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Sample records for great western malting

  1. Great Western Malting Company geothermal project, Pocatello, Idaho. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, N.T.; McGeen, M.A.; Corlett, D.F.; Urmston, R.

    1981-12-23

    The Great Western Malting Company recently constructed a barley malting facility in Pocatello, Idaho, designed to produce 6.0 million bushels per year of brewing malt. This facility uses natural gas to supply the energy for germination and kilning processes. The escalating cost of natural gas has prompted the company to look at alternate and more economical sources of energy. Trans Energy Systems has investigated the viabiity of using geothermal energy at the new barley processing plant. Preliminary investigations show that a geothermal resource probably exists, and payback on the installation of a system to utilize the resource will occur in under 2 years. The Great Western Malting plant site has geological characteristics which are similar to areas where productive geothermal wells have been established. Geological investigations indicate that resource water temperatures will be in the 150 to 200/sup 0/F range. Geothermal energy of this quality will supply 30 to 98% of the heating requirements currently supplied by natural gas for this malting plant. Trans Energy Systems has analyzed several systems of utilizing the geothermal resource at the Great Western barley malting facility. These systems included: direct use of geothermal water; geothermal energy heating process water through an intermediary heat exchanger; coal or gas boosted geothermal systems; and heat pump boosted geothermal system. The analysis examined the steps that are required to process the grain.

  2. Unemployment of non-western immigrants in the Great Recession

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cervený, J.; van Ours, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines whether unemployment of non-western immigrant workers in the Netherlands was disproportionally affected by the Great Recession. We analyze unemployment data covering the period November 2007–February 2013 finding that the Great Recession affected unemployment rates of non-western

  3. Unemployment of Non-western Immigrants in the Great Recession

    OpenAIRE

    Cerveny, J.; Ours, J.C. van

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: This paper examines whether unemployment of non-western immigrant workers in the Netherlands was disproportionally affected by the Great Recession. We analyze unemployment data covering the period November 2007 to February 2013 finding that the Great Recession affected unemployment rates of non-western immigrant workers in absolute terms more than unemployment rates of native workers. However, in relative terms there is not much of a difference. We also find that the sensitivity of ...

  4. Unemployment of Non-western Immigrants in the Great Recession

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cervený, J.; van Ours, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: This paper examines whether unemployment of non-western immigrant workers in the Netherlands was disproportionally affected by the Great Recession. We analyze unemployment data covering the period November 2007 to February 2013 finding that the Great Recession affected unemployment rates

  5. 21 CFR 184.1445 - Malt syrup (malt extract).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Malt syrup (malt extract). 184.1445 Section 184... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1445 Malt syrup (malt extract). (a) Malt is the product of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) germinated under controlled conditions. Malt syrup and malt extract...

  6. Multi-nuclide AMS performances at MALT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Nakano, Chuichiro; Tsuchiya, Yoko (Sunohara); Kato, Kazuhiro; Maejima, Yuji; Miyairi, Yosuke; Wakasa, Sachi; Aze, Takahiro

    2007-06-01

    MALT (Micro Analysis Laboratory, Tandem accelerator, The University of Tokyo) is a service and research facility for elemental and isotopic micro-analysis using a tandem accelerator, which was constructed in 1991-1993 and has been in operation since 1994. Since then, AMS, NRA and PIXE systems have been developed and highly refined. The accelerator of MALT is a 5UD Pelletron™ tandem van de Graaf (produced by National Electrostatics Corporation, USA) and maximum 5 MV voltage is available. MALT is equipped with two MC-SNICS ion sources (one of them dedicated for 14C-AMS), a sequential injection system and multi-Faraday cup systems. These equipment are all indispensable for a high precision and high efficiency AMS system. At MALT, high quality AMS of 7Be, 10Be, 14C, 26Al has been available. Recently, a 36Cl-AMS system using a gas-filled magnet was also greatly refined, and a new 129I-AMS system was developed and shows good performance. Now MALT is the only facility with multi-nuclide AMS in the Asian area. Over 40 projects are running at MALT every year. The total accelerator operation time in the 2004 season was 6363 h. In November 2004, the total operation time of the pelletron chain system since the construction of MALT went over 40,000 h without replacement.

  7. Protease activity of the API2-MALT1 fusion oncoprotein in MALT lymphoma development and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosebeck, Shaun; Lucas, Peter C; McAllister-Lucas, Linda M

    2011-05-01

    Gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is a prototypical cancer that occurs in the setting of chronic inflammation and an important model for understanding how deregulated NF-κB transcriptional activity contributes to malignancy. Most gastric MALT lymphomas require ongoing antigenic stimulation for continued tumor growth, and Stage I disease is usually cured by eradicating the causative microorganism, Helicobacter pylori, with antibiotics. However, in a subset of MALT lymphomas, chromosomal translocations are acquired that render the lymphoma antigen-independent. The recurrent translocation t(11;18)(q21;q21) is associated with failure to respond to antibiotic therapy and increased rate of dissemination. This translocation creates the API2-MALT1 fusion oncoprotein, which comprises the amino terminus of inhibitor of apoptosis 2 (API2 or cIAP2) fused to the carboxy terminus of MALT1. A common characteristic of chromosomal translocations in MALT lymphoma, including t(11;18), is that genes involved in the regulation of the NF-κB transcription factor are targeted by the translocations, and these genetic perturbations thereby result in deregulated, constitutive NF-κB stimulation. In the last decade, great insights into the roles of API2 and MALT1 in NF-κB signaling have been made. For example, recent pivotal studies have uncovered the long sought-after proteolytic activity of MALT1 and have demonstrated its critical involvement in the survival of certain lymphomas. Here, we review the current understanding of the role of MALT1 in normal lymphocyte function and lymphomagenesis. We then highlight our recent work that has revealed an intriguing link between the proteolytic activity of the API2-MALT1 fusion and its ability to influence lymphomagenesis by cleaving a key NF-κB regulatory protein, NF-κB-inducing kinase.

  8. WORLD MALT AND MALTING BARLEY: COMPETITION, MARKETING, AND TRADE

    OpenAIRE

    Satyanarayana, Vidyashankara; Wilson, William W.; Johnson, D. Demcey; Dooley, Frank J.

    1996-01-01

    Recent trends in production marketing, trade, and policies affecting world malting barley and malt sector are examined. A spatial equilibrium model of production and trade is used to assess the effects of alternative levels of supply, demand, and policy variables on composition and direction of malting barley and malt trade flows.

  9. The MALT-45 Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Christopher; Bains, Indra; Voronkov, Maxim; Lo, Nadia; Jones, Paul; Muller, Erik; Cunningham, Maria; Burton, Michael; Brooks, Kate; Green, James; Fuller, Gary; Barnes, Peter; Ellingsen, Simon; Urquhart, James; Morgan, Larry; Rowell, Gavin; Walsh, Andrew; Loenen, Edo; Baan, Willem; Hill, Tracey; Purcell, Cormac; Breen, Shari; Peretto, Nicolas; Jackson, James; Lowe, Vicki; Longmore, Steven

    2013-04-01

    As part of the MALT collaboration, we are proposing to undertake a survey of 5 square degrees of the Galactic plane with the ATCA at 7mm, called MALT-45. This survey is an untargeted search for CS (1-0), Class I methanol masers, SiO masers and thermal emission, and high frequency continuum emission. MALT-45 utilises our proven methods in on-the-fly mapping large areas of the sky, as well as pioneering autocorrelation results (using the ATCA both as an interferometer and a set of six individual single dishes). We will use the results to study high density star forming gas both on the near and far side of the Galaxy, to compare the occurrence of different maser species and to search for elusive hypercompact HII regions.

  10. Imaging of MALT lymphomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodallec, M.; Guermazi, A.; Attal, P.; Zagdanski, A.M.; Frija, J.; De Kerviler, E.; Brice, P.

    2002-01-01

    The broad category of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma includes a large variety of different diseases including indolent as well as aggressive lymphomas. Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma arises in the extranodal mucosal lymphoid tissue and has only been recognised as a distinct entity in recent years. It affects one or several extranodal structures such as the stomach, the lung, the eye and salivary glands. The lymphoma is generally of low grade and has indolent course. The aim of this article is to exemplify the most common radiological patterns of MALT lymphoma. (orig.)

  11. Effect of malting conditions on pearl millet malt quality

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pelembe, LAM

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available . Generally, malt quality parameters (percentage of roots and shoots, diastatic power (DP), alpha- and beta-amylase activity, free alpha-amino nitrogen (FAN), and malting loss) were significantly affected (P < 0.001) by germination temperature and time...

  12. Preliminary Strategic Environmental Assessment of the Great Western Development Strategy: Safeguarding Ecological Security for a New Western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Liu, Yan-Ju; Yang, Zhifeng

    2012-02-01

    The Great Western Development Strategy (GWDS) is a long term national campaign aimed at boosting development of the western area of China and narrowing the economic gap between the western and the eastern parts of China. The Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) procedure was employed to assess the environmental challenges brought about by the western development plans. These plans include five key developmental domains (KDDs): water resource exploitation and use, land utilization, energy generation, tourism development, and ecological restoration and conservation. A combination of methods involving matrix assessment, incorporation of expert judgment and trend analysis was employed to analyze and predict the environmental impacts upon eight selected environmental indicators: water resource availability, soil erosion, soil salinization, forest destruction, land desertification, biological diversity, water quality and air quality. Based on the overall results of the assessment, countermeasures for environmental challenges that emerged were raised as key recommendations to ensure ecological security during the implementation of the GWDS. This paper is intended to introduce a consensus-based process for evaluating the complex, long term pressures on the ecological security of large areas, such as western China, that focuses on the use of combined methods applied at the strategic level.

  13. Priority research and management issues for the imperiled Great Basin of the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanne C. Chambers; Michael J. Wisdom

    2009-01-01

    Like many arid and semiarid regions, the Great Basin of the western United States is undergoing major ecological, social, and economic changes that are having widespread detrimental effects on the structure, composition, and function of native ecosystems. The causes of change are highly interactive and include urban, suburban, and exurban growth, past and present land...

  14. New records of marginal locations for American pika (Ochotona princeps) in the Western Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constance I. Millar; Robert D. Westfall; Diane L. Delany

    2013-01-01

    We describe 46 new site records documenting occupancy by American pika (Ochotona princeps) at 21 locations from 8 mountain regions in the western Great Basin, California, and Nevada. These locations comprise a subset of sites selected from regional surveys to represent marginal, isolated, or otherwise atypical pika locations, and to provide...

  15. Seasonal effects on great ape health: a case study of wild chimpanzees and Western gorillas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelly Masi

    Full Text Available Among factors affecting animal health, environmental influences may directly or indirectly impact host nutritional condition, fecundity, and their degree of parasitism. Our closest relatives, the great apes, are all endangered and particularly sensitive to infectious diseases. Both chimpanzees and western gorillas experience large seasonal variations in fruit availability but only western gorillas accordingly show large changes in their degree of frugivory. The aim of this study is to investigate and compare factors affecting health (through records of clinical signs, urine, and faecal samples of habituated wild ape populations: a community (N = 46 individuals of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes in Kanyawara, Kibale National Park (Uganda, and a western gorilla (G. gorilla group (N = 13 in Bai Hokou in the Dzanga-Ndoki National Park (Central African Republic. Ape health monitoring was carried out in the wet and dry seasons (chimpanzees: July-December 2006; gorillas: April-July 2008 and December 2008-February 2009. Compared to chimpanzees, western gorillas were shown to have marginally greater parasite diversity, higher prevalence and intensity of both parasite and urine infections, and lower occurrence of diarrhea and wounds. Parasite infections (prevalence and load, but not abnormal urine parameters, were significantly higher during the dry season of the study period for western gorillas, who thus appeared more affected by the large temporal changes in the environment in comparison to chimpanzees. Infant gorillas were the most susceptible among all the age/sex classes (of both apes having much more intense infections and urine blood concentrations, again during the dry season. Long term studies are needed to confirm the influence of seasonal factors on health and parasitism of these great apes. However, this study suggest climate change and forest fragmentation leading to potentially larger seasonal fluctuations of the environment may affect

  16. Monitoring species richness and abundance of shorebirds in the western Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnock, Nils; Haig, Susan M.; Oring, Lewis W.

    1998-01-01

    Broad-scale avian surveys have been attempted within North America with mixed results. Arid regions, such as the Great Basin, are often poorly sampled because of the vastness of the region, inaccessibility of sites, and few ornithologists. In addition, extreme variability in wetland habitat conditions present special problems for conducting censuses of species inhabiting these areas. We examined these issues in assessing multi-scale shorebird (order: Charadriiformes) censuses conducted in the western Great Basin from 1992-1997. On ground surveys, we recorded 31 species of shorebirds, but were unable to accurately estimate population size. Conversely, on aerial surveys we were able to estimate regional abundance of some shorebirds, but were unable to determine species diversity. Aerial surveys of three large alkali lakes in Oregon (Goose, Summer, and Abert Lakes) revealed > 300,000 shorebirds in one year of this study, of which 67% were American Avocets (Recurvirostra americana) and 30% phalaropes (Phalaropus spp.). These lakes clearly meet Western Hemisphere Shorebird Reserve Network guidelines for designation as important shorebird sites. Based upon simulations of our monitoring effort and the magnitude and variation of numbers of American Avocets, detection of S-10% negative declines in populations of these birds would take a minimum of 7-23 years of comparable effort. We conclude that a combination of ground and aerial surveys must be conducted at multiple sites and years and over a large region to obtain an accurate picture of the diversity, abundance, and trends of shorebirds in the western Great Basin.

  17. Tsunami Simulations in the Western Makran Using Hypothetical Heterogeneous Source Models from World's Great Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi, Amin; Shomali, Zaher Hossein; Keshavarz Farajkhah, Nasser

    2018-03-01

    The western segment of Makran subduction zone is characterized with almost no major seismicity and no large earthquake for several centuries. A possible episode for this behavior is that this segment is currently locked accumulating energy to generate possible great future earthquakes. Taking into account this assumption, a hypothetical rupture area is considered in the western Makran to set different tsunamigenic scenarios. Slip distribution models of four recent tsunamigenic earthquakes, i.e. 2015 Chile M w 8.3, 2011 Tohoku-Oki M w 9.0 (using two different scenarios) and 2006 Kuril Islands M w 8.3, are scaled into the rupture area in the western Makran zone. The numerical modeling is performed to evaluate near-field and far-field tsunami hazards. Heterogeneity in slip distribution results in higher tsunami amplitudes. However, its effect reduces from local tsunamis to regional and distant tsunamis. Among all considered scenarios for the western Makran, only a similar tsunamigenic earthquake to the 2011 Tohoku-Oki event can re-produce a significant far-field tsunami and is considered as the worst case scenario. The potential of a tsunamigenic source is dominated by the degree of slip heterogeneity and the location of greatest slip on the rupture area. For the scenarios with similar slip patterns, the mean slip controls their relative power. Our conclusions also indicate that along the entire Makran coasts, the southeastern coast of Iran is the most vulnerable area subjected to tsunami hazard.

  18. Tectonic and Structural Controls of Geothermal Activity in the Great Basin Region, Western USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulds, J. E.; Hinz, N.; Kreemer, C. W.

    2012-12-01

    We are conducting a thorough inventory of structural settings of geothermal systems (>400 total) in the extensional to transtensional Great Basin region of the western USA. Most of the geothermal systems in this region are not related to upper crustal magmatism and thus regional tectonic and local structural controls are the most critical factors controlling the locations of the geothermal activity. A system of NW-striking dextral faults known as the Walker Lane accommodates ~20% of the North American-Pacific plate motion in the western Great Basin and is intimately linked to N- to NNE-striking normal fault systems throughout the region. Overall, geothermal systems are concentrated in areas with the highest strain rates within or proximal to the eastern and western margins of the Great Basin, with the high temperature systems clustering in transtensional areas of highest strain rate in the northwestern Great Basin. Enhanced extension in the northwestern Great Basin probably results from the northwestward termination of the Walker Lane and the concomitant transfer of dextral shear into west-northwest directed extension, thus producing a broad transtensional region. The capacity of geothermal power plants also correlates with strain rates, with the largest (hundreds of megawatts) along the Walker Lane or San Andreas fault system, where strain rates range from 10-100 nanostrain/yr to 1,000 nanostrain/yr, respectively. Lesser systems (tens of megawatts) reside in the Basin and Range (outside the Walker Lane), where local strain rates are typically fracture density, and thus enhanced permeability. Other common settings include a) intersections between normal faults and strike-slip or oblique-slip faults (27%), where multiple minor faults connect major structures and fluids can flow readily through highly fractured, dilational quadrants, and b) normal fault terminations or tip-lines (22%), where horse-tailing generates closely-spaced faults and increased permeability

  19. Molecular Pathogenesis of MALT Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Troppan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 8% of all non-Hodgkin lymphomas are extranodal marginal zone B cell lymphoma of mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT, also known as MALT lymphoma, which was first described in 1983 by Isaacson and Wright. MALT lymphomas arise at a wide range of different extranodal sites, with the highest frequency in the stomach, followed by lung, ocular adnexa, and thyroid, and with a low percentage in the small intestine. Interestingly, at least 3 different, apparently site-specific, chromosomal translocations and missense and frameshift mutations, all pathway-related genes affecting the NF-κB signal, have been implicated in the development and progression of MALT lymphoma. However, these genetic abnormalities alone are not sufficient for malignant transformation. There is now increasing evidence suggesting that the oncogenic product of translocation cooperates with immunological stimulation in oncogenesis, that is, the association with chronic bacterial infection or autoaggressive process. This review mainly discusses MALT lymphomas in terms of their genetic aberration and association with chronic infections and summarizes recent advances in their molecular pathogenesis.

  20. Molecular Pathogenesis of MALT Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troppan, Katharina; Wenzl, Kerstin; Neumeister, Peter; Deutsch, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 8% of all non-Hodgkin lymphomas are extranodal marginal zone B cell lymphoma of mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT), also known as MALT lymphoma, which was first described in 1983 by Isaacson and Wright. MALT lymphomas arise at a wide range of different extranodal sites, with the highest frequency in the stomach, followed by lung, ocular adnexa, and thyroid, and with a low percentage in the small intestine. Interestingly, at least 3 different, apparently site-specific, chromosomal translocations and missense and frameshift mutations, all pathway-related genes affecting the NF-κB signal, have been implicated in the development and progression of MALT lymphoma. However, these genetic abnormalities alone are not sufficient for malignant transformation. There is now increasing evidence suggesting that the oncogenic product of translocation cooperates with immunological stimulation in oncogenesis, that is, the association with chronic bacterial infection or autoaggressive process. This review mainly discusses MALT lymphomas in terms of their genetic aberration and association with chronic infections and summarizes recent advances in their molecular pathogenesis. PMID:25922601

  1. New Great Game of the Western powers in the Sahel region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry Hassimiu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines and analyzes the role of Western countries in the process of destabilization of the Sahel region. The author describes in detail the process of legitimizing the invasion of the Western powers in the countries of Africa, revealing the sequence of events related to this phenomenon, as well as the totality of its consequences. The article highlighted and described a number of trends that have emerged as a result of the new “Great Game” and define the dynamics of the world order. Special attention is paid to the issue of fighting terrorism, as required in-depth study. The paper presents in detail the metamorphosis of armed movements and groups in the region, from the Algerian slaughter and before the revolution in Libya, accompanied by their strengthening and growing influence on the level of participants in the civil war to the threat of global proportions. Author resumes that in the end, the new "Great Game" caused a violation of the principle of sovereignty, redefining the ways of development of states, spoofing the direction of development from the maintenance of security and stability of the political process to the vulnerability and violence including all that is associated with the image of the post-colonial state.

  2. 21 CFR 184.1443a - Malt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Malt. 184.1443a Section 184.1443a Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1443a Malt. (a) Malt is an enzyme preparation obtained from barley which...

  3. Delivered costs of Western coal shipped on the Great Lakes versus Eastern coal for Eastern Great Lakes hinterland utility plants. With appendices on relative cost impacts of coal scrubbing and on other Western coal transport systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertram, K.M.

    1979-02-01

    This report analyzes the present and projected delivered cost competitiveness of Great Lakes shipped, low sulfur Western coal with low and high sulfur Eastern coal at Eastern Great Lakes hinterland utility plants. Its findings are based upon detailed data acquired from appropriate transportation firms and four eastern utility companies which use or have studied using the appropriate coal types. Two appendices provide: (1) a tentative, preliminary analysis of this competition with additional costs required by likely EPA scrubbing (sulfur removal) requirements, and (2) background information on other Western coal transport systems. Briefly, the findings of this report are that if Western coal is shipped via the Great Lakes to utility plants in the eastern Great Lakes hinterlands (i.e., inland from ports up to 200 miles): currently, based upon delivered costs only, it cannot compete with any type of Eastern coal; by 1989, with favorable interim Western versus Eastern cost escalation rate advantages on minemouth coal and transportation costs, Western coal delivered costs can begin competing with those of Eastern low sulfur, but not high sulfur coal; by 1999, with favorable relative cost escalation rate advantages, Western coal's delivered costs can become substantially less expensive than Eastern low sulfur coal's, and just begin to be competitive with Eastern high sulfur coal's; extremely high Eastern rail costs due to port area system characteristics are the main cost factor driving Western coal delivered costs to uneconomic levels.

  4. Pluvial lakes in the Great Basin of the western United States: a view from the outcrop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reheis, Marith C.; Adams, Kenneth D.; Oviatt, Charles G.; Bacon, Steven N.

    2014-01-01

    Paleo-lakes in the western United States provide geomorphic and hydrologic records of climate and drainage-basin change at multiple time scales extending back to the Miocene. Recent reviews and studies of paleo-lake records have focused on interpretations of proxies in lake sediment cores from the northern and central parts of the Great Basin. In this review, emphasis is placed on equally important studies of lake history during the past ∼30 years that were derived from outcrop exposures and geomorphology, in some cases combined with cores. Outcrop and core records have different strengths and weaknesses that must be recognized and exploited in the interpretation of paleohydrology and paleoclimate. Outcrops and landforms can yield direct evidence of lake level, facies changes that record details of lake-level fluctuations, and geologic events such as catastrophic floods, drainage-basin changes, and isostatic rebound. Cores can potentially yield continuous records when sampled in stable parts of lake basins and can provide proxies for changes in lake level, water temperature and chemistry, and ecological conditions in the surrounding landscape. However, proxies such as stable isotopes may be influenced by several competing factors the relative effects of which may be difficult to assess, and interpretations may be confounded by geologic events within the drainage basin that were unrecorded or not recognized in a core. The best evidence for documenting absolute lake-level changes lies within the shore, nearshore, and deltaic sediments that were deposited across piedmonts and at the mouths of streams as lake level rose and fell. We review the different shorezone environments and resulting deposits used in such reconstructions and discuss potential estimation errors. Lake-level studies based on deposits and landforms have provided paleohydrologic records ranging from general changes during the past million years to centennial-scale details of fluctuations during the

  5. Antioxidant properties of kilned and roasted malts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaras, Thomas S; Camburn, Philip A; Chandra, Sachin X; Gordon, Michael H; Ames, Jennifer M

    2005-10-05

    Compounds possessing antioxidant activity play a crucial role in delaying or preventing lipid oxidation in foods and beverages during processing and storage. Such reactions lead to loss of product quality, especially as a consequence of off-flavor formation. The aim of this study was to determine the antioxidant activity of kilned (standard) and roasted (speciality) malts in relation to phenolic compounds, sugars, amino acids, and color [assessed as European Brewing Convention units (degrees EBC) and absorbance at 420 nm]. The concentrations of sugars and amino acids decreased with the intensity of the applied heat treatment, and this was attributed to the extent of the Maillard reaction, as well as sugar caramelization, in the highly roasted malts. Proline, followed by glutamine, was the most abundant free amino/imino acid in the malt samples, except those that were highly roasted, and maltose was the most abundant sugar in all malts. Levels of total phenolic compounds decreased with heat treatment. Catechin and ferulic acid were the most abundant phenolic compounds in the majority of the malts, and amounts were highest in the kilned samples. In highly roasted malts, degradation products of ferulic acid were identified. Antioxidant activity increased with the intensity of heating, in parallel with color formation, and was significantly higher for roasted malts compared to kilned malts. In kilned malts, phenolic compounds were the main identified contributors to antioxidant activity, with Maillard reaction products also playing a role. In roasted malts, Maillard reaction products were responsible for the majority of the antioxidant activity.

  6. Holocene climate in the western Great Lakes national parks and lakeshores: Implications for future climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Margaret; Douglas, Christine; Cole, K.L.; Winkler, Marge; Flaknes, Robyn

    2000-01-01

    We reconstruct Holocene climate history (last 10,000 years) for each of the U.S. National Park Service units in the western Great Lakes region in order to evaluate their sensitivity to global warming. Annual precipitation, annual temperature, and July and January temperatures were reconstructed by comparing fossil pollen in lake sediment with pollen in surface samples, assuming that ancient climates were similar to modern climate near analogous surface samples. In the early Holocene, most of the parks experienced colder winters, warmer summers, and lower precipitation than today. An exception is Voyageurs National Park in northern Minnesota where, by 8000 years ago, January temperatures were higher than today. The combination of high mean annual temperature and lower precipitation at Voyageurs resulted in a dry period between 8000 and 5000 years ago, similar to the Prairie Period in regions to the south and west. A mid-Holocene warm-dry period also occurred at other northern and central parks but was much less strongly developed. In southern parks there was no clear evidence of a mid-Holocene warm-dry period. These differences suggest that global model predictions of a warm, dry climate in the northern Great Plains under doubled atmospheric CO2 may be more applicable to Voyageurs than to the other parks. The contrast in reconstructed temperatures at Voyageurs and Isle Royale indicates that the ameliorating effect of the Great Lakes on temperatures has been in effect throughout the Holocene and presumably will continue in the future, thus reducing the potential for species loss caused by future temperature extremes. Increased numbers of mesic trees at all of the parks in the late Holocene reflect increasing annual precipitation. This trend toward more mesic conditions began 6000 years ago in the south and 4000 years ago in the north and increased sharply in recent millennia at parks located today in lake-effect snow belts. This suggests that lake-effect snowfall is

  7. Inferring lateral density variations in Great Geneva Basin, western Switzerland from wells and gravity data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier, Aurore; Lupi, Matteo; Clerc, Nicolas; Rusillon, Elme; Do Couto, Damien

    2017-04-01

    In the framework of sustainable energy development Switzerland supports the growth of renewable energies. SIG (Services Industriels de Genève) and the Canton of Geneva intend to develop the use of hydrothermal energy in western Switzerland. As a Mesozoïc-formed sedimentary basin, the Great Geneva Basin (GGB) shares geological and petrophysical similarities with the Munich area (Baviera, Germany) and Paris Basin (France). The latter already provide significant amounts of geothermal energy for district heating. The prospection phase has been launched in 2014 by SIG and aims at identifying relevant geological units and defining their geometries. Lower Cretaceous and Tertiary geological units have first been targeted as potential layers. At the depth we find these units (and according to the normal geothermal gradient), low enthalpy geothermal resources are rather expected. In this framework, our study aims at constraining and refining lateral and vertical heterogeneities of Quaternary to Cretaceous sedimentary layers in GGB. Linear velocity law is inverted at wells and then interpolated to the whole basin for each geological layer. Using time pickings from available data and Quaternary information from previous studies time to depth conversion is performed. Thickness map of every geological unit is then produced. Tertiary thickness ranges from 0 m at the NW border of the GGB at the foothill of the Jura Mountains to 3000 m in the SE of the GGB at the border with the French Alps. These observations are consistent with field and well observations. The produced thickness map will be used as a geometry support for gravity data inversion and then density lateral variations estimation. Unconstrained, and a priori constrained inversion has been performed in GGB using Gauss-Newton algorithms. Velocity versus density relationships will then enable to refine velocity law interpolation. Our procedure allowed us to reduce the uncertainty of key target formation and represents an

  8. A Case of a Laryngeal MALT Lymphoma in a Patient with a History of Gastric MALT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Ashamalla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We are reporting a case of a 62-year-old African American woman with a history of gastric MALT lymphoma successfully treated with radiation who presented with a laryngeal MALT lymphoma 4 years after her original diagnosis. She received definitive radiation with a complete response. The case presented is unique for the rare presentation of a MALT lymphoma in the larynx, especially in light of the patient’s previously treated gastric MALT lymphoma years ago.

  9. Saline systems of the Great Plains of western Canada: an overview of the limnogeology and paleolimnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Last, William M; Ginn, Fawn M

    2005-01-01

    In much of the northern Great Plains, saline and hypersaline lacustrine brines are the only surface waters present. As a group, the lakes of this region are unique: there is no other area in the world that can match the concentration and diversity of saline lake environments exhibited in the prairie region of Canada and northern United States. The immense number of individual salt lakes and saline wetlands in this region of North America is staggering. Estimates vary from about one million to greater than 10 million, with densities in some areas being as high as 120 lakes/km2. Despite over a century of scientific investigation of these salt lakes, we have only in the last twenty years advanced far enough to appreciate the wide spectrum of lake types, water chemistries, and limnological processes that are operating in the modern settings. Hydrochemical data are available for about 800 of the lake brines in the region. Composition, textural, and geochemical information on the modern bottom sediments has been collected for just over 150 of these lakes. Characterization of the biological and ecological features of these lakes is based on even fewer investigations, and the stratigraphic records of only twenty basins have been examined. The lake waters show a considerable range in ionic composition and concentration. Early investigators, concentrating on the most saline brines, emphasized a strong predominance of Na+ and SO4-2 in the lakes. It is now realized, however, that not only is there a complete spectrum of salinities from less than 1 ppt TDS to nearly 400 ppt, but also virtually every water chemistry type is represented in lakes of the region. With such a vast array of compositions, it is difficult to generalize. Nonetheless, the paucity of Cl-rich lakes makes the northern Great Plains basins somewhat unusual compared with salt lakes in many other areas of the world (e.g., Australia, western United States). Compilations of the lake water chemistries show distinct

  10. The fungal community structure of barley malts from diverse geographical regions correlates with malt quality parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Mandeep; Bowman, John P; Stewart, Doug C; Evans, David E

    2015-12-23

    Malt is a preferred base for fermentations that produce beer or whisky. Barley for malt is grown under diverse environments in different geographical locations. Malt provides an ecological niche for a varied range of microorganisms with both positive and negative effects on its quality for brewing. Little information exists in the literature on the microbial community structure of Australian malt as well as broader global geographical differences in the associated fungal and bacterial communities. The aims of the present study were to compare the bacterial and fungal community structures of Australian commercial malt with its international counterparts originating from different geographical regions using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) fingerprinting and clone library analyses of ribosomal RNA genes. Further, the relationship between malt associated microbial communities and conventional malt quality parameters was also compared. Results showed that differences in fungal communities of malts from different geographical location were more pronounced than bacterial communities. TRFLP analysis discriminated high quality commercial malts with low fungal loads from malts deliberately infected with fungal inocula (Fusarium/Penicillium). Malt moisture, beta-amylase, α-amylase and limit dextrinase contents showed significant correlations with fungal community structure. This investigation concluded that fungal community structure was more important to subsequent malt quality outcomes than bacteria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Analysis of long-term forest bird monitoring data from national forests of the western Great Lakes Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald J. Niemi; Robert W. Howe; Brian R. Sturtevant; Linda R. Parker; Alexis R. Grinde; Nicholas P. Danz; Mark D. Nelson; Edmund J. Zlonis; Nicholas G. Walton; Erin E. Gnass Giese; Sue M. Lietz

    2016-01-01

    Breeding bird communities in forests of the western Great Lakes region are among the most diverse in North America, but the forest environment in this region has changed dramatically during the past 150 years. To address concerns about loss of biodiversity due to ongoing forest harvesting and to better inform forest planning, researchers have systematically monitored...

  12. Provenance of Holocene calcareous beach-dune sediments, Western Eyre Peninsula, Great Australian Bight, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Noel P.; Bone, Yvonne

    2017-07-01

    Much of western Eyre Peninsula adjacent to the Great Australian Bight is veneered with siliceous and calcareous Quaternary aeolian dunes. The lengthy coastline adjacent to this cool-water carbonate factory is a series of Precambrian crystalline bedrock-Pleistocene aeolianite headlands that separate many long, sweeping, Holocene carbonate sand beaches and their backbeach dunes. Incessant SW waves, rolling swells, and onshore winds have resulted in > 350 km of semi-continuous calcareous strandline aeolian sands. The sediment is composed of quartz grains, Cenozoic limestone clasts, and relict particles (extraclasts) but the deposits are overwhelmingly dominated by contemporaneous biofragments from offshore. These skeletal grains are, in order of relative abundance, molluscs > benthic foraminifers > coralline algae > bryozoans, and echinoids. Benthic foraminifers are mostly small (especially rotaliids and miliolids) but the large relict symbiont-bearing protistMarginopora vertebralis, which grew in the latter stages of MIS 2, is present locally. There are no significant onshore-offshore trends within individual beach-dune complexes. There is, however, a prominent spatial partitioning, with extraclast-rich sediments in the north and biofragment-rich deposits in the south. This areal trend is interpreted to result from more active seafloor carbonate production in the south, an area of conspicuous seasonal nutrient upwelling and profound nektic and benthic biological productivity. The overall system is strikingly similar to Holocene and Pleistocene aeolianites along the inboard margin of the Lacepede Shelf and Bonney Coast some 500 km to the southeast, implying a potential universality to the nature of cool-water carbonate aeolianite deposition. The composition of these cool-water aeolianites is more multifaceted than those formed on warm-water, shallow flat-topped platforms, largely because of the comparatively deep, temperate shelf, the high-energy wave and swell

  13. The MALT-45 Pilot Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Christopher; Bains, Indra; Voronkov, Maxim; Lo, Nadia; Jones, Paul; Muller, Erik; Cunningham, Maria; Burton, Michael; Brooks, Kate; Green, James; Fuller, Gary; Barnes, Peter; Ellingsen, Simon; Urquhart, James; Morgan, Larry; Rowell, Gavin; Walsh, Andrew; Loenen, Edo; Baan, Willem; Hill, Tracey; Purcell, Cormac; Breen, Shari; Peretto, Nicolas; Jackson, James; Lowe, Vicki; Longmore, Steven

    2011-10-01

    As part of the MALT (Millimetre Astronomers Legacy Team) collaboration, we are proposing to undertake test observations with the ATCA that will lead to a southern Galactic plane survey at 7mm. We intend to take fast-mosaicking snaphot observations of a quarter square degree of the Galactic plane, focusing on the 7mm spectral lines of CS(1-0), C34S (1-0), Class I methanol masers and SiO masers. We will utilise the new CABB in zoom mode to simultaneously observe these lines and test the system for a future large-scale survey.

  14. Trace metal concentration in Great Tit (Parus major) and Greenfinch (Carduelis sinica) at the Western Mountains of Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Haili; Zhang, Zhengwang; Chang, Chongyan; Wang, Yong

    2007-07-01

    We examined the concentrations of 11 trace metals in tissues from 10 body parts of Great Tits and Greenfinches collected at Badachu Park in the Western Mountains of Beijing, China to assess the metal accumulation level, distribution among body parts, and species and gender related variations. The highest concentrations of Hg, Ni, Zn, and Mn were found in the feather; Pb and Co in the bone; Cd, Cr, and Se in the kidney, and Cu in the liver and heart. Metal concentrations had substantial interspecific variation with Great Tits showing higher levels of Hg, Cr, Ni, and Mn than Greenfinches in tissues of most body parts. Gender related variations were body part and species specific. Meta-analyses using data from this study and other studies suggested that metal concentrations of Great Tits at our study site were relatively low and below the toxic levels.

  15. Small mammals in saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima) - invaded and native riparian habitats of the western Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invasive saltcedar species have replaced native riparian trees on numerous river systems throughout the western US, raising concerns about how this habitat conversion may affect wildlife. For periods ranging from 1-10 years, small mammal populations were monitored at six riparian sites impacted by s...

  16. Impact of the great recession on the forest products industry in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles E. Keegan; Collin B. Sorenson; Todd A. Morgan; Jean M. Daniels; Steven W. Hayes

    2012-01-01

    Wood product prices and production fell dramatically in 2009 as a severe recession and massive decline in U.S. housing led to a global financial crisis. In 2009 and 2010, virtually every major western mill suffered curtailments and 30 large mills closed permanently. Sales value of wood and paper products in the West dropped from $49 billion in 2005 to $34 billion in...

  17. Historical wildfires do not promote cheatgrass invasion in a western Great Plains steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant invasion and wildfire are often tightly linked. In western North America, positive feedbacks between wildfire and Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass) invasion have contributed to plant community conversion across millions of hectares of land. Impacts of this conversion include reduced biodiversity, w...

  18. SPRING BARLEY BREEDING FOR MALTING QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alžbeta Žofajová

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this contribution is to illustrate the results of spring barley breeding for malting quality and point out an important position of variety in production of  qualitative  raw material for maltinq and beer  industry as well as the system of evaluation the qualitative parameters of breeding materials and adaptation of barley breeding programms to the  new requirements of  malting and beer industry. As an example of the results obtained most recently description is made of the Ezer, Levan, Donaris, Sladar spring barley varieties with very good malting quality and effective resistance to  powdery mildew.  Cultivation of these varieties  and malting barley production with  reduced use  of pesticidies is environmentally friedly alternative. doi:10.5219/50

  19. The Great Barrier Reef Ocean Observing System Mooring array: Monitoring the Western Boundary Currents of the Coral Sea and Impacts on the Great Barrier Reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, C. R.; McAllister, F.; Brinkman, B. W.; Pitcher, C.; Luetchford, J.; Rigby, P.

    2009-05-01

    Since 1987 Great Barrier Reef weather and water temperature observations have been transmitted in near real time using HF radio from pontoons or towers on coral reefs by AIMS. In contrast oceanographic measurements have however been restricted to loggers serviced at quarterly to half yearly downloads. The Great Barrier Reef Ocean Observing System (GBROOS) is a regional node of the Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS). IMOS is an Australian Government initiative established under the National Collaborative Research Infrastructure Strategy and has been supported by Queensland Government since 2006. GBROOS comprises real time observations from weather stations, oceanographic moorings, underway ship observations, ocean surface radar, satellite image reception and reef based sensor networks. This paper focuses on an array of in-line moorings that have been deployed along the outer Great Barrier Reef in order to monitor the Western Boundary currents of the Coral Sea. The Westward flowing Southern Equatorial Current bifurcates into the poleward flowing East Australian Current and the equatorward North Queensland Current. The 4 mooring pairs consist of a continental slope mooring, nominally in 200m of water and one on the outer continental shelf within the GBR matrix in depths of 30 to 70m. The array is designed to detect any changes in circulation, temperature response, mixed layer depth and ocean-shelf interactions. A review of likely impacts of climate change on the physical oceanography of the GBR is providing a basis upon which to explore what processes may be affected by climate change. Sample data and results from the initial year of observations will be presented.

  20. Great earthquakes along the Western United States continental margin: implications for hazards, stratigraphy and turbidite lithology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, C. H.; Gutiérrez Pastor, J.; Goldfinger, C.; Escutia, C.

    2012-11-01

    We summarize the importance of great earthquakes (Mw ≳ 8) for hazards, stratigraphy of basin floors, and turbidite lithology along the active tectonic continental margins of the Cascadia subduction zone and the northern San Andreas Transform Fault by utilizing studies of swath bathymetry visual core descriptions, grain size analysis, X-ray radiographs and physical properties. Recurrence times of Holocene turbidites as proxies for earthquakes on the Cascadia and northern California margins are analyzed using two methods: (1) radiometric dating (14C method), and (2) relative dating, using hemipelagic sediment thickness and sedimentation rates (H method). The H method provides (1) the best estimate of minimum recurrence times, which are the most important for seismic hazards risk analysis, and (2) the most complete dataset of recurrence times, which shows a normal distribution pattern for paleoseismic turbidite frequencies. We observe that, on these tectonically active continental margins, during the sea-level highstand of Holocene time, triggering of turbidity currents is controlled dominantly by earthquakes, and paleoseismic turbidites have an average recurrence time of ~550 yr in northern Cascadia Basin and ~200 yr along northern California margin. The minimum recurrence times for great earthquakes are approximately 300 yr for the Cascadia subduction zone and 130 yr for the northern San Andreas Fault, which indicates both fault systems are in (Cascadia) or very close (San Andreas) to the early window for another great earthquake. On active tectonic margins with great earthquakes, the volumes of mass transport deposits (MTDs) are limited on basin floors along the margins. The maximum run-out distances of MTD sheets across abyssal-basin floors along active margins are an order of magnitude less (~100 km) than on passive margins (~1000 km). The great earthquakes along the Cascadia and northern California margins cause seismic strengthening of the sediment, which

  1. Great earthquakes along the Western United States continental margin: implications for hazards, stratigraphy and turbidite lithology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. H. Nelson

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We summarize the importance of great earthquakes (Mw ≳ 8 for hazards, stratigraphy of basin floors, and turbidite lithology along the active tectonic continental margins of the Cascadia subduction zone and the northern San Andreas Transform Fault by utilizing studies of swath bathymetry visual core descriptions, grain size analysis, X-ray radiographs and physical properties. Recurrence times of Holocene turbidites as proxies for earthquakes on the Cascadia and northern California margins are analyzed using two methods: (1 radiometric dating (14C method, and (2 relative dating, using hemipelagic sediment thickness and sedimentation rates (H method. The H method provides (1 the best estimate of minimum recurrence times, which are the most important for seismic hazards risk analysis, and (2 the most complete dataset of recurrence times, which shows a normal distribution pattern for paleoseismic turbidite frequencies. We observe that, on these tectonically active continental margins, during the sea-level highstand of Holocene time, triggering of turbidity currents is controlled dominantly by earthquakes, and paleoseismic turbidites have an average recurrence time of ~550 yr in northern Cascadia Basin and ~200 yr along northern California margin. The minimum recurrence times for great earthquakes are approximately 300 yr for the Cascadia subduction zone and 130 yr for the northern San Andreas Fault, which indicates both fault systems are in (Cascadia or very close (San Andreas to the early window for another great earthquake.

    On active tectonic margins with great earthquakes, the volumes of mass transport deposits (MTDs are limited on basin floors along the margins. The maximum run-out distances of MTD sheets across abyssal-basin floors along active margins are an order of magnitude less (~100 km than on passive margins (~1000 km. The great earthquakes along the Cascadia and northern California margins

  2. Trace metal concentration in Great Tit (Parus major) and Greenfinch (Carduelis sinica) at the Western Mountains of Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Haili; Zhang Zhengwang; Chang Chongyan; Wang Yong

    2007-01-01

    We examined the concentrations of 11 trace metals in tissues from 10 body parts of Great Tits and Greenfinches collected at Badachu Park in the Western Mountains of Beijing, China to assess the metal accumulation level, distribution among body parts, and species and gender related variations. The highest concentrations of Hg, Ni, Zn, and Mn were found in the feather; Pb and Co in the bone; Cd, Cr, and Se in the kidney, and Cu in the liver and heart. Metal concentrations had substantial interspecific variation with Great Tits showing higher levels of Hg, Cr, Ni, and Mn than Greenfinches in tissues of most body parts. Gender related variations were body part and species specific. Meta-analyses using data from this study and other studies suggested that metal concentrations of Great Tits at our study site were relatively low and below the toxic levels. - Trace metal concentrations of Great Tits and Greenfinches from Beijing, China, varied by body part, gender, and species, and were below toxic levels

  3. Trace metal concentration in Great Tit (Parus major) and Greenfinch (Carduelis sinica) at the Western Mountains of Beijing, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng Haili [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Biodiversity Sciences and Ecological Engineering, College of Life Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Zhang Zhengwang [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Biodiversity Sciences and Ecological Engineering, College of Life Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)]. E-mail: zzw@bnu.edu.cn; Chang Chongyan [Analytical and Testing Center, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Wang Yong [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Biodiversity Sciences and Ecological Engineering, College of Life Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Center for Forestry and Ecology, Alabama A and M University, Normal, AL 35762 (United States)

    2007-07-15

    We examined the concentrations of 11 trace metals in tissues from 10 body parts of Great Tits and Greenfinches collected at Badachu Park in the Western Mountains of Beijing, China to assess the metal accumulation level, distribution among body parts, and species and gender related variations. The highest concentrations of Hg, Ni, Zn, and Mn were found in the feather; Pb and Co in the bone; Cd, Cr, and Se in the kidney, and Cu in the liver and heart. Metal concentrations had substantial interspecific variation with Great Tits showing higher levels of Hg, Cr, Ni, and Mn than Greenfinches in tissues of most body parts. Gender related variations were body part and species specific. Meta-analyses using data from this study and other studies suggested that metal concentrations of Great Tits at our study site were relatively low and below the toxic levels. - Trace metal concentrations of Great Tits and Greenfinches from Beijing, China, varied by body part, gender, and species, and were below toxic levels.

  4. Possible extrinsic controls on the Ordovician radiation: Stratigraphic evidence from the Great Basin, western USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Droser, M.L. (Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States). Dept. of Earth Sciences); Fortey, R.A. (Natural History Museum, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Palaeontology)

    1993-04-01

    The Ordovician radiation has been previously examined by looking at 1/analyses of patterns of diversification within small clades, 2/analyses of large databases to elucidate large-scale paleoecological patterns such as increased tiering and onshore-offshore shifts associated with this radiation. In order to resolve the relationships between these two scales of analysis there is critical need to examine in detail the paleoecology and possible biofacies shifts associated with the Ordovician radiation. The authors have examined the base of the Whiterock Series (Lower-Middle Ordovician) in the Great Basin as it represents one of the most complete records of the Ordovician radiation on the North American continent. Detailed field evidence suggests that the base of the Whiterock does not represent a simple faunal turnover but corresponds with the first occurrences in the region of groups that come to dominate the rest of the Paleozoic. Among the trilobites, this includes the lichides, calymenids, proetides, and phacopides. Similar patterns are found among the dominate Paleozoic bivalve, cephalopod, brachiopod and graptolite clades. Global correlation of this time interval suggests that this pattern of first broad geographic occurrences is not unique to North America. This boundary corresponds with a globally recognized sea level lowstand. In the Great Basin, significant facies shifts are present in shallow and deep water settings. While extrinsic controls are commonly reserved for extinctions, these data suggest that extrinsic factors may have been significant in the timing of the Paleozoic fauna rose to dominance.

  5. Screening of malting sorghum samples for lactic acid bacteria with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-17

    Jun 17, 2009 ... fermentum and Lactobacillus acidophilus, respectively. LAB isolated from three varieties of sorghum grains undergoing malting exhibited the ability to produce bacteriocin and hydrogen peroxide. Key words: Lactic acid bacteria, sorghum varieties, malting, bacteriocin, hydrogen peroxide. INTRODUCTION.

  6. The effect of long-term storage on quality of malting barley grain and malt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš KRAJČOVIČ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the grain samples of five malting barley varieties harvested in 2011, the amount of basic components as well as physiological characteristics of barley were determined. These samples were micromalted and resulting malt was analyzed mainly according to the European Brewery Convention (EBC and the Mitteleuropäische Brautechnische Analysenkommission (MEBAK methodologies. The same samples of malting barley grain and also samples of malt were placed in polyethylene bags, from which the air was exhausted and they were further stored at 4 °C until 2016. In 2016, grain and malt samples were subjected to the same analyses as in 2011. Results were statistically evaluated by t-test of dependent samples. Most of the monitored parameters has remained at the same level as in 2011 or has slightly improved. The exception was statistically very highly significant decrease (P ≤ 0.001 of friability and increase of amount of whole and partly unmodified grains. Under conditions described, long-term storage of malting barley grain has not significantly negatively affected its germination. Long-term storage of malt has had not a significant negative impact on its quality too.

  7. Three-Dimensional Geothermal Fairway Mapping: Examples From the Western Great Basin, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siler, Drew L. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States). Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology; Faulds, James E. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States). Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology

    2013-09-29

    Elevated permeability along fault systems provides pathways for circulation of geothermal fluids. Accurate location of such fluid flow pathways in the subsurface is crucial to future geothermal development in order to both accurately assess resource potential and mitigate drilling costs by increasing drilling success rates. Employing a variety of surface and subsurface data sets, we present detailed 3D geologic analyses of two Great Basin geothermal systems, the actively producing Brady’s geothermal system and a ‘greenfield’ geothermal prospect at Astor Pass, Nevada. 3D modeling provides the framework for quantitative structural analyses. We combine 3D slip and dilation tendency analysis along fault zones and calculations of fault intersection density in the two geothermal systems with the locations of lithologies capable of supporting dense, interconnected fracture networks. The collocation of these permeability promoting characteristics with elevated heat represent geothermal ‘fairways’, areas with ideal conditions for geothermal fluid flow. Location of geothermal fairways at high resolution in 3D space can help to mitigate the costs of geothermal exploration by providing discrete drilling targets and data-based evaluations of reservoir potential.

  8. Tsunamis caused by submarine slope failures along western Great Bahama Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnyder, Jara S D; Eberli, Gregor P; Kirby, James T; Shi, Fengyan; Tehranirad, Babak; Mulder, Thierry; Ducassou, Emmanuelle; Hebbeln, Dierk; Wintersteller, Paul

    2016-11-04

    Submarine slope failures are a likely cause for tsunami generation along the East Coast of the United States. Among potential source areas for such tsunamis are submarine landslides and margin collapses of Bahamian platforms. Numerical models of past events, which have been identified using high-resolution multibeam bathymetric data, reveal possible tsunami impact on Bimini, the Florida Keys, and northern Cuba. Tsunamis caused by slope failures with terminal landslide velocity of 20 ms -1 will either dissipate while traveling through the Straits of Florida, or generate a maximum wave of 1.5 m at the Florida coast. Modeling a worst-case scenario with a calculated terminal landslide velocity generates a wave of 4.5 m height. The modeled margin collapse in southwestern Great Bahama Bank potentially has a high impact on northern Cuba, with wave heights between 3.3 to 9.5 m depending on the collapse velocity. The short distance and travel time from the source areas to densely populated coastal areas would make the Florida Keys and Miami vulnerable to such low-probability but high-impact events.

  9. Optimisation of wort production from rice malt using enzymes and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Commercially, rice malt has never been successfully used in brewing because of its low free α-amino nitrogen (FAN) content. This study was designed to optimise rice malt replacement for barley malt in wort production and to improve FAN by adding α-amylase and protease. The response surface methodology (RSM) ...

  10. Radiology in a Trench Coat. Military Radiology on the Western Front During the Great War

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Tiggelen, René; De Broe, Luc; Dirckx, Jan; Esch, Walter; Goetghebuer, Françoise; Huygelier, Jeroen; Mazy, Georges; Mortelmans, Lieven; Olier, François; Provost, Laurent; Smets, Robert; Van Loon, Ronny; Viaene, Luc

    2013-01-01

    For more than a decade and with the centennial of the outbreak of hostilities just around the corner countless historians have revisited the myth of the “Great War of 1914-1918”. The vision upon the conflict has in that way definitely been adjusted. In this perspective we understand how and why the First World War, as a modern and industrial war about to thoroughly influence the 20th century, was the result of a constant evolution. Modern indeed, as the 1789 revolution and in particular the 1813 Leipzig battle heralded conflicts between states and/or nations, rather than opposing kings and their armies as was the case during the Ancien Régime. Industrial also, because of the massive production of weapons, ammunition or uniforms, and because industry managed to produce new weapons such as machine-guns or armoured vehicles. Without forgetting the American Civil War however, it is now largely accepted that the “Great War” is the first example in history of a fully-fledged industrial war. The Great War has recently been perceived as the conflict supplying a defining element to the entire 20th century. “Quite a discovery!”, the reader will be inclined to think. After the era of the “Sun King” or that of “Enlightenment” the 20th century in its turn receives a denominator: it becomes the “century of brutalisation”. Both philosophers and historians in that way wish to stress that, from then onwards, the military aspects fundamentally differed from previous situations: fighting was no longer suspended because of cold weather and the state of war became permanent, with – as a consequence – violence as a total, global and constant reality. A few days of leave somewhere behind the front line could not erase the fact that for the first time in history the soldier, if not wounded or killed, had to face long months or even years of questionable hygiene and miserable food supplies. He had to face an interminable separation from family and loved ones

  11. The MALT 90 GHz Pilot Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, James; Rathborne, Jill; Muller, Erik; Cunningham, Maria; Brooks, Kate; Fuller, Gary; Barnes, Peter; Ellingsen, Simon; Longmore, Steven; Wyrowski, Friedrich; Walsh, Andrew; Peretto, Nicolas

    2009-04-01

    In early November, 2008, Australian and international Galactic astronomers met to plan future surveys of the Galactic plane with ATNF facilities. We intend to coordinate our efforts so that such surveys produce the maximum scientific return with minimal overlap in observations. To this end, the Millimetre Astronomers Large-area multi-Transition (MALT) team was formed. The MALT team has identified key Galactic plane surveys: a 42--50 GHz survey, a 90 GHz survey and a 115 GHz survey. In this proposal, we aim to conduct a pilot survey to explore options in the 90 GHz (3 mm) range. This pilot survey will provide detection rates, typical line strengths, and source sizes for various "finder charts" for high-mass star-forming cores. Such information is crucial for a rational design of a complete 90 GHz MALT survey.

  12. Recruitment patterns and growth of high-elevation pines in response to climatic variability (1883–2013), in the western Great Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constance I. Millar; Robert D. Westfall; Diane L. Delany; Alan L. Flint; Lorraine E. Flint

    2015-01-01

    Over the period 1883–2013, recruitment of subalpine limber pine (Pinus flexilis E. James) and Great Basin bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva D.K. Bailey) above the upper tree line, below the lower tree line, and across middle-elevation forest borders occurred at localized sites across four mountain ranges in the western Great...

  13. Lymphoma type MALT of the parotid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frometa Neirai, Carlos; Gonzalez Gomez, Juan Manuel; Arredondo Lopez, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    The lymphomas type MALT or the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue, are the most recent variety of non-Hodgkin lymphomas present mainly in the gastric mucosa associated with Helycobacter pylori infection and in the thyroid gland in relation to Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Frequently the origin of this lesion can't be determined only by cytology study, thus it is necessary the histopathology analysis for a definitive diagnosis in most cases. Present paper includes the case of male patient with bilateral volume increase of both parotid glands and a diagnosis cytopathological of a benign lymphoepithelial process and the development of a type MALT lymphoma in relation to the right parotid gland. (author)

  14. 27 CFR 7.11 - Use of ingredients containing alcohol in malt beverages; processing of malt beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... by volume must derive a minimum of 2.55% alcohol by volume from the fermentation of barley malt and... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of ingredients containing alcohol in malt beverages; processing of malt beverages. 7.11 Section 7.11 Alcohol, Tobacco...

  15. Magmatism, ash-flow tuffs, and calderas of the ignimbrite flareup in the western Nevada volcanic field, Great Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher D. Henry,; John, David A.

    2013-01-01

    The western Nevada volcanic field is the western third of a belt of calderas through Nevada and western Utah. Twenty-three calderas and their caldera-forming tuffs are reasonably well identified in the western Nevada volcanic field, and the presence of at least another 14 areally extensive, apparently voluminous ash-flow tuffs whose sources are unknown suggests a similar number of undiscovered calderas. Eruption and caldera collapse occurred between at least 34.4 and 23.3 Ma and clustered into five ∼0.5–2.7-Ma-long episodes separated by quiescent periods of ∼1.4 Ma. One eruption and caldera collapse occurred at 19.5 Ma. Intermediate to silicic lavas or shallow intrusions commonly preceded caldera-forming eruptions by 1–6 Ma in any specific area. Caldera-related as well as other magmatism migrated from northeast Nevada to the southwest through time, probably resulting from rollback of the formerly shallow-dipping Farallon slab. Calderas are restricted to the area northeast of what was to become the Walker Lane, although intermediate and effusive magmatism continued to migrate to the southwest across the future Walker Lane.Most ash-flow tuffs in the western Nevada volcanic field are rhyolites, with approximately equal numbers of sparsely porphyritic (≤15% phenocrysts) and abundantly porphyritic (∼20–50% phenocrysts) tuffs. Both sparsely and abundantly porphyritic rhyolites commonly show compositional or petrographic evidence of zoning to trachydacites or dacites. At least four tuffs have volumes greater than 1000 km3, with one possibly as much as ∼3000 km3. However, the volumes of most tuffs are difficult to estimate, because many tuffs primarily filled their source calderas and/or flowed and were deposited in paleovalleys, and thus are irregularly distributed.Channelization and westward flow of most tuffs in paleovalleys allowed them to travel great distances, many as much as ∼250 km (original distance) to what is now the western foothills of the

  16. Malting and Brewing Industries Encounter Fusarium spp. Related Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Mastanjević

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Versatile microbiota are inevitably naturally present on cereals. Fungi, yeasts and bacteria and their metabolites all contribute to the quality and safety of the final products derived from most common beer cereals—barley and wheat. The microorganisms that are most often associated with the safety and quality of cereals for beer production belong to the Fusarium spp. They greatly influence yields from the field, and can modify and diminish economic success for farmers. However, the real problem is their harmful metabolites—mycotoxins—that affect the health of humans and animals. In the era of emerging analytical methodologies, the spectrum of known toxins originating from microorganisms that can pose a threat to humans has grown tremendously. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor microflora throughout the productive “barley to beer” chain and to act suppressive on the proliferation of unwanted microorganisms, before and during malting, preventing the occurrence of mycotoxins in final products and by-products. Multi-mycotoxin analyses are very advanced and useful tools for the assessment of product safety, and legislation should follow up and make some important changes to regulate as yet unregulated, but highly occurring, microbial toxins in malt and beer.

  17. Comparison between electrical and thermal energy consumption in brew wort made from malt and malt extract; Comparacao do consumo de energia eletrica e termica na producao de mostos cervejeiros fabricados com malte e com extrato de malte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sleiman, Muris [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agronomicas. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Agronomia]. E-mail: muris@terra.com.br; Venturini Filho, Waldemar G. [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Gestao e Tecnologia Agroindustrial]. E-mail: venturini@fca.unesp.br

    2002-06-01

    The use of alternative raw materials has been one of the main factors of cost reduction in beer manufacture. Among these raw materials, the malt extract presents fermentable and non-fermentable carbohydrates in the same proportion to malt wort. This fact can propose the manufacture of different kinds of beer. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the electrical and thermal consumption in the manufacture of brew wort made from malt and malt extract, in micro brewery scale. A case study has been performed in a micro brewery, which produces 100% malt beer, in Sao Paulo state, Brazil. From this study, the consumption of electrical and thermal energy was estimated in order to produce wort made with mal extract syrup. The utilization of malt extract syrup has reduced 56.9% of the electrical energy consumption, 52.6% of the thermal energy consumption and 52.8% of the total energy consumption, when compared to malt wort the mashing time came from 5.76 h for malt wort production to 3.09 h for malt extract wort. It can be concluded that the use of malt extract reduces electrical and thermal energy consumption on mashing, the industrial equipment investment, the fuel consumption, standardizes the raw material, increases the productivity in the mashing procedure, eliminates the malt waste production and also offers the possibility of different types of beer production in micro brewery, located in town centers. (author)

  18. Orbital MALT Lymphoma: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shobha G Pai

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available A case of orbital MALT (mucous associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma is reported for its rarity. It presented as a large tumor obscuring the whole eye with loss of vision, without any signs of dissemination and remained free of recurrence or metastasis 12 months after undergoing simple surgical excision.

  19. Susan Isaacs and the Malting House School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Philip

    2008-01-01

    It is well known that psychoanalysis has over the years had a significant impact on the education of children with mental health problems. Its contribution to the theory and practice of mainstream education is less well documented. This paper gives an account of the five-year (1924-1929) history of the Malting House School in Cambridge. The school…

  20. MicroRNAs 142-3p, miR-155 and miR-203 Are Deregulated in Gastric MALT Lymphomas Compared to Chronic Gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Concepción; Bellosillo, Beatriz; Ferraro, Mariana; Seoane, Agustín; Sánchez-González, Blanca; Pairet, Silvia; Pons, Aina; Barranco, Luis; Vela, María Carmen; Gimeno, Eva; Colomo, Lluís; Besses, Carles; Navarro, Alfons; Salar, Antonio

    2017-01-02

    Over the last years, our knowledge on pathogenesis of gastric MALT lymphoma has greatly improved, but its morphological diagnosis is still hampered by overlapping histological features with advanced chronic gastritis. MicroRNAs are deregulated in lymphomas, but their role and usefulness in gastric MALT lymphoma has not been extensively investigated. We analyzed the expression of 384 miRNAs using TaqMan microRNA assay in a training series of 10 gastric MALT lymphomas, 3 chronic gastritis and 2 reactive lymph nodes. Then, significantly deregulated miRNAs were individually assessed by real-time PCR in a validation series of 16 gastric MALT lymphomas and 12 chronic gastritis. Gastric MALT lymphoma is characterized by a specific miRNA expression profile. Among the differentially expressed miRNAs, a significant overexpression of miR-142-3p and miR-155 and down-regulation of miR-203 was observed in gastric MALT lymphoma when compared to chronic gastritis. miR-142-3p, miR-155 and miR-203 expression levels might be helpful biomarkers for the differential diagnosis between gastric MALT lymphomas and chronic gastritis. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of radiation processing of ragi and acceptability and shelf-life of ragi malt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pednekar, Mrinal D.; Deo, Bhakti V.; Mitra, Anuradha S.; Sharma, Arun K.

    2009-05-01

    Proximate content, sensory quality, viscosity and storage stability of malt prepared from radiation processed (1 and 5 kGy) ragi ( Eleusine coracana) was studied. Irradiation reduced the malting loss and viscosity of the malt porridge without altering the proximate composition and acceptability of the malt porridge up to 6 months. Green gram malt was added to increase the protein content of porridge.

  2. Effects of Climate Change on Inland Waters of the Pacific Coastal Mountains and Western Great Basin of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melack, John M.; Dozier, Jeff; Goldman, Charles R.; Greenland, David; Milner, Alexander M.; Naiman, Robert J.

    1997-06-01

    The region designated as the Pacific Coastal Mountains and Western Great Basin extends from southern Alaska (64°N) to southern California (34°N) and ranges in altitude from sea level to 6200 m. Orographic effects combine with moisture-laden frontal systems originating in the Pacific Ocean to produce areas of very high precipitation on western slopes and dry basins of internal drainage on eastern flanks of the mountains. In the southern half of the region most of the runoff occurs during winter or spring, while in the northern part most occurs in summer, especially in glaciated basins. Analyses of long-term climatic and hydrological records, combined with palaeoclimatic reconstructions and simulations of future climates, are used as the basis for likely scenarios of climatic variations. The predicted hydrological response in northern California to a climate with doubled CO2 and higher temperatures is a decrease in the amount of precipitation falling as snow, and substantially increased runoff during winter and less in late spring and summer. One consequence of the predicted earlier runoff is higher salinity in summer and autumn in San Francisco Bay. In saline lakes, the incidence of meromixis and the associated reduction in nutrient supply and algal abundance is expected to vary significantly as runoff fluctuates. In subalpine lakes, global warming will probably will lead to increased productivity. Lacustrine productivity can also be altered by changes in wind regimes, drought-enhanced forest fires and maximal or minimal snowpacks associated with atmospheric anomalies such as El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events. Reduced stream temperature from increased contributions of glacial meltwater and decreased channel stability from changed runoff patterns and altered sediment loads has the potential to reduce the diversity of zoobenthic communities in predominately glacier-fed rivers. Climatic warming is likely to result in reduced growth and survival of sockeye

  3. EVALUATING WADER HABITATS IN ROEBUCK BAY (NORTH-WESTERN AUSTRALIA) AS A SPRINGBOARD FOR NORTHBOUND MIGRATION IN WADERS, WITH A FOCUS ON GREAT KNOTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tulp, Ingrid; de Goeij, Petra

    We studied the diet and foraging behaviour of the Great Knot Calidris tenuirostris and to lesser extent of the Red Knot Calidris canutus rogersi and other waders at Roebuck Bay, Broome, Western Australia, in March-May 1991, the period of northward migration. Visual feeding observations, benthic

  4. Radiation for MALT of the Submandibular Gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juskaran Chadha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We are reporting a case of a 27-year-old woman with a history of swelling in the left submandibular region. This swelling was associated with a mass, and this was pathologically confirmed to be an extranodal marginal zone lymphoma (MALT. The patient underwent surgical excision and postoperative adjuvant radiation therapy. The patient tolerated treatments well and remains free of disease. Here, we describe the case and management described in the current literature.

  5. Accurate maser positions for MALT-45

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Christopher; Bains, Indra; Voronkov, Maxim; Lo, Nadia; Jones, Paul; Muller, Erik; Cunningham, Maria; Burton, Michael; Brooks, Kate; Green, James; Fuller, Gary; Barnes, Peter; Ellingsen, Simon; Urquhart, James; Morgan, Larry; Rowell, Gavin; Walsh, Andrew; Loenen, Edo; Baan, Willem; Hill, Tracey; Purcell, Cormac; Breen, Shari; Peretto, Nicolas; Jackson, James; Lowe, Vicki; Longmore, Steven

    2013-10-01

    MALT-45 is an untargeted survey, mapping the Galactic plane in CS (1-0), Class I methanol masers, SiO masers and thermal emission, and high frequency continuum emission. After obtaining images from the survey, a number of masers were detected, but without accurate positions. This project seeks to resolve each maser and its environment, with the ultimate goal of placing the Class I methanol maser into a timeline of high mass star formation.

  6. [Gastric perforation by MALT lymphoma. Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Zamudio, José; Ramírez-González, Luis Ricardo; Núñez-Márquez, Julia; Fuentes Orozco, Clotilde; González Ojeda, Alejandro; Leonher-Ruezga, Karla Lisseth

    2015-01-01

    Gastric non-Hodgkin lymphoma is a rare tumour that represents approximately 7% of all stomach cancers and 2% of all lymphomas. The most frequent location of gastric MALT (mucosa associated lymphoid tissue) lymphomas is in the antrum in 41% of the cases, and 33% can be multifocal. The risk of spontaneous perforation of a gastric MALT lymphoma is 4-10%. 24 year old male patient carrying the Human Immunodeficiency Virus, who began with signs and symptoms of acute abdomen and fever 72 hours before arriving in the emergency room. A computed tomography was performed that showed free fluid in the cavity, and gastric wall thickening. The patient underwent a laparotomy, finding absence of the anterior wall of the stomach, sealed with the left lobe of the liver, colon and omentum. Total gastrectomy, with oesophagosty and jejunostomy tube, was performed. Gastric perforation secondary to a MALT lymphoma is rare, with high mortality. There is limited information reported of this complication and should be highly suspected in order to provide appropriate treatment for a complication of this type. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  7. The Environmental Context of Gastropods on Western Laurentia (Basin and Range Province) During the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Robyn Mieko

    Gastropods are a major component of modern marine ecosystems and can be found in nearly every type of marine ecosystem. They experienced their first notable radiation during the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event (~470 Ma), during which their diversity tripled. This study examines the gastropod assemblage preserved in the Basin and Range Province of the Western United States to establish the environmental context for the Ordovician gastropod radiation. Gastropods are present within every facies examined, but their relative abundance and distribution varies. Gastropods are rare in normal marine settings and abundant in harsh (i.e., dysoxic, hypersaline) environments. Their environmental context is shown to impact survivorship through the end-Ordovician extinction event and throughout the Paleozoic and Mesozoic. Collecting accurate density data for fossil deposits can prove challenging, especially when beds are not exposed in plane view. In these cases, paleontologists are tasked with reconstructing shellbed density from cross section exposure. This study presents a mathematical model to calculate the density of fossil material within a bed from bedding cross section counts. The model is calibrated against an Ordovician biofacies comprised of oncoids, macluritid gastropods and receptaculitids exposed in the Arrow Canyon Range of Southern Nevada, where unique preservation provides both cross section exposures and plan view of fossil concentrations. University Earth Science Departments seeking to establish impactful geoscience outreach programs often pursue large-scale, grant funded programs. While this type of outreach is highly successful, it is also extremely costly, and grant funding can be difficult to secure. Here, we present the Geoscience Education Outreach Program (GEOP), a small-scale, very affordable model tested over five years in the Department of Earth Sciences at UCR. GEOP provides a variety of outreach events and allows UCR Earth Sciences to

  8. Protease activity of the API2–MALT1 fusion oncoprotein in MALT lymphoma development and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Rosebeck, Shaun; Lucas, Peter C; McAllister-Lucas, Linda M

    2011-01-01

    Gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is a prototypical cancer that occurs in the setting of chronic inflammation and an important model for understanding how deregulated NF-κB transcriptional activity contributes to malignancy. Most gastric MALT lymphomas require ongoing antigenic stimulation for continued tumor growth, and Stage I disease is usually cured by eradicating the causative microorganism, Helicobacter pylori, with antibiotics. However, in a subset of MALT lymph...

  9. Breeding of proanthocyanidin free malting barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, Anna Maria

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Haze formation in stored beer is due to colloidal precipitation of proteins with polyphenols of which proanthocyanidins are the most important group. 70-80% of proanthocyanidin in beer are from barley malt. Today breweries attain haze stability by using enzymes, additives or adsorbents. A better solution would be to remove proanthocyanidins. Carlsberg Plant Breeding uses induced mutations to breed proanthocyanidin-free malting barley. After mutagen treatment with sodium azide M1 seeds are planted in the field and M2 seeds are harvested in bulk. A single seed, non-destructive method has been developed to identify mutant kernels lacking proanthocyanidins in the testa. The method involves the inclusion of M2 seeds - 50 at a time - in semisolid clay blocks, whereafter a small part of the endosperm, testa and pericarp are exposed by sanding the seeds. The clay block is then placed in a vanillin-HCI solution so that the uncovered tissues can react with the solution. A red colour will develop in the testa of normal seeds, whereas the testa layers of proanthocyanid-free seeds remain colourless. So far, more than 600 mutants have been induced in over 100 barley varieties, spring as well as winter-types, from barley producing areas around the world. The mutants can be assigned to at least 7 loci, all of which can block the biosynthetic pathway for the proanthocyanidins. Mutants in the ant-18 and ant-19 loci show poor kernel development. Only a few mutants are known in the ant-12, ant-22 and ant-25 loci. Breeding work is focussed on mutants belonging to the ant-13 and ant-17 loci. Whereas the malting quality of ant-17 lines suffer from apparent abnormal enzyme development in the aleurone layer, this defect does not exist in ant-13 lines. Brewing trials with proanthocyanidin-free malt have shown excellent haze stability without changes in beer flavour. Breeding work based on the ant-13 lines led to disease resistant lines with good malting quality, while grain yield

  10. Production of a saccharifying rice malt for brewing using different rice varieties and malting parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Heidi; Marconi, Ombretta; Regnicoli, Gian Franco; Perretti, Giuseppe; Fantozzi, Paolo

    2014-06-11

    This study was conducted to produce rice malt suitable for beer brewing. An all-rice beer would be particularly appealing to individuals with celiac disease because rice does not contain gluten proteins. Furthermore, rice malt could also contribute to new beer flavors and brands. A screening of 10 rice varieties was conducted. The varieties Balilla and Centauro were found to be suitable for the production of an all-rice malt beer without the need of exogenous enzymes. They were characterized by a low diastatic power but nevertheless they saccharified well, likely due to other endogenous amylolytic enzymes such as limit dextrinase and α-glucosidase. The addition of CaCl2 and lactic acid during mashing lowered the pH value and increased saccharification. However, the Balilla variety saccharified without the need of these additives. We also show that the soluble nitrogen and free amino nitrogen content of rice malt wort can be increased by the incorporation of the acrospires and rootlets during mashing.

  11. Nutritional and sensory evaluation of food formulations from malted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutritional and sensory evaluation of food formulations from malted and fermented maize ( Zea mays L.) fortified with defatted sesame ( Sesamun indicum L.) flour. ... The PER values of malted and fermented products (2.16 for MMS and 2.06 for MFMS) were significantly higher (p<0.05) than those of unmalted products (1.86 ...

  12. 7 CFR 457.118 - Malting barley crop insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... such in the Special Provisions. (c) Brewery. A facility where malt beverages are commercially produced... qualified person using standardized equipment that is widely used in the malting industry, and following a... Service when determining quality factors other than percent germination or protein content; or by the Food...

  13. More than Words: A Reply to Malt and Sloman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Paul

    2007-01-01

    In four experiments, Malt and Sloman [Malt, B. C., & Sloman, S. A. (2007). Category essence or essentially pragmatic? Creator's intention in naming and what's really what. "Cognition, 105," 615-648] show that the naming of artifacts is affected by discourse context. They see this phenomenon as posing a problem for the intentional-history theory of…

  14. Impact of diets containing graded level of malted sorghum sprout ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to determine the impact of diets containing graded levels of malted sorghum sprout mixed with pineapple waste (MSPW) on rumen fermentation profile of West African dwarf goats using in vitro gas production techniques. The malted sorghum sprout and pineapple waste mixture were obtained ...

  15. The Combination of Rice Malt and Amyloglucosidase for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    amyloglucosidase (AMG) on yield and type of sugars were investigated. RME was prepared by malting paddy rice for 10 days at 28°C and diastatic power determined. Effect of rice-malt enzyme concentration on rate of liquefaction and AMG concentration on rate of saccharification were studied. The combined effect of RME ...

  16. Effect of Malting on the Chemical Composition of Cowpea ( Vigna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The out-of-steep grains were germinated in the dark for 72 hours and oven dried at 50 °C. The malts were analyzed for diastatic activity and their contents of moisture, protein, sugar, fat, peroxidation products, phytate, tannin and trypsin inhibitor. Results: After malting, the diastatic activity of cowpea increased from 28.87 to ...

  17. Combination of malted cereals and cassava starch in the production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relative capacity of malted cereals and their optimum conditions of temperature and pH in the hydrolysis of starch were studied. Malted cereals prepared from rice, maize, sorghum and millet were used to degrade cassava starch to produce sugar syrup. Effect of pH and temperature on the level of dextrose equivalent ...

  18. Effect of Fermentation and Malting on Some Cereal Weaning Foods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ABSTRACT; Effect of fermentation and malting on some cereal weaning foods enriched with African locust beans were carried out. Cereals (wheat and millet) were malted for the period of 144 hours and further fermented for 48 hours by natural fermentation. The millet, wheat and locust bean flours were mixed together in ...

  19. Effect of fermentation and malting on some cereal weaning foods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of fermentation and malting on some cereal weaning foods enriched with African locust beans were carried out. Cereals (wheat and millet) were malted for the period of 144 hours and further fermented for 48 hours by natural fermentation. The millet, wheat and locust bean flours were mixed together in the ratio ...

  20. EFFECT OF MALTING ON PROTEIN DIGESTIBILITY OF SOME ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protein digestibility of sorghum is generally low. Malting is one of the processing methods which can be applied to improve this digestibility. It is a method whose technology is well known by local communities in Kenya. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of malting on the digestibility of some varieties of ...

  1. Acha ( Digitaria exilis ) Malt as a Source of Enzyme for Bio-Ethanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three acha varieties were malted and their enzyme activities were compared with that of barley malt. During the malting, the maximum amylase activity was achieved on day 3 for white and black acha but in the case of brown acha, the maximum activity was obtained on day 4. Under the optima malting conditions, all the ...

  2. Effects of malting conditions on the amino acid compositions of final ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Barley has been widely used for the production of malt in the brewing industry. Malt was the main raw material indispensable for beer brewing. The fermentability of malt wort is dependent on an adequate supply of the essential nutrients required by yeast. The amino acid content is an important malt parameter to the yeast ...

  3. Effect of malt milling for wort extract content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Géczi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Beer manufacturing is one of the most ancient procedures of food manufacturing. The four (in many cases much more ingredients, the great numbers of technological steps and variations of technological parameters (temperature, time, pressure etc. have a major influence on both type and quality of the final product. As a result of this, studying beer brewing may offer a great deal of possibilities for numerous researches, scientific examinations, and can provide useful informations for the manufacturing companies as well. At the „Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra" we examined an entire beer brewing process in October 2013, utilising the Ahlborn sensors, which were integrated in the instruments. Simultaneously, in Gödöllő at the Szent István University, we analysed the effect of malt milling on extract yield and the filterability of wort. We used the brewing parameters (temperature, time, volume ratios, which were experienced in the microbrewery and published in professional literature. Our results verify the conclusions drawn in the professional literature, however they point out the importance of grinding. Results performed on the yields with different grain-constitution might directly be utilised for the specialists of recently in Slovakia and Hungary spreading small-scale, handicraft, and homemade beer brewing.

  4. Fungal growth during malting of barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocić-Tanackov Sunčica D.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungi were isolated and identified in two samples of winter two-row barley (SSK3 and SSK6 harvested in 2003, Kragujevac location, during micromalting. Fungi were isolated and identified in barley before the micromalting, after the 1st, 2nd and 3rd day of steeping, the first day and after the germination after kilning and after malt degermination. The total fungi count was followed in both barley samples, during the mentioned phases. The total count of fungi was also determined in the steeping water, and the isolation and identification was performed after the steeping process. Change of the total count of fungi during barley micromalting was exponentional. During barley micromalting nine fungi genera were isolated: Phoma, Alternaria, Fusarium aspergillus, Cladosporium, Geotrichum, Scopulariopsis, Aureobasidium and Mucor. The most frequent genera were: Phoma, Alternaria and Fusarium. In water for steeping, five genera were identified: Geotrichum, Fusarium, Phoma Cladosporium and Mucor. The most frequent genera was Phoma.

  5. Complementary 45 GHz Observations of the MALT-90 Pilot Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Gary; Rathborne, Jill; Muller, Erik; Cunningham, Maria; Brooks, Kate; Barnes, Peter; Ellingsen, Simon; Longmore, Steven; Wyrowski, Friedrich; Walsh, Andrew; Peretto, Nicolas; Jackson, James

    2009-10-01

    The MALT-90 pilot survey is mapping 200 sources selected from different "finder charts" of massive star forming cores. This pilot survey is designed to provide detection rates, typical line strengths, and source sizes for the various types of objects. Such information is crucial, along with an understanding of the nature of the sources observed, for a rational design of a complete 90 GHz MALT survey. In this proposal we request time to obtain 45 GHz spectra of all the targets in MALT-90 pilot. As well as providing observations of a complementary set of lines to the 90 GHz data, better constraining the properties of the sources, these observations will provide a link allowing a comparison of the results of the MALT-90 and the 45GHz ATCA galactic plane pilot projects.

  6. Comparison of modern United States and Canadian malting barley cultivars with those from pre-prohibition: I. Malt extract and osmolyte concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    United States and Canadian pre-Prohibition and modern elite malting barley cultivars were evaluated for gross kernel characteristics (i.e. plumpness, thins, kernel protein) and development of malt extract (ME) and osmolyte concentration (OC) over the course of Congress mashing to determine malt qual...

  7. Gastric low-grade MALT lymphoma, high-grade MALT lymphoma and diffuse large B cell lymphoma show different frequencies of trisomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, M A; Gisbertz, I A; Schouten, H C; Schuuring, E; Bot, F J; Hermans, J; Hopman, A; Kluin, P M; Arends, J E; van Krieken, J H

    1999-01-01

    Gastric MALT lymphoma is a distinct entity related to Helicobacter pylori gastritis. Some studies suggest a role for trisomy 3 in the genesis of these lymphomas, but they mainly focused on low-grade MALT lymphoma. Gastric MALT lymphoma, however, comprises a spectrum from low- to high-grade cases.

  8. MALT-45: The Galactic plane in 7mm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Christopher; Walsh, Andrew; Voronkov, Maxim; Ellingsen, Simon

    2013-07-01

    MALT-45: The Galactic plane in 7mm MALT-45 is an untargeted Galactic plane survey searching for tracers of high mass star formation (HMSF) at 7mm. With the recent upgrades to the Australia Telescope Compact Array, we have been able to push the limits on observational efficiency to obtain a very sensitive blind survey in a short amount of time. Specifically, MALT-45 uses a fast on-the-fly mapping with 6 seconds per pointing, which results in a quarter-square-degree region being mapped in approximately 14 hours. Each region is Nyquist sampled and collects data in 12 spectral lines. The primary spectral lines of MALT-45 include: CS (1-0) - a high density gas tracer, which contrasts well with NH3 (1,1) from the similar HOPS survey; 44 GHz Class I methanol masers - the brightest of the Class I lines, it is poorly understood, and MALT-45 is one of the first surveys to thoroughly search for these masers; SiO (1-0) v=1,2,3 - typically associated with evolved stars, there have been rare associations with HMSF, and MALT-45 offers the potential to detect more. Other lines include thermal SiO (1-0) v=0, thermal methanol, C34S, OCS, and radio recombination lines H51a and H53a. Perhaps the most significant and innovative aspect of MALT-45 is the usage of ATCA autocorrelations. Each antenna of the ATCA is similar to Mopra, and by using all 6 antennae simultaneously, have a 6 fold increase in sensitivity per unit observation time. The autocorrelation data was only recently made available by the ATCA upgrade with the Compact Array Broadband Backend, and tools have been developed to allow this data processing. We present the first 5 square-degrees (l = 330 - 335, b = -0.5 - +0.5) of the Galactic plane mapped by MALT-45.

  9. Malting and Brewing Properties of Selected Cereals Cultivated in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ratios of malted rice, sorghum and millet to barley malt used for the production of beer were 40:60 and 50:50 Results of sensory evaluation tests showed that the beer produced from a blend of 40:60 millet:barley was the most acceptable while that from 50:50 rice:barley was the least acceptable. Of the physical and ...

  10. Hordein polypeptide patterns in relation to malting quality in Brazilian barley varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Echart-Almeida Cinara

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Since there is evidence that malting quality is related to the storage protein (hordein fraction, in the present work the hordein polypeptide patterns from 13 barley (Hordeum vulgare L. varieties of different malting quality were analysed in order to explore the feasibility of using hordein electrophoresis to assist in the selection of malting barleys. The formation of clusters separating the varieties with higher malting quality from the others with lower quality suggests that there is a relationship between the general hordein polypeptide pattern and malting quality in the varieties analysed. By the Sperman's correlation test three hordein bands correlated negatively with malting quality in the germplasm studied.

  11. Malting and brewing qualities of some Nigerian rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties and some thoughts on the assessment of malts from tropical cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafor, N; Iwouno, J

    1990-06-01

    The maiting qualities of six varieties of Nigerian rice were studied and compared with malts from sorghum and barley. A minimum of seven days was necessary for maximum yield of extract from malted rice. The beer brewed from the six rice malts were similar to each other and to those from sorghum and barley in analytical properties. The appropriateness of using methods designed for assessing barley malt should be re-examined for studying malts from tropical cereals. Meanwhile, it should be sufficient to determine the extract and the nitrogen content of the wort using the European Brewing methods to assess a tropical cereal for mall.

  12. Endoproteolytic activity assay in malting barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Gómez Guerrero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrolysis of barley proteins into peptides and amino acids is one of the most important processes during barley germination.The degradation of the endosperm stored proteins facilitates water and enzyme movements, enhances modification, liberates starch granules and increases soluble amino nitrogen. Protease activity is the result of the activities of a mixture of exo- and endo-proteases. The barley proteins are initially solubilized by endo-proteases and the further by exo-proteases. Four classes of endo-proteases have been described: serine-proteases, cysteine-proteases, aspartic-proteases and metallo-proteases. The objective of this work was to develop a rapid and colorimetric enzymatic assay to determine the endo-proteolytic activity of the four endo-protease classes using two different substrates: azo-gelatin and azo-casein. Optimum conditions for the assays such as: pH,reaction time and temperature and absorbance scale were determined. Azo-gelatin presented several difficulties in standardizing an “in solution” assay. On the other hand, azo-casein allowed standardization of the assay for the four enzyme classes to produce consistent results. The endo-proteoteolytic method developed was applied to determine the endo-protease activity in barley, malt and wort.

  13. Mercury Sorption onto Malt Spent Rootlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manariotis, I. D.; Anagnostopoulos, V.; Karapanagioti, H. K.; Chrysikopoulos, C.

    2011-12-01

    Mercury is a metal of particular concern due to its toxicity even at relatively low concentrations. The maximum permissible level for mercury in drinking water set by the European Union is 0.001 mg/L. Mercury is released into the environment via four principal pathways: (1) natural processes; i.e. a volcanic eruption, (2) incidental to some other activity; i.e. coal burning power plants, (3) accidentally during the manufacture, breakage or disposal of products that have mercury put into them deliberately, and (4) direct use in industrial settings. The present study focuses on the removal of mercury (II) from aqueous solutions via sorption onto Malt Spent Rootlets (MSR). Batch experiments were conducted employing MSR with size ranging from 0.18 to 1 mm. The effects of pH, mercury concentration, contact time, and solid to liquid ratio on mercury sorption onto MSR were investigated. The highest mercury removal from the aqueous phase, of 41%, was observed at pH of 5.

  14. Millimetre Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz Survey (MALT 90)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, James; Lo, Nadia; Rathborne, Jill; Jones, Paul; Muller, Erik; Cunningham, Maria; Brooks, Kate; Fuller, Gary; Barnes, Peter; Menten, Karl; Schilke, Peter; Garay, Guido; Mardones, Diego; Minier, Vincent; Longmore, Steven; Wyrowski, Friedrich; Herpin, Fabrice; Hill, Tracey; Bronfman, Leonardo; Deharveng, Lise; Schuller, Frederic; Motte, Frédérique; Peretto, Nicolas; Bontemps, Sylvain; Wienen, Marion; Contreras, Yanett; Lenfestey, Clare; Foster, Jonathan; Sanhueza, Patricio; Claysmith, Christopher; Hoq, Sadia

    2012-04-01

    We request Mopra time to complete MALT90, a large, volume-complete survey of high-mass star-forming cores. MALT90 is unique and exploits Mopra's capability for OTF mapping and simultaneous imaging of 16 molecular lines near 90GHz. These molecular lines probe the cores' physical, chemical, and evolutionary state. The target cores are selected from the 870um ATLASGAL survey to host the early stages of high-mass star formation and to span their complete range in evolution. Each core will be mapped at excellent angular (40'') and spectral (0.1km/s) resolution. As in the previous years, fully reduced data products will be made available to the community through the ATOA. In order for MALT90 to be volume-complete, we require 1397 hours to map 942 remaining cores. This time allocation is necessary so that MALT90 is complete to all high-mass cores out to 7kpc: a carefully chosen distance limit to adequate sample a range of Galactic environments and to include all high-mass regions for which individual cores can be resolved with ALMA. When complete, MALT90 will provide an important legacy database for the community and supply the definitive source list of high-mass cores for ALMA.

  15. Screening of the aerodynamic and biophysical properties of barley malt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodsvali, Alireza; Farzaneh, Vahid; Bakhshabadi, Hamid; Zare, Zahra; Karami, Zahra; Mokhtarian, Mohsen; Carvalho, Isabel. S.

    2016-10-01

    An understanding of the aerodynamic and biophysical properties of barley malt is necessary for the appropriate design of equipment for the handling, shipping, dehydration, grading, sorting and warehousing of this strategic crop. Malting is a complex biotechnological process that includes steeping; germination and finally, the dehydration of cereal grains under controlled temperature and humidity conditions. In this investigation, the biophysical properties of barley malt were predicted using two models of artificial neural networks as well as response surface methodology. Stepping time and germination time were selected as the independent variables and 1 000 kernel weight, kernel density and terminal velocity were selected as the dependent variables (responses). The obtained outcomes showed that the artificial neural network model, with a logarithmic sigmoid activation function, presents more precise results than the response surface model in the prediction of the aerodynamic and biophysical properties of produced barley malt. This model presented the best result with 8 nodes in the hidden layer and significant correlation coefficient values of 0.783, 0.767 and 0.991 were obtained for responses one thousand kernel weight, kernel density, and terminal velocity, respectively. The outcomes indicated that this novel technique could be successfully applied in quantitative and qualitative monitoring within the malting process.

  16. Effects of nitrogen application rate on dry matter redistribution, grain yield, nitrogen use efficiency and photosynthesis in malting barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, J; Jiang, D; Wollenweber, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    The harmonious combination of malting barley yield, quality and nitrogen (N) use-efficiency under nitrogen (N) rates applications was greatly conducive to production in China. The malting barley cultivar Supi 3 was planted during the growing seasons 2005 and 2006 at two contrasting sites in China....... Five nitrogen (N) application rates (0, 75, 150, 225 and 300 kg ha−1) were applied for research of effects of N rates application on grain yield, protein content and N use-efficiency. At both sites and in both years, grain yield increased with increasing N application rates up to 225 kg N ha−1......, and decreased with 300 kg N ha−1. Net photosynthetic rate (P N) and the amount of accumulated dry matter distributed into grains showed the same response to N application as grain yield. Grain protein content increased with increasing N application rates. Moreover, based on further analysis of these results...

  17. 19 CFR 11.6 - Distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors in bulk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors in bulk..., and malt liquors in bulk. (a) The port director, in his discretion, may require marks, brands, stamps... conveying imported distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors, in accordance with 19 U.S.C. 467. (b) Marks...

  18. Production of Malt Flavoured Low-Sugar Drink from Banana ( Musa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Banana fig from fully ripe banana, caramel and malt extract, food drink thickening agent, acetic acid and local hop extract (Alfalfa) were used in the formulation of a low-sugar malt drink. Banana fig was used as a replacement for malted barley. The pH, total titratable acidity (TTA), percentage sugar content, specific gravity ...

  19. Malt quality of 4 barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grain varieties grown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-01-31

    Jan 31, 2011 ... (TKMWL) was 11 to 13% and is in the range for desirably modified barley grain on malting. The varieties ... Key words: Diastatic tendency, malt extract, FAN, malt barley qualities, net blotch, propiconazole, starch flour pasting. ... phate was applied at the rate of 100 kg/ha (blanket recommen- dation). Weeds ...

  20. Comparison of Rheological Properties of Hopped Wort and Malt Wort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Trávníček

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is determination rheological properties of hopped wort and malt wort and their comparison. In the paper following rheological properties has been described: the dependence of viscosity on a temperature of a sample and hysteresis loop test. The time dependence test was performed for a confirmation thixotropic behaviour. Based on measured values Arrhenius mathematical model has been applied. The activation energy was determined by using of this model. Tests have been carried out in the temperature range from 5 °C to 40 °C. Rheological tests proved that malt wort behaves as Newtonian fluid in all temperatures and hopped wort behaves as non-Newtonian fluid at low temperatures. Thixotropic behaviour is caused by the content of the rests of hops heads or malt scraps.

  1. Four cases of MALT lymphoma arising in the lingual tonsil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogihara, Hitomi; Yuta, Atsushi; Yamaguchi, Motoko; Miyamoto, Yukiko; Hattori, Reiko; Imai, Hiroshi; Majima, Yuichi; Tanaka, Chikako

    2007-01-01

    We report four cases of lingual tonsillar MALT (mucosal associated lymphoid tissue) lymphoma. The cases consisted of a 68-year-old woman, a 60-year-old woman, a 55-year-old woman, and a 75-year-old man. The clinical stages of these cases were IIA, IA, IV (invasion to bone marrow) and IA, respectively. As some types of lingual tonsillar MALT lymphomas show hypertrophy of the lymphoid tissue but not a mass, it is not easy to make a diagnosis of MALT lymphoma only by fiberscopic findings. Furthermore, the small size of biopsy specimens or tissue damaged by forceps can show a false negative consult. Repeat biopsies are sometimes required for a definitive diagnosis. It is important to take large biopsy specimens with little damage, and to discuss well with pathologists. (author)

  2. Cultivation of tea fungus on malt extract medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Dragoljub D.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of application of malt extract as a source of carbohydrate in a medium for tea fungus was investigated. The beverage obtained on such medium was compared with that prepared in a traditional way with sucrose medium. The presence of easily adoptable sugars, glucose and fructose, as dominant in malt medium results in a very effective fermentation, which gives much more sour beverage for the same time and makes it possible to reduce the fermentation period. The obtained beverage has satisfactory sensorial characteristics.

  3. Visceral leishmaniasis diagnosed in a patient with MALT lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaae, Jeanette; Nørgaard, Peter; Himmelstrup, B

    2007-01-01

    We report a case of visceral leishmaniasis in a 66-year-old female with a history of MALT lymphoma in the gastrointestinal tract. The patient presented with major hemorrhage per rectum and perforation of the small intestine. Due to unexplained decreasing platelets, lymphoma bone marrow involvement...... was suspected and bone marrow examination was performed. Surprisingly, Leishman-Donovan bodies were detected. The low platelet count, caused by the combination of MALT lymphoma and visceral leishmaniasis, appears to have aggravated the symptoms of the intestinal lymphoma. Leishmaniasis should be suspected even...... among asymptomatic patients with immune compromising illnesses and a travel history to areas where leishmaniasis is endemic....

  4. A gradient of mercury concentrations in Scottish single malt whiskies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Neil L; Yang, Handong; Turner, Simon D

    2016-02-01

    Mercury (Hg) concentrations were measured in 26 Scottish single malt whiskies, and all found to be very low (mercury emissions and deposition over the last 200 years affecting concentrations in local waters used in whisky production. As UK atmospheric emissions of mercury have declined by 90 % since the 1970s, we suggest that whisky being produced today should have even lower Hg concentrations when consumed in 10- to 15-years time. This reduction may be compromised by the remobilisation of contaminants stored in catchment soils being transferred to source waters, but is very unlikely to raise the negligible health risk due to Hg from Scottish single malt whisky consumption.

  5. Determination of improved steeping conditions for sorghum malting

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dewar, J

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available , diastaticmoist air under controlled conditions, the primary activity and other important malt quality char-objective being to promote the development of acteristics5.hydrolytic enzymes which are not present in the Much emphasis has been placed on the e... and 100% relative humidity. activity19. DP is especially important in the caseTwice daily, the bags were removed from the of sorghum malt as the level of the beta-amylaseincubator, the grain turned (to avoid meshing of enzyme in sorghum is intrinsically...

  6. Genome sequences of lower Great Lakes Microcystis sp. reveal strain-specific genes that are present and expressed in western Lake Erie blooms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Anthony Meyer

    Full Text Available Blooms of the potentially toxic cyanobacterium Microcystis are increasing worldwide. In the Laurentian Great Lakes they pose major socioeconomic, ecological, and human health threats, particularly in western Lake Erie. However, the interpretation of "omics" data is constrained by the highly variable genome of Microcystis and the small number of reference genome sequences from strains isolated from the Great Lakes. To address this, we sequenced two Microcystis isolates from Lake Erie (Microcystis aeruginosa LE3 and M. wesenbergii LE013-01 and one from upstream Lake St. Clair (M. cf aeruginosa LSC13-02, and compared these data to the genomes of seventeen Microcystis spp. from across the globe as well as one metagenome and seven metatranscriptomes from a 2014 Lake Erie Microcystis bloom. For the publically available strains analyzed, the core genome is ~1900 genes, representing ~11% of total genes in the pan-genome and ~45% of each strain's genome. The flexible genome content was related to Microcystis subclades defined by phylogenetic analysis of both housekeeping genes and total core genes. To our knowledge this is the first evidence that the flexible genome is linked to the core genome of the Microcystis species complex. The majority of strain-specific genes were present and expressed in bloom communities in Lake Erie. Roughly 8% of these genes from the lower Great Lakes are involved in genome plasticity (rapid gain, loss, or rearrangement of genes and resistance to foreign genetic elements (such as CRISPR-Cas systems. Intriguingly, strain-specific genes from Microcystis cultured from around the world were also present and expressed in the Lake Erie blooms, suggesting that the Microcystis pangenome is truly global. The presence and expression of flexible genes, including strain-specific genes, suggests that strain-level genomic diversity may be important in maintaining Microcystis abundance during bloom events.

  7. The non-touching method of the malting barley quality evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raba, B.; Nowakowski, K.; Lewicki, A.; Przybył, K.; Zaborowicz, M.; Koszela, K.; Boniecki, P.; Mueller, W.

    2014-04-01

    The first important stage of the malt production processes is the malting barley quality evaluation. Presented project was focused on the visual features of malting barley grains. The principal aim was to elaborate complete methodology to determine the level of grains contamination. The article describes the mechanisms of choosing parameters which can distinguish useful for the malt production grains from defects and impurities. Original computer system 'Hordeum v 3.1' helped obtain graphical data from images of contaminated barley samples. Research carried out in this area can improve the quality evaluation process of malting barley.

  8. Biochar characteristics produced from malt spent rootlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotopoulou, Kalliopi N.; Karapanagioti, Hrissi K.; Manariotis, Ioannis D.

    2013-04-01

    Biochar is a carbon-rich material produced by heating biomass in an oxygen-limited environment. Biochar is mainly used as an additive to soils to sequester carbon and improve soil fertility as well as a sorbent for environmental remediation processes. Surface properties such as point of zero charge, surface area and pore volume, surface topography, surface functional groups and acid-base behavior are important factors, which affect sorption efficiency. Understanding the surface alteration of biochars increases our understanding of the pollutant-sorbent interaction. Malt spent rootlets (MSR) is a by-product formed during beer production, is inexpensive and is produced in high quantities. The objective of the present study was to characterize the surface properties of biochar produced from MSR, and to investigate the effect of thermal treatment conditions on key characteristics that affect sorptive properties. The surface area, the pore volume, and the average pore size of the biochars were determined using gas (N2) adsorption-desorption cycles using the Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) equation. Isotherms with 30 adsorption and 20 desorption points were conducted at liquid nitrogen temperature (77K). Open surface area and micropore volume were determined using t-plot method and Harkins & Jura equation. Total organic carbon was also determined because it is an important factor that affects sorption. Raw MSR demonstrates low surface area that increases by 1 order of magnitude by thermal treatment up to 750oC. At temperatures from 750 up to 900oC, pyrolysis results to biochars with surface areas 210-340 m2/g. For the same temperature range, a high percentage (46-73%) of the pore volume of the biochars is due to micropores. Similar results were observed for all the grain size fractions of the raw MSR. The up-scaling of the biochar production was easily performed by using increased biomass analogous to the bigger vessels used each time. Positive results were obtained

  9. Optimization of drying process of Zea Mays malt to use as alternative source of amylolytics enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Paula Menezes Biazus

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to study the drying process optimization of maize (Zea Mays malt for obtaining maize malt, without affecting enzymatic activity of alpha e beta-amylases from maize malt. Results showed that dryer operation must occur in zone at 54°C and 5.18-6 h process time. The maize malt obtained had good enzymatic properties.Este trabalho objetivou a otimização da secagem do malte de milho (Zea Mays para obter um malte sem afetar a atividade das enzimas presentes neste, alfa e beta -amilases. Os resultados mostraram que a operação do secador deve ser feita a 54°C e entre 5,18-6 h de processo. O malte obtido possuiu boas propriedades enzimáticas.

  10. Investigation of shelf-life extension of sorghum beer (Chibuku) by removing the second conversion of malt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutyauripo, Josphat; Parawira, Wilson; Tinofa, Sharai; Kudita, Ivy; Ndengu, Clement

    2009-02-28

    The effect of removing the second step of malt conversion in the brewing of Chibuku beer was investigated with the intention of extending the shelf-life of the product. Chibuku was brewed in the laboratory scale fermenters using Delta Beverages' standard brewing procedure. A variation was made where the second malt conversion was not conducted on one brew. The effect of increasing pasteurisation time was also investigated. The extension of shelf-life was determined by following the physicochemical and the sensory profile of the products for a period of ten days under sub-tropical ambient conditions. Ethanol productions were similar between the control and test beers (without second conversion malt). A product with overall acceptability of 70% was made from the brew without the second malt conversion and with 15 min pasteurisation at 80 degrees C. The product was, however, low in bite and head retention, but had less bacterial load, decreased acid production, and improved keeping quality by at least two days. However, due to contamination of the pitching yeast with lactic acid bacteria (LAB), total acids rapidly increased after 168 h and caused unacceptable sourness. Increasing pasteurisation time to 20 min reduced bacterial load of the wort to figures as low as 2 x 10(3) cfu/ml. General hygiene levels of the brewery were acceptable and no coliforms were detected in the product or contact surfaces along the production line. Bacterial contamination of the product mainly comes from the raw materials with pasteurisation greatly reducing this load. If improved, the procedure has the potential of extending the shelf-life of the beer to beyond 168 h.

  11. Anti-Hyperprolactinemic Effect of Formula Malt Decoction, a Chinese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the anti-hyperprolactinemic activity of Formula Malt Decoction (FMD), a. Chinese herbal mixture. Methods: The effect of FMD on serum prolactin (PRL), estradiol (E2), progesterone (PGN), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels were investigated in hyperprolactinemic.

  12. Factors influencing beta-amylase activity in sorghum malt

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Taylor, JRN

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available malt. Neither reducing agents nor papa in affected beta-amylase activity in sorghum, indicating that the enzyme is not in a bound form, unlike in barley. Isoelectric focusing indicated that sorghum beta-amylase comprises just one major and one minor...

  13. Gastric irradiation for MALT lymphoma: Reducing the target volume, fast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirth, A.; Teo, A.; Wittwer, H.; MacManus, M.; Ryan, G.

    1999-01-01

    A case of low-grade gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma treated with radiotherapy alone is reported here. This case highlights treatment issues related to the variability in size and position of the stomach, and the substantial reduction in the size of the irradiated volume achieved by treating the patient in a fasting state. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  14. CT appearances of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessar, P.; Norton, A.; Rohatiner, A.Z.S.; Lister, T.A.; Reznek, R.H.

    1999-01-01

    Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is a low-grade lymphoma that differs from high-grade non-Hodgkin lymphoma both clinically and histologically. The CT appearances of MALT lymphoma are described. Of 40 patients referred with biopsy-proven MALT lymphoma, only seven had not had gastrectomy or chemotherapy prior to CT examination. The CT scans of these seven cases were analysed for the degree and extent of gastric wall thickening, enlargement of abdominal and extra-abdominal lymph nodes, and presence of extranodal disease. In all patients the stomach was distended with oral contrast medium and scans performed at narrow collimation, after intravenous administration of 20 mg hyoscine butylbromide. In six patients focal thickening of the gastric wall was 1 cm or less. One patient had thickening of over 4 cm. There was no enlargement of abdominal or extra-abdominal lymph nodes or extension to adjacent organs. Thus on CT, at presentation, MALT lymphoma results in minimal gastric wall thickening, unlike high-grade non-Hodgkin lymphoma, which typically causes bulky gastric disease, nodal enlargement and extension into adjacent organs. CT is therefore of limited value in monitoring response to treatment. With disease greater than minimal thickening, transformation to a higher grade should be considered. (orig.)

  15. Effect of enzyme supplementation on the nutritive value of malted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The composition of malted sorghum sprout (MSP) and its nutritive value when supplemented with an exogenous enzyme was investigated using weanling albino rats. A nitrogen free basal diet was formulated along with a soya bean meal (SBM) reference diet (10% CP) and two test diets each containing 10% CP supplied ...

  16. Grist size distribution and gelatinization temperature of malted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of particle size distribution of sorghum malt grist on gelatinization temperature of the sorghum mash was assessed with respect to sorghum variety ICSV400. This was with a view to determining the possible relationship between the grist size distribution and the temperature at which the mash from such grist will ...

  17. Effects of millet malt wort on brewer's yeast | Damisa | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of Pearl Millet, Penniserum americanum (L), malt won obtained by modified infusion method of mashmg was investigated on the brewers yeast, Saccharomyces uvarum, growth and fermentation performance. Bud formation in the yeast was observed nine hows into the initiation of. the fermentation process which ...

  18. 21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... additive may be used as a flavor enhancer in food at a level not in excess of that reasonably required to... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Yeast-malt sprout extract. 172.590 Section 172.590 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...

  19. analysis and correlation of stability parameters in malting barley

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Interaction principal component axis (IPCA) scores,. Additive .... TABLE 1. Additive main effects and multiplicative interactions (AMMI) analysis of variance for grain yield of 20 genotypes of ... BLE 2. Mean grain yield and genotypic stability parameters for 20 malting barley genotypes grown over 12 environments in Ethiopia.

  20. MS based proteomic approaches for analysis of barley malt

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laštovičková, Markéta; Bobálová, Janette

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 3 (2012), s. 519-530 ISSN 0733-5210 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GPP503/12/P395 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : barley * malt * mass spectrometry Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.088, year: 2012

  1. Production and characterization of amylases from Zea mays malt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Paula Menezes Biazus

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work the α and β-amylase enzymes were obtained from maize (Zea mays malt and were biochemistry characterized. A germination study to obtain the maize malt with good amylase activity was made. The maize seeds were germinated in laboratory and the enzymatic activity was measured daily. Activity dependence to germination time were fitted to an exponential model (A=A0eµt, which showed that the behaviour of enzymatic activity in the germination process was similar to the growth of the microorganism. Its model could be applied to describe the mechanism of α-amylase production for each maize varieties and others cereals. Maize malt characterization showed that α and β-amylase had optimal pH between 4-6.5, optimal temperature 50 and 90ºC, and molecular weight of 67.4 and 47.5kDa, respectively. This work contributed with the advances in biotechnology generating of conditions for application of a new and of low price amylases source.Neste trabalho as enzimas α e β-amilases foram obtidas de malte de milho e depois foram caracterizadas bioquimicamente. Um estudo da germinação foi feito para obtenção do malte com boa atividade amilásica. A germinação ocorreu em escala laboratorial e a atividade enzimática foi medida diariamente. Um modelo exponencial do tipo A=A0eµt foi ajustado a dependência do tempo de germinação com a atividade, mostrando que o comportamento da atividade enzimática no processo de germinação é semelhante ao crescimento de microorganismos. Este modelo pode ser aplicado para descrever o mecanismo de produção da α-amilase para cada variedade de milho e de outros cereais. A caracterização do malte de milho mostrou que as α e β-amilase têm pH ótimo entre 4,0-6,5, temperatura ótima de 50 e 90ºC, e massa molar de 67,4 e 47,5 kDa, respectivamente. Este trabalho contribuiu com os avanços da biotecnologia gerando condições de emprego de uma nova e barata fonte de amilases.

  2. Natural gas geological characteristics and great discovery of large gas fields in deep-water area of the western South China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenfeng Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To accelerate the petroleum exploration in deep sea of China, since the period of “the 11th Five-Year Plan”, the sedimentary process, source rock formation and hydrocarbon generation and expulsion process in deep-water area of the Qiongdongnan Basin in the western South China Sea have been studied systematically using the data like large-area 3D seismic survey, logging, drill core (cuttings and geochemical analysis, providing three innovative understandings, i.e. excellent hydrocarbon source conditions, good accumulation conditions, and grouping and zonal distribution of large exploration targets. From the study, the following conclusions are drawn. First, the deep-water area located in the southern and central parts of the Qiongdongnan Basin was formed under the control of such tectonic events as Indosinian–Eurasian Plate collision, Himalayan uplifting and South China Sea expansion, and experienced Paleogene lift and Neogene depression stages. Second, accompanied by lacustrine deposition, faulting activity was violent in Eocene; whereas in Early Oligocene, rift continued to develop under a sedimentary environment of marine–terrestrial transitional facies and littoral-neritic facies. Third, oil generation predominated Eocene lacustrine mudstone and gas generation predominated Lower Oligocene marine–terrestrial transitional facies coal-measure strata compose two sets of major source rocks. Fourth, analysis in respect of thermal evolution level, hydrocarbon generation volume and hydrocarbon generation intensity shows that Ledong, Lingshui, Baodao and Changchang sags belong to potential hydrocarbon-rich kitchens, among which Ledong and Lingshui sags have been proved to have great hydrocarbon generation potential by drilling. Fifth, researches of deep-water sedimentology and hydrocarbon accumulation dynamics reveal that Paleogene and Neogene plays are developed vertically, and favorable hydrocarbon accumulation zones like the Central

  3. Observation of profiles of turbulence in stationary and well mixed convective boundary layers over the ARM Southern Great Plains and the Tropical Western Pacific sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, M.; Turner, D. D.; Heus, T.; Newsom, R. K.

    2016-12-01

    The high temporal and vertical resolution and the ability to operate continuously under most atmospheric conditions make Raman lidars outstanding tools for studying turbulence in the convective boundary layer (CBL). Raman lidars have been used to study the turbulent structure of the CBL and the entrainment zone; however, previous studies have been in general based on a limited number of cases, which restricts the representativeness of the results for different atmospheric conditions. This study uses data from the autonomous Raman lidars that measure water vapor over the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site located at Lamont, Oklahoma (USA) and the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) site located at Darwin (Australia) as part of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program. The data from SGP used here spans 4 years from January 2012 to December 2015 and the TWP data span 6 years from January 2010 to December 2015. The vertical profiles of turbulent fluctuations have been derived using an auto covariance technique to separate out the instrument random error from the atmospheric variability over a set of 2-h period time series during which the CBL is quasi-stationary and well mixed. The temporal and vertical resolutions of water vapor are 10 s and 37.5 m, respectively. The error analysis of the Raman lidars observations demonstrates that the lidars are capable of resolving the vertical structure of turbulence in the CBL, and the small noise errors allow us to thoroughly examine different moments up to the fourth-order. The monthly, seasonal and yearly variations of the vertical profiles of variance, skewness, kurtosis and integral scale have been carefully analyzed. We particularly highlight noticeable differences between the structure of turbulence in the CBL and the entrainment zone at the SGP and TWP sites.

  4. Environmental conditions and microbial community structure during the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event; a multi-disciplinary study from the Canning Basin, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaak, Gemma; Edwards, Dianne S.; Foster, Clinton B.; Pagès, Anais; Summons, Roger E.; Sherwood, Neil; Grice, Kliti

    2017-12-01

    The Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event (GOBE) is regarded as one of the most significant evolutionary events in the history of Phanerozoic life. The present study integrates palynological, petrographic, molecular and stable isotopic (δ13C of biomarkers) analyses of cores from four boreholes that intersected the Goldwyer Formation, Canning Basin, Western Australia, to determine depositional environments and microbial diversity within a Middle Ordovician epicontinental, tropical sea. Data from this study indicate lateral and temporal variations in lipid biomarker assemblages extracted from Goldwyer Formation rock samples. These variations likely reflect changing redox conditions between the upper (Unit 4) and lower (Units 1 + 2) Goldwyer, which is largely consistent with existing depositional models for the Goldwyer Formation. Cryptospores were identified in Unit 4 in the Theia-1 well and are most likely derived from bryophyte-like plants, making this is the oldest record of land plants in Australian Middle Ordovician strata. Biomarkers in several samples from Unit 4 that also support derivation from terrestrial organic matter include benzonaphthofurans and δ13C-depleted mid-chain n-alkanes. Typical Ordovician marine organisms including acritarchs, chitinozoans, conodonts and graptolites were present in the lower and upper Goldwyer Formation, whereas the enigmatic organism Gloeocapsomorpha prisca (G. prisca) was only detected in Unit 4. The correlation of a strong G. prisca biosignature with high 3-methylhopane indices and 13C depleted G. prisca-derived chemical fossils (biomarkers) is interpreted to suggest an ecological relationship between methanotrophs and G. prisca. This research contributes to a greater understanding of Ordovician marine environments from a molecular perspective since few biomarker studies have been undertaken on age-equivalent sections. Furthermore, the identification of the oldest cryptospores in Australia and their corresponding

  5. Gastric irradiation for MALT lymphoma: Reducing the target volume, fast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirth, A.; Teo, A.; Wittwer, H.; MacManus, M.; Ryan, G. [Peter MacCallum Cancer Institute, Melbourne, VIC (Australia). Departments of Radiation Oncology and Radiotherapy

    1999-02-01

    A case of low-grade gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma treated with radiotherapy alone is reported here. This case highlights treatment issues related to the variability in size and position of the stomach, and the substantial reduction in the size of the irradiated volume achieved by treating the patient in a fasting state. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd 10 refs., 5 figs.

  6. EFFECTS OF MILLET MALT WORT ON BREWER'S YEAST

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    Maiorella, 8 ., Blanch, H.W. and Wilke, C.R., 19 3 . By-product inhibition effects on ethanolic fem1entation of' S. cerevisiae Biotechnology and Bioengineering 25: I 03- 13 1. Malleshi, N.G. and IJesikachar, H.S.R., (1986). S'todies on the comparative malting characteristics of some tropical cereals and i\\hl.c Journal of the ...

  7. Role of proteolytic enzymes in increasing malt activity and intensifying alcohol fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rimareva, L.V.; Voinarskii, I.N.

    1981-01-01

    Treatment of malt with Protoorizin G10X, Prototerrizin P10X (from Aspergillus oryzae), or papain increased the activity of amylase by 48% and the activity of dextranase by 81%. The saccharification of malt increased by 72%. The use of activated malt intensified alcohol fermentation 1.5-1.7-fold. The fungal proteases were more effective than papain. The activation is apparently due to the release of bound amylolytic enzymes.

  8. Pulmonary MALT lymphoma: imaging findings in 24 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, L.J. [Dept. of Radiology, Royal Hospital Haslar, Hampshire (United Kingdom); Padley, S.P.G. [Dept. of Radiology, Royal Brompton Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Wotherspoon, A.C. [Dept. of Histopathology, Royal Marsden Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Nicholson, A.G. [Dept. of Histopathology, Royal Brompton Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    2000-12-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the imaging features of pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. The chest radiographs (n = 18) and CT scans (n = 17) of 24 patients (18 men and 6 women) aged 27-78 years (mean = 56 years), with a known diagnosis of pulmonary MALT lymphoma, were retrospectively reviewed by two radiologists and the imaging findings are described. Six of the 24 patients had a history of an autoimmune disorder and 1 patient had acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Multiple pulmonary lesions were identified in 19 of 24 patients (79 %) and solitary lesions in 4 of 24 patients (17 %). Diffuse pulmonary infiltration was present in 1 patient. Lesions included masses or mass-like areas of consolidation (n = 21) and pulmonary nodules (n = 18). Associated findings were air bronchograms, airway dilatation, a positive angiogram sign and a halo of ground-glass shadowing at lesion margins. Peribronchovascular thickening was also observed, as were hilar or mediastinal lymph node enlargement and pleural effusions or thickening. Although rare, the diagnosis of pulmonary MALT lymphoma should be considered in patients with the imaging features described, particularly when in association with an indolent clinical course or a history of autoimmune disease. (orig.)

  9. [Fluctuant pulmonary nodules as presentation of a MALT lymphoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolz Aspas, R; Toyas Miazza, C; Ruiz Ruiz, F; Morales Rull, J L; Pérez Calvo, J I

    2003-11-01

    Mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas are a group of non- Hodgkin"s lymphomas of low malignancy degree. The most frequent location is the gastrointestinal tract. Its primary pulmonary presentation is unusual and heterogeneous from point of view radiological. Woman 61 years old with antecedents of vitiligo, gastric ulcus, cirrhosis by VHC, that go into the hospital by sudden disnea, thoracic paint with pleural characterises and fever of 38.5 degrees C, Her thorax radiography and thoracic TAC showed nodes that affect to different pulmonary lobes. The cytology by PAAF confirms their malignant nature. In subsequent radiological controls it was notice the nodels took away completely and returns in different pulmonary place in each recurrence. The presentation like fluctuant pulmonary nodes is exceptional in a MALT lymphoma. It was described a higher incidence of VHC infection and tumour. The evidence of chronic hepatitis by virus C disease, and local chronic inflammatory process as well as autoimmune disorders may be considerate like a factor that contribute to MALT lymphoma.

  10. Effect of dietary supplementation with malt extracts on milk production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Formigoni

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The transition period of a cow is characterized by marked changes in metabolism as the cow prepares for parturition and lactogenesis. Aim of the present study was the evaluation of the effect of feeding dairy cows with malt extracts on milk production. Ten days before calving, 22 multiparous Holstein dairy cows were divided in two groups and received for four months the same base diet added with an experimental concentrate (1.5kg/cow/day containing either corn starch and malt extracts (ME or only corn starch (CS as the main energy source. Dry matter intake was not influenced by treatment and averaged 21.7kg of DM/cow/day. The use of malt extracts determined a numerical increase of milk yield (+0.7kg/cow/day, i.e. +2.5% but this difference did not reach the significance level. Milk quality parameters were not influenced by treatment. Further studies will be needed to assess if feeding diets rich in very high fermentable carbohydrates to transition dairy cows can be a valuable strategy.

  11. MALT 90: The Millimeter Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, James M.; Foster, J.; Brooks, K.; Rathborne, J.; Longmore, S.

    2011-05-01

    We present the first season results of the Millimeter Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz Survey (MALT90), which will image 3 mm molecular line emission from 3,000 dense star-forming cores. MALT90 exploits the capability of the ATNF Mopra 22 m telescope for fast mapping and simultaneous imaging of 16 molecular lines near 90 GHz. These molecular lines will probe the cores’ physical, chemical, and evolutionary state. The target cores are selected from the 870 micron ATLASGAL survey to host the early stages of high-mass star formation and to span the complete range of evolutionary states from pre-stellar cores, to protostellar cores, and on to H II regions. Each core will be mapped at excellent angular (40'') and spectral (0.1 km/s) resolution. We present preliminary results for four key science projects: (1) determining the kinematic distances and Galactic distribution of dense cores, (2) establishing the distribution and evolution of angular momentum in a large sample of high-mass cores, (3) investigating the chemical evolution of dense cores, and (4) comparing the extragalactic molecular line-infrared luminosity correlations with those in Galactic cores. MALT90 will provide the definitive source list of high-mass dense cores for ALMA.

  12. Malt liquor marketing in inner cities: the role of neighborhood racial composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Pat; Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Hannan, Peter; Pham, Lan

    2011-01-01

    In response to anecdotal reports that African American neighborhoods are targeted for high-alcohol malt liquor advertising, the authors observed alcohol ads on off-premise alcohol outlets, billboards, and transit structures in 10 U.S. cities over 3 years. Malt liquor ads were prevalent on storefronts, but rare on billboards. Using Poisson regression, the authors found that storefront malt liquor ads were more common in neighborhoods with higher percentages of African Americans, even after controlling for social and physical disorder. Results suggest that policymakers attempting to reduce malt liquor-related harms may do well to consider regulations that limit storefront advertising exposure.

  13. Linfoma tipo MALT de la glándula parótida Lymphoma type MALT of the parotid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Frómeta Neira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Los linfomas tipo MALT (tejido linfoideo asociado a mucosa, constituyen la variedad más recientemente descubierta de los linfomas no Hodgkin, tienen lugar fundamentalmente en la mucosa gástrica asociados a infección por Helycobacter pylori, y en la glándula tiroides en relación con la tiroiditis de Hashimoto. Sin embargo, internacionalmente se han descrito casos en glándulas salivales asociados a linfoadenitis. La naturaleza de la lesión a menudo no puede ser determinada solo por el estudio citológico; se hace necesario el análisis histopatológico para el diagnóstico definitivo en la mayoría de los casos. El presente estudio muestra un paciente masculino con aumento de volumen bilateral de ambas glándulas parótidas y diagnóstico citohistopatológico de un proceso linfoepitelial benigno, el cual desarrolló un linfoma tipo MALT en relación con la glándula parótida derecha.The lymphomas type MALT or the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue, are the most recent variety of non-Hodgkin lymphomas present mainly in the gastric mucosa associated with Helycobacter pylori infection and in the thyroid gland in relation to Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Frequently the origin of this lesion can't be determined only by cytology study, thus it is necessary the histopathology analysis for a definitive diagnosis in most cases. Present paper includes the case of male patient with bilateral volume increase of both parotid glands and a diagnosis cytopathological of a benign lymphoepithelial process and the development of a type MALT lymphoma in relation to the right parotid gland.

  14. MALT1 Protease Activity Is Required for Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong W Yu

    Full Text Available CARMA-BCL10-MALT1 signalosomes play important roles in antigen receptor signaling and other pathways. Previous studies have suggested that as part of this complex, MALT1 functions as both a scaffolding protein to activate NF-κB through recruitment of ubiquitin ligases, and as a protease to cleave and inactivate downstream inhibitory signaling proteins. However, our understanding of the relative importance of these two distinct MALT1 activities has been hampered by a lack of selective MALT1 protease inhibitors with suitable pharmacologic properties. To fully investigate the role of MALT1 protease activity, we generated mice homozygous for a protease-dead mutation in MALT1. We found that some, but not all, MALT1 functions in immune cells were dependent upon its protease activity. Protease-dead mice had defects in the generation of splenic marginal zone and peritoneal B1 B cells. CD4+ and CD8+ T cells displayed decreased T cell receptor-stimulated proliferation and IL-2 production while B cell receptor-stimulated proliferation was partially dependent on protease activity. In dendritic cells, stimulation of cytokine production through the Dectin-1, Dectin-2, and Mincle C-type lectin receptors was also found to be partially dependent upon protease activity. In vivo, protease-dead mice had reduced basal immunoglobulin levels, and showed defective responses to immunization with T-dependent and T-independent antigens. Surprisingly, despite these decreased responses, MALT1 protease-dead mice, but not MALT1 null mice, developed mixed inflammatory cell infiltrates in multiple organs, suggesting MALT1 protease activity plays a role in immune homeostasis. These findings highlight the importance of MALT1 protease activity in multiple immune cell types, and in integrating immune responses in vivo.

  15. MALT1 Controls Attenuated Rabies Virus by Inducing Early Inflammation and T Cell Activation in the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT MALT1 is involved in the activation of immune responses, as well as in the proliferation and survival of certain cancer cells. MALT1 acts as a scaffold protein for NF-κB signaling and a cysteine protease that cleaves substrates, further promoting the expression of immunoregulatory genes. Deregulated MALT1 activity has been associated with autoimmunity and cancer, implicating MALT1 as a new therapeutic target. Although MALT1 deficiency has been shown to protect against experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, nothing is known about the impact of MALT1 on virus infection in the central nervous system. Here, we studied infection with an attenuated rabies virus, Evelyn-Rotnycki-Abelseth (ERA) virus, and observed increased susceptibility with ERA virus in MALT1−/− mice. Indeed, after intranasal infection with ERA virus, wild-type mice developed mild transient clinical signs with recovery at 35 days postinoculation (dpi). Interestingly, MALT1−/− mice developed severe disease requiring euthanasia at around 17 dpi. A decreased induction of inflammatory gene expression and cell infiltration and activation was observed in MALT1−/− mice at 10 dpi compared to MALT1+/+ infected mice. At 17 dpi, however, the level of inflammatory cell activation was comparable to that observed in MALT1+/+ mice. Moreover, MALT1−/− mice failed to produce virus-neutralizing antibodies. Similar results were obtained with specific inactivation of MALT1 in T cells. Finally, treatment of wild-type mice with mepazine, a MALT1 protease inhibitor, also led to mortality upon ERA virus infection. These data emphasize the importance of early inflammation and activation of T cells through MALT1 for controlling the virulence of an attenuated rabies virus in the brain. IMPORTANCE Rabies virus is a neurotropic virus which can infect any mammal. Annually, 59,000 people die from rabies. Effective therapy is lacking and hampered by gaps in the understanding of virus pathogenicity. MALT1

  16. MALT1 Controls Attenuated Rabies Virus by Inducing Early Inflammation and T Cell Activation in the Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kip, E; Staal, J; Verstrepen, L; Tima, H G; Terryn, S; Romano, M; Lemeire, K; Suin, V; Hamouda, A; Kalai, M; Beyaert, R; Van Gucht, S

    2018-04-15

    MALT1 is involved in the activation of immune responses, as well as in the proliferation and survival of certain cancer cells. MALT1 acts as a scaffold protein for NF-κB signaling and a cysteine protease that cleaves substrates, further promoting the expression of immunoregulatory genes. Deregulated MALT1 activity has been associated with autoimmunity and cancer, implicating MALT1 as a new therapeutic target. Although MALT1 deficiency has been shown to protect against experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, nothing is known about the impact of MALT1 on virus infection in the central nervous system. Here, we studied infection with an attenuated rabies virus, Evelyn-Rotnycki-Abelseth (ERA) virus, and observed increased susceptibility with ERA virus in MALT1 -/- mice. Indeed, after intranasal infection with ERA virus, wild-type mice developed mild transient clinical signs with recovery at 35 days postinoculation (dpi). Interestingly, MALT1 -/- mice developed severe disease requiring euthanasia at around 17 dpi. A decreased induction of inflammatory gene expression and cell infiltration and activation was observed in MALT1 -/- mice at 10 dpi compared to MALT1 +/+ infected mice. At 17 dpi, however, the level of inflammatory cell activation was comparable to that observed in MALT1 +/+ mice. Moreover, MALT1 -/- mice failed to produce virus-neutralizing antibodies. Similar results were obtained with specific inactivation of MALT1 in T cells. Finally, treatment of wild-type mice with mepazine, a MALT1 protease inhibitor, also led to mortality upon ERA virus infection. These data emphasize the importance of early inflammation and activation of T cells through MALT1 for controlling the virulence of an attenuated rabies virus in the brain. IMPORTANCE Rabies virus is a neurotropic virus which can infect any mammal. Annually, 59,000 people die from rabies. Effective therapy is lacking and hampered by gaps in the understanding of virus pathogenicity. MALT1 is an intracellular

  17. Use of the GREAT-ER model to estimate mass fluxes of chemicals, carried into the Western Scheldt estuary from the Rupel basin

    OpenAIRE

    Schowanek, D.

    2002-01-01

    The poster illustrates the application of the GREAT-ER model to estimate the mass flux of chemicals carried from a river basin into an estuary. GREAT-ER (Geo-referenced Regional Exposure Assessment Tool for European Rivers) is a newly developed model (1999) for management and risk assessment of chemicals in river basins (see www.great-er.org). Recently the Rupel basin has been made available for use within GREAT-ER. This now allows to make a reliable estimation of the contribution of pollu...

  18. The effects of malting conditions on the diastatic power of three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of malting conditions on the diastatic power of three malted sorghum cultivars (SK 5912, ICSV 400 and KSV 8) were investigated. The three Nigerian sorghum cultivars were steeped in 0.01M NaOH, 0.01M Ca(OH)2 and distilled water, respectively, under air-rest and continuous steeping regimes. SK 5912 ...

  19. Primary lymphoma of mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) in the parotid gland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balm, A. J.; Delaere, P.; Hilgers, F. J.; Somers, R.; van Heerde, P.

    1993-01-01

    Malignant lymphoma of the parotid gland is a rare condition. In a series of 365 malignant lymphomas of the head and neck seven cases (1.9%) presented with a stage I/II MALT lymphoma of the parotid gland, originating from Mucosa Associated Lymphoid Tissue (MALT) and exhibiting the histological

  20. Malt barley yield and quality affected by irrigation, tillage, crop rotation, and nitrogen fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known about the comparison of management practices on malt barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) yield and quality in irrigated and non-irrigated cropping systems. We evaluated the effects of irrigation, tillage, cropping system, and N fertilization on malt barley yield and quality in a sandy loam s...

  1. Assessment of the quality of ogi made from malted millet | Inyang ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ogi, a cereal fermented paste was produced from millet containing different levels (0, 5, 10%) of millet malts. Proximate composition of the ogi samples determined using the AOAC method showed increase in moisture, protein, ash and crude fibre contents with increasing malting levels. The increased protein value is a ...

  2. Effects of Net Blotch ( Pyrenophora teres ) on Malt Barley Yield and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) production is constrained by diseases such as net blotch caused by Pyrenophora teres Drechsl. The objectives of this study were to assess the effects of net blotch disease on malt barley yield and grain quality under natural infection. Four malt barley varieties (Beka, HB 120, HB 52 and Holker), ...

  3. Acha (Digitaria exilis) Malt as a Source of Enzyme for Bio-Ethanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    ethanol fermentation under various conditions showed that acha malt enzyme is superior to koji enzyme (microbial enzymes) under the three conditions investigated. The superiority of acha malt over koji enzymes may be because of the high β-amylase content as reported by. (Nzelibe and Nwasika 2007) which is the major.

  4. Effects of Sorghum Malting on Colour, Major Classes of Phenolics and Individual Anthocyanins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Khoddami

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor grain contains many health-promoting phytochemicals, including a broad range of phenolic compounds. Malting of cereal grains is known to increase the bioavailability of macro- and micronutrients. However, the detailed effects of malting on sorghum grain anthocyanins, a major class of phenolics that influence the taste and colour of sorghum-based foods, requires further investigation. Eight commercial sorghum hybrids harvested from three regions in eastern Australia were malted and analysed for colour, tannin content, total phenolic content (TPC, flavan-4-ols, total flavonoids, total anthocyanins and 3-deoxyanthocyanins. Grains of all the sorghums were found to be tannin-free. Malting decreased the TPC of all samples. For TPC, the grand means among all the sorghum cultivars for raw and malted grain were 2.77 and 2.48 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE/g, respectively. For flavan-4-ols, the grand means for raw and malted sorghum grains were 2.98 and 2.23 abs/mL/g, respectively. Remarkably, total anthocyanin levels more than doubled upon malting whereas total flavonoid levels decreased by 12%. The average abundance of 3-deoxyanthocyanins in raw sorghum grains increased for about 8-fold upon malting. Our results will be valuable for sorghum breeders in the selection of lines for specific end uses and for food scientists developing sorghum-based products.

  5. [Marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type (MALT lymphoma)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Tsutomu; Suzumiya, Junji

    2014-03-01

    Extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type (MALT lymphoma) is a B-cell tumor thought to originate from B-lymphocytes that are normally present in the marginal zone of lymphoid follicles of the lymphoid tissue. About 50% of MALT lymphoma occurs in gastrointestinal tract. The majority of patients present with localized disease and indolent clinical progression. In localized gastric MALT lymphoma with Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection, HP eradication is recommended as first line therapy. In those without HP infection and localized non-gastric MALT lymphoma, involved field radiation therapy(IFRT) is recommended as first line therapy. Patients in advanced stage and salvage setting are managed according to the recommendations for advanced follicular lymphoma. The long-term survival rate of MALT lymphoma patients is 80-90%.

  6. Malting Characteristics of Some Sorghum and Millet Grain Varieties Grown in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makokha, A.O; Makwaka, A.M; Oniang'o, R.O; Njoroge, S.M

    1999-01-01

    Industrial malt in Kenya for commercial beer production is made exclusively from barley. This study explored the potential of producing suitable malt from some sorghum and finger millet grain varieties grown in Kenya. Malting characteristics of two sorghum grain varieties, KARI Mtama-1 and local Red variety, and that of finger millet was done and compared to that of barley. Among the grain characteristics determined before malting were water sensitivity, polyphenol (tannin) content and total protein. The grain was malted by striping in water for 48 h, followed by germination for four days at 25 degrees celcious, then kilned at 50 degrees celcious for 24 h. The malting characteristics determined included total soluble N, free amino N, wort pH and fermentable sugars. The local red sorghum and millet had high polyphenol content while KARI Mtama-1 and barley had low levels. KARI Mtama-1 had positive water sensitivity while barley had negative sensitivity. Finger millet and local red sorghum were water insensitive. Free amino N was 113, 125, 144, and 154mg 100g - 1 malt for millet, barley, local Red and KARI Mtama-1, respectively. Total fermentation sugars were 307, 477, 610 and 178 mg 1 - 1 for finger millet, local red, barley and KARI Mtama 1 , respectively. The results showed that that the proteolytic and amyloytic characteristics of the KARI Mtama-1 malt are largely similar to those of barley. Hence the KARI Mtama-1 malt are largely similar to those of barley. Hence the KARI Mtama-1 has good potential fro conventional lager beer production. Malts of local Red sorghum grain and millet may be more suitable for industrial production of opaque/cloudy beer

  7. Purificação de amilases de malte de Zea mays Purification of amylases from Zea mays malt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Paula Menezes Biazus

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho realizou-se a purificação das enzimas α e β-amilases de malte de milho combinando os processos de adsorção em leito expandido com o fracionamento por etanol. Alimentaram-se 5 mL de uma solução a 2% de malte de milho em tampão fosfato 0,05 M a pH 5 em uma coluna contendo as resinas de troca iônica Amberlite IRA 410, em leito fixo de 4 cm fluidizado para 8 cm. A eluição foi promovida com NaCl 0,25M com 14 mL/minuto de vazão descendente e o material eluído foi fracionado com álcool etílico nas concentrações de 40-70%, 50-80% e 60-90% (v/v a 20 e 30 ºC. A recuperação da atividade e o fator de purificação foram de 95% e 23 vezes, respectivamente, na primeira etapa. A melhor condição de fracionamento das enzimas foi apresentada a 50-80% de álcool e 20 ºC, e o fator de purificação ficou acima de 100 vezes.In the present work the purification of α and β-amylase enzymes of maize malt was carried out by expanded bed adsorption and ethanol fractionation downstream processes. 5 mL of 2% maize malt solution in 0.05 M phosphate buffer at pH was injected into a chromatographic column containing Amberlite 410 ion-exchange resin, on a 4 cm fixed bed fluidized to 8 cm. 0.25 M NaCl solution at 14 mL/ minuto of descending flux was used for promotion of the elution, the eluted matter was fractioned by 40-70, 50-80 and 60-90% ethyl alcohol concentration at 20 and 30 ºC. Activity recovery and purification factor were of 95% and 23 times, respectively, in the first step. 50-80% alcohol concentration at 20ºC was the best condition, in which a purification factor of more than 100 times was achieved.

  8. Malting of barley with combinations of Lactobacillus plantarum, Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma reesei, Rhizopus oligosporus and Geotrichum candidum to enhance malt quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattingh, M; Alexander, A; Meijering, I; van Reenen, C A; Dicks, L M T

    2014-03-03

    Good quality malt is characterised by the presence of high levels of fermentable sugars, amino acids and vitamins. To reach the starch-rich endosperm of the kernel, β-glucan- and arabinoxylan-rich cell walls have to be degraded. β-Glucanase is synthesized in vast quantities by the aleurone layer and scutellum during germination. Secretion of hydrolytic enzymes is often stimulated by addition of the plant hormone gibberellic acid (GA3) during germination. We have shown an enhanced β-glucanase and α-amylase activity in malt when germinating barley was inoculated with a combination of Lactobacillus plantarum B.S1.6 and spores of Aspergillus niger MH1, Rhizopus oligosporus MH2 or Trichoderma reesei MH3, and L. plantarum B.S1.6 combined with cell-free culture supernatants from each of these fungi. Highest malt β-glucanase activity (414 Units/kg malt) was recorded with a combination of L. plantarum B.S1.6 and spores of A. niger MH1. Highest α-amylase activities were recorded with a combination of L. plantarum B.S1.6 and spores of R. oligosporus MH2 (373 Ceralpha Units/g malt). Highest FAN levels were recorded when L. plantarum was inoculated in combination with spores of either R. oligosporus MH2 or T. reesei MH3 (259 and 260 ppm, respectively). This is the first study showing that cell-free culture supernatants of Aspergillus, Rhizopus and Trichoderma have a stimulating effect on β-glucanase and α-amylase production during malting. A combination of L. plantarum B.S1.6, and spores of A. niger MH1 and R. oligosporus MH2 may be used as starter cultures to enhance malt quality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Hardness as a modification index for malting red and white sorghum (kaffir) grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uvere, Peter O; Ngoddy, Patrick O; Nwankwo, Chibuzo S

    2014-03-30

    This study investigated changes in the resistance to fracture of malting red and white sorghum grains using a hardness tester as another method for monitoring grain modification. Grain hardness decreased progressively from 134.35 N and 137.29 N in malting red and white sorghums and levelled off after 120 h at 76.98 N and 69.14 N. In the red grain malts traditionally used for burukutu production, moisture content (r = -0.983), dhurrinase activity (r = -0.981), malting loss (r = -0.981), free amino nitrogen (r = -0.909) and cold water extract (r = -0.908) were better indicators of grain hardness than root length (r = -0.89). In the white sorghum malts, malting loss (r = -0.988), dhurrinase activity (r = -0.954) and diastatic activity (r = -0.936) were better indicators of grain modification than root length (r = -0.916). The soluble nitrogen ratio at the end of malting was lower in the red (0.049) compared with the white (0.0548). Grain hardness using a hand-held tester is a simple, fast and good index of modification of malting red and white sorghum grains. Oven-dried red and white sorghum malts could be considered to be well modified at hardness values/indices below 77 N/0.5730 and 72 N/0.5036, respectively. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Influence of domestic livestock grazing on American Pika (Ochotona princeps) forage and haypiling behavior in the Great Basin. Western North American Naturalist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constance I. Millar

    2011-01-01

    In a pilot study, I observed a relationship between domestic livestock grazing and location of American pika (Ochotona princeps) haypiles in the eastern Sierra Nevada and several Great Basin mountain ranges. Where vegetation communities adjacent to talus bases (forefields) were grazed, mean distance from the talus borders to the closest fresh...

  11. Using natural and synthetic growth regulators of plants in industrial mycology and malting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Kuznetcova

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Data on the expansion of the use the plants growth regulators in different areas are presented. The positive impact of the growth stimulators on the development of the Pleurotus ostreatus mycelium’s on agar nutrient media during surface cultivation is shown. The results for growth regulators stimulating effect on the fungus biosynthetic activity in submerged cultures are obtained. The possibility of using fumar and heteroauxin for malting is considered. The decline of malting time and increase of amylolytic activity of the malt are recorded.

  12. Conjunctival marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (MALT lymphoma) with amyloid and relapse in the stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topalkara, A; Ben-Arie-Weintrob, Y; Ferry, J A; Foster, C S

    2007-01-01

    The authors report a localized (primary) conjunctival marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)-type), with amyloid deposition with relapse in the stomach, 14 months after the initial diagnosis. Ocular adnexal marginal zone B-cell MALT lymphoma is often localized at diagnosis; some relapse in typical MALT sites. There are few reports of localized conjunctival lymphoma with a relapse in the stomach. The authors suggest that all patients with localized ocular adnexal lymphoma be followed for an extended period.

  13. UASB reactor start up in real scale for malting effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, I.; Passeggi, M.; Boix, C.; Barcia, R.; Borzacconi, L.; Liebermann, L.

    2005-01-01

    An Imhoff tank was reconstructed into a 250 m3 UASB reactor in order to treat a malting plant wastewater.The UASB was inoculated with sludge from an anaerobic lagoon used for slaughterhouse wastewater treatment.The fat present in the inoculated sludge did not affect the start up performance. After two month of operation the reactor achieved full load with COD removal higher than 80% and a biogas production of 300 m3/day. The mean diameter of granules was 0a.milimeters and the Specific Methanogenic Activity was 0.25 g COD/gVSS.d The banquet development throughout time (solids concentrations at different heights, granule size, methanogenic activity) was monitored. A yield coefficient of 0.09 gVSS/g COD rem was found

  14. The sustainable utilization of malting industry wastewater biological treatment sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilenko, T. A.; Svintsov, A. V.; Chernysh, I. V.

    2018-01-01

    The article deals with the research of using the sludge from malting industry wastewater’s biological treatment and the calcium carbonate slurry as organo-mineral fertilizing additives. The sludge, generated as a result of industrial wastewater biological treatment, is subject to dumping at solid domestic waste landfills, which has a negative impact on the environment, though its properties and composition allow using it as an organic fertilizer. The physical and chemical properties of both wastes have been studied; the recommendations concerning the optimum composition of soil mix, containing the above-mentioned components, have been provided. The phytotoxic effect on the germination capacity and sprouts of cress (Lepidium sativum), barley (Hordéum vulgáre) and oats (Avena sativa) in soil mixes has been determined. The heavy metals and arsenic contents in the sludge does not exceed the allowable level; it is also free of pathogenic flora and helminthes.

  15. Progress Report Natsurv 1 K5_2285/3 The Malt Brewing Industry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ramukhwatho, Fhumulani R

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This presentation includes an overview of the malt brewing industry, and uses a literature survey to gain an understanding of production processes, process inputs, waste streams, technologies evolution and the legislative framework. It concludes...

  16. Synchronous triple occurrence of MALT lymphoma, schwannoma, and adenocarcinoma of the stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyeong W; Joo, Mee; Kim, Han S; Lee, Woo Y

    2017-06-14

    We present a case of a 56-year-old man with 3 synchronous gastric tumors. The patient presented with melena, and 3 gastric abnormalities were detected on gastroduodenoscopic examination, including a small ulcerative lesion in the gastric antrum, a submucosal mass in the gastric body, and severe erosion in the fundus. Histological examination of biopsy samples yielded respective diagnoses of gastric adenocarcinoma, gastritis, and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. The patient first received medication to eradicate any underlying Helicobacter pylori infection, which might have been a cause of the MALT lymphoma. Four weeks later, after examination of repeat biopsy samples revealed that the MALT lymphoma had resolved, the patient underwent subtotal gastrectomy. Further histological examination of resected tissue confirmed the antrum lesion as adenocarcinoma and the body lesion as schwannoma. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of synchronous triple primary gastric adenocarcinoma, MALT lymphoma, and schwannoma.

  17. Effects of Fusarium Head Blight on Wheat Grain and Malt Infected by Fusarium culmorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Spanic

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium head blight is a destructive disease of cereals worldwide. The aim of this research was to study the effect of heavy Fusarium infection with Fusarium culmorum and biosynthesis of mycotoxins on different wheat varieties during malting by setting up field trials with control and Fusarium-inoculated treatments at the Agricultural Institute Osijek. The highest occurrence of Fusarium mycotoxins was expectedly recorded in susceptible variety in grain and malt (3247 and 1484 µg kg−1 for deoxynivalenol (DON, 735 and 1116 µg kg−1 for 3-acetyl deoxynivalenol (3-ADON, 37 and 233 µg kg−1 for zearalenone (ZEN, respectively. Based on published information, complemented by our own results, the following conclusions can be drawn: The presence of 3-ADON in different wheat varieties might be the result of its conversion into DON by deacetylation during the malting process. The detection of the mycotoxin ZEN indicated that this mycotoxin is only specific for wheat malt.

  18. Fermentation adaptability of three probiotic Lactobacillus strains to oat, germinated oat and malted oat substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Ponce, A; Nevárez-Morillón, G; Ortega-Rívas, E; Pérez-Vega, S; Salmerón, I

    2014-10-01

    Functional foods targeting the improvement of gastrointestinal health are widely recognized; of these, dairy-based probiotics are the most popular. Thus, the design of nondairy probiotics applying fruits, vegetables and cereals has raised great interest in the healthy food sector. The objective of this work was to assess the potential of germinated and malted oat substrates to support the growth of the probiotic cultures Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus rhamnosus. Fermentations were carried out with distinctive oat substrates at inoculum levels of 3, 5 and 7% v/v, substrate concentrations of 3, 5 and 7% w/v and with sucrose addition 1·5% w/v. Lag phase profiles, maximum growth rates and maximal growths were evaluated; protein and sugar contents were also quantified. There was no significant effect (P > 0·05) of the inoculum size on the fermentation kinetics; however, oat media significantly affected the growth kinetics. In simple oat media, Lact. acidophilus exhibited biphasic growth patterns. Lactobacillus growth patterns were significantly affected (P viability of the probiotic lactobacilli; Lactobacillus casei exhibited better growth adaptability. The results also highlight that different weight in volume oat substrate concentrations has particular effects on Lact. casei growth kinetics. Our results contribute to a better understanding of oat-based media formulations as substrates for probiotic cultures. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Caracterização da atividade amilásica do malte de milho (Zea mays L. = Characterization of amylase activity from maize (Zea mays L. malt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Paula Menezes Biazus

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou estudar o processo de germinação e a caracterização da atividade bioquímica das amilases do malte de milho (Zea mays L. para gerar uma fonte de amilase de baixo custo e boa atividade enzimática. A atividade enzimática foi monitorada todos os dias durante a germinação das sementes para se obter a melhor condição de produção do malte. Os resultados mostraram que a atividade enzimática nas sementes foi maior no 4º. dia de germinação. A caracterização bioquímica mostrou que as amilases do malte apresentam faixa ótima de pH entre 4,3 e 6, com temperaturas ótimas a 50°C e 80ºC e os valores de Km e Vmax para hidrólise do amido foram de 7,69.10-2 g/L e 7,69.102g/L.min, respectivamente.This work aimed to study the germination process and characterization of the amylolytic activity of the maize (Zea mays L. malt aiming to obtain source amylases at lower cost. Enzymatic activity was monitored all days during the seed germination, for obtaining thebest condition of malt production. Results showed that the enzymatic activity from maize seeds was larger in 4° germination day. Enzymes characterization showed that the maize malt amylases have optimal zone of pH between 4.3 and 6, with optimal temperatures of 50°C and 80ºC. The Km and Vmax values for starch hydrolysis were 7.69.10-2 g/L and 7.69.102g/L.min, respectively.

  20. Physico-Chemical Characterization of Brew during the Brewing Corn Malt in the Production of Maize Beer in Congo

    OpenAIRE

    P. Diakabana; M. Mvoula-Tsiéri; J. Dhellot; S.C. Kobawila; D. Louembé

    2013-01-01

    The study consists in the production of a traditional beer from maize in the Congo. The traditional method of brewing corn malt has three main stages: malting corn, brewing corn malt and fermentation. During the brewing corn malt, endogenous amylase activity is destroyed during the stiffening of the starch to about 80°C. A pre-cooking of the mash is necessitated to promote amylolyse at 50°C with an exogenous enzyme. The use of a preparation of α-amylase can liquefy the mash and produce a swee...

  1. Zoogeography of the San Andreas Fault system: Great Pacific Fracture Zones correspond with spatially concordant phylogeographic boundaries in western North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottscho, Andrew D

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an ultimate tectonic explanation for several well-studied zoogeographic boundaries along the west coast of North America, specifically, along the boundary of the North American and Pacific plates (the San Andreas Fault system). By reviewing 177 references from the plate tectonics and zoogeography literature, I demonstrate that four Great Pacific Fracture Zones (GPFZs) in the Pacific plate correspond with distributional limits and spatially concordant phylogeographic breaks for a wide variety of marine and terrestrial animals, including invertebrates, fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. These boundaries are: (1) Cape Mendocino and the North Coast Divide, (2) Point Conception and the Transverse Ranges, (3) Punta Eugenia and the Vizcaíno Desert, and (4) Cabo Corrientes and the Sierra Transvolcanica. However, discussion of the GPFZs is mostly absent from the zoogeography and phylogeography literature likely due to a disconnect between biologists and geologists. I argue that the four zoogeographic boundaries reviewed here ultimately originated via the same geological process (triple junction evolution). Finally, I suggest how a comparative phylogeographic approach can be used to test the hypothesis presented here. © 2014 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  2. Preparation of malts for production of special beers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Kábelová-Ficová

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with production of various malts intended for manufacture of special types of beer. The malts were used to brew samples of beer with alcoholic strength ranging between 8 - 12% EPM. The above range of original wort content was chosen due to its suitability for sensory evaluation and properties; in stronger types of beer, (more than 12% EPM, nature of the beverage can be drown by mashy flavour. In the experimental samples, the actual residual extract oscillated between 4.0 - 6.5%. The content of ethanol corresponded to the degree of fermentation and thereby also to the residual actual extract in balance equilibrium specifying that higher residual extract corresponds to lower content of alcohol by volume. It ranged between 2.5 - 5.0%. The sample 1 contained the highest amount of ethanol by mass (3.9% and the sample 13 showed the lowest one (1.9%; alike trend of ethanol content by volume was revealed (5 and 2.44%, respectively. The highest content of actual and apparent extract was found in the sample 2 (6.6 and 5.2%, respectively; the sample 13 showed the lowest levels (4.0 and 3.1%, respectively. The original wort extract content averaged 9.9% in most of the samples; the sample 1 showed distinctly higher value (12.6% and, on the contrary, the sample 13 demonstrated the lowest one (7.4%. The highest relative density was revealed in the sample 2 (1.02% and the lowest one in the sample 13 (1.01%. Considering differences in osmotic pressure, the sample 1 exhibited the highest value (1045 mOs and the sample 13 the lowest one (551 mOs. The highest level of fermentation was found in the sample 19 (61.7%, the lowest one was proved in the sample 19 (44.0%. Sensory analysis corresponded to originality and characteristics of each sample. The sample of beer made from spring barley was evaluated to be the best one.

  3. Treatment of low-grade gastric malt lymphoma using Helicobacter pylori eradication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grgov Saša

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma of the stomach usually occurs as a consequence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term effect of treatment of low-grade gastric MALT lymphoma with the H. pylori eradication method. Methods. In the period 2002-2012 in 20 patients with dyspepsia, mean age 55.1 years, the endoscopic and histologic diagnosis of gastric MALT lymphoma in the early stages were made. Histological preparations of endoscopic biopsy specimens were stained with hematoxyllineosin (HE, histochemical and immunohistochemical methods. Results. Endoscopic findings of gastritis were documented in 25% of the patients, and 75% of the patients had hypertrophic folds, severe mucosal hyperemia, fragility, nodularity, exulcerations and rigidity. Histopathologically, pathognomonic diagnostic criterion were infiltration and destruction of glandular epithelium with neoplastic lymphoid cells, the so-called lymphoepithelial lesions. In all 20 patients H. pylori was verified by rapid urease test and Giemsa stain. After the triple eradication therapy complete remission of MALT lymphoma was achieved in 85% of the patients, with no recurrence of lymphoma and H. pylori infection in the average follow-up period of 48 months. In 3 (15% of the patients, there was no remission of MALT lymphoma 12 months after the eradication therapy. Of these 3 patients 2 had progression of MALT lymphoma to diffuse large-cell lymphoma. Conclusion. Durable complete re-mission of low-grade gastric MALT lymphoma is achieved in a high percentage after eradication of H. pylori infection, thus preventing the formation of diffuse large-cell lymphoma and gastric adenocarcinoma.

  4. Diagnostic role of 18F-FDG PET in gastric MALT lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosini, V.; Castellucci, P.; Nanni, C.; Farsad, M.; Fanti, S.; Rubello, D.; Zinzani, P.; Alavi, A.; Tehranipour, N.; Al-Nahhas, A.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the usefulness of 18 F-FDG-PET in patients with gastric lymphoma, in particular those affected by mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type and aggressive gastric non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). The study group consists of 15 patients with a previous diagnosis of gastric NHL referred to our PET centres in Bologna Hospital and Rovigo Hospital, Italy, in the period 2003-2004. In 9/15 patients the subsequent histological evaluation was consistent with a gastric MALT lymphoma, while aggressive gastric NHL was diagnosed in the other 6/15. PET scan was carried out in patients with known active disease in order to stage or re-stage disease prior to treatment or in patients in complete clinical remission to monitor disease during follow up. Patients were considered in complete clinical remission if free from disease for at least 8 months after chemotherapy or surgery. 18 F-FDG PET was performed following standard procedures. 18 F-FDG-PET was true positive in all cases of gastric MALT and non-MALT aggressive NHL with known active disease, while no pathological 18 F-FDG uptake was evident in the subjects who were in complete clinical remission. The degree of 18 F-FDG uptake (mean SUVmax values) in MALT lymphoma was much less intense in comparison to aggressive gastric NHL, suggesting a prognostic role of SUV calculation in gastric lymphomas. Our data demonstrate the significant accuracy of 18 F-FDG-PET in detecting active disease in gastric lymphoma of both MALT and non-MALT NHL type. A higher SUV value appears to be related to a more aggressive disease. (author)

  5. MALT90 Kinematic Distances to Dense Molecular Clumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitaker, J. Scott [Physics Department, Boston University, 590 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Jackson, James M.; Sanhueza, Patricio; Stephens, Ian W. [Institute for Astrophysical Research, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Rathborne, J. M. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, P.O. Box 76, Epping NSW 1710 (Australia); Foster, J. B. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 28101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States); Contreras, Y. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Longmore, S. N., E-mail: scott@bu.edu [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Egerton Wharf, Birkenhead CH41 1LD (United Kingdom)

    2017-10-01

    Using molecular-line data from the Millimetre Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz Survey (MALT90), we have estimated kinematic distances to 1905 molecular clumps identified in the ATLASGAL 870 μ m continuum survey over the longitude range 295° <  l  < 350°. The clump velocities were determined using a flux-weighted average of the velocities obtained from Gaussian fits to the HCO{sup +}, HNC, and N{sub 2}H{sup +} (1–0) transitions. The near/far kinematic distance ambiguity was addressed by searching for the presence or absence of absorption or self-absorption features in 21 cm atomic hydrogen spectra from the Southern Galactic Plane Survey. Our algorithm provides an estimation of the reliability of the ambiguity resolution. The Galactic distribution of the clumps indicates positions where the clumps are bunched together, and these locations probably trace the locations of spiral arms. Several clumps fall at the predicted location of the far side of the Scutum–Centaurus arm. Moreover, a number of clumps with positive radial velocities are unambiguously located on the far side of the Milky Way at galactocentric radii beyond the solar circle. The measurement of these kinematic distances, in combination with continuum or molecular-line data, now enables the determination of fundamental parameters such as mass, size, and luminosity for each clump.

  6. Dynamic viscosity study of barley malt and chicory concentrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research is to find optimal conditions for dispersing and subsequent dehydration of liquid food environments in the nozzle spray drying chamber through the study of dynamic changes in viscosity according to temperature, velocities gradients and dry residue content. The objects of study were roasted chicory and malt barley concentrates with dry residue content of 20, 40, 60 and 80%. Research of dynamic viscosity were carried out at the measuring complex based on the rotational viscometer Rheotest II, analog-to-digital converter, module Laurent and a personal computer with a unique software that allows to record in real time (not only on a tape recorder, but also in the form of graphic files the behavior of the viscosity characteristics of concentrates. Registration of changes of dynamic viscosity was carried out at a shear rate gradient from 1,0 с -1 to 27,0 с -1 and the products temperature thermostating : 35, 55, 75˚ C. The research results are presented in the form of graphic dependences of effective viscosity on shear rate and flow curves (dependencies of shear stresses on the velocity gradient, which defined flow regimes, the optimal modes of dispersion concentrates into spray dryer chambers in obtaining of powdered semi-finished products and instanting were found: dry residue content - 40 %, concentrate temperature - 75 ˚C, velocity gradient in the air channel of the nozzle at least 20 c-1

  7. Analysis of API2-MALT1 fusion, trisomies, and immunoglobulin VH genes in pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Hongjing; Nakayama, Takahisa; Sakuma, Hidenori; Yamada, Seiji; Sato, Fumihiko; Takino, Hisashi; Okabe, Mitsukuni; Fujiyoshi, Yukio; Hattori, Hideo; Inagaki, Hiroshi

    2011-09-01

    Pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma is unique in that chronic inflammation is rare and that API2-MALT1 fusion, resulting from t(11;18)(q21;q21), occurs frequently. In this study, we examined 20 cases for API2-MALT1 fusion using the multiplex reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and looked for trisomy 3, trisomy 18, and abnormalities of MALT1 and IGH genes using fluorescence in situ hybridization. In addition, we analyzed VH genes by subcloning of the monoclonal polymerase chain reaction products. Of 20 cases studied, we detected gene abnormalities in 16: API2-MALT1 fusion in 9, trisomy 3 in 5, trisomy 18 in 4, MALT1 abnormality in 13, and IGH abnormality in 1. MALT1 gene abnormalities were concordant with API2-MALT1 fusion or trisomy 18. One case showed API2-MALT1 fusion and trisomy 3. On detection of API2-MALT1 fusion and trisomies, we were able to divide our cases into 3 groups, API2-MALT1 positive, trisomy positive, and no detectable gene abnormality, suggesting that tumor development had processed along different genetic pathways. All 20 cases were analyzed for VH genes. Most of the VH genes selected by the lymphomas belonged to the VH3 family, but there was no restriction to any particular VH fragment. Of interest, VH genes were unmutated in 7 cases, suggesting that T-cell-independent extrafollicular B-cell maturation may be important in the development of this lymphoma. In addition, both mutated and unmutated tumor cases were found to carry the API2-MALT1 fusion and trisomy 3. This observation suggests that these gene abnormalities may occur in microenvironments found before or outside of follicular germinal centers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Histopathological Assessment and Immunohistochemical Study of Nasopharyngeal Low Grade MALT Lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Hawary, A.K.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: MALT lymphoma arises in a variety of body tissues, but most often in the stomach. Though relatively rare, these MALT lymphomas may arise within several sites in the head and neck, and often present diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Immunohistochemical analysis are helpful in confirming the diagnosis between the MALT-lymphoma and the reactive lymphoid hyperplasia. MALT-type lymphoma demonstrated characteristic negative staining for CD3, CD5 and CD43, positive staining for CD20, and monotypic staining for either kappa or lambda light chain immunoglobulin markers, whereas reactive lymphoid hyperplasia all expressed Band T cell markers. Material and Methods: 41 cases of nasopharyngeal masses were obtained from the files at pathology department, Mansoura Faculty of Medicine through the period from 2002 till 2006. 31 cases were corresponded histomorphologically to low-grade B-cell lymphoma of mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type and 10 patients with reactive lymphoid hyperplasia of the adenoid. Hematoxylin-eosin-stained slides were reviewed to confirm the diagnosis. Immunohistochemical studies were performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections using the labeled streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method with DAB as chromogen. The following antibodies were evaluated CD20, CD3, Kappa, lambda and cytokeratin antibodies. Results: All cases of low grade MALT lymphoma show Iymphoepitheliallesion and proliferation of centrocyte like cells. 14 cases (45.1 %) show subepithelial plasma cells. Dutcher bodies were demonstrated in 10 cases (32.2%). Monocytoid B-cells were seen in 12 cases (38.7%). Six (60%) out of the ten cases of adenoids show transmigrating lymphocyte without formation of lymphoepithelial lesion. All cases with MALT-type lymphoma expressed CD20 and not CD3 whereas 10 cases of adenoid, all expressed Band T cell markers. Immunohistochemical staining showed that 31 cases of low grade MALT lymphoma were positive for immunoglobin

  9. FERMENTATION ACTIVITY OF LACTOSE-FERMENTATION YEAST IN WHEY-MALT WORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Greek

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The main parameters of fermentation of whey-malt wort with the use of different strains of lactose-fermentation yeast was investigated experimentally. According to the findings of investigation of fermentive activity for different types of lactose-fermentation microorganisms in whey-malt wort it was found that the most active spirituous fermentation for all parameters was in wort fermented by microorganisms Zygosaccharomyces lactis 868-K and Saccharomyces lactis 95. High capacity for utilization of malt carbohydrates represented by easily metabolized carbohydrates of malt extract was determined. Also organoleptic analysis of fermented whey drinks derived from the renewed mixtures of dry whey and fermented malt and yeast Zygosaccharomyces lactis 868-K and Saccharomyces lactis 95 was carried out. It was found that the drink fermented with yeast Zygosaccharomyces lactis 868-K had intense refreshing flavor of rye bread with fruit tones. Intensity growth of aromatization for complex of sample with microorganisms Saccharomyces lactis 95, indicating high organoleptic indexes of the drink was observed.

  10. Helicobacter pylori-Negative Primary Rectal MALT Lymphoma: Complete Remission after Radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuma Okamura

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Rectal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma is a rare condition. Although the majority of patients undergo surgical resection, a definitive treatment for rectal MALT lymphoma has not yet been established. In the present study, we report the outcome of radiotherapy in 3 patients with rectal MALT lymphoma. Our cohort ranged from 56 to 65 years of age. The male/female ratio was 1:2, and all patients were in stage I (Lugano classification of the disease. Endoscopic findings revealed elevated lesions resembling submucosal tumors in 2 patients, and a sessile elevated lesion with a nodular surface in 1 patient. One of the 3 patients underwent magnifying endoscopy with crystal violet staining that demonstrated a type I pit pattern (Kudo’s classification lesion with a broad intervening area caused by the upthrust of the tumor from the submucosa. All patients tolerated radiotherapy at doses of 30 Gy without major complications and achieved complete remission. Follow-up ranged from 13 to 75 months (mean 51.0 months, revealing no recurrence of MALT lymphoma. As such, we propose radiotherapy to be a safe and effective means for treating rectal MALT lymphoma.

  11. Mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma) of the urinary bladder: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, T.; Masters, J.; Chan, K.; Jose, C.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma) of the urinary bladder is a rare condition. The best treatment approach for this disease is controversial. A case report on a patient with MALT lymphoma of the urinary bladder. The relevant current literature was reviewed. A 79 year old lady presented with haematuria in 2002. Ultrasound of the pelvis showed a large tumour in the bladder. Cystoscopy revealed a mass arising from the bladder. Transurethral resection of the tumour was performed. Histology showed Non Hodgkin's lymphoma of MALT type. CT showed a 8.9 X 7.6 cm solid tumour involving almost whole of the bladder. The patient could not tolerate anti helicobacter treatment and was then treated with radiotherapy. The pelvis was treated with 18 MV photons with a 3 field technique in 2 phases, with CT planning. In phase 1, the pelvis was treated to 24 Gy in 12 fractions, over 2.5 weeks. Phase 2 was treated to a reduced pelvic field, to a dose of 16 Gy in 8 fractions over 1.5 weeks. Five months after radiotherapy, repeat cystoscopy and biopsy of bladder base showed no evidence of malignancy. MALT lymphoma of the urinary bladder responds well to radiotherapy and permits bladder preservation. The current literature in management of MALT lymphoma of urinary bladder is reviewed

  12. Transcriptome analysis of a breeding program pedigree examines gene expression diversity and reveals target genes for malting quality improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advanced cycle breeding utilizes crosses among elite lines and is a successful method to develop new inbreds. However, it results in a reduction in genetic diversity within the breeding population. The development of malting barley varieties requires the adherence to a narrow malting quality profile...

  13. The Effect of Malting Process on Physicochemical and Aerodynamic Characteristics of Two Barley Line of Golestan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bakhshabadi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Malting is one of the biotechnological processes that includes steeping, germination and killing of cereal. This process is performed in controlled environment in which hydrolytic enzymes are synthesized and cell wall, protein and starch of endosperm are largely digested. In this study the malting quality was evaluated in order to select the best line for malt production. The effects of malting process, on terminal velocity and physicochemical characteristics included volume, 1000 kernel weight, protein content, β-glucanase activity and cold water extract of two barely lines (EBYT-88-17 and EBYT-88-20 of Golestan Province were investigated. The experiments were done in a completely randomized design with three replications. The results of the analysis of variance showed that the type of sample (line has a very significant impact on physicochemical and terminal velocity factors (P<0.01. Maximum and minimum volume of malt and barley corresponded to EBYT-88-20 and EBYT-88-17 respectively. The malting process reduced 1000 kernel weight, terminal velocity and increased protein amount, beta glucanase enzyme activity and cold water extraction efficiencies. The level of enzyme activity in malt resulted from EBYT-88-17 line higher than malt prepared of EBYT-88-20 line. Therefore, this line is better to use in preparation of enzyme extracts therefore in the confectionary industry, cakes and cookies

  14. 40 CFR 180.522 - Fumigants for processed grains used in production of fermented malt beverage; tolerances for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... (2) Methyl bromide is used to fumigate corn grits and cracked rice in the production of fermented... production of fermented malt beverage; tolerances for residues. 180.522 Section 180.522 Protection of... production of fermented malt beverage; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Fumigants for processed grain...

  15. Consecutive regression of MALT lymphomas coexisting in the pharyngeal and gastric tissue after the eradication of Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Ivan Potente

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The stomach is one of the most common organs in which mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma develops. It is well established that Helicobacter pylori (Hp infection plays a major role in the development of gastric MALT lymphoma and that the presence of Hp in the gastric mucosa is connected with mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue (MALT.The same tissue is located in the oral cavity and pharynx in Waldayer’s circuit. Recently, the oral cavity was proposed as an extragastric reservoir of Hp infection. We report the case of a 79-year-old female patient with concomitant pharyngeal (MALT lymphoma and Hp-related gastric MALT lymphoma. Gastric MALT lymphoma was detected both through endoscopic examination as well as in biopsies. Pharyngeal MALT lymphoma was also detected in biopsies. Hp has been recognized in the gastric mucosa by positive serum H. pylori antibody and urease tests. Treatment of the Hp infection in our patient using antibiotics led to the regression of both lesions. This is the first case report on the regression of a pharyngeal MALT lymphoma after Hp eradication.

  16. Changes in salivary gland immunohistology and function after rituximab monotherapy in a patient with Sjogren's syndrome and associated MALT lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijpe, J; van Imhoff, GW; Vissink, A; van der Wal, JE; Kluin, PM; Spijkervet, FKL; Kallenberg, CGM; Bootsma, H

    Objectives: To report the successful use of rituximab on salivary gland immunohistology and function in a patient with Sjogren's syndrome ( SS) and associated MALT lymphoma. Case report: The patient was a 42 year old woman with primary SS and associated MALT lymphoma located in the parotid gland and

  17. Maltose effects on barley malt diastatic power enzyme activity and thermostability at high isothermal mashing temperature: I. ß-amylase

    Science.gov (United States)

    The hypothesis that maltose would increase the thermostability of barley malt beta-amylase activity during isothermal mashing was tested at 68, 73 and 78°C and compared to isothermal mashing at 63°C. Finely ground malts of the two-row cultivar Harrington and the six-row cultivar Morex were incubated...

  18. Effect of germination moisture and time on pearl millet malt quality - with respect to its opaque and lager beer brewing potential

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pelembe, LAM

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available , diastatic power, beta-amylase activity, free a-amino nitrogen (FAN), hot water extract and malting loss all increased with level of watering. However, pearl millet malt had a much higher level of beta-amylase and higher FAN than sorghum malt and a similar...

  19. MALT lymphoma and concurrent adenocarcinoma of the prostate: a rare case report and review of the literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Julie Kang

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Primary MALT lymphoma of the prostate is a rare disease which characteristically follows an indolent course. It is believed that infection or chronic inflammation may be triggers for malignant transformation in the prostate, but it is of unknown etiology. Reports of MALT lymphomas of the prostate with other concurrent primary prostate cancers are even more limited. We present the unique case of a 67 year old male with concurrent adenocarcinoma of the prostate and primary MALT lymphoma of the prostate. The patient was treated with standard therapy for prostate adenocarcinoma, which also sufficiently would treat a primary MALT lymphoma. He has been disease-free for over one year for both his primary malignancies. This case confirms that MALT lymphoma can arise concurrently with adenocarcinoma of the prostate.

  20. HELICOBACTER PYLORI AND t(11;18(q21;q21 TRANSLOCATION IN GASTRIC MALT LYMPHOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Sampaio LIMA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Context Gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma is clearly associated with Helicobacter pylori gastritis and can be cured with anti- H pylori therapy alone. The presence of t(11;18(q21;q21 translocation is thought to predict a lower response rate to anti- H pylori treatment. Objectives To study the presence of t(11;18(q21;q21 genetic translocation and its clinical impact in low-grade gastric MALT lymphoma Brazilian patients. Methods A consecutive series of eight patients with gastric MALT lymphoma were submitted to gastroscopy, endoscopic ultrasound, histopathological examination, H pylori search and RT-PCR-based methodology. All patients received anti-H pylori treatment. Eradicated patients were followed-up every 3-6 months for 2 years. Results Eight patients were studied. All patients had tumor involvement restricted to the mucosa or submucosa and seven patients had low-grade gastric MALT lymphoma. All infected patients achieved H pylori eradication. Histological tumor regression was observed in 5/7 (71% of the low-grade gastric MALT lymphoma patients. The presence of t(11;18(q21;q21 translocation was found in 4 (57% of these patients; among them only two had histological tumor regression following H pylori eradication. Conclusions RT-PCR is a feasible and efficient method to detect t(11;18(q21;q21 translocation, being carried out in routine molecular biology laboratories. The early detection of such translocation can be very helpful for better targeting the therapy to be applied to gastric MALT lymphoma patients.

  1. Features of obtaining malt with use of aqueous solutions of organic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Pivovarov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the traditional formulations of essential food products are actively including malt – a valuable dietary product rich in extractives and hydrolytic enzymes, obtained by germination in artificially created conditions. Containing a full set of essential amino acids and a high saccharifying ability of malt, obtained from grain cereals, determines its wide use in the production of beer, alcohol, mono- and poly-malt extracts, bakery products, special types of flour, food additives, cereals, non-alcoholic beverages, lactic acid products and, in particular, in the production of natural coffee substitutes. However, the classical germination technology, which includes 2-3 days of soaking and 5-8 days of germination due to the considerable duration and laboriousness of the process, does not meet the requirements of modern technology and the constantly growing rates of industrial production, so this problem requires finding new and improving existing scientific and technical solutions. The features of malt production using organic acids of different concentrations are presented. The malt production technology has been analyzed and investigated. It includes washing, disinfection, air and water soaking of grains, germination and drying. The feature of the technology under investigation is using of aqueous solutions of butadiene, 3-pyridinecarboxylic acid and pteroylglutamic acid. The results of the inquiry of the effect of these organic acids on energy and the ability of germination of the grain are presented. The optimal values of concentrations of active substances in solutions are revealed. The influence of organic acids on the absorption of grain moisture has been investigated. It has been established that in comparison with the classical technology, the use of these acids as a growth stimulator can reduce the overall length of the reproduction process of the material from 1.5 to 2 times and increase the yield of flour grains in the batch of

  2. Prevalence of HCV infection in nongastric marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of MALT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcaini, L; Burcheri, S; Rossi, A; Paulli, M; Bruno, R; Passamonti, F; Brusamolino, E; Molteni, A; Pulsoni, A; Cox, M C; Orsucci, L; Fabbri, A; Frezzato, M; Voso, M T; Zaja, F; Montanari, F; Merli, M; Pascutto, C; Morra, E; Cortelazzo, S; Lazzarino, M

    2007-02-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is frequently associated with B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. We investigated the prevalence of HCV infection in nongastric marginal zone lymphomas of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) in order to define the relationship between the viral infection and the presenting features, treatment, and outcome. We retrospectively studied 172 patients with a histological diagnosis of marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of MALT, except for stomach, and with available HCV serology, among a series of 208 patients. HCV infection was documented in 60 patients (35%). Most HCV-positive patients (97%) showed a single MALT organ involvement. HCV-positive patients showed a more frequent involvement of skin (35%), salivary glands (25%), and orbit (15%). The majority of stage IV HCV-positive patients (71%) had a single MALT site with bone marrow involvement. The overall response rate was similar in HCV-positive (93%) and HCV-negative patients (87%). Overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) did not differ according to HCV infection. In multivariate analysis, advanced disease (stage III-IV) was associated with a poorer OS (P = 0.0001), irrespective of HCV serostatus. This study shows that nongastric marginal zone lymphomas are characterized by a high prevalence of HCV infection. Patients with involvement of a single MALT site have the highest prevalence of HCV. HCV-positive nongastric lymphomas of MALT show an indolent course similar to HCV-negative patients and seem an ideal target for exploiting the antilymphoma activity of antiviral treatments.

  3. Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (MALT) Lymphoma of the Colon: A Case Report and a Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Hafsa; Niazi, Masooma; Makker, Jasbir

    2017-01-01

    Patient: Female, 56 Final Diagnosis: Colonic MALT lymphoma Symptoms: Epigastric pain Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Colonoscopy and biopsy Specialty: Gastroenterology and Hepatology Objective: Rare disease Background: Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is a well-known hematologic malignancy. The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is the most commonly involved extra nodal site. MALT lymphomas are uncommon, accounting for 5% of all NHL. Gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is the prototype seen in association with Helicobacter pylori. Colonic MALT lymphoma is rare and comprises only 2.5% of the MALT lymphomas. Its etiology and treatment is not well established. Case Report: A 56-year-old Hispanic woman presented to the clinic with symptoms of chronic epigastric pain for the past three years and a 13-pound weight loss over the past two months. The patient did not have any prior medical conditions. Her systemic examination was unremarkable, while her routine labs revealed mild anemia. An upper endoscopy and colonoscopy for colorectal cancer screening were performed revealing erosive gastropathy with duodenal ulcers and a 5 cm broad based polypoid mass in the hepatic flexure respectively. Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen revealed a round, well demarcated mass at the hepatic flexure of the colon. The histopathology and immunophenotyping were consistent with extra nodal marginal zone of MALT lymphoma. Stool testing for H. pylori was positive. The patient received two weeks of H. pylori eradication therapy and four cycles of rituximab. Repeat colonoscopy after completion of chemotherapy showed complete resolution of the MALT lymphoma. Conclusions: Unlike gastric MALT lymphoma, treatment of colonic MALT lymphoma is not standardized. Chemotherapy and surgical resection have been utilized to successfully treat it. Only a handful of cases have reported successful treatment of colonic MALT lymphoma with rituximab monotherapy. PMID:28469125

  4. Great Apes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeman, Jonathan M.; Cerveny, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    Anesthesia of great apes is often necessary to conduct diagnostic analysis, provide therapeutics, facilitate surgical procedures, and enable transport and translocation for conservation purposes. Due to the stress of remote delivery injection of anesthetic agents, recent studies have focused on oral delivery and/or transmucosal absorption of preanesthetic and anesthetic agents. Maintenance of the airway and provision of oxygen is an important aspect of anesthesia in great ape species. The provision of analgesia is an important aspect of the anesthesia protocol for any procedure involving painful stimuli. Opioids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are often administered alone, or in combination to provide multi-modal analgesia. There is increasing conservation management of in situ great ape populations, which has resulted in the development of field anesthesia techniques for free-living great apes for the purposes of translocation, reintroduction into the wild, and clinical interventions.

  5. Profile of the alcohols produced in fermentations with malt contaminated with trichothecenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinehr Christian Oliveira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the influence of mycotoxins on the production of alcohols, a fermentative process on a laboratorial scale was simulated. Malt was contaminated with deoxynivalenol and T-2 in different ratios (up to 500 ppb, according to a 3² factorial design, and the alcohols obtained after the fermentation were determined through gas chromatography. The results showed that trichothecenes influenced the profile of the alcohols produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae during the fermentative process of malt, especially the profile of methyl and isoamyl alcohols.

  6. Fermentation profile of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida tropicalis as starter cultures on barley malt medium

    OpenAIRE

    Alloue-Boraud, Wazé Aimée Mireille; N’Guessan, Kouadio Florent; Djeni, N’Dédé Théodore; Hiligsmann, Serge; Djè, Koffi Marcellin; Delvigne, Franck

    2014-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae C8-5 and Candida tropicalis F0-5 isolated from traditional sorghum beer were tested for kinetic parameters on barley malt extract, YPD (863 medium) and for alcohol production. The results showed that C. tropicalis has the highest maximum growth rate and the lowest doubling time. Values were 0.22 and 0.32 h−1 for maximum growth rate, 3 h 09 min and 2 h 09 min for doubling time respectively on barley malt extract and YPD. On contrary, glucose consumption was the fastest...

  7. Identification of MALT1 as both a prognostic factor and a potential therapeutic target of regorafenib in cholangiocarcinoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chun-Nan; Chang, Yu-Chan; Su, Yeu; Shin-Shian Hsu, Dennis; Cheng, Chi-Tung; Wu, Ren-Chin; Chung, Yi-Hsiu; Chiang, Kun-Chun; Yeh, Ta-Sen; Lu, Meng-Lun; Liu, Chun-Yu; Mu-Hsin Chang, Peter; Chen, Ming-Han; Huang, Chi-Ying F; Hsiao, Michael; Chen, Ming-Huang

    2017-12-26

    Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is an aggressive cancer that lacks an effective targeted therapy. Here, we assessed the therapeutic efficacy of regorafenib in CCA, as well as elucidated its underlying mechanism. We first demonstrated that regorafenib not only inhibited growth but also induced apoptosis in human CCA cells. Subsequently, we used in silico approaches to identify MALT1 (Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue protein 1), which plays an important role in activating NF-κB, as a potential target of regorafenib. Overexpression of Elk-1, but not Ets-1, in HuCCT1 cells markedly reduced their sensitivity to regorafenib, which might be attributed to a significant increase in MALT1 levels. Our results further demonstrated that this drug drastically inhibited MALT1 expression by suppressing the Raf/Erk/Elk-1 pathway. The efficacy of regorafenib in decreasing in vivo CCA growth was confirmed in animal models. Regorafenib efficacy was observed in two MALT1-positive CCA patients who failed to respond to several other lines of therapy. Finally, MALT1 was also identified as an independent poor prognostic factor for patients with intrahepatic CCA. In conclusion, our study identified MALT1 to be a downstream mediator of the Raf/Erk/Elk-1 pathway and suggested that MALT1 may be a new therapeutic target for successful treatment of CCA by regorafenib.

  8. Characteristics associated with the consumption of malted drinks among Malaysian primary school children: findings from the MyBreakfast study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan Mohamed, Hamid Jan B; Loy, S L; Mohd Taib, Mohd Nasir; Karim, Norimah A; Tan, S Y; Appukutty, M; Abdul Razak, Nurliyana; Thielecke, F; Hopkins, S; Ong, M K; Ning, C; Tee, E S

    2015-12-30

    The consumption of beverages contributes to diet quality and overall nutrition. Studies on malted drinks, one of the widely consumed beverage choices among children in Asia, however, have received limited attention. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of malted drink consumption and explored associations of sociodemographic characteristics, nutrient intakes, weight status and physical activity levels with malted drink consumption among primary school children in Malaysia. Data for this analysis were from the MyBreakfast Study, a national cross-sectional study conducted from April to October 2013 throughout all regions in Malaysia. A total of 2065 primary school children aged 6 to 12 years were included in the present analysis. Data on two days 24-h dietary recall or record, anthropometry, physical activity and screen time were recorded. Associations between malted drink consumption and related factors were examined using binary logistic regression, adjusting for region, area, gender, ethnicity and household income. Among children aged 6 to 12 years, 73.5% reported consuming malted drinks for at least once per week. Consumption of malted drinks was significantly associated with region (χ(2) = 45.64, p Malaysian primary school children, particularly higher among boys, indigenous children and those who lived in the East Coast region of Malaysia. Consuming malted drinks is associated with higher micronutrient intakes and higher levels of physical activity, but not with body weight status.

  9. Great Expectations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickens, Charles

    2005-01-01

    One of Dickens's most renowned and enjoyable novels, Great Expectations tells the story of Pip, an orphan boy who wishes to transcend his humble origins and finds himself unexpectedly given the opportunity to live a life of wealth and respectability. Over the course of the tale, in which Pip

  10. Mildew-resistant mutants induced in North American two- and six-rowed malting barley cultivars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molina-Cano, J.L.; Simiand, J.P.; Sopena, A.

    2003-01-01

    Mildew-resistant mutants were induced with sodium azide in three North American malting barley cultivars, two in the six-rowed Ursula (URS1 and URS2), one in the six-rowed Gertrud (GER1), and one in the two-rowed Prudentia (PRU1). Two of the mutants, URS1 and PRU1, showed complete resistance...

  11. 27 CFR 8.22 - Contracts to purchase distilled spirits, wine, or malt beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... express or implied requirement of the purchase of the advertiser's products; or (b) A sales contract... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contracts to purchase... Practices § 8.22 Contracts to purchase distilled spirits, wine, or malt beverages. Any contract or agreement...

  12. There's Trouble in Paradise: Problems with Educational Metadata Encountered during the MALTED Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monthienvichienchai, Rachada; Sasse, M. Angela; Wheeldon, Richard

    This paper investigates the usability of educational metadata schemas with respect to the case of the MALTED (Multimedia Authoring Language Teachers and Educational Developers) project at University College London (UCL). The project aims to facilitate authoring of multimedia materials for language learning by allowing teachers to share multimedia…

  13. Role of alpha-glucosidase in the fermentable sugar composition of sorghum malt mashes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Taylor, JRN

    1994-11-01

    Full Text Available The cause of the high glucose to maltose ratio in sorghum malt worts was studied. Mashing temperature and pH strongly affected both the amount of glucose and the proportion of glucose relative to total fermentable sugars. The relative proportion...

  14. MicroRNA-150 Is up-regulated in extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of MALT type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebauer, Niklas; Kuba, Johannes; Senft, Andrea; Schillert, Arne; Bernard, Veronica; Thorns, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms promoting malignant transformation from chronic Helicobacter pylori-gastritis to gastric extranodal marginal zone lymphoma (MALT lymphoma) are insufficiently characterized. This follow-up study aimed to validate candidate microRNAs (miRs) in the process of neoplastic transformation. MicroRNA expression signatures (n=20) were generated for a total of 60 cases of gastric lesions ranging from Wotherspoon 0-5 employing a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approach. Morphological and immunohistochemical characterization of the cohort was supplemented by PCR-based immunoglobulin heavy chain recombination studies. Quantitative expression of miR-150, miR-142.3p, miR-375 and miR-494 was significantly de-regulated in samples from MALT lymphoma compared to those from gastritis. The previously reported up-regulation of miR-150 in marginal zone lymphoma of MALT type was verified in an independent cohort of lymphoma samples employing a modified methodology. This further substantiates the role of miR-150 as a potential oncomiR in MALT lymphoma.

  15. STUDY OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF FREE AMINO NITROGEN DURING SORGHUM MALTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanet Boffill Rodríguez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In the brewing process, barley malt is used as main raw material. Sorghum is one of the most suitable cereals to replace barley because of its high nutritional value. However, the sorghum beer supply is still insufficient in the global market due to the low quality of its malt. The aim of this research was to study the development of free amino nitrogen (FAN during sorghum malting for brewing process by using Response Surface Methodology (RSM. A Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCD was used to develop a statistical model for the optimization of process variables such as NaOH concentration (0,2 - 0,5%(w/v, steeping time (12 - 36 h, and germination time (48 - 72 h. Data obtained from RSM on FAN production were subjected to the analysis of variance (ANOVA and were analyzed using a second order polynomial equation. Optimum malting conditions for the highest FAN value (350,00 mg L-1 were: NaOH concentration 0,35%, steeping time 26 h and germination time 63 h.

  16. EGILS consensus report. Gastric extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of MALT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruskoné-Fourmestraux, A; Fischbach, W; Aleman, B M P; Boot, H; Du, M Q; Megraud, F; Montalban, C; Raderer, M; Savio, A; Wotherspoon, A

    2011-06-01

    This consensus report of the EGILS (European Gastro-Intestinal Lymphoma Study) group includes recommendations on the management of gastric extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of MALT. They are based on data from the literature and on intensive discussions and votings of the experts during their annual meetings.

  17. A comparison of factors involved in starch degradation in barley germination under laboratory and malting conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grains of the malting barley cultivar Legacy were laboratory germinated (LG) or micromalted (MM) and sampled daily from 0 to 5 days after imbibition/steeping. Alpha-amylase and beta-amylase activities and protein levels along with starch, osmolyte concentration (OC), and sugar (glucose, sucrose, fr...

  18. METRO-APEX Volume 14.1: Industrialist's Manual No. 4, Gestalt Malt Brewery. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    University of Southern California, Los Angeles. COMEX Research Project.

    The Industrialist's Manual No. 4 (Gestalt Malt Brewery) is one of a set of twenty-one manuals used in METRO-APEX 1974, a computerized college and professional level, computer-supported, role-play, simulation exercise of a community with "normal" problems. Stress is placed on environmental quality considerations. APEX 1974 is an expansion…

  19. Influence of malting on the nutritional characteristics of kunun-zaki ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kunun-zaki, a traditional fermented cereal beverage was produced in this study using various combinations of malted cereals (millet, sorghum singularly or in combination with rice) and, were evaluated for its nutritional composition using chemical, organoleptic and growth studies and as well as the analysis of blood ...

  20. Development of syrup and “malt-like” drink from Raphia hookeri sap ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Natural microflora fermentation causes changes in freshly tapped palm sap and therefore makes its storage, transport, and large scale use difficult. This study was aimed at developing stable and value added products, including syrup and non-alcoholic “malt-like” drink from the sap of palms. The sap of Raphia hookeri ...

  1. Isolation of α-amylase from malted rice (Wita 7) extract using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The crude α-amylase from the 8th day malt extract was subsequently purified using starch column procedure. The purified extract recorded an estimated activity of 75.549 U/ml. The project further examined the effects of varying the ratios of starch adsorbent height to column diameter (L/D) during the purification step. For the ...

  2. Malt quality of 4 barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) grain varieties grown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    propiconazole) spray intervals (7, 14, 21 day) and no spray control were arranged in a RCBD in 4 replications to assess net blotch (Pyrenophora teres) effect on malt quality. The varieties were grown at Holetta agricultural research center in 2005, ...

  3. Predominant lactic acid bacteria associated with the traditional malting of sorghum grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sawadogo-Lingani, H.; Diawara, B.; Glover, R.K.

    2010-01-01

    . Suitable isolates of L. fermentum are promising candidates to be used as starter cultures from the initial step of malting, that is, the steeping and are expected to inhibit the growth and survival of pathogens and spoilage microflora, and to control the lactic fermentation of dolo and pito wort or other...

  4. Comparative study of the protein composition induced by malting of two barley varieties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laštovičková, Markéta; Šopíková, Martina; Bobálová, Janette

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 102, č. 15 (2008), s712-s713 ISSN 1803-2389. [Meeting on Chemistry and Life /4./. Brno, 09.09.2008-11.09.2008] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0570 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : gel electrophoresis * mass spectrometry * malting Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry , Separation

  5. The Impact of Single-Container Malt Liquor Sales Restrictions on Urban Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Patricia; Erickson, Darin J; Toomey, Traci; Nelson, Toben; Less, Elyse Levine; Joshi, Spruha; Jones-Webb, Rhonda

    2017-04-01

    Many US cities have adopted legal restrictions on high-alcohol malt liquor sales in response to reports of crime and nuisance behaviors around retail alcohol outlets. We assessed whether these policies are effective in reducing crime in urban areas. We used a rigorous interrupted time-series design with comparison groups to examine monthly crime rates in areas surrounding alcohol outlets in the 3 years before and after adoption of malt liquor sales restrictions in two US cities. Crime rates in matched comparison areas not subject to restrictions served as covariates. Novel methods for matching target and comparison areas using virtual neighborhood audits conducted in Google Street View are described. In Minneapolis, Minnesota, sales of single containers of 16 oz or less were prohibited in individual liquor stores (n = 6). In Washington, D.C., the sale of single containers of any size were prohibited in all retail alcohol outlets within full or partial wards (n = 6). Policy adoption was associated with modest reductions in crime, particularly assaults and vandalism, in both cities. All significant outcomes were in the hypothesized direction. Our results provide evidence that retail malt liquor sales restrictions, even relatively weak ones, can have modest effects on a range of crimes. Policy success may depend on community support and concurrent restrictions on malt liquor substitutes.

  6. MALT-45: A 7 mm survey of the southern Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Christopher Harry

    2015-09-01

    -0 for CS lies within the 7mm waveband, which also contains the poorly understood class I CH3OH maser. Unlike the class II variant, class I masers are not exclusively associated with HMSF, but do appear in star-forming regions across a wide range of evolutionary stages. A large problem for class I CH3OH maser studies is the bias in the targeted searches which have been used to find them; they have only been identified towards other masing regions (such as class II CH3OH), and therefore the properties of these masers are somewhat unclear. In this thesis, results focus on the MALT-45 survey using the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) in auto-correlation ('single-dish' mode). To date, MALT-45 has mapped the Galactic plane within 330° *lt; gas tracer; (ii) Almost all (94 per cent) of ATLASGAL 870 um dust emission point sources are associated with at least a 3σ peak of CS emission; (iii) By comparing with peak CS velocities, class I CH3OH masers are good indicators of the systemic velocities of clouds; (iv) More than half (55 per cent) of the detected class I CH3OH masers are not associated with any other kind of maser; (v) Class II CH3OH, H2O and hydroxyl (OH) masers associate well with class I CH3OH masers, confirming that class I CH3OH masers occur towards a wide range of evolutionary stages in HMSF; (vi) Class I CH3OH masers appear to have no correlation in intensity or luminosity with other maser species; (vii) Class I CH3OH masers have typical projected linear distances from other masers associated with star formation, peaks of CS and 870 μm point sources within 0.5 pc; (viii) Class I CH3OH masers are spread over a larger area when also associated with class II CH3OH or OH masers, perhaps due to their more evolved state; (ix) Almost all (95 per cent) of class I CH3OH masers are associated with an ATLASGAL source; (x) Using ATLASGAL source parameters, a clump mass is calculated. The population of class I CH3OH masers has a broad range of associated masses (10

  7. Great Comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, Robert

    2000-05-01

    Spectacular and mysterious objects that come and go in the night sky, comets have dwelt in our popular culture for untold ages. As remnants from the formation of the Solar system, they are objects of key scientific research and space missions. As one of nature's most potent and dramatic dangers, they pose a threat to our safety--and yet they were the origin of our oceans and perhaps even life itself. This beautifully illustrated book tells the story of the biggest and most awe-inspiring of all comets: those that have earned the title "Great." Robert Burnham focuses on the Great comets Hyakutake in 1996 and Hale-Bopp in 1997, which gripped attention worldwide because, for many, they were the first comets ever seen. He places these two recent comets in the context of their predecessors from past ages, among them the famous Comet Halley. Great Comets explains the exciting new discoveries that have come from these magnificent objects and profiles the spaceprobes to comets due for launch in the next few years. The book even takes a peek behind Hollywood's science-fiction fantasies to assess the real risks humanity faces from potential impacts of both comets and asteroids. For everyone interested in astronomy, this exciting book reveals the secrets of the Great Comets and provides essential tools for keeping up to date with comet discoveries in the future. Robert Burnham has been an amateur astronomer since the mid-1950s. He has been a senior editor of Astronomy magazine (1986-88) and is the author of many books and CD-ROMS, including Comet Hale-Bopp: Find and Enjoy the Great Comet and Comet Explorer.

  8. Optimization of Bread Preparation from Wheat Flour and Malted Rice Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subajiny VELUPPILLAI

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of partially replacing wheat flour with malted rice flour in bread making was evaluated in several formulations, aiming to find a formulation for the production of malted rice-wheat bread with better nutritional quality and consumer acceptance. The whole grains of a local rice variety (Oryza sativa L. subsp. indica var. Mottaikaruppan were steeped in distilled water (12 h, 30°C and germinated for 3 days to obtain high content of soluble materials and amylase activity in bread making. The quality of bread was evaluated by considering the physical and sensorial parameters. When the wheat flour was substituted with malted rice flour, 35% substitution level and the malted rice flour from 3 days of germination was the best according to the physical and sensory qualities of bread. The quality of bread was improved by the addition of 20 g of margarine, 20 g of baking powder and 20 g of yeast in 1 kg of flour. Among different ratios of yeast and baking powder, 2:1 was the best. Bread improver containing amylases and oxidizing agents at the concentration of 40 g/kg was selected as the best concentration. When comparing the final formulation made in the bakery with wheat bread, malted rice-wheat bread contains more soluble dietary fiber (0.62%, insoluble dietary fiber (3.95%, total dietary fiber (4.57% and free amino acid content (0.64 g/kg than those in wheat bread (0.5%, 2.73%, 3.23% and 0.36 g/kg, respectively.

  9. Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edsall, Thomas A.; Mac, Michael J.; Opler, Paul A.; Puckett Haecker, Catherine E.; Doran, Peter D.

    1998-01-01

    The Great Lakes region, as defined here, includes the Great Lakes and their drainage basins in Minnesota, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New York. The region also includes the portions of Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the 21 northernmost counties of Illinois that lie in the Mississippi River drainage basin, outside the floodplain of the river. The region spans about 9º of latitude and 20º of longitude and lies roughly halfway between the equator and the North Pole in a lowland corridor that extends from the Gulf of Mexico to the Arctic Ocean.The Great Lakes are the most prominent natural feature of the region (Fig. 1). They have a combined surface area of about 245,000 square kilometers and are among the largest, deepest lakes in the world. They are the largest single aggregation of fresh water on the planet (excluding the polar ice caps) and are the only glacial feature on Earth visible from the surface of the moon (The Nature Conservancy 1994a).The Great Lakes moderate the region’s climate, which presently ranges from subarctic in the north to humid continental warm in the south (Fig. 2), reflecting the movement of major weather masses from the north and south (U.S. Department of the Interior 1970; Eichenlaub 1979). The lakes act as heat sinks in summer and heat sources in winter and are major reservoirs that help humidify much of the region. They also create local precipitation belts in areas where air masses are pushed across the lakes by prevailing winds, pick up moisture from the lake surface, and then drop that moisture over land on the other side of the lake. The mean annual frost-free period—a general measure of the growing-season length for plants and some cold-blooded animals—varies from 60 days at higher elevations in the north to 160 days in lakeshore areas in the south. The climate influences the general distribution of wild plants and animals in the region and also influences the activities and distribution of the human

  10. Primary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of thyroid gland arising from coexisting Hashimoto's thyroiditis: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Kwon; Kwon, Sun Young; Kim, Young Hwan; Choi, Jin Soo; Sohn, Chul Ho; Lee, Hee Jung; Woo, Seong Ku; Suh, Soo Ji

    2006-01-01

    We report herein on a case of primary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of the thyroid gland in a 57-year-old woman with coexisting Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and we include its characteristic imaging, histopathologic and immunohistochemical findings

  11. Efficient compression scheme by use of the region division of elemental images on MALT in three-dimensional integral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ho-Hyun; Lee, Jung-Woo; Shin, Dong-Hak; Kim, Eun-Soo

    2010-02-01

    This paper addresses the efficient compression scheme of elemental image array (EIA) generated from the moving array lenslet technique (MALT) based on MPEG-4. The EIAs are picked-up by MALT controlling the spatial ray sampling of ray and which produces few EIAs that the positions of the lenslet arrays are rapidly vibrated in the lateral directions within the retention time of the afterimage of human eye. To enhance the similarity in each EIA picked-up by MALT, several EIAs obtained from MALT are regenerated by the collection of an elemental image occupied at the same position in each EIA. The newly generated each EIA has high similarity among adjacent elemental images. To illustrate the feasibility of the proposed scheme, some experiments are carried out to show the increased compression efficiency and we obtained the improved compression ratio of 12% compared to the unhandled compression scheme.

  12. Endoscopic staging of low-grade gastric malt lymphoma Estadificación por ecoendoscopia en el linfoma gástrico tipo malt de bajo grado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Varas

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS has already proven useful in the assessment of submucosal lesions, and the staging of gastrointestinal cancer, particularly gastric MALT-type lymphoma. The goal of this paper was EUS staging. Patients and method: 24 patients (10 females, 14 males with a median age of 56 years and possibly gastric MALT lymphoma (25 cases were studied using videoendoscopy, biopsies, and echoendoscopy with 7.5- and 20-MHz radial EUS, and also with 12- and 20-MHz miniprobes (MPs. Nineteen patients were definitely evaluated (7 females, 12 males as having 20 MALT-type lymphomas, as five patients were post-hoc disregarded when an invasive, high-grade gastric lymphoma (3c or plasmocytoma (2c was subsequently demonstrated. Of these 19 patients, all had T1 lesions except for two with T2 lesions; one patient had a gastroduodenal T1 lymphoma. Echographic findings with MPs were compared to EUS (gold standard and histology both before and after eradication. Then, patients were followed up every 1-3-6 months using videoendoscopy and MPs. Results: echoendoscopy correctly identified T stages in 90% of cases. MPs identified T stages in 88% of cases, and N stages in 33% of cases, with results being slightly inferior to those obtained with conventional EUS (91 vs. 45%; they were consequently used for follow-up. After eradication, all but two patients are in complete remission and have been followed every 1-3-6 months using MPs without echographic abnormalities, except for a patient who relapsed.Introducción: la ultrasonografía endoscópica (USE ha demostrado ya su utilidad en la evaluación de las lesiones submucosas, en la estadificación del cáncer digestivo en general, y del linfoma gástrico tipo MALT en particular. El objetivo de este trabajo fue la estadificación por USE. Pacientes y método: veinticuatro enfermos (10 mujeres y 14 varones con edad media de 56 años y con posible linfoma gástrico tipo MALT (25 casos fueron

  13. Effect of germination temperatures on proteolysis of the gluten-free grains rice and buckwheat during malting and mashing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agu, R C; Chiba, Y; Goodfellow, V; MacKinlay, J; Brosnan, J M; Bringhurst, T A; Jack, F R; Harrison, B; Pearson, S Y; Bryce, J H

    2012-10-10

    This study examined the performance of rice and buckwheat when malted under various temperature conditions and for different lengths of time. The mashed malts produced from both rice and buckwheat contained a wide spectra of sugars and amino acids that are required for yeast fermentation, regardless of malting temperature. At the germination temperatures of 20, 25, and 30 °C used, production of reducing sugars and free amino nitrogen (FAN) followed similar patterns. This implies that temperature variations, experienced in different countries, will not have an adverse effect on the production and release of amino acids and sugars, required by yeast during fermentation, from these grains. Such consistency in the availability of yeast substrates is likely to reduce differences in processing when these malts are used for brewing. This study revealed that, while rice malt consistently produced more maltose than glucose, buckwheat malt gave several times more glucose than maltose, across all germination temperatures. Buckwheat malt also produced more soluble and free amino nitrogen than rice malt. Unlike sorghum, which has gained wide application in the brewing industry for the production of gluten-free beer, the use of rice and buckwheat is minimal. This study provides novel information regarding the potential of rice and buckwheat for brewing. Both followed similar patterns to sorghum, suggesting that they could play a similar role to sorghum in the brewing industry. Inclusion of rice and buckwheat as brewing raw materials will increase the availability of suitable materials for use in the production of gluten-free beer, potentially making it more sustainable, cheaper, and more widely available.

  14. Effects of split nitrogen fertilization on post-anthesis photoassimilates, nitrogen use efficiency and grain yield in malting barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Jian; Jiang, Dong; Liu, Fulai

    2011-01-01

    photosynthesis after anthesis, dry matter accumulation and assimilates remobilization, nitrogen use efficiency and grain yield to fraction of topdressed nitrogen treatments were investigated in malting barley. Net photosynthetic rate of the penultimate leaf, leaf area index and light extinction coefficient...... and agronomic nitrogen use efficiencies. The enhanced nitrogen use efficiency was corresponding to the improved photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency in the leaves at fraction of topdressed nitrogen of 30%. In conclusion, appropriate fraction of topdressed nitrogen application on malting barley improved...

  15. Effects of malting on the milling performance and acceptability of bambara groundnut (Voandzeia subterranea Thouars) seeds and products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uvere, P O; Uwaegbute, A C; Adedeji, E M

    1999-01-01

    Germinated bambara groundnut was dried by three methods--oven-drying at 50 degrees C, in a solar drier at 38-42 degrees C, and sun drying at 28 +/- 2 degrees C. The samples were milled into flour, and made into 'okpa', a steamed gel. Flour yield increased only in oven-dried malts. The quality of the 'okpa' based on appearance and taste decreased with malting time; solar drying resulted in the poorest product because of its dark color.

  16. Successful treatment of radiation retinopathy with panretinal photocoagulation (PRP) in a patient of orbital MALT lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Hiroyuki; Chikuda, Makoto; Kadoya, Kouji

    2012-01-01

    Report a case of satisfactory progress radiation retinopathy after radiation for mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. A 26-year-old male patient, referred to our department for lacrimal sac tumor. Biopsy was done by otolaryngology and radiation therapy was performed (total irradiation of 41.4 Gy) as pathological examination revealed MALT lymphoma. Soft exudates and macula edema appeared in posterior pole of the right fundus after radiotherapy. Right vision became 0.5 because of macula edema, and panretinal photocoagulation (PRP) was performed. After PRP, macula edema withdrew and right vision improved to 1.2. It is suggested that the fundus must be monitored after radiation therapy, and early treatment, such as PRP is effective in radiation retinopathy. (author)

  17. 10Be measurements at MALT using reduced-size samples of bulk sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Kazuho; Oniyanagi, Itsumi; Wasada, Hiroshi; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    In order to establish 10Be measurements on reduced-size (1-10 mg) samples of bulk sediments, we investigated four different pretreatment designs using lacustrine and marginal-sea sediments and the AMS system of the Micro Analysis Laboratory, Tandem accelerator (MALT) at The University of Tokyo. The 10Be concentrations obtained from the samples of 1-10 mg agreed within a precision of 3-5% with the values previously determined using corresponding ordinary-size (∼200 mg) samples and the same AMS system. This fact demonstrates reliable determinations of 10Be with milligram levels of recent bulk sediments at MALT. On the other hand, a clear decline of the BeO- beam with tens of micrograms of 9Be carrier suggests that the combination of ten milligrams of sediments and a few hundred micrograms of the 9Be carrier is more convenient at this stage.

  18. {sup 10}Be measurements at MALT using reduced-size samples of bulk sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horiuchi, Kazuho, E-mail: kh@cc.hirosaki-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Hirosaki University, 3, Bunkyo-chou, Hirosaki, Aomori 036-8561 (Japan); Oniyanagi, Itsumi [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Hirosaki University, 3, Bunkyo-chou, Hirosaki, Aomori 036-8561 (Japan); Wasada, Hiroshi [Institute of Geology and Paleontology, Graduate school of Science, Tohoku University, 6-3, Aramaki Aza-Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki [MALT, School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 2-11-16, Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan)

    2013-01-15

    In order to establish {sup 10}Be measurements on reduced-size (1-10 mg) samples of bulk sediments, we investigated four different pretreatment designs using lacustrine and marginal-sea sediments and the AMS system of the Micro Analysis Laboratory, Tandem accelerator (MALT) at University of Tokyo. The {sup 10}Be concentrations obtained from the samples of 1-10 mg agreed within a precision of 3-5% with the values previously determined using corresponding ordinary-size ({approx}200 mg) samples and the same AMS system. This fact demonstrates reliable determinations of {sup 10}Be with milligram levels of recent bulk sediments at MALT. On the other hand, a clear decline of the BeO{sup -} beam with tens of micrograms of {sup 9}Be carrier suggests that the combination of ten milligrams of sediments and a few hundred micrograms of the {sup 9}Be carrier is more convenient at this stage.

  19. Mashing of Rice with Barley Malt Under Nonconventional Process Conditions for Use in Food Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moe, T.; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    1994-01-01

    Non-conventional mashing conditions are relevant in the development of a lactic acid-fermented soymilk beverage where mashed rice is the source of carbohydrates for the fermentation and sweetness of the beverage. Advantages in the process layout could be achieved by mashing at higher pH and lower...... at 50 degrees C and 62 degrees C was investigated. Regression equations have been established for predicting yields of soluble protein, low molecular weight sugars and total fermentability as functions of pH and malt concentration. The results showed that the maltose yield was constant while glucose......, maltotriose and total fermentable sugar yields decreased slightly with increasing pH and decreasing malt concentration. Prolonged mash holding times at 50 degrees C and 62 degrees C gave minor increases in protein yields only. It is concluded that it is quite acceptable to use nonconventional mashing...

  20. Integrative role of value chain governance: evidence from the malt barley value chain in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Watabaji, Mulugeta; Molnar, Adrienn; Gellynck, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Past studies did not fully address how value chain governance mechanisms and transaction attributes influence value chain integration. The paper, hence, investigates how value chain governance mechanisms (i.e. relational and contractual) and transaction attributes (i.e. dependency, asset specificity and uncertainty) correlate with chain integration. Survey data obtained from 320 farmers and 100 traders participating in the malt barley value chain in Ethiopia were used for the study. In additi...

  1. Registration of a high yielding malt barley variety HB1454 for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HB1454 (Reg. No. EH 1847/F4.2P.5.2) is a two - rowed, hulled, malting barley developed at Holetta Research Center (HRC). HB 1454 was tested in a multi location variety trial as EH 1847/F4.2P.5.2 from 2005- 2007 along with twelve genotypes advanced from the local crossing program. It was released in 2011 for its high ...

  2. Cell wall polysaccharides hydrolysis of malting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamar, C.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Malting quality results from the different steps of the malting process. Malting uses internal changes of the seed occurring during germination, such as enzymes synthesis, to obtain a good hydrolysis process and the components required. Among the three main hydrolytic events observed, that are namely starch degradation, cell wall breakdown and protein hydrolysis, an efficient cell wall polysaccharides hydrolysis is an essential condition for a final product of quality. Indeed, because of the physical barrier of the cell wall, cell wall polysaccharides hydrolysis is one of the first steps expected from the process to gain access to the cell components. Moreover, viscosity problem and haze formation in malting industry are related to their presence during the process when inefficient degradation occurs, leading to increased production time and cost. Understanding the key elements in cell wall degradation is important for a better control. (1-3,1-4-β-glucans and arabinoxylans are the main constituents of cell wall. (1-3,1-4-β-glucans are unbranched chains of β-D-glucopyranose residues with β-(1,3 linkages and β-(1,4 linkages. Arabinoxylan consists in a backbone of D-xylanopyranosyl units linked by β-(1-4 bonds connected to single L-arabinofuranose by α-(1→2 or α-(1→3-linkages. Degradation of (1-3,1-4-β-glucans is processed by the (1-3,1-4-β-glucanases, the β-glucosidases and the β-glucane exohydrolases. It seems that the (1-3-β-glucanases are also involved. Arabinoxylans are mainly decomposed by (1-4-β-xylan endohydrolase, arabinofuranosidase and β-xylosidase.

  3. Preparation of Hulu-mur flavored carbonated beverage based on Feterita sorghum (Sorghum bicolor malt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara F. A. Baidab

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available  In this study, sorghum Feterita malt extract was used to prepare carbonated beverages flavored with traditional Hulu-mur spices extract.  The beverages produced were assessed for their physicochemical, sensory, and nutritional qualities. Malting (3–5 days of the Feterita grains showed significant (P ≤ 0.05 differences in proximate composition from that of unmalted grains. Protein and sugars increased significantly (P ≤ 0.05 with increased the malting time (days, while there was a significant (P ≤ 0.05 reduction in oil and starch  content  during malting progress. The kilning temperature of 150°C for 20 minutes was found to produce the most acceptable Hulu-mur carbonated beverage analogue in terms of flavor and taste. Significant differences (P ≤ 0.05 were observed in physicochemical and nutritional qualities between the Hulu-mur analogue carbonated beverage and commercial non-alcoholic beverage. The Hulu-mur carbonated beverage analogue was rich in Na, K, Ca, and Fe (26.45, 21.84, 24.00, and 0.57 mg /100 g, respectively compared to levels of the same minerals in the non-alcoholic beverage (22.31, 8.19, 22.00 and 0.15 mg/100 g, respectively. The Hulu-mur analogue also had a higher calorific value (35.85 kcal /100 mL compared to the non-alcoholic beverage (32.96 kcal/100 mL.

  4. Fermentation profile of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida tropicalis as starter cultures on barley malt medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloue-Boraud, Wazé Aimée Mireille; N'Guessan, Kouadio Florent; Djeni, N'Dédé Théodore; Hiligsmann, Serge; Djè, Koffi Marcellin; Delvigne, Franck

    2015-08-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae C8-5 and Candida tropicalis F0-5 isolated from traditional sorghum beer were tested for kinetic parameters on barley malt extract, YPD (863 medium) and for alcohol production. The results showed that C. tropicalis has the highest maximum growth rate and the lowest doubling time. Values were 0.22 and 0.32 h(-1) for maximum growth rate, 3 h 09 min and 2 h 09 min for doubling time respectively on barley malt extract and YPD. On contrary, glucose consumption was the fastest with S. cerevisiae (-0.36 and -0.722 g/l/h respectively on barley malt extract and YPD). When these two yeasts were used as starters in pure culture and co-culture at proportion of 1:1 and 2:1 (cell/cell) for barley malt extract fermentation, we noticed that maltose content increased first from 12.12 g/l to 13.62-16.46 g/l and then decreased. The highest increase was obtained with starter C. tropicalis + S. cerevisiae 2:1. On contrary, glucose content decreased throughout all the fermentation process. For all the starters used, the major part of the ethanol was produced at 16 h of fermentation. Values obtained in the final beers were 11.4, 11.6, 10.4 and 10.9 g/l for fermentation conducted with S. cerevisiae, C. tropicalis, C. tropicalis + S. cerevisiae 1:1 and C. tropicalis + S. cerevisiae 2:1. Cell viability measurement during the fermentation by using flow cytometry revealed that the lowest mean channel fluorescence for FL3 (yeast rate of death) was obtained with C. tropicalis + S. cerevisiae 2:1 after 48 h of fermentation.

  5. Monitoring of malting process by characterization of glycation of barley protein Z

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bobálová, Janette; Petry-Podgorska, Inga; Laštovičková, Markéta; Chmelík, Josef

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 230, č. 4 (2010), s. 665-673 ISSN 1438-2377 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0570; GA MŠk 1M06030; GA MŠk MEB040807 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : malting * MALDI-TOF MS * glycation Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.585, year: 2010

  6. The ABC transporter MalFGK2 sequesters the MalT transcription factor at the membrane in the absence of cognate substrate

    OpenAIRE

    Richet, Evelyne; Davidson, Amy L.; Joly, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    MalK, the cytoplasmic component of the maltose ABC transporter from Escherichia coli is known to control negatively the activity of MalT, the activator of the maltose regulon, through complex formation. Here we further investigate this regulatory process by monitoring MalT activity and performing fluorescence microscopy analyses under various conditions. We establish that, under physiological conditions, the molecular entity that interacts with MalT is not free MalK, but the maltose transport...

  7. METABOLIC AND BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PROBIOTIC CULTURE IN MILK SUPPLEMENTED WITH RYE FLAKES AND MALT EXTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Bărăscu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rye flakes and malt extract were added to milk in order to stimulate growth and fermentative activity of probioticbacteria and to obtain a probiotic product with pleasant sensory attributes. Probiotic culture used in this study containsbifidobacteria, Lb. acidophilus, Lactobacilus lactis and Streptococcus thermophilus.Rye flakes have a stimulating effect more pronounced than malt extract on acidification capacity of the probioticculture, and to achieve an increase of the milk acidity of 7g lactic acid /dm3 (in 6h at 39oC the two ingredients must beadded in concentration of 2% and, respectively, 0.2%..The probiotic culture reach the greatest proteolytic activity when rye flakes are added in the proportion of 3% andmalt extract in the proportion of 0.1% and the amino acids released rate was 764.6 μg%. The lactose bioconversionrate was greater in the milk supplemented with rye flakes 3% and malt extract 0.1% and residual lactose was 3.84%.

  8. Flavour generation during commercial barley and malt roasting operations: a time course study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahya, Hafiza; Linforth, Robert S T; Cook, David J

    2014-02-15

    The roasting of barley and malt products generates colour and flavour, controlled principally by the time course of product temperature and moisture content. Samples were taken throughout the industrial manufacture of three classes of roasted product (roasted barley, crystal malt and black malt) and analysed for moisture content, colour and flavour volatiles. Despite having distinct flavour characteristics, the three products contained many compounds in common. The product concentrations through manufacture of 15 flavour compounds are used to consider the mechanisms (Maillard reaction, caramelisation, pyrolysis) by which they were formed. The use of water sprays resulted in transient increases in formation of certain compounds (e.g., 2-cyclopentene-1,4-dione) and a decrease in others (e.g., pyrrole). The study highlights rapid changes in colour and particularly flavour which occur at the end of roasting and onwards to the cooling floor. This highlights the need for commercial maltsters to ensure consistency of procedures from batch to batch. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Great Books 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, David

    2009-01-01

    As documented by multiple NEA studies ("Reading at Risk," 2004; "To Read or Not to Read," 2007), reading has become devalued in American life, on sale in the clearance bin along with notions of greatness, classic works and ideas, and Western civilization itself. Trying to teach fine literature, writes the author, has become the struggle of how to…

  10. The prevalence and impact of Fusarium head blight pathogens and mycotoxins on malting barley quality in UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, L.K.; Cook, D.J.; Edwards, S.G.; Ray, R.V.

    2014-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium and Microdochium species can significantly affect the yield of barley grain as well as the quality and safety of malt and beer. The present study provides new knowledge on the impacts of the FHB pathogen complex on the malting and brewing quality parameters of naturally infected barley. Quantitative real-time PCR and liquid chromatography double mass spectrometry were used to quantify the predominant FHB pathogens and Fusarium mycotoxins, respectively, in commercially grown UK malting barley samples collected between 2007 and 2011. The predominant Fusarium species identified across the years were F. poae, F. tricinctum and F. avenaceum. Microdochium majus was the predominant Microdochium species in 2007, 2008, 2010 and 2011 whilst Microdochium nivale predominated in 2009. Deoxynivalenol and zearalenone quantified in samples collected between 2007 and 2009 were associated with F. graminearum and F. culmorum, whilst HT-2 and T-2, and nivalenol in samples collected between 2010 and 2011 correlated positively with F. langsethiae and F. poae, respectively. Analysis of the regional distribution and yearly variation in samples from 2010 to 2011 showed significant differences in the composition of the FHB species complex. In most regions (Scotland, the South and North of England) the harvest in 2010 had higher concentrations of Fusarium spp. than in 2011, although no significant difference was observed in the Midlands between the two years. Microdochium DNA was significantly higher in 2011 and in the North of England and Scotland compared to the South or Midlands regions. Pathogens of the FHB complex impacted negatively on grain yield and quality parameters. Thousand grain weight of malting barley was affected significantly by M. nivale and M. majus whilst specific weight correlated negatively with F. avenaceum and F. graminearum. To determine the impact of sub-acute infections of the identified Fusarium and Microdochium

  11. Gluten-Free Sources of Fermentable Extract: Effect of Temperature and Germination Time on Quality Attributes of Teff [Eragrostis tef (zucc.) Trotter] Malt and Wort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Ghionno, Lidia; Marconi, Ombretta; Lee, Eung Gwan; Rice, Christopher J; Sileoni, Valeria; Perretti, Giuseppe

    2017-06-14

    This study was conducted to evaluate the behavior of a white teff variety called Witkop during malting by using different parameters (germination temperature and duration) and to identify the best malting program. Samples were evaluated for standard quality malt and wort attributes, pasting characteristics, β-glucan and arabinoxylan content, and sugar profile. It was concluded that malting teff at 24 °C for 6 days produced acceptable malt in terms of quality attributes and sugar profile for brewing. The main attributes were 80.4% extract, 80.9% fermentability, 1.53 mPa s viscosity, 7.4 EBC-U color, 129 mg/L FAN, and 72.1 g/L of total fermentable sugars. Statistical analysis showed that pasting characteristics of teff malt were negatively correlated with some malt quality attributes, such as extract and fermentability. Witkop teff appeared to be a promising raw material for malting and brewing. However, the small grain size may lead to difficulties in handling malting process, and a bespoke brewhouse plant should be developed for the production at industrial scale.

  12. MaLT - Combined Motor and Language Therapy Tool for Brain Injury Patients Using Kinect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wairagkar, Maitreyee; McCrindle, Rachel; Robson, Holly; Meteyard, Lotte; Sperrin, Malcom; Smith, Andy; Pugh, Moyra

    2017-03-23

    The functional connectivity and structural proximity of elements of the language and motor systems result in frequent co-morbidity post brain injury. Although rehabilitation services are becoming increasingly multidisciplinary and "integrated", treatment for language and motor functions often occurs in isolation. Thus, behavioural therapies which promote neural reorganisation do not reflect the high intersystem connectivity of the neurologically intact brain. As such, there is a pressing need for rehabilitation tools which better reflect and target the impaired cognitive networks. The objective of this research is to develop a combined high dosage therapy tool for language and motor rehabilitation. The rehabilitation therapy tool developed, MaLT (Motor and Language Therapy), comprises a suite of computer games targeting both language and motor therapy that use the Kinect sensor as an interaction device. The games developed are intended for use in the home environment over prolonged periods of time. In order to track patients' engagement with the games and their rehabilitation progress, the game records patient performance data for the therapist to interrogate. MaLT incorporates Kinect-based games, a database of objects and language parameters, and a reporting tool for therapists. Games have been developed that target four major language therapy tasks involving single word comprehension, initial phoneme identification, rhyme identification and a naming task. These tasks have 8 levels each increasing in difficulty. A database of 750 objects is used to programmatically generate appropriate questions for the game, providing both targeted therapy and unique gameplay every time. The design of the games has been informed by therapists and by discussions with a Public Patient Involvement (PPI) group. Pilot MaLT trials have been conducted with three stroke survivors for the duration of 6 to 8 weeks. Patients' performance is monitored through MaLT's reporting facility

  13. An unusual presentation of gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT-type lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bikram Shrestha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT-type lymphoma is a relatively rare disease; nevertheless, it is the third most common lymphoma type, accounting for 5–7% of all non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Case series and retrospective analysis published in the literature have suggested that extra gastrointestinal (GI MALT-type lymphoma can occur simultaneously with MALT-type lymphoma involving the GI tract. We report the case of a healthy, 64-year-old Caucasian male who presented with progressive fatigue, non-productive cough, and worsening exertional shortness of breath for 3 months who was subsequently diagnosed with gastric extra-nodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma or MALToma with simultaneous metastasis to the lung (bronchi based on biopsy reports. Case presentation: A 64-year-old Caucasian male presented to the emergency room complaining of progressive fatigue for 3 months which had progressed to the point of hindering his usual activities of daily living (ADL. He had recently visited his primary care provider for evaluation of a non-productive cough and exertional shortness of breath. A chest radiography obtained at the time showed bilateral infiltrates. He was then treated for atypical pneumonia but his symptoms unfortunately did not improve. Initial investigations in the emergency room revealed severe anemia and a positive stool guaiac test. Imaging showed bilateral pulmonary infiltrates and an irregular gastric mass. Gastric and transbronchial biopsies were suggestive of extra-nodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma with simultaneous metastasis to the bronchi. He was treated symptomatically with transfusion of packed red blood cells (PRBC and intravenous iron followed by radiotherapy. Helicobacter pylori infection was ruled out eliminating the possibility of treating him with eradication therapy. Conclusion: Although the stomach is the most common and most extensively studied site of involvement of MALT lymphomas, they can also emerge in many other

  14. Prebiotic and synbiotic effects on rats fed malted barley with selected bacteria strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadong Zhong

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Butyric acid, one of the key products formed when β-glucans are degraded by the microbiota in the colon, has been proposed to be important for colonic health. Glutamine bound to the fibre may have similar effects once it has been liberated from the fibre in the colon. Both β-glucans and glutamine are found in high amounts in malted barley. Lactobacillus rhamnosus together with malt has been shown to increase the formation of butyric acid further in rats. Objective: To investigate whether Lactobacillus rhamnosus 271, Lactobacillus paracasei 87002, Lactobacillus plantarum HEAL 9 and 19, and Bifidobacterium infantis CURE 21 affect the levels of short-chain fatty acids and glutamine in caecum and portal blood of rats fed barley malt. Design: The experimental diets were fed for 12 days. The daily dose of the probiotic strain was 1×109 colony forming units and the intake of fibre 0.82 g/day. Results: The malt mostly contained insoluble fibre polymers (93%, consisting of glucose and xylose (38–41 g/kg and some arabinose (21 g/kg. The fibre polysaccharides were quite resistant to fermentation in the rats, regardless of whether or not probiotics were added (25–30% were fermented. Caecal and portal levels of acetic acid decreased in the rats after the addition of L. plantarum HEAL 9 and L. rhamnosus 271, and also the levels of butyric acid. Viable counts of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Enterobacteriaceae were unaffected, while the caecal composition of Lactobacilli was influenced by the type of strain administrated. Portal levels of glutamine were unchanged, but glycine levels increased with L. plantarum HEAL 9 and 19 and phenylalanine with L. rhamnosus 271. Conclusions: Although the probiotic strains survived and reached the caecum, except B. infantis CURE 21, there were no effects on viable counts or in the fermentation of different fibre components, but the formation of some bacterial metabolites decreased. This may be due to

  15. Comment on “The role of interbasin groundwater transfers in geologically complex terranes, demonstrated by the Great Basin in the western United States”: report published in Hydrogeology Journal (2014) 22:807–828, by Stephen T. Nelson and Alan L. Mayo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masbruch, Melissa D.; Brooks, Lynette E.; Heilweil, Victor M.; Sweetkind, Donald S.

    2015-01-01

    The subject article (Nelson and Mayo 2014) presents an overview of previous reports of interbasin flow in the Great Basin of the western United States. This Comment is presented by authors of a cited study (comprising chapters in one large report) on the Great Basin carbonate and alluvial aquifer system (GBCAAS; Heilweil and Brooks 2011; Masbruch et al. 2011; Sweetkind et al. 2011a, b), who agree that water budget imbalances alone are not enough to accurately quantify interbasin flow; however, it is proposed that statements made in the subject article about the GBCAAS report are inaccurate. The Comment authors appreciate the opportunity to clarify some statements made about the work.

  16. Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma of the stomach: features of pathomorphological diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Tumanskiy

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available On the base of our own observations and literature data it was determined that the distinctive pathologic features of MALT-lymphoma of the stomach are the presence of a dense diffuse lymphocytic infiltrate of centrocyte-like tumor cells of marginal zone (small cells resembling centrocytes with distinct bright rim of cytoplasm, with small nuclei of irregular shape, sometimes – split, containing coarse chromatin and indistinct nucleoli in the lamina propria between the reactive lymph follicles and glands of the mucous membrane, monocytoid B-lymphocytes characterized by clear cell borders, broad light cytoplasm and bean-like nucleus, plasma cells, which may contain Dutcher bodies – intranuclear inclusions of immunoglobulins; single large centroblast-like or immunoblast-like cells having round-oval or slightly irregular in shape nuclei with 1-3 nucleoli, or vesicular-like round in shape nuclei with compact, centrally located nucleolus; small lymphocytes. Infiltration looks as tumorcell layers or, more rarely, fuzzy nodular cellular formations. An important diagnostic criterion is the presence of "lymphoepithelial lesions" zones of glands due to infiltration by 3 or more centrocyte-like tumor cell aggregates with glands’ basement membranes destruction. In the damaged glands epithelium edema and eosinophilia are marked, but if extensive infiltration is present among the lymphoid infiltrate there are only clusters of degenerated cells at the site of destroyed epithelium. Low-grade MALT-lymphoma is characterized by the absence of distinct macroscopic changes and the prevalence of "mature" tumor cells over the blasts in histological picture. MALT-lymphoma with signs of transformation into high-grade lymphoma is characterized macroscopically by distinct exophytic component, hyperplasia of folds with ulcerous defects up to 1-2 cm in diameter. Histologic picture displays a significant amount of blast cells – both in the infiltrate and in the areas

  17. Effect of germination temperatures on proteolysis of the gluten-free grains sorghum and millet during malting and mashing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Y; Bryce, J H; Goodfellow, V; MacKinlay, J; Agu, R C; Brosnan, J M; Bringhurst, T A; Harrison, B

    2012-04-11

    Our study showed that sorghum and millet followed a similar pattern of changes when they were malted under similar conditions. When the malt from these cereals was mashed, both cereal types produced wide spectra of substrates (sugars and amino acids) that are required for yeast fermentation when malted at either lower or higher temperatures. At the germination temperatures of 20, 25, and 30 °C used in malting both cereal types, production of reducing sugars and that of free amino nitrogen (FAN) were similar. This is an important quality attribute for both cereals because it implies that variation in temperature during the malting of sorghum and millet, especially when malting temperature is difficult to control, and also reflecting temperature variations, experienced in different countries, will not have an adverse effect on the production and release of amino acids and sugars required by yeast during fermentation. Such consistency in the availability of yeast food (substrates) for metabolism during fermentation when sorghum and millet are malted at various temperatures is likely to reduce processing issues when their malts are used for brewing. Although sorghum has gained wide application in the brewing industry, and has been used extensively in brewing gluten-free beer on industrial scale, this is not the case with millet. The work described here provides novel information regarding the potential of millet for brewing. When both cereals were malted, the results obtained for millet in this study followed patterns similar to those of sorghum. This suggests that millet, in terms of sugars and amino acids, can play a role similar to that of sorghum in the brewing industry. This further suggests that millet, like sorghum, would be a good raw material for brewing gluten-free beer. Inclusion of millet as a brewing raw material will increase the availability of suitable materials (raw material sustainability) for use in the production of gluten-free beer, beverages, and

  18. Distribution and Climatic Relationships of the American Pika (Ochotona princeps) in the Sierra Nevada and Western Great Basin, U.S.A.; Periglacial Landforms as Refugia in Warming Climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constance I. Millar; Robert D. Westfall

    2010-01-01

    We used a rapid assessment to survey American pika (Ochotona princeps) populations and documented 420 pika site occurrences in southwestern U.S.A. These included 329 sites from the Sierra Nevada (SN), California; 67 from six southwestern Great Basin (swGB) ranges, California and Nevada; 16 from three central Great Basin ranges, Nevada; and 8 from...

  19. Comparison of nutritional quality and sensory acceptability of biscuits obtained from native, fermented, and malted pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebiyi, Janet Adeyinka; Obadina, Adewale Olusegun; Adebo, Oluwafemi Ayodeji; Kayitesi, Eugenie

    2017-10-01

    The effects of fermentation and malting on the proximate composition, mineral content, amino acids and total phenolic content of pearl millet flour and biscuits were studied. Consumer tests of the biscuits samples were also done using two sets of panelists. The results showed that fermentation and malting improved the crude fiber, crude protein, carbohydrate and energy values of the pearl millet flour. For the biscuit samples, the fermented and malted biscuits had higher moisture, crude protein, crude fiber and energy value with lower fat and ash content as compared to the biscuits obtained from native flour. Fermentation and malting were further observed to increase majority of the essential and non-essential amino acids. Consumer tests among the different set of panelists showed differences in the loading patterns as observed through principal component analysis. In conclusion, this study shows that fermentation and malting improves nutritional, health composition of pearl millet flour as well as the sensorial acceptability of subsequent biscuits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Health promoting properties of Alternanthera brasiliana leaves and Hibiscus sabdariffa calyces used in fortification of maize-bambara groundnut malt and maize-cowpea malt complementary foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attaugwu, R.N.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated the chemical and antioxidant properties of Alternanthera brasiliana leaves and Hibiscus sabdariffa calyces used in iron and zinc fortification of maizebambara groundnut malt and maize-cowpea malt complementary foods. A. brasiliana leaves and H. sabdariffa calyces were freshly harvested, dried at 50oC for 48 hours and analyzed for the relevant chemical components and antioxidant activities. The vitamin A content was 6996 and 745.6 μgRE/kg while the vitamin C was 238.26 and 294.78 mg/kg respectively. The aqueous extracts of A. brasiliana and H. sabdariffa calyces contained 509.5 mg/kg and 5234.72 mg/kg of alkaloids, 1545 mg/kg and 384 mg/kg of anthocyanins, 767.3 and 235.83 mg/kg of carotenoids, 14,702.8 and 26,428.3 mg/kg of phenols, 1043.5 and 897.63 mg/kg steroids and 462.0 mg/kg and 1006.5 mg/kg of flavonoids respectively. A. brasiliana and H. sabdariffa extracts had concentration-dependent DPPH activity with IC50 of 1.76 mg/ml and 5.745 mg/ml, nitric oxide scavenging activity with IC50 of 0.675 mg/ml and 3.976 mg/ml while the ferric reducing power had an absorbance range of 0.5 – 0.982 and 0.959 – 0.986 respectively. The study revealed that A.brasiliana leaves and H. sabdariffa calyces contain components that will impact positively on the health of the infants when used to formulate complementary foods.

  1. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis pattern (pH 6-11) and identification of water-soluble barley seed and malt proteins by mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak-Jensen, K.S.; Laugesen, S.; Roepstorff, P.

    2004-01-01

    gradient gels in a horizontal SDS-PAGE system. Silver staining of gels visualized around 380 (seed) and 500 (malt) spots. Thirty-seven different proteins from seeds were identified in 60 spots, among these 46 were visualized also in the malt 2-D pattern. Proteins were identified by peptide mass...

  2. Fear and Fascination in the Big City: Rilke's Use of George Simmel in The Notebooks of Malte Laurids Brigge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil H. Donahue

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available This essay examines Rainer Maria Rilke's The Notebooks of Malte Laurids Brigge (1910 as one corner in a triangle of reciprocal influence and affinity in early twentieth-century modernity consisting of Rilke, the sociologist Georg Simmel, and the art theorist Wilhelm Worringer. In the notes, this essay documents the biographical relations among the three, but in its text it demonstrates through textual analysis how Rilke's descriptions of Malte in Paris enact Simmel's categories of psychological response for man in the metropolis, as delineated in his essay "The Metropolis and Mental Life"(1903. Rilke's descriptions of Malte's attempts to overcome his fears of the metropolis coincide then with Worringer's thesis in his Abstraction and Empathy (1908 on the psychological origins of abstract art and Joseph Frank's later elaboration of that thesis into an aesthetics of spatial form.

  3. MALT-45: a 7 mm survey of the southern Galaxy - I. Techniques and spectral line data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Christopher H.; Walsh, Andrew J.; Lowe, Vicki; Voronkov, Maxim A.; Ellingsen, Simon P.; Breen, Shari L.; Purcell, Cormac R.; Barnes, Peter J.; Burton, Michael G.; Cunningham, Maria R.; Hill, Tracey; Jackson, James M.; Longmore, Steven N.; Peretto, Nicolas; Urquhart, James S.

    2015-04-01

    We present the first results from the MALT-45 (Millimetre Astronomer's Legacy Team-45 GHz) Galactic Plane survey. We have observed 5 square degrees (l = 330°-335°, b = ±0.5°) for spectral lines in the 7 mm band (42-44 and 48-49 GHz), including CS (1-0), class I CH3OH masers in the 7(0,7)-6(1,6) A+ transition and SiO (1-0) v = 0, 1, 2, 3. MALT-45 is the first unbiased, large-scale, sensitive spectral line survey in this frequency range. In this paper, we present data from the survey as well as a few intriguing results; rigorous analyses of these science cases are reserved for future publications. Across the survey region, we detected 77 class I CH3OH masers, of which 58 are new detections, along with many sites of thermal and maser SiO emission and thermal CS. We found that 35 class I CH3OH masers were associated with the published locations of class II CH3OH, H2O and OH masers but 42 have no known masers within 60 arcsec. We compared the MALT-45 CS with NH3 (1,1) to reveal regions of CS depletion and high opacity, as well as evolved star-forming regions with a high ratio of CS to NH3. All SiO masers are new detections, and appear to be associated with evolved stars from the Spitzer Galactic Legacy Infrared Mid-Plane Survey Extraordinaire (GLIMPSE). Generally, within SiO regions of multiple vibrational modes, the intensity decreases as v = 1, 2, 3, but there are a few exceptions where v = 2 is stronger than v = 1.

  4. Correlation of 18F-FDG PET/CT and Endoscopic Findings of Twin Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (MALT) Lymphoma of the Stomach: Report of a Case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahk, Yong Whee; Choi, Jin Wook

    2008-01-01

    Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type lymphoma arises from extranodal marginal zone B-cell. It is etiologically associated with Helicobacter pylori infection and, hence, can be cured by antibiotic treatment. MALT type lymphoma is the most common variety of gastric lymphoma that is rare in the stomach). The published data of clinical studies on the usefulness of 18F-FDG PET in the diagnosis of MALT type lymphoma varied according to authors. Thus, the result of Hoffmann et al. was discouraging whereas a high diagnostic accuracy was reported by Ambrosini et al. The latter group further went to suggest that higher 18F-FDG uptake in gastric MALT type lymphoma would positively relate to the aggressiveness of neoplasm. The clinical studies conducted by other groups on MALT lymphomas of the stomach, lung, orbit and parotid gland and the stomach, lung, parotid gland, skin, orbit, mandible, esophagus and uterus confirmed that 18F-FDG scan is valuable

  5. Primary Breast Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (MALT Lymphoma Transformation to Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şerife Hülya Arslan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Primary non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL of the breast constitutes 0.04%-0.53% of all malignancies and 2.2% of extra nodal lymphomas. In total, 7%-8% of all B-cell lymphomas are the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT type, of which up to 50% of primary gastric MALT lymphoma. Herein we present a patient with breast MALT lymphoma that transformed to diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL. A 69-year-old female presented with a mass on her left breast. Physical examination showed a 3 × 3-cm mass located 1 cm from the areola on the upper lateral quadrant of the breast at the 1 o’clock position, which was fixed and firm. Excisional biopsy was performed and pathologic examination of the specimen showed MALT lymphoma transformation to DLBCL. The patient was staged as II-EA. The rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone (R-CHOP protocol was scheduled as treatment. Following 6 courses of R-CHOP, 2 additional courses of rituximab were administered. Positron emission tomography (PET-CT was done at the end of the treatment. PET showed that the patient was in complete remission. At the time this report was written, the patient was being followed-up at the outpatient clinic on a regular basis. Lymphoma of the breast is a rarity among malignant tumors of the breast. The most common type of lymphoma is DLBCL. Breast MALT lymphoma is extremely rare. Primary MALT lymphoma of the breast can transform from low grade to high grade and recurrence is possible; therefore, such patients should be monitored carefully for transformation.

  6. Patients with Helicobacter pylori negative gastric marginal zone b-cell lymphoma (MZBCL) of MALT have a good prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Taie, O; Al-Taie, E; Fischbach, W

    2014-12-01

    In current guidelines H. pylori eradication is recommended as first-line therapy in patients with gastric MALT lymphoma irrespective of stage and H. pylori status. However, data on treatment and clinical course of patients with H. pylori negative MALT lymphoma are rare. To evaluate therapeutical results in patients with H. pylori negative gastric MALT lymphoma. 21 patients (13 male and 8 female; 63.9 years, range 43 - 80) with gastric MALT lymphoma were analysed retrospectively on the basis of medical reports in all cases and repeated outpatient visits at our center in 17 cases. H. pylori infection was excluded by negative histology, rapid urease test, or C13 urease breath test, and serology in all cases. Follow-up was 56.4 (5 - 142) months. Ten of 21 patients were treated with H. pylori eradication, and four of them received no further therapy. The other six patients underwent surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation, after eradication therapy. Those eleven patients without H. pylori eradication received radiation (n = 3), chemotherapy (n = 1), PPIs (n = 2), no treatment (n = 4) as first-line and radiation (n = 2) as second-line therapy while initial therapy remained unknown in one case. 13 patients (61.9 %) reached complete remission of lymphoma, and seven patients (33.3 %) showed minimal histological residuals. Overall and disease-free survival was found in 95 % and 90 %, respectively. Patients with H. pylori negative gastric MALT lymphoma have a good prognosis. We favor initial H. pylori eradication therapy and a watch-and-wait strategy in case of minimal histological residuals of MALT lymphoma. Non-responders to eradication therapy can be successfully treated by radiation and chemotherapy. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. 18F-FDG PET/CT in gastric MALT lymphoma: a bicentric experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albano, Domenico; Bertoli, Mattia; Ferro, Paola; Fallanca, Federico; Gianolli, Luigi; Picchio, Maria; Giubbini, Raffaele; Bertagna, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    The role of 18F-FDG-PET/CT in evaluating gastric MALT lymphoma is still controversial. In the literature the detection rate of 18F-FDG-PET/CT in patients with gastric MALT lymphoma is variable, and the reason for this heterogeneity is not still clear. Our aim was to investigate the particular metabolic behavior of these lymphoma. Sixty-nine patients (26 female, 43 male) with histologically confirmed gastric MALT lymphoma who underwent a 18F-FDG-PET/CT for initial staging from two centers were included. The PET images were analyzed visually and semi-quantitatively by measuring the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), lesion-to-liver SUVmax ratio, and lesion-to-blood pool SUVmax ratio and compared with Ann Arbor stage, epidemiological (age, sex), histological (presence of gastritis, ulcer, H. pylori infection, plasmacytic differentiation, Ki-67 index), and morphological (tumor size, superficial lesions or mass-forming) characteristics. Thirty-six patients (52 %) had positive PET/CT (average SUVmax was 9±6.7; lesion-to-liver SUVmax ratio 3.7±2.6, lesion-to-blood pool SUVmax ratio 4.8±3.3) at the corresponding gastric lesion; the remaining 33 were not 18F-FDG-avid. In the univariate analysis, 18F-FDG avidity was significantly associated with morphological features (mass forming p<0.001 and high maximum diameter p<0.001), Ann Arbor stage (p=0.010), and Ki67 index (p<0.001) and not correlated with age, sex, presence of gastritis, ulcer, Helicobacter pylori infection, and plasmacytic differentiation. In the multivariate analysis, the correlations with gross morphological appearance, Ann Arbor stage, and Ki-67 score were confirmed. SUVmax, lesion-to-liver SUVmax ratio, and lesion-to-blood pool SUVmax ratio correlated significantly only with Ki67 index (p=0.047; p=0.012; p=0.042). 18F-FDG avidity was noted in 52 % of gastric MALT lymphoma and this avidity is correlated with gross morphological characteristics, tumor stage, and Ki-67 index. SUVmax, lesion

  8. Meningoencefalite necrotizante de cão Maltês Necrotizing meningoencephalitis of Maltese dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalan Bastos Violin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A Meningoencefalite Necrotizante (MEN é uma encefalopatia causada por uma disfunção inflamatória de característica necrotizante. O objetivo deste relato é descrever os aspectos clínicos e anatomopatológicos da Meningoencefalite Necrotizante (MEN em um cão Maltês. A doença tem um caráter necrótico único e está relacionada intimamente à Encefalite do Cão Pug (ECP devido a suas semelhanças, bem como à Leucoencefalite Necrotizante (LEN. Embora o primeiro relato de caso de ECP tenha mais de 15 anos e o primeiro relato de caso de MEN em Maltês tenha 11 anos, há muito a ser revelado sobre a etiologia e os mecanismos imunopatológicos da doença. Neste trabalho, relata-se o caso de um cão Maltês com sinais que foram compatíveis com a MEN. Foram detectadas nas imagens macroscópicas, cavitação cerebral, e na microscopia, perda de células do parênquima em certas regiões do córtex cerebral. A partir dessas descobertas descreve-se o primeiro caso de MEN em cão Maltês no Brasil.The Necrotizing Meningoencephalitis (NME is an encephalopathy caused by an inflammatory dysfunction with necrotic characterization. The aim of this report is to describe the anatomopathological features of the NME in a Maltese dog. The disease has a unique necrotic pattern and is closely related to Pug Dog Encephalitis (PDE because of their similarity as well as to Necrotizing Leukoencephalitis (NLE. Although the first PDE report has more than 15 years and the first Maltese NME report has 11 years there is a lot to be unveiled about the etiologic and the immunopathologic mechanisms of the disease. Here we report one case of a Maltese dog with signs that were compatible with NME. The gross morphology pictures with the cerebral cavitation and the histological loss of parenchymal cells in some regions of the cerebral cortex were detected. Based on these findings, we describe the first case of NME in Maltese dog in Brazil.

  9. 18F-FDG PET/CT in gastric MALT lymphoma: a bicentric experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albano, Domenico; Bertoli, Mattia [Nuclear Medicine, Spedali Civili Brescia, Brescia (Italy); University Milano-Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Ferro, Paola [University Milano-Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Fallanca, Federico; Gianolli, Luigi; Picchio, Maria [IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Milan (Italy); Giubbini, Raffaele; Bertagna, Francesco [University of Brescia and Spedali Civili Brescia, Nuclear Medicine, Brescia (Italy)

    2017-04-15

    The role of 18F-FDG-PET/CT in evaluating gastric MALT lymphoma is still controversial. In the literature the detection rate of 18F-FDG-PET/CT in patients with gastric MALT lymphoma is variable, and the reason for this heterogeneity is not still clear. Our aim was to investigate the particular metabolic behavior of these lymphoma. Sixty-nine patients (26 female, 43 male) with histologically confirmed gastric MALT lymphoma who underwent a 18F-FDG-PET/CT for initial staging from two centers were included. The PET images were analyzed visually and semi-quantitatively by measuring the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), lesion-to-liver SUVmax ratio, and lesion-to-blood pool SUVmax ratio and compared with Ann Arbor stage, epidemiological (age, sex), histological (presence of gastritis, ulcer, H. pylori infection, plasmacytic differentiation, Ki-67 index), and morphological (tumor size, superficial lesions or mass-forming) characteristics. Thirty-six patients (52 %) had positive PET/CT (average SUVmax was 9±6.7; lesion-to-liver SUVmax ratio 3.7±2.6, lesion-to-blood pool SUVmax ratio 4.8±3.3) at the corresponding gastric lesion; the remaining 33 were not 18F-FDG-avid. In the univariate analysis, 18F-FDG avidity was significantly associated with morphological features (mass forming p<0.001 and high maximum diameter p<0.001), Ann Arbor stage (p=0.010), and Ki67 index (p<0.001) and not correlated with age, sex, presence of gastritis, ulcer, Helicobacter pylori infection, and plasmacytic differentiation. In the multivariate analysis, the correlations with gross morphological appearance, Ann Arbor stage, and Ki-67 score were confirmed. SUVmax, lesion-to-liver SUVmax ratio, and lesion-to-blood pool SUVmax ratio correlated significantly only with Ki67 index (p=0.047; p=0.012; p=0.042). 18F-FDG avidity was noted in 52 % of gastric MALT lymphoma and this avidity is correlated with gross morphological characteristics, tumor stage, and Ki-67 index. SUVmax, lesion

  10. A rapid non-destructive method for quantification of fungal infection on barley and malt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodevin, Sabrina; Larsen, Tone Glarborg; Lok, Finn

    Description of topic: Barley harvest 2007 in Europe has seen the resurgence of crops highly infected by filamentous fungi. Hence the evaluation of fungal infection on barley and malt kernels by conventional optical measurement methods lacks accuracy and can be tedious. Here we are presenting a new...... vision system to rapidly perform this task using the VideometerLab®. This system provides a rapid colour, shape and texture measurement, ideal to analyze kernels surfaces. The principle employed is a high-intensity sphere illuminated by light emitting diodes together with a highresolution black and white...

  11. Primary thyroid marginal zone B-cell lymphoma MALT-type in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serefhanoglu, Songul; Tapan, Umit; Ertenli, Ihsan; Kalyoncu, Umut; Uner, Aysegul

    2010-09-01

    Autoimmune diseases are defined as specific, adapted immune reactions against self antigens. Immune mechanism deficiency is a causal factor for B-cell lymphoma in primary Sjögren's syndrome and autoimmune thyroid disease. Thyroid mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is a 67-fold and parotid lymphoma is a 44-fold increased risk in Sjögren's syndrome and thyroiditis. MALT lymphoma was not reported in rheumatoid arthritis. We herein report the case of a 56-year-old woman with maltoma of thyroid in rheumatoid arthritis patient.

  12. Textile dye removal from aqueous solutions by malt bagasse: Isotherm, kinetic and thermodynamic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Klaiani B; Chaves, Eduardo S; Sanchez, Jefferson D S; Watanabe, Erica R L R; Pietrobelli, Juliana M T A; Lenzi, Giane G

    2016-02-01

    The biosorption of orange solimax TGL 182% (OS-TGL) textile dye onto new and low cost biossorbent (malt bagasse) in aqueous solutions was investigated. The malt bagasse was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and specific surface area (BET method).Batch biosorption experiments were conducted in order to determine the following parameters: particles size, pH, agitation speed, temperature, contact time, biomass dosage, influence of the ionic strength and, finally, the influence of other textile dye on the OS-TGL biosorption. The optimum conditions for OS-TGL removal were obtained at pH 1.5, agitation speed of 150rpm, contact time of 180min and biomass dosage 2, 8gL(-1). The results show that the kinetics of biosorption followed a pseudo-second-order model and by increasing the temperature from 293 up to 313K, the biosorption capacity was improved. The Langmuir model showed better fit and the estimated biosorption capacity was 23.2mgg(-1). The negative values of Gibbs free energy, ΔG°, and positive value of enthalpy, ΔH°, confirm the spontaneous nature and endothermic character of the biosorption process. The results of the ionic strength effect indicated that the biosorption process under study had a strong tolerance in high salt concentrations. The removal capacity (>95%) was not affected with the presence of other textile dyes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Selection of Thai starter components for ethanol production utilizing malted rice from waste paddy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirilux Chaijamrus

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of mixed herbs in Thai rice wine starter (Loog-pang were investigated in order to directly maintain theefficiency of the microbial community (Saccharomycopsis fibuligera, Amylomyces sp., Gluconobacter sp. and Pediocccuspentosaceus. The optimum formula was galanga, garlic, long pepper, licorice, and black pepper at the ratio of 0.5:8:1:4:1,respectively. Previously, waste paddy has been used directly as a renewable resource for fuel ethanol production using solidstate fermentation (SSF with Loog-pang. In this study, hydrolyzed malted rice starch was used as the sole nutrient source insubmerged fermentation (SmF to enhance the process yield. The maximum ethanol productivity (4.08 g/kg waste paddy h-1and the highest ethanol concentration (149±7.0 g/kg waste paddy were obtained after 48 hrs of incubation. The resultsindicated that starch saccharification provided a higher ethanol yield (48.38 g/100g sugar consumed than SSF. In addition,the efficiency of ethanol fermentation was 67% which is similar to that of the malted rice made from normal paddy (68%.This result suggests that waste paddy could be used as an alternative raw material for ethanol production.

  14. Pilot observations for MALT-45: a Galactic plane survey at 7 mm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, C. H.; Walsh, A. J.; Lowe, V.; Lo, N.; Purcell, C. R.; Voronkov, M. A.; Longmore, S. N.

    2013-02-01

    We introduce the Millimetre Astronomer's Legacy Team - 45 GHz (MALT-45) Galactic plane survey and describe pilot survey results with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA). The pilot survey was conducted to test the instrumentation and observational technique of MALT-45, before commencing the full survey. We mapped two half-square degree regions within the southern Galactic plane around the G333 giant molecular cloud, using fast mosaic mapping. Using the new Compact Array Broad-band Backend on the ATCA, we were able to observe two 2048 MHz spectral windows, centred on frequencies 43.2 and 48.2 GHz. Although only a coarse spectral resolution of around 7 km s-1 was available to us, we detect widespread, extended emission in the CS (1-0) ground state transition. We also detect eight Class I CH3OH masers at 44 GHz and three SiO masers in vibrationally excited (1-0) transitions. We also detect the H53α radio recombination line, non-vibrationally excited SiO (1-0) and emission in the CH3OH 11-00 A+ line.

  15. [MALT B cell lymphoma with kidney damage and monoclonal gammopathy: a case study and literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peces, R; Vega-Cabrera, C; Peces, C; Pobes, A; Fresno, M F

    2010-01-01

    We report a case of low-grade B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) involving the left kidney and simultaneous onset of a monoclonal gammopathy IgM kappa. No predisposing local inflammatory condition was identified. Following left nephrectomy, the renal specimen showed the centrocyte like cells and lymphoid cells in the lymphoepithelial lesions were positive for CD20 and CD79α. The neoplastic cells expressed monotypic cytoplasmic IgM kappa. The demonstration of bone marrow cells of B-lineage expressing the same monoclonal protein as the tumor suggested bone marrow involvement, even in the absence of identical morphology. Despite chemotherapy and rituximab treatment, clinical follow-up showed right kidney extension with high-grade transformation, and finally systemic dissemination. This case illustrates that the kidney is among the sites that may be involved by MALT B-cell lymphomas in a primary or secondary fashion, and the need for expanded investigation of the possible dissemination. We review the literature on this unusual extranodal lymphoma.

  16. The status of the AMS system at MALT in its 20th year

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki, E-mail: hmatsu@um.u-tokyo.ac.jp [MALT (Micro Analysis Laboratory, Tandem accelerator), The University Museum, The University of Tokyo, Yayoi 2-11-16, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan); Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Nakano, Chuichiro; Tsuchiya, Yoko S. [MALT (Micro Analysis Laboratory, Tandem accelerator), The University Museum, The University of Tokyo, Yayoi 2-11-16, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan); Ito, Seiji; Morita, Akira [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Kusuno, Haruka [MALT (Micro Analysis Laboratory, Tandem accelerator), The University Museum, The University of Tokyo, Yayoi 2-11-16, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan); Miyake, Yasuto [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Honda, Maki [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Bautista VII, Angel T. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Kawamoto, Marina; Tokuyama, Hironori [MALT (Micro Analysis Laboratory, Tandem accelerator), The University Museum, The University of Tokyo, Yayoi 2-11-16, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    MALT (Micro Analysis Laboratory, Tandem accelerator, The University of Tokyo) was designed for a ‘highly sensitive and precise elemental and isotopic microanalysis system’ using an ion-beam generated by a Pelletron™ 5UD tandem accelerator. Currently, a multi-nuclide AMS ({sup 10}Be, {sup 14}C, {sup 26}Al, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 129}I) system is available and shows good performance in both precision and sensitivity, and the accelerator serves for PIXE, NRA, ERDA/RBS measurements as well. The total operation time of the accelerator has been over 95,000 hours since the start of MALT, 20 years ago. After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, many projects related to {sup 129}I have been conducted. The retrospective reconstruction of the {sup 131}I distribution at the accident from {sup 129}I is one of the most important missions for dose evaluation of the residents. The accident-derived {sup 129}I is also quite useful as a tracer for the general iodine dynamics in the environment. As a new tool for environmental assessment related to nuclear activity, including the global fallout from past atmospheric nuclear bomb testing, effects from the spent fuel reprocessing plant, and nuclear accidents such as Chernobyl and FDNPP, a {sup 236}U-AMS system is now under development.

  17. The status of the AMS system at MALT in its 20th year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Nakano, Chuichiro; Tsuchiya, Yoko S.; Ito, Seiji; Morita, Akira; Kusuno, Haruka; Miyake, Yasuto; Honda, Maki; Bautista VII, Angel T.; Kawamoto, Marina; Tokuyama, Hironori

    2015-10-01

    MALT (Micro Analysis Laboratory, Tandem accelerator, The University of Tokyo) was designed for a 'highly sensitive and precise elemental and isotopic microanalysis system' using an ion-beam generated by a Pelletron™ 5UD tandem accelerator. Currently, a multi-nuclide AMS (10Be, 14C, 26Al, 36Cl, 129I) system is available and shows good performance in both precision and sensitivity, and the accelerator serves for PIXE, NRA, ERDA/RBS measurements as well. The total operation time of the accelerator has been over 95,000 hours since the start of MALT, 20 years ago. After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, many projects related to 129I have been conducted. The retrospective reconstruction of the 131I distribution at the accident from 129I is one of the most important missions for dose evaluation of the residents. The accident-derived 129I is also quite useful as a tracer for the general iodine dynamics in the environment. As a new tool for environmental assessment related to nuclear activity, including the global fallout from past atmospheric nuclear bomb testing, effects from the spent fuel reprocessing plant, and nuclear accidents such as Chernobyl and FDNPP, a 236U-AMS system is now under development.

  18. Enzymatic hydrolysis of barley and malt hemicellulose during brewing and mashing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogurtsov, V.E.; Lifshits, D.B.; Kondratenko, N.V.; Babicheva, L.K.; Yarovenko, V.L.

    1978-01-01

    A study was made of the hydrolysis of hemicellulose as beer wort is produced during the mashing of malt and barley. The hydrolysis of hemicellulose was found to be insignificant (5 to 6%) as the barley is mashed (fine and course grain) under the influence of its enzymes. The hydrolysis is more intense (by 30%) when endosperm is mashed. The hydrolysis of hemicellulose does not occur during the mashing of malt. The mashing of barley endosperm with enzymatic preparations containing hemicellulose (cytorosemin P10kh, xylonigrin P10kh, amylorisin P10kh, and amylosubtilin G10kh), increases the hydrolysis of hemicellulose by 10 to 20% depending on the amount of hemicellulose. The utilization of the raw material extract is simultaneously increased significantly. The mashing of barley with the same enzyme preparations increases the degree of hemicellulose hydrolysis by 6 to 18% and the use of the raw extract by 14 to 27% by 3 to 10% for the fine grain, and by 9 to 25% for the course grain. The degree of hemicellulose hydrolysis during the production of barley wort is influenced not only by the composition of the mash (endosperm or whole grain), but also by the degree of grain pulverization. 7 references, 5 tables.

  19. Metabolite Profiling of Barley Grains Subjected to Water Stress: To Explain the Genotypic Difference in Drought-Induced Impacts on Malting Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojian Wu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Grain weight and protein content will be reduced and increased, respectively, when barley is subjected to water stress after anthesis, consequently deteriorating the malt quality. However, such adverse impact of water stress differs greatly among barley genotypes. In this study, two Tibetan wild barley accessions and two cultivated varieties differing in water stress tolerance were used to investigate the genotypic difference in metabolic profiles during grain-filling stage under drought condition. Totally, 71 differently accumulated metabolites were identified, including organic acids, amino acids/amines, and sugars/sugar alcohols. Their relative contents were significantly affected by water stress for all genotypes and differed distinctly between the wild and cultivated barleys. The principal component analysis of metabolites indicated that the Tibetan wild barley XZ147 possessed a unique response to water stress. When subjected to water stress, the wild barley XZ147 showed the most increase of β-amylase activity among the four genotypes, as a result of its higher lysine content, less indole-3-acetic acid (IAA biosynthesis, more stable H2O2 homeostasis, and more up-regulation of BMY1 gene. On the other hand, XZ147 had the most reduction of β-glucan content under water stress than the other genotypes, which could be explained by the faster grain filling process and the less expression of β-glucan synthase gene GSL7. All these results indicated a great potential for XZ147 in barley breeding for improving water stress tolerance.

  20. Stage I and II malt lymphoma: results of treatment with radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, Richard W.; Gospodarowicz, Mary K.; Pintilie, Melania; Bezjak, Andrea; Wells, Woodrow; Hodgson, David C.; Crump, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is a distinct disease with specific clinical and pathologic features that may affect diverse organs. We analyzed our recent experience with Stage I/II MALT lymphoma presenting in the stomach and other organs to assess the outcome following involved field radiation therapy (RT). Patients and Methods: Seventy patients with Stage IE (62) and IIE (8) disease were treated between 1989 and 1998. Patients with transformed MALT were excluded. The median age was 62 years (range, 24-83 years), M:F ratio 1:2.2. Presenting sites included stomach, 15; orbital adnexa, 19; salivary glands, 15; thyroid, 8; lung, 5; upper airways, 3 (nasopharynx, 2; larynx, 1); urinary bladder, 3; breast, 1; and rectum, 1. Staging included site-specific imaging, CT abdomen in 66 patients (94%) and bone marrow biopsy in 54 (77%). Sixty-two patients received radiation therapy: 52 received RT alone, 7 received chemotherapy and RT, and 3 received antibiotics followed by RT. Median RT dose was 30 Gy (range, 17.5-35 Gy). Most frequently used RT prescriptions were 25 Gy (26 patients--18 orbit, 6 stomach, and 2 salivary glands), 30 Gy (23 patients), and 35 Gy (8 patients). Five patients had complete surgical excision of lymphoma and no other treatment (stomach 1, salivary 2, lung 2), whereas 2 patients with gastric lymphoma received antibiotics only. One patient refused treatment and was excluded from the analysis of treatment outcome, leaving 69 patients with a median follow-up of 4.2 years (range, 0.3-11.4 years). Results: A complete response was achieved in 66/69 patients, and 3 patients had partial response (2 lung, 1 orbit). The 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) was 76%, and the overall survival was 96%. No relapses were observed in patients with stomach and thyroid lymphoma. The 5-year DFS for these patients was 93%, in contrast to 69% for patients presenting in other sites (p 0.006). Among the 5 patients treated with surgery only, 2

  1. Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) variant of primary rectal lymphoma: a review of the English literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Scott R

    2017-03-01

    Primary rectal lymphoma (PRL) is the third most common cause of rectal cancer following adenocarcinoma (90-95 %) and carcinoid (5 %). The most common variant of PRL is the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type. To date, no study has been able to recommend an optimal treatment algorithm for this rare disease. The aim of our study was to review the English literature on primary rectal MALT lymphoma. A review of the English literature was conducted to identify articles describing the MALT variant of PRL. Fifty-one cases were identified. A complete response was achieved in 12 of 19 cases treated with Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy, 5 of 6 with radiation, 2 of 4 cases with chemotherapy, 2 of 4 with endoscopic resection, 6 of 8 cases with surgical resection, and all 8 with combination therapies. Cases failing initial therapies were responsive to various second-line treatments. Two cases spontaneously regressed with observation alone. Complete regression of primary rectal MALT lymphoma was achieved using various therapeutic strategies, although the numbers of different treatment modalities are too small to draw definitive conclusions.

  2. Structural characteristics of arabinoxylans from barley, malt and wort = Structuurkenmerken van arabinoxylanen uit gerst, mout en wort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vietor, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    Flours from dehusked barley and malt were fractionated to obtain water-insoluble cell wall material (WIS). A mass balance of these fractionations was determined. Arabinoxylans were extracted from this WIS in high purity and yield with Ba(OH) 2 , and subfractionated

  3. 76 FR 3584 - Disclosure of Cochineal Extract and Carmine in the Labeling of Wines, Distilled Spirits, and Malt...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau 27 CFR Parts 5 RIN 1513-AB79 Disclosure of Cochineal Extract and Carmine in the Labeling of Wines, Distilled Spirits, and Malt Beverages Correction In proposed rule...

  4. A genome-wide association study of malting quality across eight U.S. barley breeding programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study leverages the breeding data of 1,862 breeding lines evaluated in 97 field trials for genome-wide association study of malting quality traits in barley. The breeding lines were six-row and two-row barley advanced breeding lines from eight barley breeding populations established at six pub...

  5. Increasing Soy Isoflavonoid Content and Diversity by Simultaneous Malting and Challenging by a Fungus to Modulate Estrogenicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, R.; Vincken, J.P.; Roidos, N.; Bovee, T.F.H.; Iersel, van M.; Verbruggen, H.; Gruppen, H.

    2011-01-01

    Soybeans were germinated on a kilogram-scale, by the application of malting technology used in the brewing industry, and concomitantly challenged with Rhizopus microsporus var. oryzae. In a time-course experiment, samples were taken every 24 h for 10 days, and the isoflavonoid profile was analyzed

  6. Maltose effects on barley malt diastatic power enzyme activity and thermostability at high isothermal mashing temperature: II. Alpha-amylase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltose, the primary product of starch degradation during mashing, has the potential as a compatible solute to affect the activity of and increase the thermostability of barley malt alpha-amylase activity at high temperatures used in mashing and temperatures above those normally used in mashing. To ...

  7. 75 FR 67669 - Disclosure of Cochineal Extract and Carmine in the Labeling of Wines, Distilled Spirits, and Malt...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    ... the Labeling of Wines, Distilled Spirits, and Malt Beverages AGENCY: Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade... notice and any comments we receive about it within Docket No. TTB-2010-0008 at http://www.regulations.gov... we receive about it by appointment at the TTB Information Resource Center, 1310 G Street, NW...

  8. The Great Recession was not so Great

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ours, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    The Great Recession is characterized by a GDP-decline that was unprecedented in the past decades. This paper discusses the implications of the Great Recession analyzing labor market data from 20 OECD countries. Comparing the Great Recession with the 1980s recession it is concluded that there is a

  9. The incidence and anatomic site specificity of chromosomal translocations in primary extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma) in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remstein, Ellen D; Dogan, Ahmet; Einerson, Richard R; Paternoster, Sarah F; Fink, Stephanie R; Law, Mark; Dewald, Gordon W; Kurtin, Paul J

    2006-12-01

    Several balanced translocations have been identified in extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma) but there are few data regarding their frequency in different anatomic sites or the frequency of translocations involving BCL6 or kappa or lambda immunoglobulin light chain genes (IGK or IGL), particularly in patients from geographic regions other than Europe and Japan. One hundred thirty-three paraffin-embedded North American primary MALT lymphoma specimens from diverse anatomic sites were studied by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using probes for API2-MALT1, IGH-MALT1, IGH-BCL10, IGH-FOXP1, IGH, +/- centromeres 3, 7, 12, and 18, and a subset (n=74) were analyzed using FISH probes for IGK, IGL, and BCL6. Translocations were mutually exclusive and were detected in 26% of cases (17% API2-MALT1, 5% IGH-MALT1, 3% IGH-unknown translocation partner, and 1% IGH-BCL10). Aneuploidy was associated with IGH-MALT1 and IGH-BCL10 but only rarely with API2-MALT1. There was striking site specificity, with API2-MALT1 showing a marked predilection for lung and intestine, and IGH-MALT1 and IGH-BCL10 occurring almost exclusively in lung. Twenty-three percent of translocation-negative primary MALT lymphomas from diverse sites showed complete/partial trisomy 18. No MALT lymphomas with translocations involving IGK, IGL, BCL6, or FOXP1 were identified. This FISH panel detected cytogenetic abnormalities in half of all MALT lymphomas, and translocations arose preferentially in MALT lymphomas of the lung and gastrointestinal tract. Differences in incidence and anatomic site specificity of translocations between North American and non-North American cases may reflect geographic variability of infectious or other etiologic factors.

  10. Immunohistochemical comparison of CD5, lambda, and kappa expression in primary and recurrent buccal Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is a type of extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma and is a distinct subtype of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Primary MALT lymphomas can also occur in the oral cavity, although their appearance in this location is rare. The neoplastic cells of which MALT lymphomas are composed express B-cell antigens and show monotypic immunoglobulin expression with light-chain restriction. Although neoplastic MALT lymphoma cells do not express CD5, previous studies have shown that CD5 positive MALT lymphomas are more prone to dissemination than those that do not express CD5. Moreover, there are some reports that describe kappa- and lambda- dual light chain expression in B cell malignant neoplasms. A 66-year-old Japanese woman with swelling of the right buccal mucosa was referred to our hospital. The lesion was excised and was pathologically diagnosed as a MALT lymphoma tumor with a t(11;18)(q21;q21) chromosome translocation. Swelling of the right buccal mucosa recurred 2 years later. The recurrent tumor was then excised and pathologically diagnosed as MALT lymphoma. Immunohistochemical examination of CD5, lambda, and kappa expressions revealed that the primary tumor was positive for CD5, kappa, and lambda, but the recurrent tumor was weakly positive for CD5 and kappa. With respect to lambda positivity, the recurrent tumor showed negativity. Our study suggests that immunohistochemical expression of CD5, kappa, and lambda in oral MALT lymphoma have the risk of recurrence. We first described the recurrence of CD5 positive MALT lymphoma in the oral cavity and compared the immunohistochemical expressions of CD5, lambda, and kappa between the primary and recurrent tumors. PMID:21892966

  11. Gastric lymphoma of mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type: longterm treatment results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fung, Claire Y.; Kachnic, Lisa A.; Daly, William; Younger, Jerry; Harris, Nancy L.; Graeme-Cook, Fiona

    1995-01-01

    Objective: In recent years, a large proportion of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas of the stomach are recognized as low grade tumors of the mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type. Since the MALT morphological subtype has only gained acceptance as a malignant lymphoma after the establishment of the Working Formulation, there is limited information about its natural history, disease pattern, and longterm treatment outcome. This study is an analysis of these parameters in patients with primary MALT lymphoma of the stomach. Materials and Methods: Consecutive patients with primary gastric MALT lymphoma who received definitive treatment at the Massachusetts General Hospital between (4(78)) and (2(95)) were included in the study. The diagnosis was pathologically verified in all cases. Clinical staging studies included chest X-ray +/- chest CT, abdomino-pelvic CT or bipedal lymphangiogram, barium swallow, and bone marrow biopsy. Treatment strategies included combinations of partial or total gastrectomy, radiation (RT) and chemotherapy (chemo). RT was given via multifield technique, with 10-25MV photons, to doses of 36-50.4 Gy (1.1-1.8 Gy per fraction, 5 days a week). Survival analyses were performed by the Kaplan-Meier actuarial method. Results: There were twenty-two patients between the ages of 45 - 93 years, with a mean follow-up of 67 months. Ten were male and 12 female. The most frequent presenting symptoms were epigastric pain (77%), dyspepsia (65%), and melena (41%). The mean duration of symptoms was 27 months. Eighteen cases were clinical stage (cs)I, two csII, one csIII, and one csIV. The treatment approaches were: 1) csI:6 gastrectomy alone, 7 gastrectomy and RT, 1 gastrectomy and chemo, 2 RT alone, 1 chemo and RT, 1 no therapy; 2) csII: 2 gastrectomy and RT; 3) csIII: 1 gastrectomy and chemo; 4) csIV: 1 chemo and RT. Among 16 gastrectomy specimens, multifocal gastric involvement was evident in 50%. The most frequently involved sites were the body (63%) and antrum

  12. Persistent indolent pancolonic marginal zone lymphoma of MALT-type with plasmacytic differentiation – A rare post-transplant lymphoma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna M. Chaffin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma is associated with chronic inflammatory disorders. We present an indolent pancolonic MALT lymphoma occurring in a 39-year-old female with history of autoimmune hepatitis requiring liver transplant in 1997 and ulcerative colitis diagnosed in 2004. Random biopsies from a grossly unremarkable surveillance colonoscopy in 2015 revealed a dense monomorphic plasmacytoid infiltrate causing expansion of lamina propria without significant crypt infiltration or destruction. These cells were positive for CD79a and CD138 and showed lambda restriction; however, CD20, CD43, CD56, HHV8, and EBER were negative. A similar pancolonic infiltrate was identified in all prior colorectal biopsies from 2010 and 2012 upon retrospective review. Subsequent computed tomography of the abdomen revealed no bowel wall thickening nor enlarged lymph nodes. Bone marrow revealed involvement consistent with stage IV disease. Biopsies from 2010 and 2015 demonstrated clonal immunoglobulin gene rearrangement. MYD88 mutation was not detected. The overall features were indicative of MALT lymphoma. Although low-grade B-cell lymphomas are not considered part of the post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder spectrum, such cases have been reported, and are typically EBV-negative. Patient underwent treatment with pentostatin for her MALT lymphoma reaching a sustained remission despite additional immunosuppression for resurgent hepatic dysfunction. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of EBV-negative pancolonic MALT lymphoma with plasmacytic differentiation post liver transplant presenting in an indolent, asymptomatic fashion with persistence for greater than five years successfully managed without compromising the patient's liver transplant.

  13. Evaluation of malt spent rootlets biochar as catalyst for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantiora, Dimitra

    2014-05-01

    Evaluation of malt spent rootlets biochar as catalyst for biodiesel production. Dimitra Pantiora1, Hrissi K. Karapanagioti1, Ioannis D. Manariotis2, Alexis Lycourghiotis1, Christos Kordulis1,3 (1) University of Patras, Department of Chemistry, GR 26500, Patras, Greece, (2) University of Patras, Department of Civil Engineering, Patras, Greece, (3) Institute of Chemical Engineering Science (FORTH/ ICE-HT), Stadiou Str., Platani, GR 26500, Patras, Greece Biodiesel is an attractive renewable fuel, environmentally friendly, and can readily be synthesized from the triglycerides found in animal fats and vegetable oils. It can be used in existing engines. Biodiesel consists of fatty acid alkyl esters. Conversion of triglycerides to biodiesel fuel is commonly achieved through a series of transesterification reactions involving the reaction of an alkoxy group of an ester (i.e., mono-, di-, or triglyceride) with that of a small alcohol (usually methanol). This reaction is traditionally catalyzed by homogeneous catalysts, such as bases or mineral acids. Basic catalysts have been proved to be much more active than acidic ones. However, due to environmental (waste water) and economic concerns (catalyst separation and product and by-product cleaning), heterogeneous catalysts are much more desirable. In the present study we have evaluated the use of biochar, produced from malt spent rootlets, as a potential basic catalyst, for transesterification of triglycerides using triacetin as a probe molecule. The biochar used in this study was prepared by heating malt spent rootlets in an oxygen-limited environment. It is a carbon rich material, containing 66% C, 22% O, 0.45% Mg, 0.86% Si, 5.7% K, 1.5% Cl, 0.61% Ca, and 2.4% P. Aqueous suspension of this material equilibrates at pH= 10. This is probably due to high K content. Furthermore, it exhibits high specific surface area (SSA= 183 m2g-1). The above described characteristics make this material very promising catalyst for

  14. Seabird Colonies in Western Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boertmann, D.; Mosbech, A.; Falk, K.

    surveys of seabird colonies are needed, due to a lack of information or because the present information probably is outdated. The most immediate threats to the colonial seabirds in western Greenland during the breeding time is hunting and egging. Oil pollution is a minor threat to-day, but will increase...... if offshore areas with oil potential are explored and developed. Tab. 6 gives an overview of each species sensitivity to oil spills and the capacity to recover, as well as a comparison of the western Greenland population numbers to the North Atlantic population numbers. The most significant western Greenland...... conservation concern are the populations of great cormorant, Iceland gull, great black-backed gull and little auk. Following species of European conservation concern (Tucker & Heath 1994) breed in western Greenland: lesser black-backed gull, great black-backed gull, razorbill, black guillemot and atlantic...

  15. Determinação do percentual de malte e adjuntos em cervejas comerciais brasileiras através de análise isotópica Determination of malt and adjunct percentage in brazilian commercial beer through isotopic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muris Sleiman

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Oobjetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a quantidade de malte e de adjunto presentes nas cervejas comerciais brasileiras do tipo Pilsen e detectar possível adulteração em sua composição, tomando por base a legislação brasileira. Para isso, foi utilizada a metodologia de análise isotópica utilizando os isótopos estáveis dos elementos carbono e nitrogênio. Foram analisadas 161 amostras de cervejas provenientes de dezessete estados do Brasil. Concluiu-se que 95,6 % utilizaram malte e adjunto cervejeiro (derivados de milho ou açúcar de cana: 91,3 % e derivados de arroz: 4,3 % em sua formulação e outros 4,3 % eram cervejas "puro malte". Das amostras analisadas, 3,7 % eram cervejas com menos de 50 % de malte em sua formulação (adulteradas, 28,6 % delas estavam na faixa de incerteza, para qualquer tipo de adjunto e 67,7 % apresentaram malte dentro do limite legal estabelecido.The aim of this study was to determine the amount of malt and adjunct in Pilsen Brazilian commercial beer, and to detect likely adulteration in its composition, based on the Brazilian legislation. The methodology applied was the isotopic analysis which used carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes. One hundred sixty-one beer samples from seventeen Brazilian states were analyzed. It was concluded that 95.6% used malt and adjunct (corn or sugarcane derived: 91.3% and rice derived: 4.3% in their formula and 4.3% were "pure malt" beer. Among the analyzed samples 3.7% were beers with less than 50% of malt in their formula (adulterated, 28.6% of them were in doubtful level for any adjunct and 67.7% contained malt in the legal established limit.

  16. Malt hydrolysis of sweet-potatoes and eddoes for ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosein, Rhonda; Mellowes, W.A. (University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad. Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1989-01-01

    In the Caribbean the main root crops produced are cassava, sweet-potatoes, eddoes, dasheen and yam. The production of ethanol from these starchy substrates first requires the hydrolysis of the starch into simpler sugars. Hydrolysis can be performed enzymatically or by means of acids. The root crops selected for study were sweet-potatoes (Ipomoea batatas) and eddoes (Colocasia antiquorum esculenta var. globulifera). They were hydrolysed using the enzymes contained in malt. The sugars obtained under the above conditions were 5.6 and 5.4% (w/v) for sweet-potatoes and eddoes, respectively. The corresponding starch conversions were 88 and 92%. Fermentation of the above hydrolysates gave alcohol in the region of 2.3 and 2.2% (v/v) for sweet-potatoes and eddoes, respectively. The conversion of sugar to alcohol was 91 and 89%. (author).

  17. The Temperature Fuzzy Control System of Barleythe Malt Drying Based on Microcontroller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaoyang; Bi, Yang; Zhang, Lili; Chen, Jingjing; Yun, Jianmin

    The control strategy of temperature and humidity in the beer barley malt drying chamber based on fuzzy logic control was implemented.Expounded in this paper was the selection of parameters for the structure of the regulatory device, as well as the essential design from control rules based on the existing experience. A temperature fuzzy controller was thus constructed using relevantfuzzy logic, and humidity control was achieved by relay, ensured the situation of the humidity to control the temperature. The temperature's fuzzy control and the humidity real-time control were all processed by single chip microcomputer with assembly program. The experimental results showed that the temperature control performance of this fuzzy regulatory system,especially in the ways of working stability and responding speed and so on,was better than normal used PID control. The cost of real-time system was inquite competitive position. It was demonstrated that the system have a promising prospect of extensive application.

  18. Fate of Ochratoxin A and Citrinin During Malting and Brewing Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogh, P.; Hald, B.; Gjertsen, P.; Myken, F.

    1974-01-01

    The fate of ochratoxin A and citrinin during malting and brewing processes was studied by the use of naturally contaminated lots of barley, as well as by the addition of crystalline toxins to the mash. Complete degradation was observed for ochratoxin A from moderately contaminated barley lots and for citrinin added to mash. The use of highly contaminated barley resulted in transmission of ochratoxin A into the beer, but only 2 to 7% of the initial content was detected, corresponding to levels of 6 to 20 μg of ochratoxin A per liter of beer. Barley lots with this high ochratoxin contamination (1,000 to 5,000 μg/kg) will be easily detected and, therefore, because of pronounced deterioration, should be rejected during inspection upon admittance to the breweries. PMID:4844265

  19. 'Great Power Style' in China's Economic Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Yang

    2011-01-01

    China’s ascendance attracts concern, even though Beijing claims to be a responsible great power and tries to demonstrate its ‘great power style’ in economic diplomacy. This article therefore discusses the following questions: to what extent does the current notion and practice of Chinese ‘great...... power style’ in economic diplomacy comply with, or differ from, the criteria of benign hegemony; and what are the major constraining factors? Conceptually, China’s ‘great power style’ is rooted in ancient Chinese political philosophy and institution, but it highly resembles the Western notion of benign...... and economic interests....

  20. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY AND POLYPHENOL CONTENT OF MALT BEVERAGES ENRICHED WITH BEE POLLEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Solgajová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In food industry, especially among the brewers, using of natural ingredients is increasingly growing demand. Beer is one of the most popular beverages in the world with evident positive effects on the overall health condition. It can be used as a base for developing a variety of products with specific physiological activity. Bee pollen is considered to be one of the possible sources of active ingredients for that purpose. Activity of phenolic and flavonoid compounds in bee pollen can contribute to the antioxidant potential of beer. The objective of this study was to examine the influence of different types and content of bee pollen on the antioxidant properties of malt beverages and to compare phenolic and flavonoid profiles. The technological process of malt beverages preparation with addition of bee pollen was also verified. It was found out that all beverages enriched with bee pollen had higher polyphenol, flavonoid content and antioxidant potential than control sample – pure wort. The higher antioxidant activities of all extracts was measured in sample R2 - wort with 0.6% of dry rapeseed pollen and sample R4 - wort with 0.6% of frozen rapeseed pollen. The higher phenolic content than in other samples was measured in sample M4 - wort with 0.6% of frozen poppy pollen and sample M1 - wort with 0.256% of dry poppy pollen. Higher total flavonoid content was found out in sample M2 - wort with 0.6% of dry poppy pollen and M4 - wort with 0.6% of frozen poppy pollen. In conclusion, the most noticeable results of antioxidant activity, phenolic and flavonoid content were achieved in samples with higher 0.6% addition of bee pollen, mostly poppy (Papaver somniferum L. pollen.

  1. Great Lakes Science Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Since 1927, Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC) research has provided critical information for the sound management of Great Lakes fish populations and other important...

  2. Comparisons of modern United States and Canadian malting barley cultivars with those from pre-prohibition: III. Wort sugar production during mashing

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to compare wort sugar production during mashing of barley malts of pre-Prohibition varieties and modern elite cultivars. Four of the five modern cultivars utilized were significantly higher (PProhibition barley varieties at al...

  3. Rheumatoid arthritis with Sjogren's syndrome and MALT lymphoma of the parotid gland, associatedwith multiple myeloma: Description of a case and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Romanovich Gorodetsky

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides a detailed description of a rare case of rheumatoid arthritis concurrent with Sjogren's syndrome, MALT lymphoma of the parotid gland, and multiple myeloma. It presents a review of literature

  4. PD-1, S-100 and CD1a expression in pseudolymphomatous folliculitis, primary cutaneous marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (MALT lymphoma) and cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amrita; Moore, Johanna B; Gimbel, Devon; Carter, Joi B; Kroshinsky, Daniela; Ferry, Judith A; Harris, Nancy L; Duncan, Lyn M

    2015-01-01

    Pseudolymphomatous folliculitis is a lymphoid proliferation that clinically and histopathologically mimics primary cutaneous extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma). In this study, we assessed the diagnostic value of three immunohistochemical markers, programmed death-1 (PD-1), CD1a and S100. We evaluated 25 cases of cutaneous lymphoid proliferations with established diagnoses, including 9 patients with pseudolymphomatous folliculitis, 11 with MALT lymphoma, and 5 with cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia (CLH). The clinical, histopathologic and immunohistochemical characteristics were reviewed and three major characteristics assessed: (a) proportion of T cells expressing PD-1, (b) pattern of expression of CD1a by dendritic cells and (c) pattern of expression of S100 by dendritic cells. We found pseudolymphomatous folliculitis to have a significant increase in PD-1+ T cells compared with MALT lymphoma (p MALT lymphoma is significantly more likely to demonstrate a peripheral concentration of CD1a+ dendritic cells around lymphoid nodules than pseudolymphomatous folliculitis (p MALT lymphoma (p MALT lymphoma. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Determination of Phenolic Content in Different Barley Varieties and Corresponding Malts by Liquid Chromatography-diode Array Detection-Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel O. Carvalho

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A simple and reliable method for the simultaneous determination of nine phenolic compounds in barley and malted barley was established, using liquid chromatography-diode array detection-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS. The phenolic compounds can be easily detected with both systems, despite significant differences in sensitivity. Concentrations approximately 180-fold lower could be achieved by mass spectrometry analysis compared to diode array detection, especially for the flavan-3-ols (+-catechin and (−-epicatechin, which have poor absorptivity in the UV region. Malt samples were characterized by higher phenolic content comparing to corresponding barley varieties, revealing a significant increase of the levels of (+-catechin and (−-epicatechin during the malting process. Moreover, the industrial malting is responsible for modification on the phenolic profile from barley to malt, namely on the synthesis or release of sinapinic acid and epicatechin. Accordingly, the selection of the malting parameters, as well as the barley variety plays an important role when considering the quality and antioxidant stability of beer.

  6. Western Sufism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sedgwick, Mark

    , of thought both familiar and less familiar: Neoplatonic emanationism, perennialism, pantheism, universalism, and esotericism. Western Sufism, then, is the product not of the new age but of Islam, the ancient world, and centuries of Western religious and intellectual history. Drawing on sources from antiquity...

  7. Evidence of late Quaternary wet/dry climate episodes derived from paleoclimatic proxy data recovered from the paleoenvironmental record of the Great Basin of western North America: Paleobotanical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    Through the integration of several avenues of paleoclimatic proxy data, the authors intend to arrive a definite conclusions regarding the frequency of periods of wetter climate, and to drive information regarding the magnitudes of these episodes, rates of their onset and demise, and the climatic conditions under which wetter climate can occur. These will in turn lead to rough estimates of: (1) the amounts of rainfall available for recharge during past periods of effectively wetter climate; and (2) the durations and spacing of such events that provide an indication of the amount of time that the area was subjected to these inputs. To accomplish these goals the paleobotanical record over a broad region is being examined to identify periods of greater effective precipitation. Although the project focus is on a region a of about 200 km around Yucca Mountain, they have collected data in other areas of the Great Basin in order to be able to identify large-scale climatic patterns. Once identified and described these climatic patterns can be separated from purely local climatic phenomena that might hinder the understanding of the Pliestocene climates of southern Nevada and the Yucca Mountain area in particular.

  8. Evidence of late Quaternary wet/dry climate episodes derived from paleoclimatic proxy data recovered from the paleoenvironmental record of the Great Basin of western North America: Paleobotanical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Through the integration of several avenues of paleoclimatic proxy data, the authors intend to arrive a definite conclusions regarding the frequency of periods of wetter climate, and to drive information regarding the magnitudes of these episodes, rates of their onset and demise, and the climatic conditions under which wetter climate can occur. These will in turn lead to rough estimates of: (1) the amounts of rainfall available for recharge during past periods of effectively wetter climate; and (2) the durations and spacing of such events that provide an indication of the amount of time that the area was subjected to these inputs. To accomplish these goals the paleobotanical record over a broad region is being examined to identify periods of greater effective precipitation. Although the project focus is on a region a of about 200 km around Yucca Mountain, they have collected data in other areas of the Great Basin in order to be able to identify large-scale climatic patterns. Once identified and described these climatic patterns can be separated from purely local climatic phenomena that might hinder the understanding of the Pliestocene climates of southern Nevada and the Yucca Mountain area in particular

  9. Western blotting: an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurien, Biji T; Scofield, R Hal

    2015-01-01

    Western blotting is an important procedure for the immunodetection of proteins, particularly proteins that are of low abundance. This process involves the transfer of protein patterns from gel to microporous membrane. Electrophoretic as well as non-electrophoretic transfer of proteins to membranes was first described in 1979. Protein blotting has evolved greatly since the inception of this protocol, allowing protein transfer to be accomplished in a variety of ways.

  10. Extranodal marginal zone B cell lymphoma of MALT type with extensive plasma cell differentiation in a man with Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binesh, Fariba; Akhavan, Ali; Navabii, Hossein

    2011-11-01

    Primary thyroid gland lymphomas are uncommon tumours that occur in the setting of lymphocytic thyroiditis or Hashimoto's disease in almost all cases. Rarely these tumours show extensive plasmacytic differentiation. In these conditions, a distinction between an inflammatory thyroid infiltrate and extramedullary plasmacytoma may be extremely difficult and precise criteria and ancillary techniques are necessary for a correct diagnosis. The authors report a case of mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of the thyroid gland in a 69-year-old Iranian man with Hashimoto's thyroiditis which was diagnosed by means of immunohistochemical stains. This case demonstrates that histology may not distinguish between extramedullary plasmacytoma and MALT lymphoma of the thyroid gland and the use of immunohistochemical staining stains were essential to prove definite diagnosis.

  11. Extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (MALT lymphoma) in ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Tadashi

    2014-01-01

    Extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma) occurring in inflammatory bowel diseases, including ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease, has been reported, although it is extremely rare. An 18-year-old man with a two-years history of UC underwent colon endoscopy, and was found to have active total UC ranging from anus to cecum. Six biopsies were obtained. The microscopic examinations showed severe infiltrations of atypical small lymphocytes. They showed hyperchromatic nuclei and increased nucleocytoplasmic ratio and scattered immunoblastic cells. Centrocyte-like atypical lymphocytes, monocytoid cells, and plasma cells were seen in some places. Vague germinal centers were present, and apparent lymphoepithelial lesions were seen. No crypt abscesses were seen, and there were few neutrophils. No apparent other findings of UC were seen. Immunohistochemically, the atypical lymphocytes were positive for vimentin, CD45, CD20, CD79α, CD138, κ-chain, λ-chain, and p53 and Ki-67 antigen (labeling index = 63%). They were also positive for CD45RO, CD3, and CD15, but these positive cells were very scant compared with CD20 and CD79α. They were negative for CD10, CD30, CD56, cytokeratin (CK) AE1/3, CK CAM5.2, CK34BE12, CK5, CK6, CK7, CK8, CK14, CK18, CK19, CK20, EMA, chromogranin, synaptophysin, NSE, S100 protein, CEA, CA19-9, p63, and HMB45. Without clinical information, the appearances are those of MALT lymphoma. However, with clinical information, making the diagnosis of MALT lymphoma was hesitated. It is only mentioned herein that atypical lymphocytic infiltrations indistinguishable from MALT lymphoma occurred in an 18-year-old male patient with a two-year history of UC.

  12. Comparison of beer quality attributes between beers brewed with 100% barley malt and 100% barley raw material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Elisabeth; Auer, Andrea; Becker, Thomas; Gastl, Martina

    2012-03-15

    Brewing with 100% barley using the Ondea® Pro exogenous brewing enzyme product was compared to brewing with 100% barley. The use of barley, rather than malt, in the brewing process and the consequences for selected beer quality attributes (foam formation, colloidal stability and filterability, sensory differences, protein content and composition) was considered. The quality attributes of barley, malt, kettle-full-wort, cold wort, unfiltered beer and filtered beer were assessed. A particular focus was given to monitoring changes in the barley protein composition during the brewing process and how the exogenous OndeaPro® enzymes influenced wort protein composition. All analyses were based on standard brewing methods described in ASBC, EBC or MEBAK. To monitor the protein changes two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used. It was shown that by brewing beer with 100% barley and an appropriate addition of exogenous Ondea® Pro enzymes it was possible to efficiently brew beer of a satisfactory quality. The production of beers brewed with 100% barley resulted in good process efficiency (lautering and filtration) and to a final product whose sensory quality was described as light, with little body and mouthfeel, very good foam stability and similar organoleptic qualities compared to conventional malt beer. In spite of the sensory evaluation differences could still be seen in protein content and composition. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Fermented and malted millet products in Africa: Expedition from traditional/ethnic foods to industrial value-added products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebiyi, J A; Obadina, A O; Adebo, O A; Kayitesi, E

    2018-02-11

    With the prevalent food insecurity in Africa, there is a growing need to utilize the available crops to develop nutritious, affordable and palatable food for the populace. Millet is critical in this role, relative to its abundance in the continent and good nutritional composition. For ages, fermentation and malting have been traditionally used to transform millet into variety of produce. A paradigm shift has however occurred over the years, giving birth to new commercially available products. This review thus appraises and gives an overview of traditional and modern fermented and malted products. Although, millet has been diversified to several products, its major food uses are still restrained to traditional consumers and largely remains underutilized. Considering the potential embedded in this grain, it is important to explore this crop through the application of appropriate modern fermentation and malting technologies. This will ensure the availability of ready to eat (RTE) and ready to use (RTU) food products and to a large extent address the incessant food security challenges plaguing Africa.

  14. Biochar from malt spent rootlets for the removal of mercury from aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutsika, Lamprini; Manariotis, Ioannis; Karapanagioti, Hrissi K.

    2013-04-01

    Biochar is receiving increased attention as a promising material in environmental applications. It is obtained from the incomplete combustion of carbon-rich biomass under oxygen-limited conditions. One of the many proposed applications of biochars is the removal of metals (e.g., lead, mercury, etc.) from aqueous solutions. Mercury is one of the heavy metals of particular concern due to its toxicity even at relatively low concentration and thus, its removal from aqueous systems is desirable. Malt spent rootlets is a by-product formed during beer production, it is inexpensive and it is produced in high quantities. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the potential use of biochar, produced from malt spent rootlets, to remove mercury from aqueous solutions. Batch experiments were conducted at room temperature (25oC) to obtain the optimum sorption conditions under different pH values, biomass dose, contact time, and solution ionic strength. Sorption kinetics and equilibrium capacity constants were determined at the optimum pH value. Furthermore, the effect of different leaching solutions on mercury desorption from the biochar was examined. All studies with mercury and biochar were conducted at pH 5 that was determined to be the optimum pH for sorption. The proportion of mercury removal increased with the increased dose of the biochar, i.e. from 71% removal for biochar dose of 0.3 g/L, it reached almost 100% removal for biochar dose ˜1 g/L. Based on the isotherm data, the maximum biochar sorption capacity (qmax) for mercury was 99 mg/g. Based on the sorption kinetic data, (qmax) was achieved after 2 h; it should be mentioned that 30% of the (qmax) was observed within the first 5 min. Five leaching solutions were tested for mercury desorption (H2O, HCl, EDTA, NaCl and HNO3). HCl resulted in the highest extraction percentage of the sorbed mercury. The desorbing mercury percentages at 24 h for HCl concentrations 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, and 2 M were 62, 59, 62, 69

  15. Fungal community, Fusarium head blight complex and secondary metabolites associated with malting barley grains harvested in Umbria, central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beccari, Giovanni; Senatore, Maria Teresa; Tini, Francesco; Sulyok, Michael; Covarelli, Lorenzo

    2018-05-20

    In recent years, due to the negative impact of toxigenic mycobiota and of the accumulation of their secondary metabolites in malting barley grains, monitoring the evolution of fungal communities in a certain cultivation area as well as detecting the different mycotoxins present in the raw material prior to malting and brewing processes have become increasingly important. In this study, a survey was carried out on malting barley samples collected after their harvest in the Umbria region (central Italy). Samples were analyzed to determine the composition of the fungal community, to identify the isolated Fusarium species, to quantify fungal secondary metabolites in the grains and to characterize the in vitro mycotoxigenic profile of a subset of the isolated Fusarium strains. The fungal community of barley grains was mainly composed of microorganisms belonging to the genus Alternaria (77%), followed by those belonging to the genus Fusarium (27%). The Fusarium head blight (FHB) complex was represented by nine species with the predominance of Fusarium poae (37%), followed by Fusarium avenaceum (23%), Fusarium graminearum (22%) and Fusarium tricinctum (7%). Secondary metabolites biosynthesized by Alternaria and Fusarium species were present in the analyzed grains. Among those biosynthesized by Fusarium species, nivalenol and enniatins were the most prevalent ones. Type A trichothecenes (T-2 and HT-2 toxins) as well as beauvericin were also present with a high incidence. Conversely, the number of samples contaminated with deoxynivalenol was low. Conjugated forms, such as deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside and HT-2-glucoside, were detected for the first time in malting barley grains cultivated in the surveyed area. In addition, strains of F. avenaceum and F. tricinctum showed the ability to biosynthesize in vitro high concentrations of enniatins. The analysis of fungal secondary metabolites, both in the grains and in vitro, revealed also the presence of other compounds, for which

  16. Evaluation of fermentation quality of brewers' grains ensiled in combination with malt sprouts and chemical conservation additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Vyskočil

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was to evaluate the effect of addition of humidity absorbent (malt sprouts and chemical conservation additive on fermentation process quality of brewer grains’ silage. Chemical conservation additive was based on formic acid, propionic acid, benzoic acid and ammonium formate content. In a model experiment the fresh brewer grains were used. A dry matter (DM content of brewer grains was 187.4 g / kg. Six treatments with three repetitions per treatment were prepared. The treatments A1, A2 and A3 were not supplied by humidity absorbent. Treatment A1 was a control treatment without any additive. The treatments A2 and A3 were supplied by chemical conservation additive in a dose of 3 L per tonne and 6 L per tonne, respectively. The treatments B1, B2 and B3 were supplied by malt sprouts to reach DM content of conserved matter on level 320–350 g / kg. Moreover the treatments B2 and B3 were supplied by chemical additive with its dose 3 and 6 L per tonne. Model silages were evaluated after 8 months of conservation at average laboratory temperature 26–28  °C, from each treatment were the final laboratory samples taken and analyzed. During conservation of treatments B1, B2 and B3 were no drain recognized. From A1 treatment drained 1300 ml of waste fluid that is 145 L per tonne of conserved matter. That was significant (P < 0.01 the malt sprouts addition support the lactic acid production and eliminate acetic acid production. There was no propionic acid or butyric acid detected in silages with malt sprouts event in these silages were analyzed higher (P < 0.01 concentration of ammoniac. Chemical additive supplementation improved (P < 0.01 the pH value and water leach acidity. The results show the malt sprout addition eliminates waste fluid drain and improves fermentation process. The higher concentration of chemical additive (6 l / t inhibited the fermentation process in our model experiment.

  17. An Integrated Resource for Barley Linkage Map and Malting Quality QTL Alignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Szűcs

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Barley ( L. is an economically important model plant for genetics research. Barley is currently served by an increasingly comprehensive set of tools for genetic analysis that have recently been augmented by high-density genetic linkage maps built with gene-based single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. These SNP-based maps need to be aligned with earlier generation maps, which were used for quantitative trait locus (QTL detection, by integrating multiple types of markers into a single map. A 2383 locus linkage map was developed using the Oregon Wolfe Barley (OWB Mapping Population to allow such alignments. The map is based on 1472 SNP, 722 DArT, and 189 prior markers which include morphological, simple sequence repeat (SSR, Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP, and sequence tagged site (STS loci. This new OWB map forms, therefore, a useful bridge between high-density SNP-only maps and prior QTL reports. The application of this bridge concept is shown using malting-quality QTLs from multiple mapping populations, as reported in the literature. This is the first step toward developing a Barley QTL Community Curation workbook for all types of QTLs and maps, on the GrainGenes website. The OWB-related resources are available at OWB Data and GrainGenes Tools (OWB-DGGT (.

  18. FARINOGRAPHIC EVALUATION OF WHEAT DOUGH ENRICHED WITH INULIN, NAKED BARLEY, MALT AND POTEX ADDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marián Tokár

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important biological substances consumed in insufficient quantity is fibre that is often deficient in the diet. In general, dietary fibre is edible part of plants, or similar carbohydrates, that are resistant to digestion and absorption in the small intestine. Nowadays, there are many sources of fibre available for bakery industry, whether through addition of non-traditional bread cereals or through isolated form as additives. Except to supposed increase the nutritional value of bakery products with added fiber and raw materials containing fiber is necessary to think about their technological quality and rheological properties of dough. The aim of this experimental work was to investigate the effect of the addition of selected polysaccharides (inulin, Potex - potato fiber and non-bakery crops (naked barley, malt containing significant polysaccharides used in the mixture with wheat flour type T-650 in different ratios on the basis of farinographic evaluations. Based on the results of rheological measurements we found out that quality of dough was deteriorating proportionally to the amount of used additives. On the other hand, positively could be considered the increase of water absorption with addition of Potex and naked barley.

  19. Computer image analysis in caryopses quality evaluation as exemplified by malting barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koszela, K.; Raba, B.; Zaborowicz, M.; Przybył, K.; Wojcieszak, D.; Czekała, W.; Ludwiczak, A.; Przybylak, A.; Boniecki, P.; Przybył, J.

    2015-07-01

    One of the purposes to employ modern technologies in agricultural and food industry is to increase the efficiency and automation of production processes, which helps improve productive effectiveness of business enterprises, thus making them more competitive. Nowadays, a challenge presents itself for this branch of economy, to produce agricultural and food products characterized by the best parameters in terms of quality, while maintaining optimum production and distribution costs of the processed biological material. Thus, several scientific centers seek to devise new and improved methods and technologies in this field, which will allow to meet the expectations. A new solution, under constant development, is to employ the so-called machine vision which is to replace human work in both quality and quantity evaluation processes. An indisputable advantage of employing the method is keeping the evaluation unbiased while improving its rate and, what is important, eliminating the fatigue factor of the expert. This paper elaborates on the topic of quality evaluation by marking the contamination in malting barley grains using computer image analysis and selected methods of artificial intelligence [4-5].

  20. Efficiency of biochar produced from malt spent rootlets to remove mercury and dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenidou, Charoula; Manariotis, Ioannis; Karapanagioti, Hrissi

    2017-04-01

    Considerable research effort has been focused on the production of biochar from carbon-rich biomass under oxygen-limited conditions as a mitigation measure for global warming once it is used as a soil amendment. Furthermore, the use of biochar as an added value product, such as sorbent or catalyst, is desirable and could be more profitable. Biochar is obtained from the incomplete combustion of carbon-rich biomass under oxygen-limited conditions. Various organic-rich wastes including wood chips, animal manure, and crop residues have been used for biochar production. The present study presents the findings of an experimental work, which investigated the use of biochar produced from malt spent rootlets (MSR), which is a beer production by-product, to remove Hg(II) and methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solutions. MSR was pyrolyzed at temperatures of 300, 400, 500, 600, 750, 850, and 900oC, under limited oxygen conditions. The increase of temperature resulted in significantly increased BET surface areas. The mercury sorption capacity was affected by pyrolysis temperature, and was increased by increasing the pyrolysis temperature. The maximum sorption capacity was 100-110 mg Hg(II)/g biochar at a temperature range of 750-850oC. The MB sorption capacity of biochar was also affected by pyrolysis temperature.

  1. Price elasticity of demand for malt liquor beer: findings from a US pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Michael Thomas; Browntaylor, Didra; Bluthenthal, Ricky Neville

    2006-05-01

    Our objective is to estimate the relative price elasticity of demand for malt liquor beer (MLB), regular beer, hard liquor, and a combined group of all other alcoholic beverages. Three hundred and twenty-nine alcohol consumers (mostly male) in South-Central Los Angeles answered a series of questions pertaining to expected consumption responses to hypothetical price increases. We found that based on a 10% price increase, the mean price elasticity of demand (% change in quantity demanded / % change in price) was -0.79 for MLB drinkers, -1.14 for regular beer drinkers, -1.11 for hard liquor drinkers, and -1.69 for the combined group of all other drinkers. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the personal characteristics significantly related to being a MLB drinker were older age, not working, being homeless, and a daily drinker. Daily (or nearly daily) drinkers were more likely to be married, earning lower incomes, and hard liquor drinkers. This study is the first to investigate the price elasticity of demand for MLB drinkers and other heavy alcohol consumers in poor urban neighborhoods of the US. Future research can use the methods from this pilot study to more rigorously examine and compare the price sensitivity among heavy drinking groups.

  2. Western Samoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    This discussion of Western Samoa, which lies 2575 km northeast of Auckland, New Zealand, focuses on the following: geography; the people; history; government; political conditions; the economy; foreign relations; and relations the US. The population of Western Samoa, as of 1985, totals 163,000 with an annual growth rate of 0.9%. The infant mortality rate is 13/1000; life expectancy is 65 years. The main islands are formed ranges of extinct volcanoes. Volcanic activity last occurred in 1911. More than 2000 years age, waves of Polynesians migrated from Southeast Asia to the Samoan Islands. Samoans are the 2nd largest Polynesian group, after the Maoris of New Zealand, and speak a Polynesian dialect. Samoans have tended to retain their traditional ways despite exposure to European influence for more than 150 years. Most Samoans live within the traditional social system based on an extended family group, headed by a chief. Western Samoans are Christian. Education is free but not compulsory. In 1967, 95% of the children of primary school age attended school. From 1947 to 1961, a series of constitutional advances, assisted by visits from UN missions, brought Western Samoa from dependent status to self-government and finally to independence. The 1960 constitution is based on the British pattern of parliamentary democracy, modified to take Samoan customs into account. The present head of state holds his position for life. Future heads of state will be elected by the Legislative Assembly for 5-year terms. The Parliament consists of the Legislative Assembly and the head of state. The Supreme Court is the superior court of record and has full jurisdiction in civil, criminal, and constitutional matters. The "matai" of chief system still dominates the politics of Western Samoa, although several political parties have been formed and seem to be taking root. The "matai" system is a predominantly conservative force but does provide for change. Western Samoa is predominantly

  3. BCL10 aberations and NF-kappa B activation involving p65 are absent or rare in primary gastric MALT lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajder, Jelena; Marisavljević, Dragomir; Stanisavljević, Natasa; Mihaljević, Biljana; Kovcin, Vladimir; Marković, Olivera; Zivković, Radmila

    2014-11-01

    Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma accounts for 5-17% non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL). The molecular pathogenesis of MALT lymphomas is not well-established. The aim of this study was to evaluate immunohistochemically determined nuclear coexpression of BCL10 and NF-kappaB (NF-kappaB) in tumor cells of gastric MALT lymphoma and its impact on the patogenesis and outcome of the disease. Medical records of 35 patients with newly diagnosed gastric MALT lymphoma were analyzed and biopsy specimens were immunostained for BCL10 and NF-kappaB expression (p65 subunit). The median age of 35 patients diagnosed with gastric MALT lymphoma was 63.5 years (male/female = 21/14). Symptoms were present in 23/35 (65.7%) patients with the weight loss as the most common symptom. Gastric MALT lymphomas were usually localized in the stomach corpus and corpus and antrum (45.7% and 31.2%, respectively). H. pylon infection was confirmed in 20 out of 30 (66.7%) patients. Treatment options were as follows: immunochemotherapy in 10 (28.5%) patients, surgery in 9 (25.8%) patients, combined surgery and chemotherapy in 14 (40%) patients and supportive measures in 2 (5.7%) patients. Complete remission was achieved in 13 (37.10/) patients and partial remission in two (5.7%/) patients. Sixteen (45.7%/) patients had disease progression (p < 0.001). Cytoplasmatic expression of BCL10 in tumor cells was detected in 19 (54.3%) specimens. Nuclear expression was detected in no specimen. Cytoplasmic expression of NF-kappaB was present in 22 (65.7%) specimens, but nuclear expression was not detected in any specimens. Nuclear expressions (activation)of NF-kappaB p65 subunit and BCL10 were not detected in specimens of gastric MALT lymphoma. The correlation of nuclear coexpression of BCL10 and NF-kappaB in gastric MALT lymphoma was not established. These results indicate that other mechanisms and signal pathways are active in lymphogenesis of gastric MALT lymphoma, as that apoptotic inhibition is not

  4. BCL10 aberations and NF-kappa B activation involving p65 are absent or rare in primary gastric MALT lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajder Jelena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacground/Aim. Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma accounts for 5-17% non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL. The molecular pathogenesis of MALT lymphomas is not well-established. The aim of this study was to evaluate immunohistochemically determined nuclear coexpression of BCL10 and NF-kappaB (NF-κB in tumor cells of gastric MALT lymphoma and its impact on the patogenesis and outcome of the disease. Methods. Medical records of 35 patients with newly diagnosed gastric MALT lymphoma were analyzed and biopsy specimens were immunostained for BCL10 and NF-kB expression (p65 subunit. Results. The median age of 35 patients diagnosed with gastric MALT lymphoma was 63.5 years (male/female = 21/14. Symptoms were present in 23/35 (65.7% patients with the weight loss as the most common symptom. Gastric MALT lymphomas were usually localized in the stomach corpus and corpus and antrum (45.7% and 31.2%, respectively. H. pylori infection was confirmed in 20 out of 30 (66.7% patients. Treatment options were as follows: immunochemotherapy in 10 (28.5% patients, surgery in 9 (25.8% patients, combined surgery and chemotherapy in 14 (40% patients and supportive measures in 2 (5.7% patients. Complete remission was achieved in 13 (37.1% patients and partial remission in two (5.7% patients. Sixteen (45.7% patients had disease progression (p < 0.001. Cytoplasmatic expression of BCL10 in tumor cells was detected in 19 (54.3% specimens. Nuclear expression was detected in no specimen. Cytoplasmic expression of NF-κB was present in 22 (65.7% specimens, but nuclear expression was not detected in any specimens. Conclusion. Nuclear expressions (activation of NF-κB p65 subunit and BCL10 were not detected in specimens of gastric MALT lymphoma. The correlation of nuclear coexpression of BCL10 and NF-κB in gastric MALT lymphoma was not established. These results indicate that other mechanisms and signal pathways are active in lymphogenesis of gastric MALT lymphoma, as that

  5. Prediction of malting quality traits in barley based on genome-wide marker data to assess the potential of genomic selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Malthe; Kollers, Sonja; Maasberg-Prelle, Anja; Großer, Jörg; Schinkel, Burkhard; Tomerius, Alexandra; Graner, Andreas; Korzun, Viktor

    2016-02-01

    Genomic prediction of malting quality traits in barley shows the potential of applying genomic selection to improve selection for malting quality and speed up the breeding process. Genomic selection has been applied to various plant species, mostly for yield or yield-related traits such as grain dry matter yield or thousand kernel weight, and improvement of resistances against diseases. Quality traits have not been the main scope of analysis for genomic selection, but have rather been addressed by marker-assisted selection. In this study, the potential to apply genomic selection to twelve malting quality traits in two commercial breeding programs of spring and winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) was assessed. Phenotypic means were calculated combining multilocational field trial data from 3 or 4 years, depending on the trait investigated. Three to five locations were available in each of these years. Heritabilities for malting traits ranged between 0.50 and 0.98. Predictive abilities (PA), as derived from cross validation, ranged between 0.14 to 0.58 for spring barley and 0.40-0.80 for winter barley. Small training sets were shown to be sufficient to obtain useful PAs, possibly due to the narrow genetic base in this breeding material. Deployment of genomic selection in malting barley breeding clearly has the potential to reduce cost intensive phenotyping for quality traits, increase selection intensity and to shorten breeding cycles.

  6. Investigating on the fermentation behavior of six lactic acid bacteria strains in barley malt wort reveals limitation in key amino acids and buffer capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsogning, Sorelle Dongmo; Fischer, Susann; Becker, Thomas

    2018-08-01

    Understanding lactic acid bacteria (LAB) fermentation behavior in malt wort is a milestone towards flavor improvement of lactic acid fermented malt beverages. Therefore, this study aims to outline deficiencies that may exist in malt wort fermentation. First, based on six LAB strains, cell viability and vitality were evaluated. Second, sugars, organic acids, amino acids, pH value and buffering capacity (BC) were monitored. Finally, the implication of key amino acids, fructose and wort BC on LAB growth was determined. Short growth phase coupled with prompt cell death and a decrease in metabolic activity was observed. Low wort BC caused rapid pH drop with lactic acid accumulation, which conversely increased the BC leading to less pH change at late-stage fermentation. Lactic acid content (≤3.9 g/L) was higher than the reported inhibitory concentration (1.8 g/L). Furthermore, sugars were still available but fructose and key amino acids lysine, arginine and glutamic acid were considerably exhausted (≤98%). Wort supplementations improved cell growth and viability leading to conclude that key amino acid depletion coupled with low BC limits LAB growth in malt wort. Then, a further increase in organic acid reduces LAB viability. This knowledge opens doors for LAB fermentation process optimization in malt wort. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Assessment of low-dose radiotherapy (two 2 Gy sessions) for the cure of MALT lymphoma of the lung; evaluation de la radiotherapie faible (deux seances de 2 Gy) a visee curative dans le lymphome du Malt pulmonaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paumier, A.; Ghalibafian, M.; Gilmore, J.; Girinsky, T. [Departement de radiotherapie, institut de cancerologie Gustave-Roussy, Villejuif (France); Hanna, C.; Raphael, J.; Ferme, C.; Ribrag, V. [Departement d' hematologie, institut de cancerologie Gustave-Roussy, Villejuif (France)

    2011-10-15

    The authors report the assessment of low-dose radiotherapy (two sessions of 2 Gy in two days) for the curative treatment of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of the lung. The treatment of this lymphoma is discussed in terms of surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or even simple monitoring. The authors analyse the results obtained on nine patients who have been treated this way since 2002, straight away for some of them, after surgery or chemotherapy for others. Survival rate, recurrence, evolutions and responses are discussed. Short communication

  8. Great Western Savings Center - Beverly Hills, California (EE.UU.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William L. Pereira Asociados, Arquitectos

    1974-09-01

    Full Text Available This building which has an original elliptic plan form and is enclosed by curtain walls is situated on a strategic ground-site in Beverly Hills and is the savings center for the densely populated area of Los Angeles. The building consists of: four basements for parking; ground floor with entrances, halls and savings-bank; mezzanine floor and first floor with coffee-shop, four dining halls and auditorium, seven storeys with offices; the tenth floor is reserved for the financial department and the management section. The top part is occupied by the machine rooms of the six elevators. Tre structure consists of high tensile steel reinforced concrete and bronzed coloured glass enclosures. This is the highet building in Beverly Hills.Este edificio, de original planta elíptica y cerramiento a base de muros cortina, ocupa un solar estratégico en Beverly Hills y sirve como central de ahorro a toda la zona densamente poblada de Los Angeles. Consta de: cuatro sótanos para estacionamiento de vehículos, y planta baja con accesos, vestíbulos y caja de ahorros; entreplanta y planta primera con cafetería, cuatro comedores y auditorio; siete plantas de oficinas y planta décima destinada a albergar los despachos de dirección y departamento financiero, además del cuerpo superior, ocupado por los cuartos de máquinas de los seis aparatos elevadores. La estructura es de hormigón armado con acero de alta resistencia y cerramientos de vidrio color bronce. Es el edificio más alto de Beverly Hills.

  9. Non-surgical treatment for localized gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. Interium analysis of a multicenter prospective study in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mera Kiyomi

    2004-01-01

    Although eradication of Helicobacter pylori and radiation therapy (RT) have curative potential for gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, no prospective study has yet been reported. This prospective study evaluated the efficacy and safety of this non-surgical treatment for localized gastric MALT lymphoma. Among the 115 eligible patients, 89 (77.3%) achieved remission with eradication therapy. Twenty five (21.7%) patients received RT as additional treatment for residual tumor and 22 (88%) achieved complete remission. No serious adverse events, such as hemorrhage or perforation of the stomach, were observed. This organ-preserving treatment for localized gastric MALT lymphoma is safe and effective and has the potential to become the standard treatment for this disease, although long-term follow up is necessary. (author)

  10. A statistical study towards high-mass BGPS clumps with the MALT90 survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Lan; Xu, Jin-Long; Ning, Chang-Chun; Zhang, Chuan-Peng; Liu, Xiao-Tao

    2018-01-01

    In this work, we perform a statistical investigation towards 50 high-mass clumps using data from the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey (BGPS) and Millimetre Astronomy Legacy Team 90-GHz survey (MALT90). Eleven dense molecular lines (N2H+(1–0), HNC(1–0), HCO+(1–0), HCN(1–0), HN13C(1–0), H13CO+(1–0), C2H(1–0), HC3N(10–9), SiO(2–1), 13CS(2–1)and HNCO(44,0 ‑ 30,3)) are detected. N2H+ and HNC are shown to be good tracers for clumps in various evolutionary stages since they are detected in all the fields. The detection rates of N-bearing molecules decrease as the clumps evolve, but those of O-bearing species increase with evolution. Furthermore, the abundance ratios [N2H+]/[HCO+] and log([HC3N]/[HCO+]) decline with log([HCO+]) as two linear functions, respectively. This suggests that N2H+ and HC3N transform to HCO+ as the clumps evolve. We also find that C2H is the most abundant molecule with an order of magnitude 10‑8. In addition, three new infall candidates, G010.214–00.324, G011.121–00.128 and G012.215–00.118(a), are discovered to have large-scale infall motions and infall rates with an order of magnitude 10‑3 M ⊙ yr‑1.

  11. Gertrude the Great

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Else Marie Wiberg

    2006-01-01

    an encyclopedic article on the only woman who in Catholic church history has ever been called "the Great", the Cistercian nun Gertrude of Helfta (1256-1301/02......an encyclopedic article on the only woman who in Catholic church history has ever been called "the Great", the Cistercian nun Gertrude of Helfta (1256-1301/02...

  12. Great Basin insect outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara Bentz; Diane Alston; Ted Evans

    2008-01-01

    Outbreaks of native and exotic insects are important drivers of ecosystem dynamics in the Great Basin. The following provides an overview of range, forest, ornamental, and agricultural insect outbreaks occurring in the Great Basin and the associated management issues and research needs.

  13. Great Lakes Literacy Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortner, Rosanne W.; Manzo, Lyndsey

    2011-03-01

    Lakes Superior, Huron, Michigan, Ontario, and Erie together form North America's Great Lakes, a region that contains 20% of the world's fresh surface water and is home to roughly one quarter of the U.S. population (Figure 1). Supporting a $4 billion sport fishing industry, plus $16 billion annually in boating, 1.5 million U.S. jobs, and $62 billion in annual wages directly, the Great Lakes form the backbone of a regional economy that is vital to the United States as a whole (see http://www.miseagrant.umich.edu/downloads/economy/11-708-Great-Lakes-Jobs.pdf). Yet the grandeur and importance of this freshwater resource are little understood, not only by people in the rest of the country but also by many in the region itself. To help address this lack of knowledge, the Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE) Great Lakes, supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, developed literacy principles for the Great Lakes to serve as a guide for education of students and the public. These “Great Lakes Literacy Principles” represent an understanding of the Great Lakes' influences on society and society's influences on the Great Lakes.

  14. Great Principles of Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Denning, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    The Great Principles of Computing is a framework for understanding computing as a field of science. The website ...April 2008 (Rev. 8/31/08) The Great Principles of Computing is a framework for understanding computing as a field of science.

  15. Treatment Outcome of Mucosa Associated Lymphoid Tissue (MALT) Marginal Zone Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma. Single Institutional Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, E.; Omar, H.; Abd El-Kader, Y.; Makram, O.

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the treatment outcome in patients with mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma in terms of response to treatment, progression-free and overall survivals as well as prognostic factors. Patients and Methods: Between 1995 and 2002,40 patients with clinical stages (CS) I-IV MALT lymphoma were treated at NEMROCK. The progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OAS) were calculated using the Kaplan Meier technique. Thirty-one patients (77.5%) had CS I-II and 9 (22.5%) had CS III-IV disease. Twenty of the 31 CS I-II patients received radiation therapy alone, five patients received chemotherapy, while three patients were treated by triple therapy (Amoxicillin, Omeperazole, Clarithromycin). Among the 9 CS III-IV patients, treatment included chemotherapy alone (6 patients), chemo radiation (2 patients) and surgery (one patient). The median followup period was 40 months. 19 out of twenty patients with CS I-II treated by radiation therapy alone had a 95% response rate (CR 85% - PR 10%). Among the study population (40 patients), the 5 year OAS and PFS were 86% and 66%, respectively. The 5 year OAS was 86% and PFS was 72% among CS III patients; the corresponding estimates in CS III-IV patients were 70% and 28%, respectively. Using multivariate analysis, there was a significant correlation between the stage of the disease, site of presentation (non GIT) and the overall survival. Modest doses of radiation therapy provide better local control in patients with early stage MALT lymphoma. The poor PFS in advanced staged disease suggests the need for further clinical trials evaluating novel drug approaches taking into consideration the biological behavior and the indolent nature of such disease entity

  16. Nutritional Quality Assessment of Complementary Foods Produced from Fermented and Malted Quality Protein Maize Fortified with Soybean Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiose Sumbo H.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Malnutrition of varying degrees has been associated with feeding infants with unwholesome and poor quality complementary foods. Therefore, the aim of this study was to produce complementary foods from quality protein maize (QPM using the processes of malting and fermentation. The resulting flour was blended with processed soy bean flour at a ratio of 70:30 (maize: soybean. The nutritional qualities of the complementary foods were assessed biologically using animal feeding experiment to determine the growth rate, feed intake, protein quality parameters, haematological properties and rehabilitation potentials. The results showed that the protein efficiency ratio (PER and food efficiency ratio of the malted QPM fortified with soybean were 2.44 and 0.24, respectively, which was the highest among the formulated diets and compared favourably with casein (2.5 and commercial diet (2.3. The QPM-based diets had a better biological value (<60% and true dig stibility (<60% than the products from normal maize. The packed cell volume of the samples ranged between 23.00 (basal and 46.00% (soy fermented normal maize. The QPM-based diets enhanced the quick recovery of protein starved/depleted animals better than the NM-based diets. Moreover, the addition of soybean further boosted the ability of the diet to rehabilitate the animals. The best result was seen in the group of rats fed with soy-malted QPM. The use of QPM in complementary food formulation gave better results and could alleviate the problem of protein and energy malnutrition, thereby reducing the mortality rate among infants.

  17. Partial purification of saccharifying and cell wall-hydrolyzing enzymes from malt in waste from beer fermentation broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattak, Waleed Ahmad; Kang, Minkyung; Ul-Islam, Mazhar; Park, Joong Kon

    2013-06-01

    A number of hydrolyzing enzymes that are secreted from malt during brewing, including cell wall-hydrolyzing, saccharide-hydrolyzing, protein-degrading, lipid-hydrolyzing, and polyphenol and thiol-hydrolyzing enzymes, are expected to exist in an active form in waste from beer fermentation broth (WBFB). In this study, the existence of these enzymes was confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, after which enzyme extract was partially purified through a series of purification steps. The hydrolyzing enzyme activity was then measured under various conditions at each purification step using carboxymethyl cellulose as a substrate. The best hydrolyzing activities of partially purified enzymes were found at pH 4.5 and 50 °C in a citrate buffer system. The enzymes showed highest thermal stability at 30 °C when exposed for prolonged time. As the temperature increased gradually from 25 to 70 °C, yeast cells in the chemically defined medium with enzyme extract lost their cell wall and viability earlier than those without enzyme extract. Cell wall degradation and the release of cell matrix into the culture media at elevated temperature (45-70 °C) in the presence of enzyme extract were monitored through microscopic pictures. Saccharification enzymes from malt were relatively more active in the original WBFB than supernatant and diluted sediments. The presence of hydrolyzing enzymes from malt in WBFB is expected to play a role in bioethanol production using simultaneous saccharification and fermentation without the need for additional enzymes, nutrients, or microbial cells via a cell-free enzyme system.

  18. Correlation of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT and Endoscopic Findings of Twin Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (MALT) Lymphoma of the Stomach: Report of a Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahk, Yong Whee; Choi, Jin Wook [SungAe Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-02-15

    Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type lymphoma arises from extranodal marginal zone B-cell. It is etiologically associated with Helicobacter pylori infection and, hence, can be cured by antibiotic treatment. MALT type lymphoma is the most common variety of gastric lymphoma that is rare in the stomach). The published data of clinical studies on the usefulness of 18F-FDG PET in the diagnosis of MALT type lymphoma varied according to authors. Thus, the result of Hoffmann et al. was discouraging whereas a high diagnostic accuracy was reported by Ambrosini et al. The latter group further went to suggest that higher 18F-FDG uptake in gastric MALT type lymphoma would positively relate to the aggressiveness of neoplasm. The clinical studies conducted by other groups on MALT lymphomas of the stomach, lung, orbit and parotid gland and the stomach, lung, parotid gland, skin, orbit, mandible, esophagus and uterus confirmed that 18F-FDG scan is valuable.

  19. A case of cardiac cancer diagnosed after 30 Gy radiation therapy for gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma without helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Kazuhiro; Akamatsu, Taiji; Shinji, Akihiro

    2005-01-01

    An 80-year-old man was referred to Shinshu University Hospital in April 2001 for treatment of gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. He had received anti-biotic therapy in spite of no evidence of H. pylori infection in the former hospital 3 years ago, but no remarkable improvement was recognized and endoscopic findings were progressive. An esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) revealed mucosal redness on the greater curvature and the anterior wall of the body. Biopsy specimens taken from the lesions showed remarkable infiltration of atypical small lymphocytes, and this lesions were diagnosed MALT lymphoma by an immunophenotypic studies. Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) showed that MALT lymphoma was limited within the mucosa and submucosa. Staging work up revealed stage I. After written informed consent, he was treated by 30 Gy radiation therapy for gastric MALT lymphoma. Response assessment was performed by EGD, EUS, and biopsy specimens, and a complete remission was confirmed. After that, he was followed up with regular intervals, and EGD was performed every 6 months. He was diagnosed to have O I type cardiac cancer at 21 months after radiation therapy. He underwent proximal partial gastrectomy, and histopathological findings showed as follows: O I type, 17 x 12 mm, tub 2, SM, ly 1, v 1, n 0, PM (-), DM (-), INFγ, stage I A. No residual lesion of gastric MALT lymphoma and no dysplasia of gastric mucosa was recognized. Causal relationship between radiation therapy and carcinogenesis in this case is unclear. However, it might be suggested by the facts that cancer occurred in the radiation field where MALT lymphoma had been presented and gastric cancer was rare in the stomach without H. pylori infection. (author)

  20. T(11;18) is a marker for all stage gastric MALT lymphomas that will not respond to H. pylori eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongxiang; Ye, Hongtao; Ruskone-Fourmestraux, Agnes; De Jong, Daphne; Pileri, Stefano; Thiede, Christian; Lavergne, Anne; Boot, Henk; Caletti, Giancarlo; Wündisch, Thomas; Molina, Thierry; Taal, Babs G; Elena, Sabattini; Thomas, Togliani; Zinzani, Pier Luigi; Neubauer, Andreas; Stolte, Manfred; Hamoudi, Rifat A; Dogan, Ahmet; Isaacson, Peter G; Du, Ming-Qing

    2002-05-01

    Eradication of Helicobacter pylori leads to cure of gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma in 75% of localized cases. However, prolonged follow-up is necessary to determine whether a lymphoma responds to therapy. In a small series of cases, we showed that t(11;18)(q21;q21)-positive MALT lymphomas failed to respond to H. pylori eradication. The present study aimed to verify this finding in a large cohort and confirm whether the translocation predicts the response of stage I(E) tumors, for which clinical staging has little prognostic value. A total of 111 patients with H. pylori-positive gastric MALT lymphoma treated with antibiotics were studied. Clinical staging was undertaken before therapy. The response of lymphoma to H. pylori eradication was determined by histologic examination of gastric biopsy specimens. Diagnostic biopsy specimens were analyzed for t(11;18)(q21;q21) by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction of the API2-MALT1 transcript. Forty-seven of the 48 patients who showed complete regression had lymphoma at stage I(E), whereas 43 of the 63 nonresponsive cases were at stage I(E) and the remaining cases at stage II(E) or above. t(11;18)(q21;q21) was detected in 2 of 48 complete-regression cases, and these positive cases showed relapse of lymphoma in the absence of H. pylori reinfection. In contrast, the translocation was present in 42 of the 63 nonresponsive cases, including 26 of 43 (60%) at stage I(E). t(11;18)(q21;q21)-positive gastric MALT lymphomas, including those at stage I(E), do not respond to H. pylori eradication. Detection of the translocation should help the clinical management of patients with gastric MALT lymphoma.

  1. Marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of MALT in small intestine associated with amyloidosis: a rare association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sanghui; Cho, Hyun Yee; Ha, Seung Yeon; Chung, Dong Hae; Kim, Na Rae; An, Jung Suk

    2011-05-01

    A 62-yr-old man presented with a 5-yr history of intermittent abdominal distention and pain. These symptoms persisted for several months and subsided without treatment. A diagnosis of suspected small bowel lymphoma was made based on plain radiograph and computerized tomogram findings, and he was referred to our institution for further evaluation. Segmental resection of the small intestine was performed and the diagnosis of marginal zone B-cell lymphoma associated with amyloidosis was made. This is the first case of marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) in the small intestine associated with amyloidosis in Korea.

  2. Reanálisis del diagnóstico de alcoholismo en Perú: el test de alcoholismo Munich (malt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus-Dieter Gorené

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available El Test de Alcoholismo Munich (MALT fue traducido al español y aplicado a una muestra constituida por 145 probandos peruanos, de los cuales 94 eran alcohólicos. El MALT consta de dos partes: la primera está conformada por siete preguntas que son contestadas por el médico y la segunda sección está formada por 24 preguntas y son contestadas por el paciente. Tanto el coeficiente de validación para toda la prueba (r=0.87 como el coeficiente de confiabilidad de la parte autoadministrable (r=0.93 fueron elevados.

  3. Primary MALT lymphomas of the stomach: A pathological study of 18 cases Linfomas gástricos primarios tipo MALT: un estudio patológico de 18 casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Venizelos

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: it is doubtful that whoever is suffering from gastric malt lymphoma will escape from the disease, if treated with medication against helicobacter pylori. Material and methods: a cohort of 18 patients was analysed. Ten hosts had primary gastric malt lymphoma and were treated with gastric resection as the initial therapy. Eight hosts received antibiotics against Helicobacter pylori as the initial treatment. In all 18 patients Helicobacter pylori status, endoscopic findings and pathology features were evaluated. Immunohistochemistry was performed to assess the bcl-2 and p53 status. Results: patients with low grade malt lymphoma: a were Helicobacter pylori positive (5 of 5; b had a superficial lesion (5 of 5; c had no lymph node involvement (5 of 5; and d were downstaged by comparison to patients with high grade tumor. Bcl-2 was positive in 4 of 5 low grade tumors, and p53 was positive in 12 of 13 high grade ones. Investigation of patients with 5-year follow up (n = 18 revealed that all but one low-grade tumors remained superficial with no progression. These tumors were bcl-2+/p53-, and the one with a bcl-2+/p53+ immunophenotype progressed to an ulcerated low-grade tumor after disappearance of Helicobacter pylori. Complete regression was found in 6 of 8 patients from the non surgically treated group (n = 8 after Helicobacter pylori eradication. These tumors were superficial/low grade/node negative/bcl-2+/p53 inconclusive (n = 2, superficial/low grade/node negative/bcl-2+/p53- (n = 2, and ulcerative/high grade/node negative/bcl-2+/p53- (n = 2. The two persistent tumors were ulcerative/high grade/node negative/bcl-2+/p53+. Conclusion: gastric malt lymphoma Helicobacter pylori+/superficial/low grade/bcl-2+/p53- will disappear after Helicobacter pylori eradication.Objetivo: es difícil que alguien que padezca un linfoma gástrico de tipo MALT pueda librarse de la enfermedad,... a menos que se le trate con medicación para Helicobacter pylori

  4. The Time Scale of Recombination Rate Evolution in Great Apes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevison, Laurie S; Woerner, August E; Kidd, Jeffrey M; Kelley, Joanna L; Veeramah, Krishna R; McManus, Kimberly F; Bustamante, Carlos D; Hammer, Michael F; Wall, Jeffrey D

    We present three linkage-disequilibrium (LD)-based recombination maps generated using whole-genome sequence data from 10 Nigerian chimpanzees, 13 bonobos, and 15 western gorillas, collected as part of the Great Ape Genome Project (Prado-Martinez J, et al. 2013. Great ape genetic diversity and

  5. Great Indoors Awards 2007

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Hollandis Maastrichtis jagati 17. XI esimest korda rahvusvahelist auhinda The Great Indoors Award. Aasta sisekujundusfirmaks valiti Masamichi Katayama asutatud Wonderwall. Auhinna said veel Zaha Hadid, Heatherwick Studio, Ryui Nakamura Architects ja Item Idem

  6. Great Lakes Bathymetry

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lakes Michigan, Erie, Saint Clair, Ontario and Huron has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and...

  7. Treatment outcome and risk analysis for cataract after radiotherapy of localized ocular adnexal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hee Hyun; Lee, Sea Won; Sung, Soo Yoon; Choi, Byung Oak [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    We retrospectively reviewed the results of radiotherapy for localized ocular adnexal MALT lymphoma (OAML) to investigate the risk factors of cataract. Sixty-seven patients with stage IE OAML treated with radiotherapy at Seoul St. Mary’s Hospital from 2001 to 2016 were included. Median treatment dose was 30 Gy. Lens protection was done in 52 (76%) patients. Radiation therapy (RT) extent was as follows: superficial (82.1%), tumor mass (4.5%), and entire orbital socket (13.4%). The risk factors for symptomatic cataract were analyzed using the Cox proportional hazard model. Median follow-up time was 50.9 months (range, 1.9 to 149.4 months). All patients were alive at the time of analysis. There were 7 recurrences and there was no local recurrence. Median time to recurrence was 40.4 months. There were 14 cases of symptomatic cataract. Dose >30 Gy had hazard ratio of 3.47 for cataract (p = 0.026). Omitting lens protection showed hazard ratio of 4.10 (p = 0.008). RT achieves excellent local control of ocular MALT lymphoma. Consideration of RT-related factors such as lens protection and radiation dose at the stage of RT planning may reduce the risk of RT-induced cataract after radiotherapy.

  8. Key volatile aroma compounds of lactic acid fermented malt based beverages - impact of lactic acid bacteria strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsogning Dongmo, Sorelle; Sacher, Bertram; Kollmannsberger, Hubert; Becker, Thomas

    2017-08-15

    This study aims to define the aroma composition and key aroma compounds of barley malt wort beverages produced from fermentation using six lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry-olfactometry and flame ionization detection was employed; key aroma compounds were determined by means of aroma extract dilution analysis. Fifty-six detected volatile compounds were similar among beverages. However, significant differences were observed in the concentration of individual compounds. Key aroma compounds (flavor dilution (FD) factors ≥16) were β-damascenone, furaneol, phenylacetic acid, 2-phenylethanol, 4-vinylguaiacol, sotolon, methional, vanillin, acetic acid, nor-furaneol, guaiacol and ethyl 2-methylbutanoate. Furthermore, acetaldehyde had the greatest odor activity value of up to 4266. Sensory analyses revealed large differences in the flavor profile. Beverage from L. plantarum Lp. 758 showed the highest FD factors in key aroma compounds and was correlated to fruity flavors. Therefore, we suggest that suitable LAB strain selection may improve the flavor of malt based beverages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Dubna - the great survivor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, Gordon

    1994-01-01

    This year, as CERN celebrates its 40th anniversary (November, page 26), not far behind in the celebration stakes is the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, near Moscow, established in 1956. While CERN's goal was to provide a physics platform on which to rebuild Western European science after World War II, JINR had a similar mission for the USSR and the socialist countries, including Eastern Europe

  10. Selective C-Rel Activation via Malt1 Controls Anti-Fungal T-H-17 Immunity by Dectin-1 and Dectin-2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gringhuis, Sonja I.; Wevers, Brigitte A.; Kaptein, Tanja M.; van Capel, Toni M. M.; Theelen, Bart; Boekhout, Teun; de Jong, Esther C.; Geijtenbeek, Teunis B. H.

    2011-01-01

    C-type lectins dectin-1 and dectin-2 on dendritic cells elicit protective immunity against fungal infections through induction of T(H)1 and T-H-17 cellular responses. Fungal recognition by dectin-1 on human dendritic cells engages the CARD9-Bcl10-Malt1 module to activate NF-kappa B. Here we

  11. Primary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of thyroid gland arising from coexisting Hashimoto's thyroiditis: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Kwon; Kwon, Sun Young; Kim, Young Hwan; Choi, Jin Soo; Sohn, Chul Ho; Lee, Hee Jung; Woo, Seong Ku; Suh, Soo Ji [Dongsan Medical Center, Keimyung University, Daegue (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-15

    We report herein on a case of primary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of the thyroid gland in a 57-year-old woman with coexisting Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and we include its characteristic imaging, histopathologic and immunohistochemical findings.

  12. Comparisons of modern United States and Canadian malting barley cultivars with those from pre-Prohibition: II. Amylolytic enzyme activities and thermostabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    United States and Canadian pre-Prohibition and modern elite malting barley cultivars were evaluated for activities of alpha-amylase, beta-amylase, alpha-glucosidase and limit dextrinase over the course of Congress mashing to determine the changes in activities and thermostabilities since the end of ...

  13. Germinal centres in diagnostic labial gland biopsies of patients with primary Sjogren's syndrome are not predictive for parotid MALT lymphoma development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haacke, Erlin A.; van der Vegt, Bert; Vissink, Arjan; Spijkervet, Fred K. L.; Bootsma, Hendrika; Kroese, Frans G. M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Patients with primary Sjogren's syndrome (pSS) have an increased risk of developing non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), particularly parotid gland mucosaassociated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas. Presence of germinal centres (GCs) in labial gland biopsies has been suggested as predictive

  14. Cavitary pulmonary involvement of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma transformed from extra nodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma MALT type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamane, Hiromichi; Ohsawa, Masahiro; Shiote, Yasuhiro; Umemura, Shigeki; Suwaki, Toshimitsu; Shirakawa, Atsuko; Kamei, Haruhito; Takigawa, Nagio; Kiura, Katsuyuki

    2011-12-01

    We describe a case of pulmonary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), which was thought to arise from extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma). A 68-year-old woman presented with a 2-month history of cough and bloody sputum. The chest X-ray and computed tomography revealed a mass with cavitation in the right lower lobe. Transbronchial biopsy specimens revealed a granulomatous infiltration without malignant cells. However, diagnosis of MALT lymphoma was established from gastric biopsy specimen. Subsequently, a right lower lobectomy was performed because of hemoptysis. Examination of the resected specimen revealed a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, which was considered to have transformed from MALT lymphoma, because both lung and stomach lesions had the chromosomal translocation t(11;18)(q21;q21) in common. In addition, there were no nodules, masses, alveolar or interstitial infiltrates in the lung fields, which are usually observed in the case of marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of bronchial mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. These findings indicate that involvement of DLBCL have to be considered in patients with MALT lymphoma and cavitary lesion of the lung.

  15. Non-destructive determination of nitrogen in malting barleys by instrumental photon activation analysis and its comparison with the Dumas method

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krausová, Ivana; Mizera, Jiří; Dostálek, P.; Řanda, Zdeněk

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 124, č. 1 (2018), s. 4-8 ISSN 0046-9750 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : nitrogen * instrumental photon activation analysis * Dumas method * malting barley Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing OBOR OECD: Food and beverages Impact factor: 0.859, year: 2016

  16. Journeys to greatness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crease, Robert P.

    2009-02-01

    Readers, I hope, will forgive me for a shameless bit of self-publicity about my latest book, The Great Equations: Breakthroughs in Science from Pythagoras to Heisenberg (Norton). But then the book is partly yours too, inspired as it was by the responses of Physics World readers to my request for suggestions of great equations (October 2004 pp14-15). In the book, I chose to discuss not the most frequently mentioned equations, but those that seem to have engaged their discoverers in the most remarkable journeys.

  17. Nothing Great Is Easy

    OpenAIRE

    Stansbie, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    A solo exhibition of 13 pieces of art work.\\ud \\ud Nothing Great is Easy is an exhibition of sculpture, film, drawing and photography that proposes reconstructed narratives using the sport of swimming and in particular the collective interaction and identity of the channel swimmer. The work utilises the processes, rituals/rules, language and the apparatus of sport.\\ud \\ud “Nothing great is easy” are the words on the memorial to Captain Matthew Webb who was the first man to swim the English ch...

  18. MALT Lymphoma of Minor Salivary Glands in a Sjögren’s Syndrome Patient: a Case Report and Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savvas Titsinides

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Sjögren’s syndrome is a chronic systemic disease, characterized by lymphocytic infiltration and destruction mainly of the salivary and lacrimal glands, resulting in xerostomia and xeropthalmia. Sjögren’s syndrome patients have a 44-fold excess risk for the development of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma particularly mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma, prevalently affecting the major salivary glands. In this report, a rare case of MALT lymphoma of minor salivary glands in a patient with Sjögren’s syndrome is described. A review of the published cases of MALT lymphoma located in the minor salivary glands of patients with Sjögren’s syndrome is provided. Material and Methods: In a 64-year-old female patient previously diagnosed with Sjögren’s syndrome, an asymptomatic soft tissue mass at the palate was noticed, exhibiting rapid enlargement within one month. With a main differential diagnosis of salivary gland neoplasm or lymphoproliferative lesion, a partial biopsy was performed accompanied by proper immunohistochemical analysis. Results: A final diagnosis of MALT lymphoma was rendered and the patient was referred for further multidisciplinary evaluation. Gastric endoscopy and biopsy revealed a Helicobacter pylori-negative gastric MALT lymphoma, while spleen involvement and bone marrow infiltration were also identified. Patient was classified as having stage IV disseminated disease and a standard chemotherapy protocol was administered; the treatment was well tolerated and resulted in complete remission. Conclusions: This case emphasizes the need for close monitoring of patients with Sjögren’s syndrome by oral medicine specialists, which, besides ensuring proper management of xerostomia and its sequelae, may also lead to early recognition of lymphoma development.

  19. Is there a role for capsule endoscopy in the staging work-up of patients with gastric marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of MALT?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Taie, O; Dietrich, C G; Flieger, D; Katzenberger, T; Fischbach, W

    2013-08-01

    In earlier studies, involvement of the small intestine was reported in patients with gastrointestinal lymphoma. Prospective data on the involvement of the small intestine in patients suffering from gastric extranodal MZBCL of MALT do not exist so far. In this study, we investigated the frequency of the involvement of the small intestine and the role of capsule endoscopy in patients with gastrointestinal extranodal MZBCL of MALT and of follicular lymphoma. 40 consecutive patients with gastrointestinal extranodal MZBCL of MALT (26 men, 14 women, aged 27 - 80 years), and 7 patients with known follicular lymphoma of the small intestine (5 men, 2 women, aged 34 - 63 years) underwent capsule endoscopy. Involvement of the small intestine was identified by capsule endoscopy in all 7 patients with known follicular lymphoma of the small intestine. In 6 of 40 patients with gastric extranodal MZBCL of MALT abnormal findings could be observed, three of these findings indicative for lymphoma involvement of the small intestine. However, in each of these 3 cases, intestinal involvement had been already diagnosed by conventional GI endoscopy before capsule endoscopy. Capsule endoscopy is able to detect involvement of the small intestine in patients with gastrointestinal lymphoma. However, involvement of the small intestine seems to be rare in patients with gastric extranodal MZBCL of MALT. In summary, routine diagnostic work-up of the small intestine, e. g. by capsule endoscopy seems unnecessary because of the rare involvement of the small intestine and an excellent long-term outcome irrespective of a possible intestinal manifestation. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Reduction of methanol in brewed wine by the use of atmospheric and room-temperature plasma method and the combination optimization of malt with different adjuncts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ming-Hua; Liang, Ying-Jie; Chai, Jiang-Yan; Zhou, Shi-Shui; Jiang, Jian-Guo

    2014-11-01

    Methanol, often generated in brewed wine, is highly toxic for human health. To decrease the methanol content of the brewed wine, atmospheric and room-temperature plasma (ARTP) was used as a new mutagenesis tool to generate a mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with lower methanol content. Headspace gas chromatography was used to determine the identity and concentration of methanol with butyl acetate as internal standard in brewed wine. With 47.4% higher and 26.3% positive mutation rates were obtained, the ARTP jet exhibited a strong effect on mutation breeding of S. cerevisiae. The mutant S. cerevisiae S12 exhibited the lowest methanol content, which was decreased by 72.54% compared with that of the wild-type strain. Subsequently, the mutant S. cerevisiae S12 was used to ferment different combinations of malt and adjuncts for lower methanol content and higher alcoholic content. It was shown that the culture 6#, which was 60% malt, 20% wheat, and 20% corn, was the best combinations of malt and adjuncts, with the lowest methanol content (104.8 mg/L), and a relatively higher alcoholic content (15.3%, v/v). The optimal malt-adjunct culture 6#, treated with the glucoamylase dose of 0.04 U/mg of grain released the highest reducing sugars (201.6 mg/mL). It was indicated that the variation in reducing sugars among the combinations of malt and different adjuncts could be due to the dose of exogenous enzymes. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Great Expectations. [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Kelley

    Based on Charles Dickens' novel "Great Expectations," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand the differences between totalitarianism and democracy; and a that a writer of a story considers theme, plot, characters, setting, and point of view. The main activity of the lesson involves students working in groups to…

  2. Great Barrier Reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    A better than average view of the Great Barrier Reef was captured by SeaWiFS on a recent overpass. There is sunglint northeast of the reef and there appears to be some sort of filamentous bloom in the Capricorn Channel.

  3. Two Cases of Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphomas in the Cervical Lymph Nodes in Patients with Low-Grade Gastric Marginal Zone B-Cell Lymphoma (MALT Lymphoma).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ji Hoon; Jung, Hwoon-Yong; Yoon, Hwan; Lee, Jae Kwang; Kang, Ji Hoon; Jeon, Sung Jin; Park, Young-Su; Kim, Jin-Ho

    2013-05-01

    It is well known that gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas are associated with Helicobacter pylori infection and have a good prognosis. However, although rare, these low-grade lymphomas transform to the high-grade diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs) which are thought to be the important cause of death in patients with MALT lymphoma. We report two cases of DLBCLs in the cervical lymph nodes that occurred 10 years and 1.5 years after diagnosing low-grade gastric MALT lymphomas.

  4. The Great Warming Brian Fagan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, B. M.

    2010-12-01

    The Great Warming is a journey back to the world of a thousand years ago, to the Medieval Warm Period. Five centuries of irregular warming from 800 to 1250 had beneficial effects in Europe and the North Atlantic, but brought prolonged droughts to much of the Americas and lands affected by the South Asian monsoon. The book describes these impacts of warming on medieval European societies, as well as the Norse and the Inuit of the far north, then analyzes the impact of harsh, lengthy droughts on hunting societies in western North America and the Ancestral Pueblo farmers of Chaco Canyon, New Mexico. These peoples reacted to drought by relocating entire communities. The Maya civilization was much more vulnerable that small-scale hunter-gatherer societies and subsistence farmers in North America. Maya rulers created huge water storage facilities, but their civilization partially collapsed under the stress of repeated multiyear droughts, while the Chimu lords of coastal Peru adapted with sophisticated irrigation works. The climatic villain was prolonged, cool La Niñalike conditions in the Pacific, which caused droughts from Venezuela to East Asia, and as far west as East Africa. The Great Warming argues that the warm centuries brought savage drought to much of humanity, from China to Peru. It also argues that drought is one of the most dangerous elements in today’s humanly created global warming, often ignored by preoccupied commentators, but with the potential to cause over a billion people to starve. Finally, I use the book to discuss the issues and problems of communicating multidisciplinary science to the general public.

  5. Great Lakes Energy Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, J. Iwan [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2012-11-18

    The vision of the Great Lakes Energy Institute is to enable the transition to advanced, sustainable energy generation, storage, distribution and utilization through coordinated research, development, and education. The Institute will place emphasis on translating leading edge research into next generation energy technology. The Institute’s research thrusts focus on coordinated research in decentralized power generation devices (e.g. fuel cells, wind turbines, solar photovoltaic devices), management of electrical power transmission and distribution, energy storage, and energy efficiency.

  6. Exposure to Glycolytic Carbon Sources Reveals a Novel Layer of Regulation for the MalT Regulon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia A. Reimann

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria adapt to changing environments by means of tightly coordinated regulatory circuits. The use of synthetic lethality, a genetic phenomenon in which the combination of two nonlethal mutations causes cell death, facilitates identification and study of such circuitry. In this study, we show that the E. coli ompR malTcon double mutant exhibits a synthetic lethal phenotype that is environmentally conditional. MalTcon, the constitutively active form of the maltose system regulator MalT, causes elevated expression of the outer membrane porin LamB, which leads to death in the absence of the osmoregulator OmpR. However, the presence and metabolism of glycolytic carbon sources, such as sorbitol, promotes viability and unveils a novel layer of regulation within the complex circuitry that controls maltose transport and metabolism.

  7. Measurement of 26Al in Antarctic ice with the MALT-AMS system at the University of Tokyo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Kazuho; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Ohta, Aoi; Shibata, Yasuyuki; Motoyama, Hideaki

    2007-06-01

    We have attempted to determine the 26Al concentration of Antarctic ice sampled from the vicinity of the Dome Fuji Research Station using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) at MALT (MicroAnalysis Laboratory, Tandem accelerator) of the University of Tokyo. Because the expected concentration of 26Al in ice is very low, our standard procedure for the AMS measurement was re-examined and refined. The observed 26Al concentration ranged between 160 and 210 atoms g-1. The averaged value of the 26Al/10Be ratio from two samples was 1.75 ± 0.19 × 10-3, which agrees well with recently reported values for the meteoric 26Al/10Be ratio from Antarctic ice and air filter residues. This result implies the possibility of future 26Al/10Be dating of old Antarctic ice.

  8. Efficient compression of rearranged time-multiplexed elemental image arrays in MALT-based three-dimensional integral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ho-Hyun; Lee, Byung-Gook; Kim, Eun-Soo

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, an approach to efficiently compress the time-multiplexed EIAs picked up from the MALT-based integral imaging system is proposed. In this method, the time-multiplexed EIAs are rearranged by collecting the elemental images occupied at the same position in each EIA to enhance the similarity among the elemental images. Then, MPEG-4 is applied to these rearranged elemental images for compression. From the experimental results, it is shown that the average correlation quality ( ACQ) value representing a degree of similarity between the elemental images, and the resultant compression efficiency have been enhanced by 11.50% and 9.97%, respectively on the average for three kinds of test scenarios in the proposed method, compared to those of the conventional method. Good experimental results finally confirmed the feasibility of the proposed scheme.

  9. Development of 129I-AMS system at MALT and measurements of 129I concentrations in several Japanese soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Kato, Kazuhiro; Yasumoto, Masaru; Nakano, Chuichiro

    2007-06-01

    The 129I AMS system at MALT (Micro Analysis Laboratory, Tandem accelerator, The University of Tokyo) was reconfigured to use a gas ionization detector and achieved a background 129I/127I < 3 × 10-14. A procedure for separating iodine from soil samples was developed and validated using IAEA standard reference material IAEA-375 (Chernobyl soil). The method was applied to analyze 129I/127I ratios as well as 129I concentrations in several Japanese soils. The 129I/127I ratios of the measured surface soils are in the range of the order of 10-10-10-7. The highest ratio was found in a sample collected in the vicinity of a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant.

  10. Great Salt Lake, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Doyle W.; Gardner, Joe F.

    1999-01-01

    This document is intended as a source of general information and facts about Great Salt Lake, Utah. This U.S. Geological Survey information sheet answers frequently asked questions about Great Salt Lake. Topics include: History, salinity, brine shrimp, brine flies, migratory birds, and recreation. Great Salt Lake, the shrunken remnant of prehistoric Lake Bonneville, has no outlet. Dissolved salts accumulate in the lake by evaporation. Salinity south of the causeway has ranged from 6 percent to 27 percent over a period of 22 years (2 to 7 times saltier than the ocean). The high salinity supports a mineral industry that extracts about 2 million tons of salt from the lake each year. The aquatic ecosystem consists of more than 30 species of organisms. Harvest of its best-known species, the brine shrimp, annually supplies millions of pounds of food for the aquaculture industry worldwide. The lake is used extensively by millions of migratory and nesting birds and is a place of solitude for people. All this occurs in a lake that is located at the bottom of a 35,000-square-mile drainage basin that has a human population of more than 1.5 million.

  11. CD5-positive marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) of the lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Tadashi

    2012-02-14

    CD5-positive marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) of the lung is very rare. An 82-year-old Japanese woman was found to have an abnormal lung shadow on chest X-ray photography, and was admitted to our hospital. Imaging modalities including X-ray photography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging showed a small (2×1×1 cm) opacity of the right upper lobe. Transbronchial lung biopsy was performed. It showed severe proliferation of small lymphocytes. The small lymphocytes were centrocytes-like, and minor plasma cell differentiation was recognized. Lymphoepithelial lesions were scattered. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for CD5, CD20, CD43, CD45, CD79α, bcl-2, and κ-chain, but negative for CD2, CD3, CD10, CD21, CD23, CD35, CD45RO, CD56, IgA, IgG, IgM, IgD, λ-chain, TdT, and cyclin D1. The Ki-67 labeling was 10%. CD3-positive and CD45RO-positive inflammatory T-cells were scattered in small amount. The pathological diagnosis was CD5-positive marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) of the lung. The patient was treated with chemotherapy (CHOP: cyclophosphamide, hydroxydaunorbicin, vincristine, and predonisone), and the lung tumor disappeared. The patient is now free of the lymphoma 10 years after the first manifestation. The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1541653085652296.

  12. Great software debates

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, A

    2004-01-01

    The industry’s most outspoken and insightful critic explains how the software industry REALLY works. In Great Software Debates, Al Davis, shares what he has learned about the difference between the theory and the realities of business and encourages you to question and think about software engineering in ways that will help you succeed where others fail. In short, provocative essays, Davis fearlessly reveals the truth about process improvement, productivity, software quality, metrics, agile development, requirements documentation, modeling, software marketing and sales, empiricism, start-up financing, software research, requirements triage, software estimation, and entrepreneurship.

  13. Idiopathic great saphenous phlebosclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadreza Jodati

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Arterial sclerosis has been extensively described but reports on venous sclerosis are very sparse. Phlebosclerosis refers to the thickening and hardening of the venous wall. Despite its morphological similarities with arteriosclerosis and potential morbid consequences, phlebosclerosis has gained only little attention. We report a 72 year old male with paralysis and atrophy of the right leg due to childhood poliomyelitis who was referred for coronary artery bypass surgery. The great saphenous vein, harvested from the left leg, showed a hardened cord-like obliterated vein. Surprisingly, harvested veins from the atrophic limb were normal and successfully used for grafting.

  14. Great Britain at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    From 14 to 16 November 2006 Administration Building, Bldg. 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 - 17.30 Fifteen companies will present their latest technologies at the 'Great Britain at CERN' exhibition. British industry will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The main fields represented will be computing technologies, electrical engineering, electronics, mechanical engineering, vacuum & low temperature technologies and particle detectors. The exhibition is organised by BEAMA Exhibitions (the British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturers Association). Below you will find: a list of the exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course: from your Departmental secretariat, from the Reception information desk, Building 33, at the exhibition itself. A detailed list of the companies is available at the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS 3D Metrics Alma...

  15. Great Britain at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    From 14 to 16 November 2006 Administration Building, Bldg. 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 - 17.30 Fifteen companies will present their latest technologies at the 'Great Britain at CERN' exhibition. British industry will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The main fields represented will be computing technologies, electrical engineering, electronics, mechanical engineering, vacuum & low temperature technologies and particle detectors. The exhibition is organised by BEAMA Exhibitions (the British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturers Association). Below you will find: a list of the exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course: from your Departmental secretariat, from the Reception information desk, Building 33, at the exhibition itself. A detailed list of the companies is available at the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS 3D Metrics Almat...

  16. DIFFERENTIATION OF CROATIAN BARLEY VARIETIES BY GRADIENT GEL SDS-PAGE AND ISOELECTRIC FOCUSING OF DRY GRAINS AND GREEN MALT HORDEINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivica Strelec

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Applicability of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing of hordeins for discrimination of six two-rowed winter barley varieties (Angora, Sladoran, Rodnik, Rex, Martin and Barun has been investigated. Hordeins extracted from dry grains and green malt of barley varieties were separated by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in gradient gel of 8-18% T, and by isoelectric focusing in pH gradient of 3.5-9.5 and 5.5-8.5, respectively. In all separation experiments better resolution of proteins was achieved with dry grain extracts, than with malt extracts. Angora, Sladoran and Martin variety could be distinguished from other varieties by differences in hordein patterns obtained by gradient gel SDS-PAGE (8-18% T, and Angora, Sladoran, Martin and Rodnik by isoelectric focusing in pH gradient 5.5-8.5.

  17. Rituximab plus bendamustine is active in pretreated patients with extragastric marginal zone B cell lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiesewetter, Barbara; Mayerhoefer, Marius E; Lukas, Julius; Zielinski, Christoph C; Müllauer, Leonhard; Raderer, Markus

    2014-02-01

    Recently, the combination of rituximab and bendamustine (R-Benda) has been defined as highly active in patients with follicular lymphomas, but little is known about the efficacy of R-Benda in mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. In a retrospective analysis, we have defined 14 patients with MALT lymphoma undergoing therapy with R-Benda. Seven patients were female and seven male (aged 44-88 years), and all had relapsed extragastric MALT lymphoma. R-Benda was given at first relapse in ten patients, while four patients had more than two prior forms of therapy. Bendamustine was given at a dose of 90 mg/m(2) on days 2 and 3 in ten patients and at 70 mg/m(2) in three patients, while all received 375 mg/m(2) rituximab on day 1. Ten patients received six courses of therapy, while two patients discontinued therapy after three, and one after four courses for personal reasons, while one patient had progressive disease after four courses. Tolerance of therapy was excellent, and all except one patient responded. Ten patients achieved a complete remission (CR) (71 %), three a partial remission (21 %), while one patient progressed. Toxicities were mild and mainly hematological but did not result in relevant delays or the necessity for dose reductions. After a median follow-up of 23 months (range, 4-42+), 13 patients are alive and one patient has relapsed 23 months after initial CR. Our data suggest high activity and good tolerance of R-Benda in patients with relapsed MALT lymphoma despite intensive pretreatment in some patients. In view of this, prospective studies are warranted.

  18. A pilot phase II study of ofatumumab monotherapy for extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiesewetter, Barbara; Neuper, Ortrun; Mayerhoefer, Marius E; Dolak, Werner; Lukas, Julius; Simonitsch-Klupp, Ingrid; Raderer, Markus

    2018-02-01

    These are the final results of the Ofatumumab in MALT lymphoma study (O-MA 1), a pilot phase II trial evaluating the capacity and safety of ofatumumab to induce objective responses in patients with Helicobacter pylori eradication refractory or extragastric MALT lymphoma. Ofatumumab was given at 4 weekly doses (1000 mg) followed by 4 doses at 2-month intervals starting at week 8. According to protocol, a total of 16 patients were recruited (median age 69 years; range 38-85). Thirty one percent (5/16) of patients had primary gastric MALT lymphoma while the remaining 69% (11/16) presented with extragastric manifestations. Seventy-five percent (12/16) had localized lymphoma and 4 patients disseminated disease. The overall response rate to treatment with ofatumumab was 81% (13/16), with the median time to best response being 5.5 months. In detail, 50% (8/16) achieved complete remission; 31% (5/16), partial remission; and 19% (3/16), disease stabilization as best response. However, 1 patient with gastric lymphoma and complete remission at second restaging had a relapse at final assessment but ongoing complete remission during further follow-up. Tolerability was excellent accept low-grade infusion reactions occurring in 86% (14/16). At a median follow-up time of 25 months only 1 patient has relapsed suggesting durable responses in the majority of patients. This pilot trial shows clearly that ofatumumab is active and safe for the treatment of MALT lymphoma. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Chapter 16. Conservation status of great gray owls in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory D. Hayward

    1994-01-01

    Previous chapters outlined the biology and ecology of great gray owls as well as the ecology of this species in the western United States. That technical review provides the basis to assess the current conservation status of great gray owls in the United States. Are populations of great gray owls in the United States currently threatened? Are current land management...

  20. Exclusive moderate-dose radiotherapy in gastric marginal zone B-cell MALT lymphoma: Results of a prospective study with a long term follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruskoné-Fourmestraux, Agnès; Matysiak-Budnik, Tamara; Fabiani, Bettina; Cervera, Pascale; Brixi, Hedia; Le Malicot, Karine; Nion-Larmurier, Isabelle; Fléjou, Jean-Fançois; Hennequin, Christophe; Quéro, Laurent

    2015-10-01

    In gastric MALT lymphomas persisting after Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication, a treatment by moderate-dose radiotherapy (RT) has been proposed but its efficacy has not been confirmed in large prospective series with long term endoscopic follow-up. Patients with localised gastric MALT lymphoma persisting after H. pylori eradication were offered moderate-dose RT (30Gy, 2Gy/fraction) and followed with annual endoscopies. All biopsies before and after RT were reviewed by a committee of pathologists. From 1995 to 2011, out of the 232 patients followed prospectively, 53 received RT for persistence of lymphoma after H. pylori eradication: either macroscopic ulcer (n=31), or microscopic lymphomatous infiltrate (n=22), after a mean follow-up of 12 and 31months, respectively. All lymphomas were localised (45 stage IE and 8 stage IIE) and 38 (72%) were H. pylori-positive. The mean clinical and endoscopic follow-up from diagnosis was 7.6years (2.2-19.1). No acute or late toxicity occurred. A complete remission was achieved in all patients but one (98%) with no relapse after a median follow-up of 4.9years (1.3-16.6) after completion of RT. Overall survival and 5-year disease specific survival were 94% and 100%, respectively. One patient died of gastric adenocarcinoma. Moderate-dose RT (30Gy) is effective and safe for localised gastric MALT lymphoma persisting after H. pylori eradication. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Fermentation Results and Chemical Composition of Agricultural Distillates Obtained from Rye and Barley Grains and the Corresponding Malts as a Source of Amylolytic Enzymes and Starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Balcerek

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the efficiency of rye and barley starch hydrolysis in mashing processes using cereal malts as a source of amylolytic enzymes and starch, and to establish the volatile profile of the obtained agricultural distillates. In addition, the effects of the pretreatment method of unmalted cereal grains on the physicochemical composition of the prepared mashes, fermentation results, and the composition of the obtained distillates were investigated. The raw materials used were unmalted rye and barley grains, as well as the corresponding malts. All experiments were first performed on a semi-technical scale, and then verified under industrial conditions in a Polish distillery. The fermentable sugars present in sweet mashes mostly consisted of maltose, followed by glucose and maltotriose. Pressure-thermal treatment of unmalted cereals, and especially rye grains, resulted in higher ethanol content in mashes in comparison with samples subjected to pressureless liberation of starch. All agricultural distillates originating from mashes containing rye and barley grains and the corresponding malts were characterized by low concentrations of undesirable compounds, such as acetaldehyde and methanol. The distillates obtained under industrial conditions contained lower concentrations of higher alcohols (apart from 1-propanol than those obtained on a semi-technical scale.

  2. Fermentation Results and Chemical Composition of Agricultural Distillates Obtained from Rye and Barley Grains and the Corresponding Malts as a Source of Amylolytic Enzymes and Starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerek, Maria; Pielech-Przybylska, Katarzyna; Dziekońska-Kubczak, Urszula; Patelski, Piotr; Strąk, Ewelina

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the efficiency of rye and barley starch hydrolysis in mashing processes using cereal malts as a source of amylolytic enzymes and starch, and to establish the volatile profile of the obtained agricultural distillates. In addition, the effects of the pretreatment method of unmalted cereal grains on the physicochemical composition of the prepared mashes, fermentation results, and the composition of the obtained distillates were investigated. The raw materials used were unmalted rye and barley grains, as well as the corresponding malts. All experiments were first performed on a semi-technical scale, and then verified under industrial conditions in a Polish distillery. The fermentable sugars present in sweet mashes mostly consisted of maltose, followed by glucose and maltotriose. Pressure-thermal treatment of unmalted cereals, and especially rye grains, resulted in higher ethanol content in mashes in comparison with samples subjected to pressureless liberation of starch. All agricultural distillates originating from mashes containing rye and barley grains and the corresponding malts were characterized by low concentrations of undesirable compounds, such as acetaldehyde and methanol. The distillates obtained under industrial conditions contained lower concentrations of higher alcohols (apart from 1-propanol) than those obtained on a semi-technical scale.

  3. Aproveitamento da água de umidificação de malte da moagem úmida como matéria prima na fabricação de cerveja Utilization of the wet milling malt steep water as raw material on brewing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar G. VENTURINI FILHO

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available A água de umidificação de malte, resultante da moagem úmida, pode ser usada como matéria prima na fabricação de cerveja. Há, entretanto, cervejarias que descartam esse subproduto, e conseqüentemente, o extrato nele contido. Em função disso, o presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a possibilidade de ganho de rendimento na mosturação e alterações nas características químicas e sensoriais da bebida, em virtude do uso dessa água. Cervejas do tipo Pilsen foram produzidas de duas formas: com e sem água de umidificação de malte. Utilizou-se como matéria prima malte, lúpulo, xarope de maltose, água destilada e água de umidificação de malte. O mosto foi produzido pelo processo de infusão, separado do bagaço de malte por filtração convencional e fervido durante 60 minutos. Após seu resfriamento e clarificação o mosto foi inoculado com levedura de baixa fermentação (1,3g/l, ps e colocado para fermentar a 10°C. A fermentação foi encerrada com 90% da atenuação limite. Em seguida, a cerveja foi engarrafada e maturada a 0°C por 14 dias. Os resultados mostraram que o aumento do rendimento de mosturação, em função do uso da água de umidificação de malte, foi estatisticamente não significativo. A utilização dessa água praticamente não alterou as características químicas e sensoriais da cerveja, havendo apenas um leve aumento na intensidade de cor da bebida (7,1 x 8,0 EBC. Considerando, no entanto, que a água de umidificação de malte obtida em nível industrial apresenta maior concentração de extrato em relação àquela produzida em laboratório, espera-se que o uso da primeira traga ganho de rendimento industrial sem alterações significativas nas características da cerveja.The wet milling malt steep water can be used as raw material on brewing. However, some breweries discard this water containing a certain amount of extract. Based on this fact, the aim of this work was to evaluate possible

  4. Long-time follow-up study of localized gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma and the clinical features of antibiotic-resistant cases of gastric MALT lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akamatsu, Taiji; Sano, Kenji; Suzawa, Ken-ichi; Kaneko, Yasunori; Shikama, Naoto; Ota, Hiroyoshi; Miyabayashi, Hideharu

    2007-01-01

    To clarify the clinical features of gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma (GML) with persistent lymphoma after eradication therapy of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), and the outcome of long-time follow-up study after treatment against GML, seventy-six patients with localized GML were studied. The median follow-up period was 44.4 months. Thirty-eight of 49 patients (77.6%) with H. pylori-positive GML had been cured of GML by antibiotic therapy alone. On the other hand, none of 13 patients with H. pylori-negative GML had been cured by antibiotic therapy (77.6% vs 0%, p<0.001). ''H. pylori-negative'' is one of the clinical features of antibiotic-resistant cases with GML. There was no significant difference in sex, age, stage, endoscopic finding, depth, and affected region between the two groups of cured and persistent GML with H. pylori infection. Twenty-two of 29 patients (75.6%) with antibiotic-resistant or H. pylori-negative cases of GML had been cured by 30 Gy radiation therapy. Low-dose radiation was thought to be a useful therapeutic procedure as a second line treatment'' of localized GML. (author)

  5. Review: The Great Gatsby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia de Jesus Sales

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A presente resenha busca discutir a tradução de The Great Gatsby para o contexto brasileiro. Diversas traduções foram feitas, em diversas épocas e com repercussão positiva no contexto brasileiro. Para o presente estudo, foi observada a tradução de Vanessa Bárbara, de 2011. Nesse sentido, o aspecto biográficos do autor e a forma como se apresentam os personagens na obra são fatores de cotejamento na obra original e na tradução brasileira. Francis Scott Key Fitzgerald (1896 – 1940 é famoso por ter em suas obras traços biográficos, algo que certamente influencia o leitor que adentra a sua obra. Quanto à recepção de O Grande Gatsby no contexto brasileiro, há que se considerar que O Grande Gatsby teve diversas traduções no Brasil. Depois dessa tradução de Vanessa Bárbara, em 2011, outras três vieram em 2013, juntamente com o filme. Há que considerar os aspectos comerciais embutidos nessas traduções e que muito corroboram para o resultado final. Prova disso são as capas, que são sempre diferenciadas em cada edição lançada. O tradutor nem sempre pode opinar sobre questões como estas. A tradução, a meu ver, é uma obra de qualidade, visto que a tradutora buscou ser fiel, sem dificultar a interpretação da obra para o leitor.

  6. Review: The Great Gatsby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia de Jesus Sales

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A presente resenha busca discutir a tradução de The Great Gatsby para o contexto brasileiro. Diversas traduções foram feitas, em diversas épocas e com repercussão positiva no contexto brasileiro. Para o presente estudo, foi observada a tradução de Vanessa Bárbara, de 2011. Nesse sentido, o aspecto biográficos do autor e a forma como se apresentam os personagens na obra são fatores de cotejamento na obra original e na tradução brasileira. Francis Scott Key Fitzgerald (1896 – 1940 é famoso por ter em suas obras traços biográficos, algo que certamente influencia o leitor que adentra a sua obra. Quanto à recepção de O Grande Gatsby no contexto brasileiro, há que se considerar que O Grande Gatsby teve diversas traduções no Brasil. Depois dessa tradução de Vanessa Bárbara, em 2011, outras três vieram em 2013, juntamente com o filme. Há que considerar os aspectos comerciais embutidos nessas traduções e que muito corroboram para o resultado final. Prova disso são as capas, que são sempre diferenciadas em cada edição lançada. O tradutor nem sempre pode opinar sobre questões como estas. A tradução, a meu ver, é uma obra de qualidade, visto que a tradutora buscou ser fiel, sem dificultar a interpretação da obra para o leitor.

  7. Great Lakes Environmental Database (GLENDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Great Lakes Environmental Database (GLENDA) houses environmental data on a wide variety of constituents in water, biota, sediment, and air in the Great Lakes area.

  8. Iodine-123 in Western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qaim, S.M.; Stoecklin, G.; Weinreich, R.

    1976-08-01

    The major object of this panel was to obtain information on the state of art of Iodine-123 production in Western Europe. Technical, medical and organizational problems were discussed extensively during the one-day meeting and a stimulating exchange of information between the various 123 I-producers and users has been initiated. Some specific examples of medical application were also included in order to get a feeling of the degree of acceptance by the medical community and the demand for this isotope. The meeting clearly demonstrated the great demand for this isotope but it also showed that the present rate of production is well below the demand. In order to fill this gap, not only further technical development is needed but also the organizational question of distribution has to be solved, perhaps within a network of collaborating cyclotrons, a task which is considerably more difficult in Western Europe than in the USA. (orig./HP) [de

  9. The Next Great Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, K. V.

    2007-12-01

    value of systems-level thinking, and it makes good sense to make this the essential mantra of Earth science undergraduate and graduate programs of the future. We must emphasize that Earth science plays a central role in understanding processes that have shaped our planet since the origin of our species, processes that have thus influenced the rise and fall of human societies. By studying the co-evolution of Earth and human societies, we lay a critical part of the foundation for future environmental policymaking. If we can make this point persuasively, Earth science might just be the "next great science".

  10. Analytical Characterization of the Hydrolysis of Barley Malt Macromolecules During Enzymatic Degradation Over Time Using AF4/MALS/RI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rübsam, Heinrich; Becker, Thomas; Gastl, Martina

    2017-06-01

    The changes on the molecular weight distribution (MWD) and particle size distribution (PSD) during hydrolysis of barley malt in isothermal mashing procedures were determined using asymmetrical flow field flow fractionation coupled to multiangle laser light scattering and refractive index (AF4/MALS/RI). Mash/trials were focused on amylolytic starch degradation. Therefore, temperatures (65, 70, and 75 °C) were selected according to α- and β-amylases range of activity. Samples were produced by triplicate, tracking amylolytic processes over time periods from 10 to 90 min in each mash/trial. AF4/MALS/RI analysis demonstrated significant differences on the values of the MWD and PSD according to the temperature/time profile used. At mashing times over 30 min at a temperature of 65 °C, when α- and β-amylase are both active, the decrease over time of the MWD and PSD was significantly higher (P < 0.005) than at 70 °C when mainly α-amylase is active. At 75 °C, also the activity of α-amylase decreased and the MWD and PSD were significantly lower (P < 0.005) than at 70 or 65 °C at any time of the procedure. The MWD and PSD of beer components influence beer palate fullness, thus AF4/ MALS/RI would be a powerful tool for breweries to adapt their technological processes to obtain beers with particular sensorial attributes. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  11. A journey into insidious world of MALT lymphoma of the ileum: from the beginning to the end.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhull, Anil Kumar; Kaushal, Vivek; Singh, Sunita; Pal, Manoj; Lathwal, Amit

    2014-12-01

    Lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) has been used to describe a marginal zone B-cell lymphoma derived from gastrointestinal lymphoid tissue. mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma (MALToma) of the ileum are extremely rare and only few reports with endoscopic features have been reported. We present a 55-year-old male patient with history of abdominal pain and loss of appetite since 2½ years. Abdomino-pelvic ultrasonography was normal, but computed tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen showed, dilated segment of ileum containing both contrast and debris. He underwent segmental resection of ileum associated with stricture site, histopathology of which revealed MALToma of ileum. Patient was subsequently treated with low dose chemotherapy and strictly followed up. Primary treatment possibility should be considered as the treatment of H. pylori infection while surgical resection for superficial lesions followed by low dose chemotherapy is recommended. The present case report explore MALToma of the GI tract, its diagnostic criterions, role of radiological and pathological tools, various investigative techniques and role of surgery and chemotherapy in such cases.

  12. Changes in the Fusarium Head Blight Complex of Malting Barley in a Three-Year Field Experiment in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Beccari

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, conducted for three years on eleven malting barley varieties cultivated in central Italy, the incidence of different mycotoxigenic fungal genera, the identification of the Fusarium species associated with the Fusarium Head Blight (FHB complex, and kernels contamination with deoxynivalenol (DON and T-2 mycotoxins were determined. The influence of climatic conditions on Fusarium infections and FHB complex composition was also investigated. Fusarium species were always present in the three years and the high average and maximum temperatures during anthesis mainly favored their occurrence. The FHB complex was subject to changes during the three years and the main causal agents were F. poae, F. avenaceum, F. tricinctum and F. graminearum, which, even if constantly present, never represented the principal FHB agent. The relative incidence of Fusarium species changed because of climatic conditions occurring during the seasons. The FHB complex was composed of many different Fusarium species and some of them were associated with a specific variety and/or with specific weather parameters, indicating that the interaction between a certain plant genotype and climatic conditions may influence the presence of Fusarium spp. causing infections. With regard to mycotoxin contamination, T-2 toxin, in some cases, was found in kernels at levels that exceeded EU recommended values.

  13. Intestinal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of MALT type: clinical manifestation and outcome of a rare disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Sung Yong; Kwon, Hyuk-Chan; Kim, Won Seog; Hwang, In Gyu; Park, Yeon Hee; Kim, Kihyun; Ko, Young Hae; Ryoo, Baek-Yeol; Kang, Hye Jin; Nam, Eunmi; Lee, Jae-Hoon; Kim, Jung Han; Kim, Hyo-Jin

    2007-10-01

    Intestinal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of the MALT type (I-MZL) is a relatively uncommon form of lymphoma. Twenty-seven patients with histologically-confirmed I-MZL were analyzed. The patients initially presented with abdominal pain (62.9%), and diarrhea (22.2%). The most common involved site was the ileo-caecal area (40.7%). Musshoff's stage I(E), II(E)1, II(E)2, III(E) and IV were present in 44%, 15%, 11%, 7.4% and 22% respectively. Sixty-three percent were in the low-risk group according to the Follicular Lymphoma International Prognostic Index. Complete response and partial response were achieved in 82% and 4% patients. The estimated 5-year overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) rates were 86% and 54%. Stage > or = II(E)2 was determined to be a poor prognostic factor for PFS and OS. I-MZL commonly manifests in an early-stage, low-risk state and tends to respond well to local and systemic treatment with favorable prognosis. I-MZL tends to be an indolent disease - characterized by prolonged survival with frequent relapses, similarly to other site MZLs.

  14. Purification, enzymatic characterization, and nucleotide sequence of a high-isoelectric-point alpha-glucosidase from barley malt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, T P; Lok, F; Mirgorodskaya, E

    2000-01-01

    .5, and catalyzed the hydrolysis by a retaining mechanism, as shown by nuclear magnetic resonance. Acarbose was a strong inhibitor (K(i) = 1.5 microM). Molecular recognition revealed that all OH-groups in the non-reducing ring and OH-3 in the reducing ring of maltose formed important hydrogen bonds to the enzyme......High-isoelectric-point (pI) alpha-glucosidase was purified 7, 300-fold from an extract of barley (Hordeum vulgare) malt by ammonium sulfate fractionation, ion-exchange, and butyl-Sepharose chromatography. The enzyme had high activity toward maltose (k(cat) = 25 s(-1)), with an optimum at pH 4......DNA fragment from a barley cDNA library. HvAgl97 encodes a putative 96.6-kD protein of 879 amino acids with 93.8% identity to the protein deduced from U22450. The sequence contains two active site motifs of glycoside hydrolase family 31. Three introns of 86 to 4,286 bp interrupt the coding region. The four...

  15. Religion and new immigrants' labor market entry in Western Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenig, Matthias; Maliepaard, Mieke|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313869278; Güveli, Ayse

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of religious participation upon a major socio-economic integration outcome, namely employment, among recent Christian and Muslim newcomers in three Western European destination countries: Germany, the Netherlands, and Great Britain. The paper revisits theoretical

  16. OF THE GREAT TEMPLE OF BEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Denker

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Great Temple of Bel in Palmyra was a unique edifice which had blended the well established lines of Greco-Roman architecture with the art and taste of the Orient. With the gilded bronze capitals of its 41 Corinthian columns it was the product of enormous effort and budget. It was the gem of a remarkable epoch of wealthy Palmyra and mighty Roma. With its splendidly decorated adyta ceilings it became a source of inspiration and imagination for Western architecture and decorative arts. While continuing to captivate the World, it was leveled and vanished as a grim result of conflict based vandalism. The aim of this work is to piece together this, the most eloquent and stupendous monument of the Roman East, from its ruins and reconstruct it as it was once extant. Its loss is irreplacable, but its photo-realistic reconstruction can offer some solace by waking the memories of the great temple as in the past. The lost reality of the Great Temple of Bel is revived here by digitally constructing its “ghost images".

  17. Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    This detailed view of the Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia (19.5S, 149.5E) shows several small patch reefs within the overall reef system. The Great Barrier Reef, largest in the world, comprises thousands of individual reefs of great variety and are closely monitored by marine ecologists. These reefs are about 6000 years old and sit on top of much older reefs. The most rapid coral growth occurs on the landward side of the reefs.

  18. Doing Great Things in Great Neck, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Catherine Applefeld

    2007-01-01

    This article features Joe Rutkowski, an instrumental music director at Great Neck North School in New York. Rutkowski had been teaching for 17 years at Great Neck North and is quite popular for the way he makes his students deeply involved with music. Rutkowski, who is a fourth-generation musician in a family of instrumentalists, received…

  19. BRS Deméter: nova cultivar de cevada cervejeira irrigada para o Cerrado do Brasil Central BRS Deméter: new malting barley cultivar for irrigated Brazilian savanna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Fernando Amabile

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available BRS Deméter é uma cultivar de cevada dística (duas fileiras de grãos de ampla adaptação, sob irrigação, ao Cerrado do Brasil Central. Apresenta potencial produtivo de grãos acima de 5.000 kg ha-1, estabilidade de produção e alta qualidade industrial malte-cervejeira. A cultivar atende às demandas do produtor por rendimento competitivo e às da indústria malteira por alta qualidade cervejeira.BRS Deméter is a spring, two-rowed barley, widely adapted to irrigated areas of the savanna, in Central Brazil. It presents production stability and high malting quality, with yield potential above 5,000 kg ha-1. It fulfills both the farmer and malting industry expectations regarding competitive yield and brewing quality.

  20. INVESTIGATION OF HYGROSCOPIC PROPERTIES OF POWDER OF SEMIFINISHED KVASS WORT CONCENTRATE, MALT EXTRACT OF BARLEY AND CHICORY EXTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Food industry of Russia urgently needs both updating of the manufacturing units of equipment and the creation of new high-tech and energy-saving technologies. Nowadays powdered food products and semifinished foods gained wide popularity in the market of foods and in manufacturing. Due to the caking and low wettability of fine powdered semi-finished products, there is an urgent need for modifying their properties by instanting. This article is devoted to the study of hygroscopic properties of powdered products and semifinished products: chicory extract, barley malt extract, kvass wort concentrate obtained by spray drying with an average dispersed composition of 10-20 microns, to find optimal conditions for packaging, storage and theoretical justification of the instanting process conditions. The article provides a diagram of experimental device for the study of hygroscopic properties of food powdered semi-finished products by accelerated method with the creation of the fluidized bed and the required temperature and humidity characteristics of fluidizing agent. The principles of operation of the device and methods of the experiment carrying out are given. The results are given in the form of sorption isotherms, by which monomolecular poly-molecular and capillary forms of binding of moisture with the test products and semi-finished products are determined. Theoretical nomogram to determine the binding energy of the moisture with the semi-finished products is given. Mathematical dependences of equilibrium humidities in the studied powdered products and semi-finished products on the air relative humidity in the range of 15 to 85 % at a temperature 22 ˚C were obtained. Optimal humidity properties of the resulting products for their production and subsequent storage and for the instanting processes were determined.

  1. Primary Radiation Therapy in Patients With Localized Orbital Marginal Zone B-Cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (MALT Lymphoma)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Seok Hyun; Choi, Byung Ock; Kim, Gi Won; Yang, Suk Woo; Hong, Young Seon; Choi, Ihl Bohng; Kim, Yeon Sil

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the outcomes of patients with localized orbital marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma) who were treated with radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 46 patients who were treated with RT for pathologically confirmed localized stage IE marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of MALT. The radiation dose ranged from 21.6 to 45 Gy (median, 30.6 Gy) at 1.8-2.0 Gy per fraction. Median follow-up duration was 32.3 months (range, 3.1-113.6 months). Results: Forty-three patients (93%) achieved complete remission (CR), and three patients (7%) achieved partial remission (PR). Five-year relapse-free survival, cause-specific survival, and overall survival were 93%, 100%, and 100%, respectively. Among the patients with CR, two had recurrence at three sites. One patient relapsed locally and was successfully salvaged with reirradiation. The other patient relapsed in a distant site and was successfully treated with six cycles of CHOP chemotherapy. Late complications were noted in four patients. Two patients developed cataracts at 26 and 37 months after completion of RT. The other two patients developed nasolacrimal duct obstructions at 4 and 11 months after completion of RT. Conclusion: Our study showed that a modest dose of RT is an excellent treatment modality with low complication and recurrence rates. We suggest that a dose of 30.6 Gy is tolerable and sufficient for treating orbital MALT lymphoma. Even following recurrence, successful salvage is possible with RT or chemotherapy.

  2. Long-term safety and activity of cladribine in patients with extranodal B-cell marginal zone lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiesewetter, Barbara; Dolak, Werner; Simonitsch-Klupp, Ingrid; Mayerhoefer, Marius E; Raderer, Markus

    2017-06-01

    The purine analogue 2-chloro-deoxyadenosine (2-CDA, cladribine) +/- rituximab has been successfully tested in mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma (MALT lymphoma) patients. However, studies using cladribine in other indications have reported the potential for prolonged hematological side effects and secondary hematologic and non-hematologic malignancies. To date, there have been no data on long-term effects of cladribine in MALT lymphoma patients. We have analyzed a large number of 49 patients treated with cladribine at our institution 1997-2011. All patients were treated within clinical trials and had undergone a standardized follow-up protocol minimizing a potential bias in the detection of late sequels and relapses. After a median follow-up time of 61 months (interquartile range: 43-72) for 49 analyzed patients, 35 (71%) are alive, while 14 (29%) have died. In the entire collective, three cases (6%) of prolonged pancytopenia including manifest myelodysplastic syndrome in one patient (2%), three cases (6%) of secondary lymphoid malignancies, and five cases (10%) of non-hematologic cancers were documented. In terms of outcome, 42/49 (86%) patients responded to cladribine-containing treatment, and only 10/42 (24%) responding patients needed further treatment after a median time to progression of 14 months (interquartile range, 8-34). Currently, 25/35 (71%) patients being alive are in ongoing complete remission and 2/35 (6%) in ongoing stable disease, respectively. Eight patients (23%) are free of lymphoma after second-line therapy, with the median overall survival not having been reached. Our data suggest that cladribine might be safely applied in patients with MALT lymphoma, also in terms of long-term toxicities. These data also confirm the potential of cladribine to induce durable remissions. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Primary radiation therapy in patients with localized orbital marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT Lymphoma).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Seok Hyun; Choi, Byung Ock; Kim, Gi Won; Yang, Suk Woo; Hong, Young Seon; Choi, Ihl Bohng; Kim, Yeon Sil

    2010-05-01

    To evaluate the outcomes of patients with localized orbital marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma) who were treated with radiotherapy (RT). We retrospectively reviewed the records of 46 patients who were treated with RT for pathologically confirmed localized stage IE marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of MALT. The radiation dose ranged from 21.6 to 45 Gy (median, 30.6 Gy) at 1.8-2.0 Gy per fraction. Median follow-up duration was 32.3 months (range, 3.1-113.6 months). Forty-three patients (93%) achieved complete remission (CR), and three patients (7%) achieved partial remission (PR). Five-year relapse-free survival, cause-specific survival, and overall survival were 93%, 100%, and 100%, respectively. Among the patients with CR, two had recurrence at three sites. One patient relapsed locally and was successfully salvaged with reirradiation. The other patient relapsed in a distant site and was successfully treated with six cycles of CHOP chemotherapy. Late complications were noted in four patients. Two patients developed cataracts at 26 and 37 months after completion of RT. The other two patients developed nasolacrimal duct obstructions at 4 and 11 months after completion of RT. Our study showed that a modest dose of RT is an excellent treatment modality with low complication and recurrence rates. We suggest that a dose of 30.6 Gy is tolerable and sufficient for treating orbital MALT lymphoma. Even following recurrence, successful salvage is possible with RT or chemotherapy.

  4. Diversity of palm uses in the western Amazon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paniagua Zambrana, N.Y.; Byg, A.; Svenning, J.-C.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract  We used palm knowledge to understand the interaction between people and the rainforests and the factors that influence this dynamic process. We interviewed 278 informants in 12 villages in the Pastaza and Madidi areas of the western Amazon basin. Together they used 38 different palm......, the great variation in the knowledge they possess, and the fact that the differences between villages is so great, are important elements to consider when developing management plans for the sustainable use of the rainforest resources in the western Amazon. Keywords  Local knowledge - Palms - Western Amazon...

  5. [Current aspects of the pathology and differentiation of extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma, MALT-Type, and gastrointestinal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flossbach, L; Kestler, H A; Gress, T M; Möller, P; Barth, T F

    2010-08-01

    The marginal zone B-cell lymphoma, MALT-type (MZBL, MT) is a low-grade B-cell lymphoma which is predominantly localised in the stomach with a typical morphology and cytogenetic pattern. The coexistence of a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) with an MZBL, MT in the gastrointestinal tract is defined as a composite lymphoma (ComL) and represents a fascinating model of lymphoma progression. In this review we focus on current aspects regarding the molecular characterisation of MZBL, MT and gastrointestinal DLBCL and their mutual relationships. Copyright Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart New York.

  6. Improvement of the 36Cl-AMS system at MALT using a Monte Carlo ion-trajectory simulation in a gas-filled magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aze, Takahiro; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Matsumura, Hiroshi; Nagai, Hisao; Fujimura, Masatsugu; Noguchi, Mayumi; Hongo, Yayoi; Yokoyama, Yusuke

    2007-06-01

    We developed and experimentally confirmed a Monte Carlo simulation code to describe the trajectories of 36Cl and 36S ions in a gas-filled magnet (GFM) at the MALT, the University of Tokyo. The simulation revealed that the central trajectories of the ions in the GFM are almost spiral and most of the 36S ions collided with the interior wall of the GFM. Based on this property of the trajectories, we have found a more advantageous condition for suppressing 36S. As a result, the background level of the 36Cl/Cl ratio was lowered to 10-15.

  7. How users experience great products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ortiz Nicolas, J.C.; Aurisicchio, M.; Desmet, P.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    This study reports qualitative research about how users experience great products. Eighteen interviews were conducted in which participants were asked to bring along a ‘great’ product that they own. During the interviews participants explained why they consider a product great and how they

  8. What Caused the Great Depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Jean; O'Driscoll, Timothy G.

    2007-01-01

    Economists and historians have struggled for almost 80 years to account for the American Great Depression, which began in 1929 and lasted until the early years of World War II. In this article, the authors discuss three major schools of thought on the causes of the Great Depression and the long failure of the American economy to return to full…

  9. L'Escarpement de Malte, le mont Alfeo et les monts de Médine: marges anciennes du bassin Ionien (synthèse des données des campagnes a la mer Escarmed Malta Escarpment, Alfeo and Medina Seamounts: Former Margins of the Ionian Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Groupe Escarmed

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Le Comité d'Etudes Pétrolières Marines (CEPM et le Centre National pour l'Exploitation des Océans (CNEXO ont mené une série d'études sous-marines des escarpements ioniens pour en définir l'origine, l'âge et l'évolution. Les résultats présentés ici concernent l'escarpement de Malte, le mont Alfeo et les monts de Médine à l'ouest et au sud-ouest du bassin Ionien profond. Ils comprennent les données bathymétriques sous forme d'une carte à 1/100 000 hors texte, l'analyse morphologique des reliefs, les déterminations stratigraphiques effectuées sur les échantillons récoltés en dragages, carottages ou en plongées, l'analyse structurale à partir de profils de sismique réflexion et des plongées, et l'étude de la subsidence depuis le Trias supérieur à partir des forages réels du plateau maltais et des forages fictifs du rebord de l'escarpement de Malte. Les conclusions font ressortir : - l'existence de séries carbonatées de plate-forme d'âge Jurassique inférieur pour l'escarpement de Malte et le mont Alfeo, et Crétacé inférieur pour les monts de Médine; - un changement paléogéographique majeur : à partir du Jurassique supérieur pour l'escarpement de Malte et à partir de l'Albien pour ceux de Médine; - l'existence de séries condensées à dater de ce changement paléogéographique et d'une érosion constante jusqu'à l'Actuel, érosion dont les processus variés ont de nombreuses conséquences sur la sédimentation de tels reliefs; - quatre phases de subsidence essentielles : Jurassique moyen, limite Crétacé inférieur-Crétacé supérieur, Miocène inférieur et moyen, Plio-Quaternaire. La parenté du mont Alfeo avec l'escarpement de Malte a été bien reconnue, par contre, les monts de Médine ne semblent se rattacher à leur histoire qu'à partir du Crétacé supérieur et ont sans doute une évolution comparable au plateau cyrénien. Ces escarpements, comme les autres escarpements ioniens, doivent leurs

  10. Population fluctuations and regulation in great snipe: a time series analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kölzsch, A.; Saether, S.A.; Gustafsson, H.; Fiske, P.; Höglund, J.; Kålås, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    1. During the last centuries, the breeding range of the great snipe Gallinago media has declined dramatically in the western part of its distribution. To examine present population dynamics in the Scandinavian mountains, we collected and analysed a 19-year time series of counts of great snipe males

  11. Geomorphic controls on Great Basin riparian vegetation at the watershed and process zone scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake Meneken Engelhardt

    2009-01-01

    Riparian ecosystems supply valuable resources in all landscapes, but especially in semiarid regions such as the Great Basin of the western United States. Over half of Great Basin streams are thought to be in poor ecological condition and further deterioration is of significant concern to stakeholders. A thorough understanding of how physical processes acting at...

  12. Process optimization of the extraction condition of β-amylase from brewer's malt and its application in the maltose syrup production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Chengtuo; Zheng, Feiyun; Li, Yongxian; Liu, Chunfeng; Li, Qi

    2018-02-02

    β-Amylase is of important biotechnological aid in maltose syrup production. In this study, the extraction condition of β-amylase from brewer's malt and the optimal dosage of β-amylase in maltose syrup production were optimized using response surface methodology and uniform design method. The optimal extraction condition of β-amylase from brewer's malt was composed of 1:17 (g/v) material/liquid ratio, 44°C extraction temperature, pH 6.4 buffer pH, 2.3 H extraction time, and 1.64 g L -1 NaSO 3 dosage with a predicted β-amylase activity of 1,290.99 U g -1 , which was close to the experimental β-amylase activity of 1,230.22 U g -1 . The optimal dosages of β-amylase used in maltose syrup production were 455.67 U g -1 starch and its application in maltose syrup production led to a 68.37% maltose content in maltose syrup, which was 11.2% and 28.9% higher than those using β-amylases from soybean and microbe (P syrup. © 2018 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Subcutaneous 'lipoma-like' B-cell lymphoma associated with HCV infection: a new presentation of primary extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of MALT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulli, M; Arcaini, L; Lucioni, M; Boveri, E; Capello, D; Passamonti, F; Merli, M; Rattotti, S; Rossi, D; Riboni, R; Berti, E; Magrini, U; Bruno, R; Gaidano, G; Lazzarino, M

    2010-06-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has been linked to lymphoproliferative disorders. Marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (MZL) represents one of the most frequent lymphoma subtypes associated with HCV infection. We describe an unusual subset of HCV-associated MZL characterized by subcutaneous presentation. A series of 12 HCV-positive patients presenting with subcutaneous nodules that revealed lymphoma infiltration at biopsy. Molecular analysis of immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) gene rearrangement and FISH investigations for t(11;18)(q21;q21) and t(14;18)(q32;q21) were carried out in nine patients. The 12 patients (median age 69.5 years), all with positive HCV serology, presented with single or multiple subcutaneous nodules resembling lipomas. Histologically the lesions showed lymphoid infiltrates, consistent with extranodal MZL of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). Functional IGH gene rearrangements were identified in nine tested patients, with somatic mutations in 82%, indicating a histogenesis from germinal center-experienced B cells. The t(11;18) was found in two of nine cases. Staging did not show any other lymphoma localization. In two patients, a response was achieved with antiviral treatment. Extracutaneous spread to MALT sites occurred in a case. Our observations expand the spectrum of HCV-associated lymphomas to include a subset of extranodal MZL characterized by a novel primary 'lipoma-like' subcutaneous presentation and indolent clinical course.

  14. What Caused the Great Recession?

    OpenAIRE

    Homburg, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines five possible explanations for the Great Recession of 2008 and 2009, using data for the United States and the eurozone. Of these five hypotheses, four are not supported by the data, while the fifth appears reasonable.

  15. Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NOAA-GLERL and its partners conduct innovative research on the dynamic environments and ecosystems of the Great Lakes and coastal regions to provide information for...

  16. The Sixth Great Mass Extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagler, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Five past great mass extinctions have occurred during Earth's history. Humanity is currently in the midst of a sixth, human-induced great mass extinction of plant and animal life (e.g., Alroy 2008; Jackson 2008; Lewis 2006; McDaniel and Borton 2002; Rockstrom et al. 2009; Rohr et al. 2008; Steffen, Crutzen, and McNeill 2007; Thomas et al. 2004;…

  17. What Is Western Civilization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birken, Lawrence

    1992-01-01

    Discusses opposing tendencies in the interpretation of Western Civilization. Describes the expanded definition that includes Byzantine and Islamic cultures as heirs of the Greco-Roman cultures. Suggests that a limited definition of Western culture will facilitate a problems approach, emphasize diversity among cultures, and integrate the classical…

  18. Fertilización nitrogenada y balance de nutrientes en cebada cervecera Nitrogen fertilization and nutrients balance in malting barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Rosa Landriscini

    2010-12-01

    testigo y fertilizadas fue de 87 y 68%, respectivamente, para el promedio de los dos años estudiados. El método DRIS fue un buen indicador del balance nutricional de la planta y de la respuesta a la fertilización nitrogenada.The wider use of malting barley with high yield potential will necessarily increase soil nutrient requirements, the resulting nutritional deficiency placing constraints on production. The Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS approach uses leaf nutrient relationships to rank the importance of different nutrients in limiting crop yield. The objectives of the present study were to: a evaluate the sensitivity of the DRIS methodology in detecting responses to nitrogen (N fertilizer; b establish the ranking of the main macronutrient requirements; and c determine whether N application improves the nutrient balance in plants. Malting barley plants were taken from fertilizer experiments carried out in 1999 and 2000 and sampled at the tillering and heading stages. At tillering, N was found to be the most deficient nutrient in the control and fertilized plots and S in cases where N was more abundant (fertilized with 30 or 60 kg N ha-1. The Nutritional Balance Index (IBN and N:S ratio show a slight nutritional imbalance at this stage. At the heading stage the plants showed significant N deficiency, followed in many cases by S deficiency, directly affecting yield parameters. No P and K deficiencies were registered in the soils. In 1999, yields were low and showed fertilization response except in Alberti, where nitrate availability and yields were high. In 2000, higher water availability gave rise to higher yields with marked deficiencies in N owing to the shortage of N availably at sowing. S alternated with N in the order of requirements and IBN values decreased with increasing N availability. There was an 87% and 68% correlation between this index and the yields of the control and fertilized plots, respectively. The DRIS approach proved a good

  19. Famous puzzles of great mathematicians

    CERN Document Server

    Petković, Miodrag S

    2009-01-01

    This entertaining book presents a collection of 180 famous mathematical puzzles and intriguing elementary problems that great mathematicians have posed, discussed, and/or solved. The selected problems do not require advanced mathematics, making this book accessible to a variety of readers. Mathematical recreations offer a rich playground for both amateur and professional mathematicians. Believing that creative stimuli and aesthetic considerations are closely related, great mathematicians from ancient times to the present have always taken an interest in puzzles and diversions. The goal of this

  20. Immunohistochemical expression of cereblon and MUM1 as potential predictive markers of response to lenalidomide in extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiesewetter, Barbara; Simonitsch-Klupp, Ingrid; Kornauth, Christoph; Dolak, Werner; Lukas, Julius; Mayerhoefer, Marius E; Raderer, Markus

    2018-02-01

    Lenalidomide is an active agent for the treatment of MALT lymphoma. Recently, high expression levels of cereblon (CRBN) and MUM1 have been associated with better response rates in multiple myeloma treated with lenalidomide. However, there are no data on CRBN and MUM1 expression in MALT lymphoma. In the current study, we have systematically investigated a potential correlation of CRBN/MUM1 immunohistochemical expression and response to lenalidomide-based therapy in a series of 46 patients with MALT lymphoma treated at the Medical University Vienna 2009 to 2014. In total, 28% (13/46) of biopsy specimens derived from gastric tissues, while 72% (33/46) originated from extragastric MALT lymphoma. In terms of CRBN, 54% showed high expression (CRBN+, ≥50% positive cells); the remaining 46% were classified as low expression (CRBN-). In contrast to other reports, there was a non-significant trend towards worse response rates in CRBN+ (68% versus 86%, P = 0.161). Relapse rates (P = 0.592) and PFS (P = 0.306) did not differ between CRBN+/CRBN-, but all 3 patients progressing on lenalidomide were CRBN+ and both patients completely lacking CRBN expression responded to treatment. Concerning MUM1, 62% were MUM1-negative (MUM1-) and 38% positive (MUM1+). There was no difference in response to lenalidomide by MUM1-status (MUM1+ 71% versus MUM1- 79%, P = 0.546) and also relapse rates (P = 0.828) and PFS (P = 0.681) did not differ. Interestingly, a subgroup analysis of gastric lymphoma revealed a significantly better PFS for CRBN- and MUM1- patients, respectively (both P MALT lymphoma, and immunohistochemical CRBN/MUM1 assessment cannot be recommended in the clinical routine. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. High prevalence of Chlamydophila psittaci subclinical infection in Italian patients with Sjögren's syndrome and parotid gland marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of MALT-type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabris, Martina; Dolcetti, Riccardo; Pasini, Elisa; Quartuccio, Luca; Pontarini, Elena; Salvin, Sara; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Scott, Cathryn Anne; De Vita, Salvatore

    2014-01-01

    To assess Chlamydophila psittaci (Cp) subclinical infection in patients with Sjögren's syndrome (SS). Seventy-four SS patients (55.4 ±13.4 yrs; 94.6% females) were studied. Among them, 18 had salivary gland mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) B-cell lymphoma, 20 myoepithelial sialoadenitis (MESA), and 36 no lymphoproliferative disorders (LPD). The presence of Cp DNA was assessed in peripheral blood of all patients by specific PCR protocols. Paired salivary gland samples were also investigated whenever available (34 cases), including lymphomatous and non-lymphomatous samples, as well as major and minor salivary gland tissues. As controls, 225 blood donors were analysed in the peripheral blood. Overall, Cp DNA was detected in 11/74 (14.9%) SS patients vs. 1/225 (0.4%) controls (pMALT lymphoma patients (6/18, 33.3%), as compared with MESA (3/20, 15%) or patients without LPD (2/36, 5.6%), (MALT lymphomas vs. others: p=0.02). A similar Cp prevalence was observed in blood vs. salivary gland tissues, however with a higher frequency in the major than in the minor salivary glands (5/18, 27.8%, vs. 1/17, 5.9%, p=0.18). Cp-positive patients were all rheumatoid factor positive (11/11, 100% vs. 40/63, 63.5% Cp-negative; p=0.014), while no difference was noticed for anti-SSA/SSB positivity. In the light of accepted models of MALT B-cell lymphomagenesis and considering previous data implicating Cp infection in ocular adnexa MALT lymphoma, our results suggest that Cp infection could be involved also in a fraction of patients with SS developing lymphoma. The potential therapeutic implications of these findings appear worthwhile.

  2. Great Power Management and China's Responsibility in International Climate Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanna Kopra

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available By exploring international practice of great power management, this paper examines how the U.S. (an established power and China (an emerging power discursively frame great power responsibility in the context of international negotiations on climate politics. Firstly, this paper will argue that the American discourse on "responsible great powerhood" attempts to redirect and constrain China’s position in global politics. Secondly, this paper claims that China defends its interests and responds to Western demands by advancing two, partly conflicting, climate discourses simultaneously. On the one hand, despite its growing international status, China emphasizes its status as a poor developing country. On the other, the rhetoric of being a "responsible major power" is used to assure other nations of China's credibility and benevolence; China is neither a threat to other countries nor to the environment.

  3. Making a Great First Impression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenson, Renee

    2007-01-01

    Managers and business owners often base hiring decisions on first impressions. That is why it is so important to teach students to make a great first impression--before they go on that first job interview. Managers do not have unrealistic expectations, they just want to hire people who they believe can develop into valuable employees. A nice…

  4. Great Basin paleoenvironmental studies project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Project goals, project tasks, progress on tasks, and problems encountered are described and discussed for each of the studies that make up the Great Basin Paleoenvironmental Studies Project for Yucca Mountain. These studies are: Paleobotany, Paleofauna, Geomorphology, and Transportation. Budget summaries are also given for each of the studies and for the overall project

  5. The Great Gatsby. [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelasko, Ken

    Based on F. Scott Fitzgerald's novel "The Great Gatsby," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that adapting part of a novel into a dramatic reading makes students more intimate with the author's intentions and craft; and that a part of a novel may lend itself to various oral interpretations. The main activity…

  6. Decommissioning in western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundqvist, K.

    1999-12-01

    time (sometimes hundred years or more), prior to final demolition. Among the reasons for deferring the dismantling are lack of waste repositories and decreasing dose-rates for the workers. Of Europe's 218 commercial reactors in operation, the majority, 151, are located i the Western part. The biggest producers are France, United Kingdom and Germany, with 58, 35 and 20 reactors respectively. Until now mostly research- and pilot reactors have been shut-down. There are yet few experiences from decommissioning of large-scale commercial reactors. The following commercial reactors are undergoing decommissioning. (There are also a great amount of nuclear facilities of other types being decommissioned.) The three gas-cooled twin reactor plants of Berkeley, Trawsfynydd and Hunterston in UK. In Germany Gundremmingen, Lingen, Kahl and Wuergassen are being decommissioned. All of them are located in the Western part of the country. The biggest project is however the dismantling of the gigantic Greifswald facility situated on the coast of the Baltic see in former Eastern Germany. The plant has eight Russian built reactors of VVER-type. Like the rest of the former GDR-plants Greifswald was shutdown after the reunification in 1990. The strategy chosen is immediate dismantling. France is decommissioning seven reactors (Chooz A1, Chinon A1, A2, A3, St Laurent A1, A2 and Bugey 1.) The oldest, Chinon A1, closed down in 1973 and the youngest, Bugey 1, in 1994. Italy closed down all NPPs (altogether four) in 1987 after a referendum. The first reactor of the Netherlands was shutdown in 1997 mainly for economical reasons. The development of a free European electricity market will make it less profitable to run certain facilities. Vandelos 1 in Spain is undergoing decommissioning after a fire in the turbines in 1989. IAEA, OECD/NEA and EU are co-operating in the field of decommissioning. Much work is spent on harmonizing rules and preparing international guidelines. The international agencies

  7. Computer Simulation Western

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, H.

    1992-01-01

    Computer Simulation Western is a unit within the Department of Applied Mathematics at the University of Western Ontario. Its purpose is the development of computational and mathematical methods for practical problems in industry and engineering and the application and marketing of such methods. We describe the unit and our efforts at obtaining research and development grants. Some representative projects will be presented and future plans discussed. (author)

  8. HIDROLISADO DE FÉCULA DE MANDIOCA COMO ADJUNTO DE MALTE NA FABRICAÇÃO DE CERVEJA: AVALIAÇÃO QUÍMICA E SENSORIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar G. VENTURINI FILHO

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available Em virtude da progressiva substituição dos adjuntos amiláceos pelos xaropes com alta concentração de maltose nas cervejarias brasileiras, o presente trabalho teve por objetivo comparar hidrolisados de milho e de mandioca, como adjunto de malte, na fabricação de cerveja tipo Pilsen, em escala de laboratório. Os hidrolisados foram produzidos a partir de amido de milho e fécula de mandioca, sendo que na liqüefação e sacarificação da fração amilácea destes produtos foram utilizadas, respectivamente, as enzimas comerciais Termamil (alfa amilase bacteriana e Fungamil (alfa amilase fúngica. Na fabricação das cervejas, a proporção de malte e hidrolisado foi de 2 para 1, na base do extrato. O mosto foi produzido pelo processo de infusão e após resfriamento e clarificação foi inoculado com levedura cervejeira de baixa fermentação. A fermentação transcorreu a 10 °C até 90% de atenuação do extrato aparente fermentável. As cervejas foram engarrafadas e, em seguida, maturadas a 0 °C, por 14 dias. Terminado o processo de fabricação, as cervejas foram analisadas química e sensorialmente. A semelhança na composição química dos hidrolisados de milho e de mandioca refletiu na composição química dos mostos e das cervejas. Não houve diferença estatística entre os mostos e entre as cervejas testadas para todos os parâmetros químicos analisados. Também, não existiu diferença sensorial entre as cervejas produzidas com hidrolisado de milho e hidrolisado de mandioca. Concluiu-se que a fécula de mandioca apresenta potencial de uso como matéria prima para a fabricação de xarope de maltose de uso cervejeiro e que há elevada probabilidade de sucesso no uso desse xarope para a fabricação de cervejas.The brazilians breweries replace progressively starchy adjuncts by sugary liquid adjuncts made with maize. Thus, the objective of present work was saccharify cassava and maize and use them as malt adjunct on Pilsen beer

  9. Linfomas gástricos tipo Malt: experiencia en la Unidad de Gastroenterología del HSJD y revisión de la literatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Alonso Gámez

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Los linfomas gástricos tipo MALT se originan en el tejido linfoide asociado a la mucosa. En 1983 Isaacson , denominó así a estos tumores porque derivan de un tejido linfoide organizado similar a las placas de Peyer el cual normalmente no está presente en la mucosa gástrica. Hacen parte de los linfomas gastrointestinales primarios y se clasifican en alto o bajo grado de acuerdo a sus características histológicas. Para decir que un linfoma gástrico es primario y no el resultado de una metástasis, se requieren ciertas condiciones señaladas desde 1961 por Dawson modificadas de acuerdo a los avances tecnológicos: Ausencia de adenopatías periféricas. Compromiso principalmente del estómago. Cuadro hemático normal. Histología confirmatoria.

  10. Political mechanisms of sustainable energy development in western countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yershin, Sh. A.; Yershin, Sh. C.

    2014-01-01

    This article is about the development of politic mechanisms in sustainable energy in western countries (primarily EC, USA). The development of sustainable energy in western countries should be greatly based on government and business support and common ways of such help are described below. Also shown the significance of development of sustainable energy, its importance for environmental protection and perspectives Key words: sustainable energy, government regulation, wind energy, EC, USA, biofuel

  11. Microfluidic Western blotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Alex J; Herr, Amy E

    2012-12-26

    Rapid, quantitative Western blotting is a long-sought bioanalytical goal in the life sciences. To this end, we describe a Western blotting assay conducted in a single glass microchannel under purely electronic control. The μWestern blot is comprised of multiple steps: sample enrichment, protein sizing, protein immobilization (blotting), and in situ antibody probing. To validate the microfluidic assay, we apply the μWestern blot to analyses of human sera (HIV immunoreactivity) and cell lysate (NFκB). Analytical performance advances are achieved, including: short durations of 10-60 min, multiplexed analyte detection, mass sensitivity at the femtogram level, high-sensitivity 50-pM detection limits, and quantitation capability over a 3.6-log dynamic range. Performance gains are attributed to favorable transport and reaction conditions on the microscale. The multistep assay design relies on a photopatternable (blue light) and photoreactive (UV light) polyacrylamide gel. This hydrophilic polymer constitutes both a separation matrix for protein sizing and, after brief UV exposure, a protein immobilization scaffold for subsequent antibody probing of immobilized protein bands. We observe protein capture efficiencies exceeding 75% under sizing conditions. This compact microfluidic design supports demonstration of a 48-plex μWestern blot in a standard microscope slide form factor. Taken together, the μWestern blot establishes a foundation for rapid, targeted proteomics by merging exceptional specificity with the throughput advantages of multiplexing, as is relevant to a broad range of biological inquiry.

  12. El programa MALTED: una propuesta didáctica para enseñar español a inmigrantes en la escuela primaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez Bragado, Paula

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: En este artículo se pretende dar un ejemplo práctico de cómo crear materiales multimedia (con el programa MALTED, del Ministerio de Educación español para la enseñanza del español como segunda lengua en Educación Primaria. La continua llegada de inmigrantes a España, en la mayor parte de los casos de países en vías de desarrollo con hijos en edad escolar reclama la adopción de nuevas perspectivas a la hora de enseñar la lengua en el sistema educativo español. Debe enseñarse a los alumnos el manejo de las nuevas tecnologías, a la vez que se sigue un enfoque comunicativo al enseñar la lengua. Este proyecto fue desarrollado durante el curso 2010-2011en la Universidad de Cantabria, Santander, España. Abstract: This paper gives an example of how to create multimedia materials to teach Spanish as a Second Language in primary schools (using MALTED, software by the Spanish Ministry of Education. The continuous arrival of immigrants to Spain, mostly from undeveloped countries, demands new perspectives on teaching the language. It is necessary to teach these students how to use new technologies, and, at the same time teaching the language with a communicative approach. This project was developed during the course 2010-2011 at the University of Cantabria, Santander, Spain.

  13. Linfoma de celulas B de la zona marginal extraganglionar del tejido linfoide asociado a mucosa (linfoma MALT de pulmón

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Vergara-Uzcategui

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Los Linfomas Pulmonares Primarios son extremadamente raros (0,4% de los linfomas extraganglionares, y generalmente son de tejido linfoide asociado a mucosas (tipo MALT, con ocasionales linfomas de células grandes difusos. Los síntomas son inespecíficos, y casi la mitad de los pacientes son asintomáticos. Se presenta el caso de un paciente masculino de 56 años de edad, quien presentó durante 7 meses accesos diarios de tos seca, de predominio nocturno, asociados en el último mes a fiebre de 39ºC, disnea a medianos esfuerzos y expectoración verduzca. Los exámenes de laboratorio fueron normales. La radiografía de tórax mostró el mediastino ensanchado, un proceso en lóbulo medio con efecto atelectásico, y un nódulo en hemitórax izquierdo. La tomografía computarizada (TC torácica de alta resolución evidenció proceso alveolar derecho en lóbulo medio y un nódulo pulmonar izquierdo calcificado de tipo inespecífico. El estudio inmunohistoquímico de la biopsia pulmonar fue compatible con Linfoma de Células B de la zona marginal extraganglionar del tejido linfoide asociado a mucosa (Linfoma MALT de pulmón. La TC corporal y la Tomografía por Emisión de Positrones (PET evidenciaron importantes hallazgos complementarios para determinar la extensión de la enfermedad. El paciente se trato con quimioterapia y actualmente se encuentra en buenas condiciones, sin recidiva de la sintomatología. Dado lo infrecuente de la patología se presenta este caso y se hace una revisión de la literatura

  14. Southern Great Plains Safety Orientation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schatz, John

    2014-05-01

    Welcome to the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site is managed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). It is very important that all visitors comply with all DOE and ANL safety requirements, as well as those of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the National Fire Protection Association, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and with other requirements as applicable.

  15. Early Holocene Great Salt Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviatt, Charles G.; Madsen, David B.; Miller, David; Thompson, Robert S.; McGeehin, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Shorelines and surficial deposits (including buried forest-floor mats and organic-rich wetland sediments) show that Great Salt Lake did not rise higher than modern lake levels during the earliest Holocene (11.5–10.2 cal ka BP; 10–9 14C ka BP). During that period, finely laminated, organic-rich muds (sapropel) containing brine-shrimp cysts and pellets and interbedded sodium-sulfate salts were deposited on the lake floor. Sapropel deposition was probably caused by stratification of the water column — a freshwater cap possibly was formed by groundwater, which had been stored in upland aquifers during the immediately preceding late-Pleistocene deep-lake cycle (Lake Bonneville), and was actively discharging on the basin floor. A climate characterized by low precipitation and runoff, combined with local areas of groundwater discharge in piedmont settings, could explain the apparent conflict between evidence for a shallow lake (a dry climate) and previously published interpretations for a moist climate in the Great Salt Lake basin of the eastern Great Basin.

  16. Pricing regulations in Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicoletti, G.

    1993-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the structure and functions of Great Britain's essential electric power regulatory authority institutionalized by the 1989 British Electricity Act, i.e., the Office of Electricity Regulation, OFFER, and the responsibilities and tasks of the head of OFFER -the Director General of Electricity Supply (DGES). In particular, with regard to the latter, the paper describes how the DGES works together with regional electricity commissions to ensure the respect, by the various utilities, of consumer price caps and compliance with overall quality of service standards, as well as, to oversee 'pooling' activities by producers and distributors

  17. Pricing regulations in Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicoletti, G.

    1993-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the structure and functions of Great Britain's essential electric power regulatory authority institutionalized by the 1989 British Electricity Act, i.e., the Office of Electricity Regulation, OFFER, and the responsibilities and tasks of the head of OFFER - the Director General of Electricity Supply (DGES). In particular, with regard to the latter, the paper describes how the DGES works together with regional electricity commissions to ensure the respect, by the various utilities, of consumer price caps and compliance with overall quality of service standards, as well as, to oversee 'pooling' activities by producers and distributors

  18. What killed Alexander the Great?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battersby, Cameron

    2007-01-01

    The cause of the death of the Macedonian King, Alexander the Great, at Babylon in 323 BC has excited interest and conjecture throughout the ages. The information available in the surviving ancient sources, none of which is contemporaneous, has been reviewed and compared with modern knowledge as set out in several well-known recent surgical texts. The ancient sources record epic drinking by the Macedonian nobility since at least the time of Phillip II, Alexander's father. Alexander's sudden illness and death is likely to have resulted from a surgical complication of acute alcoholic excess.

  19. The Heart and Great Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwuka, Ekene; King, Nakesha; Heuer, Eric; Breuer, Christopher

    2018-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality worldwide. We have made large strides over the past few decades in management, but definitive therapeutic options to address this health-care burden are still limited. Given the ever-increasing need, much effort has been spent creating engineered tissue to replaced diseased tissue. This article gives a general overview of this work as it pertains to the development of great vessels, myocardium, and heart valves. In each area, we focus on currently studied methods, limitations, and areas for future study. PMID:28289246

  20. Great Plains Wind Energy Transmission Development Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brad G. Stevens, P.E.; Troy K. Simonsen; Kerryanne M. Leroux

    2012-06-09

    In fiscal year 2005, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) received funding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to undertake a broad array of tasks to either directly or indirectly address the barriers that faced much of the Great Plains states and their efforts to produce and transmit wind energy at the time. This program, entitled Great Plains Wind Energy Transmission Development Project, was focused on the central goal of stimulating wind energy development through expansion of new transmission capacity or development of new wind energy capacity through alternative market development. The original task structure was as follows: Task 1 - Regional Renewable Credit Tracking System (later rescoped to Small Wind Turbine Training Center); Task 2 - Multistate Transmission Collaborative; Task 3 - Wind Energy Forecasting System; and Task 4 - Analysis of the Long-Term Role of Hydrogen in the Region. As carried out, Task 1 involved the creation of the Small Wind Turbine Training Center (SWTTC). The SWTTC, located Grand Forks, North Dakota, consists of a single wind turbine, the Endurance S-250, on a 105-foot tilt-up guyed tower. The S-250 is connected to the electrical grid on the 'load side' of the electric meter, and the power produced by the wind turbine is consumed locally on the property. Establishment of the SWTTC will allow EERC personnel to provide educational opportunities to a wide range of participants, including grade school through college-level students and the general public. In addition, the facility will allow the EERC to provide technical training workshops related to the installation, operation, and maintenance of small wind turbines. In addition, under Task 1, the EERC hosted two small wind turbine workshops on May 18, 2010, and March 8, 2011, at the EERC in Grand Forks, North Dakota. Task 2 involved the EERC cosponsoring and aiding in the planning of three transmission workshops in the midwest and western regions. Under Task

  1. Great Basin Experimental Range: Annotated bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Durant McArthur; Bryce A. Richardson; Stanley G. Kitchen

    2013-01-01

    This annotated bibliography documents the research that has been conducted on the Great Basin Experimental Range (GBER, also known as the Utah Experiment Station, Great Basin Station, the Great Basin Branch Experiment Station, Great Basin Experimental Center, and other similar name variants) over the 102 years of its existence. Entries were drawn from the original...

  2. Great Escape for neglected Subaru

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    A CERN engineer has just come back from a challenge of a lifetime. Together with two friends he drove 4000 miles in a car they found abandoned in a car park at CERN. The Up N Atom rally team began their adventure outside the Globe in January.If you’ve ever wondered what happens to the abandoned cars that litter the car parks of CERN the answer, for one at least, could be stranger than you think. This January, an old red Subaru that had been sitting in a car park for two years made it all the way to the Gambia – with a little help from a CERN engineer! David Mcfarlane, who works in TS-LEA, and two friends from the UK have just returned from the Banjul Rally, a 4,000 mile race through Europe and North Africa. The team, appropriately named the "Up N Atoms", set off from outside the Globe on 4 January and crossed France, Spain, Morocco, the Western Sahara, Mauritania and Senegal before finally ending up in Banjul, the Gambia. A...

  3. Great-Britain at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Laignel

    2004-01-01

    From 23 to 25 November 2004 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 - 17.30 Twenty five companies will present their latest technology at the "Great-Britain at CERN" exhibition. British industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: electrical engineering, electronics, mechanical engineering, vacuum & low temperatures technologies, particles detectors and telecommunications. The exhibition is organised by BEAMA Exhibitions, The British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturer's Association There follows : the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Departemental secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition. A detailed list of firms is available under the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm 1 Accles & Pollock 2 A S Scientific Products Ltd 3 C...

  4. The Great Hedge of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moxham, Roy

    2015-01-01

    The 'Great Hedge of India', a 3 700 kilometre-long hedge installed by the British customs to safeguard the colonial salt tax system and avoid salt smuggling totally faded from both memory and records (e.g. maps) in less than a century. Roy Moxham found traces of the hedge in a book footnote and searched it for several years until he found its meagre remains. The speaker wrote a book about this quest. He said that this story reveals how things disappear when they are no longer useful and, especially, when they are linked to parts of history that are not deemed particularly positive (the hedge was a means of colonial power)

  5. Western Europe's America Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovits, Andrei S.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses Europe's anti-Americanism stance. He observes that Europe's aversion to America has become greater, louder, and more determined, and that it has unified Western Europeans more than any other political emotion (with the exception of a common hostility toward Israel). The author contends that the many disastrous…

  6. Imams in Western Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    As European Muslims and Muslims in the Middle East diverge, imams in Europe have emerged as major agents of religious authority who shape Islam’s presence in Western societies. This volume examines the theoretical and practical questions concerning the evolving role of imams in Europe. To what...

  7. The western blot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western blotting is a technique that involves the separation of proteins by gel electrophoresis, their blotting or transfer to a membrane, and selective immunodetection of an immobilized antigen. This is an important and routine method for protein analysis that depends on the specificity of antibod...

  8. western niger delta, nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    2015-07-21

    Jul 21, 2015 ... Palynomorph species comprising 53 pollen, 7 spores, 2 algae and 6 dinoflagellate cysts were recovered from a section of well 'Y' located in the offshore western Niger Delta and were used for paleoclimatic deductions of the sediments. There was a dominance of the fresh water swamp species over the ...

  9. Caracterização da atividade amilásica do malte de milho (Zea mays L. - DOI: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v28i1.1202

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Paula Menezes Biazus

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou estudar o processo de germinação e a caracterização da atividade bioquímica das amilases do malte de milho (Zea mays L. para gerar uma fonte de amilase de baixo custo e boa atividade enzimática. A atividade enzimática foi monitorada todos os dias durante a germinação das sementes para se obter a melhor condição de produção do malte. Os resultados mostraram que a atividade enzimática nas sementes foi maior no 4º. dia de germinação. A caracterização bioquímica mostrou que as amilases do malte apresentam faixa ótima de pH entre 4,3 e 6, com temperaturas ótimas a 50°C e 80ºC e os valores de Km e Vmax para hidrólise do amido foram de 7,69.10-2 g/L e 7,69.102g/L.min, respectivamente

  10. The fastest Western in town: a contemporary twist on the classic Western blot analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Jillian M; McMahon, Martin

    2014-02-05

    The Western blot techniques that were originally established in the late 1970s are still actively utilized today. However, this traditional method of Western blotting has several drawbacks that include low quality resolution, spurious bands, decreased sensitivity, and poor protein integrity. Recent advances have drastically improved numerous aspects of the standard Western blot protocol to produce higher qualitative and quantitative data. The Bis-Tris gel system, an alternative to the conventional Laemmli system, generates better protein separation and resolution, maintains protein integrity, and reduces electrophoresis to a 35 min run time. Moreover, the iBlot dry blotting system, dramatically improves the efficacy and speed of protein transfer to the membrane in 7 min, which is in contrast to the traditional protein transfer methods that are often more inefficient with lengthy transfer times. In combination with these highly innovative modifications, protein detection using infrared fluorescent imaging results in higher-quality, more accurate and consistent data compared to the standard Western blotting technique of chemiluminescence. This technology can simultaneously detect two different antigens on the same membrane by utilizing two-color near-infrared dyes that are visualized in different fluorescent channels. Furthermore, the linearity and broad dynamic range of fluorescent imaging allows for the precise quantification of both strong and weak protein bands. Thus, this protocol describes the key improvements to the classic Western blotting method, in which these advancements significantly increase the quality of data while greatly reducing the performance time of this experiment.

  11. Perennial legumes on dry lands in the western Highveld region ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There exists a great need for perennial pasture legumes which are adapted to dryland production in the western Highveld. ... Averaged over two years, three selections yielded more than two tonnes dry material per ha: namely, Desmodium uncinatum 2,78, Medicago sativa 2,74 and Macroptilium atropurpureum 2,10.

  12. Cultures of the Western World. Grade Ten. Instructional Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West Chester School District, PA.

    This curriculum guide presents nine units for the study of western cultures in the tenth grade. The units contain up to 13 lessons each and comprise a two-semester course. Content includes ancient Greece and Rome, the Middle Ages, the Renaissance and Reformation, Great Britain, France as a case study of revolution, Russia, and nationalism and the…

  13. Morale among French colonial troops on the Western Front during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The traditional images of the French Army in World War I on the Western Front from Cyril Falls's to Marc Ferro's surveys (both entitled The Great War 1914– 1918) have been that of the grizzled yet determined French peasant or worker – the poilu. It is clear from recent research that this is far from accurate and that the French ...

  14. An Old-Growth Definition for Western Hardwood Gallery Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly Kindscher; Jenny Holah

    1998-01-01

    Western hardwood gallery forests are found across an extremely large, diverse geographical area that encompasses the Great Plains in the United States and Canada. Remnant forests of this type still exist in the "Prairie Peninsula," which historically projected an eastern finger into Ohio. The forests are restricted to floodplains of major rivers and are in...

  15. Gypsum karst in Western Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimchouk A.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The great gypsum karst of the Western Ukraine, which is associated with Miocene (Badenian gypsum, provides the worlds foremost examples of intrastratal gypsum karst and speleogenesis under artesian conditions. Differential neotectonic movements have resulted in various parts of the territory displaying different types (stages of intrastratal karst, from deep-seated, through subjacent, to entrenched. Internal gypsum karstification proceeded mainly under confined hydrogeological conditions. While such development still continues in part of the territory, other parts exhibit entrenched karst settings. Huge relict maze cave systems have been explored here, five of which are currently the longest known gypsum caves in the world. They account for well over half of the total length of gypsum cave that has been explored. This unique concentration of large caves reflects the local coincidence of specific structural prerequisites of speleogenesis (character and extent of fissuring, favourable regional evolution (rapid uplift, and fossilization of maze systems, the presence of overlying limestone aquifers, and a widespread clayey protective cover (which prevented the total infilling and/or destruction of the caves. Surface karst evolved as a consequence of the internal karstification in the gypsum, and the karst landform assemblages differ between the territories that present different types of karst.

  16. 78 FR 65641 - Recommendation From the Western Area Power Administration To Pursue Regional Transmission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ...-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) tool. The MCDA uses marketing plan and rate stability, and agreements as... Region (Western-UGP), a power marketing administration (PMA) of the Department of Energy (DOE), is... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jody S. Sundsted, Power Marketing Manager, Upper Great Plains Region, Western...

  17. Application of simulated annealing in simulation and optimization of drying process of Zea mays malt Aplicação do simulated annealing na simulação e otimização do processo de secagem do malte de Zea mays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. C. Benvenga

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Kinetic simulation and drying process optimization of corn malt by Simulated Annealing (SA for estimation of temperature and time parameters in order to preserve maximum amylase activity in the obtained product are presented here. Germinated corn seeds were dried at 54-76 °C in a convective dryer, with occasional measurement of moisture content and enzymatic activity. The experimental data obtained were submitted to modeling. Simulation and optimization of the drying process were made by using the SA method, a randomized improvement algorithm, analogous to the simulated annealing process. Results showed that seeds were best dried between 3h and 5h. Among the models used in this work, the kinetic model of water diffusion into corn seeds showed the best fitting. Drying temperature and time showed a square influence on the enzymatic activity. Optimization through SA showed the best condition at 54 ºC and between 5.6h and 6.4h of drying. Values of specific activity in the corn malt were found between 5.26±0.06 SKB/mg and 15.69±0,10% of remaining moisture.Este trabalho objetivou a simulação da cinética e a otimização do processo de secagem do malte de milho por meio da técnica Simulated Annealing (SA, para estimação dos parâmetros de temperatura e tempo, tais que mantenham a atividade máxima das enzimas amilases no produto obtido. Para tanto, as sementes de milho germinadas foram secas entre 54-76°C, em um secador convectivo de ar. De tempo em tempo, a umidade e a atividade enzimática foram medidas. Esses dados experimentais foram usados para testar os modelos. A simulação e a otimização do processo foram feitas por meio do método SA, um algoritmo de melhoria randômica, análogo ao processo de têmpera simulada. Os resultados mostram que as sementes estavam secas após 3 h ou 5 h de secagem. Entre os modelos usados, o modelo cinético de difusão da água através das sementes apresentou o melhor ajuste. O tempo e a temperatura

  18. Internal globalization of Western Balkan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukotić Veselin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available What are potential and real effects of the globalization process on the economic connection between Western Balkan countries? What is the crucial change in relations between Western Balkan countries and its economies inexorably brought by globalization? What are the elements of political economy of Western Balkan globalization? What are reflections of the conflict between political and economic areas of Western Balkan? These are some of the issues discuses in this paper.

  19. Reconsidering the process for bow-stave removal from juniper trees in the Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constance I. Millar; Kevin T. Smith

    2017-01-01

    We question the growth arrestment hypothesis for bow stave removal used by indigenous people in the western Great Basin. Using modern understanding of tree growth and wound response, we suggest that growth would not be arrested by one or two transverse notches along a juniper stem. Rather these would trigger compartmentalization, which limits cambial death to within 10...

  20. Birds of a Great Basin Sagebrush Habitat in East-Central Nevada

    OpenAIRE

    United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service

    1992-01-01

    Breeding bird populations ranged from 3.35 to 3.48 individuals/ha over a 3-year study conducted from 1981 to 1983. Brewer's sparrows, sage sparrows, sage thrashers, and black-throated sparrows were numerically dominant. Horned larks and western meadowlarks were less common. Results are compared with bird populations in Great Basin sagebrush habitats elsewhere in the United States.

  1. A landscape approach for ecologically based management of Great Basin shrublands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael J. Wisdom; Jeanne C. Chambers

    2009-01-01

    Native shrublands dominate the Great Basin of western of North America, and most of these communities are at moderate or high risk of loss from non-native grass invasion and woodland expansion. Landscape-scale management based on differences in ecological resistance and resilience of shrublands can reduce these risks. We demonstrate this approach with an example that...

  2. Great East Japan Earthquake Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Y.; Minoura, K.; Hirano, S.; Yamada, T.

    2011-12-01

    The 11 March 2011, Mw 9.0 Great East Japan Earthquake, already among the most destructive earthquakes in modern history, emanated from a fault rupture that extended an estimated 500 km along the Pacific coast of Honshu. This earthquake is the fourth among five of the strongest temblors since AD 1900 and the largest in Japan since modern instrumental recordings began 130 years ago. The earthquake triggered a huge tsunami, which invaded the seaside areas of the Pacific coast of East Japan, causing devastating damages on the coast. Artificial structures were destroyed and planted forests were thoroughly eroded. Inrush of turbulent flows washed backshore areas and dunes. Coastal materials including beach sand were transported onto inland areas by going-up currents. Just after the occurrence of the tsunami, we started field investigation of measuring thickness and distribution of sediment layers by the tsunami and the inundation depth of water in Sendai plain. Ripple marks showing direction of sediment transport were the important object of observation. We used a soil auger for collecting sediments in the field, and sediment samples were submitted for analyzing grain size and interstitial water chemistry. Satellite images and aerial photographs are very useful for estimating the hydrogeological effects of tsunami inundation. We checked the correspondence of micro-topography, vegetation and sediment covering between before and after the tsunami. The most conspicuous phenomenon is the damage of pine forests planted in the purpose of preventing sand shifting. About ninety-five percent of vegetation coverage was lost during the period of rapid currents changed from first wave. The landward slopes of seawalls were mostly damaged and destroyed. Some aerial photographs leave detailed records of wave destruction just behind seawalls, which shows the occurrence of supercritical flows. The large-scale erosion of backshore behind seawalls is interpreted to have been caused by

  3. Le Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Belaidi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Cet article a pour objet de présenter quelques problématiques d'une recherche sur la construction d’un mécanisme de valorisation sociale de la protection de l’environnement : l’ordre public écologique. Cette étude s’appuie sur une expérience récente et originale en Afrique australe : la création de Parcs pour la Paix dont relève le Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park. Ces parcs sont officiellement consacrés à la protection et à la conservation de la diversité biologique, des ressources naturelles et culturelles qui y sont associées, ainsi qu’à la promotion de la coopération et de la Paix qu’elle soit civile, sociale, économique ou culturelle. La logique de construction de ces parcs repose sur l’idée que l’articulation des zones de conservation facilite la résolution de conflits territoriaux – de toutes sortes – en transformant les préoccupations environnementales en objet de coopération entre des juridictions politiques diverses. C’est précisément le schéma du concept juridique objet de nos travaux : l’ordre public écologique. Aussi peut-on se demander si le GLTP, en particulier, (peut constitue(r une illustration concrète de ce mécanisme et permettre d’atteindre la Paix recherchée, favorisant ainsi les processus de développement ?This article aims to present some problems of researches on the construction of a mechanism of social valorisation of the environmental protection: ecological public order. This study leans on a recent and original experience in southern Africa: the creation of Peace Park like the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park (GLTP. These parks are officially dedicated to the protection and to the preservation of biological diversity, natural and cultural resources which are associated with it, as well as in the promotion of the cooperation and the peace. The peace looked for in these parks is not only the opposite of the war but it is also social, economic and cultural peace

  4. Cholera: a great global concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Shyamapada; Mandal, Manisha Deb; Pal, Nishith Kumar

    2011-07-01

    Cholera, caused by the infection of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae (V. cholerae) to humans, is a life threatening diarrheal disease with epidemic and pandemic potential. The V. cholerae, both O1 and O139 serogroups, produce a potent enterotoxin (cholera toxin) responsible for the lethal symptoms of the disease. The O1 serogroup has two biotypes (phenotypes), classical and El Tor; each of which has two major serotypes (based on antigenic responses), Ogawa and Inaba and the extremely rare Hikojima. V. cholerae O1 strains interconvert and switch between the Ogawa and Inaba serotypes. Fluid and electrolyte replacement is the mainstay of treatment of cholera patients; the severe cases require antibiotic treatment to reduce the duration of illness and replacement of fluid intake. The antibiotic therapy currently has faced difficulties due to the rapid emergence and spread of multidrug resistant V. cholerae causing several outbreaks in the globe. Currently, cholera has been becoming endemic in an increasing number of geographical areas, reflecting a failure in implementation of control measures. However, the current safe oral vaccines lower the number of resistant infections and could thus represent an effective intervention measure to control antibiotic resistance in cholera. Overall, the priorities for cholera control remain public health interventions through improved drinking water, sanitation, surveillance and access to health care facilities, and further development of safe, effective and appropriate vaccines. Thus, this review describes the facts and phenomena related to the disease cholera, which is still a great threat mainly to the developing countries, and hence a grave global concern too. Copyright © 2011 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. MALT-45: A 7 mm survey of the southern Galaxy - II. ATCA follow-up observations of 44 GHz class I methanol masers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Christopher H.; Walsh, Andrew J.; Breen, Shari L.; Ellingsen, Simon P.; Voronkov, Maxim A.; Hyland, Lucas J.

    2017-11-01

    We detail interferometric observations of 44 GHz class I methanol masers detected by MALT-45 (a 7 mm unbiased auto-correlated spectral-line Galactic-plane survey) using the Australia Telescope Compact Array. We detect 238 maser spots across 77 maser sites. Using high-resolution positions, we compare the class I CH3OH masers to other star formation maser species, including CS (1-0), SiO v = 0 and the H53 α radio-recombination line. Comparison between the cross- and auto-correlated data has allowed us to also identify quasi-thermal emission in the 44 GHz class I methanol maser line. We find that the majority of class I methanol masers have small spatial and velocity ranges (<0.5 pc and <5 km s-1), and closely trace the systemic velocities of associated clouds. Using 870 μm dust continuum emission from the ATLASGAL survey, we determine clump masses associated with class I masers, and find that they are generally associated with clumps between 1000 and 3000 M⊙. For each class I methanol maser site, we use the presence of OH masers and radio recombination lines to identify relatively evolved regions of high-mass star formation; we find that maser sites without these associations have lower luminosities and preferentially appear towards dark infrared regions.

  6. Transposition of the great arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castela Eduardo

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Transposition of the great arteries (TGA, also referred to as complete transposition, is a congenital cardiac malformation characterised by atrioventricular concordance and ventriculoarterial (VA discordance. The incidence is estimated at 1 in 3,500–5,000 live births, with a male-to-female ratio 1.5 to 3.2:1. In 50% of cases, the VA discordance is an isolated finding. In 10% of cases, TGA is associated with noncardiac malformations. The association with other cardiac malformations such as ventricular septal defect (VSD and left ventricular outflow tract obstruction is frequent and dictates timing and clinical presentation, which consists of cyanosis with or without congestive heart failure. The onset and severity depend on anatomical and functional variants that influence the degree of mixing between the two circulations. If no obstructive lesions are present and there is a large VSD, cyanosis may go undetected and only be perceived during episodes of crying or agitation. In these cases, signs of congestive heart failure prevail. The exact aetiology remains unknown. Some associated risk factors (gestational diabetes mellitus, maternal exposure to rodenticides and herbicides, maternal use of antiepileptic drugs have been postulated. Mutations in growth differentiation factor-1 gene, the thyroid hormone receptor-associated protein-2 gene and the gene encoding the cryptic protein have been shown implicated in discordant VA connections, but they explain only a small minority of TGA cases. The diagnosis is confirmed by echocardiography, which also provides the morphological details required for future surgical management. Prenatal diagnosis by foetal echocardiography is possible and desirable, as it may improve the early neonatal management and reduce morbidity and mortality. Differential diagnosis includes other causes of central neonatal cyanosis. Palliative treatment with prostaglandin E1 and balloon atrial septostomy are usually

  7. Nuclear energy in Western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loennroth, M.; Walker, W.

    1984-01-01

    This is an overview of nuclear energy in Western Europe, as seen by two Western Europeans, attempting to place the topic into the context not only of energy supply but also of industrial relations, institutional structure, and sociocultural factors. Although its main focus is Western Europe, it is sometimes necessary to glance at the wider context, in particular the industrial relations with the United States and Japan. Export markets are also considered, in particular, in the Pacific. The paper does not, however, deal with nonproliferation policies and the possible difference of opinion within Western Europe and between Western Europe and other regions over this topic. (author)

  8. Wildfires cause long-term plant community conversion in a western Great Plains steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long-term impacts of wildfire vary dramatically across rangeland ecosystems. Frequent fire can promote productivity and biodiversity in some locations (Fuhlendorf et al. 2006), but in other regions this same disturbance can cause catastrophic ecosystem shifts, including the loss of dominant plant sp...

  9. Production and purification of a hyperthermostable chitinase from Brevibacillus formosus BISR-1 isolated from the Great Indian Desert soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meena, Savita; Gothwal, Raj Kumar; Krishna Mohan, M; Ghosh, Purnendu

    2014-03-01

    A strain of Brevibacillus formosus, capable of producing a high level of chitinase, was isolated and characterized for the first time from the Great Indian Desert soils. The production of extracellularly secreted chitinase was analyzed for its biocontrol potential and optimized by varying media pH, temperature, incubation period, substrate concentrations, carbon and nitrogen sources, etc. A twofold increase in chitinase production (798 IU/mL) was achieved in optimized media containing (g l(-1)) chitin 2.0, malt extract 1.5, glycerol 1.0, ammonium nitrate 0.3%, T-20 (0.1%) and media pH 7.0 at 37 °C. The produced enzyme was purified using a three-step purification procedure involving ultra-filtration, ammonium sulphate precipitation and adsorption chromatography. The estimated molecular weight of the purified enzyme was 37.6 kDa. The enzyme was found thermostable at higher temperatures and showed a t ½ of more than 5 h at 100 °C. Our results show that the chitinase produced by B. formosus BISR-1 is thermostable at higher temperatures.

  10. Western Blot Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Brianna

    2017-01-01

    The Western blot is an important laboratory technique that allows for specific identification and characterization of proteins. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE)-separated proteins are electophoretically transferred to a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane which is then incubated with specific antibodies, then developed to show the protein of interest. Here, we describe the transfer and detection of Outer surface protein A (OspA), a protein only found on the surface of Borrelia burgdorferi, the bacteria responsible for Lyme disease.

  11. The Western Blot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnasko, Thomas S; Hnasko, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    Western blotting is a technique that involves the separation of proteins by gel electrophoresis, their blotting or transfer to a membrane, and selective immunodetection of an immobilized antigen. This is an important and routine method for protein analysis that depends on the specificity of antibody-antigen interaction and is useful for the qualitative or semiquantitative identification of specific proteins and their molecular weight from a complex mixture. This chapter will outline the requisite steps including gel electrophoresis of a protein sample, transfer of protein from a gel to a membrane support, and immunodetection of a target antigen.

  12. INTEGRATING GEOPHYSICS, GEOLOGY, AND HYDROLOGY TO DETERMINE BEDROCK GEOMETRY CONTROLS ON THE ORIGIN OF ISOLATED MEADOW COMPLEXES WITHIN THE CENTRAL GREAT BASIN, NEVADA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riparian meadow complexes found in mountain ranges of the Central Great Basin physiographic region (western United States) are of interest to researchers as they contain significant biodiversity relative to the surrounding basin areas. These meadow complexes are currently degradi...

  13. Great ape genetic diversity and population history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prado-Martinez, Javier; Sudmant, Peter H.; Kidd, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Most great ape genetic variation remains uncharacterized; however, its study is critical for understanding population history, recombination, selection and susceptibility to disease. Here we sequence to high coverage a total of 79 wild- and captive-born individuals representing all six great ape...... all species. We discover and assign 1,982 loss-of-function variants throughout the human and great ape lineages, determining that the rate of gene loss has not been different in the human branch compared to other internal branches in the great ape phylogeny. This comprehensive catalogue of great ape...... genome diversity provides a framework for understanding evolution and a resource for more effective management of wild and captive great ape populations....

  14. Identification of a genetic marker of Helicobacter pylori strains involved in gastric extranodal marginal zone B cell lymphoma of the MALT-type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehours, P; Dupouy, S; Bergey, B; Ruskoné-Foumestraux, A; Delchier, J C; Rad, R; Richy, F; Tankovic, J; Zerbib, F; Mégraud, F; Ménard, A

    2004-01-01

    Background and aims: Gastric extranodal marginal zone B cell lymphoma of the mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)-type (MZBL) is a rare complication of Helicobacter pylori infection. Currently, no bacterial factor has been associated with the development of this disease. Our aim was to identify genes associated with lymphoma development. Methods: We used subtractive hybridisation as a tool for comparative genomics between H pylori strains isolated from a patient with gastric MZBL and from a patient with gastritis only. Results: When gastric MZBL strains were compared with gastritis strains, two open reading frames (ORFs) were significantly associated with gastric MZBL: JHP950 (74.4% v 48.7%, respectively; p = 0.023) and JHP1462 (25.6% v 2.6%, respectively; p = 0.004). The prevalence of JHP950 was 48.8% (p = 0.024) in duodenal ulcer strains and 39.3% (p = 0.006) in gastric adenocarcinoma strains, which makes this ORF a specific marker for gastric MZBL strains. In contrast, the prevalence of JHP1462 was 16% (p = 0.545) and 35.7% (p = 0.429) in duodenal ulcer and adenocarcinoma strains, respectively. These ORFs were present in reference strain J99 but not in reference strain 26695. JHP950 is located in the plasticity zone whereas the other, JHP1462, is located outside. Both encode for H pylori putative proteins with unknown functions. Conclusion: Despite its low prevalence, the ORF JHP1462 can be considered a candidate marker for H pylori strains involved in severe gastroduodenal diseases. In contrast, the ORF JHP950 has a high prevalence, and is the first candidate marker for strains giving rise to an increased risk of gastric MZBL strains. Further confirmation in other studies is needed. PMID:15194637

  15. Western Canada uranium perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    The current situation in the exploration for uranium in British Columbia, the Yukon, the Northwest Territories, and Saskatchewan is reviewed. A moratorium on exploration has been in effect in British Columbia since 1980; it is due to expire in 1987. Only the Blizzard deposit appears to have any economic potential. The Lone Gull discovery in the Thelon Basin of the Northwest Territories has proven reserves of more than 35 million pounds U 3 O 8 grading 0.4%. Potentially prospective areas of the northern Thelon Basin lie within a game sanctuary and cannot be explored. Exploration activity in Saskatchewan continues to decline from the peak in 1980. Three major deposits - Cluff Lake, Rabbit Lake and Key Lake - are in production. By 1985 Saskatchewan will produce 58% of Canada's uranium, and over 13% of the western world's output. (L.L.) (3 figs, 2 tabs.)

  16. First-line response-adapted treatment with the combination of bendamustine and rituximab in patients with mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma (MALT2008-01): a multicentre, single-arm, phase 2 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salar, Antonio; Domingo-Domenech, Eva; Panizo, Carlos; Nicolás, Concepción; Bargay, Joan; Muntañola, Ana; Canales, Miguel; Bello, José Luis; Sancho, Juan Manuel; Tomás, José Francisco; Rodríguez, María José; Peñalver, Francisco Javier; Grande, Carlos; Sánchez-Blanco, José Javier; Palomera, Luis; Arranz, Reyes; Conde, Eulogio; García, Mar; García, Juan Fernando; Caballero, Dolores; Montalbán, Carlos

    2014-12-01

    No standard first-line systemic treatment for mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is available. In a phase 2 study we aimed to assess the safety and activity of a response-adapted combination of bendamustine plus rituximab as upfront treatment for this type of lymphoma. In a multicentre, single-arm, non-randomised, phase 2 trial, we enrolled patients with MALT lymphoma at any site and stage and treated them with bendamustine (90 mg/m(2) on days 1 and 2) plus rituximab (375 mg/m(2) on day 1), every 4 weeks. Inclusion criteria were measurable or evaluable disease, age 18-85 years, and unequivocal active lymphoma; we also enrolled patients with MALT lymphoma arising in the stomach after failure of Helicobacter pylori eradication and primary cutaneous cases after failure of local therapies. Exclusion criteria included evidence of histological transformation, CNS involvement, and active hepatitis B or C virus or HIV infection. After three cycles, patients achieving complete response received one additional cycle (total four cycles) and those achieving partial response received three additional cycles (total six cycles). The primary endpoint was 2-year event-free survival. Analysis was by modified intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01015248. 60 patients from 19 centres in Spain were enrolled between May 27, 2009, and May 23, 2011, and received treatment; 57 patients were evaluable for the primary endpoint. Only 14 (25%) patients needed more than four cycles of treatment. After a median follow-up of 43 months (IQR 37-51), median event-free survival was not reached. Event-free survival at 2 years was 93% (95% CI 84-97) and at 4 years was 88% (95% CI 74-95). The most frequently observed grade 3-4 adverse events were haematological: lymphopenia in 20 (33%) patients, neutropenia in 12 (20%) patients, and leucopenia in three (5%) patients. Grade 3-4 febrile neutropenia or infections were reported in three (5%) and four

  17. Sensory evaluation of and acceptability trials on biscuits prepared from raw and malted wheat (Triticum aestivum)-Bengal gram (Cicer arietinum) mixes with or without a green leafy vegetable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyle, A; Gujral, S

    1992-10-01

    Biscuits were prepared by varying the amounts of the basic ingredients to arrive at the most acceptable recipe. The final recipe contained 40 g of mix, 40 g of jaggery and 20 g of ghee. Sensory evaluation of biscuits containing 5 or 10% colocasia leaf powder by composite scoring test and hedonic scale showed that the former type of biscuit was preferred over the latter. The acceptability trial conducted on 42, 3 to 6 year old children showed that biscuits from either malted mix with or without 7.5% colocasia leaf powder and raw mix were equally acceptable as shown by the analysis of variance.

  18. Production of hybrids between western gray wolves and western coyotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L David; Christensen, Bruce W; Asa, Cheryl S; Callahan, Margaret; Young, Julie K

    2014-01-01

    Using artificial insemination we attempted to produce hybrids between captive, male, western, gray wolves (Canis lupus) and female, western coyotes (Canis latrans) to determine whether their gametes would be compatible and the coyotes could produce and nurture offspring. The results contribute new information to an ongoing controversy over whether the eastern wolf (Canis lycaon) is a valid unique species that could be subject to the U. S. Endangered Species Act. Attempts with transcervically deposited wolf semen into nine coyotes over two breeding seasons yielded three coyote pregnancies. One coyote ate her pups, another produced a resorbed fetus and a dead fetus by C-section, and the third produced seven hybrids, six of which survived. These results show that, although it might be unlikely for male western wolves to successfully produce offspring with female western coyotes under natural conditions, western-gray-wolf sperm are compatible with western-coyote ova and that at least one coyote could produce and nurture hybrid offspring. This finding in turn demonstrates that gamete incompatibility would not have prevented western, gray wolves from inseminating western coyotes and thus producing hybrids with coyote mtDNA, a claim that counters the view that the eastern wolf is a separate species. However, some of the difficulties experienced by the other inseminated coyotes tend to temper that finding and suggest that more experimentation is needed, including determining the behavioral and physical compatibility of western gray wolves copulating with western coyotes. Thus although our study adds new information to the controversy, it does not settle it. Further study is needed to determine whether the putative Canis lycaon is indeed a unique species.

  19. Production of hybrids between western gray wolves and western coyotes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L David Mech

    Full Text Available Using artificial insemination we attempted to produce hybrids between captive, male, western, gray wolves (Canis lupus and female, western coyotes (Canis latrans to determine whether their gametes would be compatible and the coyotes could produce and nurture offspring. The results contribute new information to an ongoing controversy over whether the eastern wolf (Canis lycaon is a valid unique species that could be subject to the U. S. Endangered Species Act. Attempts with transcervically deposited wolf semen into nine coyotes over two breeding seasons yielded three coyote pregnancies. One coyote ate her pups, another produced a resorbed fetus and a dead fetus by C-section, and the third produced seven hybrids, six of which survived. These results show that, although it might be unlikely for male western wolves to successfully produce offspring with female western coyotes under natural conditions, western-gray-wolf sperm are compatible with western-coyote ova and that at least one coyote could produce and nurture hybrid offspring. This finding in turn demonstrates that gamete incompatibility would not have prevented western, gray wolves from inseminating western coyotes and thus producing hybrids with coyote mtDNA, a claim that counters the view that the eastern wolf is a separate species. However, some of the difficulties experienced by the other inseminated coyotes tend to temper that finding and suggest that more experimentation is needed, including determining the behavioral and physical compatibility of western gray wolves copulating with western coyotes. Thus although our study adds new information to the controversy, it does not settle it. Further study is needed to determine whether the putative Canis lycaon is indeed a unique species.

  20. Great Books. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2011

    2011-01-01

    "Great Books" is a program that aims to improve the reading, writing, and critical thinking skills of students in kindergarten through high school. The program is implemented as a core or complementary curriculum and is based on the Shared Inquiry[TM] method of learning. The purpose of "Great Books" is to engage students in…

  1. Great Expectations for Middle School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    During the Great Recession, 2008 to 2010, school systems scrambled to balance budgets, and the ratio of counselors to students became even larger. To make matters worse, the Great Recession had a major impact on cuts in educational funding. Budget cutbacks tend to occur where the public will be least likely to notice. The loss of teachers and the…

  2. Recensie "The Great Reset" : Richard Florida

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roy van Dalm

    2010-01-01

    Like the Great Depression and the Long Depression before it, experts have viewed prolonged economic downturns as crises. In The Great Reset , bestselling author Richard Florida argues that we should instead see the recent recession as an opportunity to create entirely new ways of working and living

  3. From Eastern to Western Arabic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Margaret

    This manual is designed to provide instruction for persons who have learned well a dialect of Eastern Arabic, Levantine, and who desire to use a Western Arabic dialect, Moroccan. Special features of Western Arabic pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary, and social usage are listed. Attention is given to the recognition of correspondences between the…

  4. Upolu Island, Western Samoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Island nations in the South Pacific Ocean experience natural disasters associated with typhoons, and with their proximity to the Pacific Ocean's 'Ring of Fire.' This radar image shows most of the northern coast of the island of Upolu in the nation of Western Samoa. Disaster managers use digital elevation models (DEMs) generated from radar data to assist in research toward disaster mitigation and management. Geologists also use DEM data of volcanic features, such as the line of circular craters in this image, to study eruption rates and volumes, and volcanic landform evolution. The capital of Western Samoa, Apia, is in the lower left of the image.Angular black areas in the image are areas where steep topography causes holes in the data; these holes can be filled in by collecting data at other look directions. Color represents topography and intensity represents across-section of the radar backscatter. Since rough areas return more of the incident signal, they appear brighter on the image than relatively smooth areas, such as the ocean surface , along the left side of the image.This image was acquired by the AIRborne Synthetic Aperture (AIRSAR) radar instrument aboard a DC-8 aircraft operated out of NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center. AIRSAR collects fully polarimetric data at three wavelengths; C-band (0.057 meter), L-band (0.25 meter) and P-band (0.68 meter). AIRSAR also collects cross-track and along track interferometric data that results in topographic measurements and motion detection, respectively.This image was collected during the Pacific Rim mission, a three-month mission from July to October 2000 that collected data at over 200 sites in eighteen countries and territories around the Pacific Rim. AIRSAR is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C.Size: 10 km (6.2 miles) x 63 km (37.3 miles) Location: 14.16 deg. North lat., 171.75 deg. West Orientation: North towards the left side of

  5. Globalisation and western music historiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanou Katy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Globalisation of musicology and music history aims to fuse the divisions created during Western music’s acme, and is referred to as “post-European historical thinking”. Therefore, “post” and “pre” European historical thinking have much in common. One aspect of this process of fragmentation was that music history was separated from theory and that Western Music Histories succeeded General Music Histories (a development described in some detail in the article. Connecting global music history with “post-European” historical thinking is one among numerous indications of Western awareness that European culture has reached some sort of a terminal phase. Concurrently, countries that have been developing by following Western Europe as a prototype, are leading today some past phase of Western development, which, with the ideas of cultural relativism prevailing, are not considered inferior.

  6. Valid application of western blotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Liuji; Hu, Xiuli; Tang, Haitao; Han, Zanping; Chen, Yanhui

    2014-05-01

    Western blotting is a powerful and commonly used tool to identify and quantify a specific protein in a complex mixture. However, the systematic errors in the application of western blotting analysis are frequently to be found, which may compromise the interpretation of results. To make a valid application of western blotting, it is essential to begin with three independent biological replicates. Subsequently, a more reliable normalization method is in urgent need for western blotting analysis and using reference proteins is the currently preferred method of normalization. Additionally, identification of valid reference proteins is crucial for western blotting analysis and it should be examined carefully in relation to the cell or tissue types when using housekeeping proteins as internal standards.

  7. Nitrogen emissions, deposition, and monitoring in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark E. Fenn; Richard Haeuber; Gail S. Tonnesen; Jill S. Baron; Susanne Grossman-Clarke; Diane Hope; Daniel A. Jaffe; Scott Copeland; Linda Geiser; Heather M. Rueth; James O. Sickman

    2003-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) deposition in the western United States ranges from 1 to 4 kilograms (kg) per hectare (ha) per year over much of the region to as high as 30 to 90 kg per ha per year downwind of major urban and agricultural areas. Primary N emissions sources are transportation, agriculture, and industry. Emissions of N as ammonia are about 50% as great as emissions of N as...

  8. Western North America dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, A.; Becker, T. W.; Humphreys, G.; Gérault, M.

    2009-12-01

    Basal shear tractions, as generated by mantle convection, are likely to affect the stress field over western North America, and hence, influence the deformation of the North American lithosphere. Earlier studies (Humphreys & Coblentz (2007)) have argued for the importance of shear tractions beneath the continent, but at a reduced amplitude from those predicted by Becker & O'Connell (2001). However, these tractions did not take into account the existence of lateral viscosity variations (LVVs) beneath North America, resulting from strong cratonic root and weak plate margin. We evaluate the tractions and the resulting stresses over North America by incorporating LVVs in a global, high resolution, finite element convection code, CitcomS. Since our ultimate goal is to match observables, such as plate motions and geoid, in addition to stresses, we perform a global inversion for both radial and lateral viscosity variations and choose the viscosity structures that yield a good fit simultaneously to both the global geoid and plate motions. We evaluate the tractions and corresponding stress field from those models. We also attempt to incorporate the effects of gravitational potential energy (GPE) in our convection model. The combined stress field from GPE and tractions are compared to stress observations, such as the World Stress Map.

  9. Western Nuclear Science Alliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reese, Steve; Miller, George; Frantz, Stephen; Beller, Denis; Morse, Ed; Krahenbuhl, Melinda; Flocchini, Bob; Elliston, Jim

    2010-01-01

    The Western Nuclear Science Alliance (WNSA) was formed at Oregon State University (OSU) under the DOE Innovations in Nuclear Infrastructure and Education (INIE) program in 2002. The primary objective of the INIE program is to strengthen nuclear science and engineering programs at the member institutions and to address the long term goal of the University Reactor Infrastructure and Education Assistance Program. WNSA has been very effective in meeting these goals. The infrastructure at several of the WNSA university nuclear reactors has been upgraded significantly, as have classroom and laboratory facilities for Nuclear Engineering, Health Physics, and Radiochemistry students and faculty. Major nuclear-related education programs have been inaugurated, including considerable assistance by WNSA universities to other university nuclear programs. Research has also been enhanced under WNSA, as has outreach to pre-college and college students and faculty. The INIE program under WNSA has been an exceptional boost to the nuclear programs at the eight funded WNSA universities. In subsequent years under INIE these programs have expanded even further in terms of new research facilities, research reactor renovations, expanded educational opportunities, and extended cooperation and collaboration between universities, national laboratories, and nuclear utilities.

  10. Structural investigations of Great Basin geothermal fields: Applications and implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faulds, James E [Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology, Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Hinz, Nicholas H. [Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology, Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Coolbaugh, Mark F [Great Basin Center for Geothermal Energy, Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

    2010-11-01

    Because fractures and faults are commonly the primary pathway for deeply circulating hydrothermal fluids, structural studies are critical to assessing geothermal systems and selecting drilling targets for geothermal wells. Important tools for structural analysis include detailed geologic mapping, kinematic analysis of faults, and estimations of stress orientations. Structural assessments are especially useful for evaluating geothermal fields in the Great Basin of the western USA, where regional extension and transtension combine with high heat flow to generate abundant geothermal activity in regions having little recent volcanic activity. The northwestern Great Basin is one of the most geothermally active areas in the USA. The prolific geothermal activity is probably due to enhanced dilation on N- to NNE-striking normal faults induced by a transfer of NW-directed dextral shear from the Walker Lane to NW-directed extension. Analysis of several geothermal fields suggests that most systems occupy discrete steps in normal fault zones or lie in belts of intersecting, overlapping, and/or terminating faults. Most fields are associated with steeply dipping faults and, in many cases, with Quaternary faults. The structural settings favoring geothermal activity are characterized by subvertical conduits of highly fractured rock along fault zones oriented approximately perpendicular to the WNW-trending least principal stress. Features indicative of these settings that may be helpful in guiding exploration for geothermal resources include major steps in normal faults, interbasinal highs, groups of relatively low discontinuous ridges, and lateral jogs or terminations of mountain ranges.

  11. Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Great Lakes Mussel Watch(2009-2014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Following the inception of the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI) to address the significant environmental issues plaguing the Great Lakes region, the...

  12. Fires Across the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Days of record heat made the western United States tinder dry in early July 2007. Numerous wildfires raced across the dry terrain during the weekend of July 7. From Washington to Arizona, firefighters were battling fast-moving wildfires that threatened residences, businesses, gas wells, coal mines, communications equipment, and municipal watersheds. This image of the West was captured by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite on Sunday, July 8. Places where MODIS detected actively burning fires are marked in red. Some of the largest blazes are labeled. Utah's Milford Flat was the largest; according to the July 9 morning report from the National Interagency Fire Center, the blaze was more than 280,000 acres, having grown more than 124,000 acres in the previous 24 hours. The fires have destroyed homes, forced evacuations, shut down trains and highways, and killed several people. Weather conditions were not expected to improve significantly across much of the area for several days, with hot temperatures and dry thunderstorms (lightning and winds, but little rain) likely in many places. Nearly the entire western United States was experiencing some level of drought as of July 3, according to the U.S. Drought Monitor. The drought had reached the 'extreme' category in southern California and western Arizona, and ranged from moderate to severe across most of the rest of the Southwest and Great Basin. The large image provided above has a spatial resolution (level of detail) of 500 meters per pixel. The MODIS Rapid Response Team provides twice-daily images of the region in additional resolutions and formats, including an infrared-enhanced version that makes burned terrain appear brick red. NASA image courtesy the MODIS Rapid Response Team, Goddard Space Flight Center

  13. IN WESTERN SIBERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chizhikov Il'ja Aleksandrovich

    2012-10-01

    along the oil transportation route that connected three Salym oil fields in Western Siberia.

  14. Microbial mat mineralization in Great Salt Lake (Utah, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    PACE, Aurélie; Bouton, Anthony; Bourillot, Raphaël; Vennin, Emmanuelle; Visscher, Pieter; Dupraz, Christophe; Thomazo, Christophe; Serge, Galaup; Sophie, Leleu; Anna, Kwasniewski; Léa, Pigot; Michel, Franceschi

    2015-04-01

    Great Salt Lake is located in the Basin and Range province of Utah (USA). Its average surface is 4480 Km2 and its maximum depth is of about 15m. It is a partly rainfed endorheic hypersaline lake (average salinity: 140g/L). Due to the high salinity, little or no grazing organisms are present, favoring the development of microbialites that cover the margin of the lake. This work aims to understand the products and processes of mineralization in recent and modern microbialites on the western margin of Antelope Island. The distribution of microbialites and their morphology has been studied along lakeshore to center transects, showing a contrasting spatial distribution in bay versus headland. Fossil microbialites show a great diversity of macro- and microfabrics, some microbialites being essentially built by microbial-mediated carbonate precipitation, while other show the predominance of trapping and binding processes. The nature and composition of the microbial carbonates have been determined through polarizing, cathodoluminescence, reflected fluorescence microscopy, X-Ray diffractometry and isotope geochemistry (δ 18O and δ13C) in order to investigate the preservation of environmental signals in microbialites. Petrophysics analysis such as permeability and porosimetry, have been done to observe the structure of the microbialite. Microprobe and silver foils method have been used respectively to characterize oxygen production and sulfate reduction in living microbial mats. Mineralization zones seem to coincide with sulfate reduction hotspots. This mineralization results in mixed clotted-laminated fabric at the macro- and microscale. Several analysis such as Cryo-SEM, environmental SEM and raman spectroscopy three phases of mineralization allowed us to distinguish three type of minerals inside the mat: (1) a Mg and Si-rich clay developing on the organic matrix; (2) an intracellular Al-rich clay. (3) aragonite clots replacing the organic matrixes and embedding bacteria

  15. Q-Ships of the Great War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coder, Barbara

    2000-01-01

    Lacking adequate antisubmarine warfare tactics and technologies to combat the German unrestricted submarine campaign during the Great War, the Allies turned to deception or "ruse de guerre" as a means...

  16. The Great Recession and confidence in homeownership

    OpenAIRE

    Anat Bracha; Julian Jamison

    2013-01-01

    Confidence in homeownership shifts for those who personally experienced real estate loss during the Great Recession. Older Americans are confident in the value of homeownership. Younger Americans are less confident.

  17. Aquatic Trash Prevention National Great Practices Compendium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Great Practice Compendium highlights outstanding activities, technologies, and programs that prevent trash from entering the aquatic environment and/or that reduce the overall volume of trash that is generated.

  18. Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Site (SGP-ARM) is the oldest and largest of DOE's Arm sites. It was established in 1992. It consists of...

  19. Great Lakes CoastWatch Node

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CoastWatch is a nationwide National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) program within which the Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory (GLERL)...

  20. Climate change and the Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanne C. Chambers

    2008-01-01

    Climate change is expected to have significant impacts on the Great Basin by the mid-21st century. The following provides an overview of past and projected climate change for the globe and for the region.

  1. Great Lakes rivermouths: a primer for managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pebbles, Victoria; Larson, James; Seelbach, Paul; Pebbles, Victoria; Larson, James; Seelbach, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Between the North American Great Lakes and their tributaries are the places where the confluence of river and lake waters creates a distinct ecosystem: the rivermouth ecosystem. Human development has often centered around these rivermouths, in part, because they provide a rich array of ecosystem services. Not surprisingly, centuries of intense human activity have led to substantial pressures on, and alterations to, these ecosystems, often diminishing or degrading their ecological functions and associated ecological services. Many Great Lakes rivermouths are the focus of intense restoration efforts. For example, 36 of the active Great Lakes Areas of Concern (AOCs) are rivermouths or areas that include one or more rivermouths. Historically, research of rivermouth ecosystems has been piecemeal, focused on the Great Lakes proper or on the upper reaches of tributaries, with little direct study of the rivermouth itself. Researchers have been divided among disciplines, agencies and institutions; and they often work independently and use disparate venues to communicate their work. Management has also been fragmented with a focus on smaller, localized, sub-habitat units and socio-political or economic elements, rather than system-level consideration. This Primer presents the case for a more holistic approach to rivermouth science and management that can enable restoration of ecosystem services with multiple benefits to humans and the Great Lakes ecosystem. A conceptual model is presented with supporting text that describes the structures and processes common to all rivermouths, substantiating the case for treating these ecosystems as an identifiable class.1 Ecological services provided by rivermouths and changes in how humans value those services over time are illustrated through case studies of two Great Lakes rivermouths—the St. Louis River and the Maumee River. Specific ecosystem services are identified in italics throughout this Primer and follow definitions described

  2. The Christian Nobles at the Court of Great Khan, as Described in Mediaeval European Sources

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Liščák, Vladimír

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 2 (2017), s. 276-289 ISSN 2308-152X Institutional support: RVO:68378009 Keywords : religion in mediaeval China * Yuan Dynasty China * Christianity in the Great Khan court * Franciscan missions * Christian Alan nobility * Western mediaeval sources Subject RIV: AB - History OBOR OECD: History (history of science and technology to be 6.3, history of specific sciences to be under the respective headings)

  3. Monitoring change in Great Salt Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naftz, David L.; Angeroth, Cory E.; Freeman, Michael L.; Rowland, Ryan C.; Carling, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Despite the ecological and economic importance of Great Salt Lake, only limited water quality monitoring has occurred historically. To change this, new monitoring stations and networks—gauges of lake level height and rate of inflow, moored buoys, and multiple lake-bottom sensors—will provide important information that can be used to make informed decisions regarding future management of the Great Salt Lake ecosystem.

  4. Understanding Great Earthquakes in Japan's Kanto Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Reiji; Curewitz, Daniel

    2008-10-01

    Third International Workshop on the Kanto Asperity Project; Chiba, Japan, 16-19 February 2008; The 1703 (Genroku) and 1923 (Taisho) earthquakes in Japan's Kanto region (M 8.2 and M 7.9, respectively) caused severe damage in the Tokyo metropolitan area. These great earthquakes occurred along the Sagami Trough, where the Philippine Sea slab is subducting beneath Japan. Historical records, paleoseismological research, and geophysical/geodetic monitoring in the region indicate that such great earthquakes will repeat in the future.

  5. Great Lakes Research Review, 1982. Appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-01

    presently limited to two species; and finally the question of tihe bioavailability . (p. 24) 1978 Annual Report ScienL~sts have different opinions on...substances into the Great ’akes and their environmental and human health effects (p. 7) methodology for determining relative bioavailability of various...institutiuns which are nut incluoea ir, this review that ricmy unuertake sone projects dealing with the Great Lakes. However, the intention of this

  6. The diverse impacts of the great recession

    OpenAIRE

    Makoto Nakajima

    2013-01-01

    The Great Recession had a large negative impact on the U.S. economy. Asset prices, most notably stock and house prices, declined substantially, resulting in a loss in wealth for many American households. In this article, Makoto Nakajima documents how diverse households were affected in a variety of dimensions during the Great Recession, in particular between 2007 and 2009, using newly available data from the 2007-2009 Survey of Consumer Finances. He discusses why it is important to look at th...

  7. The Great War and German Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leese, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Review essay on Jason Crouthamel, The Great War and German Memory. Society, Politics and Psychological Trauma, 1914-18 (2009) and Anton Kaes, Shell Shock Cinema: Weimar Culture and the Wounds of War (2009)......Review essay on Jason Crouthamel, The Great War and German Memory. Society, Politics and Psychological Trauma, 1914-18 (2009) and Anton Kaes, Shell Shock Cinema: Weimar Culture and the Wounds of War (2009)...

  8. Climate variability and Great Plains agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, N.J.; Katz, L.A.

    1991-01-01

    The ways in which inhabitants of the Great Plains, including Indians, early settlers, and 20th century farmers, have adapted to climate changes on the Great Plains are explored. The climate of the Great Plains, because of its variability and extremes, can be very stressful to plants, animals and people. It is suggested that agriculture and society on the Great Plains have, during the last century, become less vulnerable to the stresses imposed by climate. Opinions as to the sustainability of agriculture on the Great Plains vary substantially. Lockeretz (1981) suggests that large scale, high cost technologies have stressed farmers by creating surpluses and by requiring large investments. Opie (1989) sees irrigation as a climate substitute, however he stresses that the Ogallala aquifer must inevitably become depleted. Deborah and Frank Popper (1987) believe that farming on the Plains is unsustainable, and destruction of shelterbelts, out-migration of the rural population and environmental problems will lead to total collapse. With global warming, water in the Great Plains is expected to become scarcer, and although improvements in irrigation efficiency may slow depletion of the Ogallala aquifer, ultimately the acreage under irrigation must decrease to levels that can be sustained by natural recharge and reliable surface flows. 23 refs., 2 figs

  9. Ecosystem services in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinman, Alan D.; Cardinale, Bradley J; Munns Jr, Wayne R; Ogdahl, Mary E.; Allan, David J; Angadi, Ted; Bartlett, Sarah; Brauman, Kate; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara; Doss, Matt; Dupont, Diane; Johns, Annie; Kashian, Donna; Lupi, Frank; McIntyre, Peter B.; Miller, Todd; Moore, Michael P.; Muenich, Rebecca Logsdon; Poudel, Rajendra; Price, James; Provencher, Bill; Rea, Anne; Read, Jennifer; Renzetti, Steven; Sohngen, Brent; Washburn, Erica

    2017-01-01

    A comprehensive inventory of ecosystem services across the entire Great Lakes basin is currently lacking and is needed to make informed management decisions. A greater appreciation and understanding of ecosystem services, including both use and non-use services, may have avoided misguided resource management decisions in the past that resulted in negative legacies inherited by future generations. Given the interest in ecosystem services and lack of a coherent approach to addressing this topic in the Great Lakes, a summit was convened involving 28 experts working on various aspects of ecosystem services in the Great Lakes. The invited attendees spanned a variety of social and natural sciences. Given the unique status of the Great Lakes as the world's largest collective repository of surface freshwater, and the numerous stressors threatening this valuable resource, timing was propitious to examine ecosystem services. Several themes and recommendations emerged from the summit. There was general consensus that: 1) a comprehensive inventory of ecosystem services throughout the Great Lakes is a desirable goal but would require considerable resources; 2) more spatially and temporally intensive data are needed to overcome our data gaps, but the arrangement of data networks and observatories must be well-coordinated; 3) trade-offs must be considered as part of ecosystem services analyses; and 4) formation of a Great Lakes Institute for Ecosystem Services, to provide a hub for research, meetings, and training is desirable. Several challenges also emerged during the summit, which are discussed.

  10. Acute Kidney Injury in Western Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Josée; Mehta, Ravindra L

    2016-10-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is frequent and is associated with poor outcomes, including increased mortality, higher risk of chronic kidney disease, and prolonged hospital lengths of stay. The epidemiology of AKI mainly derives from studies performed in Western high-income countries. More limited data are available from Western low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) located in Central and South America. In this review, we summarize the most recent data on the epidemiology of AKI in Western countries, aiming to contrast results from industrialized high-income countries with LMICs. The global picture of AKI in LMICs is not as well characterized as in the USA and Europe. In addition, in some LMICs, the epidemiology of AKI may vary depending on the region and socioeconomic status, which contributes to the difficulty of getting a better portrait of the clinical condition. In low-income regions and tropical countries, AKI is frequently attributed to diarrhea, infections, nephrotoxins, as well as obstetric complications. As opposed to the situation in high-income countries, access to basic care in LMICs is limited by economic constraints, and treatment is often delayed due to late presentation and recognition of the condition, which contribute to worse outcomes. In addition, dialysis is often not available or must be paid by patients, which further restricts its use. There are great disparities in the epidemiology of AKI between Western high-income countries and Western LMICs. In LMICs, education and training programs should increase the public awareness of AKI and improve preventive and basic treatments to improve AKI outcomes. (1) More than 90% of the patients recruited in AKI studies using KDIGO-equivalent criteria originate from North America, Europe, or Oceania, although these regions represent less than a fifth of the global population. However, the pooled incidence of AKI in hospitalized patients reaches 20% globally with moderate variance between regions. (2

  11. Solar Energy and the Western Asian Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Morais Mendonca Teles, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    The Western Asian countries receive the most abundant solar radiation of the world. They also have enormous reserves of oil and natural gas. But the world reserves of those fuels will certainly diminish greatly as the worldwide demand for energy will increase steadily in the coming decades. And the suppliers of energy will have to contend with public concerns about the polluting effects of those fuels and the possible dangers of nuclear energy. Clearly a power source based on an non exhaustible and non-polluting fuel could be expected to find a role. It now appears that such a source is at hand in the solar energy. Here in this paper, under the principles in the United Nations' Agenda 21, we suggest to Western Asian countries, the study and own development of the following technologies based on solar energy; and comment about them: *photo-voltaic solar cell power plants - in the future, its cost per kilowatt-hour will probably be competitive as to other sources of electrical energy. A new technique, the solar non-imaging concentrator, with amorphous silicon-based thin films solar cells at the focus of the concentrators, can collect and intensify solar radiation far better than conventional concentrators do, thus reducing much more the cost; *bio-gas - using biological gas to produce energy and for heating/cooling purposes; *wind generation of electricity - it's nowadays, a non-expensive technique; *water pump for irrigation and human consuming, driving their power from photovoltaic cells; *and the study and own development of solar lasers for peaceful scientific studies. In this new kind of laser, the external necessary pumping energy comes from the high intensity of sunlight, produced with non-imaging concentrators. Solar lasers can give unexpected new great uses for mankind. Those achievements will require international cooperation and transfer of information, sustained research and development work, and some initial subsides by independent governments. Solar

  12. Integrating Climate Change into Great Lakes Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedman, S.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change is now recognized as one of the greatest threats to the Great Lakes. Projected climate change impacts to the Great Lakes include increases in surface water and air temperature; decreases in ice cover; shorter winters, early spring, and longer summers; increased frequency of intense storms; more precipitation falling as rain in the winter; less snowfall; and variations in water levels, among other effects. Changing climate conditions may compromise efforts to protect and restore the Great Lakes ecosystem and may lead to irrevocable impacts on the physical, chemical, and biological integrity of the Great Lakes. Examples of such potential impacts include the transformation of coastal wetlands into terrestrial ecosystems; reduced fisheries; increased beach erosion; change in forest species composition as species migrate northward; potential increase in toxic substance concentrations; potential increases in the frequency and extent of algal blooms; degraded water quality; and a potential increase in invasive species. The Great Lakes Restoration Initiative, signed into law by President Obama in 2010, represents the commitment of the federal government to protect, restore, and maintain the Great Lakes ecosystem. The GLRI Action Plan, issued in February 2010, identifies five focus areas: - Toxic Substances and Areas of Concern - Invasive Species - Nearshore Health and Nonpoint Source Pollution - Habitat and Wildlife Protection and Restoration - Accountability, Education, Monitoring, Evaluation, Communication, and Partnerships The Action Plan recognizes that the projected impacts of climate change on the Great Lakes have implications across all focus areas and encourages incorporation of climate change considerations into GLRI projects and programs as appropriate. Under the GLRI, EPA has funded climate change-related work by states, tribes, federal agencies, academics and NGOs through competitive grants, state and tribal capacity grants, and Interagency

  13. Western Pacific Typhoon Aircraft Fixes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Western Pacific typhoon aircraft reconnaissance data from the years 1946 - 1965 and 1978, excluding 1952, were transcribed from original documents, or copy of...

  14. Western forests and air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, R.K.; Binkley, D.; Boehm, M.

    1992-01-01

    The book addresses the relationships between air pollution in the western United States and trends in the growth and condition of Western coniferous forests. The major atmospheric pollutants to which forest in the region are exposed are sulfur and nitrogen compounds and ozone. The potential effects of atmospheric pollution on these forests include foliar injury, alteration of growth rates and patterns, soil acidification, shifts in species composition, and modification of the effects of natural stresses

  15. Western economics versus Buddhist economics

    OpenAIRE

    Laszlo Zsolnai

    2007-01-01

    The paper explores Buddhist economics as a major alternative to the Western economic mindset. Buddhism is centred on want negation and purification of the human character. Buddhist economics, developed by Schumacher, Payutto, Welford and others, challenges the basic principles of modern Western economics: (1) profit-maximisation, (2) cultivating desires, (3) introducing markets, (4) instrumental use of the world, and (5) self-interest-based ethics. Buddhist economics proposes alternative prin...

  16. Apparitions in western Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinani Danijel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In Serbian folk tradition, apparitions represent a special, established and separated category of beliefs, with determined and elaborated passive and active relationship about this supernatural phenomenon. There are a number of beliefs concerning the sole essence of an apparition, periods and places when such phenomenon occurs, and various different features that a person should possess in order (not to communicate with the supernatural; these are accompanied with elaborated religious practice, to prevent or enhance such a meeting/communication. This paper takes apparitions as communications. The greatest number of beliefs is centered on the act of dying and trespasses into the other world, and a special category of deceased, so the analysis is focused on these matters. Based on the literature on the subject, we were able to construct a correct sequence of events leading into peaceful afterlife. When aberrations appear, however, the sequence is diverged, depending on the presence/absence of the mortuary rituals. This conclusion has helped us to decode a message being transferred during the contact with an aberration, and we translate it as a manual for peaceful, eternal, afterlife, which should came about as a result of a traditional norms of behavior and customs. A social function of these rules and customs we found among small communities, where losing a member could jeopardize the existence of a community itself; a social channeling of dying through rituals, reducing the act of dying to its real boundaries of a natural process, as well as a confirmation that a given community is strong enough to overcome the dying crisis, in situations like this, becomes of a vital importance. At the same time, there is an expression and a need to correct deviations from a given community which could pressure a great deal, especially if there is no other way of protection from deviant individuals.

  17. Energy and water in the Great Lakes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll

    2011-11-01

    The nexus between thermoelectric power production and water use is not uniform across the U.S., but rather differs according to regional physiography, demography, power plant fleet composition, and the transmission network. That is, in some regions water demand for thermoelectric production is relatively small while in other regions it represents the dominate use. The later is the case for the Great Lakes region, which has important implications for the water resources and aquatic ecology of the Great Lakes watershed. This is today, but what about the future? Projected demographic trends, shifting lifestyles, and economic growth coupled with the threat of global climate change and mounting pressure for greater U.S. energy security could have profound effects on the region's energy future. Planning for such an uncertain future is further complicated by the fact that energy and environmental planning and regulatory decisionmaking is largely bifurcated in the region, with environmental and water resource concerns generally taken into account after new energy facilities and technologies have been proposed, or practices are already in place. Based on these confounding needs, the objective of this effort is to develop Great Lakes-specific methods and tools to integrate energy and water resource planning and thereby support the dual goals of smarter energy planning and development, and protection of Great Lakes water resources. Guiding policies for this planning are the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River Basin Water Resources Compact and the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement. The desired outcome of integrated energy-water-aquatic resource planning is a more sustainable regional energy mix for the Great Lakes basin ecosystem.

  18. Climate and human influences on historical fire regimes (AD 1400-1900) in the eastern Great Basin (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley G. Kitchen

    2015-01-01

    High fire activity in western North America is associated with drought. Drought and fire prevail under negative El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) phases in the Southwest and with positive phases in the Northwest. Here, I infer climate effects on historic fire patterns in the geographically intermediate, eastern Great...

  19. Added value from 576 years of tree-ring records in the prediction of the Great Salt Lake level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert R. Gillies; Oi-Yu Chung; S.-Y. Simon Wang; R. Justin DeRose; Yan Sun

    2015-01-01

    Predicting lake level fluctuations of the Great Salt Lake (GSL) in Utah - the largest terminal salt-water lake in the Western Hemisphere - is critical from many perspectives. The GSL integrates both climate and hydrological variations within the region and is particularly sensitive to low-frequency climate cycles. Since most hydroclimate variable records cover...

  20. Evaluation of Sugar Maple Dieback in the Upper Great Lakes Region and Development of a Forest Health Youth Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Tara L.

    2013-01-01

    Sugar Maple, "Acer saccharum" Marsh., is one of the most valuable trees in the northern hardwood forests. Severe dieback was recently reported by area foresters in the western Upper Great Lakes Region. Sugar Maple has had a history of dieback over the last 100 years throughout its range and different variables have been identified as…