WorldWideScience

Sample records for great valley forearc

  1. Ophiolitic basement to the Great Valley forearc basin, California, from seismic and gravity data: Implications for crustal growth at the North American continental margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, N.J.; Beaudoin, B.C.; Klemperer, S.L.; Levander, A.; Luetgert, J.; Meltzer, A.; Mooney, W.; Tréhu, A.

    1997-01-01

    The nature of the Great Valley basement, whether oceanic or continental, has long been a source of controversy. A velocity model (derived from a 200-km-long east-west reflection-refraction profile collected south of the Mendocino triple junction, northern California, in 1993), further constrained by density and magnetic models, reveals an ophiolite underlying the Great Valley (Great Valley ophiolite), which in turn is underlain by a westward extension of lower-density continental crust (Sierran affinity material). We used an integrated modeling philosophy, first modeling the seismic-refraction data to obtain a final velocity model, and then modeling the long-wavelength features of the gravity data to obtain a final density model that is constrained in the upper crust by our velocity model. The crustal section of Great Valley ophiolite is 7-8 km thick, and the Great Valley ophiolite relict oceanic Moho is at 11-16 km depth. The Great Valley ophiolite does not extend west beneath the Coast Ranges, but only as far as the western margin of the Great Valley, where the 5-7-km-thick Great Valley ophiolite mantle section dips west into the present-day mantle. There are 16-18 km of lower-density Sierran affinity material beneath the Great Valley ophiolite mantle section, such that a second, deeper, "present-day" continental Moho is at about 34 km depth. At mid-crustal depths, the boundary between the eastern extent of the Great Valley ophiolite and the western extent of Sierran affinity material is a near-vertical velocity and density discontinuity about 80 km east of the western margin of the Great Valley. Our model has important implications for crustal growth at the North American continental margin. We suggest that a thick ophiolite sequence was obducted onto continental material, probably during the Jurassic Nevadan orogeny, so that the Great Valley basement is oceanic crust above oceanic mantle vertically stacked above continental crust and continental mantle.

  2. Wind Regimes in Complex Terrain of the Great Valley of Eastern Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birdwell, Kevin R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2011-05-01

    This research was designed to provide an understanding of physical wind mechanisms within the complex terrain of the Great Valley of Eastern Tennessee to assess the impacts of regional air flow with regard to synoptic and mesoscale weather changes, wind direction shifts, and air quality. Meteorological data from 2008 2009 were analyzed from 13 meteorological sites along with associated upper level data. Up to 15 ancillary sites were used for reference. Two-step complete linkage and K-means cluster analyses, synoptic weather studies, and ambient meteorological comparisons were performed to generate hourly wind classifications. These wind regimes revealed seasonal variations of underlying physical wind mechanisms (forced channeled, vertically coupled, pressure-driven, and thermally-driven winds). Synoptic and ambient meteorological analysis (mixing depth, pressure gradient, pressure gradient ratio, atmospheric and surface stability) suggested up to 93% accuracy for the clustered results. Probabilistic prediction schemes of wind flow and wind class change were developed through characterization of flow change data and wind class succession. Data analysis revealed that wind flow in the Great Valley was dominated by forced channeled winds (45 67%) and vertically coupled flow (22 38%). Down-valley pressure-driven and thermally-driven winds also played significant roles (0 17% and 2 20%, respectively), usually accompanied by convergent wind patterns (15 20%) and large wind direction shifts, especially in the Central/Upper Great Valley. The behavior of most wind regimes was associated with detectable pressure differences between the Lower and Upper Great Valley. Mixing depth and synoptic pressure gradients were significant contributors to wind pattern behavior. Up to 15 wind classes and 10 sub-classes were identified in the Central Great Valley with 67 joined classes for the Great Valley at-large. Two-thirds of Great Valley at-large flow was defined by 12 classes. Winds

  3. Sutter Buttes-the lone volcano in California's Great Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausback, Brain P.; Muffler, L.J. Patrick; Clynne, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    The volcanic spires of the Sutter Buttes tower 2,000 feet above the farms and fields of California's Great Valley, just 50 miles north-northwest of Sacramento and 11 miles northwest of Yuba City. The only volcano within the valley, the Buttes consist of a central core of volcanic domes surrounded by a large apron of fragmental volcanic debris. Eruptions at the Sutter Buttes occurred in early Pleistocene time, 1.6 to 1.4 million years ago. The Sutter Buttes are not part of the Cascade Range of volcanoes to the north, but instead are related to the volcanoes in the Coast Ranges to the west in the vicinity of Clear Lake, Napa Valley, and Sonoma Valley.

  4. An inverted continental Moho and serpentinization of the forearc mantle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostock, M G; Hyndman, R D; Rondenay, S; Peacock, S M

    2002-05-30

    Volatiles that are transported by subducting lithospheric plates to depths greater than 100 km are thought to induce partial melting in the overlying mantle wedge, resulting in arc magmatism and the addition of significant quantities of material to the overlying lithosphere. Asthenospheric flow and upwelling within the wedge produce increased lithospheric temperatures in this back-arc region, but the forearc mantle (in the corner of the wedge) is thought to be significantly cooler. Here we explore the structure of the mantle wedge in the southern Cascadia subduction zone using scattered teleseismic waves recorded on a dense portable array of broadband seismometers. We find very low shear-wave velocities in the cold forearc mantle indicated by the exceptional occurrence of an 'inverted' continental Moho, which reverts to normal polarity seaward of the Cascade arc. This observation provides compelling evidence for a highly hydrated and serpentinized forearc region, consistent with thermal and petrological models of the forearc mantle wedge. This serpentinized material is thought to have low strength and may therefore control the down-dip rupture limit of great thrust earthquakes, as well as the nature of large-scale flow in the mantle wedge.

  5. Eocene extension in Idaho generated massive sediment floods into Franciscan trench and into Tyee, Great Valley, and Green River basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitru, Trevor A.; Ernst, W.G.; Wright, James E.; Wooden, Joseph L.; Wells, Ray E.; Farmer, Lucia P.; Kent, Adam J.R.; Graham, Stephan A.

    2013-01-01

    The Franciscan Complex accretionary prism was assembled during an ∼165-m.y.-long period of subduction of Pacific Ocean plates beneath the western margin of the North American plate. In such fossil subduction complexes, it is generally difficult to reconstruct details of the accretion of continent-derived sediments and to evaluate the factors that controlled accretion. New detrital zircon U-Pb ages indicate that much of the major Coastal belt subunit of the Franciscan Complex represents a massive, relatively brief, surge of near-trench deposition and accretion during Eocene time (ca. 53–49 Ma). Sediments were sourced mainly from the distant Idaho Batholith region rather than the nearby Sierra Nevada. Idaho detritus also fed the Great Valley forearc basin of California (ca. 53–37 Ma), the Tyee forearc basin of coastal Oregon (49 to ca. 36 Ma), and the greater Green River lake basin of Wyoming (50–47 Ma). Plutonism in the Idaho Batholith spanned 98–53 Ma in a contractional setting; it was abruptly superseded by major extension in the Bitterroot, Anaconda, Clearwater, and Priest River metamorphic core complexes (53–40 Ma) and by major volcanism in the Challis volcanic field (51–43 Ma). This extensional tectonism apparently deformed and uplifted a broad region, shedding voluminous sediments toward depocenters to the west and southeast. In the Franciscan Coastal belt, the major increase in sediment input apparently triggered a pulse of massive accretion, a pulse ultimately controlled by continental tectonism far within the interior of the North American plate, rather than by some tectonic event along the plate boundary itself.

  6. On the Relationship of Dynamic Forearc Processes in Southern Peru to the Development and Preservation of Andean Topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, S. R.; Farber, D. L.; Audin, L.; Saillard, M.; Finkel, R. C.

    2008-12-01

    After more than 40 years of study, the timing and nature of Andean uplift remains an area of great scientific debate. The forearc of the Andean margin is of particular neotectonic interest, as previous models of Andean orogenesis attributed little-no Neogene deformation to the western margin of Altiplano. However, using the combination of remote sensing with high-resolution data, in situ cosmogenic isotope concentrations and thermochronology, in recent years the community has made important advances in addressing the rates, timings, styles, and locations of active deformation within the forearc of the Andean margin. To first order, we find that - both in terms of tectonics and climate - since 10Ma, the Andean forearc has been quite a dynamic region. Neotectonic studies in this region have been facilitated by the high degree of geomorphic surface preservation that the hyperarid (for at least the last 3My) coastal Atacama Desert has provided. Specifically, in southern Peru (14°-18°S), vast pediment surfaces have been abandoned through incision along the major river drainages that carve the deep canyons into the Precordillera and Western Cordillera. While the exact timing of the periods of more intense incision plausibly correspond with climate events, the total amount of incision integrated over many climate cycles is a useful indicator of tectonic activity. In this region, we find a number of geomorphic and structural features that provide strong evidence for distributed crustal deformation along range-sub-parallel contractile and strike-slip structures. Specifically, we see 1) ancient surfaces reflecting erosion rates as low as chronologies, and 6) Pleistocene mass-wasting events accommodating the redistribution of ~109-1010 m3 of material per event. Furthermore, the observation that Pleistocene incision rates are comparable with Late Miocene and Pliocene rates, suggests to us, that the rates and style of surface uplift within the forearc of southern Peru has

  7. Variation in forearc basin development along the Sunda Arc, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Werff, W.

    The present forearc basin configuration along the Sunda Arc initially appears to have been controlled by extension and differential subsidence of basement blocks in response to the late Eocene collision of India with Asia. The late Oligocene increase in convergence between the South-east Asian and Indian Plates associated with a new pulse of subduction, resulted in basement uplift and the formation of a regional unconformity that can be recognized along the entire Sunda Arc. From the early to late Miocene, the Sumba and Savu forearc sectors along the eastern Sunda Arc may have been characterized by forearc extension. Submarine fan deposition on the arcward side of the evolving accretionary prism represents the first phase in forearc basin deposition. These fans were subsequently covered by basin and slope sediments derived from the evolving magmatic arc. Structural response to increased late Miocene compression varied along strike of the Sunda Arc. North of Bali, Lombok and Sumbawa, the incipient collision between Australia and the western Banda Arc caused back-arc thrusting and basin inversion. Towards the south of Java, an increase in both the size of the accretionary prism and convergence rates resulted in uplift and large scale folding of the outer forearc basin strata. Along the west coast of Sumatra, increased compression resulted in uplift along the inner side of the forearc along older transcurrent faults. Uplift of West Sumatra was followed by the deposition of a westward prograding sequence of terrigenous sediments that resulted in the development of a broad shelf. Initial forearc basin subsidence relates to the age of the subducting oceanic lithosphere, on top of which the basin is situated. Along the western Sunda Arc, both fexural loading of the evolving accretionary prism, and across arc strike-slip faulting represent additional factors that result in forearc subsidence.

  8. 2Dbasin modelling of the hydrocarbon systems in the forearc basin of Sumatra; 2D-Beckenmodellierung des Kohlenwasserstoff-Systems im Forearc-Bereich von Sumatra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stratmann, V.; Berglar, K.; Lutz, R.; Schloemer, S. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover (Germany); Djajadihardja, Y.S. [Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    2008-10-23

    In the forearc basin of Sumatra, individual industrial drillings indicated the existence of hydrocarbons. The authors of the contribution under consideration report on an investigation of the hydrocarbon system within this forearc basin by means of a two-dimensional modelling of this basin. The structural development of the basins in the forearc area proceeded differently. Therefore, geophysical data for the investigation of the geological structures as well as geological/geochemical data were raised. The preliminary results of the two-dimensional modelling of the Simeulue basin northwest from Sumatra are presented.

  9. Is the Central America forearc sliver part of the North America plate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman-Speziale, M.

    2012-04-01

    The Central America Forearc sliver is located between the Central America volcanic arc and the Middle America trench. Several authors have suggested that the forearc is being displaced to the northwest with respect to the Caribbean plate; they point to right-lateral, normal-faulting earthquakes along the Central America volcanic arc as prime evidence of this displacement. Apparently, the forearc continues to the northwest into southeastern Mexico, although this portion of the forearc is not being displaced. I present evidence that suggests that the forearc indeed continues into southeastern Mexico and that it belongs to the North America plate. Physiographically, there is a continuity of the forearc into the Coastal plains of southeastern (Chiapas) Mexico, across the Motagua and Polochic faults. Offshore, cross-sections of the Middle America trench are similar along the mexican (Chiapas) segment, and the Central American segment. Furthermore, at the northwestern end of the coastal plain there are no compressive structures, which suggests that the coastal plain is not being displaced to the northwest. As a matter of fact, fault-plane solutions for shallow earthquakes show extension rather than compression. Shallow, interplate earthquakes along the trench show similar parameters along both segments. P-axes and earthquake slip vectors have consistent azimuths, which relate better with Cocos-North America convergence than with Cocos-Caribbean. Azimuth of T-axes for normal-faulting earthquakes also agree well with Cocos-North America convergence. Similarity in several parameters is thus found across both segments, the Chiapas coastal plain and the Central America forearc sliver proper. This suggests that both segments are continuous and probably one and the same, and belonging to the North America plate. Perhaps more properly, the forearc sliver extends into southeastern Mexico and is part of the zone of deformation associated to the Cocos-North America-Caribbean plates

  10. Physical properties of fore-arc basalt and boninite in Izu-Bonin-Mariana forearc recovered by IODP Expedition 352

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, M.; Michibayashi, K.; Almeev, R. R.; Christeson, G. L.; Sakuyama, T.; Yamamoto, Y.; Watanabe, T.

    2016-12-01

    The Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) arc is a typical intraoceanic arc system and is the type locality for subduction initiation. IODP-IBM project is aimed to understand subduction initiation, arc evolution, and continental crust formation. Expedition 352 is one of the IBM projects and that has drilled four sites at the IBM fore-arc. Expedition 352 has successfully recovered fore-arc basalts and boninites related to seafloor spreading during the subduction initiation as well as the earliest arc development. The fore-arc basalts were recovered from two sites (U1440 and U1441) at the deeper trench slope to the east, whereas the boninites were recovered from two sites (U1439 and U1442) at the shallower slope to the west. In this study, we studied textures and physical properties of both the fore-arc basalt and the boninite samples recovered by IODP Expedition 352. The fore-arc basalt samples showed aphyric texture, whereas the boninites showed hyaloclastic, aphyric and porphyritic textures. For the physical properties, we measured density, porosity, P-wave velocity and anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility. P-wave velocities were measured under ordinary and confining pressure. As a result, the densities are in a range between 2 g/cm3 and 3 g/cm3. The porosities are in a range between 5 % and 40 %. The P-wave velocities are in a wide range from 3 km/s to 5.5 km/s and have a positive correlation to the densities. The magnetic susceptibilities showed bimodal distributions so that the physical properties were classified into two groups: a high magnetic susceptibility group (>5×10-3) and a low magnetic susceptibility group (<5×10-3). The high magnetic susceptibility group is almost identical with the fore-arc basalt and boninite samples with the higher correlation trend between the P-wave velocities and the densities, whereas the low magnetic susceptibility group is only the boninite samples with the lower correlation trend between the P-wave velocities and the densities. It

  11. Subduction zone forearc serpentinites as incubators for deep microbial life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plümper, Oliver|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/37155960X; King, Helen E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/411261088; Geisler, Thorsten; Liu, Yang|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/411298119; Pabst, Sonja; Savov, Ivan P.; Rost, Detlef; Zack, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Serpentinization-fueled systems in the cool, hydrated forearc mantle of subduction zones may provide an environment that supports deep chemolithoautotrophic life. Here, we examine serpentinite clasts expelled from mud volcanoes above the Izu–Bonin–Mariana subduction zone forearc (Pacific Ocean) that

  12. Mantle hydration and Cl-rich fluids in the subduction forearc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynard, Bruno

    2016-12-01

    In the forearc region, aqueous fluids are released from the subducting slab at a rate depending on its thermal state. Escaping fluids tend to rise vertically unless they meet permeability barriers such as the deformed plate interface or the Moho of the overriding plate. Channeling of fluids along the plate interface and Moho may result in fluid overpressure in the oceanic crust, precipitation of quartz from fluids, and low Poisson ratio areas associated with tremors. Above the subducting plate, the forearc mantle wedge is the place of intense reactions between dehydration fluids from the subducting slab and ultramafic rocks leading to extensive serpentinization. The plate interface is mechanically decoupled, most likely in relation to serpentinization, thereby isolating the forearc mantle wedge from convection as a cold, potentially serpentinized and buoyant, body. Geophysical studies are unique probes to the interactions between fluids and rocks in the forearc mantle, and experimental constrains on rock properties allow inferring fluid migration and fluid-rock reactions from geophysical data. Seismic velocities reveal a high degree of serpentinization of the forearc mantle in hot subduction zones, and little serpentinization in the coldest subduction zones because the warmer the subduction zone, the higher the amount of water released by dehydration of hydrothermally altered oceanic lithosphere. Interpretation of seismic data from petrophysical constrain is limited by complex effects due to anisotropy that needs to be assessed both in the analysis and interpretation of seismic data. Electrical conductivity increases with increasing fluid content and temperature of the subduction. However, the forearc mantle of Northern Cascadia, the hottest subduction zone where extensive serpentinization was first demonstrated, shows only modest electrical conductivity. Electrical conductivity may vary not only with the thermal state of the subduction zone, but also with time for

  13. Zircon U-Pb age of the Pescadero felsite: A late Cretaceous igneous event in the forearc, west-central California Coast Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, W.G.; Martens, U.C.; McLaughlin, R.J.; Clark, J.C.; Moore, Diane E.

    2011-01-01

    forearc units of the Transverse Ranges. Based on zircon U-Pb ages, geologic and petrographic relations, the Pescadero felsite and a capping, sheared metaconglomerate underlie the Pigeon Point Formation. We infer that the magma formed by anatexis of Franciscan or Great Valley clastic sedimentary rocks originating from a parental Mesozoic Sierran-Mojave-Salinian calcalkaline arc. The felsite erupted during Late Cretaceous time, was metamorphosed to pumpellyite-prehnite grade within the subduction zone, and then was rapidly exhumed, weakly zeolitized, and exposed before Pigeon Point forearc deposition. Pescadero vol canism apparently reflects a previously unrecognized ca. 86-90 Ma felsic igneous event in the accretionary margin. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.

  14. IODP Expedition 352 (Bonin Forearc): First Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, J. A.; Reagan, M. K.; Stern, R. J.; Petronotis, K. E.

    2014-12-01

    IODP Expedition #352 (Testing Subduction Initiation and Ophiolite Models by Drilling the Outer Izu-Bonin-Mariana Forearc: July 30-Sept. 29, 2014) is just underway at the time of writing. It is testing the Stern-Bloomer hypothesis that subduction initiation (SI) was followed by a strongly extensional period of slab sinking and trench roll-back and then by a transitional period leading to the establishment of significant slab-parallel plate motion and hence normal subduction. The Expedition aims to carry out offset drilling at two sites near 28°30'N in the Bonin forearc. Ideally, these together will give the vertical volcanic stratigraphy needed to trace the geodynamic and petrogenetic processes associated with SI, and provide the complete reference section required for comparison with volcanic sequences of possible SI origin found on land in ophiolite complexes and elsewhere. We predict, but need to confirm, a c. 1.0-1.5km sequence with basal, MORB-like forearc basalts (known as FAB) marking the initial period of extension, boninites characterizing the transitional period, and tholeiitic and calc-alkaline lavas marking the establishment of normal arc volcanism. Study of such a sequence will enable us to understand the chemical gradients within and across these volcanic units, to reconstruct mantle flow and melting processes during the course of SI, and to test the hypothesis that fore-arc lithosphere created during SI is the birthplace of most supra-subduction zone ophiolites. Here, we present the first Expedition results, including (a) the volcanic stratigraphic record and subdivision into lava units, (b) the classifications and interpretations made possible by shipboard (portable XRF and ICP) analyses and down-hole measurements, and (c) the biostratigraphic, magnetic, mineralogical, sedimentary and structural constraints on the geological history of the SI section and the interactions between magmatic, hydrothermal and tectonic activity during its evolution.

  15. Subduction zone forearc serpentinites as incubators for deep microbial life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plümper, Oliver; King, Helen E; Geisler, Thorsten; Liu, Yang; Pabst, Sonja; Savov, Ivan P; Rost, Detlef; Zack, Thomas

    2017-04-25

    Serpentinization-fueled systems in the cool, hydrated forearc mantle of subduction zones may provide an environment that supports deep chemolithoautotrophic life. Here, we examine serpentinite clasts expelled from mud volcanoes above the Izu-Bonin-Mariana subduction zone forearc (Pacific Ocean) that contain complex organic matter and nanosized Ni-Fe alloys. Using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and Raman spectroscopy, we determined that the organic matter consists of a mixture of aliphatic and aromatic compounds and functional groups such as amides. Although an abiotic or subduction slab-derived fluid origin cannot be excluded, the similarities between the molecular signatures identified in the clasts and those of bacteria-derived biopolymers from other serpentinizing systems hint at the possibility of deep microbial life within the forearc. To test this hypothesis, we coupled the currently known temperature limit for life, 122 °C, with a heat conduction model that predicts a potential depth limit for life within the forearc at ∼10,000 m below the seafloor. This is deeper than the 122 °C isotherm in known oceanic serpentinizing regions and an order of magnitude deeper than the downhole temperature at the serpentinized Atlantis Massif oceanic core complex, Mid-Atlantic Ridge. We suggest that the organic-rich serpentinites may be indicators for microbial life deep within or below the mud volcano. Thus, the hydrated forearc mantle may represent one of Earth's largest hidden microbial ecosystems. These types of protected ecosystems may have allowed the deep biosphere to thrive, despite violent phases during Earth's history such as the late heavy bombardment and global mass extinctions.

  16. Evaluating Hydrologic Transience in Watershed Delineation, Numerical Modeling and Solute Transport in the Great Basin. Clayton Valley, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underdown, C. G.; Boutt, D. F.; Hynek, S. A.; Munk, L. A.

    2017-12-01

    Importance of transience in managed groundwater systems is generally determined by timeframe of management decisions. Watersheds with management times shorter than the aquifer (watershed) response time, or the time it takes a watershed to recover from a change in hydrologic state, would not include the new state and are treated as steady-state. However, these watersheds will experience transient response between hydrologic states. Watershed response time is a function of length. Therefore flat, regional watersheds characteristic of the Great Basin have long response times. Defining watershed extents as the area in which the water budget is balanced means inputs equal outputs. Steady-state budgets in the Great Basin have been balanced by extending watershed boundaries to include more area for recharge; however, the length and age of requisite flow paths are poorly constrained and often unrealistic. Inclusion of stored water in hydrologic budget calculations permits water balance within smaller contributing areas. As groundwater flow path lengths, depths, and locations differ between steady-state and transient systems, so do solute transport mechanisms. To observe how transience affects response time and solute transport, a refined (transient) version of the USGS steady-state groundwater flow model of the Great Basin is evaluated. This model is used to assess transient changes in contributing area for Clayton Valley, a lithium-brine producing endorheic basin in southwestern Nevada. Model runs of various recharge, discharge and storage bounds are created from conceptual models based upon historical climate data. Comparing results of the refined model to USGS groundwater observations allows for model validation and comparison against the USGS steady-state model. The transient contributing area to Clayton Valley is 85% smaller than that calculated from the steady-state solution, however several long flow paths important to both water and solute budgets at Clayton Valley

  17. Subduction zone forearc serpentinites as incubators for deep microbial life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plümper, Oliver; King, Helen E.; Geisler, Thorsten; Liu, Yang; Pabst, Sonja; Savov, Ivan P.; Rost, Detlef; Zack, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Serpentinization-fueled systems in the cool, hydrated forearc mantle of subduction zones may provide an environment that supports deep chemolithoautotrophic life. Here, we examine serpentinite clasts expelled from mud volcanoes above the Izu-Bonin-Mariana subduction zone forearc (Pacific Ocean) that contain complex organic matter and nanosized Ni-Fe alloys. Using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and Raman spectroscopy, we determined that the organic matter consists of a mixture of aliphatic and aromatic compounds and functional groups such as amides. Although an abiotic or subduction slab-derived fluid origin cannot be excluded, the similarities between the molecular signatures identified in the clasts and those of bacteria-derived biopolymers from other serpentinizing systems hint at the possibility of deep microbial life within the forearc. To test this hypothesis, we coupled the currently known temperature limit for life, 122 °C, with a heat conduction model that predicts a potential depth limit for life within the forearc at ˜10,000 m below the seafloor. This is deeper than the 122 °C isotherm in known oceanic serpentinizing regions and an order of magnitude deeper than the downhole temperature at the serpentinized Atlantis Massif oceanic core complex, Mid-Atlantic Ridge. We suggest that the organic-rich serpentinites may be indicators for microbial life deep within or below the mud volcano. Thus, the hydrated forearc mantle may represent one of Earth’s largest hidden microbial ecosystems. These types of protected ecosystems may have allowed the deep biosphere to thrive, despite violent phases during Earth’s history such as the late heavy bombardment and global mass extinctions.

  18. Prolonged extension and subsidence of the Peruvian forearc during the Cenozoic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viveen, Willem; Schlunegger, Fritz

    2018-04-01

    Ocean-continental subduction zones are commonly associated with compressional stress fields, which ultimately result in regional uplift of the overriding plate. This has particularly been inferred by most studies for the western margin of the Peruvian Andes. However, local geological observations have contested this idea. Here, we present a review of existing local and international literature supplemented by new structural and geomorphic observations that suggest that nearly the entire central (15° to 11° S latitude) and northern Peruvian forearc (11° to 6° S latitude) are under extension with a slight tendency to transtension instead of compression, and that this region has experienced a prolonged period of subsidence since the middle-late Eocene, interrupted by short pulses of uplift. In contrast, the southern Peruvian forearc (15° to 18° S latitude) has experienced (trans)tension from the middle-late Eocene until recent in combination with uplift. The central and southern Peruvian forearc that was influenced by the passage of the Nazca ridge experienced transtension and subsidence until the middle-late Miocene and alternating phases of compressional and transtensional tectonics afterwards. These new findings on the geodynamic development of the Peruvian forearc need to be considered in future reconstructions of the mechanisms at work within this subduction zone.

  19. Geomorphic indices and relative tectonic uplift in the Guerrero sector of the Mexican forearc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Gaidzik

    2017-07-01

    The results of the applied landscape analysis reveal considerable variations in relief, topography and geomorphic indices values along the Guerrero sector of the Mexican subduction zone. We argue that the reported differences are indicative of tectonic deformation and of variations in relative tectonic uplift along the studied forearc. A significant drop from central and eastern parts of the study area towards the west in values of RVA (from ∼500 to ∼300, SL (from ∼500 to ca. 400, maximum SL (from ∼1500–2500 to ∼1000 and ksn (from ∼150 to ∼100 denotes a decrease in relative tectonic uplift in the same direction. We suggest that applied geomorphic indices values and forearc topography are independent of climate and lithology. Actual mechanisms responsible for the observed variations and inferred changes in relative forearc tectonic uplift call for further studies that explain the physical processes that control the forearc along strike uplift variations and that determine the rates of uplift. The proposed methodology and results obtained through this study could prove useful to scientists who study the geomorphology of forearc regions and active subduction zones.

  20. A multiple-tracer approach to understanding regional groundwater flow in the Snake Valley area of the eastern Great Basin, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, Philip M.; Heilweil, Victor M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Age tracers and noble gases constrain intra- and inter-basin groundwater flow. • Tritium indicates modern (<60 yr) recharge occurring in all mountain areas. • Noble-gas data identify an important interbasin hydraulic discontinuity. • Further groundwater development may significantly impact Snake Valley springs. - Abstract: Groundwater in Snake Valley and surrounding basins in the eastern Great Basin province of the western United States is being targeted for large-scale groundwater extraction and export. Concern about declining groundwater levels and spring flows in western Utah as a result of the proposed groundwater withdrawals has led to efforts that have improved the understanding of this regional groundwater flow system. In this study, environmental tracers (δ 2 H, δ 18 O, 3 H, 14 C, 3 He, 4 He, 20 Ne, 40 Ar, 84 Kr, and 129 Xe) and major ions from 142 sites were evaluated to investigate groundwater recharge and flow-path characteristics. With few exceptions, δ 2 H and δ 18 O show that most valley groundwater has similar ratios to mountain springs, indicating recharge is dominated by relatively high-altitude precipitation. The spatial distribution of 3 H, terrigenic helium ( 4 He terr ), and 3 H/ 3 He ages shows that modern groundwater (<60 yr) in valley aquifers is found only in the western third of the study area. Pleistocene and late-Holocene groundwater is found in the eastern parts of the study area. The age of Pleistocene groundwater is supported by minimum adjusted radiocarbon ages of up to 32 ka. Noble gas recharge temperatures (NGTs) are generally 1–11 °C in Snake and southern Spring Valleys and >11 °C to the east of Snake Valley and indicate a hydraulic discontinuity between Snake and Tule Valleys across the northern Confusion Range. The combination of NGTs and 4 He terr shows that the majority of Snake Valley groundwater discharges as springs, evapotranspiration, and well withdrawals within Snake Valley rather than

  1. Quaternary Tectonic and Climatic Processes shaping the Central Andean hyperarid forearc (southern Peru)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audin, Laurence; Benavente, Carlos; Zerathe, Swann; Saillard, Marianne; Hall, Sarah R.; Farber, Daniel L.

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the forearc structure and processes related to Quaternary evolution and uplift of the Western Andean Cordillera remains an outstanding scientific issue. Models of Andean Plateau evolution based on Tertiary volcanic stratigraphy since 5Ma suggest that the deformation was focused along the eastern margin of the plateau and that minimal uplift occurred along the Pacific margin. On the contrary, new tectonic data and Quaternary surface 10Be dating highlight the presence of recently active deformation, incision and alluvial processes within the upper Andean forearc together with a regional uplift of the coastal zone. Additionally, the high obliquity observed in the northern Arica Bend region makes it an ideal target to discuss whether partitioning of the oblique convergence is accommodated by the neotectonic features that dissect the Quaternary forearc. Our goals are both to decipher the Quaternary tectonic and climatic processes shaping the hyperarid forearc along strike and across strike. Finally, we aim to quantify the respective influence of these factors in the overall uplift of the Western Andes. Indeed, sequences of pediment surfaces, landslide products, paleolake deposits and marine terraces found along the oblique Peruvian margin are a unique set of datable markers that can be used to quantify the rates of Quaternary processes. In this study, we focus on the southern Peru hyperarid Atacama area where regional surfaces and tectonic markers (scarps, folds, temporary streams and paleolake levels offsets…) are well preserved for the Quaternary timescale. Numerous landsliding events align on the major fault segments and reflect Plio-Pleistocene climatic and tectonic activity together with filled and strath terraces. As the present day sea-level is one of the highest levels recorded for Quaternary time span, any emerged marine terrace is preserved by tectonic coastal uplift. In particular, the geomorphic and chronologic correlation between marine and

  2. Forearc oceanic crust in the Izu-Bonin arc - new insights from active-source seismic survey -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodaira, S.; Noguchi, N.; Takahashi, N.; Ishizuka, O.; Kaneda, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Petrological studies have suggested that oceanic crust is formed in forearc areas during the initial stage of subduction. However, there is little geophysical evidence for the formation of oceanic crust in those regions. In order to examine crustal formation process associated with a subduction initiation process, we conducted an active-source seismic survey at a forearc region in the Izu-Bonin intra-oceanic arc. The resultant seismic image shows a remarkably thin crust (less than 10 km) at the northern half of the Bonin ridge (at the north of the Chichi-jima) and abrupt thickening the crust (~ 20 km thick) toward the south (at the Haha-jima). Comparison of velocity-depth profiles of the thin forearc crust of the Bonin ridge with those of typical oceanic crusts showed them to be seismologically identical. The observed structural variation also well corresponds to magmatic activities along the forearc. Boninitic magmatism is evident in the area of thin crust and tholeiitic-calcalkaline andesitic volcanism in the area of thick crust. Based on high precision dating studies of those volcanic rocks, we interpreted that the oceanic-type thin crust associated with boninitic volcanism has been created soon after the initiation of subduction (45-48 Ma) and and that the nonoceanic thick crust was created by tholeiitic-calcalkaline andesitic magmatism after the boninitic magmatism was ceased. The above seismological evidences strongly support the idea of forearc oceanic crust (or phiolite) created by forearc spreading in the initial stage of subduction along the intra-oceanic arc.

  3. Forearc serpentinites as probes into the chemical, petrological and biological diversity of subduction zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savov, I. P.

    2017-12-01

    The mantle region that cover the variously fluid-saturated and heated subducted slabs is a site where colossal serpentinization processes occur. Nowhere this is more evident than in the forearcs of convergent plate margins, where the amount of fluids leaving the slabs and intermingling with the overlaying mantle wedge is maximized. The nature of this forearc serpentinization processes can be studied at accretionary prisms, serpentinite mud volcanoes (ODP Sites 125 and 195; IODP Exp. 366- all in the Marianas), or via tectonically exhumed, Proterozoic to modern, forearc melange complexes worldwide (Greenland, California, Kamchatka, Armenia, Cuba, Colombia, among others). I shall review the marine and continental settings hosting forearc serpentinites (FS) with emphasis on the FS fluid and mineral chemistry, imaging of isotopes/elements/molecules and textures (via ToF SIMS), and the environment and the P-T conditions that may lead to stable microbial communities like the recently discovered one under S.Chamorro Seamount that suggests life can exist in the forearcs as deep as 12 km (Plumper et al., 2017; PNAS). FS are very similar to classical abyssal serpentinites (from FZ or TF on the seafloor). They have similar mineralogy, textures, are major reservoir of fluid mobile trace elements (B, Li, Cs, As, Sb, I, Br) and also are a host of often vast isotope fractionations (B, Li, I). Yet differences exist and need to be further explored as both of these serpentinite types may take part of the subducted slab inventory and affect the input-output budgets across the "Subduction Factory". FS are often associated with blueschists, which combined with the FS may help us more fully explore the P-T-t evolution of the entire forearc region.

  4. The forearc crustal evolution of Izu-Bonin (Ogasawara) region obtained by seismic reflection and refraction surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, M.; Kodaira, S.; Takahashi, N.; Tatsumi, Y.; Kaneda, Y.

    2009-12-01

    The Izu-Bonin (Ogasawara)-Mariana (IBM) arc is known to the typical oceanic island arc, and it is the most suitable area to understand the growth process of island arc. By previous seismic survey and deep sea drilling, convex basements are distributed along North-South direction in present forearc region. The convex basements are reported to be formed during Oligocene and Eocene (Taylor, 1992). In IBM forearc region, the middle crust with 6 km/s is recognized by seismic survey using OBSs. In IBM region, four IODP drilling sites are proposed in order to understand comprehensive growth process of arc and continental crust evolution. Two of them are located in forearc region. Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) carried out multi-channel seismic reflection survey using 7,800/12,000 cu.in. air gun and 5-6 km streamer with 444/204 ch hydrophones in the IBM region since 2004. We investigate the crustal structure beneath the Izu-Bonin forearc region for contribution of IBM drilling site along five long survey lines, which are across from present volcanic front to forearc basin. Seismic refraction survey is also conducted across forearc region using 84 OBSs every 1 km interval. Shallow crustal structure can be classified four units including basement which compared between previous drilling results and obtained seismic profiles. In IBM forearc region, thick sedimentary basin distribute from east side of volcanic front. Two convex basement peaks are indicated in across profile of forearc region. These peaks are estimated the top of paleoarc (Oligocene and Eocene) by previous ODP drilling. The half graben structure with major displacement is identified from west side of present volcanic front to the top of Oligocene arc. On the other hand, there is no displacement of sediments between the Oligocene arc and Eocene arc. This result shows the same origin of basement between the present volcanic front and Oligocene arc. There is long time difference of

  5. Lower Cretaceous Xigaze ophiolites formed in the Gangdese forearc : Evidence from paleomagnetism, sediment provenance, and stratigraphy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Wentao; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J J; Maffione, Marco; Orme, Devon A.; Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume; Guilmette, Carl; Ding, Lin; Guo, Zhaojie; Kapp, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The India-Asia suture zone of southern Tibet exposes Lower Cretaceous Xigaze ophiolites and radiolarian cherts, and time-equivalent Asian-derived clastic forearc sedimentary rocks (Xigaze Group). These ophiolites have been interpreted to have formed in the forearc of the north-dipping subduction

  6. The World of Great Wines: The Douro Valley Experience

    OpenAIRE

    A. Oliveira-Brochado; R. Silva; C. Paulino

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to use an experiential view of wine tourism to develop a battery of items that can potentially capture the overall Douro Valley experience from the tourist’s perspective. The Douro Valley, a UNESCO World Heritage region located in Portugal, was the target of this study. The research took a mixed approach using both qualitative and quantitative designs. Firstly, we combine the literature review on service quality scales with a content analysis of five in-depth intervie...

  7. Ground-water flow directions and estimation of aquifer hydraulic properties in the lower Great Miami River Buried Valley aquifer system, Hamilton Area, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets, Rodney A.; Bossenbroek, Karen E.

    2005-01-01

    The Great Miami River Buried Valley Aquifer System is one of the most productive sources of potable water in the Midwest, yielding as much as 3,000 gallons per minute to wells. Many water-supply wells tapping this aquifer system are purposely placed near rivers to take advantage of induced infiltration from the rivers. The City of Hamilton's North Well Field consists of 10 wells near the Great Miami River, all completed in the lower Great Miami River Buried Valley Aquifer System. A well-drilling program and a multiple-well aquifer test were done to investigate ground-water flow directions and to estimate aquifer hydraulic properties in the lower part of the Great Miami River Buried Valley Aquifer System. Descriptions of lithology from 10 well borings indicate varying amounts and thickness of clay or till, and therefore, varying levels of potential aquifer confinement. Borings also indicate that the aquifer properties can change dramatically over relatively short distances. Grain-size analyses indicate an average bulk hydraulic conductivity value of aquifer materials of 240 feet per day; the geometric mean of hydraulic conductivity values of aquifer material was 89 feet per day. Median grain sizes of aquifer material and clay units were 1.3 millimeters and 0.1 millimeters, respectively. Water levels in the Hamilton North Well Field are affected by stream stage in the Great Miami River and barometric pressure. Bank storage in response to stream stage is evident. Results from a multiple-well aquifer test at the well field indicate, as do the lithologic descriptions, that the aquifer is semiconfined in some areas and unconfined in others. Transmissivity and storage coefficient of the semiconfined part of the aquifer were 50,000 feet squared per day and 5x10-4, respectively. The average hydraulic conductivity (450 feet per day) based on the aquifer test is reasonable for glacial outwash but is higher than calculated from grain-size analyses, implying a scale effect

  8. The Tonalá fault in southeastern Mexico: Evidence that the Central America forearc sliver is not being detached?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman-Speziale, M.; Molina-Garza, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    The Tonalá fault is a NW-SE oriented feature that flanks the Chiapas Massif on its southwestern side. Several authors coincide that the fault originally developed as a right-lateral structure in the Jurassic, but was reactivated as a left-lateral fault in the Miocene. Seismicity along the fault is low: Only one earthquake with magnitude 5.0 or larger is reported along the Tonalá fault in the years 1964 to present. Fault-plane solutions determined by the Mexican Seismological Survey for earthquakes along the fault show left-lateral, strike-slip faulting. The Tonalá fault lies on the northwestern continuation of the Central America volcanic arc. The volcanic arc is the site of medium-sized (magnitudes up to 6.5) shallow, right-lateral, strike-slip earthquakes. This has led several workers to propose that the forearc sliver is being detached from the Caribbean plate along the arc, moving northward. GPS studies have confirmed relative motion between the Chortis block and the forearc sliver. Recent and current motion along the Tonalá fault is in contradiction with motion and detachment of the forearc sliver along the Central America volcanic arc. Left-lateral motion along it cannot accomodate northwest displacement of the forearc sliver. Motion of the Central America forearc would require NW directed compression between the continental shelf of Chiapas and the forearc itself, which is not observed. Therefore, either another fault (or faults) accomodates right-lateral motion and detachment of the forearc sliver, or the sliver is not being detached and relative motion between the forearc sliver and the Chortis block corresponds to displacement of the latter. We suggest that, as proposed by previous authors, the Tonalá fault is instead part of a fault system that runs from the state of Oaxaca (the Valle Nacional fault), forming an arc concave to the northeast, and running perpendicular to the maximum slope of subduction in the area.

  9. Holocene faulting in the Bellingham forearc basin: upper-plate deformation at the northern end of the Cascadia subduction zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, Harvey M.; Sherrod, Brian L.; Blakely, Richard J.; Haugerud, Ralph A.

    2013-01-01

    The northern Cascadia forearc takes up most of the strain transmitted northward via the Oregon Coast block from the northward-migrating Sierra Nevada block. The north-south contractional strain in the forearc manifests in upper-plate faults active during the Holocene, the northern-most components of which are faults within the Bellingham Basin. The Bellingham Basin is the northern of four basins of the actively deforming northern Cascadia forearc. A set of Holocene faults, Drayton Harbor, Birch Bay, and Sandy Point faults, occur within the Bellingham Basin and can be traced from onshore to offshore using a combination of aeromagnetic lineaments, paleoseismic investigations and scarps identified using LiDAR imagery. With the recognition of such Holocene faults, the northernmost margin of the actively deforming Cascadia forearc extends 60 km north of the previously recognized limit of Holocene forearc deformation. Although to date no Holocene faults are recognized at the northern boundary of the Bellingham Basin, which is 15 km north of the international border, there is no compelling tectonic reason to expect that Holocene faults are limited to south of the international border.

  10. Petrology and Geochemistry of Serpentinized Peridotites from a Bonin Fore-arc Seamount

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, L.; Tuoyu, W.; Dong, Y. H.; Gao, J.; Wu, S.

    2016-12-01

    Serpentinites, which contain up to 13 wt.% of water, are an important reservoir for chemical recycling in subduction zones. During the last two decades, many observations documented the occurrence of fore-arc mantle serpentinites in different locations. Here, we present petrology and whole rock chemistry for serpentinized peridotites dredged from the Hahajima Seamount, which is located 20-60 km west of the junction of the Bonin Trench and the Mariana Trench. Combined with published geochemical data of serpentinites from the Torishima Seamount, Conical Seamount and South Chamorro Seamount in the Izu-Bonin-Mariana fore-arc region, it will allow us to better understand the average composition of serpentinized fore-arc mantle overlying the subducting slab and the role of serpentinized mantle playing in the subduction zone geochemical cycle. The studied ultramafic rocks from the Hahajima Seamount are extensively serpentinized and hydrated (73 to 83%), with loss of ignition values ranging between 13 and 15 wt.%. Our results show that the serpentinized peridotites have Mg number from 88 to 90, and the average MgO/SiO2 is 0.93. The average Al2O3 (0.48 wt.%) and CaO (0.23 wt.%) contents are very low, consistent with low clinopyroxene abundances, and the overall depleted character of the mantle harzburgite protoliths. The serpentinized peridotites from the Hahajima Seamount exhibit similar "U" shape rare earth element (REE) patterns ([La/Sm]N = 3.1-3.6), at higher overall abundances, to the Conical and South Chamorro Seamount suites. One exceptional sample shows the similar REE pattern as serpentinized peridotites from the Torishima Seamount, with depleted light REE concentration ([La/Sm]N =0.7). All the serpentinized peridotites from these four fore-arc seamounts show strong enrichment in fluid-mobile and lithophile elements (U, Pb, Sr and Li). The geochemical signature of the serpentinized peridotites from the seamounts in the Izu-Bonin-Mariana fore-arc region could be

  11. Mechanics of Formation of Forearc Basins of Indonesia and Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassola, T.; Willett, S.; Kopp, H.

    2010-12-01

    In this study, the mechanics of forearc basins will be the object of a numerical investigation to understand the relationships between the wedge deformation and forearc basin formation. The aim of this work is to gain insight into the dynamics of the formation of the forearc basin on top of a deforming accretionary wedge, including the mechanism of formation of accommodation space and preservation of basin stratigraphy. Our tool is a two-dimensional numerical model that includes the rheological properties of the rock, including effective internal friction angle, effective basal friction angle, thermally-activated viscosity and strain softening. We also simulate different sedimentation rates in the basin, to study the influence of underfilled and overfilled basin conditions on wedge deformation. The stratigraphy in the basin is simulated, because, as noted in earlier studies, underfilled conditions incourage tectonic deformation in the inner wedge. We compare the numerical model to basins along the Sunda-Java Trench and the Alaskan margin. The Sunda-Java Trench shows a variety of structural and basin styles including underfilled and overfilled basins and different wedge geometries along the same trench. We interprete and document these structural styles, using depth migrated seismic sections of the Sunda Trench, obtained in three surveys, GINCO (11/98 - 01/99), MERAMEX (16/09/04 - 7/10/04) and SINDBAD (9/10/06 - 9/11/06) and made available by the IFM-GEOMAR group in Kiel and the Bundesanstalt für Geowissenschaften and Rohstoffe (BGR) in Hannover. On the Alaska margin we focus on the Kenai Peninsula, Kodiak Island plateau. This segment of the margin has one of the largest accretionary wedge - forearc basin systems in the world. It also exhibits a double forearc basin system with an interior basin (Cook inlet) and an outer basin, outboard of Kodiak Island, which is a prime candidate for a negative-alpha basin, as described by Fuller et al., (Geology, 2006). A number

  12. Helium as a tracer for fluids released from Juan de Fuca lithosphere beneath the Cascadia forearc

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrory, Patricia A.; Constantz, James E.; Hunt, Andrew G.; Blair, James Luke

    2016-01-01

    The ratio between helium isotopes (3He/4He) provides an excellent geochemical tracer for investigating the sources of fluids sampled at the Earth's surface. 3He/4He values observed in 25 mineral springs and wells above the Cascadia forearc document a significant component of mantle-derived helium above Juan de Fuca lithosphere, as well as variability in 3He enrichment across the forearc. Sample sites arcward of the forearc mantle corner (FMC) generally yield significantly higher ratios (1.2-4.0 RA) than those seaward of the corner (0.03-0.7 RA). The highest ratios in the Cascadia forearc coincide with slab depths (40-45 km) where metamorphic dehydration of young oceanic lithosphere is expected to release significant fluid and where tectonic tremor occurs, whereas little fluid is expected to be released from the slab depths (25-30 km) beneath sites seaward of the corner.Tremor (considered a marker for high fluid pressure) and high RA values in the forearc are spatially correlated. The Cascadia tremor band is centered on its FMC, and we tentatively postulate that hydrated forearc mantle beneath Cascadia deflects a significant portion of slab-derived fluids updip along the subduction interface, to vent in the vicinity of its corner. Furthermore, high RA values within the tremor band just arcward of the FMC, suggest that the innermost mantle wedge is relatively permeable.Conceptual models require: (1) a deep fluid source as a medium to transport primordial 3He; (2) conduits through the lithosphere which serve to speed fluid ascent to the surface before significant dilution from radiogenic 4He can occur; and (3) near lithostatic fluid pressure to keep conduits open. Our spatial correlation between high RA values and tectonic tremor provides independent evidence that tremor is associated with deep fluids, and it further suggests that high pore pressures associated with tremor may serve to keep fractures open for 3He migration through ductile upper mantle and lower crust.

  13. Forearc kinematics in obliquely convergent margins: Examples from Nicaragua and the northern Lesser Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Henry L., III

    In this study, I use surface velocities derived from GPS geodesy, elastic half-space dislocation models, and modeled Coulomb stress changes to investigate deformation in the over-riding plate at obliquely convergent margins at the leading and trailing edges of the Caribbean plate. The two principal study areas are western Nicaragua, where the Cocos plate subducts beneath the Caribbean plate, and the northern Lesser Antilles, where the North American plate subducts beneath the Caribbean plate. In Nicaragua, plate convergence is rapid at 84 mm yr1 with a small angle of obliquity of 10° along a slightly concave portion of the Middle America Trench. GPS velocities for the period from 2000 to 2004 from sites located in the Nicaraguan forearc confirmed forearc sliver motion on the order of ˜14 mm yr1 in close agreement with the value predicted by DeMets (2001). These results are presented here in Chapter 3 and were reported in Geophysical Research Letters (Turner et al., 2007). GPS observations made on sites located in the interior and on the eastern coast of Nicaragua during the same time period were combined with new data from eastern Honduras to help better constrain estimates of rigid Caribbean plate motion (DeMets et al., 2007). Slip approaching the plate convergence rate along the Nicaraguan and El Salvadoran sections of the Middle America Trench was quantitatively demonstrated by finite element modeling of this section of the plate interface using GPS velocities from our Nicaraguan network together with velocities from El Salvador and Honduras as model constraints (Correa-Mora, 2009). The MW 6.9 earthquake that ruptured the seismogenic zone offshore Nicaragua on October 9, 2004 resulted in coseismic displacements and post-seismic motion at GPS sites in the central part of the Nicaraguan forearc that currently prevent extension of interseismic time-series in this region. An elastic half-space dislocation model was used to estimate coseismic displacements at these

  14. Daytime wind valleys adjacent to the Great Salt Lake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, G.L. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Hoard, D.E. (Amparo Corp., Santa Fe, NM (USA))

    1990-01-01

    In 1986 Los Alamos National Laboratory was engaged by the US Army to study the meteorological aspects of emergency preparedness at several sites where toxic materials are stored and handled. The project included a series of tracer and meteorological field experiments in the vicinity of the Tooele Army Depot. These experiments generated a large data set for validating numerical simulations and for empirical analyses of the local meteorology. This paper discusses the main characteristics of the daytime, up-valley flow at the Utah site, including frequency of occurrence, horizontal and vertical structure, and temporal evolution. Some parameters controlling the variability in onset time for up-valley flow are identified, and an empirical forecasting scheme is discussed. 16 refs., 7 figs.

  15. Valley-dependent band structure and valley polarization in periodically modulated graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wei-Tao

    2016-08-01

    The valley-dependent energy band and transport property of graphene under a periodic magnetic-strained field are studied, where the time-reversal symmetry is broken and the valley degeneracy is lifted. The considered superlattice is composed of two different barriers, providing more degrees of freedom for engineering the electronic structure. The electrons near the K and K' valleys are dominated by different effective superlattices. It is found that the energy bands for both valleys are symmetric with respect to ky=-(AM+ξ AS) /4 under the symmetric superlattices. More finite-energy Dirac points, more prominent collimation behavior, and new crossing points are found for K' valley. The degenerate miniband near the K valley splits into two subminibands and produces a new band gap under the asymmetric superlattices. The velocity for the K' valley is greatly renormalized compared with the K valley, and so we can achieve a finite velocity for the K valley while the velocity for the K' valley is zero. Especially, the miniband and band gap could be manipulated independently, leading to an increase of the conductance. The characteristics of the band structure are reflected in the transmission spectra. The Dirac points and the crossing points appear as pronounced peaks in transmission. A remarkable valley polarization is obtained which is robust to the disorder and can be controlled by the strain, the period, and the voltage.

  16. Transient Electromagnetic Soundings Near Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve, San Luis Valley, Colorado (2006 Field Season)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitterman, David V.; de Sozua Filho, Oderson A.

    2009-01-01

    Time-domain electromagnetic (TEM) soundings were made near Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve in the San Luis Valley of southern Colorado to obtain subsurface information of use to hydrologic modeling. Seventeen soundings were made to the east and north of the sand dunes. Using a small loop TEM system, maximum exploration depths of about 75 to 150 m were obtained. In general, layered earth interpretations of the data found that resistivity decreases with depth. Comparison of soundings with geologic logs from nearby wells found that zones logged as having increased clay content usually corresponded with a significant resistivity decrease in the TEM determined model. This result supports the use of TEM soundings to map the location of the top of the clay unit deposited at the bottom of the ancient Lake Alamosa that filled the San Luis Valley from Pliocene to middle Pleistocene time.

  17. Rapid fore-arc extension and detachment-mode spreading following subduction initiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morris, Antony; Anderson, Mark W.; Omer, Ahmed; Maffione, Marco; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J.J.

    2017-01-01

    Most ophiolites have geochemical signatures that indicate formation by suprasubduction seafloor spreading above newly initiated subduction zones, and hence they record fore-arc processes operating following subduction initiation. They are frequently underlain by a metamorphic sole formed at the top

  18. A serpentinite-hosted ecosystem in the Southern Mariana Forearc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, Yasuhiko; Reagan, Mark K; Fujikura, Katsunori; Watanabe, Hiromi; Michibayashi, Katsuyoshi; Ishii, Teruaki; Stern, Robert J; Pujana, Ignacio; Martinez, Fernando; Girard, Guillaume; Ribeiro, Julia; Brounce, Maryjo; Komori, Naoaki; Kino, Masashi

    2012-02-21

    Several varieties of seafloor hydrothermal vents with widely varying fluid compositions and temperatures and vent communities occur in different tectonic settings. The discovery of the Lost City hydrothermal field in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge has stimulated interest in the role of serpentinization of peridotite in generating H(2)- and CH(4)-rich fluids and associated carbonate chimneys, as well as in the biological communities supported in highly reduced, alkaline environments. Abundant vesicomyid clam communities associated with a serpentinite-hosted hydrothermal vent system in the southern Mariana forearc were discovered during a DSV Shinkai 6500 dive in September 2010. We named this system the "Shinkai Seep Field (SSF)." The SSF appears to be a serpentinite-hosted ecosystem within a forearc (convergent margin) setting that is supported by fault-controlled fluid pathways connected to the decollement of the subducting slab. The discovery of the SSF supports the prediction that serpentinite-hosted vents may be widespread on the ocean floor. The discovery further indicates that these serpentinite-hosted low-temperature fluid vents can sustain high-biomass communities and has implications for the chemical budget of the oceans and the distribution of abyssal chemosynthetic life.

  19. Preliminary evaluation of the radioactive waste isolation potential of the alluvium-filled valleys of the Great Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smyth, J.R.; Crowe, B.M.; Halleck, P.M.; Reed, A.W.

    1979-08-01

    The occurrences, geologic features, hydrology, and thermal, mechanical, and mineralogical properties of the alluvium-filled valleys are compared with those of other media within the Great Basin. Computer modeling of heat conduction indicates that heat generated by the radioactive waste can be dissipated through the alluvium in a manner that will not threaten the integrity of the repository, although waste emplacement densities will be lower than for other media available. This investigation has not revealed any failure mechanism by which one can rule out alluvium as a primary waste isolation medium. However, the alluvium appears to rank behind one or more other possible media in all properties examined except, perhaps, in sorption properties. It is therefore recommended that alluvium be considered as a secondary isolation medium unless primary sites in other rock types in the Great Basin are eliminated from consideration on grounds other than those considered here

  20. The Kinematics of Central American Fore-Arc Motion in Nicaragua: Geodetic, Geophysical and Geologic Study of Magma-Tectonic Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Femina, P. C.; Geirsson, H.; Saballos, A.; Mattioli, G. S.

    2017-12-01

    A long-standing paradigm in plate tectonics is that oblique convergence results in strain partitioning and the formation of migrating fore-arc terranes accommodated on margin-parallel strike-slip faults within or in close proximity to active volcanic arcs (e.g., the Sumatran fault). Some convergent margins, however, are segmented by margin-normal faults and margin-parallel shear is accommodated by motion on these faults and by vertical axis block rotation. Furthermore, geologic and geophysical observations of active and extinct margins where strain partitioning has occurred, indicate the emplacement of magmas within the shear zones or extensional step-overs. Characterizing the mechanism of accommodation is important for understanding short-term (decadal) seismogenesis, and long-term (millions of years) fore-arc migration, and the formation of continental lithosphere. We investigate the geometry and kinematics of Quaternary faulting and magmatism along the Nicaraguan convergent margin, where historical upper crustal earthquakes have been located on margin-normal, strike-slip faults within the fore arc and arc. Using new GPS time series, other geophysical and geologic data, we: 1) determine the location of the maximum gradient in forearc motion; 2) estimate displacement rates on margin-normal faults; and 3) constrain the geometric moment rate for the fault system. We find that: 1) forearc motion is 11 mm a-1; 2) deformation is accommodated within the active volcanic arc; and 3) that margin-normal faults can have rates of 10 mm a-1 in agreement with geologic estimates from paleoseismology. The minimum geometric moment rate for the margin-normal fault system is 2.62x107 m3 yr-1, whereas the geometric moment rate for historical (1931-2006) earthquakes is 1.01x107 m3/yr. The discrepancy between fore-arc migration and historical seismicity may be due to aseismic accommodation of fore-arc motion by magmatic intrusion along north-trending volcanic alignments within the

  1. Petrology of forearc basalt-related isotropic gabbros from the Bonin Ridge, Izu-Bonin forearc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, S. E.; Loocke, M. P.; Snow, J. E.

    2017-12-01

    The early arc volcanic rocks exposed on the Bonin Ridge (BR), a large forearc massif in the Izu-Bonin arc, have provided us with a natural laboratory for the study of subduction initiation and early arc development. The BR has been the subject of focused sampling by way of dredging, diving, and drilling (IODP EXP352) expeditions which have revealed a composite stratigraphy consisting, from bottom to top, of intercalated peridotites and gabbros, isotropic gabbros, sheeted dykes, and a lava sequence which transitions from forearc basalt (FAB) to more arc-like volcanics up section. Although little has been published regarding the moho-transition zone rocks of the BR in comparison to the volcanic rocks, even less work has been published regarding the isotropic gabbros recovered in close association with FABs. Ishizuka et al. (2011) determined that the isotropic gabbros are compositionally and temporally related to the FABs. We provide the first petrologic characterization, including petrography and electron probe microanalysis, of a suite of FAB-related gabbros recovered by dredge D42 of the 2007 R/V Hakuho Maru KH07-02 dredging cruise. Preliminary petrographic observations of the fourteen thin sections reveal that all of the samples contain variable amounts of relict orthopyroxene and consist of five disseminated oxide gabbros, 5 oxide gabbros, and 2 gabbros. We note that all of the D42 gabbros exhibit strong textural variability akin to the varitextured gabbros described in the dyke-gabbro transition of ophiolites (e.g., MacLeod and Yaouancq, 2000). Geochemical data from this critically understudied horizon have the potential to inform regarding the nature of crustal accretion during subduction initiation and the formation, migration, and evolution of FABs. Further, with many authors comparing the volcanic record and crustal stratigraphy of the BR to ophiolites (e.g., Ishizuka et al., 2014), these data would provide another in situ analogue for comparison with the

  2. Constraints on inner forearc deformation from balanced cross sections, Fila Costeña thrust belt, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitchler, Jason C.; Fisher, Donald M.; Gardner, Thomas W.; Protti, Marino

    2007-12-01

    The Fila Costeña thrust belt in the forearc of Costa Rica is accommodating a significant portion of the convergence of the Cocos plate and Panama microplate. Geologic mapping of the thrust belt depicts a duplex with three horses that incorporate Eocene limestones and Oligocene to early Miocene clastics inboard of the subducting Cocos Ridge axis. By constructing a cross section at this location along a NE-SW trending transect perpendicular to the thrust belt, we constrain a shortening rate of approximately 40 mm/a and propose that as much as 50% of the total plate convergence rate is taken up in the inner forearc. The Eocene limestones at the base of the thrust sheets pinch out in both directions away from the onland projection of the Cocos Ridge axis owing to decrease in slip on faults and a lateral ramp in the basal décollement. The thrust belt terminates near the Panama border at the onland projection of the subducting Panama Fracture Zone. These observations suggest that shortening is propagating to the east with the migration of the Panama triple junction and the onset of shallow subduction of the thickened edge of the Cocos plate. The absence of similar features in the Nicaraguan forearc, where the subducting crust is older, subducts more steeply, and lacks incoming ridges and seamounts, indicates that deformation of the forearc basin in Costa Rica reflects greater coupling between the converging plates inboard of the Cocos Ridge.

  3. Heat flow in Railroad Valley, Nevada and implications for geothermal resources in the south-central Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C.F.; Sass, J.H.

    2006-01-01

    The Great Basin is a province of high average heat flow (approximately 90 mW m-2), with higher values characteristic of some areas and relatively low heat flow (characteristic of an area in south-central Nevada known as the Eureka Low. There is hydrologie and thermal evidence that the Eureka Low results from a relatively shallow, hydrologically controlled heat sink associated with interbasin water flow in the Paleozoic carbonate aquifers. Evaluating this hypothesis and investigating the thermal state of the Eureka Low at depth is a high priority for the US Geological Survey as it prepares a new national geothermal resource assessment. Part of this investigation is focused on Railroad Valley, the site of the largest petroleum reservoirs in Nevada and one of the few locations within the Eureka Low with a known geothermal system. Temperature and thermal conductivity data have been acquired from wells in Railroad Valley in order to determine heat flow in the basin. The results reveal a complex interaction of cooling due to shallow ground-water flow, relatively low (49 to 76 mW m-2) conductive heat flow at depth in most of the basin, and high (up to 234 mW m-2) heat flow associated with the 125??C geothermal system that encompasses the Bacon Flat and Grant Canyon oil fields. The presence of the Railroad Valley geothermal resource within the Eureka Low may be reflect the absence of deep ground-water flow sweeping heat out of the basin. If true, this suggests that other areas in the carbonate aquifer province may contain deep geothermal resources that are masked by ground-water flow.

  4. A valley-filtering switch based on strained graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Feng; Ma, Yanling; Zhang, Ying-Tao

    2011-09-28

    We investigate valley-dependent transport through a graphene sheet modulated by both the substrate strain and the fringe field of two parallel ferromagnetic metal (FM) stripes. When the magnetizations of the two FM stripes are switched from the parallel to the antiparallel alignment, the total conductance, valley polarization and valley conductance excess change greatly over a wide range of Fermi energy, which results from the dependence of the valley-related transmission suppression on the polarity configuration of inhomogeneous magnetic fields. Thus the proposed structure exhibits the significant features of a valley-filtering switch and a magnetoresistance device.

  5. A valley-filtering switch based on strained graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai Feng; Ma Yanling; Zhang Yingtao

    2011-01-01

    We investigate valley-dependent transport through a graphene sheet modulated by both the substrate strain and the fringe field of two parallel ferromagnetic metal (FM) stripes. When the magnetizations of the two FM stripes are switched from the parallel to the antiparallel alignment, the total conductance, valley polarization and valley conductance excess change greatly over a wide range of Fermi energy, which results from the dependence of the valley-related transmission suppression on the polarity configuration of inhomogeneous magnetic fields. Thus the proposed structure exhibits the significant features of a valley-filtering switch and a magnetoresistance device. (paper)

  6. Mariana Forearc Serpentine Mud Volcanoes Harbor Novel Communities of Extremophilic Archaea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, A. C.; Moyer, C. L.

    2005-12-01

    Since the Eocene (45 Ma) the Pacific Plate has been subducting beneath the Philippine Plate in the western Pacific ocean. This process has given rise to the Mariana Islands. As a direct result of this non-accretionary subduction, the Mariana Island Arc contains a broad forearc zone of serpentinite mud volcanoes located between the island chain and the trench. Forearc faulting, due to high pressure and low temperature build-up, produce slurries of mud and rock that mix with slab derived fluids and rise in conduits. Due to dehydration of the overlying mantle, native rock is converted to serpentinite, which squeezes out at fractures along the sea floor. This results in giant mud volcanoes (~30 km diameter and ~2 km high) that form a chain between 50 and 150 km behind the trench axis. Microbial samples were collected using Jason II from seven mud volcanoes along the length of the forearc and community fingerprinting was applied to genomic DNA using terminal restriction length polymorphism (T-RFLP). The resulting data were compared with traditional clone library and sequence analysis from samples obtained from the southernmost mud volcano, South Chamorro, site 1200, holes D and E, sampled during ODP Leg 195. The dominant archaeal phylotypes found clustered into two groups within the Methanobacteria, a class of anaerobic methanogens and methylotrophs. These phylotypes were detected at three of the seven mud volcanoes sampled and comprised 61% of the archaeal clone library from 1200 E. The first group was most closely related to the order Methanobacteriales, however, these novel phylotypes had similarity values of up to 0.90 at best with some resulting at 0.48. The second novel group of phylotypes were most closely related to order Methanosarcinales, with similarity values in the range of 0.50 to 0.22, indicating a relatively weak association with known phylotypes. At 1200 D, phylotypes associated with non-thermophilic Marine Group I Crenarchaeota were detected

  7. Tracing halogen and B cycling in subduction zones based on obducted, subducted and forearc serpentinites of the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagé, Lilianne; Hattori, Keiko

    2017-12-19

    Serpentinites are important reservoirs of fluid-mobile elements in subduction zones, contributing to volatiles in arc magmas and their transport into the Earth's mantle. This paper reports halogen (F, Cl, Br, I) and B abundances of serpentinites from the Dominican Republic, including obducted and subducted abyssal serpentinites and forearc mantle serpentinites. Abyssal serpentinite compositions indicate the incorporation of these elements from seawater and sediments during serpentinization on the seafloor and at slab bending. During their subduction and subsequent lizardite-antigorite transition, F and B are retained in serpentinites, whilst Cl, Br and I are expelled. Forearc mantle serpentinite compositions suggest their hydration by fluids released from subducting altered oceanic crust and abyssal serpentinites, with only minor sediment contribution. This finding is consistent with the minimal subduction of sediments in the Dominican Republic. Forearc mantle serpentinites have F/Cl and B/Cl ratios similar to arc magmas, suggesting the importance of serpentinite dehydration in the generation of arc magmatism in the mantle wedge.

  8. Basal erosion: barrier to earthquake propagation? Insight from the northern chilean forearc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubas, N.

    2017-12-01

    Subducted topographic features have often been suspected as barriers to large earthquake propagation. These features would induce basal erosion, leading to a large network of fractures impeding large nucleation or shear localization. Looking for correlation between basal erosion and megathrust ruptures is thus critical nowadays to understand earthquake mechanics and infer rupture scenarios. In this study, we propose to seek possible location of basal erosion from the forearc morphology by applying the critical taper theory. We focus on the North Chile subduction zone that has experienced four major earthquakes during the last two decades and where basal erosion and seamount subduction have already been suspected. Basal erosion should occur when the basal friction approaches the internal friction. We thus seek what part of the forearc is at critical state and select areas for which the two frictions are almost equal. We find a large band, located at 25km depth, from the Mejillones peninsula to the Iquique region at critical state with very high basal friction. The critical areas seem to surround the Tocopilla 2007 Mw 7.7 and the Iquique 2014 Mw 8.1 ruptures. When compared with the interseismic coupling, except for the Tocopilla segment, the critical areas are located in low-coupled zones. More interestingly, the reported normal faults of the forearc do not appear above the erosional areas but rather between them. These normal faults are systematically located above locked patches and seismic asperities. These areas are actually at extensional critical state and characterized by a very low effective friction. We thus suspect the extensional features to be related to earthquakes rather than basal erosion. We then look for similar relationships along the Sumatra subduction zone to see if basal erosion is a common process. The Tocopilla and Iquique earthquakes ruptured only part of the northern Chile seismic gap although the full segment was ready for a new large

  9. Large-scale slope failure and active erosion occurring in the southwest Ryukyu fore-arc area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Matsumoto

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The southwestern Ryukyu area east of Taiwan Island is an arcuate boundary between Philippine Sea Plate and Eurasian Plate. The topographic features in the area are characterised by (1 a large-scale amphitheatre off Ishigaki Island, just on the estimated epicentre of the tsunamigenic earthquake in 1771, (2 lots of deep sea canyons located north of the amphitheatre, (3 15–20 km wide fore-arc basin, (4 15–20 km wide flat plane in the axial area of the trench, (5 E-W trending half grabens located on the fore-arc area, etc., which were revealed by several recent topographic survey expeditions. The diving survey by SHINKAI6500 in the fore-arc area on a spur located 120 km south of Ishigaki Island was carried out in 1992. The site is characterised dominantly by rough topography consisting of a series of steep slopes and escarpments. A part of the surface is eroded due to the weight of the sediment itself and consequently the basement layer is exposed. The site was covered with suspended particles during the diving, due to the present surface sliding and erosion. The same site was resurveyed in 1997 by ROV KAIKO, which confirmed the continuous slope failure taking place in the site. Another example that was observed by KAIKO expedition in 1997 is a largescale mud block on the southward dipping slope 80 km south of Ishigaki Island. This is apparently derived from the shallower part of the steep slope on the southern edge of the fan deposit south of Ishigaki Island. The topographic features suggest N-S or NE-SW tensional stress over the whole study area. In this sense, the relative motion between the two plates in this area is oblique to the plate boundary. So, the seaward migration of the plate boundary may occur due to the gravitational instability at the boundary of the two different lithospheric structures. This is evidenced by a lack of accretionary sediment on the fore-arc and the mechanism of a recent earthquake which occurred on 3 May 1998 in

  10. Episodic Late Holocene dune movements on the sand-sheet area, Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve, San Luis Valley, Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, S. L.; Spaeth, M.; Marín, L.; Pierson, J.; Gómez, J.; Bunch, F.; Valdez, A.

    2006-07-01

    The Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve (GSDNPP) in the San Luis Valley, Colorado, contains a variety of eolian landforms that reflect Holocene drought variability. The most spectacular is a dune mass banked against the Sangre de Cristo Mountains, which is fronted by an extensive sand sheet with stabilized parabolic dunes. Stratigraphic exposures of parabolic dunes and associated luminescence dating of quartz grains by single-aliquot regeneration (SAR) protocols indicate eolian deposition of unknown magnitude occurred ca. 1290-940, 715 ± 80, 320 ± 30, and 200-120 yr ago and in the 20th century. There are 11 drought intervals inferred from the tree-ring record in the past 1300 yr at GSDNPP potentially associated with dune movement, though only five eolian depositional events are currently recognized in the stratigraphic record. There is evidence for eolian transport associated with dune movement in the 13th century, which may coincide with the "Great Drought", a 26-yr-long dry interval identified in the tree ring record, and associated with migration of Anasazi people from the Four Corners areas to wetter areas in southern New Mexico. This nascent chronology indicates that the transport of eolian sand across San Luis Valley was episodic in the late Holocene with appreciable dune migration in the 8th, 10-13th, and 19th centuries, which ultimately nourished the dune mass against the Sangre de Cristo Mountains.

  11. Stable isotope compositions of serpentinite seamounts in the Mariana forearc: Serpentinization processes, fluid sources and sulfur metasomatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, J.C.; Shanks, Wayne C.

    2006-01-01

    The Mariana and Izu-Bonin arcs in the western Pacific are characterized by serpentinite seamounts in the forearc that provide unique windows into the mantle wedge. We present stable isotope (O, H, S, and C) data for serpentinites from Conical seamount in the Mariana forearc and S isotope data for Torishima seamount in the Izu-Bonin forearc in order to understand the compositions of fluids and temperatures of serpentinization in the mantle wedge, and to investigate the transport of sulfur from the slab to the mantle wedge. Six serpentine mineral separates have a restricted range of ??18O (6.5-8.5???). Antigorite separates have ??D values of -29.5??? to -45.5??? that reflect serpentinization within the mantle wedge whereas chrysotile has low ??D values (-51.8??? to -84.0???) as the result of re-equilibration with fluids at low temperatures. Fractionation of oxygen isotopes between serpentine and magnetite indicate serpentinization temperatures of 300-375 ??C. Two late cross-fiber chrysotile veins have higher ??18O values of 8.9??? to 10.8??? and formed at lower temperatures (as low as ???100 ??C). Aqueous fluids in equilibrium with serpentine at 300-375 ??C had ??18O = 6.5-9??? and ??D = -4??? to -26???, consistent with sediment dehydration reactions at temperatures arc lavas. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Revolution in The Valley The Insanely Great Story of How the Mac Was Made

    CERN Document Server

    Hertzfeld, Andy

    2011-01-01

    There was a time, not too long ago, when the typewriter and notebook ruled, and the computer as an everyday tool was simply a vision. Revolution in the Valley traces this vision back to its earliest roots: the hallways and backrooms of Apple, where the groundbreaking Macintosh computer was born. The book traces the development of the Macintosh, from its inception as an underground skunkworks project in 1979 to its triumphant introduction in 1984 and beyond. The stories in Revolution in the Valley come on extremely good authority. That's because author Andy Hertzfeld was a core member of the

  13. Miocene-Recent sediment flux in the south-central Alaskan fore-arc basin governed by flat-slab subduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finzel, Emily S.; Enkelmann, Eva

    2017-04-01

    The Cook Inlet in south-central Alaska contains the early Oligocene to Recent stratigraphic record of a fore-arc basin adjacent to a shallowly subducting oceanic plateau. Our new measured stratigraphic sections and detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology and Hf isotopes from Neogene strata and modern rivers illustrate the effects of flat-slab subduction on the depositional environments, provenance, and subsidence in fore-arc sedimentary systems. During the middle Miocene, fluvial systems emerged from the eastern, western, and northern margins of the basin. The axis of maximum subsidence was near the center of the basin, suggesting equal contributions from subsidence drivers on both margins. By the late Miocene, the axis of maximum subsidence had shifted westward and fluvial systems originating on the eastern margin of the basin above the flat-slab traversed the entire width of the basin. These mud-dominated systems reflect increased sediment flux from recycling of accretionary prism strata. Fluvial systems with headwaters above the flat-slab region continued to cross the basin during Pliocene time, but a change to sandstone-dominated strata with abundant volcanogenic grains signals a reactivation of the volcanic arc. The axis of maximum basin subsidence during late Miocene to Pliocene time is parallel to the strike of the subducting slab. Our data suggest that the character and strike-orientation of the down-going slab may provide a fundamental control on the nature of depositional systems, location of dominant provenance regions, and areas of maximum subsidence in fore-arc basins.

  14. Makran Mountain Range, Indus River Valley, Pakistan, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The enormous geologic pressures exerted by continental drift can be very well illustrated by the long northward curving parallel folded mountain ridges and valleys of the coastal Makran Range of Pakistan (27.0N, 66.0E). As a result of the collision of the northward bound Indian sub-continent into the Asian Continent, the east/west parallel range has been bent in a great northward arc and forming the Indus River valley at the interface of the collision.

  15. 2D Semiconductors for Valley-Polarized LEDs and Photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ting

    The recently discovered two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors, such as transitional-metal-dichalcogenide monolayers, have aroused great interest due to the underlying quantum physics and the appealing optoelectronic applications like atomically thin light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and photodetectors. On the one hand, valley-polarized electroluminescence and photocurrent from such monolayers have not caused enough attention but highly demanded as building blocks for the new generation valleytronic applications. On the other hand, most reports on these devices are based on the mechanically exfoliated small samples. Considering real applications, a strategy which could offer mass-product and high compatibility to the current planar processes is greatly demanded. Large-area samples prepared by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) are perfect candidates towards such a goal. Here, we report electrically tunable valley-polarized electroluminescence and the selective spin-valley-coupled photocurrent in optoelectronic devices based on monolayer WS2 and MoS2 grown by CVD, exhibiting large electroluminescence and photocurrent dichroisms of 81% and 60%, respectively. The controllable valley polarization and emission components of the electroluminescence have been realized by varying electrical injection of carriers. For the observed helicity-dependent photocurrent, the circular photogalvanic effect at resonant excitations has been found to take the dominant responsibility.

  16. Seismicity related to geothermal development in Dixie Valley, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryall, A.S.; Vetter, U.R.

    1982-07-08

    A ten-station seismic network was operated in and around the Dixie Valley area from January 1980 to November 1981; three of these stations are still in operation. Data from the Dixie Valley network were analyzed through 30 Jun 1981, and results of analysis were compared with analysis of somewhat larger events for the period 1970-1979. The seismic cycle in the Western Great Basic, the geologic structural setting, and the instrumentation are also described.

  17. High pollution events in the Great Salt Lake Basin and its adjacent valleys. Insights on mechanisms and spatial distribution of the formation of secondary aerosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchin, A.; Middlebrook, A. M.; Baasandorj, M.; Brown, S. S.; Fibiger, D. L.; Goldberger, L.; McDuffie, E. E.; Moravek, A.; Murphy, J. G.; Thornton, J. A.; Womack, C.

    2017-12-01

    High pollution events are common in many locations in the U.S.A. and around the world. They can last several days or up to weeks and they negatively affect human health, deteriorate visibility, and increase premature mortality. The main causes for high pollution events are related to meteorology and sources. They often happen in the winter, when high emissions, stagnation and reduced mixing, due to a shallow boundary layer, cause high concentrations of pollutants to accumulate. In the last decades, the air quality in the U.S. has seen an overall improvement, due to the reductions in particulate and gaseous pollutants. However, some areas remain critical. The Great Salt Lake Basin and its adjacent valleys are currently areas where high pollution events are a serious environmental problem involving more than 2.4 million people. We will present the results of the Utah Wintertime Fine Particulate Study (UWFPS) that took place in winter 2017. During UWFPS, we carried out airborne measurements of aerosol chemical composition and precursor vapor concentrations over the Great Salt Lake Basin and its adjacent valleys. We will give insights into how and under which conditions conversion of precursor vapors into aerosol particles takes place in the area. We will also present a comparison of our measurements with models that will provide an insight of the mechanisms that lead to the formation of secondary aerosol particles. With the results of our work, we aim to inform strategies for pollution control in the future.

  18. Clean Cities Award Winning Coalition: Coachella Valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ICF Kaiser

    1999-05-20

    Southern California's Coachella Valley became a Clean Cities region in 1996. Since then, they've made great strides. SunLine Transit, the regional public transit provider, was the first transit provider to replace its entire fleet with compressed natural gas buses. They've also built the foundation for a nationally recognized model in the clean air movement, by partnering with Southern California Gas Company to install a refueling station and developing a curriculum for AFV maintenance with the College of the Desert. Today the valley is home to more than 275 AFVs and 15 refueling stations.

  19. Enhanced valley splitting in monolayer WSe2 due to magnetic exchange field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chuan; Norden, Tenzin; Zhang, Peiyao; Zhao, Puqin; Cheng, Yingchun; Sun, Fan; Parry, James P; Taheri, Payam; Wang, Jieqiong; Yang, Yihang; Scrace, Thomas; Kang, Kaifei; Yang, Sen; Miao, Guo-Xing; Sabirianov, Renat; Kioseoglou, George; Huang, Wei; Petrou, Athos; Zeng, Hao

    2017-08-01

    Exploiting the valley degree of freedom to store and manipulate information provides a novel paradigm for future electronics. A monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenide (TMDC) with a broken inversion symmetry possesses two degenerate yet inequivalent valleys, which offers unique opportunities for valley control through the helicity of light. Lifting the valley degeneracy by Zeeman splitting has been demonstrated recently, which may enable valley control by a magnetic field. However, the realized valley splitting is modest (∼0.2 meV T -1 ). Here we show greatly enhanced valley spitting in monolayer WSe 2 , utilizing the interfacial magnetic exchange field (MEF) from a ferromagnetic EuS substrate. A valley splitting of 2.5 meV is demonstrated at 1 T by magnetoreflectance measurements and corresponds to an effective exchange field of ∼12 T. Moreover, the splitting follows the magnetization of EuS, a hallmark of the MEF. Utilizing the MEF of a magnetic insulator can induce magnetic order and valley and spin polarization in TMDCs, which may enable valleytronic and quantum-computing applications.

  20. Forearc Sliver Translation, a Lack of Arc-Normal Strain Accumulation, and Interplate Thrust Earthquakes: GPS Geodesy in Western Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, H. L.; Mattioli, G. S.; Jansma, P. E.; Styron, R. H.

    2007-05-01

    We have been investigating the kinematics of the Nicaraguan forearc using campaign GPS measurements of our geodetic network made over the last seven years (Turner et al., 2007). We currently have interseismic velocities for 18 campaign sites and have installed 10 additional sites in the backarc to investigate the nature of the transition from forearc sliver motion to stable Caribbean Plate motion. Our work focusing on the later issue is presented elsewhere at this meeting (Styron et al., 2007). Corrections for modeled coseismic offsets from the Jan. 13, 2001 Mw7.7 earthquake off the coast of El Salvador have been applied to our campaign site velocities. Some of our time-series are also strongly affected by coseismic and postseismic effects of the Oct. 9, 2004 Mw6.9 earthquake off of the coast of Nicaragua. The geodetic effects of this event are being removed from the affected time-series for interseismic velocity analysis. We have also derived interseismic velocities for five continuous GPS sites in the region. Our GPS results confirm previous predictions of northwest transport of a forearc sliver with an average Northwest velocity of ~15 mm yr-1, but show little evidence for an arc- normal component of strain accumulation associated with locking on the subduction interface. However, the amount of seismicity along this section of the Middle America Trench, including several recent large events such as the 1992 Mw7.6 and 2004 Mw6.9 earthquakes, indicates some amount of locking is present. Several possibilities may account for the apparent contradiction between the GPS results and observed seismicity. The locked zone may be too shallow and too far offshore for the arc-normal component to show up in our network, or the arc-normal signal may be masked by post-seismic effects from the 1992 offshore earthquake. If coupling between the downgoing slab and the overriding plate is weak or limited to a small seismogenic zone, then arc-parallel motion of the forearc sliver may

  1. Upper Paleogene shallow-water events in the Sandino Forearc Basin, Nicaragua-Costa Rica - response to tectonic uplift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andjic, Goran; Baumgartner-Mora, Claudia; Baumgartner, Peter O.

    2016-04-01

    The Upper Cretaceous-Neogene Sandino Forearc Basin is exposed in the southeastern Nicaraguan Isthmus and in the northwestern corner of Costa Rica. It consists of an elongated, slightly folded belt (160 km long/30 km wide). During Campanian to Oligocene, the predominantly deep-water pelagic, hemipelagic and turbiditic sequences were successively replaced by shelf siliciclastics and carbonates at different steps of the basin evolution. We have made an inventory of Tertiary shallow-water limestones in several areas of Nicaragua and northern Costa Rica. They always appear as isolated rock bodies, generally having an unconformable stratigraphic contact with the underlying detrital sequences. The presence of these short-lived carbonate shoals can be attributed to local or regional tectonic uplift in the forearc area. The best-preserved exposure of such a carbonate buildup is located on the small Isla Juanilla (0.15 km2, Junquillal Bay, NW Costa Rica). The whole island is made of reef carbonates, displaying corals in growth position, associated with coralline red algae (Juanilla Formation). Beds rich in Larger Benthic Foraminifera such as Lepidocyclina undosa -favosa group permit to date this reef as late Oligocene. A first uplift event affected the Nicaraguan Isthmus, that rose from deep-water to shelfal settings in the latest Eocene-earliest Oligocene. The upper Oligocene Juanilla Formation formed on an anticline that developed during the early Oligocene, contemporaneously with other folds observed in the offshore Sandino Forearc Basin. During the early Oligocene, a period of global sea-level fall, the folded tectonic high underwent deep erosion. During the late Oligocene, a time of overall stable eustatic sea level, tectonic uplift gave way to moderate subsidence, creating accommodation space for reef growth. A 4th or 5th order (Milankovic-type) glacio-eustatic sea level rise, could also have triggered reef growth, but its preservation implies at least moderate

  2. Forearc structure in the Lesser Antilles inferred from depth to the Curie temperature and thermo-mechanical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gailler, Lydie; Arcay, Diane; Münch, Philippe; Martelet, Guillaume; Thinon, Isabelle; Lebrun, Jean-Frédéric

    2017-06-01

    Imaging deep active volcanic areas remains a challenge in our understanding of their activity and evolution, especially in subduction zones. Study of magnetic anomalies is appropriate to access such dynamics in depth. The magnetic anomaly pattern of the Lesser Antilles Arc (LAA) subduction is studied through Curie Point Depth (CPD), interpreted as the depth of the 580 °C isotherm, and developed to better assess the deep thermal structure of the arc. The depth of the estimated CPD exhibits a complex topography. Keeping in mind the overall uncertainty associated with this method, a main doming is evidenced below the Guadeloupe archipelago. Its apex is shifted towards the ancient arc, suggesting a very hot state of the fore-arc/arc domain. To better understand the LAA thermal state, we perform 2D thermo-mechanical simulations of the subduction zone. Recalling that magnetite is a serpentinization by-product, we simulate water transfer triggered by slab dehydration to test the assumption of fore-arc serpentinization suggested by the positive magnetic anomaly in the vicinity of the Guadeloupe archipelago. In this area, the subduction-induced arc lithosphere hydration and related weakening trigger a fast heating of the upper plate by basal convective removal. This process of fast arc lithosphere thinning may apply where simultaneously the volcanic arc is split in two and normal convergence is high enough. As serpentinization strongly decreases P-wave velocity, we propose a new interpretation of a published seismic profile below Guadeloupe. The seismic layer previously interpreted as the arc lower crust may rather be a layer of serpentinized mantle, as supported by spatial correlations between gravimetric and magnetic anomalies. Consequently, at the scale of Guadeloupe Island, the fore-arc Moho would be shallower than initially assumed, with a dome shape more consistent with both the extensive deformation active since the Oligocene in the inner fore-arc and the CPD doming.

  3. Generation and electric control of spin-valley-coupled circular photogalvanic current in WSe2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Hongtao; Hwang, Harold Y.; Cui, Yi

    2015-03-01

    Compared to the weak spin-orbit-interaction (SOI) in graphene, layered transitionmetal chalcogenides MX2 have heavy 4d/5d elements with strong atomic SOI, providing a unique way to extend functionalities of novel spintronics and valleytronics devices. Such a valley polarization achieved via valley-selective circular dichroism has been predicted theoretically and demonstrated with optical experiments in MX2 systems. Despite the exciting progresses, the generation of a valley/spin current by valley polarization in MX2 remains elusive and a great challenge. A spin/valley current in MX2 compounds caused by such a valley polarization has never been observed, nor its electric-field control. In this talk, we demonstrated, within an electric-double-layer transistor based on WSe2, the manipulation of a spin-coupled valley photocurrent whose direction and magnitude depend on the degree of circular polarization of the incident radiation and can be further greatly modulated with an external electric field. Such room temperature generation and electric control of valley/spin photocurrent provides a new property of electrons in MX2 systems, thereby enabling new degrees of control for quantum-confined spintronics devices. (In collaboration with S.C. Zhang, Y.L. Chen, Z.X. Shen, B Lian, H.J. Zhang, G Xu, Y Xu, B Zhou, X.Q. Wang, B Shen X.F. Fang) Acknowledge the support from DoE, BES, Division of MSE under contract DE-AC02-76SF00515. Acknowledge the support from DoE, BES, Division of MSE under contract DE-AC02-76SF00515.

  4. Radiation processing of temperate fruits of Kashmir valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, Peerzada R.; Meena, Raghuveer S.; Dar, Mohd A.; Wani, Ali M.

    2011-01-01

    Kashmir valley is famous for its temperate horticulture. Main temperate fruits grown commercially in the valley include apple, pear, peach, plum, cherry, strawberry and apricot. These fruits being perishable and susceptible to microbial spoilage, have a short shelf-life. The short shelf-life in an impediment in their transportation and marketing and results in huge losses. Study was carried out at NRL, Srinagar to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on the keeping quality of most of these fruits. The effect of gamma irradiation alone and in combination with other techniques like controlled low temperature storage, edible polysaccharide coating and calcium chloride treatment was studied in detail. The results revealed that there is a great potential for the use of radiation in extending the storage life of most of the temperate fruits produced in the valley of Kashmir. (author)

  5. Regolith transport in the Dry Valleys of Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putkonen, J.; Rosales, M.; Turpen, N.; Morgan, D.; Balco, G.; Donaldson, M.

    2007-01-01

    The stability of ground surface and preservation of landforms that record past events and environments is of great importance as the geologic and climatic history is evaluated in the Dry Valleys of Antarctica. Currently little is known about the regolith transport that tends to eradicate and confound this record and regolith transport is itself an environmental indicator. Based on analyses of repeat photographs, soil traps, and pebble transport distances, it was found that there is a large spatial variation in topographic diffusivities at least in the annual basis and that counter intuitively the highest topographic diffusivities are found in the alpine valleys that are located farther inland from the coast where the lowest topographic diffusivities were recorded. An average topographic diffusivity for the Dry Valleys was determined to be 10M-5–10-4 m2

  6. New evidence for Oligocene to Recent slip along the San Juan fault, a terrane-bounding structure within the Cascadia forearc of southern British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrichhausen, N.; Morell, K. D.; Regalla, C.; Lynch, E. M.

    2017-12-01

    Active forearc deformation in the southern Cascadia subduction zone is partially accommodated by faults in the upper crust in both Washington state and Oregon, but until recently, these types of active forearc faults have not been documented in the northern part of the Cascadia forearc on Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Here we present new evidence for Quaternary slip on the San Juan fault that indicates that this terrane-bounding structure has been reactivated since its last documented slip in the Eocene. Field work targeted by newly acquired hi-resolution lidar topography reveals a deformed debris flow channel network developed within colluvium along the central portion of the San Juan fault, consistent with a surface-rupturing earthquake with 1-2 m of offset since deglaciation 13 ka. Near the western extent of the San Juan fault, marine sediments are in fault contact with mélange of the Pandora Peak Unit. These marine sediments are likely Oligocene or younger in age, given their similarity in facies and fossil assemblages to nearby outcrops of the Carmanah Group sediments, but new dating using strontium isotope stratigraphy will confirm this hypothesis. If these sediments are part of the Carmanah Group, they occur further east and at a higher elevation than previously documented. The presence of Oligocene or younger marine sediments, more than 400 meters above current sea level, requires a substantial amount of Neogene rock uplift that could have been accommodated by slip on the San Juan fault. A preliminary analysis of fault slickensides indicates a change in slip sense from left-lateral to normal along the strike of the fault. Until further mapping and analysis is completed, however, it remains unclear whether this kinematic change reflects spatial and/or temporal variability. These observations suggest that the San Juan fault is likely part of a network of active faults accommodating forearc strain on Vancouver Island. With the recent discovery of

  7. Variation of precipitation in Langtang Valley,Himalayas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The variation of the δ 18O in precipitation and the relationship with precipitation amountat Kyangjin Base House and Yala Glacier Camp in Langtang Valley, Nepal Himalayas were ana-lyzed. The variations of the δ 18O with precipitation had great scatter, and the correlations betweenthe δ18O and precipitation changed with time on the synoptic scale. On the seasonal scale, therewas marked amount effect at Kyangjin Base House. However, the δ18O-precipitation gradient wassmaller than that on the synoptic scale. Because of the maintenance of the basic equilibrium be-tween stable isotopic compositions in atmospheric vapor and precipitation, the evaporation en-richment was light during the rainy season. Therefore, the variation of stable isotopic compositionsin precipitation was independent on the sampling intervals. Simulations show that the rainfall inLangtang Valley was not the outcome of the initial condensation of ocean vapor that originatedfrom low latitudes. The stable isotopic compositions in precipitation were greatly depleted due tothe strong rainout of the vapor from oceans as the vapor was raised over the Himalayas

  8. Ultramafic clasts from the South Chamorro serpentine mud volcano reveal a polyphase serpentinization history of the Mariana forearc mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, Wolf-Achim; Jöns, Niels; Bach, Wolfgang; Klein, Frieder; Alt, Jeffrey C.

    2015-06-01

    Serpentine seamounts located on the outer half of the pervasively fractured Mariana forearc provide an excellent window into the forearc devolatilization processes, which can strongly influence the cycling of volatiles and trace elements in subduction zones. Serpentinized ultramafic clasts recovered from an active mud volcano in the Mariana forearc reveal microstructures, mineral assemblages and compositions that are indicative of a complex polyphase alteration history. Petrologic phase relations and oxygen isotopes suggest that ultramafic clasts were serpentinized at temperatures below 200 °C. Several successive serpentinization events represented by different vein generations with distinct trace element contents can be recognized. Measured in situ Rb/Cs ratios are fairly uniform ranging between 1 and 10, which is consistent with Cs mobilization from sediments at lower temperatures and lends further credence to the low-temperature conditions proposed in models of the thermal structure in forearc settings. Late veins show lower fluid mobile element (FME) concentrations than early veins, suggesting a decreasing influence of fluid discharge from the subducting slab on the composition of the serpentinizing fluids. The continuous microfabric and mineral chemical evolution observed in the ultramafic clasts may have implications as to the origin and nature of the serpentinizing fluids. We hypothesize that opal and smectite dehydration produce quartz-saturated fluids with high FME contents and Rb/Cs between 1 and 4 that cause the early pervasive serpentinization. The partially serpentinized material may then be eroded from the basal plane of the suprasubduction mantle wedge. Serpentinization continued but the interacting fluids did not carry a pronounced sedimentary signature, either because FMEs were no longer released from the slab, or due to an en route loss of FMEs. Late chrysotile veins that document the increased access of fluids in a now fluid-dominated regime are

  9. Chiral filtration-induced spin/valley polarization in silicene line defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Chongdan; Zhou, Benhu; Sun, Minglei; Wang, Sake; Li, Yunfang; Tian, Hongyu; Lu, Weitao

    2018-06-01

    The spin/valley polarization in silicene with extended line defects is investigated according to the chiral filtration mechanism. It is shown that the inner-built quantum Hall pseudo-edge states with identical chirality can serve as a chiral filter with a weak magnetic field and that the transmission process is restrained/strengthened for chiral states with reversed/identical chirality. With two parallel line defects, which act as natural chiral filtration, the filter effect is greatly enhanced, and 100% spin/valley polarization can be achieved.

  10. Stable isotope compositions of serpentinite seamounts in the Mariana forearc: Serpentinization processes, fluid sources and sulfur metasomatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, J.C.; Shanks, Wayne C.

    2006-01-01

    The Mariana and Izu-Bonin arcs in the western Pacific are characterized by serpentinite seamounts in the forearc that provide unique windows into the mantle wedge. We present stable isotope (O, H, S, and C) data for serpentinites from Conical seamount in the Mariana forearc and S isotope data for Torishima seamount in the Izu-Bonin forearc in order to understand the compositions of fluids and temperatures of serpentinization in the mantle wedge, and to investigate the transport of sulfur from the slab to the mantle wedge. Six serpentine mineral separates have a restricted range of ??18O (6.5-8.5???). Antigorite separates have ??D values of -29.5??? to -45.5??? that reflect serpentinization within the mantle wedge whereas chrysotile has low ??D values (-51.8??? to -84.0???) as the result of re-equilibration with fluids at low temperatures. Fractionation of oxygen isotopes between serpentine and magnetite indicate serpentinization temperatures of 300-375 ??C. Two late cross-fiber chrysotile veins have higher ??18O values of 8.9??? to 10.8??? and formed at lower temperatures (as low as ???100 ??C). Aqueous fluids in equilibrium with serpentine at 300-375 ??C had ??18O = 6.5-9??? and ??D = -4??? to -26???, consistent with sediment dehydration reactions at temperatures aragonite veins in metabasalt and siltstone clasts within the serpentinite flows have ??18O = 16.7-24.5???, consistent with the serpentinizing fluids at temperatures <250 ??C. ??13C values of 0.1-2.5??? suggest a source in subducting carbonate sediments. The ??34S values of sulfide in serpentinites on Conical Seamount (-6.7??? to 9.8???) result from metasomatism through variable reduction of aqueous sulfate (??34S = 14???) derived from slab sediments. Despite sulfur metasomatism, serpentinites have low sulfur contents (generally < 164 ppm) that reflect the highly depleted nature of the mantle wedge. The serpentinites are mostly enriched in 34S (median ??34Ssulfide = 4.5???), consistent with a 34S

  11. Fitness-valley crossing with generalized parent-offspring transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmond, Matthew M; Otto, Sarah P

    2015-11-01

    Simple and ubiquitous gene interactions create rugged fitness landscapes composed of coadapted gene complexes separated by "valleys" of low fitness. Crossing such fitness valleys allows a population to escape suboptimal local fitness peaks to become better adapted. This is the premise of Sewall Wright's shifting balance process. Here we generalize the theory of fitness-valley crossing in the two-locus, bi-allelic case by allowing bias in parent-offspring transmission. This generalization extends the existing mathematical framework to genetic systems with segregation distortion and uniparental inheritance. Our results are also flexible enough to provide insight into shifts between alternate stable states in cultural systems with "transmission valleys". Using a semi-deterministic analysis and a stochastic diffusion approximation, we focus on the limiting step in valley crossing: the first appearance of the genotype on the new fitness peak whose lineage will eventually fix. We then apply our results to specific cases of segregation distortion, uniparental inheritance, and cultural transmission. Segregation distortion favouring mutant alleles facilitates crossing most when recombination and mutation are rare, i.e., scenarios where crossing is otherwise unlikely. Interactions with more mutable genes (e.g., uniparental inherited cytoplasmic elements) substantially reduce crossing times. Despite component traits being passed on poorly in the previous cultural background, small advantages in the transmission of a new combination of cultural traits can greatly facilitate a cultural transition. While peak shifts are unlikely under many of the common assumptions of population genetic theory, relaxing some of these assumptions can promote fitness-valley crossing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Potential for a significant deep basin geothermal system in Tintic Valley, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardwick, C.; Kirby, S.

    2014-12-01

    The combination of regionally high heat flow, deep basins, and permeable reservoir rocks in the eastern Great Basin may yield substantial new geothermal resources. We explore a deep sedimentary basin geothermal prospect beneath Tintic Valley in central Utah using new 2D and 3D models coupled with existing estimates of heat flow, geothermometry, and shallow hydrologic data. Tintic Valley is a sediment-filled basin bounded to the east and west by bedrock mountain ranges where heat-flow values vary from 85 to over 240 mW/m2. Based on modeling of new and existing gravity data, a prominent 30 mGal low indicates basin fill thickness may exceed 2 km. The insulating effect of relatively low thermal conductivity basin fill in Tintic Valley, combined with typical Great Basin heat flow, predict temperatures greater than 150 °C at 3 km depth. The potential reservoir beneath the basin fill is comprised of Paleozoic carbonate and clastic rocks. The hydrology of the Tintic Valley is characterized by a shallow, cool groundwater system that recharges along the upper reaches of the basin and discharges along the valley axis and to a series of wells. The east mountain block is warm and dry, with groundwater levels just above the basin floor and temperatures >50 °C at depth. The west mountain block contains a shallow, cool meteoric groundwater system. Fluid temperatures over 50 °C are sufficient for direct-use applications, such as greenhouses and aquaculture, while temperatures exceeding 140°C are suitable for binary geothermal power plants. The geologic setting and regionally high heat flow in Tintic Valley suggest a geothermal resource capable of supporting direct-use geothermal applications and binary power production could be present.

  13. Structural evolution of the east Sierra Valley system (Owens Valley and vicinity), California: a geologic and geophysical synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Calvin H.; Stone, Paul; Blakely, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    The tectonically active East Sierra Valley System (ESVS), which comprises the westernmost part of the Walker Lane-Eastern California Shear Zone, marks the boundary between the highly extended Basin and Range Province and the largely coherent Sierra Nevada-Great Valley microplate (SN-GVm), which is moving relatively NW. The recent history of the ESVS is characterized by oblique extension partitioned between NNW-striking normal and strike-slip faults oriented at an angle to the more northwesterly relative motion of the SN-GVm. Spatially variable extension and right-lateral shear have resulted in a longitudinally segmented valley system composed of diverse geomorphic and structural elements, including a discontinuous series of deep basins detected through analysis of isostatic gravity anomalies. Extension in the ESVS probably began in the middle Miocene in response to initial westward movement of the SN-GVm relative to the Colorado Plateau. At ca. 3-3.5 Ma, the SN-GVm became structurally separated from blocks directly to the east, resulting in significant basin-forming deformation in the ESVS. We propose a structural model that links high-angle normal faulting in the ESVS with coeval low-angle detachment faulting in adjacent areas to the east.

  14. Does permanent extensional deformation in lower forearc slopes indicate shallow plate-boundary rupture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geersen, J.; Ranero, C. R.; Kopp, H.; Behrmann, J. H.; Lange, D.; Klaucke, I.; Barrientos, S.; Diaz-Naveas, J.; Barckhausen, U.; Reichert, C.

    2018-05-01

    Seismic rupture of the shallow plate-boundary can result in large tsunamis with tragic socio-economic consequences, as exemplified by the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake. To better understand the processes involved in shallow earthquake rupture in seismic gaps (where megathrust earthquakes are expected), and investigate the tsunami hazard, it is important to assess whether the region experienced shallow earthquake rupture in the past. However, there are currently no established methods to elucidate whether a margin segment has repeatedly experienced shallow earthquake rupture, with the exception of mechanical studies on subducted fault-rocks. Here we combine new swath bathymetric data, unpublished seismic reflection images, and inter-seismic seismicity to evaluate if the pattern of permanent deformation in the marine forearc of the Northern Chile seismic gap allows inferences on past earthquake behavior. While the tectonic configuration of the middle and upper slope remains similar over hundreds of kilometers along the North Chilean margin, we document permanent extensional deformation of the lower slope localized to the region 20.8°S-22°S. Critical taper analyses, the comparison of permanent deformation to inter-seismic seismicity and plate-coupling models, as well as recent observations from other subduction-zones, including the area that ruptured during the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, suggest that the normal faults at the lower slope may have resulted from shallow, possibly near-trench breaking earthquake ruptures in the past. In the adjacent margin segments, the 1995 Antofagasta, 2007 Tocopilla, and 2014 Iquique earthquakes were limited to the middle and upper-slope and the terrestrial forearc, and so are upper-plate normal faults. Our findings suggest a seismo-tectonic segmentation of the North Chilean margin that seems to be stable over multiple earthquake cycles. If our interpretations are correct, they indicate a high tsunami hazard posed by the yet un

  15. Formation of forearc basins by collision between seamounts and accretionary wedges: an example from the New Hebrides subduction zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collot, J.-Y.; Fisher, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Seabeam data reveal two deep subcircular reentrants in the lower arc slope of the New Hebrides island arc that may illustrate two stages in the development of a novel type of forearc basin. The Malekula reentrant lies just south of the partly subducted Bougainville seamount. This proximity, as well as the similarity in morphology between the reentrant and an indentation in the lower arc slope off Japan, suggests that the Malekula reentrant formed by the collision of a seamount with the arc. An arcuate fold-thrust belt has formed across the mouth of the reentrant, forming the toe of a new accretionary wedge. The Efate reentrant may show the next stage in basin development. This reentrant lies landward of a lower-slope ridge that may have begun to form as an arcuate fold-thrust belt across the mouth of a reentrant. This belt may have grown by continued accretion at the toe of the wedge, by underplating beneath the reentrant, and by trapping of sediment shed from the island arc. These processes could result in a roughly circular forearc basin. Basins that may have formed by seamount collision lie within the accretionary wedge adjacent to the Aleutian trenches. -Authors

  16. The Characteristic of Molten Heat Salt Storage System Utilizing Solar Energy Combined with Valley Electric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI .Jiu-ru

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available With the environmental pollution and energy consumption clue to the large difference between peak and valley of power grid,the molten salt heat storage system(MSHSS utilizing solar Energy combined with valley electric is presented for good energy saving and low emissions. The costs of MSHSS utilizing solar Energy combined with valley electric are greatly reduced. The law of heat transfer in molten salt heat storage technology is studied with the method of grey correlation analysis. The results show the effect of elbow sizes on surface convective heat transfer coefficient with different flow velocities.

  17. Tectonic setting of the Great Dyke, Chembadzi, Chewore and Atchiza layered complexes in Zimbabwe and Mozambique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Master, S.

    1990-01-01

    The Great Dyke of Zimbabwe is one of the largest ultramafic-mafic layered igneous complexexs in the world. Because of the economic importance of large layered intrusions like the Great Dyke, their tectonic setting is of great interest. The Chembadzi complex is a 14 km long, dyke-like layered intrusion up to 800m wide. The Chewore complex, which was thought to have the structure of an irregular lopolith, outcrops over an area of about 200 km in horst blocks in the lower Zambezi Valley in northern Zimbabwe. The Atchiza complex is situated just north of the Cahora Bassa lake and the Zambezi River valley in Mozambique. In considering the tectonic setting of the Great Dyke and its correlatives, most attention has been focussed on events in the Limpopo Mobile Belt, which were responsible for producing the fractures in the Zimbabwe craton that is occupied by the intrusives. 39 refs

  18. Forearc Basin Stratigraphy and Interactions With Accretionary Wedge Growth According to the Critical Taper Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Atsushi

    2018-03-01

    Forearc basins are important constituents of sediment traps along subduction zones; the basin stratigraphy records various events that the basin experienced. Although the linkage between basin formation and accretionary wedge growth suggests that mass balance exerts a key control on their evolution, the interaction processes between basin and basement remain poorly understood. This study performed 2-D numerical simulations in which basin stratigraphy was controlled by changes in sediment fluxes with accretionary wedge growth according to the critical taper concept. The resultant stratigraphy depended on the degree of filling (i.e., whether the basin was underfilled or overfilled) and the volume balance between the sediment flux supplied to the basin from the hinterland and the accommodation space in the basin. The trenchward progradation of deposition with onlapping contacts on the trenchside basin floor occurred during the underfilled phase, which formed a wedge-shaped sedimentary unit. In contrast, the landward migration of the depocenter, with the tilting of strata, was characteristic for the overfilled phase. Condensed sections marked stratigraphic boundaries, indicating when sediment supply or accommodation space was limited. The accommodation-limited intervals could have formed during the end of wedge uplift or when the taper angle decreased and possibly associated with the development of submarine canyons as conduits for bypassing sediments from the hinterland. Variations in sediment fluxes and their balance exerted a strong influence on the stratigraphic patterns in forearc basins. Assessing basin stratigraphy could be a key to evaluating how subduction zones evolve through their interactions with changing surface processes.

  19. Hydrogeology of the carbonate rocks of the Lebanon Valley, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisler, Harold

    1963-01-01

    The Lebanon Valley, which is part of the Great Valley in southeastern Pennsylvania, is underlain by carbonate rocks in the southern part and by shale in the northern part. The carbonate rocks consist of alternating beds of limestone and dolomite of Cambrian and Ordovician age. Although the beds generally dip to the south, progressively younger beds crop out to the north, because the rocks are overturned. The stratigraphic units, from oldest to youngest, are: the Buffalo Springs Formation, Snitz Creek, Schaefferstown, Millbach, and Richland Formations of the Conococheague Group; the Stonehenge, Rickenbach, Epler, and Ontelaunee Formations of the Beekmantown Group; and the Annville, Myerstown, and Hershey Limestones.

  20. Winter flooding in Dutch stream valley floodplains: biogeochemical effects and vegetation consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beumer, V.

    2009-01-01

    Winter flooding in Dutch stream valley floodplains: biogeochemical effects and vegetation consequences Victor Beumer Climatic change has great impacts on stream catchments and their ecology. Expectations are that more extreme climate events will result in undesired flooding in stream catchments. In

  1. Charcterization of meadow ecosystems based on watershed and valley segment/reach scale characteristics [chapter 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendy Trowbridge; Jeanne C. Chambers; Dru Germanoski; Mark L. Lord; Jerry R. Miller; David G. Jewett

    2011-01-01

    Great Basin riparian meadows are highly sensitive to both natural and anthropogenic disturbance. As detailed in earlier chapters, streams in the central Great Basin have a natural tendency to incise due to their geomorphic history (Miller and others 2001, 2004). Anthropogenic disturbances, including overgrazing by livestock, mining activities, and roads in the valley...

  2. Structural Evolution of the East Sierra Valley System (Owens Valley and Vicinity, California: A Geologic and Geophysical Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Blakely

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The tectonically active East Sierra Valley System (ESVS, which comprises the westernmost part of the Walker Lane-Eastern California Shear Zone, marks the boundary between the highly extended Basin and Range Province and the largely coherent Sierra Nevada-Great Valley microplate (SN-GVm, which is moving relatively NW. The recent history of the ESVS is characterized by oblique extension partitioned between NNW-striking normal and strike-slip faults oriented at an angle to the more northwesterly relative motion of the SN-GVm. Spatially variable extension and right-lateral shear have resulted in a longitudinally segmented valley system composed of diverse geomorphic and structural elements, including a discontinuous series of deep basins detected through analysis of isostatic gravity anomalies. Extension in the ESVS probably began in the middle Miocene in response to initial westward movement of the SN-GVm relative to the Colorado Plateau. At ca. 3–3.5 Ma, the SN-GVm became structurally separated from blocks directly to the east, resulting in significant basin-forming deformation in the ESVS. We propose a structural model that links high-angle normal faulting in the ESVS with coeval low-angle detachment faulting in adjacent areas to the east.

  3. Geology, selected geophysics, and hydrogeology of the White River and parts of the Great Salt Lake Desert regional groundwater flow systems, Utah and Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Peter D.; Dixon, Gary L.; Watrus , James M.; Burns, Andrews G.; Mankinen, Edward A.; McKee, Edwin H.; Pari, Keith T.; Ekren, E. Bartlett; Patrick , William G.; Comer, John B.; Inkenbrandt, Paul C.; Krahulec, K.A.; Pinnell, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    The east-central Great Basin near the Utah-Nevada border contains two great groundwater flow systems. The first, the White River regional groundwater flow system, consists of a string of hydraulically connected hydrographic basins in Nevada spanning about 270 miles from north to south. The northernmost basin is Long Valley and the southernmost basin is the Black Mountain area, a valley bordering the Colorado River. The general regional groundwater flow direction is north to south. The second flow system, the Great Salt Lake Desert regional groundwater flow system, consists of hydrographic basins that straddle

  4. Potassium isotope variations in forearc boninite-series volcanics from Chichijima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parendo, C. A.; Jacobsen, S. B.; Yamashita, K.; Okano, O.

    2017-12-01

    Variability in the K content of arc lavas is related to fundamental processes. These include (1) the transfer of material from the subducting slab to the mantle wedge, (2) melting occurring within the mantle wedge, and (3) differentiation processes, such as fractional crystallization, which greatly modify the compositions of magma bodies that erupt arc lavas. To explore these processes, samples from Chichijima, an island that is part of the Izu-Bonin forearc, were analyzed for 41K/39K ratios. Analyses were made using an Isoprobe-P MC-ICPMS equipped with a hexapole collision and reaction cell. Precisions obtained were typically about 0.05 ‰ (2SE). We have acquired 41K/39K ratios from eight samples. 41K/39K ratios are reported relative to an estimate of Bulk Silicate Earth. Six of the analyzed samples have 41K/39K ratios that span a range between -0.01 and -0.48 ‰. One sample has a much higher value, +0.44 ‰, and one a much lower value, -1.38 ‰. The samples are variably differentiated, with MgO content ranging approximately from 17 to 1 wt. %. An apparent trend is observed in which the most primitive lavas have 41K/39K ratios near 0.0 ‰ and more evolved lavas have more negative values. A working hypothesis is that 41K/39K ratios vary among these samples because of fractional crystallization. However, multiple other processes need to be considered, including, for some samples, possible post-emplacement alteration. If fractional crystallization is controlling 41K/39K ratios, this requires a precipitating mineral that both incorporates a substantial amount of K and fractionates 41K/39K ratios. Minerals that potentially meet these criteria include feldspars and micas. Effects on 41K/39K ratios may become more pronounced during the later stages of differentiation, when precipitating minerals incorporate more K. Further study will test this hypothesis and explore which minerals may be causing isotopic fractionation. If the fractional crystallization effects can

  5. 77 FR 33237 - Saline Valley Warm Springs Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Death Valley National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-05

    ... Valley Warm Springs Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Death Valley National Park, Inyo... an Environmental Impact Statement for the Saline Valley Warm Springs Management Plan, Death Valley... analysis process for the Saline Valley Warm Springs Management Plan for Death Valley [[Page 33238...

  6. Holocene evolution of the Tonle Sap Lake: valley network infill and rates of sedimentation in Cambodia's Great Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, J.; Darby, S. E.; Langdon, P. G.; Hackney, C. R.; Leyland, J.; Parsons, D. R.; Aalto, R. E.; Marti, M.

    2017-12-01

    Tonle Sap Lake, the largest freshwater lake in SE Asia (c. 120km long and 35 km wide), is a vital ecosystem that provides 40-60% of the protein for the population of Cambodia. The lake is fed by flow from the Mekong River that causes the lake rise in level by c. 8m during monsoonal and cyclone-related floods, with drainage of the lake following the monsoon. Hydropower dam construction on the Mekong River has raised concerns as to the fragility of the Tonle Sap habitat due to any changing water levels and sedimentation rates within the lake. This paper details results of sub-bottom profiling surveys of Tonle Sap Lake in October 2014 that detailed the stratigraphy of the lake and assessed rates of infill. An Innomar Parametric Echo Sounder (PES) was used to obtain c. 250 km of sub-bottom profiles, with penetration up to 15m below the lake bed at a vertical resolution of c. 0.20m. These PES profiles were linked to cores from the north of the lake and previous literature. The PES profiles reveal a network of valleys, likely LGM, with relief up to c. 15-20m, that have been infilled by a suite of Holocene sediments. The valley surface is picked out as a strong reflector throughout the lake, and displays a series of valleys that are up to c. 15m deep and commonly 50-200m wide, although some of the largest valleys are 1.2km in width. Modelling of channel network incision during LGM conditions generates landscapes consistent with our field observations. The Tonle Sap valley network is infilled by sediments that show firstly fluvial and/or subaerial slope sedimentation, and then by extensive, parallel-bedded, lacustrine sedimentation. Lastly, the top c. 1m of sedimentation is marked by a distinct basal erosional surface that can be traced over much of the Tonle Sap Lake, and that is overlain by a series of parallel PES reflections. This upper sediment layer is interpreted to represent sedimentation in the Tonle Sap lake due to sediment suspension settling but after a period

  7. Surface sediment remobilization triggered by earthquakes in the Nankai forearc region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okutsu, N.; Ashi, J.; Yamaguchi, A.; Irino, T.; Ikehara, K.; Kanamatsu, T.; Suganuma, Y.; Murayama, M.

    2017-12-01

    Submarine landslides triggered by earthquakes generate turbidity currents (e.g. Piper et al., 1988; 1999). Recently several studies report that the remobilization of the surface sediment triggered by earthquakes can also generate turbidity currents. However, studies that proposed such process are still limited (e.g. Ikehara et al., 2016; Mchugh et al., 2016; Moernaut et al., 2017). The purpose of this study is to examine those sedimentary processes in the Nankai forearc region, SW Japan using sedimentary records. We collected 46 cm-long multiple core (MC01) and a 6.7 m-long piston core (PC03) from the small basin during the R/V Shinsei Maru KS-14-8 cruise. The small confined basin, which is our study site, block the paths of direct sediment supply from river-submarine canyon system. The sampling site is located at the ENE-WSW elongated basin between the accretionary prism and the forearc basin off Kumano without direct sediment supply from river-submarine canyon system. The basin exhibits a confined basin that captures almost of sediments supplied from outside. Core samples are mainly composed of silty clay or very fine sand. Cs-137 measurement conducted on a MC01 core shows constantly high value at the upper 17 cm section and no detection below it. Moreover, the sedimentary structure is similar to fine-grained turbidite described by Stow and Shanmgam (1980), we interpret the upper 17 cm of MC01 as muddy turbidite. Grain size distribution and magnetic susceptibility also agree to this interpretation. Rapid sediment deposition after 1950 is assumed and the most likely event is the 2004 off Kii peninsula earthquakes (Mw=6.6-7.4). By calculation from extent of provenance area, which are estimated by paleocurrent analysis and bathymetric map, and thickness of turbidite layer we conclude that surface 1 cm of slope sediments may be remobilized by the 2004 earthquakes. Muddy turbidites are also identified in a PC03 core. The radiocarbon age gap of 170 years obtained

  8. Multibeam bathymetric survey of the Ipala Submarine Canyon, Jalisco, Mexico (20°N): The southern boundary of the Banderas Forearc Block?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urías Espinosa, J.; Bandy, W. L.; Mortera Gutiérrez, C. A.; Núñez Cornú, Fco. J.; Mitchell, N. C.

    2016-03-01

    The Middle America Trench bends sharply northward at 20°N. This, along with the close proximity of the Rivera-North America Euler pole to the northern end of this trench, sharply increases the obliquity of subduction at 20°N. By analogy with other subduction zones with similar sharply changing obliquity, significant trench parallel extension is expected to exist in the forearc region near the bend. To evaluate this possibility, multibeam bathymetric, seafloor backscatter and sub-bottom seismic reflection data were collected in this area during the MORTIC08 campaign of the B.O. El Puma. These data image in detail a large submarine canyon (the Ipala Canyon) extending from the coast at 20°05‧N to the Middle America Trench at 19°50‧N. This canyon is 114 km long and is fed by sediments originating from two, possibly three, small rivers: the Ipala, Tecolotlán and Maria Garza. This canyon deeply incises (up to 600 m) the entire continental slope and at least the outer part of the shelf. Within the canyon, we observe meanders and narrow channels produced by turbidity flows indicating that the canyon is active. In the marginal areas of the canyon slumps, rills, and uplifts suggest that mass movements and fluid flow have had a major impact on the seafloor morphology. The seafloor bathymetry, backscatter images and sub-bottom reflection profiles evidence the tectonic processes occurring in this area. Of particular interest, the canyon is deflected by almost 90° at three locations, the deflections all having a similar azimuth of between 125° and 130°. Given the prominence and geometry of this canyon, along with its tectonic setting, we propose that the presence of the canyon is related to extension produced by the sharp change in the plate convergence. If so, the canyon may lie along the southeast boundary of a major forearc block (the Banderas Forearc Block).

  9. Ancient mantle in a modern arc: osmium isotopes in izu-bonin-mariana forearc peridotites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson; Hawkesworth; Cohen

    1998-09-25

    Mantle peridotites drilled from the Izu-Bonin-Mariana forearc have unradiogenic 187Os/188Os ratios (0.1193 to 0.1273), which give Proterozoic model ages of 820 to 1230 million years ago. If these peridotites are residues from magmatism during the initiation of subduction 40 to 48 million years ago, then the mantle that melted was much more depleted in incompatible elements than the source of mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB). This result indicates that osmium isotopes record information about ancient melting events in the convecting upper mantle not recorded by incompatible lithophile isotope tracers. Subduction zones may be a graveyard for ancient depleted mantle material, and portions of the convecting upper mantle may be less radiogenic in osmium isotopes than previously recognized.

  10. 187Os/188Os of boninites from the Izu-Bonin-Mariana forearc, IODP Exp 352

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niles, D. E.; Nelson, W. R.; Reagan, M. K.; Pearce, J. A.; Godard, M.; Shervais, J. W.

    2016-12-01

    The Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) subduction zone is an ideal laboratory in which to study the evolution of a subduction zone from its initiation to the development of modern-day arc volcanism. Boninite lavas were produced in the IBM forearc region during the early stages of subduction and are thought to have been generated by flux melting the previously depleted mantle wedge. Mariana forearc mantle peridotites record unradiogenic 187Os/188Os signatures (0.1193-0.1273) supporting the existence of variably depleted mantle in this region (Parkinson et al., 1998). In order to understand the connection between the regional mantle, slab-derived fluids, and the generation of boninites, Re-Os isotopic data were measured on subset of boninite-series lavas obtained during IODP Expedition 352. Preliminary age-corrected (48 Ma) 187Os/188Os isotopic data for boninite-series lavas (sites U1439C and U1442A) are unradiogenic to modestly radiogenic (0.1254-0.1390) compared to primitive mantle (0.1296), consistent with Os isotopic data from boninite sands from the Bonin Islands (0.1279-0.1382; Suzuki et al., 2011). The least radiogenic boninites have 187Os/188Os (< 0.1296) values consistent with average MORB mantle recorded globally by abyssal peridotites (0.1238 ± 0.0042; Rudnick & Walker, 2009). However, boninite lavas were not derived from the most refractory ancient mantle recorded by Mariana peridotites. Unradiogenic boninites generally have higher Os abundances (0.043-0.567 ppb), whereas more radiogenic boninites have low Os abundances (0.015-0.036). Due to their low Os abundances, the moderately radiogenic isotopic signatures may be the result of interaction with highly radiogenic seawater or incorporation of radiogenic sediment (e.g. Suzuki et al. 2011). However, the radiogenic values could also be the result of fluid flux from the subducting Pacific plate.

  11. Source Evolution After Subduction Initiation as Recorded in the Izu-Bonin-Mariana Fore-arc Crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shervais, J. W.; Reagan, M. K.; Pearce, J. A.; Shimizu, K.

    2015-12-01

    Drilling in the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) fore-arc during IODP Expedition 352 and DSDP Leg 60 recovered consistent stratigraphic sequences of volcanic rocks reminiscent of those found in many ophiolites. The oldest lavas in these sections are "fore-arc basalts" (FAB) with ~51.5 Ma ages. Boninites began eruption approximately 2-3 m.y. later (Ishizuka et al., 2011, EPSL; Reagan et al., 2013, EPSL) and further from the trench. First results from IODP Expedition 352 and preliminary post-cruise data suggest that FAB at Sites U1440 and U1441 were generated by decompression melting during near-trench sea-floor spreading, and that fluids from the subducting slab were not involved in their genesis. Temperatures appear to have been unusually high and pressures of melting appear to have been unusually low compared to mid-ocean ridges. Spreading rates at this time appear to have been robust enough to maintain a stable melt lens. Incompatible trace element abundances are low in FAB compared to even depleted MORB. Nd and Hf Isotopic compositions published before the expedition suggest that FAB were derived from typical MORB source mantle. Thus, their extreme deletion resulted from unusually high degrees of melting immediately after subduction initiation. The oldest boninites from DSDP Site 458 and IODP Sites U1439 and U1442 have relatively high concentrations of fluid-soluble elements, low concentrations of REE, and light depleted REE patterns. Younger boninites, have even lower REE concentrations, but have U-shaped REE patterns. Our first major and trace element compositions for the FAB through boninite sequence suggests that melting pressures and temperatures decreased through time, mantle became more depleted though time, and spreading rates waned during boninite genesis. Subduction zone fluids involved in boninite genesis appear to have been derived from progressively higher temperatures and pressures over time as the subducting slab thermally matured.

  12. Late Pleistocene Hansel Valley basaltic ash, northern Lake Bonneville, Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D.M.; Oviatt, Charles G.; Nash, B.P.

    2008-01-01

    The Hansel Valley ash bed lies within 5 cm of the base of deposits of Lake Bonneville (???28 ka) in the vicinity of Great Salt Lake and provides a useful stratigraphic marker for this area of the lake basin. However, it has not been matched to an eruptive edifice, presumably because such an edifice was eroded by waves of Lake Bonneville. We present data for the chemical composition of the tephra and for possible matching lavas and tephras of the region, as well as grain size data for the tephra in an attempt to identify the location of the eruption. Matches with other tephras are negative, but lavas near the coarsest ash deposits match well with the distinctive high values of TiO2 and P2O5 of the ash. Neither chemistry nor grain size data points uniquely to a source area, but an area near the northwest shore of Great Salt Lake and within Curlew Valley is most likely. The Hansel Valley ash is an example of an ash that has no direct numerical date from proximal deposits, despite considerable study, yet nonetheless is useful for stratigraphic studies by virtue of its known stratigraphic position and approximate age. Basaltic tephras commonly are not as widespread as their rhyolitic counterparts, and in some cases apparently are produced by eruptive sources that are short lived and whose edifices are not persistent. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.

  13. Palaeointensity determinations and magnetic properties on Eocene rocks from Izu-Bonin-Mariana forearc (IODP Exp. 352)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvallo, C.; Camps, P.; Sager, W. W.; Poidras, T.

    2017-09-01

    IODP Expedition 352 cored igneous rocks from the Izu-Bonin-Mariana forearc crust. Cores from Sites U1440 and U1441 recovered Eocene basalts and related rocks and cores from Sites U1439 and U1442 recovered Eocene boninites and related rocks. We selected samples from Holes U1439C, U1440B and U1442A for palaeointensity measurements. Hysteresis measurements and high and low-temperature magnetization curves show that samples from Hole U1440B undergo magneto-chemical changes when heated and are mostly composed of single-domain (SD) or pseudo-single-domain (PSD) titanomaghemite. In contrast, the same measurements show that most selected samples from Holes U1439C and U1442A are thermally stable and are composed of either SD or PSD titanomagnetite with very little titanium content, or SD ferromagnetic grains with a large paramagnetic contribution. Thellier-Thellier palaeointensity experiments carried out on U1439C and U1442A samples give a good success rate of 25/60 and Virtual Dipole Moment (VDM) values between 1.3 and 3.5 × 1022 Am2. Multispecimen palaeointensity experiments with the domain-state corrected method carried out on 55 samples from Hole U1440B (divided into four groups) and 20 from Hole U1439C gave poor quality results, but indicated a VDM around 4-6 × 1022 Am2 in Hole U1440B forearc basalts. These results are in agreement with the few, low VDM values previously measured on Eocene rocks. However, they do not support an inverse relationship between field intensity and reversal rate for this period of time, since the Eocene reversal rate was low.

  14. The Origin of Carbon-bearing Volatiles in Surprise Valley Hot Springs in the Great Basin: Carbon Isotope and Water Chemistry Characterizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qi; Socki, Richard A.; Niles, Paul B.; Romanek, Christopher; Datta, Saugata; Darnell, Mike; Bissada, Adry K.

    2013-01-01

    There are numerous hydrothermal fields within the Great Basin of North America, some of which have been exploited for geothermal resources. With methane and other carbon-bearing compounds being observed, in some cases with high concentrations, however, their origins and formation conditions remain unknown. Thus, studying hydrothermal springs in this area provides us an opportunity to expand our knowledge of subsurface (bio)chemical processes that generate organic compounds in hydrothermal systems, and aid in future development and exploration of potential energy resources as well. While isotope measurement has long been used for recognition of their origins, there are several secondary processes that may generate variations in isotopic compositions: oxidation, re-equilibration of methane and other alkanes with CO2, mixing with compounds of other sources, etc. Therefore, in addition to isotopic analysis, other evidence, including water chemistry and rock compositions, are necessary to identify volatile compounds of different sources. Surprise Valley Hot Springs (SVHS, 41 deg 32'N, 120 deg 5'W), located in a typical basin and range province valley in northeastern California, is a terrestrial hydrothermal spring system of the Great Basin. Previous geophysical studies indicated the presence of clay-rich volcanic and sedimentary rocks of Tertiary age beneath the lava flows in late Tertiary and Quaternary. Water and gas samples were collected for a variety of chemical and isotope composition analyses, including in-situ pH, alkalinity, conductivity, oxidation reduction potential (ORP), major and trace elements, and C and H isotope measurements. Fluids issuing from SVHS can be classified as Na-(Cl)-SO4 type, with the major cation and anion being Na+ and SO4(2-), respectively. Thermodynamic calculation using ORP and major element data indicated that sulfate is the most dominant sulfur species, which is consistent with anion analysis results. Aquifer temperatures at depth

  15. Valley polarization in bismuth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauque, Benoit

    2013-03-01

    The electronic structure of certain crystal lattices can contain multiple degenerate valleys for their charge carriers to occupy. The principal challenge in the development of valleytronics is to lift the valley degeneracy of charge carriers in a controlled way. In bulk semi-metallic bismuth, the Fermi surface includes three cigar-shaped electron valleys lying almost perpendicular to the high symmetry axis known as the trigonal axis. The in-plane mass anisotropy of each valley exceeds 200 as a consequence of Dirac dispersion, which drastically reduces the effective mass along two out of the three orientations. According to our recent study of angle-dependent magnetoresistance in bismuth, a flow of Dirac electrons along the trigonal axis is extremely sensitive to the orientation of in-plane magnetic field. Thus, a rotatable magnetic field can be used as a valley valve to tune the contribution of each valley to the total conductivity. As a consequence of a unique combination of high mobility and extreme mass anisotropy in bismuth, the effect is visible even at room temperature in a magnetic field of 1 T. Thus, a modest magnetic field can be used as a valley valve in bismuth. The results of our recent investigation of angle-dependent magnetoresistance in other semi-metals and doped semiconductors suggest that a rotating magnetic field can behave as a valley valve in a multi-valley system with sizeable mass anisotropy.

  16. Greening Turner Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byfield, M.

    2010-01-01

    This article discussed remedial activities undertaken in the Turner Valley. Remedial action in the valley must satisfy the financial concerns of engineers and investors as well as the environmental concerns of residents and regulators. Natural gas production in the Turner Valley began in 1914. The production practices were harmful and wasteful. Soil and water pollution was not considered a problem until recently. The impacts of cumulative effects and other pollution hazards are now being considered as part of many oil and gas environmental management programs. Companies know it is cheaper and safer to prevent pollutants from being released, and more efficient to clean them up quickly. Oil and gas companies are also committed to remediating historical problems. Several factors have simplified remediation plans in the Turner Valley. Area real estate values are now among the highest in Alberta. While the valley residents are generally friendly to the petroleum industry, strong communication with all stakeholders in the region is needed. 1 fig.

  17. Catastrophic valley fills record large Himalayan earthquakes, Pokhara, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolle, Amelie; Bernhardt, Anne; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Hoelzmann, Philipp; Adhikari, Basanta R.; Fort, Monique; Korup, Oliver

    2017-12-01

    Uncertain timing and magnitudes of past mega-earthquakes continue to confound seismic risk appraisals in the Himalayas. Telltale traces of surface ruptures are rare, while fault trenches document several events at best, so that additional proxies of strong ground motion are needed to complement the paleoseismological record. We study Nepal's Pokhara basin, which has the largest and most extensively dated archive of earthquake-triggered valley fills in the Himalayas. These sediments form a 148-km2 fan that issues from the steep Seti Khola gorge in the Annapurna Massif, invading and plugging 15 tributary valleys with tens of meters of debris, and impounding several lakes. Nearly a dozen new radiocarbon ages corroborate at least three episodes of catastrophic sedimentation on the fan between ∼700 and ∼1700 AD, coinciding with great earthquakes in ∼1100, 1255, and 1344 AD, and emplacing roughly >5 km3 of debris that forms the Pokhara Formation. We offer a first systematic sedimentological study of this formation, revealing four lithofacies characterized by thick sequences of mid-fan fluvial conglomerates, debris-flow beds, and fan-marginal slackwater deposits. New geochemical provenance analyses reveal that these upstream dipping deposits of Higher Himalayan origin contain lenses of locally derived river clasts that mark time gaps between at least three major sediment pulses that buried different parts of the fan. The spatial pattern of 14C dates across the fan and the provenance data are key to distinguishing these individual sediment pulses, as these are not evident from their sedimentology alone. Our study demonstrates how geomorphic and sedimentary evidence of catastrophic valley infill can help to independently verify and augment paleoseismological fault-trench records of great Himalayan earthquakes, while offering unparalleled insights into their long-term geomorphic impacts on major drainage basins.

  18. Tectonic drivers of the Wrangell block: Insights on fore-arc sliver processes from 3-D geodynamic models of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynie, K. L.; Jadamec, M. A.

    2017-07-01

    Intracontinental shear zones can play a key role in understanding how plate convergence is manifested in the upper plate in regions of oblique subduction. However, the relative role of the driving forces from the subducting plate and the resisting force from within intracontinental shear zones is not well understood. Results from high-resolution, geographically referenced, instantaneous 3-D geodynamic models of flat slab subduction at the oblique convergent margin of Alaska are presented. These models investigate how viscosity and length of the Denali fault intracontinental shear zone as well as coupling along the plate boundary interface modulate motion of the Wrangell block fore-arc sliver and slip across the Denali fault. Models with a weak Denali fault (1017 Pa s) and strong plate coupling (1021 Pa s) were found to produce the fastest motions of the Wrangell block (˜10 mm/yr). The 3-D models predict along-strike variation in motion along the Denali fault, changing from dextral strike-slip motion in the eastern segment to oblique convergence toward the fault apex. Models further show that the flat slab drives oblique motion of the Wrangell block and contributes to 20% (models with a short fault) and 28% (models with a long fault) of the observed Quaternary slip rates along the Denali fault. The 3-D models provide insight into the general processes of fore-arc sliver mechanics and also offer a 3-D framework for interpreting hazards in regions of flat slab subduction.

  19. Geological Development of the Izu-Bonin Forearc Since the Eocene Based on Biostratigraphic, Rock Magnetic, and Sediment Provenance Observations from IODP Expedition 352 Drill Cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petronotis, K. E.; Robertson, A.; Kutterolf, S.; Avery, A.; Baxter, A.; Schindlbeck, J. C.; Wang, K. L.; Acton, G.

    2016-12-01

    International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 352 recovered early Oligocene to recent sediments above Eocene igneous basement at 4 sites in the Izu-Bonin Forearc. The sites were selected to investigate the forearc region since subduction initiation in the Eocene, with Sites U1439 and U1442 being cored into the upper trench slope and Sites U1440 and U1441 into the lower trench slope. Postcruise studies of biostratigraphy, sediment chemistry, tephra composition and chronology and magnetic properties, along with observations from prior coring help constrain the regional geological development. Volcanic activity in the area, as inferred from its influence on sediment composition, has varied between long periods of activity and quiescence. Combined whole-rock sediment chemistry and tephra compositions suggest that during the Oligocene to earliest Miocene ( 30-22 Ma) tuffaceous input of predominantly dacitic composition was mainly derived from the intra-oceanic Izu-Bonin Arc. The early Miocene interval ( 22-15 Ma) lacks tuffaceous input, as supported by rock magnetic data. During this period, the forearc subsided beneath the carbonate compensation depth (CCD), as evidenced by radiolarian-bearing mud and metal-rich silty clay. This was followed by input of tephra with bimodal felsic and mafic compositions from the Izu-Bonin Arc from 15 to 5 Ma. Middle Miocene to Quaternary time was characterized by increased carbonate preservation, coupled with abundant, predominantly felsic tephra input, which is chemically indicative of a Japan continental arc source (Honshu), with additional chemically distinctive input from the Izu-Bonin Arc. Extending back to 32 Ma, tephra layers can be correlated between the upper-slope sites, extrapolated to the less well-dated lower-slope sites, and further correlated with onland Japanese tephra (Kutterolf et al., 2016; Goldschmidt Conference). Overall, the new results provide an improved understanding of the regional tectonic evolution.

  20. Palaeointensity determinations and rock magnetic properties on rocks from Izu-Bonin-Mariana fore-arc (IODP Exp. 352).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvallo, Claire; Camps, Pierre; Sager, Will; Poidras, Thierry

    2017-04-01

    IODP Expedition 352 cored igneous rocks from the Izu-Bonin-Mariana fore-arc crust: Sites U1440 and U1441 recovered Eocene basalts and related rocks whereas Sites U1439 and U1442 recovered Eocene boninites and related rocks. We selected samples from Holes U1439C, U1440B and U1440A for paleointensity measurements. Hysteresis measurements and high and low-temperature magnetization curves show that samples from Hole U1440B undergo magnetochemical changes when heated and are mostly composed of single-domain (SD) or pseudo-single-domain (PSD) titanomaghemite. In contrast, the same measurements show that most selected samples from Holes U1439C and U1442A are thermally stable and are composed of either SD or PSD titanomagnetite with very little titanium content, or SD ferromagnetic grains with a large paramagnetic contribution. Thellier-Thellier paleointensity experiments carried out on U1439C and U1442A samples give a good success rate of 25/60 and Virtual Dipole Moment values between 1.3 and 3.5 ×1022 Am2. Multispecimen paleointensity experiments carried out on 55 samples from Hole U1440B (divided into 4 groups) and 20 from Hole U1439C gave poor quality result, but they seem to indicate a VDM around 4-6 ×1022 Am2 in Hole U1440B fore-arc basalts. These results are in agreement with the low few VDM values previously measured on rocks from Eocene. However, they do not support an inverse relationship between intensity of the field and rate of reversal, since the rate of reversal in Eocene was rather low.

  1. Air quality modeling in the Valley of Mexico: meteorology, emissions and forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Reynoso, A.; Jazcilevich, A. D.; Diaz-Nigenda, E.; Vazquez-Morales, W.; Torres-Jardon, R.; Ruiz-Suarez, G.; Tatarko, J.; Bornstein, R.

    2007-12-01

    The Valley of Mexico presents important challenges for air quality modeling: complex terrain, a great variety of anthropogenic and natural emissions sources, and high altitude and low latitude increasing the amount of radiation flux. The modeling group at the CCA-UNAM is using and merging state of the art models to study the different aspects that influence the air quality phenomenon in the Valley of Mexico. The air quality model MCCM that uses MM5 as its meteorological input has been a valuable tool to study important features of the complex and intricate atmospheric flows on the valley, such as local confluences and vertical fumigation. Air quality modeling has allowed studying the interaction between the atmospheres of the valleys surrounding the Valley of Mexico, prompting the location of measurement stations during the MILAGRO campaign. These measurements confirmed the modeling results and expanded our knowledge of the transport of pollutants between the Valleys of Cuernavaca, Puebla and Mexico. The urban landscape of Mexico City complicates meteorological modeling. Urban-MM5, a model that explicitly takes into account the influence of buildings, houses, streets, parks and anthropogenic heat, is being implemented. Preliminary results of urban-MM5 on a small area of the city have been obtained. The current emissions inventory uses traffic database that includes hourly vehicular activity in more than 11,000 street segments, includes 23 area emissions categories, more than 1,000 industrial sources and biogenic emissions. To improve mobile sources emissions a system consisting of a traffic model and a car simulator is underway. This system will allow for high time and space resolution and takes into account motor stress due to different driving regimes. An important source of emissions in the Valley of Mexico is erosion dust. The erosion model WEPS has been integrated with MM5 and preliminary results showing dust episodes over Mexico City have been obtained. A

  2. The fate of fluids released from subducting slab in northern Cascadia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ramachandran

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Large amounts of water carried down in subduction zones are driven upward into the overlying forearc upper mantle and crust as increasing temperatures and pressure dehydrate the subducting crust. Through seismic tomography velocities we show (a the overlying forearc mantle in northern Cascadia is hydrated to serpentinite, and (b there is low Poisson's ratio at the base of the forearc lower crust that may represent silica deposited from the rising fluids. From the velocities observed in the forearc mantle, the volume of serpentinite estimated is ∼30 %. This mechanically weak hydrated forearc region has important consequences in limits to great earthquakes and to collision tectonics. An approximately 10 km thick lower crustal layer of low Poisson's ratio (σ = 0.22 in the forearc is estimated to represent a maximum addition of ∼14 % by volume of quartz (σ = 0.09. If this quartz is removed from rising silica-saturated fluids over long times, it represents a significant addition of silica to the continental crust and an important contributor to its average composition.

  3. Evaluating the peak-to-valley dose ratio of synchrotron microbeams using PRESAGE fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annabell, N.; Yagi, N.; Umetani, K.; Wong, C.; Geso, M.

    2012-01-01

    The peak-to-valley dose ratio of a microbeam array can be measured by fluorescence of PRESAGE dosimeters. Peak-to-valley dose ratios are calculated using this new technique and also by EBT2 film. Synchrotron-generated microbeam radiotherapy holds great promise for future treatment, but the high dose gradients present conventional dosimetry with a challenge. Measuring the important peak-to-valley dose ratio (PVDR) of a microbeam-collimated synchrotron source requires both a dosimeter and an analysis method capable of exceptional spatial resolution. The PVDR is of great interest since it is the limiting factor for potential application of the microbeam radiation therapy technique clinically for its tissue-sparing properties (i.e. the valley dose should be below the tolerance of normal tissue). In this work a new method of measuring the dose response of PRESAGE dosimeters is introduced using the fluorescence from a 638 nm laser on a confocal laser-scanning microscope. This fluorescent microscopy method produces dosimetry data at a pixel size as low as 78 nm, giving a much better spatial resolution than optical computed tomography, which is normally used for scanning PRESAGE dosimeters. Using this technique the PVDR of the BL28B2 microbeam at the SPring-8 synchrotron in Japan is estimated to be approximately 52:1 at a depth of 2.5 mm. The PVDR was also estimated with EBT2 GAFchromic films as 30.5:1 at the surface in order to compare the PRESAGE fluorescent results with a more established dosimetry system. This estimation is in good agreement with previously measured ratios using other dosimeters and Monte Carlo simulations. This means that it is possible to use PRESAGE dosimeters with confocal microscopy for the determination of PVDR

  4. Valley-filtered edge states and quantum valley Hall effect in gated bilayer graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu-Long; Xu, Lei; Zhang, Jun

    2017-05-10

    Electron edge states in gated bilayer graphene in the quantum valley Hall (QVH) effect regime can carry both charge and valley currents. We show that an interlayer potential splits the zero-energy level and opens a bulk gap, yielding counter-propagating edge modes with different valleys. A rich variety of valley current states can be obtained by tuning the applied boundary potential and lead to the QVH effect, as well as to the unbalanced QVH effect. A method to individually manipulate the edge states by the boundary potentials is proposed.

  5. The Origin of Carbon-bearing Volatiles in Surprise Valley Hot Springs in the Great Basin: Carbon Isotope aud Water Chemistry Characterizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qi; Socki, Richard A.; Niles, Paul B.; Romanek, Christopher; Datta, Saugata; Darnell, Mike; Bissada, Adry K.

    2013-01-01

    There are numerous hydrothermal fields within the Great Basin of North America, some of which have been exploited for geothermal resources. With methane and other carbon-bearing compounds being observed, in some cases with high concentrations, however, their origins and formation conditions remain unknown. Thus, studying hydrothermal springs in this area provides us an opportunity to expand our knowledge of subsurface (bio)chemical processes that generate organic compounds in hydrothermal systems, and aid in future development and exploration of potential energy resources as well. While isotope measurement has long been used for recognition of their origins, there are several secondary processes that may generate variations in isotopic compositions: oxidation, re-equilibration of methane and other alkanes with CO2, mixing with compounds of other sources, etc. Therefore, in addition to isotopic analysis, other evidence, including water chemistry and rock compositions, are necessary to identify volatile compounds of different sources. Surprise Valley Hot Springs (SVHS, 41º32'N, 120º5'W), located in a typical basin and range province valley in northeastern California, is a terrestrial hydrothermal spring system of the Great Basin. Previous geophysical studies indicated the presence of clay-rich volcanic and sedimentary rocks of Tertiary age beneath the lava flows in late Tertiary and Quaternary. Water and gas samples were collected for a variety of chemical and isotope composition analyses, including in-situ pH, alkalinity, conductivity, oxidation reduction potential (ORP), major and trace elements, and C and H isotope measurements. Fluids issuing from SVHS can be classified as Na-(Cl)-SO4 type, with the major cation and anion being Na+ and SO4 2-, respectively. Thermodynamic calculation using ORP and major element data indicated that sulfate is the most dominant sulfur species, which is consistent with anion analysis results. Aquifer temperatures at depth estimated

  6. Seismic velocity structure of the forearc in northern Cascadia from Bayesian inversion of teleseismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, J.; Audet, P.; Schaeffer, A. J.

    2017-12-01

    The seismic velocity structure in the forearc of subduction zones provides important constraints on material properties, with implications for seismogenesis. In Cascadia, previous studies have imaged a downgoing low-velocity zone (LVZ) characterized by an elevated P-to-S velocity ratio (Vp/Vs) down to 45 km depth, near the intersection with the mantle wedge corner, beyond which the signature of the LVZ disappears. These results, combined with the absence of a "normal" continental Moho, indicate that the down-going oceanic crust likely carries large amounts of overpressured free fluids that are released downdip at the onset of crustal eclogitization, and are further stored in the mantle wedge as serpentinite. These overpressured free fluids affect the stability of the plate interface and facilitate slow slip. These results are based on the inversion and migration of scattered teleseismic data for individual layer properties; a methodology which suffers from regularization and smoothing, non-uniqueness, and does not consider model uncertainty. This study instead applies trans-dimensional Bayesian inversion of teleseismic data collected in the forearc of northern Cascadia (the CAFÉ experiment in northern Washington) to provide rigorous, quantitative estimates of local velocity structure, and associated uncertainties (particularly Vp/Vs structure and depth to the plate interface). Trans-dimensional inversion is a generalization of fixed-dimensional inversion that includes the number (and type) of parameters required to describe the velocity model (or data error model) as unknown in the problem. This allows model complexity to be inherently determined by data information content, not by subjective regularization. The inversion is implemented here using the reversible-jump Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm. The result is an ensemble set of candidate velocity-structure models which approximate the posterior probability density (PPD) of the model parameters. The solution

  7. Valley development on Hawaiian volcanoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, V.R.; Gulick, V.C.

    1987-01-01

    Work in progress on Hawaiian drainage evolution indicates an important potential for understanding drainage development on Mars. Similar to Mars, the Hawaiian valleys were initiated by surface runoff, subsequently enlarged by groundwater sapping, and eventually stabilized as aquifers were depleted. Quantitative geomorphic measurements were used to evaluate the following factors in Hawaiian drainage evolution: climate, stream processes, and time. In comparing regions of similar climate, drainage density shows a general increase with the age of the volcani island. With age and climate held constant, sapping dominated valleys, in contrast to runoff-dominated valleys, display the following: lower drainage densities, higher ratios of valley floor width to valley height, and more positive profile concavities. Studies of stream junction angles indicate increasing junction angles with time on the drier leeward sides of the major islands. The quantitative geomorphic studies and earlier field work yielded important insights for Martian geomorphology. The importance of ash mantling in controlling infiltration on Hawaii also seems to apply to Mars. The Hawaiian valley also have implications for the valley networks of Martian heavily cratered terrains

  8. Analysis of Mining-induced Valley Closure Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C.; Mitra, R.; Oh, J.; Hebblewhite, B.

    2016-05-01

    Valley closure movements have been observed for decades in Australia and overseas when underground mining occurred beneath or in close proximity to valleys and other forms of irregular topographies. Valley closure is defined as the inward movements of the valley sides towards the valley centreline. Due to the complexity of the local geology and the interplay between several geological, topographical and mining factors, the underlying mechanisms that actually cause this behaviour are not completely understood. A comprehensive programme of numerical modelling investigations has been carried out to further evaluate and quantify the influence of a number of these mining and geological factors and their inter-relationships. The factors investigated in this paper include longwall positional factors, horizontal stress, panel width, depth of cover and geological structures around the valley. It is found that mining in a series passing beneath the valley dramatically increases valley closure, and mining parallel to valley induces much more closure than other mining orientations. The redistribution of horizontal stress and influence of mining activity have also been recognised as important factors promoting valley closure, and the effect of geological structure around the valley is found to be relatively small. This paper provides further insight into both the valley closure mechanisms and how these mechanisms should be considered in valley closure prediction models.

  9. Evaluating connection of aquifers to springs and streams, Great Basin National Park and vicinity, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudic, David E.; Sweetkind, Donald S.; Jackson, Tracie R.; Dotson, K. Elaine; Plume, Russell W.; Hatch, Christine E.; Halford, Keith J.

    2015-12-22

    Federal agencies that oversee land management for much of the Snake Range in eastern Nevada, including the management of Great Basin National Park by the National Park Service, need to understand the potential extent of adverse effects to federally managed lands from nearby groundwater development. As a result, this study was developed (1) to attain a better understanding of aquifers controlling groundwater flow on the eastern side of the southern part of the Snake Range and their connection with aquifers in the valleys, (2) to evaluate the relation between surface water and groundwater along the piedmont slopes, (3) to evaluate sources for Big Springs and Rowland Spring, and (4) to assess groundwater flow from southern Spring Valley into northern Hamlin Valley. The study focused on two areas—the first, a northern area along the east side of Great Basin National Park that included Baker, Lehman, and Snake Creeks, and a second southern area that is the potential source area for Big Springs. Data collected specifically for this study included the following: (1) geologic field mapping; (2) drilling, testing, and water quality sampling from 7 test wells; (3) measuring discharge and water chemistry of selected creeks and springs; (4) measuring streambed hydraulic gradients and seepage rates from 18 shallow piezometers installed into the creeks; and (5) monitoring stream temperature along selected reaches to identify places of groundwater inflow.

  10. Trench Parallel Bouguer Anomaly (TPBA): A robust measure for statically detecting asperities along the forearc of subduction zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeesi, M.

    2009-05-01

    During 1970s some researchers noticed that large earthquakes occur repeatedly at the same locations. These observations led to the asperity hypothesis. At the same times some researchers noticed that there was a relationship between the location of great interplate earthquakes and the submarine structures, basins in particular, over the rupture area in the forearc regions. Despite these observations there was no comprehensive and reliable hypothesis explaining the relationship. There were numerous cons and pros to the various hypotheses given in this regard. In their pioneering study, Song and Simons (2003) approached the problem using gravity data. This was a turning point in seismology. Although their approach was correct, appropriate gravity anomaly had to be used in order to reveal the location and extent of the asperities. Following the method of Song and Simons (2003) but using the Bouguer gravity anomaly that we called "Trench Parallel Bouguer Anomaly", TPBA, we found strong, logical, and convincing relation between the TPBA-derived asperities and the slip distribution as well as earthquake distribution, foreshocks and aftershocks in particular. Various parameters with different levels of importance are known that affect the contact between the subducting and the overriding plates, We found that the TPBA can show which are the important factors. Because the TPBA-derived asperities are based on static physical properties (gravity and elevation), they do not suffer from instabilities due to the trade-offs, as it happens for asperities derived in dynamic studies such as waveform inversion. Comparison of the TPBA-derived asperities with rupture processes of the well-studied great earthquakes, reveals the high level of accuracy of the TPBA. This new measure opens a forensic viewpoint on the rupture process along the subduction zones. The TPBA reveals the reason behind 9+ earthquakes and it explains where and why they occur. The TPBA reveals the areas that can

  11. In situ stress and pore pressure in the Kumano Forearc Basin, offshore SW Honshu from downhole measurements during riser drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffer, D. M.; Flemings, P. B.; Boutt, D.; Doan, M.-L.; Ito, T.; McNeill, L.; Byrne, T.; Conin, M.; Lin, W.; Kano, Y.; Araki, E.; Eguchi, N.; Toczko, S.

    2013-05-01

    situ stress and pore pressure are key parameters governing rock deformation, yet direct measurements of these quantities are rare. During Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition #319, we drilled through a forearc basin at the Nankai subduction zone and into the underlying accretionary prism. We used the Modular Formation Dynamics Tester tool (MDT) for the first time in IODP to measure in situ minimum stress, pore pressure, and permeability at 11 depths between 729.9 and 1533.9 mbsf. Leak-off testing at 708.6 mbsf conducted as part of drilling operations provided a second measurement of minimum stress. The MDT campaign included nine single-probe (SP) tests to measure permeability and in situ pore pressure and two dual-packer (DP) tests to measure minimum principal stress. Permeabilities defined from the SP tests range from 6.53 × 10-17 to 4.23 × 10-14 m2. Pore fluid pressures are near hydrostatic throughout the section despite rapid sedimentation. This is consistent with the measured hydraulic diffusivity of the sediments and suggests that the forearc basin should not trap overpressures within the upper plate of the subduction zone. Minimum principal stresses are consistently lower than the vertical stress. We estimate the maximum horizontal stress from wellbore failures at the leak-off test and shallow MDT DP test depths. The results indicate a normal or strike-slip stress regime, consistent with the observation of abundant active normal faults in the seaward-most part of the basin, and a general decrease in fault activity in the vicinity of Site C0009.

  12. Land-Sparing Opportunities for Solar Energy Development in Agricultural Landscapes: A Case Study of the Great Central Valley, CA, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffacker, Madison K; Allen, Michael F; Hernandez, Rebecca R

    2017-12-19

    Land-cover change from energy development, including solar energy, presents trade-offs for land used for the production of food and the conservation of ecosystems. Solar energy plays a critical role in contributing to the alternative energy mix to mitigate climate change and meet policy milestones; however, the extent that solar energy development on nonconventional surfaces can mitigate land scarcity is understudied. Here, we evaluate the land sparing potential of solar energy development across four nonconventional land-cover types: the built environment, salt-affected land, contaminated land, and water reservoirs (as floatovoltaics), within the Great Central Valley (CV, CA), a globally significant agricultural region where land for food production, urban development, and conservation collide. Furthermore, we calculate the technical potential (TWh year -1 ) of these land sparing sites and test the degree to which projected electricity needs for the state of California can be met therein. In total, the CV encompasses 15% of CA, 8415 km 2 of which was identified as potentially land-sparing for solar energy development. These areas comprise a capacity-based energy potential of at least 17 348 TWh year -1 for photovoltaic (PV) and 2213 TWh year -1 for concentrating solar power (CSP). Accounting for technology efficiencies, this exceeds California's 2025 projected electricity demands up to 13 and 2 times for PV and CSP, respectively. Our study underscores the potential of strategic renewable energy siting to mitigate environmental trade-offs typically coupled with energy sprawl in agricultural landscapes.

  13. A landscape scale valley confinement algorithm: Delineating unconfined valley bottoms for geomorphic, aquatic, and riparian applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Nagel; John M. Buffington; Sharon L. Parkes; Seth Wenger; Jaime R. Goode

    2014-01-01

    Valley confinement is an important landscape characteristic linked to aquatic habitat, riparian diversity, and geomorphic processes. This report describes a GIS program called the Valley Confinement Algorithm (VCA), which identifies unconfined valleys in montane landscapes. The algorithm uses nationally available digital elevation models (DEMs) at 10-30 m resolution to...

  14. Small martian valleys: Pristine and degraded morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, V.R.; Partridge, J.B.

    1986-01-01

    The equatorial heavily cratered uplands of Mars are dissected by two classes of small valleys that are intimately associated in compound networks. Pristine valleys with steep valley walls preferentially occupy downstream portions of compound basins. Degraded valleys with eroded walls are laterally more extensive and have higher drainage densities than pristine valleys. Morphometric and crater-counting studies indicate that relatively dense drainage networks were emplaced on Mars during the heavy bombardment about 4.0 b.y. ago. Over a period of approximately 10 8 years, these networks were degraded and subsequently invaded by headwardly extending pristine valleys. The pristine valleys locally reactivated the compound networks, probably through sapping processes dependent upon high water tables. Fluvial activity in the heavily cratered uplands generally ceased approximately 3.8--3.9 b.y. ago, coincident with the rapid decline in cratering rates. The relict compound valleys on Mars are morphometrically distinct from most terrestrial drainage systems. The differences might be caused by a Martian valley formation episode characterized by hyperaridity, by inadequate time for network growth, by very permeable rock types, or by a combination of factors

  15. Fore-arc Deformation in the Paola Basin Segment (Offshore Western Calabria) of the Tyrrhenian-Ionian Subduction System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe, F.; Corradino, M.; Nicolich, R.; Barreca, G.; Bertotti, G.; Ferranti, L.; Monaco, C.

    2017-12-01

    The 3D stratigraphic architecture and Late Neogene to Recent tectonic evolution of the Paola Basin (offshore western Calabria), a segment in the fore-arc of the Tyrrhenian-Ionian subduction system, is reconstructed by using a grid of high-penetration reflection seismics. Oligocene to Messinian deposits are interpreted all along the profile. They tend to fossilize preexisting topography and reach the largest thicknesses between (fault controlled) basement highs. Plio-Quaternary deposits are found over the entire area and display variations in thickness and tectonic style. They are thicken up to 4.5 km in the depocenter of the basin, and decrease both in the east and west termination of the lines. The Paola Basin can be partitioned into two sectors with different tectonic deformation, separated by a NNW-SSE elongated area that coincides with the basin depocenter. Tectonic features associated with strike-slip restraining and releasing bends are widely spread over the western sector of the basin. Overall, they form an approximately NS-trending and geomorphically prominent ridge separating the Paola Basin from the Marsili abyssal plain. A high-angle, NNE-trending, normal fault system develops on the south-west tip of the basin, where the faults offset the Messinian horizon of ca. 500 m. Data suggest that limited vertical slip occurs along reverse faults detected at the border and inside the sedimentary infilling of the Paola Basin, reaching thickness of more than 3.8s two way travel time. The reflection sequence pattern can be interpreted as a result of the infilling of the thrust-top basin related to a prograding system, located between a growth ramp-anticline to the west and a culmination of basement-thrust sheets to the East. We propose that the Paola Basin developed near the northern edge of the Ionian slab where tearing of the lithosphere is expected. Also, the strike-slip fault system is a kinematic consequence of obliquely convergent subduction settings, where

  16. Geologic summary of the Owens Valley drilling project, Owens and Rose Valleys, Inyo County, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaer, D.W.

    1981-07-01

    The Owens Valley Drilling Project consists of eight drill holes located in southwest Inyo County, California, having an aggregate depth of 19,205 feet (5853 m). Project holes penetrated the Coso Formation of upper Pliocene or early Pleistocene age and the Owens Lake sand and lakebed units of the same age. The project objective was to improve the reliability of uranium-potential-resource estimates assigned to the Coso Formation in the Owens Valley region. Uranium-potential-resource estimates for this area in $100 per pound U 3 O 8 forward-cost-category material have been estimatd to be 16,954 tons (15,384 metric tons). This estimate is based partly on project drilling results. Within the Owens Valley project area, the Coso Formation was encountered only in the Rose Valley region, and for this reason Rose Valley is considered to be the only portion of the project area favorable for economically sized uranium deposits. The sequence of sediments contained in the Owens Valley basin is considered to be largely equivalent but lithologically dissimilar to the Coso Formation of Haiwee Ridge and Rose Valley. The most important factor in the concentration of significant amounts of uranium in the rock units investigated appears to be the availability of reducing agents. Significant amounts of reductants (pyrite) were found in the Coso Formation. No organic debris was noted. Many small, disconnected uranium occurrences, 100 to 500 ppM U 3 O 8 , were encountered in several of the holes

  17. Pleistocene vertical motions of the Costa Rican outer forearc from subducting topography and a migrating fracture zone triple junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Joel H.; Kluesner, Jared W.; Silver, Eli A.; Bangs, Nathan L.

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the links between subducting slabs and upper-plate deformation is a longstanding goal in the field of tectonics. New 3D seismic sequence stratigraphy, mapped within the Costa Rica Seismogenesis Project (CRISP) seismic-reflection volume offshore southern Costa Rica, spatiotemporally constrains several Pleistocene outer forearc processes and provides clearer connections to subducting plate dynamics. Three significant shelf and/or slope erosional events at ca. 2.5–2.3 Ma, 1.95–1.78 Ma, and 1.78–1.19 Ma, each with notable differences in spatial extent, volume removed, and subsequent margin response, caused abrupt shifts in sedimentation patterns and rates. These shifts, coupled with observed deformation, suggest three primary mechanisms for Pleistocene shelf and slope vertical motions: (1) regional subaerial erosion and rapid subsidence linked to the southeastward Panama Fracture Zone triple-junction migration, with associated abrupt bathymetric variations and plate kinematic changes; (2) transient, kilometer-scale uplift and subsidence due to inferred subducting plate topography; and (3) progressive outer wedge shortening accommodated by landward- and seaward-dipping thrust faults and fold development due to the impinging Cocos Ridge. Furthermore, we find that the present-day wedge geometry (to within ∼3 km along strike) has been maintained through the Pleistocene, in contrast to modeled landward margin retreat. We also observe that deformation, i.e., extension and shortening, is decoupled from net margin subsidence. Our findings do not require basal erosion, and they suggest that the vertical motions of the Costa Rican outer forearc are not the result of a particular continuous process, but rather are a summation of plate to plate changes (e.g., passage of a fracture zone triple junction) and episodic events (e.g., subducting plate topography).

  18. Searching for conditions of observation of subduction seismogenic zone transients on Ocean Bottom Seismometers deployed at the Lesser Antilles submerged fore-arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bécel, Anne; Laigle, Mireille; Diaz, Jordi; Hirn, Alfred; Flueh, Ernst; Charvis, Philippe

    2010-05-01

    In the frame of the European Union « THALES WAS RIGHT » and French ANR CATTELL SUBSISMANTI funding, an unprecedented array of 80 OBS, Ocean Bottom Seismometers of Géoazur Nice, INSU/IPGP Paris, IfM-GEOMAR Kiel, AWI Bremerhaven could gathered. They have been deployed for continuous recording over four months on the fore-arc domain of the Lesser Antilles subduction zone offshore Martinique, Dominica, Guadeloupe and Antigua Islands, by scientific cruises of N/O ATALANTE, F/S M. A. MERIAN and N/O ANTEA. One of the aims of this OBS array was the feasibility study of detecting at sea-bottom the seismological part of recently discovered phenomena such as NVT non-volcanic tremors and LP, for Long-Period events. The ability of detecting such transient signals is of importance, since they are possibly related to potential mega-thrust earthquakes and their preparation zone. At the Lesser Antilles subduction zone, the fore-arc domain overlying the seismogenic part of the interplate is located offshore, covered by as much as 4000 m of water. In this case, transient signals can be accessible only from OBS observations. Hence, there is a major difference, in the sense of the instrumental and logistical effort, with the subductions under NW US-Canada and under Central Japan where these signals have been discovered. There, the subduction zones have an emerged fore-arc that has allowed the chance discovery of those phenomena by regular instrument maintained routinely on land. Over 20 of the instruments were BB-OBS, with broadband seismic sensors, possibly the largest such gathering at the time of the experiment among the OBS types. Among those broadband OBS designed or used by different Institutions, there were at least three different seismometer brands and acoustical sensors, as well as different mechanical mounting and technical solutions for coupling them to ground. This did not facilitate data recovery and processing, but on the other hand, as planned by interweaving the

  19. Valley dependent transport in graphene L junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, K. S.

    2018-05-01

    We studied the valley dependent transport in graphene L junctions connecting an armchair lead and a zigzag lead. The junction can be used in valleytronic devices and circuits. Electrons injected from the armchair lead into the junction is not valley polarized, but they can become valley polarized in the zigzag lead. There are Fermi energies, where the current in the zigzag lead is highly valley polarized and the junction is an efficient generator of valley polarized current. The features of the valley polarized current depend sensitively on the widths of the two leads, as well as the number of dimers in the armchair lead, because this number has a sensitive effect on the band structure of the armchair lead. When an external potential is applied to the junction, the energy range with high valley polarization is enlarged enhancing its function as a generator of highly valley polarized current. The scaling behavior found in other graphene devices is also found in L junctions, which means that the results presented here can be extended to junctions with larger dimensions after appropriate scaling of the energy.

  20. Sedimentologic development of a Late Oligocene Miocene forearc embayment, Valdivia Basin Complex, southern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    le Roux, J. P.; Elgueta, Sara

    2000-01-01

    Deposition of Tertiary sediments in the southeastern part of the Valdivia Basin commenced during the Late Oligocene with the rapid incision of rivers draining the Palaeo-Coastal Range. Alluvial fans developing along the steep valley flanks joined gravelly braided streams transporting bedload to the coast. Tectonic and eustatic stability lasting into the Early Miocene subsequently allowed lateral erosion of the valley flanks and the development of extensive fluvial and estuarine peat swamps. This stable period was interrupted briefly by a volcanic eruption at 23.5 Ma. Shortly after 23 Ma, rapid uplift caused by an acceleration in plate convergence resulted in renewed erosion of the landscape, as reflected in the deposition of coarse river gravels. Basin subsidence and marine transgression proceeding up the river valleys subsequently formed still, deep embayments, occasionally disturbed by debris flows and turbidity currents originating on the steep, wooded valley flanks. At the upper limits of the inlets, bayhead deltas, tidal flats and beaches existed. In some areas, fan deltas prograded into the embayments, as reflected in the interfingering relationship between conglomerates and marine mudrocks. In the deeper parts of the embayments, the frequency of debris flows and turbidity currents increased markedly during periods of relative sea-level lowstand. The landscape was eventually inundated by continued subsidence and marine transgression, which lasted until a possibly eustatic sea-level fall in the early Tortonian.

  1. Subsidence and Rebound in California's Central Valley: Effects of Pumping, Geology, and Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, T. G.; Fairbanks, A.

    2017-12-01

    Recent rains in California caused a pause, and even a reversal in some areas, of the subsidence that has plagued the Central Valley for decades. The 3 main drivers of surface deformation in the Central Valley are: Subsurface hydro-geology, precipitation and surface water deliveries, and groundwater pumping. While the geology is relatively fixed in time, water inputs and outputs vary greatly both in time and space. And while subsurface geology and water inputs are reasonably well-known, information about groundwater pumping amounts and rates is virtually non-existent in California. We have derived regional maps of surface deformation in the region for the period 2006 - present which allow reconstruction of seasonal and long-term changes. In order to understand the spatial and temporal patterns of subsidence and rebound in the Central Valley, we have been compiling information on the geology and water inputs and have attempted to infer pumping rates using maps of fallowed fields and published pumping information derived from hydrological models. In addition, the spatial and temporal patterns of hydraulic head as measured in wells across the region allow us to infer the spatial and temporal patterns of groundwater pumping and recharge more directly. A better understanding of how different areas (overlying different stratigraphy) of the Central Valley respond to water inputs and outputs will allow a predictive capability, potentially defining sustainable pumping rates related to water inputs. * work performed under contract to NASA and the CA Dept. of Water Resources

  2. Chemistry and Isotopic Composition of Slab-Derived Fluids from Serpentine Mud Volcanoes in the Mariana Forearc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, J. G.; Menzies, C. D.; Teagle, D. A. H.; Price, R. E.; Sissmann, O.; Wheat, C. G.; Boyce, A.

    2017-12-01

    Geological processes at subduction zone margins control seismicity, plutonism/ volcanism, and geochemical cycling between the oceans, crust, and mantle. The down-going plate experiences dehydration, and associated metamorphism alters the physical properties of the plate interface and mantle wedge. The Mariana convergent margin is non-accretionary, and serpentinite mud volcanoes in the pervasively faulted forearc mark loci of fluid and material egress from the subducting slab and forearc mantle. IODP Expedition 366 drilled into three serpentinite mud volcanoes: Yinazao (13 km depth-to-slab); Fantangisña (14 km) and Asùt Tesoru (18 km), allowing comparison with the previously drilled South Chamorro (18 km) and Conical (19 km) Seamounts. We use the changes in chemistry and isotopic composition of porefluids between seamounts to trace the evolution of the downgoing slab and water-rock interactions in the overlying mantle wedge. Boron isotopes allow investigation of the processes governing prograde metamorphism in the downgoing slab, and combined with O, D/H and Sr isotopes are used to assess the balance between seawater and dehydration fluids during mantle wedge serpentinization. The shallowest depth-to-slab seamounts, Yinazao and Fantangisña, are associated with Ca and Sr-enriched, but otherwise solute poor, low alkalinity fluids of pH 11. In contrast, the Asùt Tesoru seamount fluids are markedly higher in Na and Cl, as well as in tracers like B and K, which are associated with the breakdown of slab sheet silicate phases, and are depleted in Ca and Sr compared to seawater. Higher DIC at this site is attributed to slab carbonate decomposition. The elevated pH ( 12.5) is likely due to Fe2+ oxidation, producing H2 and OH- during serpentinization. Asùt Tesoru porefluids are similar to those studied at South Charmorro and Conical Seamounts that have similar depths to slab, although those sites have distinctly lower Na and Cl, but 3-4 times higher B concentrations

  3. Frictional property of rocks in the Izu-Bonin-Mariana Forearc under high temperature and pressure conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyodo, G.; Takahashi, M.; Saito, S.; Hirose, T.

    2014-12-01

    The Kanto region in central Japan lies atop of three tectonic plates: the North American Plate, the Pacific Plate, and the Philippine Sea Plate. The collision and subduction of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) arc on the Philippine Sea Plate into the Kanto region results in occurring the different type of earthquakes, including seismic slip (e.g., the Kanto earthquake) and aseismic creep (i.e., slow earthquakes around the Boso peninsula). The seismic and aseismic slip seems to generate side by side at almost same depth (probably nearly same P-T conditions). This study focus on frictional property of incoming materials to be subducted into the Kanto region, in order to examine a hypothesis that the different types of slips arise from different input materials. Thus, we have performed friction experiments on rocks that constitute the IBM forearc using a high P-T gas medium apparatus at AIST. We sampled five rocks (marl, boninite, andesite, sheared serpentinite and serpentinized dunite) recovered from the IBM forearc by Leg 125, Ocean Drilling Program (ODP Site 784, 786). The rocks were crushed and sieved into 10˜50 µm in grain size. Experiments were conducted at temperature of 300○C, confining pressure of 156 MPa, pore pressure of 60 MPa and axial displacement rates of 0.1 and 1 µm/s. For marl, andesite and boninite, a periodic stick-slip behavior appears at 1 µm/s. Rise time of the stick-slip behaviors are quite long (3.1, 9.9 and 14.2 sec, for marl, andesite and boninite, respectively). We called such events as a "slow stick-slip". Similar slow stick-slip behaviors were observed in previous studies (Noda and Shimamoto, 2010; Okazaki, 2013; Kaproth and Marone, 2013), but this is first time to recognize this characteristic slip behavior in sedimentary and igneous rocks. Although it is difficult to discuss the diverse slip behaviors observed at the Kanto region based on our limited experimental results, we will examine the conditions where the transition between

  4. Microscopic Identification of Prokaryotes in Modern and Ancient Halite, Saline Valley and Death Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Brian A.; Lowenstein, Tim K.; Timofeeff, Michael N.

    2009-06-01

    Primary fluid inclusions in halite crystallized in Saline Valley, California, in 1980, 2004-2005, and 2007, contain rod- and coccoid-shaped microparticles the same size and morphology as archaea and bacteria living in modern brines. Primary fluid inclusions from a well-dated (0-100,000 years), 90 m long salt core from Badwater Basin, Death Valley, California, also contain microparticles, here interpreted as halophilic and halotolerant prokaryotes. Prokaryotes are distinguished from crystals on the basis of morphology, optical properties (birefringence), and uniformity of size. Electron micrographs of microparticles from filtered modern brine (Saline Valley), dissolved modern halite crystals (Saline Valley), and dissolved ancient halite crystals (Death Valley) support in situ microscopic observations that prokaryotes are present in fluid inclusions in ancient halite. In the Death Valley salt core, prokaryotes in fluid inclusions occur almost exclusively in halite precipitated in perennial saline lakes 10,000 to 35,000 years ago. This suggests that trapping and preservation of prokaryotes in fluid inclusions is influenced by the surface environment in which the halite originally precipitated. In all cases, prokaryotes in fluid inclusions in halite from the Death Valley salt core are miniaturized (<1 μm diameter cocci, <2.5 μm long, very rare rod shapes), which supports interpretations that the prokaryotes are indigenous to the halite and starvation survival may be the normal response of some prokaryotes to entrapment in fluid inclusions for millennia. These results reinforce the view that fluid inclusions in halite and possibly other evaporites are important repositories of microbial life and should be carefully examined in the search for ancient microorganisms on Earth, Mars, and elsewhere in the Solar System.

  5. Topological Valley Transport in Two-dimensional Honeycomb Photonic Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuting; Jiang, Hua; Hang, Zhi Hong

    2018-01-25

    Two-dimensional photonic crystals, in analogy to AB/BA stacking bilayer graphene in electronic system, are studied. Inequivalent valleys in the momentum space for photons can be manipulated by simply engineering diameters of cylinders in a honeycomb lattice. The inequivalent valleys in photonic crystal are selectively excited by a designed optical chiral source and bulk valley polarizations are visualized. Unidirectional valley interface states are proved to exist on a domain wall connecting two photonic crystals with different valley Chern numbers. With the similar optical vortex index, interface states can couple with bulk valley polarizations and thus valley filter and valley coupler can be designed. Our simple dielectric PC scheme can help to exploit the valley degree of freedom for future optical devices.

  6. Mechanical control over valley magnetotransport in strained graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Ning, E-mail: maning@stu.xjtu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, MOE Key Laboratory of Advanced Transducers and Intelligent Control System, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Department of Applied Physics, MOE Key Laboratory for Nonequilibrium Synthesis and Modulation of Condensed Matter, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Zhang, Shengli, E-mail: zhangsl@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Department of Applied Physics, MOE Key Laboratory for Nonequilibrium Synthesis and Modulation of Condensed Matter, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Liu, Daqing, E-mail: liudq@cczu.edu.cn [School of Mathematics and Physics, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China)

    2016-05-06

    Recent experiments report that the graphene exhibits Landau levels (LLs) that form in the presence of a uniform strain pseudomagnetic field with magnitudes up to hundreds of tesla. We further reveal that the strain removes the valley degeneracy in LLs, and leads to a significant valley polarization with inversion symmetry broken. This accordingly gives rise to the well separated valley Hall plateaus and Shubnikov–de Haas oscillations. These effects are absent in strainless graphene, and can be used to generate and detect valley polarization by mechanical means, forming the basis for the new paradigm “valleytronics” applications. - Highlights: • We explore the mechanical strain effects on the valley magnetotransport in graphene. • We analytically derive the dc collisional and Hall conductivities under strain. • The strain removes the valley degeneracy in Landau levels. • The strain causes a significant valley polarization with inversion symmetry broken. • The strain leads to the well separated valley Hall and Shubnikov–de Haas effects.

  7. Small-scale Forearc Structure from Residual Bathymetry and Vertical Gravity Gradients at the Cocos-North America Subduction Zone offshore Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, E. S. M.; Ito, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The subduction of topographic relief on the incoming plate at subduction zones causes deformation of the plate interface as well as the overriding plate. Whether the resulting geometric irregularities play any role in inhibiting or inducing seismic rupture is a topic of relevance for megathrust earthquake source studies. A method to discern the small-scale structure at subduction zone forearcs was recently developed by Bassett and Watts (2015). Their technique constructs an ensemble average of the trench-perpendicular topography, and the removal of this regional tectonic signal reveals the short-wavelength residual bathymetric anomalies. Using examples from selected areas at the Tonga, Mariana, and Japan subduction zones, they were able to link residual bathymetric anomalies to the subduction of seamount chains, given the similarities in wavelength and amplitude to the morphology of seamounts that have yet to subduct. We focus here on an analysis of forearc structures found in the Mexico segment of the Middle America subduction zone, and their potential mechanical interaction with areas on the plate interface that have been previously identified as source regions for earthquake ruptures and aseismic events. We identified several prominent residual bathymetric anomalies off the Guerrero and Oaxaca coastlines, mainly in the shallow portion of the plate interface and between 15 and 50 kilometers away from the trench axis. The residual amplitude of these bathymetric anomalies is typically in the hundreds of meters. Some of the residual bathymetric anomalies offshore Oaxaca are found landward of seamount chains on the incoming Cocos Plate, suggesting that these anomalies are associated with the prior subduction of seamounts at the margin. We also separated the residual and regional components of satellite-based vertical gravity gradient data using a directional median filter to isolate the possible gravity signals from the seamount edifices.

  8. Field and experimental evidence for coseismic ruptures along shallow creeping faults in forearc sediments of the Crotone Basin, South Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsamo, Fabrizio; Aldega, Luca; De Paola, Nicola; Faoro, Igor; Storti, Fabrizio

    2014-05-01

    Large seismic slip occurring along shallow creeping faults in tectonically active areas represents an unsolved paradox, which is largely due to our poor understanding of the mechanics governing creeping faults, and to the lack of documented geological evidence showing how coseismic rupturing overprints creep in near-surface conditions. In this contribution we integrate field, petrophysical, mineralogical and friction data to characterize the signature of coseismic ruptures propagating along shallow creeping faults affecting unconsolidated forearc sediments of the seismically active Crotone Basin, in South Italy. Field observations of fault zones show widespread foliated cataclasites in fault cores, locally overprinted by sharp slip surfaces decorated by thin (0.5-1.5 cm) black gouge layers. Compared to foliated cataclasites, black gouges have much lower grain size, porosity and permeability, which may have facilitated slip weakening by thermal fluid pressurization. Moreover, black gouges are characterized by distinct mineralogical assemblages compatible with high temperatures (180-200°C) due to frictional heating during seismic slip. Foliated cataclasites and black gouges were also produced by laboratory friction experiments performed on host sediments at sub-seismic (≤ 0.1 m/s) and seismic (1 m/s) slip rates, respectively. Black gouges display low friction coefficients (0.3) and velocity-weakening behaviours, as opposed to high friction coefficients (0.65) and velocity-strengthening behaviours shown by the foliated cataclasites. Our results show that narrow black gouges developed within foliated cataclasites represent a potential diagnostic marker for episodic seismic activity in shallow creeping faults. These findings can help understanding the time-space partitioning between aseismic and seismic slip of faults at shallow crustal levels, impacting on seismic hazard evaluation of subduction zones and forearc regions affected by destructive earthquakes and

  9. Research and application of AMT method in Happiness valley district in Namibia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Xiang; Zhang Ruliang; Yao Shancong; Fan Honghai; Wang Shengyun

    2013-01-01

    There are great challenges and difficulties in uranium geology work because of large area grass covered land and few outcrops in Happiness valley district in Namibia. To overcome the problems above, AMT method is undertaken to carry out profile investigation. After finding out electric parameters, different lithologic interfaces were divided, two fracture zones and one anticline structure were, this works laid the ground for the exploration of uranium deposit in Namibia and shew that AMT method is an effective one in finding underground structures. (authors)

  10. Cave Tourism: The Potential of Asar Cave as a Natural Tourism Asset at Lenggong Valley, Perak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rindam Main

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Lenggong Valley, from a standpoint of natural tourism research, presents strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and challenges that can be utilized to help increase the opportunities for the local community to increase their standard of living. Asar Cave comprises one of the caves that are found in Lenggong. A series of external studies have been done on Asar Cave in order to measure its potential for natural tourism in Lenggong. The objective of this study is to discuss caves as a natural resource that has great potential in the growth of the economy of the residents of the Lenggong Valley. Marketing caves as a source of nature tourism helps the government’s achievements in National Key Result Areas, apart from being a form of environmental control as well as helping to increase awareness about environmental education, specifically those associated with caves. The research results find that SWOT analysis presents huge potential for caves to become a source of nature tourism development in Lenggong. Great potential can also be seen from a standpoint of increasing the standard of living of its residents through their involvement in the tourism sector based on local natural assets.

  11. The geochemistry of groundwater resources in the Jordan Valley: The impact of the Rift Valley brines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, E.; Vengosh, A.; Gavrieli, I.; Marie, Amarisa; Bullen, T.D.; Mayer, B.; Polak, A.; Shavit, U.

    2007-01-01

    The chemical composition of groundwater in the Jordan Valley, along the section between the Sea of Galilee and the Dead Sea, is investigated in order to evaluate the origin of the groundwater resources and, in particular, to elucidate the role of deep brines on the chemical composition of the regional groundwater resources in the Jordan Valley. Samples were collected from shallow groundwater in research boreholes on two sites in the northern and southern parts of the Jordan Valley, adjacent to the Jordan River. Data is also compiled from previous published studies. Geochemical data (e.g., Br/Cl, Na/Cl and SO4/Cl ratios) and B, O, Sr and S isotopic compositions are used to define groundwater groups, to map their distribution in the Jordan valley, and to evaluate their origin. The combined geochemical tools enabled the delineation of three major sources of solutes that differentially affect the quality of groundwater in the Jordan Valley: (1) flow and mixing with hypersaline brines with high Br/Cl (>2 ?? 10-3) and low Na/Cl (shallow saline groundwaters influenced by brine mixing exhibit a north-south variation in their Br/Cl and Na/Cl ratios. This chemical trend was observed also in hypersaline brines in the Jordan valley, which suggests a local mixing process between the water bodies. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The understanding of the formation of valleys and its implication on site characterization: Moredalen and Pukedalen, south-eastern Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiren, Sven A.; Waenstedt, Stefan; Straeng, Thomas

    2010-11-01

    In south-eastern Sweden, there are a number of over-deepened narrow valleys, more than 20 m deep, formed in Precambrian bedrock located above the highest post-glacial shoreline. Canyon-like valleys, called 'kursu' or kursu valleys, are generally interpreted to be formed by glaciofluvial erosion. An example of such a valley is Moredalen, a canyon in the Fennoscandian Shield, which has an implication on site selection for radioactive waste disposal. There are also more open over-deepened valleys along which sub-glacial flow has occurred, e.g. Pukedalen. The main part of this paper discusses a combined geological and geophysical investigation of Moredalen, with the aim to investigate possible reasons for the formation of such an unusual feature formed in acid vulcanite and foliated tonalitic to granodioritic rocks. Moredalen is a marked, approximately 7 km long, E-W striking valley that cuts through a plateau (c. 140 m a.s.l.), and an elevated block of the sub-Cambrian peneplain. Glaciofluvial sediments can be found up-streams where the canyon widens to the west. Just east of the valley is a larger delta deposited at the highest post-glacial shoreline (c. 105 m a.s.l). Further east of, and in line with the Moredalen valley there is an esker. Rock debris in the valley is angular. Pukedalen is a northwest-southeast trending valley incised in massive granite. The valley is in its northern parts relatively open and becomes narrow in its south-eastern part having partly a vertical south-western wall. Rock surfaces are smooth along the valley and rock debris in the valley consists generally of rounded blocks. In line with Pukedalen, on both sides at great distances though, there are eskers. Geomorphological features of this kind indicate certain characteristics of the bedrock that need to be considered during safety analysis of repositories for nuclear waste. The distinct weakness zones along which the kursu-valleys are formed create prominent transport paths for

  13. The understanding of the formation of valleys and its implication on site characterization: Moredalen and Pukedalen, south-eastern Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiren, Sven A.; Waenstedt, Stefan; Straeng, Thomas (GEOSIGMA AB (Sweden))

    2010-11-15

    In south-eastern Sweden, there are a number of over-deepened narrow valleys, more than 20 m deep, formed in Precambrian bedrock located above the highest post-glacial shoreline. Canyon-like valleys, called 'kursu' or kursu valleys, are generally interpreted to be formed by glaciofluvial erosion. An example of such a valley is Moredalen, a canyon in the Fennoscandian Shield, which has an implication on site selection for radioactive waste disposal. There are also more open over-deepened valleys along which sub-glacial flow has occurred, e.g. Pukedalen. The main part of this paper discusses a combined geological and geophysical investigation of Moredalen, with the aim to investigate possible reasons for the formation of such an unusual feature formed in acid vulcanite and foliated tonalitic to granodioritic rocks. Moredalen is a marked, approximately 7 km long, E-W striking valley that cuts through a plateau (c. 140 m a.s.l.), and an elevated block of the sub-Cambrian peneplain. Glaciofluvial sediments can be found up-streams where the canyon widens to the west. Just east of the valley is a larger delta deposited at the highest post-glacial shoreline (c. 105 m a.s.l). Further east of, and in line with the Moredalen valley there is an esker. Rock debris in the valley is angular. Pukedalen is a northwest-southeast trending valley incised in massive granite. The valley is in its northern parts relatively open and becomes narrow in its south-eastern part having partly a vertical south-western wall. Rock surfaces are smooth along the valley and rock debris in the valley consists generally of rounded blocks. In line with Pukedalen, on both sides at great distances though, there are eskers. Geomorphological features of this kind indicate certain characteristics of the bedrock that need to be considered during safety analysis of repositories for nuclear waste. The distinct weakness zones along which the kursu-valleys are formed create prominent transport paths for

  14. 27 CFR 9.27 - Lime Kiln Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lime Kiln Valley. 9.27... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.27 Lime Kiln Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Lime Kiln Valley...

  15. Electrical valley filtering in transition metal dichalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Tzu-Chi; Chou, Mei-Yin; Wu, Yu-Shu

    2018-03-01

    This work investigates the feasibility of electrical valley filtering for holes in transition metal dichalcogenides. We look specifically into the scheme that utilizes a potential barrier to produce valley-dependent tunneling rates, and perform the study with both a k .p -based analytic method and a recursive Green's function-based numerical method. The study yields the transmission coefficient as a function of incident energy and transverse wave vector, for holes going through lateral quantum barriers oriented in either armchair or zigzag directions, in both homogeneous and heterogeneous systems. The main findings are the following: (1) The tunneling current valley polarization increases with increasing barrier width or height; (2) both the valley-orbit interaction and band structure warping contribute to valley-dependent tunneling, with the former contribution being manifest in structures with asymmetric potential barriers, and the latter being orientation dependent and reaching maximum for transmission in the armchair direction; and (3) for transmission ˜0.1 , a tunneling current valley polarization of the order of 10 % can be achieved.

  16. Water resources of Parowan Valley, Iron County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, Thomas M.

    2017-08-29

    Parowan Valley, in Iron County, Utah, covers about 160 square miles west of the Red Cliffs and includes the towns of Parowan, Paragonah, and Summit. The valley is a structural depression formed by northwest-trending faults and is, essentially, a closed surface-water basin although a small part of the valley at the southwestern end drains into the adjacent Cedar Valley. Groundwater occurs in and has been developed mainly from the unconsolidated basin-fill aquifer. Long-term downward trends in groundwater levels have been documented by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) since the mid-1950s. The water resources of Parowan Valley were assessed during 2012 to 2014 with an emphasis on refining the understanding of the groundwater and surface-water systems and updating the groundwater budget.Surface-water discharge of five perennial mountain streams that enter Parowan Valley was measured from 2013 to 2014. The total annual surface-water discharge of the five streams during 2013 to 2014 was about 18,000 acre-feet (acre-ft) compared to the average annual streamflow of about 22,000 acre-ft from USGS streamgages operated on the three largest of these streams from the 1940s to the 1980s. The largest stream, Parowan Creek, contributes more than 50 percent of the annual surface-water discharge to the valley, with smaller amounts contributed by Red, Summit, Little, and Cottonwood Creeks.Average annual recharge to the Parowan Valley groundwater system was estimated to be about 25,000 acre-ft from 1994 to 2013. Nearly all recharge occurs as direct infiltration of snowmelt and rainfall on the Markagunt Plateau east of the valley. Smaller amounts of recharge occur as infiltration of streamflow and unconsumed irrigation water near the east side of the valley on alluvial fans associated with mountain streams at the foot of the Red Cliffs. Subsurface flow from the mountain block to the east of the valley is a significant source of groundwater recharge to the basin-fill aquifer

  17. EPA Region 1 - Valley Depth in Meters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raster of the Depth in meters of EPA-delimited Valleys in Region 1.Valleys (areas that are lower than their neighbors) were extracted from a Digital Elevation Model (USGS, 30m) by finding the local average elevation, subtracting the actual elevation from the average, and selecting areas where the actual elevation was below the average. The landscape was sampled at seven scales (circles of 1, 2, 4, 7, 11, 16, and 22 km radius) to take into account the diversity of valley shapes and sizes. Areas selected in at least four scales were designated as valleys.

  18. Preliminary hydrogeologic assessment near the boundary of the Antelope Valley and El Mirage Valley groundwater basins, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamos, Christina L.; Christensen, Allen H.; Langenheim, Victoria

    2017-07-19

    The increasing demands on groundwater for water supply in desert areas in California and the western United States have resulted in the need to better understand groundwater sources, availability, and sustainability. This is true for a 650-square-mile area that encompasses the Antelope Valley, El Mirage Valley, and Upper Mojave River Valley groundwater basins, about 50 miles northeast of Los Angeles, California, in the western part of the Mojave Desert. These basins have been adjudicated to ensure that groundwater rights are allocated according to legal judgments. In an effort to assess if the boundary between the Antelope Valley and El Mirage Valley groundwater basins could be better defined, the U.S. Geological Survey began a cooperative study in 2014 with the Mojave Water Agency to better understand the hydrogeology in the area and investigate potential controls on groundwater flow and availability, including basement topography.Recharge is sporadic and primarily from small ephemeral washes and streams that originate in the San Gabriel Mountains to the south; estimates range from about 400 to 1,940 acre-feet per year. Lateral underflow from adjacent basins has been considered minor in previous studies; underflow from the Antelope Valley to the El Mirage Valley groundwater basin has been estimated to be between 100 and 1,900 acre-feet per year. Groundwater discharge is primarily from pumping, mostly by municipal supply wells. Between October 2013 and September 2014, the municipal pumpage in the Antelope Valley and El Mirage Valley groundwater basins was reported to be about 800 and 2,080 acre-feet, respectively.This study was motivated by the results from a previously completed regional gravity study, which suggested a northeast-trending subsurface basement ridge and saddle approximately 3.5 miles west of the boundary between the Antelope Valley and El Mirage Valley groundwater basins that might influence groundwater flow. To better define potential basement

  19. Optically initialized robust valley-polarized holes in monolayer WSe2

    KAUST Repository

    Hsu, Wei-Ting

    2015-11-25

    A robust valley polarization is a key prerequisite for exploiting valley pseudospin to carry information in next-generation electronics and optoelectronics. Although monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides with inherent spin–valley coupling offer a unique platform to develop such valleytronic devices, the anticipated long-lived valley pseudospin has not been observed yet. Here we demonstrate that robust valley-polarized holes in monolayer WSe2 can be initialized by optical pumping. Using time-resolved Kerr rotation spectroscopy, we observe a long-lived valley polarization for positive trion with a lifetime approaching 1 ns at low temperatures, which is much longer than the trion recombination lifetime (~10–20 ps). The long-lived valley polarization arises from the transfer of valley pseudospin from photocarriers to resident holes in a specific valley. The optically initialized valley pseudospin of holes remains robust even at room temperature, which opens up the possibility to realize room-temperature valleytronics based on transition metal dichalcogenides.

  20. Valley-orbit hybrid states in Si quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, John; Friesen, Mark; Coppersmith, S. N.

    2013-03-01

    The conduction band for electrons in layered Si nanostructures oriented along (001) has two low-lying valleys. Most theoretical treatments assume that these valleys are decoupled from the long-wavelength physics of electron confinement. In this work, we show that even a minimal amount of disorder (a single atomic step at the quantum well interface) is sufficient to mix valley states and electron orbitals, causing a significant distortion of the long-wavelength electron envelope. For physically realistic electric fields and dot sizes, this valley-orbit coupling impacts all electronic states in Si quantum dots, implying that one must always consider valley-orbit hybrid states, rather than distinct valley and orbital degrees of freedom. We discuss the ramifications of our results on silicon quantum dot qubits. This work was supported in part by ARO (W911NF-08-1-0482) and NSF (DMR-0805045).

  1. Geohydrology of the Unconsolidated Valley-Fill Aquifer in the Meads Creek Valley, Schuyler and Steuben Counties, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Todd S.; Bugliosi, Edward F.; Reddy, James E.

    2008-01-01

    The Meads Creek valley encompasses 70 square miles of predominantly forested uplands in the upper Susquehanna River drainage basin. The valley, which was listed as a Priority Waterbody by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation in 2004, is prone to periodic flooding, mostly in its downstream end, where development is occurring most rapidly. Hydraulic characteristics of the unconsolidated valley-fill aquifer were evaluated, and seepage rates in losing and gaining tributaries were calculated or estimated, in an effort to delineate the aquifer geometry and identify the factors that contribute to flooding. Results indicated that (1) Meads Creek gained about 61 cubic feet of flow per second (about 6.0 cubic feet per second per mile of stream channel) from ground-water discharge and inflow from tributaries in its 10.2-mile reach between the northernmost and southernmost measurement sites; (2) major tributaries in the northern part of the valley are not significant sources of recharge to the aquifer; and (3) major tributaries in the central and southern part of the valley provide recharge to the aquifer. The ground-water portion of streamflow in Meads Creek (excluding tributary inflow) was 11.3 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) in the central part of the valley and 17.2 ft3/s in the southern part - a total of 28.5 ft3/s. Ground-water levels were measured in 29 wells finished in unconfined deposits for construction of a potentiometric-surface map to depict directions of ground-water flow within the valley. In general, ground water flows from the edges of the valley toward Meads Creek and ultimately discharges to it. The horizontal hydraulic gradient for the entire 12-mile-long aquifer averages about 30 feet per mile, whereas the gradient in the southern fourth of the valley averages about half that - about 17 feet per mile. A water budget for the aquifer indicated that 28 percent of recharge was derived from precipitation that falls on the aquifer, 32

  2. Land use in the northern Coachella Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bale, J. B.; Bowden, L. W.

    1973-01-01

    Satellite imagery has proved to have great utility for monitoring land use change and as a data source for regional planning. In California, open space desert resources are under severe pressure to serve as a source for recreational gratification to individuals living in the heavily populated southern coastal plain. Concern for these sensitive arid environments has been expressed by both federal and state agencies. The northern half of the Coachella Valley has historically served as a focal point for weekend recreational activity and second homes. Since demand in this area has remained high, land use change from rural to urban residential has been occurring continuously since 1968. This area of rapid change is an ideal site to illustrate the utility of satellite imagery as a data source for planning information, and has served as the areal focus of this investigation.

  3. California's Central Valley Groundwater Study: A Powerful New Tool to Assess Water Resources in California's Central Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faunt, Claudia C.; Hanson, Randall T.; Belitz, Kenneth; Rogers, Laurel

    2009-01-01

    Competition for water resources is growing throughout California, particularly in the Central Valley. Since 1980, the Central Valley's population has nearly doubled to 3.8 million people. It is expected to increase to 6 million by 2020. Statewide population growth, anticipated reductions in Colorado River water deliveries, drought, and the ecological crisis in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta have created an intense demand for water. Tools and information can be used to help manage the Central Valley aquifer system, an important State and national resource.

  4. Valley and spin thermoelectric transport in ferromagnetic silicene junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ping Niu, Zhi; Dong, Shihao

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated the valley and spin resolved thermoelectric transport in a normal/ferromagnetic/normal silicene junction. Due to the coupling between the valley and spin degrees of freedom, thermally induced pure valley and spin currents can be demonstrated. The magnitude and sign of these currents can be manipulated by adjusting the ferromagnetic exchange field and local external electric field, thus the currents are controllable. We also find fully valley and/or spin polarized currents. Similar to the currents, owing to the band structure symmetry, tunable pure spin and/or valley thermopowers with zero charge counterpart are generated. The results obtained here suggest a feasible way of generating a pure valley (spin) current and thermopower in silicene

  5. InSAR to support sustainable urbanization over compacting aquifers: The case of Toluca Valley, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellazzi, Pascal; Garfias, Jaime; Martel, Richard; Brouard, Charles; Rivera, Alfonso

    2017-12-01

    This paper illustrates how InSAR alone can be used to delineate potential ground fractures related to aquifer system compaction. An InSAR-derived ground fracturing map of the Toluca Valley, Mexico, is produced and validated through a field campaign. The results are of great interest to support sustainable urbanization and show that InSAR processing of open-access Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data from the Sentinel-1 satellites can lead to reliable and cost-effective products directly usable by cities to help decision-making. The Toluca Valley Aquifer (TVA) sustains the water needs of two million inhabitants living within the valley, a growing industry, an intensively irrigated agricultural area, and 38% of the water needs of the megalopolis of Mexico City, located 40 km east of the valley. Ensuring water sustainability, infrastructure integrity, along with supporting the important economic and demographic growth of the region, is a major challenge for water managers and urban developers. This paper presents a long-term analysis of ground fracturing by interpreting 13 years of InSAR-derived ground displacement measurements. Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) and Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) techniques are applied over three SAR datasets totalling 93 acquisitions from Envisat, Radarsat-2, and Sentinel-1A satellites and covering the period from 2003 to 2016. From 2003 to 2016, groundwater level declines of up to 1.6 m/yr, land subsidence up to 77 mm/yr, and major infrastructure damages are observed. Groundwater level data show highly variable seasonal responses according to their connectivity to recharge areas. However, the trend of groundwater levels consistently range from -0.5 to -1.5 m/yr regardless of the well location and depth. By analysing the horizontal gradients of vertical land subsidence, we provide a potential ground fracture map to assist in future urban development planning in the Toluca Valley.

  6. Post-magmatic tectonic deformation of the outer Izu-Bonin-Mariana forearc system: initial results of IODP Expedition 352

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Walter; Ferré, Eric C.; Robertson, Alastair; Avery, Aaron; Christeson, Gail L.; Morgan, Sally; Kutterorf, Steffen; Sager, William W.; Carvallo, Claire; Shervais, John; Party IODP Expedition 352, Scientific

    2015-04-01

    IODP Expedition 352 was designed to drill through the entire volcanic sequence of the Bonin forearc. Four sites were drilled, two on the outer fore arc and two on the upper trench slope. Site survey seismic data, combined with borehole data, indicate that tectonic deformation in the outer IBM fore arc is mainly post-magmatic. Post-magmatic extension resulted in the formation of asymmetric sedimentary basins such as, for example, the half-grabens at sites 352-U1439 and 352-U1442 located on the upper trench slope. Along their eastern margins these basins are bounded by west-dipping normal faults. Sedimentation was mainly syn-tectonic. The lowermost sequence of the sedimentary units was tilted eastward by ~20°. These tilted bedding planes were subsequently covered by sub-horizontally deposited sedimentary beds. Based on biostratigraphic constraints, the minimum age of the oldest sediments is ~ 35 Ma; the timing of the sedimentary unconformities lies between ~ 27 and 32 Ma. At sites 352-U1440 and 352-U1441, located on the outer forearc, post-magmatic deformation resulted mainly in strike-slip faults possibly bounding the sedimentary basins. The sedimentary units within these basins were not significantly affected by post-sedimentary tectonic tilting. Biostratigraphic ages indicate that the minimum age of the basement-cover contact lies between ~29.5 and 32 Ma. Overall, the post-magmatic tectonic structures observed during Expedition 352 reveal a multiphase tectonic evolution of the outer IBM fore arc. At sites 352-U1439 and 352-U1442, shear with dominant reverse to oblique reverse displacement was localized along distinct subhorizontal cataclastic shear zones as well as steeply dipping slickensides and shear fractures. These structures, forming within a contractional tectonic regime, were either re-activated as or cross-cut by normal-faults as well as strike-slip faults. Extension was also accommodated by steeply dipping to subvertical mineralized veins and

  7. Regional potentiometric-surface map of the Great Basin carbonate and alluvial aquifer system in Snake Valley and surrounding areas, Juab, Millard, and Beaver Counties, Utah, and White Pine and Lincoln Counties, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Philip M.; Masbruch, Melissa D.; Plume, Russell W.; Buto, Susan G.

    2011-01-01

    Water-level measurements from 190 wells were used to develop a potentiometric-surface map of the east-central portion of the regional Great Basin carbonate and alluvial aquifer system in and around Snake Valley, eastern Nevada and western Utah. The map area covers approximately 9,000 square miles in Juab, Millard, and Beaver Counties, Utah, and White Pine and Lincoln Counties, Nevada. Recent (2007-2010) drilling by the Utah Geological Survey and U.S. Geological Survey has provided new data for areas where water-level measurements were previously unavailable. New water-level data were used to refine mapping of the pathways of intrabasin and interbasin groundwater flow. At 20 of these locations, nested observation wells provide vertical hydraulic gradient data and information related to the degree of connection between basin-fill aquifers and consolidated-rock aquifers. Multiple-year water-level hydrographs are also presented for 32 wells to illustrate the aquifer system's response to interannual climate variations and well withdrawals.

  8. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Monument Valley Site, Monument Valley, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevalated the Monument Valley site in order to revise the March 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Monument Valley, Arizona. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposure of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 1.1 million tons of tailings at the Monument Valley site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option I), to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site (Options II through IV). Cost estimates for the four options range from about $6,600,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $15,900,000 for disposal at a distance of about 15 mi. Three principal alternatives for reprocessing the Monument Valley tailings were examined: heap leaching; Treatment at an existing mill; and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovery is economically unattractive.

  9. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Monument Valley Site, Monument Valley, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevalated the Monument Valley site in order to revise the March 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Monument Valley, Arizona. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposure of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 1.1 million tons of tailings at the Monument Valley site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option I), to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site (Options II through IV). Cost estimates for the four options range from about $6,600,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $15,900,000 for disposal at a distance of about 15 mi. Three principal alternatives for reprocessing the Monument Valley tailings were examined: heap leaching; Treatment at an existing mill; and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovery is economically unattractive

  10. Sustainable agricultural development in inland valleys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, S.J.

    2018-01-01

    The inland valley in Africa are common landscapes that have favorable conditions for agricultural production. Compared to the surrounding uplands they are characterized by a relatively high and secure water availability and high soil fertility levels. Inland valleys thus have a high agricultural

  11. Valley-polarized quantum transport generated by gauge fields in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settnes, Mikkel; Garcia, Jose H.; Roche, Stephan

    2017-09-01

    We report on the possibility to simultaneously generate in graphene a bulk valley-polarized dissipative transport and a quantum valley Hall effect by combining strain-induced gauge fields and real magnetic fields. Such unique phenomenon results from a ‘resonance/anti-resonance’ effect driven by the superposition/cancellation of superimposed gauge fields which differently affect time reversal symmetry. The onset of a valley-polarized Hall current concomitant to a dissipative valley-polarized current flow in the opposite valley is revealed by a {{e}2}/h Hall conductivity plateau. We employ efficient linear scaling Kubo transport methods combined with a valley projection scheme to access valley-dependent conductivities and show that the results are robust against disorder.

  12. Groundwater availability of the Central Valley Aquifer, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faunt, Claudia C.

    2009-01-01

    California's Central Valley covers about 20,000 square miles and is one of the most productive agricultural regions in the world. More than 250 different crops are grown in the Central Valley with an estimated value of $17 billion per year. This irrigated agriculture relies heavily on surface-water diversions and groundwater pumpage. Approximately one-sixth of the Nation's irrigated land is in the Central Valley, and about one-fifth of the Nation's groundwater demand is supplied from its aquifers. The Central Valley also is rapidly becoming an important area for California's expanding urban population. Since 1980, the population of the Central Valley has nearly doubled from 2 million to 3.8 million people. The Census Bureau projects that the Central Valley's population will increase to 6 million people by 2020. This surge in population has increased the competition for water resources within the Central Valley and statewide, which likely will be exacerbated by anticipated reductions in deliveries of Colorado River water to southern California. In response to this competition for water, a number of water-related issues have gained prominence: conservation of agricultural land, conjunctive use, artificial recharge, hydrologic implications of land-use change, and effects of climate variability. To provide information to stakeholders addressing these issues, the USGS Groundwater Resources Program made a detailed assessment of groundwater availability of the Central Valley aquifer system, that includes: (1) the present status of groundwater resources; (2) how these resources have changed over time; and (3) tools to assess system responses to stresses from future human uses and climate variability and change. This effort builds on previous investigations, such as the USGS Central Valley Regional Aquifer System and Analysis (CV-RASA) project and several other groundwater studies in the Valley completed by Federal, State and local agencies at differing scales. The

  13. Insights on the structural control of a Neogene forearc basin in Northern Chile: A geophysical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pérez, Tiaren; Marquardt, Carlos; Yáñez, Gonzalo; Cembrano, José; Gomila, Rodrigo; Santibañez, Isabel; Maringue, José

    2018-06-01

    The comprehensive study of intramountain basins located in the Coastal Cordillera of the continental emergent Andean forearc in Northern Chile, enables the better understanding of the nature and evolution of the upper crustal deformation during the Neogene and Quaternary. A case study is the extensive extensional half-graben Alto Hospicio basin. The basin is cut by the Coastal Cliff, which exposes the deformed Neogene basin fill. Also exposed are several structural systems, some of which affect Quaternary surfaces. The results of the integrated geophysical surveys (Electromagnetic Transient and Gravity) allow us to fully constrain the geometry of the Alto Hospicio basin and the lithological relationship between the subsurface geological units. The structural geology analysis assesses the deformation regimes affecting the faults present in the basin and surrounding area. Altogether evidence a change in the deformation regime from an EW extensional deformation during the Miocene-Pliocene to a NS compression in the Quaternary as is presented in this study. We suggest this deformation change is related to a small change in the convergence vector orientation during the Pliocene.

  14. An example of Alaknanda valley, Garhwal Himalaya, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014) have been best explained by the geometry .... flows through narrow valley confined by the steep valley slopes. ... valley (figure 3b) which opens up around Srina- ... Method. 4.1 Drainage basin and stream network. Digital Elevation Model (DEM) helps in extracting ... was processed to fill the pits or sinks, and to obtain.

  15. The cadastre of waste heat in the Upper Rhine Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartholomaei, G.; Kinzelbach, W.

    1980-04-01

    The cadastre of waste heat provides the distribution in space and time of anthropogeneous waste heat emissions on a 2 x 2 km 2 grid. In the case of the Upper Rhine Valley it serves as a basis for the numerical evaluations of climatic changes caused by man. Such a cadastre also allows to analyse the distribution of pollutant emissions and the heat or energy supply, respectively, of the region. In a close approximation the distribution of waste heat is equal to the distribution of energy consumption. As there are generally difficulties in obtaining data about the consumption of the types of energy on the grid level, methods were developed which allow to determine the local energy consumption by using the relevant structural data. The methods used for the Federal Republic of Germany and neighbouring countries and the results for the Upper Rhine Valley, obtained by these methods, are presented. The cadastre of waste heat is based on data of the year 1973 which was a time of great energy consumption. Only in 1978 this energy consumption was exceeded. To be able to estimate the change in the influence of the anthropogeneous waste heat during the next 20 years, the cadastre was extrapolated until the year 2000. (orig.) [de

  16. The development and adaption of early agriculture in Huanghe River Valley, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.

    2017-12-01

    The expanding and developing of agriculture are the basic of population growth, the expansions of material cultures and civilization. The Huanghe River valley, as the origin center of millet agriculture, lies between the heartlands of wheat and rice, which gestates the flourishing Neolithic culture based on agriculture. Recent work using botanical remains has greatly expanded the knowledge concerning early agriculture. Here, we report the new progress on the development and adaption of early agriculture in Huanghe River valley and the surrounding areas. Based on the analysis of phytolith from 13 sites in middle reaches of Huanghe River and the survey of crop seeds from 5 sites in Guanzhong Basin, the rice have been cultivated around 7600 cal BP in semi-humid regions dominated by rain-fed agriculture. The mixed agriculture of common millet, foxtail millet, and rice continued to exist between 7600-3500 BP. In semi-arid region of Huanghe River valley, the agriculture was dominated by the production of common and foxtail millet and 3 major changes have taken place around 6500 BP, 5500 BP, and 4000 BP during Neolithic. The cultivating ratio of common and foxtail millet was adjusted by farmer for adapting the climate changes during Holocene. Approximately 5000 yr BP, the rain-fed agriculture continues to break geographical boundaries to expand to west and southwest from Huanghe River valley. Millet agriculture appeared in southern Ganshu and north eastern Tibetan Plateau. The common and foxtail millet spread to the arid-area of Hexi corridor, a major crossroad of the famous Silk Road, around 4500 yr BP. Wheat was added as a new crop to the existing millet based agricultural systems around 4100-4000 cal yr BP in Hexi corridor. Between 3800 and 3400 cal yr BP, the proportion of wheat and barley in agriculture was up to 90%,which have replaced the local millet and become the main crops. And now, some new evidences of wheat agriculture from NW Xijiang have been obtained and

  17. California's restless giant: the Long Valley Caldera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, David P.; Bailey, Roy A.; Hendley, James W.; Stauffer, Peter H.; Marcaida, Mae

    2014-01-01

    Scientists have monitored geologic unrest in the Long Valley, California, area since 1980. In that year, following a swarm of strong earthquakes, they discovered that the central part of the Long Valley Caldera had begun actively rising. Unrest in the area persists today. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) continues to provide the public and civil authorities with current information on the volcanic hazard at Long Valley and is prepared to give timely warnings of any impending eruption.

  18. A Study of the Connection Among Basin-Fill Aquifers, Carbonate-Rock Aquifers, and Surface-Water Resources in Southern Snake Valley, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2008-01-01

    The Secretary of the Interior through the Southern Nevada Public Lands Management Act approved funding for research to improve understanding of hydrologic systems that sustain numerous water-dependent ecosystems on Federal lands in Snake Valley, Nevada. Some of the streams and spring-discharge areas in and adjacent to Great Basin National Park have been identified as susceptible to ground-water withdrawals (Elliott and others, 2006) and research has shown a high potential for ground-water flow from southern Spring Valley into southern Snake Valley through carbonate rocks that outcrop along a low topographic divide known as the Limestone Hills (Welch and others, 2007). Comprehensive geologic, hydrologic, and chemical information will be collected and analyzed to assess the hydraulic connection between basin-fill aquifers and surface-water resources, water-dependent ecological features, and the regional carbonate-rock aquifer, the known source of many high-discharge springs. Understanding these connections is important because proposed projects to pump and export ground water from Spring and Snake Valleys in Nevada may result in unintended capture of water currently supplying springs, streams, wetlands, limestone caves, and other biologically sensitive areas (fig. 1). The methods that will be used in this study may be transferable to other areas in the Great Basin. The National Park Service, Bureau of Land Management, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and U.S. Forest Service submitted the proposal for funding this research to facilitate science-based land management. Scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Water Resources and Geologic Disciplines, and the University of Nevada, Reno, will accomplish four research elements through comprehensive data collection and analysis that are concentrated in two distinct areas on the eastern and southern flanks of the Snake Range (fig. 2). The projected time line for this research is from July 2008 through September 2011.

  19. Valley Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... valley fever. These fungi are commonly found in soil in specific regions. The fungi's spores can be stirred into the air by ... species have a complex life cycle. In the soil, they grow as a mold with long filaments that break off into airborne ...

  20. The Nile valley of Egypt: A major active graben that magnifies seismic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EI-Sayed, A.; Vaccari, F.; Panza, G.F.

    2002-08-01

    The Nile valley and the Nile delta are part of the active rift that is probably connected with the Red Sea tectonism. This zone is characterized by small to moderate size earthquakes that have caused extremely severe damage to recent and historical constructions. The most vulnerable area along the Nile valley is the one of Cairo-Faiyoum. Small local and large distant earthquakes could be a source of huge socio-economic damage in this area. The loose soft alluvial sediments of the Nile Canyon are the main factors behind this potential damage because they may greatly amplify the ground motion, as demonstrated by strong ground motion modelling. The largest amplification is generally concentrated along the edges of the graben and occurs at frequencies between 1 Hz and 2 Hz. This may explain the huge damage caused by distant earthquakes during recent and historical times. The distribution of intensity values during the events of 1926 and 1992 is well correlated with the modelled spatial distribution of the spectral amplification. (author)

  1. Nematic and Valley Ordering in Anisotropic Quantum Hall Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parameswaran, S. A.; Abanin, D. A.; Kivelson, S. A.; Sondhi, S. L.

    2010-03-01

    We consider a multi-valley two dimensional electron system in the quantum Hall effect (QHE) regime. We focus on QHE states that arise due to spontaneous breaking of the valley symmetry by the Coulomb interactions. We show that the anisotropy of the Fermi surface in each valley, which is generally present in such systems, favors states where all the electrons reside in one of the valleys. In a clean system, the valley ordering occurs via a finite temperature Ising-like phase transition, which, owing to the Fermi surface anisotropy, is accompanied by the onset of nematic order. In a disordered system, domains of opposite polarization are formed, and therefore long-range valley order is destroyed, however, the resulting state is still compressible. We discuss the transport properties in ordered and disordered regimes, and point out the possible relation of our results to recent experiments in AlAs [1]. [1] Y. P. Shkolnikov, S. Misra, N. C. Bishop, E. P. De Poortere, and M. Shayegan, Observation of Quantum Hall ``Valley Skyrmions", Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 068809 (2005)[2] D.A. Abanin, S.A. Parameswaran, S.A. Kivelson and S.L. Sondhi, Nematic and Valley Ordering in Anisotropic Quantum Hall Systems, to be published.

  2. [Ethnic conflicts and environmental degradation in Central Asia. The Ferghana valley and northern Kazakhstan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cordier, B

    1996-01-01

    This work seeks to demonstrate that the combination of ecological degradation, demographic pressure, and ethnic heterogeneity in Central Asia constitute a serious threat to the future stability of the region. The predominantly rural Ferghana Valley and Northern Kazakhstan suffer from shortages of water and land and from unemployment that leads to extensive out-migration to cities suffering from decline in their Soviet-era industries. The problem in the Ferghana Valley began with Tsarist conquest of the valley in 1876 and the subsequent imposition of cotton cultivation, which was greatly expanded by the Soviet Union. The Ferghana Valley, despite being a natural unit, was divided between Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Kyrgyzstan in the 1920s and 1930s, and remains divided between the independent states. The current population of 11 million is ethnically diverse, with Uzbeks in the majority and increasing most rapidly. Immigration from the Caucasus since 1950 added to the tension. Future peace will depend on such factors as whether the neo-Communist political regime chooses to incite ethnic hostilities, the manner in which land is redistributed, and the outcome of struggles for control of the flourishing narcotics trade. The northern Kazakhstan region was designated a pioneer wheat-growing region by Soviet planners in 1954. Russian and Ukrainian migrants established between 1954 and 1956 are today the predominant population sector, but feel their privileged position threatened by nationalist policies making Kazakh the official language and giving preference in employment to Kazakhs. Resettlement of Kazakhs from Mongolia, China, and Afghanistan in the region and the high Kazakh birth rate increase tensions. Grain production initially grew rapidly, but the mediocre soil and erosion-inducing constant dry winds have caused production to stagnate or decline. Regional disputes within Kazakhstan complicate the situation. Northern Kazakhstan, with its industrial development, is

  3. Valley photonic crystals for control of spin and topology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jian-Wen; Chen, Xiao-Dong; Zhu, Hanyu; Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Xiang

    2017-03-01

    Photonic crystals offer unprecedented opportunity for light manipulation and applications in optical communication and sensing. Exploration of topology in photonic crystals and metamaterials with non-zero gauge field has inspired a number of intriguing optical phenomena such as one-way transport and Weyl points. Recently, a new degree of freedom, valley, has been demonstrated in two-dimensional materials. Here, we propose a concept of valley photonic crystals with electromagnetic duality symmetry but broken inversion symmetry. We observe photonic valley Hall effect originating from valley-dependent spin-split bulk bands, even in topologically trivial photonic crystals. Valley-spin locking behaviour results in selective net spin flow inside bulk valley photonic crystals. We also show the independent control of valley and topology in a single system that has been long pursued in electronic systems, resulting in topologically-protected flat edge states. Valley photonic crystals not only offer a route towards the observation of non-trivial states, but also open the way for device applications in integrated photonics and information processing using spin-dependent transportation.

  4. Valley Hall effect and Nernst effect in strain engineered graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Zhi Ping; Yao, Jian-ming

    2018-04-01

    We theoretically predict the existence of tunneling valley Hall effect and Nernst effect in the normal/strain/normal graphene junctions, where a strained graphene is sandwiched by two normal graphene electrodes. By applying an electric bias a pure transverse valley Hall current with longitudinal charge current is generated. If the system is driven by a temperature bias, a valley Nernst effect is observed, where a pure transverse valley current without charge current propagates. Furthermore, the transverse valley current can be modulated by the Fermi energy and crystallographic orientation. When the magnetic field is further considered, we obtain a fully valley-polarized current. It is expected these features may be helpful in the design of the controllable valleytronic devices.

  5. Fort, Tower, or House? Building a Landscape of Settlement in the Shala Valley of High Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L. Galaty

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of archaeological, (ethno-historic, and ethnographic research in the Shala River valley of northern Albania. We argue that through time and in different periods of occupation - Middle Palaeolithic, Iron Age, Late Medieval, and Modern - the valley's residents have met similar challenges of extreme geography and a harsh environment differently, in particular by interacting in different ways and at different levels of intensity with the outside world. These shifts caused changes in population, settlement, and socio-political organisation that are reflected strongly in the local landscape and built environment. Population, settlement, and socio-political organisation did not hold constant, but were influenced by external forces, despite the seeming isolation of the valley and its occupants. This article demonstrates how thin material and documentary records can be greatly enhanced through carefully integrated, interdisciplinary studies of settlement, home construction, and neighbourhood expansion and abandonment. We present select results drawn from an on-line database and GIS, along with photos, drawings, and audio recordings of transcribed interviews. An interactive system of blogs allows the authors to direct readers to additional sources of data, and readers to tell authors and other readers how they have accessed and displayed these data, and with what results.

  6. Disorder-dependent valley properties in monolayer WSe2

    KAUST Repository

    Tran, Kha

    2017-07-19

    We investigate the effect of disorder on exciton valley polarization and valley coherence in monolayer WSe2. By analyzing the polarization properties of photoluminescence, the valley coherence (VC) and valley polarization (VP) are quantified across the inhomogeneously broadened exciton resonance. We find that disorder plays a critical role in the exciton VC, while affecting VP less. For different monolayer samples with disorder characterized by their Stokes shift (SS), VC decreases in samples with higher SS while VP does not follow a simple trend. These two methods consistently demonstrate that VC as defined by the degree of linearly polarized photoluminescence is more sensitive to disorder, motivating further theoretical studies.

  7. The Role of Source Material in Basin Sedimentation, as Illustrated within Eureka Valley, Death Valley National Park, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, M. J.; Yin, A.; Rhodes, E. J.

    2015-12-01

    Steep landscapes are known to provide sediment to sink regions, but often petrological factors can dominate basin sedimentation. Within Eureka Valley, in northwestern Death Valley National Park, normal faulting has exposed a steep cliff face on the western margin of the Last Chance range with four kilometers of vertical relief from the valley floor and an angle of repose of nearly 38 degrees. The cliff face is composed of Cambrian limestone and dolomite, including the Bonanza King, Carrara and Wood Canyon formations. Interacting with local normal faulting, these units preferentially break off the cliff face in coherent blocks, which result in landslide deposits rather than as finer grained material found within the basin. The valley is well known for a large sand dune, which derives its sediment from distal sources to the north, instead of from the adjacent Last Chance Range cliff face. During the Holocene, sediment is sourced primary from the northerly Willow Wash and Cucomungo canyon, a relatively small drainage (less than 80 km2) within the Sylvan Mountains. Within this drainage, the Jurassic quartz monzonite of Beer Creek is heavily fractured due to motion of the Fish Valley Lake - Death Valley fault zone. Thus, the quartz monzonite is more easily eroded than the well-consolidated limestone and dolomite that forms the Last Change Range cliff face. As well, the resultant eroded material is smaller grained, and thus more easily transported than the limestone. Consequently, this work highlights an excellent example of the strong influence that source material can have on basin sedimentation.

  8. Antifan activism as a response to MTV's The Valleys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethan Jones

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available MTV has launched several reality TV shows in the United Kingdom, but one, The Valleys (2012–14, about youth moving from the South Wales Valleys to Cardiff, has received much criticism. Grassroots criticism of the show arose, and a Valleys-centric campaign, The Valleys Are Here, took direct action. I adopt Jonathan Gray's definition of antifans to complicate ideas of fan activism. I utilize comments and posts made on the Valleys Are Here Twitter feed and Facebook account, as well as the organization's Web site, to examine the ways in which they encourage activism among antifans of the series. I pay particular attention to activist calls for MTV to be held accountable for its positioning of Wales and the Valleys, and to how it encourages participation among varied groups of people whose common denominator is their dislike of the series. Fan activism is not exclusive to people who consider themselves fans, and notions of fan activism can be complicated by drawing in antifans.

  9. Geology along Mosca Pass Trail, Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, David A.; Klein, Terry L.; Valdez, Andrew; Webster, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Mosca Pass Trail takes the hiker on a journey into the Earth's crust. Here you can see the results of tremendous tectonic forces that bend and tear rocks apart and raise mountain ranges. The trail begins near the Sangre de Cristo fault, which separates the Sangre de Cristo Range from the San Luis Valley. The valley is part of the Rio Grande rift, a series of fault basins extending from southern New Mexico to central Colorado, wherein the Earth's crust has been pulled apart during the last 30 million years. Thousands of feet of sediment, brought by streams mostly from the Sangre de Cristo Range, fill the San Luis Valley beneath the Great Sand Dunes. The trail ends at Mosca Pass overlooking Huerfano Park. The park is part of the larger Raton Basin, formed by compression of the Earth's crust during the Laramide orogeny, which occurred 70–40 million years ago. Massive highlands, the remnants of which are preserved in the Sangre de Cristo Range, were uplifted and pushed over the western side of the Raton Basin. Streams eroded the highland as it rose and filled the Raton Basin with sediment. After the sediment was compacted and cemented to form sedimentary rock, the Huerfano River and other streams began to excavate the basin. Over an unknown but long timespan that probably lasted millions of years, relatively soft sedimentary rocks were removed by the river to form the valley we call "Huerfano Park." Between the ends of the trail, the hiker walks through an erosional "window," or opening, into red sedimentary rocks overridden by gneiss, a metamorphic rock, during the Laramide orogeny. This window gives the hiker a glimpse into the Laramide highland of 70–40 million years ago that preceded the present-day Sangre de Cristo Range. The window is the focus of this trail guide. At the east end of the trail, near Mosca Pass, another trail follows the ridgeline south to Carbonate Mountain. Immediately after reaching the first summit above tree line, this trail crosses a

  10. The quasi-steady state of the valley wind system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juerg eSchmidli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The quasi-steady-state limit of the diurnal valley wind system is investigated overidealized three-dimensional topography. Although this limit is rarely attained inreality due to ever-changing forcings, the investigation of this limit canprovide valuable insight, in particular on the mass and heat fluxes associatedwith the along-valley wind. We derive a scaling relation for the quasi-steady-state along-valleymass flux as a function of valley geometry, valley size, atmospheric stratification,and surface sensible heat flux forcing. The scaling relation is tested by comparisonwith the mass flux diagnosed from numerical simulations of the valleywind system. Good agreement is found. The results also provide insight into the relationbetween surface friction and the strength of the along-valley pressure gradient.

  11. Conservation Objectives for Wintering and Breeding Waterbirds in California’s Central Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. David Shuford

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available http://escholarship.org/uc/item/5tp5m718Birds associated with wetlands have declined historically across North America from extensive habitat loss and degradation. Among the regions most affected is California’s Central Valley, where over 90% of the wetland base has been lost. Still, this region remains of continental importance to waterbirds. On-the-ground conservation efforts for all bird groups are the focus of the Central Valley Joint Venture, guided by a periodically updated implementation plan. To track progress toward goal attainment, that plan sets time-bound, quantitative conservation goals. Lacking robust data on the size and trends of populations of most species of waterbirds in the Central Valley, we set conservation goals for this group by selecting 10 focal species. These species are of heightened conservation concern or are otherwise representative of the habitat needs of Central Valley waterbirds. Given the great loss of historical habitat, we assumed focal species populations have declined by ≥ 50%. Hence, we defined population objectives for most focal species as increasing their current populations by 10% over 10 years and doubling them in 100 years. The corresponding habitat objectives are to increase wetlands or enhance suitable crops for waterbirds in proportion to the population objectives. These include an increase over 10 years of 7,948 ha (19,641 acres of winter seasonal wetlands, 921 ha (2,276 acres each of semi-permanent and summer seasonal wetlands, and 573 ha (1,416 acres of strategically placed riparian forest. Agricultural needs include additional winter flooding of 15,160 ha (37,461 acres of rice and 2,137 ha (5,281 acres of corn. We distributed the habitat objectives across five planning regions, in some cases favoring proportionally larger increases in those regions with the greatest need. To maximize success, however, conservationists must take into account the specific needs of individual waterbird

  12. Direct measurement of exciton valley coherence in monolayer WSe2

    KAUST Repository

    Hao, Kai

    2016-02-29

    In crystals, energy band extrema in momentum space can be identified by a valley index. The internal quantum degree of freedom associated with valley pseudospin indices can act as a useful information carrier, analogous to electronic charge or spin. Interest in valleytronics has been revived in recent years following the discovery of atomically thin materials such as graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides. However, the valley coherence time—a crucial quantity for valley pseudospin manipulation—is difficult to directly probe. In this work, we use two-dimensional coherent spectroscopy to resonantly generate and detect valley coherence of excitons (Coulomb-bound electron–hole pairs) in monolayer WSe2 (refs ,). The imposed valley coherence persists for approximately one hundred femtoseconds. We propose that the electron–hole exchange interaction provides an important decoherence mechanism in addition to exciton population recombination. This work provides critical insight into the requirements and strategies for optical manipulation of the valley pseudospin for future valleytronics applications.

  13. Photon wavelength dependent valley photocurrent in multilayer MoS2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Hongming; Tang, Ning; Xu, Xiaolong; Shang, LiangLiang; Huang, Wei; Fu, Lei; Fang, Xianfa; Yu, Jiachen; Zhang, Caifeng; Zhang, Xiaoyue; Dai, Lun; Chen, Yonghai; Ge, Weikun; Shen, Bo

    2017-12-01

    The degree of freedom (DOF) of the K (K') valley in transition-metal dichalcogenides, especially molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), offers an opportunity for next-generation valleytronics devices. In this work, the K (K') valley DOF of multilayer MoS2 is studied by means of the photon wavelength dependent circular photogalvanic effect (CPGE) at room temperature upon a strong external out-of-plane electric field induced by an ionic liquid (IL) gate, which breaks the spatial-inversion symmetry. It is demonstrated that only on resonant excitations in the K (K') valley can the valley-related CPGE signals in multilayer MoS2 with an IL gate be detected, indicating that the valley contrast is indeed regenerated between the K and K' valleys when the electric field is applied. As expected, it can also be seen that the K (K') valley DOF in multilayer MoS2 can be modulated by the external electric field. The observation of photon wavelength dependent valley photocurrent in multilayer MoS2, with the help of better Ohmic contacts, may pave a way for optoelectronic applications of valleytronics in the future.

  14. Spin-valley splitting of electron beam in graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Song

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We study spatial separation of the four degenerate spin-valley components of an electron beam in a EuO-induced and top-gated ferromagnetic/pristine/strained graphene structure. We show that, in a full resonant tunneling regime for all beam components, the formation of standing waves can lead sudden phase jumps ∼−π and giant lateral Goos-Hänchen shifts as large as the transverse beam width, while the interplay of the spin and valley imaginary wave vectors in the modulated regions can lead differences of resonant angles for the four spin-valley flavors, manifesting a spin-valley beam splitting effect. The splitting effect is found to be controllable by the gating and strain.

  15. The carbon stable isotope biogeochemistry of streams, Taylor Valley, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, W.B.; Leslie, D.L.; Harmon, R.S.; Neumann, K.; Welch, K.A.; Bisson, K.M.; McKnight, D.M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► δ 13 C-DIC reported from McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, streams. ► Stream water δ 13 C PDB values range −9.4‰ to +5.1‰, largely inorganic in character. ► Atmospheric exchange is the dominant control on δ 13 C-DIC. - Abstract: The McMurdo Dry Valleys region of Antarctica is the largest ice-free region on the continent. This study reports the first C stable isotope measurements for dissolved inorganic C present in ephemeral streams in four dry valleys that flow for four to twelve weeks during the austral summer. One of these valleys, Taylor Valley, has been the focus of the McMurdo Dry Valleys Long-Term Ecological Research (MCM-LTER) program since 1993. Within Taylor Valley, numerous ephemeral streams deliver water to three perennially ice-covered, closed-basin lakes: Lake Fryxell, Lake Hoare, and Lake Bonney. The Onyx River in the Wright Valley, the longest river in Antarctica, flows for 40 km from the Wright Lower Glacier and Lake Brownworth at the foot of the glacier to Lake Vanda. Streamflow in the McMurdo Dry Valley streams is produced primarily from glacial melt, as there is no overland flow. However, hyporheic zone exchange can be a major hydrogeochemical process in these streams. Depending on landscape position, these streams vary in gradient, channel substrate, biomass abundance, and hyporheic zone extent. This study sampled streams from Taylor, Wright, Garwood, and Miers Valleys and conducted diurnal sampling of two streams of different character in Taylor Valley. In addition, transect sampling was undertaken of the Onyx River in Wright Valley. The δ 13 C PDB values from these streams span a range of greater than 14‰, from −9.4‰ to +5.1‰, with the majority of samples falling between −3‰ and +2‰, suggesting that the C stable isotope composition of dissolved C in McMurdo Dry Valley streams is largely inorganic in character. Because there are no vascular plants on this landscape and no groundwater input to these

  16. Valley-polarized quantum transport generated by gauge fields in graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Settnes, Mikkel; Garcia, Jose H; Roche, Stephan

    2017-01-01

    We report on the possibility to simultaneously generate in graphene a bulk valley-polarized dissipative transport and a quantum valley Hall effect by combining strain-induced gauge fields and real magnetic fields. Such unique phenomenon results from a ‘resonance/anti-resonance’ effect driven by t...... Kubo transport methods combined with a valley projection scheme to access valley-dependent conductivities and show that the results are robust against disorder....

  17. Electrical control of the anomalous valley Hall effect in antiferrovalley bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Wen-Yi; Duan, Chun-Gang

    2017-08-01

    In analogy to all-electric spintronics, all-electric valleytronics, i.e., valley manipulation via electric means, becomes an exciting new frontier as it may bring revolutions in the field of data storage with ultra-high speed and ultra-low power consumption. The existence of the anomalous valley Hall effect in ferrovalley materials demonstrates the possibility of electrical detection for valley polarization. However, in previously proposed valley-polarized monolayers, the anomalous valley Hall effect is controlled by external magnetic fields. Here, through elaborate structural design, we propose the antiferrovally bilayer as an ideal candidate for realizing all-electric valleytronic devices. Using the minimal k.p model, we show that the energy degeneracy between valley indexes in such system can be lifted by electric approaches. Subsequently, the anomalous valley Hall effect strongly depends on the electric field as well. Taking the bilayer VSe2 as an example, all-electric tuning and detecting of anomalous valley Hall effect is confirmed by density-functional theory calculations, indicating that the valley information in such antiferrovalley bilayer can be reversed by an electric field perpendicular to the plane of the system and easily probed through the sign of the Hall voltage.

  18. Titan's fluvial valleys: Morphology, distribution, and spectral properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhans, M.H.; Jaumann, R.; Stephan, K.; Brown, R.H.; Buratti, B.J.; Clark, R.N.; Baines, K.H.; Nicholson, P.D.; Lorenz, R.D.; Soderblom, L.A.; Soderblom, J.M.; Sotin, Christophe; Barnes, J.W.; Nelson, R.

    2012-01-01

    Titan's fluvial channels have been investigated based on data obtained by the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) instrument and the Visible and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) onboard the Cassini spacecraft. In this paper, a database of fluvial features is created based on radar-SAR data aiming to unveil the distribution and the morphologic and spectral characteristics of valleys on Titan on a global scale. It will also study the spatial relations between fluvial valleys and Titan's geologic units and spectral surface units which have become accessible thanks to Cassini-VIMS data. Several distinct morphologic types of fluvial valleys can be discerned by SAR-images. Dendritic valley networks appear to have much in common with terrestrial dendritic systems owing to a hierarchical and tree-shaped arrangement of the tributaries which is indicative of an origin from precipitation. Dry valleys constitute another class of valleys resembling terrestrial wadis, an indication of episodic and strong flow events. Other valley types, such as putative canyons, cannot be correlated with rainfall based on their morphology alone, since it cannot be ruled out that they may have originated from volcanic/tectonic action or groundwater sapping. Highly developed and complex fluvial networks with channel lengths of up to 1200 km and widths of up to 10 km are concentrated only at a few locations whereas single valleys are scattered over all latitudes. Fluvial valleys are frequently found in mountainous areas. Some terrains, such as equatorial dune fields and undifferentiated plains at mid-latitudes, are almost entirely free of valleys. Spectrally, fluvial terrains are often characterized by a high reflectance in each of Titan's atmospheric windows, as most of them are located on Titan's bright 'continents'. Nevertheless, valleys are spatially associated with a surface unit appearing blue due to its higher reflection at 1.3??m in a VIMS false color RGB composite with R: 1.59/1.27??m, G: 2

  19. Groundwater quality in Coachella Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Barbara J. Milby; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Coachella Valley is one of the study areas being evaluated. The Coachella study area is approximately 820 square miles (2,124 square kilometers) and includes the Coachella Valley groundwater basin (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). Coachella Valley has an arid climate, with average annual rainfall of about 6 inches (15 centimeters). The runoff from the surrounding mountains drains to rivers that flow east and south out of the study area to the Salton Sea. Land use in the study area is approximately 67 percent (%) natural, 21% agricultural, and 12% urban. The primary natural land cover is shrubland. The largest urban areas are the cities of Indio and Palm Springs (2010 populations of 76,000 and 44,000, respectively). Groundwater in this basin is used for public and domestic water supply and for irrigation. The main water-bearing units are gravel, sand, silt, and clay derived from surrounding mountains. The primary aquifers in Coachella Valley are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database. Public-supply wells in Coachella Valley are completed to depths between 490 and 900 feet (149 to 274 meters), consist of solid casing from the land surface to a depth of 260 to 510 feet (79 to 155 meters), and are screened or perforated below the solid casing. Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily runoff from the surrounding mountains, and by direct infiltration of irrigation. The primary sources of discharge are pumping wells, evapotranspiration, and underflow to

  20. Modeling the long-term fate of agricultural nitrate in groundwater in the San Joaquin Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapelle, Francis H.; Campbell, Bruce G.; Widdowson, Mark A.; Landon, Mathew K.

    2013-01-01

    Nitrate contamination of groundwater systems used for human water supplies is a major environmental problem in many parts of the world. Fertilizers containing a variety of reduced nitrogen compounds are commonly added to soils to increase agricultural yields. But the amount of nitrogen added during fertilization typically exceeds the amount of nitrogen taken up by crops. Oxidation of reduced nitrogen compounds present in residual fertilizers can produce substantial amounts of nitrate which can be transported to the underlying water table. Because nitrate concentrations exceeding 10 mg/L in drinking water can have a variety of deleterious effects for humans, agriculturally derived nitrate contamination of groundwater can be a serious public health issue. The Central Valley aquifer of California accounts for 13 percent of all the groundwater withdrawals in the United States. The Central Valley, which includes the San Joaquin Valley, is one of the most productive agricultural areas in the world and much of this groundwater is used for crop irrigation. However, rapid urbanization has led to increasing groundwater withdrawals for municipal public water supplies. That, in turn, has led to concern about how contaminants associated with agricultural practices will affect the chemical quality of groundwater in the San Joaquin Valley. Crop fertilization with various forms of nitrogen-containing compounds can greatly increase agricultural yields. However, leaching of nitrate from soils due to irrigation has led to substantial nitrate contamination of shallow groundwater. That shallow nitrate-contaminated groundwater has been moving deeper into the Central Valley aquifer since the 1960s. Denitrification can be an important process limiting the mobility of nitrate in groundwater systems. However, substantial denitrification requires adequate sources of electron donors in order to drive the process. In many cases, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and particulate organic carbon

  1. Mid-latitude Ozone Depletion Events Caused by Halogens from the Great Salt Lake in Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fibiger, D. L.; Goldberger, L.; Womack, C.; McDuffie, E. E.; Dube, W. P.; Franchin, A.; Middlebrook, A. M.; Thornton, J. A.; Brown, S. S.

    2017-12-01

    Halogens are highly reactive chemicals and play an important role in atmospheric chemistry. They can be involved in many cycles which influence the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere, including through destruction of ozone (O3). While the influence of halogens on O3 is well documented in the arctic, there are very few observations of O3 depletion driven by halogens in the mid-latitudes. To date, the most comprehensive study observed co-occurring plumes of BrO and depleted O3 near the Dead Sea in 1997. During the Utah Wintertime Fine Particulate Study (UWFPS) in winter 2017, simultaneous measurements of a comprehensive suite of halogen measurements by I- chemical ionization mass spectrometry and O3 from cavity ring-down spectroscopy, both at 1-second time resolution, were taken on a NOAA Twin Otter Aircraft over the Great Salt Lake and in the surrounding valleys. Many O3 depletion events were observed over the lake with O3 values sometimes below the instrument detection limit of 0.5 ppbv. Corresponding increases in BrO and/or ClO were observed. Many of these events were caused by extremely high levels of halogens (up to 1 ppmv Cl2) emitted from the U.S. Magnesium plant on the edge of the lake. The O3 depletion caused by U.S. Magnesium was usually isolated to a distinct vertical layer, but in other cases O3 depletion was vertically mixed and the origin of halogen activation was not immediately clear. The most complete O3 depletion was observed over the lake, but there were smaller events of a few ppbv observed in the adjacent valleys, including the highly populated Salt Lake Valley, with corresponding plumes of BrO and ClO, due to transport from the lake. Additionally, meteorology played a role in the observed O3 depletion. The strongest O3 depletion was observed during inversion events, when there is a low boundary layer and little mixing out of the air above the lake. During non-inversion conditions, only small depletions were observed, covering a much smaller

  2. EPA Region 1 - Map Layers for Valley ID Tool (Hosted Feature Service)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Valley Service Feature Layer hosts spatial data for EPA Region 1's Valley Identification Tool. These layers contain attribute information added by EPA R1 GIS Center to help identify populated valleys:- Fac_2011NEI: Pollution sources selected from the National Emissions Inventory (EPA, 2011).- NE_Towns_PopValleys: New England Town polygons (courtesy USGS), with Population in Valleys and Population Density in Valleys calculated by EPA R1 GIS, from 2010 US Census blocks. - VT_E911: Vermont residences (courtesy VT Center for Geographic Information E-911).

  3. Valley photonic crystals for control of spin and topology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Jian-Wen; Chen, Xiao-Dong; Zhu, Hanyu; Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-11-28

    Photonic crystals offer unprecedented opportunity for light manipulation and applications in optical communication and sensing1,2,3,4. Exploration of topology in photonic crystals and metamaterials with non-zero gauge field has inspired a number of intriguing optical phenomena such as one-way transport and Weyl points5,6,7,8,9,10. Recently, a new degree of freedom, valley, has been demonstrated in two-dimensional materials11,12,13,14,15. Here, we propose a concept of valley photonic crystals with electromagnetic duality symmetry but broken inversion symmetry. We observe photonic valley Hall effect originating from valley-dependent spin-split bulk bands, even in topologically trivial photonic crystals. Valley–spin locking behaviour results in selective net spin flow inside bulk valley photonic crystals. We also show the independent control of valley and topology in a single system that has been long pursued in electronic systems, resulting in topologically-protected flat edge states. Valley photonic crystals not only offer a route towards the observation of non-trivial states, but also open the way for device applications in integrated photonics and information processing using spin-dependent transportation.

  4. High-resolution aeromagnetic survey of the Mono Basin-Long Valley Caldera region, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, D. A.; Mangan, M.; McPhee, D.

    2013-12-01

    A new high-resolution aeromagnetic survey of the Mono Basin-Long Valley Caldera region greatly enhances previous magnetic interpretations that were based on older, low-resolution, and regional aeromagnetic data sets and provides new insights into volcano-tectonic processes. The surveyed area covers a 8,750 km2 NNW-trending swath situated between the Sierra Nevada to the west and the Basin and Range Province to the east. The surveyed area includes the volcanic centers of Mono Lake, Mono-Inyo Craters, Mammoth Mountain, Devils Postpile, and Long Valley Caldera. The NW-trending eastern Sierra frontal fault zone crosses through the study area, including the active Mono Lake, Silver Lake, Hartley Springs, Laurel Creek, and Hilton Creek faults. Over 6,000 line-kilometers of aeromagnetic data were collected at a constant terrain clearance of 150 m, a flight-line spacing of 400 m, and a tie-line spacing of 4 km. Data were collected via helicopter with an attached stinger housing a magnetic sensor using a Scintrex CS-3 cesium magnetometer. In the northern part of the survey area, data improve the magnetic resolution of the individual domes and coulees along Mono Craters and a circular shaped magnetic anomaly that coincides with a poorly defined ring fracture mapped by Kistler (1966). Here, aeromagnetic data combined with other geophysical data suggests that Mono Craters may have preferentially followed a pre-existing plutonic basement feature that may have controlled the sickle shape of the volcanic chain. In the northeastern part of the survey, aeromagnetic data reveal a linear magnetic anomaly that correlates with and extends a mapped fault. In the southern part of the survey, in the Sierra Nevada block just south of Long Valley Caldera, aeromagnetic anomalies correlate with NNW-trending Sierran frontal faults rather than to linear NNE-trends observed in recent seismicity over the last 30 years. These data provide an important framework for the further analysis of the

  5. Breathing Valley Fever

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-02-04

    Dr. Duc Vugia, chief of the Infectious Diseases Branch in the California Department of Public Health, discusses Valley Fever.  Created: 2/4/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/5/2014.

  6. Groundwater-flow and land-subsidence model of Antelope Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siade, Adam J.; Nishikawa, Tracy; Rewis, Diane L.; Martin, Peter; Phillips, Steven P.

    2014-01-01

    Antelope Valley, California, is a topographically closed basin in the western part of the Mojave Desert, about 50 miles northeast of Los Angeles. The Antelope Valley groundwater basin is about 940 square miles and is separated from the northern part of Antelope Valley by faults and low-lying hills. Prior to 1972, groundwater provided more than 90 percent of the total water supply in the valley; since 1972, it has provided between 50 and 90 percent. Most groundwater pumping in the valley occurs in the Antelope Valley groundwater basin, which includes the rapidly growing cities of Lancaster and Palmdale. Groundwater-level declines of more than 270 feet in some parts of the groundwater basin have resulted in an increase in pumping lifts, reduced well efficiency, and land subsidence of more than 6 feet in some areas. Future urban growth and limits on the supply of imported water may increase reliance on groundwater.

  7. Quaternary glaciation of the Tashkurgan Valley, Southeast Pamir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Lewis A.; Chen, Jie; Hedrick, Kathyrn A.; Caffee, Marc W.; Robinson, Alexander C.; Schoenbohm, Lindsay M.; Yuan, Zhaode; Li, Wenqiao; Imrecke, Daniel B.; Liu, Jinfeng

    2012-07-01

    The Quaternary glacial history of Tashkurgan valley, in the transition between the Pamir and Karakoram, in Xinjiang Province, China was examined using remote sensing, field mapping, geomorphic analysis of landforms and sediments, and 10Be terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide dating. Moraines were assigned to four glacial stages: 1) the Dabudaer glacial stage that dates to the penultimate glacial cycle and/or earlier, and may represent one or more glaciations; 2) the Tashkurgan glacial stage that dates to early last glacial, most likely Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage (MIS) 4; 3) the Hangdi glacial stage that dates to MIS 2, possibly early MIS 2; and 4) the Kuzigun glacial stage that dates to the MIS 2, possibly the global Last Glacial Maximum, and is younger than the Hangdi glacial stage. Younger moraines and rock glaciers are present at the heads of tributary valleys; but these were inaccessible because they are located close to politically sensitive borders with Pakistan, Afghanistan and Tajikistan. Glaciers during the Dabudaer glacial stage advanced into the central part of the Tashkurgan valley. During the Tashkurgan glacial stages, glaciers advanced several kilometers beyond the mouths of the tributary valleys into the Tashkurgan valley. Glaciers during the Hangdi and Kuzigun glacial stages advanced just beyond the mouths of the tributary valleys. Glaciation in this part of the Himalayan-Tibetan orogen is likely strongly controlled by northern hemisphere climate oscillations, although a monsoonal influence on glaciation cannot be ruled out entirely.

  8. Significance of zircon U-Pb ages from the Pescadero felsite, west-central California coast ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Robert J.; Moore, Diane E.; ,; Martens, UWE C.; Clark, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Cretaceous forearc units of the Transverse Ranges. Based on zircon U-Pb ages, geologic and petrographic relations, the Pescadero felsite and a capping, sheared metaconglomerate underlie the Pigeon Point Formation. We infer that the magma formed by anatexis of Franciscan or Great Valley clastic sedimentary rocks originating from a parental Mesozoic Sierran-Mojave-Salinian calc-alkaline arc. The felsite erupted during Late Cretaceous time, was metamorphosed to pumpellyite-prehnite grade within the subduction zone, and then was rapidly exhumed, weakly zeolitized, and exposed before Pigeon Point forearc deposition. Pescadero volcanism apparently reflects a previously unrecognized ca. 86–90 Ma felsic igneous event in the accretionary margin.

  9. Potential hydrologic characterization wells in Amargosa Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyles, B.; Mihevc, T.

    1994-09-01

    More than 500 domestic, agricultural, and monitoring wells were identified in the Amargosa Valley. From this list, 80 wells were identified as potential hydrologic characterization wells, in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Underground Test Area/Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study (UGTA/RIFS). Previous hydrogeologic studies have shown that groundwater flow in the basin is complex and that aquifers may have little lateral continuity. Wells located more than 10 km or so from the Nevada Test Site (NTS) boundary may yield data that are difficult to correlate to sources from the NTS. Also, monitoring well locations should be chosen within the guidelines of a hydrologic conceptual model and monitoring plan. Since these do not exist at this time, recompletion recommendations will be restricted to wells relatively close (approximately 20 km) to the NTS boundary. Recompletion recommendations were made for two abandoned agricultural irrigation wells near the town of Amargosa Valley (previously Lathrop Wells), for two abandoned wildcat oil wells about 10 km southwest of Amargosa Valley, and for Test Well 5 (TW-5), about 10 km east of Amargosa Valley

  10. MX Siting Investigation. Gravity Survey - Sevier Desert Valley, Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-24

    Cheyenne, Wyoming. DMAHTC reduces the data to Simple Bouguer Anomaly (see Section A1.4, Appendix Al.0). The Defense Mapping Agency Aerospace Center...Desert Valley, Utah ......... 2 2 Topographic Setting - Sevier Desert Valley, Utah . 3 LIST OF DRAWINGS Drawing Number 1 Complete Bouguer Anomaly...gravity stations were distributed throughout the valley at an approxi- mate interval of 1.4 miles (2.3 km). Drawing 1 is a Complete Bouguer Anomaly

  11. Gravity and magnetic data of Midway Valley, southwest Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponce, D.A.; Langenheim, V.E.; Sikora, R.F.

    1993-01-01

    Detailed gravity and ground magnetic data collected along five traverses across Midway Valley on the eastern flank of Yucca Mountain in southwest Nevada are described. These data were collected as part of an effort to evaluate faulting in the vicinity of proposed surface facilities for a potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Geophysical data show that Midway Valley is bounded by large gravity and magnetic anomalies associated with the Bow Ridge and Paintbrush Canyon faults, on the west side of Exile Hill and on the west flank of Fran Ridge, respectively. In addition, Midway Valley itself is characterized by a number of small-amplitude anomalies that probably reflect small-scale faulting beneath Midway Valley

  12. 27 CFR 9.208 - Snake River Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Snake River Valley. 9.208... Snake River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Snake River Valley”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Snake River Valley” is a term of viticultural...

  13. Subglacial tunnel valleys in the Alpine foreland: an example from Bern, Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duerst Stucki, M.; Reber, R.; Schlunegger, F.

    2010-01-01

    The morphology of the Alpine and adjacent landscapes is directly related to glacial erosion and associated sediment transport. Here we report the effects of glacio-hydrologic erosion on bedrock topography in the Swiss Plateau. Specifically, we identify the presence of subsurface valleys beneath the city of Bern and discuss their genesis. Stratigraphic investigations of more than 4'000 borehole data within a 430 km 2 -large area reveal the presence of a network of >200 m-deep and 1'000 m-wide valleys. They are flat floored with steep sided walls and are filled by Quaternary glacial deposits. The central valley beneath Bern is straight and oriented towards the NNW, with valley flanks more than 20 o steep. The valley bottom has an irregular undulating profile along the thalweg, with differences between sills and hollows higher than 50-100 m over a reach of 4 km length. Approximately 500 m high bedrock highlands flank the valley network. The highlands are dissected by up to 80 m-deep and 500 m-broad hanging valleys that currently drain away from the axis of the main valley. We interpret the valleys beneath the city of Bern to be a tunnel valley network which originated from subglacial erosion by melt water. The highland valleys served as proglacial meltwater paths and are hanging with respect to the trunk system, indicating that these incipient highland systems as well as the main gorge beneath Bern formed by glacial melt water under pressure. (authors)

  14. Gate-tunable valley-spin filtering in silicene with magnetic barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, X. Q., E-mail: xianqiangzhe@126.com [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Meng, H. [School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, Shanxi University of Technology, Hanzhong 723001 (China)

    2015-05-28

    We theoretically study the valley- and spin-resolved scattering through magnetic barrier in a one layer thick silicene, using the mode-matching method for the Dirac equation. We show that the spin-valley filtering effect can be achieved and can also be tuned completely through both a top and bottom gate. Moreover, when reversing the sign of the staggered potential, we find the direction of the valley polarization is switched while the direction of spin polarization is unchanged. These results can provide some meaningful information to design valley valve residing on silicene.

  15. VALDRIFT 1.0: A valley atmospheric dispersion model with deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allwine, K.J.; Bian, X.; Whiteman, C.D.

    1995-05-01

    VALDRIFT version 1.0 is an atmospheric transport and diffusion model for use in well-defined mountain valleys. It is designed to determine the extent of ddft from aedal pesticide spraying activities, but can also be applied to estimate the transport and diffusion of various air pollutants in valleys. The model is phenomenological -- that is, the dominant meteorological processes goveming the behavior of the valley atmosphere are formulated explicitly in the model, albeit in a highly parameterized fashion. The key meteorological processes treated are: (1) nonsteady and nonhomogeneous along-valley winds and turbulent diffusivities, (2) convective boundary layer growth, (3) inversion descent, (4) noctumal temperature inversion breakup, and (5) subsidence. The model is applicable under relatively cloud-free, undisturbed synoptic conditions and is configured to operate through one diumal cycle for a single valley. The inputs required are the valley topographical characteristics, pesticide release rate as a function of time and space, along-valley wind speed as a function of time and space, temperature inversion characteristics at sunrise, and sensible heat flux as a function of time following sunrise. Default values are provided for certain inputs in the absence of detailed observations. The outputs are three-dimensional air concentration and ground-level deposition fields as a function of time.

  16. Valley-selective optical Stark effect probed by Kerr rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMountain, Trevor; Bergeron, Hadallia; Balla, Itamar; Stanev, Teodor K.; Hersam, Mark C.; Stern, Nathaniel P.

    2018-01-01

    The ability to monitor and control distinct states is at the heart of emerging quantum technologies. The valley pseudospin in transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDC) monolayers is a promising degree of freedom for such control, with the optical Stark effect allowing for valley-selective manipulation of energy levels in WS2 and WSe2 using ultrafast optical pulses. Despite these advances, understanding of valley-sensitive optical Stark shifts in TMDCs has been limited by reflectance-based detection methods where the signal is small and prone to background effects. More sensitive polarization-based spectroscopy is required to better probe ultrafast Stark shifts for all-optical manipulation of valley energy levels. Here, we show time-resolved Kerr rotation to be a more sensitive probe of the valley-selective optical Stark effect in monolayer TMDCs. Compared to the established time-resolved reflectance methods, Kerr rotation is less sensitive to background effects. Kerr rotation provides a fivefold improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio of the Stark effect optical signal and a more precise estimate of the energy shift. This increased sensitivity allows for observation of an optical Stark shift in monolayer MoS2 that exhibits both valley and energy selectivity, demonstrating the promise of this method for investigating this effect in other layered materials and heterostructures.

  17. Four newly recorded species of Dryopteridaceae from Kashmir valley, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHAKOOR AHMAD MIR

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mir SA, Mishra AK, Reshi ZA, Sharma MP. 2014. Four newly recorded species of Dryopteridaceae from Kashmir valley, India. Biodiversitas 15: 6-11. Habitat diversity, elevation, cloud cover, rainfall, seasonal and temperature variations have created many ideal sites for the luxuriant growth of pteridophytes in the Kashmir valley, yet all the regions of the valley have not been surveyed. In Kashmir valley the family Dryopteridaceae is represented by 31 species. During the recent extensive field surveys of Shopian district four more species viz., Dryopteris caroli-hopei Fraser-Jenkins, Dryopteris blanfordii subsp. nigrosquamosa (Ching Fraser-Jenkins, Dryopteris pulvinulifera (Bedd. Kuntze and Polystichum Nepalense (Spreng C. Chr. have been recorded for the first time from the valley. The taxonomic description, synonyms, distribution and photographs of each species are given in this article.

  18. Ventilation potential during the emissions survey in Toluca Valley, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Angulo, A.; Peralta, O.; Jurado, O. E.; Ortinez, A.; Grutter de la Mora, M.; Rivera, C.; Gutierrez, W.; Gonzalez, E.

    2017-12-01

    During the late-spring early-summer measurements of emissions and pollutants were carried out during a survey campaign at four different locations within the Toluca Valley. The current emissions inventory typically estimates the generation of pollutants based on pre-estimated values representing an entire sector function of their activities. However, those factors are not always based direct measurements. The emissions from the Toluca Valley are rather large and they could affect the air quality of Mexico City Valley. The air masses interchange between those two valleys is not very well understood; however, based on the measurements obtained during the 3 months campaign we looked carefully at the daily variability of the wind finding a clear signal for mountain-valley breeze. The ventilation coefficient is estimated and the correlations with the concentrations at the 4 locations and in a far away station in Mexico City are addressed in this work. Finally, we discuss the implication of the ventilation capacity in air quality for the system of Valleys that include Mexico City.

  19. 3D Electromagnetic Imaging of Fluid Distribution Below the Kii Peninsula, SW Japan Forearc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Y.; Ogawa, Y.; Ichiki, M.; Yamaguchi, S.; Fujita, K.; Umeda, K.; Asamori, K.

    2017-12-01

    Although Kii peninsula is located in the forearc of southwest Japan, it has high temperature hot springs and fluids from mantle are inferred from the isotopic ratio of helium. Non-volcanic tremors underneath the Kii Peninsula suggest rising fluids from the slab.Previously, in the southern part of the Kii Peninsula, wide band magnetotelluric measurements were carried out (Fujita et al. ,1997; Umeda et al., 2004). These studies could image the existence of the conductivity anomaly in the shallow and deep crust, however they used two dimensional inversions and three-dimensionality is not fully taken into consideration. As part of the "Crustal Dynamics" project, we have measured 20 more stations so that the whole wide-band MT stations constitute grids for three-dimensional modeling of the area. In total we have 51 wide-band magnetotelluric sites. Preliminary 3d inverse modeling showed the following features. (1) The high resistivity in the eastern Kii Peninsula at depths of 5-40km. This may imply consolidated magma body of Kumano Acidic rocks underlain by resistive Philippine Sea Plate which subducts with a low dip angle. (2) The northwestern part of Kii Peninsula has the shallow low resistivity in the upper crust, around which high seismicity is observed. (3) The northwestern part of the survey area has a deeper conductor. This implies a wedge mantle where the Philippine Sea subduction has a higher dip angle.

  20. Subglacial tunnel valleys in the Alpine foreland: an example from Bern, Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duerst Stucki, M.; Reber, R.; Schlunegger, F.

    2010-12-15

    The morphology of the Alpine and adjacent landscapes is directly related to glacial erosion and associated sediment transport. Here we report the effects of glacio-hydrologic erosion on bedrock topography in the Swiss Plateau. Specifically, we identify the presence of subsurface valleys beneath the city of Bern and discuss their genesis. Stratigraphic investigations of more than 4'000 borehole data within a 430 km{sup 2}-large area reveal the presence of a network of >200 m-deep and 1'000 m-wide valleys. They are flat floored with steep sided walls and are filled by Quaternary glacial deposits. The central valley beneath Bern is straight and oriented towards the NNW, with valley flanks more than 20 {sup o} steep. The valley bottom has an irregular undulating profile along the thalweg, with differences between sills and hollows higher than 50-100 m over a reach of 4 km length. Approximately 500 m high bedrock highlands flank the valley network. The highlands are dissected by up to 80 m-deep and 500 m-broad hanging valleys that currently drain away from the axis of the main valley. We interpret the valleys beneath the city of Bern to be a tunnel valley network which originated from subglacial erosion by melt water. The highland valleys served as proglacial meltwater paths and are hanging with respect to the trunk system, indicating that these incipient highland systems as well as the main gorge beneath Bern formed by glacial melt water under pressure. (authors)

  1. Ozone Laminae and Their Entrainment Into a Valley Boundary Layer, as Observed From a Mountaintop Monitoring Station, Ozonesondes, and Aircraft Over California's San Joaquin Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faloona, I. C.; Conley, S. A.; Caputi, D.; Trousdell, J.; Chiao, S.; Eiserloh, A. J., Jr.; Clark, J.; Iraci, L. T.; Yates, E. L.; Marrero, J. E.; Ryoo, J. M.; McNamara, M. E.

    2016-12-01

    The San Joaquin Valley of California is wide ( 75 km) and long ( 400 km), and is situated under strong atmospheric subsidence due, in part, to the proximity of the midlatitude anticyclone of the Pacific High. The capping effect of this subsidence is especially prominent during the warm season when ground level ozone is a serious air quality concern across the region. While relatively clean marine boundary layer air is primarily funneled into the valley below the strong subsidence inversion at significant gaps in the upwind Coast Range mountains, airflow aloft also spills over these barriers and mixes into the valley from above. Because this transmountain flow occurs under the influence of synoptic subsidence it tends to present discrete, laminar sheets of differing air composition above the valley boundary layer. Meanwhile, although the boundary layers tend to remain shallow due to the prevailing subsidence, orographic and anabatic venting of valley boundary layer air around the basin whips up a complex admixture of regional air masses into a "buffer layer" just above the boundary layer (zi) and below the lower free troposphere. We present scalar data of widely varying lifetimes including ozone, methane, NOx, and thermodynamic observations from upwind and within the San Joaquin Valley to better explain this layering and its subsequent erosion into the valley boundary layer via entrainment. Data collected at a mountaintop monitoring station on Chews Ridge in the Coast Range, by coastal ozonesondes, and aircraft are analyzed to document the dynamic layering processes around the complex terrain surrounding the valley. Particular emphasis will be made on observational methods whereby distal ozone can be distinguished from the regional ozone to better understand the influence of exogenous sources on air quality in the valley.

  2. Geomorphological hazards in Swat valley, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usman, A.

    1999-01-01

    This study attempts to describe, interpret and analyze, in depth, the varied geomorphological hazards and their impacts prevailing in the swat valley locate in the northern hilly and mountainous regions of Pakistan. The hills and mountains re zones of high geomorphological activity with rapid rates of weathering, active tectonic activities, abundant precipitation, rapid runoff and heavy sediment transport. Due to the varied topography, lithology, steep slope, erodible soil, heavy winter snowfall and intensive rainfall in the spring and summer seasons, several kinds of geomorphological hazards, such as geomorphic gravitational hazards, Fluvial hazards, Glacial hazards, Geo tectonic hazards, are occurring frequently in swat valley. Amongst them, geomorphic gravitational hazards, such as rock fall rock slide, debris slide mud flow avalanches, are major hazards in mountains and hills while fluvial hazards and sedimentation are mainly confined to the alluvial plain and lowlands of the valley. The Getechtonic hazards, on the other hand, have wide spread distribution in the valley the magnitude and occurrence of each king of hazard is thus, varied according to intensity of process and physical geographic environment. This paper discusses the type distribution and damage due to the various geomorphological hazards and their reduction treatments. The study would to be of particular importance and interest to both natural and social scientists, as well as planner, environmentalists and decision-makers for successful developmental interventions in the region. (author)

  3. A new Proposal to Mexico Valley Zonification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Estrella, H. C.; Yussim, S.; Lomnitz, C.

    2004-12-01

    The effects of the Michoacan earthquake (19th September, 1985, Mw 8.1) in Mexico City caused a significant change in the political, social and scientific history, as it was considered the worst seismic disaster ever lived in Mexico. Since then, numerous efforts have been made to understand and determine the parameters that caused the special features registered. One of these efforts had began on 1960 with the work by Marsal and Masari, who published the Mexico Valley seismological and geotechnical zonification (1969), based on gravimetric and shallow borehole data. In this work, we present a revision of the studies that proposed the zonification, a description of the valley geology, and basing on it we propose a new zonification for Mexico Valley.

  4. Topographic Evolution of the Sierra Nevada Resolved by Inversion of Low-Temperature Thermochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhillips, D. F.; Brandon, M. T.

    2011-12-01

    At present, there are two competing ideas for the topographic evolution of the Sierra Nevada Range. One idea is that the Sierra Nevada was formed as a monocline in the Cretaceous, marking the transition from the Great Valley forearc basin to the west, and a high Nevadaplano plateau to the east, similar to the west flank of the modern Altiplano of the Andes. Both the thermochronologic signature of local relief and the stable isotopic evidence of a topographic rain shadow support this hypothesis. However, a suite of geomorphic observations suggests that the Sierra gained a large fraction of its present elevation as recently as the Pliocene. This recent surface uplift could have been driven by convective removal of in the lower part of the lithosphere and/or by changes in dynamic topography associated with deep subduction of the Farallon plate. Here we present the first comprehensive analysis of low-temperature thermochronology in the Sierra Nevada, which provides a definitive solution, which indicates that both ideas are likely correct. Our analysis is distinguished by three new factors: The first is that we allow for separate evolutions for the local relief and the long-wavelength topography. Second, we use Al-in-Hb paleobarometry to constrain the initial depth of emplacement for the Sierra Nevada plutons. Third, our analysis is tied to a sea-level reference by using the paleo-bathymetric record of the Great Valley basin, where it on-laps the Sierra Nevada batholith. According to our analysis, westward tilting of the Sierra accounts for 2 km of uplift since 20 Ma. Topographic relief increased by a factor of 2. These findings suggest that the Sierra Nevada lost elevation through most of the Tertiary but regained much of its initial elevation following the onset of surface uplift in the Miocene.

  5. Hybrid spin and valley quantum computing with singlet-triplet qubits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohling, Niklas; Russ, Maximilian; Burkard, Guido

    2014-10-24

    The valley degree of freedom in the electronic band structure of silicon, graphene, and other materials is often considered to be an obstacle for quantum computing (QC) based on electron spins in quantum dots. Here we show that control over the valley state opens new possibilities for quantum information processing. Combining qubits encoded in the singlet-triplet subspace of spin and valley states allows for universal QC using a universal two-qubit gate directly provided by the exchange interaction. We show how spin and valley qubits can be separated in order to allow for single-qubit rotations.

  6. Graphene valley pseudospin filter using an extended line defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunlycke, Daniel; White, Carter

    2011-03-01

    Although graphene exhibits excellent electron and thermal transport properties, it does not have an intrinsic band gap, required to use graphene as a replacement material for silicon and other semiconductors in conventional electronics. The band structure of graphene with its two cones near the Fermi level, however, offers opportunities to develop non-traditional applications. One such avenue is to exploit the valley degeneracy in graphene to develop valleytronics. A central component in valleytronics is the valley filter, just as the spin filter is central in spintronics. Herein, we present a two-dimensional valley filter based on scattering of electrons and holes off a recently observed extended line defect [Nat. Nanotech.5, 326 (2010)] within graphene. The transmission probability depends strongly on the valley pseudospin and the angle of incidence of the incident quasiparticles. Quasiparticles arriving at the line defect at a high angle of incidence lead to a valley polarization of the transmitted beam that is near 100 percent. This work was supported by ONR, directly and through NRL.

  7. Geomorphological evidences of Quaternary tectonic activities in the Santa Cruz river valley, Patagonia, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massabie, A.; Sanguinetti, A.; Nestiero, O.

    2007-01-01

    From Argentin lake, at west on Andean hills, to Puerto Santa Cruz on Atlantic coast, Santa Cruz river cross eastward Santa Cruz province over 250 km in Patagonia at southern Argentina. Present bed of the river has a meandering outline with first order meanders of great ratio bends and second order meanders of minor ratio bends. Principal wanderings are 45 to 55 km spaced from near Estancia La Julia or Rio Bote at west to Comandante Luis Piedrabuena at east. On river's bed middle sector these great curvatures are located at Estancia Condor Cliff and Estancia Rincon Grande. Regional and partial detailed studies allow to recognize structural control on river's bed sketch and valley s geomorphology that relates first order bends with reactivated principal faults. These faults fit well with parallel system of northwest strike of Austral Basin.On geological, geomorphologic and structural evidences recognized in Santa Cruz river, quaternary tectonic activity, related to Andean movements in southern Patagonian foreland, is postulated. (author)

  8. Hydrological responses to channelization and the formation of valley plugs and shoals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Aaron R.; King, Sammy L.

    2017-01-01

    Rehabilitation of floodplain systems focuses on restoring interactions between the fluvial system and floodplain, however, there is a paucity of information on the effects of valley plugs and shoals on floodplain hydrological processes. We investigated hydrologic regimes in floodplains at three valley plug sites, two shoal sites, and three unchannelized sites. Valley plug sites had altered surface and sub-surface hydrology relative to unchannelized sites, while only sub-surface hydrology was affected at shoal sites. Some of the changes were unexpected, such as reduced flood duration and flood depth in floodplains associated with valley plugs. Our results emphasize the variability associated with hydrologic processes around valley plugs and our rudimentary understanding of the effects associated with these geomorphic features. Water table levels were lower at valley plug sites compared to unchannelized sites, however, valley plug sites had a greater proportion of days when water table inundation was above mean root collar depth than both shoal and unchannelized sites as a result of lower root collar depths and higher deposition rates. This study has provided evidence that valley plugs can affect both surface and sub-surface hydrology in different ways than previously thought and illustrates the variability in hydrological responses to valley plug formation.

  9. Geographic variability in elevation and topographic constraints on the distribution of native and nonnative trout in the Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Dana R.; Dunham, Jason B.; Hockman-Wert, David

    2014-01-01

    Understanding local and geographic factors influencing species distributions is a prerequisite for conservation planning. Our objective in this study was to model local and geographic variability in elevations occupied by native and nonnative trout in the northwestern Great Basin, USA. To this end, we analyzed a large existing data set of trout presence (5,156 observations) to evaluate two fundamental factors influencing occupied elevations: climate-related gradients in geography and local constraints imposed by topography. We applied quantile regression to model upstream and downstream distribution elevation limits for each trout species commonly found in the region (two native and two nonnative species). With these models in hand, we simulated an upstream shift in elevation limits of trout distributions to evaluate potential consequences of habitat loss. Downstream elevation limits were inversely associated with latitude, reflecting regional gradients in temperature. Upstream limits were positively related to maximum stream elevation as expected. Downstream elevation limits were constrained topographically by valley bottom elevations in northern streams but not in southern streams, where limits began well above valley bottoms. Elevation limits were similar among species. Upstream shifts in elevation limits for trout would lead to more habitat loss in the north than in the south, a result attributable to differences in topography. Because downstream distributions of trout in the north extend into valley bottoms with reduced topographic relief, trout in more northerly latitudes are more likely to experience habitat loss associated with an upstream shift in lower elevation limits. By applying quantile regression to relatively simple information (species presence, elevation, geography, topography), we were able to identify elevation limits for trout in the Great Basin and explore the effects of potential shifts in these limits that could occur in response to changing

  10. Numerical simulation of the impact of reforestation on winter meteorology and environment in a semi-arid urban valley, Northwestern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Ye; He, Jianjun; Zhao, Suping; Liu, Na; Chen, Jinbei; Mao, Hongjun; Wu, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Since 1999 Chinese government has made great effort to reforest the south and north mountains surrounding urban Lanzhou – a city located in a river valley, Northwestern China. Until 2009 obvious land use change occurred, with 69.2% of the reforested area been changed from grasslands, croplands, barren or sparsely vegetated land to closed shrublands and 20.6% from closed shrublands, grasslands, and croplands to forests. Reforestation changes land-surface properties, with possible impact on the evolution of atmospheric variables. To understand to what extent the local meteorology and environment could be affected by reforestation in winter, and through what processes, two sets of simulations were conducted using the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) and the FLEXible PARTicle (FLEXPART) dispersion model for a control case with high-resolution remotely sensed land cover data for 2009 and a scenario assuming no reforestation since 1999. Results suggested that the changes in albedo, surface exchange coefficient and surface soil heat conductivity related to reforestation led to the changes in surface net radiation and surface energy partitioning, which in turn affected the meteorological fields and enhanced the mountain-valley wind circulation. Replacement of shrublands and grassland with forest in the south mountain through reforestation play a dominant role in the enhancement of mountain-valley wind circulation. Reforestation increased the amount of air exchanged between the valley and the outside during the day, with the largest hourly increase of 10% on calm weather days and a monthly mean hourly increase of 2% for the study period (Dec. 2009). Reforestation affected the spatial distribution of pollutants and slightly improved the urban air quality, especially in the eastern valley. Results from this study provide useful information for future urban air quality management and reforestation plan, and some experience for cities with similar situations in

  11. Numerical simulation of the impact of reforestation on winter meteorology and environment in a semi-arid urban valley, Northwestern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Ye, E-mail: yyu@lzb.ac.cn [Clod and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Key Laboratory of Land Surface Process and Climate Change in Cold & Arid Regions, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); He, Jianjun, E-mail: 18766167147@163.com [Clod and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Key Laboratory of Land Surface Process and Climate Change in Cold & Arid Regions, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); College of Environmental Science & Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Zhao, Suping [Clod and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Key Laboratory of Land Surface Process and Climate Change in Cold & Arid Regions, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Liu, Na [Clod and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Key Laboratory of Land Surface Process and Climate Change in Cold & Arid Regions, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Weather Modification Office, Qinghai Meteorological Bureau, Xining 810001 (China); Chen, Jinbei [Clod and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Key Laboratory of Land Surface Process and Climate Change in Cold & Arid Regions, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Mao, Hongjun; Wu, Lin [College of Environmental Science & Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2016-11-01

    Since 1999 Chinese government has made great effort to reforest the south and north mountains surrounding urban Lanzhou – a city located in a river valley, Northwestern China. Until 2009 obvious land use change occurred, with 69.2% of the reforested area been changed from grasslands, croplands, barren or sparsely vegetated land to closed shrublands and 20.6% from closed shrublands, grasslands, and croplands to forests. Reforestation changes land-surface properties, with possible impact on the evolution of atmospheric variables. To understand to what extent the local meteorology and environment could be affected by reforestation in winter, and through what processes, two sets of simulations were conducted using the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) and the FLEXible PARTicle (FLEXPART) dispersion model for a control case with high-resolution remotely sensed land cover data for 2009 and a scenario assuming no reforestation since 1999. Results suggested that the changes in albedo, surface exchange coefficient and surface soil heat conductivity related to reforestation led to the changes in surface net radiation and surface energy partitioning, which in turn affected the meteorological fields and enhanced the mountain-valley wind circulation. Replacement of shrublands and grassland with forest in the south mountain through reforestation play a dominant role in the enhancement of mountain-valley wind circulation. Reforestation increased the amount of air exchanged between the valley and the outside during the day, with the largest hourly increase of 10% on calm weather days and a monthly mean hourly increase of 2% for the study period (Dec. 2009). Reforestation affected the spatial distribution of pollutants and slightly improved the urban air quality, especially in the eastern valley. Results from this study provide useful information for future urban air quality management and reforestation plan, and some experience for cities with similar situations in

  12. The California Valley grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, J.E.; Schoenherr, Allan A.

    1990-01-01

    Grasslands are distributed throughout California from Oregon to Baja California Norte and from the coast to the desert (Brown 1982) (Figure 1). This review will focus on the dominant formation in cismontane California, a community referred to as Valley Grassland (Munz 1959). Today, Valley Grassland is dominated by non-native annual grasses in genera such as Avena (wild oat), Bromus (brome grass), and Hordeum (barley), and is often referred to as the California annual grassland. On localized sites, native perennial bunchgrasses such as Stipa pultra (purple needle grass) may dominate and such sites are interpreted to be remnants of the pristine valley grassland. In northwestern California a floristically distinct formation of the Valley Grassland, known as Coast Prairie (Munz 1959) or Northern Coastal Grassland (Holland and Keil 1989) is recognized. The dominant grasses include many native perennial bunchgrasses in genera such as Agrostis, Calamagrostis, Danthonia, Deschampsia, Festuca, Koeleria and Poa (Heady et al. 1977). Non-native annuals do not dominate, but on some sites non-native perennials like Anthoxanthum odoratum may colonize the native grassland (Foin and Hektner 1986). Elevationally, California's grasslands extend from sea level to at leas 1500 m. The upper boundary is vague because montane grassland formations are commonly referred to as meadows; a community which Munz (1959) does not recognize. Holland and Keil (1989) describe the montane meadow as an azonal community; that is, a community restricted not so much to a particular climatic zone but rather controlled by substrate characteristics. They consider poor soil-drainage an over-riding factor in the development of montane meadows and, in contrast to grasslands, meadows often remain green through the summer drought. Floristically, meadows are composed of graminoids; Cyperaceae, Juncaceae, and rhizomatous grasses such as Agropyron (wheat grass). Some bunchgrasses, such as Muhlenbergia rigens, are

  13. Subsurface and petroleum geology of the southwestern Santa Clara Valley ("Silicon Valley"), California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Richard G.; Jachens, Robert C.; Lillis, Paul G.; McLaughlin, Robert J.; Kvenvolden, Keith A.; Hostettler, Frances D.; McDougall, Kristin A.; Magoon, Leslie B.

    2002-01-01

    and 1929 to total depths as great as 840 m. At least one pump unit is still standing. Although no lithologic or paleontologic samples are available from the wells, driller's logs indicate the presence of thick intervals of brown shale and sandstone resembling nearby outcrops of the Miocene Monterey Formation. Small amounts of oil and gas were observed in several wells, but commercial production was never established. Oil from the Peck well in Los Gatos is highly biodegraded, contains biomarkers commonly found in oils derived from the Monterey Formation, and has a stable-C-isotopic (d13C) composition of –23.32 permil, indicating derivation from a Miocene Monterey Formation source rock. Preliminary calculations suggest that about 1 billion barrels of oil may have been generated from source rocks within the Monterey Formation in the deepest part of the subsurface sedimentary basin between Los Gatos and Cupertino. Most of this oil was probably lost to biodegradation, oxidation, and leakage to the surface, but some oil may have accumulated in as-yet-undiscovered structural and stratigraphic traps along the complex structural boundary between the Santa Clara Valley and the Santa Cruz Mountains. Although some of these undiscovered accumulations of oil may be of commercial size, future petroleum exploration is unlikely because most of the area is currently devoted to residential, recreational, commercial, and industrial uses.

  14. Groundwater quality in the Antelope Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Barbara J. Milby; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Antelope Valley is one of the study areas being evaluated. The Antelope study area is approximately 1,600 square miles (4,144 square kilometers) and includes the Antelope Valley groundwater basin (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). Antelope Valley has an arid climate and is part of the Mojave Desert. Average annual rainfall is about 6 inches (15 centimeters). The study area has internal drainage, with runoff from the surrounding mountains draining towards dry lakebeds in the lower parts of the valley. Land use in the study area is approximately 68 percent (%) natural (mostly shrubland and grassland), 24% agricultural, and 8% urban. The primary crops are pasture and hay. The largest urban areas are the cities of Palmdale and Lancaster (2010 populations of 152,000 and 156,000, respectively). Groundwater in this basin is used for public and domestic water supply and for irrigation. The main water-bearing units are gravel, sand, silt, and clay derived from surrounding mountains. The primary aquifers in Antelope Valley are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database. Public-supply wells in Antelope Valley are completed to depths between 360 and 700 feet (110 to 213 meters), consist of solid casing from the land surface to a depth of 180 to 350 feet (55 to 107 meters), and are screened or perforated below the solid casing. Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily runoff from the surrounding mountains, and by direct infiltration of irrigation and sewer and septic

  15. The Health Valley: Global Entrepreneurial Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubuis, Benoit

    2014-12-01

    In the space of a decade, the Lake Geneva region has become the Health Valley, a world-class laboratory for discovering and developing healthcare of the future. Through visionary individuals and thanks to exceptional infrastructure this region has become one of the most dynamic in the field of innovation, including leading scientific research and exceptional actors for the commercialization of academic innovation to industrial applications that will improve the lives of patients and their families. Here follows the chronicle of a spectacular expansion into the Health Valley.

  16. Solar energy innovation and Silicon Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    2015-03-01

    The growth of the U. S. and global solar energy industry depends on a strong relationship between science and engineering innovation, manufacturing, and cycles of policy design and advancement. The mixture of the academic and industrial engine of innovation that is Silicon Valley, and the strong suite of environmental policies for which California is a leader work together to both drive the solar energy industry, and keep Silicon Valley competitive as China, Europe and other area of solar energy strength continue to build their clean energy sectors.

  17. Phallodrilus hallae, a new tubificid oligochaete from the St. Lawrence Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, David G.; Hiltunen, Jarl K.

    1975-01-01

    The predominantly marine tubificid genus Phallodrilus is defined, a key to its nine species constructed, and an illustrated description of Phallodrilus hallae n. sp. from the St. Lawrence Great Lakes presented. The species is distinguished from other members of the genus by its well-developed atrial musculature, extensions of which ensheath the posterior prostatic ducts.Phallodrilus hallae n. sp. is a small worm which is widely distributed in the sublittoral and profundal benthos of Lake Superior; lakewide it occurred in mean densities of 50 individuals per square metre. Available records indicate a more restricted distribution in Lake Huron and Georgian Bay. We suggest that P. hallae n. sp. is either a glaciomarine relict species, or that it entered the Great Lakes system at the time of the marine transgression of the St. Lawrence valley. The apparent restriction of P. hallae n. sp. to waters of high quality suggests that it may be a sensitive oligotrophic indicator species.

  18. Effect of glacial-interglacial sea-level changes on the displacement and stress field in the forearc and along the plate interface of subduction zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Li

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Combined seismological, space-geodetic and numerical studies have shown that the seismicity at subduction zones may be modulated by tides and glacier fluctuations on timescales of 1–100 a, because these changes in loads on Earth's surface are able to alter the stress field in the upper plate and along the plate interface. Here we use a two-dimensional finite-element model of a subduction zone to investigate how glacial-interglacial sea-level changes affect the forearc region and the plate interface. The model results show that a sea-level fall by 125 m over 100 ka causes up to 0.7 m of vertical displacement, with the maximum uplift occurring between the trench and the coast. The uplift signal induced by the sea-level fall decreases to zero ~20 km landward of the coastline. A subsequent sea-level rise by 125 m over 20 ka causes subsidence, which is again most pronounced in the submarine part of the forearc. The sea-level changes cause horizontal displacements of up to 0.12 m, which are directed seaward during sea-level fall and landward during sea-level rise. With respect to the stress field, the sea-level changes lead to variations in the vertical stress and the shear stress of up to 1.23 MPa and 0.4 MPa, respectively. The shear stress variations are highest beneath the coast, i.e. in the area where the sea-level changes cause the strongest flexure. The resulting Coulomb stress changes on the plate interface are of the order of 0.2–0.5 MPa and indicate that earthquakes are promoted during sea-level fall and delayed during sea-level rise. Our findings imply that eustatic sea-level changes during glacial-interglacial periods may have induced displacements and stress changes that were large enough to affect the seismic cycle of subduction thrusts.

  19. Biogeochemical studies of wintering waterfowl in the Imperial and Sacramento Valleys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koranda, J.J.; Stuart, M.; Thompson, S.; Conrado, C.

    1979-10-01

    Trace and major elemental composition were determined in the organs of wintering waterfowl in the Imperial and Sacramento Valleys of California, and in soils, sediments, and agricultural fertilizer that constitute the various sources of elements in the waterfowl. These data provide a biogeochemical baseline for waterfowl populations wintering in an area being developed for geothermal power. This baseline in the Imperial Valley is affected by soil and sediment composition, agricultural effluents in irrigation and stream water, and spent shot deposited by hunters in waterfowl habitats. The waterfowl acquire a set of trace elements from these sources and concentrations increase in their organs over the wintering period. Nickel, arsenic, selenium, bromine, and lead are the primary elements acquired from soil sources, agricultural effluents, and spent shot in the Imperial Valley. The assessment of effects from geothermal effluents on waterfowl populations in complex because there are large influxes of materials into the Imperial Valley ecosystem that contain trace elements, i.e., irrigation water, phosphatic fertilizers, pesticides, and lead shot. Multiple sources exist for many elements prominent in the expected geothermal effluents. The relationships between the two California valleys, the Imperial and Sacramento, are apparent in the trace element concentrations in the organs of waterfowl obtained in those two valleys. Arsenic is absent in the waterfowl organs obtained in the Sacramento Valley and relatively common in the Imperial Valley waterfowl. The effect of any release of geothermal effluent in the Imperial Valley waterfowl habitats will be difficult to describe because of the complexity of the biogeochemical baseline and the multiple sources of trace and major elements in the ecosystem.

  20. Goldstone-Apple Valley Radio Telescope System Theory of Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, George R.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this learning module is to enable learners to describe how the Goldstone-Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) system functions in support of Apple Valley Science and Technology Center's (AVSTC) client schools' radio astronomy activities.

  1. Summary of the engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Monument Valley site, Monument Valley, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevaluated the Monument Valley site in order to revise the March 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Monument Valley, Arizona. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 1.1 million tons of tailings at the Monument Valley site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site. Cost estimates for the four options range from about $6,600,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $15,900,000 for disposal at a distance of about 15 mi. Three principal alternatives for reprocessing the Monument Valley tailings were examined: heap leaching, treatment at an existing mill; and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be more than $500/lb of U 3 O 8 by heap leach or conventional plant processes. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery is economically unattractive

  2. Tectonics, climate and mountain building in the forearc of southern Peru recorded in the 10Be chronology of low-relief surface abandonment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, S. R.; Farber, D.; Audin, L.; Finkel, R. C.

    2009-12-01

    Regional low-relief surfaces have long been recognized as key features to understanding the response of landscapes to surface uplift. The canonical models of low-relief surface formation involve an extended period of tectonic quiescence during which, the fluvial systems bevel the landscape to a uniform elevation. This quiescent period is punctuated by a period(s) of surface uplift, which causes fluvial incision thereby abandoning the low-relief landscape. Over time, as rivers continue to incise in response to changes in sediment supply, river discharge, and base level fall, pieces of the relict low-relief landscape are left as abandoned remnants stranded above active channels. By determining the age of abandoned surfaces, previous workers have identified the onset of a change in the tectonic or climatic setting. One key assumption of this model is that the low-relief surfaces are truly abandoned with no current processes further acting on the surface. To improve our understanding of the underlying assumptions and problems of low-relief surface formation, we have used detailed mapping and absolute dating with cosmogenic 10Be to investigate surfaces in the hyperarid forearc region of southern Peru between ~14° and 18°S. Within this region, marine terraces and strath terraces reflect Plio-Pleistocene surface uplift, and together with the hyperarid climate, ongoing surface uplift provides a perfect natural laboratory to examine the processes affecting low-relief surface abandonment and preservation. With our new chronology we address: 1) the space and time correlations of surfaces, 2) incision rates of streams in response to base-level fall, and 3) surface erosion rates. Multiple surfaces have yielded 10Be surface abandonment ages that span >2 Ma - ~35 ka. While most of the surfaces we have dated are considerably less than 1 Ma, we have located two surfaces which are likely older than 2 Ma and constrain regional erosion rates to be chronology of Pleistocene surface

  3. Topographic evolution of Yosemite Valley from Low Temperature Thermochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy-Lang, A.; Shuster, D. L.; Cuffey, K. M.; Fox, M.

    2014-12-01

    In this contribution, we interrogate the timing of km-scale topography development in the region around Yosemite Valley, California. Our goal is to determine when this spectacular glacial valley was carved, and how this might help address controversy surrounding the topographic evolution of the Sierra Nevada. At the scale of the range, two rival hypotheses are each supported by different datasets. Low-temperature thermochronology supports the idea that the range has been high-standing since the Cretaceous, whereas geomorphic evidence suggests that much of the elevation of the Sierra Nevada was attained during the Pliocene. Recent work by McPhillips and Brandon (2012) suggests instead that both ideas are valid, with the range losing much elevation during the Cenozoic, but regaining it during Miocene surface uplift.At the local scale, the classic study of Matthes (1930) determined that most of Yosemite Valley was excavated by the Sherwin-age glaciation that ended ~1 Ma. The consensus view is in agreement, although some argue that nearby comparable valleys comparable were carved long ago (e.g., House et al., 1998). If the Quaternary and younger glaciations were responsible for the bulk of the valley's >1 km depth, we might expect apatite (U-Th)/He ages at the valley floor to be histories at these locations, these data constrain patterns of valley topography development through time. We also supplement these data with zircon 4He/3He thermochronometry, which is a newly developed method that provides information on continuous cooling paths through ~120-220 °C. We will present both the apatite and zircon 4He/3He data and, in conjunction with thermo-kinematic modeling, discuss the ability and limitations of these data to test models of Sierra Nevada topography development through time. Matthes (1930) USGS Professional Paper House et al. (1998) Nature McPhillips and Brandon (2012) American Journal of Science

  4. Optimal decentralized valley-filling charging strategy for electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Kangkang; Xu, Liangfei; Ouyang, Minggao; Wang, Hewu; Lu, Languang; Li, Jianqiu; Li, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An implementable charging strategy is developed for electric vehicles connected to a grid. • A two-dimensional pricing scheme is proposed to coordinate charging behaviors. • The strategy effectively works in decentralized way but achieves the systematic valley filling. • The strategy allows device-level charging autonomy, and does not require a bidirectional communication/control network. • The strategy can self-correct when confronted with adverse factors. - Abstract: Uncoordinated charging load of electric vehicles (EVs) increases the peak load of the power grid, thereby increasing the cost of electricity generation. The valley-filling charging scenario offers a cheaper alternative. This study proposes a novel decentralized valley-filling charging strategy, in which a day-ahead pricing scheme is designed by solving a minimum-cost optimization problem. The pricing scheme can be broadcasted to EV owners, and the individual charging behaviors can be indirectly coordinated. EV owners respond to the pricing scheme by autonomously optimizing their individual charge patterns. This device-level response induces a valley-filling effect in the grid at the system level. The proposed strategy offers three advantages: coordination (by the valley-filling effect), practicality (no requirement for a bidirectional communication/control network between the grid and EV owners), and autonomy (user control of EV charge patterns). The proposed strategy is validated in simulations of typical scenarios in Beijing, China. According to the results, the strategy (1) effectively achieves the valley-filling charging effect at 28% less generation cost than the uncoordinated charging strategy, (2) is robust to several potential affecters of the valley-filling effect, such as (system-level) inaccurate parameter estimation and (device-level) response capability and willingness (which cause less than 2% deviation in the minimal generation cost), and (3) is compatible with

  5. Geothermal resource assessment of western San Luis Valley, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zacharakis, Ted G.; Pearl, Richard Howard; Ringrose, Charles D.

    1983-01-01

    The Colorado Geological Survey initiated and carried out a fully integrated assessment program of the geothermal resource potential of the western San Luis Valley during 1979 and 1980. The San Luis Valley is a large intermontane basin located in southcentral Colorado. While thermal springs and wells are found throughout the Valley, the only thermal waters found along the western part of the Valley are found at Shaw Warm Springs which is a relatively unused spring located approximately 6 miles (9.66 km) north of Del Norte, Colorado. The waters at Shaws Warm Spring have a temperature of 86 F (30 C), a discharge of 40 gallons per minute and contain approximately 408 mg/l of total dissolved solids. The assessment program carried out din the western San Luis Valley consisted of: soil mercury geochemical surveys; geothermal gradient drilling; and dipole-dipole electrical resistivity traverses, Schlumberger soundings, Audio-magnetotelluric surveys, telluric surveys, and time-domain electro-magnetic soundings and seismic surveys. Shaw Warm Springs appears to be the only source of thermal waters along the western side of the Valley. From the various investigations conducted the springs appear to be fault controlled and is very limited in extent. Based on best evidence presently available estimates are presented on the size and extent of Shaw Warm Springs thermal system. It is estimated that this could have an areal extent of 0.63 sq. miles (1.62 sq. km) and contain 0.0148 Q's of heat energy.

  6. Valley-controlled propagation of pseudospin states in bulk metacrystal waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Dong; Deng, Wei-Min; Lu, Jin-Cheng; Dong, Jian-Wen

    2018-05-01

    Light manipulations such as spin-direction locking propagation, robust transport, quantum teleportation, and reconfigurable electromagnetic pathways have been investigated at the boundaries of photonic systems. Recently by breaking Dirac cones in time-reversal-invariant photonic crystals, valley-pseudospin coupled edge states have been employed to realize selective propagation of light. Here, we realize the controllable propagation of pseudospin states in three-dimensional bulk metacrystal waveguides by valley degree of freedom. Reconfigurable photonic valley Hall effect is achieved for frequency-direction locking propagation in such a way that the propagation path can be tunable precisely by scanning the working frequency. A complete transition diagram is illustrated on the valley-dependent pseudospin states of Dirac-cone-absent photonic bands. A photonic blocker is proposed by cascading two inversion asymmetric metacrystal waveguides in which pseudospin-direction locking propagation exists. In addition, valley-dependent pseudospin bands are also discussed in a realistic metamaterials sample. These results show an alternative way toward molding the pseudospin flow in photonic systems.

  7. Valley-symmetric quasi-1D transport in ballistic graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hu-Jong

    We present our recent studies on gate-defined valley-symmetric one-dimensional (1D) carrier guiding in ballistic monolayer graphene and valley-symmetry-protected topological 1D transport in ballistic bilayer graphene. Successful carrier guiding was realized in ballistic monolayer graphene even in the absence of a band gap by inducing a high distinction ( more than two orders of magnitude) in the carrier density between the region of a quasi-1D channel and the rest of the top-gated regions. Conductance of a channel shows quantized values in units of 4e2/ h, suggesting that the valley symmetry is preserved. For the latter, the topological 1D conduction was realized between two closely arranged insulating regions with inverted band gaps, induced under a pair of split dual gating with polarities opposite to each other. The maximum conductance along the boundary channel showed 4e2/ h, again with the preserved valley symmetry. The 1D topological carrier guiding demonstrated in this study affords a promising route to robust valleytronic applications and sophisticated valley-associated functionalities based on 2D materials. This work was funded by the National Research Foundation of Korea.

  8. Geohydrology and Water Quality of the Valley-Fill Aquifer System in the Upper Sixmile Creek and West Branch Owego Creek Valleys in the Town of Caroline, Tompkins County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Todd S.

    2009-01-01

    In 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Town of Caroline and Tompkins County Planning Department, began a study of the valley-fill aquifer system in upper Sixmile Creek and headwaters of West Branch Owego Creek valleys in the Town of Caroline, NY. The purpose of the study is to provide geohydrologic data to county and town planners as they develop a strategy to manage and protect their water resources. The first aquifer reach investigated in this series is in the Town of Caroline and includes the upper Sixmile Creek valley and part of West Branch Owego Creek valley. The portions of the valley-fill aquifer system that are comprised of saturated coarse-grained sediments including medium to coarse sand and sandy gravel form the major aquifers. Confined sand and gravel units form the major aquifers in the western and central portions of the upper Sixmile Creek valley, and an unconfined sand and gravel unit forms the major aquifer in the eastern portion of the upper Sixmile Creek valley and in the headwaters of the West Branch Owego Creek valley. The valley-fill deposits are thinnest near the edges of the valley where they pinch out along the till-mantled bedrock valley walls. The thickness of the valley fill in the deepest part of the valley, at the western end of the study area, is about 100 feet (ft); the thickness is greater than 165 ft on top of the Valley Heads Moraine in the central part of the valley. An estimated 750 people live over and rely on groundwater from the valley-fill aquifers in upper Sixmile Creek and West Branch Owego Creek valleys. Most groundwater withdrawn from the valley-fill aquifers is pumped from wells with open-ended 6-inch diameter casings; the remaining withdrawals are from shallow dug wells or cisterns that collect groundwater that discharges to springs (especially in the Brooktondale area). The valley-fill aquifers are the sources of water for about 200 households, several apartment complexes, two mobile home parks

  9. Valley-dependent spin-orbit torques in two-dimensional hexagonal crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Hang; Wang, Xuhui; Manchon, Aurelien

    2016-01-01

    We study spin-orbit torques in two-dimensional hexagonal crystals such as graphene, silicene, germanene, and stanene. The torque possesses two components, a fieldlike term due to inverse spin galvanic effect and an antidamping torque originating from Berry curvature in mixed spin-k space. In the presence of staggered potential and exchange field, the valley degeneracy can be lifted and we obtain a valley-dependent Berry curvature, leading to a tunable antidamping torque by controlling the valley degree of freedom. The valley imbalance can be as high as 100% by tuning the bias voltage or magnetization angle. These findings open new venues for the development of current-driven spin-orbit torques by structural design.

  10. Valley-dependent spin-orbit torques in two-dimensional hexagonal crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Hang

    2016-01-11

    We study spin-orbit torques in two-dimensional hexagonal crystals such as graphene, silicene, germanene, and stanene. The torque possesses two components, a fieldlike term due to inverse spin galvanic effect and an antidamping torque originating from Berry curvature in mixed spin-k space. In the presence of staggered potential and exchange field, the valley degeneracy can be lifted and we obtain a valley-dependent Berry curvature, leading to a tunable antidamping torque by controlling the valley degree of freedom. The valley imbalance can be as high as 100% by tuning the bias voltage or magnetization angle. These findings open new venues for the development of current-driven spin-orbit torques by structural design.

  11. Effect of faulting on ground-water movement in the Death Valley region, Nevada and California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faunt, C.C.

    1997-01-01

    This study characterizes the hydrogeologic system of the Death Valley region, an area covering approximately 100,000 square kilometers. The study also characterizes the effects of faults on ground-water movement in the Death Valley region by synthesizing crustal stress, fracture mechanics,a nd structural geologic data. The geologic conditions are typical of the Basin and Range Province; a variety of sedimentary and igneous intrusive and extrusive rocks have been subjected to both compressional and extensional deformation. Faulting and associated fracturing is pervasive and greatly affects ground-water flow patterns. Faults may become preferred conduits or barriers to flow depending on whether they are in relative tension, compression, or shear and other factors such as the degree of dislocations of geologic units caused by faulting, the rock types involved, the fault zone materials, and the depth below the surface. The current crustal stress field was combined with fault orientations to predict potential effects of faults on the regional ground-water flow regime. Numerous examples of fault-controlled ground-water flow exist within the study area. Hydrologic data provided an independent method for checking some of the assumptions concerning preferential flow paths. 97 refs., 20 figs., 5 tabs

  12. Determination of trace uranium in atmospheric precipitation of the Xiangjiang river valley by fission track method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai Pengji; Kang Tiesheng

    1986-01-01

    In this work the uranium contents in atmospheric precipitations in the region of the Xiangjiang River valley have been measured by fission track method, which range from 0.008 to 1.5 ppb. The majority of them are below 0.1 ppb. The uranium contents in the samples form different geographical positions are obviously different. Sometimes the differences in uranium contents of the samples from the same area collected at different times are also great. A preliminary discussion is given on the sources of uranium in atmospheric precipitation and on the reason of the difference in contents

  13. West Valley Demonstration Project, West Valley, New York: Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Under the West Valley Demonstration Project Act, Public Law 96-368, liquid high-level radioactive waste stored at the Western New York Nuclear Services Center, West Valley, New York, that resulted from spent nuclear fuel reprocessing operations conducted between 1966 and 1972, is to be solidified in borosilicate glass and transported to a federal repository for geologic disposal. A major milestone was reached in May 1988 when the Project began reducing the volume of the liquid high-level waste. By the end of 1988, approximately 15 percent of the initial inventory had been processed into two waste streams. The decontaminated low-level liquid waste is being solidified in cement. The high-level waste stream is being stored in an underground tank pending its incorporation into borosilicate glass. Four tests of the waste glass melter system were completed. These tests confirmed equipment operability, control system reliability, and provided samples of waste glass for durability testing. In mid-1988, the Department validated an integrated cost and schedule plan for activities required to complete the production of the waste borosilicate glass. Design of the radioactive Vitrification Facility continued

  14. Medicinal plants of Usherai valley, Dir, NWFP, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazarat, A.; Shah, J.; Ahmad, S.; Nasir, M.; Jan, A.K.; Skindar

    2010-01-01

    This research is based on the results of an ethno-botanical research conducted in Usherai Valley. The main objective was to enlist the wealth of medicinal plants. In total 50 species, belonging to 32 families of wild herbs, shrubs and trees were found to be used as medicinal plants by the inhabitants in the valley. (author)

  15. AIR POLLUTION FEATURES OF THE VALLEY-BASED TOWNS IN HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. UTASI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There are 30 valley-based towns with >10,000 inhabitants in Hungary, filled by 1.023 million people i.e. 10 % of the population. Two criteria are used to define the valley-based town. They are: (i Vertical difference between the lowest point in the town and the highest one around it should be >100 m. At the same time, (ii the same difference on the opposite side should be >50 m. Air pollution data by the National Air Pollution Observation Network are used. Five contaminants were selected and analysed for 2007, 2010 and 2013. Due to a sharp reduction in the network, we could find data for a small part of the valley-based towns. Control towns with equal air-quality observations and similar cumulative number of inhabitants were also selected. The contaminants and the number of the settlements are: NO2 manual (14 valley-based vs. 2x14 control, NO2 automatic (8 vs. 8, SO2 automatic (7 vs. 2x6, PM10 automatic (8 vs. 2x7 and PM10 deposition manual (6 vs. 8. Average values, as well as high concentration episodes (>98%thresholds are equally analysed and evaluated. The main conclusion is that there are so big differences between the years both in absolute values and relative sequence of valley-based and control groups that the analysed there years is not enough to make any final conclusion. For step-over frequencies, however valley-based towns have some advantage, possibly due to the valley-hill wind system.

  16. Debris Flow Occurrence and Sediment Persistence, Upper Colorado River Valley, CO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimsley, K J; Rathburn, S L; Friedman, J M; Mangano, J F

    2016-07-01

    Debris flow magnitudes and frequencies are compared across the Upper Colorado River valley to assess influences on debris flow occurrence and to evaluate valley geometry effects on sediment persistence. Dendrochronology, field mapping, and aerial photographic analysis are used to evaluate whether a 19th century earthen, water-conveyance ditch has altered the regime of debris flow occurrence in the Colorado River headwaters. Identifying any shifts in disturbance processes or changes in magnitudes and frequencies of occurrence is fundamental to establishing the historical range of variability (HRV) at the site. We found no substantial difference in frequency of debris flows cataloged at eleven sites of deposition between the east (8) and west (11) sides of the Colorado River valley over the last century, but four of the five largest debris flows originated on the west side of the valley in association with the earthen ditch, while the fifth is on a steep hillslope of hydrothermally altered rock on the east side. These results suggest that the ditch has altered the regime of debris flow activity in the Colorado River headwaters as compared to HRV by increasing the frequency of debris flows large enough to reach the Colorado River valley. Valley confinement is a dominant control on response to debris flows, influencing volumes of aggradation and persistence of debris flow deposits. Large, frequent debris flows, exceeding HRV, create persistent effects due to valley geometry and geomorphic setting conducive to sediment storage that are easily delineated by valley confinement ratios which are useful to land managers.

  17. Groundwater quality in the Owens Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Barbara J. Milby; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Owens Valley is one of the study areas being evaluated. The Owens study area is approximately 1,030 square miles (2,668 square kilometers) and includes the Owens Valley groundwater basin (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). Owens Valley has a semiarid to arid climate, with average annual rainfall of about 6 inches (15 centimeters). The study area has internal drainage, with runoff primarily from the Sierra Nevada draining east to the Owens River, which flows south to Owens Lake dry lakebed at the southern end of the valley. Beginning in the early 1900s, the City of Los Angeles began diverting the flow of the Owens River to the Los Angeles Aqueduct, resulting in the evaporation of Owens Lake and the formation of the current Owens Lake dry lakebed. Land use in the study area is approximately 94 percent (%) natural, 5% agricultural, and 1% urban. The primary natural land cover is shrubland. The largest urban area is the city of Bishop (2010 population of 4,000). Groundwater in this basin is used for public and domestic water supply and for irrigation. The main water-bearing units are gravel, sand, silt, and clay derived from surrounding mountains. Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily runoff from the Sierra Nevada, and by direct infiltration of irrigation. The primary sources of discharge are pumping wells, evapotranspiration, and underflow to the Owens Lake dry lakebed. The primary aquifers in Owens Valley are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database

  18. Ground water in Fountain and Jimmy Camp Valleys, El Paso County, Colorado with a section on Computations of drawdowns caused by the pumping of wells in Fountain Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Edward D.; Glover, Robert E.

    1964-01-01

    The part of Fountain Valley considered in this report extends from Colorado Springs to the Pueblo County line. It is 23 miles long and has an area of 26 square miles. The part of Jimmy Camp Valley discussed is 11 miles long and has an area of 9 square miles. The topography is characterized by level flood plains and alluvial terraces that parallel the valley and by rather steep hills along the valley sides. The climate is semiarid, average annual precipitation being about 13 inches. Farming and stock raising are the principal occupations in the valleys; however, some of the agricultural land near Colorado Springs is being used for housing developments. The Pierre Shale and alluvium underlie most of the area, and mesa gravel caps the shale hills adjacent to Fountain Valley. The alluvium yields water to domestic, stock, irrigation, and public-supply wells and is capable of yielding large quantities of water for intermittent periods. Several springs issue along the sides of the valley at the contact of the mesa gravel and the underlying Pierre Shale. The water table ranges in depth from less than 10 feet along the bottom lands to about 80 feet along the sides of the valleys; the saturated thickness ranges from less than a foot to about 50 feet. The ground-water reservoir in Fountain Valley is recharged by precipitation that falls within the area, by percolation from Fountain Creek, which originates in the Pikes Peak, Monument Valley, and Rampart Range areas, and by seepage from irrigation water. This reservoir contains about 70,000 acre-feet of ground water in storage. The ground-water reservoir in Jimmy Camp Valley is recharged from precipitation that falls within the area, by percolation from Jimmy Camp Creek during periods of streamflow, and by seepage from irrigation water. The Jimmy Camp ground-water reservoir contains about 25,000 acre-feet of water in storage. Ground water is discharged from the area by movement to the south, by evaporation and transpiration in

  19. Valley-chiral quantum Hall state in graphene superlattice structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, H. Y.; Tao, W. W.; Wang, J.; Cui, Y. H.; Xu, N.; Huang, B. B.; Luo, G. X.; Hao, Y. H.

    2016-05-01

    We theoretically investigate the quantum Hall effect in a graphene superlattice (GS) system, in which the two valleys of graphene are coupled together. In the presence of a perpendicular magnetic field, an ordinary quantum Hall effect is found with the sequence σxy=ν e^2/h(ν=0,+/-1,+/-2,\\cdots) . At the zeroth Hall platform, a valley-chiral Hall state stemming from the single K or K' valley is found and it is localized only on one sample boundary contributing to the longitudinal conductance but not to the Hall conductivity. Our findings may shed light on the graphene-based valleytronics applications.

  20. Hierofonía and cosmology in indigenous art Sibundoy Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar Fernando Sánchez Suárez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the large existing indigenous cultural diversity in South America as the initial part of the study and support of research is presented. It is also a reflection from the perspective of different authors on the thinking of man in relation to nature, archetypes, cosmogony and rituals. It is also woven with the history of the peoples or ethnic communities of Kamentzá and Inga. The inhabitants of Sibundoy Valley, Putumayo Colombia show a strong influence of Eastern and other Amerindian cultures that have had a great relevance and importance on other cultures of the continent. Similarly, it treats the nature of the Indian art and aesthetics as an important aspect in the development of cosmology and the spirituality embodied in the different objects and in the aesthetics in other elements of cultural elements proper to the Kamentzá and Inga cultures.

  1. Commercial production of ethanol in the San Luis Valley, Colorado. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hewlett, E.M.; Erickson, M.V.; Ferguson, C.D.; Boswell, B.S.; Walter, K.M.; Hart, M.L.; Sherwood, P.B.

    1983-07-01

    The commercial feasibility of producing between 76 and 189 million liters (20 to 50 million gallons) of ethanol annually in the San Luis Valley, Colorado using geothermal energy as the primary heat source was assessed. The San Luis Valley is located in south-central Colorado. The valley is a high basin situated approximately 2316 meters (7600 feet) above sea level which contains numerous warm water wells and springs. A known geothermal resource area (IGRA) is located in the east-central area of the valley. The main industry in the valley is agriculture, while the main industry in the surrounding mountains is lumber. Both of these industries can provide feedstocks for the production of ethanol.

  2. Groundwater model of the Great Basin carbonate and alluvial aquifer system version 3.0: Incorporating revisions in southwestern Utah and east central Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Lynette E.

    2017-12-01

    The groundwater model described in this report is a new version of previously published steady-state numerical groundwater flow models of the Great Basin carbonate and alluvial aquifer system, and was developed in conjunction with U.S. Geological Survey studies in Parowan, Pine, and Wah Wah Valleys, Utah. This version of the model is GBCAAS v. 3.0 and supersedes previous versions. The objectives of the model for Parowan Valley were to simulate revised conceptual estimates of recharge and discharge, to estimate simulated aquifer storage properties and the amount of reduction in storage as a result of historical groundwater withdrawals, and to assess reduction in groundwater withdrawals necessary to mitigate groundwater-level declines in the basin. The objectives of the model for the area near Pine and Wah Wah Valleys were to recalibrate the model using new observations of groundwater levels and evapotranspiration of groundwater; to provide new estimates of simulated recharge, hydraulic conductivity, and interbasin flow; and to simulate the effects of proposed groundwater withdrawals on the regional flow system. Meeting these objectives required the addition of 15 transient calibration stress periods and 14 projection stress periods, aquifer storage properties, historical withdrawals in Parowan Valley, and observations of water-level changes in Parowan Valley. Recharge in Parowan Valley and withdrawal from wells in Parowan Valley and two nearby wells in Cedar City Valley vary for each calibration stress period representing conditions from March 1940 to November 2013. Stresses, including recharge, are the same in each stress period as in the steady-state stress period for all areas outside of Parowan Valley. The model was calibrated to transient conditions only in Parowan Valley. Simulated storage properties outside of Parowan Valley were set the same as the Parowan Valley properties and are not considered calibrated. Model observations in GBCAAS v. 3.0 are

  3. A scheme for the uniform mapping and monitoring of earth resources and environmental complexes: An assessment of natural vegetation, environmental, and crop analogs. [Sierra-Lahontan and Colorado Plateaus, Northern Great Valley (CA), and Louisiana Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulton, C. E.; Welch, R. I. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A study was performed to develop and test a procedure for the uniform mapping and monitoring of natural ecosystems in the semi-arid and wood regions of the Sierra-Lahontan and Colorado Plateau areas, and for the estimating of rice crop production in the Northern Great Valley (Ca.) and the Louisiana Coastal Plain. ERTS-1 and high flight and low flight aerial photos were used in a visual photointerpretation scheme to identify vegetation complexes, map acreages, and evaluate crop vigor and stress. Results indicated that the vegetation analog concept is valid; that depending on the kind of vegetation and its density, analogs are interpretable at different levels in the hierarchical classification from second to the fourth level. The second level uses physiognomic growth form-structural criteria, and the fourth level uses floristic or taxonomic criteria, usually at generic level. It is recommended that analog comparisons should be made in relatively small test areas where large homogeneous examples can be found of each analog.

  4. Cryostratigraphy and sedimentology of high-Arctic fjord-valleys

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert, Graham Lewis

    2018-01-01

    Fjord-valleys, as sediment-filled palaeofjords, are characteristic of formerly glaciated mountainous coastal areas. High-Arctic fjord-valleys commonly host permafrost, but are poorly accessible and hence have drawn relatively little research. The research presented in this thesis combines the methods of cryostratigraphy, clastic sedimentology, sequence stratigraphy, geomorphology and geochronology to investigate the sedimentary infilling, permafrost formation and late Quaternary landscape dev...

  5. Silicate diagenesis in deep-sea sediments from the Tonga fore-arc (SW Pacific): a strontium and rare earth elements signature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitali, F.; Stille, P.; Blanc, G.; Toulkeridis, T.

    2000-01-01

    87 Sr/ 86 Sr isotopic ratios, strontium and Rare Earth Element concentrations obtained on volcano-sedimentary rocks and separated clay mineral and zeolite fractions reveal a formation by pore water-volcanic rock interaction for most of the hydrous silicate minerals of the Site 841 ODP collected from the Tonga fore-arc. Unusual strontium concentrations and isotopic ratios recorded in the Miocene tuffs associated with specific REE patterns indicate that the formation of these hydrous silicates does not follow a simple burial diagenesis model, but was related to the cooling of intruding basaltic sills in the Miocene volcano-sedimentary series. Migration of strontium into the pore water in response to the heat flow induced the formation of Sr-bearing zeolites such as clinoptilolite, heulandite and chabazite. No evidence of any influence of a further thermal pulse in the Eocene rhyolitic tuffs could be found. As recorded by the chemistry of their clay mineral fraction, the rhyolitic tuffs developed a polyphasic diagenetic process, which might have been influenced by a possible circulation of a fluid into structurally weak areas. (authors)

  6. Large tunable valley splitting in edge-free graphene quantum dots on boron nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitag, Nils M.; Reisch, Tobias; Chizhova, Larisa A.; Nemes-Incze, Péter; Holl, Christian; Woods, Colin R.; Gorbachev, Roman V.; Cao, Yang; Geim, Andre K.; Novoselov, Kostya S.; Burgdörfer, Joachim; Libisch, Florian; Morgenstern, Markus

    2018-05-01

    Coherent manipulation of the binary degrees of freedom is at the heart of modern quantum technologies. Graphene offers two binary degrees: the electron spin and the valley. Efficient spin control has been demonstrated in many solid-state systems, whereas exploitation of the valley has only recently been started, albeit without control at the single-electron level. Here, we show that van der Waals stacking of graphene onto hexagonal boron nitride offers a natural platform for valley control. We use a graphene quantum dot induced by the tip of a scanning tunnelling microscope and demonstrate valley splitting that is tunable from -5 to +10 meV (including valley inversion) by sub-10-nm displacements of the quantum dot position. This boosts the range of controlled valley splitting by about one order of magnitude. The tunable inversion of spin and valley states should enable coherent superposition of these degrees of freedom as a first step towards graphene-based qubits.

  7. Metamorphic and geochronogical study of the Triassic El Oro metamorphic complex, Ecuador: Implications for high-temperature metamorphism in a forearc zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riel, N.; Guillot, S.; Jaillard, E.; Martelat, J.-E.; Paquette, J.-L.; Schwartz, S.; Goncalves, P.; Duclaux, G.; Thebaud, N.; Lanari, P.; Janots, E.; Yuquilema, J.

    2013-01-01

    In the forearc of the Andean active margin in southwest Ecuador, the El Oro metamorphic complex exhibits a well exposed tilted forearc section partially migmatized. We used Raman spectroscopy on carbonaceous matter (RSCM) thermometry and pseudosections coupled with mineralogical and textural studies to constrain the pressure-temperature (P-T) evolution of the El Oro metamorphic complex during Triassic times. Our results show that anatexis of the continental crust occurred by white-mica and biotite dehydration melting along a 10 km thick crustal domain (from 4.5 to 8 kbar) with increasing temperature from 650 to 700 °C. In the biotite dehydration melting zone, temperature was buffered at 750-820 °C in a 5 km thick layer. The estimated average thermal gradient during peak metamorphism is of 30 °C/km within the migmatitic domain can be partitioned into two apparent gradients parts. The upper part from surface to 7 km depth records a 40-45 °C/km gradient. The lower part records a quasi-adiabatic geotherm with a 10 °C/km gradient consistent with an isothermal melting zone. Migmatites U-Th-Pb geochronology yielded zircon and monazite ages of 229.3 ± 2.1 Ma and 224.5 ± 2.3 Ma, respectively. This thermal event generated S-type magmatism (the Marcabeli granitoid) and was immediately followed by underplating of the high-pressure low-temperature (HP-LT) Arenillas-Panupalí unit at 225.8 ± 1.8 Ma. The association of high-temperature low-pressure (HT-LP) migmatites with HP-LT unit constitutes a new example of a paired metamorphic belt along the South American margin. We propose that in addition to crustal thinning, underplating of the Piedras gabbroic unit before 230 Ma provided the heat source necessary to foster crustal anatexis. Furthermore, its MORB signature shows that the asthenosphere was involved as the source of the heat anomaly. S-type felsic magmatism is widespread during this time and suggests that a large-scale thermal anomaly affected a large part of the

  8. A Transformative Undergraduate Field Trip to the Grand Canyon and Death Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    Seeing the iconic Grand Canyon and Death Valley in person is a transformative experience for most geologists, including nine undergraduate geology students from upstate New York. The students were enrolled in a one-credit course designed around a nine-day spring-break field trip to Grand Canyon National Park (GCNP) and Death Valley National Park (DVNP). We met once a week before the trip to plan day-to-day activities and discuss background geologic information. Students selected a research topic related to our itinerary and wrote a guidebook entry for the topic. Students' entries were combined with papers, maps, and background material to make a guidebook. The printed guidebooks provided students with a "publication" of their work to show to others and refer to in the field. The nine-day field trip started with a flight into Las Vegas, NV, on 3/1/14. We spent three nights camping at the South Rim of the Grand Canyon, one night camping in Valley of Fire State Park (VOFSP, 55 mi N of Las Vegas), and three nights staying at the Shoshone Education and Research Center (SHEAR) east of Death Valley. Highlights of the trip included the hike along the Bright Angel Trail (and fault) to Plateau Point and recognition of the Great Unconformity at GCNP; the White Domes loop hike, camping at the Beehives, and observation of the Muddy Mountain Overthrust in VOFSP; and hikes at Ubehebe Crater, Badwater Salt Flat, and Natural Bridge Canyon in DVNP. Each student presented his/her research topic at a pertinent point in the field trip; students were impressively well-prepared. One requirement of the course was a poster presentation on each student's research topic at our Undergraduate Research Symposium in April. For most of the students, the poster session was the first experience preparing and presenting a poster. In addition, the class gave a joint colloquium presentation to several hundred science majors and a number of science faculty at Saint Rose. Each student spoke for five

  9. Completely independent electrical control of spin and valley in a silicene field effect transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai, Xuechao; Jin, Guojun

    2016-01-01

    One-atom-thick silicene is a silicon-based hexagonal-lattice material with buckled structure, where an electron fuses multiple degrees of freedom including spin, sublattice pseudospin and valley. We here demonstrate that a valley-selective spin filter (VSSF) that supports single-valley and single-spin transport can be realized in a silicene field effect transistor constructed of an npn junction, where an antiferromagnetic exchange field and a perpendicular electric field are applied in the p -doped region. The nontrivial VSSF property benefits from an electrically controllable state of spin-polarized single-valley Dirac cone. By reversing the electric field direction, the device can operate as a spin-reversed but valley-unreversed filter due to the dependence of band gap on spin and valley. Further, we find that all the possible spin-valley configurations of VSSF can be achieved just by tuning the electric field. Our findings pave the way to the realization of completely independent electrical control of spin and valley in silicene circuits. (paper)

  10. Environmental Setting and Effects on Water Quality in the Great and Little Miami River Basins, Ohio and Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debrewer, Linda M.; Rowe, Gary L.; Reutter, David C.; Moore, Rhett C.; Hambrook, Julie A.; Baker, Nancy T.

    2000-01-01

    The Great and Little Miami River Basins drain approximately 7,354 square miles in southwestern Ohio and southeastern Indiana and are included in the more than 50 major river basins and aquifer systems selected for water-quality assessment as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Principal streams include the Great and Little Miami Rivers in Ohio and the Whitewater River in Indiana. The Great and Little Miami River Basins are almost entirely within the Till Plains section of the Central Lowland physiographic province and have a humid continental climate, characterized by well-defined summer and winter seasons. With the exception of a few areas near the Ohio River, Pleistocene glacial deposits, which are predominantly till, overlie lower Paleozoic limestone, dolomite, and shale bedrock. The principal aquifer is a complex buried-valley system of sand and gravel aquifers capable of supporting sustained well yields exceeding 1,000 gallons per min-ute. Designated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as a sole-source aquifer, the Buried-Valley Aquifer System is the principal source of drinking water for 1.6 million people in the basins and is the dominant source of water for southwestern Ohio. Water use in the Great and Little Miami River Basins averaged 745 million gallons per day in 1995. Of this amount, 48 percent was supplied by surface water (including the Ohio River) and 52 percent was supplied by ground water. Land-use and waste-management practices influence the quality of water found in streams and aquifers in the Great and Little Miami River Basins. Land use is approximately 79 percent agriculture, 13 percent urban (residential, industrial, and commercial), and 7 percent forest. An estimated 2.8 million people live in the Great and Little Miami River Basins; major urban areas include Cincinnati and Dayton, Ohio. Fertilizers and pesticides associated with agricultural activity, discharges from municipal and

  11. Commercial production of ethanol in the San Luis Valley, Colorado. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hewlett, E.M.; Erickson, M.V.; Ferguson, C.D.; Sherwood, P.B.; Boswell, B.S.; Walter, K.M.; Hart, M.L.

    1983-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the commercial feasibility of producing between 76 and 189 million liters (20 and 50 million gallons) of ethanol annually in the San Luis Valley, Colorado using geothermal energy as the primary heat source. The San Luis Valley is located in south-central Colorado. The valley is a high basin situated approximately 2316 meters (7600 feet) above sea level which contains numerous warm water wells and springs. A known geothermal resource area (KGRA) is located in the east-central area of the valley. The main industry in the valley is agriculture, while the main industry in the surrounding mountains is lumber. Both of these industries can provide feedstock for the production of ethanol.

  12. Ultrafast generation of pseudo-magnetic field for valley excitons in WSe2 monolayers

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, J.

    2014-12-04

    The valley pseudospin is a degree of freedom that emerges in atomically thin two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (MX2). The capability to manipulate it, in analogy to the control of spin in spintronics, can open up exciting opportunities. Here, we demonstrate that an ultrafast and ultrahigh valley pseudo-magnetic field can be generated by using circularly polarized femtosecond pulses to selectively control the valley degree of freedom in monolayer MX2. Using ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy, we observed a pure and valley-selective optical Stark effect in WSe2 monolayers from the nonresonant pump, resulting in an energy splitting of more than 10 milli-electron volts between the K and K′ valley exciton transitions. Our study opens up the possibility to coherently manipulate the valley polarization for quantum information applications.

  13. Ultrafast generation of pseudo-magnetic field for valley excitons in WSe2 monolayers

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, J.; Hong, X.; Jin, C.; Shi, S.-F.; Chang, C.-Y. S.; Chiu, Ming-Hui; Li, Lain-Jong; Wang, F.

    2014-01-01

    The valley pseudospin is a degree of freedom that emerges in atomically thin two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (MX2). The capability to manipulate it, in analogy to the control of spin in spintronics, can open up exciting opportunities. Here, we demonstrate that an ultrafast and ultrahigh valley pseudo-magnetic field can be generated by using circularly polarized femtosecond pulses to selectively control the valley degree of freedom in monolayer MX2. Using ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy, we observed a pure and valley-selective optical Stark effect in WSe2 monolayers from the nonresonant pump, resulting in an energy splitting of more than 10 milli-electron volts between the K and K′ valley exciton transitions. Our study opens up the possibility to coherently manipulate the valley polarization for quantum information applications.

  14. The lakes of the Jordan Rift Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gat, J.R.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of the proceedings of a workshop on the Lakes of the Jordan Rift Valley that was held in conjunction with the CRP on The Use of Isotope Techniques in Lake Dynamics Investigations. The paper presents a review of the geological, hydrogeological and physical limnological setting of the lakes in the Jordan Rift Valley, Lake Hula, Lake Kinneret and the Dead Sea. This is complemented by a description of the isotope hydrology of the system that includes the use of a wide range of isotopes: oxygen-18, deuterium, tritium, carbon-14, carbon-13, chlorine isotopes, boron-11 and helium-3/4. Environmental isotope aspects of the salt balances of the lakes, their palaeolimnology and biogeochemical tracers are also presented. The scope of application of isotopic tracers is very broad and provides a clear insight into many aspects of the physical, chemical and biological limnology of the Rift Valley Lakes. (author)

  15. Late quaternary environmental changes in the upper Las Vegas valley, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quade, Jay

    1986-11-01

    Five stratigraphic units and five soils of late Pleistocene to Holocene age crop out in dissected badlands on Corn Creek Flat, 30 km northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, and at Tule Springs, nearer to Las Vegas. The record is dominantly fluvial but contains evidence of several moister, marsh-forming periods: the oldest (Unit B) dates perhaps to the middle Wisconsin, and the more widespread Unit D falls between 30,000 and 15,000 yr B.P. Unit D therefore correlates with pluvial maximum lacustrine deposits elsewhere in the Great Basin. Standing water was not of sufficient depth or extent during either period to form lake strandlines. Between 14,000 and 7200 yr B.P. (Unit E), standing surface water gradually decreased, a trend also apparent in Great Basin pluvial lake chronologies during the same period. Groundwater carbonate cementation and burrowing by cicadas (Cicadae) accompany the moist-phase units. After 7200 yr B.P., increased wind action, decreased biotic activity, and at least 25 m of water-table lowering accompanied widespread erosion of older fine-grained deposits. Based on pack-rat midden and pollen evidence, this coincides with major vegetation changes in the valley, from sagebrush-dominated steppe to lower Mohave desertscrub.

  16. West Valley Reprocessing Plant. Safety analysis plant, supplement 18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Supplement 18 contains the following additions to Appendix II--5.0 Geology and Seismology: Section 12 ''Seismic Investigations for Spent Fuel Reprocessing Facility at West Valley, New York,'' October 20, 1975, and Section 13 ''Earthquake Return Period Analysis at West Valley, New York, for Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc.'' November 5, 1975

  17. Hydrogeology and water quality of the West Valley Creek Basin, Chester County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Lisa A.; Sloto, Ronald A.; Reif, Andrew G.

    1997-01-01

    liter as phosphorus) were measured in a stream that receives treated sewage effluent. Discharge of water containing elevated sulfate (about 250 milligrams per liter) from quarry dewatering operations contributes to die increase in sulfate concentration (of 10 to 40 milligrams per liter) in base flow downstream from the quarry. The chloride load at all stream sites is greater than the load contributed by precipitation and mineral weathering to the basin, indicating anthropogenic sources of chloride throughout the basin. The diversity index of the benthic invertebrate community has increased since 1973 at the longterm biological monitoring site on West Valley Creek, indicating an improvement in stream quality. The improvement probably is related to controls on discharges and banning of pesticides, such as DOT, in the 1970's. Concentrations of dissolved constituents, except for chloride, determined for base flow in the autumn do not appear to have changed since 1971. Application of the seasonal Kendall test for trend indicates that concentrations of chloride in base flow have increased since 1971; this increase may be related to the increase in urbanization in the basin. The benthic community structure at the West Valley Creek site in 1991 indicates slight nutrient enrichment.Lithium was detected in ground water and surface water downgradient from two lithiumprocessing facilities. Until 1991, lithium was discharged into a losing reach of West Valley Creek, thus introducing lithium into the ground-water system. The potential for cross-contamination between the ground-water and surface-water systems is great, as demonstrated by the detection of lithium in ground water and surface water downstream and downgradient from the two lithium-processing facilities. The lithium that was discharged into the creek acts as a conservative tracer in gaining reaches of West Valley Creek, maintaining a mass balance and characteristic isotopic signature. Lithium-7/lithium-6 ratios were

  18. Size effects in many-valley fluctuations in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, V.N.; Kochelap, V.A.

    1995-08-01

    We present the results of theoretical investigations of nonhomogeneous fluctuations in submicron active regions of many-valley semiconductors with equivalent valleys(Ge, Si-type), where the dimension 2d of the region is comparable to or less than the intervalley diffusion relaxation length L iv . It is shown that for arbitrary orientations of the valley axes (the crystal axes) with respect to lateral sample surfaces, the fluctuation spectra depend on the bias voltage applied to the layer in the region of weak nonheating electric fields. The new physical phenomenon is reported: the fluctuation spectra depend on the sample thickness, with 2d iv the suppression of fluctuations arises for fluctuation frequencies ω -1 iv , τ -1 iv is the characteristic intervalley relaxation time. (author). 43 refs, 5 figs

  19. Energy Band Gap Dependence of Valley Polarization of the Hexagonal Lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghalamkari, Kazu; Tatsumi, Yuki; Saito, Riichiro

    2018-02-01

    The origin of valley polarization of the hexagonal lattice is analytically discussed by tight binding method as a function of energy band gap. When the energy gap decreases to zero, the intensity of optical absorption becomes sharp as a function of k near the K (or K') point in the hexagonal Brillouin zone, while the peak intensity at the K (or K') point keeps constant with decreasing the energy gap. When the dipole vector as a function of k can have both real and imaginary parts that are perpendicular to each other in the k space, the valley polarization occurs. When the dipole vector has only real values by selecting a proper phase of wave functions, the valley polarization does not occur. The degree of the valley polarization may show a discrete change that can be relaxed to a continuous change of the degree of valley polarization when we consider the life time of photo-excited carrier.

  20. Asymmetric valley-resolved beam splitting and incident modes in slanted graphene junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, S. H.; Chu, C. S.

    2016-01-01

    Electron injection into a graphene sheet through a slanted armchair graphene nanoribbon (AGNR) is investigated. An incident mode, or subband, in the AGNR is valley-unpolarized. Our attention is on the valley-resolved nature of the injected electron beams and its connection to the incident mode. It is known for a normal injection that an incident mode will split symmetrically into two valley-resolved beams of equal intensity. We show, in contrast, that slanted injections result in asymmetric valley-resolved beam splitting. The most asymmetric beam splitting cases, when one of the valley-resolved beams has basically disappeared, are found and the condition derived. This is shown not due to trigonal warping because it holds even in the low incident energy regime, as long as collimation allows. These most asymmetric beam splitting cases occur at energies within an energy interval near and include the subband edge of an incident mode. The physical picture is best illustrated by a projection of the slanted AGNR subband states onto that of the 2D graphene sheet. It follows that the disappearing of a valley-resolved beam coincides with the situation that the group velocities of the projected states in the corresponding valley are in backward directions

  1. The Drentsche Aa valley system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gans, W. de.

    1981-01-01

    This thesis is composed of five papers concerned with Late Quaternary geology and geomorphology of the Aa valley system. The correlation and chronostratigraphic position of the layers have been established by radiocarbon dating. (Auth.)

  2. Land Subsidence Caused by Groundwater Exploitation in Quetta Valley, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najeebullah Kakar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Land subsidence is affecting several metropolitan cities in developing as well as developed countries around the world such as Nagoya (Japan, Shanghai (China, Venice (Italy and San Joaquin valley (United States. This phenomenon is attributed to natural as well as anthropogenic activities that include extensive groundwater withdrawals. Quetta is the largest city of Balochistan province in Pakistan. This valley is mostly dry and ground water is the major source for domestic and agricultural consumption. The unplanned use of ground water resources has led to the deterioration of water quality and quantity in the Quetta valley. Water shortage in the region was further aggravated by the drought during (1998-2004 that hit the area forcing people to migrate from rural to urban areas. Refugees from the war torn neighboring Afghanistan also contributed to rapid increase in population of Quetta valley that has increased from 0.26 million in 1975 to 3.0 million in 2016. The objective of this study was to measure the land subsidence in Quetta valley and identify the effects of groundwater withdrawals on land subsidence. To achieve this goal, data from five Global Positioning System (GPS stations were acquired and processed. Furthermore the groundwater decline data from 41 observation wells during 2010 to 2015 were calculated and compared with the land deformation. The results of this study revealed that the land of Quetta valley is subsiding from 30mm/y on the flanks to 120 mm/y in the central part. 1.5-5.0 m/y of groundwater level drop was recorded in the area where the rate of subsidence is highest. So the extensive groundwater withdrawals in Quetta valley is considered to be the driving force behind land subsidence.

  3. Direct measurement of exciton valley coherence in monolayer WSe2

    KAUST Repository

    Hao, Kai; Moody, Galan; Wu, Fengcheng; Dass, Chandriker Kavir; Xu, Lixiang; Chen, Chang Hsiao; Sun, Liuyang; Li, Ming-yang; Li, Lain-Jong; MacDonald, Allan H.; Li, Xiaoqin

    2016-01-01

    In crystals, energy band extrema in momentum space can be identified by a valley index. The internal quantum degree of freedom associated with valley pseudospin indices can act as a useful information carrier, analogous to electronic charge

  4. Valley polarization in magnetically doped single-layer transition-metal dichalcogenides

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Yingchun

    2014-04-28

    We demonstrate that valley polarization can be induced and controlled in semiconducting single-layer transition-metal dichalcogenides by magnetic doping, which is important for spintronics, valleytronics, and photonics devices. As an example, we investigate Mn-doped MoS2 by first-principles calculations. We study how the valley polarization depends on the strength of the spin orbit coupling and the exchange interaction and discuss how it can be controlled by magnetic doping. Valley polarization by magnetic doping is also expected for other honeycomb materials with strong spin orbit coupling and the absence of inversion symmetry.

  5. Optically initialized robust valley-polarized holes in monolayer WSe2

    KAUST Repository

    Hsu, Wei-Ting; Chen, Yen-Lun; Chen, Chiang-Hsiao; Liu, Pang-Shiuan; Hou, Tuo-Hung; Li, Lain-Jong; Chang, Wen-Hao

    2015-01-01

    a unique platform to develop such valleytronic devices, the anticipated long-lived valley pseudospin has not been observed yet. Here we demonstrate that robust valley-polarized holes in monolayer WSe2 can be initialized by optical pumping. Using time

  6. Polyphase serpentinization history of Mariana forearc mantle: observations on the microfabric of ultramafic clasts from ODP Leg 195, Site 1200

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, Wolf-Achim; Jöns, Niels; Bach, Wolfgang; Klein, Frieder

    2013-04-01

    In the forearc of the Mariana subduction zone system, a number of seamounts form from extrusion of blueschist and serpentine mud. Ocean Drilling Program Leg 195 drilled the South Chamorro seamount, where ultramafic clasts occur within the mud matrix. These clasts show a complex serpentinization history, which bears the potential for tracking the alteration history during uplift and cooling of mantle wedge rocks to the seafloor. Moreover, the microfabrics of the highly serpentinized harzburgite and dunite clasts exhibit evidence for multiple fracturing events in the forearc mantle. These, in turn, lead to fluid influx and varied styles of serpentinization of harzburgite and dunite. The serpentinized ultramafic clasts exhibit a variety of microfabrics that range from virtually undeformed to strongly deformed samples. Pervasively serpentinized harzburgites feature either an equigranular fabric of serpentinized olivine and orthopyroxene crystals, or different vein generations related to multiple stages of serpentinization. Several types of fluid pathways in harzburgites are present: (i) veins containing brucite and iron oxides, developed linearly without marked conformance with the rock fabric. In places, these veins developed mm-cm wide halos with finger-shaped serpentinization fronts. Veins of type (i) are either developed as syntaxial veins from a single crack-seal event with large magnetite crystals growing from one wall to the other (as confirmed with high-resolution X-ray microtomography), or formed by multiple fluid events. (ii) serpentine veins that encompass regions of marginally serpentinized, microgranular olivine and large orthopyroxene crystals. (iii) extensional serpentine veins (known as "Frankenstein" type). In the clasts studied, their occurrence is restricted to the halo region of type (i) veins. (iv) as a late-stage feature, extensional veins documenting multiple crack-seal events can be present in the serpentinites (either in undeformed regions with

  7. Interaction of valleys and circulation patterns (CPs on spatial precipitation patterns in southern Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Liu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Topography exerts influence on the spatial precipitation distribution over different scales, known typically at the large scale as the orographic effect, and at the small scale as the wind-drift rainfall (WDR effect. At the intermediate scale (1~10 km, which is characterized by secondary mountain valleys, topography also demonstrates some effect on the precipitation pattern. This paper investigates such intermediate-scale topographic effects on precipitation patterns, focusing on narrow-steep valleys in the complex terrain of southern Germany, based on the daily observations over a 48 yr period (1960~2007 from a high-density rain-gauge network covering two sub-areas, Baden-Wuerttemberg (BW and Bavaria (BY. Precipitation data at the valley and non-valley stations are compared under consideration of the daily general circulation patterns (CPs classified by a fuzzy rule-based algorithm. Scatter plots of precipitation against elevation demonstrate a different behavior of valley stations comparing to non-valley stations. A detailed study of the precipitation time series for selected station triplets, each consisting of a valley station, a mountain station and an open station have been investigated by statistical analysis with the Kolmogorov–Smirnov (KS test supplemented by the One-way analysis of variance (One-way ANOVA and a graphical comparison of the mean precipitation amounts. The results show an interaction of valley orientation and the direction of the CPs at the intermediate scale, i.e. when the valley is shielded from the CP which carries the precipitation, the precipitation amount within the valley is comparable to that on the mountain crest, and both larger than the precipitation at the open station. When the valley is open to the CP, the precipitation within the valley is similar to the open station but much less than that on the mountain. Such phenomenon where the precipitation is "blind" to the valleys at the intermediate scale

  8. Valley plugs, land use, and phytogeomorphic response: Chapter 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Aaron R.; King, Sammy L.; Shroder, John F.

    2013-01-01

    Anthropogenic alteration of fluvial systems can disrupt functional processes that provide valuable ecosystem services. Channelization alters fluvial parameters and the connectivity of river channels to their floodplains which is critical for productivity, nutrient cycling, flood control, and biodiversity. The effects of channelization can be exacerbated by local geology and land-use activities, resulting in dramatic geomorphic readjustments including the formation of valley plugs. Considerable variation in the response of abiotic processes, including surface hydrology, subsurface hydrology, and sedimentation dynamics, to channelization and the formation of valley plugs. Altered abiotic processes associated with these geomorphic features and readjustments influence biotic processes including species composition, abundance, and successional processes. Considerable interest exists for restoring altered fluvial systems and their floodplains because of their social and ecological importance. Understanding abiotic and biotic responses of channelization and valley-plug formation within the context of the watershed is essential to successful restoration. This chapter focuses on the primary causes of valley-plug formation, resulting fluvial-geomorphic responses, vegetation responses, and restoration and research needs for these systems.

  9. Magnetoelectric control of valley and spin in a silicene nanoribbon modulated by the magnetic superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Xing-Tao, E-mail: anxt@hku.hk

    2015-03-20

    The control of valley and spin degrees of freedom and the transport properties of electrons in a zigzag silicene nanoribbon modulated by the magnetic superlattices are investigated theoretically. Due to the valley–spin locking effect in silicene, the valley degree of freedom can be controlled by magnetic means. The valley or/and spin selection induced by the exchange field result in the perfect spin–valley filter and tunneling magnetoresistance effect in the double ferromagnetic barriers on the surface of the silicene nanoribbon. It is more interesting that there are valley-resolved minigaps and minibands in the zigzag silicene nanoribbon modulated by the magnetic superlattices which give rise to the periodically modulated spin (or/and valley) polarization and tunneling magnetoresistance. The results obtained may have certain practical significance in applications for future valleytronic and spintronic devices. - Highlights: • The valley can be controlled by a magnetic field in silicene. • The valley-resolved miniband transport is studied in the silicene superlattices. • There are the perfect spin–valley filter and tunneling magnetoresistance effect.

  10. 75 FR 48359 - Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor Commission: Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Office of the Secretary Blackstone River Valley National Heritage..., United States Code, that a meeting of the John H. Chafee Blackstone River Valley National Heritage..., Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor Commission, One Depot Square, Woonsocket, RI 02895, Tel...

  11. Linking Late Cretaceous to Eocene Tectonostratigraphy of the San Jacinto Fold Belt of NW Colombia With Caribbean Plateau Collision and Flat Subduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, J. Alejandro; Oncken, Onno; Le Breton, Eline; Ibánez-Mejia, Mauricio; Faccenna, Claudio; Veloza, Gabriel; Vélez, Vickye; de Freitas, Mario; Mesa, Andrés.

    2017-11-01

    Collision with and subduction of an oceanic plateau is a rare and transient process that usually leaves an indirect imprint only. Through a tectonostratigraphic analysis of pre-Oligocene sequences in the San Jacinto fold belt of northern Colombia, we show the Late Cretaceous to Eocene tectonic evolution of northwestern South America upon collision and ongoing subduction with the Caribbean Plate. We linked the deposition of four fore-arc basin sequences to specific collision/subduction stages and related their bounding unconformities to major tectonic episodes. The Upper Cretaceous Cansona sequence was deposited in a marine fore-arc setting in which the Caribbean Plate was being subducted beneath northwestern South America, producing contemporaneous magmatism in the present-day Lower Magdalena Valley basin. Coeval strike-slip faulting by the Romeral wrench fault system accommodated right-lateral displacement due to oblique convergence. In latest Cretaceous times, the Caribbean Plateau collided with South America marking a change to more terrestrially influenced marine environments characteristic of the upper Paleocene to lower Eocene San Cayetano sequence, also deposited in a fore-arc setting with an active volcanic arc. A lower to middle Eocene angular unconformity at the top of the San Cayetano sequence, the termination of the activity of the Romeral Fault System, and the cessation of arc magmatism are interpreted to indicate the onset of low-angle subduction of the thick and buoyant Caribbean Plateau beneath South America, which occurred between 56 and 43 Ma. Flat subduction of the plateau has continued to the present and would be the main cause of amagmatic post-Eocene deposition.

  12. Rock-fall potential in the Yosemite Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, G.F.; Morrissey, M.M.; Iovine, Giulio; Godt, Jonathan

    1999-01-01

    We used two methods of estimating rock-fall potential in the Yosemite Valley, California based on (1) physical evidence of previous rock-fall travel, in which the potential extends to the base of the talus, and (2) theoretical potential energy considerations, in which the potential can extend beyond the base of the talus, herein referred to as the rock-fall shadow. Rock falls in the valley commonly range in size from individual boulders of less than 1 m3 to moderate-sized falls with volumes of about 100,000 m3. Larger rock falls exceeding 100,000 m3, referred to as rock avalanches, are considered to be much less likely to occur based on the relatively few prehistoric rock-fall avalanche deposits in the Yosemite Valley. Because the valley has steep walls and is relatively narrow, there are no areas that are absolutely safe from large rock avalanches. The map shows areas of rock-fall potential, but does not predict when or how frequently a rock fall will occur. Consequently, neither the hazard in terms of probability of a rock fall at any specific location, nor the risk to people or facilities to such events can be assessed from this map.

  13. Diversity and ecological ranges of plant species from dry inter-Andean valleys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quintana, Catalina

    found on steep slopes and in ravines. These areas of original dry valley vegetation preserve many wild relatives of cultivated plants on the one hand and old lineages of other wild plant groups. Dry inter-Andean valleys (DIAVs) in Ecuador therefore makeup a biodiversity hot spot for both plants......Dry valleys in the American Andes and other mountains have provided excellent agricultural lands since millennia. Besides agriculture, wood extraction and the establishment of urban areas have diminished the native vegetation of these valleys. Consequently the original vegetation is now mostly...... and animals, but unfortunately only very few botanical studies have been carried out in these areas. This thesis intends to shed light on the vegetation of the Dry Ecuadorean Inter-Andean Valleys in four chapters, each with a different focus. 1) A review paper that summarizes all scientific knowledge...

  14. GPS Imaging suggests links between climate, magmatism, seismicity, and tectonics in the Sierra Nevada-Long Valley Caldera-Walker Lane system, western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, W. C.; Blewitt, G.; Kreemer, C.; Smith, K.

    2017-12-01

    The Walker Lane is a region of complex active crustal transtension in the western Great Basin of the western United States, accommodating about 20% of the 50 mm/yr relative motion between the Pacific and North American plates. The Long Valley caldera lies in the central Walker Lane in eastern California, adjacent to the eastern boundary of the Sierra Nevada/Great Valley microplate, and experiences intermittent inflation, uplift, and volcanic unrest from the magma chamber that resides at middle crustal depths. Normal and transform faults accommodating regional tectonic transtension pass by and through the caldera, complicating the interpretation of the GPS-measured strain rate field, estimates of fault slip rates, and seismic hazard. Several dozen continuously recording GPS stations measure strain and uplift in the area with mm precision. They observe that the most recent episode of uplift at Long Valley began in mid-2011, continuing until late 2016, raising the surface by 100 mm in 6 years. The timing of the initiation of uplift coincides with the beginning of severe drought in California. Furthermore, the timing of a recent pause in uplift coincides with the very wet 2016-2017 winter, which saw approximately double normal snow pack. In prior studies, we showed that the timing of changes in geodetically measured uplift rate of the Sierra Nevada coincides with the timing of drought conditions in California, suggesting a link between hydrological loading and Sierra Nevada elevation. Here we take the analysis three steps further to show that changes in Sierra Nevada uplift rate coincide in time with 1) enhanced inflation at the Long Valley caldera, 2) shifts in the patterns and rates of horizontal tensor strain rate, and 3) seismicity patterns in the central Walker Lane. We use GPS solutions from the Nevada Geodetic Laboratory and the new GPS Imaging technique to produce robust animations of the time variable strain and uplift fields. The goals of this work are to

  15. 75 FR 17756 - Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor Commission: Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Office of the Secretary Blackstone River Valley National Heritage..., United States Code, that a meeting of the John H. Chafee Blackstone River Valley National Heritage... the meeting to: Jan H. Reitsma, Executive Director, John H. Chafee, Blackstone River Valley National...

  16. Traditional and modern crossing process exchange in a Buddhist–Muslim society. Case studied: Zangskar valley in the great Indian Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salome Deboos

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Economic exchange in the Zangskar valley (in the high Indian Himalayas was a tightly integrated element of the social and political network of this Buddhist–Muslim society . Accordingly people of the lower stratum could not take part in the exchange and circulation of wealth coming from farming; the only way to have a role in the circulation of goods is by using cash. Since 1970, paid civil servants and the development of tourism and facilities have opened up cash exchange. Nowadays being able to procure manufactured goods by integrating into the Indian monetary exchange system has become synonymous with social success. Based on an ethnographical study carried out since 2000, this article proposes to show how the use of goods and green or stamped money for economic exchange impacts on and is impacted by the religious diversity of the population of Zangskar, which is not immune to influences emanating from the wider social, political and economic environment.

  17. The Great Recession was not so Great

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ours, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    The Great Recession is characterized by a GDP-decline that was unprecedented in the past decades. This paper discusses the implications of the Great Recession analyzing labor market data from 20 OECD countries. Comparing the Great Recession with the 1980s recession it is concluded that there is a

  18. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West Valley Nuclear Services Company (WVNSCO) and URS Group, Inc.

    2005-09-30

    Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) for Calendar Year 2004. The report summarizes the environmental protection program at the West Valley Demonstration Project for CY 2004.

  19. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) for Calendar Year 2004. The report summarizes the environmental protection program at the West Valley Demonstration Project for CY 2004

  20. Deep long-period earthquakes west of the volcanic arc in Oregon: evidence of serpentine dehydration in the fore-arc mantle wedge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidale, John E.; Schmidt, David A.; Malone, Stephen D.; Hotovec-Ellis, Alicia J.; Moran, Seth C.; Creager, Kenneth C.; Houston, Heidi

    2014-01-01

    Here we report on deep long-period earthquakes (DLPs) newly observed in four places in western Oregon. The DLPs are noteworthy for their location within the subduction fore arc: 40–80 km west of the volcanic arc, well above the slab, and near the Moho. These “offset DLPs” occur near the top of the inferred stagnant mantle wedge, which is likely to be serpentinized and cold. The lack of fore-arc DLPs elsewhere along the arc suggests that localized heating may be dehydrating the serpentinized mantle wedge at these latitudes and causing DLPs by dehydration embrittlement. Higher heat flow in this region could be introduced by anomalously hot mantle, associated with the western migration of volcanism across the High Lava Plains of eastern Oregon, entrained in the corner flow proximal to the mantle wedge. Alternatively, fluids rising from the subducting slab through the mantle wedge may be the source of offset DLPs. As far as we know, these are among the first DLPs to be observed in the fore arc of a subduction-zone system.

  1. Infill of tunnel valleys associated with landward‐flowing ice sheets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreau, Julien; Huuse, Mads

    2014-01-01

    The southern termination of the Middle and Late Pleistocene Scandinavian ice sheets was repeatedly located in the southern North Sea (sNS) and adjacent, north-sloping land areas. Giant meltwater-excavated valleys (tunnel valleys) formed at the southern termination of the ice sheets and contain...

  2. Glacial geology of the upper Wairau Valley, Marlborough, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCalpin, J.P.

    1992-01-01

    Late Pleistocene glaciers in the upper Wairau Valley deposited four groups of moraines inferred to represent one Waimean ice advance, two Otiran ice advances, and an advance of early Aranuian age. The Waimean and early Otiran glaciers advanced into Tarndale Valley, deposited terminal moraines, and shed outwash down both the Alma River and Travellers Valley. The middle Otiran glacier terminated in northern Tarndale Valley and shed outwash from the southern part of its terminus down the Alma River. The north side of the terminus abutted a large ice-dammed lake in the Wairau Gorge, and fan-deltas graded to an old shore level at an elevation of 1040 m. Well-preserved moraines at the mouths of four glaciated tributaries may be middle Otiran recessional, or late Otiran terminal moraines. The latest ice advance extended 11 km down the upper Wairau Valley and deposited a subdued moraine at Island Gully. The composite chronology of the latest glacial advance based on 10 radiocarbon ages suggests it occurred between about 9.5 and 10.2 ka. This age span is similar to that of early Aranuian glacial advances dated by other workers in the Southern Alps, and may reflect Younger Dryas cooling. (author). 22 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs

  3. Digital Elevation Model (DEM) file of topographic elevations for the Death Valley region of southern Nevada and southeastern California processed from US Geological Survey 1-degree Digital Elevation Model data files

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, A.K.; D'Agnese, F.A.; Faunt, C.C.

    1996-01-01

    Elevation data have been compiled into a digital data base for an ∼100,000-km 2 area of the southern Great Basin, the Death Valley region of southern Nevada, and SE Calif., located between lat 35 degree N, long 115 degree W, and lat 38 degree N, long 118 degree W. This region includes the Nevada Test Site, Yucca Mountain, and adjacent parts of southern Nevada and eastern California and encompasses the Death Valley regional ground-water system. Because digital maps are often useful for applications other than that for which they were originally intended, and because the area corresponds to a region under continuing investigation by several groups, these digital files are being released by USGS

  4. Landform Evolution of the Zanskar Valley, Ladakh Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahal, P.; Kumar, A.; Sharma, P.; Sundriyal, Y.; Srivastava, P.

    2017-12-01

    Zanskar River flow from south-west to north-east, perpendicularly through Higher Himalayan crystalline sequences, Tethyan sedimentary sequences, and Indus Molasses; and finally merge with the Indus River at Nimu. Geologically, the Indus valley is bounded by Ladakh Batholith in the north and highly folded and thrusted Zanskar mountain ranges in the south. Sedimentary sequences of Zanskar ranges are largely of continental origin, which were uplifted and deformed via several north verging thrusts, where Zanskar counter thrust, Choksti and Indus-Bazgo thrusts are important thrust zone, and there is atleast 36 km of crustal shortening in the Zanskar section which continued from middle Miocene to the late Pleistocene. This shortening is accommodated mainly by north or north-east directed Zanskar backthrusts. Two major tributaries of Zanskar: Tsrapchu and Doda, flow in the headwaters, along the strike of South Tibetan Detachment System (STDs), an east-west trending regional fault. The present study incorporate field sedimentology, geomorphology and chronology of landform associated with Zanskar valley. In the upper Zanskar, alluvial fan, valley fill and strath terraces configured the major landforms with paleo-lake deposits­­­ in the area between the fans. The lower catchment, at the confluence of Zanskar and Indus rivers, exhibit mainly valley fill terraces and strath terraces. Chronology suggests diachronous aggradation in the upper and lower Zanskar catchments. In the upper Zanskar large scale valley aggradation took place with simultaneously fan progradation and flooding events from 45-15 ka. Luminescence chronology of the lower Zanskar indicates aggradation from 145-55 ka and 18-12 ka. The two aggradation basins are separated by a deep V-shaped gorge which is approximately 60 km long. The longitudinal profile of the Zanskar River shows several local convexities marking knick point zone, which suggests tectonically controlled topography.

  5. Transport of regional pollutants through a remote trans-Himalayan valley in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dhungel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels and biomass in Asia have increased in recent years. High concentrations of reactive trace gases and light-absorbing and light-scattering particles from these sources form persistent haze layers, also known as atmospheric brown clouds, over the Indo–Gangetic plains (IGP from December through early June. Models and satellite imagery suggest that strong wind systems within deep Himalayan valleys are major pathways by which pollutants from the IGP are transported to the higher Himalaya. However, observational evidence of the transport of polluted air masses through Himalayan valleys has been lacking to date. To evaluate this pathway, we measured black carbon (BC, ozone (O3, and associated meteorological conditions within the Kali Gandaki Valley (KGV, Nepal, from January 2013 to July 2015. BC and O3 varied over both diurnal and seasonal cycles. Relative to nighttime, mean BC and O3 concentrations within the valley were higher during daytime when the up-valley flow (average velocity of 17 m s−1 dominated. BC and O3 concentrations also varied seasonally with minima during the monsoon season (July to September. Concentrations of both species subsequently increased post-monsoon and peaked during March to May. Average concentrations for O3 during the seasonally representative months of April, August, and November were 41.7, 24.5, and 29.4 ppbv, respectively, while the corresponding BC concentrations were 1.17, 0.24, and 1.01 µg m−3, respectively. Up-valley fluxes of BC were significantly greater than down-valley fluxes during all seasons. In addition, frequent episodes of BC concentrations 2–3 times higher than average persisted from several days to a week during non-monsoon months. Our observations of increases in BC concentration and fluxes in the valley, particularly during pre-monsoon, provide evidence that trans-Himalayan valleys are important conduits for transport of

  6. Transport of regional pollutants through a remote trans-Himalayan valley in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhungel, Shradda; Kathayat, Bhogendra; Mahata, Khadak; Panday, Arnico

    2018-01-01

    Anthropogenic emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels and biomass in Asia have increased in recent years. High concentrations of reactive trace gases and light-absorbing and light-scattering particles from these sources form persistent haze layers, also known as atmospheric brown clouds, over the Indo-Gangetic plains (IGP) from December through early June. Models and satellite imagery suggest that strong wind systems within deep Himalayan valleys are major pathways by which pollutants from the IGP are transported to the higher Himalaya. However, observational evidence of the transport of polluted air masses through Himalayan valleys has been lacking to date. To evaluate this pathway, we measured black carbon (BC), ozone (O3), and associated meteorological conditions within the Kali Gandaki Valley (KGV), Nepal, from January 2013 to July 2015. BC and O3 varied over both diurnal and seasonal cycles. Relative to nighttime, mean BC and O3 concentrations within the valley were higher during daytime when the up-valley flow (average velocity of 17 m s-1) dominated. BC and O3 concentrations also varied seasonally with minima during the monsoon season (July to September). Concentrations of both species subsequently increased post-monsoon and peaked during March to May. Average concentrations for O3 during the seasonally representative months of April, August, and November were 41.7, 24.5, and 29.4 ppbv, respectively, while the corresponding BC concentrations were 1.17, 0.24, and 1.01 µg m-3, respectively. Up-valley fluxes of BC were significantly greater than down-valley fluxes during all seasons. In addition, frequent episodes of BC concentrations 2-3 times higher than average persisted from several days to a week during non-monsoon months. Our observations of increases in BC concentration and fluxes in the valley, particularly during pre-monsoon, provide evidence that trans-Himalayan valleys are important conduits for transport of pollutants from the IGP to the

  7. Diversity of inland valleys and opportunities for agricultural development in Sierra Leone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliott Ronald Dossou-Yovo

    Full Text Available Inland valleys are becoming increasingly important agricultural production areas for rural households in sub-Saharan Africa due to their relative high and secure water availability and soil fertility. In addition, inland valleys are important as water buffer and biodiversity hot spots and they provide local communities with forest, forage, and fishing resources. As different inland-valley ecosystem functions may conflict with agricultural objectives, indiscriminate development should be avoided. This study aims to analyze the diversity of inland valleys in Sierra Leone and to develop guidelines for more precise interventions. Land use, biophysical and socio-economic data were analyzed on 257 inland valleys using spatial and multivariate techniques. Five cluster groups of inland valleys were identified: (i semi-permanently flooded with high soil organic carbon (4.2% and moderate available phosphorus (10.2 ppm, mostly under natural vegetation; (ii semi-permanently flooded with low soil organic carbon (1.5% and very low available phosphorus (3.1 ppm, abandoned by farmers; (iii seasonally flooded with moderate soil organic carbon (3.1% and low available phosphorus (8.3 ppm, used for rainfed rice and off-season vegetables produced without fertilizer application for household consumption and market; (iv well drained with moderate soil organic carbon (3.8% and moderate available phosphorus (10.0 ppm, used for rainfed rice and off-season vegetables produced with fertilizer application for household consumption and market; and (v well drained with moderate soil organic carbon (3.6% and moderate available phosphorus (11 ppm, used for household consumption without fertilizer application. Soil organic carbon, available phosphorus, hydrological regime, physical accessibility and market opportunity were the major factors affecting agricultural intensification of inland valleys. Opening up the areas in which inland valleys occur through improved roads and

  8. Some Environmental Issues of Inland Valleys: A Case Study | Asiam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study concluded that inland valleys can be real environmental liability because produce from such valleys can be polluted and hence can be a source of social conflict particularly when they fringe mineral concessions as the adverse impacts could be unfortunately attributed to mining activity and similar land uses.

  9. Parking Space Occupancy at Rail Stations in Klang Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Phooi Wai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of Klang Valley Integrated Rapid Transit system in Klang Valley, Malaysia has been quickly gaining momentum during the recent years. There will be two new MRT lines (MRT Line 1 and MRT Line 2 and one new LRT line (LRT Line 3 extended from the current integrated rail transit system by year 2020 with more than 90 new rail stations. With the substantial addition of potential rail passengers, there are doubts whether the existing Park and Ride facilities in Klang Valley are able to accommodate the future parking space demand at rail stations. This research studies the parking occupancy at various Park and Ride facilities in Klang Valley namely Taman Jaya, Asia Jaya, Taman Paramount, Taman Bahagia and Kelana Jaya by applying the non-conventional method utilizing Google Earth imageries. Results showed that the parking occupancy rate at these LRT stations were 100% or more before the commencement of LRT extension (Kelana Jaya and Ampang Lines in 2016 and in the range of 36% to 100% after the commencement of LRT extension due to the additionally built car parks and changes in parking pattern with dispersed passenger traffic.

  10. Martian channels and valleys - Their characteristics, distribution, and age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, M. H.; Clow, G. D.

    1981-01-01

    The distribution and ages of Martian channels and valleys, which are generally believed to have been cut by running water, are examined with particular emphasis on the small branching networks referred to as runoff channels or valley networks. Valleys at latitudes from 65 deg S to 65 deg N were surveyed on Viking images at resolutions between 125 and 300 m. Almost all of the valleys are found in the old cratered terrain, in areas characterized by high elevations, low albedos and low violet/red ratios. The networks are deduced to have formed early in the history of the planet, with a formation rate declining rapidly shortly after the decline of the cratering rate 3.9 billion years ago. Two types of outflow channels are distinguished: unconfined, in which broad swaths of terrain are scoured, and confined, in which flow is restricted to discrete channels. Both types start at local sources, and have formed episodically throughout Martian history. Fretted channels, found mainly in two latitude belts characterized by relatively rapid erosion along escarpments, are explained by the lateral enlargement of other channels by mass wasting.

  11. Reporting on nuclear power: the Tennessee Valley case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapley, D.

    1977-01-01

    The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), by deciding to have 90 percent of its new generating capacity nuclear, has made the valley a testing ground for civilian nuclear power, but valley newspapers have not provided consumers with enough information on either the pros or cons. A 1975 Browns Ferry plant fire, the most serious in the history of the civilian nuclear industry, prompted some nuclear critics to question TVA's competence to plan and manage the program. Newspapers carried wire-service stories of the fire, while their editorials gave strong support to TVA and the effort to reopen the plant. Valley newspapers have traditionally favored TVA as a powerful economic and political force which has brought many benefits. Local pride in the Oak Ridge Laboratory and plant facilities and the Federal fast-breeder reactor project headquarters also enhanced the positive attitude of the press, which tended to report details but not question nuclear safety or TVA ability. Newspapers have also failed to question TVA's claims that rates will decline as nuclear plants begin operating. A review of relevant news stories during the 1975--1976 period addresses the press coverage and notes its failure to question whether power demands justify TVA's plant construction program. Knowledgeable consultants are available to provide information on the issues, while editors are advised to give comprehensive, critical coverage and avoid promotion

  12. Decision analysis framing study; in-valley drainage management strategies for the western San Joaquin Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presser, Theresa S.; Jenni, Karen E.; Nieman, Timothy; Coleman, James

    2010-01-01

    Constraints on drainage management in the western San Joaquin Valley and implications of proposed approaches to management were recently evaluated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The USGS found that a significant amount of data for relevant technical issues was available and that a structured, analytical decision support tool could help optimize combinations of specific in-valley drainage management strategies, address uncertainties, and document underlying data analysis for future use. To follow-up on USGS's technical analysis and to help define a scientific basis for decisionmaking in implementing in-valley drainage management strategies, this report describes the first step (that is, a framing study) in a Decision Analysis process. In general, a Decision Analysis process includes four steps: (1) problem framing to establish the scope of the decision problem(s) and a set of fundamental objectives to evaluate potential solutions, (2) generation of strategies to address identified decision problem(s), (3) identification of uncertainties and their relationships, and (4) construction of a decision support model. Participation in such a systematic approach can help to promote consensus and to build a record of qualified supporting data for planning and implementation. In December 2008, a Decision Analysis framing study was initiated with a series of meetings designed to obtain preliminary input from key stakeholder groups on the scope of decisions relevant to drainage management that were of interest to them, and on the fundamental objectives each group considered relevant to those decisions. Two key findings of this framing study are: (1) participating stakeholders have many drainage management objectives in common; and (2) understanding the links between drainage management and water management is necessary both for sound science-based decisionmaking and for resolving stakeholder differences about the value of proposed drainage management solutions. Citing

  13. BPA/Lower Valley transmission project. Final environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    Bonneville Power Administration and Lower Valley Power and Light, Inc. propose to solve a voltage stability problem in the Jackson and Afton, Wyoming areas. Lower Valley buys electricity from BPA and then supplies it to the residences and businesses of the Jackson and Afton, Wyoming areas. BPA is considering five alternatives. For the Agency Proposed Action, BPA and Lower Valley would construct a new 115-kV line from BPA's Swan Valley Substation near Swan Valley in Bonneville County, Idaho about 58 km (36 miles) east to BPA's Teton Substation near Jackson in Teton County, Wyoming. The new line would be next to an existing 115-kV line. The Single-Circuit Line Alternative has all the components of the Agency Proposed Action except that the entire line would be supported by single-circuit wood pole H-frame structures. the Short Line Alternative has all the components of the Single-Circuit Line Alternative except it would only be half as long. BPA would also construct a new switching station near the existing right-of-way, west or north of Targhee Tap. Targhee Tap would then be removed. For the Static Var Compensation Alternative, BPA would install a Static Var Compensator (SVC) at Teton or Jackson Substation. An SVC is a group of electrical equipment placed at a substation to help control voltage on a transmission system. The No Action Alternative assumes that no new transmission line is built, and no other equipment is added to the transmission system

  14. Vitrification facility at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DesCamp, V.A.; McMahon, C.L.

    1996-07-01

    This report is a description of the West Valley Demonstration Project's vitrification facilities from the establishment of the West Valley, NY site as a federal and state cooperative project to the completion of all activities necessary to begin solidification of radioactive waste into glass by vitrification. Topics discussed in this report include the Project's background, high-level radioactive waste consolidation, vitrification process and component testing, facilities design and construction, waste/glass recipe development, integrated facility testing, and readiness activities for radioactive waste processing

  15. Geomorphological characteristics of increased landslide activity in the Gudbrandsdalen valley, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyerdahl, Håkon; Høydal, Øyvind

    2016-04-01

    The Gudbrandsdalen valley in Eastern Norway lies in a region where annual precipitation is generally low (down to 300 mm/year). The landslide activity has consequently historically been low, although the lower part of the valley sides generally is draped with thick layers of Quaternary deposits, primarily of glacial or glaciofluvial origin. The perception of natural hazards in the valley was previously primarily connected to flooding in the main river in the valley bottom during early summer, due to large discharges resulting from snowmelt in the mountainous regions west and east of the valley. However, several high-intensity events have changed the image of the region. Starting with a localized, but intense, landslide event in the Northern part of the valley in year 2008, two larger events covering almost the entire valley occurred in the years 2011 and 2013. A high number of landslides was triggered in all these events, including many flash floods and debris flows/debris slides in small and steep tributary rivers along the valley slopes. Landslide triggering covers different release mechanisms: In 2008, landslides were triggered without precipitation in not-frozen soil deposits without snow cover in the lower part of the valley. Groundwater flow through the permeable bedrock ("Otta schist") resulting from snow-melt in the elevated mountainous areas caused landslide triggering due to positive pore-water pressures forming at the bedrock surface below soil deposits, or at depressions in the terrain. Subsequent rainfall resulted in even more landslides being released. In later events (years 2011 and 2013) many landslides were caused by surface water taking new paths downslope, often due to man-made changes in existing waterways (typically poorly planned drainage solutions or new roads). Relatively small discharges in slopes with unconsolidated and easily erodible glacial deposits (typically lateral moraine) in many cases lead to small initial slides that down

  16. Rift Valley fever potential mosquito vectors and their infection status ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne viral zoonotic disease. Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) has been isolated from more than 40 species of mosquitoes from eight genera. This study was conducted to determine the abundance of potential mosquito vectors and their RVFV infection status in Ngorongoro ...

  17. Hydrogeologic Framework and Ground Water in Basin-Fill Deposits of the Diamond Valley Flow System, Central Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumbusch, Mary L.; Plume, Russell W.

    2006-01-01

    The Diamond Valley flow system, an area of about 3,120 square miles in central Nevada, consists of five hydrographic areas: Monitor, Antelope, Kobeh, and Diamond Valleys and Stevens Basin. Although these five areas are in a remote part of Nevada, local government officials and citizens are concerned that the water resources of the flow system eventually could be further developed for irrigation or mining purposes or potentially for municipal use outside the study area. In order to better understand the flow system, the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with Eureka, Lander, and Nye Counties and the Nevada Division of Water Resources, is conducting a multi-phase study of the flow system. The principal aquifers of the Diamond Valley flow system are in basin-fill deposits that occupy structural basins comprised of carbonate rocks, siliciclastic sedimentary rocks, igneous intrusive rocks, and volcanic rocks. Carbonate rocks also function as aquifers, but their extent and interconnections with basin-fill aquifers are poorly understood. Ground-water flow in southern Monitor Valley is from the valley margins toward the valley axis and then northward to a large area of discharge by evapotranspiration (ET) that is formed south of a group of unnamed hills near the center of the valley. Ground-water flow from northern Monitor Valley, Antelope Valley, and northern and western parts of Kobeh Valley converges to an area of ground-water discharge by ET in central and eastern Kobeh Valley. Prior to irrigation development in the 1960s, ground-water flow in Diamond Valley was from valley margins toward the valley axis and then northward to a large discharge area at the north end of the valley. Stevens Basin is a small upland basin with internal drainage and is not connected with other parts of the flow system. After 40 years of irrigation pumping, a large area of ground-water decline has developed in southern Diamond Valley around the irrigated area. In this part of Diamond

  18. Groundwater budgets for Detrital, Hualapai, and Sacramento Valleys, Mohave County, Arizona, 2007-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Bradley D.; Truini, Margot

    2011-01-01

    The United States Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Arizona Department of Water Resources, initiated an investigation of the hydrogeology and water resources of Detrital, Hualapai, and Sacramento Valleys in northwestern Arizona in 2005, and this report is part of that investigation. Water budgets were developed for Detrital, Hualapai, and Sacramento Valleys to provide a generalized understanding of the groundwater systems in this rural area that has shown some evidence of human-induced water-level declines. The valleys are within the Basin and Range physiographic province and consist of thick sequences of permeable alluvial sediment deposited into basins bounded by relatively less permeable igneous and metamorphic rocks. Long-term natural recharge rates (1940-2008) for the alluvial aquifers were estimated to be 1,400 acre-feet per year (acre-ft/yr) for Detrital Valley, 5,700 acre-ft/yr for Hualapai Valley, and 6,000 acre-ft/yr for Sacramento Valley. Natural discharge rates were assumed to be equal to natural recharge rates, on the basis of the assumption that all groundwater withdrawals to date have obtained water from groundwater storage. Groundwater withdrawals (2007-08) for the alluvial aquifers were less than 300 acre-ft/yr for Detrital Valley, about 9,800 acre-ft/yr for Hualapai Valley, and about 4,500 acre-ft/yr for Sacramento Valley. Incidental recharge from leaking water-supply pipes, septic systems, and wastewater-treatment plants accounted for about 35 percent of total recharge (2007-08) across the study area. Natural recharge and discharge values in this study were 24-50 percent higher than values in most previously published studies. Water budgets present a spatially and temporally "lumped" view of water resources and incorporate many sources of uncertainty in this study area where only limited data presently are available.

  19. Diurnal cycle of air pollution in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal: 2. Modeling results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panday, Arnico K.; Prinn, Ronald G.; SchäR, Christoph

    2009-11-01

    After completing a 9-month field experiment studying air pollution and meteorology in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal, we set up the mesoscale meteorological model MM5 to simulate the Kathmandu Valley's meteorology with a horizontal resolution of up to 1 km. After testing the model against available data, we used it to address specific questions to understand the factors that control the observed diurnal cycle of air pollution in this urban basin in the Himalayas. We studied the dynamics of the basin's nocturnal cold air pool, its dissipation in the morning, and the subsequent growth and decay of the mixed layer over the valley. During mornings, we found behavior common to large basins, with upslope flows and basin-center subsidence removing the nocturnal cold air pool. During afternoons the circulation in the Kathmandu Valley exhibited patterns common to plateaus, with cooler denser air originating over lower regions west of Kathmandu arriving through mountain passes and spreading across the basin floor, thereby reducing the mixed layer depth. We also examined the pathways of pollutant ventilation out of the valley. The bulk of the pollution ventilation takes place during the afternoon, when strong westerly winds blow in through the western passes of the valley, and the pollutants are rapidly carried out through passes on the east and south sides of the valley. In the evening, pollutants first accumulate near the surface, but then are lifted slightly when katabatic flows converge underneath. The elevated polluted layers are mixed back down in the morning, contributing to the morning pollution peak. Later in the morning a fraction of the valley's pollutants travels up the slopes of the valley rim mountains before the westerly winds begin.

  20. PROFILE OF SOCIAL SERVICES FROM JIU VALLEY IN LIGHT PROFESSIONALS PERCEPTION. QUALITATIVE APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FELICIA ANDRIONI

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyse Jiu Valley social services profile using a qualitative perspective – focus grup analysis, by investigating perceptions of social services professionals from Jiu Valley, Hunedoara County, Romania. The qualitative methods of investigation, particularly important in achieving a comprehensive profile of social services from the Jiu Valley was to achieve a focused discussion sessions on social services. The following objectives were targeted by focus group: analysis of social professionals’ perception on social services from the Jiu Valley, Hunedoara County and identifying internal and external factors, to put their mark on the functioning of social services. Upon completion of discussions session focusing on social services in the Jiu Valley to conclude on the following aspects: social professionals perceive favorable development of social services in the Jiu Valley region in the period 2002-2008, and considering the dynamic development of these services is progressive. There are a number of elements which are seen by professionals as catalysts for the proper functioning and development of social services and factors inhibiting or blocking the functioning of these services.

  1. West Valley facility spent fuel handling, storage, and shipping experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, W.J.

    1990-11-01

    The result of a study on handling and shipping experience with spent fuel are described in this report. The study was performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and was jointly sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The purpose of the study was to document the experience with handling and shipping of relatively old light-water reactor (LWR) fuel that has been in pool storage at the West Valley facility, which is at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center at West Valley, New York and operated by DOE. A subject of particular interest in the study was the behavior of corrosion product deposits (i.e., crud) deposits on spent LWR fuel after long-term pool storage; some evidence of crud loosening has been observed with fuel that was stored for extended periods at the West Valley facility and at other sites. Conclusions associated with the experience to date with old spent fuel that has been stored at the West Valley facility are presented. The conclusions are drawn from these subject areas: a general overview of the West Valley experience, handling of spent fuel, storing of spent fuel, rod consolidation, shipping of spent fuel, crud loosening, and visual inspection. A list of recommendations is provided. 61 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs

  2. Geomorphic controls on Pleistocene knickpoint migration in Alpine valleys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leith, Kerry; Fox, Matt; Moore, Jeffrey R.; Brosda, Julian; Krautblatter, Michael; Loew, Simon

    2014-05-01

    Recent insights into sub-glacial bedrock stress conditions suggest that the erosional efficiency of glaciers may reduce markedly following a major erosional cycle [Leith et al., 2013]. This implies that the formation of large glacial valleys within the Alps is likely to have occurred shortly after the onset of 100 ky glacial-interglacial cycles (at the mid-Pleistocene Revolution (MPR)). The majority of landscape change since this time may have therefore been driven by sub-aerial processes. This hypothesis is supported by observations of hillslope and channel morphology within Canton Valais (Switzerland), where major tributary valleys display a common morphology along their length, hinting at a shared geomorphic history. Glaciers currently occupy the headwaters of many catchments, while the upper reaches of rivers flow across extensive alluvial planes before abruptly transitioning to steep channels consisting of mixed bedrock and talus fan deposits. The rivers then converge to flow out over the alluvial plane of the Rhone Valley. Characteristically rough topographies within the region are suggested to mark the progressive transition from a glacial to fluvially-dominated landscape, and correlate well with steepened river channel sections determined from a 2.5 m resolution LiDAR DEM. We envisage a landscape in which ongoing tectonic uplift drives the emergence of Alpine bedrock through massive sedimentary valley infills (currently concentrated in the Rhone Valley), whose elevation is fixed by the consistent fluvial baselevel at Lake Geneva. As fluvial incision ceases at the onset of glaciation, continued uplift causes the formation of knickpoints at the former transition from bedrock to sedimentary infill. These knickpoints will then propagate upstream during subsequent interglacial periods. By investigating channel morphologies using an approach based on the steady-state form of the stream power equation, we can correlate steepened channel reaches (degraded

  3. Rod consolidation at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, W.J.

    1986-12-01

    A rod consolidation demonstration with irradiated pressurized water reactor fuel was recently conducted by personnel from Nuclear Assurance Corporation and West Valley Nuclear Services Company at the West Valley Demonstration Project in West Valley, New York. The rod consolidation demonstration involved pulling all of the fuel rods from six fuel Assemblies. In general, the rod pulling proceeded smoothly. The highest compaction ratio attained was 1:8:1. Among the total of 1074 fuel rods were some known degraded rods (they had collapsed cladding, a result of in-reactor fuel densification), but no rods were broken or dropped during the demonstration. One aim was to gather information on the effect of rod consolidation operations on the integrity of the fuel rods during subsequent handling and storage. Another goal was to collect information on the condition and handling of intact, damaged, and failed fuel that has been in storage for an extended period. 9 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  4. Salinity and resource management in the Hunter Valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creelman, R.A.; Cooke, R.; Simons, M. [RA Creelman & Associates (Australia)

    1995-08-01

    If excess water salinity is to be managed in the Hunter Valley, its causes and behaviour must be understood. Although Hunter Valley hydrology, hydrogeology and hydrogeochemistry require further study, there is now enough information available to begin the development of both temporal and spatial models as valley management tools. Currently the Department of Water Resources is developing a model known as Integrated Water Quality and Quantity Model (IQQM). IQQM which includes a salinity module is essentially a surface water simulation model. It wll enable testing of alternate management and operation policies such as the salinity property rights trading scheme recently introduced by the EPA to manage salt release from coal mines and power stations. An overview is presented of the progress made to date on the salinity module for IQQM, and an outline is given of the geological and hydrogeochemical concepts that have been assembled to support the salinity module of IQQM. 17 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Geomorphological and geological property of short active fault in fore-arc region of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Toshinori; Inoue, Daiei; Ueta, Keiichi; Miyakoshi, Katsuyoshi

    2009-01-01

    The important issue in the earthquake magnitude evaluation method is the classification of short active faults or lineaments. It is necessary to determine the type of active fault to be included in the earthquake magnitude evaluation. The particular group of fault is the surface earthquake faults that are presumed to be branched faults of large interplate earthquakes in subduction zones. We have classified short lineaments in two fore-arc regions of Japan through geological and geomorphological methods based on field survey and aerial photograph interpretation. The first survey is conducted at Enmeiji Fault in Boso Peninsula. The fault is known to have been displaced by 1923 Taisho Kanto earthquake. The altitude distributions of marine terrace surfaces are different on both sides of the fault. In other words, this fault has been displaced repeatedly by the large interplate earthquakes in the past. However, the recurrent interval of this fault is far longer than the large interplate earthquake calculated by the slip rate and the displacement per event. The second survey is conducted in the western side of Muroto Peninsula, where several short lineaments are distributed. We have found several fault outcrops along the few, particular lineaments. The faults in the region have similar properties to Enmeiji Fault. On the other hand, short lineaments are found to be structural landforms. The comparison of the two groups enables us to classify the short lineaments based on the geomorphological property and geological cause of these faults. Displacement per event is far larger than displacement deduced from length of the active fault. Recurrence interval of the short active fault is far longer than that of large interplate earthquake. Displacement of the short active fault has cumulative. The earthquake magnitude of the faults have these characters need to be evaluated by the plate boundary fault or the long branched seismogenic fault. (author)

  6. The Uncanny Valley and Nonverbal Communication in Virtual Characters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tinwell, Angela; Grimshaw, Mark Nicholas; Abdel Nabi, Debbie

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of a current research project investigating the Uncanny Valley phenomenon in realistic, human-like virtual characters. !e research methods used in this Work include a retrospective of both empirical studies and philosophical writings on the Uncanny. No other...... research has explored the notion that realistic, human-like, virtual characters are regarded less favorably due to a perceived diminished degree of responsiveness in facial expression, specifically, nonverbal communication (NVC) in the upper face region. So far, this research project has provided the first...... empirical evidence to test the Uncanny Valley phenomenon in the domain of animated video game characters with speech, as opposed to just still, unresponsive images, as used in previous studies. Based on the results of these experiments, a conceptual framework of the Uncanny Valley in virtual characters has...

  7. Generation of valley-polarized electron beam in bilayer graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Changsoo

    2015-01-01

    We propose a method to produce valley-polarized electron beams using a bilayer graphene npn junction. By analyzing the transmission properties of electrons through the junction with zigzag interface in the presence of trigonal warping, we observe that there exist a range of incident energies and barrier heights in which transmitted electrons are well polarized and collimated. From this observation and by performing numerical simulations, it is demonstrated that valley-dependent electronic currents with nearly perfect polarization can be generated. We also show that the peak-to-peak separation angle between the polarized currents is tunable either by incident energy or by barrier height each of which is controlled by using top and back gate voltages. The results can be used for constructing an electron beam splitter to produce valley-polarized currents

  8. Generation of valley-polarized electron beam in bilayer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Changsoo

    2015-12-01

    We propose a method to produce valley-polarized electron beams using a bilayer graphene npn junction. By analyzing the transmission properties of electrons through the junction with zigzag interface in the presence of trigonal warping, we observe that there exist a range of incident energies and barrier heights in which transmitted electrons are well polarized and collimated. From this observation and by performing numerical simulations, it is demonstrated that valley-dependent electronic currents with nearly perfect polarization can be generated. We also show that the peak-to-peak separation angle between the polarized currents is tunable either by incident energy or by barrier height each of which is controlled by using top and back gate voltages. The results can be used for constructing an electron beam splitter to produce valley-polarized currents.

  9. Vertical ozone transport in the Alps (VOTALP): the valley experiment 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furger, M; Dommen, J; Graber, W K; Prevot, A; Poggio, L; Andreani, S; Keller, J; Portmann, W; Buerki, D; Erne, R; Richter, R; Tinguely, M [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    The EU project VOTALP started its valley campaign in the summer of 1996 in the Mesolcina valley. The influence of thermal circulations on ozone concentrations and on the exchange of ozone and its photochemical precursors between the valley atmosphere and the free troposphere above was the main focus of the study. PSI has participated with various measurement systems (conventional meteorological surface stations, radiosondes, scidar/DOAS systems, chemical analysers). An overview of PSI`s activities in the field campaign is given, and some preliminary results are presented. (author) 1 fig., 2 tabs., 2 refs.

  10. 75 FR 70020 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ... office on Central Valley Project water conservation best management practices that shall ``* * * develop... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior ACTION: Notice of Availability. SUMMARY: The...

  11. 76 FR 12756 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    ... office on Central Valley Project water conservation best management practices that shall ``* * * develop... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The...

  12. 77 FR 64544 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ... Central Valley Project water conservation best management practices that shall ``develop criteria for... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The...

  13. 76 FR 18542 - Copper Valley Electric Association; Notice of Scoping Document 2 and Soliciting Scoping Comments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 13124-002] Copper Valley.... Applicant: Copper Valley Electric Association (Copper Valley) d. Name of Project: Allison Creek Project. e.... 791(a)-825(r). g. Applicant Contact: Robert A. Wilkinson, CEO, Copper Valley Electric Association, P.O...

  14. Electronic properties in a two-dimensional disordered electron liquid: Spin-valley interplay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burmistrov, I. S.; Chtchelkatchev, N. M.

    2008-01-01

    We report a detailed study of the influence of the spin and valley splittings on such physical observables of the two-dimensional disordered electron liquid as resistivity and spin and valley susceptibilities. We explain qualitatively the nonmonotonic dependence of the resistivity on temperature in the presence of a parallel magnetic field. In the presence of either spin or valley splitting we predict a temperature dependence of the resistivity with two maximum points

  15. Superior Valley Polarization and Coherence of 2s Excitons in Monolayer WSe_{2}.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Yu; Goldstein, Thomas; Tong, Jiayue; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Yan, Jun

    2018-01-26

    We report the experimental observation of 2s exciton radiative emission from monolayer tungsten diselenide, enabled by hexagonal boron nitride protected high-quality samples. The 2s luminescence is highly robust and persists up to 150 K, offering a new quantum entity for manipulating the valley degree of freedom. Remarkably, the 2s exciton displays superior valley polarization and coherence than 1s under similar experimental conditions. This observation provides evidence that the Coulomb-exchange-interaction-driven valley-depolarization process, the Maialle-Silva-Sham mechanism, plays an important role in valley excitons of monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides.

  16. Superior Valley Polarization and Coherence of 2 s Excitons in Monolayer WSe2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Yu; Goldstein, Thomas; Tong, Jiayue; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Yan, Jun

    2018-01-01

    We report the experimental observation of 2 s exciton radiative emission from monolayer tungsten diselenide, enabled by hexagonal boron nitride protected high-quality samples. The 2 s luminescence is highly robust and persists up to 150 K, offering a new quantum entity for manipulating the valley degree of freedom. Remarkably, the 2 s exciton displays superior valley polarization and coherence than 1 s under similar experimental conditions. This observation provides evidence that the Coulomb-exchange-interaction-driven valley-depolarization process, the Maialle-Silva-Sham mechanism, plays an important role in valley excitons of monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides.

  17. 78 FR 21414 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The following Water Management Plans are available for review... establish and administer an office on Central Valley Project water conservation best management practices...

  18. 76 FR 54251 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... and administer an office on Central Valley Project water conservation best management practices that... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The...

  19. 75 FR 38538 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... to establish and administer an office on Central Valley Project water conservation best management... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The...

  20. Virgin Valley opal district, Humboldt County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staatz, Mortimer Hay; Bauer, Herman L.

    1951-01-01

    The Virgin Valley opal district, Humboldt County, Nevada, is near the Oregon-Nevada border in the Sheldon Game Refuge. Nineteen claims owned by Jack and Toni Crane were examined, sampled, and tested radiometrically for uranium. Numerous discontinuous layers of opal are interbedded with a gently-dipping series of vitric tuff and ash which is at least 300 ft thick. The tuff and ash are capped by a dark, vesicular basalt in the eastern part of the area and by a thin layer of terrace qravels in the area along the west side of Virgin Valley. Silicification of the ash and tuff has produced a rock that ranges from partly opalized rock that resembles silicified shale to completely altered rock that is entirely translucent, and consists of massive, brown and pale-green opal. Carnotite, the only identified uranium mineral, occurs as fracture coatings or fine layers in the opal; in places, no uranium minerals are visible in the radioactive opal. The opal layers are irregular in extent and thickness. The exposed length of the layers ranges from 8 to 1, 200 ft or more, and the thickness of the layers ranges from 0. 1 to 3. 9 ft. The uranium content of each opal layer, and of different parts of the same layer, differs widely. On the east side of Virgin Valley four of the seven observed opal layers, nos. 3, 4, 5, and 7, are more radioactive than the average; and the uranium content ranges from 0. 002 to 0. 12 percent. Two samples, taken 5 ft apart across opal layer no. 7, contained 0. 003 and 0. -049 percent uranium. On the west side of the valley only four of the fifteen observed opal layers, nos; 9, , 10, 14, and 15, are more radioactive than the average; and the uranium content ranges from 0. 004 to 0. 047 percent. Material of the highest grade was found in a small discontinuous layer of pale-green opal (no. 4) on the east side of Virgin Valley. The grade of this layer ranged from 0. 027 to 0. 12 percent uranium.

  1. 77 FR 42722 - Copper Valley Electric Association; Notice of Updated Environmental Analysis Preparation Schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 13124-002] Copper Valley...: Original License Application. b. Project No.: 13124-002. c. Applicant: Copper Valley Electric Association (Copper Valley). d. Name of Project: Allison Creek Project. e. Location: On the south side of Port Valdez...

  2. Velocity barrier-controlled of spin-valley polarized transport in monolayer WSe2 junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xuejun; Lv, Qiang; Cao, Zhenzhou

    2018-05-01

    In this work, we have theoretically investigated the influence of velocity barrier on the spin-valley polarized transport in monolayer (ML) WSe2 junction with a large spin-orbit coupling (SOC). Both the spin-valley resolved transmission probabilities and conductance are strong dependent on the velocity barrier, as the velocity barrier decreases to 0.06, a spin-valley polarization of exceeding 90% is observed, which is distinct from the ML MoS2 owing to incommensurable SOC. In addition, the spin-valley polarization is further increased above 95% in a ML WSe2 superlattice, in particular, it's found many extraordinary velocity barrier-dependent transport gaps for multiple barrier due to evanescent tunneling. Our results may open an avenue for the velocity barrier-controlled high-efficiency spin and valley polarizations in ML WSe2-based electronic devices.

  3. Aerial photographic interpretation of lineaments and faults in late Cenozoic deposits in the eastern parts of the Saline Valley 1:100, 000 quadrangle, Nevada and California, and the Darwin Hills 1:100, 000 quadrangle, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reheis, M.C.

    1991-01-01

    Faults and fault-related lineaments in Quaternary and late Tertiary deposits in the southern part of the Walker Lane are potentially active and form patterns that are anomalous compared to those in most other areas of the Great Basin. Two maps at a scale of 1:100,000 summarize information about lineaments and faults in the area around and southwest of the Death Valley-Furnace Creek fault system based on extensive aerial-photo interpretation, limited field interpretation, limited field investigations, and published geologic maps. There are three major fault zones and two principal faults in the Saline Valley and Darwin Hills 1:100,000 quadrangles. (1) The Death Valley-Furnace Creek fault system and (2) the Hunter Mountain fault zone are northwest-trending right-lateral strike-slip fault zones. (3) The Panamint Valley fault zone and associated Towne Pass and Emigrant faults are north-trending normal faults. The intersection of the Hunter Mountain and Panamint Valley fault zones is marked by a large complex of faults and lineaments on the floor of Panamint Valley. Additional major faults include (4) the north-northwest-trending Ash Hill fault on the west side of Panamint Valley, and (5) the north-trending range-front Tin Mountain fault on the west side of the northern Cottonwood Mountains. The most active faults at present include those along the Death Valley-Furnace Creek fault system, the Tin Mountain fault, the northwest and southeast ends of the Hunter Mountain fault zone, the Ash Hill fault, and the fault bounding the west side of the Panamint Range south of Hall Canyon. Several large Quaternary landslides on the west sides of the Cottonwood Mountains and the Panamint Range apparently reflect slope instability due chiefly to rapid uplift of these ranges. 16 refs

  4. Ground water in Dale Valley, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Allan D.

    1979-01-01

    Dale Valley is a broad valley segment, enlarged by glacial erosion, at the headwaters of Little Tonawanda Creek near Warsaw , New York. A thin, shallow alluvial aquifer immediately underlies the valley floor but is little used. A deeper gravel aquifer, buried beneath many feet of lake deposits, is tapped by several industrial wells. A finite-difference digital model treated the deep aquifer as two-dimensional with recharge and discharge through a confining layer. It was calibrated by simulating (1) natural conditions, (2) an 18-day aquifer test, and (3) 91 days of well-field operation. Streamflow records and model simulations suggest that in moderately wet years such as 1974, a demand of 750 gallons per minute could be met by withdrawal from the creek and from the aquifer without excessive drawdown at production wells or existing domestic wells. With reasonable but unverified model adjustments to simulate an unusually dry year, the model predicts that a demand of 600 gallons per minute could be met from the same sources. Water high in chloride has migrated from bedrock into parts of the deep aquifer. Industrial pumpage, faults in the bedrock, and the natural flow system may be responsible. (Woodard-USGS)

  5. Increased body mass of ducks wintering in California's Central Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleskes, Joseph P.; Yee, Julie L.; Yarris, Gregory S.; Loughman, Daniel L.

    2016-01-01

    Waterfowl managers lack the information needed to fully evaluate the biological effects of their habitat conservation programs. We studied body condition of dabbling ducks shot by hunters at public hunting areas throughout the Central Valley of California during 2006–2008 compared with condition of ducks from 1979 to 1993. These time periods coincide with habitat increases due to Central Valley Joint Venture conservation programs and changing agricultural practices; we modeled to ascertain whether body condition differed among waterfowl during these periods. Three dataset comparisons indicate that dabbling duck body mass was greater in 2006–2008 than earlier years and the increase was greater in the Sacramento Valley and Suisun Marsh than in the San Joaquin Valley, differed among species (mallard [Anas platyrhynchos], northern pintail [Anas acuta], America wigeon [Anas americana], green-winged teal [Anas crecca], and northern shoveler [Anas clypeata]), and was greater in ducks harvested late in the season. Change in body mass also varied by age–sex cohort and month for all 5 species and by September–January rainfall for all except green-winged teal. The random effect of year nested in period, and sometimes interacting with other factors, improved models in many cases. Results indicate that improved habitat conditions in the Central Valley have resulted in increased winter body mass of dabbling ducks, especially those that feed primarily on seeds, and this increase was greater in regions where area of post-harvest flooding of rice and other crops, and wetland area, has increased. Conservation programs that continue to promote post-harvest flooding and other agricultural practices that benefit wintering waterfowl and continue to restore and conserve wetlands would likely help maintain body condition of wintering dabbling ducks in the Central Valley of California.

  6. Meie mees Silicon Valleys / Kertu Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Kertu, 1977-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 5. dets. lk. 4. Peaminister Andrus Ansip avas Eesti Ettevõtluse Sihtasutuse esinduse Silicon Valley pealinnas San Joses. Vt. samas: Ränioru kliima on tehnoloogiasõbralik; Andrus Viirg

  7. Coupled simulation of meteorological parameters and sound intensity in a narrow valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heimann, D. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere; Gross, G. [Hannover Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Meteorologie und Klimatologie

    1997-07-01

    A meteorological mesoscale model is used to simulate the inhomogeneous distribution of temperature and the appertaining development of thermal wind systems in a narrow two-dimensional valley during the course of a cloud-free day. A simple sound particle model takes up the simulated meteorological fields and calculates the propagation of noise which originates from a line source at one of the slopes of this valley. The coupled modeling system ensures consistency of topography, meteorological parameters and the sound field. The temporal behaviour of the sound intensity level across the valley is examined. It is only governed by the time-dependent meteorology. The results show remarkable variations of the sound intensity during the course of a day depending on the location in the valley. (orig.) 23 refs.

  8. Transport of particle pollution into the Maipo Valley: winter 2015 campaign results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huneeus, Nicolás; Mazzeo, Andrea; Ordóñez, César; Donoso, Nicolás; Gallardo, Laura; Molina, Luisa; Moreno, Valeria; Muñoz, Ricardo; Orfanoz, Andrea; Vizcarra, Aldo

    2016-04-01

    Each winter, Santiago (33° 27'S, 70° 40'W) the capital of Chile with a population of about 7 million people, experiences episodes with particulate matter (PM) concentrations larger than allowed by Chilean environmental regulations. Transport and residential heating largely dominate emissions prior to and during these episodes. Important impact of black carbon (BC) on the cryosphere has been documented in other parts of the world associated with urban pollution. In order to explore if BC from Santiago has the potential to reach the Andean cryosphere during the aforementioned episodes, a one week-long campaign was conducted in Santiago and the Maipo Valley between 18th and 25th of July 2015 when the air quality conditions of the city reached twice the critical levels (pre-emergency in Chilean regulations). Measurements were carried out at three sites: downtown Santiago, the entrance of the valley (and outskirts of Santiago) and 12 km inside the Maipo Valley. At each of these sites both surface and vertically distributed measurements were conducted. A meteorological station measuring standard meteorological parameters and an E-Sampler measuring PM10 concentrations were installed at each site. In addition, a tethered balloon equipped with a sonde and a mini-aethalometer was used in each site to measure vertical profiles of standard meteorological parameters and BC concentrations, respectively. The tethered balloon was raised every three hours up to a maximum of 1000 meters above ground level, whenever meteorological conditions allowed. In general, the BC concentrations inside the valley, both at the surface and in the vertical, were dominated by emissions within the valley and BC was limited to shallow layers above the ground. However, on both days with critical air quality levels, winds blowing from the city and deeper BC layers were observed inside the valley. Furthermore, during these days observations at the entrance of the valley and those taken inside were

  9. 40 CFR 81.90 - Androscoggin Valley Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.90 Section 81.90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.90 Androscoggin Valley Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Androscoggin Valley Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Maine-New Hampshire) consists of the territorial...

  10. Fully Valley/spin polarized current and Fano factor through the Graphene/ferromagnetic silicene/Graphene junction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashidian, Zeinab; Rezaeipour, Saeid [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Lorestan University, Lorestan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hajati, Yaser [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Lorestaniweiss, Zeinab, E-mail: rashidian1983z@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Lorestan University, Lorestan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ueda, Akiko [Faculty of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2017-02-15

    In this work, we study the transport properties of Dirac fermions through the ferromagnetic silicene which is sandwiched between the Graphene leads (G/FS/G). Spin/valley conductance, spin/valley polarization, and also Fano factor are theoretically calculated using the Landauer-Buttiker formula. We find that the fully valley and spin polarized currents through the G/FS/G junction can be obtained by increasing the electric field strength and the length of ferromagnetic silicene region. Moreover, the valley polarization can be tuned from negative to positive values by changing the electric field. We find that the Fano factor also changes with the spin and valley polarization. Our findings of high controllability of the spin and valley transport in such a G/FS/G junction the potential of this junction for spin-valleytronics applications.

  11. Vegetation - San Felipe Valley [ds172

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This Vegetation Map of the San Felipe Valley Wildlife Area in San Diego County, California is based on vegetation samples collected in the field in 2002 and 2005 and...

  12. Esophageal cancer in north rift valley of western Kenya | Wakhisi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esophageal cancer in north rift valley of western Kenya. ... Our finding also contrast with an earlier reported study that indicated that Rift Valley is a low prevalence area for this type of cancer. The mean age ... This may lead to identification of molecular biomarkers to be used in future for the early detection of this neoplasm.

  13. Ethno-botanical study of medicinal plants of Paddar Valley of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Paddar Valley, historically known as Sapphire Valley situated in Kishtwar district, is a prime landmark in the Jammu region of J&K state and is known for its rich cultural and plant diversity because of diverse habitats such as rivers, streams, meadows and steep mountain slopes. The area is located in the dry temperate ...

  14. Evidence for strong Holocene earthquake(s) in the Wabash Valley seismic zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obermeier, S.

    1991-01-01

    Many small and slightly damaging earthquakes have taken place in the region of the lower Wabash River Valley of Indiana and Illinois during the 200 years of historic record. Seismologists have long suspected the Wabash Valley seismic zone to be capable of producing earthquakes much stronger than the largest of record (m b 5.8). The seismic zone contains the poorly defined Wabash Valley fault zone and also appears to contain other vaguely defined faults at depths from which the strongest earthquakes presently originate. Faults near the surface are generally covered with thick alluvium in lowlands and a veneer of loess in uplands, which make direct observations of faults difficult. Partly because of this difficulty, a search for paleoliquefaction features was begun in 1990. Conclusions of the study are as follows: (1) an earthquake much stronger than any historic earthquake struck the lower Wabash Valley between 1,500 and 7,500 years ago; (2) the epicentral region of the prehistoric strong earthquake was the Wabash Valley seismic zone; (3) apparent sites have been located where 1811-12 earthquake accelerations can be bracketed

  15. Geochemistry of the Bonin Fore-arc Volcanic Sequence: Results from IODP Expedition 352

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godard, M.; Ryan, J. G.; Shervais, J. W.; Whattam, S. A.; Sakuyama, T.; Kirchenbaur, M.; Li, H.; Nelson, W. R.; Prytulak, J.; Pearce, J. A.; Reagan, M. K.

    2015-12-01

    The Izu-Bonin-Mariana intraoceanic arc system, in the western Pacific, results from ~52 My of subduction of the Pacific plate beneath the eastern margin of the Philippine Sea plate. Four sites were drilled south of the Bonin Islands during IODP Expedition 352 and 1.22 km of igneous basement was cored upslope to the west of the trough. These stratigraphically controlled igneous suites allow study of the earliest stages of arc development from seafloor spreading to convergence. We present the preliminary results of a detailed major and trace element (ICPMS) study on 128 igneous rocks drilled during Expedition 352. Mainly basalts and basaltic andesites were recovered at the two deeper water sites (U1440 and U1441) and boninites at the two westernmost sites (U1439 and U1442). Sites U1440 and U1441 basaltic suites are trace element depleted (e.g. Yb 4-6 x PM); they have fractionated REE patterns (LREE/HREE = 0.2-0.4 x C1-chondrites) compared to mid-ocean ridge basalts. They have compositions overlapping that of previously sampled Fore-Arc Basalts (FAB) series. They are characterized also by an increase in LILE contents relative to neighboring elements up-section (e.g. Rb/La ranging from <1 to 3-7 x PM at Site U1440) suggesting a progressive contamination of their source by fluids. This process in turn may have favored melting and efficient melt extraction from the source and thus its extreme depletion. Boninites are depleted in moderately incompatible elements with a decrease in their contents up-section (e.g. Yb = ~6.2 to 2.8 x C1-chondrite at Site U1439). These changes in trace element contents are associated with the development of a positive Zr-Hf anomaly relative to neighboring elements and a strong increase in LILE (e.g., Zr/Sm=~1 to 2.6 x PM and Rb/La=1-2 to 10-18). The progressive upward depletion of boninitic lavas could reveal the incorporation of harzburgitic residues from FAB generation into their mantle source.

  16. Aburra Valley: Quo vadis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermelin, Michel

    2008-01-01

    These paper intents a brief description of the evolution that characterised natural risk prevention in the area surrounding the city of Medellin, Colombia, called the Aburra Valley. Both the lithological and structural composition of the Valle and its topographic and climatic conditions contribute to the abundance of destructive natural phenomena as earthquakes, slope movements, flash floods and, in a lower proportion, to floods. The population increase, which reaches now 3.5 millions inhabitants and the frequent occupation of sites exposed to natural hazards have resulted in numerous disasters. At present two entities called SIMPAD and DAPARD work on risk prevention, on city and department scale respectively. The amount of knowledge about physical environment is considered to be insufficient, together with regulations which should direct land use in accordance to restrictions related to natural hazards. Several seminars on this topic have already been carried out and the organisers of the present one, destined to commemorate the twentieth anniversary of the Villatina disaster, should make the decision to meet each two years. Furthermore, the creation of a permanent commission dedicated to study past events, to foster information broadcasting and to seek a better knowledge of the Aburra Valley, should be considered

  17. Electron spin resonance and spin-valley physics in a silicon double quantum dot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xiaojie; Ruskov, Rusko; Xiao, Ming; Tahan, Charles; Jiang, HongWen

    2014-05-14

    Silicon quantum dots are a leading approach for solid-state quantum bits. However, developing this technology is complicated by the multi-valley nature of silicon. Here we observe transport of individual electrons in a silicon CMOS-based double quantum dot under electron spin resonance. An anticrossing of the driven dot energy levels is observed when the Zeeman and valley splittings coincide. A detected anticrossing splitting of 60 MHz is interpreted as a direct measure of spin and valley mixing, facilitated by spin-orbit interaction in the presence of non-ideal interfaces. A lower bound of spin dephasing time of 63 ns is extracted. We also describe a possible experimental evidence of an unconventional spin-valley blockade, despite the assumption of non-ideal interfaces. This understanding of silicon spin-valley physics should enable better control and read-out techniques for the spin qubits in an all CMOS silicon approach.

  18. Cleanup criteria for the West Valley demonstration project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parrott, J.D.

    1999-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is prescribing decontamination and decommissioning (cleanup) criteria for the West Valley Demonstration Project and the West Valley, New York, site. The site is contaminated with various forms of residual radioactive contamination and contains a wide variety of radioactive waste. The NRC is planning to issue cleanup criteria for public comment in Fall 1999. Due to the complexity of the site, and the newness of NRC's cleanup criteria policy, applying NRC's cleanup criteria to this site will be an original regulatory undertaking. (author)

  19. Spin- and valley-polarized one-way Klein tunneling in photonic topological insulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Xiang; Purtseladze, David; Smirnova, Daria A; Slobozhanyuk, Alexey; Alù, Andrea; Khanikaev, Alexander B

    2018-05-01

    Recent advances in condensed matter physics have shown that the spin degree of freedom of electrons can be efficiently exploited in the emergent field of spintronics, offering unique opportunities for efficient data transfer, computing, and storage ( 1 - 3 ). These concepts have been inspiring analogous approaches in photonics, where the manipulation of an artificially engineered pseudospin degree of freedom can be enabled by synthetic gauge fields acting on light ( 4 - 6 ). The ability to control these degrees of freedom significantly expands the landscape of available optical responses, which may revolutionize optical computing and the basic means of controlling light in photonic devices across the entire electromagnetic spectrum. We demonstrate a new class of photonic systems, described by effective Hamiltonians in which competing synthetic gauge fields, engineered in pseudospin, chirality/sublattice, and valley subspaces, result in bandgap opening at one of the valleys, whereas the other valley exhibits Dirac-like conical dispersion. We show that this effective response has marked implications on photon transport, among which are as follows: (i) a robust pseudospin- and valley-polarized one-way Klein tunneling and (ii) topological edge states that coexist within the Dirac continuum for opposite valley and pseudospin polarizations. These phenomena offer new ways to control light in photonics, in particular, for on-chip optical isolation, filtering, and wave-division multiplexing by selective action on their pseudospin and valley degrees of freedom.

  20. Stratigraphy and uranium deposits, Lisbon Valley district, San Juan County, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, G.C.

    1980-01-01

    Uranium occurrences are scattered throughout southeastern Utah in the lower sandstones of the Triassic Chinle Formation. The Lisbon Valley district, however, is the only area with uranium deposits of substantial size. The stratigraphy of the Lisbon Valley district was investigated to determine the nature of the relationship between the mineralized areas and the lower Chinle sandstones. The geochemistry of the Lisbon Valley uranium deposits indicates a possible district-wide zoning. Interpretation of the elemental zoning associated with individual ore bodies suggests that humates overtaken by a geochemical oxidation-reduction interface may have led to formation of the uranium deposits. Refs

  1. Meie ingel Silicon Valleys / Raigo Neudorf

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Neudorf, Raigo

    2008-01-01

    Ettevõtluse Arendamise Sihtasutuse esinduse töölepanekust USAs Silicon Valleys räägib esinduse juht Andrus Viirg. Vt. ka: Eestlasi leidub San Franciscos omajagu; Muljetavaldav karjäär; USAga ammune tuttav

  2. Microbial terroir in Chilean valleys: Diversity of non-conventional yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla eJara

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the presence of non-conventional yeast associated with vineyards located between latitudes 30ºS and 36ºS was examined, including the valleys of Limarí, Casablanca, Maipo, Colchagua, Maule and Itata. The microbial fingerprinting in each valley was examined based on the specific quantification of yeast of enological interest. Grape berries were sampled to evaluate the presence and load of non-conventional yeast with enological potential, such as Metschnikowia, Hanseniaspora, Torulaspora, Debaryomyces, Meyerozyma and Rhodotorula. These yeasts were present in all vineyards studied but with varying loads depending on the valley sampled. No identical fingerprints were observed; however, similarities and differences could be observed among the microbial profiles of each valley. A co-variation in the loads of Metschnikowia and Hanseniaspora with latitude was observed, showing high loads in the Casablanca and Itata valleys, which was coincident with the higher relative humidity or rainfall of those areas. Non-conventional yeasts were also isolated and identified after sequencing molecular markers. Potentially good aromatic properties were also screened among the isolates, resulting in the selection of mostly Metschnikowia and Hanseniaspora isolates. Finally, our results suggest that microbial terroir might be affected by climatic conditions such as relative humidity and rainfall, especially impacting the load of non-conventional yeast. In this study, the microbial fingerprint for yeast in Chilean vineyards is reported for the first time revealing an opportunity to study the contribution of this assembly of microorganisms to the final product.

  3. Reconstruction of the MSRs in-situ at Beaver Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarden, A.; Tam, C.W.; Deahna, S.T.; McFeaters, C.V.

    1992-01-01

    The Moisture Separator Reheaters (MSRs) have been problem components at Beaver Valley 1 pressurized water reactor since the plant started up 16 years ago, many of the problems encountered being widespread in the nuclear industry. In 1991, Duquesne Light rebuilt the Beaver Valley 1 MSRs and in 1992 did the same at unit 2. The reconstruction projects have proved cost effective with short payback times and significant improvements in station performance. (Author)

  4. EPA Region 1 - Map Layers for Valley ID Tool (Hosted Feature Service)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Valley Service Feature Layer hosts spatial data for EPA Region 1's Valley Identification Tool. These layers contain attribute information added by EPA R1 GIS...

  5. Transient electromagnetic soundings in the San Luis Valley, Colorado, near the Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve and the Alamosa National Wildlife Refuge (field seasons 2007, 2009, and 2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitterman, David V.

    2017-06-13

    Transient electromagnetic (TEM) soundings were made in the San Luis Valley, Colorado, to map the location of a blue clay unit as well as to investigate the presence of suspected faults. A total of 147 soundings were made near and in Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve, and an additional 6 soundings were made near Hansen Bluff on the eastern edge of the Alamosa National Wildlife Refuge. The blue clay is a significant hydrologic feature in the area that separates an unconfined surface aquifer from a deeper confined aquifer. Knowledge of its location is important to regional hydrological models. Previous analysis of well logs has shown that the blue clay has a resistivity of 10 ohm-meters or less, which is in contrast to the higher resistivity of sand, gravel, and other clay units found in the area, making it a very good target for TEM soundings. The top of the blue clay was found to have considerable relief, suggesting the possibility of deformation of the clay during or after deposition. Because of rift activity, deformation is to be expected. Of the TEM profiles made across faults identified by aeromagnetic data, some showed resistivity variations and (or) subsurface elevation relief of resistivity units, suggestive of faulting. Such patterns were not associated with all suspected faults. The Hansen Bluff profile showed variations in resistivity and depth to conductor that coincide with a scarp between the highlands to the east and the floodplain of the Rio Grande to the west.

  6. A preliminary research of characteristic of selected frequency luminescence for debris flow in Jiangjiagou valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhaowen; Wei Mingjian; Li Dongxu; Pan Baolin; Ge Yonggang

    2009-01-01

    Four debris flow samples were separated from Nidepin, Duozhao and Dawazigou valleys in Jiangjiagou valley area, Yunnan province. They were measured with BG2003 luminescence spectrograph. The characteristic spectra of the selected frequency luminescence of samples from the different locations were obtained. The wave length of emission photons from samples of Dawazigou valley and Jiangjia valley are 300, 310, 320, 400 and 460 nm when it was using blue light (488)nm excited. When the green light (532 nm) has been used to excited, the wave length of emission photons from samples of Dawazigou valley and Duozhao valley are similar high at 310 and 320 nm. Furthermore, using the green light excited the samples from desert sand at the same lab condition; the number of absorbed photons of samples from desert sand is much higher than from debris flow. (authors)

  7. 40 CFR 81.48 - Champlain Valley Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.48 Section 81.48 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.48 Champlain Valley Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Champlain Valley Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Vermont-New York) has been revised to consist of the...

  8. Silicon Valley: Planet Startup : Disruptive Innovation, Passionate Entrepreneurship & High-tech Startups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. A. Maas; Dr. P. Ester

    2016-01-01

    For decades now, Silicon Valley has been the home of the future. It's the birthplace of the world's most successful high-tech companies-including Apple, Yahoo, Google, Facebook, Twitter, and many more. So what's the secret? What is it about Silicon Valley that fosters entrepreneurship and

  9. 78 FR 59840 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ...] Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District... of plan. * * * * * (c) * * * (428) * * * (i) * * * (B) Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...) * * * (i) * * * (B) Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District. (1) Rule 431.1, ``Sulfur Content of...

  10. 78 FR 45114 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District (AVAQMD) portion of the California State... for the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD). The Antelope Valley Air Pollution...

  11. Long Valley Caldera-Mammoth Mountain unrest: The knowns and unknowns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, David P.

    2017-01-01

    This perspective is based largely on my study of the Long Valley Caldera (California, USA) over the past 40 years. Here, I’ll examine the “knowns” and the “known unknowns” of the complex tectonic–magmatic system of the Long Valley Caldera volcanic complex. I will also offer a few brief thoughts on the “unknown unknowns” of this system.

  12. Geological and seismic evaluation of a Lower Mannville valley system; Alderson Prospect, Rolling Hills, southeastern Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkins, J.C.; Lawton, D.C.; Gunn, J.D.

    1987-09-01

    A Lower Mannville valley complex cutting into Jurassic and Mississippian strata in southeastern Alberta was identified on a conventional seismic section. The valley was drilled and a twenty metre core of muddy sandstone was recovered from the target interval. Oil staining was visible within the core but tests showed only muddy water. In contrast, thin sands adjacent to the channel tested up to 300 m/sup 3//day gas and 800 m oil. Sediments adjacent to the valley are interpreted as contemporaneous levee splay deposits of a channel that occupied the valley, whereas the muddy sandstones within the channel represent either a fine grained point bar, or an abandoned channel-fill deposit. In the latter case, coarse grained, sandy, point bar deposits can be expected to occur elsewhere in the channel system. Oil is trapped in crevasse splay deposits draped over a local Mississippian high, but not in the valley because of poor reservoir quality of the channel sandstone. The internal geometry of the valley fill cannot be resolved directly from the seismic data because of the small size of the channel. However, the geometry of reflections from sediments directly above the valley shows variation in the fill and implies that, at the test location, the valley fill is an abandoned channel deposit. It is proposed here that reflection geometry above Lower Mannville valleys can provide a means of determining the type of valley fill. 11 figs., 1 tab., 29 illus.

  13. Interaction Induced Quantum Valley Hall Effect in Graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. Marino

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We use pseudo-quantum electrodynamics in order to describe the full electromagnetic interaction of the p electrons in graphene in a consistent 2D formulation. We first consider the effect of this interaction in the vacuum polarization tensor or, equivalently, in the current correlator. This allows us to obtain the T→0 conductivity after a smooth zero-frequency limit is taken in Kubo’s formula. Thereby, we obtain the usual expression for the minimal conductivity plus corrections due to the interaction that bring it closer to the experimental value. We then predict the onset of an interaction-driven spontaneous quantum valley Hall effect below an activation temperature of the order of 2 K. The transverse (Hall valley conductivity is evaluated exactly and shown to coincide with the one in the usual quantum Hall effect. Finally, by considering the effects of pseudo-quantum electrodynamics, we show that the electron self-energy is such that a set of P- and T-symmetric gapped electron energy eigenstates are dynamically generated, in association with the quantum valley Hall effect.

  14. The use of antigen ELISA to monitor the effectiveness of a tsetse control campaign in the upper Didessa valley, Western Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tewelde, N.; Kebede, A.; Tsegaye, A.

    1997-01-01

    Blood and serum samples were collected from a tsetse free zone in the central highlands of Ethiopia. The samples were collected to determine the specificity and establish percentage positivity cut-off points of the antigen ELISA. Blood samples collected from these areas were negative for trypanosomosis using Standard Trypanosome Detection Methods (STDM). Ag-ELISA, in contrast, detected circulating trypanosomal antigens in 7.6% of the serum samples collected. Similarly, samples were collected from a tsetse infested zone in the upper Didessa valley, western Ethiopia, to assess the sensitivity of the Ag-ELISA. STDM detected trypanosomal infections in the range of 15.8 and 16.7% of blood samples from this zone. On the other hand, Ag-ELISA, indicated the presence of circulating trypanosomal antigens in 38.6% of serum samples tested. Moreover, Ag-ELISA was used to monitor the effectiveness of a tsetse control campaign in the upper Didessa valley. There were great differences in the prevalence rates of trypanosomosis, as revealed by the STDM and Ag-ELISA, between the tsetse controlled and tsetse infested zones of the upper Didessa valley. Generally, the Ag-ELISA revealed the presence of circulating trypanosomal antigens in only 43.7% of patent infections. Nevertheless, the test detected 318 more cases which were not diagnosed by any one of the STDM used. More interestingly, Ag-ELISA indicated the widespread presence of T. brucei in the cattle sampled in all zones. (author). 11 refs, 4 tabs

  15. The use of antigen ELISA to monitor the effectiveness of a tsetse control campaign in the upper Didessa valley, Western Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tewelde, N; Kebede, A; Tsegaye, A [National Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Investigation and Control Centre (NTTICC), Bedelle (Ethiopia)

    1997-02-01

    Blood and serum samples were collected from a tsetse free zone in the central highlands of Ethiopia. The samples were collected to determine the specificity and establish percentage positivity cut-off points of the antigen ELISA. Blood samples collected from these areas were negative for trypanosomosis using Standard Trypanosome Detection Methods (STDM). Ag-ELISA, in contrast, detected circulating trypanosomal antigens in 7.6% of the serum samples collected. Similarly, samples were collected from a tsetse infested zone in the upper Didessa valley, western Ethiopia, to assess the sensitivity of the Ag-ELISA. STDM detected trypanosomal infections in the range of 15.8 and 16.7% of blood samples from this zone. On the other hand, Ag-ELISA, indicated the presence of circulating trypanosomal antigens in 38.6% of serum samples tested. Moreover, Ag-ELISA was used to monitor the effectiveness of a tsetse control campaign in the upper Didessa valley. There were great differences in the prevalence rates of trypanosomosis, as revealed by the STDM and Ag-ELISA, between the tsetse controlled and tsetse infested zones of the upper Didessa valley. Generally, the Ag-ELISA revealed the presence of circulating trypanosomal antigens in only 43.7% of patent infections. Nevertheless, the test detected 318 more cases which were not diagnosed by any one of the STDM used. More interestingly, Ag-ELISA indicated the widespread presence of T. brucei in the cattle sampled in all zones. (author). 11 refs, 4 tabs.

  16. Topological induced valley polarization in bilayer graphene/Boron Nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, Leonardo; Idrobo, Juan C.

    2015-03-01

    Novel electronic devices relay in our ability to control internal quantum degrees of freedom of the electron e.g., its spin. The valley number degree of freedom is a pseudospin that labels degenerate eigenstates at local maximum/minimum on the valence/conduction band. Valley polarization, that is, selective electronic localization in a momentum valley and its manipulation can be achieved by means of circular polarized light (CPL) in a system with strong spin-orbit coupling (SOC). In this talk, we will show theoretically that despite the fact that neither graphene or BN have a strong SOC, a bilayer of graphene on BN oriented at a twist angle has different absorption for right- and left- CPL. This induced polarization occurs due to band folding of the electronic bands, i.e., it has a topological origin. This research was supported EPN multidisciplinary grant and by DOE SUFD MSED.

  17. Resonant tunneling spectroscopy of valley eigenstates on a donor-quantum dot coupled system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, T., E-mail: t.kobayashi@unsw.edu.au; Heijden, J. van der; House, M. G.; Hile, S. J.; Asshoff, P.; Simmons, M. Y.; Rogge, S. [Centre for Quantum Computation and Communication Technology, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052 New South Wales (Australia); Gonzalez-Zalba, M. F. [Hitachi Cambridge Laboratory, J. J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Vinet, M. [Université Grenoble-Alpes and CEA, LETI, MINATEC, 38000 Grenoble (France)

    2016-04-11

    We report on electronic transport measurements through a silicon double quantum dot consisting of a donor and a quantum dot. Transport spectra show resonant tunneling peaks involving different valley states, which illustrate the valley splitting in a quantum dot on a Si/SiO{sub 2} interface. The detailed gate bias dependence of double dot transport allows a first direct observation of the valley splitting in the quantum dot, which is controllable between 160 and 240 μeV with an electric field dependence 1.2 ± 0.2 meV/(MV/m). A large valley splitting is an essential requirement for implementing a physical electron spin qubit in a silicon quantum dot.

  18. 76 FR 38572 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District AGENCY... approve revisions to the Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District (AVAQMD) portion of the... approving with the dates that they were adopted by the Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District...

  19. Mapping Ecosystem Services in the Jordan Valley, Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Ana; Marques, Ana; Ribeiro, Inês; Alho, Maria; Catarina Afonso, Ana; Almeida, Erika; Branquinho, Cristina; Talozi, Samer; Pinho, Pedro

    2016-04-01

    In the last decade researchers started using ecosystem services as a new framework to understand the relationships between environment and society. Habitat quality and water quality are related with ecosystem services regulation and maintenance, or even provision. According to the Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services (CICES) both habitat quality and water quality are associated with lifecycle maintenance, habitat and gene pool protection, and water conditions, among others. As there is increased pressure on habitats and rivers especially for agricultural development, mapping and evaluating habitat and water quality has important implications for resource management and conservation, as well as for rural development. Here, we model and map habitat and water quality in the Jordan Valley, Jordan. In this study, we aim to identify and analyse ecosystem services both through 1) habitat quality and 2) water quality modelling using InVest, an integrated valuation of ecosystem services and tradeoffs. The data used in this study mainly includes the LULC, Jordan River watershed and main threats and pollutants in the study area, such as agriculture, industry, fish farms and urbanization. Results suggest a higher pressure on natural habitats in the Northern region of the Jordan Valley, where industry is dominant. Agriculture is present along the Jordan Valley and limits the few natural forested areas. Further, water pollution is mainly concentrated in disposal sites due to the low flow of the Jordan River. Our results can help to identify areas where natural resources and water resource management is most needed in the Jordan Valley. Acknowledgements: Transbasin FP7 project

  20. Controls on valley spacing in landscapes subject to rapid base-level fall

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Luke; Pelletier, John D.

    2015-01-01

    What controls the architecture of drainage networks is a fundamental question in geomorphology. Recent work has elucidated the mechanisms of drainage network development in steadily uplifting landscapes, but the controls on drainage-network morphology in transient landscapes are relatively unknown. In this paper we exploit natural experiments in drainage network development in incised Plio-Quaternary alluvial fan surfaces in order to understand and quantify drainage network development in highly transient landscapes, i.e. initially unincised low-relief surfaces that experience a pulse of rapid base-level drop followed by relative base-level stasis. Parallel drainage networks formed on incised alluvial-fan surfaces tend to have a drainage spacing that is approximately proportional to the magnitude of the base-level drop. Numerical experiments suggest that this observed relationship between the magnitude of base-level drop and mean drainage spacing is the result of feedbacks among the depth of valley incision, mass wasting and nonlinear increases in the rate of colluvial sediment transport with slope gradient on steep valley side slopes that lead to increasingly wide valleys in cases of larger base-level drop. We identify a threshold magnitude of base-level drop above which side slopes lengthen sufficiently to promote increases in contributing area and fluvial incision rates that lead to branching and encourage drainage networks to transition from systems of first-order valleys to systems of higher-order, branching valleys. The headward growth of these branching tributaries prevents the development of adjacent, ephemeral drainages and promotes a higher mean valley spacing relative to cases in which tributaries do not form. Model results offer additional insights into the response of initially unincised landscapes to rapid base-level drop and provide a preliminary basis for understanding how varying amounts of base-level change influence valley network morphology.

  1. Spin- and valley-polarized one-way Klein tunneling in photonic topological insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slobozhanyuk, Alexey

    2018-01-01

    Recent advances in condensed matter physics have shown that the spin degree of freedom of electrons can be efficiently exploited in the emergent field of spintronics, offering unique opportunities for efficient data transfer, computing, and storage (1–3). These concepts have been inspiring analogous approaches in photonics, where the manipulation of an artificially engineered pseudospin degree of freedom can be enabled by synthetic gauge fields acting on light (4–6). The ability to control these degrees of freedom significantly expands the landscape of available optical responses, which may revolutionize optical computing and the basic means of controlling light in photonic devices across the entire electromagnetic spectrum. We demonstrate a new class of photonic systems, described by effective Hamiltonians in which competing synthetic gauge fields, engineered in pseudospin, chirality/sublattice, and valley subspaces, result in bandgap opening at one of the valleys, whereas the other valley exhibits Dirac-like conical dispersion. We show that this effective response has marked implications on photon transport, among which are as follows: (i) a robust pseudospin- and valley-polarized one-way Klein tunneling and (ii) topological edge states that coexist within the Dirac continuum for opposite valley and pseudospin polarizations. These phenomena offer new ways to control light in photonics, in particular, for on-chip optical isolation, filtering, and wave-division multiplexing by selective action on their pseudospin and valley degrees of freedom. PMID:29756032

  2. Valley dynamics of intravalley and intervalley multiexcitonic states in monolayer WS2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jiyong; Bezerra, Andre; Qu, Fanyao

    2018-03-01

    We present a comprehensive model comprising of a complete set of rate equations, which account for charge transfer among multiexcitonic channels including excitons, trions, and biexcitons, to investigate valley (locked with spin) dynamics in monolayer WS2. The steady-state photoluminescence (PL) spectra, underlying the laser power dependence of excitonic populations, are also determined. Our computed PL for all excitonic states agrees with the experimental data of Paradisanos et al. [Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 193102 (2017), 10.1063/1.4983285]. We find that the relative weight of PL, stemmed from different excitonic channels, strongly depends on the laser power even under dynamical conditions. Remarkably, the biexciton channel, having the weakest PL intensity at low laser powers, tends to prevail in PL over other excitonic states as the power strengthens. In addition, by accounting for intervalley scatterings, which enable transfer of excitonic states from one valley to the other, we determine the valley polarization, which strongly depends on intervalley scatterings and the exciton generation rates in the two valleys. On the other hand, the valley polarization for all excitonic channels is found almost independent of the laser power, consistent with experimental measurements as well. Finally, the valley dynamics involving both intra- and intervalley trions is discussed. Our model and numerical outcome should be beneficial to experiments especially featuring the interplay of multiexcitonic channels in, e.g., elucidating experimental data, estimating central excitonic quantities including recombination times and transition rates, and in widening possible new experimental scopes.

  3. The browse value of the Eastern Cape valley bushveld. | A.J. ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The feeding value of the Eastern Cape Valley Bushveld in terms of crude protein, digestible dry matter, digestible energy and metabolic energy, as selected by oesophageal fistulated Boer- and Angora goats was determined. Results show that the Valley Bushveld maintains a high feed value throughout the year. The high ...

  4. 78 FR 57629 - Eagle Valley Clean Energy, LLC; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket Nos. EL13-87-000; QF13-658-000] Eagle Valley Clean Energy, LLC; Notice of Filing Take notice that on September 9, 2013, Eagle Valley Clean Energy, LLC filed Form 556 and a petition for certification as a qualifying small power production...

  5. Many-body effects in valleytronics: direct measurement of valley lifetimes in single-layer MoS2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Cong; Barrette, Andrew; Yu, Yifei; Semenov, Yuriy G; Kim, Ki Wook; Cao, Linyou; Gundogdu, Kenan

    2014-01-08

    Single layer MoS2 is an ideal material for the emerging field of "valleytronics" in which charge carrier momentum can be finely controlled by optical excitation. This system is also known to exhibit strong many-body interactions as observed by tightly bound excitons and trions. Here we report direct measurements of valley relaxation dynamics in single layer MoS2, by using ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy. Our results show that strong Coulomb interactions significantly impact valley population dynamics. Initial excitation by circularly polarized light creates electron-hole pairs within the K-valley. These excitons coherently couple to dark intervalley excitonic states, which facilitate fast electron valley depolarization. Hole valley relaxation is delayed up to about 10 ps due to nondegeneracy of the valence band spin states. Intervalley biexciton formation reveals the hole valley relaxation dynamics. We observe that biexcitons form with more than an order of magnitude larger binding energy compared to conventional semiconductors. These measurements provide significant insight into valley specific processes in 2D semiconductors. Hence they could be used to suggest routes to design semiconducting materials that enable control of valley polarization.

  6. Large valley splitting in monolayer WS2 by proximity coupling to an insulating antiferromagnetic substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lei; Yang, Ming; Shen, Lei; Zhou, Jun; Zhu, Tao; Feng, Yuan Ping

    2018-01-01

    Lifting the valley degeneracy is an efficient way to achieve valley polarization for further valleytronics operations. In this Rapid Communication, we demonstrate that a large valley splitting can be obtained in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides by magnetic proximity coupling to an insulating antiferromagnetic substrate. As an example, we perform first-principles calculations to investigate the electronic structures of monolayer WS2 on the MnO(111) surface. Our calculation results suggest that a large valley splitting of 214 meV, which corresponds to a Zeeman magnetic field of 1516 T, is induced in the valence band of monolayer WS2. The magnitude of valley splitting relies on the strength of interfacial orbital hybridization and can be tuned continually by applying an external out-of-plane pressure and in-plane strain. More interestingly, we find that both spin and valley index will flip when the magnetic ordering of MnO is reversed. Besides, owing to the sizable Berry curvature and time-reversal symmetry breaking in the WS2/MnO heterostructure, a spin- and valley-polarized anomalous Hall current can be generated in the presence of an in-plane electric field, which allows one to detect valleys by the electrical approach. Our results shed light on the realization of valleytronic devices using the antiferromagnetic insulator as the substrate.

  7. Hydrology of modern and late Holocene lakes, Death Valley, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grasso, D.N.

    1996-01-01

    Above-normal precipitation and surface-water runoff, which have been generally related to the cyclic recurrence of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation, have produced modern ephemeral lakes in the closed-basin Death Valley watershed. This study evaluates the regional hydroclimatic relations between precipitation, runoff, and lake transgressions in the Death Valley watershed. Recorded precipitation, runoff, and spring discharge data for the region are used in conjunction with a closed-basin, lake-water-budget equation to assess the relative contributions of water from these sources to modern lakes in Death Valley and to identify the requisite hydroclimatic changes for a late Holocene perennial lake in the valley. As part of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Program, an evaluation of the Quaternary regional paleoflood hydrology of the potential nuclear-waste repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, was planned. The objectives of the evaluation were (1) to identify the locations and investigate the hydraulic characteristics of paleofloods and compare these with the locations and characteristics of modern floods, and (2) to evaluate the character and severity of past floods and debris flows to ascertain the potential future hazards to the potential repository during the pre-closure period (US Department of Energy, 1988). This study addresses the first of these objectives, and the second in part, by assessing and comparing the sizes, locations, and recurrence rates of modern, recorded (1962--83) floods and late Holocene paleofloods for the 8,533-mi 2 , closed-basin, Death Valley watershed with its contributing drainage basins in the Yucca Mountain site area

  8. Hydrology of modern and late Holocene lakes, Death Valley, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grasso, D.N.

    1996-07-01

    Above-normal precipitation and surface-water runoff, which have been generally related to the cyclic recurrence of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation, have produced modern ephemeral lakes in the closed-basin Death Valley watershed. This study evaluates the regional hydroclimatic relations between precipitation, runoff, and lake transgressions in the Death Valley watershed. Recorded precipitation, runoff, and spring discharge data for the region are used in conjunction with a closed-basin, lake-water-budget equation to assess the relative contributions of water from these sources to modern lakes in Death Valley and to identify the requisite hydroclimatic changes for a late Holocene perennial lake in the valley. As part of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Program, an evaluation of the Quaternary regional paleoflood hydrology of the potential nuclear-waste repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, was planned. The objectives of the evaluation were (1) to identify the locations and investigate the hydraulic characteristics of paleofloods and compare these with the locations and characteristics of modern floods, and (2) to evaluate the character and severity of past floods and debris flows to ascertain the potential future hazards to the potential repository during the pre-closure period (US Department of Energy, 1988). This study addresses the first of these objectives, and the second in part, by assessing and comparing the sizes, locations, and recurrence rates of modern, recorded (1962--83) floods and late Holocene paleofloods for the 8,533-mi{sup 2}, closed-basin, Death Valley watershed with its contributing drainage basins in the Yucca Mountain site area.

  9. Technical Analysis of In-Valley Drainage Management Strategies for the Western San Joaquin Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presser, Theresa S.; Schwarzbach, Steven E.

    2008-01-01

    The western San Joaquin Valley is one of the most productive farming areas in the United States, but salt-buildup in soils and shallow groundwater aquifers threatens this area?s productivity. Elevated selenium concentrations in soils and groundwater complicate drainage management and salt disposal. In this document, we evaluate constraints on drainage management and implications of various approaches to management considered in: *the San Luis Drainage Feature Re-Evaluation (SLDFRE) Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) (about 5,000 pages of documentation, including supporting technical reports and appendices); *recent conceptual plans put forward by the San Luis Unit (SLU) contractors (i.e., the SLU Plans) (about 6 pages of documentation); *approaches recommended by the San Joaquin Valley Drainage Program (SJVDP) (1990a); and *other U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) models and analysis relevant to the western San Joaquin Valley. The alternatives developed in the SLDFRE EIS and other recently proposed drainage plans (refer to appendix A for details) differ from the strategies proposed by the San Joaquin Valley Drainage Program (1990a). The Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) in March 2007 signed a record of decision for an in-valley disposal option that would retire 194,000 acres of land, build 1,900 acres of evaporation ponds, and develop a treatment system to remove salt and selenium from drainwater. The recently proposed SLU Plans emphasize pumping drainage to the surface, storing approximately 33% in agricultural water re-use areas, treating selenium through biotechnology, enhancing the evaporation of water to concentrate salt, and identifying ultimate storage facilities for the remaining approximately 67% of waste selenium and salt. The treatment sequence of reuse, reverse osmosis, selenium bio-treatment, and enhanced solar evaporation is unprecedented and untested at the scale needed to meet plan requirements. All drainage management strategies that have been proposed

  10. Upper Neogene stratigraphy and tectonics of Death Valley — a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, J. R.; Sarna-Wojcicki, A. M.; Machette, M. N.; Klinger, R. E.

    2005-12-01

    New tephrochronologic, soil-stratigraphic and radiometric-dating studies over the last 10 years have generated a robust numerical stratigraphy for Upper Neogene sedimentary deposits throughout Death Valley. Critical to this improved stratigraphy are correlated or radiometrically-dated tephra beds and tuffs that range in age from > 3.58 Ma to Mormon Point. This new geochronology also establishes maximum and minimum ages for Quaternary alluvial fans and Lake Manly deposits. Facies associated with the tephra beds show that ˜3.3 Ma the Furnace Creek basin was a northwest-southeast-trending lake flanked by alluvial fans. This paleolake extended from the Furnace Creek to Ubehebe. Based on the new stratigraphy, the Death Valley fault system can be divided into four main fault zones: the dextral, Quaternary-age Northern Death Valley fault zone; the dextral, pre-Quaternary Furnace Creek fault zone; the oblique-normal Black Mountains fault zone; and the dextral Southern Death Valley fault zone. Post - 3.3 Ma geometric, structural, and kinematic changes in the Black Mountains and Towne Pass fault zones led to the break up of Furnace Creek basin and uplift of the Copper Canyon and Nova basins. Internal kinematics of northern Death Valley are interpreted as either rotation of blocks or normal slip along the northeast-southwest-trending Towne Pass and Tin Mountain fault zones within the Eastern California shear zone.

  11. The terebinth population (Pistacia mutica Fisсh. & C.A. Mey. in the Besh-Tash valley (South-East Crimea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoria Ju. Letukhova

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive work on the study of rare and protected wood plants on the territory of the Besh-Tash valley (South-East Crimea was carried out on the instructions of Karadag Nature Reserve administration in 2013. The Besh-Tash valley (approximate area of 15 hectares is wedged in the territory of the Karadag reserve from the south-west side, but it is not included in its structure. This article describes the material on distribution, abundance, population structure of terebinth (Pistacia mutica in this area. P. mutica is a Mediterranean relict species of the Tertiary period, included in the Red Books of Russia, Crimea and Ukraine. Terebinth creates rare relict plant communities (formation P. mutica listed in the Green Book of Ukraine. In the study area we counted all P. mutica specimens. We determined their taxation parameters, as well as characterized their locality. Based on the literature and our own research age-state classes of P. mutica were characterized for the studied population. As a result, we registered a total number of 3086 specimens of P. mutica: immature (im – 1259 (40.8%, virginal (v – 1054 (34.2%, young generative (g1 – 341 (11.0%, middle-age generative (g2 – 372 (12.0%, mature generative (g3 – 60 (2.0% plants. Senile plants have not been found out. So the age spectrum of the population is normal, not complete (without senile individuals, left-sided with predominance of immature plants. The population density is 206 specimens/ha. In the Besh-Tash valley P. mutica forms its own dense thickets or it is the component of hemixerophytical oak forests with Quercus pubescens, Juniperus deltoides, rarer Cornus mas, Sorbus torminalis. It also grows in shrub communities with Pyrus elaeagrifolia, Paliurus spina-christi, Prunus spinosa, Rosa corymbifera, Cotoneaster tauricus, Crataegus species, rarer Cotinus coggygria, Clematis vitalba. The distribution of the terebinth tree by elevation above sea level is analyzed. The great

  12. Road infrastructure and mobility of consumption in the Mexicali-Imperial Valley border area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Mungaray-Moctezuma

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to analyze the mobility of consumption in the Mexicali-Imperial Valley border area. The study shows that the population in the Mexicali sections closer to border crossings generates the greatest amount of consumption dynamics with places located in Imperial Valley. Conversely, Imperial Valley sections that are more distant from the border concentrate a greater number of destination sites for these cross-border trips. It is concluded that a higher quality and more integrated road infrastructure allows the new consumption centers in Imperial Valley to be located farther away from the border and that the Mexicali population with visas can cross indiscriminately through any border crossing by taking longer journeys toward these centers.

  13. Irrigation channels of the Upper Rhone valley (Switzerland). Geomorphological analysis of a cultural heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynard, Emmanuel

    2016-04-01

    The Upper Rhone valley (Canton of Valais, Switzerland) is characterised by dry climatic conditions that explain the presence of an important network (about 800 km) of irrigation channels - called Bisses in the French-speaking part of the canton or Suonen in the German-speaking area - dating back to the Middle Ages. This network constitutes a cultural heritage and during the last 30 years these agricultural infrastructures have sparked a renewed interest for tourist and cultural reasons. Indeed, the paths along the channels are used as tourist trails and several abandoned channels have been renovated for tourist use. Based on an inventory of the Bisses/Suonen of Valais, the proposed communication has three aims: (1) to analyse the geomorphological context (morphometric analysis, structural geomorphology, main processes) of various types of channels and to show the impact of the geomorphological context on the building techniques; (2) to identify particularly active processes along the channels; (3) to classify the Bisses/Suonen according to their geomorphological value and to their geomorphological sensitivity, and to propose managing measures. Structural and climatic conditions influence the geomorphological context of the channels. In a structural point of view, irrigation channels are developed in three main contexts: (1) in the Aar Massif crystalline basement; (2) in the limestone and marl cover nappes of the Helvetic Alps; (3) in the metamorphic cover nappes of the Penninic domain. The Rhone River valley is boarded by two high mountain ranges: the Penninic Alps in the South and the Bernese Alps in the North. Because of rain shadow effects, the climate is relatively dry and, between Brig and Martigny, annual rainfall is not more than 600 mm at 500 m ASL and 800 mm at 1600 m ASL. Nevertheless, due to important vertical precipitation gradients annual rainfall totals are high at high altitudes. On the southern facing tributary valleys, the dry climatic conditions

  14. Physical setting and natural sources of exposure to carcinogenic trace elements and radionuclides in Lahontan Valley, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, Ralph L.

    2012-01-01

    In Lahontan Valley, Nevada, arsenic, cobalt, tungsten, uranium, radon, and polonium-210 are carcinogens that occur naturally in sediments and groundwater. Arsenic and cobalt are principally derived from erosion of volcanic rocks in the local mountains and tungsten and uranium are derived from erosion of granitic rocks in headwater reaches of the Carson River. Radon and 210Po originate from radioactive decay of uranium in the sediments. Arsenic, aluminum, cobalt, iron, and manganese concentrations in household dust suggest it is derived from the local soils. Excess zinc and chromium in the dust are probably derived from the vacuum cleaner used to collect the dust, or household sources such as the furnace. Some samples have more than 5 times more cobalt in the dust than in the local soil, but whether the source of the excess cobalt is anthropogenic or natural cannot be determined with the available data. Cobalt concentrations are low in groundwater, but arsenic, uranium, radon, and 210Po concentrations often exceed human-health standards, and sometime greatly exceed them. Exposure to radon and its decay products in drinking water can vary significantly depending on when during the day that the water is consumed. Although the data suggests there have been no long term changes in groundwater chemistry that corresponds to the Lahontan Valley leukemia cluster, the occurrence of the very unusual leukemia cluster in an area with numerous 210Po and arsenic contaminated wells is striking, particularly in conjunction with the exceptionally high levels of urinary tungsten in Lahontan Valley residents. Additional research is needed on potential exposure pathways involving food or inhalation, and on synergistic effects of mixtures of these natural contaminants on susceptibility to development of leukemia.

  15. Physical setting and natural sources of exposure to carcinogenic trace elements and radionuclides in Lahontan Valley, Nevada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, Ralph

    2012-04-05

    In Lahontan Valley, Nevada, arsenic, cobalt, tungsten, uranium, radon, and polonium-210 are carcinogens that occur naturally in sediments and groundwater. Arsenic and cobalt are principally derived from erosion of volcanic rocks in the local mountains and tungsten and uranium are derived from erosion of granitic rocks in headwater reaches of the Carson River. Radon and 210Po originate from radioactive decay of uranium in the sediments. Arsenic, aluminum, cobalt, iron, and manganese concentrations in household dust suggest it is derived from the local soils. Excess zinc and chromium in the dust are probably derived from the vacuum cleaner used to collect the dust, or household sources such as the furnace. Some samples have more than 5 times more cobalt in the dust than in the local soil, but whether the source of the excess cobalt is anthropogenic or natural cannot be determined with the available data. Cobalt concentrations are low in groundwater, but arsenic, uranium, radon, and 210Po concentrations often exceed human-health standards, and sometime greatly exceed them. Exposure to radon and its decay products in drinking water can vary significantly depending on when during the day that the water is consumed. Although the data suggests there have been no long term changes in groundwater chemistry that corresponds to the Lahontan Valley leukemia cluster, the occurrence of the very unusual leukemia cluster in an area with numerous 210Po and arsenic contaminated wells is striking, particularly in conjunction with the exceptionally high levels of urinary tungsten in Lahontan Valley residents. Additional research is needed on potential exposure pathways involving food or inhalation, and on synergistic effects of mixtures of these natural contaminants on susceptibility to development of leukemia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Photoinduced quantum spin and valley Hall effects, and orbital magnetization in monolayer MoS2

    KAUST Repository

    Tahir, M.

    2014-09-22

    We theoretically demonstrate that 100% valley-polarized transport in monolayers of MoS2 and other group-VI dichalcogenides can be obtained using off-resonant circularly polarized light. By tuning the intensity of the off-resonant light the intrinsic band gap in one valley is reduced, while it is enhanced in the other valley, enabling single valley quantum transport. As a consequence, we predict (i) enhancement of the longitudinal electrical conductivity, accompanied by an increase in the spin polarization of the flowing electrons, (ii) enhancement of the intrinsic spin Hall effect, together with a reduction of the intrinsic valley Hall effect, and (iii) enhancement of the orbital magnetic moment and orbital magnetization. These mechanisms provide appealing opportunities to the design of nanoelectronics based on dichalcogenides.

  17. Photoinduced quantum spin and valley Hall effects, and orbital magnetization in monolayer MoS2

    KAUST Repository

    Tahir, M.; Manchon, Aurelien; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2014-01-01

    We theoretically demonstrate that 100% valley-polarized transport in monolayers of MoS2 and other group-VI dichalcogenides can be obtained using off-resonant circularly polarized light. By tuning the intensity of the off-resonant light the intrinsic band gap in one valley is reduced, while it is enhanced in the other valley, enabling single valley quantum transport. As a consequence, we predict (i) enhancement of the longitudinal electrical conductivity, accompanied by an increase in the spin polarization of the flowing electrons, (ii) enhancement of the intrinsic spin Hall effect, together with a reduction of the intrinsic valley Hall effect, and (iii) enhancement of the orbital magnetic moment and orbital magnetization. These mechanisms provide appealing opportunities to the design of nanoelectronics based on dichalcogenides.

  18. Solar Energy within the Central Valley, CA: Current Practices and Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffacker, M. K.; Hernandez, R. R.; Allen, M. F.

    2015-12-01

    Utility-scale solar energy (USSE, ≥ 1 megawatt [MW]) systems are rapidly being deployed in the Central Valley of California, generating clean electricity and new job opportunities. Utility-scale solar energy systems require substantial quantities of land or space, often prompting an evaluation of environmental impacts and trade-offs when selecting their placement. Utilizing salt-contaminated agricultural land (as the sodium absorption and electrical conductivity values are unsuitably high), unsuitable for food production, and lands within the built environment (developed), can serve as a co-benefit opportunity when reclamation of these lands for USSE development is prioritized. In this study, we quantify the theoretical and generation-based solar energy potential for the Central Valley according to land-cover type, crop type, and for salt-contaminated lands. Further, we utilize the Carnegie Energy and Environmental Compatibility (CEEC) model to identify and prioritize solar energy, integrating environmental resource opportunities and constraints most relevant to the Central Valley. We use the CEEC model to generate a value-based environmental compatibility output for the Central Valley. The Central Valley extends across nearly 60,000 km2 of California with the potential of generating 21,800 - 30,300 TWh y-1 and 41,600 TWh y-1 of solar energy for photovoltaic (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP), respectively. Pasture, hay, and cultivated crops comprise over half of the Central Valley, much of which is considered prime agriculture or of statewide or local importance for farming (28,200 km2). Together, approximately one-third of this region is salt-contaminated (16%) or developed (11%). This confers a generation-based potential of 5713 - 7891 TWh y-1 and 2770 TWh y-1 for PV and CSP, respectively. As energy, food, and land are inextricably linked, our study shows how land favorable for renewable energy systems can be used more effectively in places where land is

  19. 76 FR 58840 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act; Refuge Water Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Central Valley Project Improvement Act; Refuge Water Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: To meet the requirements of the Central Valley Project Improvement Act of 1992 (CVPIA) and subsequent...

  20. Balancing urban development and endangered species: The coachella valley habitat conservation plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatley, Timothy

    1992-01-01

    Habitat conservation plans (HCPs) permitted under Section 10(A) of the federal Endangered Species Act, have been increasingly used to overcome conflicts between urban development and species conservation. This article profiles one such HCP, the Coachella Valley (CA) Fringe-Toed Lizard Habitat Conservation Plan. The second HCP officially approved by the US Fish and Wildlife Service, the Coachella Valley case is frequently cited as a model for resolving conservation and development conflicts. The article begins with a discussion of the use of HCPs, and then provides a detailed discussion of Coachella Valley experience, its history, specific provisions, and success to date. A final section examines whether Coachella Valley does in fact represent a positive model. It is argued that the HCP has been less than fully successful and leaves unresolved a series of fundamental ethical and policy questions concerning the protection of endangered species.

  1. Geohydrology of the valley-fill aquifer in the Corning area, Steuben County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Todd S.; Belli, J.L.; Allen, R.V.

    1982-01-01

    This report is the seventh in a series of 11 map sets depicting geohydrologic conditions in selected aquifers in upstate New York. Geohydrologic data are compiled on six maps at 1:24,000 scale. Together, the maps provide a comprehensive overview of a major valley-fill aquifer in southeastern Steuben County. The maps include surficial geology, geologic sections, water-infiltration potential of soil zone, aquifer thickness, potentiometric-surface elevations, and land use. The valley-fill deposits consist of alluvial silt, sand, and gravel, glacial-outwash (sand and gravel), till, and lacustrine silt and clay. The sand and gravel beds have relatively high permeabilities, whereas the till and silt deposits have relatively low permeabilities. Water-table conditions prevail in unconfined sand and gravel along the valley margin. Artesian conditions are found locally in sand and gravel confined under silt and clay in the middle of the valley. Recharge occurs nearly everywhere on the valley floor, but principally along the margin of the valley, where highly permeable land surface conditions exist, and runoff from the hillsides is concentrated. The use of land overlying the aquifer is a mixture of residential, commercial, agricultural, and industrial uses. (USGS)

  2. Conduction-band valley spin splitting in single-layer H-T l2O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yandong; Kou, Liangzhi; Du, Aijun; Huang, Baibiao; Dai, Ying; Heine, Thomas

    2018-02-01

    Despite numerous studies, coupled spin and valley physics is currently limited to two-dimensional (2D) transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs). Here, we predict an exceptional 2D valleytronic material associated with the spin-valley coupling phenomena beyond 2D TMDCs—single-layer (SL) H-T l2O . It displays large valley spin splitting (VSS), significantly larger than that of 2D TMDCs, and a finite band gap, which are both critically attractive for the integration of valleytronics and spintronics. More importantly, in sharp contrast to all the experimentally confirmed 2D valleytronic materials, where the strong valence-band VSS (0.15-0.46 eV) supports the spin-valley coupling, the VSS in SL H-T l2O is pronounced in its conduction band (0.61 eV), but negligibly small in its valence band (21 meV), thus opening a way for manipulating the coupled spin and valley physics. Moreover, SL H-T l2O possesses extremely high carrier mobility, as large as 9.8 ×103c m2V-1s-1 .

  3. Valley-momentum locking in a graphene superlattice with Y-shaped Kekulé bond texture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamayun, O. V.; Ostroukh, V. P.; Gnezdilov, N. V.; Adagideli, İ.; Beenakker, C. W. J.

    2018-02-01

    Recent experiments by Gutiérrez et al (2016 Nat. Phys. 12 950) on a graphene-copper superlattice have revealed an unusual Kekulé bond texture in the honeycomb lattice—a Y-shaped modulation of weak and strong bonds with a wave vector connecting two Dirac points. We show that this so-called ‘Kek-Y’ texture produces two species of massless Dirac fermions, with valley isospin locked parallel or antiparallel to the direction of motion. In a magnetic field B, the valley degeneracy of the B-dependent Landau levels is removed by the valley-momentum locking but a B-independent and valley-degenerate zero-mode remains.

  4. Valleytronics in merging Dirac cones: All-electric-controlled valley filter, valve, and universal reversible logic gate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Yee Sin; Yang, Shengyuan A.; Zhang, C.; Ma, Zhongshui; Ang, L. K.

    2017-12-01

    Despite much anticipation of valleytronics as a candidate to replace the aging complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) based information processing, its progress is severely hindered by the lack of practical ways to manipulate valley polarization all electrically in an electrostatic setting. Here, we propose a class of all-electric-controlled valley filter, valve, and logic gate based on the valley-contrasting transport in a merging Dirac cones system. The central mechanism of these devices lies on the pseudospin-assisted quantum tunneling which effectively quenches the transport of one valley when its pseudospin configuration mismatches that of a gate-controlled scattering region. The valley polarization can be abruptly switched into different states and remains stable over semi-infinite gate-voltage windows. Colossal tunneling valley-pseudomagnetoresistance ratio of over 10 000 % can be achieved in a valley-valve setup. We further propose a valleytronic-based logic gate capable of covering all 16 types of two-input Boolean logics. Remarkably, the valley degree of freedom can be harnessed to resurrect logical reversibility in two-input universal Boolean gate. The (2 +1 ) polarization states (two distinct valleys plus a null polarization) reestablish one-to-one input-to-output mapping, a crucial requirement for logical reversibility, and significantly reduce the complexity of reversible circuits. Our results suggest that the synergy of valleytronics and digital logics may provide new paradigms for valleytronic-based information processing and reversible computing.

  5. Burrowing Owl - Palo Verde Valley [ds197

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — These burrowing owl observations were collected during the spring and early summer of 1976 in the Palo Verde Valley, eastern Riverside County, California. This is an...

  6. Tuning Valley Polarization in a WSe_{2} Monolayer with a Tiny Magnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Smoleński

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In monolayers of semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides, the light helicity (σ^{+} or σ^{-} is locked to the valley degree of freedom, leading to the possibility of optical initialization of distinct valley populations. However, an extremely rapid valley pseudospin relaxation (at the time scale of picoseconds occurring for optically bright (electric-dipole active excitons imposes some limitations on the development of opto-valleytronics. Here, we show that valley pseudospin relaxation of excitons can be significantly suppressed in a WSe_{2} monolayer, a direct-gap two-dimensional semiconductor with the exciton ground state being optically dark. We demonstrate that the already inefficient relaxation of the exciton pseudospin in such a system can be suppressed even further by the application of a tiny magnetic field of about 100 mT. Time-resolved spectroscopy reveals the pseudospin dynamics to be a two-step relaxation process. An initial decay of the pseudospin occurs at the level of dark excitons on a time scale of 100 ps, which is tunable with a magnetic field. This decay is followed by even longer decay (>1  ns, once the dark excitons form more complex pseudo-particles allowing for their radiative recombination. Our findings of slow valley pseudospin relaxation easily manipulated by the magnetic field open new prospects for engineering the dynamics of the valley pseudospin in transition metal dichalcogenides.

  7. Alumina+Silica+/-Germanium Alteration in Smectite-Bearing Marathon Valley, Endeavour Crater Rim, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Gellert, R.; Van Bommel, S.; Arvidson, R. E.; Clark, B. C.; Ming, D. W.; Schroeder, C.; Yen, A. S.; Fox, V. K.; Farrand, W. H.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has been exploring Mars for 12+ years, and is presently investigating the geology of a western rim segment of 22 kilometers diameter, Noachian- aged Endeavour crater. The Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer has determined the compositions of a pre-impact lithology, the Matijevic fm., and polymict impact breccias ejected from the crater, the Shoemaker fm. Opportunity is now investigating a region named Marathon Valley that cuts southwest-northeast through the central portion of the rim segment and provides a window into the lower stratigraphic record. (Geographic names used here are informal.) At the head of Marathon Valley, referred to here as Upper Marathon Valley, is a shallow, ovoid depression approximately 25×35 millimeters in size, named Spirit of Saint Louis. Layering inside Spirit of Saint Louis appears continuous with the Upper Marathon Valley rocks outside, indicating they are coeval. Spirit of Saint Louis is partly bounded by approximately 10-20 centimeters wide zone containing reddish altered rocks (red zone). Red zones also form prominent curvilinear features in Marathon Valley. Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) spectra provide evidence for a really extensive Fe-Mg smectite in the Marathon Valley region, indicating distinct styles of aqueous alteration. The CRISM detections of smectites are based on metal-OH absorptions at approximately 2.3 and 2.4 micron that are at least two times the background noise level.

  8. Late Quaternary landscape evolution in the Great Karoo, South Africa: Processes and drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldknow, Chris; Hooke, Janet; Lang, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    The Great Karoo spans the north-central part of South Africa at a major climatic boundary. The characteristics, sequences, spatial patterns and drivers of river response to Late Quaternary climate changes in this region remain unclear due to the fragmentary alluvial/colluvial stratigraphic record and the lack of dated palaeoclimatic archives. Dendritic gully networks incised into deep deposits (up to 6 m) of colluvium and alluvium in the upper Sundays River catchment expose a legacy of "cut and fill" features. In 1st order tributaries, these are predominantly discontinuous palaeochannels and flood-outs with localised palaeosols, whereas in 2nd & 3rd order tributaries there are: 1) incised palaeo-geomorphic surfaces, 2) semi-continuous inset terrace sequences, 3) buried palaeo-gully topography. Using a combination of field mapping, logging of sediment outcrops, soil micromorphological and grain size analysis, mineral magnetic measurements and radiometric dating (OSL & 14C), we derive a stratigraphic evolution model which demonstrates a) the number of phases of incision, aggradation and pedogenesis, b) the spatial and temporal extent of each phase and c) the drivers of alluviation and associated feedbacks. Our reconstruction of regional valley alluviation indicates four distinct terrace units of contrasting depositional age. The base of the succession reflects slow aggradation under periglacial conditions associated with the Last Glacial Maximum. Subsequent channel entrenchment, causing terrace abandonment (T1) occurred in the deglacial period when vegetation and rainfall were in anti-phase. Re-instatement of connectivity with deep upland colluvial stores resulted in the injection of a pulse of sediment to valley floors, triggering compartmentalised backfilling (aggradation of T2) which propagated upstream as far as the second order drainage lines. This backfilling restructured the local hydrology, which, in concert with enhanced summer-rainfall, contributed to a

  9. Geology and geomorphology of Bear Lake Valley and upper Bear River, Utah and Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reheis, M.C.; Laabs, B.J.C.; Kaufman, D.S.

    2009-01-01

    Bear Lake, on the Idaho-Utah border, lies in a fault-bounded valley through which the Bear River flows en route to the Great Salt Lake. Surficial deposits in the Bear Lake drainage basin provide a geologic context for interpretation of cores from Bear Lake deposits. In addition to groundwater discharge, Bear Lake received water and sediment from its own small drainage basin and sometimes from the Bear River and its glaciated headwaters. The lake basin interacts with the river in complex ways that are modulated by climatically induced lake-level changes, by the distribution of active Quaternary faults, and by the migration of the river across its fluvial fan north of the present lake. The upper Bear River flows northward for ???150 km from its headwaters in the northwestern Uinta Mountains, generally following the strike of regional Laramide and late Cenozoic structures. These structures likely also control the flow paths of groundwater that feeds Bear Lake, and groundwater-fed streams are the largest source of water when the lake is isolated from the Bear River. The present configuration of the Bear River with respect to Bear Lake Valley may not have been established until the late Pliocene. The absence of Uinta Range-derived quartzites in fluvial gravel on the crest of the Bear Lake Plateau east of Bear Lake suggests that the present headwaters were not part of the drainage basin in the late Tertiary. Newly mapped glacial deposits in the Bear River Range west of Bear Lake indicate several advances of valley glaciers that were probably coeval with glaciations in the Uinta Mountains. Much of the meltwater from these glaciers may have reached Bear Lake via groundwater pathways through infiltration in the karst terrain of the Bear River Range. At times during the Pleistocene, the Bear River flowed into Bear Lake and water level rose to the valley threshold at Nounan narrows. This threshold has been modified by aggradation, downcutting, and tectonics. Maximum lake

  10. Groundwater quality in the Indian Wells Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Barbara J. Milby; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Indian Wells Valley is one of the study areas being evaluated. The Indian Wells study area is approximately 600 square miles (1,554 square kilometers) and includes the Indian Wells Valley groundwater basin (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). Indian Wells Valley has an arid climate and is part of the Mojave Desert. Average annual rainfall is about 6 inches (15 centimeters). The study area has internal drainage, with runoff from the surrounding mountains draining towards dry lake beds in the lower parts of the valley. Land use in the study area is approximately 97.0 percent (%) natural, 0.4% agricultural, and 2.6% urban. The primary natural land cover is shrubland. The largest urban area is the city of Ridgecrest (2010 population of 28,000). Groundwater in this basin is used for public and domestic water supply and for irrigation. The main water-bearing units are gravel, sand, silt, and clay derived from the Sierra Nevada to the west and from the other surrounding mountains. Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily runoff from the Sierra Nevada and to the west and from the other surrounding mountains. Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily runoff from the Sierra Nevada and direct infiltration from irrigation and septic systems. The primary sources of discharge are pumping wells and evapotranspiration near the dry lakebeds. The primary aquifers in the Indian Wells study area are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database. Public-supply wells in

  11. A Route to Permanent Valley Polarization in Monolayer MoS2

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, Nirpendra

    2016-10-24

    Realization of permanent valley polarization in Cr-doped monolayer MoS2 is found to be unfeasible because of extended moment formation. Introduction of an additional hole is suggested as a viable solution. V-doped monolayer MoS2 is demonstrated to sustain permanent valley polarization and therefore can serve as a prototype material for valleytronics.

  12. Quaternary Geochronology, Paleontology, and Archaeology of the Upper San Pedro River Valley, Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, E. P.

    2013-12-01

    This poster presents the results of multi-disciplinary investigations of the preservation and extent of Quaternary fossil-bearing strata in the San Pedro River Valley in Sonora, Mexico. Geologic deposits in the portions of the San Pedro Valley in southern Arizona contain one of the best late Cenozoic fossil records known in North America and the best record of early humans and extinct mammals on the continent. The basin in the U.S. is one of the type locations for the Blancan Land Mammal Age. Hemiphilian and Irvingtonian fossils are common. Rancholabrean remains are widespread. Strata in the valley adjacent to the international border with Mexico have yielded the densest concentration of archaeological mammoth-kill sites known in the western hemisphere. Despite more than 60 years of research in the U.S., however, and the fact that over one third of the San Pedro River lies south of the international boundary, little has been known about the late Cenozoic geology of the valley in Mexico. The study reported here utilized extensive field survey, archaeological documentation, paleontological excavations, stratigraphic mapping and alluvial geochronology to determine the nature and extent of Quaternary fossil-bearing deposits in the portions of the San Pedro Valley in Sonora, Mexico. The results demonstrate that the Plio-Pleistocene fossil -bearing formations known from the valley in Arizona extend into the uppermost reaches of the valley in Mexico. Several new fossil sites were discovered that yielded the remains of Camelids, Equus, Mammuthus, and other Proboscidean species. Late Pleistocene archaeological remains were found on the surface of the surrounding uplands. AMS radiocarbon dating demonstrates the widespread preservation of middle- to late- Holocene deposits. However, the late Pleistocene deposits that contain the archaeological mammoth-kill sites in Arizona are absent in the valley in Mexico, and are now known to be restricted to relatively small portions of

  13. Inland valley research in sub-Saharan Africa; priorities for a regional consortium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamin, J.Y.; Andriesse, W.; Thiombiano, L.; Windmeijer, P.N.

    1996-01-01

    These proceedings are an account of an international workshop in support of research strategy development for the Inland Valley Consortium in sub-Saharan Africa. This consortium aims at concerted research planning for rice-based cropping systems in the lower parts of inland valleys. The Consortium

  14. Topological valley-chiral edge states of Lamb waves in elastic thin plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Mei, Jun

    2018-05-01

    We investigate the nontrivial topology of the band structure of Lamb waves in a thin phononic crystal plate. When inversion symmetry is broken, a valley pseudospin degree of freedom is formed around K and K‧ valleys for the A0 Lamb mode, which is decoupled from the S0 and SH0 modes in the low-frequency regime. Chiral edge states are explicitly demonstrated, which are immune to defects and exhibit unidirectional transport behaviors when intervalley scattering is weak. The quantum valley Hall effect is thus simulated in a simple way in the context of Lamb waves.

  15. Changes in active eolian sand at northern Coachella Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katra, Itzhak; Scheidt, Stephen; Lancaster, Nicholas

    2009-04-01

    Climate variability and rapid urbanization have influenced the sand environments in the northern Coachella Valley throughout the late 20th century. This paper addresses changes in the spatial relationships among different sand deposits at northern Coachella Valley between two recent time periods by using satellite data acquired from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER). The approach employed here, involving multispectral thermal infrared (TIR) data and spectral mixture analysis, has shown that the major sand deposits can be spatially modeled at northern Coachella Valley. The "coarse-grained (quartz-rich) sand" deposit is associated with active eolian sand, and the "mixed sandy soil" and "fine-grained (quartz-rich) sand" deposits are associated with inactive eolian sand. The fractional abundance images showed a significant decrease between 2000 and 2006 in the percentage of active sand in the major depositional area for fluvial sediment, the Whitewater River, but also in two downwind areas: the Whitewater and Willow Hole Reserves. The pattern of the active sand appears to be related to variations in annual precipitation (wet and dry years) and river discharge in the northern Coachella Valley. We suggest here that recent human modifications to the major watercourses that supply sand affect the capability of fluvial deposition areas to restore sediments over time and consequently the responses of the sand transport system to climate change, becoming more sensitive to dry years where areas of active sand may shrink, degrade, and/or stabilize faster. The approach utilized in this study can be advantageous for future monitoring of sand in the northern Coachella Valley for management of these and similar environments.

  16. Direct measurement of discrete valley and orbital quantum numbers in bilayer graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, B M; Li, J I A; Zibrov, A A; Wang, L; Taniguchi, T; Watanabe, K; Hone, J; Dean, C R; Zaletel, M; Ashoori, R C; Young, A F

    2017-10-16

    The high magnetic field electronic structure of bilayer graphene is enhanced by the spin, valley isospin, and an accidental orbital degeneracy, leading to a complex phase diagram of broken symmetry states. Here, we present a technique for measuring the layer-resolved charge density, from which we directly determine the valley and orbital polarization within the zero energy Landau level. Layer polarization evolves in discrete steps across 32 electric field-tuned phase transitions between states of different valley, spin, and orbital order, including previously unobserved orbitally polarized states stabilized by skew interlayer hopping. We fit our data to a model that captures both single-particle and interaction-induced anisotropies, providing a complete picture of this correlated electron system. The resulting roadmap to symmetry breaking paves the way for deterministic engineering of fractional quantum Hall states, while our layer-resolved technique is readily extendable to other two-dimensional materials where layer polarization maps to the valley or spin quantum numbers.The phase diagram of bilayer graphene at high magnetic fields has been an outstanding question, with orders possibly between multiple internal quantum degrees of freedom. Here, Hunt et al. report the measurement of the valley and orbital order, allowing them to directly reconstruct the phase diagram.

  17. Shallow Sedimentary Structure of the Brahmaputra Valley Constraint from Receiver Functions Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikia, Sowrav; Chopra, Sumer; Baruah, Santanu; Singh, Upendra K.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, receiver functions from ten Broadband seismograph stations on Cenozoic sediment formations of Brahmaputra valley and its neighboring region in northeastern part of India are determined. Receiver function traces from this region show delay in peak by 1-2.5 s and associated minor peaks with the direct P-phase peak. Based on such observation, we try to image sedimentary structure of the Brahmaputra valley plain, adjacent Shillong plateau and Himalayan foredeep region. An adapted hybrid global waveform inversion technique has been applied to extract sedimentary basin structure beneath each site. The sedimentary cover of the basin is about 0.5-6.5 km thick across the valley, 0.5-1.0 km on Shillong plateau and 2.0-5.0 km in nearby foredeep region. We have found that sedimentary thickness increases from SW to NE along the Brahmaputra valley and towards the Eastern Himalayan syntaxes. The estimated sediment thickness and S wave velocity structure agree well with the results of previous active source, gravity, and deep borehole studies carried out in this region. The thick crustal low velocity sediment cover in Brahmaputra valley is expected to amplify ground motions during earthquakes and therefore important for seismic hazard assessment of the region.

  18. 76 FR 45212 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District... proposing to approve San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) Rule 3170... the environment. San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District SJVUAPCD is an extreme...

  19. 27 CFR 9.174 - Yadkin Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...”. (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Yadkin Valley...-Salem, N.C.; VA; Tenn. (1953, Limited Revision 1962), and, (2) Charlotte, North Carolina; South Carolina... North Carolina within Wilkes, Surry, Yadkin and portions of Stokes, Forsyth, Davidson, and Davie...

  20. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Monument Valley Uranium Mill Tailings Site, Cane Valley, Arizona. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This baseline risk assessment evaluates potential impact to public health or the environment from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site in Cane Valley near Monument Valley, Arizona. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project has relocated and stabilized this site`s tailings and other contaminated material in a disposal cell at Mexican Hat, Utah. The second phase of the UMTRA Project is to evaluate ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the Ground Water Project that evaluates potential health and environmental risks. It will help determine the approach required to address contaminated ground water at the site.

  1. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Monument Valley Uranium Mill Tailings Site, Cane Valley, Arizona. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This baseline risk assessment evaluates potential impact to public health or the environment from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site in Cane Valley near Monument Valley, Arizona. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project has relocated and stabilized this site's tailings and other contaminated material in a disposal cell at Mexican Hat, Utah. The second phase of the UMTRA Project is to evaluate ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the Ground Water Project that evaluates potential health and environmental risks. It will help determine the approach required to address contaminated ground water at the site

  2. Site-wide remedial alternative development in Bear Creek Valley, Oak Ridge Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.

    1995-07-01

    This paper presents a case study of an environmental restoration project at a major mixed waste site that poses unique challenges to remediation efforts. Bear Creek Valley is located immediately west of the Y-12 Plant on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The Y-12 Plant was built in 1943 as part of the Manhattan Project, with its original mission being electromagnetic separation of uranium. Since being completed, the Y-12 Plant has also been used for chemical processing of uranium and lithium compounds as well as precision fabrication of components containing these and other materials. Wastes containing radionuclides, metals, chlorinated solvents, oils, coolants, polychlorinated biphenyis (PCBs), and others were disposed of in large quantities at Bear Creek Valley as a result of manufacturing operations at the Y-12 Plant. The Bear Creek Valley feasibility study is using innovative strategies to efficiently and thoroughly consider the information available regarding Bear Creek Valley and process options that could be combined into its remedial alternatives

  3. Groundwater flow systems in the great Aletsch glacier region (Valais, Switzerland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpiger, Andrea; Loew, Simon

    2014-05-01

    Groundwater flow systems in Alpine areas are often complex and challenging to investigate due to special topographic and climatic conditions governing groundwater recharge and bedrock flow. Studies seeking to characterize high-alpine groundwater systems remain rare, but are of high interest, e.g. for water supply, hydropower systems, traffic tunnels or rock slope deformation and landslide hazards. The goal of this study is to better understand the current and past groundwater flow systems of the UNESCO World Heritage mountain ridge separating the great Aletsch glacier and the Rhone valley, considering climatic and glacier fluctuations during the Lateglacial and Holocene periods. This ridge is crossed by a hydropower bypass drift (Riederhornstollen) and is composed of fractured crystalline rocks overlain by various types of landslides and glacial deposits. Surface hydrology observations (fracture properties, groundwater seepage, spring lines and physico-chemical parameters) and hydropower drift inflow measurements contributed to the characterization of bedrock hydraulic conductivities and preferential groundwater pathways. Basic conceptual hydrogeological models were tested with observed drift inflows and the occurrence of springs using free-surface, variably saturated, vertical 2D groundwater flow models (using the code SEEP/W from GeoStudio 2007). Already simple two-layer models, representing profile sections orthogonal to the mountain ridge, provided useful results. Simulations show that differences in the occurrence of springs on each side of the mountain ridge are likely caused by the occurrence of glacial till (generating perched groundwater), the deep-seated sagging landslide mass, faults and asymmetric ridge topography, which together force the main groundwater flow direction to be oriented towards the Rhone valley, even from beyond the mountain ridge. Surprisingly, the most important springs (those with high discharge rates) are located at high elevations

  4. Infilling and flooding of the Mekong River incised valley during deglacial sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjallingii, Rik; Stattegger, Karl; Wetzel, Andreas; Van Phach, Phung

    2010-06-01

    The abrupt transition from fluvial to marine deposition of incised-valley-fill sediments retrieved from the southeast Vietnamese shelf, accurately records the postglacial transgression after 14 ka before present (BP). Valley-filling sediments consist of fluvial mud, whereas sedimentation after the transgression is characterized by shallow-marine carbonate sands. This change in sediment composition is accurately marked in high-resolution X-ray fluorescence (XRF) core scanning records. Rapid aggradation of fluvial sediments at the river mouth nearly completely filled the Mekong incised valley prior to flooding. However, accumulation rates strongly reduced in the valley after the river-mouth system flooded and stepped back. This also affected the sediment supply to deeper parts of the southeast Vietnamese shelf. Comparison of the Mekong valley-filling with the East Asian sea-level history of sub- and inter-tidal sediment records shows that the transgressive surface preserved in the incised-valley-fill records is a robust sea-level indicator. The valley was nearly completely filled with fluvial sediments between 13.0 and 9.5 ka BP when sea-level rose rather constantly with approximately 10 mm/yr, as indicated by the East Asian sea-level record. At shallower parts of the shelf, significant sediment reworking and the establishment of estuarine conditions at the final stage of infilling complicates accurate dating of the transgressive surface. Nevertheless, incised-valley-fill records and land-based drill sites indicate a vast and rapid flooding of the shelf from the location of the modern Vietnamese coastline to the Cambodian lowlands between 9.5 ka and 8.5 ka BP. Fast flooding of this part of the shelf is related with the low shelf gradient and a strong acceleration of the East Asian sea-level rise from 34 to 9 meter below modern sea level (mbsl) corresponding to the sea-level jump of melt water pulse (MWP) 1C.

  5. Summary Robert Noyce and the invention of Silicon Valley

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This work offers a summary of the book "THE MAN BEHIND THE MICROCHIP: Robert Noyce and the Invention of Silicon Valley""by Leslie Berlin.The Man behind the Microchip is Leslie Berlin's first book. This author is project historian for the Silicon Valley Archives, a division of the Stanford University Department of Special Collections. This book tells the story of a giant of the high-tech industry: the multimillionaire Bob Noyce. This co-founder of Fairchild Semiconductor and Intel co-invented the integrated circuit which became the electronic heart of every modern computer, automobile, advance

  6. Birds of the St. Croix River valley: Minnesota and Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faanes, Craig A.

    1981-01-01

    The St. Croix River Valley encompasses nearly 11,550 km2 in east-central Minnesota and northwestern Wisconsin. A wide range of habitats are available for birds including upland oak, lowland deciduous, maple-basswood, lowland and upland coniferous forests, natural basin wetlands, and grasslands. Situated in the north-central region of the United States, the valley is a biological 'crossroads' for many species. Because of the mixed affinities of plant communities, the valley includes the northern and southern range limits for a number of species. Also, because the valley lies near the forest-prairie transition zone, many typical western breeding species (e.g. pintail, western meadowlark, yellow-headed blackbird) breed in proximity to typical eastern species such as tufted titmouse, eastern meadowlark, and cardinal. From 1966 to 1980, I conducted extensive surveys of avian distribution and abundance in the St. Croix River Valley. I have supplemented the results of these surveys with published and unpublished observations contributed by many ornithologists. These additional data include compilations from Christmas Bird Counts sponsored by the National Audubon Society and from the Breeding Bird Survey coordinated by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Three hundred fourteen species have been recorded in the study area; data are presented on the migration period, nesting season distribution, winter distribution, relative abundance, and habitat use of each species. Recognizing the uniqueness of the area, and its importance not only to wildlife but also to man, the U.S. Congress designated the St. Croix a National Scenic Riverway. This action provided a considerable degree of protection to lands along and directly adjacent to the river. Unfortunately, no similar legal measure exists to protect lands away from the river. With the exception of the northern quarter of the St. Croix River Valley, agricultural interests have made significant inroads into the habitat base. The

  7. Analysis of overdeepened valleys using the digital elevation model of the bedrock surface of Northern Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, P.

    2010-11-15

    Based on surface and borehole information, together with pre-existing regional and local interpretations, a 7,150 square kilometre Raster Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of the bedrock surface of northern Switzerland was constructed using a 25 m cell size. This model represents a further important step in the understanding of Quaternary sediment distribution and is open to a broad field of application and analysis, including hydrogeological, geotechnical and geophysical studies as well as research in the field of Pleistocene landscape evolution. An analysis of the overdeepened valleys in the whole model area and, more specifically in the Reuss area, shows that, in most cases, overdeepening is restricted to the areas covered by the Last Glaciation Maximum (LGM). However, at various locations relatively narrow overdeepened valleys outreach the tongue basins and the LGM ice shield limits. Therefore, an earlier and further-reaching glacial event has probably contributed significantly to the overdeepening of these valleys. No significant overdeepening has been identified downstream of Boettstein (Aare) and Kaiserstuhl (Rhine), although the ice extended considerably further downstream, at least during the most extensive glaciation. Except for the bedrock between Brugg and Boettstein, no overdeepened valleys are found significantly north of the outcrop of Mesozoic limestone of the Folded and Tabular Jura. A detailed analysis of the Reuss area shows that the Lake and Suhre valleys are separated from the Emmen-Gisikon Reuss valley basin by a significant bedrock barrier. The individual bedrock valleys are divided into several sub-basins, indicating a multiphase evolution of the valleys. Some of the swells or barriers separating the sub-basins coincide with known late LGM retreat stages. In the Suhre valley, an old fluvial valley floor with restricted overdeepened sections is documented. (author)

  8. Efficient crop type mapping based on remote sensing in the Central Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Liheng

    Most agricultural systems in California's Central Valley are purposely flexible and intentionally designed to meet the demands of dynamic markets. Agricultural land use is also impacted by climate change and urban development. As a result, crops change annually and semiannually, which makes estimating agricultural water use difficult, especially given the existing method by which agricultural land use is identified and mapped. A minor portion of agricultural land is surveyed annually for land-use type, and every 5 to 8 years the entire valley is completely evaluated. So far no effort has been made to effectively and efficiently identify specific crop types on an annual basis in this area. The potential of satellite imagery to map agricultural land cover and estimate water usage in the Central Valley is explored. Efforts are made to minimize the cost and reduce the time of production during the mapping process. The land use change analysis shows that a remote sensing based mapping method is the only means to map the frequent change of major crop types. The traditional maximum likelihood classification approach is first utilized to map crop types to test the classification capacity of existing algorithms. High accuracy is achieved with sufficient ground truth data for training, and crop maps of moderate quality can be timely produced to facilitate a near-real-time water use estimate. However, the large set of ground truth data required by this method results in high costs in data collection. It is difficult to reduce the cost because a trained classification algorithm is not transferable between different years or different regions. A phenology based classification (PBC) approach is developed which extracts phenological metrics from annual vegetation index profiles and identifies crop types based on these metrics using decision trees. According to the comparison with traditional maximum likelihood classification, this phenology-based approach shows great advantages

  9. Uranium contamination in the Great Miami Aquifer at the Fernald Environmental Management Project, Fernald, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidle, W.C.

    1996-01-01

    Ground-water investigations at a former US Department of Energy nuclear weapons complex near Fernald, in southwestern Ohio, included the delineation of uranium contamination above the USEPA proposed drinking water standard of 20 microg/l. Contamination occurs in a buried valley and has migrated >1.5 km south-southeast of the facility boundary. Flooring of the plume(s) appears to be ≅ 32 m below the water table of the Great Miami Aquifer. U 6+ predominates in the modeled U-O 2 -CO 2 -H 2 O system and U retardation decreases at depth. U 234 /U 238 disequilibria analyses complement hydrogeologic studies which suggest that U leakage through the clayey till cap is less significant than the predominant transport pathway of infiltration via drainage channels incised into the aquifer

  10. Submarine Landslides and Mass-Transport Deposition in the Nankai fore-arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, M.; Henry, P.; Kanamatsu, T.; Moe, K.; Moore, G. F.; IODP Expedition 333 Scientists

    2011-12-01

    Multiple lines of evidence exist for a range of sediment mass movement processes within the shallow megasplay fault zone (MSFZ) area and the adjacent slope basin in the outer fore-arc of the Nankai subduction zone, Japan. Diagnostic features observed in 3-D reflection seismic data and in cores from Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 316 document a complex mass movement history spanning at least ˜2.87 million years. Various modes and scales of sediment remobilization can be related to the different morphotectonic settings in which they occurred and allow integration of knowledge on the spatial and temporal distribution of submarine landslides into a holistic reconstruction of the tectonostratigraphic evolution. New data from the most-recent Nankai IODP Expedition 333, which drilled and cored a Pleistocene-to-Holocene succession of the slope-basin seaward of the MSFZ, provides unprecedented details on submarine landslide processes occurring over the last Million year. The slope-basin represents the depocentre for downslope sediment transport and is characterized in 3-D reflection seismic data by several mass-transport deposits (MTDs), including an up to 180 m thick MTD. Here we present D/V Chikyu shipboard results and first post cruise results from Site C0018, including litho- bio- magneto- tephra- and stable isotope-stratigraphy, X-ray computed tomography analysis and physical properties data. Six MTDs were identified from visual core description and X-ray CT-scans. The thickest MTD is also the oldest (emplaced between 0.85 and 1.05 Ma) and it coincides with a lithological transition between a sandy turbidite sequence below, and ash-bearing hemipelagites comprising several MTDs above. Deformation styles within the MTD are heterogeneous: intervals of disturbed sediments are interbedded within intervals inferred to retain original, coherent bedding. In three occurrences the base of the MTD is defined by a shear zone within fine-grained sediments

  11. Budgets and chemical characterization of groundwater for the Diamond Valley flow system, central Nevada, 2011–12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, David L.; Mayers, C. Justin; Garcia, C. Amanda; Buto, Susan G.; Huntington, Jena M.

    2016-07-29

    The Diamond Valley flow system consists of six hydraulically connected hydrographic areas in central Nevada. The general down-gradient order of the areas are southern and northern Monitor Valleys, Antelope Valley, Kobeh Valley, Stevens Basin, and Diamond Valley. Groundwater flow in the Diamond Valley flow system terminates at a large playa in the northern part of Diamond Valley. Concerns relating to continued water-resources development of the flow system resulted in a phased hydrologic investigation that began in 2005 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with Eureka County. This report presents the culmination of the phased investigation to increase understanding of the groundwater resources of the basin-fill aquifers in the Diamond Valley flow system through evaluations of groundwater chemistry and budgets. Groundwater chemistry was characterized using major ions and stable isotopes from groundwater and precipitation samples. Groundwater budgets accounted for all inflows, outflows, and changes in storage, and were developed for pre-development (pre-1950) and recent (average annual 2011–12) conditions. Major budget components include groundwater discharge by evapotranspiration and groundwater withdrawals; groundwater recharge by precipitation, and interbasin flow; and storage change.

  12. 76 FR 56471 - Meeting of the John H. Chafee Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ...] Meeting of the John H. Chafee Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor Commission AGENCY: National Heritage Corridor Commission, John H. Chafee Blackstone River Valley, National Park Service... Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. Appendix, that the John H. Chafee Blackstone River Valley National...

  13. Rift Valley Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Amy

    2017-06-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a severe veterinary disease of livestock that also causes moderate to severe illness in people. The life cycle of RVF is complex and involves mosquitoes, livestock, people, and the environment. RVF virus is transmitted from either mosquitoes or farm animals to humans, but is generally not transmitted from person to person. People can develop different diseases after infection, including febrile illness, ocular disease, hemorrhagic fever, or encephalitis. There is a significant risk for emergence of RVF into new locations, which would affect human health and livestock industries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Current hot spot in the spin-valley blockade in carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Széchenyi, Gábor; Pályi, András

    2013-12-01

    We present a theoretical study of the spin-valley blockade transport effect in a double quantum dot defined in a straight carbon nanotube. We find that intervalley scattering due to short-range impurities completely lifts the spin-valley blockade and induces a large leakage current in a certain confined range of the external magnetic field vector. This current hot spot emerges due to different effective magnetic fields acting on the spin-valley qubit states of the two quantum dots. Our predictions are compared to a recent measurement [F. Pei , Nat. Nanotech.1748-338710.1038/nnano.2012.160 7, 630 (2012)]. We discuss the implications for blockade-based schemes for qubit initialization/readout and motion sensing of nanotube-based mechanical resonators.

  15. Evidence for slow late-glacial ice retreat in the upper Rangitata Valley, South Island, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulmeister, J.; Fink, D.; Winkler, S.; Thackray, G. D.; Borsellino, R.; Hemmingsen, M.; Rittenour, T. M.

    2018-04-01

    A suite of cosmogenic radionuclide ages taken from boulders on lateral and latero-terminal moraines in the Rangitata Valley, eastern South Island, New Zealand demonstrates that relatively thick ice occupied valley reaches inland of the Rangitata Gorge until c. 21 ka. Thereafter ice began to thin, and by c. 17 ka it had retreated 33 km up-valley of the Rangitata Gorge to the Butler-Brabazon Downs, a structurally created basin in the upper Rangitata Valley. Despite its magnitude, this retreat represents a minor ice volume reduction from 21 ka to 17 ka, and numerous lateral moraines preserved suggest a relatively gradual retreat over that 4 ka period. In contrast to records from adjacent valleys, there is no evidence for an ice-collapse at c. 18 ka. We argue that the Rangitata record constitutes a more direct record of glacial response to deglacial climate than other records where glacial dynamics were influenced by proglacial lake development, such as the Rakaia Valley to the North and the major valleys in the Mackenzie Basin to the south-west. Our data supports the concept of a gradual warming during the early deglaciation in the South Island New Zealand.

  16. The great pipeline debate : the Minister of everything

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    This article described the challenges facing Trans-Canada Pipelines (TCPL) in the 1950s regarding the construction of a pipeline to deliver gas to central Canadian markets. Alberta had been granted gas export permits, and the proposed pipeline was financed primarily by American interests. In addition, TCPL had difficulties with several competing proposals to move gas east from Alberta. There was also opposition to TCPL's original route which was through American territory. When the pipeline was rerouted through rugged Precambrian Shield, private-sector financiers balked at the additional costs. During the Great Pipeline debate in 1956, federal Minister C.D. Howe encouraged TCPL and its competitors to merge and put a bill before Parliament to create a Crown corporation to build and own the Canadian Shield portion of the line, leasing it back to TCPL. The first president of TCPL was Eldon Tanner, member of Alberta's Legislative Assembly. He remained at the helm until the pipeline was completed. Industrialist Frank McMahon who participated in drilling activities in British Columbia and at Turner Valley, Alberta, also promoted a plan to complete the construction of the Westcoast Transmission pipeline from the Peace River, Canada's first large natural-gas pipeline. 4 figs

  17. Predicting the valley physics of silicon quantum dots directly from a device layout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, John King; Harvey-Collard, Patrick; Jacobson, N. Tobias; Bacewski, Andrew D.; Nielsen, Erik; Montaño, Inès; Rudolph, Martin; Carroll, Malcolm S.; Muller, Richard P.

    Qubits made from electrostatically-defined quantum dots in Si-based systems are excellent candidates for quantum information processing applications. However, the multi-valley structure of silicon's band structure provides additional challenges for the few-electron physics critical to qubit manipulation. Here, we present a theory for valley physics that is predictive, in that we take as input the real physical device geometry and experimental voltage operation schedule, and with minimal approximation compute the resulting valley physics. We present both effective mass theory and atomistic tight-binding calculations for two distinct metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) quantum dot systems, directly comparing them to experimental measurements of the valley splitting. We conclude by assessing these detailed simulations' utility for engineering desired valley physics in future devices. Sandia is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the US Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000. The authors gratefully acknowledge support from the Sandia National Laboratories Truman Fellowship Program, which is funded by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program.

  18. 77 FR 68783 - Prospective Grant of Co-Exclusive License: Veterinary Vaccines for Rift Valley Fever Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    ... Grant of Co-Exclusive License: Veterinary Vaccines for Rift Valley Fever Virus AGENCY: Centers for... Valley Fever Virus Utilizing Reverse Genetics,'' US Provisional Application 61/042,987, filed 4/7/2008, entitled ``Recombinant Rift Valley Fever (RVF) Viruses and Method of Use,'' PCT Application PCT/US2008...

  19. 75 FR 22775 - Copper Valley Electric Association; Notice of Scoping Meeting and Soliciting Scoping Comments for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 13124-000] Copper Valley....: 13124-000. c. Applicant: Copper Valley Electric Association. d. Name of Project: Allison Lake Project. e.... 791(a)-825(r). g. Applicant Contact: Robert A. Wilkinson, CEO, Copper Valley Electric Association, P.O...

  20. Proximity to citrus influences Pierce's disease in Temecula Valley vineyards

    OpenAIRE

    Perring, Thomas M.; Farrar, Charles A.; Blua, Matthew

    2001-01-01

    Pierce's disease has caused extensive losses to grapes in the Temecula Valley. The primary vector of Pierce's disease in the region is the glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS), which has been found in large numbers in citrus trees. We examined the role of citrus in the Temecula Valley Pierce's disease epidemic and found that citrus groves have influenced the incidence and severity of Pierce's disease in grapes. Because GWSS inhabit citrus in large numbers, California grape growers should take ad...

  1. Isotopes and Sustainability of the Shallow Groundwater System in Spring and Snake Valleys, Eastern White Pine County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acheampong, S. Y.

    2007-12-01

    A critical component to managing water resources is understanding the source of ground water that is extracted from a well. Detail information on the source of recharge and the age of groundwater is thus vital for the proper assessment, development, management, and monitoring of the groundwater resources in an area. Great differences in the isotopic composition of groundwater in a basin and the basin precipitation imply that the groundwater in the basin originates from a source outside the basin or is recharged under different climatic conditions. The stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen in precipitation were compared with the isotopic composition of water from wells, springs, and creeks to evaluate the source of the shallow groundwater recharge in Spring and Snake Valleys, Nevada, as part of an evaluation of the water resources in the area. Delta deuterium and delta oxygen-18 composition of springs, wells, creeks, and precipitation in Spring and Snake Valleys show that groundwater recharge occurs primarily from winter precipitation in the surrounding mountains. The carbon-14 content of the groundwater ranged from 30 to 95 percent modern carbon (pmc). Twenty two of the thirty samples had carbon-14 values of greater than 50 pmc. The relatively high carbon-14 values suggest that groundwater in the area is recharged by modern precipitation and the waters have rapid travel times. Total dissolved solids content of the samples outside the playa areas are generally low, and suggests that the water has a relatively short travel time between the recharge areas and sample sites. The presence of tritium in some of the springs and wells also indicate that groundwater mixes with post 1952 precipitation. Hydrogen bomb tests which began in 1952 in the northern hemisphere added large amounts of tritium to the atmosphere and reached a peak in 1963. The stable isotopic composition, the high carbon-14 activities, and the presence of tritium, show that the shallow groundwater in

  2. Testing MODFLOW-LGR for simulating flow around Buried Quaternary valleys - synthetic test cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilhelmsen, Troels Norvin; Christensen, Steen

    In Denmark the water supply is entirely based on ground water. In some parts of the country these resources are found in buried quaternary tunnel valleys. Intensive mapping has shown that the valleys typically have a complex internal hydrogeology with multiple cut and ­fill structures....... The administration of groundwater resources has been based on simulations using regional scale groundwater models. However, regional scale models have difficulties with accurately resolving the complex geology of the buried valleys, which bears the risk of poor model predictions of local scale effects of groundwater...

  3. Update on the status of the West Valley demonstration project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greeves, J.T.; Camper, L.W.; Orlando, D.A.; Glenn, C.J.; Buckley, J.T.; Giardina, P.A.

    2002-01-01

    From 1966 to 1972, under an Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) license, Nuclear Fuel Services (NFS) reprocessed 640 metric tons of spent fuel at its West Valley, New York, facility-, the only commercial spent fuel reprocessing plant in the U.S. The facility shut down in 1972, for modifications to increase its seismic stability and to expand its capacity. In 1976, without restarting the operation, NFS withdrew from the reprocessing business and returned control of the facilities to the site owner, the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA). The reprocessing activities resulted in about 2.3 million liters (600,000 gallons) of liquid high-level waste (HLW) stored below ground in tanks, other radioactive wastes, and residual radioactive contamination. The West Valley site was licensed by AEC, and then the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), until 1981, when the license was suspended to execute the 1980 West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) Act. The WVDP Act outlines the responsibilities of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), NRC, and NYSERDA at the site, including the NRC's responsibility to develop decommissioning criteria for the site. The Commission published the final policy statement on decommissioning criteria for the WVDP at the West Valley site after considering comments from interested stakeholders. In that regard, the Commission prescribed the License Termination Rule (LTR) criteria for the WVDP at the West Valley site, reflecting the fact that the applicable decommissioning goal for the entire NRC-licensed site is compliance with the requirements of the LTR. This paper will describe the history of the site, provide an update of the status of the decommissioning of the site and an overview of the technical and policy issues facing Federal and State regulators and other stakeholders as they strive to complete the remediation of the site. (author)

  4. PM10 source apportionment study in Pleasant Valley, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egami, R.T.; Chow, J.C.; Watson, J.G.; DeLong, T.

    1990-01-01

    A source apportionment study was conducted between March 18 and April 4, 1988, at Pleasant Valley, Nevada, to evaluate air pollutant concentrations to which community residents were exposed and the source contributions to those pollutants. Daily PM 10 samples were taken for chemical speciation of 40 trace elements, ions, and organic and elemental carbon. This paper reports that the objectives of this case study are: to determine the emissions source composition of the potential upwind source, a geothermal plant; to measure the ambient particulate concentration and its chemical characteristics in Pleasant Valley; and to estimate the contributions of different emissions sources to PM 10 . The study found that: particulate emissions from the geothermal cooling-tower plume consisted primarily of sulfate, ammonia, chloride, and trace elements; no significant quantities of toxic inorganic species were found in the ambient air; ambient PM 10 concentrations in Pleasant Valley were within Federal standards; and source contribution to PM 10 were approximately 60% geological material; 20% motor vehicle exhaust; and 10% cooling-tower plume

  5. Intelligent electric vehicle charging: Rethinking the valley-fill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Keenan; Temple, William G.; Zhang, K. Max

    This study proposes an intelligent PEV charging scheme that significantly reduces power system cost while maintaining reliability compared to the widely discussed valley-fill method of aggregated charging in the early morning. This study considers optimal PEV integration into the New York Independent System Operator's (NYISO) day-ahead and real-time wholesale energy markets for 21 days in June, July, and August of 2006, a record-setting summer for peak load. NYISO market and load data is used to develop a statistical Locational Marginal Price (LMP) and wholesale energy cost model. This model considers the high cost of ramping generators at peak-load and the traditional cost of steady-state operation, resulting in a framework with two competing cost objectives. Results show that intelligent charging assigns roughly 80% of PEV load to valley hours to take advantage of low steady-state cost, while placing the remaining 20% equally at shoulder and peak hours to reduce ramping cost. Compared to unregulated PEV charging, intelligent charging reduces system cost by 5-16%; a 4-9% improvement over the flat valley-fill approach. Moreover, a Charge Flexibility Constraint (CFC), independent of market modeling, is constructed from a vehicle-at-home profile and the mixture of Level 1 and Level 2 charging infrastructure. The CFC is found to severely restrict the ability to charge vehicles during the morning load valley. This study further shows that adding more Level 2 chargers without regulating PEV charging will significantly increase wholesale energy cost. Utilizing the proposed intelligent PEV charging method, there is a noticeable reduction in system cost if the penetration of Level 2 chargers is increased from 70/30 to 50/50 (Level 1/Level 2). However, the system benefit is drastically diminished for higher penetrations of Level 2 chargers.

  6. Rock-fall Hazard In The Yosemite Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzetti, F.; Reichenbach, P.; Wieczorek, G. F.

    Rock slides and rock falls are the most frequent slope movements in Yosemite Na- tional Park, California. In historical time (1851-2001), more than 400 rock falls and rock slides have been documented in the valley, and some of them have been mapped in detail. We present the preliminary results of an attempt to assess rockfall hazard in the Yosemite Valley using STONE, a 3-dimensional rock-fall simulation computer program. The software computes 3-dimensional rock-fall trajectories starting from a digital terrain model (DTM), the location of rock-fall release points (source areas), and maps of the dynamic rolling coefficient and of the coefficients of normal and tan- gential energy restitution. For each DTM cell the software also calculates the number of rock falls passing through the cell, the maximum rock-fall velocity and the maxi- mum flying height. For the Yosemite Valley, a DTM with a ground resolution of 10 x 10 m was prepared using topographic contour lines from USGS 1:24,000-scale maps. Rock-fall release points were identified as DTM cells having a slope steeper than 60 degrees, an assumption based on the location of historical rock falls. Maps of the nor- mal and tangential energy restitution coefficients and of the rolling friction coefficient were produced from a surficial geologic map. The availability of historical rock falls mapped in detail allowed us to check the computer program performance and to cali- brate the model parameters. Visual and statistical comparison of the model results with the mapped rock falls confirmed the accuracy of the model. The model results are also compared with a geomorphic assessment of rock-fall hazard based on potential energy referred to as a "shadow angle" approach, recently completed for the Yosemite Valley.

  7. Babesiosis in Lower Hudson Valley, New York

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast discusses a study about an increase in babesiosis in the Lower Hudson Valley of New York state. Dr. Julie Joseph, Assistant Professor of Medicine at New York Medical College, shares details of this study.

  8. 27 CFR 9.66 - Russian River Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Springs map. (22) Proceed 4.8 miles north-northwest along Mark West Springs Road, which becomes Porter Creek Road, to its intersection with Franz Valley Road, a light-duty road to the north of Porter Creek...

  9. 75 FR 62137 - Notice of Public Meeting; Proposed Alluvial Valley Floor Coal Exchange Public Interest Factors...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-07

    ... exchange Federal coal deposits for Alluvial Valley Floor (AVF) fee coal pursuant to the Federal Land Policy...; MTM-99236] Notice of Public Meeting; Proposed Alluvial Valley Floor Coal Exchange Public Interest... Alluvial Valley Floor Environmental Assessment can be viewed on the BLM's Miles City Field Office Web page...

  10. Hidden Valley Higgs Decays in the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Ciapetti, G

    2009-01-01

    A number of extensions of the Standard Model result in particles that are neutral, weakly-coupled and have macroscopic decay lengths that can be comparable with LHC detector dimensions. These particles represent, from an experimental point of view, a challenge both for the trigger and for the reconstruction capabilities of the ATLAS apparatus. For the purpose of exploring the challenges to the trigger posed by long-lived particles, the Hidden Valley scenario serves as an excellent setting. In this note we present the results of a first study of ATLAS detector performance for some Hidden Valley processes with long-lived, neutral states that decay throughout the detector volume to multi heavy-flavor jets, mainly b-bbar.

  11. Influence of system controls on the Late Quaternary geomorphic evolution of a rapidly-infilled incised-valley system: The lower Manawatu valley, North Island New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Alastair J. H.; Fuller, Ian C.

    2018-02-01

    The Manawatu incised-valley estuary was rapidly infilled between 12,000-4700 cal. yr BP. A combination of empirical measurements of sedimentation rates, a reconstruction of relative sea-level (RSL) change, and digital elevation models of key surfaces within the Holocene sedimentary fill of the valley were integrated to produce a numerical model to investigate the influence of the system controls of sea-level change, sediment flux, and accommodation space on the rapid infilling history of the palaeo-estuary. The numerical model indicates that sediment flux into the palaeo-estuary was greatest during the Holocene marine transgression between 12,000-8000 years BP. The average rate of sediment deposition in the estuary during this period was 1.0 M m3 yr- 1. This rapid rate of sedimentation was controlled by the rate of accommodation space creation, as regulated by the rate of sea-level rise and the antecedent configuration of the valley. By the time sea levels stabilised c. 7500 cal. yr BP, the palaeo-estuary had been substantively infilled. Limited accommodation space resulted in rapid infilling of the central basin, though sediment flux into the estuary between 7100 and 4500 cal. yr BP was at a lower rate of 234,000 m3 yr- 1. The limited accommodation space also influenced hydrodynamic conditions in the estuarine central basin, driving export of fine-grained sediment from the estuary. Once the accommodation space of the estuarine basin was infilled sediment bypassed the system, with a consequent reduction in the sedimentation rate in the valley. More accurate partitioning of the sources of sediment driving the infilling is necessary to quantify sediment bypassing. Post-depositional lowering of RSL index points from the valley is driven by neotectonics and sediment compaction.

  12. Using SLAM to Look For the Dog Valley Fault, Truckee Area, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, V. S.; Ashburn, J. A.; Sverdrup, K. A.

    2014-12-01

    within the Walker Lane transition zone between the Basin and Range and the Sierra Nevada-Great Valley Block. If the current seismogenic trace of the DVF is along the ~32° trend, perhaps the more prominent geomorphic lineaments traditionally associated with the DVF are inactive older features that are more strongly expressed on the landscape and that have rotated.

  13. Hydrogeologic implications of increased septic-tank-soil-absorption system density, Ogden Valley, Weber County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Mike; Miner, Michael L.; ,

    1990-01-01

    Ground water in Ogden Valley occurs in perched, confined, and unconfined aquifers in the valley fill to depths of 600 feet and more. The confined aquifer, which underlies only the western portion of the valley, is overlain by cleyey silt lacustrine sediments probably deposited during the Bonneville Basin's Little Valley lake cycle sometime between 90,000 and 150,000 years ago. The top of this cleyey silt confining layer is generally 25 to 60 feet below the ground surface. Unconfined conditions occur above and beyond the outer margin of the confining layer. The sediments overlying the confining layer are primarily Lake Bonneville deposits. Water samples from springs, streams, and wells around Pineview Reservoir, and from the reservoir itself, were collected and analyzed. These samples indicate that water quality in Ogden Valley is presently good. Average nitrate concentrations in the shallow unconfined aquifer increase toward the center of Ogden Valley. This trend was not observed in the confined aquifer. There is no evidence, however, of significant water-quality deterioration, even in the vicinity of Huntsville, a town that has been densely developed using septic-tank-soil-absorption systems for much of the time since it was founded in 1860.

  14. About the issue of monitoring method of Ararat valley soils salinization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.G. Yeghiazaryan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The short description of the agro-ameliorative situation of the Republic of Armenia, particularly, that of Ararat valley shows that the unpredictable and unmanageable process of regime procedures at this area can cause serious consequences, pushing out the agricultural golden fund of the republic from the agricultural turnover, namely the land of Ararat valley. Numerous investigations on the soil reclaimed state in Ararat valley at the Republic of Armenia reveal that they are currently in an extremely threatening condition. The result analyses show that more than 35% of Ararat valley lands of agricultural importance are in insufficiently reclaimed state, moreover the 54% of them are weakly salinized, 11,8% are averagely and strongly salinized and 34.2% are strongly salinized. The analyses of the conducted theoretical and experimental research results show that the above mentioned negative processes are promoted by the depth of the ground water allocation, which in Ararat valley fluctuates within the depth of 1 m, 1-3 m and more than 3 m. According to the distribution area the ground waters on 6,6% land areas of Ararat valley irrigated soils are allocated at the depth of 1 m, in 27,8% land areas the ground waters are allocated at the depth of 1–3 m, and in the rest of 65,6% land area waters are allocated at the depth of more than 3 m. For the prevention of the soils salinization process at Ararat valley and for the development of measures for struggling against it, the impact of ground waters installation depth, their mineralization, calculated evapo-transpiration from the soil and plants, irrigation norm, watering regime and technique, pressure nutrition caused from underground water basin and the impact of evaporation raising from the ground water surfaces on the ground waters level change in the vegetation period is evaluated in the current work. For the evaluation of the above mentioned individual factors the integral

  15. Ionospheric E–F valley observed by a sounding rocket at the low-latitude station Hainan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Shi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available According to the sounding rocket experiment conducted at Hainan ionospheric observatory (19.5° N, 109.1° E, a valley between the E layer and F layer in the ionospheric electron density profile is observed and presented. The sounding rocket was launched in the morning (06:15 LT on 7 May 2011, and the observed electron density profile outside the valley agrees with the simultaneous observation by the DPS-4 digisonde at the same station. The width of the observed valley was about 42 km, the depth almost 50%, and the altitude of the electron density minimum 123.5 km. This is the first observation of the E–F valley in the low-latitude region in the East Asian sector. The results are also compared with models, and the physical mechanism of the observed valley is discussed in this paper.

  16. Vitrification process equipment design for the West Valley Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, C.C.; Drosjack, W.P.

    1988-10-01

    The vitrification process and equipment design is nearing completion for the West Valley Project. This report provides the basis and current status for the design of the major vessels and equipment within the West Valley Vitrification Plant. A review of the function and key design features of the equipment is also provided. The major subsystems described include the feed preparation and delivery systems, the melter, the canister handling systems, and the process off-gas system. 11 refs., 33 figs., 4 tabs

  17. Why do European companies have Innovation Hubs in Silicon Valley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berger, Andreas; Brem, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Innovation hubs are gaining high attention in recent years, especially from European companies. Silicon Valley has been deemed as one of the most attractive and successful environments for establishing innovation hubs. This article highlights examples of companies from Europe that made the step...... to California—namely, Volkswagen, Swisscom, BMW, Axel Springer, Munich Re, and Innogy SE (RWE Group). Based on these companies’ experiences, recommendations are given on how companies might approach a setup in Silicon Valley for long-term success....

  18. Simulation of channel sandstone architecture in an incised valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frykman, P.; Johannessen, P.; Andsbjerg, J.

    1998-12-31

    The present report describes a geostatistical modelling study that is aimed at reflecting the architecture of the channel sandstones in an incised valley fill. The example used for this study is a part of the Middle Jurassic sandy succession of the Bryne Formation in the Danish central Graben. The succession consists mainly of fluvial sediments in the lower part, overlain by tidal influenced sediments, which again is overlain by shallow marine sediments. The modelling study has been performed on a sequence of incised valley sediments in the upper part of the Bryne Formation overlying fluvial sediments. (au) EFP-96. 19 refs.

  19. Poultry Slaughter facility Zambezi Valley, Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vernooij, A.G.; Wilschut, S.

    2015-01-01

    This business plan focuses on the establishment of a slaughterhouse, one of the essential elements of a sustainable and profitable poultry meat value chain. There is a growing demand for poultry meat in the Zambezi Valley, and currently a large part of the consumed broilers comes from other parts of

  20. Latest Pleistocene and Holocene surficial deposits and landforms of Yosemite Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddon, E. K.; Stock, G. M.; Booth, D. B.

    2016-12-01

    Field studies on the surficial geology and geomorphology of Yosemite Valley since the 1870's formed an early basis for our understanding of Quaternary landscape evolution in the central Sierra Nevada. These landmark studies described the erosional origin of Yosemite's iconic scenery, but left details of the latest Pleistocene and Holocene sedimentary record for later investigation. We combined mapping of deposits and landforms with geochronology to reconstruct the geomorphic evolution of Yosemite Valley since the 15 ka retreat of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) valley glacier. We document a sustained period of relative landscape stability, characterized by valley-bottom aggradation of glacial till, fluvial sediments, and lacustrine silts, as well as valley-margin accumulation of talus and fan alluvium. Recessional moraines, episodically emplaced rock avalanches, and alluvial fans impeded surface flow and controlled the local base level. This predominantly aggradational regime then shifted to incision in the earliest Holocene, likely due to a diminishing supply of glacial sediment, and created a flight of fluvial terraces inset by up to 9 m. The volume of fringing talus and fan alluvium in comparison with fluvial terrace sequences emphasizes the importance of valley-wall erosion as a sediment source. Cosmogenic 10Be exposure ages from rock avalanche boulders and 14C charcoal ages from deltaic sequences and inset fluvial gravels suggest variable rates of Holocene river incision. Although some incision events likely record local base level changes at the El Capitan LGM recessional moraine, the presence of perched, well-developed outwash terraces downstream indicates a more regional climatic forcing. These findings, including the depositional record of land-use disturbances over the past two centuries, help illuminate the geologic evolution of this celebrated landscape and inform ongoing river-restoration work.

  1. Valley Topological Phases in Bilayer Sonic Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jiuyang; Qiu, Chunyin; Deng, Weiyin; Huang, Xueqin; Li, Feng; Zhang, Fan; Chen, Shuqi; Liu, Zhengyou

    2018-03-01

    Recently, the topological physics in artificial crystals for classical waves has become an emerging research area. In this Letter, we propose a unique bilayer design of sonic crystals that are constructed by two layers of coupled hexagonal array of triangular scatterers. Assisted by the additional layer degree of freedom, a rich topological phase diagram is achieved by simply rotating scatterers in both layers. Under a unified theoretical framework, two kinds of valley-projected topological acoustic insulators are distinguished analytically, i.e., the layer-mixed and layer-polarized topological valley Hall phases, respectively. The theory is evidently confirmed by our numerical and experimental observations of the nontrivial edge states that propagate along the interfaces separating different topological phases. Various applications such as sound communications in integrated devices can be anticipated by the intriguing acoustic edge states enriched by the layer information.

  2. Extracting valley-ridge lines from point-cloud-based 3D fingerprint models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Xufang; Song, Zhan; Xie, Wuyuan

    2013-01-01

    3D fingerprinting is an emerging technology with the distinct advantage of touchless operation. More important, 3D fingerprint models contain more biometric information than traditional 2D fingerprint images. However, current approaches to fingerprint feature detection usually must transform the 3D models to a 2D space through unwrapping or other methods, which might introduce distortions. A new approach directly extracts valley-ridge features from point-cloud-based 3D fingerprint models. It first applies the moving least-squares method to fit a local paraboloid surface and represent the local point cloud area. It then computes the local surface's curvatures and curvature tensors to facilitate detection of the potential valley and ridge points. The approach projects those points to the most likely valley-ridge lines, using statistical means such as covariance analysis and cross correlation. To finally extract the valley-ridge lines, it grows the polylines that approximate the projected feature points and removes the perturbations between the sampled points. Experiments with different 3D fingerprint models demonstrate this approach's feasibility and performance.

  3. Transient electromagnetic mapping of clay units in the San Luis Valley, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitterman, David V.; Grauch, V.J.S.

    2010-01-01

    Transient electromagnetic soundings were used to obtain information needed to refine hydrologic models of the San Luis Valley, Colorado. The soundings were able to map an aquitard called the blue clay that separates an unconfined surface aquifer from a deeper confined aquifer. The blue clay forms a conductor with an average resistivity of 6.9 ohm‐m. Above the conductor are found a mixture of gray clay and sand. The gray clay has an average resistivity of 21 ohm‐m, while the sand has a resistivity of greater than 100 ohm‐m. The large difference in resistivity of these units makes mapping them with a surface geophysical method relatively easy. The blue clay was deposited at the bottom of Lake Alamosa which filled most of the San Luis Valley during the Pleistocene. The geometry of the blue clay is influenced by a graben on the eastern side of the valley. The depth to the blue clay is greater over the graben. Along the eastern edge of valley the blue clay appears to be truncated by faults.

  4. A tracer investigation of the atmospheric dispersion in the Dyrnaes Valley, Greenland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gryning, S.-E.; Lyck, E.

    1983-02-01

    Mining at Kvanefjeld, Greenland, will result in releases of air pollution gases. In order to measure the dilution of these gases tracer experiments were carried out in July-August 1981. Results from these experiments are described. The Kvanefjeld constitutes the northwestern side of a valley. The tracer was released at the Kvanefjeld during the night and sampled in the valley. The measured tracer concentrations were compared with those calculated by use of a conventional model of the dispersion of plumes. The dilution of the tracer was found to correspond to the dilution at ground level of a plume from a stack of 100-200 m height in atmospheric neutral conditions (wind speed 5 m/s). General aspects of the flow-field in the valley are discussed. It was observed that the flow direction in the valley shifts between downvalley and upvalley with a period of approximately 1 hour. It is suggested that this behaviour is caused by the interplay of a drainage flow and a sea-breeze. (author)

  5. Stratigraphic architecture of back-filled incised-valley systems: Pennsylvanian-Permian lower Cutler beds, Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Oliver J. W.; Mountney, Nigel P.

    2013-12-01

    The Pennsylvanian to Permian lower Cutler beds collectively form the lowermost stratigraphic unit of the Cutler Group in the Paradox Basin, southeast Utah. The lower Cutler beds represent a tripartite succession comprising lithofacies assemblages of aeolian, fluvial and shallow-marine origin, in near equal proportion. The succession results from a series of transgressive-regressive cycles, driven by repeated episodes of climatic variation and linked changes in relative sea-level. Relative sea-level changes created a number of incised-valleys, each forming through fluvial incision during lowered base-level. Aeolian dominance during periods of relative sea-level lowstand aids incised-valley identification as the erosive bounding surface juxtaposes incised-valley infill against stacked aeolian faces. Relative sea-level rises resulted in back-flooding of the incised-valleys and their infill via shallow-marine and estuarine processes. Back-flooded valleys generated marine embayments within which additional local accommodation was exploited. Back-filling is characterised by a distinctive suite of lithofacies arranged into a lowermost, basal fill of fluvial channel and floodplain architectural elements, passing upwards into barform elements with indicators of tidal influence, including inclined heterolithic strata and reactivation surfaces. The incised-valley fills are capped by laterally extensive and continuous marine limestone elements that record the drowning of the valleys and, ultimately, flooding and accumulation across surrounding interfluves (transgressive surface). Limestone elements are characterised by an open-marine fauna and represent the preserved expression of maximum transgression.

  6. New foci of cutaneous leishmaniasis in central Kenya and the Rift Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, D K; Okelo, G B; Ndegwa, C W; Ashford, R W

    1993-01-01

    Active case detection and investigations of sandfly resting places in suspected transmission sites of cutaneous leishmaniasis in central Kenya and the Rift Valley resulted in the identification of several foci of the disease in Samburu, Isiolo, Laikipia, Nakuru and Nyandarua districts. The foci occurred in areas ranging from semi-arid lowlands at 400 m altitude to highland plateaux at 2500 m, including the floor of the Rift Valley, and were mostly inhabited by recently settled communities, nomads and migrant charcoal burners. Four species of Phlebotomus, 3 of the subgenus Larroussius (P. pedifer, P. aculeatus and P. guggisbergi) and one Paraphlebotomus (P. saevus) were collected from caves, rock crevices and tree hollows found in river valleys and in lava flows.

  7. Competition between the inter-valley scattering and the intra-valley scattering on magnetoconductivity induced by screened Coulomb disorder in Weyl semimetals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan-Ting Ji

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent experiments on Weyl semimetals reveal that charged impurities may play an important role. We use a screened Coulomb disorder to model the charged impurities, and study the magneto-transport in a two-node Weyl semimetal. It is found that when the external magnetic field is applied parallel to the electric field, the calculated longitudinal magnetoconductivity shows positive in the magnetic field, which is just the negative longitudinal magnetoresistivity (LMR observed in experiments. When the two fields are perpendicular to each other, the transverse magnetoconductivities are measured. It is found that the longitudinal (transverse magnetoconductivity is suppressed (enhanced sensitively with increasing the screening length. This feature makes it hardly to observe the negative LMR in Weyl semimetals experimentally owing to a small screening length. Our findings gain insight into further understanding on recently actively debated magneto-transport behaviors in Weyl semimetals. Furthermore we studied the relative weight of the inter-valley scattering and the intra-valley scattering. It shows that the former is as important as the latter and even dominates in the case of strong magnetic fields and small screening length. We emphasize that the discussions on inter-valley scattering is out of the realm of one-node model which has been studied.

  8. Valley of the unicorns: consumer genomics, venture capital and digital disruption

    OpenAIRE

    Hogarth, Stuart James

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on the sociology of expectations and sociology of conventions, this paper explores issues of worth and value in the bioeconomy, and the promissory character of contemporary capitalism. Arguing that the literature on biocapital has paid insufficient attention to geographical differentiation in capital accumulation strategies, this paper situates the consumer genomics firm 23andme in the entrepreneurial culture of Silicon Valley. The paper suggests that in Silicon Valley the relationshi...

  9. Steelhead Critical Habitat, Central Valley - NOAA [ds123

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This layer depicts areas designated for Steelhead Critical Habitat as well as habitat type and quality in the California Central Valley Evolutionary Significant Unit...

  10. Rift Valley fever outbreak, Mauritania, 1998: seroepidemiologic, virologic, entomologic, and zoologic investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabeth, P; Kane, Y; Abdalahi, M O; Diallo, M; Ndiaye, K; Ba, K; Schneegans, F; Sall, A A; Mathiot, C

    2001-01-01

    A Rift Valley fever outbreak occurred in Mauritania in 1998. Seroepidemiologic and virologic investigation showed active circulation of the Rift Valley fever virus, with 13 strains isolated, and 16% (range 1.5%-38%) immunoglobulin (Ig) M-positivity in sera from 90 humans and 343 animals (sheep, goats, camels, cattle, and donkeys). One human case was fatal.

  11. Eco-Hydrological Modelling of Stream Valleys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Ole

    a flow reduction in the order of 20 % in a natural spring, whereas no effect could be measured in neither short nor deep piezometers in the river valley 50 m from the spring. Problems of measuring effects of pumping are partly caused by disturbances from natural water level fluctuations. In this aspect...

  12. Documentation of the Santa Clara Valley regional ground-water/surface-water flow model, Santa Clara Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, R.T.; Li, Zhen; Faunt, C.C.

    2004-01-01

    The Santa Clara Valley is a long, narrow trough extending about 35 miles southeast from the southern end of San Francisco Bay where the regional alluvial-aquifer system has been a major source of water. Intensive agricultural and urban development throughout the 20th century and related ground-water development resulted in ground-water-level declines of more than 200 feet and land subsidence of as much as 12.7 feet between the early 1900s and the mid-1960s. Since the 1960s, Santa Clara Valley Water District has imported surface water to meet growing demands and reduce dependence on ground-water supplies. This importation of water has resulted in a sustained recovery of the ground-water flow system. To help support effective management of the ground-water resources, a regional ground-water/surface-water flow model was developed. This model simulates the flow of ground water and surface water, changes in ground-water storage, and related effects such as land subsidence. A numerical ground-water/surface-water flow model of the Santa Clara Valley subbasin of the Santa Clara Valley was developed as part of a cooperative investigation with the Santa Clara Valley Water District. The model better defines the geohydrologic framework of the regional flow system and better delineates the supply and demand components that affect the inflows to and outflows from the regional ground-water flow system. Development of the model includes revisions to the previous ground-water flow model that upgraded the temporal and spatial discretization, added source-specific inflows and outflows, simulated additional flow features such as land subsidence and multi-aquifer wellbore flow, and extended the period of simulation through September 1999. The transient-state model was calibrated to historical surface-water and ground-water data for the period 197099 and to historical subsidence for the period 198399. The regional ground-water flow system consists of multiple aquifers that are grouped

  13. Inca expansion and parasitism in the lluta valley: preliminary data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Calogero; Vinton, Sheila Dorsey; Reinhard, Karl J

    2003-01-01

    Assessing the impact of cultural change on parasitism has been a central goal in archaeoparasitology. The influence of civilization and the development of empires on parasitism has not been evaluated. Presented here is a preliminary analysis of the change in human parasitism associated with the Inca conquest of the Lluta Valley in Northern Chile. Changes in parasite prevalence are described. It can be seen that the change in life imposed on the inhabitants of the Lluta Valley by the Incas caused an increase in parasitism.

  14. Delineation of tunnel valley across the North Sea coastline, Denmark based on reflection seismic data, boreholes, TEM and Schlumberger soundings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Theis Raaschou; Jørgensen, Flemming; Christensen, Steen

    Buried tunnel valleys are elongated depressions eroded into the substratum during the Pleistocene glaciations. Nine such valleys are mapped on- and offshore in a 300 km2 area located at the Danish North Sea coast. The delineation of the buried valleys is based on an extensive data set consisting......, preferred orientations, and morphology support that three of the tunnel valleys cross the North Sea coastline. It is suggested that the nine valleys were formed during at least six events that occurred through one or more pre-Weichselian glaciations. Key words: Pleistocene valleys, geophysical mapping...

  15. 75 FR 64741 - Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor Commission: Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Office of the Secretary Blackstone River Valley National Heritage..., United States Code, that a meeting of the John H. Chafee Blackstone River Valley National Heritage... should be made prior to the meeting to: Jan H. Reitsma, Executive Director, John H. Chafee, Blackstone...

  16. 75 FR 2885 - Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor Commission: Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Office of the Secretary Blackstone River Valley National Heritage..., United States Code, that a meeting of the John H. Chafee Blackstone River Valley National Heritage... should be made prior to the meeting to: Jan H. Reitsma, Executive Director, John H. Chafee Blackstone...

  17. Chinook Critical Habitat, Central Valley - NOAA [ds125

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This layer depicts areas designated for Chinook Critical Habitat as well as habitat type and quality in the Central Valley Spring-run Evolutionary Significant Unit...

  18. Chinook Critical Habitat, Central Valley - NOAA [ds125

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This layer depicts areas designated for Chinook Critical Habitat as well as habitat type and quality in the Central Valley Spring-run Evolutionary Significant Unit...

  19. Bird Use of Imperial Valley Crops [ds427

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Agriculture crops in the Imperial Valley of California provide valuable habitat for many resident and migratory birds and are a very important component of the...

  20. Livelihood Strategies in Shaxi, Southwest China: Conceptualizing Mountain–Valley Interactions as a Human–Environment System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz K. Huber

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the socio-ecological differences and interactions between upland and lowland areas in Shaxi Valley, Yunnan Province, Southwest China. As an analytical tool we used an extended Human–Environment System Framework by focusing particularly on the dynamics and sustainability of livelihood strategies and mountain–valley interactions. Drawing from household surveys conducted in two mountain and two valley communities in 2005 and 2009, we show that the distinct income gap between mountain and valley households in 2005 ceased to exist in 2009. The main drivers for this development are the local tourist industry, persistent demand for forest resources, as well as local off-farm and seasonal migrant employment.

  1. Timing of Mississippi Valley-type mineralization: Relation to Appalachian orogenic events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesler, S.E.; van der Pluijm, B.A. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor (USA))

    1990-11-01

    Although Mississippi Valley-type deposits in Lower Ordovician carbonate rocks of the Appalachian orogen are commonly interpreted to have been precipitated by basinal brines, the timing of brine migration remains poorly known. Late Paleozoic K-Ar isotopic ages on authigenic K-feldspar, which is widespread in Appalachian carbonate rocks, as well as evidence of paleomagnetic overprints of similar age, have focused attention on the possibility that these Mississippi Valley-type deposits formed as a result of late Paleozoic deformation. Geologic and geochemical similarities among most of these deposits, from Georgia to Newfoundland, including unusually high sphalerite/galena ratios, isotopically heavy sulfur, and relatively nonradiogenic lead, suggest that they are coeval. Sphalerite sand that parallels host-rock layering in many of the deposits indicates that mineralization occurred before regional deformation. Although the late Paleozoic age of deformation in the southern Appalachians provides little constraint on the age of Mississippi Valley-type mineralization, deformation of these deposits in the Newfoundland Appalachians is early to middle Paleozoic in age. Thus, if Ordovician-hosted, Appalachian Mississippi Valley-type deposits are coeval, they must have formed by middle Paleozoic time and cannot be the product of a late Paleozoic fluid-expulsion event. This hypothesis has important implications for basin evolution, fluid events, and remagnetization in the Appalachians.

  2. Interrelations among pyroclastic surge, pyroclastic flow, and lahars in Smith Creek valley during first minutes of 18 May 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantley, S.R.; Waitt, R.B.

    1988-01-01

    A devastating pyroclastic surge and resultant lahars at Mount St. Helens on 18 May 1980 produced several catastrophic flowages into tributaries on the northeast volcano flank. The tributaries channeled the flows to Smith Creek valley, which lies within the area devastated by the surge but was unaffected by the great debris avalanche on the north flank. Stratigraphy shows that the pyroclastic surge preceded the lahars; there is no notable "wet" character to the surge deposits. Therefore the lahars must have originated as snowmelt, not as ejected water-saturated debris that segregated from the pyroclastic surge as has been inferred for other flanks of the volcano. In stratigraphic order the Smith Creek valley-floor materials comprise (1) a complex valley-bottom facies of the pyroclastic surge and a related pyroclastic flow, (2) an unusual hummocky diamict caused by complex mixing of lahars with the dry pyroclastic debris, and (3) deposits of secondary pyroclastic flows. These units are capped by silt containing accretionary lapilli, which began falling from a rapidly expanding mushroom-shaped cloud 20 minutes after the eruption's onset. The Smith Creek valley-bottom pyroclastic facies consists of (a) a weakly graded basal bed of fines-poor granular sand, the deposit of a low-concentration lithic pyroclastic surge, and (b) a bed of very poorly sorted pebble to cobble gravel inversely graded near its base, the deposit of a high-concentration lithic pyroclastic flow. The surge apparently segregated while crossing the steep headwater tributaries of Smith Creek; large fragments that settled from the turbulent surge formed a dense pyroclastic flow along the valley floor that lagged behind the front of the overland surge. The unusual hummocky diamict as thick as 15 m contains large lithic clasts supported by a tough, brown muddy sand matrix like that of lahar deposits upvalley. This unit contains irregular friable lenses and pods meters in diameter, blocks incorporated from

  3. Analysis, design and interventions on valley floors at the city of Alfenas [MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Cardoso

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The floor of valleys are areas with important physical and environmental characteristics, interacting with diverse natural processes that occur in our planet. With the urbanization, degradation of such areas usually occurs, resulting in the physical, social and cultural withdrawing of the population from the urban river and stream lands. The purpose of this paper is to study the action of the public administration on valley floors and the management tools which may render feasable thee environmental preservation as well as environment and landscape renaturalization of such areas thus promoting echological and functional balance in the urban fluviatic lands. In order to prepare a proposal, several items were studied: the physical environmental characteristics of the valley floors, the transformations associated to urbanization. Based on this research, a plan was made for city of Alfenas [MG] as regards the management of the valley floor lands: a proposal of intervention in one of the hydrographic basins.

  4. Hydrogeologic framework and occurrence, movement, and chemical characterization of groundwater in Dixie Valley, west-central Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, Jena M.; Garcia, C. Amanda; Rosen, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Dixie Valley, a primarily undeveloped basin in west-central Nevada, is being considered for groundwater exportation. Proposed pumping would occur from the basin-fill aquifer. In response to proposed exportation, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation and Churchill County, conducted a study to improve the understanding of groundwater resources in Dixie Valley. The objective of this report is to characterize the hydrogeologic framework, the occurrence and movement of groundwater, the general water quality of the basin-fill aquifer, and the potential mixing between basin-fill and geothermal aquifers in Dixie Valley. Various types of geologic, hydrologic, and geochemical data were compiled from previous studies and collected in support of this study. Hydrogeologic units in Dixie Valley were defined to characterize rocks and sediments with similar lithologies and hydraulic properties influencing groundwater flow. Hydraulic properties of the basin-fill deposits were characterized by transmissivity estimated from aquifer tests and specific-capacity tests. Groundwater-level measurements and hydrogeologic-unit data were combined to create a potentiometric surface map and to characterize groundwater occurrence and movement. Subsurface inflow from adjacent valleys into Dixie Valley through the basin-fill aquifer was evaluated using hydraulic gradients and Darcy flux computations. The chemical signature and groundwater quality of the Dixie Valley basin-fill aquifer, and potential mixing between basin-fill and geothermal aquifers, were evaluated using chemical data collected from wells and springs during the current study and from previous investigations. Dixie Valley is the terminus of the Dixie Valley flow system, which includes Pleasant, Jersey, Fairview, Stingaree, Cowkick, and Eastgate Valleys. The freshwater aquifer in the study area is composed of unconsolidated basin-fill deposits of Quaternary age. The basin-fill hydrogeologic unit

  5. Susceptibility to deltamethrin of wild and domestic populations of Triatoma infestans of the Gran Chaco and the Inter-Andean Valleys of Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Marinely Bustamante; D'Avila, Grasielle Caldas Pessoa; Orellana, Ana Lineth Garcia; Cortez, Mirko Rojas; Rosa, Aline Cristine Luiz; Noireau, François; Diotaiuti, Liléia Gonçalves

    2014-11-14

    The persistence of Triatoma infestans and the continuous transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in the Inter-Andean Valleys and in the Gran Chaco of Bolivia are of great significance. Coincidentally, it is in these regions the reach of the vector control strategies is limited, and reports of T. infestans resistance to insecticides, including in wild populations, have been issued. This study aims to characterize the susceptibility to deltamethrin of wild and domestic populations of T. infestans from Bolivia, in order to better understand the extent of this relevant problem. Susceptibility to deltamethrin was assessed in nine, wild and domestic, populations of T. infestans from the Gran Chaco and the Inter-Andean Valleys of Bolivia. Serial dilutions of deltamethrin in acetone (0.2 μL) were topically applied in first instar nymphs (F1, five days old, fasting, weight 1.2 ± 0.2 mg). Dose response results were analyzed with PROBIT version 2, determining the lethal doses, slope and resistance ratios (RR). Qualitative tests were also performed. Three wild T. infestans dark morph samples of Chaco from the Santa Cruz Department were susceptible to deltamethrin with RR50 of Bolivia are less susceptible.

  6. Use of ground-water reservoirs for storage of surface water in the San Joaquin Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, G.H.; Lofgren, B.E.; Mack, Seymour

    1964-01-01

    The San Joaquin Valley includes roughly the southern two-thirds of the Central Valley of California, extending 250 miles from Stockton on the north to Grapevine at the foot of the Tehachapi Mountains. The valley floor ranges in width from 25 miles near Bakersfield to about 55 miles near Visalia; it has a surface area of about 10,000 square miles. More than one-quarter of all the ground water pumped for irrigation in the United States is used in this highly productive valley. Withdrawal of ground water from storage by heavy pumping not only provides a needed irrigation water supply, but it also lowers the ground-water level and makes storage space available in which to conserve excess water during periods of heavy runoff. A storage capacity estimated to be 93 million acre-feet to a depth of 200 feet is available in this ground-water reservoir. This is about nine times the combined capacity of the existing and proposed surface-water reservoirs in the San Joaquin Valley under the California Water Plan. The landforms of the San Joaquin Valley include dissected uplands, low plains and fans, river flood plains and channels, and overflow lands and lake bottoms. Below the land surface, unconsolidated sediments derived from the surrounding mountain highlands extend downward for hundreds of feet. These unconsolidated deposits, consisting chiefly of alluvial deposits, but including some widespread lacustrine sediments, are the principal source of ground water in the valley. Ground water occurs under confined and unconfined conditions in the San Joaquin Valley. In much of the western, central, and southeastern parts of the valley, three distinct ground-water reservoirs are present. In downward succession these are 1) a body of unconfined and semiconfined fresh water in alluvial deposits of Recent, Pleistocene, and possibly later Pliocene age, overlying the Corcoran clay member of the Tulare formation; 2) a body of fresh water confined beneath the Corcoran clay member, which

  7. Anaerobic Oxidation of Methane at a Marine Methane Seep in a Forearc Sediment Basin off Sumatra, Indian Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegert, Michael; Krüger, Martin; Teichert, Barbara; Wiedicke, Michael; Schippers, Axel

    2011-01-01

    A cold methane seep was discovered in a forearc sediment basin off the island Sumatra, exhibiting a methane-seep adapted microbial community. A defined seep center of activity, like in mud volcanoes, was not discovered. The seep area was rather characterized by a patchy distribution of active spots. The relevance of anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) was reflected by (13)C-depleted isotopic signatures of dissolved inorganic carbon. The anaerobic conversion of methane to CO(2) was confirmed in a (13)C-labeling experiment. Methane fueled a vital microbial community with cell numbers of up to 4 × 10(9) cells cm(-3) sediment. The microbial community was analyzed by total cell counting, catalyzed reporter deposition-fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH), quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). CARD-FISH cell counts and qPCR measurements showed the presence of Bacteria and Archaea, but only small numbers of Eukarya. The archaeal community comprised largely members of ANME-1 and ANME-2. Furthermore, members of the Crenarchaeota were frequently detected in the DGGE analysis. Three major bacterial phylogenetic groups (δ-Proteobacteria, candidate division OP9, and Anaerolineaceae) were abundant across the study area. Several of these sequences were closely related to the genus Desulfococcus of the family Desulfobacteraceae, which is in good agreement with previously described AOM sites. In conclusion, the majority of the microbial community at the seep consisted of AOM-related microorganisms, while the relevance of higher hydrocarbons as microbial substrates was negligible.

  8. 75 FR 22620 - Upper Klamath, Lower Klamath, Tule Lake, Bear Valley, and Clear Lake National Wildlife Refuges...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ...] Upper Klamath, Lower Klamath, Tule Lake, Bear Valley, and Clear Lake National Wildlife Refuges, Klamath..., Bear Valley, and Clear Lake National Wildlife Refuges (Refuges) located in Klamath County, Oregon, and..., Tule Lake, Bear Valley, and Clear Lake Refuges located in Klamath County, Oregon, and Siskiyou and...

  9. Draft environmental impact statement - BPA/Lower Valley transmission project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    Bonneville Power Administration and Lower Valley Power and Light, Inc., propose to solve a voltage stability problem in the Jackson and Afton, Wyoming areas. For the Agency Proposed Action, BPA and Lower Valley would construct a new 115-kV line from BPA's Swan Valley Substation near Swan Valley in Bonneville County, Idaho about 58 km (36 miles) east to BPA's Teton Substation near Jackson in Teton County, Wyoming. The new line would be next to an existing 115-kV line. Most of the line would be supported by a mix of single-circuit wood pole H-frame structures would be used. The Single-Circuit Line Alternative has all the components of the Agency Proposed Action except that the entire line would be supported by single-circuit structures. The Short Line Alternative has all the components of the Single-Circuit Line Alternative except it would then be removed. For the Static Var Compensation Alternative, BPA would install a Static Var Compensator (SVC) at Teton or Jackson Substation. An SVC is a group of electrical equipment placed at a substation to help control voltage on a transmission system. The No Action Alternative assumes that no new transmission line is built, and no other equipment is added to the transmission system. The USFS (Targhee and Bridger-Teton National Forests) must select al alternative based on their needs and objectives, decide if the project complies with currently approved forest plans, decide if special use permits or easements are needed for construction, operation, and maintenance of project facilities, and decide if they would issue special use permits and letters of consent to grant easements for the project

  10. Valley formation by groundwater seepage, pressurized groundwater outbursts and crater-lake overflow in flume experiments with implications for Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Wouter A.; Braat, Lisanne; Baar, Anne W.; Kleinhans, Maarten G.

    2014-04-01

    Remains of fluvial valleys on Mars reveal the former presence of water on the surface. However, the source of water and the hydrological setting is not always clear, especially in types of valleys that are rare on Earth and where we have limited knowledge of the processes involved. We investigated three hydrological scenarios for valley formation on Mars: hydrostatic groundwater seepage, release of pressurized groundwater and crater-lake overflow. Using physical modeling in laboratory experiments and numerical hydrological modeling we quantitatively studied the morphological development and processes involved in channel formation that result from these different sources of water in unconsolidated sediment. Our results show that valleys emerging from seeping groundwater by headward erosion form relatively slowly as fluvial transport takes place in a channel much smaller than the valley. Pressurized groundwater release forms a characteristic source area at the channel head by fluidization processes. This head consist of a pit in case of superlithostatic pressure and may feature small radial channels and collapse features. Valleys emerging from a crater-lake overflow event develop quickly in a run-away process of rim erosion and discharge increase. The valley head at the crater outflow point has a converging fan shape, and the rapid incision of the rim leaves terraces and collapse features. Morphological elements observed in the experiments can help in identifying the formative processes on Mars, when considerations of experimental scaling and lithological characteristics of the martian surface are taken into account. These morphological features might reveal the associated hydrological settings and formative timescales of a valley. An estimate of formative timescale from sediment transport is best based on the final channel dimensions for groundwater seepage valleys and on the valley dimensions for pressurized groundwater release and crater-lake overflow valleys. Our

  11. Testing a Mars science outpost in the Antarctic dry valleys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, D. T.; Mckay, C. P.; Wharton, R. A.; Rummel, J. D.

    1992-01-01

    Field research conducted in the Antarctic has been providing insights about the nature of Mars in the science disciplines of exobiology and geology. Located in the McMurdo Dry Valleys of southern Victoria Land (160 deg and 164 deg E longitude and 76 deg 30 min and 78 deg 30 min S latitude), research outposts are inhabited by teams of 4-6 scientists. It is proposed that the design of these outposts be expanded to enable meaningful tests of many of the systems that will be needed for the successful conduct of exploration activities on Mars. Although there are some important differences between the environment in the Antarctic dry valleys and on Mars, the many similarities and particularly the field science activities, make the dry valleys a useful terrestrial analog to conditions on Mars. Three areas have been identified for testing at a small science outpost in the dry valleys: (1) studying human factors and physiology in an isolated environment; (2) testing emerging technologies (e.g. innovative power management systems, advanced life support facilities including partial bioregenerative life support systems for water recycling and food growth, telerobotics, etc.); and (3) conducting basic scientific research that will enhance understanding of Mars while contributing to the planning for human exploration. It is suggested that an important early result of a Mars habitat program will be the experience gained by interfacing humans and their supporting technology in a remote and stressful environment.

  12. Evaporative demand and water requirements of the principal crops of the Guadalentin valley (SE Spain) in drought periods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Toribio, M. I.; Garcia-Marin, R.; Conesa-Garcia, C.; Lopez-Bermudez, F.

    2010-07-01

    The drought periods that affect the province of Murcia, especially the Guadalentin Valley, are aggravated by an increase in evaporative demand. The aim of the present study was to characterize the increased water demand of woody and herbaceous crops during drought periods in the Guadalentin Valley, an agricultural zone with an excellent climate for specialty crops, which is of great economic importance for Murcia. After defining the drought periods of the last three decades in time and space by means of the standard index of rainfall drought (IESP), several methods were used to determine the reference evapotranspiration (ETo): the Penman-Monteith model (ASCE and FAO models for grass), the Hargreaves method (ETo-ASCE for alfalfa), and ETo using the FAO Radiation method. Finally, the crop water requirements for each to crop type and area of cultivation were estimated using monthly crop coefficients (K{sub c}) and the mean monthly evaporative demand values were obtained by the best fitting method. The increase in the evaporative demand reflected the increased water deficits that occur in the drought years, both in summer and winter (1.23 hm{sup 3} yr{sup -}1). Drought periods are also responsible for reducing the areas dedicated to horticultural crops, because of their high water demands and the additional costs involved, resulting an aggravated socioeconomic position and increased unemployment. (Author) 25 refs.

  13. Source apportionment of PM10 mass and particulate carbon in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bong Mann; Park, Jin-Soo; Kim, Sang-Woo; Kim, Hyunjae; Jeon, Haeun; Cho, Chaeyoon; Kim, Ji-Hyoung; Hong, Seungkyu; Rupakheti, Maheswar; Panday, Arnico K.; Park, Rokjin J.; Hong, Jihyung; Yoon, Soon-Chang

    2015-12-01

    The Kathmandu Valley in Nepal is a bowl-shaped urban basin in the Himalayan foothills with a serious problem of fine particulate air pollution that impacts local health and impairs visibility. Particulate carbon concentrations have reached severe levels that threaten the health of 3.5 million local residents. Moreover, snow and ice on the Himalayan mountains are melting as a result of additional warming due to particulate carbon, especially high black carbon concentrations. To date, the sources of the Valley's particulate carbon and the impacts of different sources on particulate carbon concentrations are not well understood. Thus, before an effective control strategy can be developed, these particulate carbon sources must be identified and quantified. Our study has found that the four primary sources of particulate carbon in the Kathmandu Valley during winter are brick kilns, motor vehicles, fugitive soil dust, and biomass/garbage burning. Their source contributions are quantified using a recently developed new multivariate receptor model SMP. In contrast to other highly polluted areas such as China, secondary contribution is almost negligible in Kathmandu Valley. Brick kilns (40%), motor vehicles (37%) and biomass/garbage burning (22%) have been identified as the major sources of elemental carbon (black carbon) in the Kathmandu Valley during winter, while motor vehicles (47%), biomass/garbage burning (32%), and soil dust (13%) have been identified as the most important sources of organic carbon. Our research indicates that controlling emissions from motor vehicles, brick kilns, biomass/garbage burning, and soil dust is essential for the mitigation of the particulate carbon that threatens public health, impairs visibility, and influences climate warming within and downwind from the Kathmandu Valley. In addition, this paper suggests several useful particulate carbon mitigation methods that can be applied to Kathmandu Valley and other areas in South Asia with

  14. Systematic Mapping and Statistical Analyses of Valley Landform and Vegetation Asymmetries Across Hydroclimatic Gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulos, M. J.; Pierce, J. L.; McNamara, J. P.; Flores, A. N.; Benner, S. G.

    2015-12-01

    Terrain aspect alters the spatial distribution of insolation across topography, driving eco-pedo-hydro-geomorphic feedbacks that can alter landform evolution and result in valley asymmetries for a suite of land surface characteristics (e.g. slope length and steepness, vegetation, soil properties, and drainage development). Asymmetric valleys serve as natural laboratories for studying how landscapes respond to climate perturbation. In the semi-arid montane granodioritic terrain of the Idaho batholith, Northern Rocky Mountains, USA, prior works indicate that reduced insolation on northern (pole-facing) aspects prolongs snow pack persistence, and is associated with thicker, finer-grained soils, that retain more water, prolong the growing season, support coniferous forest rather than sagebrush steppe ecosystems, stabilize slopes at steeper angles, and produce sparser drainage networks. We hypothesize that the primary drivers of valley asymmetry development are changes in the pedon-scale water-balance that coalesce to alter catchment-scale runoff and drainage development, and ultimately cause the divide between north and south-facing land surfaces to migrate northward. We explore this conceptual framework by coupling land surface analyses with statistical modeling to assess relationships and the relative importance of land surface characteristics. Throughout the Idaho batholith, we systematically mapped and tabulated various statistical measures of landforms, land cover, and hydroclimate within discrete valley segments (n=~10,000). We developed a random forest based statistical model to predict valley slope asymmetry based upon numerous measures (n>300) of landscape asymmetries. Preliminary results suggest that drainages are tightly coupled with hillslopes throughout the region, with drainage-network slope being one of the strongest predictors of land-surface-averaged slope asymmetry. When slope-related statistics are excluded, due to possible autocorrelation, valley

  15. Terrestrial Cosmogenic-Nuclide Dating of Alluvial Fans in Death Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machette, Michael N.; Slate, Janet L.; Phillips, Fred M.

    2008-01-01

    We have used terrestrial cosmogenic nuclides (TCN) to establish the age of some of the most extensive Quaternary alluvial fans in Death Valley, California. These intermediate-age alluvial fans are most extensive on the western side of the valley, where tectonic deformation is considerably less pronounced than on the eastern side of the valley. These fans are characterized by a relatively smooth, densely packed desert pavement formed by well-varnished (blackened) clasts. These surfaces have been mapped as the Q2 gravel by previous workers and as unit Qai (intermediate age) by us. However, the intermediate-age gravels probably contain multiple subunits, as evidenced by slight differences in morphologic expression, soil formation, and inset geomorphic relations. The TCN technique used herein sums the cosmogenic 36Cl in approximately 2.5-meter-deep profiles through soil and host alluvium, thus avoiding some of the problems associated with the more typical surface-exposure dating of boulders or smaller clasts. Our TCN 36Cl dating of 12 depth profiles indicates that these intermediate-age (Qai) alluvial fans range from about 100 to 40 kilo-annum (ka), with a mean age of about 70 ka. An alternative interpretation is that alluvial unit Qai was deposited in two discrete episodes from 90 to 80 ka and from 60 to 50 ka, before and after MIS (marine oxygen-isotope stage) 4 (respectively). Without an intermediate-age unit, such as MIS 4 lake deposits, we can neither disprove nor prove that Qai was deposited in two discrete intervals or over a longer range of time. Thus, in Death Valley, alluvial unit Qai largely brackets MIS 4, which is not associated with a deep phase of Lake Manly. These Qai fans extend to elevations of about -46 meters (150 feet below sea level) and have not been transgressed by Lake Manly, suggesting that MIS 4 or MIS 2 lakes were rather shallow in Death Valley, perhaps because they lacked inflow from surface runoff of the Sierra Nevada drainages through

  16. Wetland survey of the X-10 Bethel Valley and Melton Valley groundwater operable units at Oak Ridge National Labortory Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosensteel, B.A.

    1996-03-01

    Executive Order 11990, Protection of Wetlands, (May 24, 1977) requires that federal agencies avoid, to the extent possible, adverse impacts associated with the destruction and modification of wetlands and that they avoid direct and indirect support of wetlands development when there is a practicable alternative. In accordance with Department of Energy (DOE) Regulations for Compliance with Floodplains and Wetlands Environmental Review Requirements (Subpart B, 10 CFR 1022.11), surveys for wetland presence or absence were conducted in both the Melton Valley and the Bethel Valley Groundwater Operable Units (GWOU) on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) from October 1994 through September 1995. As required by the Energy and Water Development Appropriations Act of 1992, wetlands were identified using the criteria and methods set forth in the Wetlands Delineation Manual (Army Corps of Engineers, 1987). Wetlands were identified during field surveys that examined and documented vegetation, soils, and hydrologic evidence. Most of the wetland boundary locations and wetland sizes are approximate. Boundaries of wetlands in Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 and on the former proposed site of the Advanced Neutron Source in the upper Melton Branch watershed were located by civil survey during previous wetland surveys; thus, the boundary locations and areal sizes in these areas are accurate. The wetlands were classified according to the system developed by Cowardin et al. (1979) for wetland and deepwater habitats of the United States. A total of 215 individual wetland areas ranging in size from 0.002 ha to 9.97 ha were identified in the Bethel Valley and Melton Valley GWOUs. The wetlands are classified as palustrine forested broad-leaved deciduous (PFO1), palustrine scrub-shrub broad-leaved deciduous (PSS1), and palustrine persistent emergent (PEM1)

  17. Dynamics of spatial clustering of schistosomiasis in the Yangtze River Valley at the end of and following the World Bank Loan Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yi; Xiong, Chenglong; Zhang, Zhijie; Luo, Can; Ward, Michael; Gao, Jie; Zhang, Lijuan; Jiang, Qingwu

    2014-06-01

    The 10-year (1992-2001) World Bank Loan Project (WBLP) contributed greatly to schistosomiasis control in China. However, the re-emergence of schistosomiasis in recent years challenged the long-term progress of the WBLP strategy. In order to gain insight in the long-term progress of the WBLP, the spatial pattern of the epidemic was investigated in the Yangtze River Valley between 1999-2001 and 2007-2008. Two spatial cluster methods were jointly used to identify spatial clusters of cases. The magnitude and number of clusters varied during 1999-2001. It was found that prevalence of schistosomiasis had been greatly reduced and maintained at a low level during 2007-2008, with little change. Besides, spatial clusters most frequently occurred within 16 counties in the Dongting Lake region and within 5 counties in the Poyang Lake region. These findings precisely pointed out the prior places for future public health planning and resource allocation of schistosomiasis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Geohydrology of the valley-fill aquifer in the Jamestown area, Chautauqua County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, H.R.; Stelz, W.G.; Belli, J.L.; Allen, R.V.

    1982-01-01

    This report is the sixth in a series of 11 map sets depicting geohydrologic conditions in selected aquifers in upstate New York. Geohydrologic data are compiled on six maps at 1:24,000 scale. Together, the maps provide a comprehensive overview of a major valley-fill aquifer in southeastern Chautauqua County. The maps include surficial geology, geologic sections, water-infiltration potential of soil zone, aquifer thickness, potentiometric-surface elevations and land use. The valley-fill deposits consist of alluvial silt and sand, glacial-outwash (sand and gravel), ice-contact sand and gravel, till, and lacustrine silt and clay. The sand and gravel beds have relatively high permeabilities whereas the till, silt and clay deposits have relatively low permeabilities. Water-table conditions prevail in u nconfined sand and gravel beds along the valley margin. Artesian conditions prevail in confined sand and gravel buried under silt and clay in the middle of the valley. Recharge occurs mainly along the margin of the valley, where the land surface is highly permeable and runoff from the hillsides is concentrated. The use of land overlying the aquifer is predominantly agricultural and residential with lesser amounts of commercial and industrial uses. (USGS)

  19. Valley- and spin-filter in monolayer MoS2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majidi, Leyla; Zare, Moslem; Asgari, Reza

    2014-12-01

    We propose a valley- and spin-filter based on a normal/ferromagnetic/normal molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) junction where the polarizations of the valley and the spin can be inverted by reversing the direction of the exchange field in the ferromagnetic region. By using a modified Dirac Hamiltonian and the scattering formalism, we find that the polarizations can be tuned by applying a gate voltage and changing the exchange field in the structure. We further demonstrate that the presence of a topological term (β) in the Hamiltonian results in an enhancement or a reduction of the charge conductance depending on the value of the exchange field.

  20. Hydrologic models and analysis of water availability in Cuyama Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, R.T.; Flint, Lorraine E.; Faunt, Claudia C.; Gibbs, Dennis R.; Schmid, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Changes in population, agricultural development practices (including shifts to more water-intensive crops), and climate variability are placing increasingly larger demands on available water resources, particularly groundwater, in the Cuyama Valley, one of the most productive agricultural regions in Santa Barbara County. The goal of this study was to produce a model capable of being accurate at scales relevant to water management decisions that could be considered in the evaluation of the sustainable water supply. The Cuyama Valley Hydrologic Model (CUVHM) was designed to simulate the most important natural and human components of the hydrologic system, including components dependent on variations in climate, thereby providing a reliable assessment of groundwater conditions and processes that can inform water users and help to improve planning for future conditions. Model development included a revision of the conceptual model of the flow system, construction of a precipitation-runoff model using the Basin Characterization Model (BCM), and construction of an integrated hydrologic flow model with MODFLOW-One-Water Hydrologic Flow Model (MF-OWHM). The hydrologic models were calibrated to historical conditions of water and land use and, then, used to assess the use and movement of water throughout the Valley. These tools provide a means to understand the evolution of water use in the Valley, its availability, and the limits of sustainability. The conceptual model identified inflows and outflows that include the movement and use of water in both natural and anthropogenic systems. The groundwater flow system is characterized by a layered geologic sedimentary sequence that—in combination with the effects of groundwater pumping, natural recharge, and the application of irrigation water at the land surface—displays vertical hydraulic-head gradients. Overall, most of the agricultural demand for water in the Cuyama Valley in the initial part of the growing season is

  1. Inca expansion and parasitism in the Lluta Valley: preliminary data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santoro Calogero

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the impact of cultural change on parasitism has been a central goal in archaeoparasitology. The influence of civilization and the development of empires on parasitism has not been evaluated. Presented here is a preliminary analysis of the change in human parasitism associated with the Inca conquest of the Lluta Valley in Northern Chile. Changes in parasite prevalence are described. It can be seen that the change in life imposed on the inhabitants of the Lluta Valley by the Incas caused an increase in parasitism.

  2. Great Apes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeman, Jonathan M.; Cerveny, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    Anesthesia of great apes is often necessary to conduct diagnostic analysis, provide therapeutics, facilitate surgical procedures, and enable transport and translocation for conservation purposes. Due to the stress of remote delivery injection of anesthetic agents, recent studies have focused on oral delivery and/or transmucosal absorption of preanesthetic and anesthetic agents. Maintenance of the airway and provision of oxygen is an important aspect of anesthesia in great ape species. The provision of analgesia is an important aspect of the anesthesia protocol for any procedure involving painful stimuli. Opioids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are often administered alone, or in combination to provide multi-modal analgesia. There is increasing conservation management of in situ great ape populations, which has resulted in the development of field anesthesia techniques for free-living great apes for the purposes of translocation, reintroduction into the wild, and clinical interventions.

  3. 27 CFR 9.41 - Lancaster Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lancaster Valley. 9.41 Section 9.41 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... through the town of Gap and along Mine Ridge to the 76°07′30″ west longitude line in Paradise Township. (9...

  4. Geomorphic legacy of medieval Himalayan earthquakes in the Pokhara Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Bernhardt, Anne; Stolle, Amelie; Hoelzmann, Philipp; Adhikari, Basanta R.; Andermann, Christoff; Tofelde, Stefanie; Merchel, Silke; Rugel, Georg; Fort, Monique; Korup, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    The Himalayas and their foreland belong to the world's most earthquake-prone regions. With millions of people at risk from severe ground shaking and associated damages, reliable data on the spatial and temporal occurrence of past major earthquakes is urgently needed to inform seismic risk analysis. Beyond the instrumental record such information has been largely based on historical accounts and trench studies. Written records provide evidence for damages and fatalities, yet are difficult to interpret when derived from the far-field. Trench studies, in turn, offer information on rupture histories, lengths and displacements along faults but involve high chronological uncertainties and fail to record earthquakes that do not rupture the surface. Thus, additional and independent information is required for developing reliable earthquake histories. Here, we present exceptionally well-dated evidence of catastrophic valley infill in the Pokhara Valley, Nepal. Bayesian calibration of radiocarbon dates from peat beds, plant macrofossils, and humic silts in fine-grained tributary sediments yields a robust age distribution that matches the timing of nearby M>8 earthquakes in ~1100, 1255, and 1344 AD. The upstream dip of tributary valley fills and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry of their provenance rule out local sediment sources. Instead, geomorphic and sedimentary evidence is consistent with catastrophic fluvial aggradation and debris flows that had plugged several tributaries with tens of meters of calcareous sediment from the Annapurna Massif >60 km away. The landscape-changing consequences of past large Himalayan earthquakes have so far been elusive. Catastrophic aggradation in the wake of two historically documented medieval earthquakes and one inferred from trench studies underscores that Himalayan valley fills should be considered as potential archives of past earthquakes. Such valley fills are pervasive in the Lesser Himalaya though high erosion rates reduce

  5. 78 FR 935 - Copper Valley Electric Association, Inc.; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 13124-003] Copper Valley Electric Association, Inc.; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment In accordance with the... 47897), the Office of Energy Projects has reviewed Copper Valley Electric Association, Inc.'s...

  6. 78 FR 71599 - Copper Valley Electric Association, Inc.; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 13124-005] Copper Valley Electric Association, Inc.; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment In accordance with the... 47897), the Office of Energy Projects has reviewed Copper Valley Electric Association, Inc.'s...

  7. 78 FR 38711 - Copper Valley Electric Association, Inc.; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 13124-003] Copper Valley Electric Association, Inc.; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment In accordance with the... 47897), the Office of Energy Projects has reviewed Copper Valley Electric Association, Inc.'s...

  8. Hydrology and numerical simulation of groundwater movement and heat transport in Snake Valley and surrounding areas, Juab, Miller, and Beaver Counties, Utah, and White Pine and Lincoln Counties, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masbruch, Melissa D.; Gardner, Philip M.; Brooks, Lynette E.

    2014-01-01

    Snake Valley and surrounding areas, along the Utah-Nevada state border, are part of the Great Basin carbonate and alluvial aquifer system. The groundwater system in the study area consists of water in unconsolidated deposits in basins and water in consolidated rock underlying the basins and in the adjacent mountain blocks. Most recharge occurs from precipitation on the mountain blocks and most discharge occurs from the lower altitude basin-fill deposits mainly as evapotranspiration, springflow, and well withdrawals.The Snake Valley area regional groundwater system was simulated using a three-dimensional model incorporating both groundwater flow and heat transport. The model was constructed with MODFLOW-2000, a version of the U.S. Geological Survey’s groundwater flow model, and MT3DMS, a transport model that simulates advection, dispersion, and chemical reactions of solutes or heat in groundwater systems. Observations of groundwater discharge by evapotranspiration, springflow, mountain stream base flow, and well withdrawals; groundwater-level altitudes; and groundwater temperatures were used to calibrate the model. Parameter values estimated by regression analyses were reasonable and within the range of expected values.This study represents one of the first regional modeling efforts to include calibration to groundwater temperature data. The inclusion of temperature observations reduced parameter uncertainty, in some cases quite significantly, over using just water-level altitude and discharge observations. Of the 39 parameters used to simulate horizontal hydraulic conductivity, uncertainty on 11 of these parameters was reduced to one order of magnitude or less. Other significant reductions in parameter uncertainty occurred in parameters representing the vertical anisotropy ratio, drain and river conductance, recharge rates, and well withdrawal rates.The model provides a good representation of the groundwater system. Simulated water-level altitudes range over

  9. Impact of the Rhône and Durance valleys on sea-breeze circulation in the Marseille area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastin, Sophie; Drobinski, Philippe; Dabas, Alain; Delville, Patricia; Reitebuch, Oliver; Werner, Christian

    2005-03-01

    Sea-breeze dynamics in the Marseille area, in the south of France, is investigated in the framework of the ESCOMPTE experiment conducted during summer 2001 in order to evaluate the role of thermal circulations on pollutant transport and ventilation. Under particular attention in this paper is the sea-breeze channelling by the broad Rhône valley and the narrow Durance valley, both oriented nearly-north-south, i.e., perpendicular to the coastline, and its possible impact on the sea-breeze penetration, intensity and depth, which are key information for air pollution issues. One situation of slight synoptic pressure gradient leading to a northerly flow in the Rhône valley (25 June 2001) and one situation of a weak onshore prevailing synoptic wind (26 June 2001) are compared. The impact of the Rhône and Durance valleys on the sea-breeze dynamics on these two typical days is generalized to the whole ESCOMPTE observing period. The present study shows by combining simple scaling analysis with wind data from meteorological surface stations and Doppler lidars that (i) the Durance valley always affects the sea breeze by accelerating the flow. A consequence is that the Durance valley contributes to weaken the temperature gradient along the valley and thus the sea-breeze circulation. In some cases, the acceleration of the channelled flow in the Durance valley suppresses the sea-breeze flow by temperature gradient inhibition; (ii) the Rhône valley does not generally affect the sea breeze significantly. However, if the sea breeze is combined with an onshore flow, it leads to further penetration inland and intensification of the low-level southerly flow. In this situation, lateral constriction may accelerate the sea breeze. Simple scaling analysis suggests that Saint Paul (44.35°N, about 100 km from the coastline) is the lower limit where sea breeze can be affected by the Rhône valley. These conclusions have implications in air quality topics as channelled sea breeze may

  10. SADF EARLYIRON AGE EXCAVATIONS IN THETUGELA VALLEY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    effect of the high flanking ridges of the Tugela. Valley. The high ... fire. Police intervention and the Bhengu superior- ity in numbers brought an end to the fights just prior to the ..... The tail and three legs of the reptile are miss- ing . . ~C£.'.':.-:".

  11. Topological valley transport of plate-mode waves in a homogenous thin plate with periodic stubbed surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiu-Jiu Chen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The study for exotic topological effects of sound has attracted uprising interests in fundamental physics and practical applications. Based on the concept of valley pseudospin, we demonstrate the topological valley transport of plate-mode waves in a homogenous thin plate with periodic stubbed surface, where a deterministic two-fold Dirac degeneracy is form by two plate modes. We show that the topological property can be controlled by the height of stubs deposited on the plate. By adjusting the relative heights of adjacent stubs, the valley vortex chirality and band inversion are induced, giving rise to a phononic analog of valley Hall phase transition. We further numerically demonstrate the valley states of plate-mode waves with robust topological protection. Our results provide a new route to design unconventional elastic topological insulators and will significantly broaden its practical application in the engineering field.

  12. Recent characterization activities of Midway Valley as a potential repository surface facility site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, J.D.; Wesling, J.R.; Swan, F.H.; Bullard, T.F.

    1992-01-01

    Midway Valley, located at the eastern base of Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada, has been identified as a possible location for the surface facilities of a potential high-level nuclear-waste repository. This structural and topographic valley is bounded by two north- trending, down-to-the-west normal faults: the Paintbrush Canyon fault on the east and the Bow Ridge fault on the west. Surface and near-surface geological data have been acquired from Midway Valley during the past three years with particular emphasis on evaluating the existence of Quaternary faults. A detailed (1:6000) surficial geological map has been prepared based on interpretation of new and existing aerial photographs, field mapping, soil pits, and trenches. No evidence was found that would indicate displacement of these surficial deposits along previously unrecognized faults. However, given the low rates of Quaternary faulting and the extensive areas that are covered by late Pleistocene to Holocene deposits south of Sever Wash, Quaternary faulting between known faults cannot be precluded based on surface evidence alone. Middle to late Pleistocene alluvial fan deposits (Unit Q3) exist at or near the surface throughout Midway Valley. Confidence is increased that the potential for surface fault rupture in Midway Valley can be assessed by excavations that expose the deposits and soils associated with Unit Q3 or older units (middle Pleistocene or earlier)

  13. Understanding Particulate Matter Dynamics in the San Joaquin Valley during DISCOVER-AQ, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakar, G.; Zhang, X.; Kim, H.; Parworth, C.; Pusede, S. E.; Wooldridge, P. J.; Cohen, R. C.; Zhang, Q.; Cappa, C. D.

    2015-12-01

    Air quality in the California San Joaquin Valley (SJV) during winter continues to be the worst in the state, failing EPA's 24-hour standard for particulate matter. Despite our improved understanding of the sources of particulate matter (PM) in the valley, air-quality models are unable to predict PM concentrations accurately. We aim to characterize periods of high particulate matter concentrations in the San Joaquin Valley based on ground and airborne measurements of aerosols and gaseous pollutants, during the DISCOVER-AQ campaign, 2013. A highly instrumented aircraft flew across the SJV making three transects in a repeatable pattern, with vertical spirals over select locations. The aircraft measurements were complemented by ground measurements at these locations, with extensive chemically-speciated measurements at a ground "supersite" at Fresno. Hence, the campaign provided a comprehensive three-dimensional view of the particulate and gaseous pollutants around the valley. The vertical profiles over the different sites indicate significant variability in the concentrations and vertical distribution of PM around the valley, which are most likely driven by differences in the combined effects of emissions, chemistry and boundary layer dynamics at each site. The observations suggest that nighttime PM is dominated by surface emissions of PM from residential fuel combustion, while early morning PM is strongly influenced by mixing of low-level, above-surface, nitrate-rich layers formed from dark chemistry overnight to the surface.

  14. Valley polarization due to trigonal warping on tunneling electrons in graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira Jr, J M; Peeters, F M; Costa Filho, R N; Farias, G A

    2009-01-01

    The effect of trigonal warping on the transmission of electrons tunneling through potential barriers in graphene is investigated. We present calculations of the transmission coefficient for single and double barriers as a function of energy, incidence angle and barrier heights. The results show remarkable valley-dependent directional effects for barriers oriented parallel to the armchair or parallel to the zigzag direction. These results indicate that electrostatic gates can be used as valley filters in graphene-based devices.

  15. DIVERSITY OF PTERIDOPHYTES IN THE PROTECTED AREA OF VÂLSAN VALLEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Cristina Soare

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the Vâlsan Valley there are two categories of regions that have been declared protected areas: The Natural Reserve Vâlsan Valley, code 2125 and The protected