopnea Syndrome and Acute Coronary Syndrome – An association not to forget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Areias

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the prevalence of Sleep Apnea–Hypopnea Syndrome (SAHS in patients who were admitted with Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS to the Coronary Care Unit (CCU and the clinical predictors of SAHS in patients with ACS and to compare the results of the simple sleep test (SST with polysomnography (PSG. Methods: This was a prospective study that included patients who were admitted to the CCU with ACS, which was confirmed by coronary angiography. Demographic and anthropometric data, cardiovascular risk factors and measures on the Epworth Sleepiness Scale were collected. The SST was conducted with the ApneaLink™ device during hospitalization or after discharge. Patients with an apnea–hypopnea index (AHI ≥10/h were invited to participate in PSG. Results: Ninety-one patients with ACS were consecutively included over 4 months. Of the 58 patients who completed the study 43 (74.1% were male. The mean age was 61.7 ± 12.2 years, and the mean body mass index was 27.4 ± 3.5 kg/m2. The median time for SST performance was 17.5 days. This study was compatible with SAHS in 25 cases (43.1%. Patients who had an AHI ≥10/h in the SST were submitted to PSG and SST simultaneously. The median interval between the ACS and the execution of PSG was 30 days. PSG confirmed that all the cases detected by SST were positive. Conclusion: In our study, we found a high prevalence of SAHS in patients who were admitted to the CCU with ACS (43.1%. These results support the need for SAHS screening in patients who are hospitalized with ACS. The SST may have a role in the screening of SAHS in this population. Resumo: Objetivo: Avaliar a prevalência da Síndrome de Apneia-Hipopneia do Sono (SAHS em doentes internados na Unidade de Cuidados Intensivos Coronários (UCIC; determinar fatores clínicos preditivos de SAHS; comparar os resultados obtidos com o estudo de sono simplificado (ESS com os da polissonografia (PSG. M

  11. Sleep-related problems in common medical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish, James M

    2009-02-01

    Common medical problems are often associated with abnormalities of sleep. Patients with chronic medical disorders often have fewer hours of sleep and less restorative sleep compared to healthy individuals, and this poor sleep may worsen the subjective symptoms of the disorder. Individuals with lung disease often have disturbed sleep related to oxygen desaturations, coughing, or dyspnea. Both obstructive lung disease and restrictive lung diseases are associated with poor quality sleep. Awakenings from sleep are common in untreated or undertreated asthma, and cause sleep disruption. Gastroesophageal reflux is a major cause of disrupted sleep due to awakenings from heartburn, dyspepsia, acid brash, coughing, or choking. Patients with chronic renal disease commonly have sleep complaints often due to insomnia, insufficient sleep, sleep apnea, or restless legs syndrome. Complaints related to sleep are very common in patients with fibromyalgia and other causes of chronic pain. Sleep disruption increases the sensation of pain and decreases quality of life. Patients with infectious diseases, including acute viral illnesses, HIV-related disease, and Lyme disease, may have significant problems with insomnia and hypersomnolence. Women with menopause have from insomnia, sleep-disordered breathing, restless legs syndrome, or fibromyalgia. Patients with cancer or receiving cancer therapy are often bothered by insomnia or other sleep disturbances that affect quality of life and daytime energy. The objective of this article is to review frequently encountered medical conditions and examine their impact on sleep, and to review frequent sleep-related problems associated with these common medical conditions.

  12. Gratitude influences sleep through the mechanism of pre-sleep cognitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Alex M; Joseph, Stephen; Lloyd, Joanna; Atkins, Samuel

    2009-01-01

    To test whether individual differences in gratitude are related to sleep after controlling for neuroticism and other traits. To test whether pre-sleep cognitions are the mechanism underlying this relationship. A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted with a large (186 males, 215 females) community sample (ages=18-68 years, mean=24.89, S.D.=9.02), including 161 people (40%) scoring above 5 on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, indicating clinically impaired sleep. Measures included gratitude, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), self-statement test of pre-sleep cognitions, the Mini-IPIP scales of Big Five personality traits, and the Social Desirability Scale. Gratitude predicted greater subjective sleep quality and sleep duration, and less sleep latency and daytime dysfunction. The relationship between gratitude and each of the sleep variables was mediated by more positive pre-sleep cognitions and less negative pre-sleep cognitions. All of the results were independent of the effect of the Big Five personality traits (including neuroticism) and social desirability. This is the first study to show that a positive trait is related to good sleep quality above the effect of other personality traits, and to test whether pre-sleep cognitions are the mechanism underlying the relationship between any personality trait and sleep. The study is also the first to show that trait gratitude is related to sleep and to explain why this occurs, suggesting future directions for research, and novel clinical implications.

  13. Sleep-related laryngospasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio S. Aloe

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available Seven patients (mean age 46.6; range 33-58; 6M.1F presented with sleep-related choking episodes and were found to have features in common that distinguished them from other known causes of choking episodes during sleep. The characteristic features include: an awakening from sleep with an acute choking sensation, stridor, panic, tachycardia, short duration of episode Gess than 60 seconds, infrequent episodes (typically less than 1 per month, and absence of any known etiology. The disorder most commonly occurs in middle-aged males who are otherwise healthy. In one patient an episode of laryngospasm was polysomnographically documented to occur during stage 3. The clinical features and the polysomnographic findings suggest spasm of the vocal cords of unknown etiology.

  14. Sleep duration moderates the association between insula activation and risky decisions under stress in adolescents and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uy, Jessica Phuong; Galván, Adriana

    2017-01-27

    Insufficient sleep has been associated with increased risk-taking and poor decision-making, enhanced physiological responses to stress, and attenuated anterior insula (AI) activity to risk. The AI has also been linked to risky decision-making under acute stress. However, it is yet unknown how naturalistic sleep habits affect risky decision-making and AI activity when individuals feel stressed. In the current study, a daily diary approach was used to document participants' daily stress. Adolescents and adults reported their recent sleep duration and completed two fMRI visits during which they performed a risky decision-making task: once each when they endorsed a high and low level of stress. Results revealed that, regardless of age, individuals who reported receiving more sleep took fewer non-advantageous risks during high stress relative to those who reported receiving fewer hours of sleep per night while sleep duration was not associated with risky behavior under low stress. Among individuals who reported less sleep, those who exhibited reduced AI activation during risk-taking under high stress also took more disadvantageous risks whereas this effect was attenuated for those who reported longer sleep duration. Moreover, longer sleep duration was associated with greater functional coupling between the AI and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) under high stress whereas sleep duration was not associated with AI-DLPFC functional coupling under low stress. These findings suggest that naturalistic sleep duration may amplify the effects of daily stress and alter risky decision-making behavior through interactions with the AI. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Sleep-related laryngospasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurnheer, R; Henz, S; Knoblauch, A

    1997-09-01

    The term "sleep-related laryngospasm" refers to episodic, abrupt interruption of sleep accompanied by feelings of acute suffocation followed by stridor. The condition is included in the diagnostic and coding manual of the American Sleep Disorders Association (ASDA), but there are few references in the peer-reviewed literature. Our description of the distinct clinical picture associated with this condition is based on an analysis of the histories of a series of 10 patients. The patients and their families gave precise, uniform accounts of the dramatic attacks. Diagnostic work-up included pulmonary and gastroenterological assessment. All patients reported sudden awakening from sleep due to feelings of acute suffocation, accompanied by intense fear. Apnoea lasting 5-45 s was followed by stridor. Breathing returned to normal within minutes. Patients were left exhausted by the attacks. Nine of our 10 patients had evidence of gastro-oesophageal reflux and six responded to antireflux therapy. We conclude that the nocturnal choking attacks (and the occasional daytime attacks experienced by some of the patients) are caused by laryngospasm. The pathogenesis of the apparent underlying laryngeal irritability is unknown. The condition may be related to a gastro-oesophageal reflux.

  16. The genome-wide landscape of DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation in response to sleep deprivation impacts on synaptic plasticity genes

    OpenAIRE

    Massart, R; Freyburger, M; Suderman, M; Paquet, J; El Helou, J; Belanger-Nelson, E; Rachalski, A; Koumar, O C; Carrier, J; Szyf, M; Mongrain, V

    2014-01-01

    Sleep is critical for normal brain function and mental health. However, the molecular mechanisms mediating the impact of sleep loss on both cognition and the sleep electroencephalogram remain mostly unknown. Acute sleep loss impacts brain gene expression broadly. These data contributed to current hypotheses regarding the role for sleep in metabolism, synaptic plasticity and neuroprotection. These changes in gene expression likely underlie increased sleep intensity following sleep deprivation ...

  17. Effects of work-related sleep restriction on acute physiological and psychological stress responses and their interactions: A review among emergency service personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Wolkow

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Emergency work can expose personnel to sleep restriction. Inadequate amounts of sleep can negatively affect physiological and psychological stress responses. This review critiqued the emergency service literature (e.g., firefighting, police/law enforcement, defense forces, ambulance/paramedic personnel that has investigated the effect of sleep restriction on hormonal, inflammatory and psychological responses. Furthermore, it investigated if a psycho-physiological approach can help contextualize the significance of such responses to assist emergency service agencies monitor the health of their personnel. The available literature suggests that sleep restriction across multiple work days can disrupt cytokine and cortisol levels, deteriorate mood and elicit simultaneous physiological and psychological responses. However, research concerning the interaction between such responses is limited and inconclusive. Therefore, it is unknown if a psycho-physiological relationship exists and as a result, it is currently not feasible for agencies to monitor sleep restriction related stress based on psycho- physiological interactions. Sleep restriction does however, appear to be a major stressor contributing to physiological and psychological responses and thus, warrants further investigation.

  18. Effects of work-related sleep restriction on acute physiological and psychological stress responses and their interactions: A review among emergency service personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolkow, Alexander; Ferguson, Sally; Aisbett, Brad; Main, Luana

    2015-01-01

    Emergency work can expose personnel to sleep restriction. Inadequate amounts of sleep can negatively affect physiological and psychological stress responses. This review critiqued the emergency service literature (e.g., firefighting, police/law enforcement, defense forces, ambulance/paramedic personnel) that has investigated the effect of sleep restriction on hormonal, inflammatory and psychological responses. Furthermore, it investigated if a psycho-physiological approach can help contextualize the significance of such responses to assist emergency service agencies monitor the health of their personnel. The available literature suggests that sleep restriction across multiple work days can disrupt cytokine and cortisol levels, deteriorate mood and elicit simultaneous physiological and psychological responses. However, research concerning the interaction between such responses is limited and inconclusive. Therefore, it is unknown if a psycho-physiological relationship exists and as a result, it is currently not feasible for agencies to monitor sleep restriction related stress based on psycho- physiological interactions. Sleep restriction does however, appear to be a major stressor contributing to physiological and psychological responses and thus, warrants further investigation. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  19. Vitamin C Prevents Sleep Deprivation-induced Elevation in Cortisol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    person can be aroused by sensory or other stimuli. (Hall, 2015), is an ... 2007). This can be acute (a single period of extended ... short-term (acute) Sleep Deprivation, such studies for .... induced memory impairment: the role of oxidative stress.

  20. Malian children with moderate acute malnutrition who are treated with lipid-based dietary supplements have greater weight gains and recovery rates than those treated with locally produced cereal-legume products: a community-based, cluster-randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackatia-Armah, Robert S; McDonald, Christine M; Doumbia, Seydou; Erhardt, Juergen G; Hamer, Davidson H; Brown, Kenneth H

    2015-03-01

    Moderate acute malnutrition (MAM), defined as weight-for-length z score between -3 and -2 or midupper arm circumference between 11.5 and 12.5 cm, affects ∼33 million children aged health centers in rural Mali were randomly assigned to provide to 1264 MAM children aged 6-35 mo one of 4 dietary supplements containing ∼500 kcal/d for 12 wk: 1) ready-to-use, lipid-based supplementary food (RUSF); 2) special corn-soy blend (CSB++); 3) locally processed, fortified flour (Misola); or 4) locally milled flours plus oil, sugar, and micronutrient powder (LMF). In total, 1178 children (93.2%) completed the study. The adjusted mean (95% CI) change in weight (kg) from baseline was greater with RUSF than with the locally processed blends and was intermediate with CSB++ [1.16 (1.08, 1.24) for RUSF, 1.04 (0.96, 1.13) for CSB++, 0.91 (0.82, 0.99) for Misola, and 0.83 (0.74, 0.92) for LMF; P < 0.001]. For length change, RUSF and CSB++ differed significantly from LMF. Sustained recovery rates were higher with RUSF (73%) than with Misola (61%) and LMF (58%), P < 0.0001; CSB++ recovery rates (68%) did not differ from any of the other groups. RUSF was more effective, but more costly, than other dietary supplements for the treatment of MAM; CSB++ yielded intermediate results. The benefits of treatment should be considered in relation to product costs and availability. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  1. Differential modulation of global and local neural oscillations in REM sleep by homeostatic sleep regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bowon; Kocsis, Bernat; Hwang, Eunjin; Kim, Youngsoo; Strecker, Robert E; McCarley, Robert W; Choi, Jee Hyun

    2017-02-28

    Homeostatic rebound in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep normally occurs after acute sleep deprivation, but REM sleep rebound settles on a persistently elevated level despite continued accumulation of REM sleep debt during chronic sleep restriction (CSR). Using high-density EEG in mice, we studied how this pattern of global regulation is implemented in cortical regions with different functions and network architectures. We found that across all areas, slow oscillations repeated the behavioral pattern of persistent enhancement during CSR, whereas high-frequency oscillations showed progressive increases. This pattern followed a common rule despite marked topographic differences. The findings suggest that REM sleep slow oscillations may translate top-down homeostatic control to widely separated brain regions whereas fast oscillations synchronizing local neuronal ensembles escape this global command. These patterns of EEG oscillation changes are interpreted to reconcile two prevailing theories of the function of sleep, synaptic homeostasis and sleep dependent memory consolidation.

  2. Flavanol-rich chocolate acutely improves arterial function and working memory performance counteracting the effects of sleep deprivation in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Davide; Socci, Valentina; Tempesta, Daniela; Ferri, Claudio; De Gennaro, Luigi; Desideri, Giovambattista; Ferrara, Michele

    2016-07-01

    Sleep deprivation is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Cocoa flavonoids exert cardiovascular benefits and neuroprotection. Whether chocolate consumption may mitigate detrimental effects of sleep loss on cognitive performance and cardiovascular parameters has never been studied. We investigated the effects of flavanol-rich chocolate consumption on cognitive skills and cardiovascular parameters after sleep deprivation. Thirty-two healthy participants underwent two baseline sessions after one night of undisturbed sleep and two experimental sessions after one night of total sleep deprivation. Two hours before each testing session, participants were randomly assigned to consume high or poor flavanol chocolate bars. During the tests were evaluated, the Psychomotor Vigilance Task and a working memory task, office SBP and DBP, flow-mediated dilation and pulse-wave velocity. Sleep deprivation increased SBP/DBP. SBP/DBP and pulse pressure were lower after flavanol-rich treatment respect to flavanol-poor treatment (SBP: 116.9 ± 1.6 vs. 120.8 ± 1.9 mmHg, respectively, P = 0.00005; DBP: 70.5 ± 1.2 vs. 72.3 ± 1.2 mmHg, respectively, P = 0.01; pulse pressure: 46.4 ± 1.3 vs. 48.4 ± 1.5 mmHg, P = 0.004). Sleep deprivation impaired flow-mediated dilation (5.5 ± 0.5 vs. 6.5 ± 0.6%, P = 0.02), flavanol-rich, but not flavanol-poor chocolate counteracted this alteration (flavanol-rich/flavanol-poor chocolate: 7.0 ± 0.6 vs. 5.0 ± 0.4%, P = 0.000001). Flavanol-rich chocolate mitigated the pulse-wave velocity increase (P = 0.001). Flavanol-rich chocolate preserved working memory accuracy in women after sleep deprivation. Flow-mediated dilation correlated with working memory performance accuracy in the sleep condition (P = 0.04). Flavanol-rich chocolate counteracted vascular impairment after sleep deprivation and restored working memory performance. Improvement in cognitive performance could be because

  3. Mammalian sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staunton, Hugh

    2005-05-01

    This review examines the biological background to the development of ideas on rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep), so-called paradoxical sleep (PS), and its relation to dreaming. Aspects of the phenomenon which are discussed include physiological changes and their anatomical location, the effects of total and selective sleep deprivation in the human and animal, and REM sleep behavior disorder, the latter with its clinical manifestations in the human. Although dreaming also occurs in other sleep phases (non-REM or NREM sleep), in the human, there is a contingent relation between REM sleep and dreaming. Thus, REM is taken as a marker for dreaming and as REM is distributed ubiquitously throughout the mammalian class, it is suggested that other mammals also dream. It is suggested that the overall function of REM sleep/dreaming is more important than the content of the individual dream; its function is to place the dreamer protagonist/observer on the topographical world. This has importance for the developing infant who needs to develop a sense of self and separateness from the world which it requires to navigate and from which it is separated for long periods in sleep. Dreaming may also serve to maintain a sense of ‘I’ness or “self” in the adult, in whom a fragility of this faculty is revealed in neurological disorders.

  4. [Relationships between sleep and addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañellas, Francesca; de Lecea, Luis

    2012-01-01

    While it is well known that there is an interaction between sleep disorders and substance abuse, it is certainly more complex than was previously thought. There is a positive relationship both between having a substance use disorder and suffering from a sleep disorder, and vice versa. The effects on sleep depend on the substance used, but it has been shown that both during use and in withdrawal periods consumers have various sleep problems, and basically more fragmented sleep. We know that sleep problems must be taken into account to prevent addiction relapses. Recent research shows that the hypocretinergic system defined by neuropeptide hypocretin / orexin (Hcrt / ox), located in the lateral hypothalamus and involved in, among other things, the regulation of the sleep-wake cycle, may play an important role in addictive behaviors. Different studies have demonstrated interactions between the hypocretinergic system, acute response to stress circuits and reward systems. We also know that selective optogenetic activation of the hypocretinergic system increases the probability of transition from sleep to wakefulness, and is sufficient for initiating an addictive compulsive behavior relapse. Hypocretinergic system activation could explain the hyperarousal associated with stress and addiction. Improved knowledge of this interaction would help us to understand better the mechanisms of addiction and find new strategies for the treatment of addictions.

  5. The Sleep-Time Cost of Parenting: Sleep Duration and Sleepiness Among Employed Parents in the Wisconsin Sleep Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Erika W.; Mirer, Anna G.; Palta, Mari; Peppard, Paul E.

    2013-01-01

    Insufficient sleep is associated with poor health and increased mortality. Studies on whether parenthood (including consideration of number and ages of children) is associated with sleep duration or sleep problems are scant and inconclusive. Using data collected in the Wisconsin Sleep Cohort Study (n = 4,809) between 1989 and 2008, we examined cross-sectional associations of number and ages of children with self-reported parental sleep duration, daytime sleepiness, and dozing among employed adults. Longitudinal change in sleep duration over 19 years was examined to evaluate changes in parental sleep associated with children transitioning into adulthood (n = 833). Each child under age 2 years was associated with 13 fewer minutes of parental sleep per day (95% confidence interval (CI): 5, 21); each child aged 2–5 years was associated with 9 fewer minutes of sleep (95% CI: 5, 13); and each child aged 6–18 years was associated with 4 fewer minutes (95% CI: 2, 6). Adult children were not associated with shorter parental sleep duration. Parents of children over age 2 years were significantly more likely to experience daytime sleepiness and dozing during daytime activities. Parents of minor children at baseline had significantly greater increases in sleep duration over 19 years of follow-up. Parenting minor children is associated with shorter sleep duration. As children age into adulthood, the sleep duration of parents with more children approaches that of parents with fewer children. PMID:23378502

  6. Sleep and Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Exploring the Relationship Between Sleep Disturbances and Inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Kinnucan, Jami A.; Rubin, David T.; Ali, Tauseef

    2013-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are associated with a greater risk of serious adverse health events, economic consequences, and, most importantly, increased all-cause mortality. Several studies support the associations among sleep, immune function, and inflammation. The relationship between sleep disturbances and inflammatory conditions is complex and not completely understood. Sleep deprivation can lead to increased levels of inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-1β IL-6, tumor necrosis fact...

  7. An experimental test of blunting using sleep-restriction as an acute stressor in Type D and non-Type D women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Éanna D; Howard, Siobhán; Hughes, Brian M; James, Jack E

    2013-10-01

    Recent years have seen a growing interest in evidence indicating that a low, or blunted, cardiovascular response to stress may predict increased risk for a range of adverse health outcomes. Type D personality has been associated with poor health in cardiac patients, and more recently, has been associated with lower reactivity to laboratory stress in healthy individuals, underpinned by an increase in vascular responding. Previous findings have also demonstrated that partial sleep restriction is characterised by a robust vascular profile. However, despite the fact that a vascular response profile underpins both reactivity in sleep restricted adults and blunted reactivity in healthy Type D adults, limited empirical work has examined the correlates of sleep restriction and Type D. The present study sought to investigate if manipulation of sleep duration in healthy Type D and non-Type D individuals would alter cardiovascular reactivity to stress, and in particular whether such manipulation could elucidate the comparative nature of blunting. Seventy female university students completed a laboratory social stress task while undergoing continuous hemodynamic monitoring, after either a night of partial sleep restriction or a full night's rest. In both groups, Type D participants exhibited relatively low SBP stress responses, consistent with the view that at-risk groups show blunting in (some indices of) cardiovascular reactivity. For non-Type D participants, low SBP responses were observed only in participants who had undergone sleep restriction, suggesting that sleep-restriction served as an environmental stressor which precipitated in non-Type D persons a cardiovascular stress response resembling that ordinarily seen in Type D persons. This blunted response was associated with an increase in vascular responding. Thus, the findings suggest that blunting is characterised not only by reductions in some (frequently studied) cardiovascular parameters, but also by increases in

  8. Sleep and Women’s Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Nowakowski

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Sex differences in sleep begin at a very early age and women report poorer sleep quality and have higher risk for insomnia than do men. Sleep may be affected by variation in reproductive hormones, stress, depression, aging, life/role transitions, and other factors. The menstrual cycle is associated with changes in circadian rhythms and sleep architecture. Menstruating women (even without significant menstrual-related complaints often report poorer sleep quality and greater sleep disturbance during the premenstrual week compared to other times of her menstrual cycle. In addition to these sleep disturbances, women with severe premenstrual syndrome often report more disturbing dreams, sleepiness, fatigue, decreased alertness and concentration during the premenstrual phase. Sleep disturbances are also commonly reported during pregnancy and increase in frequency and duration as the pregnancy progresses. The precipitous decline in hormones and unpredictable sleep patterns of the newborn contribute to and/or exacerbate poor sleep and daytime sleepiness during the early postpartum period. Insomnia is also among the most common health complaints that are reported by perimenopausal women. Women are particularly vulnerable to developing insomnia disorder during these times of reproductive hormonal change. In this review, we present a discussion on the most relevant and recent publications on sleep across the woman’s lifespan, including changes in sleep related to menstruation, pregnancy, postpartum, and the menopausal transition. Treatment for sleep disturbances and insomnia disorder and special considerations for treating women will also be discussed.

  9. Sleep disorders - overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insomnia; Narcolepsy; Hypersomina; Daytime sleepiness; Sleep rhythm; Sleep disruptive behaviors; Jet lag ... excessive daytime sleepiness) Problems sticking to a regular sleep schedule (sleep rhythm problem) Unusual behaviors during sleep ( ...

  10. Central sleep apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep apnea - central; Obesity - central sleep apnea; Cheyne-Stokes - central sleep apnea; Heart failure - central sleep apnea ... Central sleep apnea results when the brain temporarily stops sending signals to the muscles that control breathing. The condition ...

  11. Sleep Apnea (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Obstructive Sleep Apnea KidsHealth / For Parents / Obstructive Sleep Apnea What's ... How Is Sleep Apnea Treated? Print What Is Sleep Apnea? Brief pauses in breathing during sleep are ...

  12. The sleep of elite athletes at sea level and high altitude: a comparison of sea-level natives and high-altitude natives (ISA3600)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Gregory D; Schmidt, Walter F; Aughey, Robert J; Bourdon, Pitre C; Soria, Rudy; Claros, Jesus C Jimenez; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Buchheit, Martin; Simpson, Ben M; Hammond, Kristal; Kley, Marlen; Wachsmuth, Nadine; Gore, Christopher J; Sargent, Charli

    2013-01-01

    Background Altitude exposure causes acute sleep disruption in non-athletes, but little is known about its effects in elite athletes. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of altitude on two groups of elite athletes, that is, sea-level natives and high-altitude natives. Methods Sea-level natives were members of the Australian under-17 soccer team (n=14). High-altitude natives were members of a Bolivian under-20 club team (n=12). Teams participated in an 18-day (19 nights) training camp in Bolivia, with 6 nights at near sea level in Santa Cruz (430 m) and 13 nights at high altitude in La Paz (3600 m). Sleep was assessed on every day/night using activity monitors. Results The Australians’ sleep was shorter, and of poorer quality, on the first night at altitude compared with sea level. Sleep quality returned to normal by the end of the first week at altitude, but sleep quantity had still not stabilised at its normal level after 2 weeks. The quantity and quality of sleep obtained by the Bolivians was similar, or greater, on all nights at altitude compared with sea level. The Australians tended to obtain more sleep than the Bolivians at sea level and altitude, but the quality of the Bolivians’ sleep tended to be better than that of the Australians at altitude. Conclusions Exposure to high altitude causes acute and chronic disruption to the sleep of elite athletes who are sea-level natives, but it does not affect the sleep of elite athletes who are high-altitude natives. PMID:24282197

  13. The sleep of elite athletes at sea level and high altitude: a comparison of sea-level natives and high-altitude natives (ISA3600).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Gregory D; Schmidt, Walter F; Aughey, Robert J; Bourdon, Pitre C; Soria, Rudy; Claros, Jesus C Jimenez; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Buchheit, Martin; Simpson, Ben M; Hammond, Kristal; Kley, Marlen; Wachsmuth, Nadine; Gore, Christopher J; Sargent, Charli

    2013-12-01

    Altitude exposure causes acute sleep disruption in non-athletes, but little is known about its effects in elite athletes. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of altitude on two groups of elite athletes, that is, sea-level natives and high-altitude natives. Sea-level natives were members of the Australian under-17 soccer team (n=14). High-altitude natives were members of a Bolivian under-20 club team (n=12). Teams participated in an 18-day (19 nights) training camp in Bolivia, with 6 nights at near sea level in Santa Cruz (430 m) and 13 nights at high altitude in La Paz (3600 m). Sleep was assessed on every day/night using activity monitors. The Australians' sleep was shorter, and of poorer quality, on the first night at altitude compared with sea level. Sleep quality returned to normal by the end of the first week at altitude, but sleep quantity had still not stabilised at its normal level after 2 weeks. The quantity and quality of sleep obtained by the Bolivians was similar, or greater, on all nights at altitude compared with sea level. The Australians tended to obtain more sleep than the Bolivians at sea level and altitude, but the quality of the Bolivians' sleep tended to be better than that of the Australians at altitude. Exposure to high altitude causes acute and chronic disruption to the sleep of elite athletes who are sea-level natives, but it does not affect the sleep of elite athletes who are high-altitude natives.

  14. Vitamin C Prevents Sleep Deprivation-induced Elevation in Cortisol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, we examined the potential protective effects of administration of vitamin C on acute and chronic sleep deprivation-induced metabolic derangement. In addition, possible processes involved in vitamin C effects on acute and chronic sleep deprivation-induced metabolic derangement were determined. Thirty-five ...

  15. Hypertension and obstructive sleep apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillips CL

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Craig L Phillips,1–3 Denise M O'Driscoll4,51Department of Respiratory and Sleep Medicine, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, Australia; 2National Health and Medical Research Council Center for Integrated Research and Understanding of Sleep, Woolcock Institute of Medical Research, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia; 3Discipline of Sleep Medicine, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia; 4Monash Lung and Sleep, Monash Medical Centre, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia; 5Department of Medicine, Southern Clinical School, Monash University, Melbourne, AustraliaAbstract: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is increasingly being recognized as a major health burden with strong focus on the associated cardiovascular risk. Studies from the last two decades have provided strong evidence for a causal role of OSA in the development of systemic hypertension. The acute physiological changes that occur during apnea promote nocturnal hypertension and may lead to the development of sustained daytime hypertension via the pathways of sympathetic activation, inflammation, oxidative stress, and endothelial dysfunction. This review will focus on the acute hemodynamic disturbances and associated intermittent hypoxia that characterize OSA and the potential pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for the development of hypertension in OSA. In addition the epidemiology of OSA and hypertension, as well as the role of treatment of OSA, in improving blood pressure control will be examined.Keywords: obstructive sleep apnea, hypertension, intermittent hypoxia, ambulatory blood pressure, sympathetic activation

  16. Infant sleep development from 3 to 6 months postpartum: links with maternal sleep and paternal involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikotzky, Liat; Sadeh, Avi; Volkovich, Ella; Manber, Rachel; Meiri, Gal; Shahar, Golan

    2015-03-01

    The aims of this longitudinal study were to examine (a) development of infant sleep and maternal sleep from 3 to 6 months postpartum; (b) concomitant and prospective links between maternal sleep and infant sleep; and (c) triadic links between paternal involvement in infant caregiving and maternal and infant sleep. The study included 57 families that were recruited during pregnancy. Maternal and infant sleep was assessed using actigraphy and sleep diaries for 5 nights. Both fathers and mothers completed a questionnaire assessing the involvement of fathers relative to mothers in infant caregiving. The results demonstrated moderate improvement in infant and maternal sleep percent between 3 and 6 months. Maternal sleep percent at 3 months significantly predicted infant sleep percent at 6 months. Greater paternal involvement in infant daytime and nighttime caregiving at 3 months significantly predicted more consolidated maternal and infant sleep at 6 months. These findings suggest that maternal sleep is an important predictor of infant sleep and that increased involvement of fathers in infant caregiving responsibilities may contribute to improvements in both maternal and infant sleep during the first 6 months postpartum. © 2015 The Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  17. Sleep in thyrotoxicosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G R Sridhar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Pattern of sleep in hyperthyroid state / thyrotoxicosis has not been systematically studied. It is being characterized as poor without further elaboration. We analyzed the pattern of sleep in a large sample of individuals with thyrotoxicosis who came to our endocrine center in southern India. Materials and Methods: We identified individuals with the diagnosis of ′thyrotoxicosis′ from our electronic medical record database, and evaluated clinical parameters and pattern of their sleep: difficulty in falling asleep (DFA, difficulty in maintaining sleep (DMS, excess daytime sleepiness. In the first phase, univariate analysis with logistic regression was performed. Multivariate logistic regression was performed in the next phase on variables with a P-value < 0.1: these were considered as potential categories/ variables. Results: In model response variable with DFA, multivariate logistic regression predicted that subjects with abnormal appetite (more 1.7 or less 2.2, change in bowel motion (loose 1.5 or constipation 2.8, in mood (easy loss of temper 3.4, change of voice -- hoarse 7.4 or moderately hoarse 3.1, tended to have higher chances of difficulty in falling asleep (DFA. Patients with tremor (yes = 5.4 had greater likelihood of difficulty in maintaining sleep (DMS. Conclusions: Individuals with hyperthyroidism/thyrotoxicosis principally had difficulty in falling asleep DFA, which was related to hyperkinetic features.

  18. Starting a sleep center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Lawrence J; Valentine, Paul S

    2010-05-01

    The demand for sleep medicine services has grown tremendously during the last decade and will likely continue. To date, growth in demand has been met by growth in the number of new sleep centers. The need for more new centers will be dependent on market drivers that include increasing regulatory requirements, personnel shortages, integration of home sleep testing, changes in reimbursement, a shift in emphasis from diagnostics to treatment, and an increased consumer focus on sleep. The decision to open a new center should be based on understanding the market dynamics, completing a market analysis, and developing a business plan. The business plan should include an overview of the facility, a personnel and organizational structure, an evaluation of the business environment, a financial plan, a description of services provided, and a strategy for obtaining, managing, and extending a referral base. Implementation of the business plan and successful operation require ongoing planning and monitoring of operational parameters. The need for new sleep centers will likely continue, but the shifting market dynamics indicate a greater need for understanding the marketplace and careful planning.

  19. Circadian Rhythms, Sleep Deprivation, and Human Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Namni; Basner, Mathias; Rao, Hengyi; Dinges, David F.

    2014-01-01

    Much of the current science on, and mathematical modeling of, dynamic changes in human performance within and between days is dominated by the two-process model of sleep–wake regulation, which posits a neurobiological drive for sleep that varies homeostatically (increasing as a saturating exponential during wakefulness and decreasing in a like manner during sleep), and a circadian process that neurobiologically modulates both the homeostatic drive for sleep and waking alertness and performance. Endogenous circadian rhythms in neurobehavioral functions, including physiological alertness and cognitive performance, have been demonstrated using special laboratory protocols that reveal the interaction of the biological clock with the sleep homeostatic drive. Individual differences in circadian rhythms and genetic and other components underlying such differences also influence waking neurobehavioral functions. Both acute total sleep deprivation and chronic sleep restriction increase homeostatic sleep drive and degrade waking neurobehavioral functions as reflected in sleepiness, attention, cognitive speed, and memory. Recent evidence indicating a high degree of stability in neurobehavioral responses to sleep loss suggests that these trait-like individual differences are phenotypic and likely involve genetic components, including circadian genes. Recent experiments have revealed both sleep homeostatic and circadian effects on brain metabolism and neural activation. Investigation of the neural and genetic mechanisms underlying the dynamically complex interaction between sleep homeostasis and circadian systems is beginning. A key goal of this work is to identify biomarkers that accurately predict human performance in situations in which the circadian and sleep homeostatic systems are perturbed. PMID:23899598

  20. Estimating adolescent sleep need using dose-response modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Michelle A; Weber, Nathan; Reynolds, Chelsea; Coussens, Scott; Carskadon, Mary A

    2018-04-01

    This study will (1) estimate the nightly sleep need of human adolescents, (2) determine the time course and severity of sleep-related deficits when sleep is reduced below this optimal quantity, and (3) determine whether sleep restriction perturbs the circadian system as well as the sleep homeostat. Thirty-four adolescents aged 15 to 17 years spent 10 days and nine nights in the sleep laboratory. Between two baseline nights and two recovery nights with 10 hours' time in bed (TIB) per night, participants experienced either severe sleep restriction (5-hour TIB), moderate sleep restriction (7.5-hour TIB), or no sleep restriction (10-hour TIB) for five nights. A 10-minute psychomotor vigilance task (PVT; lapse = response after 500 ms) and the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale were administered every 3 hours during wake. Salivary dim-light melatonin onset was calculated at baseline and after four nights of each sleep dose to estimate circadian phase. Dose-dependent deficits to sleep duration, circadian phase timing, lapses of attention, and subjective sleepiness occurred. Less TIB resulted in less sleep, more lapses of attention, greater subjective sleepiness, and larger circadian phase delays. Sleep need estimated from 10-hour TIB sleep opportunities was approximately 9 hours, while modeling PVT lapse data suggested that 9.35 hours of sleep is needed to maintain optimal sustained attention performance. Sleep restriction perturbs homeostatic and circadian systems, leading to dose-dependent deficits to sustained attention and sleepiness. Adolescents require more sleep for optimal functioning than typically obtained.

  1. Sleep-Dependent Modulation of Metabolic Rate in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Bethany A; Slocumb, Melissa E; Chaitin, Hersh; DiAngelo, Justin R; Keene, Alex C

    2017-08-01

    Dysregulation of sleep is associated with metabolic diseases, and metabolic rate (MR) is acutely regulated by sleep-wake behavior. In humans and rodent models, sleep loss is associated with obesity, reduced metabolic rate, and negative energy balance, yet little is known about the neural mechanisms governing interactions between sleep and metabolism. We have developed a system to simultaneously measure sleep and MR in individual Drosophila, allowing for interrogation of neural systems governing interactions between sleep and metabolic rate. Like mammals, MR in flies is reduced during sleep and increased during sleep deprivation suggesting sleep-dependent regulation of MR is conserved across phyla. The reduction of MR during sleep is not simply a consequence of inactivity because MR is reduced ~30 minutes following the onset of sleep, raising the possibility that CO2 production provides a metric to distinguish different sleep states in the fruit fly. To examine the relationship between sleep and metabolism, we determined basal and sleep-dependent changes in MR is reduced in starved flies, suggesting that starvation inhibits normal sleep-associated effects on metabolic rate. Further, translin mutant flies that fail to suppress sleep during starvation demonstrate a lower basal metabolic rate, but this rate was further reduced in response to starvation, revealing that regulation of starvation-induced changes in MR and sleep duration are genetically distinct. Therefore, this system provides the unique ability to simultaneously measure sleep and oxidative metabolism, providing novel insight into the physiological changes associated with sleep and wakefulness in the fruit fly. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Sleep, immunity and inflammation in gastrointestinal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Tauseef; Choe, James; Awab, Ahmed; Wagener, Theodore L; Orr, William C

    2013-12-28

    Sleep disorders have become a global issue, and discovering their causes and consequences are the focus of many research endeavors. An estimated 70 million Americans suffer from some form of sleep disorder. Certain sleep disorders have been shown to cause neurocognitive impairment such as decreased cognitive ability, slower response times and performance detriments. Recent research suggests that individuals with sleep abnormalities are also at greater risk of serious adverse health, economic consequences, and most importantly increased all-cause mortality. Several research studies support the associations among sleep, immune function and inflammation. Here, we review the current research linking sleep, immune function, and gastrointestinal diseases and discuss the interdependent relationship between sleep and these gastrointestinal disorders. Different physiologic processes including immune system and inflammatory cytokines help regulate the sleep. The inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-1 (IL-1), and IL-6 have been shown to be a significant contributor of sleep disturbances. On the other hand, sleep disturbances such as sleep deprivation have been shown to up regulate these inflammatory cytokines. Alterations in these cytokine levels have been demonstrated in certain gastrointestinal diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, gastro-esophageal reflux, liver disorders and colorectal cancer. In turn, abnormal sleep brought on by these diseases is shown to contribute to the severity of these same gastrointestinal diseases. Knowledge of these relationships will allow gastroenterologists a great opportunity to enhance the care of their patients.

  3. Sleep and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Jessica L; Reynolds, Amy C; Ferguson, Sally A; Dawson, Drew

    2013-12-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic mental illness that can have a debilitating effect on daily functioning. A body of research reveals altered sleep behaviour in OCD sufferers; however, findings are inconsistent and there is no consensus on the nature of this relationship. Understanding sleep disturbance in OCD is of critical importance given the known negative consequences of disturbed sleep for mood and emotional wellbeing. A systematic literature search was conducted of five databases for studies assessing sleep in adults diagnosed with OCD. Fourteen studies met inclusion criteria and qualitative data analysis methods were used to identify common themes. There was some evidence of reduced total sleep time and sleep efficiency in OCD patients. Many of the sleep disturbances noted were characteristic of depression. However, some OCD sufferers displayed delayed sleep onset and offset and an increased prevalence of delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD). Severe OCD symptoms were consistently associated with greater sleep disturbance. While the sleep of OCD patients has not been a major focus to date, the existing literature suggests that addressing sleep disturbance in OCD patients may ensure a holistic approach to treatment, enhance treatment efficacy, mitigate relapse and protect against the onset of co-morbid psychiatric illnesses. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Greater autonomy at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtman, I.L.D.

    2004-01-01

    In the past 10 years, workers in the Netherlands increasingly report more decision-making power in their work. This is important for an economy in recession and where workers face greater work demands. It makes work more interesting, creates a healthier work environment, and provides opportunities

  5. Hypnotherapy for sleep disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Beng-Yeong; Lee, Tih Shih

    2008-08-01

    Hypnosis can be defined as a procedure during which changes in sensations, perceptions, thoughts, feelings or behaviour are suggested. Hypnosis can be used to amplify whatever it is about therapy that makes it therapeutic. It permits a wide range of choices regarding where and how to intervene in the patient's problems. In this paper, we set out to examine the rationale of using hypnotherapy to manage various types of sleep disorders, and to explore the techniques, strategies and hypnotic scripts employed by various hypnotherapists. We also examine the research data available on the efficacy of hypnosis in the treatment of sleep disorders. Acute and chronic insomnia often respond to relaxation and hypnotherapy approaches, along with sleep hygiene instructions. Hypnotherapy has also helped with nightmares and sleep terrors. There are several reports of successful use of hypnotherapy for parasomnias, specifically for head and body rocking, bedwetting and sleepwalking. Hypnosis is a specialised technique, not a therapy itself, and should be used as an adjunctive intervention within a complete psychological and medical treatment package. Most of the literature is limited to case reports or studies with such a small sample that at times it is very difficult to interpret the results. There is a major placebo effect, so uncontrolled trials are of limited value. It is hard to perform a randomised, double-blind, controlled trial to evaluate hypnotherapy given that cooperation and rapport between patient and therapist is needed to achieve a receptive trance state.

  6. Effects of exercise timing on sleep architecture and nocturnal blood pressure in prehypertensives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fairbrother K

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Kimberly Fairbrother,1 Ben Cartner,1 Jessica R Alley,1 Chelsea D Curry,1, David L Dickinson,2 David M Morris,1 Scott R Collier1 1Vascular Biology and Autonomic Studies Laboratory, Department of Health and Exercise Science, 2Department of Economics, Appalachian State University, Boone, NC, USA Background: During nocturnal sleep, blood pressure (BP “dips” compared to diurnal BP, reducing stress on the cardiovascular system. Both the hypotensive response elicited by acute aerobic exercise and sleep quality can impact this dipping response. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of aerobic exercise timing on circadian BP changes and sleep architecture. Materials and methods: Twenty prehypertensive subjects completed the study. During four test sessions, participants first completed a graded exercise test to exhaustion and then performed 30 minutes of treadmill exercise at 7 am (7A, 1 pm (1P, and 7 pm (7P in a random, counterbalanced order at 65% of the heart rate obtained at peak oxygen uptake. An ambulatory cuff was used to monitor BP responses during 24 hours following exercise, and an ambulatory sleep-monitoring headband was worn during sleep following each session. Results: Aerobic exercise at 7A invoked a greater dip in nocturnal systolic BP than exercise at 1P or 7P, although the greatest dip in nocturnal diastolic BP occurred following 7P. Compared to 1P, 7A also invoked greater time spent in deep sleep. Conclusion: These data indicate that early morning may be the most beneficial time to engage in aerobic exercise to enhance nocturnal BP changes and quality of sleep. Keywords: nocturnal dipping, prehypertension, aerobic exercise

  7. Sleep Disturbance and Short Sleep as Risk Factors for Depression and Perceived Medical Errors in First-Year Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmbach, David A; Arnedt, J Todd; Song, Peter X; Guille, Constance; Sen, Srijan

    2017-03-01

    While short and poor quality sleep among training physicians has long been recognized as problematic, the longitudinal relationships among sleep, work hours, mood, and work performance are not well understood. Here, we prospectively characterize the risk of depression and medical errors based on preinternship sleep disturbance, internship-related sleep duration, and duty hours. Survey data from 1215 nondepressed interns were collected at preinternship baseline, then 3 and 6 months into internship. We examined how preinternship sleep quality and internship sleep and work hours affected risk of depression at 3 months, per the Patient Health Questionnaire 9. We then examined the impact of sleep loss and work hours on depression persistence from 3 to 6 months. Finally, we compared self-reported errors among interns based on nightly sleep duration (≤6 hr vs. >6 hr), weekly work hours (Poorly sleeping trainees obtained less sleep and were at elevated risk of depression in the first months of internship. Short sleep (≤6 hr nightly) during internship mediated the relationship between sleep disturbance and depression risk, and sleep loss led to a chronic course for depression. Depression rates were highest among interns with both sleep disturbance and short sleep. Elevated medical error rates were reported by physicians sleeping ≤6 hr per night, working ≥ 70 weekly hours, and who were acutely or chronically depressed. Sleep disturbance and internship-enforced short sleep increase risk of depression development and chronicity and medical errors. Interventions targeting sleep problems prior to and during residency hold promise for curbing depression rates and improving patient care. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Mechanisms of dexamethasone-induced disturbed sleep and fatigue in paediatric patients receiving treatment for ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallance, Kelly; Liu, Wei; Mandrell, Belinda N; Panetta, John C; Gattuso, Jami S; Hockenberry, Marilyn; Zupanec, Sue; Yang, Lei; Yang, Jie; Hinds, Pamela S

    2010-07-01

    Dexamethasone contributes to high cure rates in paediatric acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) but significantly and adversely alters sleep and fatigue. Herein we explored three mechanisms (pharmacokinetics, serum albumin and pharmacogenetics) through which dexamethasone may cause debilitating fatigue and disrupted sleep. We enrolled 100 patients on a 10-d study: 5-d of no dexamethasone (OFF DEX) followed by 5-d of dexamethasone (ON DEX) during continuation chemotherapy. Sleep variables were collected with continuous actigraphy on days 1 through 5, both OFF DEX and ON DEX. On days 2 and 5 of each 5-d period, parents and patients 7 years of age and older completed a sleep diary and Fatigue Scale questionnaire. Blood was collected at 0 (pre-dexamethasone), 1, 2, 4 and 8 h after the first oral dexamethasone dose for pharmacokinetic analysis. Serum albumin concentration was retrospectively analysed in stored samples. Patient DNA was genotyped for 99 polymorphic loci in candidate genes associated with glucocorticoid metabolism. Dexamethasone clearance was significantly greater in younger patients than in older ones and in lower risk patients. In multiple regression models, risk group was significantly related to pharmacokinetic parameters. We found that polymorphisms in three genes (AHSG, IL6, POLDIP3) were significantly associated with sleep measures but not with fatigue. Risk group had the most significant relationship with disrupted sleep in patients while on dexamethasone. Serum albumin levels had neither a direct relationship with sleep or fatigue variables nor an indirect relationship through systemic exposure to dexamethasone. We identified candidate genes that may help explain the adverse events of disrupted sleep in paediatric patients receiving dexamethasone. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Sleep deprivation affects reactivity to positive but not negative stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilcher, June J; Callan, Christina; Posey, J Laura

    2015-12-01

    The current study examined the effects of partial and total sleep deprivation on emotional reactivity. Twenty-eight partially sleep-deprived participants and 31 totally sleep-deprived participants rated their valence and arousal responses to positive and negative pictures across four testing sessions during the day following partial sleep deprivation or during the night under total sleep deprivation. The results suggest that valence and arousal ratings decreased under both sleep deprivation conditions. In addition, partial and total sleep deprivation had a greater negative effect on positive events than negative events. These results suggest that sleep-deprived persons are more likely to respond less to positive events than negative events. One explanation for the current findings is that negative events could elicit more attentive behavior and thus stable responding under sleep deprivation conditions. As such, sleep deprivation could impact reactivity to emotional stimuli through automated attentional and self-regulatory processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Preserved sleep microstructure in blind individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aubin, Sébrina; Christensen, Julie A.E.; Jennum, Poul

    2018-01-01

    , as light is the primary zeitgeber of the master biological clock found in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus. In addition, a greater number of sleep disturbances is often reported in blind individuals. Here, we examined various electroencephalographic microstructural components of sleep, both...... during rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep and non-REM (NREM) sleep, between blind individuals, including both of early and late onset, and normal-sighted controls. During wakefulness, occipital alpha oscillations were lower, or absent in blind individuals. During sleep, differences were observed across...... electrode derivations between the early and late blind samples, which may reflect altered cortical networking in early blindness. Despite these differences in power spectra density, the electroencephalography microstructure of sleep, including sleep spindles, slow wave activity, and sawtooth waves, remained...

  11. Chronic social stress leads to altered sleep homeostasis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olini, Nadja; Rothfuchs, Iru; Azzinnari, Damiano; Pryce, Christopher R; Kurth, Salome; Huber, Reto

    2017-06-01

    Disturbed sleep and altered sleep homeostasis are core features of many psychiatric disorders such as depression. Chronic uncontrollable stress is considered an important factor in the development of depression, but little is known on how chronic stress affects sleep regulation and sleep homeostasis. We therefore examined the effects of chronic social stress (CSS) on sleep regulation in mice. Adult male C57BL/6 mice were implanted for electrocortical recordings (ECoG) and underwent either a 10-day CSS protocol or control handling (CON). Subsequently, ECoG was assessed across a 24-h post-stress baseline, followed by a 4-h sleep deprivation, and then a 20-h recovery period. After sleep deprivation, CSS mice showed a blunted increase in sleep pressure compared to CON mice, as measured using slow wave activity (SWA, electroencephalographic power between 1-4Hz) during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. Vigilance states did not differ between CSS and CON mice during post-stress baseline, sleep deprivation or recovery, with the exception of CSS mice exhibiting increased REM sleep during recovery sleep. Behavior during sleep deprivation was not affected by CSS. Our data provide evidence that CSS alters the homeostatic regulation of sleep SWA in mice. In contrast to acute social stress, which results in a faster SWA build-up, CSS decelerates the homeostatic build up. These findings are discussed in relation to the causal contribution of stress-induced sleep disturbance to depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Medicines for sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzodiazepines; Sedatives; Hypnotics; Sleeping pills; Insomnia - medicines; Sleep disorder - medicines ... are commonly used to treat allergies. While these sleep aids are not addictive, your body becomes used ...

  13. Effects of partial sleep deprivation on slow waves during non-rapid eye movement sleep: A high density EEG investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, David T; Goldstein, Michael R; Cook, Jesse D; Smith, Richard; Riedner, Brady A; Rumble, Meredith E; Jelenchick, Lauren; Roth, Andrea; Tononi, Giulio; Benca, Ruth M; Peterson, Michael J

    2016-02-01

    Changes in slow waves during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep in response to acute total sleep deprivation are well-established measures of sleep homeostasis. This investigation utilized high-density electroencephalography (hdEEG) to examine topographic changes in slow waves during repeated partial sleep deprivation. Twenty-four participants underwent a 6-day sleep restriction protocol. Spectral and period-amplitude analyses of sleep hdEEG data were used to examine changes in slow wave energy, count, amplitude, and slope relative to baseline. Changes in slow wave energy were dependent on the quantity of NREM sleep utilized for analysis, with widespread increases during sleep restriction and recovery when comparing data from the first portion of the sleep period, but restricted to recovery sleep if the entire sleep episode was considered. Period-amplitude analysis was less dependent on the quantity of NREM sleep utilized, and demonstrated topographic changes in the count, amplitude, and distribution of slow waves, with frontal increases in slow wave amplitude, numbers of high-amplitude waves, and amplitude/slopes of low amplitude waves resulting from partial sleep deprivation. Topographic changes in slow waves occur across the course of partial sleep restriction and recovery. These results demonstrate a homeostatic response to partial sleep loss in humans. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. An Herbal Drug, Gongjin-dan, Ameliorates Acute Fatigue Caused by Short-Term Sleep-Deprivation: A Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Mi Ju; Im, Hwi-Jin; Ku, Boncho; Lee, Jun-Hwan; Jung, So Young; Kim, Young-Eun; Lee, Sung Bae; Kim, Jun Young; Son, Chang-Gue

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Gongjin-dan (GJD) is an herbal drug commonly used in Korea and China to combat fatigue, but there are only few clinical studies on its effectiveness and experimental studies on its mechanism of action, and no randomized controlled trial of GJD on the efficacy and mechanism of action has been reported. Here, we performed an exploratory study to evaluate both questions regarding GJD use in humans. Methods: A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover clinical trial was conducted in the Republic of Korea. Healthy male participants were recruited and randomly allocated to groups receiving GJD-placebo or placebo-GJD in sequence. Fatigue was artificially induced by sleep deprivation for 2 nights. The primary outcome was a change in serum cortisol level; levels of biomarkers for stress hormones as well as oxidative stress and immunologic factors were also assessed, and questionnaires on fatigue and sleep quality were conducted. Results: Twelve and 11 participants were assigned to the GJD-placebo and placebo-GJD groups, respectively. Of all 23 participants, depending on crossover design, we analyzed a total of 20 participants for GJD, and 21 for placebo. An increase in serum cortisol appeared to be attenuated by GJD administration ( p = 0.25), but the effect was not statistically significant; a similar pattern was observed in salivary cortisol levels ( p = 0.14). Overall, GJD showed a tendency to reduce fatigue according to the Brief Fatigue Inventory (BFI, p = 0.07) and the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS, p = 0.13) questionnaires. BFI and FSS scores in the first stage (before the crossover), however, were significantly improved (BFI, p = 0.02; FSS, p = 0.05) after GJD treatment (relative to placebo). GJD also seemed to improve sleep quality as assessed by the Leeds Sleep Evaluation Questionnaire ( p = 0.06), with a significant improvement specifically in the condition "Getting To Sleep" ( p = 0.02). Five participants experienced minor adverse

  15. Sleep and inflammatory bowel disease: exploring the relationship between sleep disturbances and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnucan, Jami A; Rubin, David T; Ali, Tauseef

    2013-11-01

    Sleep disturbances are associated with a greater risk of serious adverse health events, economic consequences, and, most importantly, increased all-cause mortality. Several studies support the associations among sleep, immune function, and inflammation. The relationship between sleep disturbances and inflammatory conditions is complex and not completely understood. Sleep deprivation can lead to increased levels of inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-1β IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α and C-reactive protein, which can lead to further activation of the inflammatory cascade. The relevance of sleep in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), a chronic immune-mediated inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal tract, has recently received more attention. Several studies have shown that patients with both inactive and active IBD have self-reported sleep disturbances. Here, we present a concise review of sleep and its association with the immune system and the process of inflammation. We discuss the studies that have evaluated sleep in patients with IBD as well as possible treatment options for those patients with sleep disturbances. An algorithm for evaluating sleep disturbances in the IBD population is also proposed. Further research is still needed to better characterize sleep disturbances in the IBD population as well as to assess the effects of various therapeutic interventions to improve sleep quality. It is possible that the diagnosis and treatment of sleep disturbances in this population may provide an opportunity to alter disease outcomes.

  16. The role of sleep in bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gold AK

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Alexandra K Gold,1 Louisa G Sylvia,1,2 1Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, 2Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: Bipolar disorder is a serious mental illness characterized by alternating periods of elevated and depressed mood. Sleep disturbances in bipolar disorder are present during all stages of the condition and exert a negative impact on overall course, quality of life, and treatment outcomes. We examine the partnership between circadian system (process C functioning and sleep–wake homeostasis (process S on optimal sleep functioning and explore the role of disruptions in both systems on sleep disturbances in bipolar disorder. A convergence of evidence suggests that sleep problems in bipolar disorder result from dysregulation across both process C and process S systems. Biomarkers of depressive episodes include heightened fragmentation of rapid eye movement (REM sleep, reduced REM latency, increased REM density, and a greater percentage of awakenings, while biomarkers of manic episodes include reduced REM latency, greater percentage of stage I sleep, increased REM density, discontinuous sleep patterns, shortened total sleep time, and a greater time awake in bed. These findings highlight the importance of targeting novel treatments for sleep disturbance in bipolar disorder. Keywords: bipolar disorder, circadian rhythms, sleep–wake homeostasis

  17. Healthy Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... quality sleep, ask yourself Do you have trouble getting up in the morning? Do you have trouble focusing during the day? Do you doze off during the day? If you answered yes to these three questions, you should work on ...

  18. Greater-confinement disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevorrow, L.E.; Schubert, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    Greater-confinement disposal (GCD) is a general term for low-level waste (LLW) disposal technologies that employ natural and/or engineered barriers and provide a degree of confinement greater than that of shallow-land burial (SLB) but possibly less than that of a geologic repository. Thus GCD is associated with lower risk/hazard ratios than SLB. Although any number of disposal technologies might satisfy the definition of GCD, eight have been selected for consideration in this discussion. These technologies include: (1) earth-covered tumuli, (2) concrete structures, both above and below grade, (3) deep trenches, (4) augered shafts, (5) rock cavities, (6) abandoned mines, (7) high-integrity containers, and (8) hydrofracture. Each of these technologies employ several operations that are mature,however, some are at more advanced stages of development and demonstration than others. Each is defined and further described by information on design, advantages and disadvantages, special equipment requirements, and characteristic operations such as construction, waste emplacement, and closure

  19. REM sleep estimation only using respiratory dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Gih Sung; Choi, Byung Hoon; Lee, Jeong Su; Lee, Jin-Seong; Jeong, Do-Un; Park, Kwang Suk

    2009-01-01

    Polysomnography (PSG) is currently considered the gold standard for assessing sleep quality. However, the numerous sensors that must be attached to the subject can disturb sleep and limit monitoring to within hospitals and sleep clinics. If data could be obtained without such constraints, sleep monitoring would be more convenient and could be extended to ordinary homes. During rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, respiration rate and variability are known to be greater than in other sleep stages. Hence, we calculated the average rate and variability of respiration in an epoch (30 s) by applying appropriate smoothing algorithms. Increased and irregular respiratory patterns during REM sleep were extracted using adaptive and linear thresholds. When both parameters simultaneously showed higher values than the thresholds, the epochs were assumed to belong to REM sleep. Thermocouples and piezoelectric-type belts were used to acquire respiratory signals. Thirteen healthy adults and nine obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients participated in this study. Kappa statistics showed a substantial agreement (κ > 0.60) between the standard and respiration-based methods. One-way ANOVA analysis showed no significant difference between the techniques for total REM sleep. This approach can also be applied to the non-intrusive measurement of respiration signals, making it possible to automatically detect REM sleep without disturbing the subject

  20. An Herbal Drug, Gongjin-dan, Ameliorates Acute Fatigue Caused by Short-Term Sleep-Deprivation: A Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Ju Son

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Gongjin-dan (GJD is an herbal drug commonly used in Korea and China to combat fatigue, but there are only few clinical studies on its effectiveness and experimental studies on its mechanism of action, and no randomized controlled trial of GJD on the efficacy and mechanism of action has been reported. Here, we performed an exploratory study to evaluate both questions regarding GJD use in humans.Methods: A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover clinical trial was conducted in the Republic of Korea. Healthy male participants were recruited and randomly allocated to groups receiving GJD-placebo or placebo-GJD in sequence. Fatigue was artificially induced by sleep deprivation for 2 nights. The primary outcome was a change in serum cortisol level; levels of biomarkers for stress hormones as well as oxidative stress and immunologic factors were also assessed, and questionnaires on fatigue and sleep quality were conducted.Results: Twelve and 11 participants were assigned to the GJD-placebo and placebo-GJD groups, respectively. Of all 23 participants, depending on crossover design, we analyzed a total of 20 participants for GJD, and 21 for placebo. An increase in serum cortisol appeared to be attenuated by GJD administration (p = 0.25, but the effect was not statistically significant; a similar pattern was observed in salivary cortisol levels (p = 0.14. Overall, GJD showed a tendency to reduce fatigue according to the Brief Fatigue Inventory (BFI, p = 0.07 and the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS, p = 0.13 questionnaires. BFI and FSS scores in the first stage (before the crossover, however, were significantly improved (BFI, p = 0.02; FSS, p = 0.05 after GJD treatment (relative to placebo. GJD also seemed to improve sleep quality as assessed by the Leeds Sleep Evaluation Questionnaire (p = 0.06, with a significant improvement specifically in the condition “Getting To Sleep” (p = 0.02. Five participants experienced minor

  1. Pediatric sleep apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep apnea - pediatric; Apnea - pediatric sleep apnea syndrome; Sleep-disordered breathing - pediatric ... Untreated pediatric sleep apnea may lead to: High blood pressure Heart or lung problems Slow growth and development

  2. Changing your sleep habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... falling asleep; Sleep hygiene References American Academy of Sleep Medicine. Insomnia. Updated March 4, 2015. SleepEducation.org. sleepeducation. ... T, Dement WC, eds. Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 86. ...

  3. Obstructive Sleep Apnoea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cheyne-Stokes respiration), obstructive sleep apnoea and mixed or complex sleep apnoea.1. Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is the most common of these three disorders and is defined as airway obstruction during sleep, accompanied by at least ...

  4. Snoring and Sleep Apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find an ENT Doctor Near You Snoring and Sleep Apnea Snoring and Sleep Apnea Patient Health Information ... newsroom@entnet.org . Insight into sleeping disorders and sleep apnea Forty-five percent of normal adults snore ...

  5. The Neurobiology of Orofacial Pain and Sleep and Their Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavigne, G J; Sessle, B J

    2016-09-01

    This article provides an overview of the neurobiology of orofacial pain as well as the neural processes underlying sleep, with a particular focus on the mechanisms that underlie pain and sleep interactions including sleep disorders. Acute pain is part of a hypervigilance system that alerts the individual to injury or potential injury of tissues. It can also disturb sleep. Disrupted sleep is often associated with chronic pain states, including those that occur in the orofacial region. The article presents many insights that have been gained in the last few decades into the peripheral and central mechanisms involved in orofacial pain and its modulation, as well as the circuits and processes in the central nervous system that underlie sleep. Although it has become clear that sleep is essential to preserve and maintain health, it has also been found that pain, particularly chronic pain, is commonly associated with disturbed sleep. In the presence of chronic pain, a circular relationship may prevail, with mutual deleterious influences causing an increase in pain and a disruption of sleep. This article also reviews findings that indicate that reducing orofacial pain and improving sleep need to be targeted together in the management of acute to chronic orofacial pain states in order to improve an orofacial pain patient's quality of life, to prevent mood alterations or exacerbation of sleep disorder (e.g., insomnia, sleep-disordered breathing) that can negatively affect their pain, and to promote healing and optimize their health. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2016.

  6. The Impact of Sleep Deprivation on the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trošt Bobić, Tatjana; Šečić, Ana; Zavoreo, Iris; Matijević, Valentina; Filipović, Branimir; Kolak, Željka; Bašić Kes, Vanja; Ciliga, Dubravka; Sajković, Dubravka

    2016-09-01

    Each sleep phase is characterized by specific chemical, cellular and anatomic events of vital importance for normal neural functioning. Different forms of sleep deprivation may lead to a decline of cognitive functions in individuals. Studies in this field make a distinction between total sleep deprivation, chronic sleep restriction, and the situation of sleep disruption. Investigations covering the acute effects of sleep deprivation on the brain show that the discovered behavioral deficits in most cases regenerate after two nights of complete sleep. However, some studies done on mice emphasize the possible chronic effects of long-term sleep deprivation or chronic restriction on the occurrence of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease and dementia. In order to better understand the acute and chronic effects of sleep loss, the mechanisms of neural adaptation in the situations of insufficient sleep need to be further investigated. Future integrative research on the impact of sleep deprivation on neural functioning measured through the macro level of cognitive functions and the micro molecular and cell level could contribute to more accurate conclusions about the basic cellular mechanisms responsible for the detected behavioral deficits occurring due to sleep deprivation.

  7. More features, greater connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Sarah

    2015-09-01

    Changes in our political infrastructure, the continuing frailties of our economy, and a stark growth in population, have greatly impacted upon the perceived stability of the NHS. Healthcare teams have had to adapt to these changes, and so too have the technologies upon which they rely to deliver first-class patient care. Here Sarah Hunt, marketing co-ordinator at Aid Call, assesses how the changing healthcare environment has affected one of its fundamental technologies - the nurse call system, argues the case for wireless such systems in terms of what the company claims is greater adaptability to changing needs, and considers the ever-wider range of features and functions available from today's nurse call equipment, particularly via connectivity with both mobile devices, and ancillaries ranging from enuresis sensors to staff attack alert 'badges'.

  8. Greater oil investment opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arenas, Ismael Enrique

    1997-01-01

    Geologically speaking, Colombia is a very attractive country for the world oil community. According to this philosophy new and important steps are being taken to reinforce the oil sector: Expansion of the exploratory frontier by including a larger number of sedimentary areas, and the adoption of innovative contracting instruments. Colombia has to offer, Greater economic incentives for the exploration of new areas to expand the exploratory frontier, stimulation of exploration in areas with prospectivity for small fields. Companies may offer Ecopetrol a participation in production over and above royalties, without it's participating in the investments and costs of these fields, more favorable conditions for natural gas seeking projects, in comparison with those governing the terms for oil

  9. Feeding methods, sleep arrangement, and infant sleep patterns: a Chinese population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao-Na; Wang, Hui-Shan; Chang, Jen-Jen; Wang, Lin-Hong; Liu, Xi-Cheng; Jiang, Jing-Xiong; An, Lin

    2016-02-01

    Findings from prior research into the effect of feeding methods on infant sleep are inconsistent. The objectives of this study were to examine infants' sleep patterns by feeding methods and sleep arrangement from birth to eight months old. This longitudinal cohort study enrolled 524 pregnant women at 34-41 weeks of gestation and their infants after delivery in 2006 and followed up until eight months postpartum. The study subjects were recruited from nine women and children hospitals in nine cities in China (Beijing, Chongqing, Wuhan, Changsha, Nanning, Xiamen, Xi'an, Jinan, and Hailin). Participating infants were followed up weekly during the first month and monthly from the second to the eighth month after birth. Twenty-four hour sleep diaries recording infants' sleeping and feeding methods were administered based on caregiver's self-report. Multivariable mixed growth curve models were fitted to estimate the effects of feeding methods and sleep arrangement on infants' sleep patterns over time, controlling for maternal and paternal age, maternal and paternal education level, household income, supplementation of complementary food, and infant birth weight and length. Exclusively formula fed infants had the greatest sleep percentage/24 h, followed by exclusively breast milk fed infants and partially breast milk fed infants (Psleep percentage and night waking frequency between exclusively formula and exclusively breast milk fed infants weakened over time as infants developed. In addition, compared to infants with bed-sharing sleep arrangement, those with room sharing sleep arrangement had greater daytime and 24-hour infant sleep percentage, whereas those with sleeping alone sleep arrangement had greater nighttime sleep percentage. Our data based on caregiver's self-report suggested that partial breastfeeding and bed-sharing may be associated with less sleep in infants. Health care professionals need to work with parents of newborns to develop coping strategies that

  10. Sleep in Othello

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimsdale, Joel E.

    2009-01-01

    Some of our best descriptions of sleep disorders come from literature. While Shakespeare is well known for his references to insomnia and sleep walking, his works also demonstrate a keen awareness of many other sleep disorders. This paper examines sleep themes in Shakespeare's play Othello. The play indicates Shakespeare's astute eye for sleep deprivation, sexual parasomnias, and effects of stress and drugs on sleep. Citation: Dimsdale JE. Sleep in Othello. J Clin Sleep Med 2009;5(3):280-281. PMID:19960651

  11. Sleep Tips: 7 Steps to Better Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn every night. Consider simple tips for better sleep, from setting a sleep schedule to including physical activity in your daily ... factors that can interfere with a good night's sleep — from work stress and family responsibilities to unexpected ...

  12. Chronic Stress is Prospectively Associated with Sleep in Midlife Women: The SWAN Sleep Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Martica H; Casement, Melynda D; Troxel, Wendy M; Matthews, Karen A; Bromberger, Joyce T; Kravitz, Howard M; Krafty, Robert T; Buysse, Daniel J

    2015-10-01

    Evaluate whether levels of upsetting life events measured over a 9-y period prospectively predict subjective and objective sleep outcomes in midlife women. Prospective cohort study. Four sites across the United States. 330 women (46-57 y of age) enrolled in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) Sleep Study. N/A. Upsetting life events were assessed annually for up to 9 y. Trajectory analysis applied to life events data quantitatively identified three distinct chronic stress groups: low stress, moderate stress, and high stress. Sleep was assessed by self-report and in-home polysomnography (PSG) during the ninth year of the study. Multivariate analyses tested the prospective association between chronic stress group and sleep, adjusting for race, baseline sleep complaints, marital status, body mass index, symptoms of depression, and acute life events at the time of the Sleep Study. Women characterized by high chronic stress had lower subjective sleep quality, were more likely to report insomnia, and exhibited increased PSG-assessed wake after sleep onset (WASO) relative to women with low to moderate chronic stress profiles. The effect of chronic stress group on WASO persisted in the subsample of participants without baseline sleep complaints. Chronic stress is prospectively associated with sleep disturbance in midlife women, even after adjusting for acute stressors at the time of the sleep study and other factors known to disrupt sleep. These results are consistent with current models of stress that emphasize the cumulative effect of stressors on health over time. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  13. Sleep in Othello

    OpenAIRE

    Dimsdale, Joel E.

    2009-01-01

    Some of our best descriptions of sleep disorders come from literature. While Shakespeare is well known for his references to insomnia and sleep walking, his works also demonstrate a keen awareness of many other sleep disorders. This paper examines sleep themes in Shakespeare's play Othello. The play indicates Shakespeare's astute eye for sleep deprivation, sexual parasomnias, and effects of stress and drugs on sleep.

  14. A novel BHLHE41 variant is associated with short sleep and resistance to sleep deprivation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, Renata; Kavakli, Ibrahim Halil; Goel, Namni; Cardinale, Christopher J; Dinges, David F; Kuna, Samuel T; Maislin, Greg; Van Dongen, Hans P A; Tufik, Sergio; Hogenesch, John B; Hakonarson, Hakon; Pack, Allan I

    2014-08-01

    Earlier work described a mutation in DEC2 also known as BHLHE41 (basic helix-loophelix family member e41) as causal in a family of short sleepers, who needed just 6 h sleep per night. We evaluated whether there were other variants of this gene in two well-phenotyped cohorts. Sequencing of the BHLHE41 gene, electroencephalographic data, and delta power analysis and functional studies using cell-based luciferase. We identified new variants of the BHLHE41 gene in two cohorts who had either acute sleep deprivation (n = 200) or chronic partial sleep deprivation (n = 217). One variant, Y362H, at another location in the same exon occurred in one twin in a dizygotic twin pair and was associated with reduced sleep duration, less recovery sleep following sleep deprivation, and fewer performance lapses during sleep deprivation than the homozygous twin. Both twins had almost identical amounts of non rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. This variant reduced the ability of BHLHE41 to suppress CLOCK/BMAL1 and NPAS2/BMAL1 transactivation in vitro. Another variant in the same exome had no effect on sleep or response to sleep deprivation and no effect on CLOCK/BMAL1 transactivation. Random mutagenesis identified a number of other variants of BHLHE41 that affect its function. There are a number of mutations of BHLHE41. Mutations reduce total sleep while maintaining NREM sleep and provide resistance to the effects of sleep loss. Mutations that affect sleep also modify the normal inhibition of BHLHE41 of CLOCK/BMAL1 transactivation. Thus, clock mechanisms are likely involved in setting sleep length and the magnitude of sleep homeostasis. Pellegrino R, Kavakli IH, Goel N, Cardinale CJ, Dinges DF, Kuna ST, Maislin G, Van Dongen HP, Tufik S, Hogenesch JB, Hakonarson H, Pack AI. A novel BHLHE41 variant is associated with short sleep and resistance to sleep deprivation in humans. SLEEP 2014;37(8):1327-1336.

  15. Sleep Hygiene and Sleep Quality of Third-Trimester Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Shao-Yu; Lee, Chien-Nan; Wu, Wei-Wen; Landis, Carol A

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to examine the associations of sleep hygiene and actigraphy measures of sleep with self-reported sleep quality in 197 pregnant women in northern Taiwan. Third-trimester pregnant women completed the Sleep Hygiene Practice Scale (SHPS) and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) as well as the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D), and wore an actigraph for 7 consecutive days. Student's t-test was used to compare the SHPS scores and means as well as variability of actigraphy sleep variables between poor sleepers (i.e., PSQI global score >5) and good sleepers (i.e., PSQI global score ≤5). Compared to good sleepers, poor sleepers reported significantly worse sleep hygiene, with higher SHPS scores and higher sleep schedule, arousal-related behavior, and sleep environment subscale scores. Poor sleepers had significantly greater intra-individual variability of sleep onset latency, total nighttime sleep, and wake after sleep onset than good sleepers. In stepwise linear regression, older maternal age (p = .01), fewer employment hours per week (p = .01), higher CES-D total score (p hygiene intervention in women during pregnancy. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Sleep behaviors in older African American females reporting nonmalignant chronic pain: understanding the psychosocial implications of general sleep disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Tamara A; Whitfield, Keith E

    2014-01-01

    This study examined factors that influence sleep quality in older African American women (N = 181) reporting chronic pain. Participants completed a series of questions assessing demographic and behavioral characteristics, health status, pain intensity, and sleep disturbance. Findings indicated that younger participants and those experiencing poorer physical functioning reported more difficulty sleeping due to pain. Similarly, participants who reported being awakened from sleep due to pain were younger and experienced greater pain intensity. Understanding the relationship between sleep and pain in this group of women may be useful in promoting effective disease management and sleep awareness among patients, caregivers, and healthcare professionals.

  17. Sleep Quality Improvement During Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Anxiety Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsawh, Holly J; Bomyea, Jessica; Stein, Murray B; Cissell, Shadha H; Lang, Ariel J

    2016-01-01

    Despite the ubiquity of sleep complaints among individuals with anxiety disorders, few prior studies have examined whether sleep quality improves during anxiety treatment. The current study examined pre- to posttreatment sleep quality improvement during cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for panic disorder (PD; n = 26) or generalized anxiety disorder (GAD; n = 24). Among sleep quality indices, only global sleep quality and sleep latency improved significantly (but modestly) during CBT. Sleep quality improvement was greater for treatment responders, but did not vary by diagnosis. Additionally, poor baseline sleep quality was independently associated with worse anxiety treatment outcome, as measured by higher intolerance of uncertainty. Additional intervention targeting sleep prior to or during CBT for anxiety may be beneficial for poor sleepers.

  18. Sleep variability in adolescence is associated with altered brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telzer, Eva H; Goldenberg, Diane; Fuligni, Andrew J; Lieberman, Matthew D; Gálvan, Adriana

    2015-08-01

    Despite the known importance of sleep for brain development, and the sharp increase in poor sleep during adolescence, we know relatively little about how sleep impacts the developing brain. We present the first longitudinal study to examine how sleep during adolescence is associated with white matter integrity. We find that greater variability in sleep duration one year prior to a DTI scan is associated with lower white matter integrity above and beyond the effects of sleep duration, and variability in bedtime, whereas sleep variability a few months prior to the scan is not associated with white matter integrity. Thus, variability in sleep duration during adolescence may have long-term impairments on the developing brain. White matter integrity should be increasing during adolescence, and so sleep variability is directly at odds with normative developmental trends. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Mobile phones and sleep - A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supe, Sanjay S.

    2010-01-01

    The increasing use of mobile phones has raised concerns regarding the potential health effects of exposure to the radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. An increasing amount research related to mobile phone use has focussed on the possible effects of mobile phone exposure on human brain activity and function. In particular, the use of sleep research has become a more widely used technique for assessing the possible effects of mobile phones on human health and wellbeing especially in the investigation of potential changes in sleep architecture resulting from mobile phone use. Acute exposure to a mobile phone prior to sleep significantly enhances electroencephalogram spectral power in the sleep spindle frequency range. This mobile phone-induced enhancement in spectral power is largely transitory and does not linger throughout the night. Furthermore, a reduction in rapid eye movement sleep latency following mobile phone exposure was also found, although interestingly, neither this change in rapid eye movement sleep latency or the enhancement in spectral power following mobile phone exposure, led to changes in the overall quality of sleep. In conclusion, a short exposure to the radiofrequency electromagnetic fields emitted by a mobile phone handset immediately prior to sleep is sufficient to induce changes in brain activity in the initial part of sleep. The consequences or functional significance of this effect are currently unknown and it would be premature to draw conclusions about possible health consequences.

  20. Sleep behaviour in a sample of preschool children in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aishworiya, Ramkumar; Chan, Pofun; Kiing, Jennifer; Chong, Shang Chee; Laino, Armi G; Tay, Stacey Kh

    2012-03-01

    Sleep problems are common in all ages, but may be particularly acute in urban Singapore. This study aims to describe the sleep behaviour of, and to identify any sleep problems in, preschool children. This was a cross-sectional questionnaire survey of 372 children attending local childcare centers. The questionnaire was based on the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ), a validated parent-report sleep screening questionnaire that contains 54 items identifying sleep behaviours in children. A total of 372 (40.0%) children participated. The mean age was 4.1 (SD 1.3) years (range, 2 to 6 years). Average total sleep duration was 10.8 hours (SD 1.1) with average night-time sleep duration of 8.5 hours (SD 0.6) and average nap duration of 1.6 hours (SD 1.0). Co-sleeping was common; 80.9% of children shared a room with someone else. The most common sleep problems were in the domains of sleep resistance and morning behaviour; namely: requiring company to fall asleep (n = 272, 73.1%), being afraid to sleep alone (n = 228, 61.6%) and diffi culty in waking up (n = 165, 44.4%). Among parents, 84.1 % (n = 313) perceived that their child's sleep duration was adequate. The duration of sleep in the Singaporean preschool population sampled is signifi cantly lower than recommended values and that of previously described Caucasian populations. Parental perception of sleep adequacy deviates from current recommendations. Given the clear relation of sleep duration with cognitive functioning, learning, and physical growth, this sleep deprivation should be addressed with parental education and opportunistic screening of sleep in well-child follow-ups.

  1. Sleep disorders as core symptoms of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutt, David; Wilson, Sue; Paterson, Louise

    2008-01-01

    Links between sleep and depression are strong. About three quarters of depressed patients have insomnia symptoms, and hypersomnia is present in about 40% of young depressed adults and 10% of older patients, with a preponderance in females. The symptoms cause huge distress, have a major impact on quality of life, and are a strong risk factor for suicide. As well as the subjective experience of sleep symptoms, there are well-documented changes in objective sleep architecture in depression. Mechanisms of sleep regulation and how they might be disturbed in depression are discussed. The sleep symptoms are often unresolved by treatment, and confer a greater risk of relapse and recurrence. Epidemiological studies have pointed out that insomnia in nondepressed subjects is a risk factor for later development of depression. There is therefore a need for more successful management of sleep disturbance in depression, in order to improve quality of life in these patients and reduce an important factor in depressive relapse and recurrence.

  2. Brain Phosphorus Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Imaging of Sleep Homeostasis and Restoration in Drug Dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George H. Trksak

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous reports have documented a high occurrence of sleep difficulties in drug-dependent populations, prompting researchers to characterize sleep profiles and physiology in drug abusing populations. This mini-review examines studies indicating that drug-dependent populations exhibit alterations in sleep homeostatic and restoration processes in response to sleep deprivation. Sleep deprivation is a principal sleep research tool that results in marked physiological challenge, which provides a means to examine sleep homeostatic processes in response to extended wakefulness. A report from our laboratory demonstrated that following recovery sleep from sleep deprivation, brain high-energy phosphates particularly beta–nucleoside triphosphate (beta-NTP are markedly increased as measured with phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS. A more recent study examined the effects of sleep deprivation in opiate-dependent methadone-maintained (MM subjects. The study demonstrated increases in brain beta-NTP following recovery sleep. Interestingly, these increases were of a markedly greater magnitude in MM subjects compared to control subjects. A similar study examined sleep deprivation in cocaine-dependent subjects demonstrating that cocaine-dependent subjects exhibit greater increases in brain beta-NTP following recovery sleep when compared to control subjects. The studies suggest that sleep deprivation in both MM subjects and cocaine-dependent subjects is characterized by greater changes in brain ATP levels than control subjects. Greater enhancements in brain ATP following recovery sleep may reflect a greater disruption to or impact of sleep deprivation in drug dependent subjects, whereby sleep restoration processes may be unable to properly regulate brain ATP and maintain brain high-energy equilibrium. These studies support the notion of a greater susceptibility to sleep loss in drug dependent populations. Additional sleep studies in drug abusing

  3. Sleep disruption and the sequelae associated with traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucke-Wold, Brandon P; Smith, Kelly E; Nguyen, Linda; Turner, Ryan C; Logsdon, Aric F; Jackson, Garrett J; Huber, Jason D; Rosen, Charles L; Miller, Diane B

    2015-08-01

    Sleep disruption, which includes a loss of sleep as well as poor quality fragmented sleep, frequently follows traumatic brain injury (TBI) impacting a large number of patients each year in the United States. Fragmented and/or disrupted sleep can worsen neuropsychiatric, behavioral, and physical symptoms of TBI. Additionally, sleep disruption impairs recovery and can lead to cognitive decline. The most common sleep disruption following TBI is insomnia, which is difficulty staying asleep. The consequences of disrupted sleep following injury range from deranged metabolomics and blood brain barrier compromise to altered neuroplasticity and degeneration. There are several theories for why sleep is necessary (e.g., glymphatic clearance and metabolic regulation) and these may help explain how sleep disruption contributes to degeneration within the brain. Experimental data indicate disrupted sleep allows hyperphosphorylated tau and amyloid β plaques to accumulate. As sleep disruption may act as a cellular stressor, target areas warranting further scientific investigation include the increase in endoplasmic reticulum and oxidative stress following acute periods of sleep deprivation. Potential treatment options for restoring the normal sleep cycle include melatonin derivatives and cognitive behavioral therapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Effects of acute administration of donepezil or memantine on sleep-deprivation-induced spatial memory deficit in young and aged non-human primate grey mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisur Rahman

    Full Text Available The development of novel therapeutics to prevent cognitive decline of Alzheimer's disease (AD is facing paramount difficulties since the translational efficacy of rodent models did not resulted in better clinical results. Currently approved treatments, including the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor donepezil (DON and the N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist memantine (MEM provide marginal therapeutic benefits to AD patients. There is an urgent need to develop a predictive animal model that is phylogenetically proximal to humans to achieve better translation. The non-human primate grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus is increasingly used in aging research, but there is no published results related to the impact of known pharmacological treatments on age-related cognitive impairment observed in this primate. In the present study we investigated the effects of DON and MEM on sleep-deprivation (SD-induced memory impairment in young and aged male mouse lemurs. In particular, spatial memory impairment was evaluated using a circular platform task after 8 h of total SD. Acute single doses of DON or MEM (0.1 and 1mg/kg or vehicle were administered intraperitoneally 3 h before the cognitive task during the SD procedure. Results indicated that both doses of DON were able to prevent the SD-induced deficits in retrieval of spatial memory as compared to vehicle-treated animals, both in young and aged animals Likewise, MEM show a similar profile at 1 mg/kg but not at 0.1mg/kg. Taken together, these results indicate that two widely used drugs for mitigating cognitive deficits in AD were partially effective in sleep deprived mouse lemurs, which further support the translational potential of this animal model. Our findings demonstrate the utility of this primate model for further testing cognitive enhancing drugs in development for AD or other neuropsychiatric conditions.

  5. Sleep board review question: insomnia in obstructive sleep apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budhiraja R

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after first page. What is the estimated prevalence of insomnia symptoms in patients with obstructive sleep apnea? 1. Less than 1% 2. 5%-10% 3. 20-30% 4. 40%-60% 5. Greater than 80%

  6. Sleep enhances false memories depending on general memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekelmann, Susanne; Born, Jan; Wagner, Ullrich

    2010-04-02

    Memory is subject to dynamic changes, sometimes giving rise to the formation of false memories due to biased processes of consolidation or retrieval. Sleep is known to benefit memory consolidation through an active reorganization of representations whereas acute sleep deprivation impairs retrieval functions. Here, we investigated whether sleep after learning and sleep deprivation at retrieval enhance the generation of false memories in a free recall test. According to the Deese, Roediger, McDermott (DRM) false memory paradigm, subjects learned lists of semantically associated words (e.g., "night", "dark", "coal", etc.), lacking the strongest common associate or theme word (here: "black"). Free recall was tested after 9h following a night of sleep, a night of wakefulness (sleep deprivation) or daytime wakefulness. Compared with memory performance after a retention period of daytime wakefulness, both post-learning nocturnal sleep as well as acute sleep deprivation at retrieval significantly enhanced false recall of theme words. However, these effects were only observed in subjects with low general memory performance. These data point to two different ways in which sleep affects false memory generation through semantic generalization: one acts during consolidation on the memory trace per se, presumably by active reorganization of the trace in the post-learning sleep period. The other is related to the recovery function of sleep and affects cognitive control processes of retrieval. Both effects are unmasked when the material is relatively weakly encoded. Crown Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Sleep Disturbances in Newborns

    OpenAIRE

    Yasova Barbeau, Daphna; Weiss, Michael D.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to serve as an introduction to understanding sleep in the fetus, the preterm neonate and the term neonate. Sleep appears to have numerous important roles, particularly in the consolidation of new information. The sleep cycle changes over time, neonates spend the most time in active sleep and have a progressive shortening of active sleep and lengthening of quiet sleep. Additionally, the sleep cycle is disrupted by many things including disease state and environmen...

  8. Sleep-related Issues for Recovery and Performance in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kölling, Sarah; Duffield, Rob; Erlacher, Daniel; Venter, Ranel; Halson, Shona L

    2018-04-13

    The body of research that reports the relevance of sleep in high-performance sports is growing steadily. While the identification of sleep cycles and diagnosis of sleep disorders is limited to lab-based assessment via polysomnography, the development of activity-based devices estimating sleep patterns provides greater insight into the sleep behaviour of athletes in ecological settings. Overall, small sleep quantity and/or poor quality appears to exist in many athletic populations, though this may be related to training and competition context. Typical sleep-affecting factors are the scheduling of training sessions and competitions as well as impaired sleep-onset as a result of increased arousal prior to competition or due to the use of electronic devices before bedtime. Further challenges are travel demands which may be accompanied by jet-lag symptoms and disruption of sleep habits. Promotion of sleep may be approached via behavioural strategies, such as sleep hygiene, extending night-time sleep or daytime napping. Pharmacological interventions should be limited to clinically-induced treatments as evidence among healthy and athletic populations is lacking. To optimise and manage sleep in athletes, it is recommended to implement routine sleep monitoring on an individual basis.

  9. Electrocardiographic changes in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakasa, Kalpana; Ahmed, Jehanara; Hasan, Syed; Yousef, Mahmoud; Shridharani, Sachin

    2005-01-01

    The acute electrocardiographic changes during apneic episodes in patients with sleep apnea are well known. Long-term electro-cardiographic changes in these patients are not well studied. We conducted a retrospective case-control study to assess the electrocardiographic changes in African-American patients with established obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA). A significant percentage of patients with OSA had abnormal EKGs as compared to the control group. The effect of sleep apnea on the cardiovascular system is more complex in African-Americans due to higher prevalence of co-morbid conditions. Seventy-three percent of our patients with OSA had metabolic syndrome.

  10. Sleep alterations in mammals: did aquatic conditions inhibit rapid eye movement sleep?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Vibha; Jha, Sushil K

    2012-12-01

    Sleep has been studied widely in mammals and to some extent in other vertebrates. Higher vertebrates such as birds and mammals have evolved an inimitable rapid eye movement (REM) sleep state. During REM sleep, postural muscles become atonic and the temperature regulating machinery remains suspended. Although REM sleep is present in almost all the terrestrial mammals, the aquatic mammals have either radically reduced or completely eliminated REM sleep. Further, we found a significant negative correlation between REM sleep and the adaptation of the organism to live on land or in water. The amount of REM sleep is highest in terrestrial mammals, significantly reduced in semi-aquatic mammals and completely absent or negligible in aquatic mammals. The aquatic mammals are obligate swimmers and have to surface at regular intervals for air. Also, these animals live in thermally challenging environments, where the conductive heat loss is approximately ~90 times greater than air. Therefore, they have to be moving most of the time. As an adaptation, they have evolved unihemispheric sleep, during which they can rove as well as rest. A condition that immobilizes muscle activity and suspends the thermoregulatory machinery, as happens during REM sleep, is not suitable for these animals. It is possible that, in accord with Darwin's theory, aquatic mammals might have abolished REM sleep with time. In this review, we discuss the possibility of the intrinsic role of aquatic conditions in the elimination of REM sleep in the aquatic mammals.

  11. Sleep Applications to Assess Sleep Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fietze, Ingo

    2016-12-01

    This article highlights the potential uses that smartphone applications may have for helping those with sleep problems. Applications in smartphones offer the promised possibility of detection of sleep. From the author's own experience, one can also conclude that sleep applications are approximately as good as polysomnography in detection of sleep time, similar to the conventional wearable actimeters. In the future, sleep applications will help to further enhance awareness of sleep health and to distinguish those who actually poorly and only briefly sleep from those who suffer more likely from paradox insomnia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Sleep, chronotype, and sleep hygiene in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder, and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heijden, K B; Stoffelsen, R J; Popma, A; Swaab, H

    2018-01-01

    Sleep problems are highly prevalent in ADHD and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Better insight in the etiology is of clinical importance since intervention and prevention strategies of sleep problems are directed at underlying mechanisms. We evaluated the association of sleep problems and sleep patterns with sleep hygiene (behavioral/environmental practices that influence sleep quality, e.g. caffeine use), access to electronic media, chronotype, and anxiety/depression in children aged 6-12 years with ADHD, ASD, or typical development (TD) using parental questionnaires. ANOVA and linear regression analyses were adjusted for age and sex. Children with ADHD and ASD showed more sleep problems (63.6 and 64.7%, vs 25.1% in TD) and shorter sleep duration than controls, while differences between ADHD and ASD were not significant. Sleep hygiene was worse in ADHD and ASD compared to TD, however, the association of worse sleep hygiene with more sleep problems was only significant in ASD and TD. There was a significant association of access to electronic media with sleep problems only in typically developing controls. Chronotype did not differ significantly between groups, but evening types were associated with sleep problems in ADHD and TD. Associations of greater anxiety/depression with more sleep problems were shown in ADHD and TD; however, anxiety/depression did not moderate the effects of chronotype and sleep hygiene. We conclude that sleep problems are highly prevalent in ADHD and ASD, but are differentially related to chronotype and sleep hygiene. In ASD, sleep problems are related to inadequate sleep hygiene and in ADHD to evening chronotype, while in TD both factors are important. Clinical implications are discussed.

  13. Sleep walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sleepwalking. In: Chokroverty S, Thomas RJ, eds. Atlas of Sleep Medicine . 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:380- ... of Clinical Neurology, SUNY Stony Brook, School of Medicine, Stony Brook, NY. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare ... NIH MedlinePlus Magazine Read more ...

  14. Assessment of the Effects of Acute and Repeated Exposure to Blast Overpressure in Rodents: Towards a Greater Understanding of Blast and the Potential Ramifications for Injury in Humans Exposed to Blast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Thomas Ahlers

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI resulting from exposure to improvised explosive devices (IEDs has fueled a requirement to develop animals models that mirror this condition using exposure to blast overpressure (BOP. En route to developing a model of repeated exposure to BOP we sought to initially characterize the effects of acute BOP exposure in rodents, focusing specifically on the levels of BOP exposure that produced clinical mTBI symptoms. We first measured BOP effects on gross motor function on a balance beam. Separate groups of unanesthetized rats were exposed (in different orientations to 40 kPa, 75 kPa and 120 kPa BOP exposure inside a pneumatically driven shock tube. Results demonstrated that rats exposed to 120 kPa demonstrated transient alterations or loss of consciousness indicated by a transient loss of righting and by increased latencies on the balance beam. The 120 kPa exposure was the threshold for overt pathology for acute BOP exposure with approximately 30% of rats presenting with evidence of subdural hemorrhage and cortical contusions. All animals exposed to 120 kPa BOP manifested evidence of significant pulmonary hemorrhage. Anterograde memory deficits were observed in rats exposed to 75 kPa facing the BOP wave and rats exposed to 120 kPa in the lateral (side orientation. We next assessed repeated exposure to either lateral or frontal 40 kPa BOP in anesthetized rats, once per day for 12 days. Results showed that repeated exposure in the frontal, but not side, orientation to the BOP wave produced a transitory learning deficit on a Morris water maze (MWM task as shown by significantly longer latencies to reach the submerged platform in the second and third blocks of a four block session. Implications of these data are discussed in relation to the manifestation of mTBI in military personnel exposed to IEDs. Finally, we suggest that there are multiple types of brain injury from blast.

  15. Morning administration of oral methamphetamine dose-dependently disrupts nighttime sleep in recreational stimulant users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Evan S; Johnson, Patrick S; Bruner, Natalie R; Vandrey, Ryan; Johnson, Matthew W

    2017-09-01

    Use of amphetamine-type stimulants (e.g., methamphetamine) is associated with acute sleep disruptions. No prior reports have characterized the acute effects of methamphetamine on sleep using polysomnography, the gold standard for objective sleep monitoring. Recreational stimulant users (n=19) completed a baseline assessment, which included questionnaires assessing demographic and substance use characteristics, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), which assesses sleep quality over the past month. Participants were administered 0mg (placebo), 20mg, or 40mg oral methamphetamine at 08:15h on study days, using a double-blind, randomized, within-subjects design. Sleep was monitored using polysomnography from 22:20 that evening until 06:15 the following morning. PSQI scores indicated more than half of participants reported poor sleep quality at baseline. Methamphetamine dose-dependently increased sleep latency, and decreased total sleep time, sleep efficiency, time in NREM 2 sleep, number of REM periods, and total time in REM sleep. Sleep under placebo conditions was consistent with what would be expected from healthy adults. Morning oral administration of methamphetamine produces robust disruptions in nighttime sleep. Future research should examine relations between stimulant use and sleep disruption in naturalistic settings, with regard to both stimulant abuse and licit prescription use. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Does night-shift work induce apnea events in obstructive sleep apnea patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudencka, A; Klawe, J J; Tafil-Klawe, M; Złomańczuk, P

    2007-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the direct effect of night-work on the occurrence of obstructive apneas during sleep after a night shift in fast-rotating shift workers with sleep-related breathing disorders. Eight obstructive sleep apnea patients were examined with the use of a polysomnograph during sleep under two conditions: after day-shift work and after night-shift work. Both sleep studies were conducted within 2 to 3 weeks of each other. In four of the 8 subjects, during sleep after a night-shift, an increase in apnea/hypopnea index was found. Night work significantly increased several breathing variables: total duration of obstructive apneas during REM sleep, mean duration of obstructive apneas during arousal, and apnea index during arousal. We conclude that in a subpopulation of sleep apnea patients, acute sleep deprivation may worsen obstructive sleep apnea index.

  17. Chronic stress, catecholamines, and sleep disturbance at Three Mile Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, L M; Fleming, R; Baum, A

    1987-01-01

    The present study was concerned with the relationship between chronic stress and sleep disturbance. Previous research has provided evidence of chronic stress responding among people living near the Three Mile Island nuclear generating facility. Compared to control subjects, the TMI group has exhibited greater symptom reporting, poorer performance on behavioral measures of concentration, and elevated levels of urinary norepinephrine and epinephrine. Other research has suggested a relationship between arousal and insomnia. The extent to which stress and sleep disturbances were experienced by residents at TMI was examined and compared to levels of stress and sleep disturbance among a group of control subjects. The relationship between stress and sleep disturbances was also examined. Results indicated that TMI area residents exhibited more stress than the controls and reported greater disturbance of sleep. Modest relationships among stress and sleep measures suggested that the symptoms of stress measured in this study were not primary determinants of sleep problems.

  18. Chronic stress, catecholamines, and sleep disturbance at Three Mile Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, L.M.; Fleming, R.; Baum, A.

    1987-01-01

    The present study was concerned with the relationship between chronic stress and sleep disturbance. Previous research has provided evidence of chronic stress responding among people living near the Three Mile Island nuclear generating facility. Compared to control subjects, the TMI group has exhibited greater symptom reporting, poorer performance on behavioral measures of concentration, and elevated levels of urinary norepinephrine and epinephrine. Other research has suggested a relationship between arousal and insomnia. The extent to which stress and sleep disturbances were experienced by residents at TMI was examined and compared to levels of stress and sleep disturbance among a group of control subjects. The relationship between stress and sleep disturbances was also examined. Results indicated that TMI area residents exhibited more stress than the controls and reported greater disturbance of sleep. Modest relationships among stress and sleep measures suggested that the symptoms of stress measured in this study were not primary determinants of sleep problems

  19. Sleep apnea diagnosis varies with the hypopnea criteria applied

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponsaing, Laura B; Iversen, Helle K; Jennum, Poul

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: We aimed to evaluate the three hypopnea criteria, A and B from 2007 and the revised from 2012, proposed by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) for scoring sleep-related breathing disorders (SRBDs) in patients with acute stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). METHODS...

  20. Boy, Am I Tired!! Sleep....Why You Need It!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivieri, Chrystyne

    2016-01-01

    Sleep is essential to a healthy human being. It is among the basic necessities of life, located at the bottom of Maslow's Hierarchy of Need. It is a dynamic activity, necessary to maintain mood, memory and cognitive performance. Sleep disorders are strongly associated with the development of acute and chronic medical conditions. This article…

  1. Impact of Obstructive Sleep Apnea on the Levels of Placental Growth Factor (PlGF and Their Value for Predicting Short-Term Adverse Outcomes in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Barcelo

    Full Text Available Placental growth factor (PlGF induces angiogenesis and promotes tissue repair, and plasma PlGF levels change markedly during acute myocardial infarction (AMI. Currently, the impact of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA in patients with AMI is a subject of debate. Our objective was to evaluate the relationships between PlGF levels and both the severity of acute coronary syndrome (ACS and short-term outcomes after ACS in patients with and without OSA.A total of 538 consecutive patients (312 OSA patients and 226 controls admitted for ACS were included in this study. All patients underwent polygraphy in the first 72 hours after hospital admission. The severity of disease and short-term prognoses were evaluated during the hospitalization period. Plasma PlGF levels were measured using an electrochemiluminescence immunoassay.Patients with OSA were significantly older and more frequently hypertensive and had higher BMIs than those without OSA. After adjusting for age, smoking status, BMI and hypertension, PlGF levels were significantly elevated in patients with OSA compared with patients without OSA (19.9 pg/mL, interquartile range: 16.6-24.5 pg/mL; 18.5 pg/mL, interquartile range: 14.7-22.7 pg/mL; p1, even after adjustment.The results of this study show that in patients with ACS, elevated plasma levels of PlGF are associated with the presence of OSA and with adverse outcomes during short-term follow-up.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01335087.

  2. Sleep and Nutritional Deprivation and Performance of House Officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Michael R.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    A study to compare cognitive functioning in acutely and chronically sleep-deprived house officers is described. A multivariate analysis of variance revealed significant deficits in primary mental tasks involving basic rote memory, language, and numeric skills. (Author/MLW)

  3. Sleep Restriction Impairs Vocabulary Learning when Adolescents Cram for Exams: The Need for Sleep Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Sha; Deshpande, Aadya; Yeo, Sing-Chen; Lo, June C.; Chee, Michael W.L.; Gooley, Joshua J.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: The ability to recall facts is improved when learning takes place at spaced intervals, or when sleep follows shortly after learning. However, many students cram for exams and trade sleep for other activities. The aim of this study was to examine the interaction of study spacing and time in bed (TIB) for sleep on vocabulary learning in adolescents. Methods: In the Need for Sleep Study, which used a parallel-group design, 56 adolescents aged 15–19 years were randomly assigned to a week of either 5 h or 9 h of TIB for sleep each night as part of a 14-day protocol conducted at a boarding school. During the sleep manipulation period, participants studied 40 Graduate Record Examination (GRE)-type English words using digital flashcards. Word pairs were presented over 4 consecutive days (spaced items), or all at once during single study sessions (massed items), with total study time kept constant across conditions. Recall performance was examined 0 h, 24 h, and 120 h after all items were studied. Results: For all retention intervals examined, recall of massed items was impaired by a greater amount in adolescents exposed to sleep restriction. In contrast, cued recall performance on spaced items was similar between sleep groups. Conclusions: Spaced learning conferred strong protection against the effects of sleep restriction on recall performance, whereas students who had insufficient sleep were more likely to forget items studied over short time intervals. These findings in adolescents demonstrate the importance of combining good study habits and good sleep habits to optimize learning outcomes. Citation: Huang S, Deshpande A, Yeo SC, Lo JC, Chee MW, Gooley JJ. Sleep restriction impairs vocabulary learning when adolescents cram for exams: the Need for Sleep Study. SLEEP 2016;39(9):1681–1690. PMID:27253768

  4. Fiber and Saturated Fat Are Associated with Sleep Arousals and Slow Wave Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Onge, Marie-Pierre; Roberts, Amy; Shechter, Ari; Choudhury, Arindam Roy

    2016-01-01

    Sleep restriction alters food intake, but less is known about how dietary patterns affect sleep. Current goals were to determine whether: (1) sleep is different after consumption of a controlled diet vs. an ad libitum diet, and (2) dietary intake during ad libitum feeding is related to nocturnal sleep. Twenty-six normal weight adults (30-45 y), habitually sleeping 7-9 h/night, participated in a randomized-crossover inpatient study with 2 phases of 5 nights: short (4 h in bed) or habitual (9 h in bed) sleep. Only data from the habitual sleep phase were used for the present analyses. During the first 4 days, participants consumed a controlled diet; on day 5, food intake was self-selected. Linear regression was used to determine relations between daytime food intake and nighttime sleep on day 5. Sleep duration did not differ after 3 days of controlled feeding vs. a day of ad libitum intake. However, sleep after ad libitum eating had less slow wave sleep (SWS, P = 0.0430) and longer onset latency (P = 0.0085). Greater fiber intake predicted less stage 1 (P = 0.0198) and more SWS (P = 0.0286). Percent of energy from saturated fat predicted less SWS (P = 0.0422). Higher percent of energy from sugar and other carbohydrates not considered sugar or fiber was associated with arousals (P = 0.0320 and 0.0481, respectively). Low fiber and high saturated fat and sugar intake is associated with lighter, less restorative sleep with more arousals. Diet could be useful in the management of sleep disorders but this needs to be tested. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov, #NCT00935402. © 2016 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  5. The effect of resistance exercise on sleep: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacevic, Ana; Mavros, Yorgi; Heisz, Jennifer J; Fiatarone Singh, Maria A

    2018-06-01

    Impaired sleep quality and quantity are associated with future morbidity and mortality. Exercise may be an effective non-pharmacological intervention to improve sleep, however, little is known on the effect of resistance exercise. Thus, we performed a systematic review of the literature to determine the acute and chronic effects of resistance exercise on sleep quantity and quality. Thirteen studies were included. Chronic resistance exercise improves all aspects of sleep, with the greatest benefit for sleep quality. These benefits of isolated resistance exercise are attenuated when resistance exercise is combined with aerobic exercise and compared to aerobic exercise alone. However, the acute effects of resistance exercise on sleep remain poorly studied and inconsistent. In addition to the sleep benefits, resistance exercise training improves anxiety and depression. These results suggest that resistance exercise may be an effective intervention to improve sleep quality. Further research is needed to better understand the effects of acute resistance exercise on sleep, the physiological mechanisms underlying changes in sleep, the changes in sleep architecture with chronic resistance exercise, as well its efficacy in clinical cohorts who commonly experience sleep disturbance. Future studies should also examine time-of-day and dose-response effects to determine the optimal exercise prescription for sleep benefits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Critical evaluation of the effect of valerian extract on sleep structure and sleep quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donath, F; Quispe, S; Diefenbach, K; Maurer, A; Fietze, I; Roots, I

    2000-03-01

    A carefully designed study assessed the short-term (single dose) and long-term (14 days with multiple dosage) effects of a valerian extract on both objective and subjective sleep parameters. The investigation was performed as a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. Sixteen patients (4 male, 12 female) with previously established psychophysiological insomnia (ICSD-code 1.A.1.), and with a median age of 49 (range: 22 to 55), were included in the study. The main inclusion criteria were reported primary insomnia according to ICSD criteria, which was confirmed by polysomnographic recording, and the absence of acute diseases. During the study, the patients underwent 8 polysomnographic recordings: i.e., 2 recordings (baseline and study night) at each time point at which the short and long-term effects of placebo and valerian were tested. The target variable of the study was sleep efficiency. Other parameters describing objective sleep structure were the usual features of sleep-stage analysis, based on the rules of Rechtschaffen and Kales (1968), and the arousal index (scored according to ASDA criteria, 1992) as a sleep microstructure parameter. Subjective parameters such as sleep quality, morning feeling, daytime performance, subjectively perceived duration of sleep latency, and sleep period time were assessed by means of questionnaires. After a single dose of valerian, no effects on sleep structure and subjective sleep assessment were observed. After multiple-dose treatment, sleep efficiency showed a significant increase for both the placebo and the valerian condition in comparison with baseline polysomnography. We confirmed significant differences between valerian and placebo for parameters describing slow-wave sleep. In comparison with the placebo, slow-wave sleep latency was reduced after administration of valerian (21.3 vs. 13.5 min respectively, p<0.05). The SWS percentage of time in bed (TIB) was increased after long-term valerian

  7. The serotonin transporter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) and cortisol stress responsiveness: preliminary evidence for a modulating role for sleep quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dalfsen, Jens H; Markus, C Rob

    2018-05-23

    The short (S) allele of a functional polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) within the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) is found to predispose the risk for stress-related affective disorders relative to the long (L) allele. Evidence suggests that elevated stress reactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis might underlie this association although there is little understanding about the origin of inconsistent findings. Since inadequate sleep is commonly known to promote HPA stress reactivity, it might well play an important modulating role. The present study tested this hypothesis by investigating whether sleep quality moderates the relationship between 5-HTTLPR and cortisol stress responsiveness. From a large 5-HTTLPR database (n = 771), a sample of healthy male and female participants homozygous for either the 5-HTTLPR S-allele (n = 25) or L-allele (n = 25) were assessed for sleep quality and salivary cortisol secretion during acute laboratory stress. Diminished sleep quality was found to exclusively potentiate cortisol stress reactivity in the homozygous L-allele genotype. Accounting for this 5-HTTLPR-dependent influence enhanced the predictive value of 5-HTTLPR on cortisol stress responsiveness, revealing greater HPA reactivity in S-allele relative to L-allele carriers. Current findings suggest that variations in sleep quality may serve as a confounding factor in the search for genetic differences in stress sensitivity and related affective disorders.

  8. The Bidirectional Relationship between Sleep and Immunity against Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth G. Ibarra-Coronado

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep is considered an important modulator of the immune response. Thus, a lack of sleep can weaken immunity, increasing organism susceptibility to infection. For instance, shorter sleep durations are associated with a rise in suffering from the common cold. The function of sleep in altering immune responses must be determined to understand how sleep deprivation increases the susceptibility to viral, bacterial, and parasitic infections. There are several explanations for greater susceptibility to infections after reduced sleep, such as impaired mitogenic proliferation of lymphocytes, decreased HLA-DR expression, the upregulation of CD14+, and variations in CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes, which have been observed during partial sleep deprivation. Also, steroid hormones, in addition to regulating sexual behavior, influence sleep. Thus, we hypothesize that sleep and the immune-endocrine system have a bidirectional relationship in governing various physiological processes, including immunity to infections. This review discusses the evidence on the bidirectional effects of the immune response against viral, bacterial, and parasitic infections on sleep patterns and how the lack of sleep affects the immune response against such agents. Because sleep is essential in the maintenance of homeostasis, these situations must be adapted to elicit changes in sleep patterns and other physiological parameters during the immune response to infections to which the organism is continuously exposed.

  9. Exploring sleep disorders in patients with chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigam G

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Gaurav Nigam,1 Macario Camacho,2 Edward T Chang,2 Muhammad Riaz3 1Division of Sleep Medicine, Clay County Hospital, Flora, IL, 2Division of Otolaryngology, Sleep Surgery and Sleep Medicine, Tripler Army Medical Center, Honolulu, HI, 3Division of Sleep Medicine, Astria Health Center, Grandview, WA, USA Abstract: Kidney disorders have been associated with a variety of sleep-related disorders. Therefore, researchers are placing greater emphasis on finding the role of chronic kidney disease (CKD in the development of obstructive sleep apnea and restless legs syndrome. Unfortunately, the presence of other sleep-related disorders with CKDs and non-CKDs has not been investigated with the same clinical rigor. Recent studies have revealed that myriad of sleep disorders are associated with CKDs. Furthermore, there are a few non-CKD-related disorders that are associated with sleep disorders. In this narrative review, we provide a balanced view of the spectrum of sleep disorders (as identified in International Classification of Sleep disorders-3 related to different types of renal disorders prominently including but not exclusively limited to CKD. Keywords: kidney disease, sleep disorders, obstructive sleep apnea, parasomnias, restless legs syndrome, chronic kidney disease, insomnia

  10. Sleep disturbance and neuropsychological function in young children with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Heather E; Lam, Janet C; Mahone, E Mark

    2016-01-01

    Sleep disturbance, common among children with ADHD, can contribute to cognitive and behavioral dysfunction. It is therefore challenging to determine whether neurobehavioral dysfunction should be attributed to ADHD symptoms, sleep disturbance, or both. The present study examined parent-reported sleep problems (Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire) and their relationship to neuropsychological function in 64 children, aged 4-7 years, with and without ADHD. Compared to typically developing controls, children with ADHD were reported by parents to have significantly greater sleep disturbance--including sleep onset delay, sleep anxiety, night awakenings, and daytime sleepiness--(all p ≤ .01), and significantly poorer performance on tasks of attention, executive control, processing speed, and working memory (all p sleep disturbance was significantly associated with deficits in attention and executive control skills (all p ≤ .01); however, significant group differences (relative to controls) on these measures remained (p sleep disturbance. While sleep problems are common among young children with ADHD, these findings suggest that inattention and executive dysfunction appear to be attributable to symptoms of ADHD rather than to sleep disturbance. The relationships among sleep, ADHD symptoms, and neurobehavioral function in older children may show different patterns as a function of the chronicity of disordered sleep.

  11. Sleep and Newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sleep and Newborns KidsHealth / For Parents / Sleep and Newborns ... night it is. How Long Will My Newborn Sleep? Newborns should get 14 to 17 hours of ...

  12. Sleep Apnea Information Page

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Page You are here Home » Disorders » All Disorders Sleep Apnea Information Page Sleep Apnea Information Page What research is being done? ... Institutes of Health (NIH) conduct research related to sleep apnea in laboratories at the NIH, and also ...

  13. Side Effects: Sleep Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep problems are a common side effect during cancer treatment. Learn how a polysomnogram can assess sleep problems. Learn about the benefits of managing sleep disorders in men and women with cancer.

  14. Sleep Eduction: Treatment & Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Find a Sleep Center Use the following fields to locate sleep centers in your area. Search radius (in miles): 10 25 50 Share: Essentials in Sleep Insomnia Overview & Facts Symptoms & Causes Diagnosis & Self Tests ...

  15. Sleep Disorders (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Types of Cancer Treatment Surgery Radiation Therapy External Beam Radiation Internal Radiation Therapy Side Effects Chemotherapy Immunotherapy ... asleep, sleeping, or waking from sleep, such as walking, talking, or eating. Sleep disorders keep you from ...

  16. Brain Basics: Understanding Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You are here Home » Disorders » Patient & Caregiver Education Brain Basics: Understanding Sleep Anatomy of Sleep Sleep Stages ... t form or maintain the pathways in your brain that let you learn and create new memories, ...

  17. Effects of sleep disruption and high fat intake on glucose metabolism in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Jacqueline M; Barf, R Paulien; Opp, Mark R

    2016-06-01

    Poor sleep quality or quantity impairs glycemic control and increases risk of disease under chronic conditions. Recovery sleep may offset adverse metabolic outcomes of accumulated sleep debt, but the extent to which this occurs is unclear. We examined whether recovery sleep improves glucose metabolism in mice subjected to prolonged sleep disruption, and whether high fat intake during sleep disruption exacerbates glycemic control. Adult male C57BL/6J mice were subjected to 18-h sleep fragmentation daily for 9 days, followed by 1 day of recovery. During sleep disruption, one group of mice was fed a high-fat diet (HFD) while another group was fed standard laboratory chow. Insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance were assessed by insulin and glucose tolerance testing at baseline, after 3 and 7 days of sleep disruption, and at the end of the protocol after 24h of undisturbed sleep opportunity (recovery). To characterize changes in sleep architecture that are associated with sleep debt and recovery, we quantified electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings during sleep fragmentation and recovery periods from an additional group of mice. We now report that 9 days of 18-h daily sleep fragmentation significantly reduces rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) and non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS). Mice respond with increases in REMS, but not NREMS, during the daily 6-h undisturbed sleep opportunity. However, both REMS and NREMS increase significantly during the 24-h recovery period. Although sleep disruption alone has no effect in this protocol, high fat feeding in combination with sleep disruption impairs glucose tolerance, effects that are reversed by recovery sleep. Insulin sensitivity modestly improves after 3 days of sleep fragmentation and after 24h of recovery, with significantly greater improvements in mice exposed to HFD during sleep disruption. Improvements in both glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity are associated with NREMS rebound, raising the possibility that this

  18. Improvement in Obstructive Sleep Apnea With Weight Loss is Dependent on Body Position During Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosten, Simon A; Khoo, Jun K; Edwards, Bradley A; Landry, Shane A; Naughton, Matthew T; Dixon, John B; Hamilton, Garun S

    2017-05-01

    Weight loss fails to resolve obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in most patients; however, it is unknown as to whether weight loss differentially affects OSA in the supine compared with nonsupine sleeping positions. We aimed to determine if weight loss in obese patients with OSA results in a greater reduction in the nonsupine apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) compared with the supine AHI, thus converting participants into supine-predominant OSA. Post hoc analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial assessing the effect of weight loss (bariatric surgery vs. medical weight loss) on OSA in 60 participants with obesity (body mass index: >35 and sleep study at 2 years. Eight of 37 (22%) patients demonstrated a normal nonsupine AHI (sleep avoidance may cure their OSA. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Relationship between parent knowledge of child sleep, and child sleep practices and problems: A pilot study in a children's hospital cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowall, Philippa S; Elder, Dawn E; Campbell, Angela J

    2017-08-01

    To describe parent reports of sleep practices, and examine associations with parent knowledge of child sleep, and whether children's sleep practices differ between parents who underestimated, overestimated or accurately estimated children's sleep needs. Parents of children aged 2-12 years (n = 115) attending hospital inpatient or day wards were approached and asked to report child sleep routines, sleep problems, parent education, household income and parent knowledge of child sleep via questionnaire. Younger age was associated with earlier bedtimes and wake times, shorter sleep latencies, longer sleep durations and greater sleep problems (P child sleep reported earlier weekday and weekend bedtimes (r s  ≥ 0.26) and wake times (r s  ≥ 0.21) and greater consistency between their child's weekend and weekday sleep routines (P child's sleep needs: parents who underestimated reported later weekday bedtimes (on average, 46 min), and longer sleep latencies (17 min); parents who overestimated reported longer sleep latencies (22 min). These findings remained significant when controlling for child age (P Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  20. Primary sleep disorders can cause long-term sleep disturbance in patients with autoimmune mediated limbic encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kirstie N; Kelly, Thomas P; Griffiths, Timothy D

    2013-07-01

    Antibody mediated limbic encephalitis causes a sub acute encephalopathy with an amnestic syndrome, seizures and often an affective prodrome. Sleep disturbance including abnormal dream sleep and insomnia are described in a percentage of long-term survivors but there are very few detailed assessments of sleep disturbance in patients beyond the acute phase of illness. The objectives of this study were to understand the causes of sleep disturbance in the long-term survivors of antibody mediated limbic encephalitis. We screened twelve patients under long-term follow up with sleep questionnaires and went on to perform detailed sleep studies (polysomnography) in those who reported sleep disturbance. Two were found to have persistent, severe central and obstructive sleep apnoea and two others to have restless legs and periodic limb movements of sleep. This highlights the need to investigate sleep disturbance in this group of patients. Effective treatments may be available to improve quality of life and daytime function. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Acute severe childhood asthma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Attending school regularly. • Sleeping well at night ... and children must know exactly what to do when an acute attack occurs, and when to ... peak flow reading that is 30% below the expected level, are ... oxygen saturations < 94%, should receive high-flow oxygen ... usual of the metered dose inhaler are required to achieve.

  2. Sleep and athletic performance: the effects of sleep loss on exercise performance, and physiological and cognitive responses to exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullagar, Hugh H K; Skorski, Sabrina; Duffield, Rob; Hammes, Daniel; Coutts, Aaron J; Meyer, Tim

    2015-02-01

    Although its true function remains unclear, sleep is considered critical to human physiological and cognitive function. Equally, since sleep loss is a common occurrence prior to competition in athletes, this could significantly impact upon their athletic performance. Much of the previous research has reported that exercise performance is negatively affected following sleep loss; however, conflicting findings mean that the extent, influence, and mechanisms of sleep loss affecting exercise performance remain uncertain. For instance, research indicates some maximal physical efforts and gross motor performances can be maintained. In comparison, the few published studies investigating the effect of sleep loss on performance in athletes report a reduction in sport-specific performance. The effects of sleep loss on physiological responses to exercise also remain equivocal; however, it appears a reduction in sleep quality and quantity could result in an autonomic nervous system imbalance, simulating symptoms of the overtraining syndrome. Additionally, increases in pro-inflammatory cytokines following sleep loss could promote immune system dysfunction. Of further concern, numerous studies investigating the effects of sleep loss on cognitive function report slower and less accurate cognitive performance. Based on this context, this review aims to evaluate the importance and prevalence of sleep in athletes and summarises the effects of sleep loss (restriction and deprivation) on exercise performance, and physiological and cognitive responses to exercise. Given the equivocal understanding of sleep and athletic performance outcomes, further research and consideration is required to obtain a greater knowledge of the interaction between sleep and performance.

  3. Sleep problems in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: associations with parenting style and sleep hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciberras, Emma; Song, Jie Cheng; Mulraney, Melissa; Schuster, Tibor; Hiscock, Harriet

    2017-09-01

    We aimed to examine the association between sleep problems and parenting and sleep hygiene in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Participants included 5-13-year-old children with DSM 5 defined ADHD and a parent-reported moderate-to-severe sleep problem (N = 361). Sleep was assessed using the parent-reported Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire. Parents also completed checklists assessing sleep hygiene, parenting consistency, and parenting warmth. Linear regression established prediction models controlling for confounding variables including child age and sex, ADHD symptom severity, comorbidities, medication use, and socio-demographic factors. More consistent parenting was associated with decreased bedtime resistance (β = -0.16) and decreased sleep anxiety (β = -0.14), while greater parental warmth was associated with increased parasomnias (β = +0.18) and sleep anxiety (β = +0.13). Poorer sleep hygiene was associated with increased bedtime resistance (β = +0.20), increased daytime sleepiness (β = +0.12), and increased sleep duration problems (β = +0.13). In conclusion, sleep hygiene and parenting are important modifiable factors independently associated with sleep problems in children with ADHD. These factors should be considered in the management of sleep problems in children with ADHD.

  4. What keeps low-SES children from sleeping well: the role of presleep worries and sleep environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Erika J.; Kelly, Ryan J.; Buckhalt, Joseph A.; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Children in families of low socioeconomic status (SES) have been found to have poor sleep, yet the reasons for this finding are unclear. Two possible mediators, presleep worries and home environment conditions, were investigated as indirect pathways between SES and children’s sleep. Participants/Methods The participants consisted of 271 children (M (age) = 11.33 years; standard deviation (SD) = 7.74 months) from families varying in SES as indexed by the income-to-needs ratio. Sleep was assessed with actigraphy (sleep minutes, night waking duration, and variability in sleep schedule) and child self-reported sleep/wake problems (e.g., oversleeping and trouble falling asleep) and sleepiness (e.g., sleeping in class and falling asleep while doing homework). Presleep worries and home environment conditions were assessed with questionnaires. Results Lower SES was associated with more subjective sleep/wake problems and daytime sleepiness, and increased exposure to disruptive sleep conditions and greater presleep worries were mediators of these associations. In addition, environmental conditions served as an intervening variable linking SES to variability in an actigraphy-derived sleep schedule, and, similarly, presleep worry was an intervening variable linking SES to actigraphy-based night waking duration. Across sleep parameters, the model explained 5–29% of variance. Conclusions Sleep environment and psychological factors are associated with socioeconomic disparities, which affect children’s sleep. PMID:25701537

  5. What keeps low-SES children from sleeping well: the role of presleep worries and sleep environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Erika J; Kelly, Ryan J; Buckhalt, Joseph A; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2015-04-01

    Children in families of low socioeconomic status (SES) have been found to have poor sleep, yet the reasons for this finding are unclear. Two possible mediators, presleep worries and home environment conditions, were investigated as indirect pathways between SES and children's sleep. The participants consisted of 271 children (M (age) = 11.33 years; standard deviation (SD) = 7.74 months) from families varying in SES as indexed by the income-to-needs ratio. Sleep was assessed with actigraphy (sleep minutes, night waking duration, and variability in sleep schedule) and child self-reported sleep/wake problems (e.g., oversleeping and trouble falling asleep) and sleepiness (e.g., sleeping in class and falling asleep while doing homework). Presleep worries and home environment conditions were assessed with questionnaires. Lower SES was associated with more subjective sleep/wake problems and daytime sleepiness, and increased exposure to disruptive sleep conditions and greater presleep worries were mediators of these associations. In addition, environmental conditions served as an intervening variable linking SES to variability in an actigraphy-derived sleep schedule, and, similarly, presleep worry was an intervening variable linking SES to actigraphy-based night waking duration. Across sleep parameters, the model explained 5-29% of variance. Sleep environment and psychological factors are associated with socioeconomic disparities, which affect children's sleep. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The Effect of Aromatherapy on Insomnia and Other Common Symptoms Among Patients With Acute Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Lisa; Achor, Sara; Allen, Betty; Bauchmire, Nicole; Dunnington, Danielle; Klisovic, Rebecca; Naber, Steven; Roblee, Kirsten; Samczak, Angela; Tomlinson-Pinkham, Kelly; Chipps, Esther

    2017-07-01

    To determine if the use of aromatherapy improves insomnia and other common symptoms in hospitalized patients with newly diagnosed acute leukemia. A randomized, crossover, washout trial. An inpatient acute leukemia unit at the Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard L. Solove Research Institute of the Wexner Medical Center at Ohio State University in Columbus. 50 patients who were newly diagnosed with acute leukemia and hospitalized to receive their initial four weeks of intensive induction chemotherapy. Patients were offered a choice of three scents to be used during the trial: lavender, peppermint, or chamomile. Each patient was randomized to receive either the chosen aromatherapy intervention or a placebo intervention during alternate weeks, with a washout period in between. Sleep quality and other common symptoms were measured. Aromatherapy, sleep, insomnia, pain, tiredness, drowsiness, nausea, lack of appetite, shortness of breath, depression, anxiety, and well-being. Most patients reported poor quality sleep at baseline, but aromatherapy had a statistically significant positive impact. Improvements were noted in tiredness, drowsiness, lack of appetite, depression, anxiety, and well-being because of aromatherapy. Aromatherapy is a viable intervention for improving insomnia and other symptoms commonly experienced by patients with acute leukemia. Oncology nurses can employ aromatherapy safely and inexpensively, and with minimal training, as an effective tool in decreasing many symptoms that plague patients with leukemia. Patients can exercise a greater sense of control over their treatment environments through the use of aromatherapy.

  7. Sleep and sadness: exploring the relation among sleep, cognitive control, and depressive symptoms in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderlind, W Michael; Beevers, Christopher G; Sherman, Stephanie M; Trujillo, Logan T; McGeary, John E; Matthews, Michael D; Maddox, W Todd; Schnyer, David M

    2014-01-01

    Sleep disturbance is a common feature of depression. However, recent work has found that individuals who are vulnerable to depression report poorer sleep quality compared to their low-risk counterparts, suggesting that sleep disturbance may precede depression. In addition, both sleep disturbance and depression are related to deficits in cognitive control processes. Thus we examined if poor sleep quality predicts subsequent increases in depressive symptoms and if levels of cognitive control mediated this relation. Thirty-five undergraduate students participated in two experimental sessions separated by 3 weeks. Participants wore an actigraph watch between sessions, which provided an objective measure of sleep patterns. We assessed self-reported sleep quality and depressive symptoms at both sessions. Last, individuals completed an exogenous cuing task, which measured ability to disengage attention from neutral and negative stimuli during the second session. Using path analyses, we found that both greater self-reported sleep difficulty and more objective sleep stability measures significantly predicted greater difficulty disengaging attention (i.e., less cognitive control) from negative stimuli. Less cognitive control over negative stimuli in turn predicted increased depression symptoms at the second session. Exploratory associations among the circadian locomotor output cycles kaput gene, CLOCK, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs11932595, as well as sleep assessments and depressive symptoms also are presented. These preliminary results suggest that sleep disruptions may contribute to increases in depressive symptoms via their impact on cognitive control. Further, variation in the CLOCK gene may be associated with sleep quality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The Association between Sleep Problems, Sleep Medication Use, and Falls in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: Results from the Health and Retirement Study 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background. Very few studies have assessed the impact of poor sleep and sleep medication use on the risk of falls among community-dwelling older adults. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between sleep problems, sleep medication use, and falls in community-dwelling older adults. Methods. The study population comprised a nationally representative sample of noninstitutionalized older adults participating in the 2010 Health and Retirement Study. Proportion of adults reporting sleep problems, sleep medication use, and fall was calculated. Multiple logistic regression models were constructed to examine the impact of sleep problems and sleep medication use on the risk of falls after controlling for covariates. Results. Among 9,843 community-dwelling older adults, 35.8% had reported a fall and 40.8% had reported sleep problems in the past two years. Sleep medication use was reported by 20.9% of the participants. Older adults who do have sleep problems and take sleep medications had a significant high risk of falls, compared to older adults who do not have sleep problems and do not take sleep medications. The other two groups also had significantly greater risk for falls. Conclusion. Sleep problems added to sleep medication use increase the risk of falls. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm these observed findings. PMID:27547452

  9. Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Aldosterone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svatikova, Anna; Olson, Lyle J.; Wolk, Robert; Phillips, Bradley G.; Adachi, Taro; Schwartz, Gary L.; Somers, Virend K.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a major risk factor for hypertension and has been associated with increased risk for cardiovascular morbidity. A dysregulated renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system may contribute to excess sodium retention and hypertension and may be activated in OSA. We tested the hypothesis that serum levels of aldosterone and plasma renin activity (PRA) are increased by apneic sleep in subjects without cardiovascular disease, compared to healthy control subjects. Methods and Results: Plasma aldosterone level was measured in 21 subjects with moderate to severe OSA and was compared to 19 closely matched healthy subjects. Plasma renin activity (PRA) was measured in 19 OSA patients and in 20 healthy controls. Aldosterone and PRA were measured before sleep (9pm), after 5 hrs of untreated OSA (2am) and in the morning after awakening (6am). There were no baseline (9pm) differences in serum aldosterone levels and PRA between the healthy controls and OSA patients (aldosterone: 55.2 ± 9 vs 56.0 ± 9 pg/mL; PRA: 0.99 ± 0.15 vs 1.15 ± 0.15 ng/mL/hr). Neither several hours of untreated severe OSA nor CPAP treatment affected aldosterone levels and PRA in OSA patients. Diurnal variation of both aldosterone and PRA was observed in both groups, in that morning renin and aldosterone levels were higher than those measured at night before sleep. Conclusions: Our study shows that patients with moderate to severe OSA without co-existing cardiovascular disease have plasma aldosterone and renin levels similar to healthy subjects. Neither untreated OSA nor CPAP treatment acutely affect plasma aldosterone or renin levels. Citation: Svatikova A; Olson LJ; Wolk R; Phillips BG; Adachi T; Schwartz GL; Somers VK. Obstructive sleep apnea and aldosterone. SLEEP 2009;32(12):1589-1592. PMID:20041594

  10. Sleep physiology and sleep disorders in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Shakankiry HM

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Hanan M El ShakankiryKing Fahd University Hospital, Al Dammam University, Al Khobar, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaAbstract: Sleep has long been considered as a passive phenomenon, but it is now clear that it is a period of intense brain activity involving higher cortical functions. Overall, sleep affects every aspect of a child's development, particularly higher cognitive functions. Sleep concerns are ranked as the fifth leading concern of parents. Close to one third of all children suffer from sleep disorders, the prevalence of which is increased in certain pediatric populations, such as children with special needs, children with psychiatric or medical diagnoses and children with autism or pervasive developmental disorders. The paper reviews sleep physiology and the impact, classification, and management of sleep disorders in the pediatric age group.Keywords: sleep physiology, sleep disorders, childhood, epilepsy

  11. Sleep Spindles in the Right Hemisphere Support Awareness of Regularities and Reflect Pre-Sleep Activations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yordanova, Juliana; Kolev, Vasil; Bruns, Eike; Kirov, Roumen; Verleger, Rolf

    2017-11-01

    The present study explored the sleep mechanisms which may support awareness of hidden regularities. Before sleep, 53 participants learned implicitly a lateralized variant of the serial response-time task in order to localize sensorimotor encoding either in the left or right hemisphere and induce implicit regularity representations. Electroencephalographic (EEG) activity was recorded at multiple electrodes during both task performance and sleep, searching for lateralized traces of the preceding activity during learning. Sleep EEG analysis focused on region-specific slow (9-12 Hz) and fast (13-16 Hz) sleep spindles during nonrapid eye movement sleep. Fast spindle activity at those motor regions that were activated during learning increased with the amount of postsleep awareness. Independently of side of learning, spindle activity at right frontal and fronto-central regions was involved: there, fast spindles increased with the transformation of sequence knowledge from implicit before sleep to explicit after sleep, and slow spindles correlated with individual abilities of gaining awareness. These local modulations of sleep spindles corresponded to regions with greater presleep activation in participants with postsleep explicit knowledge. Sleep spindle mechanisms are related to explicit awareness (1) by tracing the activation of motor cortical and right-hemisphere regions which had stronger involvement already during learning and (2) by recruitment of individually consolidated processing modules in the right hemisphere. The integration of different sleep spindle mechanisms with functional states during wake collectively supports the gain of awareness of previously experienced regularities, with a special role for the right hemisphere. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press [on behalf of the Sleep Research Society].

  12. Sleep quality, sleep duration and physical activity in obese adolescents: effects of exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelson, M; Borowik, A; Michallet, A-S; Perrin, C; Monneret, D; Faure, P; Levy, P; Pépin, J-L; Wuyam, B; Flore, P

    2016-02-01

    Decreased sleep duration and altered sleep quality are risk factors for obesity in youth. Structured exercise training has been shown to increase sleep duration and improve sleep quality. This study aimed at evaluating the impact of exercise training for improving sleep duration, sleep quality and physical activity in obese adolescents (OB). Twenty OB (age: 14.5 ± 1.5 years; body mass index: 34.0 ± 4.7 kg m(-2) ) and 20 healthy-weight adolescents (HW) completed an overnight polysomnography and wore an accelerometer (SenseWear Bodymedia) for 7 days. OB participated in a 12-week supervised exercise-training programme consisting of 180 min of exercise weekly. Exercise training was a combination of aerobic exercise and resistance training. Sleep duration was greater in HW compared with OB (P < 0.05). OB presented higher apnoea-hypopnoea index than HW (P < 0.05). Physical activity (average daily metabolic equivalent of tasks [METs]) by accelerometer was lower in OB (P < 0.05). After exercise training, obese adolescents increased their sleep duration (+64.4 min; effect size: 0.88; P = 0.025) and sleep efficiency (+7.6%; effect size: 0.76; P = 0.028). Physical activity levels were increased in OB as evidenced by increased steps per day and average daily METs (P < 0.05). Improved sleep duration was associated with improved average daily METs (r = 0.48, P = 0.04). The present study confirms altered sleep duration and quality in OB. Exercise training improves sleep duration, sleep quality and physical activity. © 2015 World Obesity.

  13. Sleep-wake patterns and sleep disturbance among Hong Kong Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ka-Fai; Cheung, Miao-Miao

    2008-02-01

    To determine sleep-wake patterns and evaluate sleep disturbance in Hong Kong adolescents; to identify factors that are associated with sleep disturbance; and to examine the relationship of sleep-wake variables and academic performance. A school-based cross-sectional survey. Sample included 1629 adolescents aged 12 to 19 years. Self-report questionnaires, including sleep-wake habit questionnaire, Sleep Quality Index, Morningness/ Eveningness scale, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Perceived Stress Scale, academic performance, and personal data were administered. The average school-night bedtime was 23:24, and total sleep time was 7.3 hr. During weekends, the average bedtime and rise time was delayed by 64 min and 195 min, respectively. The prevalence of sleep disturbances occurring > or = 3 days per week in the preceding 3 months were: difficulty falling asleep (5.6%), waking up during the night (7.2%), and waking up too early in the morning (10.4%). The prevalence of > or = 1 of these three symptoms was 19.1%. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that circadian phase preference was the most significant predictor for school night bedtime, weekend oversleep, and daytime sleepiness. Perceived stress was the most significant risk factor for sleep disturbance. Students with marginal academic performance reported later bedtimes and shorter sleep during school nights, greater weekend delays in bedtime, and more daytime sleepiness than those with better grades. The prevalence of sleep deprivation and sleep disturbance among Hong Kong adolescents is comparable to those found in other countries. An intervention program for sleep problems in adolescents should be considered.

  14. Sleep: A Health Imperative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyster, Faith S.; Strollo, Patrick J.; Zee, Phyllis C.; Walsh, James K.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic sleep deficiency, defined as a state of inadequate or mistimed sleep, is a growing and underappreciated determinant of health status. Sleep deprivation contributes to a number of molecular, immune, and neural changes that play a role in disease development, independent of primary sleep disorders. These changes in biological processes in response to chronic sleep deficiency may serve as etiological factors for the development and exacerbation of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases and, ultimately, a shortened lifespan. Sleep deprivation also results in significant impairments in cognitive and motor performance which increase the risk of motor vehicle crashes and work-related injuries and fatal accidents. The American Academy of Sleep Medicine and the Sleep Research Society have developed this statement to communicate to national health stakeholders the current knowledge which ties sufficient sleep and circadian alignment in adults to health. Citation: Luyster FS; Strollo PJ; Zee PC; Walsh JK. Sleep: a health imperative. SLEEP 2012;35(6):727-734. PMID:22654183

  15. Sitting and television viewing: novel risk factors for sleep disturbance and apnea risk? results from the 2013 National Sleep Foundation Sleep in America Poll.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buman, Matthew P; Kline, Christopher E; Youngstedt, Shawn D; Phillips, Barbara; Tulio de Mello, Marco; Hirshkowitz, Max

    2015-03-01

    Excess sitting is emerging as a novel risk factor for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, mental illness, and all-cause mortality. Physical activity, distinct from sitting, is associated with better sleep and lower risk for OSA, yet relationships among sitting behaviors and sleep/OSA remain unknown. We examined whether total sitting time and sitting while viewing television were associated with sleep duration and quality, OSA risk, and sleepiness. The 2013 National Sleep Foundation Sleep in America Poll was a cross-sectional study of 1,000 adults aged 23 to 60 years. Total sitting time, time watching television while sitting, sleep duration and quality, OSA risk, and daytime sleepiness were assessed. After adjusting for confounding factors (including BMI and physical activity), each additional hour per day of total sitting was associated with greater odds of poor sleep quality (OR [95% CI] = 1.06 [1.01, 1.11]) but not with other sleep metrics (including sleep duration), OSA risk, or daytime sleepiness. For television viewing while sitting, each additional hour per day was associated with greater odds of long sleep onset latency (≥ 30 min) (OR = 1.15 [1.04, 1.27]), waking up too early in the morning (OR = 1.12 [1.03, 1.23]), poor sleep quality (OR = 1.12 [1.02, 1.24]), and "high risk" for OSA (OR = 1.15 [1.04, 1.28]). Based upon an interaction analysis, regular physical activity was protective against OSA risk associated with television viewing (P = .04). Excess sitting was associated with relatively poor sleep quality. Sitting while watching television was associated with relatively poor sleep quality and OSA risk and may be an important risk factor for sleep disturbance and apnea risk.

  16. The effect of sleep on nocturnal urine output

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamperis, Konstantinos; Hagstrøm, Søren; Rittig, Søren

    2005-01-01

    sleep and the sequence was randomized. During these nights with sleep deprivation, participants were in lying position in a dimly lit room and physical activities, food and fluid intake were not allowed. Smoking was not allowed throughout the entire experimental protocol. Determinations of electrolytes...... sleep related physiological mechanisms into consideration. In the present study we report that acute sleep deprivation has a dramatic effect on the volume of nocturnal urine production in both genders although the effect is more pronounced in males. Natriuresis and kaliuresis were observed on nights...

  17. Selective REM Sleep Deprivation Improves Expectation-Related Placebo Analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouchou, Florian; Chauny, Jean-Marc; Rainville, Pierre; Lavigne, Gilles J

    2015-01-01

    The placebo effect is a neurobiological and psychophysiological process known to influence perceived pain relief. Optimization of placebo analgesia may contribute to the clinical efficacy and effectiveness of medication for acute and chronic pain management. We know that the placebo effect operates through two main mechanisms, expectations and learning, which is also influenced by sleep. Moreover, a recent study suggested that rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is associated with modulation of expectation-mediated placebo analgesia. We examined placebo analgesia following pharmacological REM sleep deprivation and we tested the hypothesis that relief expectations and placebo analgesia would be improved by experimental REM sleep deprivation in healthy volunteers. Following an adaptive night in a sleep laboratory, 26 healthy volunteers underwent classical experimental placebo analgesic conditioning in the evening combined with pharmacological REM sleep deprivation (clonidine: 13 volunteers or inert control pill: 13 volunteers). Medication was administered in a double-blind manner at bedtime, and placebo analgesia was tested in the morning. Results revealed that 1) placebo analgesia improved with REM sleep deprivation; 2) pain relief expectations did not differ between REM sleep deprivation and control groups; and 3) REM sleep moderated the relationship between pain relief expectations and placebo analgesia. These results support the putative role of REM sleep in modulating placebo analgesia. The mechanisms involved in these improvements in placebo analgesia and pain relief following selective REM sleep deprivation should be further investigated.

  18. Sleep for cognitive enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne eDiekelmann

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Sleep is essential for effective cognitive functioning. Loosing even a few hours of sleep can have detrimental effects on a wide variety of cognitive processes such as attention, language, reasoning, decision making, learning and memory. While sleep is necessary to ensure normal healthy cognitive functioning, it can also enhance performance beyond the boundaries of the normal condition. This article discusses the enhancing potential of sleep, mainly focusing on the domain of learning and memory. Sleep is known to facilitate the consolidation of memories learned before sleep as well as the acquisition of new memories to be learned after sleep. According to a widely held model this beneficial effect of sleep relies on the neuronal reactivation of memories during sleep that is associated with sleep-specific brain oscillations (slow oscillations, spindles, ripples as well as a characteristic neurotransmitter milieu. Recent research indicates that memory processing during sleep can be boosted by (i cueing memory reactivation during sleep, (ii stimulating sleep-specific brain oscillations, and (iii targeting specific neurotransmitter systems pharmacologically. Olfactory and auditory cues can be used, for example, to increase reactivation of associated memories during post-learning sleep. Intensifying neocortical slow oscillations (the hallmark of slow wave sleep by electrical or auditory stimulation and modulating specific neurotransmitters such as noradrenaline and glutamate likewise facilitates memory processing during sleep. With this evidence in mind, this article concludes by discussing different methodological caveats and ethical issues that should be considered when thinking about using sleep for cognitive enhancement in everyday applications.

  19. Habitual sleep durations and subjective sleep quality predict white matter differences in the human brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakh Khalsa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Self-imposed short sleep durations are increasingly commonplace in society, and have considerable health and performance implications for individuals. Reduced sleep duration over multiple nights has similar behavioural effects to those observed following acute total sleep deprivation, suggesting that lack of sleep affects brain function cumulatively. A link between habitual sleep patterns and functional connectivity has previously been observed, and the effect of sleep duration on the brain's intrinsic functional architecture may provide a link between sleep status and cognition. However, it is currently not known whether differences in habitual sleep patterns across individuals are related to changes in the brain's white matter, which underlies structural connectivity. In the present study we use diffusion–weighted imaging and a group comparison application of tract based spatial statistics (TBSS to investigate changes to fractional anisotropy (FA and mean diffusivity (MD in relation to sleep duration and quality, hypothesising that white matter metrics would be positively associated with sleep duration and quality. Diffusion weighted imaging data was acquired from a final cohort of 33 (23–29 years, 10 female, mean 25.4 years participants. Sleep patterns were assessed for a 14 day period using wrist actigraphs and sleep diaries, and subjective sleep quality with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI. Median splits based on total sleep time and PSQI were used to create groups of shorter/longer and poorer/better sleepers, whose imaging data was compared using TBSS followed by post-hoc correlation analysis in regions identified as significantly different between the groups. There were significant positive correlations between sleep duration and FA in the left orbito-frontal region and the right superior corona radiata, and significant negative correlations between sleep duration and MD in right orbito-frontal white matter and the right

  20. Adolescents' Sleep Behaviors and Perceptions of Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noland, Heather; Price, James H.; Dake, Joseph; Telljohann, Susan K.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Sleep duration affects the health of children and adolescents. Shorter sleep durations have been associated with poorer academic performance, unintentional injuries, and obesity in adolescents. This study extends our understanding of how adolescents perceive and deal with their sleep issues. Methods: General education classes were…

  1. Sleep Changes in a Rat Prenatal Stress Model of Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skoven, Christian; Sickman, Helle M.; Bastlund, Jesper Frank

    Major depression is one of the most frequently occurring mental health disorders, but is characterized by diverse symptomatology. Sleep disturbances, however, are commonplace in depressive patients. These alterations include increased duration of Rapid Eye Movement Sleep (REMS) and increased sleep...... determination of sleep-wakefulness state. As traumatic episodes can trigger episodes of clinical depression, we also investigated effects of an acute stressor during the recording period. PNS animals (n=21) had an 82% increase in amount of REMS (11.6±1.4% vs 6.3±0.9%; p...-related increase in REMS after lights-off (pREMS rebound thus seems blunted in PNS animals. PNS alters sleep-wakefulness behavior under baseline conditions and after acute stress. This underscores the value of the PNS...

  2. Altered sleep-wake patterns in blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aubin, S.; Gacon, C.; Jennum, P.

    2016-01-01

    discuss variability in the sleep–wake pattern between blind and normal-sighted individuals. Methods Thirty-day actigraphy recordings were collected from 11 blind individuals without residual light perception and 11 age- and sex-matched normal-sighted controls. From these recordings, we extracted...... the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and chronotype, using the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire. Results Although no group differences were found when averaging over the entire recording period, we found a greater variability throughout the 30-days in both sleep efficiency and timing of the night-time sleep...

  3. [Habits and problems of sleep in adolescent students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazaratou, E; Dikeos, D; Anagnostopoulos, D; Soldatos, C

    2008-07-01

    The evaluation of sleep habits and sleep related problems in high school adolescent students in the Athens area and the assessment of these problems' relation to demographic and other variables was investigated by the Athens Insomnia Scale - 5 item version (AIS-5), which was administered to 713 adolescent Senior High School students in the Greater Athens Area. Data such as age, sex, school records, and time spent per week in school-related and extracurricular activities were collected. The sample's mean sleep duration was 7,5 hours, mean bedtime 12:20 am and wake-up time 7:15 am. Total sleep time was not affected by gender, but was influenced by time spent in various activities. Sleep complaints were related to delayed sleep, onset latency and insufficient total duration of sleep. Girls complained more than boys, while correlations showed that students with lower academic per formance and those in second grade were more likely to have higher AIS-5 scores. The results show that sleep time of high school students is dependent on practical matters such as school schedule and other activities, while sleep complaints are related to female gender, bad school performance as well as to the second grade. The difference between actual sleep time and sleep complaints should be considered when studying the sleep of adolescents.

  4. Associations between sleep parameters and food reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Jessica; Cadieux, Sébastien; Finlayson, Graham; Blundell, John E; Doucet, Éric

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the effects of acute, isocaloric aerobic and resistance exercise on different sleep parameters, and whether changes in these sleep parameters between sessions were related to next morning food reward. Fourteen men and women (age: 21.9 ± 2.7 years; body mass index: 22.7 ± 1.9 kg m(-) ²) participated in three randomized crossover sessions: aerobic exercise; resistance exercise; and sedentary control. Target exercise energy expenditure was matched at 4 kcal kg(-1) of body weight, and performed at 70% of VO2peak or 70% of 1 repetition-maximal. Sleep was measured (accelerometry) for 22 h following each session. The 'wanting' for visual food cues (validated computer task) was assessed the next morning. There were no differences in sleep parameters and food 'wanting' between conditions. Decreases in sleep duration and earlier wake-times were significantly associated with increased food 'wanting' between sessions (P = 0.001). However, these associations were no longer significant after controlling for elapsed time between wake-time and the food reward task. These findings suggest that shorter sleep durations and earlier wake-times are associated with increased food reward, but these associations are driven by elapsed time between awakening and completion of the food reward task. © 2015 European Sleep Research Society.

  5. Elevation in brain temperature during paradoxical sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, H; Sawyer, C H

    1965-11-12

    During ordinary sleep, the temperature of the rabbit brain tended to drop, but during paradoxical sleep it rose sharply 0.1 degrees to 0.4 degrees C, a greater elevation than was observed during arousal. Changes in body temperature generally did not parallel the alterations in brain temperature. Shifts of direct-current potential in the brain are basically independent of the changes in brain temperature.

  6. Optimizing Sleep in Older Adults: Treating Insomnia

    OpenAIRE

    Wennberg, Alexandra M.; Canham, Sarah L.; Smith, Michael T.; Spira, Adam P.

    2013-01-01

    As the world’s population ages, the elevated prevalence of insomnia in older adults is a growing concern. Insomnia is characterized by difficulty falling or remaining asleep, or by non-restorative sleep, and resultant daytime dysfunction. In addition to being at elevated risk for primary insomnia, older adults are at greater risk for comorbid insomnia, which results from, or occurs in conjunction with another medical or psychiatric condition. In this review, we discuss normal changes in sleep...

  7. Retino-hypothalamic regulation of light-induced murine sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanuel eMuindi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The temporal organization of sleep is regulated by an interaction between the circadian clock and homeostatic processes. Light indirectly modulates sleep through its ability to phase shift and entrain the circadian clock. Light can also exert a direct, circadian-independent effect on sleep. For example, acute exposure to light promotes sleep in nocturnal animals and wake in diurnal animals. The mechanisms whereby light directly influences sleep and arousal are not well understood. In this review, we discuss the direct effect of light on sleep at the level of the retina and hypothalamus in rodents. We review murine data from recent publications showing the roles of rod-, cone- and melanopsin-based photoreception on the initiation and maintenance of light-induced sleep. We also present hypotheses about hypothalamic mechanisms that have been advanced to explain the acute control of sleep by light. Specifically, we review recent studies assessing the roles of the ventrolateral preoptic area and the suprachiasmatic nucleus. We also discuss how light might differentially promote sleep and arousal in nocturnal and diurnal animals respectively. Lastly, we suggest new avenues for research on this topic which is still in its early stages.

  8. Are You Sleep Deprived?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Sleep Disorders Are You Sleep Deprived? Past Issues / Summer 2015 Table of Contents ... even if you think you've had enough sleep? You might have a sleep disorder. There are ...

  9. The Sleeping Cerebellum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canto, Cathrin B; Onuki, Yoshiyuki; Bruinsma, Bastiaan; van der Werf, Ysbrand D; De Zeeuw, Chris I

    2017-01-01

    We sleep almost one-third of our lives and sleep plays an important role in critical brain functions like memory formation and consolidation. The role of sleep in cerebellar processing, however, constitutes an enigma in the field of neuroscience; we know little about cerebellar sleep-physiology,

  10. Individual differences in compliance and agreement for sleep logs and wrist actigraphy: A longitudinal study of naturalistic sleep in healthy adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M Thurman

    Full Text Available There is extensive laboratory research studying the effects of acute sleep deprivation on biological and cognitive functions, yet much less is known about naturalistic patterns of sleep loss and the potential impact on daily or weekly functioning of an individual. Longitudinal studies are needed to advance our understanding of relationships between naturalistic sleep and fluctuations in human health and performance, but it is first necessary to understand the efficacy of current tools for long-term sleep monitoring. The present study used wrist actigraphy and sleep log diaries to obtain daily measurements of sleep from 30 healthy adults for up to 16 consecutive weeks. We used non-parametric Bland-Altman analysis and correlation coefficients to calculate agreement between subjectively and objectively measured variables including sleep onset time, sleep offset time, sleep onset latency, number of awakenings, the amount of wake time after sleep onset, and total sleep time. We also examined compliance data on the submission of daily sleep logs according to the experimental protocol. Overall, we found strong agreement for sleep onset and sleep offset times, but relatively poor agreement for variables related to wakefulness including sleep onset latency, awakenings, and wake after sleep onset. Compliance tended to decrease significantly over time according to a linear function, but there were substantial individual differences in overall compliance rates. There were also individual differences in agreement that could be explained, in part, by differences in compliance. Individuals who were consistently more compliant over time also tended to show the best agreement and lower scores on behavioral avoidance scale (BIS. Our results provide evidence for convergent validity in measuring sleep onset and sleep offset with wrist actigraphy and sleep logs, and we conclude by proposing an analysis method to mitigate the impact of non-compliance and measurement

  11. Exploring sleep disorders in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigam, Gaurav; Camacho, Macario; Chang, Edward T; Riaz, Muhammad

    2018-01-01

    Kidney disorders have been associated with a variety of sleep-related disorders. Therefore, researchers are placing greater emphasis on finding the role of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the development of obstructive sleep apnea and restless legs syndrome. Unfortunately, the presence of other sleep-related disorders with CKDs and non-CKDs has not been investigated with the same clinical rigor. Recent studies have revealed that myriad of sleep disorders are associated with CKDs. Furthermore, there are a few non-CKD-related disorders that are associated with sleep disorders. In this narrative review, we provide a balanced view of the spectrum of sleep disorders (as identified in International Classification of Sleep disorders-3) related to different types of renal disorders prominently including but not exclusively limited to CKD.

  12. [Natural factors influencing sleep].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurkowski, Marek K; Bobek-Billewicz, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Sleep is a universal phenomenon of human and animal lives, although the importance of sleep for homeo-stasis is still unknown. Sleep disturbances influence many behavioral and physiologic processes, leading to health complications including death. On the other hand, sleep improvement can beneficially influence the course of healing of many disorders and can be a prognostic of health recovery. The factors influencing sleep have different biological and chemical origins. They are classical hormones, hypothalamic releasing and inhibitory hormones, neuropeptides, peptides and others as cytokines, prostaglandins, oleamid, adenosine, nitric oxide. These factors regulate most physiologic processes and are likely elements integrating sleep with physiology and physiology with sleep in health and disorders.

  13. The cumulative cost of additional wakefulness: dose-response effects on neurobehavioral functions and sleep physiology from chronic sleep restriction and total sleep deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dongen, Hans P A.; Maislin, Greg; Mullington, Janet M.; Dinges, David F.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To inform the debate over whether human sleep can be chronically reduced without consequences, we conducted a dose-response chronic sleep restriction experiment in which waking neurobehavioral and sleep physiological functions were monitored and compared to those for total sleep deprivation. DESIGN: The chronic sleep restriction experiment involved randomization to one of three sleep doses (4 h, 6 h, or 8 h time in bed per night), which were maintained for 14 consecutive days. The total sleep deprivation experiment involved 3 nights without sleep (0 h time in bed). Each study also involved 3 baseline (pre-deprivation) days and 3 recovery days. SETTING: Both experiments were conducted under standardized laboratory conditions with continuous behavioral, physiological and medical monitoring. PARTICIPANTS: A total of n = 48 healthy adults (ages 21-38) participated in the experiments. INTERVENTIONS: Noctumal sleep periods were restricted to 8 h, 6 h or 4 h per day for 14 days, or to 0 h for 3 days. All other sleep was prohibited. RESULTS: Chronic restriction of sleep periods to 4 h or 6 h per night over 14 consecutive days resulted in significant cumulative, dose-dependent deficits in cognitive performance on all tasks. Subjective sleepiness ratings showed an acute response to sleep restriction but only small further increases on subsequent days, and did not significantly differentiate the 6 h and 4 h conditions. Polysomnographic variables and delta power in the non-REM sleep EEG-a putative marker of sleep homeostasis--displayed an acute response to sleep restriction with negligible further changes across the 14 restricted nights. Comparison of chronic sleep restriction to total sleep deprivation showed that the latter resulted in disproportionately large waking neurobehavioral and sleep delta power responses relative to how much sleep was lost. A statistical model revealed that, regardless of the mode of sleep deprivation, lapses in behavioral alertness

  14. Sleep and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deak, Maryann C; Stickgold, Robert

    2010-07-01

    Sleep is a complex physiologic state, the importance of which has long been recognized. Lack of sleep is detrimental to humans and animals. Over the past decade, an important link between sleep and cognitive processing has been established. Sleep plays an important role in consolidation of different types of memory and contributes to insightful, inferential thinking. While the mechanism by which memories are processed in sleep remains unknown, several experimental models have been proposed. This article explores the link between sleep and cognition by reviewing (1) the effects of sleep deprivation on cognition, (2) the influence of sleep on consolidation of declarative and non-declarative memory, and (3) some proposed models of how sleep facilitates memory consolidation in sleep. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Predictors of poor sleep quality among Lebanese university students: association between evening typology, lifestyle behaviors, and sleep habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabrita, Colette S; Hajjar-Muça, Theresa A; Duffy, Jeanne F

    2014-01-01

    Adequate, good night sleep is fundamental to well-being and is known to be influenced by myriad biological and environmental factors. Given the unavailability of sleep data about Lebanon, the cultural shifts and socioeconomic pressures that have affected many aspects of society, particularly for students and working adults, as well as our understanding of sleep in university students in other countries, we conducted a national study to assess sleep quality and factors contributing to sleep and general health in a culture-specific context. A self-filled questionnaire, inquiring about sociodemographics, health-risk behaviors, personal health, and evaluating sleep quality and chronotype using standard scales was completed by 540 students at private and public universities in Lebanon. Overall, they reported sleeping 7.95±1.34 hours per night, although 12.3% reported sleeping Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Sleep timing differed markedly between weekdays and weekends, with bedtimes and wake-up times delayed by 1.51 and 2.43 hours, respectively, on weekends. While most scored in the "neither type" category on the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ), 24.5% were evening types and 7.3% were morning types. MEQ score was significantly correlated with smoking behavior and daily study onset, as well as with PSQI score, with eveningness associated with greater number of cigarettes, later study times, and poor sleep. We conclude that the prevalence of poor sleep quality among Lebanese university students is associated with reduced sleep duration and shifts in sleep timing between weekdays and weekends, especially among evening types. While chronotype and certain behavioral choices interact to affect sleep dimensions and quality, raising awareness about the importance of obtaining adequate nighttime sleep on daily performance and avoiding risky behaviors may help Lebanese students make better choices in school and work schedules.

  16. Sleep disorders in children

    OpenAIRE

    Montgomery, Paul; Dunne, Danielle

    2007-01-01

    Sleep disorders may affect 20-30% of young children, and include excessive daytime sleepiness, problems getting to sleep (dysomnias), or undesirable phenomena during sleep (parasomnias), such as sleep terrors, and sleepwalking. Children with physical or learning disabilities are at increased risk of sleep disorders. Other risk factors include the child being the first born, having a difficult temperament or having had colic, and increased maternal responsiveness.

  17. Sleep disorders in children

    OpenAIRE

    Bruni, Oliveiero; Novelli, Luana

    2010-01-01

    Sleep disorders may affect between 20% and 30% of young children, and include problems getting to sleep (dyssomnias) or undesirable phenomena during sleep (parasomnias), such as sleep terrors and sleepwalking. Children with physical or learning disabilities are at increased risk of sleep disorders. Other risk factors include the child being the first born, having a difficult temperament or having had colic, and increased maternal responsiveness.

  18. Sleep and circadian variability in people with delayed sleep-wake phase disorder versus healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Helen J; Park, Margaret; Wyatt, James K; Rizvydeen, Muneer; Fogg, Louis F

    2017-06-01

    To compare sleep and circadian variability in adults with delayed sleep-wake phase disorder (DSWPD) to healthy controls. Forty participants (22 DSWPD, 18 healthy controls) completed a ten-day protocol, consisting of DLMO assessments on two consecutive nights, a five-day study break, followed by two more DLMO assessments. All participants were instructed to sleep within one hour of their self-reported average sleep schedule for the last four days of the study break. We analyzed the participants' wrist actigraphy data during these four days to examine intraindividual variability in sleep timing, duration and efficiency. We also examined shifts in the DLMO from before and after the study break. Under the same conditions, people with DSWPD had significantly more variable wake times and total sleep time than healthy controls (p ≤ 0.015). Intraindividual variability in sleep onset time and sleep efficiency was similar between the two groups (p ≥ 0.30). The DLMO was relatively stable across the study break, with only 11% of controls but 27% of DSWPDs showed more than a one hour shift in the DLMO. Only in the DSWPD sample was greater sleep variability associated with a larger shift in the DLMO (r = 0.46, p = 0.03). These results suggest that intraindividual variability in sleep can be higher in DSWPD versus healthy controls, and this may impact variability in the DLMO. DSWPD patients with higher intraindividual variability in sleep are more likely to have a shifting DLMO, which could impact sleep symptoms and the optimal timing of light and/or melatonin treatment for DSWPD. Circadian Phase Assessments at Home, http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01487252, NCT01487252. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Sleep Restriction Impairs Vocabulary Learning when Adolescents Cram for Exams: The Need for Sleep Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Sha; Deshpande, Aadya; Yeo, Sing-Chen; Lo, June C; Chee, Michael W L; Gooley, Joshua J

    2016-09-01

    The ability to recall facts is improved when learning takes place at spaced intervals, or when sleep follows shortly after learning. However, many students cram for exams and trade sleep for other activities. The aim of this study was to examine the interaction of study spacing and time in bed (TIB) for sleep on vocabulary learning in adolescents. In the Need for Sleep Study, which used a parallel-group design, 56 adolescents aged 15-19 years were randomly assigned to a week of either 5 h or 9 h of TIB for sleep each night as part of a 14-day protocol conducted at a boarding school. During the sleep manipulation period, participants studied 40 Graduate Record Examination (GRE)-type English words using digital flashcards. Word pairs were presented over 4 consecutive days (spaced items), or all at once during single study sessions (massed items), with total study time kept constant across conditions. Recall performance was examined 0 h, 24 h, and 120 h after all items were studied. For all retention intervals examined, recall of massed items was impaired by a greater amount in adolescents exposed to sleep restriction. In contrast, cued recall performance on spaced items was similar between sleep groups. Spaced learning conferred strong protection against the effects of sleep restriction on recall performance, whereas students who had insufficient sleep were more likely to forget items studied over short time intervals. These findings in adolescents demonstrate the importance of combining good study habits and good sleep habits to optimize learning outcomes. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  20. Household chaos and family sleep during infants' first year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitesell, Corey J; Crosby, Brian; Anders, Thomas F; Teti, Douglas M

    2018-05-21

    Household chaos has been linked with dysregulated family and individual processes. The present study investigated linkages between household chaos and infant and parent sleep, a self-regulated process impacted by individual, social, and environmental factors. Studies of relations between household chaos and child sleep have focused on older children and teenagers, with little attention given to infants or parent sleep. This study examines these relationships using objective measures of household chaos and sleep while controlling for, respectively, maternal emotional availability at bedtime and martial adjustment, in infant and parent sleep. Multilevel modeling examined mean and variability of sleep duration and fragmentation for infants, mothers, and fathers when infants were 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months (N = 167). Results indicated infants in higher chaos homes experienced delays in sleep consolidation patterns, with longer and more variable sleep duration, and greater fragmentation. Parent sleep was also associated with household chaos such that in higher chaos homes, mothers and fathers experienced greater variability in sleep duration, which paralleled infant findings. In lower chaos homes, parents' sleep fragmentation mirrored infants' decreasingly fragmented sleep across the first year and remained lower at all timepoints compared to parents and infants in high chaos homes. Collectively, these findings indicate that after controlling for maternal emotional availability and marital adjustment (respectively) household chaos has a dysregulatory impact on infant and parent sleep. Results are discussed in terms of the potential for chaos-induced poor sleep to dysregulate daytime functioning and, in turn, place parent-infant relationships at risk. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Adolescents' sleep behaviors and perceptions of sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noland, Heather; Price, James H; Dake, Joseph; Telljohann, Susan K

    2009-05-01

    Sleep duration affects the health of children and adolescents. Shorter sleep durations have been associated with poorer academic performance, unintentional injuries, and obesity in adolescents. This study extends our understanding of how adolescents perceive and deal with their sleep issues. General education classes were randomly selected from a convenience sample of three high schools in the Midwest. Three hundred eighty-four ninth- to twelfth-grade students (57%) completed a self-administered valid and reliable questionnaire on sleep behaviors and perceptions of sleep. Most respondents (91.9%) obtained inadequate sleep (sleep each week night. The majority indicated that not getting enough sleep had the following effects on them: being more tired during the day (93.7%), having difficulty paying attention (83.6%), lower grades (60.8%), increase in stress (59.0%), and having difficulty getting along with others (57.7%). Some students reported engaging in harmful behaviors to help them sleep: taking sleeping pills (6.0%), smoking a cigarette to relax (5.7%), and drinking alcohol in the evening (2.9%). Students who received fewer hours of sleep were significantly more likely to report being stressed (p = .02) and were more likely to be overweight (p = .04). Inadequate sleep time may be contributing to adolescent health problems such as increased stress and obesity. Findings indicate a need for sleep hygiene education for adolescents and their parents. A long-term solution to chronic sleep deprivation among high school students could include delaying high school start times, such as was done successfully in the Minneapolis Public School District.

  2. Subjective-objective sleep discrepancy among older adults: associations with insomnia diagnosis and insomnia treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Daniel B; Buysse, Daniel J; Germain, Anne; Hall, Martica; Monk, Timothy H

    2015-02-01

    Discrepancy between subjective and objective measures of sleep is associated with insomnia and increasing age. Cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia improves sleep quality and decreases subjective-objective sleep discrepancy. This study describes differences between older adults with insomnia and controls in sleep discrepancy, and tests the hypothesis that reduced sleep discrepancy following cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia correlates with the magnitude of symptom improvement reported by older adults with insomnia. Participants were 63 adults >60 years of age with insomnia, and 51 controls. At baseline, participants completed sleep diaries for 7 days while wearing wrist actigraphs. After receiving cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia, insomnia patients repeated this sleep assessment. Sleep discrepancy variables were calculated by subtracting actigraphic sleep onset latency and wake after sleep onset from respective self-reported estimates, pre- and post-treatment. Mean level and night-to-night variability in sleep discrepancy were investigated. Baseline sleep discrepancies were compared between groups. Pre-post-treatment changes in Insomnia Severity Index score and sleep discrepancy variables were investigated within older adults with insomnia. Sleep discrepancy was significantly greater and more variable across nights in older adults with insomnia than controls, P ≤ 0.001 for all. Treatment with cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia was associated with significant reduction in the Insomnia Severity Index score that correlated with changes in mean level and night-to-night variability in wake after sleep onset discrepancy, P insomnia. © 2014 European Sleep Research Society.

  3. Subjective sleep quality, unstimulated sexual arousal, and sexual frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Costa

    Full Text Available Introduction: REM sleep deprivation increases unstimulated erections in rats, and total sleep deprivation increases erections during audiovisual sexual stimulation in men, but the effects of sleep problems on human unstimulated sexual arousal are unknown. Objective: We examined the associations of subjective sleep quality with unstimulated sexual arousal, satisfaction with sex life, and sexual frequency and desire over the past month. Methods: 275 Portuguese (169 women reported their anxiety, sexual arousal and sexual desire during a resting state, and completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the sexual satisfaction subscale of the LiSat scale, the Desire dimensions of the Female Sexual Function Index (women only and International Index of Erectile Function (men only. They additionally reported how many days in the past month they engaged in penile-vaginal intercourse, noncoital sex, and masturbation. Salivary testosterone (T was assayed by luminescence immunoassays. Results: Poorer sleep quality correlated with greater unstimulated sexual arousal in men with higher T levels and in women with higher T levels not taking oral contraceptives. In women with lower T, poorer subjective sleep quality correlated with greater sexual dissatisfaction. In both sexes, sleep quality was uncorrelated with sexual desire and sexual frequency over the past month. Discussion: Consistently with other studies in humans and animals, the findings are congruent with the notion that lack of sleep can increase sexual arousal, but not sexual frequency. T might play a role in the sexual arousal caused by lack of appropriate sleep.

  4. translin Is Required for Metabolic Regulation of Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Kazuma; Yurgel, Maria E; Stahl, Bethany A; Masek, Pavel; Mehta, Aradhana; Heidker, Rebecca; Bollinger, Wesley; Gingras, Robert M; Kim, Young-Joon; Ja, William W; Suter, Beat; DiAngelo, Justin R; Keene, Alex C

    2016-04-04

    Dysregulation of sleep or feeding has enormous health consequences. In humans, acute sleep loss is associated with increased appetite and insulin insensitivity, while chronically sleep-deprived individuals are more likely to develop obesity, metabolic syndrome, type II diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Conversely, metabolic state potently modulates sleep and circadian behavior; yet, the molecular basis for sleep-metabolism interactions remains poorly understood. Here, we describe the identification of translin (trsn), a highly conserved RNA/DNA binding protein, as essential for starvation-induced sleep suppression. Strikingly, trsn does not appear to regulate energy stores, free glucose levels, or feeding behavior suggesting the sleep phenotype of trsn mutant flies is not a consequence of general metabolic dysfunction or blunted response to starvation. While broadly expressed in all neurons, trsn is transcriptionally upregulated in the heads of flies in response to starvation. Spatially restricted rescue or targeted knockdown localizes trsn function to neurons that produce the tachykinin family neuropeptide Leucokinin. Manipulation of neural activity in Leucokinin neurons revealed these neurons to be required for starvation-induced sleep suppression. Taken together, these findings establish trsn as an essential integrator of sleep and metabolic state, with implications for understanding the neural mechanism underlying sleep disruption in response to environmental perturbation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Sleep disordered breathing in spinal cord injury: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiodo, Anthony E; Sitrin, Robert G; Bauman, Kristy A

    2016-07-01

    Spinal cord injury commonly results in neuromuscular weakness that impacts respiratory function. This would be expected to be associated with an increased likelihood of sleep-disordered breathing. (1) Understand the incidence and prevalence of sleep disordered breathing in spinal cord injury. (2) Understand the relationship between injury and patient characteristics and the incidence of sleep disordered breathing in spinal cord injury. (3) Distinguish between obstructive sleep apnea and central sleep apnea incidence in spinal cord injury. (4) Clarify the relationship between sleep disordered breathing and stroke, myocardial infarction, metabolic dysfunction, injuries, autonomic dysreflexia and spasticity incidence in persons with spinal cord injury. (5) Understand treatment tolerance and outcome in persons with spinal cord injury and sleep disordered breathing. Extensive database search including PubMed, Cochrane Library, CINAHL and Web of Science. Given the current literature limitations, sleep disordered breathing as currently defined is high in patients with spinal cord injury, approaching 60% in motor complete persons with tetraplegia. Central apnea is more common in patients with tetraplegia than in patients with paraplegia. Early formal sleep study in patients with acute complete tetraplegia is recommended. In patients with incomplete tetraplegia and with paraplegia, the incidence of sleep-disordered breathing is significantly higher than the general population. With the lack of correlation between symptoms and SDB, formal study would be reasonable. There is insufficient evidence in the literature on the impact of treatment on morbidity, mortality and quality of life outcomes.

  6. Sleep duration, life satisfaction and disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagan, Ricardo

    2017-04-01

    Although sleep is considered an essential part of individuals' lives, there are no previous studies analysing how sleep duration affects the levels of life satisfaction reported by males and females with disabilities. To analyse and compare the impact of hours of sleep on life satisfaction scores reported by people without and with disabilities (stratified by sex) in Germany. Using data taken from the German Socio-Economic Panel for the period 2008-2013, we estimate life satisfaction equations for males and females (running a fixed-effects model) which include a set of variables measuring the number of sleep hours on workdays and weekends. A higher number of sleep hours on workdays increase life satisfaction for all males and females. However, the contribution of each hour of sleep on workdays is greater for males with disabilities in terms of life satisfaction, whereas for females no significant differences by disability status have been found. Although sleep hours on weekends also increase life satisfaction, the magnitude of the coefficients is relatively higher than that found for the corresponding hours of sleep on workdays, but only for the male sample (disabled or not). The participation and commitment of policymakers, governments, trade unions, employers, and health care professionals are key aspects for developing and formulating new guidelines and specific measures that promote a healthy lifestyle and increase sleep duration. Such guidelines and measures are of essence for people with disabilities who are employed (e.g. using brief sleep opportunities during prolonged work periods, which can contribute to reducing fatigue, stress and anxiety). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Torsion of the greater omentum: A rare preoperative diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tandon, Ankit Anil; Lim, Kian Soon

    2010-01-01

    Torsion of the greater omentum is a rare acute abdominal condition that is seldom diagnosed preoperatively. We report the characteristic computed tomography (CT) scan findings and the clinical implications of this unusual diagnosis in a 41-year-old man, who also had longstanding right inguinal hernia. Awareness of omental torsion as a differential diagnosis in the acute abdomen setting is necessary for correct patient management

  8. Sleep reduces false memory in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, June C; Sim, Sam K Y; Chee, Michael W L

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the effects of post-learning sleep and sleep architecture on false memory in healthy older adults. Balanced, crossover design. False memory was induced using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm and assessed following nocturnal sleep and following a period of daytime wakefulness. Post-learning sleep structure was evaluated using polysomnography (PSG). Sleep research laboratory. Fourteen healthy older adults from the Singapore-Longitudinal Aging Brain Study (mean age ± standard deviation = 66.6 ± 4.1 y; 7 males). At encoding, participants studied lists of words that were semantically related to non-presented critical lures. At retrieval, they made "remember"/"know" and "new" judgments. Compared to wakefulness, post-learning sleep was associated with reduced "remember" responses, but not "know" responses to critical lures. In contrast, there were no significant differences in the veridical recognition of studied words, false recognition of unrelated distractors, discriminability, or response bias between the sleep and the wake conditions. More post-learning slow wave sleep was associated with greater reduction in false memory. In healthy older adults, sleep facilitates the reduction in false memory without affecting veridical memory. This benefit correlates with the amount of slow wave sleep in the post-learning sleep episode.

  9. Characterizing sleeping habits and disturbances among Saudi adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Tannir, Mohamad; Kobrosly, Samer Y; Al-Badr, Ahmad H; Salloum, Nourhan A; Altannir, Youssef M

    2016-12-01

    To characterize sleeping habits, assess sleep disturbance prevalence, and identify associated factors among Saudi adults.  Methods: A total of 1720 adults were approached for this observational cross-sectional study between October 2014 and March 2015. The study took place in Riyadh, the capital of Saudi Arabia. We used a questionnaire to describe sleeping characteristics in relation to existing chronic diseases, smoking status, obesity, daily performance and sociodemographic variables. Results: The response rate was 79.6% (1369 participants), 61.6% have or may have sleeping disturbances of which 18.6% claimed either slowed or stopped breathing during sleep. Women reported a higher prevalence of sleep disturbances (65.2%). Feeling tired was significantly associated with sleep disturbance (49% versus 19.7%) (p greater than 0.001). Approximately 78.4% of those with sleep disturbance significantly believed that their ability to perform daily tasks is affected (p=0.005). Moreover, smoking and obesity were significantly associated with sleep disturbances (p less than 0.01). Participants with asthma, hypertension, chronic heart disease, and diabetes mellitus reported significantly more sleeping disturbance (p=0.016 to p=0.001). Conclusions: Sleep disturbances are associated with obesity, smoking, chronic health conditions, and lower performance among  Saudi adults.

  10. The Sleeping Cerebellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canto, Cathrin B; Onuki, Yoshiyuki; Bruinsma, Bastiaan; van der Werf, Ysbrand D; De Zeeuw, Chris I

    2017-05-01

    We sleep almost one-third of our lives and sleep plays an important role in critical brain functions like memory formation and consolidation. The role of sleep in cerebellar processing, however, constitutes an enigma in the field of neuroscience; we know little about cerebellar sleep-physiology, cerebro-cerebellar interactions during sleep, or the contributions of sleep to cerebellum-dependent memory consolidation. Likewise, we do not understand why cerebellar malfunction can lead to changes in the sleep-wake cycle and sleep disorders. In this review, we evaluate how sleep and cerebellar processing may influence one another and highlight which scientific routes and technical approaches could be taken to uncover the mechanisms underlying these interactions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Does Suspected Sleep Disordered Breathing Impact on the Sleep and Performance of Firefighting Volunteers during a Simulated Fire Ground Campaign?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M. Jay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adequate sleep is fundamental to workplace performance. For volunteer firefighters who work in safety critical roles, poor performance at work can be life threatening. Extended shifts and sleeping conditions negatively impact sleep during multi-day fire suppression campaigns. Having sleep disordered breathing (SDB could contribute further to sleep deficits. Our aim was to investigate whether those with suspected SDB slept and performed more poorly during a fire ground simulation involving sleep restriction. Participants, n = 20 participated in a 3-day-4-night fire ground simulation. Based on oximetry desaturation index data collected during their participation, participants were retrospectively allocated to either a SDB (n = 8 or a non-SDB group (n = 12. The simulation began with an 8 h Baseline sleep (BL followed by two nights of restricted (4 h sleep and an 8 h recovery sleep (R. All sleeps were recorded using a standard electroencephalography (EEG montage as well as oxygen saturation. During the day, participants completed neurobehavioral (response time, lapses and subjective fatigue tasks. Mixed effects ANOVA were used to compare differences in sleep and wake variables. Analyses revealed a main effect of group for Total sleep (TST, REM , wake after sleep onset (WASO and Arousals/h with the SDB group obtaining less TST and REM and greater WASO and Arousals/h. The group × night interaction was significant for N3 with the SDB group obtaining 42 min less during BL. There was a significant main effect of day for RRT, lapses and subjective fatigue and a significant day × group interaction for RRT. Overall, the SDB group slept less, experienced more disturbed sleep and had poorer response time performance, which was exacerbated by the second night of sleep restriction. This could present a safety concern, particularly during longer campaigns and is worthy of further investigation. In addition, we would recommend promotion of awareness of SDB, its

  12. Sleep Disturbance and Expressive Language Development in Preschool-Age Children with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgin, Jamie O.; Tooley, Ursula; Demara, Bianca; Nyhuis, Casandra; Anand, Payal; Spanò, Goffredina

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence has suggested that sleep may facilitate language learning. This study examined variation in language ability in 29 toddlers with Down syndrome (DS) in relation to levels of sleep disruption. Toddlers with DS and poor sleep (66%, n = 19) showed greater deficits on parent-reported and objective measures of language, including…

  13. Early to Bed, Early to Rise?: An Exploration of Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Susan Kohl

    2011-01-01

    Cognition, memory, safety, mental health, and weight are all affected by inadequate sleep. Biological studies indicate significant changes in sleep architecture during adolescence, such as changes in melatonin secretion, and a need for greater total sleep time. Yet, social contexts and cultural values impinge on these changing biological sleep…

  14. Agreement Between Actigraphy and Diary-Recorded Measures of Sleep in Children With Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Shao-Yu; Lee, Wang-Tso; Lee, Chien-Chang; Jeng, Suh-Fang; Weng, Wen-Chin

    2018-03-01

    To describe sleep patterns in young children with epilepsy and to examine levels of agreement between measurements derived from actigraphy and diary recordings. Cross-sectional study. Eighty-nine toddlers and preschool-aged children with epilepsy wore an actigraph on their wrists for 7 consecutive days. Parents and caregivers maintained a concurrent sleep diary while the child was wearing the monitor. Levels of agreement between actigraphy and diary recordings were examined using the Bland and Altman method separately for all recording days, weekdays, and weekends. Discrepancies between actigraphy-derived and diary-documented sleep onset, sleep offset, actual sleep at night, wake after sleep onset, and daytime sleep were ±35, ±15, ±82, ±70, and ±29 min, respectively. Differences between actigraphy and diary-derived sleep variables were consistently greater for weekends than for weekdays. Discrepancies between actigraphy and diary-derived actual sleep at night were significantly greater for children who slept alone than for those who co-slept with a parent. Our study demonstrates an acceptable agreement between actigraphy and diary recordings for sleep onset, sleep offset, and daytime sleep, but insufficient agreement for actual sleep at night and wake after sleep onset, with parents of children sleeping alone more likely to misestimate child sleep behaviors. Deviation of weekend sleep from weekdays further decreased the accuracy of parental sleep estimates and increased the discrepancies between actigraphy and diary. Sleep in children with epilepsy assessed using diary recordings alone could be misleading, and actigraphy should be preferred over diaries when resources are available. © 2017 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  15. Sleep disturbance in older ICU patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sterniczuk R

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Roxanne Sterniczuk,1–3 Benjamin Rusak,1,2 Kenneth Rockwood31Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, 2Department of Psychiatry, Dalhousie University, Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Centre, Halifax, NS, 3Division of Geriatric Medicine, Department of Medicine, Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Centre, Halifax, NS, CanadaAbstract: Maintaining a stable and adequate sleeping pattern is associated with good health and disease prevention. As a restorative process, sleep is important for supporting immune function and aiding the body in healing and recovery. Aging is associated with characteristic changes to sleep quantity and quality, which make it more difficult to adjust sleep–wake rhythms to changing environmental conditions. Sleep disturbance and abnormal sleep–wake cycles are commonly reported in seriously ill older patients in the intensive care unit (ICU. A combination of intrinsic and extrinsic factors appears to contribute to these disruptions. Little is known regarding the effect that sleep disturbance has on health status in the oldest of old (80+, a group, who with diminishing physiological reserve and increasing prevalence of frailty, is at a greater risk of adverse health outcomes, such as cognitive decline and mortality. Here we review how sleep is altered in the ICU, with particular attention to older patients, especially those aged ≥80 years. Further work is required to understand what impact sleep disturbance has on frailty levels and poor outcomes in older critically ill patients.Keywords: intensive care unit, sleep–wake rhythm, aging, frailty

  16. Sleep from an islamic perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed S BaHammam

    2011-01-01

    Sleep medicine is a relatively new scientific specialty. Sleep is an important topic in Islamic literature, and the Quran and Hadith discuss types of sleep, the importance of sleep, and good sleep practices. Islam considers sleep as one of the signs of the greatness of All?h (God) and encourages followers to explore this important sign. The Quran describes different types of sleep, and these correspond with sleep stages identified by modern science. The Quran discusses the beneficial effects ...

  17. Sleep and sleep disorders in Don Quixote.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iranzo, Alex; Santamaria, Joan; de Riquer, Martín

    2004-01-01

    In Don Quijote de la Mancha, Miguel de Cervantes presents Don Quixote as an amazing character of the 17th century who suffers from delusions and illusions, believing himself to be a medieval knight errant. Besides this neuropsychiatric condition, Cervantes included masterful descriptions of several sleep disorders such as insomnia, sleep deprivation, disruptive loud snoring and rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder. In addition, he described the occurrence of physiological, vivid dreams and habitual, post-prandial sleepiness--the siesta. Cervantes' concept of sleep as a passive state where all cerebral activities are almost absent is in conflict with his description of abnormal behaviours during sleep and vivid, fantastic dreams. His concept of sleep was shared by his contemporary, Shakespeare, and could have been influenced by the reading of the classical Spanish book of psychiatry Examen de Ingenios (1575).

  18. Sleep deprivation: cardiovascular effects for anesthesiologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Dabbagh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sleep and anesthesia have some common or "overlapping" neural pathways. Both involve wakefulness; while they are not the same; anesthesia is an iatrogenic, reversible, pharmacologic-based coma; which could affect the CNS neural pathways at many levels. In the current era of modern anesthesiology, the practice and science of anesthesia is composed of 4 basic elements; (1: 1. hypnosis (i.e. iatrogenic pharmacologicinduced coma 2. amnesia (not to remember the events of the operation 3. analgesia (being painless 4. akinesia (lack of movements to stimuli The first two ingredients of anesthesia could have common points with sleep. Thalamic nuclei are involved both in sleep and anesthesia (2, 3; though, they are not the same phenomena (4. However, could there be any clinical concern if some of our patients have abnormalities in sleep? In fact, the effects of sleep deprivation have long been studied in patients undergoing anesthesia for surgical operations (4, 5. Sleep deprivation causes altered neurohumoral activity, neuroendocrine dysregulations, abnormalities in the immune system and impairments in cardiac autonomic function (6, 7. Sleep deprivation may affect the clinical effects of the anesthetics or it may create unpredicted changes in the clinical response to a determined dose of anesthetic drugs (8. In this volume of the Journal, Choopani et al have published their results regarding sleep deprivation; they have demonstrated that in rats, if sleep deprivation is induced prior to an ischemia/reperfusion event, it can increase the chance for ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation; also, they have shown that this untoward effect could be eliminated using chemical sympathectomy (9. In clinical practice, the main message from this study could be that when anesthesiologists perform anesthesia for their patients, they should be aware of effects of acute or chronic sleep deprivation. Undoubtedly, sleep deprivation could occur during the

  19. Detection of verbal discordances during sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Fabien; Bastuji, Hélène; Garcia-Larrea, Luis

    2002-07-19

    We used an electrophysiological marker of linguistic discordance, the N400 wave, to investigate how linguistic and pseudo-linguistic stimuli are categorised during sleep as compared to waking. During wakefulness, signs of discordance detection were, as expected, greater for pseudo-words than for real but semantically incongruous words, relative to congruous words. In sleep stage 2 all signs of hierarchic process of discordance disappeared. A new hierarchic process reappeared in paradoxical sleep, which differed from that of waking, responses to pseudo-words being similar to those to congruous words. Linguistic absurdity appears to be accepted in a different manner during paradoxical sleep than during waking, and this might explain why absurd contents are so naturally incorporated into otherwise plausible dream stories.

  20. Work Time Control and Sleep Disturbances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salo, Paula; Ala-Mursula, Leena; Rod, Naja Hulvej

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Employee control over work times has been associated with favorable psychosocial and health-related outcomes, but the evidence regarding sleep quality remains inconclusive. We examined cross-sectional and prospective associations between work time control and sleep disturbances...... in a large working population, taking into account total hours worked. METHODS: The data were from a full-panel longitudinal cohort study of Finnish public sector employees who responded to questions on work time control and sleep disturbances in years 2000-2001, 2004-2005, 2008-2009, and 2012. The analysis....... RESULTS: Consistently in both cross-sectional and longitudinal models, less control over work time was associated with greater sleep disturbances in the total population and among those working normal 40-hour weeks. Among participants working more than 40 hours a week, work time that was both very high...

  1. Role of REM Sleep, Melanin Concentrating Hormone and Orexin/Hypocretin Systems in the Sleep Deprivation Pre-Ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Marta; Adamantidis, Antoine; Facchin, Laura; Bassetti, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    Sleep reduction after stroke is linked to poor recovery in patients. Conversely, a neuroprotective effect is observed in animals subjected to acute sleep deprivation (SD) before ischemia. This neuroprotection is associated with an increase of the sleep, melanin concentrating hormone (MCH) and orexin/hypocretin (OX) systems. This study aims to 1) assess the relationship between sleep and recovery; 2) test the association between MCH and OX systems with the pathological mechanisms of stroke. Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to four experimental groups: (i) SD_IS: SD performed before ischemia; (ii) IS: ischemia; (iii) SD_Sham: SD performed before sham surgery; (iv) Sham: sham surgery. EEG and EMG were recorded. The time-course of the MCH and OX gene expression was measured at 4, 12, 24 hours and 3, 4, 7 days following ischemic surgery by qRT-PCR. A reduction of infarct volume was observed in the SD_IS group, which correlated with an increase of REM sleep observed during the acute phase of stroke. Conversely, the IS group showed a reduction of REM sleep. Furthermore, ischemia induces an increase of MCH and OX systems during the acute phase of stroke, although, both systems were still increased for a long period of time only in the SD_IS group. Our data indicates that REM sleep may be involved in the neuroprotective effect of SD pre-ischemia, and that both MCH and OX systems were increased during the acute phase of stroke. Future studies should assess the role of REM sleep as a prognostic marker, and test MCH and OXA agonists as new treatment options in the acute phase of stroke.

  2. Role of REM Sleep, Melanin Concentrating Hormone and Orexin/Hypocretin Systems in the Sleep Deprivation Pre-Ischemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Pace

    Full Text Available Sleep reduction after stroke is linked to poor recovery in patients. Conversely, a neuroprotective effect is observed in animals subjected to acute sleep deprivation (SD before ischemia. This neuroprotection is associated with an increase of the sleep, melanin concentrating hormone (MCH and orexin/hypocretin (OX systems. This study aims to 1 assess the relationship between sleep and recovery; 2 test the association between MCH and OX systems with the pathological mechanisms of stroke.Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to four experimental groups: (i SD_IS: SD performed before ischemia; (ii IS: ischemia; (iii SD_Sham: SD performed before sham surgery; (iv Sham: sham surgery. EEG and EMG were recorded. The time-course of the MCH and OX gene expression was measured at 4, 12, 24 hours and 3, 4, 7 days following ischemic surgery by qRT-PCR.A reduction of infarct volume was observed in the SD_IS group, which correlated with an increase of REM sleep observed during the acute phase of stroke. Conversely, the IS group showed a reduction of REM sleep. Furthermore, ischemia induces an increase of MCH and OX systems during the acute phase of stroke, although, both systems were still increased for a long period of time only in the SD_IS group.Our data indicates that REM sleep may be involved in the neuroprotective effect of SD pre-ischemia, and that both MCH and OX systems were increased during the acute phase of stroke. Future studies should assess the role of REM sleep as a prognostic marker, and test MCH and OXA agonists as new treatment options in the acute phase of stroke.

  3. [The association between blood pressure variability and sleep stability in essential hypertensive patients with sleep disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y Q; Long, Q; Xiao, Q F; Zhang, M; Wei, Y L; Jiang, H; Tang, B

    2018-03-13

    Objective: To investigate the association of blood pressure variability and sleep stability in essential hypertensive patients with sleep disorder by cardiopulmonary coupling. Methods: Performed according to strict inclusion and exclusion criteria, 88 new cases of essential hypertension who came from the international department and the cardiology department of china-japan friendship hospital were enrolled. Sleep stability and 24 h ambulatory blood pressure data were collected by the portable sleep monitor based on cardiopulmonary coupling technique and 24 h ambulatory blood pressure monitor. Analysis the correlation of blood pressure variability and sleep stability. Results: In the nighttime, systolic blood pressure standard deviation, systolic blood pressure variation coefficient, the ratio of the systolic blood pressure minimum to the maximum, diastolic blood pressure standard deviation, diastolic blood pressure variation coefficient were positively correlated with unstable sleep duration ( r =0.185, 0.24, 0.237, 0.43, 0.276, P Blood pressure variability is associated with sleep stability, especially at night, the longer the unstable sleep duration, the greater the variability in night blood pressure.

  4. Sleep disturbances in Parkinsonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askenasy, J J M

    2003-02-01

    The present article is meant to suggest an approach to the guidelines for the therapy of sleep disturbances in Parkinson's Disease (PD) patients.The factors affecting the quality of life in PD patients are depression, sleep disturbances and dependence. A large review of the literature on sleep disturbances in PD patients, provided the basis for the following classification of the sleep-arousal disturbances in PD patients. We suggest a model based on 3 steps in the treatment of sleep disturbances in PD patients. This model allowing the patient, the spouse or the caregiver a quiet sleep at night, may postpone the retirement and the institutionalization of the PD patient. I. Correct diagnosis of sleep disorders based on detailed anamnesis of the patient and of the spouse or of the caregiver. One week recording on a symptom diary (log) by the patient or the caregiver. Correct diagnosis of sleep disorders co morbidities. Selection of the most appropriate sleep test among: polysomnography (PSG), multiple sleep latency test (MSLT), multiple wake latency test (MWLT), Epworth Sleepiness Scale, actigraphy or video-PSG. II. The nonspecific therapeutic approach consists in: a) Checking the sleep effect on motor performance, is it beneficial, worse or neutral. b) Psycho-physical assistance. c) Dopaminergic adjustment is necessary owing to the progression of the nigrostriatal degeneration and the increased sensitivity of the terminals, which alter the normal modulator mechanisms of the motor centers in PD patients. Among the many neurotransmitters of the nigro-striatal pathway one can distinguish two with a major influence on REM and NonREM sleep. REM sleep corresponds to an increased cholinergic receptor activity and a decreased dopaminergic activity. This is the reason why REM sleep deprivation by suppressing cholinergic receptor activity ameliorates PD motor symptoms. L-Dopa and its agonists by suppressing cholinergic receptors suppress REM sleep. The permanent adjustment

  5. Comparative Effectiveness of Three Occupational Therapy Sleep Interventions: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutman, Sharon A; Gregory, Kristin A; Sadlier-Brown, Megan M; Schlissel, Marcy A; Schubert, Allison M; Westover, Lee Ann; Miller, Richard C

    2017-01-01

    Although sleep intervention is within the domain of occupational therapy, few studies exist supporting practice. Effectiveness of three sleep interventions was compared: Dreampad Pillow®, iRest® meditation, and sleep hygiene. Twenty-nine participants were randomly assigned to the Dreampad Pillow® ( n = 10), iRest® meditation ( n = 9), and sleep hygiene ( n = 10) groups. In Phase 1, all participants used a 7-day sleep hygiene regimen to reduce poor sleep habits. In Phase 2 (14 days), 10 participants used the Dreampad Pillow® and sleep hygiene, nine used the iRest meditation and sleep hygiene, and 10 continued sleep hygiene only. At intervention-end, the iRest meditation group experienced statistically greater time asleep than both the Dreampad Pillow® ( p meditation ( p occupational therapy's domain.

  6. Wheel running improves REM sleep and attenuates stress-induced flattening of diurnal rhythms in F344 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Robert S; Roller, Rachel; Greenwood, Benjamin N; Fleshner, Monika

    2016-05-01

    Regular physical activity produces resistance to the negative health consequences of stressor exposure. One way that exercise may confer stress resistance is by reducing the impact of stress on diurnal rhythms and sleep; disruptions of which contribute to stress-related disease including mood disorders. Given the link between diurnal rhythm disruptions and stress-related disorders and that exercise both promotes stress resistance and is a powerful non-photic biological entrainment cue, we tested if wheel running could reduce stress-induced disruptions of sleep/wake behavior and diurnal rhythms. Adult, male F344 rats with or without access to running wheels were instrumented for biotelemetric recording of diurnal rhythms of locomotor activity, heart rate, core body temperature (CBT), and sleep (i.e. REM, NREM, and WAKE) in the presence of a 12 h light/dark cycle. Following 6 weeks of sedentary or exercise conditions, rats were exposed to an acute stressor known to disrupt diurnal rhythms and produce behaviors associated with mood disorders. Prior to stressor exposure, exercise rats had higher CBT, more locomotor activity during the dark cycle, and greater %REM during the light cycle relative to sedentary rats. NREM and REM sleep were consolidated immediately following peak running to a greater extent in exercise, compared to sedentary rats. In response to stressor exposure, exercise rats expressed higher stress-induced hyperthermia than sedentary rats. Stressor exposure disrupted diurnal rhythms in sedentary rats; and wheel running reduced these effects. Improvements in sleep and reduced diurnal rhythm disruptions following stress could contribute to the health promoting and stress protective effects of exercise.

  7. Differential Effects of Psychological and Physical Stress on the Sleep Pattern in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Ranji; Li, Bingjin; Suemaru, Katsuya; Araki, Hiroaki

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the acute effects of 2 different kinds of stress, namely physical stress (foot shock) and psychological stress (non-foot shock) induced by the communication box method, on the sleep patterns of rats. The sleep patterns were recorded for 6 h immediately after 1 h of stress. Physical and psychological stress had almost opposite effects on the sleep patterns: In the physical stress group, hourly total rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and total non-REM sleep we...

  8. Does Elite Sport Degrade Sleep Quality? A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Luke; Morgan, Kevin; Gilchrist, Sarah

    2017-07-01

    Information on sleep quality and insomnia symptomatology among elite athletes remains poorly systematised in the sports science and medicine literature. The extent to which performance in elite sport represents a risk for chronic insomnia is unknown. The purpose of this systematic review was to profile the objective and experienced characteristics of sleep among elite athletes, and to consider relationships between elite sport and insomnia symptomatology. Studies relating to sleep involving participants described on a pre-defined continuum of 'eliteness' were located through a systematic search of four research databases: SPORTDiscus, PubMed, Science Direct and Google Scholar, up to April 2016. Once extracted, studies were categorised as (1) those mainly describing sleep structure/patterns, (2) those mainly describing sleep quality and insomnia symptomatology and (3) those exploring associations between aspects of elite sport and sleep outcomes. The search returned 1676 records. Following screening against set criteria, a total of 37 studies were identified. The quality of evidence reviewed was generally low. Pooled sleep quality data revealed high levels of sleep complaints in elite athletes. Three risk factors for sleep disturbance were broadly identified: (1) training, (2) travel and (3) competition. While acknowledging the limited number of high-quality evidence reviewed, athletes show a high overall prevalence of insomnia symptoms characterised by longer sleep latencies, greater sleep fragmentation, non-restorative sleep, and excessive daytime fatigue. These symptoms show marked inter-sport differences. Two underlying mechanisms are implicated in the mediation of sport-related insomnia symptoms: pre-sleep cognitive arousal and sleep restriction.

  9. Sleep habits and disturbances in Malaysian children with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Lai Choo; Yang, Wai Wai; Wong, Sau Wei; alSiddiq, Feizel; Khu, Yi Soon

    2010-03-01

    To compare sleep habits and disturbances between Malaysian children with epilepsy and their siblings (age range 4-18 years) and to determine the factors associated with greater sleep disturbance. The Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children (SDSC) questionnaire was completed by the primary caregiver for 92 epileptic children (mean age 11.1 years, 50 male, 42 females) and their healthy siblings (mean age 11.1 years, 47 males, 45 females). Details of sleep arrangements and illness severity were obtained. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine factors associated with high Total SDSC scores in epileptic patients. Compared with their siblings, epileptic children had significantly higher total SDSC score (difference between means 8.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 6.4-11.1) and subscale scores in disorders of initiating and maintaining sleep (3.9, 95% CI 2.8-5.2), sleep-wake transition disorders (2.1, 95% CI 1.3-2.9), sleep-disordered breathing (0.7, 95% CI 0.3-1.1) and disorders of excessive sleepiness (1.5, 95% CI 0.6-2.4). Epileptic children had a higher prevalence of co-sleeping (73.7% vs 31.5%) and on more nights per week (difference between means 3, 95% CI 2.0-3.9) than their siblings. Higher Epilepsy Illness Severity scores were associated with higher total SDSC scores (P= 0.02). Co-sleeping was highly prevalent in children with epilepsy, who also had more sleep disturbances (especially problems with initiating and maintaining sleep and sleep-wake transition disorders) than their siblings. Epilepsy severity contributed to the sleep disturbances. Evaluation of sleep problems should form part of the comprehensive care of children with severe epilepsy.

  10. Sleep Duration and Area-Level Deprivation in Twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Nathaniel F; Horn, Erin; Duncan, Glen E; Buchwald, Dedra; Vitiello, Michael V; Turkheimer, Eric

    2016-01-01

    We used quantitative genetic models to assess whether area-level deprivation as indicated by the Singh Index predicts shorter sleep duration and modifies its underlying genetic and environmental contributions. Participants were 4,218 adult twin pairs (2,377 monozygotic and 1,841 dizygotic) from the University of Washington Twin Registry. Participants self-reported habitual sleep duration. The Singh Index was determined by linking geocoding addresses to 17 indicators at the census-tract level using data from Census of Washington State and Census Tract Cartographic Boundary Files from 2000 and 2010. Data were analyzed using univariate and bivariate genetic decomposition and quantitative genetic interaction models that assessed A (additive genetics), C (common environment), and E (unique environment) main effects of the Singh Index on sleep duration and allowed the magnitude of residual ACE variance components in sleep duration to vary with the Index. The sample had a mean age of 38.2 y (standard deviation [SD] = 18), and was predominantly female (62%) and Caucasian (91%). Mean sleep duration was 7.38 h (SD = 1.20) and the mean Singh Index score was 0.00 (SD = 0.89). The heritability of sleep duration was 39% and the Singh Index was 12%. The uncontrolled phenotypic regression of sleep duration on the Singh Index showed a significant negative relationship between area-level deprivation and sleep length (b = -0.080, P sleep duration. For the quasi-causal bivariate model, there was a significant main effect of E (b(0E) = -0.063; standard error [SE] = 0.30; P sleep duration were significant for both A (b(0Au) = 0.734; SE = 0.020; P deprivation has a quasi-causal association with sleep duration, with greater deprivation being related to shorter sleep. As area-level deprivation increases, unique genetic and nonshared environmental residual variance in sleep duration increases. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  11. Safe Sleep for Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Safe Sleep for Babies Eliminating hazards Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Page Problem Every year, there are thousands of sleep-related deaths among babies. View large image and ...

  12. Teenagers and sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000872.htm Teenagers and sleep To use the sharing features on this page, ... need. What Makes it Hard for Teens to Sleep? Several factors make it hard for teens to ...

  13. Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... OSA causes daytime drowsiness that can result in accidents, lost productivity and relationship problems. The National Sleep ... 30 apneas during a seven-hour sleep. In severe cases, periods of not breathing may last for ...

  14. Isolated sleep paralysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... T, Dement WC, eds. Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 103. ... Blaivas, DO, Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine, VA New Jersey Health Care System, Clinical Assistant ...

  15. Problems sleeping during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... T, Dement WC, eds. Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 156. Ibrahim S, Foldvary-Shaefer N. Sleep disorders in pregnancy: implications, evaluation, and treatment. Neurologic ...

  16. Sleep Apnea Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... include being overweight and having a large neck. Losing even 10 percent of body weight can help reduce the number of times a person with sleep apnea stops breathing during sleep. African-Americans, Pacific ...

  17. Sleep and Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Kelly C; Spaeth, Andrea; Hopkins, Christina M

    2016-10-01

    Insomnia is related to an increased risk of eating disorders, while eating disorders are related to more disrupted sleep. Insomnia is also linked to poorer treatment outcomes for eating disorders. However, over the last decade, studies examining sleep and eating disorders have relied on surveys, with no objective measures of sleep for anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa, and only actigraphy data for binge eating disorder. Sleep disturbance is better defined for night eating syndrome, where sleep efficiency is reduced and melatonin release is delayed. Studies that include objectively measured sleep and metabolic parameters combined with psychiatric comorbidity data would help identify under what circumstances eating disorders and sleep disturbance produce an additive effect for symptom severity and for whom poor sleep would increase risk for an eating disorder. Cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia may be a helpful addition to treatment of those with both eating disorder and insomnia.

  18. Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The National Sleep Foundation estimates that 18 million adults have obstructive sleep apnea and it is likely ... Maxillofacial Surgeon (OMS). An estimated 18-20 million adults in the US suffer from OSA. What Is ...

  19. Obstructive sleep apnea - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SM. Obstructive sleep apnea: clinical features, evaluation, and principles of management. In: Kryger M, Roth T, Dement WC, eds. Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  20. Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... sleep apnea (OSA) is a serious and even life-threatening condition. The risks of undiagnosed OSA are ... sleep apnea (OSA) is a serious and even life-threatening condition. The risks of undiagnosed OSA are ...

  1. Sleeping during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sleeping During Pregnancy KidsHealth / For Parents / Sleeping During Pregnancy What's in ...

  2. Externalizing Behaviors and Callous-Unemotional Traits: Different Associations With Sleep Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, Dan; Akhtar, Reece; Holding, Benjamin C; Murray, Christina; Panatti, Jennifer; Claridge, Gordon; Sadeh, Avi; Barclay, Nicola L; O'Leary, Rachael; Maughan, Barbara; McAdams, Tom A; Rowe, Richard; Eley, Thalia C; Viding, Essi; Gregory, Alice M

    2017-08-01

    Sleep quality is associated with different aspects of psychopathology, but relatively little research has examined links between sleep quality and externalizing behaviors or callous-unemotional traits. We examined: (1) whether an association exists between sleep quality and externalizing behaviors; (2) whether anxiety mediates this association; (3) whether callous-unemotional traits are associated with sleep quality. Data from two studies were used. Study 1 involved 1556 participants of the G1219 study aged 18-27 years (62% female). Questionnaire measures assessed sleep quality, anxiety, externalizing behaviors, and callous-unemotional traits. Study 2 involved 338 participants aged 18-66 years (65% female). Questionnaires measured sleep quality, externalizing behaviors, and callous-unemotional traits. In order to assess objective sleep quality, actigraphic data were also recorded for a week from a subsample of study 2 participants (n = 43). In study 1, poorer sleep quality was associated with greater externalizing behaviors. This association was partially mediated by anxiety and moderated by levels of callous-unemotional traits. There was no significant relationship between sleep quality and callous-unemotional traits. In study 2, poorer sleep quality, as assessed via self-reported but not objective measures, was associated with higher levels of externalizing behaviors. Furthermore, in study 2, better sleep quality (indicated in both questionnaires and actigraphy measures: lower mean activity, and greater sleep efficiency) was associated with higher levels of callous-unemotional traits. Self-reports of poorer sleep quality are associated with externalizing behaviors, and this association is partially mediated by anxiety. Callous-unemotional traits are not associated with poor sleep and may even be related to better sleep quality. This is an exceptional finding given that poor sleep quality appears to be a characteristic of most psychopathology. © Sleep Research

  3. Sex differences in sleep disordered breathing in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozo, Tijana; Komnenov, Dragana; Badr, M Safwan; Mateika, Jason H

    2017-11-01

    The prevalence of sleep disordered breathing is greater in men compared to women. This disparity could be due to sex differences in the diagnosis and presentation of sleep apnea, and the pathophysiological mechanisms that instigate this disorder. Women tend to report more non-typical symptoms of sleep apnea compared to men, and the presentation of apneic events are more prevalent in rapid compared to non-rapid eye movement sleep. In addition, there is evidence of sex differences in upper airway structure and mechanics and in neural mechanisms that impact on the control of breathing. The purpose of this review is to summarize the literature that addresses sex differences in sleep-disordered breathing, and to discuss the influence that upper airway mechanics, chemoreflex properties, and sex hormones have in modulating breathing during sleep in men and women. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Sleep structure in blindness is influenced by circadian desynchrony

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aubin, Sébrina; Jennum, Poul; Nielsen, Tore

    2018-01-01

    We examined the structure, duration and quality of sleep, including non-rapid eye movement sleep and rapid eye movement sleep, in 11 blind individuals without conscious light perception and 11 age- and sex-matched sighted controls. Because blindness is associated with a greater incidence of free......-running circadian rhythms, we controlled for circadian phase by a measure of melatonin onset timing. When circadian rhythm was entrained and melatonin onset occurred at normal times, sleep structure did not differ between blind and sighted individuals. On the other hand, an abnormal timing of the circadian phase......, including delayed, shifted and unclassifiable melatonin onsets, led to larger rapid eye movement sleep latencies and increased wake times. No differences were observed for stages of non-rapid eye movement sleep, either between congenital and late blind and sighted individuals, or across the different...

  5. Sleep and Metabolism: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Sharma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep and its disorders are increasingly becoming important in our sleep deprived society. Sleep is intricately connected to various hormonal and metabolic processes in the body and is important in maintaining metabolic homeostasis. Research shows that sleep deprivation and sleep disorders may have profound metabolic and cardiovascular implications. Sleep deprivation, sleep disordered breathing, and circadian misalignment are believed to cause metabolic dysregulation through myriad pathways involving sympathetic overstimulation, hormonal imbalance, and subclinical inflammation. This paper reviews sleep and metabolism, and how sleep deprivation and sleep disorders may be altering human metabolism.

  6. The Functions of Sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samson Z Assefa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Sleep is a ubiquitous component of animal life including birds and mammals. The exact function of sleep has been one of the mysteries of biology. A considerable number of theories have been put forward to explain the reason(s for the necessity of sleep. To date, while a great deal is known about what happens when animals sleep, there is no definitive comprehensive explanation as to the reason that sleep is an inevitable part of animal functioning. It is well known that sleep is a homeostatically regulated body process, and that prolonged sleep deprivation is fatal in animals. In this paper, we present some of the theories as to the functions of sleep and provide a review of some hypotheses as to the overall physiologic function of sleep. To better understand the purpose for sleeping, we review the effects of sleep deprivation on physical, neurocognitive and psychic function. A better understanding of the purpose for sleeping will be a great advance in our understanding of the nature of the animal kingdom, including our own.

  7. Treatments for Sleep Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contributing medical factors Non-drug strategies Medications Common sleep changes Many people with Alzheimer’s experience changes in ... at night. Subscribe now Non-drug treatments for sleep changes Non-drug treatments aim to improve sleep ...

  8. Sleep Talking (Somniloquy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... radius (in miles): 10 25 50 Share: Essentials in Sleep Insomnia Overview & Facts Symptoms & Causes Diagnosis & Self Tests Treatment ... Sleep talking is very common. It is reported in 50% of young children. About 5% of adults are reported to talk in their sleep. It ...

  9. Sleep disturbance and its relationship to psychiatric morbidity after Hurricane Andrew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellman, T A; David, D; Kulick-Bell, R; Hebding, J; Nolan, B

    1995-11-01

    Sleep disturbance is an important dimension of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but most of the limited available data were obtained years after the original traumatic event. This study provides information on sleep disturbance and its relationship to posttraumatic morbidity from evaluations done within a year after the trauma. Sleep and psychiatric symptoms of 54 victims (12 men and 42 women) of Hurricane Andrew who had no psychiatric illness in the 6 months before the hurricane were evaluated. A subset of hurricane victims with active psychiatric morbidity (N = 10) and nine comparison subjects who were unaffected by the hurricane were examined in a sleep laboratory. A broad range of sleep-related complaints were rated as being greater after the hurricane, and psychiatric morbidity (which was most commonly PTSD, followed by depression) had a significant effect on most of the subjective sleep measures. In addition, subjects with active morbidity endorsed greater frequencies of "bad dreams" and general sleep disturbances before the hurricane. Polysomnographic results for the hurricane victims revealed a greater number of arousals and entries into stage 1 sleep. REM density correlated positively with both the PTSD symptom of reexperiencing trauma and global distress. Subjects affected by Hurricane Andrew reported sleep disturbances, particularly those subjects with psychiatric morbidity. Tendencies to experience bad dreams and interrupted sleep before a trauma appear to mark vulnerability to posttraumatic morbidity. Results of sleep laboratory evaluations suggested brief shifts toward higher arousal levels during sleep for PTSD subjects and a relationship of REM phasic activity and symptom severity.

  10. Gender, Headaches, and Sleep Health in High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Xue; Radhakrishnan, Varsha; Kang, Lilia; Pecor, Keith

    2016-09-01

    The effects of gender, headaches, and their interaction on sleep health (sleep duration, sleep onset and continuity, and indications of hypersomnolence) have not been well studied. For American adolescents, we contrasted sleep health variables between males (n = 378) and females (n = 372) and between individuals with chronic headaches (n = 102 females and 60 males) and without chronic headaches (n = 270 females and 318 males) using data from surveys. Not all measures of sleep health differed between groups, but the following patterns were observed for the measures that did differ. Females reported shorter sleep durations on school nights (p = 0.001), increased likelihood of sleepiness on school days (p sleep durations on weekends (p = 0.009) and higher hypersomnolence scores (p = 0.009) than individuals without headaches. Interestingly, females with headaches reported worse sleep health than females without headaches for multiple measures. Males with headaches did not differ from males without headaches, except for greater waking at night (p = 0.04). These results are consistent with other studies of gender-based differences in sleep health and emphasize the importance of recognizing the risk of headache in female adolescents and treating that condition to prevent additional sleep health issues.

  11. The association between prenatal sleep quality and obstetric outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Hsuan-Man; Ko, Shu-Hua; Chen, Chung-Hey

    2014-09-01

    Pregnancy-associated sleep disorder is a new category on the latest version of the International Classification of Sleep Disorders. It is a significant problem for pregnant women. The present follow-up study assesses the association between sleep quality during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy and obstetric-neonatal outcomes. A prospective follow-up study design was used. Follow-up examination of the obstetric birth records in the immediate postpartum period were carried out on 128 second-trimester and 120 third-trimester women and their newborns in two hospitals in Taiwan. Poor sleep quality was identified using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Data were collected from October 2007 to June 2008. The prevalence of poor sleepers (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index score > 5) was 58% for second-trimester participants and 66% for third-trimester participants; participants who were unemployed reported a significantly higher prevalence of poor sleep quality than those who were employed. Subsequent review of the participant's obstetric birth records revealed that third-trimester poor sleepers were more likely to have had a vacuum-assisted delivery. This study identified poor sleep quality during the third trimester as a novel risk factor for vacuum-assisted delivery. We suggest that prenatal healthcare providers focus greater attention to the sleep disturbance condition of pregnant women and provide proactive sleep counseling to facilitate pregnant women's adjustment to the new psychosocial and physiological demands of motherhood.

  12. Sleep in adolescents of different socioeconomic status: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érico Pereira Gomes Felden

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the sleep characteristics in adolescents from different socioeconomic levels. Data source: Original studies found in the MEDLINE/PubMed and SciELO databases without language and period restrictions that analyzed associations between sleep variables and socioeconomic indicators. The initial search resulted in 99 articles. After reading the titles and abstracts and following inclusion and exclusion criteria, 12 articles with outcomes that included associations between sleep variables (disorders, duration, quality and socioeconomic status (ethnicity, family income, and social status were analyzed. Data synthesis: The studies associating sleep with socioeconomic variables are recent, published mainly after the year 2000. Half of the selected studies were performed with young Americans, and only one with Brazilian adolescents. Regarding ethnic differences, the studies do not have uniform conclusions. The main associations found were between sleep variables and family income or parental educational level, showing a trend among poor, low social status adolescents to manifest low duration, poor quality of sleeping patterns. Conclusions: The study found an association between socioeconomic indicators and quality of sleep in adolescents. Low socioeconomic status reflects a worse subjective perception of sleep quality, shorter duration, and greater daytime sleepiness. Considering the influence of sleep on physical and cognitive development and on the learning capacity of young individuals, the literature on the subject is scarce. There is a need for further research on sleep in different realities of the Brazilian population.

  13. Restoring effective sleep tranquility (REST): A feasibility and pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eakman, Aaron M; Schmid, Arlene A; Henry, Kimberly L; Rolle, Natalie R; Schelly, Catherine; Pott, Christine E; Burns, Joshua E

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to establish the feasibility of completing a future controlled trial of a multi-component cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia program for military veterans with sleep disturbance. This was a single-arm feasibility and pilot study. Participants were United States post-9/11 veterans with service-connected injuries, university students, and had self-reported sleep disturbances. Restoring Effective Sleep Tranquility was a multi-component cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia intervention consisting of seven sessions of group therapy and eight 1:1 sessions delivered by occupational therapists. Feasibility and pilot indicators were process, resources, management, and scientific, including pre-post-assessments of sleep difficulties, dysfunctional sleep beliefs, participation, and pain interference. Indicators were supportive of feasibility, including reduced sleep difficulties (for example Medical Outcomes Study Sleep Measure [ t  = 3.29, p  = .02]), reduced nightmares: t  = 2.79, p  = .03; fewer dysfunctional sleep beliefs: t  = 3.63, p  = .01, and greater ability to participate in social roles: t  = -2.86, p  = .03, along with trends towards improved satisfaction with participation and reduced pain interference. The Restoring Effective Sleep Tranquility program may reduce sleep difficulties and improve participation in US veterans with service-connected injuries, and evidence indicates a controlled trial would be feasible to deliver.

  14. Sleep disturbances in survivors of the Nazi Holocaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, J; Reynolds, C F; Yeager, A L; Houck, P R; Hurwitz, L F

    1991-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are commonly reported by victims of extraordinary stress and can persist for decades. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that survivors of the Nazi Holocaust would have significantly more and different sleep problems than depressed and healthy comparison subjects and that the severity of the survivors' problems would be correlated with length of time spent in a concentration camp. Forty-two survivors, 37 depressed patients, and 54 healthy subjects of about the same age, all living in the community, described their sleep patterns over the preceding month on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, a self-rating instrument that inquires about quality, latency, duration, efficiency, and disturbances of sleep, use of sleep medication, and daytime dysfunction. The survivors had significantly greater sleep impairment than the healthy comparison subjects, as measured by all subscales of the index, but had less impairment than the depressed patients except on the sleep disturbances and daytime dysfunction subscales. However, for specific items within these subscales, survivors had significantly more frequent awakenings due to bad dreams and had less loss of enthusiasm than the depressed subjects. Sleep disturbances and frequency of nightmares were significantly and positively correlated with the duration of the survivors' internment in concentration camps. These findings suggest that for some Holocaust survivors, impaired sleep and frequent nightmares are considerable problems even 45 years after liberation.

  15. The Impact of Sleep Duration on Performance Among Competitive Athletes: A Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschen, Gregory W; Jones, Jason J; Hale, Lauren

    2018-06-14

    The athletic advantage of sleep, although commonly touted by coaches, trainers, and sports physicians, is still unclear and likely varies by sport, athletic performance metric, and length of sufficient or insufficient sleep. Although recent literature reviews have highlighted circadian and nutritional factors that influence different aspects of athletic performance, a systematic summary of the effects of sleep duration and sleep quality on performance among competitive athletes is lacking. Here we systematically review the relationship between sleep duration and sleep quality and objective athletic performance among competitive athletes across 19 studies representing 12 sports. Taken holistically, we find that the sports requiring speed, tactical strategy, and technical skill are most sensitive to sleep duration manipulations. Furthermore, longer-term sleep manipulations are more likely than acute sleep manipulations (whether deprivation or extension) to affect athletic performance. Thus, the importance of sleep for competitive athletes to achieve high performance is dependent on the demands of the sport as well as the length of sleep interventions. In light of the limited number of studies investigating sleep quality and performance, the potential relevance of subjective sleep quality remains an interesting question for future work.

  16. Sleep diaries of Vietnam War veterans with chronic PTSD: the relationships among insomnia symptoms, psychosocial stress, and nightmares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrman, Philip R; Harb, Gerlinde C; Cook, Joan M; Barilla, Holly; Ross, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Impaired sleep and nightmares are known symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the veteran population. In order to assess prospectively the sleep disturbances in this population, sleep diaries are an effective way to obtain information over an extended period of time. In this investigation, a sample of veterans (N = 105) completed daily sleep diaries for a 6-week period. Greater PTSD severity and nightmare-related distress were correlated with more awakenings, shorter duration of sleep, longer sleep latency, and greater frequency of nightmares. Perceived frequency of daytime stressors was associated with an increased number of nightmares, nightmare-related distress, and longer sleep latency. The use of sleep diaries in future investigations may allow targeted treatments for veteran populations with PTSD and sleep disturbances.

  17. Exercise and sleep in aging: emphasis on serotonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melancon, M O; Lorrain, D; Dionne, I J

    2014-10-01

    Reductions in central serotonin activity with aging might be involved in sleep-related disorders in later life. Although the beneficial effects of aerobic exercise on sleep are not new, sleep represents a complex recurring state of unconsciousness involving many lines of transmitters which remains only partly clear despite intense ongoing research. It is known that serotonin released into diencephalon and cerebrum might play a key inhibitory role to help promote sleep, likely through an active inhibition of supraspinal neural networks. Several lines of evidence support the stimulatory effects of exercise on higher serotonergic pathways. Hence, exercise has proved to elicit acute elevations in forebrain serotonin concentrations, an effect that waned upon cessation of exercise. While adequate exercise training might lead to adaptations in higher serotonergic networks (desensitization of forebrain receptors), excessive training has been linked to serious brain serotonergic maladaptations accompanied by insomnia. Dietary supplementation of tryptophan (the only serotonin precursor) is known to stimulate serotonergic activity and promote sleep, whereas acute tryptophan depletion causes deleterious effects on sleep. Regarding sleep-wake regulation, exercise has proved to accelerate resynchronization of the biological clock to new light-dark cycles following imposition of phase shifts in laboratory animals. Noteworthy, the effect of increased serotonergic transmission on wake state appears to be biphasic, i.e. promote wake and thereafter drowsiness. Therefore, it might be possible that acute aerobic exercise would act on sleep by increasing activity of ascending brain serotonergic projections, though additional work is warranted to better understand the implication of serotonin in the exercise-sleep axis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Sleep, ageing and night work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L.N. Pires

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that the frequency or worsening of sleep disorders tends to increase with age and that the ability to perform circadian adjustments tends to decrease in individuals who work the night shift. This condition can cause consequences such as excessive sleepiness, which are often a factor in accidents that occur at work. The present study investigated the effects of age on the daytime and nighttime sleep patterns using polysomnography (PSG of long-haul bus drivers working fixed night or day shifts. A total of 124 drivers, free of sleep disorders and grouped according to age (<45 years, N = 85, and ≥45 years, N = 39 and PSG timing (daytime (D PSG, N = 60; nighttime (N PSG, N = 64 participated in the study. We observed a significant effect of bedtime (D vs N and found that the length of daytime sleep was shorter [D: <45 years (336.10 ± 73.75 min vs N: <45 years (398 ± 78.79 min and D: ≥45 years (346.57 ± 43.17 min vs N: ≥45 years (386.44 ± 52.92 min; P ≤ 0.05]. Daytime sleep was less efficient compared to nighttime sleep [D: <45 years (78.86 ± 13.30% vs N: <45 years (86.45 ± 9.77% and D: ≥45 years (79.89 ± 9.45% and N: ≥45 years (83.13 ± 9.13%; P ≤ 0.05]. An effect of age was observed for rapid eye movement sleep [D: <45 years (18.05 ± 6.12% vs D: ≥45 years (15.48 ± 7.11% and N: <45 years (23.88 ± 6.75% vs N: ≥45 years (20.77 ± 5.64%; P ≤ 0.05], which was greater in younger drivers. These findings are inconsistent with the notion that older night workers are more adversely affected than younger night workers by the challenge of attempting to rest during the day.

  19. Sleep disorders in psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa e Silva, Jorge Alberto

    2006-10-01

    Sleep is an active state that is critical for our physical, mental, and emotional well-being. Sleep is also important for optimal cognitive functioning, and sleep disruption results in functional impairment. Insomnia is the most common sleep disorder in psychiatry. At any given time, 50% of adults are affected with 1 or more sleep problems such as difficulty in falling or staying asleep, in staying awake, or in adhering to a consistent sleep/wake schedule. Narcolepsy affects as many individuals as does multiple sclerosis or Parkinson disease. Sleep problems are especially prevalent in schizophrenia, depression, and other mental illnesses, and every year, sleep disorders, sleep deprivation, and sleepiness add billions to the national health care bill in industrialized countries. Although psychiatrists often treat patients with insomnia secondary to depression, most patients discuss their insomnia with general care physicians, making it important to provide this group with clear guidelines for the diagnosis and management of insomnia. Once the specific medical, behavioral, or psychiatric causes of the sleep problem have been identified, appropriate treatment can be undertaken. Chronic insomnia has multiple causes arising from medical disorders, psychiatric disorders, primary sleep disorders, circadian rhythm disorders, social or therapeutic use of drugs, or maladaptive behaviors. The emerging concepts of sleep neurophysiology are consistent with the cholinergic-aminergic imbalance hypothesis of mood disorders, which proposes that depression is associated with an increased ratio of central cholinergic to aminergic neurotransmission. The characteristic sleep abnormalities of depression may reflect a relative predominance of cholinergic activity. Antidepressant medications presumably reduce rapid eye movement (REM) sleep either by their anticholinergic properties or by enhancing aminergic neurotransmission. Intense and prolonged dreams often accompany abrupt withdrawal

  20. Deep sleep after social stress: NREM sleep slow-wave activity is enhanced in both winners and losers of a conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphuis, Jeanine; Lancel, Marike; Koolhaas, Jaap M; Meerlo, Peter

    2015-07-01

    Sleep is considered to be a recovery process of prior wakefulness. Not only duration of the waking period affects sleep architecture and sleep EEG, the quality of wakefulness is also highly important. Studies in rats have shown that social defeat stress, in which experimental animals are attacked and defeated by a dominant conspecific, is followed by an acute increase in NREM sleep EEG slow wave activity (SWA). However, it is not known whether this effect is specific for the stress of social defeat or a result of the conflict per se. In the present experiment, we examined how sleep is affected in both the winners and losers of a social conflict. Sleep-wake patterns and sleep EEG were recorded in male wild-type Groningen rats that were subjected to 1h of social conflict in the middle of the light phase. All animals were confronted with a conspecific of similar aggression level and the conflict took place in a neutral arena where both individuals had an equal chance to either win or lose the conflict. NREM sleep SWA was significantly increased after the social conflict compared to baseline values and a gentle stimulation control condition. REM sleep was significantly suppressed in the first hours after the conflict. Winners and losers did not differ significantly in NREM sleep time, NREM sleep SWA and REM sleep time immediately after the conflict. Losers tended to have slightly more NREM sleep later in the recovery period. This study shows that in rats a social conflict with an unpredictable outcome has quantitatively and qualitatively largely similar acute effects on subsequent sleep in winners and losers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The homeostatic and circadian sleep recovery responses after total sleep deprivation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dispersyn, Garance; Sauvet, Fabien; Gomez-Merino, Danielle; Ciret, Sylvain; Drogou, Catherine; Leger, Damien; Gallopin, Thierry; Chennaoui, Mounir

    2017-10-01

    Many studies on sleep deprivation effects lack data regarding the recovery period. We investigated the 2-day homeostatic and circadian sleep recovery response to 24 h of total sleep deprivation (TSD) induced by brief rotation of an activity wheel. Eight mice were implanted with telemetry transmitters (DSI F40-EET) that recorded simultaneously their electroencephalography (EEG), locomotor activity and temperature during 24 h of baseline (BSL), TSD and 2 days of recovery (D1 and D2). In a second experiment, two groups of five non-implanted mice underwent TSD or ad libitum sleep, after which they were killed, adrenal glands were weighed and blood was collected for analysis of corticosterone concentration. During TSD mice were awake at least 97% of the time, with a consecutive sleep rebound during D1 that persisted during D2. This was characterized by increases of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep (44.2 ± 6.9% for D1 and 43.0 ± 7.7% for D2 versus 33.8 ± 9.2% for BSL) and the relative delta band power (179.2 ± 34.4% for D1 and 81.9 ± 11.2% for D2). Greater NREM and REM sleep amounts were observed during the 'light' periods. Temperature and locomotor activity characteristics were unchanged during D1 and D2 versus BSL. In non-implanted mice, corticosterone levels as well as adrenal gland and overall body weights did not differ between TSD and ad libitum sleep groups. In conclusion, 24 h of TSD in an activity wheel without stress responses influence homeostatic sleep regulation with no effect on the circadian regulation over at least 2 days of recovery in mice. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.

  2. Association between subjective actual sleep duration, subjective sleep need, age, body mass index, and gender in a large sample of young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalak, Nadeem; Brand, Serge; Beck, Johannes; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Wollmer, M Axel

    2015-01-01

    Poor sleep is a major health concern, and there is evidence that young adults are at increased risk of suffering from poor sleep. There is also evidence that sleep duration can vary as a function of gender and body mass index (BMI). We sought to replicate these findings in a large sample of young adults, and also tested the hypothesis that a smaller gap between subjective sleep duration and subjective sleep need is associated with a greater feeling of being restored. A total of 2,929 university students (mean age 23.24±3.13 years, 69.1% female) took part in an Internet-based survey. They answered questions related to demographics and subjective sleep patterns. We found no gender differences in subjective sleep duration, subjective sleep need, BMI, age, or feeling of being restored. Nonlinear associations were observed between subjective sleep duration, BMI, and feeling of being restored. Moreover, a larger discrepancy between subjective actual sleep duration and subjective sleep need was associated with a lower feeling of being restored. The present pattern of results from a large sample of young adults suggests that males and females do not differ with respect to subjective sleep duration, BMI, or feeling of being restored. Moreover, nonlinear correlations seemed to provide a more accurate reflection of the relationship between subjective sleep and demographic variables.

  3. Sleep and Metabolism: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Sunil; Kavuru, Mani

    2010-01-01

    Sleep and its disorders are increasingly becoming important in our sleep deprived society. Sleep is intricately connected to various hormonal and metabolic processes in the body and is important in maintaining metabolic homeostasis. Research shows that sleep deprivation and sleep disorders may have profound metabolic and cardiovascular implications. Sleep deprivation, sleep disordered breathing, and circadian misalignment are believed to cause metabolic dysregulation through myriad pathways i...

  4. Changes in Subjective Sleep Quality Before a Competition and Their Relation to Competitive Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlenspiel, Felix; Erlacher, Daniel; Ziegler, Matthias

    2016-12-09

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of competitions on subjective sleep quality. Previous studies have been inconclusive and lack differentiated and standardized measurements of subjective sleep quality. Furthermore the temporal relation between precompetitive anxiety and sleep quality was investigated. Anxiety and nervousness associated with competitions are considered to cause sleep impairments. A convenience sample of N = 79 elite male athletes from various sports participated. In a time-to-event paradigm, sleep quality and competitive anxiety were assessed via standardized self-report measurements 4 days before a competition and on the day of the competition. Univariate analyses were used to examine differences between time points. To examine cross-lagged effects between anxiety and sleep quality a latent change score model (LCSM) was specified that tested an effect of anxiety on changes in sleep quality. Evaluations of nocturnal sleep deteriorated significantly from 4 days before competition to the day of competition, but there were no differences regarding perceptions of the restorative value of sleep. LCSM revealed that athletes who reported more intense worry symptoms 4 days before competition also reported greater deterioration in evaluations of nocturnal sleep. The findings support earlier reports of impaired subjective sleep quality before competitions. Precompetitive sleep impairments appear also to be preceded by cognitive anxiety. Whereas interventions should thus address worry-cognitions associated with competition and sleep, research should address the practical importance of these perceptions of sleep impairments.

  5. Sleep Loss in Resident Physicians: The Cause of Medical Errors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton eKramer

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This review begins with the history of the events starting with the death of Libby Zion that lead to the Bell Commission, that the studied her death and made recommendations for improvement that were codified into law in New York state as the 405 law that the ACGME essentially adopted in putting a cap on work hours and establishing the level of staff supervision that must be available to residents in clinical situations particularly the emergency room and acute care units. A summary is then provided of the findings of the laboratory effects of total sleep deprivation including acute total sleep loss and the consequent widespread physiologic alterations, and of the effects of selective and chronic sleep loss. Generally the sequence of responses to increasing sleep loss goes from mood changes to cognitive effects to performance deficits. In the laboratory situation, deficits resulting from sleep deprivation are clearly and definitively demonstrable. Sleep loss in the clinical situation is usually sleep deprivation superimposed on chronic sleep loss. An examination of questionnaire studies, the literature on reports of sleep loss, studies of the reduction of work hours on performance as well as observational and a few interventional studies have yielded contradictory and often equivocal results. The residents generally find they feel better working fewer hours but improvements in patient care are often not reported or do not occur. A change in the attitude of the resident toward his role and his patient has not been salutary. Decreasing sleep loss should have had a positive effect on patient care in reducing medical error, but this remains to be unequivocally demonstrated.

  6. Sleep patterns and match performance in elite Australian basketball athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staunton, Craig; Gordon, Brett; Custovic, Edhem; Stanger, Jonathan; Kingsley, Michael

    2017-08-01

    To assess sleep patterns and associations between sleep and match performance in elite Australian female basketball players. Prospective cohort study. Seventeen elite female basketball players were monitored across two consecutive in-season competitions (30 weeks). Total sleep time and sleep efficiency were determined using triaxial accelerometers for Baseline, Pre-match, Match-day and Post-match timings. Match performance was determined using the basketball efficiency statistic (EFF). The effects of match schedule (Regular versus Double-Header; Home versus Away) and sleep on EFF were assessed. The Double-Header condition changed the pattern of sleep when compared with the Regular condition (F (3,48) =3.763, P=0.017), where total sleep time Post-match was 11% less for Double-Header (mean±SD; 7.2±1.4h) compared with Regular (8.0±1.3h; P=0.007). Total sleep time for Double-Header was greater Pre-match (8.2±1.7h) compared with Baseline (7.1±1.6h; P=0.022) and Match-day (7.3±1.5h; P=0.007). Small correlations existed between sleep metrics at Pre-match and EFF for pooled data (r=-0.39 to -0.22; P≥0.238). Relationships between total sleep time and EFF ranged from moderate negative to large positive correlations for individual players (r=-0.37 to 0.62) and reached significance for one player (r=0.60; P=0.025). Match schedule can affect the sleep patterns of elite female basketball players. A large degree of inter-individual variability existed in the relationship between sleep and match performance; nevertheless, sleep monitoring might assist in the optimisation of performance for some athletes. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Sleep and Athletic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Andrew M

    Sleep is an essential component of health and well-being, with significant impacts on physical development, emotional regulation, cognitive performance, and quality of life. Along with being an integral part of the recovery and adaptive process between bouts of exercise, accumulating evidence suggests that increased sleep duration and improved sleep quality in athletes are associated with improved performance and competitive success. In addition, better sleep may reduce the risk of both injury and illness in athletes, not only optimizing health but also potentially enhancing performance through increased participation in training. Despite this, most studies have found that athletes fail to obtain the recommended amount of sleep, threatening both performance and health. Athletes face a number of obstacles that can reduce the likelihood of obtaining proper sleep, such as training and competition schedules, travel, stress, academic demands, and overtraining. In addition, athletes have been found to demonstrate poor self-assessment of their sleep duration and quality. In light of this, athletes may require more careful monitoring and intervention to identify individuals at risk and promote proper sleep to improve both performance and overall health. This review attempts to highlight the recent literature regarding sleep issues in athletes, the effects of sleep on athletic performance, and interventions to enhance proper sleep in athletes.

  8. Periodic limb movements during sleep in stroke/TIA: Prevalence, course, and cardiovascular burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manconi, Mauro; Fanfulla, Francesco; Ferri, Raffaele; Miano, Silvia; Haba-Rubio, Josè; Heinzer, Raphael; Horvath, Thomas; Proserpio, Paola; Young, Peter; Moschovitis, Giorgio; Seiler, Andrea; Cereda, Carlo; Nobili, Lino; Wiest, Roland; Ott, Sebastian R; Bassetti, Claudio L

    2018-05-08

    To define the prevalence, time course, and associated factors of periodic limb movements during sleep (PLMS) in patients with ischemic stroke or TIA. Patients enrolled in the prospective Sleep-Disordered Breathing in Transient Ischemia Attack (TIA)/Ischemic Stroke and Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) Treatment Efficacy (SAS-CARE) study underwent a double polysomnographic investigation in the acute and chronic phases after stroke/TIA, together with a MRI brain scan and a 24-hour blood pressure evaluation. The prevalence of PLMS in patients was compared with that in a matched sample of randomly selected healthy controls from the HypnoLaus cohort. One hundred sixty-nine recordings were performed in the acute phase and 191 after 3 months (210 recordings were obtained from the same 105 patients in both phases) and were compared to those of 162 controls. The mean number of PLMS per hour and the percentage of participants with a PLMS index >10 and >15 per hour were similar between patients and controls. PLMS remained stable from the acute to the chronic phase after stroke. Factors positively associated with PLMS were age, body mass index, and history of hypertension. Blood pressure over 24 hours and the burden of cerebrovascular damage were similar between the groups with PLMS and without PLMS. PLMS are equally frequent in patients with stroke/TIA and the general population. The absence of higher blood pressure values and of a greater vascular brain damage found in patients with PLMS compared to those without PLMS might be due to a greater use of antihypertensive medication among patients with PLMS, which corresponds to a higher prevalence of previous diagnosis of hypertension in these patients. © 2018 American Academy of Neurology.

  9. Sleep and Salivary Cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Anne Helene; Karlson, Bernt; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present chapter was to analyze whether measures of cortisol in saliva were associated with measures of sleep and to explore if divergent results were related to underlying differences in theoretic assumptions and methods. Measures of sleep quality included sleep duration, overall...... sleep quality, difficulty falling asleep, disturbed sleep, and sleep deprivation. Twenty-three papers were found to fulfill the inclusion criteria. Cortisol measures were grouped into single time points at different times during the day, deviations at different time periods during the day, reactivity...... and recovery after a standardized laboratory test, area under the curve and response to dexamethasone test. A large proportion of the studies included showed non-significant findings, which, in several cases, may be a result of low power. The most consistent results were a positive association between sleep...

  10. Sleep and psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, Vivien C.; Guilleminault, Christian

    2005-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders constitute 15.4% of the disease burden in established market economies. Many psychiatric disorders are associated with sleep disturbances, and the relationship is often bidirectional. This paper reviews the prevalence of various psychiatric disorders, their clinical presentation, and their association with sleep disorders. Among the psychiatric disorders reviewed are affective disorders, psychosis, anxiety disorders (including post-traumatic stress disorder), substance abuse disorders, eating disorders, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorders. The spectrum of associated sleep disorders includes insomnia, hypersomnia, nocturnal panic, sleep paralysis, hypnagogic hallucinations, restless legs/periodic limb movements of sleep, obstructive sleep apnea, and parasomnias. The effects on sleep of various psychotropic medications utilized to treat the above psychiatric disorders are summarized. PMID:16416705

  11. Sleep and Sleep Problems: From Birth to 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Mond, Courtney; Mindell, Jodi A.

    2011-01-01

    Sleep is an important aspect of a child's early development and is essential to family well-being. During their first 3 years, infants and toddlers spend more than 50% of their lives sleeping. However, concerns about sleep and sleep problems are among the most common issues brought to the attention of pediatricians. Although sleep is one of the…

  12. Sleep from an Islamic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahammam, Ahmed S

    2011-10-01

    Sleep medicine is a relatively new scientific specialty. Sleep is an important topic in Islamic literature, and the Quran and Hadith discuss types of sleep, the importance of sleep, and good sleep practices. Islam considers sleep as one of the signs of the greatness of Allνh (God) and encourages followers to explore this important sign. The Quran describes different types of sleep, and these correspond with sleep stages identified by modern science. The Quran discusses the beneficial effects of sleep and emphasizes the importance of maintaining a pattern of light and darkness. A mid-day nap is an important practice for Muslims, and the Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him (pbuh) promoted naps as beneficial. In accordance with the practice and instructions of Muhammad (pbuh), Muslims have certain sleep habits and these sleep habits correspond to some of the sleep hygiene rules identified by modern science. Details during sleep include sleep position, like encouraging sleep on the right side and discouraging sleep in the prone position. Dream interpretation is an established science in the Islamic literature and Islamic scholars have made significant contributions to theories of dream interpretation. We suggest that sleep scientists examine religious literature in general and Islamic literature in particular, to understand the views, behaviors, and practices of ancient people about the sleep and sleep disorders. Such studies may help to answer some unresolved questions in sleep science or lead to new areas of inquiry.

  13. Chronic sleep reduction in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewald-Kaufmann, J.F.

    2012-01-01

    Based on the results of this thesis, it can be concluded that sleep problems and chronic sleep reduction have a high impact on adolescents’ daytime functioning. Additionally, this research shows that gradual sleep extension can improve adolescents’ sleep and especially their chronic sleep reduction.

  14. Sleep from an islamic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed S BaHammam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep medicine is a relatively new scientific specialty. Sleep is an important topic in Islamic literature, and the Quran and Hadith discuss types of sleep, the importance of sleep, and good sleep practices. Islam considers sleep as one of the signs of the greatness of Allβh (God and encourages followers to explore this important sign. The Quran describes different types of sleep, and these correspond with sleep stages identified by modern science. The Quran discusses the beneficial effects of sleep and emphasizes the importance of maintaining a pattern of light and darkness. A mid-day nap is an important practice for Muslims, and the Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him (pbuh promoted naps as beneficial. In accordance with the practice and instructions of Muhammad (pbuh, Muslims have certain sleep habits and these sleep habits correspond to some of the sleep hygiene rules identified by modern science. Details during sleep include sleep position, like encouraging sleep on the right side and discouraging sleep in the prone position. Dream interpretation is an established science in the Islamic literature and Islamic scholars have made significant contributions to theories of dream interpretation. We suggest that sleep scientists examine religious literature in general and Islamic literature in particular, to understand the views, behaviors, and practices of ancient people about the sleep and sleep disorders. Such studies may help to answer some unresolved questions in sleep science or lead to new areas of inquiry.

  15. Genetic Dissociation of Daily Sleep and Sleep Following Thermogenetic Sleep Deprivation in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubowy, Christine; Moravcevic, Katarina; Yue, Zhifeng; Wan, Joy Y; Van Dongen, Hans P A; Sehgal, Amita

    2016-05-01

    Sleep rebound-the increase in sleep that follows sleep deprivation-is a hallmark of homeostatic sleep regulation that is conserved across the animal kingdom. However, both the mechanisms that underlie sleep rebound and its relationship to habitual daily sleep remain unclear. To address this, we developed an efficient thermogenetic method of inducing sleep deprivation in Drosophila that produces a substantial rebound, and applied the newly developed method to assess sleep rebound in a screen of 1,741 mutated lines. We used data generated by this screen to identify lines with reduced sleep rebound following thermogenetic sleep deprivation, and to probe the relationship between habitual sleep amount and sleep following thermogenetic sleep deprivation in Drosophila. To develop a thermogenetic method of sleep deprivation suitable for screening, we thermogenetically stimulated different populations of wake-promoting neurons labeled by Gal4 drivers. Sleep rebound following thermogenetically-induced wakefulness varies across the different sets of wake-promoting neurons that were stimulated, from very little to quite substantial. Thermogenetic activation of neurons marked by the c584-Gal4 driver produces both strong sleep loss and a substantial rebound that is more consistent within genotypes than rebound following mechanical or caffeine-induced sleep deprivation. We therefore used this driver to induce sleep deprivation in a screen of 1,741 mutagenized lines generated by the Drosophila Gene Disruption Project. Flies were subjected to 9 h of sleep deprivation during the dark period and released from sleep deprivation 3 h before lights-on. Recovery was measured over the 15 h following sleep deprivation. Following identification of lines with reduced sleep rebound, we characterized baseline sleep and sleep depth before and after sleep deprivation for these hits. We identified two lines that consistently exhibit a blunted increase in the duration and depth of sleep after

  16. Memory suppression trades prolonged fear and sleep-dependent fear plasticity for the avoidance of current fear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriyama, Kenichi; Honma, Motoyasu; Yoshiike, Takuya; Kim, Yoshiharu

    2013-07-01

    Sleep deprivation immediately following an aversive event reduces fear by preventing memory consolidation during homeostatic sleep. This suggests that acute insomnia might act prophylactically against the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) even though it is also a possible risk factor for PTSD. We examined total sleep deprivation and memory suppression to evaluate the effects of these interventions on subsequent aversive memory formation and fear conditioning. Active suppression of aversive memory impaired retention of event memory. However, although the remembered fear was more reduced in sleep-deprived than sleep-control subjects, suppressed fear increased, and seemed to abandon the sleep-dependent plasticity of fear. Active memory suppression, which provides a psychological model for Freud's ego defense mechanism, enhances fear and casts doubt on the potential of acute insomnia as a prophylactic measure against PTSD. Our findings bring into question the role of sleep in aversive-memory consolidation in clinical PTSD pathophysiology.

  17. Predictors of poor sleep quality among Lebanese university students: association between evening typology, lifestyle behaviors, and sleep habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabrita CS

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Colette S Kabrita,1 Theresa A Hajjar-Muça,2 Jeanne F Duffy31Department of Sciences, 2Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Faculty of Natural and Applied Sciences, Notre Dame University – Louaize, Zouk Mosbeh, Lebanon; 3Division of Sleep Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USAAbstract: Adequate, good night sleep is fundamental to well-being and is known to be influenced by myriad biological and environmental factors. Given the unavailability of sleep data about Lebanon, the cultural shifts and socioeconomic pressures that have affected many aspects of society, particularly for students and working adults, as well as our understanding of sleep in university students in other countries, we conducted a national study to assess sleep quality and factors contributing to sleep and general health in a culture-specific context. A self-filled questionnaire, inquiring about sociodemographics, health-risk behaviors, personal health, and evaluating sleep quality and chronotype using standard scales was completed by 540 students at private and public universities in Lebanon. Overall, they reported sleeping 7.95±1.34 hours per night, although 12.3% reported sleeping <6.5 hours and more than half scored in the poor-sleeper category on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI. Sleep timing differed markedly between weekdays and weekends, with bedtimes and wake-up times delayed by 1.51 and 2.43 hours, respectively, on weekends. While most scored in the "neither type" category on the Morningness–Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ, 24.5% were evening types and 7.3% were morning types. MEQ score was significantly correlated with smoking behavior and daily study onset, as well as with PSQI score, with eveningness associated with greater number of cigarettes, later study times, and poor sleep. We conclude that the prevalence of poor sleep quality among Lebanese university students is associated

  18. Sleep duration and RSA suppression as predictors of internalizing and externalizing behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sunghye; Philbrook, Lauren E; Davis, Elizabeth L; Buss, Kristin A

    2017-01-01

    Although the conceptual interplay among the biological and clinical features of sleep, arousal, and emotion regulation has been noted, little is understood about how indices of sleep duration and parasympathetic reactivity operate jointly to predict adjustment in early childhood. Using a sample of 123 toddlers, the present study examined sleep duration and RSA reactivity as predictors of internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Parents reported on children's sleep duration and adjustment. RSA reactivity was assessed via children's responses to fear-eliciting stimuli and an inhibitory control challenge. Findings demonstrated that greater RSA suppression to both types of tasks in combination with longer sleep duration was concurrently associated with less internalizing. In contrast, greater RSA augmentation to an inhibitory control task in the context of shorter sleep duration predicted more externalizing 1 year later. The significance of duration of toddlers' sleep as well as the context in which physiological regulatory difficulties occurs is discussed. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Increased Risk for School Violence-Related Behaviors among Adolescents with Insufficient Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildenbrand, Aimee K.; Daly, Brian P.; Nicholls, Elizabeth; Brooks-Holliday, Stephanie; Kloss, Jacqueline D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: School violence is associated with significant acute and long-term negative health outcomes. Previous investigations have largely neglected the role of pertinent health behaviors in school violence, including sleep. Insufficient sleep is associated with adverse physical, behavioral, and psychosocial consequences among adolescents, many…

  20. Trait Mindfulness and Work-Family Balance among Working Parents: The Mediating Effects of Vitality and Sleep Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Tammy D.; Kiburz, Kaitlin M.

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigates the relationship between trait mindfulness and work-family balance among a sample of working parents. Sleep quality and vitality are tested as mediators of this relationship. Results indicate that those with greater mindfulness report greater work-family balance, better sleep quality, and greater vitality. As…

  1. The Value of Sleep on Athletic Performance, Injury, and Recovery in the Young Athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copenhaver, Elizabeth A; Diamond, Alex B

    2017-03-01

    Adequate sleep can easily become compromised as student-athletes try to balance the multiple demands on their time. People with sleep deficiency are at increased risk for acute illnesses, traumatic sports injuries, and development of chronic diseases. Training sessions or competitions during extremely early or late hours can interfere with circadian and homeostatic rhythms. Adjusting the training schedule to improve sleep duration has a significantly positive impact on several aspects of athletic performance. Pediatricians should increase the time dedicated in well-child visits for sleep hygiene and evaluate for sleep disorders at all ages. Parents, coaching staff, teachers, and pediatricians should advocate for improved education on the importance of sleep during adolescence. Future sleep research specific to adolescent athletes can further delineate requirements specific to sport, gender, training times, and surrounding competitions. [Pediatr Ann. 2017;46(3):e106-e111.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. Interaction of sleep and emotional content on the production of false memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeon, Shannon; Pace-Schott, Edward F; Spencer, Rebecca M C

    2012-01-01

    Sleep benefits veridical memories, resulting in superior recall relative to off-line intervals spent awake. Sleep also increases false memory recall in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. Given the suggestion that emotional veridical memories are prioritized for consolidation over sleep, here we examined whether emotion modulates sleep's effect on false memory formation. Participants listened to semantically related word lists lacking a critical lure representing each list's "gist." Free recall was tested after 12 hours containing sleep or wake. The Sleep group recalled more studied words than the Wake group but only for emotionally neutral lists. False memories of both negative and neutral critical lures were greater following sleep relative to wake. Morning and Evening control groups (20-minute delay) did not differ ruling out circadian accounts for these differences. These results support the adaptive function of sleep in both promoting the consolidation of veridical declarative memories and in extracting unifying aspects from memory details.

  3. Interaction of sleep and emotional content on the production of false memories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon McKeon

    Full Text Available Sleep benefits veridical memories, resulting in superior recall relative to off-line intervals spent awake. Sleep also increases false memory recall in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM paradigm. Given the suggestion that emotional veridical memories are prioritized for consolidation over sleep, here we examined whether emotion modulates sleep's effect on false memory formation. Participants listened to semantically related word lists lacking a critical lure representing each list's "gist." Free recall was tested after 12 hours containing sleep or wake. The Sleep group recalled more studied words than the Wake group but only for emotionally neutral lists. False memories of both negative and neutral critical lures were greater following sleep relative to wake. Morning and Evening control groups (20-minute delay did not differ ruling out circadian accounts for these differences. These results support the adaptive function of sleep in both promoting the consolidation of veridical declarative memories and in extracting unifying aspects from memory details.

  4. The sleeping brain's influence on verbal memory: boosting resistance to interference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey M Ellenbogen

    Full Text Available Memories evolve. After learning something new, the brain initiates a complex set of post-learning processing that facilitates recall (i.e., consolidation. Evidence points to sleep as one of the determinants of that change. But whenever a behavioral study of episodic memory shows a benefit of sleep, critics assert that sleep only leads to a temporary shelter from the damaging effects of interference that would otherwise accrue during wakefulness. To evaluate the potentially active role of sleep for verbal memory, we compared memory recall after sleep, with and without interference before testing. We demonstrated that recall performance for verbal memory was greater after sleep than after wakefulness. And when using interference testing, that difference was even more pronounced. By introducing interference after sleep, this study confirms an experimental paradigm that demonstrates the active role of sleep in consolidating memory, and unmasks the large magnitude of that benefit.

  5. Ultradian rhythms in pituitary and adrenal hormones: their relations to sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronfier, C; Brandenberger, G

    1998-02-01

    Sleep and circadian rhythmicity both influence the 24-h profiles of the main pituitary and adrenal hormones. From studies using experimental strategies including complete and partial sleep deprivation, acute and chronic shifts in the sleep period, or complete sleep-wake reversal as occurs with transmeridian travel or shift-work, it appears that prolactin (PRL) and growth hormone (GH) profiles are mainly sleep related, while cortisol profile is mainly controlled by the circadian clock with a weak influence of sleep processes. Thyrotropin (TSH) profile is under the dual influence of sleep and circadian rhythmicity. Recent studies, in which we used spectral analysis of sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) rather than visual scoring of sleep stages, have evaluated the temporal associations between pulsatile hormonal release and the variations in sleep EEG activity. Pulses in PRL and in GH are positively linked to increases in delta wave activity, whereas TSH and cortisol pulses are related to decreases in delta wave activity. It is yet not clear whether sleep influences endocrine secretion, or conversely, whether hormone secretion affects sleep structure. These well-defined relationships raise the question of their physiological significance and of their clinical implications.

  6. Sleep-related disorders in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Crinion, Sophie J

    2014-02-01

    Sleep may have several negative consequences in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Sleep is typically fragmented with diminished slow wave and rapid-eye-movement sleep, which likely represents an important contributing factor to daytime symptoms such as fatigue and lethargy. Furthermore, normal physiological adaptations during sleep, which result in mild hypoventilation in normal subjects, are more pronounced in COPD, which can result in clinically important nocturnal oxygen desaturation. The co-existence of obstructive sleep apnea and COPD is also common, principally because of the high prevalence of each disorder, and there is little convincing evidence that one disorder predisposes to the other. Nonetheless, this co-existence, termed the overlap syndrome, typically results in more pronounced nocturnal oxygen desaturation and there is a high prevalence of pulmonary hypertension in such patients. Management of sleep disorders in patients with COPD should address both sleep quality and disordered gas exchange. Non-invasive pressure support is beneficial in selected cases, particularly during acute exacerbations associated with respiratory failure, and is particularly helpful in patients with the overlap syndrome. There is limited evidence of benefit from pressure support in the chronic setting in COPD patients without obstructive sleep apnea.

  7. Non-breathing-related sleep disorders following stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez-Romero, J M; Morales-Ramírez, M; Arauz, A

    2014-01-01

    It has been shown that sleep-related breathing disorders, especially sleep apnea, are very common in patients who have had a stroke, and that they also reduce the potential for neurological recovery. Nevertheless, other sleep disorders caused by stroke (excessive daytime sleepiness, insomnia, sleep related movement disorders) can also cause or increase stroke-related disability, and this fact is less commonly known. Studies with polysomnography have shown many abnormalities in sleep architecture during the acute phase of stroke; these abnormalities have a negative impact on the patient's quality of life although they tend to improve with time. This also happens with other sleep disorders occurring as the result of a stroke (insomnia, narcolepsy, restless legs syndrome, periodic limb movement disorder and REM sleep behavior disorder), which are nevertheless potentially treatable. In this article, we briefly review the physiopathology and epidemiology of the disorders listed above in order to raise awareness about the importance of these disorders and the effects they elicit in stroke patients. Sleep disorders that are not breathing-related have scarcely been studied in stroke patients despite the fact that almost all such disorders may present as a result of a cerebrovascular event. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. [Autoerotic fatalities in Greater Dusseldorf].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Benno; Hellen, Florence; Borchard, Nora; Huckenbeck, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Autoerotic fatalities in the Greater Dusseldorf area correspond to the relevant medicolegal literature. Our results included exclusively young to middle-aged, usually single men who were found dead in their city apartments. Clothing and devices used showed a great variety. Women's or fetish clothing and complex shackling or hanging devices were disproportionately frequent. In most cases, death occurred due to hanging or ligature strangulation. There was no increased incidence of underlying psychiatric disorders. In most of the deceased no or at least no remarkable alcohol intoxication was found. Occasionally, it may be difficult to reliably differentiate autoerotic accidents, accidents occurring in connection with practices of bondage & discipline, dominance & submission (BDSM) from natural death, suicide or homicide.

  9. Planning for greater confinement disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Meshkov, N.K.; Trevorrow, L.E.; Yu, C.

    1985-01-01

    A report that provides guidance for planning for greater-confinement disposal (GCD) of low-level radioactive waste is being prepared. The report addresses procedures for selecting a GCD technology and provides information for implementing these procedures. The focus is on GCD; planning aspects common to GCD and shallow-land burial are covered by reference. Planning procedure topics covered include regulatory requirements, waste characterization, benefit-cost-risk assessment and pathway analysis methodologies, determination of need, waste-acceptance criteria, performance objectives, and comparative assessment of attributes that support these objectives. The major technologies covered include augered shafts, deep trenches, engineered structures, hydrofracture, improved waste forms, and high-integrity containers. Descriptive information is provided, and attributes that are relevant for risk assessment and operational requirements are given. 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Relationships between school start time, sleep duration, and adolescent behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlstrom, Kyla L; Berger, Aaron T; Widome, Rachel

    2017-06-01

    The objectives were 2-fold: (1) to examine how high school start times relate to adolescent sleep duration, and (2) to test associations between sleep duration and mental health- and substance use-related issues and behaviors in teens. This study examines selected questions from survey data collected between 2010 and 2013 high school students. Respondents included more than 9000 students in grades 9 to 12 in 8 high schools in 5 school districts across the United States. The survey instrument is the 97-item Teen Sleep Habits Survey. Logistic regression models were used to calculate adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Because of clustering within schools and the use of repeated measures, generalized estimating equations were used to account for variance inflation. Greater sleep duration was associated with fewer reports of various mental health- and substance use-related issues and behaviors (all P values sleep reported, there was a 28% reduction in the adjusted odds of a participant reporting that he or she felt "unhappy, sad, or depressed." Later wake-up times were associated with a reduction in risk for some, but not all factors. Later start times were significantly associated with greater sleep duration. Given that later start times allow for greater sleep duration and that adequate sleep duration is associated with more favorable mental health- and substance use-related issues and behaviors, it is important that school districts prioritize exploring and implementing policies, such as delayed start times, that may increase the amount of sleep of adolescent students, which is needed for their optimal development. Copyright © 2017 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The effects of sleep extension on sleep and cognitive performance in adolescents with chronic sleep reduction: an experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewald-Kaufmann, J.F.; Oort, F.J.; Meijer, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of gradual sleep extension in adolescents with chronic sleep reduction. Outcome variables were objectively measured sleep and cognitive performance. Methods: Participants were randomly assigned to either a sleep extension group (gradual sleep extension by

  12. Speaking out on safe sleep: evidence-based infant sleep recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartick, Melissa; Smith, Linda J

    2014-11-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) issued recommendations in 2005 and 2011 to reduce sleep-related infant death, which advise against all bedsharing for sleep. These recommendations overemphasize the risks of bedsharing, and this overemphasis has serious unintended consequences. It may result in increased deaths on sofas as tired parents try to avoid feeding their infants in bed. Current evidence shows that other risks are far more potent, such as smoking, shared sleep on sofas, sleeping next to impaired caregivers, and formula feeding. The emphasis on separate sleep is diverting resources away from addressing these critical risk factors. Recommendations to avoid bedsharing may also interfere with breastfeeding. We examine both the evidence behind the AAP recommendations and the evidence omitted from those recommendations. We conclude that the only evidence-based universal advice to date is that sofas are hazardous places for adults to sleep with infants; that exposure to smoke, both prenatal and postnatal, increases the risk of death; and that sleeping next to an impaired caregiver increases the risk of death. No sleep environment is completely safe. Public health efforts must address the reality that tired parents must feed their infants at night somewhere and that sofas are highly risky places for parents to fall asleep with their infants, especially if parents are smokers or under the influence of alcohol or drugs. All messaging must be crafted and reevaluated to avoid unintended negative consequences, including impact on breastfeeding rates, or falling asleep in more dangerous situations than parental beds. We must realign our resources to focus on the greater risk factors, and that may include greater investment in smoking cessation and doing away with aggressive formula marketing. This includes eliminating conflicts of interest between formula marketing companies and organizations dedicated to the health of children.

  13. Evaluation of depressive symptoms and sleep alterations in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moo-Estrella, Jesús; Pérez-Benítez, Hugo; Solís-Rodríguez, Francisco; Arankowsky-Sandoval, Gloria

    2005-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that sleep alterations could favor subsequent depression development. In order to identify the simultaneous occurrence of these parameters in young people, in this work we evaluated the prevalence of depressive symptoms, sleep habits, and possible sleep disturbances in college students. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and a Sleep Habits Questionnaire were applied to students registered at the Autonomous University of Yucatan, Merida (mean age 20.2 +/- 2.6 years). The final sample was composed of 340 (53%) women and 298 (47%) men. Reliability of the BDI and ESS was assessed by Cronbach's alpha method. Taking 10 as ESS cut-off point, it was found that 31.6% of the students had a high level of sleepiness. Students with depressive symptoms had a greater number of days with somnolence during class (p students without symptoms. In comparison to subjects without depressive symptoms, students with those symptoms rated their sleep quality as poor (p sleep after going to bed (p sleep alterations in a large proportion of the studied subjects, which were more severe in those who showed depressive symptoms. Educating students for appropriate sleep hygiene and encouraging them to seek professional advice to treat sleep disturbances may be useful to prevent depression.

  14. The Influence of Sleep Disorders on Voice Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Bruna Rainho; Behlau, Mara

    2017-09-19

    To verify the influence of sleep quality on the voice. Descriptive and analytical cross-sectional study. Data were collected by an online or printed survey divided in three parts: (1) demographic data and vocal health aspects; (2) self-assessment of sleep and vocal quality, and the influence that sleep has on voice; and (3) sleep and voice self-assessment inventories-the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and the Voice Handicap Index reduced version (VHI-10). A total of 862 people were included (493 women, 369 men), with a mean age of 32 years old (maximum age of 79 and minimum age of 18 years old). The perception of the influence that sleep has on voice showed a difference (P influence a voice handicap are vocal self-assessment, ESS total score, and self-assessment of the influence that sleep has on voice. The absence of daytime sleepiness is a protective factor (odds ratio [OR] > 1) against perceived voice handicap; the presence of daytime sleepiness is a damaging factor (OR influences voice. Perceived poor sleep quality is related to perceived poor vocal quality. Individuals with a voice handicap observe a greater influence of sleep on voice than those without. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Sleep Duration and School Readiness of Chinese Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tso, Winnie; Rao, Nirmala; Jiang, Fan; Li, Albert Martin; Lee, So-Lun; Ho, Frederick Ka-Wing; Li, Sophia Ling; Ip, Patrick

    2016-02-01

    To examine the average sleep duration in Chinese preschoolers and to investigate the association between sleep duration and school readiness. This is a cross-sectional study that included 553 Chinese children (mean age = 5.46 years) from 20 preschools in 2 districts of Hong Kong. Average daily sleep duration in the last week was reported by parents and school readiness as measured by the teacher-rated Chinese Early Development Instrument (CEDI). Most Chinese preschoolers had 9-10 hours of sleep per day. Only 11% of preschoolers had the recommended 11-12 hours of sleep per day. This group was associated with more "very ready" CEDI domains. Sleep deprivation (≤7 hours per day) was associated with a lower CEDI total score, lower scores in the emotional maturity and language/cognitive domain, and prosocial behaviors subdomain but a greater score in the hyperactivity/inattention subdomain. Children with a lower family socioeconomic index, lower maternal education level, infrequent parent-child interactions, and who used electronic devices for more than 3 hours per day had shortened sleep durations. Optimal sleep duration was associated with better school readiness in preschool children, whereas sleep deprivation was associated with lower school readiness, more hyperactivity and inattention, and less prosocial behavior. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Common Sleep Problems (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Common Sleep Problems KidsHealth / For Teens / Common Sleep Problems What's ... have emotional problems, like depression. What Happens During Sleep? You don't notice it, of course, but ...

  17. Sleep disorders in the elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000064.htm Sleep disorders in older adults To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Sleep disorders in older adults involve any disrupted sleep ...

  18. Healthy People 2020: Sleep Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... improve health, productivity, wellness, quality of life, and safety on roads and in the workplace. Overview Poor sleep health ... adopt strategies that reduce risks to health and safety. Without sleep health education, individuals often prioritize other activities over sleep and ...

  19. [Sleep disorders and epilepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Ryo; Ito, Hiroshi

    2014-05-01

    It has been reported that patients with epilepsy often have insomnia and/or daytime sleepiness; the symptomatologic features differ in seizure types. Not only the administration of anti-epileptics, but also inappropriate sleep hygiene cause daytime sleepiness. In subjective assessment of sleepiness, we need to pay attention if it can correctly assess or not. The prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea in patients with epilepsy is approximately 10-30%. Sleep apnea deteriorates the seizure control because of worsen sleep condition by sleep apnea, especially in elderly patients. Some researchers report that continuous positive airway pressure was effective for seizure control. Patients with epilepsy occasionally have REM sleep behavior disorder as comorbidity. Examination using polysomnography is required for differential diagnosis.

  20. Sleep spindles during a nap correlate with post sleep memory performance for highly rewarded word-pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studte, Sara; Bridger, Emma; Mecklinger, Axel

    2017-04-01

    The consolidation of new associations is thought to depend in part on physiological processes engaged during non-REM (NREM) sleep, such as slow oscillations and sleep spindles. Moreover, NREM sleep is thought to selectively benefit associations that are adaptive for the future. In line with this, the current study investigated whether different reward cues at encoding are associated with changes in sleep physiology and memory retention. Participants' associative memory was tested after learning a list of arbitrarily paired words both before and after taking a 90-min nap. During learning, word-pairs were preceded by a cue indicating either a high or a low reward for correct memory performance at test. The motivation manipulation successfully impacted retention such that memory declined to a greater extent from pre- to post sleep for low rewarded than for high rewarded word-pairs. In line with previous studies, positive correlations between spindle density during NREM sleep and general memory performance pre- and post-sleep were found. In addition to this, however, a selective positive relationship between memory performance for highly rewarded word-pairs at posttest and spindle density during NREM sleep was also observed. These results support the view that motivationally salient memories are preferentially consolidated and that sleep spindles may be an important underlying mechanism for selective consolidation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Consistently high sports/exercise activity is associated with better sleep quality, continuity and depth in midlife women: the SWAN sleep study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Christopher E; Irish, Leah A; Krafty, Robert T; Sternfeld, Barbara; Kravitz, Howard M; Buysse, Daniel J; Bromberger, Joyce T; Dugan, Sheila A; Hall, Martica H

    2013-09-01

    To examine relationships between different physical activity (PA) domains and sleep, and the influence of consistent PA on sleep, in midlife women. Cross-sectional. Community-based. 339 women in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation Sleep Study (52.1 ± 2.1 y). None. Sleep was examined using questionnaires, diaries and in-home polysomnography (PSG). PA was assessed in three domains (Active Living, Household/Caregiving, Sports/Exercise) using the Kaiser Physical Activity Survey (KPAS) up to 4 times over 6 years preceding the sleep assessments. The association between recent PA and sleep was evaluated using KPAS scores immediately preceding the sleep assessments. The association between the historical PA pattern and sleep was examined by categorizing PA in each KPAS domain according to its pattern over the 6 years preceding sleep assessments (consistently low, inconsistent/consistently moderate, or consistently high). Greater recent Sports/Exercise activity was associated with better sleep quality (diary "restedness" [P sleep continuity (diary sleep efficiency [SE; P = 0.02]) and depth (higher NREM delta electroencephalographic [EEG] power [P = 0.04], lower NREM beta EEG power [P Sports/Exercise activity was also associated with better Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores (P = 0.02) and higher PSG-assessed SE (P sleep and Active Living or Household/Caregiving activity (either recent or historical pattern) were noted. Consistently high levels of recreational physical activity, but not lifestyle- or household-related activity, are associated with better sleep in midlife women. Increasing recreational physical activity early in midlife may protect against sleep disturbance in this population.

  2. Sleep, Memory & Brain Rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Brendon O; Buzsáki, György

    2015-01-01

    Sleep occupies roughly one-third of our lives, yet the scientific community is still not entirely clear on its purpose or function. Existing data point most strongly to its role in memory and homeostasis: that sleep helps maintain basic brain functioning via a homeostatic mechanism that loosens connections between overworked synapses, and that sleep helps consolidate and re-form important memories. In this review, we will summarize these theories, but also focus on substantial new information regarding the relation of electrical brain rhythms to sleep. In particular, while REM sleep may contribute to the homeostatic weakening of overactive synapses, a prominent and transient oscillatory rhythm called "sharp-wave ripple" seems to allow for consolidation of behaviorally relevant memories across many structures of the brain. We propose that a theory of sleep involving the division of labor between two states of sleep-REM and non-REM, the latter of which has an abundance of ripple electrical activity-might allow for a fusion of the two main sleep theories. This theory then postulates that sleep performs a combination of consolidation and homeostasis that promotes optimal knowledge retention as well as optimal waking brain function.

  3. Sleep Apnea Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contributors Sponsors Sponsorship Opportunities Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Ages & Stages Prenatal Baby Bathing & Skin Care Breastfeeding Crying & Colic Diapers & Clothing Feeding & Nutrition Preemie Sleep ...

  4. [Sleep disorders in epilepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotova, O V; Akarachkova, E S

    2014-01-01

    The review of the literature on sleep disorders in epilepsy over the last two decades is presented. Paroxysmal phenomena of epileptic origin, nonepileptic paroxysms, antiepileptic drugs, polypragmasia and comorbid depression may affect sleep in epilepsy.Shortening of sleep time may cause seizures, hallucinations and depression because sleep plays an important role in the regulation of excitatory and inhibitory processes in the brain both in healthy people and in patients with epilepsy. According to the literature data, drugs (short treatment courses of hypnotics) or nonpharmacological methods should be used for treatment insomnia inpatients with epilepsy.

  5. Sleep Disorders: Insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burman, Deepa

    2017-09-01

    Insomnia is the most common type of sleep disorder in the family medicine population. It is defined as a persistent difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep, or a report of nonrestorative sleep, accompanied by related daytime impairment. Insomnia is a significant public health problem because of its high prevalence and management challenges. There is increasing evidence of a strong association between insomnia and various medical and psychiatric comorbidities. Diagnosis of insomnia and treatment planning rely on a thorough sleep history to address contributing and precipitating factors as well as maladaptive behaviors resulting in poor sleep. Using a sleep diary or sleep log is more accurate than patient recall to determine sleep patterns. A sleep study is not routinely indicated for evaluation of insomnia. Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) is the mainstay of treatment and is a safe and effective approach. The key challenge of CBT-I is the lack of clinicians to implement it. The newer generation nonbenzodiazepines (eg, zolpidem, zaleplon) are used as first-line pharmacotherapy for chronic insomnia. Newer drugs active on targets other than the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor are now available, but clear treatment guidelines are needed. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  6. Sleep and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stroke Pregnancy Cognitive Development parenting poor sleep Work stress Time change beds School Symptoms mental fatigue Headache mortality pain Apetite Technology Telemedicine Movies Imported Diagnostics ...

  7. Bidirectional, Temporal Associations of Sleep with Positive Events, Affect, and Stressors in Daily Life Across a Week.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Nancy L; Almeida, David M; Crain, Tori L; Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Berkman, Lisa F; Buxton, Orfeu M

    2017-06-01

    Sleep is intricately tied to emotional well-being, yet little is known about the reciprocal links between sleep and psychosocial experiences in the context of daily life. The aim of this study is to evaluate daily psychosocial experiences (positive and negative affect, positive events, and stressors) as predictors of same-night sleep quality and duration, in addition to the reversed associations of nightly sleep predicting next-day experiences. Daily experiences and self-reported sleep were assessed via telephone interviews for eight consecutive evenings in two replicate samples of US employees (131 higher-income professionals and 181 lower-income hourly workers). Multilevel models evaluated within-person associations of daily experiences with sleep quality and duration. Analyses controlled for demographics, insomnia symptoms, the previous day's experiences and sleep measures, and additional day-level covariates. Daily positive experiences were associated with improved as well as disrupted subsequent sleep. Specifically, positive events at home predicted better sleep quality in both samples, whereas greater positive affect was associated with shorter sleep duration among the higher-income professionals. Negative affect and stressors were unrelated to subsequent sleep. Results for the reversed direction revealed that better sleep quality (and, to a lesser degree, longer sleep duration) predicted emotional well-being and lower odds of encountering stressors on the following day. Given the reciprocal relationships between sleep and daily experiences, efforts to improve well-being in daily life should reflect the importance of sleep.

  8. Delayed sleep timing and symptoms in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a controlled actigraphy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Karen L; May, Roberta S; Besing, Rachel C; Tankersly, Amelia P; Fargason, Rachel E

    2013-05-01

    Patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often exhibit disrupted sleep and circadian rhythms. Determination of whether sleep disturbance and/or circadian disruption are differentially associated with symptom severity is necessary to guide development of future treatment strategies. Therefore, we measured sleep and ADHD symptoms in participants aged 19-65 who met the DSM-IV-TR (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision) criteria for ADHD and insomnia without psychiatric comorbidities by monitoring actigraphy and daily sleep logs for 2 wks, as well as the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), the ADHD Rating Scale (ADHD-RS), and a clinic-designed sleep behavior questionnaire. Principal components analysis identified correlated circadian- and sleep-related variables in all participants with ADHD who completed the study (n = 24). The identified components were entered into a backwards stepwise linear regression analysis, which indicated that delayed sleep timing and increased sleepiness (ESS) (but not sleep duration or sleep efficiency) significantly predicted greater severity of both hyperactive-impulsive and inattentive ADHD symptoms (p sleep quality (PSQI scores; p sleep" compared with 57.2% and 50% of inattentive and symptom-controlled participants, respectively (p sleep timing and daytime sleepiness, suggesting that treatment interventions aimed at advancing circadian phase may improve daytime sleepiness. In addition, ADHD adults with combined hyperactive-impulsive and inattentive symptoms have decreased sleep quality as well as the delayed sleep timing of predominately inattentive subtypes.

  9. Waste management in Greater Vancouver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrusca, K. [Greater Vancouver Regional District, Burnaby, BC (Canada); Richter, R. [Montenay Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada)]|[Veolia Environmental Services, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    An outline of the Greater Vancouver Regional District (GVRD) waste-to-energy program was presented. The GVRD has an annual budget for solid waste management of $90 million. Energy recovery revenues from solid waste currently exceed $10 million. Over 1,660,00 tonnes of GVRD waste is recycled, and another 280,000 tonnes is converted from waste to energy. The GVRD waste-to-energy facility combines state-of-the-art combustion and air pollution control, and has processed over 5 million tonnes of municipal solid waste since it opened in 1988. Its central location minimizes haul distance, and it was originally sited to utilize steam through sales to a recycle paper mill. The facility has won several awards, including the Solid Waste Association of North America award for best facility in 1990. The facility focuses on continual improvement, and has installed a carbon injection system; an ammonia injection system; a flyash stabilization system; and heat capacity upgrades in addition to conducting continuous waste composition studies. Continuous air emissions monitoring is also conducted at the plant, which produces a very small percentage of the total air emissions in metropolitan Vancouver. The GVRD is now seeking options for the management of a further 500,000 tonnes per year of solid waste, and has received 23 submissions from a range of waste energy technologies which are now being evaluated. It was concluded that waste-to-energy plants can be located in densely populated metropolitan areas and provide a local disposal solution as well as a source of renewable energy. Other GVRD waste reduction policies were also reviewed. refs., tabs., figs.

  10. Impact of pediatric epilepsy on sleep patterns and behaviors in children and parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Anna M; Ryther, Robin C C; Jennesson, Melanie; Geffrey, Alexandra L; Bruno, Patricia L; Anagnos, Christina J; Shoeb, Ali H; Thibert, Ronald L; Thiele, Elizabeth A

    2012-07-01

    Disrupted sleep patterns in children with epilepsy and their parents are commonly described clinically. A number of studies have shown increased frequency of sleep disorders among pediatric epilepsy patients; however, few have characterized the association between epilepsy and parental sleep quality and household sleeping arrangements. The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of pediatric epilepsy on child sleep, parental sleep and fatigue, and parent-child sleeping arrangements, including room sharing and cosleeping. Parents of children 2 to 10 years of age with and without epilepsy completed written questionnaires assessing seizure history, child and parent sleep, and household sleeping arrangements. Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) scores were used to evaluate sleep disturbances for the child. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the Iowa Fatigue Scale (IFS) were used to evaluate parental sleep and fatigue, respectively. The Early Childhood Epilepsy Severity Scale (E-Chess) was used to assess epilepsy severity. One hundred five households with a child with epilepsy and 79 controls participated in this study. Households with a child with epilepsy reported increased rates of both parent-child room sharing (p Children with epilepsy were found to have greater sleep disturbance by total CSHQ score (p Parents of children with epilepsy had increased sleep dysfunction (p = 0.005) and were more fatigued (p parental sleep dysfunction (0.273, p = 0.005), and parental fatigue (0.324, p = 0.001). Antiepileptic drug polytherapy was predictive of greater childhood sleep disturbances. Nocturnal seizures were associated with parental sleep problems, whereas room sharing and cosleeping behavior were associated with child sleep problems. Within the epilepsy cohort, 69% of parents felt concerned about night seizures and 44% reported feeling rested rarely or never. Finally, 62% of parents described decreased sleep quality and/or quantity with

  11. Mild obstructive sleep apnoea: clinical relevance and approaches to management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNicholas, Walter T; Bonsignore, Maria R; Lévy, Patrick; Ryan, Silke

    2016-10-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea is highly prevalent in the general population worldwide, especially in its mild form. Clinical manifestations correlate poorly with disease severity measured by the apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI), which complicates diagnosis. Full polysomnography might be more appropriate to assess suspected mild cases because limited ambulatory diagnostic systems are least accurate in mild disease. Treatment options in mild obstructive sleep apnoea include continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and oral appliance therapy, in addition to positional therapy and weight reduction when appropriate. The superior efficacy of CPAP in reducing AHI is offset by greater tolerance of oral appliances, especially in mild disease. Although severe obstructive sleep apnoea is associated with adverse health consequences, including cardiometabolic comorbidities, the association with mild disease is unclear, and reports differ regarding the clinical relevance of mild obstructive sleep apnoea. Improved diagnostic techniques and evidence-based approaches to management in mild obstructive sleep apnoea require further research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of Daytime Exercise on Sleep Eeg and Subjective Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasazawa, Y.; Kawada, T.; Kiryu, Y.

    1997-08-01

    This study was designed to assess the effects of daytime physical exercise on the quality of objective and subjective sleep by examining all-night sleep EEGs. The subjects were five male students, aged 19 to 20 years, who were in the habit of performing regular daytime exercise. The sleep polygraphic parameters in this study were sleep stage time as a percentage of total sleep time (%S1, %S2, %S(3+4), %SREM, %MT), time in bed (TIB), sleep time (ST), total sleep time (TST), sleep onset latency (SOL), waking from sleep, sleep efficiency, number of awakenings, number of stage shifts, number of spindles, and percentages of α and δ waves, all of which were determined by an automatic computer analysis system. The OSA questionnaire was used to investigate subjective sleep. The five scales of the OSA used were sleepiness, sleep maintenance, worry, integrated sleep feeling, and sleep initiation. Each sleep parameter was compared in the exercise and the non-exercise groups. Two-way analysis of variance was applied using subject factor and exercise factor. The main effect of the subject was significant in all parameters and the main effect of exercise in %S(3+4), SOL and sleep efficiency, among the objective sleep parameters. The main effects of the subject, except sleepiness, were significant, as was the main effect of exercise on sleep initiation, among the subjective sleep parameters. These findings suggest that daytime exercise shortened sleep latency and prolonged slow-wave sleep, and that the subjects fell asleep more easily on exercise days. There were also significant individual differences in both the objective and subjective sleep parameters.

  13. Unihemispheric sleep and asymmetrical sleep: behavioral, neurophysiological, and functional perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mascetti GG

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Gian Gastone Mascetti Department of General Psychology, University of Padova, Padova, Italy Abstract: Sleep is a behavior characterized by a typical body posture, both eyes' closure, raised sensory threshold, distinctive electrographic signs, and a marked decrease of motor activity. In addition, sleep is a periodically necessary behavior and therefore, in the majority of animals, it involves the whole brain and body. However, certain marine mammals and species of birds show a different sleep behavior, in which one cerebral hemisphere sleeps while the other is awake. In dolphins, eared seals, and manatees, unihemispheric sleep allows them to have the benefits of sleep, breathing, thermoregulation, and vigilance. In birds, antipredation vigilance is the main function of unihemispheric sleep, but in domestic chicks, it is also associated with brain lateralization or dominance in the control of behavior. Compared to bihemispheric sleep, unihemispheric sleep would mean a reduction of the time spent sleeping and of the associated recovery processes. However, the behavior and health of aquatic mammals and birds does not seem at all impaired by the reduction of sleep. The neural mechanisms of unihemispheric sleep are unknown, but assuming that the neural structures involved in sleep in cetaceans, seals, and birds are similar to those of terrestrial mammals, it is suggested that they involve the interaction of structures of the hypothalamus, basal forebrain, and brain stem. The neural mechanisms promoting wakefulness dominate one side of the brain, while those promoting sleep predominates the other side. For cetaceans, unihemispheric sleep is the only way to sleep, while in seals and birds, unihemispheric sleep events are intermingled with bihemispheric and rapid eye movement sleep events. Electroencephalogram hemispheric asymmetries are also reported during bihemispheric sleep, at awakening, and at sleep onset, as well as being associated with a use

  14. The influence of sex and gonadal hormones on sleep disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orff HJ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Henry J Orff, Charles J Meliska, L Fernando Martinez, Barbara L Parry Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA Abstract: Sleep disorders such as insomnia, sleep-related breathing disorders, circadian rhythm disorders, and sleep-related movement disorders are a significant public health issue, affecting approximately 40 million people in the US each year. Sleep disturbances are observed in both men and women, though prevalence rates often differ between the sexes. In general, research suggests that women more frequently report subjective complaints of insomnia, yet show better sleep than men when evaluated on objective measures of sleep. Men are more likely to be diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea than women, though rates of obstructive sleep apnea increase after menopause and may be generally underdiagnosed in women. Although circadian rhythm disorders are equally prevalent in men and women, studies find that women typically have earlier bedtimes and exhibit altered temperature and melatonin rhythms relative to men. Lastly, movement disorders appear to be more prevalent in women than men, presumably due to higher rates of anemia and increased risks associated with pregnancy in women. Although gonadal hormones would be expected to play a significant role in the development and/or exacerbation of sleep disturbances, no causal link between these factors has been clearly established. In large part, the impact of hormones on sleep disturbances is significantly confounded by factors such as psychiatric, physical, and lifestyle concerns, which may play an equal or greater role in the development and/or exacerbation of sleep disturbances than do hormonal factors. Current standard of care for persons with sleep disorders includes use of psychological, pharmacologic, and/or medical device supported interventions. Hormonal-based treatments are not typically recommended given the potential for long-term adverse health

  15. Obstructive sleep apnea, inflammation, and cardiopulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arter, Jim L; Chi, David S; M, Girish; Fitzgerald, S Matthew; Guha, Bhuvana; Krishnaswamy, Guha

    2004-09-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) occurs commonly in the U.S. population and is seen in both obese as well as non-obese individuals. OSA is a disease characterized by periodic upper airway collapse during sleep, which then results in either apnea, hypopnea, or both. The disorder leads to a variety of medical complications. Neuropsychiatric complications include daytime somnolence, cognitive dysfunction, and depression. Increased incidence of motor vehicle accidents has been documented in these patients and probably reflects disordered reflex mechanisms or excessive somnolence. More importantly, vascular disorders such as hypertension, stroke, congestive cardiac failure, arrhythmias, and atherosclerosis occur frequently in these patients. The lungs may be affected by pulmonary hypertension and worsening of asthma. Recent data from several laboratories demonstrate that obstructive sleep apnea is characterized by an inflammatory response. Cytokines are elaborated during the hypoxemic episodes leading to inflammatory responses as marked clinically by elevated C-reactive protein (CRP). As elevated CRP levels are considered markers of the acute phase response and characterize progression of vascular injury in coronary artery disease, it is likely that obstructive sleep apnea could lead to worsening of vasculopathy. Moreover, as inflammatory mechanisms regulate bronchial asthma, it is also likely that cytokines and superoxide radicals generated during hypoxemic episodes could exacerbate reactive airway disease. Patients with Cough, Obstructive sleep apnea, Rhinosinusitis, and Esophageal reflux clustered together can be categorized by the acronym, "CORE", syndrome. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the inflammatory responses that occur in patients with obstructive sleep apnea and relate them to the occurrence of cardiopulmonary disease.

  16. Sleep disorders and work performance: findings from the 2008 National Sleep Foundation Sleep in America poll.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Leslie M; Arnedt, J Todd; Rosekind, Mark R; Belenky, Gregory; Balkin, Thomas J; Drake, Christopher

    2011-09-01

    Chronic sleep deprivation is common among workers, and has been associated with negative work outcomes, including absenteeism and occupational accidents. The objective of the present study is to characterize reciprocal relationships between sleep and work. Specifically, we examined how sleep impacts work performance and how work affects sleep in individuals not at-risk for a sleep disorder; assessed work performance outcomes for individuals at-risk for sleep disorders, including insomnia, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and restless legs syndrome (RLS); and characterized work performance impairments in shift workers (SW) at-risk for shift work sleep disorders relative to SW and day workers. One-thousand Americans who work 30 h per week or more were asked questions about employment, work performance and sleep in the National Sleep Foundation's 2008 Sleep in America telephone poll. Long work hours were associated with shorter sleep times, and shorter sleep times were associated with more work impairments. Thirty-seven percent of respondents were classified as at-risk for any sleep disorder. These individuals had more negative work outcomes as compared with those not at-risk for a sleep disorder. Presenteeism was a significant problem for individuals with insomnia symptoms, OSA and RLS as compared with respondents not at-risk. These results suggest that long work hours may contribute to chronic sleep loss, which may in turn result in work impairment. Risk for sleep disorders substantially increases the likelihood of negative work outcomes, including occupational accidents, absenteeism and presenteeism. © 2010 European Sleep Research Society.

  17. The Biology of REM Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peever, John; Fuller, Patrick M.

    2018-01-01

    Considerable advances in our understanding of the mechanisms and functions of rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep have occurred over the past decade. Much of this progress can be attributed to the development of new neuroscience tools that have enabled high-precision interrogation of brain circuitry linked with REM sleep control, in turn revealing how REM sleep mechanisms themselves impact processes such as sensorimotor function. This review is intended to update the general scientific community about the recent mechanistic, functional and conceptual developments in our current understanding of REM sleep biology and pathobiology. Specifically, this review outlines the historical origins of the discovery of REM sleep, the diversity of REM sleep expression across and within species, the potential functions of REM sleep (e.g., memory consolidation), the neural circuits that control REM sleep, and how dysfunction of REM sleep mechanisms underlie debilitating sleep disorders such as REM sleep behaviour disorder and narcolepsy. PMID:26766231

  18. Sleep Disturbance During Smoking Cessation: Withdrawal or Side Effect of Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashare, Rebecca L; Lerman, Caryn; Tyndale, Rachel F; Hawk, Larry W; George, Tony P; Cinciripini, Paul; Schnoll, Robert A

    2017-06-01

    The nicotine-metabolite ratio (NMR) predicts treatment response and is related to treatment side effect severity. Sleep disturbance may be one important side effect, but understanding sleep disturbance effects on smoking cessation is complicated by the fact that nicotine withdrawal also produces sleep disturbance. To evaluate the effects of withdrawal and treatment side effects on sleep disturbance. This is a secondary analysis of data from a clinical trial (Lerman et al., 2015) of 1,136 smokers randomised to placebo ( n = 363), transdermal nicotine (TN; n = 381), or varenicline ( n = 392) and stratified based on NMR (559 slow metabolisers; 577 normal metabolisers). Sleep disturbance was assessed at baseline and at 1-week following the target quit date (TQD). We also examined whether sleep disturbance predicted 7-day point-prevalence abstinence at end-of-treatment (EOT). The varenicline and TN groups exhibited greater increases in sleep disturbance (vs. placebo; treatment × time interaction; p = 0.005), particularly among those who quit smoking at 1-week post-TQD. There was a main effect of NMR ( p = 0.04), but no interactions with treatment. TN and varenicline attenuated withdrawal symptoms unrelated to sleep (vs. placebo). Greater baseline sleep disturbance predicted relapse at EOT ( p = 0.004). Existing treatments may not mitigate withdrawal-related sleep disturbance and adjunctive treatments that target sleep disturbance may improve abstinence rates.

  19. Work-Family Conflict and Employee Sleep: Evidence from IT Workers in the Work, Family and Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxton, Orfeu M; Lee, Soomi; Beverly, Chloe; Berkman, Lisa F; Moen, Phyllis; Kelly, Erin L; Hammer, Leslie B; Almeida, David M

    2016-10-01

    Work-family conflict is a threat to healthy sleep behaviors among employees. This study aimed to examine how Work-to-Family Conflict (demands from work that interfere with one's family/personal life; WTFC) and Family-to-Work Conflict (demands from family/personal life that interfere with work; FTWC) are associated with several dimensions of sleep among information technology workers. Employees at a U.S. IT firm (n = 799) provided self-reports of sleep sufficiency (feeling rested upon waking), sleep quality, and sleep maintenance insomnia symptoms (waking up in the middle of the night or early morning) in the last month. They also provided a week of actigraphy for nighttime sleep duration, napping, sleep timing, and a novel sleep inconsistency measure. Analyses adjusted for work conditions (job demands, decision authority, schedule control, and family-supportive supervisor behavior), and household and sociodemographic characteristics. Employees who experienced higher WTFC reported less sleep sufficiency, poorer sleep quality, and more insomnia symptoms. Higher WTFC also predicted shorter nighttime sleep duration, greater likelihood of napping, and longer nap duration. Furthermore, higher WTFC was linked to greater inconsistency of nighttime sleep duration and sleep clock times, whereas higher FTWC was associated with more rigidity of sleep timing mostly driven by wake time. Results highlight the unique associations of WTFC/FTWC with employee sleep independent of other work conditions and household and sociodemographic characteristics. Our novel methodological approach demonstrates differential associations of WTFC and FTWC with inconsistency of sleep timing. Given the strong associations between WTFC and poor sleep, future research should focus on reducing WTFC. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  20. Behavioral and neural concordance in parent-child dyadic sleep patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tae-Ho; Miernicki, Michelle E; Telzer, Eva H

    2017-08-01

    Sleep habits developed in adolescence shape long-term trajectories of psychological, educational, and physiological well-being. Adolescents' sleep behaviors are shaped by their parents' sleep at both the behavioral and biological levels. In the current study, we sought to examine how neural concordance in resting-state functional connectivity between parent-child dyads is associated with dyadic concordance in sleep duration and adolescents' sleep quality. To this end, we scanned both parents and their child (N=28 parent-child dyads; parent M age =42.8years; adolescent M age =14.9years; 14.3% father; 46.4% female adolescent) as they each underwent a resting-state scan. Using daily diaries, we also assessed dyadic concordance in sleep duration across two weeks. Our results show that greater daily concordance in sleep behavior is associated with greater neural concordance in default-mode network connectivity between parents and children. Moreover, greater neural and behavioral concordances in sleep is associated with more optimal sleep quality in adolescents. The current findings expand our understanding of dyadic concordance by providing a neurobiological mechanism by which parents and children share daily sleep behaviors. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Oscillatory brain activity in spontaneous and induced sleep stages in flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Melvyn H W; Grabowska, Martyna J; Rohrscheib, Chelsie; Jeans, Rhiannon; Troup, Michael; Paulk, Angelique C; van Alphen, Bart; Shaw, Paul J; van Swinderen, Bruno

    2017-11-28

    Sleep is a dynamic process comprising multiple stages, each associated with distinct electrophysiological properties and potentially serving different functions. While these phenomena are well described in vertebrates, it is unclear if invertebrates have distinct sleep stages. We perform local field potential (LFP) recordings on flies spontaneously sleeping, and compare their brain activity to flies induced to sleep using either genetic activation of sleep-promoting circuitry or the GABA A agonist Gaboxadol. We find a transitional sleep stage associated with a 7-10 Hz oscillation in the central brain during spontaneous sleep. Oscillatory activity is also evident when we acutely activate sleep-promoting neurons in the dorsal fan-shaped body (dFB) of Drosophila. In contrast, sleep following Gaboxadol exposure is characterized by low-amplitude LFPs, during which dFB-induced effects are suppressed. Sleep in flies thus appears to involve at least two distinct stages: increased oscillatory activity, particularly during sleep induction, followed by desynchronized or decreased brain activity.

  2. Sleep Disorders in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Etiology, Impact, and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budhiraja, Rohit; Siddiqi, Tauseef A.; Quan, Stuart F.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality and may frequently be complicated by sleep disorders. Insomnia and obstructive sleep apnea are commonly encountered in patients with COPD. Nocturnal hypoxemia is also prevalent in COPD may occur despite adequate awake oxygenation and can be especially severe in rapid eye movement sleep. Additionally, several factors—some of them unique to COPD—can contribute to sleep-related hypoventilation. Recognition of hypoventilation can be vital as supplemental oxygen therapy itself can acutely worsen hypoventilation and lead to disastrous consequences. Finally, accruing data establish an association between restless leg syndrome and COPD— an association that may be driven by hypoxemia and/or hypercapnia. Comorbid sleep disorders portend worse sleep quality, diminished quality of life, and multifarious other adverse consequences. The awareness and knowledge regarding sleep comorbidities in COPD has continued to evolve over past many years. There are still several lacunae, however, in our understanding of the etiologies, impact, and therapies of sleep disorders, specifically in patients with COPD. This review summarizes the latest concepts in prevalence, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of diverse sleep disorders in COPD. Citation: Budhiraja R, Siddiqi TA, Quan SF. Sleep disorders in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: etiology, impact, and management. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(3):259–270. PMID:25700872

  3. Sleep Loss as a Factor to Induce Cellular and Molecular Inflammatory Variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Hurtado-Alvarado

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A reduction in the amount of time spent sleeping occurs chronically in modern society. Clinical and experimental studies in humans and animal models have shown that immune function is impaired when sleep loss is experienced. Sleep loss exerts a strong regulatory influence on peripheral levels of inflammatory mediators of the immune response. An increasing number of research projects support the existence of reciprocal regulation between sleep and low-intensity inflammatory response. Recent studies show that sleep deficient humans and rodents exhibit a proinflammatory component; therefore, sleep loss is considered as a risk factor for developing cardiovascular, metabolic, and neurodegenerative diseases (e.g., diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, and multiple sclerosis. Circulating levels of proinflammatory mediators depend on the intensity and duration of the method employed to induce sleep loss. Recognizing the fact that the concentration of proinflammatory mediators is different between acute and chronic sleep-loss may expand the understanding of the relationship between sleep and the immune response. The aim of this review is to integrate data from recent published reports (2002–2013 on the effects of sleep loss on the immune response. This review may allow readers to have an integrated view of the mechanisms involved in central and peripheral deficits induced by sleep loss.

  4. Ethanol-nicotine interactions in long-sleep and short-sleep mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fiebre, C M; Marks, M J; Collins, A C

    1990-01-01

    The possibility that common genetic factors regulate initial sensitivities to ethanol and nicotine as well as the development of cross-tolerance between these agents was explored using the long-sleep (LS) and short-sleep (SS) mice. The LS mice proved to be more sensitive to an acute challenge with nicotine than were the SS mice. Segregation analysis (F1, F2, backcross) indicated that ethanol sensitivity and nicotine sensitivity segregate together. Acute pretreatment with nicotine did not significantly affect sensitivity to ethanol, but ethanol pretreatment altered nicotine responsiveness. The LS mice develop more tolerance to nicotine and ethanol than do the SS and they also develop more cross-tolerance. These genetically determined differences in initial sensitivities, and tolerance and cross-tolerance development are not readily explained by differences in brain nicotinic receptor numbers.

  5. Ethanol-nicotine interactions in long-sleep and short-sleep mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Fiebre, C.M.; Marks, M.J.; Collins, A.C. (Univ. of Colorado, Boulder (USA))

    1990-05-01

    The possibility that common genetic factors regulate initial sensitivities to ethanol and nicotine as well as the development of cross-tolerance between these agents was explored using the long-sleep (LS) and short-sleep (SS) mice. The LS mice proved to be more sensitive to an acute challenge with nicotine than were the SS mice. Segregation analysis (F1, F2, backcross) indicated that ethanol sensitivity and nicotine sensitivity segregate together. Acute pretreatment with nicotine did not significantly affect sensitivity to ethanol, but ethanol pretreatment altered nicotine responsiveness. The LS mice develop more tolerance to nicotine and ethanol than do the SS and they also develop more cross-tolerance. These genetically determined differences in initial sensitivities, and tolerance and cross-tolerance development are not readily explained by differences in brain nicotinic receptor numbers.

  6. Predicting risk in space: Genetic markers for differential vulnerability to sleep restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Namni; Dinges, David F.

    2012-08-01

    Several laboratories have found large, highly reliable individual differences in the magnitude of cognitive performance, fatigue and sleepiness, and sleep homeostatic vulnerability to acute total sleep deprivation and to chronic sleep restriction in healthy adults. Such individual differences in neurobehavioral performance are also observed in space flight as a result of sleep loss. The reasons for these stable phenotypic differential vulnerabilities are unknown: such differences are not yet accounted for by demographic factors, IQ or sleep need, and moreover, psychometric scales do not predict those individuals cognitively vulnerable to sleep loss. The stable, trait-like (phenotypic) inter-individual differences observed in response to sleep loss—with intraclass correlation coefficients accounting for 58-92% of the variance in neurobehavioral measures—point to an underlying genetic component. To this end, we utilized multi-day highly controlled laboratory studies to investigate the role of various common candidate gene variants—each independently—in relation to cumulative neurobehavioral and sleep homeostatic responses to sleep restriction. These data suggest that common genetic variations (polymorphisms) involved in sleep-wake, circadian, and cognitive regulation may serve as markers for prediction of inter-individual differences in sleep homeostatic and neurobehavioral vulnerability to sleep restriction in healthy adults. Identification of genetic predictors of differential vulnerability to sleep restriction—as determined from candidate gene studies—will help identify astronauts most in need of fatigue countermeasures in space flight and inform medical standards for obtaining adequate sleep in space. This review summarizes individual differences in neurobehavioral vulnerability to sleep deprivation and ongoing genetic efforts to identify markers of such differences.

  7. The role of sleep in recovery following ischemic stroke: A review of human and animal data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone B. Duss

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite advancements in understanding the pathophysiology of stroke and the state of the art in acute management of afflicted patients as well as in subsequent neurorehabilitation training, stroke remains the most common neurological cause of long-term disability in adulthood. To enhance stroke patients’ independence and well-being it is necessary, therefore, to consider and develop new therapeutic strategies and approaches. We postulate that sleep might play a pivotal role in neurorehabilitation following stroke. Over the last two decades compelling evidence for a major function of sleep in neuroplasticity and neural network reorganization underlying learning and memory has evolved. Training and learning of new motor skills and knowledge can modulate the characteristics of subsequent sleep, which additionally can improve memory performance. While healthy sleep appears to support neuroplasticity resulting in improved learning and memory, disturbed sleep following stroke in animals and humans can impair stroke outcome. In addition, sleep disorders such as sleep disordered breathing, insomnia, and restless legs syndrome are frequent in stroke patients and associated with worse recovery outcomes. Studies investigating the evolution of post-stroke sleep changes suggest that these changes might also reflect neural network reorganization underlying functional recovery. Experimental and clinical studies provide evidence that pharmacological sleep promotion in rodents and treatment of sleep disorders in humans improves functional outcome following stroke. Taken together, there is accumulating evidence that sleep represents a “plasticity state” in the process of recovery following ischemic stroke. However, to test the key role of sleep and sleep disorders for stroke recovery and to better understand the underlying molecular mechanisms, experimental research and large-scale prospective studies in humans are necessary. The effects of hospital

  8. Unihemispheric sleep and asymmetrical sleep: behavioral, neurophysiological, and functional perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascetti, Gian Gastone

    2016-01-01

    Sleep is a behavior characterized by a typical body posture, both eyes' closure, raised sensory threshold, distinctive electrographic signs, and a marked decrease of motor activity. In addition, sleep is a periodically necessary behavior and therefore, in the majority of animals, it involves the whole brain and body. However, certain marine mammals and species of birds show a different sleep behavior, in which one cerebral hemisphere sleeps while the other is awake. In dolphins, eared seals, and manatees, unihemispheric sleep allows them to have the benefits of sleep, breathing, thermoregulation, and vigilance. In birds, antipredation vigilance is the main function of unihemispheric sleep, but in domestic chicks, it is also associated with brain lateralization or dominance in the control of behavior. Compared to bihemispheric sleep, unihemispheric sleep would mean a reduction of the time spent sleeping and of the associated recovery processes. However, the behavior and health of aquatic mammals and birds does not seem at all impaired by the reduction of sleep. The neural mechanisms of unihemispheric sleep are unknown, but assuming that the neural structures involved in sleep in cetaceans, seals, and birds are similar to those of terrestrial mammals, it is suggested that they involve the interaction of structures of the hypothalamus, basal forebrain, and brain stem. The neural mechanisms promoting wakefulness dominate one side of the brain, while those promoting sleep predominates the other side. For cetaceans, unihemispheric sleep is the only way to sleep, while in seals and birds, unihemispheric sleep events are intermingled with bihemispheric and rapid eye movement sleep events. Electroencephalogram hemispheric asymmetries are also reported during bihemispheric sleep, at awakening, and at sleep onset, as well as being associated with a use-dependent process (local sleep).

  9. Schizophrenia, Sleep and Acupuncture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, M.P.C.; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den

    2008-01-01

    This book is an introduction for professionals in Western medicine and for acupuncturists on the use of acupuncture in treatment of schizophrenia and sleep disorders. Acupuncture has long been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) in mental health and sleep disorders. This book aims to build a

  10. Sleep regulation and insomnia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Someren, E.J.W.; Cluydts, R.; Pfaff, D.W.

    2013-01-01

    For years, the subject of sleep failed to generate much interest from either the field of medicine or that of psychology - a curious fact, as a 60-year-old has spent some 20 years out of those 60 sleeping. In fact, up until the age of approximately three years, a child spends more time asleep than

  11. Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... can also invite bacteria that lead to gum disease. Click here to find out more. Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Download Download the ebook for further information Obstructive sleep ... high blood pressure, heart disease and decreased libido. In addition, OSA causes daytime ...

  12. Sleep and Your Preschooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... minutes beforehand. Keep consistent playtimes and mealtimes. Avoid stimulants, such as caffeine, near bedtime. Make the bedroom quiet, cozy, and perfect for sleeping. Use the bed only for sleeping — not for playing or watching TV. Limit food and drink before bedtime. Allow your child to ...

  13. Sleep and metabolic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morselli, Lisa L; Guyon, Aurore; Spiegel, Karine

    2012-01-01

    Evidence for the role of sleep on metabolic and endocrine function has been reported more than four decades ago. In the past 30 years, the prevalence of obesity and diabetes has greatly increased in industrialized countries, and self-imposed sleep curtailment, now very common, is starting to be recognized as a contributing factor, alongside with increased caloric intake and decreased physical activity. Furthermore, obstructive sleep apnea, a chronic condition characterized by recurrent upper airway obstruction leading to intermittent hypoxemia and sleep fragmentation, has also become highly prevalent as a consequence of the epidemic of obesity and has been shown to contribute, in a vicious circle, to the metabolic disturbances observed in obese patients. In this article, we summarize the current data supporting the role of sleep in the regulation of glucose homeostasis and the hormones involved in the regulation of appetite. We also review the results of the epidemiologic and laboratory studies that investigated the impact of sleep duration and quality on the risk of developing diabetes and obesity, as well as the mechanisms underlying this increased risk. Finally, we discuss how obstructive sleep apnea affects glucose metabolism and the beneficial impact of its treatment, the continuous positive airway pressure. In conclusion, the data available in the literature highlight the importance of getting enough good sleep for metabolic health.

  14. Sleep and Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenzhao Ding

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Rising global prevalence and incidence of obesity lead to increased cardiovascular-renal complications and cancers. Epidemiological studies reported a worldwide trend towards suboptimal sleep duration and poor sleep quality in parallel with this obesity epidemic. From rodents and human models, it is highly plausible that abnormalities in sleep, both quantity and quality, impact negatively on energy metabolism. While excess dietary intake and physical inactivity are the known drivers of the obesity epidemic, promotion of healthy sleep habits has emerged as a new target to combat obesity. In this light, present review focuses on the existing literature examining the relationship between sleep physiology and energy homeostasis. Notably, sleep dysregulation perturbs the metabolic milieu via alterations in hormones such as leptin and ghrelin, eating behavior, neuroendocrine and autonomic nervous systems. In addition, shift work and trans-meridian air travel may exert a negative influence on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and trigger circadian misalignment, leading to impaired glucose tolerance and increased fat accumulation. Amassing evidence has also suggested that uncoupling of the circadian clock can increase the risk of adverse metabolic health. Given the importance of sleep in maintaining energy homeostasis and that it is potentially modifiable, promoting good sleep hygiene may create new avenues for obesity prevention and treatment.

  15. Sleep Terrors in Twins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to clarify the genetic and environmental causes of sleep terrors in childhood, reasearchers in Canada followed 390 pairs of monozygotic and dizygotic twins by assessing the frequency of sleep terrors at 18 and 30 months of age using a questionnaire administered to the biological mothers.

  16. Sleep Terrors in Twins

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-01-01

    In an attempt to clarify the genetic and environmental causes of sleep terrors in childhood, reasearchers in Canada followed 390 pairs of monozygotic and dizygotic twins by assessing the frequency of sleep terrors at 18 and 30 months of age using a questionnaire administered to the biological mothers.

  17. Obstructive sleep apnea therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekema, A.; Stegenga, B.; Wijkstra, P. J.; van der Hoeven, J. H.; Meinesz, A. F.; de Bont, L. G. M.

    In clinical practice, oral appliances are used primarily for obstructive sleep apnea patients who do not respond to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy. We hypothesized that an oral appliance is not inferior to CPAP in treating obstructive sleep apnea effectively. We randomly assigned

  18. Stress, arousal, and sleep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanford, Larry D.; Suchecki, Deborah; Meerlo, Peter; Meerlo, Peter; Benca, Ruth M.; Abel, Ted

    2015-01-01

    Stress is considered to be an important cause of disrupted sleep and insomnia. However, controlled and experimental studies in rodents indicate that effects of stress on sleep-wake regulation are complex and may strongly depend on the nature of the stressor. While most stressors are associated with

  19. Adenosine and sleep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanik, G.M. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Behavioral and biochemical approaches have been used to determine the relative contribution of endogenous adenosine and adenosine receptors to the sleep-wake cycle in the rat. Adenosine concentrations in specific areas of the rat brain were not affected by 24 hours of total sleep deprivation, or by 24 or 48 hours of REM sleep deprivation. In order to assess the effect of REM sleep deprivation on adenosine A 1 receptors, 3 H-L-PIA binding was measured. The Bmax values for 3 H-L-PIA binding to membrane preparations of the cortices and corpus striata from 48 hour REM sleep-deprived animals were increased 14.8% and 23%, respectively. These increases were not maintained following the cessation of sleep deprivation and recovered within 2 hours. The results of a 96 hour REM deprivation experiment were similar to those of the 48 hour REM sleep deprivation experiment. However, these increases were not evident in similar structures taken from stress control animals, and conclusively demonstrated that the changes in 3 H-L-PIA binding resulted from REM sleep deprivation and not from stress

  20. Sleep, Exercise, and Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrelson, Orvis A.; And Others

    The first part of this booklet concerns why sleep and exercise are necessary. It includes a discussion of what occurs during sleep and what dreams are. It also deals with the benefits of exercise, fatigue, posture, and the correlation between exercise and personality. The second part concerns nutrition and the importance of food. This part covers…

  1. Sleep deprivation and depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsenga, Simon

    1992-01-01

    The association between depression and sleep disturbances is perhaps as old as makind. In view of the longstanding experience with this association it is amazing that only some 20 years ago, a few depressed patients attracted attention to the fact that Total Sleep Deprivation (TSD) had

  2. Interaction of sleep quality and sleep duration on glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yunzhao; Meng, Lingling; Li, Daiqing; Yang, Min; Zhu, Yanjuan; Li, Chenguang; Jiang, Zhenhuan; Yu, Ping; Li, Zhu; Song, Hongna; Ni, Changlin

    2014-01-01

    Copious evidence from epidemiological and laboratory studies has revealed that sleep status is associated with glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, thus increasing the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to reveal the interaction of sleep quality and sleep quantity on glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. From May 2013 to May 2014, a total of 551 type 2 diabetes patients in Tianjin Metabolic Diseases Hospital were enrolled. Blood samples were taken to measure glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and all the patients completed the Chinese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire to evaluate their sleep status. "Good sleep quality" was defined as PQSI quality" was defined as PQSI 6-8, and "poor sleep quality" was defined as PQSI >8. Poor glycemic control was defined as HbA1c ≥7%. Sleep quantity was categorized as 8 hours/night. Short sleep time was defined as sleep duration quality in poor glycemic control group was much greater than that in the average control group (χ(2) = 9.79, P = 0.007). After adjusted by gender, age, body mass index, and disease duration, the adjusted PSQI score's OR was 1.048 (95% CI 1.007-1.092, P = 0.023) for HbA1c level. The sleep duration's OR was 0.464 (95% CI 0.236-0.912, P = 0.026) for HbA1c level. One-way analysis of variance showed that the poor sleep quality group had the highest homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (P quality and quantity, should be regarded as a plausible risk factor for glycemic control in type 2 diabetes. Poor sleep might bring much more serious insulin resistance and could be the reason for bad glycemic control. A good night's sleep should be seen as a critical health component tool in the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes. It is important for clinicians to target the root causes of short sleep duration and/or poor sleep quality.

  3. Prevalence of sleep breathing complaints reported by treatment-seeking chronic insomnia disorder patients on presentation to a sleep medical center: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakow, Barry; Ulibarri, Victor A

    2013-03-01

    Few studies have examined the co-morbidity between insomnia and sleep-disordered breathing in the clinical setting. This study evaluated treatment-seeking insomnia patients and their self-report of sleep breathing complaints. A retrospective chart review was conducted on 1,035 consecutive treatment-seeking, chronic insomnia patients who reported insomnia as their primary problem upon seeking care at a private, community-based sleep medical center. Measurements included the insomnia severity index, standard subjective sleep measures as well as rankings, attributions, and self-reports about sleep breathing disorders, problems, and symptoms. A total of 1,035 adult, treatment-seeking insomnia patients indicated insomnia interfered with daytime functioning, and their average insomnia severity was in the range of a clinically relevant problem: total sleep time (5.50 h, SD = 1.60), sleep efficiency (71.05 %, SD = 18.26), wake time after sleep onset (120.70 min, SD = 92.56), and an insomnia severity index (18.81, SD = 5.09). Of these 1,035 insomnia patients, 42 % also ranked a sleep breathing disorder among their list of reasons for seeking treatment, another 13 % revealed a concern about a sleep breathing problem, and another 26 % reported awareness of sleep breathing symptoms. Only 19 % of this clinical insomnia sample reported no awareness or concerns about sleep breathing disorders, problems, or symptoms. A greater proportion of men than women reported significantly more sleep breathing disorders, problems, or symptoms. Sleep breathing complaints were extremely common among a large sample of treatment-seeking, self-identified, adult chronic insomnia patients. Prospective prevalence research is needed to corroborate or revise these findings, and polysomnography should be considered in appropriate cohorts to determine the clinical relevance of treatment-seeking chronic insomnia patients' sleep breathing complaints.

  4. A before and after comparison of the effects of forest walking on the sleep of a community-based sample of people with sleep complaints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyaura Tomiyasu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sleep disturbance is a major health issue in Japan. This before-after study aimed to evaluate the immediate effects of forest walking in a community-based population with sleep complaints. Methods Participants were 71 healthy volunteers (43 men and 28 women. Two-hour forest-walking sessions were conducted on 8 different weekend days from September through December 2005. Sleep conditions were compared between the nights before and after walking in a forest by self-administered questionnaire and actigraphy data. Results Two hours of forest walking improved sleep characteristics; impacting actual sleep time, immobile minutes, self-rated depth of sleep, and sleep quality. Mean actual sleep time estimated by actigraphy on the night after forest walking was 419.8 ± 128.7 (S.D. minutes whereas that the night before was 365.9 ± 89.4 minutes (n = 42. Forest walking in the afternoon improved actual sleep time and immobile minutes compared with forest walking in the forenoon. Mean actual sleep times did not increase after forenoon walks (n = 26 (the night before and after forenoon walks, 380.0 ± 99.6 and 385.6 ± 101.7 minutes, respectively, whereas afternoon walks (n = 16 increased mean actual sleep times from 342.9 ± 66.2 to 475.4 ± 150.5 minutes. The trend of mean immobile minutes was similar to the abovementioned trend of mean actual sleep times. Conclusions Forest walking improved nocturnal sleep conditions for individuals with sleep complaints, possibly as a result of exercise and emotional improvement. Furthermore, extension of sleep duration was greater after an afternoon walk compared to a forenoon walk. Further study of a forest-walking program in a randomized controlled trial is warranted to clarify its effect on people with insomnia.

  5. Study of Sleep Habits and Sleep Problems Among Medical Students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Good quality sleep and adequate amount of sleep are important in order to have better cognitive performance and avoid health problems and psychiatric disorders. Aim: The aim of this study was to describe sleep habits and sleep problems in a population of undergraduates, interns and postgraduate students ...

  6. [The NHG guideline 'Sleep problems and sleeping pills'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damen-van Beek, Z.; Lucassen, P.L.; Gorgels, W.J.M.J.; Smelt, A.F.; Knuistingh Neven, A.; Bouma, M.

    2015-01-01

    - The Dutch College of General Practitioners' (NHG) guideline 'Sleep problems and sleeping pills' provides recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of the most prevalent sleep problems and for the management of chronic users of sleeping pills.- The preferred approach for sleeplessness is not

  7. Shining evolutionary light on human sleep and sleep disorders.

    OpenAIRE

    Krystal, Andrew; Nunn, CL; Samson, DR; Krystal, AD

    2016-01-01

    Sleep is essential to cognitive function and health in humans, yet the ultimate reasons for sleep-i.e. 'why' sleep evolved-remain mysterious. We integrate findings from human sleep studies, the ethnographic record, and the ecology and evolution of mammalia

  8. Sleep debt and depression in female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regestein, Quentin; Natarajan, Viji; Pavlova, Milena; Kawasaki, Susan; Gleason, Ray; Koff, Elissa

    2010-03-30

    The objective of the study was to evaluate relationships between sleep habits and depressive symptoms. Pilot study data were collected about sleep schedules, related factors and depression in female college students to find whether their sleep schedules correlate with affective symptoms. In the subsequent main study, similar information was collected under more controlled conditions. Depression was measured using the CES-D (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale) and HAM-D-3 (modified Hamilton Depression Rating Scale). Response rates were 31.3% of eligible students for the pilot survey and 71.6% for the main study. Both studies showed that about 20% of students reported we