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Sample records for great rupture length

  1. Development of rupture process analysis method for great earthquakes using Direct Solution Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimoto, M.; Yamanaka, Y.; Takeuchi, N.

    2010-12-01

    Conventional rupture process analysis methods using teleseismic body waves were based on ray theory. Therefore, these methods have the following problems in applying to great earthquakes such as 2004 Sumatra earthquake: (1) difficulty in computing all later phases such as the PP reflection phase, (2) impossibility of computing called “W phase”, the long period phase arriving before S wave, (3) implausibility of hypothesis that the distance is far enough from the observation points to the hypocenter compared to the fault length. To solve above mentioned problems, we have developed a new method which uses the synthetic seismograms computed by the Direct Solution Method (DSM, e.g. Kawai et al. 2006) as Green’s functions. We used the DSM software (http://www.eri.u-tokyo.ac.jp/takeuchi/software/) for computing the Green’s functions up to 1 Hz for the IASP91 (Kennett and Engdahl, 1991) model, and determined the final slip distributions using the waveform inversion method (Kikuchi et al. 2003). First we confirmed whether the Green’s functions computed by DSM were accurate in higher frequencies up to 1 Hz. Next we performed the rupture process analysis of this new method for Mw8.0 (GCMT) large Solomon Islands earthquake on April 1, 2007. We found that this earthquake consisted of two asperities and the rupture propagated across the subducting Sinbo ridge. The obtained slip distribution better correlates to the aftershock distributions than existing method. Furthermore, this new method keep same accuracy of existing method (which has the advantage of calculating) with respect to direct P-wave and reflection phases near the source, and also accurately calculate the later phases such a PP-wave.

  2. Amplification of tsunami heights by delayed rupture of great earthquakes along the Nankai trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, K.; Satake, K.; Furumura, T.

    2010-04-01

    We investigated the effect of delayed rupture of great earthquakes along the Nankai trough on tsunami heights on the Japanese coast. As the tsunami source, we used a model of the 1707 Hoei earthquake, which consists of four segments: Tokai, Tonankai, and two Nankai segments. We first searched for the worst case, in terms of coastal tsunami heights, of rupture delay time on each segment, on the basis of superposition principle for the linear long wave theory. When the rupture starts on the Tonankai segment, followed by rupture on the Tokai segment 21 min later, as well as the eastern and western Nankai segments 15 and 28 min later, respectively, the average coastal tsunami height becomes the largest. To quantify the tsunami amplification, we compared the coastal tsunami heights from the delayed rupture with those from the simultaneous rupture model. Along the coasts of the sea of Hyu'uga and in the Bungo Channel, the tsunami heights become significantly amplified (>1.4 times larger) relative to the simultaneous rupture. Along the coasts of Tosa Bay and in the Kii Channel, the tsunami heights become amplified about 1.2 times. Along the coasts of the sea of Kumano and Ise Bay, and the western Enshu coast, the tsunami heights become slightly smaller for the delayed rupture. Along the eastern Enshu coast, the coast of Suruga Bay, and the west coast of Sagami Bay, the tsunami heights become amplified about 1.1 times.

  3. Telomere length of anterior crucial ligament after rupture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponsot, Elodie; Langberg, Henning; Krogsgaard, Michael R

    2011-01-01

    The regeneration of ligaments following injury is a slow process compared to the healing of many other tissues and the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the proliferative potential of ligaments by assessing telomere length within three distinct parts...... of human anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) obtained during ACL reconstruction: the macroscopically injured proximal part and macroscopically noninjured mid- and distal portions in eight subjects (age 28 ± 8 years). The mean telomere length in ACL was within normal range of values usually reported for other...... tissues indicating that the endogenous machinery responsible for the proliferative potential of ligament is not implicated in its poor healing capacity. The three ACL parts showed similar mean TRF lengths (distal part: 11.5 ± 0.8 kbp, mid-portion: 11.8 ± 1.2 kbp, proximal part: 11.9 ± 1.6 kbp...

  4. Subducting plate geology in three great earthquake ruptures of the western Alaska margin, Kodiak to Unimak

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Huene, Roland E.; Miller, John J.; Weinrebe, Wilhelm

    2012-01-01

    Three destructive earthquakes along the Alaska subduction zone sourced transoceanic tsunamis during the past 70 years. Since it is reasoned that past rupture areas might again source tsunamis in the future, we studied potential asperities and barriers in the subduction zone by examining Quaternary Gulf of Alaska plate history, geophysical data, and morphology. We relate the aftershock areas to subducting lower plate relief and dissimilar materials in the seismogenic zone in the 1964 Kodiak and adjacent 1938 Semidi Islands earthquake segments. In the 1946 Unimak earthquake segment, the exposed lower plate seafloor lacks major relief that might organize great earthquake rupture. However, the upper plate contains a deep transverse-trending basin and basement ridges associated with the Eocene continental Alaska convergent margin transition to the Aleutian island arc. These upper plate features are sufficiently large to have affected rupture propagation. In addition, massive slope failure in the Unimak area may explain the local 42-m-high 1946 tsunami runup. Although Quaternary geologic and tectonic processes included accretion to form a frontal prism, the study of seismic images, samples, and continental slope physiography shows a previous history of tectonic erosion. Implied asperities and barriers in the seismogenic zone could organize future great earthquake rupture.

  5. Short fetal leukocyte telomere length and preterm prelabor rupture of the membranes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramkumar Menon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rupture of the fetal membranes is a common harbinger of imminent labor and delivery. Telomere shortening is a surrogate for oxidative stress (OS and senescence. Fetal leukocyte and placental membrane DNA telomere lengths were evaluated to determine their association with preterm prelabor rupture of the membranes (pPROM or spontaneous preterm births with intact membranes (PTB, compared to term birth. METHODS: Telomere lengths were quantified in cord blood leukocytes (n = 133 from three major groups: 1 pPROM (n = 28, 2 PTB (n = 69 and 3 uncomplicated full term births (controls, n = 35, using real-time quantitative PCR. Placental membrane specimens (n = 18 were used to correlate fetal leukocyte and placental telomere lengths. Telomere length differences among the groups were analyzed by ANOVA. Pearson correlation coefficients determined relationships between leukocyte and placental membrane telomere lengths. RESULTS: In pregnancies with intact membranes, fetal leukocyte telomere length was inversely proportional to gestational age. The mean telomere length decreased as gestation progressed, with the shortest at term. pPROM had telomere lengths (9962 ± 3124 bp that were significantly shorter than gestational age-matched PTB (11546 ± 4348 bp, p = 0.04, but comparable to term births (9011 ± 2497 bp, p = 0.31. Secondary analyses revealed no effects of race (African American vs. Caucasian or intraamniotic infection on telomere length. A strong Pearson's correlation was noted between fetal leukocyte and placental membrane telomere lengths (ρ = 0.77; p<0.01. CONCLUSIONS: Fetal leukocyte telomere length is reduced in pPROM compared to PTB but is similar to term births. pPROM represents a placental membrane disease likely mediated by OS-induced senescence.

  6. Rupture Propagation through the Big Bend of the San Andreas Fault: A Dynamic Modeling Case Study of the Great Earthquake of 1857

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozos, J.

    2017-12-01

    The great San Andreas Fault (SAF) earthquake of 9 January 1857, estimated at M7.9, was one of California's largest historic earthquakes. Its 360 km rupture trace follows the Carrizo and Mojave segments of the SAF, including the 30° compressional Big Bend in the fault. If 1857 were a characteristic rupture, the hazard implications for southern California would be dire, especially given the inferred 150 year recurrence interval for this section of the fault. However, recent paleoseismic studies in this region suggest that 1857-type events occur less frequently than single-segment Carrizo or Mojave ruptures, and that the hinge of the Big Bend is a barrier to through-going rupture. Here, I use 3D dynamic rupture modeling to attempt to reproduce the rupture length and surface slip distribution of the 1857 earthquake, to determine which physical conditions allow rupture to negotiate the Big Bend of the SAF. These models incorporate the nonplanar geometry of the SAF, an observation-based heterogeneous regional velocity structure (SCEC CVM), and a regional stress field from seismicity literature. Under regional stress conditions, I am unable to produce model events that both match the observed surface slip on the Carrizo and Mojave segments of the SAF and include rupture through the hinge of the Big Bend. I suggest that accumulated stresses at the bend hinge from multiple smaller Carrizo or Mojave ruptures may be required to allow rupture through the bend — a concept consistent with paleoseismic observations. This study may contribute to understanding the cyclicity of hazard associated with the southern-central SAF.

  7. Magnitude and Surface Rupture Length of Prehistoric Upper Crustal Earthquakes in the Puget Lowland, Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrod, B. L.; Styron, R. H.

    2016-12-01

    Paleoseismic studies documented prehistoric earthquakes after the last glaciation ended 15 ka on 13 upper-crustal fault zones in the Cascadia fore arc. These fault zones are a consequence of north-directed fore arc block migration manifesting as a series of bedrock uplifts and intervening structural basins in the southern Salish Sea lowland between Vancouver, B.C. to the north and Olympia, WA to the south, and bounded on the east and west by the Cascade Mountains and Olympic Mountains, respectively. Our dataset uses published information and includes 27 earthquakes tabulated from observations of postglacial deformation at 63 sites. Stratigraphic offsets along faults consist of two types of measurements: 1) vertical separation of strata along faults observed in fault scarp excavations, and 2) estimates from coastal uplift and subsidence. We used probabilistic methods to estimate past rupture magnitudes and surface rupture length (SRL), applying empirical observations from modern earthquakes and point measurements from paleoseismic sites (Biasi and Weldon, 2006). Estimates of paleoearthquake magnitude ranged between M 6.5 and M 7.5. SRL estimates varied between 20 and 90 km. Paleoearthquakes on the Seattle fault zone and Saddle Mountain West fault about 1100 years ago were outliers in our analysis. Large offsets observed for these two earthquakes implies a M 7.8 and 200 km SRL, given the average observed ratio of slip/SRL in modern earthquakes. The actual mapped traces of these faults are less than 200km, implying these earthquakes had an unusually high static stress drop or, in the case of the Seattle fault, splay faults may have accentuated uplift in the hanging wall. Refined calculations incorporating fault area may change these magnitude and SRL estimates. Biasi, G.P., and Weldon, R.J., 2006, Estimating Surface Rupture Length and Magnitude of Paleoearthquakes from Point Measurements of Rupture Displacement: B. Seismol. Soc. Am., 96, 1612-1623.

  8. Source to Sink Tectonic Fate of Large Oceanic Turbidite Systems and the Rupturing of Great and Giant Megathrust Earthquakes (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, D. W.; Kirby, S. H.; von Huene, R.

    2010-12-01

    OCEAN FLOOR OBSERVATIONS: Oceanic turbidite systems accumulate above igneous oceanic crust and are commonly huge in areal and volumetric dimensions. For example, the volume of the Zodiac fan of the Gulf of Alaska is roughly 300,000 cubic km. Other large oceanic systems construct the Amazon cone, flood the Bay of Bengal abyss, and accumulate along trench axes to thickness of 1 to 7 km and lengths of 1000 to 3000 km, e.g., the Aleutian-Alaska, Sumatra-Andaman, Makran, and south central Chile Trenches. THE ROCK RECORD: Despite the large dimensions of oceanic turbidite systems, they are poorly preserved in the rock record. This includes oceanic systems deposited in passive-margin oceans, e.g., the Paleozoic Iapetus and Rheric oceans of the Atlantic realm, This circumstance does not apply to Cretaceous and E. Tertiary rock sequences of the north Pacific rim where oceanic turbidite deposits are preserved as accretionary complexes, e.g., the Catalina-Pelona-Orocopia-Rand schist of California and the Chugach-Kodiak complex of Alaska. These rock bodies are exhumed crustal underplates of once deeply (15-30 km) subducted oceanic turbidite systems. PATH FROM SOURCE TO TECTONIC SINK: The fate of most oceanic turbidite systems is to be removed from the sea floor and, ultimately, destroyed. This circumstance is unavoidable because most of them are deposited on lower plate crust destined for destruction in a subduction zone. During the past 4-5 myr alone a volume of 1-1.5 million cubic km of sediment sourced from the glaciated drainages of the Gulf of Alaska flooded the 3000-km-long Aleutian-Alaska trench axis. A small part of this volume accumulated tectonically as a narrow, 10-30-km wide accretionary frontal prism. But about 80 percent was subducted and entered the subduction channel separating the two plates. The subduction channel, roughly 1 km thick, conveys the trench turbidite deposits landward down dip along the rupturing width of the seismogenic zone. SEISMIC CONSEQUENCE

  9. Heterogeneous rupture in the great Cascadia earthquake of 1700 inferred from coastal subsidence estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei-Ling; Engelhart, Simon E.; Wang, Kelin; Hawkes, Andrea D.; Horton, Benjamin P.; Nelson, Alan R.; Witter, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    Past earthquake rupture models used to explain paleoseismic estimates of coastal subsidence during the great A.D. 1700 Cascadia earthquake have assumed a uniform slip distribution along the megathrust. Here we infer heterogeneous slip for the Cascadia margin in A.D. 1700 that is analogous to slip distributions during instrumentally recorded great subduction earthquakes worldwide. The assumption of uniform distribution in previous rupture models was due partly to the large uncertainties of then available paleoseismic data used to constrain the models. In this work, we use more precise estimates of subsidence in 1700 from detailed tidal microfossil studies. We develop a 3-D elastic dislocation model that allows the slip to vary both along strike and in the dip direction. Despite uncertainties in the updip and downdip slip extensions, the more precise subsidence estimates are best explained by a model with along-strike slip heterogeneity, with multiple patches of high-moment release separated by areas of low-moment release. For example, in A.D. 1700, there was very little slip near Alsea Bay, Oregon (~44.4°N), an area that coincides with a segment boundary previously suggested on the basis of gravity anomalies. A probable subducting seamount in this area may be responsible for impeding rupture during great earthquakes. Our results highlight the need for more precise, high-quality estimates of subsidence or uplift during prehistoric earthquakes from the coasts of southern British Columbia, northern Washington (north of 47°N), southernmost Oregon, and northern California (south of 43°N), where slip distributions of prehistoric earthquakes are poorly constrained.

  10. Rupture

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2006-01-01

    Our Director-General is indifferent to the tradition of concertation foreseen in our statutes and is "culturally" unable to associate the Staff Association with problem-solving in staff matters. He drags his heels as long as possible before entering into negotiations, presents "often misleading" solutions at the last minute which he only accepts to change once a power struggle has been established. Faced with this rupture and despite its commitment to concertation between gentlemen. The results of the poll in which the staff is invited to participate this week. We therefore need your support to state our claims to the Governing Bodies. The Staff Association proposes a new medium of communication and thus hopes to show that it is ready for future negotiations. The pages devoted to the Staff Association are presented in a more informative, reactive and factual manner and in line with the evolution of the social situation at CERN. We want to establish strong and continuous ties between the members of CERN and ou...

  11. A New Empirical Relation between Surface Wave Magnitude and Rupture Length for Turkey Earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan Ozturk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many practical problems encountered in quantitative oriented disciplines entail finding the best approximate solution to an over determined system of linear equations. In this study, it is investigated the usage of different regression methods as a theoretical, practical and correct estimation tool in order to obtain the best empirical relationship between surface wave magnitude and rupture length for Turkey earthquakes. For this purpose, a detailed comparison is made among four different regression norms: (1 Least Squares, (2 Least Sum of Absolute Deviations, (3 Total Least Squares or Orthogonal and, (4 Robust Regressions. In order to assess the quality of the fit in a linear regression and to select the best empirical relationship for data sets, the correlation coefficient as a quite simple and very practicable tool is used. A list of all earthquakes where the surface wave magnitude (Ms and surface rupture length (L are available is compiled. In order to estimate the empirical relationships between these parameters for Turkey earthquakes, log-linear fit is used and following equations are derived from different norms: for L2 Norm regression (R2=0.71, for L1 Norm regression (R2=0.92, for Robust regression (R2=0.75, for Orthogonal regression (R2=0.68,                            Consequently, the empirical equation given by the Least Sum of Absolute Deviations regression as  with a strong correlation coefficient (R2=0.92 can be thought as more suitable and more reliable for Turkey earthquakes. Also, local differences in rupture length for a given magnitude can be interpreted in terms of local variation in geologic and seismic efficiencies.  Furthermore, this result suggests that seismic efficiency in a region is dependent on rupture length or magnitude.    Resumen Muchos problemas prácticos encontrados en las disciplinas de orientación cuantitativa implican encontrar la mejor solución aproximada para un sistema

  12. Transvaginal cervical length and amniotic fluid index: can it predict delivery latency following preterm premature rupture of membranes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehra, Suwan; Amon, Erol; Hopkins, Sarah; Gavard, Jeffrey A; Shyken, Jaye

    2015-03-01

    We sought to determine whether transvaginal cervical length (TVCL), amniotic fluid index (AFI), or a combination of both can predict delivery latency within 7 days in women presenting with preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM). This was a prospective observational study of TVCL measurements in 106 singleton pregnancies with PPROM between 23-33 weeks. Delivery latency was defined as the period (in days) from the initial TVCL after PPROM to delivery of the infant, with our primary outcome being delivery within 7 days of TVCL. The independent predictability of significant characteristics for delivery within 7 days was determined using multiple logistic regression. Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values were used to examine whether the presence of a short TVCL, AFI, or a combination of both affected the risk of delivery within 7 days. Delivery within 7 days occurred in 51/106 (48%) of pregnancies. Median duration (interquartile range) from PPROM to delivery and TVCL to delivery was 8 days (4.0-16.0) and 8 days (3.0-15.0), respectively. Using multiple regression TVCL as a continuous variable (odds ratio, 0.65; 95% confidence interval, 0.44-0.97; P 7 days for TVCL >2 cm alone was 61%. This predictive value changed when analyzed in conjunction with an AFI ≤5 cm and >5 cm at 42% and 89%, respectively. A shorter TVCL and an AFI ≤5 cm independently predict delivery within 7 days in women presenting with PPROM. The combination of an AFI >5 cm and TVCL >2 cm greatly improved the potential to remain undelivered at 7 days following cervical length assessment. These findings may be helpful for counseling and optimizing maternal and neonatal care in women with PPROM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Paleoearthquake rupture behavior and recurrence of great earthquakes along the Haiyuan fault, northwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Peizhen; MIN Wei; DENG Qidong; MAO Fengying

    2005-01-01

    The Haiyuan fault is a major seismogenic fault in north-central China where the1920 Haiyuan earthquake of magnitude 8.5 occurred, resulting in more than 220000 deaths. The fault zone can be divided into three segments based on their geometric patterns and associated geomorphology. To study paleoseismology and recurrent history of devastating earthquakes along the fault, we dug 17 trenches along different segments of the fault zone. Although only 10of them allow the paleoearthquake event to be dated, together with the 8 trenches dug previously they still provide adequate information that enables us to capture major paleoearthquakes occurring along the fault during the past geological time. We discovered 3 events along the eastern segment during the past 14000 a, 7 events along the middle segment during the past 9000 a, and 6 events along the western segment during the past 10000 a. These events clearly depict two temporal clusters. The first cluster occurs from 4600 to 6400 a, and the second occurs from 1000to 2800 a, approximately. Each cluster lasts about 2000 a. Time period between these two clusters is also about 2000 a. Based on fault geometry, segmentation pattern, and paleoearthquake events along the Haiyuan fault we can identify three scales of earthquake rupture: rupture of one segment, cascade rupture of two segments, and cascade rupture of entire fault (three segments).Interactions of slip patches on the surface of the fault may cause rupture on one patch or ruptures of more than two to three patchs to form the complex patterns of cascade rupture events.

  14. Does an inter-flaw length control the accuracy of rupture forecasting in geological materials?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasseur, Jérémie; Wadsworth, Fabian B.; Heap, Michael J.; Main, Ian G.; Lavallée, Yan; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2017-10-01

    Multi-scale failure of porous materials is an important phenomenon in nature and in material physics - from controlled laboratory tests to rockbursts, landslides, volcanic eruptions and earthquakes. A key unsolved research question is how to accurately forecast the time of system-sized catastrophic failure, based on observations of precursory events such as acoustic emissions (AE) in laboratory samples, or, on a larger scale, small earthquakes. Until now, the length scale associated with precursory events has not been well quantified, resulting in forecasting tools that are often unreliable. Here we test the hypothesis that the accuracy of the forecast failure time depends on the inter-flaw distance in the starting material. We use new experimental datasets for the deformation of porous materials to infer the critical crack length at failure from a static damage mechanics model. The style of acceleration of AE rate prior to failure, and the accuracy of forecast failure time, both depend on whether the cracks can span the inter-flaw length or not. A smooth inverse power-law acceleration of AE rate to failure, and an accurate forecast, occurs when the cracks are sufficiently long to bridge pore spaces. When this is not the case, the predicted failure time is much less accurate and failure is preceded by an exponential AE rate trend. Finally, we provide a quantitative and pragmatic correction for the systematic error in the forecast failure time, valid for structurally isotropic porous materials, which could be tested against larger-scale natural failure events, with suitable scaling for the relevant inter-flaw distances.

  15. Contrasting results from GWAS and QTL mapping on wing length in great reed warblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Bengt; Sigeman, Hanna; Stervander, Martin; Tarka, Maja; Ponnikas, Suvi; Strandh, Maria; Westerdahl, Helena; Hasselquist, Dennis

    2018-04-15

    A major goal in evolutionary biology is to understand the genetic basis of adaptive traits. In migratory birds, wing morphology is such a trait. Our previous work on the great reed warbler (Acrocephalus arundinaceus) shows that wing length is highly heritable and under sexually antagonistic selection. Moreover, a quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping analysis detected a pronounced QTL for wing length on chromosome 2, suggesting that wing morphology is partly controlled by genes with large effects. Here, we re-evaluate the genetic basis of wing length in great reed warblers using a genomewide association study (GWAS) approach based on restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RADseq) data. We use GWAS models that account for relatedness between individuals and include covariates (sex, age and tarsus length). The resulting association landscape was flat with no peaks on chromosome 2 or elsewhere, which is in line with expectations for polygenic traits. Analysis of the distribution of p-values did not reveal biases, and the inflation factor was low. Effect sizes were however not uniformly distributed on some chromosomes, and the Z chromosome had weaker associations than autosomes. The level of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in the population decayed to background levels within c. 1 kbp. There could be several reasons to why our QTL study and GWAS gave contrasting results including differences in how associations are modelled (cosegregation in pedigree vs. LD associations), how covariates are accounted for in the models, type of marker used (multi- vs. biallelic), difference in power or a combination of these. Our study highlights that the genetic architecture even of highly heritable traits is difficult to characterize in wild populations. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Major determinants of survival and length of stay in the neonatal intensive care unit of newborns from women with premature preterm rupture of membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurek Eken, Meryem; Tüten, Abdülhamit; Özkaya, Enis; Karatekin, Güner; Karateke, Ateş

    2017-08-01

    To assess the predictors of outcome in terms of length of stay in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and survival of neonates from women with preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM). A population-based retrospective study including 331 singleton pregnant women with PPROM at 24-34 gestational weeks between January 2013 and December 2015 was conducted. Gestational age at delivery, birth weight, route of delivery, newborn gender, maternal age, oligohydramnios, premature retinopathy (ROP), necrotising enterocolitis (NEC), sepsis, fetal growth retardation (FGR), intracranial hemorrhagia (ICH), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH), congenital cardiac disease (CCD), patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), use of cortisol (betamethasone) and maternal complications including gestational diabetes, preeclampsia and chorioamnionitis were used to predict neonatal outcomes in terms of length of stay in the NICU and survival. In linear regression analyses, birth weight, ROP, CCD, BPD, PDA, NEC and preeclampsia were significant confounders for length of stay in the NICU. Among them, birth weight was the most powerful confounder for prolongation of the NICU stay (t: -6.43; p Prematurity-related complications are the most important problems for which precautions should be taken. Therefore, premature deliveries should be avoided to prevent infection and to prolong the latent period in cases of PPROM in order to decrease prematurity-related outcomes.

  17. Distribution and length of osteophytes in the lumbar vertebrae and risk of rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysms: a study of dry bones from Chiang Mai, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanapa, Patcharin; Yoshiyuki, Tohno; Mahakkanukrauh, Pasuk

    2014-09-01

    Vertebral osteophytes are a characteristic feature of intervertebral disc degeneration. In the lumbar spinal region, the two major structures in close proximity anterior to the spine are the inferior vena cava and the abdominal aorta, both of which have been reported to be affected by osteophytes. The purpose of this study was to determine the distribution, classification and lengths of osteophytes in the lumbar vertebrae. One hundred and eighty lumbar columns of 90 males and 90 females from Chiang Mai, Thailand, in the age range 15 to 96 years (mean age, 63 years) were collected. The measuring length of osteophytes was assessed on vertebral body and articular facet. Statistical analysis was performed by descriptive analysis, chi-square and Pearson Correlation. Lumbar osteophytes were presented in 175 specimens (97.2%), 88 males and 87 females. The highest frequency was at L4, most were on the superior, inferior surface of body and articular facet (39.7%, 38.4%, and 22%), respectively. The greatest mean length was 3.47±2.21 mm at L5, and the longest length of anterior superior surface of body was 28.56 mm. The osteophyte length was significantly correlated directly with age (P<0.01), and males were significantly greater than females (P<0.05). The highest prevalence of osteophytes was on the anterior side of superior surface of body (30.4%), and the classification was traction. It can be proposed that the abdominal aorta could be damaged, especially a risk of rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysm.

  18. Optimization image of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) T2 fast spin echo (FSE) with variation echo train length (ETL) on the rupture tendon achilles case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muzamil, Akhmad; Firmansyah, Achmad Haries

    2017-01-01

    The research was done the optimization image of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) T2 Fast Spin Echo (FSE) with variation Echo Train Length (ETL) on the Rupture Tendon Achilles case. This study aims to find the variations Echo Train Length (ETL) from the results of ankle’s MRI image and find out how the value of Echo Train Length (ETL) works on the MRI ankle to produce optimal image. In this research, the used ETL variations were 12 and 20 with the interval 2 on weighting T2 FSE sagittal. The study obtained the influence of Echo Train Length (ETL) on the quality of ankle MRI image sagittal using T2 FSE weighting and analyzed in 25 images of five patients. The data analysis has done quantitatively with the Region of Interest (ROI) directly on computer MRI image planes which conducted statistical tests Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) and Contras to Noise Ratio (CNR). The Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) was the highest finding on fat tissue, while the Contras to Noise Ratio (CNR) on the Tendon-Fat tissue with ETL 12 found in two patients. The statistics test showed the significant SNR value of the 0.007 (p<0.05) of Tendon tissue, 0.364 (p>0.05) of the Fat, 0.912 (p>0.05) of the Fibula, and 0.436 (p>0.05) of the Heel Bone. For the contrast to noise ratio (CNR) of the Tendon-FAT tissue was about 0.041 (p>0.05). The results of the study showed that ETL variation with T2 FSE sagittal weighting had difference at Tendon tissue and Tendon-Fat tissue for MRI imaging quality. SNR and CNR were an important aspect on imaging optimization process to give the diagnose information. (paper)

  19. Rupture process of the 2013 Okhotsk deep mega earthquake from iterative backprojection and compress sensing methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, W.; Yin, J.; Yao, H.

    2013-12-01

    On May 24th 2013 a Mw 8.3 normal faulting earthquake occurred at a depth of approximately 600 km beneath the sea of Okhotsk, Russia. It is a rare mega earthquake that ever occurred at such a great depth. We use the time-domain iterative backprojection (IBP) method [1] and also the frequency-domain compressive sensing (CS) technique[2] to investigate the rupture process and energy radiation of this mega earthquake. We currently use the teleseismic P-wave data from about 350 stations of USArray. IBP is an improved method of the traditional backprojection method, which more accurately locates subevents (energy burst) during earthquake rupture and determines the rupture speeds. The total rupture duration of this earthquake is about 35 s with a nearly N-S rupture direction. We find that the rupture is bilateral in the beginning 15 seconds with slow rupture speeds: about 2.5km/s for the northward rupture and about 2 km/s for the southward rupture. After that, the northward rupture stopped while the rupture towards south continued. The average southward rupture speed between 20-35 s is approximately 5 km/s, lower than the shear wave speed (about 5.5 km/s) at the hypocenter depth. The total rupture length is about 140km, in a nearly N-S direction, with a southward rupture length about 100 km and a northward rupture length about 40 km. We also use the CS method, a sparse source inversion technique, to study the frequency-dependent seismic radiation of this mega earthquake. We observe clear along-strike frequency dependence of the spatial and temporal distribution of seismic radiation and rupture process. The results from both methods are generally similar. In the next step, we'll use data from dense arrays in southwest China and also global stations for further analysis in order to more comprehensively study the rupture process of this deep mega earthquake. Reference [1] Yao H, Shearer P M, Gerstoft P. Subevent location and rupture imaging using iterative backprojection for

  20. Ruptured eardrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eardrum ruptures. After the rupture, you may have: Drainage from the ear (drainage may be clear, pus, or bloody) Ear noise/ ... doctor to see the eardrum. Audiology testing can measure how much hearing has been lost. Treatment You ...

  1. Heat treatment effect on structure and long-term rupture strength of γ/γ'-MeC nickel eutectic. Length memory effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishkin, S.T.; Svetlov, I.L.; Sorokina, L.P.; Morozova, S.G.; Golubovskij, E.R.; Yushakova, F.V.

    1983-01-01

    Heat treatment effect on structure, phase composition and long-term rupture strength of the directional eutectics on the nickel base with γ/γ'-MeC structure is studied at 900-1100 deg C. It is shown that quenching from the temperature of complete dissolving of γ'-phase and ageing (900 deg - 30 hr) provide an optimum size and morphology of the γ-phase and an increase of the long-term rupture strength at 900 and 1000 deg C. Repeated thermal treatment of cimens tested during definite time restores their structure, mechanical properties and dimensions

  2. Rupture disc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, R.G.

    1977-01-01

    The intermediate heat transport system for a sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor includes a device for rapidly draining the sodium therefrom should a sodium-water reaction occur within the system. This device includes a rupturable member in a drain line in the system and means for cutting a large opening therein and for positively removing the sheared-out portion from the opening cut in the rupturable member. According to the preferred embodiment of the invention the rupturable member includes a solid head seated in the end of the drain line having a rim extending peripherally therearound, the rim being clamped against the end of the drain line by a clamp ring having an interior shearing edge, the bottom of the rupturable member being convex and extending into the drain line. Means are provided to draw the rupturable member away from the drain line against the shearing edge to clear the drain line for outflow of sodium therethrough

  3. Globe Rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reid Honda

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 46-year-old male presented to the emergency department (ED with severe left eye pain and decreased vision after tripping and striking the left side of his head on the corner of his wooden nightstand. The patient arrived as an inter-facility transfer for a suspected globe rupture with a protective eye covering in place; thus, further physical examination of the eye was not performed by the emergency physician in order to avoid further leakage of aqueous humor. Significant findings: The patient’s computed tomography (CT head demonstrated a deformed left globe, concerning for ruptured globe. The patient had hyperdense material in the posterior segment (see green arrow, consistent with vitreous hemorrhage. CT findings that are consistent with globe rupture may include a collapsed globe, intraocular air, or foreign bodies. Discussion: A globe rupture is a full-thickness defect in the cornea, sclera, or both.1 It is an ophthalmologic emergency. Globe ruptures are almost always secondary to direct perforation via a penetrating mechanism; however, it can occur due to blunt injury if the force generated creates sufficient intraocular pressure to tear the sclera.2 Globes most commonly rupture at the insertions of the intraocular muscles or at the limbus. They are associated with a high rate of concomitant orbital floor fractures.2,3 Possible physical examination findings include a shallow anterior chamber on slit-lamp exam, hyphema, and an irregular “teardrop” pupil. Additionally, a positive Seidel sign, which is performed by instilling fluorescein in the eye and then examining for a dark stream of aqueous humor, is indicative of a globe rupture.4 CT is often used to assess for globe rupture; finds of a foreign body, intraocular air, abnormal contour or volume of the globe, or disruption of the sclera suggest globe rupture.2 The sensitivity of CT scan for diagnosis of globe rupture is only 75%; thus, high clinical

  4. Ruptured Spleen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be caused by various underlying problems, such as mononucleosis and other infections, liver disease, and blood cancers. ... cause a ruptured spleen. For instance, people with mononucleosis — a viral infection that can cause an enlarged ...

  5. The 1985 central chile earthquake: a repeat of previous great earthquakes in the region?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comte, D; Eisenberg, A; Lorca, E; Pardo, M; Ponce, L; Saragoni, R; Singh, S K; Suárez, G

    1986-07-25

    A great earthquake (surface-wave magnitude, 7.8) occurred along the coast of central Chile on 3 March 1985, causing heavy damage to coastal towns. Intense foreshock activity near the epicenter of the main shock occurred for 11 days before the earthquake. The aftershocks of the 1985 earthquake define a rupture area of 170 by 110 square kilometers. The earthquake was forecast on the basis of the nearly constant repeat time (83 +/- 9 years) of great earthquakes in this region. An analysis of previous earthquakes suggests that the rupture lengths of great shocks in the region vary by a factor of about 3. The nearly constant repeat time and variable rupture lengths cannot be reconciled with time- or slip-predictable models of earthquake recurrence. The great earthquakes in the region seem to involve a variable rupture mode and yet, for unknown reasons, remain periodic. Historical data suggest that the region south of the 1985 rupture zone should now be considered a gap of high seismic potential that may rupture in a great earthquake in the next few tens of years.

  6. Why Did the Fault Rupture of the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake Propagate Predominately Northeastwards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, S.; Yuan, J.

    2017-12-01

    The rupture processes of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake are much complex. The rupture propagated northeastward a large distance as long as 300 km, but rupture length is short in the southwest direction. Although a great deal of attention has been paid to why the rupture propagated preponderantly northeastward in the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, the physical mechanism remains unclear. By means of finite element model, in which bimaterial contrast across the Longmen Shan fault is taken into account, nucleation process is initiated at the center of the fault, ruptures then spread out outward spontaneously in both directions. The simulated results show that the different materials between both sides of the fault lead to tensile changes of normal stresses on the fault, which enhance the propagation of the ruptures in northeastward direction. We found that bimaterial mechanism is important for earthquake ruptures, and mode II rupture evolves with propagation distance along a bimaterial interface to a unilateral wrinkle-like Weertman pulse in the direction of slip on the more compliant side of the fault, namely in the positive direction (i.e, the northeast direction in the study). The Weertman pulse can be self-amplified, self-sustained and self-healing, which gives rise to little frictional energy and long propagation distance. This may be the reason why the Wenchuan earthquake is a unilateral fault rupture and a high seismic magnitude. In addition, the modelling results suggest that the rupture distance is much smaller if the material in the model is homogeneous, in which no huge earthquakes can occur like the 2008 Wenchan event. This research was jointly supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41574041), Beijing Natural Science Foundation (8152034), and by Basic Research Project (ZDJ2017-08).

  7. Rupture of primigravid uterus and recurrent rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahreen Akhtar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Uterine rupture is a deadly obstetrical emergency endangering the life of both mother and fetus. In Bangladesh, majority of deliveries arc attended by unskilled traditional birth attendant and maternal mortality is still quite high. It is rare Ln developed country but unfortunately it is common in a developing country like Bangladesh. We report a case history of a patient age 32yrs from Daudkandi, Comilla admitted with H/0 previous two rupture uterus and repair with no living issue. We did caesarean section at her 31+ weeks of pregnancy when she developed Jabour pain. A baby of 1.4 kg was delivered. During cesarean section, focal rupture was noted in previous scar of rupture. Unfortunately the baby expired in neonatal ICU after 36 hours.

  8. Hepatic rupture in preeclampsia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winer-Muram, H.T.; Muram, D.; Salazar, J.; Massie, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    The diagnosis of hepatic rupture in patients with pregnancy-induced hypertension (preeclampsia and eclampsia) is rarely made preoperatively. Diagnostic imaging can be utilized in some patients to confirm the preoperative diagnosis. Since hematoma formation precedes hepatic rupture, then, when diagnostic modalities such as sonography and computed tomography identify patients with hematomas, these patients are at risk of rupture, and should be hospitalized until the hematomas resolve

  9. The 2006-2007 Kuril Islands great earthquake sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay, T.; Kanamori, H.; Ammon, C.J.; Hutko, Alexander R.; Furlong, K.; Rivera, L.

    2009-01-01

    The southwestern half of a ???500 km long seismic gap in the central Kuril Island arc subduction zone experienced two great earthquakes with extensive preshock and aftershock sequences in late 2006 to early 2007. The nature of seismic coupling in the gap had been uncertain due to the limited historical record of prior large events and the presence of distinctive upper plate, trench and outer rise structures relative to adjacent regions along the arc that have experienced repeated great interplate earthquakes in the last few centuries. The intraplate region seaward of the seismic gap had several shallow compressional events during the preceding decades (notably an MS 7.2 event on 16 March 1963), leading to speculation that the interplate fault was seismically coupled. This issue was partly resolved by failure of the shallow portion of the interplate megathrust in an MW = 8.3 thrust event on 15 November 2006. This event ruptured ???250 km along the seismic gap, just northeast of the great 1963 Kuril Island (Mw = 8.5) earthquake rupture zone. Within minutes of the thrust event, intense earthquake activity commenced beneath the outer wall of the trench seaward of the interplate rupture, with the larger events having normal-faulting mechanisms. An unusual double band of interplate and intraplate aftershocks developed. On 13 January 2007, an MW = 8.1 extensional earthquake ruptured within the Pacific plate beneath the seaward edge of the Kuril trench. This event is the third largest normal-faulting earthquake seaward of a subduction zone on record, and its rupture zone extended to at least 33 km depth and paralleled most of the length of the 2006 rupture. The 13 January 2007 event produced stronger shaking in Japan than the larger thrust event, as a consequence of higher short-period energy radiation from the source. The great event aftershock sequences were dominated by the expected faulting geometries; thrust faulting for the 2006 rupture zone, and normal faulting for

  10. Splenic rupture masquerading ruptured ectopic pregnancy | Kigbu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The classical triad of presentation of delayed menses, irregular vaginal bleeding and abdominal pain may not be encountered at all! Overwhelming features of abdominal pain, amenorrhea, pallor, abdominal tenderness, shifting dullness with positive pregnancy test gave a clinical diagnosis of ruptured ectopic pregnancy.

  11. Premature rupture of membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000512.htm Premature rupture of membranes To use the sharing features on this page, ... water that surrounds your baby in the womb. Membranes or layers of tissue hold in this fluid. ...

  12. Ruptured submitral aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Shukla

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Submitral aneurysm is a rare entity, with around few hundred cases reported till date. Presentation can be varied. We describe here a case of submitral aneurysm in a young male with rupture into the left atrium cavity.

  13. Achilles Tendon Rupture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is a strong fibrous cord that connects the muscles in the back of your calf to your heel bone. If you overstretch your Achilles tendon, it can tear (rupture) completely or just partially. If your Achilles ...

  14. Ruptured cornual pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, M.; Yasmeen, H.; Noorani, K.

    2003-01-01

    A case of ruptured cornual pregnancy is presented here. The patient presented with history of 30 weeks gestational amenorrhoea and pain in the lower abdomen and epigastrium for the last seven days. Ultrasound revealed a 29 weeks abdominal pregnancy with blood in the pelvic cavity. On laparotomy; there was a ruptured right cornual pregnancy, treated cornual resection and uterine repair. An alive male baby of one kg weight was delivered from the resected cornua of the uterus. (author)

  15. Influence of Evaporation on Soap Film Rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champougny, Lorène; Miguet, Jonas; Henaff, Robin; Restagno, Frédéric; Boulogne, François; Rio, Emmanuelle

    2018-03-13

    Although soap films are prone to evaporate due to their large surface to volume ratio, the effect of evaporation on macroscopic film features has often been disregarded in the literature. In this work, we experimentally investigate the influence of environmental humidity on soap film stability. An original experiment allows to measure both the maximum length of a film pulled at constant velocity and its thinning dynamics in a controlled atmosphere for various values of the relative humidity [Formula: see text]. At first order, the environmental humidity seems to have almost no impact on most of the film thinning dynamics. However, we find that the film length at rupture increases continuously with [Formula: see text]. To rationalize our observations, we propose that film bursting occurs when the thinning due to evaporation becomes comparable to the thinning due to liquid drainage. This rupture criterion turns out to be in reasonable agreement with an estimation of the evaporation rate in our experiment.

  16. Retrieving rupture history using waveform inversions in time sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, L.; Xu, C.; Zhang, X.

    2017-12-01

    The rupture history of large earthquakes is generally regenerated using the waveform inversion through utilizing seismological waveform records. In the waveform inversion, based on the superposition principle, the rupture process is linearly parameterized. After discretizing the fault plane into sub-faults, the local source time function of each sub-fault is usually parameterized using the multi-time window method, e.g., mutual overlapped triangular functions. Then the forward waveform of each sub-fault is synthesized through convoluting the source time function with its Green function. According to the superposition principle, these forward waveforms generated from the fault plane are summarized in the recorded waveforms after aligning the arrival times. Then the slip history is retrieved using the waveform inversion method after the superposing of all forward waveforms for each correspond seismological waveform records. Apart from the isolation of these forward waveforms generated from each sub-fault, we also realize that these waveforms are gradually and sequentially superimposed in the recorded waveforms. Thus we proposed a idea that the rupture model is possibly detachable in sequent rupture times. According to the constrained waveform length method emphasized in our previous work, the length of inverted waveforms used in the waveform inversion is objectively constrained by the rupture velocity and rise time. And one essential prior condition is the predetermined fault plane that limits the duration of rupture time, which means the waveform inversion is restricted in a pre-set rupture duration time. Therefore, we proposed a strategy to inverse the rupture process sequentially using the progressively shift rupture times as the rupture front expanding in the fault plane. And we have designed a simulation inversion to test the feasibility of the method. Our test result shows the prospect of this idea that requiring furthermore investigation.

  17. Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edsall, Thomas A.; Mac, Michael J.; Opler, Paul A.; Puckett Haecker, Catherine E.; Doran, Peter D.

    1998-01-01

    The Great Lakes region, as defined here, includes the Great Lakes and their drainage basins in Minnesota, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New York. The region also includes the portions of Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the 21 northernmost counties of Illinois that lie in the Mississippi River drainage basin, outside the floodplain of the river. The region spans about 9º of latitude and 20º of longitude and lies roughly halfway between the equator and the North Pole in a lowland corridor that extends from the Gulf of Mexico to the Arctic Ocean.The Great Lakes are the most prominent natural feature of the region (Fig. 1). They have a combined surface area of about 245,000 square kilometers and are among the largest, deepest lakes in the world. They are the largest single aggregation of fresh water on the planet (excluding the polar ice caps) and are the only glacial feature on Earth visible from the surface of the moon (The Nature Conservancy 1994a).The Great Lakes moderate the region’s climate, which presently ranges from subarctic in the north to humid continental warm in the south (Fig. 2), reflecting the movement of major weather masses from the north and south (U.S. Department of the Interior 1970; Eichenlaub 1979). The lakes act as heat sinks in summer and heat sources in winter and are major reservoirs that help humidify much of the region. They also create local precipitation belts in areas where air masses are pushed across the lakes by prevailing winds, pick up moisture from the lake surface, and then drop that moisture over land on the other side of the lake. The mean annual frost-free period—a general measure of the growing-season length for plants and some cold-blooded animals—varies from 60 days at higher elevations in the north to 160 days in lakeshore areas in the south. The climate influences the general distribution of wild plants and animals in the region and also influences the activities and distribution of the human

  18. Fault Branching and Long-Term Earthquake Rupture Scenario for Strike-Slip Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, Y.; CHOI, J. H.; Vallage, A.

    2017-12-01

    Careful examination of surface rupture for large continental strike-slip earthquakes reveals that for the majority of earthquakes, at least one major branch is involved in the rupture pattern. Often, branching might be either related to the location of the epicenter or located toward the end of the rupture, and possibly related to the stopping of the rupture. In this work, we examine large continental earthquakes that show significant branches at different scales and for which ground surface rupture has been mapped in great details. In each case, rupture conditions are described, including dynamic parameters, past earthquakes history, and regional stress orientation, to see if the dynamic stress field would a priori favor branching. In one case we show that rupture propagation and branching are directly impacted by preexisting geological structures. These structures serve as pathways for the rupture attempting to propagate out of its shear plane. At larger scale, we show that in some cases, rupturing a branch might be systematic, hampering possibilities for the development of a larger seismic rupture. Long-term geomorphology hints at the existence of a strong asperity in the zone where the rupture branched off the main fault. There, no evidence of throughgoing rupture could be seen along the main fault, while the branch is well connected to the main fault. This set of observations suggests that for specific configurations, some rupture scenarios involving systematic branching are more likely than others.

  19. Rupture, waves and earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uenishi, Koji

    2017-01-01

    Normally, an earthquake is considered as a phenomenon of wave energy radiation by rupture (fracture) of solid Earth. However, the physics of dynamic process around seismic sources, which may play a crucial role in the occurrence of earthquakes and generation of strong waves, has not been fully understood yet. Instead, much of former investigation in seismology evaluated earthquake characteristics in terms of kinematics that does not directly treat such dynamic aspects and usually excludes the influence of high-frequency wave components over 1 Hz. There are countless valuable research outcomes obtained through this kinematics-based approach, but "extraordinary" phenomena that are difficult to be explained by this conventional description have been found, for instance, on the occasion of the 1995 Hyogo-ken Nanbu, Japan, earthquake, and more detailed study on rupture and wave dynamics, namely, possible mechanical characteristics of (1) rupture development around seismic sources, (2) earthquake-induced structural failures and (3) wave interaction that connects rupture (1) and failures (2), would be indispensable.

  20. Rupture of the Pitáycachi Fault in the 1887 Mw 7.5 Sonora, Mexico earthquake (southern Basin-and-Range Province): Rupture kinematics and epicenter inferred from rupture branching patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, Max

    2015-01-01

    During the 3 May 1887 Mw 7.5 Sonora earthquake (surface rupture end-to-end length: 101.8 km), an array of three north-south striking Basin-and-Range Province faults (from north to south Pitáycachi, Teras, and Otates) slipped sequentially along the western margin of the Sierra Madre Occidental Plateau. This detailed field survey of the 1887 earthquake rupture zone along the Pitáycachi fault includes mapping the rupture scarp and measurements of surface deformation. The surface rupture has an endpoint-to-endpoint length of ≥41.0 km, dips 70°W, and is characterized by normal left-lateral extension. The maximum surface offset is 487 cm and the mean offset 260 cm. The rupture trace shows a complex pattern of second-order segmentation. However, this segmentation is not expressed in the 1887 along-rupture surface offset profile, which indicates that the secondary segments are linked at depth into a single coherent fault surface. The Pitáycachi surface rupture shows a well-developed bipolar branching pattern suggesting that the rupture originated in its central part, where the polarity of the rupture bifurcations changes. Most likely the rupture first propagated bilaterally along the Pitáycachi fault. The southern rupture front likely jumped across a step over to the Teras fault and from there across a major relay zone to the Otates fault. Branching probably resulted from the lateral propagation of the rupture after breaching the seismogenic part of the crust, given that the much shorter ruptures of the Otates and Teras segments did not develop branches.

  1. Double rupture disc experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Result of these observations, comparisons and evaluations can be summarized in the following list of concerns regarding the use of double rupture discs coupled to the liquid space of a steam generator that is subjected to a large leak sodium water reaction event. Single rupture disc show delayed collapse characteristics in LLTR Series I and double disc assemblies are presumed to be more complex with additional delay before opening to give pressure relief. Delayed failure increases pressures in the IHTS and must be adequately covered by design requirements. With CRBR design, the first disc may fail only partially reducing the loading on the second disc with the result that relief performance may not meet requirements

  2. Rapid Estimates of Rupture Extent for Large Earthquakes Using Aftershocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polet, J.; Thio, H. K.; Kremer, M.

    2009-12-01

    The spatial distribution of aftershocks is closely linked to the rupture extent of the mainshock that preceded them and a rapid analysis of aftershock patterns therefore has potential for use in near real-time estimates of earthquake impact. The correlation between aftershocks and slip distribution has frequently been used to estimate the fault dimensions of large historic earthquakes for which no, or insufficient, waveform data is available. With the advent of earthquake inversions that use seismic waveforms and geodetic data to constrain the slip distribution, the study of aftershocks has recently been largely focused on enhancing our understanding of the underlying mechanisms in a broader earthquake mechanics/dynamics framework. However, in a near real-time earthquake monitoring environment, in which aftershocks of large earthquakes are routinely detected and located, these data may also be effective in determining a fast estimate of the mainshock rupture area, which would aid in the rapid assessment of the impact of the earthquake. We have analyzed a considerable number of large recent earthquakes and their aftershock sequences and have developed an effective algorithm that determines the rupture extent of a mainshock from its aftershock distribution, in a fully automatic manner. The algorithm automatically removes outliers by spatial binning, and subsequently determines the best fitting “strike” of the rupture and its length by projecting the aftershock epicenters onto a set of lines that cross the mainshock epicenter with incremental azimuths. For strike-slip or large dip-slip events, for which the surface projection of the rupture is recti-linear, the calculated strike correlates well with the strike of the fault and the corresponding length, determined from the distribution of aftershocks projected onto the line, agrees well with the rupture length. In the case of a smaller dip-slip rupture with an aspect ratio closer to 1, the procedure gives a measure

  3. Roentgeno-radiological examination for ruptures of the main bronchi and their consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabkin, I.Kh.; Kudryavtseva, N.F.; Nersesova, L.I.; Kon'kov, Eh.G.

    1981-01-01

    The results of roentgeno-radiological examination of patients with the main bronchial ruptures show the great diagnostic value of this method of examination. There are 6 types of clinical and x-ray syndromes to be distinguished: gaseous, hemorrhagic, compression, aspiration, ventilatory, perfusive. Both direct and indirect radiomorphological and radiofunctional features of the bronchial ruptures are distinguished. Post-traumatic bronchial stenoses, as well as the results of reconstructive interventions in bronchial ruptures and their consequences are discussed [ru

  4. [Achilles tendon rupture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thermann, H; Hüfner, T; Tscherne, H

    2000-03-01

    The treatment of acute of Achilles tendon rupture experienced a dynamic development in the last ten years. Decisive for this development was the application of MRI and above all the ultrasonography in the diagnostics of the pathological changes and injuries of tendons. The question of rupture morphology as well as different courses of healing could be now evaluated objectively. These advances led consequently to new modalities in treatment concepts and rehabilitation protocols. The decisive input for improvements of the outcome results and particularly the shortening of the rehabilitation period came with introduction of the early functional treatment in contrast to immobilizing plaster treatment. In a prospective randomized study (1987-1989) at the Trauma Dept. of the Hannover Medical School could show no statistical differences comparing functional non-operative with functional operative therapy with a special therapy boot (Variostabil/Adidas). The crucial criteria for therapy selection results from the sonographically measured position of the tendon stumps in plantar flexion (20 degrees). With complete adaptation of the tendons' ends surgical treatment does not achieve better results than non-operative functional treatment in term of tendon healing and functional outcome. Regarding the current therapeutic standards each method has is advantages and disadvantages. Both, the operative and non-operative functional treatment enable a stable tendon healing with a low risk of re-rupture (1-2%). Meanwhile there is consensus for early functional after-treatment of the operated Achilles' tendons. There seems to be a trend towards non-operative functional treatment in cases of adequate sonographical findings, or to minimal invasive surgical techniques.

  5. Slow rupture of frictional interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Sinai, Yohai Bar; Brener, Efim A.; Bouchbinder, Eran

    2011-01-01

    The failure of frictional interfaces and the spatiotemporal structures that accompany it are central to a wide range of geophysical, physical and engineering systems. Recent geophysical and laboratory observations indicated that interfacial failure can be mediated by slow slip rupture phenomena which are distinct from ordinary, earthquake-like, fast rupture. These discoveries have influenced the way we think about frictional motion, yet the nature and properties of slow rupture are not comple...

  6. Management of prelabor rupture of membranes at term. A randomized study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sperling, Lene; Schantz, A L; Wåhlin, A

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the rate of obstetric interventions, length of labor, and maternal morbidity in pregnancies with prelabor rupture of membranes at term after either early or late induction of labor in both primiparous and pluriparous women. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized study. SUBJECTS: 362...... primiparous and pluriparous (p rupture of membranes to delivery increased...

  7. Slow rupture of frictional interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar Sinai, Yohai; Brener, Efim A.; Bouchbinder, Eran

    2012-02-01

    The failure of frictional interfaces and the spatiotemporal structures that accompany it are central to a wide range of geophysical, physical and engineering systems. Recent geophysical and laboratory observations indicated that interfacial failure can be mediated by slow slip rupture phenomena which are distinct from ordinary, earthquake-like, fast rupture. These discoveries have influenced the way we think about frictional motion, yet the nature and properties of slow rupture are not completely understood. We show that slow rupture is an intrinsic and robust property of simple non-monotonic rate-and-state friction laws. It is associated with a new velocity scale cmin, determined by the friction law, below which steady state rupture cannot propagate. We further show that rupture can occur in a continuum of states, spanning a wide range of velocities from cmin to elastic wave-speeds, and predict different properties for slow rupture and ordinary fast rupture. Our results are qualitatively consistent with recent high-resolution laboratory experiments and may provide a theoretical framework for understanding slow rupture phenomena along frictional interfaces.

  8. Telomere length analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canela, Andrés; Klatt, Peter; Blasco, María A

    2007-01-01

    Most somatic cells of long-lived species undergo telomere shortening throughout life. Critically short telomeres trigger loss of cell viability in tissues, which has been related to alteration of tissue function and loss of regenerative capabilities in aging and aging-related diseases. Hence, telomere length is an important biomarker for aging and can be used in the prognosis of aging diseases. These facts highlight the importance of developing methods for telomere length determination that can be employed to evaluate telomere length during the human aging process. Telomere length quantification methods have improved greatly in accuracy and sensitivity since the development of the conventional telomeric Southern blot. Here, we describe the different methodologies recently developed for telomere length quantification, as well as their potential applications for human aging studies.

  9. Ruptured ectopic pregnancy diagnosed with computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalak, Maciej; Żurada, Anna; Biernacki, Maciej; Zygmunt, Kozielec

    2010-01-01

    The rupture of ectopic pregnancy (EP) still remains the primary and direct cause of death in the first trimester of pregnancy. Ultrasonography is known to be a modality of choice in EP diagnostics. We found a severe discrepancy between the frequency of ectopic pregnancies (EP) and the number of available computed tomography (CT) examinations. A 29-year-old woman was admitted to the emergency department with a history of abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting and collapse. Sonographic findings of a suspected EP were unclear. Moreover, not all features of intrauterine pregnancy were present. Due to the patient’s life-threatening condition, an emergency multi-slice CT with MPR and VRT reconstructions was performed, revealing symptoms of a ruptured EP. In the right adnexal area, a well-vascularized, solid-cystic abnormal mass lesion was found. Intraperitoneal hemorrhage was confirmed intraoperatively, and the right fallopian tube with a tubal EP was resected. In the surgery in situ, as well as in the pathological examination of the tumor mass, a human embryo of approximately 1.5 cm in length (beginning of the 8 th week of gestation) was found. Although ultrasonography still remains the first-line imaging examination in EP diagnostics, sometimes the findings of suspected EPs are unclear and not sufficient. The rupture of EP, with serious bleeding and symptoms of shock, may require an emergent pelvic and abdominal CT inspection. A clear correlation was found between the macroscopic CT images and the intraoperatively sampled material

  10. Fundamental length and relativistic length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'tsov, V.N.

    1988-01-01

    It si noted that the introduction of fundamental length contradicts the conventional representations concerning the contraction of the longitudinal size of fast-moving objects. The use of the concept of relativistic length and the following ''elongation formula'' permits one to solve this problem

  11. Flame Length

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Flame length was modeled using FlamMap, an interagency fire behavior mapping and analysis program that computes potential fire behavior characteristics. The tool...

  12. Untreated silicone breast implant rupture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hölmich, Lisbet R; Vejborg, Ilse M; Conrad, Carsten

    2004-01-01

    Implant rupture is a well-known complication of breast implant surgery that can pass unnoticed by both patient and physician. To date, no prospective study has addressed the possible health implications of silicone breast implant rupture. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether untre...

  13. Blunt traumatic diaphragmatic rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Nogueira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic injury of the diaphragm ranges from 0.6 to 1.2% and rise up to 5%among patients who were victims of blunt trauma and underwent laparotomy.Clinical suspicion associated with radiological assessment contributes to earlydiagnosis. Isolated diaphragmatic injury has a good prognosis. Generallyworse outcomes are associated with other trauma injuries. Bilateral andright diaphragmatic lesions have worse prognosis. Multi detector computed tomography (MDCT scan of the chest and abdomen provides better diagnosticaccuracy using the possibility of image multiplanar reconstruction. Surgicalrepair via laparotomy and/ or thoracotomy in the acute phase of the injury hasa better outcome and avoids chronic complications of diaphragmatic hernia.The authors present the case of a young male patient, victim of blunt abdominaltrauma due to motor vehicle accident with rupture of the diaphragm, spleenand kidney injuries. The diagnosis was made by computed tomography of thethorax and abdomen and was confirmed during laparotomy.

  14. Great Apes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeman, Jonathan M.; Cerveny, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    Anesthesia of great apes is often necessary to conduct diagnostic analysis, provide therapeutics, facilitate surgical procedures, and enable transport and translocation for conservation purposes. Due to the stress of remote delivery injection of anesthetic agents, recent studies have focused on oral delivery and/or transmucosal absorption of preanesthetic and anesthetic agents. Maintenance of the airway and provision of oxygen is an important aspect of anesthesia in great ape species. The provision of analgesia is an important aspect of the anesthesia protocol for any procedure involving painful stimuli. Opioids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are often administered alone, or in combination to provide multi-modal analgesia. There is increasing conservation management of in situ great ape populations, which has resulted in the development of field anesthesia techniques for free-living great apes for the purposes of translocation, reintroduction into the wild, and clinical interventions.

  15. Rupture Dynamics and Ground Motion from Earthquakes in Heterogeneous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bydlon, S.; Dunham, E. M.; Kozdon, J. E.

    2012-12-01

    Heterogeneities in the material properties of Earth's crust scatter propagating seismic waves. The effects of scattered waves are reflected in the seismic coda and depend on the relative strength of the heterogeneities, spatial arrangement, and distance from source to receiver. In the vicinity of the fault, scattered waves influence the rupture process by introducing fluctuations in the stresses driving propagating ruptures. Further variability in the rupture process is introduced by naturally occurring geometric complexity of fault surfaces, and the stress changes that accompany slip on rough surfaces. We have begun a modeling effort to better understand the origin of complexity in the earthquake source process, and to quantify the relative importance of source complexity and scattering along the propagation path in causing incoherence of high frequency ground motion. To do this we extended our two-dimensional high order finite difference rupture dynamics code to accommodate material heterogeneities. We generate synthetic heterogeneous media using Von Karman correlation functions and their associated power spectral density functions. We then nucleate ruptures on either flat or rough faults, which obey strongly rate-weakening friction laws. Preliminary results for flat faults with uniform frictional properties and initial stresses indicate that off-fault material heterogeneity alone can lead to a complex rupture process. Our simulations reveal the excitation of high frequency bursts of waves, which radiate energy away from the propagating rupture. The average rupture velocity is thus reduced relative to its value in simulations employing homogeneous material properties. In the coming months, we aim to more fully explore parameter space by varying the correlation length, Hurst exponent, and amplitude of medium heterogeneities, as well as the statistical properties characterizing fault roughness.

  16. Fundamental length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, T.

    1975-01-01

    The concept of fundamental length was first put forward by Heisenberg from purely dimensional reasons. From a study of the observed masses of the elementary particles known at that time, it is sumrised that this length should be of the order of magnitude 1 approximately 10 -13 cm. It was Heisenberg's belief that introduction of such a fundamental length would eliminate the divergence difficulties from relativistic quantum field theory by cutting off the high energy regions of the 'proper fields'. Since the divergence difficulties arise primarily due to infinite number of degrees of freedom, one simple remedy would be the introduction of a principle that limits these degrees of freedom by removing the effectiveness of the waves with a frequency exceeding a certain limit without destroying the relativistic invariance of the theory. The principle can be stated as follows: It is in principle impossible to invent an experiment of any kind that will permit a distintion between the positions of two particles at rest, the distance between which is below a certain limit. A more elegant way of introducing fundamental length into quantum theory is through commutation relations between two position operators. In quantum field theory such as quantum electrodynamics, it can be introduced through the commutation relation between two interpolating photon fields (vector potentials). (K.B.)

  17. Great Expectations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickens, Charles

    2005-01-01

    One of Dickens's most renowned and enjoyable novels, Great Expectations tells the story of Pip, an orphan boy who wishes to transcend his humble origins and finds himself unexpectedly given the opportunity to live a life of wealth and respectability. Over the course of the tale, in which Pip

  18. Long-term results after repair of ruptured and non-ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzmanović Ilija B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Abdominal aortic aneurysm can be repaired by elective procedure while asymptomatic, or immediately when it is complicated - mostly due to rupture. Treating abdominal aneurysm electively, before it becomes urgent, has medical and economical reason. Today, the first month mortality after elective operations of the abdominal aorta aneurysm is less than 3%; on the other hand, significant mortality (25%-70% has been recorded in patients operated immediately because of rupture of the abdominal aneurysm. In addition, the costs of elective surgical treatment are significantly lower. OBJECTIVE The objective of this study is to compare long-term survival of patients that underwent elective or immediate repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm (due to rupture, and to find out the factors influencing the long-term survival of these patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS Through retrospective review of prospectively collected data of the Institute for Cardiovascular Diseases of Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade, 56 patients that had elective surgery and 35 patients that underwent urgent operation due to rupture of abdominal aneurysm were followed up. Only the patients that survived 30 postoperative days were included in this review, and were followed up (ranging from 2 to 126 months. Electively operated patients were followed during 58.82 months on the average (range 7 to 122, and urgently operated were followed over 52.26 months (range 2 to 126. There was no significant difference of the length of postoperative follow-up between these two groups. RESULTS During this period, out of electively operated and immediately operated patients, 27 and 22 cases died, respectively. There was no significant difference (p>0,05a of long-term survival between these two groups. Obesity and early postoperative complications significantly decreased long-term survival of both electively and immediately operated patients. Graft infection, ventral hernia, aneurysm of

  19. Sub-Patch Roughness in Earthquake Rupture Investigations

    KAUST Repository

    Zielke, Olaf; Mai, Paul Martin

    2016-01-01

    Fault geometric complexities exhibit fractal characteristics over a wide range of spatial scales (<µm to >km) and strongly affect the rupture process at corresponding scales. Numerical rupture simulations provide a framework to quantitatively investigate the relationship between a fault's roughness and its seismic characteristics. Fault discretization however introduces an artificial lower limit to roughness. Individual fault patches are planar and sub-patch roughness –roughness at spatial scales below fault-patch size– is not incorporated. Does negligence of sub-patch roughness measurably affect the outcome of earthquake rupture simulations? We approach this question with a numerical parameter space investigation and demonstrate that sub-patch roughness significantly modifies the slip-strain relationship –a fundamental aspect of dislocation theory. Faults with sub-patch roughness induce less strain than their planar-fault equivalents at distances beyond the length of a slipping fault. We further provide regression functions that characterize the stochastic effect sub-patch roughness.

  20. Simultaneous bilateral patellar tendon rupture ?

    OpenAIRE

    Moura, Diogo Lino; Marques, Jos? Pedro; Lucas, Francisco Manuel; Fonseca, Fernando Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Bilateral patellar tendon rupture is a rare entity, often associated with systemic diseases and patellar tendinopathy. The authors report a rare case of a 34-year-old man with simultaneous bilateral rupture of the patellar tendon caused by minor trauma. The patient is a retired basketball player with no past complaints of chronic knee pain and a history of steroid use. Surgical management consisted in primary end-to-end tendon repair protected temporarily with cerclage wiring, followed by a s...

  1. The diagnosis of breast implant rupture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hölmich, Lisbet R; Vejborg, Ilse; Conrad, Carsten

    2005-01-01

    participated in either one or two study MRI examinations, aiming at determining the prevalence and incidence of silent implant rupture, respectively, and who subsequently underwent explantation. Implant rupture status was determined by four independent readers and a consensus diagnosis of either rupture...... were in fact ruptured at surgery. Thirty-four of the 43 intact implants were described as intact at surgery. When categorising possible ruptures as ruptures, there were one false positive and nine false negative rupture diagnoses at MRI yielding an accuracy of 92%, a sensitivity of 89...

  2. Ruptured Ectopic Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Park

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 21-year-old female presented with sudden onset suprapubic abdominal pain associated with dysuria. The patient also experienced near syncope during bowel movements three times three days ago without falling or losing consciousness. She denied fever, nausea, and vomiting. She stated that she was five weeks pregnant by last menstrual period. She had an ultrasound a few weeks before that showed no intrauterine pregnancy, but she had not followed up for additional testing. Significant findings: The patient’s serum beta-hCG was 5,637 mIU/mL. The transvaginal ultrasound showed an empty uterus with free fluid posteriorly in the pelvis and Pouch of Douglas (00:00. A 4.5 cm heterogeneous mass was visible in the left adnexa concerning for an ectopic pregnancy (00:10. Discussion: Ectopic pregnancies are a leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality, as well as decreased fertility.1,2 Differentiating between an ectopic pregnancy and a normal early pregnancy may be difficult, since ultrasound and quantitative beta-hCG may show inconclusive results.3,4 Patients who have used fertility treatment may further complicate the picture because they are at risk for heterotypic pregnancies.5 Ectopic pregnancies most commonly implant in the fallopian tube, but may alternatively implant in the ovary, cervix, abdomen, or uterine cornua.4 Ultrasonography may show an empty uterus, adnexal mass, pelvic free fluid, or an extra-uterine gestational sac, yolk sac, and/or embryo.6 Treatment options for ectopic pregnancy include surgery or methotrexate.2,4 Some patients may be candidates for close outpatient surveillance if the diagnosis is unclear or in very limited cases for early, non-ruptured ectopic pregnancies.2,4

  3. Study Of The Rupture Process Of The 2015 Mw7.8 Izu-Bonin Earthquake And Its Implication To Deep-Focus Earthquake Genesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, P. R.; Hung, S. H.; Meng, L.

    2015-12-01

    On May 30, 2015, a major Mw7.8 great deep earthquake occurred at the base of the mantle transition zone (MTZ), approximately 680 km deep within the Pacific Plate which subducts westward under the Philippine Sea Plate along the Izu-Bonin trench. A global P wave tomographic image indicates that a tabular high-velocity structure delineated by ~1% faster than the ambient mantle plunges nearly vertical to a depth at most 600 km and afterword flattens and stagnates within the MTZ. Almost all the deep earthquakes in this region are clustered inside this fast anomaly corresponding to the cold core of the subducting slab. Those occurring at depth between 400~500 km close to the hinge of the bending slab show down-dip compressional focal mechanisms and reflect episodic release of compressive strain accumulated in the slab. The 2015 deep event, however, separated from the others, occurred uniquely near the base of the lithosphere with a down-dip extension mechanism, consistent with the notion that the outer portion of the folded slab experiences extensional bending stress. Here we perform a 3D MUSIC back-projection (BP) rupture imaging for this isolated deep event using P and pP waveforms individually from the European, North American and Australian array data. By integrating P- and pP- BP images in frequencies of 0.1-1 Hz obtained from three array observations with different azimuth, we first ascertain the most possible fault plan is the SW-dipping subhorizontal one. Then, from back-projecting higher frequency waveforms at 1-1.5 Hz onto the obtained fault plane, we find the rupture initially propagates slowly along the strike (SW-direction), and makes a turn to the NNW-direction at ~12s after the onset of rupture. The MUSIC psudospectrum over totally 20s rupture duration reveals that most seismic energy radiation takes place at the initial 8s of the first rupture along the strike, 10-15 km long region, while the along-updip second rupture lasting for 6-10s has a rupture

  4. Physics of Earthquake Rupture Propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shiqing; Fukuyama, Eiichi; Sagy, Amir; Doan, Mai-Linh

    2018-05-01

    A comprehensive understanding of earthquake rupture propagation requires the study of not only the sudden release of elastic strain energy during co-seismic slip, but also of other processes that operate at a variety of spatiotemporal scales. For example, the accumulation of the elastic strain energy usually takes decades to hundreds of years, and rupture propagation and termination modify the bulk properties of the surrounding medium that can influence the behavior of future earthquakes. To share recent findings in the multiscale investigation of earthquake rupture propagation, we held a session entitled "Physics of Earthquake Rupture Propagation" during the 2016 American Geophysical Union (AGU) Fall Meeting in San Francisco. The session included 46 poster and 32 oral presentations, reporting observations of natural earthquakes, numerical and experimental simulations of earthquake ruptures, and studies of earthquake fault friction. These presentations and discussions during and after the session suggested a need to document more formally the research findings, particularly new observations and views different from conventional ones, complexities in fault zone properties and loading conditions, the diversity of fault slip modes and their interactions, the evaluation of observational and model uncertainties, and comparison between empirical and physics-based models. Therefore, we organize this Special Issue (SI) of Tectonophysics under the same title as our AGU session, hoping to inspire future investigations. Eighteen articles (marked with "this issue") are included in this SI and grouped into the following six categories.

  5. Global variations of large megathrust earthquake rupture characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, Hiroo

    2018-01-01

    Despite the surge of great earthquakes along subduction zones over the last decade and advances in observations and analysis techniques, it remains unclear whether earthquake complexity is primarily controlled by persistent fault properties or by dynamics of the failure process. We introduce the radiated energy enhancement factor (REEF), given by the ratio of an event’s directly measured radiated energy to the calculated minimum radiated energy for a source with the same seismic moment and duration, to quantify the rupture complexity. The REEF measurements for 119 large [moment magnitude (Mw) 7.0 to 9.2] megathrust earthquakes distributed globally show marked systematic regional patterns, suggesting that the rupture complexity is strongly influenced by persistent geological factors. We characterize this as the existence of smooth and rough rupture patches with varying interpatch separation, along with failure dynamics producing triggering interactions that augment the regional influences on large events. We present an improved asperity scenario incorporating both effects and categorize global subduction zones and great earthquakes based on their REEF values and slip patterns. Giant earthquakes rupturing over several hundred kilometers can occur in regions with low-REEF patches and small interpatch spacing, such as for the 1960 Chile, 1964 Alaska, and 2011 Tohoku earthquakes, or in regions with high-REEF patches and large interpatch spacing as in the case for the 2004 Sumatra and 1906 Ecuador-Colombia earthquakes. Thus, combining seismic magnitude Mw and REEF, we provide a quantitative framework to better represent the span of rupture characteristics of great earthquakes and to understand global seismicity. PMID:29750186

  6. Experimental evidence that thrust earthquake ruptures might open faults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabuchian, Vahe; Rosakis, Ares J; Bhat, Harsha S; Madariaga, Raúl; Kanamori, Hiroo

    2017-05-18

    Many of Earth's great earthquakes occur on thrust faults. These earthquakes predominantly occur within subduction zones, such as the 2011 moment magnitude 9.0 eathquake in Tohoku-Oki, Japan, or along large collision zones, such as the 1999 moment magnitude 7.7 earthquake in Chi-Chi, Taiwan. Notably, these two earthquakes had a maximum slip that was very close to the surface. This contributed to the destructive tsunami that occurred during the Tohoku-Oki event and to the large amount of structural damage caused by the Chi-Chi event. The mechanism that results in such large slip near the surface is poorly understood as shallow parts of thrust faults are considered to be frictionally stable. Here we use earthquake rupture experiments to reveal the existence of a torquing mechanism of thrust fault ruptures near the free surface that causes them to unclamp and slip large distances. Complementary numerical modelling of the experiments confirms that the hanging-wall wedge undergoes pronounced rotation in one direction as the earthquake rupture approaches the free surface, and this torque is released as soon as the rupture breaks the free surface, resulting in the unclamping and violent 'flapping' of the hanging-wall wedge. Our results imply that the shallow extent of the seismogenic zone of a subducting interface is not fixed and can extend up to the trench during great earthquakes through a torquing mechanism.

  7. Metallurgical analysis of high pressure gas pipelines rupture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, F.; Ahmed, F.

    2007-01-01

    On 6 July 2004, two parallel-running gas pipelines (18-inch and 24-inch diameters), in the main transmission network of SNGPL (a gas company in Pakistan) were ruptured. The ruptures occurred in the early hours of the morning about 8 miles downstream of the compressor station AC-4. The ruptures were indicated by the increased gas flow at the outlet of AC-4 (1), first at about 0648 hours and then again about 20 minutes later. The gas escaping from the ruptured lines had caught fire, and the flames had also 'affected' a third parallel-running pipeline of 30-inch diameter, lying next to the 24-inch line. The metallurgical examination of the two ruptured lines showed that the 24-inch line was ruptured with the help of an explosive device that had been placed on the underside of the pipe. An examination of the 18-inch line showed that this pipe had failed as a result of the heating of the pipe-wall, presumably, by the flame emanating from the 24-inch line. These two observations clearly suggested that the 24-inch line was the first to rupture (by explosives), and the fire following this rupture had heated the 18-inch pipe to a temperature where its yield strength was unable to support the inside gas pressure. The 20 minutes time interval between the two ruptures was obviously the time taken by the 18 inch pipe to be heated upto the level where it started to yield. The 30-inch line lying next to the 24-inch line was affected to the extent that its coating had been burnt-off over a length of about 40-50 feet. However, the pipe did not exhibit any signs of deshaping or deformation what-so-ever. A replica metallographic examination indicated that the microstructure of the pipe was not measurably affected by the heat. It was thus decided not to replace the affected part of the 30-inch pipe, but only to re-coat this affected portion. (author)

  8. Simultaneous bilateral patellar tendon rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Diogo Lino; Marques, José Pedro; Lucas, Francisco Manuel; Fonseca, Fernando Pereira

    2017-01-01

    Bilateral patellar tendon rupture is a rare entity, often associated with systemic diseases and patellar tendinopathy. The authors report a rare case of a 34-year-old man with simultaneous bilateral rupture of the patellar tendon caused by minor trauma. The patient is a retired basketball player with no past complaints of chronic knee pain and a history of steroid use. Surgical management consisted in primary end-to-end tendon repair protected temporarily with cerclage wiring, followed by a short immobilization period and intensive rehabilitation program. Five months after surgery, the patient was able to fully participate in sport activities.

  9. Simultaneous bilateral patellar tendon rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Lino Moura

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Bilateral patellar tendon rupture is a rare entity, often associated with systemic diseases and patellar tendinopathy. The authors report a rare case of a 34-year-old man with simultaneous bilateral rupture of the patellar tendon caused by minor trauma. The patient is a retired basketball player with no past complaints of chronic knee pain and a history of steroid use. Surgical management consisted in primary end-to-end tendon repair protected temporarily with cerclage wiring, followed by a short immobilization period and intensive rehabilitation program. Five months after surgery, the patient was able to fully participate in sport activities.

  10. Spontaneous rupture of vaginal enterocele

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, J H; Galatius, H; Hansen, P K

    1985-01-01

    Spontaneous rupture of an enterocele is a rare complication. Only 24 cases including the present case have been reported in the literature. The patients were elderly and had had at least one vaginal operation. The patients were remarkably unaffected symptomatically on admission.......Spontaneous rupture of an enterocele is a rare complication. Only 24 cases including the present case have been reported in the literature. The patients were elderly and had had at least one vaginal operation. The patients were remarkably unaffected symptomatically on admission....

  11. Rupture luminescence from natural fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W.; Haneman, D.

    1999-12-01

    Fibers of cotton and wool, and samples of paper, have been ruptured in tension in vacuum and in air, and give detectable luminescence in the visible range. All have a common emission peak at around 2.0 eV, which is ascribed to the deexcitation of states excited by the rupture of organic chain molecule bonds. Rubber bands give stronger emission in air, but no emission in vacuum, suggesting the material breaks only at weak interchain bonds. Mohair, cat, and horse hair also give emission in air. The phenomena reveal effects that would occur widely in nature.

  12. Mathematical modeling and numerical simulation of unilateral dynamic rupture propagation along very-long reverse faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, S.

    2017-12-01

    For some great earthquakes, dynamic rupture propagates unilaterally along a horizontal direction of very-long reverse faults (e.g., the Mw9.1 Sumatra earthquake in 2004, the Mw8.0 Wenchuan earthquake in 2008, and the Mw8.8 Maule earthquake in 2010, etc.). It seems that barriers or creeping sections may not lay along the opposite region of the co-seismically ruptured direction. In fact, in the case of Sumatra, the Mw8.6 earthquake occurred in the opposite region only three months after the mainshock. Mechanism of unilateral mode-II rupture along a material interface has been investigated theoretically and numerically. For mode-II rupture propagating along a material interface, an analytical solution implies that co-seismic stress perturbation depends on the rupture direction (Weertman, 1980 JGR; Hirano & Yamashita, 2016 BSSA), and numerical modeling of plastic yielding contributes to simulating the unilateral rupture (DeDonteny et al., 2011 JGR). However, mode-III rupture may dominate for the very-long reverse faults, and it can be shown that stress perturbation due to mode-III rupture does not depend on the rupture direction. Hence, an effect of the material interface is insufficient to understand the mechanism of unilateral rupture along the very-long reverse faults. In this study, I consider a two-dimensional bimaterial system with interfacial dynamic mode-III rupture under an obliquely pre-stressed configuration (i.e., the maximum shear direction of the background stress is inclined from the interfacial fault). First, I derived an analytical solution of regularized elastic stress field around a steady-state interfacial slip pulse using the method of Rice et al. (2005 BSSA). Then I found that the total stress, which is the sum of the background stress and co-seismic stress perturbation, depends on the rupture direction even in the mode-III case. Second, I executed a finite difference numerical simulation with a plastic yielding model of Andrews (1978 JGR; 2005

  13. Analysis of 30 breast implant rupture cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tark, Kwan Chul; Jeong, Hii Sun; Roh, Tae Suk; Choi, Jong Woo

    2005-01-01

    Breast implants used for augmentation mammoplasty or breast reconstruction could rupture from various causes such as trauma or spontaneous failure. The objectives of this study were to investigate the relationships between the causes of implant rupture and the degree of capsular contracture, and then to evaluate the relative efficacies of specific signs on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) known to be beneficial for diagnosing the rupture. A retrospective review identified patients with prosthetic implant rupture or impending rupture treated by the senior author. The 30 cases of implant rupture available for review were classified into two groups: intracapsular and extracapsular ruptures. The 30 cases of breast implant ruptures were analyzed with respect to the clinical symptoms and signs, the causes of rupture, the degree of capsular contracture, and therapeutic plans. Among the 30 cases, 14 patients who had undergone MRI during the diagnostic period were analyzed with respect to the relationships between MRI readings and operative findings. Spontaneous rupture of membranes was most common (80%), followed by failure because of trauma (7%) and valve or implant base (4%). The symptoms during implant rupture were contour deformity, palpated mass-like lesions, pain, and focal inflammation. According to the analysis of specific MRI signs, the sensitivity and specificity of the linguine sign were 87% and 100%, respectively, for intracapsular rupture. For extracapsular rupture, the sensitivity and specificity of the linguine sign were, respectively, 67% and 75%. The sensitivity and specificity of the rat-tail sign and tear drop sign were 14% and 50%, respectively. Breast implant rupture was correlated with the degree of capsular contracture in our study. Among the various specific MRI signs used in diagnosing the rupture, the linguine sign was reliable and had a high sensitivity and specificity, especially in cases of intracapsular rupture. On the other hand, the rat

  14. Rupture of Achilles Tendon : Usefulness of Ultrasonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Nam Hyeon; Ki, Won Woo; Yoon, Kwon Ha; Kim, Song Mun; Shin, Myeong Jin; Kwon, Soon Tae

    1996-01-01

    To differentiate a complete rupture of Achilles tendon from an incomplete one which is important because its treatment is quite different. And it is necessary to know the exact site of the rupture preoperatively. Fifteen cases of fourteen patients which were diagnosed as Achilles tendon rupture by ultrasonography and surgery were reviewed. We compared sonographic rupture site with surgical findings. Ultrasonographic criteria for differentiation of complete and incomplete rupture was defined as follows : the discreteness, which means the proximal intervening hypoechogenicity to the interface echogenicity of distal margin of ruptured tendon : the slant sign, which represents the interface of ruptured distal margin which was seen over the 3/4 of the thickness of the tendon without intervening low echogeneicity : the invagination sign, which means the echogenic invagination from Kager triangle into posterior aspect of Achilles tendon over the half thickness of the tendon. The sites of complete tendon rupture were exactly corresponded to surgical finding in four cases of ten complete ruptures. And the discrepancy between sonographic and surgical findings in the site of complete rupture was 1.2 ± 0.4 cm in six cases. Three of ten complete ruptures showed the discreteness sign, all of ten showed the slant sign and two of ten showed the invagination sign. It is helpful to differentiate a complete from incomplete rupture of the Achilles tendon and to localize the site of the complete rupture with the ultrasonographic evaluation

  15. Extreme of random field over rectangle with application to concrete rupture stresses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager

    2000-01-01

    to time consuming simulation procedures. This paperrevives a conceptually simple approach that gives surprisingly good results in particular for wide band typesof random processes and fields. The closed form formulas obtained for smooth Gaussian fieldsover rectangles contain size effects both with respect...... to the area of the rectangle and the side lengths of therectangle. Published rupture stress data for plain concrete beams illustrate the applicability of the derivedclosed form extreme value distributions as models for distributions of rupture stresses related to weakest linkmechanisms....

  16. Influence of fault steps on rupture termination of strike-slip earthquake faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengfang; Zhou, Bengang

    2018-03-01

    A statistical analysis was completed on the rupture data of 29 historical strike-slip earthquakes across the world. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of fault steps on the rupture termination of these events. The results show good correlations between the type and length of steps with the seismic rupture and a poor correlation between the step number and seismic rupture. For different magnitude intervals, the smallest widths of the fault steps (Lt) that can terminate the rupture propagation are variable: Lt = 3 km for Ms 6.5 6.9, Lt = 4 km for Ms 7.0 7.5, Lt = 6 km for Ms 7.5 8.0, and Lt = 8 km for Ms 8.0 8.5. The dilational fault step is easier to rupture through than the compression fault step. The smallest widths of the fault step for the rupture arrest can be used as an indicator to judge the scale of the rupture termination of seismic faults. This is helpful for research on fault segmentation, as well as estimating the magnitude of potential earthquakes, and is thus of significance for the assessment of seismic risks.

  17. PREMATURE RUPTURE OF THE MEMBRANES*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In patients presenting with premature rupture of the membranes there are two factors which influence the foetal morbidity and mortality. These factors are prema- turity and intra-uterine infection. The purpose of this analysis was to elucidate which factor carried the greater risk to the foetus. Recently there has been a spate of.

  18. Ruptured Cervical Anellrysm with Neurofibromatosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rupture of an aneurysm of a lateral branch of the right thyrocervical trunk in a patient suffering from diffuse neurofibromatosis. The operative findings are reported. s. Air. Med. ... system demonstrated decreased power in all muscles of the right shoulder girdle and arm, without sensory change. The cranial nerves were normal.

  19. Spontaneous Splenic Rupture in Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Mirfazaelian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous rupture of spleen due to malignant melanoma is a rare situation, with only a few case reports in the literature. This study reports a previously healthy, 30-year-old man who came with chief complaint of acute abdominal pain to emergency room. On physical examination, abdominal tenderness and guarding were detected to be coincident with hypotension. Ultrasonography revealed mild splenomegaly with moderate free fluid in abdominopelvic cavity. Considering acute abdominal pain and hemodynamic instability, he underwent splenectomy with splenic rupture as the source of bleeding. Histologic examination showed diffuse infiltration by tumor. Immunohistochemical study (positive for S100, HMB45, and vimentin and negative for CK, CD10, CK20, CK7, CD30, LCA, EMA, and chromogranin confirmed metastatic malignant melanoma. On further questioning, there was a past history of a nasal dark skin lesion which was removed two years ago with no pathologic examination. Spontaneous (nontraumatic rupture of spleen is an uncommon situation and it happens very rarely due to neoplastic metastasis. Metastasis of malignant melanoma is one of the rare causes of the spontaneous rupture of spleen.

  20. Endometriosis-related spontaneous diaphragmatic rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triponez, Frédéric; Alifano, Marco; Bobbio, Antonio; Regnard, Jean-François

    2010-10-01

    Non-traumatic, spontaneous diaphragmatic rupture is a rare event whose pathophysiology is not known. We report the case of endometriosis-related spontaneous rupture of the right diaphragm with intrathoracic herniation of the liver, gallbladder and colon. We hypothesize that the invasiveness of endometriotic tissue caused diaphragm fragility, which finally lead to its complete rupture without traumatic event. The treatment consisted of a classical management of diaphragmatic rupture, with excision of the endometriotic nodule followed by medical ovarian suppression for six months.

  1. ACL Rupture in Collegiate Wrestler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay A. Palmer

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To educate others on unique Anterior Cruciate Ligament tears and percentage of usage of the ACL in normal daily function. Background: Patient is an eighteen year old male participating in wrestling and football at the time of the injury. Patient now only participates in wrestling. No previous knee or chronic injuries were reported prior to this injury. Patient was playing football during the time of injury. The patient stated that he planted his foot down and was tackled at the same time when the injury occurred. The patient felt his knee twist and buckle. Patient complained of clicking inside the knee and had minimal swelling. He also complained of it being difficult to bear weight at the time. The patient did not seek further treatment until two months after the injury occurred when he received an MRI. His MRI showed a positive finding for an Anterior Cruciate Ligament rupture. His previous Athletic Trainer could not find a positive diagnosis for the patient prior to the MRI. Differential Diagnosis: Possible meniscal or ACL injury. Treatment: Doctors officially diagnosed the injury as a complete rupture of the ACL. The patient did not receive surgery immediately. Doctors have stated that he only uses about 50% of his ACL on a daily basis compared to a normal person who uses about 95% of their ACL daily. Because of this, the patient played on his rupture for seven months before receiving surgery. He played a whole season of high school football and a whole season of wrestling his senior year with the ACL ruptured. The patient only used a brace for better comfort during the seven months. The patient then received reconstructive surgery to repair the rupture. A hamstring tendon graft was used to repair the ruptured ACL. Because a tendon was taken from the hamstring, patient experienced a tight ACL and hamstring of the left leg post-surgery. The patient participated in Physical Therapy for five months to strengthen and stretch the new

  2. A Retrospective Analysis of Ruptured Breast Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo Yeol Baek

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundRupture is an important complication of breast implants. Before cohesive gel silicone implants, rupture rates of both saline and silicone breast implants were over 10%. Through an analysis of ruptured implants, we can determine the various factors related to ruptured implants.MethodsWe performed a retrospective review of 72 implants that were removed for implant rupture between 2005 and 2014 at a single institution. The following data were collected: type of implants (saline or silicone, duration of implantation, type of implant shell, degree of capsular contracture, associated symptoms, cause of rupture, diagnostic tools, and management.ResultsForty-five Saline implants and 27 silicone implants were used. Rupture was diagnosed at a mean of 5.6 and 12 years after insertion of saline and silicone implants, respectively. There was no association between shell type and risk of rupture. Spontaneous was the most common reason for the rupture. Rupture management was implant change (39 case, microfat graft (2 case, removal only (14 case, and follow-up loss (17 case.ConclusionsSaline implants have a shorter average duration of rupture, but diagnosis is easier and safer, leading to fewer complications. Previous-generation silicone implants required frequent follow-up observation, and it is recommended that they be changed to a cohesive gel implant before hidden rupture occurs.

  3. Geologic Inheritance and Earthquake Rupture Processes: The 1905 M ≥ 8 Tsetserleg-Bulnay Strike-Slip Earthquake Sequence, Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jin-Hyuck; Klinger, Yann; Ferry, Matthieu; Ritz, Jean-François; Kurtz, Robin; Rizza, Magali; Bollinger, Laurent; Davaasambuu, Battogtokh; Tsend-Ayush, Nyambayar; Demberel, Sodnomsambuu

    2018-02-01

    In 1905, 14 days apart, two M 8 continental strike-slip earthquakes, the Tsetserleg and Bulnay earthquakes, occurred on the Bulnay fault system, in Mongolia. Together, they ruptured four individual faults, with a total length of 676 km. Using submetric optical satellite images "Pleiades" with ground resolution of 0.5 m, complemented by field observation, we mapped in detail the entire surface rupture associated with this earthquake sequence. Surface rupture along the main Bulnay fault is 388 km in length, striking nearly E-W. The rupture is formed by a series of fault segments that are 29 km long on average, separated by geometric discontinuities. Although there is a difference of about 2 m in the average slip between the western and eastern parts of the Bulnay rupture, along-fault slip variations are overall limited, resulting in a smooth slip distribution, except for local slip deficit at segment boundaries. We show that damage, including short branches and secondary faulting, associated with the rupture propagation, occurred significantly more often along the western part of the Bulnay rupture, while the eastern part of the rupture appears more localized and thus possibly structurally simpler. Eventually, the difference of slip between the western and eastern parts of the rupture is attributed to this difference of rupture localization, associated at first order with a lateral change in the local geology. Damage associated to rupture branching appears to be located asymmetrically along the extensional side of the strike-slip rupture and shows a strong dependence on structural geologic inheritance.

  4. Thermally controllable reflective characteristics from rupture and self-assembly of hydrogen bonds in cholesteric liquid crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wang; Cao, Hui; Song, Li; Zhao, Haiyan; Li, Sijin; Yang, Zhou; Yang, Huai

    2009-10-22

    A cholesteric liquid crystal (Ch-LC) composite, made of a series of cholesteryl esters, a nematic LC, and a hydrogen bond (H-bond) chiral dopant (HCD), was prepared and filled into a planar treated cell. When the cell was heated, the selective reflection of the cell exhibited an unusual blue shift. One of the reasonable mechanisms was that the helical twisting power (HTP) value of cholesteryl esters increased with an increasing temperature. The other one was that the H-bonds of HCD were ruptured when the temperature was above 60.0 degrees C and HCD was split into two kinds of new chiral dopants, which made the HTP value of the chiral dopants change a lot, thus changing the pitch length of the composite greatly. On the basis of this mechanism, a novel thermally controllable reflective color paper could be achieved.

  5. Rupture Dynamics along Thrust Dipping Fault: Inertia Effects due to Free Surface Wave Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilotte, J. P.; Scala, A.; Festa, G.

    2017-12-01

    We numerically investigate the dynamic interaction between free surface and up-dip, in-plane rupture propagation along thrust faults, under linear slip-weakening friction. With reference to shallow along-dip rupture propagation during large subduction earthquakes, we consider here low dip-angle fault configurations with fixed strength excess and depth-increasing initial stress. In this configuration, the rupture undergoes a break of symmetry with slip-induced normal stress perturbations triggered by the interaction with reflected waves from the free surface. We found that both body-waves - behind the crack front - and surface waves - at the crack front - can trigger inertial effects. When waves interact with the rupture before this latter reaches its asymptotic speed, the rupture can accelerate toward the asymptotic speed faster than in the unbounded symmetric case, as a result of these inertial effects. Moreover, wave interaction at the crack front also affects the slip rate generating large ground motion on the hanging wall. Imposing the same initial normal stress, frictional strength and stress drop while varying the static friction coefficient we found that the break of symmetry makes the rupture dynamics dependent on the absolute value of friction. The higher the friction the stronger the inertial effect both in terms of rupture acceleration and slip amount. When the contact condition allows the fault interface to open close to the free surface, the length of the opening zone is shown to depend on the propagation length, the initial normal stress and the static friction coefficient. These new results are shown to agree with analytical results of rupture propagation in bounded media, and open new perspectives for understanding the shallow rupture of large subduction earthquakes and tsunami sources.

  6. Preliminary Study on Earthquake Surface Rupture Extraction from Uav Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, X.; Wang, X.; Ding, X.; Wu, X.; Dou, A.; Wang, S.

    2018-04-01

    Because of the advantages of low-cost, lightweight and photography under the cloud, UAVs have been widely used in the field of seismic geomorphology research in recent years. Earthquake surface rupture is a typical seismic tectonic geomorphology that reflects the dynamic and kinematic characteristics of crustal movement. The quick identification of earthquake surface rupture is of great significance for understanding the mechanism of earthquake occurrence, disasters distribution and scale. Using integrated differential UAV platform, series images were acquired with accuracy POS around the former urban area (Qushan town) of Beichuan County as the area stricken seriously by the 2008 Wenchuan Ms8.0 earthquake. Based on the multi-view 3D reconstruction technique, the high resolution DSM and DOM are obtained from differential UAV images. Through the shade-relief map and aspect map derived from DSM, the earthquake surface rupture is extracted and analyzed. The results show that the surface rupture can still be identified by using the UAV images although the time of earthquake elapse is longer, whose middle segment is characterized by vertical movement caused by compression deformation from fault planes.

  7. Renal allograft rupture: US diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maklad, N.F.

    1987-01-01

    The US appearances in seven pathologically and/or surgically proved cases of renal allograft rupture are presented. These include a triangular or amorphous echogenic area in the cortex and medulla in a polar location, an echogenic band or wavy, branching anechoic lines in the hyperechoic region, a subcapsular hematoma, and an extrarenal hematoma in direct continuity with the echogenic area. Duplex Doppler examination in renal allograft rupture shows marked reduction of absence of the diastolic component of the velocity waveform in the arcuate and interlobar arteries, with reduction in amplitude of the systolic wave form. Correlation of the US appearances with gross and microscopic pathologic findings indicates that the echogenic area is due to an intrarenal hematoma, while the echogenic band represents the cortical laceration with adherent blood clots. The US-duplex Doppler examination should be the primary diagnostic modality in this life-threatening condition

  8. Achilles tendon rupture in badminton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaalund, S; Lass, P; Høgsaa, B; Nøhr, M

    1989-01-01

    The typical badminton player with an Achilles tendon rupture is 36 years old and, despite limbering up, is injured at the rear line in a sudden forward movement. He resumes work within three months and has a slight lack of dorsiflexion in the ankle as the main complication. Most patients resume badminton within one year, but some finish their sports career, mainly due to fear of a new injury. The investigation discusses predisposing factors and prophylactic measures. PMID:2605439

  9. Toward tsunami early warning system in Indonesia by using rapid rupture durations estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madlazim

    2012-01-01

    Indonesia has Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (Ina-TEWS) since 2008. The Ina-TEWS has used automatic processing on hypocenter; Mwp, Mw (mB) and Mj. If earthquake occurred in Ocean, depth 7, then Ina-TEWS announce early warning that the earthquake can generate tsunami. However, the announcement of the Ina-TEWS is still not accuracy. Purposes of this research are to estimate earthquake rupture duration of large Indonesia earthquakes that occurred in Indian Ocean, Java, Timor sea, Banda sea, Arafura sea and Pasific ocean. We analyzed at least 330 vertical seismogram recorded by IRIS-DMC network using a direct procedure for rapid assessment of earthquake tsunami potential using simple measures on P-wave vertical seismograms on the velocity records, and the likelihood that the high-frequency, apparent rupture duration, T dur . T dur can be related to the critical parameters rupture length (L), depth (z), and shear modulus (μ) while T dur may be related to wide (W), slip (D), z or μ. Our analysis shows that the rupture duration has a stronger influence to generate tsunami than Mw and depth. The rupture duration gives more information on tsunami impact, Mo/μ, depth and size than Mw and other currently used discriminants. We show more information which known from the rupture durations. The longer rupture duration, the shallower source of the earthquake. For rupture duration greater than 50 s, the depth less than 50 km, Mw greater than 7, the longer rupture length, because T dur is proportional L and greater Mo/μ. Because Mo/μ is proportional L. So, with rupture duration information can be known information of the four parameters. We also suggest that tsunami potential is not directly related to the faulting type of source and for events that have rupture duration greater than 50 s, the earthquakes generated tsunami. With available real-time seismogram data, rapid calculation, rupture duration discriminant can be completed within 4–5 min after an earthquake

  10. Dynamic rupture models of earthquakes on the Bartlett Springs Fault, Northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozos, Julian C.; Harris, Ruth A.; Murray, Jessica R.; Lienkaemper, James J.

    2015-01-01

    The Bartlett Springs Fault (BSF), the easternmost branch of the northern San Andreas Fault system, creeps along much of its length. Geodetic data for the BSF are sparse, and surface creep rates are generally poorly constrained. The two existing geodetic slip rate inversions resolve at least one locked patch within the creeping zones. We use the 3-D finite element code FaultMod to conduct dynamic rupture models based on both geodetic inversions, in order to determine the ability of rupture to propagate into the creeping regions, as well as to assess possible magnitudes for BSF ruptures. For both sets of models, we find that the distribution of aseismic creep limits the extent of coseismic rupture, due to the contrast in frictional properties between the locked and creeping regions.

  11. Complementary Ruptures of Surface Ruptures and Deep Asperity during the 2014 Northern Nagano, Japan, Earthquake (MW 6.3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, K.; Iwata, T.; Kubo, H.

    2015-12-01

    A thrust earthquake of MW 6.3 occurred along the northern part of the Itoigawa-Shizuoka Tectonic Line (ISTL) in the northern Nagano prefecture, central Japan, on November 22, 2014. This event was reported to be related to an active fault, the Kamishiro fault belonging to the ISTL (e.g., HERP, 2014). The surface rupture is observed along the Kamishiro fault (e.g., Lin et al., 2015; Okada et al., 2015). We estimated the kinematic source rupture process of this earthquake through the multiple time-window linear waveform inversion method (Hartzell and Heaton, 1983). We used velocity waveforms in 0.05-1 Hz from 12 strong motion stations of K-NET, KiK-net (NIED), JMA, and Nagano prefecture (SK-net, ERI). In order to enhance the reliability in Green's functions, we assumed one-dimensional velocity structure models different for the different stations, which were extracted from the nation-wide three-dimensional velocity structure model, Japan Integrated Velocity Structure Model (JIVSM, Koketsu et al., 2012). Considering the spatial distribution of aftershocks (Sakai et al., 2015) and surface ruptures, the assumed fault model consisted of two dip-bending fault segments with different dip angles between the northern and southern segments. The total length and width of the fault plane is 20 km and 13 km, relatively, and the fault model is divided into 260 subfaults of 1 km × 1 km in space and six smoothed ramp functions in time. An asperity or large slip area with a peak slip of 1.9 m was estimated in the lower plane of the northern segment in the approximate depth range of 4 to 8 km. The depth extent of this asperity is consistent with the seismogenic zone revealed by past studies (e.g., Panayotopoulos et al., 2014). In contrast, the slip in the southern segment is relatively concentrated in the shallow portion of the segment where the surface ruptures were found along the Kamishiro fault. The overall spatial rupture pattern of the source fault, in which the deep asperity

  12. Earthquake scaling laws for rupture geometry and slip heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thingbaijam, Kiran K. S.; Mai, P. Martin; Goda, Katsuichiro

    2016-04-01

    We analyze an extensive compilation of finite-fault rupture models to investigate earthquake scaling of source geometry and slip heterogeneity to derive new relationships for seismic and tsunami hazard assessment. Our dataset comprises 158 earthquakes with a total of 316 rupture models selected from the SRCMOD database (http://equake-rc.info/srcmod). We find that fault-length does not saturate with earthquake magnitude, while fault-width reveals inhibited growth due to the finite seismogenic thickness. For strike-slip earthquakes, fault-length grows more rapidly with increasing magnitude compared to events of other faulting types. Interestingly, our derived relationship falls between the L-model and W-model end-members. In contrast, both reverse and normal dip-slip events are more consistent with self-similar scaling of fault-length. However, fault-width scaling relationships for large strike-slip and normal dip-slip events, occurring on steeply dipping faults (δ~90° for strike-slip faults, and δ~60° for normal faults), deviate from self-similarity. Although reverse dip-slip events in general show self-similar scaling, the restricted growth of down-dip fault extent (with upper limit of ~200 km) can be seen for mega-thrust subduction events (M~9.0). Despite this fact, for a given earthquake magnitude, subduction reverse dip-slip events occupy relatively larger rupture area, compared to shallow crustal events. In addition, we characterize slip heterogeneity in terms of its probability distribution and spatial correlation structure to develop a complete stochastic random-field characterization of earthquake slip. We find that truncated exponential law best describes the probability distribution of slip, with observable scale parameters determined by the average and maximum slip. Applying Box-Cox transformation to slip distributions (to create quasi-normal distributed data) supports cube-root transformation, which also implies distinctive non-Gaussian slip

  13. Neck curve polynomials in neck rupture model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurniadi, Rizal; Perkasa, Yudha S.; Waris, Abdul

    2012-01-01

    The Neck Rupture Model is a model that explains the scission process which has smallest radius in liquid drop at certain position. Old fashion of rupture position is determined randomly so that has been called as Random Neck Rupture Model (RNRM). The neck curve polynomials have been employed in the Neck Rupture Model for calculation the fission yield of neutron induced fission reaction of 280 X 90 with changing of order of polynomials as well as temperature. The neck curve polynomials approximation shows the important effects in shaping of fission yield curve.

  14. Acute Pectoralis Major Rupture Captured on Video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Ordas Bayon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pectoralis major (PM ruptures are uncommon injuries, although they are becoming more frequent. We report a case of a PM rupture in a young male who presented with axillar pain and absence of the anterior axillary fold after he perceived a snap while lifting 200 kg in the bench press. Diagnosis of PM rupture was suspected clinically and confirmed with imaging studies. The patient was treated surgically, reinserting the tendon to the humerus with suture anchors. One-year follow-up showed excellent results. The patient was recording his training on video, so we can observe in detail the most common mechanism of injury of PM rupture.

  15. Traumatic rupture of an intracranial dermoid cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raksha Ramlakhan, BMedSc, MBBCh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracranial dermoid cysts are congenital tumors of ectodermal origin. Rupture of these cysts can occur spontaneously, but rupture in association with trauma is reported infrequently. The diagnosis of rupture is made by the presence of lipid (cholesterol droplets in the subarachnoid spaces and ventricles. Nonenhanced CT of the head demonstrates multiple foci of low attenuation that correspond with hyperintense signal on T1-weighted MRI. We present a case of an adult patient with rupture of an intracranial dermoid cyst, precipitated by minor trauma.

  16. CT diagnosis of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacknoff, R.; Novelline, R.A.; Wittenberg, J.; Waltman, A.C.; De Luca, S.A.; Rhea, J.T.; Lawrason, J.N.

    1986-01-01

    Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a life-threatening condition requiring immediate diagnosis and surgery. In a series of 23 consecutive patients scanned by CT for suspected ruptured AAA, CT proved 100% accurate. In seven patients with surgically or pathologically proved ruptured AAA, CT demonstrated a similar distribution of hemorrhage into the perirenal space and to a lesser degree into the anterior and posterior pararenal spaces. The 16 true-negative examinations included ten in patients with unruptured AAA and six in patients with other diseases. The authors conclude that patients in stable condition with suspected ruptured AAA should be examined by CT

  17. Predicting creep rupture from early strain data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmstroem, Stefan; Auerkari, Pertti

    2009-01-01

    To extend creep life modelling from classical rupture modelling, a robust and effective parametric strain model has been developed. The model can reproduce with good accuracy all parts of the creep curve, economically utilising the available rupture models. The resulting combined model can also be used to predict rupture from the available strain data, and to further improve the rupture models. The methodology can utilise unfailed specimen data for life assessment at lower stress levels than what is possible from rupture data alone. Master curves for creep strain and rupture have been produced for oxygen-free phosphorus-doped (OFP) copper with a maximum testing time of 51,000 h. Values of time to specific strain at given stress (40-165 MPa) and temperature (125-350 deg. C) were fitted to the models in the strain range of 0.1-38%. With typical inhomogeneous multi-batch creep data, the combined strain and rupture modelling involves the steps of investigation of the data quality, extraction of elastic and creep strain response, rupture modelling, data set balancing and creep strain modelling. Finally, the master curves for strain and rupture are tested and validated for overall fitting efficiency. With the Wilshire equation as the basis for the rupture model, the strain model applies classical parametric principles with an Arrhenius type of thermal activation and a power law type of stress dependence for the strain rate. The strain model also assumes that the processes of primary and secondary creep can be reasonably correlated. The rupture model represents a clear improvement over previous models in the range of the test data. The creep strain information from interrupted and running tests were assessed together with the rupture data investigating the possibility of rupture model improvement towards lower stress levels by inverse utilisation of the combined rupture based strain model. The developed creep strain model together with the improved rupture model is

  18. Sub-Patch Roughness in Earthquake Rupture Investigations

    KAUST Repository

    Zielke, Olaf

    2016-02-13

    Fault geometric complexities exhibit fractal characteristics over a wide range of spatial scales (<µm to >km) and strongly affect the rupture process at corresponding scales. Numerical rupture simulations provide a framework to quantitatively investigate the relationship between a fault\\'s roughness and its seismic characteristics. Fault discretization however introduces an artificial lower limit to roughness. Individual fault patches are planar and sub-patch roughness –roughness at spatial scales below fault-patch size– is not incorporated. Does negligence of sub-patch roughness measurably affect the outcome of earthquake rupture simulations? We approach this question with a numerical parameter space investigation and demonstrate that sub-patch roughness significantly modifies the slip-strain relationship –a fundamental aspect of dislocation theory. Faults with sub-patch roughness induce less strain than their planar-fault equivalents at distances beyond the length of a slipping fault. We further provide regression functions that characterize the stochastic effect sub-patch roughness.

  19. The Great Recession was not so Great

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ours, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    The Great Recession is characterized by a GDP-decline that was unprecedented in the past decades. This paper discusses the implications of the Great Recession analyzing labor market data from 20 OECD countries. Comparing the Great Recession with the 1980s recession it is concluded that there is a

  20. The rupture in the physics teacher’s pedagogical sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Louise Scarinci

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This is the result of an observational research, carried out with a group of high school physics teachers in professional development. We departed from the recognition of the incipient learning in courses, as identified from the few changes resultant in teachers’ practices. While studying their attempts to take into classroom the proposals learned in the courses, we’ve observed that such attempts frequently originated a rupture in the pedagogical sequence. This caused a great distress and a tendency to return to the “old” practice. Of what does this rupture consist? Which obstacles may be causing them? This question lead us to study the characteristics of teachers’ practices and their evolution/oscillation, motivated by the professional development course. We’ve related the ruptures in their pedagogical sequence with the incoherence in teachers' strategies and attitudes when applying the teaching theory being learned, whereas still maintaining aspects of their practice founded into the old theory. We’ve concluded that the learning of a new teaching theory requires a ground attitudinal change, more fundamental than possible changes in the teaching strategies, these ones capable of planning.

  1. Common and uncommon CT findings in rupture and impending rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M.Z.; Ling, L.; Ettles, D.F.

    2013-01-01

    The rapid imaging evaluation and diagnosis of rupture and impending rupture of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is imperative. This article describes the imaging findings of rupture, impending rupture, and other abdominal aortic abnormalities. It is important not to overlook AAA as the consequences can be life threatening. All patients who had open or endovascular repair of AAA rupture over 6 years (2008–2012) were identified from our departmental database. The computed tomography (CT) images of 99 patients were reviewed for relevant findings. The mean age of the patients was 65 years and 85% were male

  2. Radionuclide scan findings in delayed splenic rupture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flickinger, F.W.; Jackson, G.L.

    1978-01-01

    An initial liver/spleen scan performed on a patient with blunt abdominal trauma was negative 3 days following the accident. A follow-up scan 7 days later showed definite evidence of splenic rupture, proved surgically. The authors conclude that, in such cases, spleen scans may be negative initially because of delayed splenic ruptures

  3. Rupture of esophagus by compressed air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jie; Tan, Yuyong; Huo, Jirong

    2016-11-01

    Currently, beverages containing compressed air such as cola and champagne are widely used in our daily life. Improper ways to unscrew the bottle, usually by teeth, could lead to an injury, even a rupture of the esophagus. This letter to editor describes a case of esophageal rupture caused by compressed air.

  4. Coiling of ruptured pericallosal artery aneurysms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menovsky, T.; Rooij, W.J.J. van; Sluzewski, M.; Wijnalda, D.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the technical feasibility of treating ruptured pericallosal artery aneurysms with detachable coils and to evaluate the anatomic and clinical results. METHODS: Over a period of 27 months, 12 patients with a ruptured pericallosal artery aneurysm were treated with detachable

  5. Treatment Alternative for Irreparable Rotator Cuff Ruptures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-09-03

    Sep 3, 2016 ... and such ruptures also lead to a pseudo-paralysis.[1,2]. Pain during daily ... 2) repairable rotator cuff rupture, as determined on MRI and during arthroscopy ..... functioning and lead to cosmetic deformities.[4]. Arthroplasty is a ...

  6. Uterine rupture without previous caesarean delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thisted, Dorthe L. A.; H. Mortensen, Laust; Krebs, Lone

    2015-01-01

    to uterine rupture when adjusted for parity, epidural analgesia and augmentation by oxytocin. CONCLUSION: Although uterine rupture is rare, its association with epidural analgesia and augmentation of labour with oxytocin in multipara should be considered. Thus, vigilance should be exercised when labour...

  7. Spontaneous rupture of choledochal cyst: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Ho Seob; Nam, Kyung Jin; Lee, Jin Hwa; Kim, Chan Sung; Choi, Jong Cheol; Oh, Jong Young

    2002-01-01

    Spontaneous rupture of a choledochal cyst leading to biliary peritonitis is a rare complication which can be fatal if not promptly diagnosed. The authors report the ultrasound and CT findings of two cases of spontaneous choledochal cystic rupture and the biliary peritonitis which ensued

  8. Isolated gallbladder rupture following blunt abdominal injury

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-05-26

    May 26, 2015 ... Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Abstract. Isolated traumatic gallbladder rupture subsequent to blunt abdominal injury is rare. Most literatures on the subjects consist of case reports. We reported a rare case of isolated gallbladder rupture and discussed the possible predisposing factors to ...

  9. Spontaneous Achilles tendon rupture in alkaptonuria | Mohammed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spontaneous Achilles tendon ruptures are uncommon. We present a 46-year-old man with spontaneous Achilles tendon rupture due to ochronosis. To our knowledge, this has not been previously reported in Sudan literature. The tendon of the reported patient healed well after debridement and primary repairs.

  10. Spontaneous rupture of choledochal cyst: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Ho Seob; Nam, Kyung Jin; Lee, Jin Hwa; Kim, Chan Sung; Choi, Jong Cheol; Oh, Jong Young [Dong-a University College of Medicine, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-11-01

    Spontaneous rupture of a choledochal cyst leading to biliary peritonitis is a rare complication which can be fatal if not promptly diagnosed. The authors report the ultrasound and CT findings of two cases of spontaneous choledochal cystic rupture and the biliary peritonitis which ensued.

  11. Chest radiograph in the acute traumatic rupture of the aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinterits, F.; Grabenwoeger, F.; Dock, W.; Bardach, G.

    1987-01-01

    We tried to find out the validity of 16 wellknown signs indicating an acute traumatic aortic rupture on plain chest radiographs of 22 patients. Angiographically 11 of all patients had a tear at the aortic isthmus. It turned out that 7 of the 16 signs (widened mediastinum, loss of the aortic knob contour, opacification in the aortopulmonary window, bulging of the vascular pedicle predominantly to the left, left apical cap, depression of the left main stem bronchus and displacement of the right paraspinous interface) are of great diagnostic value. (orig.) [de

  12. Spontaneous rupture of adrenal metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Chae Hun; Kim, Hyun Jin; Park, Soo Youn; Hwang, Seong Su; Choi, Hyun Joo [St. Vincent Hospital, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-03-15

    Rupture of adrenal tumor from various primary origins is a rather rare event. We report here on a ruptured adrenal metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma, and this ruptured metastasis was observed at the time of the initial diagnosis.

  13. Triple Achilles Tendon Rupture: Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Amol; Hofer, Deann

    We present a case report with 1-year follow-up data of a 57-year-old male soccer referee who had sustained an acute triple Achilles tendon rupture injury during a game. His triple Achilles tendon rupture consisted of a rupture of the proximal watershed region, a rupture of the main body (mid-watershed area), and an avulsion-type rupture of insertional calcific tendinosis. The patient was treated surgically with primary repair of the tendon, including tenodesis with anchors. Postoperative treatment included non-weightbearing for 4 weeks and protected weightbearing until 10 weeks postoperative, followed by formal physical therapy, which incorporated an "antigravity" treadmill. The patient was able to return to full activity after 26 weeks, including running and refereeing, without limitations. Copyright © 2017 The American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. MRI of tibialis anterior tendon rupture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallo, Robert A.; DeMeo, Patrick J.; Kolman, Brett H.; Daffner, Richard H.; Sciulli, Robert L.; Roberts, Catherine C.

    2004-01-01

    Ruptures of the tibialis anterior tendon are rare. We present the clinical histories and MRI findings of three recent male patients with tibialis anterior tendon rupture aged 58-67 years, all of whom presented with pain over the dorsum of the ankle. Two of the three patients presented with complete rupture showing discontinuity of the tendon, thickening of the retracted portion of the tendon, and excess fluid in the tendon sheath. One patient demonstrated a partial tear showing an attenuated tendon with increased surrounding fluid. Although rupture of the tibialis anterior tendon is a rarely reported entity, MRI is a useful modality in the definitive detection and characterization of tibialis anterior tendon ruptures. (orig.)

  15. Ruptured gastroepiploic artery aneurysm: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad S. Ashrafi

    Full Text Available Introduction: Gastroepiploic artery aneurysms are extremely rare, with few reported cases in the literature. The risk of rupture however, is high and thus warrants attention. Presentation of case: Here we present a rare case of a women who presented to the emergency department in shock and was found to have a ruptured gastroepiploic artery aneurysm during surgical exploration. Suture ligation of the aneurysm was completed. Discussion: Although rare, gastroepiploic artery aneurysms have up to a 90% rate of rupture and therefore require intervention. A laparoscopic approach has been described however, in cases where rupture has occurred, urgent laparotomy and control of hemorrhage is needed. Conclusion: We describe a rare case of a ruptured gastroepiploic aneurysm that was successfully managed with urgent laparotomy and aneurysmal resection. Keywords: Gastroepiploic, Aneurysm, Hemorrhage, Case report

  16. Telomere Length and Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimura, Masayuki; Hjelmborg, Jacob V B; Gardner, Jeffrey P

    2008-01-01

    Leukocyte telomere length, representing the mean length of all telomeres in leukocytes, is ostensibly a bioindicator of human aging. The authors hypothesized that shorter telomeres might forecast imminent mortality in elderly people better than leukocyte telomere length. They performed mortality...

  17. Earthquake lights and rupture processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Losseva

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A physical model of earthquake lights is proposed. It is suggested that the magnetic diffusion from the electric and magnetic fields source region is a dominant process, explaining rather high localization of the light flashes. A 3D numerical code allowing to take into account the arbitrary distribution of currents caused by ground motion, conductivity in the ground and at its surface, including the existence of sea water above the epicenter or (and near the ruptured segments of the fault have been developed. Simulations for the 1995 Kobe earthquake were conducted taking into account the existence of sea water with realistic geometry of shores. The results do not contradict the eyewitness reports and scarce measurements of the electric and magnetic fields at large distances from the epicenter.

  18. Traumatic rupture of the aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorfman, G.S.; Paolella, L.P.; Haas, R.A.; Lambiase, R.E.; Cronan, J.J.

    1988-01-01

    To evaluate the acceptability of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in the evaluation of traumatic rupture of the aorta (TRA), the authors obtained 56 thoracic aortograms in 55 consecutive trauma patients, using both DSA and cut-film angiography (CFA). Both studies were ranked blindly and assigned scores for quality and diagnosis. Interobserver variance for DSA and CFA quality rankings was insignificant. CFA achieved significantly higher ranking for quality. In the 56 examinations, CFA demonstrated seven abnormalities that demanded intervention for follow-up angiography. DSA demonstrated only five of these and found no additional abnormalities. While this evaluation applies only to the particular digital system that the authors tested, they found that DSA, as compared with CFA, failed to demonstrate significant aortic injury. The confidence of diagnosis was significantly greater with CFA. Similar double-blind evaluation is mandatory at any trauma center prior to converting from CFA to DSA in the diagnosis of this life-threatening condition

  19. Rupture of the meniscofibular ligament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poyanli Oguz

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The meniscofibular ligament is an anatomically defined ligament of the knee in humans. However, there are no data regarding the prognosis following injury to this ligament. Our case was a 42-year-old man who presented at our clinic with pain of the lateral side of his left knee. MRI of his left knee revealed the rupture of the meniscofibular ligament. The mechanism of injury was consistent with anatomical and mechanical studies of the meniscofibular ligament. The patient was treated conservatively for 1 year, but his pain did not resolve completely. A case series of patients with the same injury is required to establish an effective treatment for this rare injury.

  20. Index for simultaneous rupture assessment of active faults. Part 3. Subsurface structure deduced from geophysical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyagi, Yasuhira

    2012-01-01

    Tomographic inversion was carried out in the northern source region of the 1891 Nobi earthquake, the largest inland earthquake (M8.0) in Japan to detect subsurface structure to control simultaneous rupture of active fault system. In the step-over between the two ruptured fault segments in 1891, a remarkable low velocity zone is found between the Nukumi and Ibigawa faults at the depth shallower than 3-5 km. The low velocity zone forms a prism-like body narrowing down in the deeper. Hypocenters below the low velocity zone connecting the two ruptured segments indicate the possibility of their convergence in the seismogenic zone. Northern tip of the Neodani fault locates in the low velocity zone. The results show that fault rupture is easy to propagate in the low velocity zone between two parallel faults. In contrast an E-W cross-structure is found in the seismogenic depth between the Nobi earthquake and the 1948 Fukui earthquake (M7.1) source regions. It runs parallel to the Hida gaien belt, a major geologic structure in the district. P-wave velocity is lower and the hypocenter depths are obviously shallower in north of the cross-structure. Since a few faults lie in E-W direction just above it, a cross-structure zone including the Hida gaien belt might terminate the fault rupture. The results indicate fault rupture is difficult to propagate beyond major cross-structure. The length ratio of cross-structure to fault segment (PL/FL) is proposed to use for simultaneous rupture assessment. Some examples show that fault ruptures perhaps (PL/FL>3-4), maybe (∼1), and probably (<1) cut through such cross-structures. (author)

  1. Metrics for comparing dynamic earthquake rupture simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barall, Michael; Harris, Ruth A.

    2014-01-01

    Earthquakes are complex events that involve a myriad of interactions among multiple geologic features and processes. One of the tools that is available to assist with their study is computer simulation, particularly dynamic rupture simulation. A dynamic rupture simulation is a numerical model of the physical processes that occur during an earthquake. Starting with the fault geometry, friction constitutive law, initial stress conditions, and assumptions about the condition and response of the near‐fault rocks, a dynamic earthquake rupture simulation calculates the evolution of fault slip and stress over time as part of the elastodynamic numerical solution (Ⓔ see the simulation description in the electronic supplement to this article). The complexity of the computations in a dynamic rupture simulation make it challenging to verify that the computer code is operating as intended, because there are no exact analytic solutions against which these codes’ results can be directly compared. One approach for checking if dynamic rupture computer codes are working satisfactorily is to compare each code’s results with the results of other dynamic rupture codes running the same earthquake simulation benchmark. To perform such a comparison consistently, it is necessary to have quantitative metrics. In this paper, we present a new method for quantitatively comparing the results of dynamic earthquake rupture computer simulation codes.

  2. Hepatic Rupture Induced by Spontaneous Intrahepatic Hematoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-bao Zhou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The etiology of hepatic rupture is usually secondary to trauma, and hepatic rupture induced by spontaneous intrahepatic hematoma is clinically rare. We describe here a 61-year-old female patient who was transferred to our hospital with hepatic rupture induced by spontaneous intrahepatic hematoma. The patient had no history of trauma and had a history of systemic lupus erythematosus for five years, taking a daily dose of 5 mg prednisone for treatment. The patients experienced durative blunt acute right upper abdominal pain one day after satiation, which aggravated in two hours, accompanied by dizziness and sweating. Preoperative diagnosis was rupture of the liver mass. Laparotomy revealed 2500 mL fluid consisting of a mixture of blood and clot in the peritoneal cavity. A 3.5 cm × 2.5 cm rupture was discovered on the hepatic caudate lobe near the vena cava with active arterial bleeding, and a 5  × 6 cm hematoma was reached on the right posterior lobe of the liver. Abdominal computed tomography (CT and laparotomy revealed spontaneous rupture of intrahepatic hematoma with hemorrhagic shock. The patient was successfully managed by suturing the rupture of the hepatic caudate lobe and clearing part of the hematoma. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the patient was discharged after two weeks of hospitalization.

  3. Spontaneous rupture of the urinary bladder in a woman with radiation cystitis. A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurizaki, Yoshiki; Ishizuka, Osamu [Kofu Municipal Hospital, Yamanashi (Japan)

    1997-07-01

    A 79-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with gross hematuria and abdominal pain. She had had a uterine cancer 11 years previously and received 56 Gy {sup 60}Co external irradiation combined with 129 Gy {sup 137}Cs internal irradiation. She had a sign of pan-peritonitis. An emergency operation revealed an intraperitoneal rupture of the dome of the urinary bladder 8 cm in length. Because a primary suturing of the bladder wall was unsuccessful, bilateral cutaneous ureterostomy was performed. Histologically, the ruptured bladder wall showed a mucosal erosion and fibrosis of the muscle layer. (author)

  4. Misdiagnosed Chest Pain: Spontaneous Esophageal Rupture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inci, Sinan; Gundogdu, Fuat; Gungor, Hasan; Arslan, Sakir; Turkyilmaz, Atila; Eroglu, Atila

    2013-01-01

    Chest pain is one of themost common complaints expressed by patients presenting to the emergency department, and any initial evaluation should always consider life-threatening causes. Esophageal rupture is a serious condition with a highmortality rate. If diagnosed, successful therapy depends on the size of the rupture and the time elapsed between rupture and diagnosis.We report on a 41-year-old woman who presented to the emergency department complaining of left-sided chest pain for two hours. PMID:27122690

  5. Eccentric pressurized tube for measuring creep rupture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwab, P.R.

    1981-01-01

    Creep rupture is a long term failure mode in structural materials that occurs at high temperatures and moderate stress levels. The deterioration of the material preceding rupture, termed creep damage, manifests itself in the formation of small cavities on grain boundaries. To measure creep damage, sometimes uniaxial tests are performed, sometimes density measurements are made, and sometimes the grain boundary cavities are measured by microscopy techniques. The purpose of the present research is to explore a new method of measuring creep rupture, which involves measuring the curvature of eccentric pressurized tubes. Theoretical investigations as well as the design, construction, and operation of an experimental apparatus are included in this research

  6. Spontaneous distal rupture of the plantar fascia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitto, Salvatore; Draghi, Ferdinando

    2018-07-01

    Spontaneous ruptures of the plantar fascia are uncommon injuries. They typically occur at its calcaneal insertion and usually represent a complication of plantar fasciitis and local treatment with steroid injections. In contrast, distal ruptures commonly result from traumatic injuries. We describe the case of a spontaneous distal rupture of the plantar fascia in a 48-year-old woman with a low level of physical activity and no history of direct injury to the foot, plantar fasciitis, or steroid injections. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Great Lakes Science Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Since 1927, Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC) research has provided critical information for the sound management of Great Lakes fish populations and other important...

  8. Rupture Following Biceps-to-Triceps Tendon Transfer in Adolescents and Young Adults With Spinal Cord Injury:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merenda, Lisa A.; Rutter, Laure; Curran, Kimberly; Kozin, Scott H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Tendon transfer surgery can restore elbow extension in approximately 70% of persons with tetraplegia and often results in antigravity elbow extension strength. However, we have noted an almost 15% rupture/attenuation rate. Objective: This investigation was conducted to analyze potential causes in adolescents/young adults with spinal cord injury (SCI) who experienced tendon rupture or attenuation after biceps-to-triceps transfer. Methods: Medical charts of young adults with SCI who underwent biceps-to-triceps transfer and experienced tendon rupture or attenuation were reviewed. Data collected by retrospective chart review included general demographics, surgical procedure(s), use and duration of antibiotic treatment, time from tendon transfer surgery to rupture/attenuation, and method of diagnosis. Results: Twelve subjects with tetraplegia (mean age, 19 years) who underwent biceps-to-triceps reconstruction with subsequent tendon rupture or attenuation were evaluated. Mean age at time of tendon transfer was 18 years (range, 14-21 years). A fluoroquinolone was prescribed for 42% (n=5) of subjects. Tendon rupture was noted in 67% (n=8), and attenuation was noted in 33% (n=4). Average length of time from surgery to tendon rupture/attenuation was 5.7 months (range, 3-10 months). Conclusion: Potential contributing causes of tendon rupture/attenuation after transfer include surgical technique, rehabilitation, co-contraction of the transfer, poor patient compliance, and medications. In this cohort, 5 subjects were prescribed fluoroquinolones that have a US Food and Drug Administration black box concerning tendon ruptures. Currently, all candidates for upper extremity tendon transfer reconstruction are counseled on the effects of fluoroquinolones and the potential risk for tendon rupture. PMID:23459326

  9. Force-Induced Rupture of a DNA Duplex: From Fundamentals to Force Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosayebi, Majid; Louis, Ard A; Doye, Jonathan P K; Ouldridge, Thomas E

    2015-12-22

    The rupture of double-stranded DNA under stress is a key process in biophysics and nanotechnology. In this article, we consider the shear-induced rupture of short DNA duplexes, a system that has been given new importance by recently designed force sensors and nanotechnological devices. We argue that rupture must be understood as an activated process, where the duplex state is metastable and the strands will separate in a finite time that depends on the duplex length and the force applied. Thus, the critical shearing force required to rupture a duplex depends strongly on the time scale of observation. We use simple models of DNA to show that this approach naturally captures the observed dependence of the force required to rupture a duplex within a given time on duplex length. In particular, this critical force is zero for the shortest duplexes, before rising sharply and then plateauing in the long length limit. The prevailing approach, based on identifying when the presence of each additional base pair within the duplex is thermodynamically unfavorable rather than allowing for metastability, does not predict a time-scale-dependent critical force and does not naturally incorporate a critical force of zero for the shortest duplexes. We demonstrate that our findings have important consequences for the behavior of a new force-sensing nanodevice, which operates in a mixed mode that interpolates between shearing and unzipping. At a fixed time scale and duplex length, the critical force exhibits a sigmoidal dependence on the fraction of the duplex that is subject to shearing.

  10. Real-Time Detection of Rupture Development: Earthquake Early Warning Using P Waves From Growing Ruptures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodera, Yuki

    2018-01-01

    Large earthquakes with long rupture durations emit P wave energy throughout the rupture period. Incorporating late-onset P waves into earthquake early warning (EEW) algorithms could contribute to robust predictions of strong ground motion. Here I describe a technique to detect in real time P waves from growing ruptures to improve the timeliness of an EEW algorithm based on seismic wavefield estimation. The proposed P wave detector, which employs a simple polarization analysis, successfully detected P waves from strong motion generation areas of the 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku-oki earthquake rupture. An analysis using 23 large (M ≥ 7) events from Japan confirmed that seismic intensity predictions based on the P wave detector significantly increased lead times without appreciably decreasing the prediction accuracy. P waves from growing ruptures, being one of the fastest carriers of information on ongoing rupture development, have the potential to improve the performance of EEW systems.

  11. Evaluating the Possibility of a joint San Andreas-Imperial Fault Rupture in the Salton Trough Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriakopoulos, C.; Oglesby, D. D.; Meltzner, A. J.; Rockwell, T. K.

    2016-12-01

    A geodynamic investigation of possible earthquakes in a given region requires both field data and numerical simulations. In particular, the investigation of past earthquakes is also a fundamental part of understanding the earthquake potential of the Salton Trough region. Geological records from paleoseismic trenches inform us of past ruptures (length, magnitude, timing), while dynamic rupture models allow us to evaluate numerically the mechanics of such earthquakes. The two most recent events (Mw 6.4 1940 and Mw 6.9 1979) on the Imperial fault (IF) both ruptured up to the northern end of the mapped fault, giving the impression that rupture doesn't propagate further north. This result is supported by small displacements, 20 cm, measured at the Dogwood site near the end of the mapped rupture in each event. However, 3D paleoseismic data from the same site corresponding to the most recent pre-1940 event (1710 CE) and 5th (1635 CE) and 6th events back revealed up to 1.5 m of slip in those events. Since we expect the surface displacement to decrease toward the termination of a rupture, we postulate that in these earlier cases the rupture propagated further north than in 1940 or 1979. Furthermore, paleoseismic data from the Coachella site (Philibosian et al., 2011) on the San Andreas fault (SAF) indicates slip events ca. 1710 CE and 1588-1662 CE. In other words, the timing of two large paleoseismic displacements on the IF cannot be distinguished from the timing of the two most recent events on the southern SAF, leaving a question: is it possible to have through-going rupture in the Salton Trough? We investigate this question through 3D dynamic finite element rupture modeling. In our work, we considered two scenarios: rupture initiated on the IF propagating northward, and rupture initiated on the SAF propagating southward. Initial results show that, in the first case, rupture propagates north of the mapped northern terminus of the IF only under certain pre

  12. Spontaneous rupture of ovarian cystadenocarcinoma: pre- and post-rupture computed tomography evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvadori, Priscila Silveira; Atzingen, Augusto Castelli von; D' Ippolito, Giuseppe [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (EPM/UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina; Bomfim, Lucas Novais [Universidade Tiradentes (UNIT), Maceio, AL, (Brazil)

    2015-09-15

    Epithelial ovarian tumors are the most common malignant ovarian neoplasms and, in most cases, eventual rupture of such tumors is associated with a surgical procedure. The authors report the case of a 54-year-old woman who presented with spontaneous rupture of ovarian cystadenocarcinoma documented by computed tomography, both before and after the event. In such cases, a post-rupture staging tends to be less favorable, compromising the prognosis. (author)

  13. Global catalog of earthquake rupture velocities shows anticorrelation between stress drop and rupture velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chounet, Agnès; Vallée, Martin; Causse, Mathieu; Courboulex, Françoise

    2018-05-01

    Application of the SCARDEC method provides the apparent source time functions together with seismic moment, depth, and focal mechanism, for most of the recent earthquakes with magnitude larger than 5.6-6. Using this large dataset, we have developed a method to systematically invert for the rupture direction and average rupture velocity Vr, when unilateral rupture propagation dominates. The approach is applied to all the shallow (z earthquakes of the catalog over the 1992-2015 time period. After a careful validation process, rupture properties for a catalog of 96 earthquakes are obtained. The subsequent analysis of this catalog provides several insights about the seismic rupture process. We first report that up-dip ruptures are more abundant than down-dip ruptures for shallow subduction interface earthquakes, which can be understood as a consequence of the material contrast between the slab and the overriding crust. Rupture velocities, which are searched without any a-priori up to the maximal P wave velocity (6000-8000 m/s), are found between 1200 m/s and 4500 m/s. This observation indicates that no earthquakes propagate over long distances with rupture velocity approaching the P wave velocity. Among the 23 ruptures faster than 3100 m/s, we observe both documented supershear ruptures (e.g. the 2001 Kunlun earthquake), and undocumented ruptures that very likely include a supershear phase. We also find that the correlation of Vr with the source duration scaled to the seismic moment (Ts) is very weak. This directly implies that both Ts and Vr are anticorrelated with the stress drop Δσ. This result has implications for the assessment of the peak ground acceleration (PGA) variability. As shown by Causse and Song (2015), an anticorrelation between Δσ and Vr significantly reduces the predicted PGA variability, and brings it closer to the observed variability.

  14. Dependence of Some Mechanical Properties of Elastic Bands on the Length and Load Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triana, C. A.; Fajardo, F.

    2012-01-01

    We present a study of the maximum stress supported by elastics bands of nitrile as a function of the natural length and the load time. The maximum tension of rupture and the corresponding variation in length were found by measuring the elongation of an elastic band when a mass is suspended from its free end until it reaches the breaking point. The…

  15. Acute Iliac Artery Rupture: Endovascular Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatziioannou, A.; Mourikis, D.; Katsimilis, J.; Skiadas, V.; Koutoulidis, V.; Katsenis, K.; Vlahos, L.

    2007-01-01

    The authors present 7 patients who suffered iliac artery rupture over a 2 year period. In 5 patients, the rupture was iatrogenic: 4 cases were secondary to balloon angioplasty for iliac artery stenosis and 1 occurred during coronary angioplasty. In the last 2 patients, the rupture was secondary to iliac artery mycotic aneurysm. Direct placement of a stent-graft was performed in all cases, which was dilated until extravasation was controlled. Placement of the stent-graft was successful in all the cases, without any complications. The techniques used, results, and mid-term follow-up are presented. In conclusion, endovascular placement of a stent-graft is a quick, minimally invasive, efficient, and safe method for emergency treatment of acute iliac artery rupture, with satisfactory short- and mid-term results

  16. Arthrographic diagnosis of ruptured calcaneofibular ligament. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuust, M.

    1980-01-01

    A new projection, oblique axial, is recommended for the arthrography of the acute sprained ankle for the correct diagnosis of a ruptured calcaneofibular ligament. Its value is experimentally confirmed. (Auth.)

  17. Right Diaphragm Spontaneous Rupture: A Surgical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duilio Divisi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of spontaneous rupture of the diaphragm, characterized by nonspecific symptoms. The rapid diagnosis and appropriate surgical approach led to a positive resolution of the pathology.

  18. Traumatic Gallbladder Rupture Treated by Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egawa, Noriyuki; Ueda, Junji; Hiraki, Masatsugu; Ide, Takao; Inoue, Satoshi; Sakamoto, Yuichiro; Noshiro, Hirokazu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Gallbladder rupture due to blunt abdominal injury is rare. There are few reports of traumatic gallbladder injury, and it is commonly associated with other concomitant visceral injuries. Therefore, it is difficult to diagnose traumatic gallbladder rupture preoperatively when it is caused by blunt abdominal injury. We report a patient who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy after an exact preoperative diagnosis of traumatic gallbladder rupture. A 43-year-old man was admitted to our hospital due to blunt abdominal trauma. The day after admission, abdominal pain and ascites increased and a muscular defense sign appeared. Percutaneous drainage of the ascites was performed, and the aspirated fluid was bloody and almost pure bile. He was diagnosed with gallbladder rupture by the cholangiography using the endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography technique. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed safely, and he promptly recovered. If accumulated fluids contain bile, endoscopic cholangiography is useful not only to diagnose gallbladder injury but also to determine the therapeutic strategy. PMID:27462188

  19. Traumatic Gallbladder Rupture Treated by Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriyuki Egawa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Gallbladder rupture due to blunt abdominal injury is rare. There are few reports of traumatic gallbladder injury, and it is commonly associated with other concomitant visceral injuries. Therefore, it is difficult to diagnose traumatic gallbladder rupture preoperatively when it is caused by blunt abdominal injury. We report a patient who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy after an exact preoperative diagnosis of traumatic gallbladder rupture. A 43-year-old man was admitted to our hospital due to blunt abdominal trauma. The day after admission, abdominal pain and ascites increased and a muscular defense sign appeared. Percutaneous drainage of the ascites was performed, and the aspirated fluid was bloody and almost pure bile. He was diagnosed with gallbladder rupture by the cholangiography using the endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography technique. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed safely, and he promptly recovered. If accumulated fluids contain bile, endoscopic cholangiography is useful not only to diagnose gallbladder injury but also to determine the therapeutic strategy.

  20. Development of rupture discs for the FBTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chetal, S.C.; Raju, C.; Anandkumar, V.; Seetharaman, V.; Rajan, K.K.

    1984-01-01

    Rupture discs are required as a safety device for protecting the secondary sodium circuit and its components against high pressure surges due to accidental water steam leaks in sodium heated steam generator and the consequent sodium water reaction. For identical reasons, rupture discs are also required on the vessels used for decontamination of sodium components. Reverse buckling knife blade concept with austenitic stainless steel disc has been developed for the rupture disc assemblies required for Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR). Hydroforming process without any die has been used for disc fabrication. One rupture disc assembly required for steam generator is undergoing sodium endurance test and has accumulated 4,500 hours. The present status of development work as demonstrated by room temperature experimental results as well as the scope for future work are discussed. (author)

  1. Cognitive frames in psychology: demarcations and ruptures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurevich, Andrey V

    2009-06-01

    As there seems to be a recurrent feeling of crisis in psychology, its present state is analyzed in this article. The author believes that in addition to the traditional manifestations that have dogged psychology since it emerged as an independent science some new features of the crisis have emerged. Three fundamental "ruptures" are identified: the "horizontal" rupture between various schools and trends, the "vertical" rupture between natural science and humanitarian psychology, and the "diagonal" rupture between academic research and applied practice of psychology. These manifestations of the crisis of psychology have recently been compounded by the crisis of its rationalistic foundations. This situation is described in terms of the cognitive systems in psychology which include meta-theories, paradigms, sociodigms and metadigms.

  2. Aortic ruptures in seat belt wearers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arajärvi, E; Santavirta, S; Tolonen, J

    1989-09-01

    Several investigations have indicated that rupture of the thoracic aorta is one of the leading causes of immediate death in victims of road traffic accidents. In Finland in 1983, 92% of front-seat passengers were seat belt wearers on highways and 82% in build-up areas. The mechanisms of rupture of the aorta have been intensively investigated, but the relationship between seat belt wearing and injury mechanisms leading to aortic rupture is still largely unknown. This study comprises 4169 fatally injured victims investigated by the Boards of Traffic Accident Investigation of Insurance Companies during the period 1972 to 1985. Chest injuries were recorded as the main cause of death in 1121 (26.9%) victims, 207 (5.0%) of those victims having worn a seat belt. Aortic ruptures were found at autopsy in 98 victims and the exact information of the location of the aortic tears was available in 68. For a control group, we analyzed 72 randomly chosen unbelted victims who had a fatal aortic rupture in similar accidents. The location of the aortic rupture in unbelted victims was more often in the ascending aorta, especially in drivers, whereas in seat belt wearers the distal descending aorta was statistically more often ruptured, especially in right-front passengers (p less than 0.05). The steering wheel predominated statistically as the part of the car estimated to have caused the injury in unbelted victims (37/72), and some interior part of the car was the most common cause of fatal thoracic impacts in seat belt wearers (48/68) (p less than 0.001). The mechanism of rupture of the aorta in the classic site just distal to the subclavian artery seems to be rapid deceleration, although complex body movements are also responsible in side impact collisions. The main mechanism leading to rupture of the ascending aorta seems to be severe blow to the bony thorax. This also often causes associated thoracic injuries, such as heart rupture and sternal fracture. Injuries in the ascending

  3. Traumatic Fundal Rupture of unscarred Uterus in a Primigravida ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Uterine rupture is an infrequent but life threatening obstetric emergency. Rupture of previously scarred uterus is often encountered especially in multiparous women, but the traumatic rupture of an unscarred primigravid uterus as presented here is a relatively rare event. We report a case of rupture of an ...

  4. Describing Soils: Calibration Tool for Teaching Soil Rupture Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seybold, C. A.; Harms, D. S.; Grossman, R. B.

    2009-01-01

    Rupture resistance is a measure of the strength of a soil to withstand an applied stress or resist deformation. In soil survey, during routine soil descriptions, rupture resistance is described for each horizon or layer in the soil profile. The lower portion of the rupture resistance classes are assigned based on rupture between thumb and…

  5. Micromechanical properties and collagen composition of ruptured human achilles tendon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Philip; Kovanen, Vuokko; Hölmich, Per

    2013-01-01

    The Achilles tendon is one of the strongest tendons in the human body, and yet it frequently ruptures, which is a substantial clinical problem. However, the cause of ruptures remains elusive.......The Achilles tendon is one of the strongest tendons in the human body, and yet it frequently ruptures, which is a substantial clinical problem. However, the cause of ruptures remains elusive....

  6. Bladder And Uterine Rupture At Vaginal Birth After Cesarean Section

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rupture of the uterus is still a major obstetric problem in developing countries. The urinary bladder is often affected especially when a lower segment Caesarean scar ruptures. We present a case of bladder rupture associated with uterine rupture in a patient who was attempting vaginal delivery after two previous Caesarean ...

  7. Biomechanical rupture risk assessment of abdominal aortic aneurysms based on a novel probabilistic rupture risk index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzer, Stanislav; Gasser, T Christian

    2015-12-06

    A rupture risk assessment is critical to the clinical treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) patients. The biomechanical AAA rupture risk assessment quantitatively integrates many known AAA rupture risk factors but the variability of risk predictions due to model input uncertainties remains a challenging limitation. This study derives a probabilistic rupture risk index (PRRI). Specifically, the uncertainties in AAA wall thickness and wall strength were considered, and wall stress was predicted with a state-of-the-art deterministic biomechanical model. The discriminative power of PRRI was tested in a diameter-matched cohort of ruptured (n = 7) and intact (n = 7) AAAs and compared to alternative risk assessment methods. Computed PRRI at 1.5 mean arterial pressure was significantly (p = 0.041) higher in ruptured AAAs (20.21(s.d. 14.15%)) than in intact AAAs (3.71(s.d. 5.77)%). PRRI showed a high sensitivity and specificity (discriminative power of 0.837) to discriminate between ruptured and intact AAA cases. The underlying statistical representation of stochastic data of wall thickness, wall strength and peak wall stress had only negligible effects on PRRI computations. Uncertainties in AAA wall stress predictions, the wide range of reported wall strength and the stochastic nature of failure motivate a probabilistic rupture risk assessment. Advanced AAA biomechanical modelling paired with a probabilistic rupture index definition as known from engineering risk assessment seems to be superior to a purely deterministic approach. © 2015 The Author(s).

  8. Blunt cardiac rupture in a toddler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peep Talving

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Blunt cardiac rupture is typically a fatal injury with overall mortality exceeding 90%. Most of the patients never reach the hospital alive. In pediatric patients, only 0.03% of cases following blunt trauma admissions have a cardiac injury. This report presents a rare survivor of 16-months old toddler injured in a domestic accident suffering a right atrial rupture repaired through a median sternotomy. To the best of our knowledge this is the youngest case reported in the literature.

  9. Treatment strategy for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidovic, L

    2014-07-01

    Rupture is the most serious and lethal complication of the abdominal aortic aneurysm. Despite all improvements during the past 50 years, ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms are still associated with very high mortality. Namely, including patients who die before reaching the hospital, the mortality rate due to abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture is 90%. On the other hand, during the last twenty years, the number of abdominal aortic aneurysms significantly increased. One of the reasons is the fact that in majority of countries the general population is older nowadays. Due to this, the number of degenerative AAA is increasing. This is also the case for patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture. Age must not be the reason of a treatment refusal. Optimal therapeutic option ought to be found. The following article is based on literature analysis including current guidelines but also on my Clinics significant experience. Furthermore, this article show cases options for vascular medicine in undeveloped countries that can not apply endovascular procedures at a sufficient level and to a sufficient extent. At this moment the following is evident. Thirty-day-mortality after repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms is significantly lower in high-volume hospitals. Due to different reasons all ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms are not suitable for EVAR. Open repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm should be performed by experienced open vascular surgeons. This could also be said for the treatment of endovascular complications that require open surgical conversion. There is no ideal procedure for the treatment of AAA. Each has its own advantages and disadvantages, its own limits and complications, as well as indications and contraindications. Future reductions in mortality of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms will depend on implementation of population-based screening; on strategies to prevent postoperative organ injury and also on new medical technology

  10. Endovascular treatment of ruptured splenic artery aneurysm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerring, Ole Steen

    2008-01-01

    Splenic artery aneurysms (SAA) are traditionally treated surgically, but endovascular techniques are becoming increasingly popular. A 64 year-old male with chest pain and low blood pressure was admitted under suspicion of AMI. A CT scan showed a 56 mm SAA with signs of rupture. The patient...... was treated with endovascular embolisation of the SAA with coils. Blood pressure and haemoglobin levels were stabilized and the patient was discharged. In the case of rupture the treatment of choice seems to be endovascular....

  11. Splenic artery aneurysm rupture in pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, H.R.; Low, S.; Selinger, M.; Nelson, N.

    2004-01-01

    Rupture of a splenic artery aneurysm, commonly associated with pregnancy is a rare and catastrophic event. We report here a case of a patient in her second pregnancy who presented with a short history of left hypochondriac and epigastric pain, followed by collapse at 32 weeks gestation. Sudden fetal distress lead to emergency caesarean delivery when splenic artery aneurysm rupture was diagnosed. With timely involvement of multidisciplinary personnel both mother and baby survived and had an uneventful recovery. (author)

  12. Plantar Fascia Rupture: Ultrasound to Facilitate Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servey, Jessica T; Jonas, Christopher

    2018-01-01

    Plantar fascia rupture in the absence of previous diagnosis of plantar fasciitis, corticosteroid injection, or injury is a rare occurrence with only 7 case reports in the literature since 1978. This is a case of spontaneous plantar fascia rupture in a 38-year-old active-duty US military member with current considerations in musculoskeletal ultrasound, other radiologic imaging, treatment, and followup of this diagnosis. © Copyright 2018 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  13. MRI findings of achilles tendon rupture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xuezhe

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the MRI findings of achilles tendon rupture. Methods: The MRI data of 7 patients with achilles tendon rupture were retrospectively analysed. All 7 patients were male with the age ranging from 34 to 71 years. Routine MR scanning was performed in axial and sagittal planes, including T 1 WI, T 2 WI and a fat suppression MRI (SPIR). Results: Among 7 patients, complete achilles tendon rupture was seen in 6 cases, partial achilles tendon rupture 1 case. The site of tendon disruption were 2.6-11.0 cm( mean 5.4 cm) proximal to the insertion in the calcaneus. The MRI findings of a partial or complete rupture of the achilles tendon included enlarged and thickened achilles tendon (7 cases), wavy lax achilles tendon (2 cases), discontinuity of some or all of its fibers and intratendinous regions of increased signal intensity (7 cases). In the cases of complete tendon rupture, the size of the tendinous gap varied from 3.0-8.0 mm, which was filled with blood and appeared as edema of increase signal intensity on T 2 WI and SPIR. In all 7 patients, MR scanning showed medium signal intensity (7 cases) on T 1 WI, or medium signal intensity (1 cases), medium-high signal intensity (3 cases ), high signal intensity (3 cases) on T 2 WI, and medium-high signal intensity (2 cases), high signal intensity (5 cases) on fat suppression MRI. The preachilles fat pad showed obscure in 6 cases of complete achilles tendon rupture. Conclusion: MRI is an excellent method for revealing achilles tendon rupture and confirming the diagnosis. (authors)

  14. Endovascular therapeutic strategies in ruptured intracranial aneurysms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machi, Paolo; Lobotesis, Kyriakos; Vendrell, Jean Francoise; Riquelme, Carlos; Eker, Omer; Costalat, Vincent; Bonafe, Alain

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate endovascular techniques used currently which were not available at the time of ISAT inclusion period, such as balloon remodelling and flow-divertion, in order to assess whether these new technologies have improved the endovascular approach outcomes. We present a review of articles, published in major journals, with the aim to evaluate the efficacy and the safety of coiling with balloon remodelling for the treatment of ruptured aneurysms in comparison to coiling performed without such coadjutant techniques. Furthermore, we reviewed publications reporting on the treatment of ruptured aneurysms in the acute phase with the one of the most recent technologies available nowadays: the flow diverting stent. Looking at the recent literature the results regarding ruptured aneurysms treated with balloon assisted coiling (BAC) have shown an improvement in terms of anatomical results and morbi-mortality rates. Case series of ruptured middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysms treated by EVT report results similar to those obtained by surgical clipping. Several articles recently report encouraging results in treating ruptured dissecting and blister aneurysms with flow diverters. Questions regarding the best treatment available for ruptured aneurysms are yet to be answered. Hence there is a need for a subsequent trial aiming to answer these unresolved issues

  15. TOWARD INDONESIAN TSUNAMI EARLY WARNING SYSTEM BY USING RAPID RUPTURE DURATIONS CALCULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Adlazim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia has an Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (Ina-TEWS since 2008. The Ina-TEWS has used automatic processing on hypocenter; Mwp, Mw (mB and Mj. If earthquake occurred in Ocean, depth 7, then Ina-TEWS announce early warning that the earthquake can generate tsunami. However, the announcement of the Ina-TEWS is still not accuracy. Purpose of this study is to estimate earthquake rupture duration of large Indonesia earthquakes that occurred in Indian Ocean, Java, Timor Sea, Banda Sea, Arafura Sea and Pacific Ocean using a direct procedure and software developed Lomax and Michelini for rapid assessment of earthquake tsunami potential by deriving two simple measures from vertical component broadband P-wave velocity record. The first is the high-frequency apparent rupture duration, Tdur which may be related to can be related to the critical parameters rupture length (L, depth (z, and shear modulus (μ. The second is a confirmation of the earlier finding by Lomax and Michelini, namely that the rupture duration has a stronger influence to generate tsunami than Mw and Depth. We analyzed at least 510 vertical seismogram recorded by GEOFON-IA and IRIS-DMC networks. Our analysis shows that the seismic potency, LWD, which is more obviously related to capability to generate a tsunami than former. The larger Tdur the larger is the seismic potency LWD because Tdur is proportional to L/vr (with vr – rupture velocity. We also suggest that tsunami potential is not directly related to the faulting type of source and for events that have rupture duration greater than 50 s, the earthquakes generated tsunami. With available real-time seismogram data, rapid calculation, rupture duration discriminant can be completed within 3 to 8 min after the P-onset.

  16. The Inclusion of Arbitrary Load Histories in the Strength Decay Model for Stress Rupture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Stress rupture is a failure mechanism where failures can occur after a period of time, even though the material has seen no increase in load. Carbon/epoxy composite materials have demonstrated the stress rupture failure mechanism. In a previous work, a model was proposed for stress rupture of composite overwrap pressure vessels (COPVs) and similar composite structures based on strength degradation. However, the original model was limited to constant load periods (holds) at constant load. The model was expanded in this paper to address arbitrary loading histories and specifically the inclusions of ramp loadings up to holds and back down. The broadening of the model allows for failures on loading to be treated as any other failure that may occur during testing instead of having to be treated as a special case. The inclusion of ramps can also influence the length of the "safe period" following proof loading that was previously predicted by the model. No stress rupture failures are predicted in a safe period because time is required for strength to decay from above the proof level to the lower level of loading. Although the model can predict failures during the ramp periods, no closed-form solution for the failure times could be derived. Therefore, two suggested solution techniques were proposed. Finally, the model was used to design an experiment that could detect the difference between the strength decay model and a commonly used model for stress rupture. Although these types of models are necessary to help guide experiments for stress rupture, only experimental evidence will determine how well the model may predict actual material response. If the model can be shown to be accurate, current proof loading requirements may result in predicted safe periods as long as 10(13) years. COPVs design requirements for stress rupture may then be relaxed, allowing more efficient designs, while still maintaining an acceptable level of safety.

  17. Revealing Abrupt and Spontaneous Ruptures of Protein Native Structure under picoNewton Compressive Force Manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, S Roy; Cao, Jin; He, Yufan; Lu, H Peter

    2018-03-27

    Manipulating protein conformations for exploring protein structure-function relationship has shown great promise. Although protein conformational changes under pulling force manipulation have been extensively studied, protein conformation changes under a compressive force have not been explored quantitatively. The latter is even more biologically significant and relevant in revealing protein functions in living cells associated with protein crowdedness, distribution fluctuations, and cell osmotic stress. Here we report our experimental observations on abrupt ruptures of protein native structures under compressive force, demonstrated and studied by single-molecule AFM-FRET spectroscopic nanoscopy. Our results show that the protein ruptures are abrupt and spontaneous events occurred when the compressive force reaches a threshold of 12-75 pN, a force amplitude accessible from thermal fluctuations in a living cell. The abrupt ruptures are sensitive to local environment, likely a general and important pathway of protein unfolding in living cells.

  18. [Successful correction with stent-graft of coronary artery rupture after angioplasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demin, V V

    2003-01-01

    Rupture and perforation of coronary arteries complicate in average 0.5% of radiosurgical coronary interventions and often are accompanied by serious consequences and high mortality. According to-type of coronary perforation different methods of correction are used, ranging from conservative measures to urgent cardiosurgical interventions. Coronary stent-grafts with 'sandwich' type of construction ore composed from two metal stents and PTFE layer between them. Development of such stents enabled effective radioguided endovascular repair of coronary ruptures. The paper presents the first Russian experience of stout-graft implantation for coronary artery rupture occurred during direct stenting of proximal anterior descending artery and balloon angioplasty in distal segment. The rupture occurred probably because of wall fragility between affected segment and muscular bridge. Stent-graft JoStent 16 mm in length connected with 3-mm balloon was implanted with subsequent complete restitution of blood flow, resolution of pain syndrome and ECG normalization. Echocardiography in operative theatre and one day after surgery showed no intrapericardial fluid. Stent-graft devices for urgent implantation in cases of coronary rupture must be included into obligatory equipment of radiosurgical facilities.

  19. RESEARCH ON REDUCING PREMATURITY RUPTURE OF MEMBRANE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria URSACHI (BOLOTA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The membranes surrounding the amniotic cavity are composed from amnion and chorion, tightly adherent layers which are composed of several cell types, including epithelial cells, trophoblasts cells and mesenchyme cells, embedded in a collagenous matrix. They retain amniotic fluid, secret substances into the amniotic fluid, as well as to the uterus and protect the fetus against upward infections from urogenital tract. Normally, the membranes it breaks during labor. Premature rupture of the amniotic sac (PRAS is defined as rupture of membranes before the onset of labor. Premature rupture of the fetal membrane, which occurs before 37 weeks of gestation, usually, refers to preterm premature rupture of membranes. Despite advances in the care period, premature rupture of membranes and premature rupture of membranes preterm continue to be regarded as serious obstetric complications. On the term 8% - 10% of pregnant women have premature rupture of membranes; these women are at increased risk of intrauterine infections, where the interval between membrane rupture and expulsion is rolled-over. Premature rupture of membranes preterm occurs in approximately 1% of all pregnancies and is associated with 30% -40% of preterm births. Thus, it is important to identify the cause of pre-term birth (after less than 37 completed weeks of "gestation" and its complications, including respiratory distress syndrome, neonatal infection and intraventricular hemorrhage. Objectives: the development of the protocol of the clinical trial on patients with impending preterm birth, study clinical and statistical on the socio-demographic characteristics of patients with imminent preterm birth; clinical condition of patients and selection of cases that could benefit from the application of interventional therapy; preclinical investigation (biological and imaging of patients with imminent preterm birth; the modality therapy; clinical investigation of the effectiveness of short

  20. The roentgenographic findings of achilles tendon rupture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seouk, Kang Hyo; Keun, Rho Yong [Shilla General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-03-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic value of a lateral view of the ankles in Achilles tendon rupture. We performed a retrospective analysis of the roentgenographic findings of 15 patients with surgically proven Achilles tendon rupture. Four groups of 15 patients(normal, ankle sprain, medial lateral malleolar fracture, and calcaneal fracture) were analysed as reference groups. Plain radiographs were reviewed with regard to Kager's triangle, Arner's sign, Toygar's angle, ill defined radiolucent shadow through the Achilles tendon, sharpness of the anterior margin of Achilles tendon, and meniscoid smooth margin of the posterior skin surface of the ankle. Kager's triangle was deformed and disappeared after rupture of the Achilles tendon in nine patients(60%) with operative verification of the rupture, six patients(40%) had a positive Arner's sign, while none had a diminished Toygars angle. In 13 patients(87%) with a ruptured Achilles tendon, the thickness of this was nonuniform compared with the reference group. The anterior margin of the Achilles tendon became serrated and indistinct in 14 patients(93%) in whom this was ruptured. An abnormal ill defined radiolucent shadow through the Achilles tendon was noted in nine patient(60%), and nonparallelism between the anterior margin of the Achilles tendon and posterior skin surface of the ankle was detected in 11 patients(73%). The posterior skin surface of the ankle had a nodular surface margin in 13 patients(87%). A deformed Kager's triangle and Achilles tendon, and an abnormal ill defined radiolucent shadow through the Achilles tendon in a lateral view of the ankles are important findings for the diagnesis of in diagnosing achilles tendon rupture.

  1. The roentgenographic findings of achilles tendon rupture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seouk, Kang Hyo; Keun, Rho Yong

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic value of a lateral view of the ankles in Achilles tendon rupture. We performed a retrospective analysis of the roentgenographic findings of 15 patients with surgically proven Achilles tendon rupture. Four groups of 15 patients(normal, ankle sprain, medial lateral malleolar fracture, and calcaneal fracture) were analysed as reference groups. Plain radiographs were reviewed with regard to Kager's triangle, Arner's sign, Toygar's angle, ill defined radiolucent shadow through the Achilles tendon, sharpness of the anterior margin of Achilles tendon, and meniscoid smooth margin of the posterior skin surface of the ankle. Kager's triangle was deformed and disappeared after rupture of the Achilles tendon in nine patients(60%) with operative verification of the rupture, six patients(40%) had a positive Arner's sign, while none had a diminished Toygars angle. In 13 patients(87%) with a ruptured Achilles tendon, the thickness of this was nonuniform compared with the reference group. The anterior margin of the Achilles tendon became serrated and indistinct in 14 patients(93%) in whom this was ruptured. An abnormal ill defined radiolucent shadow through the Achilles tendon was noted in nine patient(60%), and nonparallelism between the anterior margin of the Achilles tendon and posterior skin surface of the ankle was detected in 11 patients(73%). The posterior skin surface of the ankle had a nodular surface margin in 13 patients(87%). A deformed Kager's triangle and Achilles tendon, and an abnormal ill defined radiolucent shadow through the Achilles tendon in a lateral view of the ankles are important findings for the diagnesis of in diagnosing achilles tendon rupture

  2. Arthroscintigraphy in suspected rotator cuff rupture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gratz, S.; Behr, T.; Becker, W.; Koester, G.; Vosshenrich, R.; Grabbe, E.

    1998-01-01

    Aim: In order to evaluate the diagnostic efficiency of arthroscintigraphy in suspected rotator cuff ruptures this new imaging procedure was performed 20 times in 17 patients with clinical signs of a rotator cuff lesion. The scintigraphic results were compared with sonography (n=20), contrast arthrography (n=20) and arthroscopy (n=10) of the shoulder joint. Methods: After performing a standard bone scintigraphy with intravenous application of 300 MBq 99m-Tc-methylene diphosphonate (MDP) for landmarking of the shoulder region arthroscintigraphy was performed after an intraarticular injection of 99m-Tc microcolloid (ALBU-RES 400 μCi/5 ml). The application was performed either in direct combination with contrast arthrography (n=10) or ultrasound conducted mixed with a local anesthetic (n=10). Findings at arthroscopical surgery (n=10) were used as the gold standard. Results: In case of complete rotator cuff rupture (n=5), arthroscintigraphy and radiographic arthrography were identical in 5/5. In one patient with advanced degenerative alterations of the shoulder joint radiographic arthrography incorrectly showed a complete rupture which was not seen by arthroscintigraphy and endoscopy. In 3 patients with incomplete rupture, 2/3 results were consistant. A difference was seen in one patient with a rotator cuff, that has been already revised in the past and that suffered of capsulitis and calcification. Conclusion: Arthroscinitgraphy is a sensitive technique for detection of rotator cuff ruptures. Because of the lower viscosity of the active compound, small ruptures can be easily detected, offering additional value over radiographic arthrography and ultrasound, especially for evaluation of incomplete cuff ruptures. (orig.) [de

  3. The effect of tube rupture location on the consequences of multiple steam generator tube rupture event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Ji Hwan; Kweon, Young Chul

    2002-01-01

    A multiple steam generator tube rupture (MSGTR) event has never occurred in the commercial operation of nuclear reactors while single steam generator tube rupture (SGTR) events are reported to occur every 2 years. As there has been no occurrence of a MSGTR event, the understanding of transients and consequences of this event is very limited. In this study, a postulated MSGTR event in an advanced power reactor 1400 (APR 1400) is analyzed using the thermal-hydraulic system code, MARS1.4. The APR 1400 is a two-loop, 3893 MWt, PWR proposed to be built in 2010. The present study aims to understand the effects of rupture location in heat transfer tubes following a MSGTR event. The effects of five tube rupture locations are compared with each other. The comparison shows that the response of APR1400 allows the shortest time for operator action following a tube rupture in the vicinity of the hot-leg side tube sheet and allows the longest time following a tube rupture at the tube top. The MSSV lift time for rupture at the tube-top is evaluated as 24.5% larger than that for rupture at the hot-leg side tube sheet

  4. Spontaneous rupture of the esophagus associated with intramural rupture caused by ingestion of weeding medicine (Lasso)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Keon; Park, Heung Il; Kwun, Chung Sik [Chun Nam University College of Medicine, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1975-06-15

    This is a report of a case of spontaneous rupture of the esophagus associated with intramural rupture caused by ingestion of weeding medicine for the purpose of suicide in a 27 year old Korean male whose chief complaints were dyspnea, epigastric pain, swallowing disturbance, and hoarseness for 3 days prior to admission. A review of literature is submitted.

  5. [Acute achilles tendon rupture : State of the art].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunstein, M; Baumbach, S F; Herterich, V; Böcker, W; Polzer, H

    2017-12-01

    The most favorable treatment for acute Achilles tendon ruptures remains controversial. In particular, three key questions are intensively debated: is operative or non-operative treatment superior? If surgery is performed, should open or minimally invasive percutaneous techniques be used? How should the follow-up treatment be carried out? The aim of this article is to answer these essential questions based on the currently available evidence. Non-operative treatment leads to a higher rate of re-ruptures and inferior functional results when compared to operative treatment. The major disadvantage of open surgery is the increased risk of wound healing problems and wound infections. Due to the development of minimally invasive percutaneous techniques, complication rates could be significantly reduced and patient satisfaction could be significantly improved, without increasing the risk of re-ruptures. The functional outcome is still partially unsatisfactory independent of the type of treatment. This is particularly expressed in weakness of the gastrocnemius-soleus muscle complex; therefore, the follow-up treatment is of fundamental importance. The available evidence clearly underlines the importance of early weight bearing and mobilization of the ankle joint, as it is safe and leads to better function, patient satisfaction and faster return to work or sport, compared with partial weight bearing and immobilization. Nevertheless, treatment protocols vary greatly with the majority still carrying out open suture and immobilizing follow-up treatment with fixed plantar flexion. Based on the available data the authors recommend minimally invasive percutaneous suture of the tendon followed by progressive functional rehabilitation. Implementation of the available evidence into routine practice is the next important step for successful treatment of this challenging injury.

  6. Surface rupture and vertical deformation associated with 20 May 2016 M6 Petermann Ranges earthquake, Northern Territory, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Ryan; Clark, Dan; King, Tamarah; Quigley, Mark

    2017-04-01

    Surface-rupturing earthquakes in stable continental regions (SCRs) occur infrequently, though when they occur in heavily populated regions the damage and loss of life can be severe (e.g., 2001 Bhuj earthquake). Quantifying the surface-rupture characteristics of these low-probability events is therefore important, both to improve understanding of the on- and off-fault deformation field near the rupture trace and to provide additional constraints on earthquake magnitude to rupture length and displacement, which are critical inputs for seismic hazard calculations. This investigation focuses on the 24 August 2016 M6.0 Petermann Ranges earthquake, Northern Territory, Australia. We use 0.3-0.5 m high-resolution optical Worldview satellite imagery to map the trace of the surface rupture associated with the earthquake. From our mapping, we are able to trace the rupture over a length of 20 km, trending NW, and exhibiting apparent north-side-up motion. To quantify the magnitude of vertical surface deformation, we use stereo Worldview images processed using NASA Ames Stereo Pipeline software to generate pre- and post-earthquake digital terrain models with a spatial resolution of 1.5 to 2 m. The surface scarp is apparent in much of the post-event digital terrain model. Initial efforts to difference the pre- and post-event digital terrain models yield noisy results, though we detect vertical deformation of 0.2 to 0.6 m over length scales of 100 m to 1 km from the mapped trace of the rupture. Ongoing efforts to remove ramps and perform spatial smoothing will improve our understanding of the extent and pattern of vertical deformation. Additionally, we will compare our results with InSAR and field measurements obtained following the earthquake.

  7. Splenic rupture following idiopathic rupture of the urinary bladder presenting as acute abdomen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurisic D

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic rupture of the urinary bladder is an uncommon condition and represents less than 1% of all bladder rupture cases. In most of the cases the main etiological factor was heavy alcohol ingestion. A combined injury of the spleen and bladder is a very rare condition that is almost often associated with trauma and foreign bodies. In this paper we present the extremely rare clinical course of acute abdomen caused by a combined spontaneous intraperitoneal injury; spontaneous rupture of the urinary bladder and spleen. According to our opinion, spontaneous bladder rupture caused by bladder distension due to alcohol ingestion led to urinary ascites and abdominal distension. Finally, repeated minor abdominal blunt trauma during everyday life, to a moderately distended abdomen caused a spontaneous splenic rupture in the patient with abnormal coagulation studies.

  8. The 2009 Samoa-Tonga great earthquake triggered doublet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay, T.; Ammon, C.J.; Kanamori, H.; Rivera, L.; Koper, K.D.; Hutko, Alexander R.

    2010-01-01

    Great earthquakes (having seismic magnitudes of at least 8) usually involve abrupt sliding of rock masses at a boundary between tectonic plates. Such interplate ruptures produce dynamic and static stress changes that can activate nearby intraplate aftershocks, as is commonly observed in the trench-slope region seaward of a great subduction zone thrust event1-4. The earthquake sequence addressed here involves a rare instance in which a great trench-slope intraplate earthquake triggered extensive interplate faulting, reversing the typical pattern and broadly expanding the seismic and tsunami hazard. On 29 September 2009, within two minutes of the initiation of a normal faulting event with moment magnitude 8.1 in the outer trench-slope at the northern end of the Tonga subduction zone, two major interplate underthrusting subevents (both with moment magnitude 7.8), with total moment equal to a second great earthquake of moment magnitude 8.0, ruptured the nearby subduction zone megathrust. The collective faulting produced tsunami waves with localized regions of about 12metres run-up that claimed 192 lives in Samoa, American Samoa and Tonga. Overlap of the seismic signals obscured the fact that distinct faults separated by more than 50km had ruptured with different geometries, with the triggered thrust faulting only being revealed by detailed seismic wave analyses. Extensive interplate and intraplate aftershock activity was activated over a large region of the northern Tonga subduction zone. ?? 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  9. Creep rupture of mild steel compact tension test pieces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priddle, E.K.

    1978-10-01

    Creep rupture lives have been determined for compact tension and unnotched tensile test pieces of mild steel at 450 0 C. Three sizes of compact tension specimens were used in which the ratios of reference stress to elastic stress intensity factor were 2.76, 4.78 and 6.6 (msup(-1/2)). The analysis of results in terms of either initial reference stress or stress intensity was unable to reduce the data to a single failure curve. An empirical correlation was found between rupture time and a reference stress/crack length combination where t = 2.46 x 10 20 sub(σref) sup(-8.96) asup(-1.56) (units hours, MPa and metres). This equation has no valid application to materials or specimens other than those from which it was derived. Reported data for 1/2Cr Mo V and 2 1/4Cr Mo steels at 565 0 C were also correlated by this approach. (author)

  10. Ultrasonogram of tubal pregnancy: Unruptured or ruptured?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hee Jung; Kim, Jung Sik; Lee, Sung Moon; Kim, Hong; Woo, Seong Ku; Yeun, Seong Do; Lee, Doo Ryong

    1993-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of ultrasonography in the differentiation of the unruptured ones, we performed prospective ultrasonographic study in 56 patients with tubal pregnancy and subsequently correlated with the surgical (45 cases) and laparoscopic (11 cases) findings. The criterion for unruptured tubal pregnancy was the visualization of extra uterine gestational sac or a mass that was separated from the ipsilateral ovary. All cases were confirmed surgically or laparoscopically within 48 hours after sonographic examination. Forty five (80%)cases were proved as unruptured, tubal pregnancy, while 11 (20%) as ruptured one. Extra uterine gestational sac was seen in 31/45 (69%) in unruptured group and 2/11 (18%) in ruptured group. A mass separated from the ipsilateral ovary was seen in 7 unruptured tubal pregnancies and 2 ruptured pregnancies. A mass that was not separated from the ipsilateral ovary was seen in 13 cases. Seven of these were ruptured pregnancies, while 6 were unrupture dones. Using our criteria, the unruptured tubal pregnancy was diagnosed with a sensitivity of 84%, a specificity of 64%, an accuracy of 80%, a positive predictive value of 90% and a negative predictive value of 50%. We conclude that ultrasonography is useful in the differentiation of the unruptured tubal pregnancy from the ruptured one

  11. Directly Estimating Earthquake Rupture Area using Second Moments to Reduce the Uncertainty in Stress Drop

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Jeffrey J.; Kaneko, Yoshihiro

    2018-06-01

    The key kinematic earthquake source parameters: rupture velocity, duration and area, shed light on earthquake dynamics, provide direct constraints on stress-drop, and have implications for seismic hazard. However, for moderate and small earthquakes, these parameters are usually poorly constrained due to limitations of the standard analysis methods. Numerical experiments by Kaneko and Shearer [2014,2015] demonstrated that standard spectral fitting techniques can lead to roughly 1 order of magnitude variation in stress-drop estimates that do not reflect the actual rupture properties even for simple crack models. We utilize these models to explore an alternative approach where we estimate the rupture area directly. For the suite of models, the area averaged static stress drop is nearly constant for models with the same underlying friction law, yet corner frequency based stress-drop estimates vary by a factor of 5-10 even for noise free data. Alternatively, we simulated inversions for the rupture area as parameterized by the second moments of the slip distribution. A natural estimate for the rupture area derived from the second moments is A=πLcWc, where Lc and Wc are the characteristic rupture length and width. This definition yields estimates of stress drop that vary by only 10% between the models but are slightly larger than the true area-averaged values. We simulate inversions for the second moments for the various models and find that the area can be estimated well when there are at least 15 available measurements of apparent duration at a variety of take-off angles. The improvement compared to azimuthally-averaged corner-frequency based approaches results from the second moments accounting for directivity and removing the assumption of a circular rupture area, both of which bias the standard approach. We also develop a new method that determines the minimum and maximum values of rupture area that are consistent with a particular dataset at the 95% confidence

  12. Dynamic fracture network around faults: implications for earthquake ruptures, ground motion and energy budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, K.; Bhat, H. S.; Rougier, E.; Lei, Z.; Knight, E. E.; Klinger, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Numerous studies have suggested that spontaneous earthquake ruptures can dynamically induce failure in secondary fracture network, regarded as damage zone around faults. The feedbacks of such fracture network play a crucial role in earthquake rupture, its radiated wave field and the total energy budget. A novel numerical modeling tool based on the combined finite-discrete element method (FDEM), which accounts for the main rupture propagation and nucleation/propagation of secondary cracks, was used to quantify the evolution of the fracture network and evaluate its effects on the main rupture and its associated radiation. The simulations were performed with the FDEM-based software tool, Hybrid Optimization Software Suite (HOSSedu) developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory. We first modeled an earthquake rupture on a planar strike-slip fault surrounded by a brittle medium where secondary cracks can be nucleated/activated by the earthquake rupture. We show that the secondary cracks are dynamically generated dominantly on the extensional side of the fault, mainly behind the rupture front, and it forms an intricate network of fractures in the damage zone. The rupture velocity thereby significantly decreases, by 10 to 20 percent, while the supershear transition length increases in comparison to the one with purely elastic medium. It is also observed that the high-frequency component (10 to 100 Hz) of the near-field ground acceleration is enhanced by the dynamically activated fracture network, consistent with field observations. We then conducted the case study in depth with various sets of initial stress state, and friction properties, to investigate the evolution of damage zone. We show that the width of damage zone decreases in depth, forming "flower-like" structure as the characteristic slip distance in linear slip-weakening law, or the fracture energy on the fault, is kept constant with depth. Finally, we compared the fracture energy on the fault to the energy

  13. Pressure tube rupture in a closed tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khater, H.A.; Hadaller, G.I.; Stern, F.

    1985-06-01

    A study has been prepared on the feasibility of conducting pressure tube/calandria tube rupture tests in a closed tank, simulating a scaled-down calandria vessel. The study includes: i) a review of previous work, ii) an analytical investigation of the scaling problem of the calandria vessel and relevant in-core structures, iii) selection of a method for initiating pressure tube/calandria tube rupture, iv) a set of specifications for the test assembly, v) general arrangement drawings, vi) a proposal for a test matrix, vii) a survey and evaluation of existing facilities which could provide the required high pressure, temperature and fluid inventory, and viii) a cost estimate for the detailed design and construction, instrumentation, data acquisition and reduction, testing and reporting. The study concludes that it is both technically and practically feasible to conduct pressure tube rupture tests in a closed tank

  14. Bladder rupture caused by postpartum urinary retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dueñas-García, Omar Felipe; Rico, Hugo; Gorbea-Sanchez, Viridiana; Herrerias-Canedo, Tomas

    2008-08-01

    Postpartum bladder rupture is an uncommon surgical emergency and a diagnostic challenge. A primigravida delivered a healthy newborn without complications at 39.4 weeks of gestation. The patient was admitted 80 hours postpartum with abdominal pain, oliguria, hematuria, and pain that worsened during the previous 4 hours. An inserted Foley catheter drained only a small amount of urine, and serum creatinine was elevated (3.5 mg/dL). A laparotomy was performed and revealed a 10-cm hole in the urinary bladder. The bladder was repaired and the patient was discharged 15 days after surgery. The follow-up cystoscopy revealed adequate healing of the bladder. Urinary retention can lead to serious complications, including bladder rupture. Postpartum bladder rupture due to urinary retention should be ruled out if there is a history of abdominal pain, oliguria, and elevated of serum creatinine.

  15. Component external leakage and rupture frequency estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eide, S.A.; Khericha, S.T.; Calley, M.B.; Johnson, D.A.; Marteeny, M.L.

    1991-11-01

    In order to perform detailed internal flooding risk analyses of nuclear power plants, external leakage and rupture frequencies are needed for various types of components - piping, valves, pumps, flanges, and others. However, there appears to be no up-to-date, comprehensive source for such frequency estimates. This report attempts to fill that void. Based on a comprehensive search of Licensee Event Reports (LERs) contained in Nuclear Power Experience (NPE), and estimates of component populations and exposure times, component external leakage and rupture frequencies were generated. The remainder of this report covers the specifies of the NPE search for external leakage and rupture events, analysis of the data, a comparison with frequency estimates from other sources, and a discussion of the results

  16. Right ventricular hydatid cyst ruptured to pericardium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feridoun Sabzi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac hydatidosis is rare presentation of body hydatidosis. Incidence of cardiac involvements range from 5% to 5% of patients with hydatid disease. Most common site of hydatid cyst in heart is interventricular septum and left ventricular free wall. Right ventricular free wall involvement by cyst that ruptured to pericardial cavity is very rare presentation of hydatid cyst. Cardiac involvement may have serious consequences such as rupture to blood steam or pericardial cavity. Both the disease and its surgical treatment carry a high complication rate, including rupture leading to cardiac tamponade, anaphylaxis and also death. In the present report, a 43-year-old man with constrictive pericarditis secondary to a pericardial hydatid cyst is described.

  17. Ruptured Massa Intermedia Secondary to Hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Damaty, Ahmed; Langner, Soenke; Schroeder, Henry W S

    2017-01-01

    We report a case of ruptured massa intermedia (MI) as a sequela of hydrocephalus. A single case report is presented describing the sequelae of tumor bed hematoma after a posterior fossa hemangioblastoma resection in which the patient bled 3 days after surgery, resulting in secondary hydrocephalus and subsequently dilatation of the third ventricle, which resulted in rupture of the MI. The patient was managed on emergency basis with an external ventricular drain then endoscopically with a third ventriculostomy and clot extraction. Absent MI is not uncommon in hydrocephalic patients, and it is assumed to be the result of rupture from acute dilatation of the third ventricle. Our case report proves this assumption and documents the presence and absence of the MI before and after developing hydrocephalus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Creep rupture behavior of unidirectional advanced composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeow, Y. T.

    1980-01-01

    A 'material modeling' methodology for predicting the creep rupture behavior of unidirectional advanced composites is proposed. In this approach the parameters (obtained from short-term tests) required to make the predictions are the three principal creep compliance master curves and their corresponding quasi-static strengths tested at room temperature (22 C). Using these parameters in conjunction with a failure criterion, creep rupture envelopes can be generated for any combination of in-plane loading conditions and ambient temperature. The analysis was validated experimentally for one composite system, the T300/934 graphite-epoxy system. This was done by performing short-term creep tests (to generate the principal creep compliance master curves with the time-temperature superposition principle) and relatively long-term creep rupture tensile tests of off-axis specimens at 180 C. Good to reasonable agreement between experimental and analytical results is observed.

  19. Linguine sign in musculoskeletal imaging: calf silicone implant rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duryea, Dennis; Petscavage-Thomas, Jonelle; Frauenhoffer, Elizabeth E; Walker, Eric A

    2015-08-01

    Imaging findings of breast silicone implant rupture are well described in the literature. On MRI, the linguine sign indicates intracapsular rupture, while the presence of silicone particles outside the fibrous capsule indicates extracapsular rupture. The linguine sign is described as the thin, wavy hypodense wall of the implant within the hyperintense silicone on T2-weighted images indicative of rupture of the implant within the naturally formed fibrous capsule. Hyperintense T2 signal outside of the fibrous capsule is indicative of an extracapsular rupture with silicone granuloma formation. We present a rare case of a patient with a silicone calf implant rupture and discuss the MRI findings associated with this condition.

  20. Linguine sign in musculoskeletal imaging: calf silicone implant rupture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duryea, Dennis; Petscavage-Thomas, Jonelle; Frauenhoffer, Elizabeth E.; Walker, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    Imaging findings of breast silicone implant rupture are well described in the literature. On MRI, the linguine sign indicates intracapsular rupture, while the presence of silicone particles outside the fibrous capsule indicates extracapsular rupture. The linguine sign is described as the thin, wavy hypodense wall of the implant within the hyperintense silicone on T2-weighted images indicative of rupture of the implant within the naturally formed fibrous capsule. Hyperintense T2 signal outside of the fibrous capsule is indicative of an extracapsular rupture with silicone granuloma formation. We present a rare case of a patient with a silicone calf implant rupture and discuss the MRI findings associated with this condition. (orig.)

  1. Linguine sign in musculoskeletal imaging: calf silicone implant rupture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duryea, Dennis; Petscavage-Thomas, Jonelle [Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Department of Radiology, H066, 500 University Drive, P.O. Box 850, Hershey, PA (United States); Frauenhoffer, Elizabeth E. [Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Department of Pathology, 500 University Drive, P.O. Box 850, Hershey, PA (United States); Walker, Eric A. [Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Department of Radiology, H066, 500 University Drive, P.O. Box 850, Hershey, PA (United States); Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Bethesda, MD, 20814 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Imaging findings of breast silicone implant rupture are well described in the literature. On MRI, the linguine sign indicates intracapsular rupture, while the presence of silicone particles outside the fibrous capsule indicates extracapsular rupture. The linguine sign is described as the thin, wavy hypodense wall of the implant within the hyperintense silicone on T2-weighted images indicative of rupture of the implant within the naturally formed fibrous capsule. Hyperintense T2 signal outside of the fibrous capsule is indicative of an extracapsular rupture with silicone granuloma formation. We present a rare case of a patient with a silicone calf implant rupture and discuss the MRI findings associated with this condition. (orig.)

  2. A Rare Case of Simultaneous Acute Bilateral Quadriceps Tendon Rupture and Unilateral Achilles Tendon Rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yee Leong

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There have been multiple reported cases of bilateral quadriceps tendon ruptures (QTR in the literature. These injuries frequently associated with delayed diagnosis, which results in delayed surgical treatment. In very unusual cases, bilateral QTRs can be associated with other simultaneous tendon ruptures. Case Report: We present a rare case of bilateral QTR with a simultaneous Achilles Tendon Rupture involving a 31 years old Caucasian man who is a semi-professional body builder taking anabolic steroids. To date bilateral QTR with additional TA rupture has only been reported once in the literature and to our knowledge this is the first reported case of bilateral QTR and simultaneous TA rupture in a young, fit and healthy individual. Conclusion: The diagnosis of bilateral QTR alone can sometimes be challenging and the possibility of even further tendon injuries should be carefully assessed. A delay in diagnosis could result in delay in treatment and potentially worse outcome for the patient. Keywords: Quadriceps tendon rupture; Achilles tendon rupture; Bilateral.

  3. Testicular Rupture: A Tough Nut to Crack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler L. Holliday

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Blunt scrotal injury represents a diagnostic dilemma for emergency physicians (EP. Consequently, point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS has emerged as a tool for early investigation of the acute scrotum in the emergency department. We describe a case where an EP used scrotal POCUS to immediately visualize the loss of testicular contour and underlying heterogeneous parenchyma to rapidly make the diagnosis of testicular rupture in a young male presenting with scrotal trauma. The use of POCUS in this case expedited therapy, likely improving the patient’s outcome. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed description of testicular rupture diagnosed with POCUS by an EP

  4. Spontaneous Achilles tendon rupture in alkaptonuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar A. Alajoulin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Alkaptonuria (AKU is a rare inborn metabolic disease characterized by accumulation of homogentisic acid (HGA. Excretion of HGA in urine causes darkening of urine and its deposition in connective tissues causes dark pigmentation (ochronosis, early degeneration of articular cartilage, weakening of the tendons, and subsequent rupture. In this case report, we present a rare case of a patient presented with unilateral spontaneous rupture of Achilles tendon due to AKU. The patient developed most of the orthopedic manifestations of the disease earlier than typical presentations. Alkaptonuria patients should avoid strenuous exercises and foot straining especially in patients developing early orthopedic manifestations.

  5. Spontaneous Achilles tendon rupture in alkaptonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alajoulin, Omar A; Alsbou, Mohammed S; Ja'afreh, Somayya O; Kalbouneh, Heba M

    2015-12-01

    Alkaptonuria (AKU) is a rare inborn metabolic disease characterized by accumulation of homogentisic acid (HGA). Excretion of HGA in urine causes darkening of urine and its deposition in connective tissues causes dark pigmentation (ochronosis), early degeneration of articular cartilage, weakening of the tendons, and subsequent rupture. In this case report, we present a rare case of a patient presented with unilateral spontaneous rupture of Achilles tendon due to AKU. The patient developed most of the orthopedic manifestations of the disease earlier than typical presentations. Alkaptonuria patients should avoid strenuous exercises and foot straining especially in patients developing early orthopedic manifestations.

  6. Physiotherapy in patients with rupture LCA

    OpenAIRE

    Čížková, Karolína

    2012-01-01

    Author: Karolína Čížková Institution: Rehab clinic LF UK in Hradec Králové Topic of bachelor's thesis: Physiotherapy in patiens with rupture of ACL Supervisor: Mgr. Zuzana Hamarová Number of pages: 108 Number of annex: 11 Year of vindication 2012 Key words: ACL, knee, rupture of ACL, rehabilitation In general part of this bachelor's thesis is described anatomy, kinesiology and biomechanics of the knee joint, mostly anterior cruciate ligament. It contents causes of injury of anterior cruciate ...

  7. Proximal Hamstring Tendinosis and Partial Ruptures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Startzman, Ashley N; Fowler, Oliver; Carreira, Dominic

    2017-07-01

    Proximal hamstring tendinosis and partial hamstring origin ruptures are painful conditions of the proximal thigh and hip that may occur in the acute, chronic, or acute on chronic setting. Few publications exist related to their diagnosis and management. This systematic review discusses the incidence, treatment, and prognosis of proximal hamstring tendinosis and partial hamstring ruptures. Conservative treatment measures include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, physical therapy, rest, and ice. If these measures fail, platelet-rich plasma or shockwave therapy may be considered. When refractory to conservative management, these injuries may be treated with surgical debridement and hamstring reattachment. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(4):e574-e582.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  8. [Development of Achilles tendon rupture in skiing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckert, K; Benedetto, K P; Vogel, A

    1983-06-01

    This is an analysis of decline of rupture of the Achilles tendon in skiing while there is a steady increase of skiing injuries. Three groups, equipped with three different types of ski boots were observed once on a plane slope on the other hand on a bump track. The simultaneous size of angle of knee and ankle was measured by telemetry. The high plastic ski boot, which obstructs the ankle forward and lateral is apart from the rise of heel in the boot, the safety binding and the new skiing style the main reason for decline of rupture of the Achilles tendon in skiing.

  9. Neonatal survival after prolonged preterm premature rupture of membranes before 24 weeks of gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumbaugh, Jane E; Colaizy, Tarah T; Nuangchamnong, Nina; O'Brien, Emily A; Fleener, Diedre K; Rijhsinghani, Asha; Klein, Jonathan M

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate neonatal survival after prolonged preterm premature rupture of membranes (PROM) in the era of antenatal corticosteroids, surfactant, and inhaled nitric oxide. A single-center retrospective cohort study of neonates born from 2002-2011 after prolonged (1 week or more) preterm (less than 24 weeks of gestation) rupture of membranes was performed. The primary outcome was survival to discharge. Neonates whose membranes ruptured less than 24 hours before delivery (n=116) were matched (2:1) on gestational age at birth, sex, and antenatal corticosteroid exposure with neonates whose membranes ruptured 1 week or more before delivery (n=58). Analysis used conditional logistic regression for categorical data and Wilcoxon signed rank test for continuous data. The prolonged preterm PROM exposed and unexposed cohorts had survival rates of 90% and 95%, respectively, although underpowered to assess the statistical significance (P=.313). Exposed neonates were more likely have pulmonary hypoplasia (26/58 exposed, 1/114 unexposed, Prupture (20.4 weeks exposed, 22.3 weeks unexposed, P=.189), length of rupture (3.7 weeks exposed, 6.4 weeks unexposed, P=.717), and lowest maximal vertical pocket before 24 weeks of gestation (0 cm exposed, 1.4 cm unexposed, P=.114) did not discriminate between survivors and nonsurvivors after exposure to prolonged preterm PROM. With antenatal steroid exposure and aggressive pulmonary management, survival to discharge after prolonged preterm PROM was 90%. Pulmonary morbidities were common. Of note, the data were limited to women who remained pregnant 1 week or longer after rupture of membranes.

  10. Predictive factors for latency period in viable pregnancies complicated by preterm premature rupture of the membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çetin, Cihan; Büyükkurt, Selim; Cömert, Ercan; Özlü, Ferda; Bahar, Nilgün; Demir, Cansun

    2015-03-01

    In this study, we aimed to evaluate some laboratory and clinical factors in the prediction of latency period for pregnant patients complicated with preterm premature rupture of the membranes. Sixty-five pregnant patients between 24 and 34 weeks of gestation, who were admitted to University of Çukurova School of Medicine Hospital with the diagnosis of preterm premature rupture of the membranes (PPROM) between January 01, 2013 and December 31, 2013, were included in this study. Serum CRP, procalcitonin, sedimentation rate, leukocyte count and cervical length (measured with transvaginal ultrasound) of patients were analyzed for the correlation with the latency period. None of the parameters were found to be correlated with the latency period. However, patients with cervical length of premature rupture of the membranes is thought to be either an infection-based disease or a disease increasing the risk of infectious complications, major infection markers are not found to be helpful criteria for the prediction of latency period. Patients with a cervical length of <25 mm can be expected to deliver earlier and, therefore, can be referred to a tertiary center earlier.

  11. Paleoearthquakes at Frazier Mountain, California delimit extent and frequency of past San Andreas Fault ruptures along 1857 trace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharer, Katherine M.; Weldon, Ray; Streig, Ashley; Fumal, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Large earthquakes are infrequent along a single fault, and therefore historic, well-characterized earthquakes exert a strong influence on fault behavior models. This is true of the 1857 Fort Tejon earthquake (estimated M7.7–7.9) on the southern San Andreas Fault (SSAF), but an outstanding question is whether the 330 km long rupture was typical. New paleoseismic data for six to seven ground-rupturing earthquakes on the Big Bend of the SSAF restrict the pattern of possible ruptures on the 1857 stretch of the fault. In conjunction with existing sites, we show that over the last ~650 years, at least 75% of the surface ruptures are shorter than the 1857 earthquake, with estimated rupture lengths of 100 to <300 km. These results suggest that the 1857 rupture was unusual, perhaps leading to the long open interval, and that a return to pre-1857 behavior would increase the rate of M7.3–M7.7 earthquakes.

  12. Summary of November 2010 meeting to evaluate turbidite data for constraining the recurrence parameters of great Cascadia earthquakes for the update of national seismic hazard maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Arthur D.

    2011-01-01

    Bradley Lake, Oregon by Kelsey and others (2005), as well as tsunami and subsidence evidence from Six Rivers, Oregon (Kelsey and others, 2002) and Coquille River (Witter and others, 2003), indicates that there were probably Mw 8 ruptures in the southern portion of the CSZ in addition to the Mw 9 events that rupture the whole length of the CSZ (Nelson and others, 2006). A parallel development over the past 20 years or more is the use of deep-sea turbidite deposits for identifying and dating great Cascadia earthquakes over the past 10,000 years (Adams, 1990; Goldfinger and others, 2003, 2008, in press; Goldfinger, 2011). Turbidites are sediment deposits in the deep ocean from turbidity currents, which are energetic flows of sediment and water along the continental shelf and slope. Adams (1990), using the counts of turbidites in deep-sea cores off the coast of Oregon and Washington collected and analyzed by Griggs (1969) and Griggs and others (1969), proposed that these turbidites were caused by the shaking of great Cascadia earthquakes. Part of his reasoning was that the number (13) of turbidite deposits that occurred since deposition of the Mazama Ash 7,000 years ago gave a recurrence time of about 500 years, consistent with that derived from the coastal submergence data. Adams (1990) also proposed the “confluence test” which evaluates the number of turbidites for submarine channels that form a confluence. He reported that the number of turbidites in the single downstream channel equaled the number in each of the tributary channels. He reasoned that this indicated that the turbidites in each tributary were simultaneously triggered and were, therefore, caused by a common forcing agent. He concluded that shaking from extended ruptures of great Cascadia earthquakes was the most likely cause of these turbidites. Based on the paleoseismic evidence of past great earthquakes, the hazard from the Cascadia subduction zone was included in the 1996 U.S. NSHM (Frankel and others

  13. Screening length in dusty plasma crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolaev, V S; Timofeev, A V

    2016-01-01

    Particles interaction and value of the screening length in dusty plasma systems are of great interest in dusty plasma area. Three inter-particle potentials (Debye potential, Gurevich potential and interaction potential in the weakly collisional regime) are used to solve equilibrium equations for two dusty particles suspended in a parabolic trap. The inter-particle distance dependence on screening length, trap parameter and particle charge is obtained. The functional form of inter-particle distance dependence on ion temperature is investigated and compared with experimental data at 200-300 K in order to test used potentials applicability to dusty plasma systems at room temperatures. The preference is given to the Yukawa-type potential including effective values of particle charge and screening length. The estimated effective value of the screening length is 5-15 times larger than the Debye length. (paper)

  14. Open splenectomy for Varicella zoster induced spontaneous splenic rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Christopher Sykes

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: Atraumatic splenic rupture should be considered as an important differential in those presenting with abdominal pain and peritonism without a history of preceding trauma. Haematological and infectious diagnoses should be sought to identify causation for the splenic rupture.

  15. Amnioinfusion for preterm rupture of membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeyr, G J

    2000-01-01

    Preterm rupture of membranes places a fetus at risk of cord compression and amnionitis. Amnioinfusion aims to prevent or relieve umbilical cord compression by infusing a solution into the uterine cavity. The objective of this review was to assess the effects of amnioinfusion for preterm rupture of membranes on maternal and perinatal outcomes. The Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group trials register and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register were searched. Randomised trials of amnioinfusion compared to no amnioinfusion in women with preterm rupture of membranes. Eligibility and trial quality were assessed by the reviewer. One trial of 66 women was included. It had some methodological flaws. No significant differences between amnioinfusion and no amnioinfusion were detected for caesarean section (relative risk 0.32, 95% confidence interval 0.07 to 1.40); low Apgar scores (relative risk 0.28, 95% confidence interval 0.03 to 2.33) or neonatal death (relative risk 0.55, 95% confidence interval 0.05 to 5.77). In the amnioinfusion group, the number of severe fetal heart rate decelerations per hour during the first stage of labour were reduced (weighted mean difference -1.20, 95% confidence interval -1.83 to -0.57). These outcomes are consistent with those found in the Cochrane review on amnioinfusion for cord compression. There is not enough evidence concerning the use of amnioinfusion for preterm rupture of membranes.

  16. The reactor Phenix - cartridge rupture detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graftieaux, J.

    1967-01-01

    This report defines the role of cartridge rupture detection in the reactor Phenix. It gives the possible methods, their probable performances, their advantages and disadvantages. The final form of the installation will be determined mainly by the degree of safety required, by the technical possibilities of the reactor design and by the operational flexibility wanted. (author) [fr

  17. Traumatic rupture of the diaphragm: CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Sung Tae; Kim, Sung Jin; Cha, Sang Hoon; Park, Kil Sun; Kim, Jin Hee; Yim, Se Hwan

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the clinical utility of the known CT signs of the traumatic rupture of the diaphragm. CT scans and chest radiographs were retrospectively reviewed in 13 patients who had diaphragmatic rupture confirmed by surgery. On chest radiographs the elevation of the diaphragm was evaluated. On CT, 1) discontinuity of the diaphragm, 2) lack of depiction of the diaphragm surrounding the herniated intraabdominal organs (absent diaphragm sign), and 3) fat seen lateral to the diaphragm (fat sign) were evaluated. Chest radiographs showed the elevation of the diaphragm in 11 patients (85%). CT scan showed absent diaphragm sign in 11 patients (85%), discontinuity of the diaphragm in 8 (62%), and fat sign in 7 (54%). All of 12 patients who had the left diaphragmatic rupture had one or more of the above findings. Discontinuity of the diaphragm, absent diaphragm sign, and fat sign may be helpful CT findings in the diagnosis of the traumatic rupture of the left diaphragm

  18. Rupture of the tuberosity of the tibia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schild, H.; Schwarzkopf, W.

    1981-01-01

    Ruptures of the tuberosity of the tibia occur particularly in male adolescents, although on the whole they represent a rare type of injury. The article discusses classification into different types according to Watson-Jones as well as exemplary models, traumatology, clinic and therapy. (orig.) [de

  19. Ruptured Cervical Aneurysm with Neurofibromatosis | Smith | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A case is presented of spontaneous rupture of an aneurysm of a lateral branch of the right thyrocervical trunk in a patient suffering from diffuse neurofibromatosis. The operative findings are reported. S. Afr. Med. J., 48, 945 (1974). Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ...

  20. LWR primary coolant pipe rupture test rig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshitoshi, Shyoji

    1978-01-01

    The rupture test rig for primary coolant pipes is constructed in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute to verify the reliability of the primary coolant pipes for both PWRs and BWRs. The planned test items consisted of reaction force test, restraint test, whip test, jet test and continuous release test. A pressure vessel of about 4 m 3 volume, a circulating pump, a pressurizer, a heater, an air cooler and the related instrumentation and control system are included in this test rig. The coolant test condition is 160 kg/cm 2 g, 325 deg C for PWR test, and 70 kg/cm 2 g, saturated water and steam for BWR test, 100 ton of test load for the ruptured pipe bore of 8B Schedule 160, and 20 lit/min. discharge during 20 h for continuous release of coolant. The maximum pit internal pressure was estimated for various pipe diameters and time under the PWR and BWR conditions. The spark rupturing device was adopted for the rupture mechanics in this test rig. The computer PANAFACOM U-300 is used for the data processing. This test rig is expected to operate in 1978 effectively for the improvement of reliability of LWR primary coolant pipes. (Nakai, Y.)

  1. Diagnosis of foetal membrane ruptures: Placental alpha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Pre‑labour rupture of membranes (PROM) is a common obstetric complication which presents a diagnostic challenge, especially in equivocal ... problematic with the need to balance the risk of prematurity with that of prolonged ... array of rapid, minimally invasive tests based on biochemical markers in amniotic fluid ...

  2. The electrocardiogram in traumatic right atrial rupture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veldhuisen, DJ; van den Berg, MP

    1999-01-01

    We:report the case of a previously healthy 20-year-old man who had a traumatic rupture of the right atrium. On admission an electrocardiogram (ECG) was recorded which is highly remarkable and, retrospectively, suggestive for the diagnosis. The patient died soon after the EGG, and the diagnosis was

  3. Radiographic Features of Acute Patellar Tendon Rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazal, Muhammad Ali; Moonot, Pradeep; Haddad, Fares

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of our study was to assess soft tissue features of acute patellar tendon rupture on lateral knee radiograph that would facilitate early diagnosis. The participants were divided into two groups of 35 patients each. There were 28 men and seven women with a mean age of 46 years in the control group and 26 men and nine women with a mean age of 47 years in the rupture group. The lateral knee radiograph of each patient was evaluated for Insall-Salvati ratio for patella alta, increased density of the infrapatellar fat pad, appearance of the soft tissue margin of the patellar tendon and bony avulsions. In the rupture group there were three consistent soft tissue radiographic features in addition to patellar alta. These were increased density of infrapatellar fat pad; loss of sharp, well-defined linear margins of the patellar tendon and angulated wavy margin of the patellar tendon while in the control group these features were not observed. The soft tissue radiographic features described in the rupture group are consistent and reliable. When coupled with careful clinical assessment, these will aid in early diagnosis and further imaging will be seldom required. © 2015 Chinese Orthopaedic Association and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. Bilateral synchronous rupture of the quadriceps tendon.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ellanti, P

    2012-09-01

    Bilateral simultaneous rupture of the quadriceps tendon is a rare entity. They are often associated with degenerative changes of the tendons and predisposing conditions such as diabetes or excessive steroid use. They most commonly tend to occur in patients of 40 years of age or older.

  5. Rupture of the neck in nuclear fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, K.T.R.; Managan, R.A.; Nix, J.R.; Sierk, A.J.

    1977-01-01

    We introduce a degree of freedom to describe the rupture of the neck in nuclear fission and calculate the point at which the neck ruptures as the nucleus descends dynamically from its fission saddle point. This is done by mentally slicing the system into two portions at its minimum neck radius and calculating the force required to separate the two portions while keeping their shapes fixed. This force is obtained by differentiating with respect to separation the sum of the Coulomb and nuclear interaction energies between the two portions. For nuclei throughout the Periodic Table we calculate this force along dynamical paths leading from the fission saddle point. The force is initially attractive but becomes repulsive when the neck reaches a critical size. For actinide nuclei the neck radius at which rupture occurs is about 2 fm. This increases the calculated translational kinetic energy of the fission fragments at infinity relative to that calculated for scission occurring at zero neck radius. With the effect of neck rupture taken into account, we calculate and compare with experimental results fission-fragment kinetic energies for two types of nuclear dissipation: ordinary two-body viscosity and one-body dissipation

  6. Surgical management of spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Augusto Fontenelle Ribeiro Junior

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available AIMS: Spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular adenoma (SRHA is a rare life-threatening condition that may require surgical treatment to control hemorrhaging and also stabilize the patient. We report a series of emergency surgeries performed at our institution for this condition. METHODS: We reviewed medical records and radiology files of 28 patients (from 1989 to 2006 with a proven diagnosis of hepatocellular adenoma (HA. Three (10.7% of 28 patients had spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular adenoma, two of which were associated with intrahepatic hemorrhage while one had intraperitoneal bleeding. Two patients were female and one was male. Both female patients had a background history of oral contraceptive use. Sudden abdominal pain associated with hemodynamic instability occurred in all patients who suffered from spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular adenoma. The mean age was 41.6 years old. The preoperative assessment included liver function tests, ultrasonography and computed tomography. RESULTS: The surgical approaches were as follows: right hemihepatectomy for controlling intraperitoneal bleeding, and right extended hepatectomy and non-anatomic resection of the liver for intrahepatic hemorrhage. There were no deaths, and the postoperative complications were bile leakage and wound infection (re-operation, as well as intraperitoneal abscess (re-operation and pleural effusion. CONCLUSION: Spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular adenoma may be treated by surgery for controlling hemorrhages and stabilizing the patient, and the decision to operate depends upon both the patient's condition and the expertise of the surgical team.

  7. On the unit rupture work of metals and alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verkhoturov, A.D.; Kovalenko, V.S.; Dyatel, V.P.

    1980-01-01

    Studied is the effect of the nature of the treated material treatment regimes on their unit rupture work at laser treatment in the regime of quasistationary evaporation. It is shown that the unit rupture work changes its values depending on the treatment regimes, coincidences between experimental and calculation values of unit rupture work are not being observed, especially for refractory metals of the 6th group and for solid alloys. Established are optimum regimes for determination of stable values of unit rupture work

  8. Performance of RC columns with partial length corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaohui; Liang Fayun

    2008-01-01

    Experimental and analytical studies on the load capacity of reinforced concrete (RC) columns with partial length corrosion are presented, where only a fraction of the column length was corroded. Twelve simply supported columns were eccentrically loaded. The primary variables were partial length corrosion in tensile or compressive zone and the corrosion level within this length. The failure of the corroded column occurs in the partial length, mainly developed from or located nearby or merged with the longitudinal corrosion cracks. For RC column with large eccentricity, load capacity of the column is mainly influenced by the partial length corrosion in tensile zone; while for RC column with small eccentricity, load capacity of the column greatly decreases due to the partial length corrosion in compressive zone. The destruction of the longitudinally mechanical integrality of the column in the partial length leads to this great reduction of the load capacity of the RC column

  9. Great Lakes Literacy Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortner, Rosanne W.; Manzo, Lyndsey

    2011-03-01

    Lakes Superior, Huron, Michigan, Ontario, and Erie together form North America's Great Lakes, a region that contains 20% of the world's fresh surface water and is home to roughly one quarter of the U.S. population (Figure 1). Supporting a $4 billion sport fishing industry, plus $16 billion annually in boating, 1.5 million U.S. jobs, and $62 billion in annual wages directly, the Great Lakes form the backbone of a regional economy that is vital to the United States as a whole (see http://www.miseagrant.umich.edu/downloads/economy/11-708-Great-Lakes-Jobs.pdf). Yet the grandeur and importance of this freshwater resource are little understood, not only by people in the rest of the country but also by many in the region itself. To help address this lack of knowledge, the Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE) Great Lakes, supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, developed literacy principles for the Great Lakes to serve as a guide for education of students and the public. These “Great Lakes Literacy Principles” represent an understanding of the Great Lakes' influences on society and society's influences on the Great Lakes.

  10. The Next Great Generation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownstein, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    Discusses ideas from a new book, "Millennials Rising: The Next Great Generation," (by Neil Howe and William Strauss) suggesting that youth culture is on the cusp of a radical shift with the generation beginning with this year's college freshmen who are typically team oriented, optimistic, and poised for greatness on a global scale. Includes a…

  11. Computing broadband accelerograms using kinematic rupture modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz Paredes, J.A.

    2007-05-01

    In order to make the broadband kinematic rupture modeling more realistic with respect to dynamic modeling, physical constraints are added to the rupture parameters. To improve the slip velocity function (SVF) modeling, an evolution of the k -2 source model is proposed, which consists to decompose the slip as a sum of sub-events by band of k. This model yields to SVF close to the solution proposed by Kostrov for a crack, while preserving the spectral characteristics of the radiated wave field, i.e. a w 2 model with spectral amplitudes at high frequency scaled to the coefficient of directivity C d . To better control the directivity effects, a composite source description is combined with a scaling law defining the extent of the nucleation area for each sub-event. The resulting model allows to reduce the apparent coefficient of directivity to a fraction of C d , as well as to reproduce the standard deviation of the new empirical attenuation relationships proposed for Japan. To make source models more realistic, a variable rupture velocity in agreement with the physics of the rupture must be considered. The followed approach that is based on an analytical relation between the fracture energy, the slip and the rupture velocity, leads to higher values of the peak ground acceleration in the vicinity of the fault. Finally, to better account for the interaction of the wave field with the geological medium, a semi-empirical methodology is developed combining a composite source model with empirical Green functions, and is applied to the Yamaguchi, M w 5.9 earthquake. The modeled synthetics reproduce satisfactorily well the observed main characteristics of ground motions. (author)

  12. Ruptured liver abscess: Analysis of 50 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohit Bhatia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Liver abscess (pyogenic and amebic is frequently encountered clinical condition; however, it can result in lethal outcome if there is a delay in diagnosis and treatment. Despite modalities to diagnose the condition early, still ruptured liver abscess presents with a common cause of acute abdomen in surgical emergency. In developing countries, ruptured liver abscess is a common cause of mortality. For contained abscess, nonsurgical options are considered; however, for ruptured liver abscess, surgical intervention is considered necessary. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study carried in Safdarjung hospital, New Delhi, between 2015 and 2016. All patients with ruptured liver abscess (clear signs of peritonitis were included in this study, and those patients having other causes of peritonitis were excluded. A preformed protocol for management was followed for all the patients, and various parameters contributing to the illness and its prognosis were evaluated and assessed. Results: Out of the fifty patients assessed, male patients were mainly affected (86%. The most affected age group was 31–40 years (64% followed by 41–50 years (22%. Right hypochondrium pain was the most common presenting complaint. Nine patients (18% had presented with signs of toxemia. Only right lobe of the liver was affected the most in 44 patients (88%. Escherichia coli was the most common organism isolated in our study in 19 patients (38%. A total of 19 patients (38% had diabetes in our study and total of 13 patients had mortality in our study. Conclusion: Ruptured liver abscess most commonly involves the right lobe of the liver. Males are affected far higher than the females; probable cause believed to be higher alcohol consumption. Most common affected age group falls between 30 and 60 years of age. If prompt treatment is started in time, mortality involved with it is evitable.

  13. Ruptured uterus in Kano, Nigeria - study of risk factors | Omole ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a comparative prospective study of the risk factors for ruptured uterus in Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, Nigeria, between 1st January 2000 and 31st December 2005. Forty six women with ruptured uterus (cases) were compared with two hundred and thirty women who delivered without ruptured uterus ...

  14. Ruptured Uterus At Afikpo, Southeast Nigeria. | Eze | Ebonyi Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Ruptured uterus is an obstetric catastrophe associated with high maternal and perinatal mortality. Objectives: To determine the incidence, causes, management and fetomaternal outcomes of ruptured uterus in Afikpo, Southeast Nigeria. Methods: Delivery records, theatre registers and case notes of all ruptured ...

  15. Radionuclide diagnosis of splenic rupture in infectious mononucleosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vezina, W.C.; Nicholson, R.L.; Cohen, P.; Chamberlain, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    Spontaneous splenic rupture is a rare but serious complication of infectious mononucleosis. Although radionuclide spleen imaging is a well accepted method for diagnosis of traumatic rupture, interpretation can be difficult in the setting of mononucleosis, as tears may be ill-defined and diagnosis hampered by inhomogeneous splenic uptake. Four proven cases of spontaneous rupture are presented, three of which illustrate these diagnostic problems

  16. Delivery of placenta before baby in ruptured uterus | Ameh | Annals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An unusual case of ruptured uterus characterized by spontaneous delivery of the placenta while the foetus is retained in the abdomen is presented. The management and prevention of ruptured uterus in Sub- Saharan Africa is discussed. Key Words: Delivery of placenta, ruptured uterus. Annals of African Medicine Vol.3(3) ...

  17. Ruptured rectal duplication with urogenital abnormality: Unusual presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailesh Solanki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rectal duplication (RD accounts for 5% of alimentary tract duplication. A varied presentation and associated anomalies have been described in the literature. Antenatal rupture of the RD is very rare. We present an unusual case of a ruptured RD associated with urogenital abnormalities in newborn male. We are discussing diagnosis, embryology, management and literature review of ruptured RD.

  18. Ruptured rectal duplication with urogenital abnormality: Unusual presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanki, Shailesh; Babu, M Narendra; Jadhav, Vinay; Shankar, Gowri; Santhanakrishnan, Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    Rectal duplication (RD) accounts for 5% of alimentary tract duplication. A varied presentation and associated anomalies have been described in the literature. Antenatal rupture of the RD is very rare. We present an unusual case of a ruptured RD associated with urogenital abnormalities in newborn male. We are discussing diagnosis, embryology, management and literature review of ruptured RD.

  19. Bilateral spontaneous rupture of flexor digitorum profundus tendons.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Sullivan, S T

    2012-02-03

    Spontaneous tendon rupture is an unusual condition usually associated with underlying disease processes such as rheumatoid arthritis, chronic renal failure or bony abnormalities of the hand. We report a case of spontaneous, non-concurrent bilateral rupture of flexor profundus tendons in an otherwise healthy individual. Treatment was successful and consisted of a two-stage reconstruction of the ruptured tendon.

  20. Challenging Friesian horse diseases : aortic rupture and megaesophagus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeg, M.

    2015-01-01

    Aortic rupture is quite rare in Warmblood horses and is best known as an acute and fatal rupture of the aortic root in older breeding stallions. It has now become clear that aortic rupture, which is diagnosed around an age of 4 years, is more frequent in the Friesian breed than in others. The high

  1. Active faults, paleoseismology, and historical fault rupture in northern Wairarapa, North Island, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schermer, E.R.; Van Dissen, R.; Berryman, K.R.; Kelsey, H.M.; Cashman, S.M.

    2004-01-01

    Active faulting in the upper plate of the Hikurangi subduction zone, North Island, New Zealand, represents a significant seismic hazard that is not yet well understood. In northern Wairarapa, the geometry and kinematics of active faults, and the Quaternary and historical surface-rupture record, have not previously been studied in detail. We present the results of mapping and paleoseismicity studies on faults in the northern Wairarapa region to document the characteristics of active faults and the timing of earthquakes. We focus on evidence for surface rupture in the 1855 Wairarapa (M w 8.2) and 1934 Pahiatua (M w 7.4) earthquakes, two of New Zealand's largest historical earthquakes. The Dreyers Rock, Alfredton, Saunders Road, Waitawhiti, and Waipukaka faults form a northeast-trending, east-stepping array of faults. Detailed mapping of offset geomorphic features shows the rupture lengths vary from c. 7 to 20 km and single-event displacements range from 3 to 7 m, suggesting the faults are capable of generating M >7 earthquakes. Trenching results show that two earthquakes have occurred on the Alfredton Fault since c. 2900 cal. BP. The most recent event probably occurred during the 1855 Wairarapa earthquake as slip propagated northward from the Wairarapa Fault and across a 6 km wide step. Waipukaka Fault trenches show that at least three surface-rupturing earthquakes have occurred since 8290-7880 cal. BP. Analysis of stratigraphic and historical evidence suggests the most recent rupture occurred during the 1934 Pahiatua earthquake. Estimates of slip rates provided by these data suggest that a larger component of strike slip than previously suspected is occurring within the upper plate and that the faults accommodate a significant proportion of the dextral component of oblique subduction. Assessment of seismic hazard is difficult because the known fault scarp lengths appear too short to have accommodated the estimated single-event displacements. Faults in the region are

  2. Effects of phosphorus on the δ-Ni3Nb phase precipitation and the stress rupture properties in alloy 718

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, W.R.; Guo, S.R.; Hu, Z.Q.; Park, N.K.; Yoo, Y.S.; Choe, S.J.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of phosphorus on the phase transformation and stress rupture properties of alloy 718 were investigated. The nucleation of δ-phase, which does not contain phosphorus, was suppressed by the enrichment of phosphorus at grain boundaries. A low level of phosphorus resulted in the formation of faults-containing film-like δ-phase along the grain boundaries, while a higher level of phosphorus favored the long lath-like δ-phase precipitation. Phosphorus greatly prolonged the stress rupture life of the alloy in the range of 0.0008-0.013 wt.%, while it reduced the stress rupture life in the range of 0.013-0.049 wt.%. The effect of phosphorus on the stress rupture properties was closely related to its interaction with oxygen. Phosphorus atoms, in the range of 0.0008-0.013 wt.%, enhanced the resistance to oxygen intrusion along the grain boundaries, protected the grain boundaries from decohesion by oxygen atoms and oxidation, and subsequently prolonged the rupture life of the alloy. The protection effect of P is clearly demonstrated by the phenomenon that the crack initiation site was shifted from the surface to the center in the stress-ruptured samples with increasing addition of P. Over 0.013 wt.%, the protection effect of phosphorus is excessive and phosphorus began to display its inherent effect of damaging the grain boundary strength: the stress rupture life of the alloy was reduced accordingly. Maximum stress rupture life was thus obtained at ∼0.013 wt.% P. (orig.)

  3. Modeling fault rupture hazard for the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppersmith, K.J.; Youngs, R.R.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper as part of the Electric Power Research Institute's High Level Waste program, the authors have developed a preliminary probabilistic model for assessing the hazard of fault rupture to the proposed high level waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The model is composed of two parts: the earthquake occurrence model that describes the three-dimensional geometry of earthquake sources and the earthquake recurrence characteristics for all sources in the site vicinity; and the rupture model that describes the probability of coseismic fault rupture of various lengths and amounts of displacement within the repository horizon 350 m below the surface. The latter uses empirical data from normal-faulting earthquakes to relate the rupture dimensions and fault displacement amounts to the magnitude of the earthquake. using a simulation procedure, we allow for earthquake occurrence on all of the earthquake sources in the site vicinity, model the location and displacement due to primary faults, and model the occurrence of secondary faulting in conjunction with primary faulting

  4. Telomere length and depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Marie Kim; Ørsted, David Dynnes; Rode, Line

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Depression has been cross-sectionally associated with short telomeres as a measure of biological age. However, the direction and nature of the association is currently unclear. AIMS: We examined whether short telomere length is associated with depression cross-sectionally as well...... as prospectively and genetically. METHOD: Telomere length and three polymorphisms, TERT, TERC and OBFC1, were measured in 67 306 individuals aged 20-100 years from the Danish general population and associated with register-based attendance at hospital for depression and purchase of antidepressant medication....... RESULTS: Attendance at hospital for depression was associated with short telomere length cross-sectionally, but not prospectively. Further, purchase of antidepressant medication was not associated with short telomere length cross-sectionally or prospectively. Mean follow-up was 7.6 years (range 0...

  5. Safety design guide for pipe rupture protection for CANDU 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Duk Su; Chang, Woo Hyun; Lee, Nam Young; A. C. D. Wright

    1996-03-01

    This safety design guide for pipe rupture protection identifies high-energy systems in which pipe ruptures must be postulated to occur, as well as systems that must be protected from the dynamic effects of such ruptures. Dynamic effects considered in this SDG consist of pipe whip (including missiles generated by pipe ruptures, if any) and jet impingement, Requirements for protection against the dynamic effects of a postulated pipe rupture and method of protection of essential structures, systems and components are specified for these effects. The change status for the regulatory requirements, code and standards should be traced and this safety design guide shall be updated accordingly. 2 tabs., 5 refs. (Author) .new

  6. Great Indoors Awards 2007

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Hollandis Maastrichtis jagati 17. XI esimest korda rahvusvahelist auhinda The Great Indoors Award. Aasta sisekujundusfirmaks valiti Masamichi Katayama asutatud Wonderwall. Auhinna said veel Zaha Hadid, Heatherwick Studio, Ryui Nakamura Architects ja Item Idem

  7. Great Lakes Bathymetry

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lakes Michigan, Erie, Saint Clair, Ontario and Huron has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and...

  8. Use of ICD-10 codes to monitor uterine rupture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thisted, Dorthe L A; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Hvidman, Lone

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Uterine rupture is a rare but severe complication in pregnancies after a previous cesarean section. In Denmark, the monitoring of uterine rupture is based on reporting of relevant diagnostic codes to the Danish Medical Birth Registry (MBR). The aim of our study was to examine the vali......OBJECTIVES: Uterine rupture is a rare but severe complication in pregnancies after a previous cesarean section. In Denmark, the monitoring of uterine rupture is based on reporting of relevant diagnostic codes to the Danish Medical Birth Registry (MBR). The aim of our study was to examine...... uterine ruptures, the sensitivity and specificity of the codes for uterine rupture were 83.8% and 99.1%, respectively. CONCLUSION: During the study period the monitoring of uterine rupture in the MBR was inadequate....

  9. Analysis of localized damage in creep rupture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhengdong; Wu Dongdi

    1992-01-01

    Continuum Damage Mechanics studies the effect of distributed defects, whereas the failure of engineering structures is usually caused by local damage. In this paper, an analysis of localized damage in creep rupture is carried out. The material tested is a 2 1/4Cr-1Mo pressure vessel steel and the material constants necessary for damage analysis are evaluated. Notched specimens are used to reflect localized damage in creep rupture and the amount of damage is measured using DCPD method. Through FEM computation, stress components and effective stress in the region of notch root are evaluated and it is found that the von Mises effective stress can represent the damage effective stress in the analysis of localized creep damage. It is possible to develop a method for the assessment of safety of pressure vessels under creep through localized creep damage analysis. (orig.)

  10. Failure analysis on a ruptured petrochemical pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harun, Mohd [Industrial Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation Malaysia, Bangi, Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Shamsudin, Shaiful Rizam; Kamardin, A. [Univ. Malaysia Perlis, Jejawi, Arau (Malaysia). School of Materials Engineering

    2010-08-15

    The failure took place on a welded elbow pipe which exhibited a catastrophic transverse rupture. The failure was located on the welding HAZ region, parallel to the welding path. Branching cracks were detected at the edge of the rupture area. Deposits of corrosion products were also spotted. The optical microscope analysis showed the presence of transgranular failures which were related to the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and were predominantly caused by the welding residual stress. The significant difference in hardness between the welded area and the pipe confirmed the findings. Moreover, the failure was also caused by the low Mo content in the stainless steel pipe which was detected by means of spark emission spectrometer. (orig.)

  11. Rupture of major vessels after radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fajardo, L.F.; Lee, A.

    1975-01-01

    Rupture of irradiated large vessels is an uncommon complication which tends to occur in carotid, aorta, and femoral arteries, in decreasing order of incidence. It particularly affects men subjected to surgery and radiotherapy for epidermoid carcinomas in oropharynx, esophagus, or genitalia. Contrary to some opinion, radiation is not the most significant cause; this spontaneous arterial rupture can occur without radiation. The perforation is not associated with tumor invasion of arterial wall, as has been claimed. Surgical complications, especially necrosis of skin flaps, infection, and fistulas are most important etiologically. Only 2 of the 11 instances that we describe appear to have been caused mainly by radiation. The perforation is usually fatal, but several patients, including 3 of our series (2 carotid, 1 femoral), have been saved by hospital personnel aware of this complication. To prevent it, prolonged exposure or infection of arteries, whether irradiated or not, should be avoided. (auth)

  12. Liquid salt environment stress-rupture testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Weiju; Holcomb, David E.; Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Wilson, Dane F.

    2016-03-22

    Disclosed herein are systems, devices and methods for stress-rupture testing selected materials within a high-temperature liquid salt environment. Exemplary testing systems include a load train for holding a test specimen within a heated inert gas vessel. A thermal break included in the load train can thermally insulate a load cell positioned along the load train within the inert gas vessel. The test specimen can include a cylindrical gage portion having an internal void filled with a molten salt during stress-rupture testing. The gage portion can have an inner surface area to volume ratio of greater than 20 to maximize the corrosive effect of the molten salt on the specimen material during testing. Also disclosed are methods of making a salt ingot for placement within the test specimen.

  13. Creep rupture behavior of Stirling engine materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titran, R. H.; Scheuerman, C. M.; Stephens, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    The automotive Stirling engine, being investigated jointly by the Department of Energy and NASA Lewis as an alternate to the internal combustion engine, uses high-pressure hydrogen as the working fluid. The long-term effects of hydrogen on the high temperature strength properties of materials is relatively unknown. This is especially true for the newly developed low-cost iron base alloy NASAUT 4G-A1. This iron-base alloy when tested in air has creep-rupture strengths in the directionally solidified condition comparable to the cobalt base alloy HS-31. The equiaxed (investment cast) NASAUT 4G-A1 has superior creep-rupture to the equiaxed iron-base alloy XF-818 both in air and 15 MPa hydrogen.

  14. [Traumatic rupture of a horseshoe kidney].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual Samaniego, M; Bravo Fernández, I; Ruiz Serrano, M; Ramos Martín, J A; Lázaro Méndez, J; García González, A

    2006-04-01

    One-third to one-half of all patients with horseshoe kidney are asymptomatic and the condition is found incidentally. This congenital renal anomaly has shown as a predisponent condition for renal injury in blunt abdominal trauma, but often the degree of injury has a nonoperative therapy. Horseshoe kidney rupture is an exceptional pathology that require a complete diagnostic study to make an adequate management when surgical therapy is indicated. We present a fifteen-year-old male with previously unsuspected horseshoe kidney that suffered an atypical right upper-pole and mesorrenal kidney rupture after low-velocity-impact blunt abdominal trauma. A correct presurgical diagnose let a deferred surgical approach with right lower pole and horseshoe renal isthmus preservation. The trauma conditions, an excesive clinic manifestation, a clinical investigation about known congenital simultaneous anomallies and typical radiological signs, can suggest this infrequent patology. Computed tomography provides the best radiological information.

  15. Steam generator tube rupture (SGTR) scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auvinen, A.; Jokiniemi, J.K.; Laehde, A.; Routamo, T.; Lundstroem, P.; Tuomisto, H.; Dienstbier, J.; Guentay, S.; Suckow, D.; Dehbi, A.; Slootman, M.; Herranz, L.; Peyres, V.; Polo, J.

    2005-01-01

    The steam generator tube rupture (SGTR) scenarios project was carried out in the EU 5th framework programme in the field of nuclear safety during years 2000-2002. The first objective of the project was to generate a comprehensive database on fission product retention in a steam generator. The second objective was to verify and develop predictive models to support accident management interventions in steam generator tube rupture sequences, which either directly lead to severe accident conditions or are induced by other sequences leading to severe accidents. The models developed for fission product retention were to be included in severe accident codes. In addition, it was shown that existing models for turbulent deposition, which is the dominating deposition mechanism in dry conditions and at high flow rates, contain large uncertainties. The results of the project are applicable to various pressurised water reactors, including vertical steam generators (western PWR) and horizontal steam generators (VVER)

  16. Fatigue and rupture codified rules comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faidy, C.

    2004-01-01

    The European Directive on Pressure Equipment requests risk studies and in particular to assure no risk of fatigue and rupture in operation. The answers to these questions are different in the different existing design codes (EN Standards, ASME III and VIII or RCC-M or CODAP-CODETI codes) and corresponding in operation codes (ASME or RSE-M). Design safety factors, material properties, fabrication, refinement in the analysis methods, monitoring in operation, hydro-proof test level... Around these Codes, different rules are under development. A16 in France, R6 in UK or FITNET at the EC level. This paper is concerned by a comparison between 2 different Codes to analyze the risk of fatigue or rupture of pressure equipments and mainly a comparison between RCC-M Code and EN 13445 standard for pressure vessel. Recommendations for future work will be proposed. (authors)

  17. Computed tomography in ruptured intracranial aneurysm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Michiyasu; Ogawa, Akira; Sakurai, Yoshiharu; Komatsu, Shinro; Suzuki, Jiro.

    1983-01-01

    The differences between initial bleeding and rebleeding due to ruptured intracranial aneurysm was investigated by CT. The study included 120 cases of ruptured cerebral aneurysm; 71 cases had only one bleeding and 49 cases had rebleeding. All the cases underwent CT examinations within 2 weeks following bleeding. Subarachnoid hemorrhages were classified into three groups according to the CT findings: Diffuse high type-high density areas in the entire basal cistern; Localized high type-high density area in a restricted part of the basal cistern; and Iso or Low type-no high density areas in the basal cistern. CT scans done within 24 hours following initial bleeding showed Diffuse high type in 96% of the cases and Localized high type in 4%. On the other hand, in rebleeding cases, Diffuse high type was 50%, Localized high type 25% and Iso or Low type 25%. In rebleeding cases within three days following initial bleeding, Diffuse high type was 90% and Iso or Low type 10%. However, between day 4 and day 14, Diffuse high type was 14%, Localized high type 42% and Iso or Low type 42%. After day 15, Diffuse high type was 36%, Localized type 36% and Iso or Low type 28%. Intracerebral hematoma and/or ventricular hemorrhage secondary to ruptured aneurysms were also investigated. Following initial bleeding, 18% of cases showed intracerebral and/or ventricular hemorrhage, however, the incidence increased up to 59% in rebleeding cases. These observations indicate that the subarachnoid hemorrhage due to re-ruptured aneurysm tends to be more localized than in initial bleeding cases and that intracerebral and/or ventricular hemorrhage seems more frequent in rebleeding cases. (author)

  18. Spontaneous bladder rupture in acute alcohol intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahjat Barakat

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous bladder rupture is a rare condition that can be followed by an acute alcohol intoxication and can be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. We report a case diagnosed in a alcoholic young male who was admitted to our emergency room for epigastric pain. The case demonstrates the difficulties with diagnosis and the need for physicians who work in an emergency room to be aware of this condition.

  19. Thompson Test in Achilles Tendon Rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer Albertson

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available HPI: A 26-year old male presented to the emergency department after experiencing the acute onset of left ankle pain while playing basketball. Upon jumping, he felt a “pop” in his left posterior ankle, followed by pain and difficulty ambulating. His exam was notable for a defect at the left Achilles tendon on palpation. The practitioner performed a Thompson test, which was positive (abnormal on the left. Significant Findings: The left Achilles tendon had a defect on palpation, while the right Achilles tendon was intact. When squeezing the right (unaffected calf, the ankle spontaneously plantar flexed, indicating a negative (normal Thompson test. Upon squeeze of the left (affected calf, the ankle did not plantar flex, signifying a positive (abnormal Thompson test. The diagnosis of left Achilles tendon rupture was confirmed intraoperatively one week later. Discussion: The Achilles tendon (also: calcaneal tendon or heel cord is derived from the medial and lateral heads of the gastrocnemius muscle, as well as the soleus muscle. Rupture of the Achilles tendon most commonly occurs in the distal tendon, approximately 2-6 cm from its attachment to the calcaneal tuberosity, in an area of hypovascularity known as the “watershed” or “critical” zone.1-3 The Thompson test (also: Simmonds-Thompson test, described by Simmonds in 1957 and Thompson in 1962, is done while the patient is in the prone position, with feet hanging over the end of a table/gurney, or with the patient kneeling on a stool or chair.4-5 Squeezing the calf of an unaffected limb will cause the ankle to plantar flex, but squeezing the calf of a limb with an Achilles tendon rupture will cause no motion. The sensitivity of the Thompson’s test for the diagnosis of a complete Achilles tendon rupture is 96-100% and the specificity is 93-100%, but data is limited.6-8

  20. RESEARCH ON REDUCING PREMATURITY RUPTURE OF MEMBRANE

    OpenAIRE

    Maria URSACHI (BOLOTA); Emil ANTON; Sorana Caterina ANTON

    2016-01-01

    The membranes surrounding the amniotic cavity are composed from amnion and chorion, tightly adherent layers which are composed of several cell types, including epithelial cells, trophoblasts cells and mesenchyme cells, embedded in a collagenous matrix. They retain amniotic fluid, secret substances into the amniotic fluid, as well as to the uterus and protect the fetus against upward infections from urogenital tract. Normally, the membranes it breaks during labor. Premature rupture of the amn...

  1. Extended fuel cycle length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruyere, M.; Vallee, A.; Collette, C.

    1986-09-01

    Extended fuel cycle length and burnup are currently offered by Framatome and Fragema in order to satisfy the needs of the utilities in terms of fuel cycle cost and of overall systems cost optimization. We intend to point out the consequences of an increased fuel cycle length and burnup on reactor safety, in order to determine whether the bounding safety analyses presented in the Safety Analysis Report are applicable and to evaluate the effect on plant licensing. This paper presents the results of this examination. The first part indicates the consequences of increased fuel cycle length and burnup on the nuclear data used in the bounding accident analyses. In the second part of this paper, the required safety reanalyses are presented and the impact on the safety margins of different fuel management strategies is examined. In addition, systems modifications which can be required are indicated

  2. Case of a spontaneously ruptured epidermoid cyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiroyama, Y; Saiki, M; Ueda, H; Katayama, S; Mitani, T

    1987-02-01

    Intracranial fat-containing congenital tumors are characterized by negative absorption values on CT. We hereby report a case of an epidermoid cyst with subarachnoid free fats diagnosed preoperatively by CT. A 21-year-old female was admitted to our hospital because of continuous mild headache and nausea. At the time of admission, the results of her physical and neurological examinations were normal. CT, however, demonstrated multiple subarachnoid low-density spots and a suprasellar low-density area with high-density spots. In addition, there were negative absorption values (-12 -- -77), suggesting free fats. A spontaneously ruptured epidermoid or dermoid cyst was diagnosed on the basis of these findings. At surgery, a suprasellar tumor containing a yellowish, cheese-like material was confirmed. The patient made an uneventful recovery and was discharged 14 days after surgery. There have been several published reports of CT appearances of intracranial fat-containing tumors. However, spontaneously ruptured cases diagnosed by CT are rare. CT was found to be useful for the diagnosis of spontaneously ruptured cases of fat-containing tumors.

  3. Radiological evaluation of sinus valsalva rupture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yul; Park, Jae Hyung; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Han, Man Chung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1984-03-15

    We obtained the following results by reviewing the radiographic findings of 15 cases of Sinus valsalva rupture who were diagnosed surgically at Seoul National University Hospital since 1979. 1. Among distribution was from 15 years to 40 years with the mean age of 24 years. Among the 15 cases, 9 cases were male and 7 were female. 2. Ruptured sinus is right coronary sinus projecting to right ventricle in all 15 cases. Combined diseases are ventricular septal defect in 12 cases, Aortic Valvular heart disease in 4 cases, and narrowing of right ventricular outflow tract in 2 cases, and aneurysmal dilatation of right pulmonary artery in 1 cases. 3. Chest X-ray findings were that of left to right shunt, i.e, cardiomegaly, increased pulmonary vascularity but were normal in 3 cases. 4. Aortography showed sequential leakage of dye from right coronary sinus to right ventricle and finally to pulmonary artery in 9 cases, and in 9 cases of them the leakage is directly to right ventricular outflow tract without filling of sinus portion of the ventricle., i.e., type I. 5. The leakage was well shown in left ventricular diastolic phase and not shown in systolic phase. 6. Ventricular septal defects were not detected definitely in spite of taking left ventriculography. 7. Cine angiography is essential for detecting accurate site, degree and direction of sinus valsalva rupture and other associated cardiac abnormality.

  4. Radiological evaluation of sinus valsalva rupture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yul; Park, Jae Hyung; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Han, Man Chung

    1984-01-01

    We obtained the following results by reviewing the radiographic findings of 15 cases of Sinus valsalva rupture who were diagnosed surgically at Seoul National University Hospital since 1979. 1. Among distribution was from 15 years to 40 years with the mean age of 24 years. Among the 15 cases, 9 cases were male and 7 were female. 2. Ruptured sinus is right coronary sinus projecting to right ventricle in all 15 cases. Combined diseases are ventricular septal defect in 12 cases, Aortic Valvular heart disease in 4 cases, and narrowing of right ventricular outflow tract in 2 cases, and aneurysmal dilatation of right pulmonary artery in 1 cases. 3. Chest X-ray findings were that of left to right shunt, i.e, cardiomegaly, increased pulmonary vascularity but were normal in 3 cases. 4. Aortography showed sequential leakage of dye from right coronary sinus to right ventricle and finally to pulmonary artery in 9 cases, and in 9 cases of them the leakage is directly to right ventricular outflow tract without filling of sinus portion of the ventricle., i.e., type I. 5. The leakage was well shown in left ventricular diastolic phase and not shown in systolic phase. 6. Ventricular septal defects were not detected definitely in spite of taking left ventriculography. 7. Cine angiography is essential for detecting accurate site, degree and direction of sinus valsalva rupture and other associated cardiac abnormality

  5. Relativistic distances, sizes, lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'tsov, V.N.

    1992-01-01

    Such notion as light or retarded distance, field size, formation way, visible size of a body, relativistic or radar length and wave length of light from a moving atom are considered. The relation between these notions is cleared up, their classification is given. It is stressed that the formation way is defined by the field size of a moving particle. In the case of the electromagnetic field, longitudinal sizes increase proportionally γ 2 with growing charge velocity (γ is the Lorentz-factor). 18 refs

  6. Liver Hydatid Cyst with Transdiaphragmatic Rupture and Lung Hydatid Cyst Ruptured into Bronchi and Pleural Space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arıbaş, Bilgin Kadri; Dingil, Gürbüz; Köroğlu, Mert; Üngül, Ümit; Zaralı, Aliye Ceylan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this case study is to present effectiveness of percutaneous drainage as a treatment option of ruptured lung and liver hydatid cysts. A 65-year-old male patient was admitted with complicated liver and lung hydatid cysts. A liver hydatid cyst had ruptured transdiaphragmatically, and a lung hydatid cyst had ruptured both into bronchi and pleural space. The patient could not undergo surgery because of decreased respiratory function. Both cysts were drained percutaneously using oral albendazole. Povidone–iodine was used to treat the liver cyst after closure of the diaphragmatic rupture. The drainage was considered successful, and the patient had no recurrence of signs and symptoms. Clinical, laboratory, and radiologic recovery was observed during 2.5 months of catheterization. The patient was asymptomatic after catheter drainage. No recurrence was detected during 86 months of follow-up. For inoperable patients with ruptured liver and lung hydatid cysts, percutaneous drainage with oral albendazole is an alternative treatment option to surgery. The percutaneous approach can be life-saving in such cases.

  7. [Risk factors of rupture of internal carotid artery during surgical resection of carotid body tumor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y H; Wang, J S; Yao, C; Chang, G Q; Yin, H H; Li, S Q; Lü, W M; Hu, Z J; Wang, S M

    2017-06-13

    Objective: To investigate risk factors of rupture of internal carotid artery resection during carotid body tumor resection and to summarize our treatment experience. Methods: During the period from 1991 to 2016, rupture of internal carotid artery occurred in 27 patients (28 tumors) during surgical resection of carotid body tumor in the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University. Their clinical and follow-up data were retrospectively collected and analyzed. For all patients underwent surgical resection during this period, Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the risk factors of intraoperative rupture of internal carotid artery. Results: Of these 28 tumors, there were 15 (53.6%) tumors with diameter≥5 cm and 20 (71.4%) Shamblin Ⅲ tumors. Intraoperatively, shunt was applied for 8 (28.6%) cases. Thirteen (46.4%) patients underwent ligation of external carotid artery, while 2 (7.1%) patients accepted resection of cranial nerves. Direct closure/patchplasty, autologous vessels or graft reconstruction was used in 16, 10 and 2 cases, respectively. Postoperatively, stroke occurred in 4(14.3%) cases and cranial nerve deficit in 15 (53.6%) cases. During a median length of 36 (14-125) months, cranial nerve deficit persisted in 5 cases. Follow-up radiologic examination indicated 3 (10.7%) cases of targeted vessel occlusion. However, no new-onset stroke was identified. Among all patients underwent surgical resection of carotid body tumor, female ( OR =3.650, P =0.012), age≤25 years old ( OR =3.710, P =0.013) and Shamblin Ⅲ tumor ( OR =4.631, P =0.008) increase the risks of intraoperative carotid artery rupture. Conclusions: Shamblin Ⅲ tumor is the predictor of rupture of internal carotid artery. Intraoperative, properly increased blood pressure, intraoperative heparinization and use of shunt for those cases without well-compensated cranial collateral arteries are likely to decreasing the incidence of stroke.

  8. Administration of platelets to ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm patients before open surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunen, T B; Johansson, P I; Jensen, L P

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In patients undergoing open surgery for a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (rAAA), survivors demonstrate a high platelet count, and proactive administration of platelets (and fresh frozen plasma) appears to influence mortality. OBJECTIVES: This trial investigated the effect of plate......BACKGROUND: In patients undergoing open surgery for a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (rAAA), survivors demonstrate a high platelet count, and proactive administration of platelets (and fresh frozen plasma) appears to influence mortality. OBJECTIVES: This trial investigated the effect...... vs 39; P = 0·15) were similar in the two groups of patients. No adverse reactions to platelet administration were observed. In addition, length of stay in the intensive care unit was unaffected by intervention. CONCLUSIONS: For patients planned for open repair of a rAAA, we observed no significant...... effect of early administration of platelets with regard to post-operative complications and stay in the ICU or in hospital and also no significant effect on mortality....

  9. NEONATAL COMPLICATIONS OF PREMATURE RUPTURE OF MEMBRANES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Nili AA. Shams Ansari

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Premature rupture of membranes (PROM is one of the most common complications of pregnancy that has a major impact on neonatal outcomes. With respect to racial, nutritional and cultural differences between developed and developing countries, this study was conducted to detect the prevalence of neonatal complications following PROM and the role of the duration of rupture of membranes in producing morbidities and mortalities in these neonates in our hospital. Among 2357 pregnant women, we found 163 (6.91% cases of premature rupture of the fetal membranes in Tehran Vali-e-Asr Hospital during April 2001 to April 2002. Route of delivery was cesarean section in 65.6% of women. Urinary tract infection occured in 1.8%, maternal leukocytosis and fever in 20.2% and 5.5%, chorioamnionitis in 6.1%, fetal tachycardia in 1.2% and olygohydramnios in 4.9%. Gestational age in 138 (86% of neonates was less than 37 completed weeks. Thirty five infants (21.47% had respiratory distress syndrome and 33 (20.245% had clinical sepsis. Pneumonia in 6 (3.7% and skeletal deformity in 7 (4.294% were seen. Rupture of membrane of more than 24 hours duration occurred in 71 (43.6% of the patients. Comparison of morbidities between two groups of neonates and their mothers according to the duration of PROM (less and more than 24 hours showed significant differences in NICU admission, olygohydramnios, maternal fever, leukocytosis and chorioamnionitis rates (p24 hr of PROM with an odds ratio of 2.68 and 2.73, respectively. Positive blood and eye cultures were detected in 16 cases during 72 hours of age. Staphylococcus species, klebsiella, E.coli and streptococcus were the predominant organisms among positive blood cultures. Mortality was seen in 18 (11% of neonates because of respiratory failure, disseminated intravascular coagulation, septic shock, and a single case of congenital toxoplasmosis. In this study, the prevalence of prematurity, sepsis and prolonged rupture of membrane

  10. Management of diaphragmatic rupture from blunt trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, K K; Yan, Z Y; Vijayan, A; Chiu, M T

    2009-12-01

    Diagnosis of diaphragmatic rupture is difficult, and delays could result in a catastrophic outcome. We reviewed our institution's management of patients with diaphragmatic rupture after blunt trauma. All patients in this study were treated at Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore, from March 2002 to October 2008. Patients with penetrating injuries were excluded. The parameters included age, mechanism of injury, haemodynamic status at admission, Glasgow coma scale (GCS) score, injury severity score (ISS), imaging studies, location of diaphragmatic injuries, associated injuries and outcome. 14 patients with a median age of 38 years formed the study group. Vehicular-related incidents accounted for 71.4 percent of the injuries. The median GCS score on admission was 14 (range 3-15), while the median systolic blood pressure and heart rate were 94 (range 50-164) mmHg and 110 (range 76-140) beats per minute, respectively. The median ISS was 41 (range 14-66). All had chest radiographs performed in the emergency department, six (42.9 percent) had computed tomography performed before surgery, while the remaining eight (57.1 percent) were sent straight to the operating theatre from the emergency department. There were five (35.7 percent) right-sided and nine (64.3 percent) left-sided diaphragmatic ruptures. The mortality rate was 35.7 percent. Some of the associated injuries included eight (57.1 percent) splenic lacerations, five (35.7 percent) haemothorax and lung injuries, four (28.6 percent) bone fractures and three (21.4 percent) liver lacerations. 12 (85.7 percent) patients underwent repair of the diaphragmatic rupture using interrupted polypropylene suture, while the remaining two (14.3 percent) were too haemodynamically unstable to undergo definitive treatment. Advanced age, haemodynamic instability and raised ISS were associated with mortality. An accurate diagnosis of diaphragmatic rupture in trauma patients is difficult, and a thorough examination of both the

  11. The GREAT3 challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyatake, H; Mandelbaum, R; Rowe, B

    2014-01-01

    The GRavitational lEnsing Accuracy Testing 3 (GREAT3) challenge is an image analysis competition that aims to test algorithms to measure weak gravitational lensing from astronomical images. The challenge started in October 2013 and ends 30 April 2014. The challenge focuses on testing the impact on weak lensing measurements of realistically complex galaxy morphologies, realistic point spread function, and combination of multiple different exposures. It includes simulated ground- and space-based data. The details of the challenge are described in [1], and the challenge website and its leader board can be found at http://great3challenge.info and http://great3.projects.phys.ucl.ac.uk/leaderboard/, respectively

  12. Solving the dynamic rupture problem with different numerical approaches and constitutive laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizzarri, A.; Cocco, M.; Andrews, D.J.; Boschi, Enzo

    2001-01-01

    necessary for the crack to reach the half-length Ic. We compare the Tn values resulting from distinct simulations calculated using different constitutive laws and different sets of constitutive parameters. Our results confirm that the DR law provides a different description of the nucleation process than the SW law adopted in this study. We emphasize that the DR law yields a complete description of the rupture process, which includes the most prominent features of SW.

  13. Nothing Great Is Easy

    OpenAIRE

    Stansbie, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    A solo exhibition of 13 pieces of art work.\\ud \\ud Nothing Great is Easy is an exhibition of sculpture, film, drawing and photography that proposes reconstructed narratives using the sport of swimming and in particular the collective interaction and identity of the channel swimmer. The work utilises the processes, rituals/rules, language and the apparatus of sport.\\ud \\ud “Nothing great is easy” are the words on the memorial to Captain Matthew Webb who was the first man to swim the English ch...

  14. Fault geometry, rupture dynamics and ground motion from potential earthquakes on the North Anatolian Fault under the Sea of Marmara

    KAUST Repository

    Oglesby, David D.

    2012-03-01

    Using the 3-D finite-element method, we develop dynamic spontaneous rupture models of earthquakes on the North Anatolian Fault system in the Sea of Marmara, Turkey, considering the geometrical complexity of the fault system in this region. We find that the earthquake size, rupture propagation pattern and ground motion all strongly depend on the interplay between the initial (static) regional pre-stress field and the dynamic stress field radiated by the propagating rupture. By testing several nucleation locations, we observe that those far from an oblique normal fault stepover segment (near Istanbul) lead to large through-going rupture on the entire fault system, whereas nucleation locations closer to the stepover segment tend to produce ruptures that die out in the stepover. However, this pattern can change drastically with only a 10° rotation of the regional stress field. Our simulations also reveal that while dynamic unclamping near fault bends can produce a new mode of supershear rupture propagation, this unclamping has a much smaller effect on the speed of the peak in slip velocity along the fault. Finally, we find that the complex fault geometry leads to a very complex and asymmetric pattern of near-fault ground motion, including greatly amplified ground motion on the insides of fault bends. The ground-motion pattern can change significantly with different hypocentres, even beyond the typical effects of directivity. The results of this study may have implications for seismic hazard in this region, for the dynamics and ground motion of geometrically complex faults, and for the interpretation of kinematic inverse rupture models.

  15. Fault geometry, rupture dynamics and ground motion from potential earthquakes on the North Anatolian Fault under the Sea of Marmara

    KAUST Repository

    Oglesby, David D.; Mai, Paul Martin

    2012-01-01

    Using the 3-D finite-element method, we develop dynamic spontaneous rupture models of earthquakes on the North Anatolian Fault system in the Sea of Marmara, Turkey, considering the geometrical complexity of the fault system in this region. We find that the earthquake size, rupture propagation pattern and ground motion all strongly depend on the interplay between the initial (static) regional pre-stress field and the dynamic stress field radiated by the propagating rupture. By testing several nucleation locations, we observe that those far from an oblique normal fault stepover segment (near Istanbul) lead to large through-going rupture on the entire fault system, whereas nucleation locations closer to the stepover segment tend to produce ruptures that die out in the stepover. However, this pattern can change drastically with only a 10° rotation of the regional stress field. Our simulations also reveal that while dynamic unclamping near fault bends can produce a new mode of supershear rupture propagation, this unclamping has a much smaller effect on the speed of the peak in slip velocity along the fault. Finally, we find that the complex fault geometry leads to a very complex and asymmetric pattern of near-fault ground motion, including greatly amplified ground motion on the insides of fault bends. The ground-motion pattern can change significantly with different hypocentres, even beyond the typical effects of directivity. The results of this study may have implications for seismic hazard in this region, for the dynamics and ground motion of geometrically complex faults, and for the interpretation of kinematic inverse rupture models.

  16. The Great Mathematician Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Sabrina R.

    2013-01-01

    The Great Mathematician Project (GMP) introduces both mathematically sophisticated and struggling students to the history of mathematics. The rationale for the GMP is twofold: first, mathematics is a uniquely people-centered discipline that is used to make sense of the world; and second, students often express curiosity about the history of…

  17. What great managers do.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham, Marcus

    2005-03-01

    Much has been written about the qualities that make a great manager, but most of the literature overlooks a fundamental question: What does a great manager actually do? While there are countless management styles, one thing underpins the behavior of all great managers. Above all, an exceptional manager comes to know and value the particular quirks and abilities of her employees. She figures out how to capitalize on her staffers' strengths and tweaks her environment to meet her larger goals. Such a specialized approach may seem like a lot of work. But in fact, capitalizing on each person's uniqueness can save time. Rather than encourage employees to conform to strict job descriptions that may include tasks they don't enjoy and aren't good at, a manager who develops positions for his staff members based on their unique abilities will be rewarded with behaviors that are far more efficient and effective than they would be otherwise. This focus on individuals also makes employees more accountable. Because staffers are evaluated on their particular strengths and weaknesses, they are challenged to take responsibility for their abilities and to hone them. Capitalizing on a person's uniqueness also builds a stronger sense of team. By taking the time to understand what makes each employee tick, a great manager shows that he sees his people for who they are. This personal investment not only motivates individuals but also galvanizes the entire team. Finally, this approach shakes up existing hierarchies, which leads to more creative thinking. To take great managing from theory to practice, the author says, you must know three things about a person: her strengths, the triggers that activate those strengths, and how she learns. By asking the right questions, squeezing the right triggers, and becoming aware of your employees' learning styles, you will discover what motivates each person to excel.

  18. Pion nucleus scattering lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, W.T.; Levinson, C.A.; Banerjee, M.K.

    1971-09-01

    Soft pion theory and the Fubini-Furlan mass dispersion relations have been used to analyze the pion nucleon scattering lengths and obtain a value for the sigma commutator term. With this value and using the same principles, scattering lengths have been predicted for nuclei with mass number ranging from 6 to 23. Agreement with experiment is very good. For those who believe in the Gell-Mann-Levy sigma model, the evaluation of the commutator yields the value 0.26(m/sub σ//m/sub π/) 2 for the sigma nucleon coupling constant. The large dispersive corrections for the isosymmetric case implies that the basic idea behind many of the soft pion calculations, namely, slow variation of matrix elements from the soft pion limit to the physical pion mass, is not correct. 11 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  19. Gap length distributions by PEPR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warszawer, T.N.

    1980-01-01

    Conditions guaranteeing exponential gap length distributions are formulated and discussed. Exponential gap length distributions of bubble chamber tracks first obtained on a CRT device are presented. Distributions of resulting average gap lengths and their velocity dependence are discussed. (orig.)

  20. Induced seismicity provides insight into why earthquake ruptures stop

    KAUST Repository

    Galis, Martin

    2017-12-21

    Injection-induced earthquakes pose a serious seismic hazard but also offer an opportunity to gain insight into earthquake physics. Currently used models relating the maximum magnitude of injection-induced earthquakes to injection parameters do not incorporate rupture physics. We develop theoretical estimates, validated by simulations, of the size of ruptures induced by localized pore-pressure perturbations and propagating on prestressed faults. Our model accounts for ruptures growing beyond the perturbed area and distinguishes self-arrested from runaway ruptures. We develop a theoretical scaling relation between the largest magnitude of self-arrested earthquakes and the injected volume and find it consistent with observed maximum magnitudes of injection-induced earthquakes over a broad range of injected volumes, suggesting that, although runaway ruptures are possible, most injection-induced events so far have been self-arrested ruptures.

  1. Relativistic length agony continued

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redžić D.V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We made an attempt to remedy recent confusing treatments of some basic relativistic concepts and results. Following the argument presented in an earlier paper (Redžić 2008b, we discussed the misconceptions that are recurrent points in the literature devoted to teaching relativity such as: there is no change in the object in Special Relativity, illusory character of relativistic length contraction, stresses and strains induced by Lorentz contraction, and related issues. We gave several examples of the traps of everyday language that lurk in Special Relativity. To remove a possible conceptual and terminological muddle, we made a distinction between the relativistic length reduction and relativistic FitzGerald-Lorentz contraction, corresponding to a passive and an active aspect of length contraction, respectively; we pointed out that both aspects have fundamental dynamical contents. As an illustration of our considerations, we discussed briefly the Dewan-Beran-Bell spaceship paradox and the ‘pole in a barn’ paradox. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 171028

  2. Rupture process of the 2016 Mw 7.8 Ecuador earthquake from joint inversion of InSAR data and teleseismic P waveforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Lei; Xu, Caijun; Wen, Yangmao; Zhang, Xu; Jiang, Guoyan

    2018-01-01

    The 2016 Ecuador earthquake ruptured the Ecuador-Colombia subduction interface where several historic megathrust earthquakes had occurred. In order to determine a detailed rupture model, Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) images and teleseismic data sets were objectively weighted by using a modified Akaika's Bayesian Information Criterion (ABIC) method to jointly invert for the rupture process of the earthquake. In modeling the rupture process, a constrained waveform length method, unlike the traditional subjective selected waveform length method, was used since the lengths of inverted waveforms were strictly constrained by the rupture velocity and rise time (the slip duration time). The optimal rupture velocity and rise time of the earthquake were estimated from grid search, which were determined to be 2.0 km/s and 20 s, respectively. The inverted model shows that the event is dominated by thrust movement and the released moment is 5.75 × 1020 Nm (Mw 7.77). The slip distribution extends southward along the Ecuador coast line in an elongated stripe at a depth between 10 and 25 km. The slip model is composed of two asperities and slipped over 4 m. The source time function is approximate 80 s that separated into two segments corresponding to the two asperities. The small magnitude of the slip occurred in the updip section of the fault plane resulted in small tsunami waves that were verified by observations near the coast. We suggest a possible situation that the rupture zone of the 2016 earthquake is likely not overlapped with that of the 1942 earthquake.

  3. Spontaneous Tricuspid Valve Chordal Rupture in Idiopathic Pulmonary Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Ana Clara Tude; Afonso, José E; Cordovil, Adriana; Monaco, Claudia; Piveta, Rafael; Cordovil, Rodrigo; Fischer, Claudio H; Vieira, Marcelo; Lira-Filho, Edgar; Morhy, Samira S

    2016-03-01

    Rupture of tricuspid valve is unusual, occurring mainly in the setting of blunt trauma or endomyocardial biopsy. Spontaneous tricuspid valve chordal rupture is particularly rare. We report herein a case of a patient with severe pulmonary hypertension, on the lung transplantation waiting list, who presented with spontaneous chordal rupture, exacerbation of tricuspid insufficiency and worsening of clinical status. Diagnosis and treatment, along with possible mechanisms for this complication, are discussed. © 2015, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. [Delayed rupture of the spleen in a multiply injured patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lică, I; Venter, M D; Mehic, R; Marian, R; Ionescu, G

    1997-01-01

    The authors present a case of delayed rupture of the spleen in a polytraumatised patient. This entity was defined as a late occurrence of signs and symptoms attributed to splenic injury not detected by diagnostic computed tomographic scanning during the initial examination. The mechanisms in which the delayed rupture of the spleen occurs are discussed and the conclusion is that the delayed rupture of the spleen represent a real clinical entity.

  5. Rupture of popliteal arterial aneurysm due to salmonella infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Hun; Oh, Hyung Woo; Kim, Dong Hyun; Byun, Joo Nam

    2006-01-01

    We report here on a case of popliteal aneurysm and rupture that occurred over a 10-day period and this was all secondary to salmonella infection. Computed tomography (CT) angiography of the extremity that was performed before and after aneurysmal rupture showed the aneurysm's rapid evolution to rupture over a short period of time. We also review the pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnostic approach and management of salmonella aneurysms

  6. Emergency endovascular coiling of a ruptured giant splenic artery aneurysm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wernheden, Erika; Brenøe, Anne Sofie; Shahidi, Saeid

    2017-01-01

    Splenic artery aneurysms (SAAs) are the third most common abdominal aneurysm. Endovascular treatment of SAAs is preferred, and coiling is the most commonly used technique. Ruptured giant (>5 cm) SAAs are usually treated with open surgery including splenectomy. We present a rare case of a ruptured...... 15-cm giant SAA in an 84-year-old woman treated successfully with emergency endovascular coiling. To our knowledge, this is one of the few reports of emergency endovascular treatment for ruptured giant SAA....

  7. Misdiagnosed Uterine Rupture of an Advanced Cornual Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Linus Hastrup Sant

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cornual pregnancy is a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge with potential severe consequences if uterine rupture occurs with following massive intraabdominal bleeding. We report a case of a misdiagnosed ruptured cornual pregnancy occurring at 21 weeks of gestation. Ultrasound examination and computer tomography revealed no sign of abnormal pregnancy. The correct diagnosis was first made at emergency laparotomy. Uterine rupture should be considered in pregnant women presenting with abdominal pain and haemodynamic instability.

  8. Misdiagnosed uterine rupture of an advanced cornual pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sant, Christian Linus Hastrup; Andersen, Poul Erik

    2012-01-01

    Cornual pregnancy is a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge with potential severe consequences if uterine rupture occurs with following massive intraabdominal bleeding. We report a case of a misdiagnosed ruptured cornual pregnancy occurring at 21 weeks of gestation. Ultrasound examination...... and computer tomography revealed no sign of abnormal pregnancy. The correct diagnosis was first made at emergency laparotomy. Uterine rupture should be considered in pregnant women presenting with abdominal pain and haemodynamic instability....

  9. MRI in flexor tendon rupture after collagenase injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khurana, Shruti; Wadhwa, Vibhor; Chhabra, Avneesh; Amirlak, Bardia

    2017-01-01

    Flexor tendon rupture is an unusual complication following collagenase injection to relieve contractures. These patients require a close follow-up and in the event of tendon rupture, a decision has to be made whether to repair the tendon or manage the complication conservatively. The authors report the utility of MRI in the prognostication and management of a patient with Dupuytren's contracture, who underwent collagenase injection and subsequently developed flexor digitorum profundus tendon rupture. (orig.)

  10. Surgical repair of a rupture of the pectoralis major muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochini, Alberto De Castro; Andreoli, Carlos Vicente; Ejnisman, Benno; Maffulli, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Muscle rupture is rarely treated surgically. Few reports of good outcomes after muscular suture have been published. Usually, muscular lesions or partial ruptures heal with few side effects or result in total recovery. We report a case of an athlete who was treated surgically to repair a total muscular rupture in the pectoralis major muscle. After 6 months, the athlete returned to competitive practice. After a 2-year follow-up, the athlete still competes in skateboard championships. PMID:25716033

  11. MRI in flexor tendon rupture after collagenase injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khurana, Shruti [Lady Hardinge Medical College, New Delhi (India); Wadhwa, Vibhor [University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR (United States); Chhabra, Avneesh [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States); Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Amirlak, Bardia [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2017-02-15

    Flexor tendon rupture is an unusual complication following collagenase injection to relieve contractures. These patients require a close follow-up and in the event of tendon rupture, a decision has to be made whether to repair the tendon or manage the complication conservatively. The authors report the utility of MRI in the prognostication and management of a patient with Dupuytren's contracture, who underwent collagenase injection and subsequently developed flexor digitorum profundus tendon rupture. (orig.)

  12. Secondary pipe rupture at Mihama unit 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajime Ito; Takehiko Sera

    2005-01-01

    The secondary system pipe rupture occurred on August 9, 2004, while Mihama unit 3 was operating at the rated thermal power. The rupture took place on the condensate line-A piping between the No.4 LP heater and the deaerator, downstream of an orifice used for measuring the condensate flux. The pipe is made of carbon steel, and normally has 558.8 mm diameter and 10 mm thickness. The pipe wall had thinned to 0.4 mm at the point of minimum thickness. It is estimated that the disturbed flow of water downstream of the orifice caused erosion/corrosion and developed wall thinning, leading to a rupture at the thinnest section under internal pressure, about 1MPa. Observation of the pipe internal surface revealed a scale-like pattern typical in this kind of phenomenon. Eleven workers who were preparing for an annual outage that was to start from August 14 suffered burn injuries, of who five died. Since around 1975, we, Kansai Electric, have been checking pipe wall thickness while focusing on the thinning of carbon steel piping in the secondary system. Summarizing the results from such investigation and reviewing the latest technical knowledge including operating experience from overseas utilities, we compiled the pipe thickness management guideline for PWR secondary pipes, 1990. The pipe section that ruptured at the Mihama unit 3 should have been included within the inspection scopes according to the guideline but was not registered on the inspection list. It had not been corrected for almost thirty years. As the result, this pipe section had not been inspected even once since the beginning of the plant operation, 1976. It seems that the quality assurance and maintenance management had not functioned well regarding the secondary system piping management, although we were responsible for the safety of nuclear power plants as licensee. We will review the secondary system inspection procedure and also improve the pipe thickness management guideline. And also, we would replace

  13. Atherosclerotic plaque rupture and thrombosis. Evolving concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuster, V; Stein, B; Ambrose, J A; Badimon, L; Badimon, J J; Chesebro, J H

    1990-09-01

    Rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque associated with partial or complete thrombotic vessel occlusion is fundamental to the development of ischemic coronary syndromes. Plaques that produce only mild-to-moderate angiographic luminal stenosis are frequently those that undergo abrupt disruption, leading to unstable angina or acute myocardial infarction. Plaques with increased lipid content appear more prone to rupture, particularly when the lipid pool is localized eccentrically within the intima. Macrophages appear to play an important role in atherogenesis, perhaps by participating in the uptake and metabolism of lipoproteins, secretion of growth factors, and production of enzymes and toxic metabolites that may facilitate plaque rupture. In addition, the particular composition or configuration of a plaque and the hemodynamic forces to which it is exposed may determine its susceptibility to disruption. Exposure of collagen, lipids, and smooth muscle cells after plaque rupture leads to the activation of platelets and the coagulation cascade system. The resulting thrombus may lead to marked reduction in myocardial perfusion and the development of an unstable coronary syndrome, or it may become organized and incorporated into the diseased vessel, thus contributing to the progression of atherosclerosis. In unstable angina, plaque disruption leads to thrombosis, which is usually labile and results in only a transient reduction in myocardial perfusion. Release of vasoactive substances, arterial spasm, or increases in myocardial oxygen demand may contribute to ischemia. In acute myocardial infarction, plaque disruption results in a more persistent thrombotic vessel occlusion; the extent of necrosis depends on the size of the artery, the duration of occlusion, the presence of collateral flow, and the integrity of the fibrinolytic system. Thrombi that undergo lysis expose a highly thrombogenic surface to the circulating blood, which has the capacity of activating platelets and

  14. Great magnetic storms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsurutani, B.T.; Yen Te Lee; Tang, F.; Gonzalez, W.D.

    1992-01-01

    The five largest magnetic storms that occurred between 1971 and 1986 are studied to determine their solar and interplanetary causes. All of the events are found to be associated with high speed solar wind streams led by collisionless shocks. The high speed streams are clearly related to identifiable solar flares. It is found that (1) it is the extreme values of the southward interplanetary magnetic fields rather than solar wind speeds that are the primary causes of great magnetic storms, (2) shocked and draped sheath fields preceding the driver gas (magnetic cloud) are at least as effective in causing the onset of great magnetic storms (3 of 5 events ) as the strong fields within the driver gas itself, and (3) precursor southward fields ahead of the high speed streams allow the shock compression mechanism (item 2) to be particularly geoeffective

  15. The great intimidators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Roderick M

    2006-02-01

    After Disney's Michael Eisner, Miramax's Harvey Weinstein, and Hewlett-Packard's Carly Fiorina fell from their heights of power, the business media quickly proclaimed thatthe reign of abrasive, intimidating leaders was over. However, it's premature to proclaim their extinction. Many great intimidators have done fine for a long time and continue to thrive. Their modus operandi runs counter to a lot of preconceptions about what it takes to be a good leader. They're rough, loud, and in your face. Their tactics include invading others' personal space, staging tantrums, keeping people guessing, and possessing an indisputable command of facts. But make no mistake--great intimidators are not your typical bullies. They're driven by vision, not by sheer ego or malice. Beneath their tough exteriors and sharp edges are some genuine, deep insights into human motivation and organizational behavior. Indeed, these leaders possess political intelligence, which can make the difference between paralysis and successful--if sometimes wrenching--organizational change. Like socially intelligent leaders, politically intelligent leaders are adept at sizing up others, but they notice different things. Those with social intelligence assess people's strengths and figure out how to leverage them; those with political intelligence exploit people's weaknesses and insecurities. Despite all the obvious drawbacks of working under them, great intimidators often attract the best and brightest. And their appeal goes beyond their ability to inspire high performance. Many accomplished professionals who gravitate toward these leaders want to cultivate a little "inner intimidator" of their own. In the author's research, quite a few individuals reported having positive relationships with intimidating leaders. In fact, some described these relationships as profoundly educational and even transformational. So before we throw out all the great intimidators, the author argues, we should stop to consider what

  16. Great Lakes Energy Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, J. Iwan [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2012-11-18

    The vision of the Great Lakes Energy Institute is to enable the transition to advanced, sustainable energy generation, storage, distribution and utilization through coordinated research, development, and education. The Institute will place emphasis on translating leading edge research into next generation energy technology. The Institute’s research thrusts focus on coordinated research in decentralized power generation devices (e.g. fuel cells, wind turbines, solar photovoltaic devices), management of electrical power transmission and distribution, energy storage, and energy efficiency.

  17. Computed tomography diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma rupture haemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhi Weike; Jiang Bin; Liu Jinquan; Li Sixia; Zhu Zhichang

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic value of hepatocellular carcinoma rupture hemorrhage using Computed Tomography. Methods: Six cases diagnosed hepatocellular carcinoma rupture hemorrhage were analyzed by morphic and histologic method and investigated the key point of scan in diagnosis. Result: The correct rate of hepatocellular carcinoma rupture hemorrhage by Computed Tomography is above 83 percent, it characteristic representation is strip and would high-density shadow after enhancement. Conclusion: The characteristic representation of hepatocellular carcinoma rupture hemorrhage is attain by Computed Tomography, which provides effective operation evidences for clinical operation. (authors)

  18. Triceps Ruptures After Fluoroquinolone Antibiotics: A Report of 2 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shybut, Theodore B; Puckett, Ernest R

    Rupture of the triceps brachii tendon is exceedingly rare, and surgical repair is generally indicated. Fluoroquinolone antibiotics have been implicated in tendon pathology, including tendon ruptures. Triceps rupture has not been previously reported in the setting of fluoroquinolone antibiotic therapy. We present 2 cases of triceps tendon rupture after treatment with fluoroquinolones. In both cases, triceps repair was performed with good outcomes. These cases highlight a risk of fluoroquinolone-induced tendinopathy to athletes. The sports medicine team should be aware of this risk and consider it when choosing antibiotics to treat athletes.

  19. Risk factors affecting chronic rupture of the plantar fascia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ho Seong; Choi, Young Rak; Kim, Sang Woo; Lee, Jin Yong; Seo, Jeong Ho; Jeong, Jae Jung

    2014-03-01

    Prior to 1994, plantar fascia ruptures were considered as an acute injury that occurred primarily in athletes. However, plantar fascia ruptures have recently been reported in the setting of preexisting plantar fasciitis. We analyzed risk factors causing plantar fascia rupture in the presence of preexisting plantar fasciitis. We retrospectively reviewed 286 patients with plantar fasciitis who were referred from private clinics between March 2004 and February 2008. Patients were divided into those with or without a plantar fascia rupture. There were 35 patients in the rupture group and 251 in the nonrupture group. The clinical characteristics and risk factors for plantar fascia rupture were compared between the 2 groups. We compared age, gender, the affected site, visual analog scale pain score, previous treatment regimen, body mass index, degree of ankle dorsiflexion, the use of steroid injections, the extent of activity, calcaneal pitch angle, the presence of a calcaneal spur, and heel alignment between the 2 groups. Of the assessed risk factors, only steroid injection was associated with the occurrence of a plantar fascia rupture. Among the 35 patients with a rupture, 33 had received steroid injections. The odds ratio of steroid injection was 33. Steroid injections for plantar fasciitis should be cautiously administered because of the higher risk for plantar fascia rupture. Level III, retrospective comparative study.

  20. [Simultaneous Traumatic Rupture of Patellar Ligament and Contralateral Rupture of Quadriceps Femoris Muscle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladký, V; Havlas, V

    2017-01-01

    Our paper presents a unique case of a 64-year-old patient after a fall, treated with oral antidiabetic drugs for type II diabetes mellitus. Following a series of examinations, a bilateral injury was diagnosed - patellar ligament tear on the right side and rupture of quadriceps femoris muscle on the left side. It is a rare injury, complicated by simultaneous involvement of both knee joints. The used therapy consisted of a bilateral surgery followed by gradual verticalisation, first with the support of a walking frame and later with the use of forearm crutches. During the final examination, the patient demonstrated full flexion at both knees, while an extension deficit of approx. 5 degrees was still present on the left side. The right knee X-ray showed a proper position of the patella after the removal of temporary tension band wire. Although the clinical results of operative treatment of both the patellar ligament rupture and rupture of quadriceps femoris muscle are in most cases good, early operative treatment, proper technique and post-operative rehabilitation are a prerequisite for success. Key words: knee injuries, patellar ligament, quadriceps muscle, rupture.

  1. Rupture disc opening property for using pipe rupture test in JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Rokuro

    1983-03-01

    In the Mechanical Strength and Structure Lab of JAERI there are being performed pipe break tests which are a postulated instantaneous guillotine break of the primary coolant piping in nuclear power plants. The test being performed are pipe whip tests and jet discharging tests. The bursting of the rupture disc is initiated by an electrical arc and is concluded by the internal pressure. Because the time characteristics during the opening of the rupture disc affects the dynamic thrust force of the pipe, it is necessary to measure these time characteristics. However, it is difficult to measure the conditions during this continuous opening because at the same time of the opening the high temperature and high pressure water is flashing. Therefore, the rupture disc opening was postulated on the measuring of the effective opening characteristics with electric contraction terminals which were attached to the inner surface of the test pipe downstream of the rupture disc and were extended toward the pipe centerline in a ring whose area is about 60 % of the area of the pipe flow sectional area. The measurement voltage was recorded when the data recorder was started in sequence with the electrical arc release from a trigger signal. As a result, it is evident that under high temperature and high pressure water the effective opening time is delayed by a few milliseconds. (author)

  2. Pipe rupture test results; 6 in. pipe whip test under BWR LOCA conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, Ryoichi; Yano, Toshikazu; Ueda, Shuzo; Isozaki, Toshikuni; Miyazaki, Noriyuki; Kato, Rokuro; Miyazono, Shohachiro

    1983-02-01

    A series of pipe rupture tests has been performed in JAERI to demonstrate the safety of the primary coolant circuits in the event of pipe rupture, in nuclear power plants. The present report summarizes the results of 6 in. pipe whip tests (RUN 5605, 5606), under BWR LOCA conditions (285 0 C, 6.8 MPa), which were performed in August, 1981. The test pipe is made of Type 304 stainless steel and its outer diameter is 6 in. and its thickness is 11.1 mm. The restraints are made of Type 304 stainless steel and its diameter is 16.0 mm. Two restraints were set on the restraint support with clearance of 100 mm. Overhang length was varied as the parameter in these tests and was 300 mm or 700 mm. The following results are obtained. (1) The deformations of a pipe and restraints are limited effectively by shorter overhang length of 300. However, they become larger when the overhang length is 700 mm, and the pipe deforms especially at the setting point of restraints. (2) Velocity at the free end of pipe becomes about 30 m/sec just after the break. However, velocity at the setting point of restraint becomes about only 4 m/sec just after the break. (3) It seems from the comparison between the 4 in. tests and 6 in. tests that the maximum restraint force of 6 in. tests is about two times as large as that of 4 in. tests. (author)

  3. Physical therapy in the conservative treatment for anterior cruciate ligament rupture followed by contralateral rupture: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, Gabriel Peixoto Leão; Arruda, Gilvan de Oliveira; Marques, Amélia Pasqual

    2014-01-01

    Although the surgical reconstruction be the obvious indication for the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) lesion, there is no consensus on whether the results of surgery are superior to those obtained with nonsurgical management. The objective of this report was to describe a case of nonsurgical treatment for ACL rupture followed by a contralateral rupture. A 28-year-old female practitioner of muay-thai and handball suffered a non-contact ACL rupture in the left knee, and three months after the...

  4. Rupture distribution of the 1977 western Argentina earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, C.J.; Hartzell, S.

    1996-01-01

    Teleseismic P and SH body waves are used in a finite-fault, waveform inversion for the rupture history of the 23 November 1977 western Argentina earthquake. This double event consists of a smaller foreshock (M0 = 5.3 ?? 1026 dyn-cm) followed about 20 s later by a larger main shock (M0 = 1.5 ?? 1027 dyn-cm). Our analysis indicates that these two events occurred on different fault segments: with the foreshock having a strike, dip, and average rake of 345??, 45??E, and 50??, and the main shock 10??, 45??E, and 80??, respectively. The foreshock initiated at a depth of 17 km and propagated updip and to the north. The main shock initiated at the southern end of the foreshock zone at a depth of 25 to 30 km, and propagated updip and unilaterally to the south. The north-south separation of the centroids of the moment release for the foreshock and main shock is about 60 km. The apparent triggering of the main shock by the foreshock is similar to other earthquakes that have involved the failure of multiple fault segments, such as the 1992 Landers, California, earthquake. Such occurrences argue against the use of individual, mapped, surface fault or fault-segment lengths in the determination of the size and frequency of future earthquakes.

  5. Splenic preservation after traumatic rupture. A remote hospital experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamour, O A; Kashgari, R H; Al Harbi, M A; Azmi, A

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the outcome of treatment modalities, the length of hospital stay and blood transfusion requirements of patients with traumatic splenic rupture. It also discusses the pros and cons of each treatment given, to determine its feasibility and pre-requisites in a set-up similar to this one. SET-UP: The Royal Commission Medical Centre is a 340-bed secondary care facility located in Yanbu Industrial City, in the western part of Saudi Arabia. It serves the population of the city (approximately 40,000) plus a catchment area of nearly 300,000. A retrospective cross-sectional design was used in this study. The medical records were reviewed to abstract the required data. Twenty-one patients (15 males, 6 females) were included. The age ranged between 4 and 57 years, with a mean of 20.8 years and a SD of 13.3 years. A total of 14 spleens (66.6%) were preserved. Non-operative treatment (active conservative) was given to 12 patients while two spleens were preserved operatively by splenorraphy. Seven (33.3%) had operative treatment in the form of splenectomy. The blood transfusion requirement was significantly less in the non-operative treatment modality (pfacilities are available and properly utilized.

  6. Odd Length Contraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smarandache, Florentin

    2013-09-01

    Let's denote by VE the speed of the Earth and byVR the speed of the rocket. Both travel in the same direction on parallel trajectories. We consider the Earth as a moving (at a constant speed VE -VR) spacecraft of almost spherical form, whose radius is r and thus the diameter 2r, and the rocket as standing still. The non-proper length of Earth's diameter, as measured by the astronaut is: L = 2 r√{ 1 -|/VE -VR|2 c2 } rocket! Also, let's assume that the astronaut is laying down in the direction of motion. Therefore, he would also shrink, or he would die!

  7. discouraged by queue length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. Parthasarathy

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The transient solution is obtained analytically using continued fractions for a state-dependent birth-death queue in which potential customers are discouraged by the queue length. This queueing system is then compared with the well-known infinite server queueing system which has the same steady state solution as the model under consideration, whereas their transient solutions are different. A natural measure of speed of convergence of the mean number in the system to its stationarity is also computed.

  8. Clinical Outcomes and Complications of Percutaneous Achilles Repair System Versus Open Technique for Acute Achilles Tendon Ruptures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Andrew R; Jones, Carroll P; Cohen, Bruce E; Davis, W Hodges; Ellington, J Kent; Anderson, Robert B

    2015-11-01

    Limited incision techniques for acute Achilles tendon ruptures have been developed in recent years to improve recovery and reduce postoperative complications compared with traditional open repair. The purpose of this retrospective cohort study was to analyze the clinical outcomes and postoperative complications between acute Achilles tendon ruptures treated using a percutaneous Achilles repair system (PARS [Arthrex, Inc, Naples, FL]) versus open repair and evaluate the overall outcomes for operatively treated Achilles ruptures. Between 2005 and 2014, 270 consecutive cases of operatively treated acute Achilles tendon ruptures were reviewed (101 PARS, 169 open). Patients with Achilles tendinopathy, insertional ruptures, chronic tears, or less than 3-month follow-up were excluded. Operative treatment consisted of a percutaneous technique (PARS) using a 2-cm transverse incision with FiberWire (Arthrex, Inc, Naples, FL) sutures or open repair using a 5- to 8-cm posteromedial incision with FiberWire in a Krackow fashion reinforced with absorbable sutures. Patient demographics were recorded along with medical comorbidities, activity at injury, time from injury to surgery, length of follow-up, return to baseline activities by 5 months, and postoperative complications. The most common activity during injury for both groups was basketball (PARS: 39%, open: 47%). A greater number of patients treated with PARS were able to return to baseline physical activities by 5 months compared with the open group (PARS: 98%, open: 82%; P = .0001). There were no significant differences (P > .05) between groups in rates of rerupture (P = 1.0), sural neuritis (P = .16), wound dehiscence (P = .74), superficial (P = .29) and/or deep infection (P = .29), or reoperation (P = .13). There were no deep vein thromboses (DVTs) or reruptures in either group. In the PARS group, there were no cases of sural neuritis, 3 cases (3%) of superficial wound dehiscence, and 2 reoperations (2%) for superficial

  9. Vaginal rupture and evisceration in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prassinos, Nikitas N; Adamama-Moraitou, Katerina K; Ververidis, Haralabos N; Anagnostou, Tilemachos L; Kladakis, Stefanos E

    2010-09-01

    A 1.5-year-old German Shepherd mixed breed dog was admitted with mild haemorrhage from the vulva and a perineal mass of 24-hour duration, which had been first observed immediately after parturition. Parturition had occurred at low ambient temperature, and only one puppy survived out of the seven oversized fetuses. The dog was in poor body condition, dehydrated, hypothermic, depressed, non-ambulatory and in a state of shock. Intestinal loops, the urinary bladder and the uterine horns and body were protruding from the vulva. A true vaginal prolapse was also observed. The abdominal viscera were flushed with warm sterile saline solution, protected and maintained wet. The laboratory findings included moderate anaemia, leukocytosis, hypoalbuminaemia, azotaemia and elevated liver enzyme activities. Stabilisation of the dog's general condition was attempted before surgery. Antimicrobial and analgesic drugs were also administered. After exploratory laparotomy the protruding organs, which were in good condition, were reduced. A recent rupture in the vaginal wall, approximately 6 cm long, was observed. Ovariohysterectomy and partial vaginectomy were performed. The preoperative course of therapy was continued, but the bitch died 12 hours later. The probable cause of vaginal rupture and evisceration in this bitch was tenesmus and/or trauma due to the oversized fetuses.

  10. Neighbor Rupture Degree of Some Middle Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökşen BACAK-TURAN

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Networks have an important place in our daily lives. Internet networks, electricity networks, water networks, transportation networks, social networks and biological networks are some of the networks we run into every aspects of our lives. A network consists of centers connected by links. A network is represented when centers and connections modelled by vertices and edges, respectively. In consequence of the failure of some centers or connection lines, measurement of the resistance of the network until the communication interrupted is called vulnerability of the network. In this study, neighbor rupture degree which is a parameter that explores the vulnerability values of the resulting graphs due to the failure of some centers of a communication network and its neighboring centers becoming nonfunctional were applied to some middle graphs and neighbor rupture degree of the $M(C_{n},$ $M(P_{n},$ $M(K_{1,n},$ $M(W_{n},$ $M(P_{n}\\times K_{2}$ and $M(C_{n}\\times K_{2}$ have been found.

  11. The Reasons of Steam Pipeline Elbow Rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesjasz A.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the reasons for steam pipeline’s elbow material rupture, made of steel 13CrMo4-5 (15HM that is being used in the energetics. Based on the mechanical properties in the ambient temperature (Rm, Rp0,2 and elongation A5 and in the increased temperature (Rp0,2t it was found, that the pipeline elbow’s material sampled from the ruptured area has lower Rp0,2 i Rp0,2t by around 2% than it is a requirement for 13CrMo4-5 steel in it’s base state. The damage appeared as a result of complex stress state, that substantially exceeded the admissible tensions, what was the consequence of considerable structure degradation level. As a result of the microstructure tests on HITACHI S4200 microscope, the considerable development of the creeping process associates were found. Also the advances progress of the microstructure degradation was observed, which is substantial decomposition of bainite and multiple, with varied secretion size, and in most cases forming the micro cracks chains. With the use of lateral micro sections the creeping voids were observed, that creates at some places the shrinkage porosities clusters and micro pores.

  12. Posterior Urethra Rupture: Contrast-Enhanced Computed Tomography Scan and Urethrocystography Demonstrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Marks

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the follow-up study of patients with pelvic fractures, rupture of the posterior urethra is registered in 3–25% of cases (Koraitim et al., 1996. The diagnostic gold standard for the assessment of hemodynamically stable trauma patients is contrast-enhanced CT scan, especially helical CT. Nevertheless, simultaneous suprapubic cystography and ascending urethrograms (the so-called up-and-downogram are the investigation of choice in assessing the site, severity, and length of urethral injuries. (Carlin and Resnick, 1995 This paper discusses the evaluation and diagnosis of urethral injury in multiple-trauma patient.

  13. Rupture dynamics and ground motions from earthquakes in 2-D heterogeneous media

    KAUST Repository

    Bydlon, Samuel A.

    2015-03-21

    ©2015. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved. We perform 2-D simulations of earthquakes on rough faults in media with random heterogeneities (with von Karman distribution) to study the effects of geometric and material heterogeneity on the rupture process and resulting high-frequency ground motions in the near-fault region (out to ∼20km). Variations in slip and rupture velocity can arise from material heterogeneity alone but are dominantly controlled by fault roughness. Scattering effects become appreciable beyond ∼3km from the fault. Near-fault scattering extends the duration of incoherent, high-frequency ground motions and, at least in our 2-D simulations, elevates root-mean-square accelerations (i.e., Arias intensity) with negligible reduction in peak velocities. We also demonstrate that near-fault scattering typically occurs in the power law tail of the power spectral density function, quantified by the Hurst exponent and another parameter combining standard deviation and correlation length. Key Points Fault roughness, not material heterogeneity, dominates rupture process Introduce parameter that can be used to quantify near-fault scattering Scattering affects the duration and amplitude of high-frequency ground motions

  14. Idiopathic great saphenous phlebosclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadreza Jodati

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Arterial sclerosis has been extensively described but reports on venous sclerosis are very sparse. Phlebosclerosis refers to the thickening and hardening of the venous wall. Despite its morphological similarities with arteriosclerosis and potential morbid consequences, phlebosclerosis has gained only little attention. We report a 72 year old male with paralysis and atrophy of the right leg due to childhood poliomyelitis who was referred for coronary artery bypass surgery. The great saphenous vein, harvested from the left leg, showed a hardened cord-like obliterated vein. Surprisingly, harvested veins from the atrophic limb were normal and successfully used for grafting.

  15. Great software debates

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, A

    2004-01-01

    The industry’s most outspoken and insightful critic explains how the software industry REALLY works. In Great Software Debates, Al Davis, shares what he has learned about the difference between the theory and the realities of business and encourages you to question and think about software engineering in ways that will help you succeed where others fail. In short, provocative essays, Davis fearlessly reveals the truth about process improvement, productivity, software quality, metrics, agile development, requirements documentation, modeling, software marketing and sales, empiricism, start-up financing, software research, requirements triage, software estimation, and entrepreneurship.

  16. Making Psychotherapy Great Again?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakun, Eric M

    2017-05-01

    Psychotherapy never stopped being as "great" as other treatments. This column explores the evidence base for both psychotherapy and medications, using depression as a specific example. The limitations are comparable for psychotherapy and medication, with much of the evidence based on small degrees of "statistically significant" rather than "clinically meaningful" change. Our field's biomedical emphasis leads to a false assumption that most patients present with single disorders, when comorbidity is the rule rather than the exception. This false assumption contributes to limitations in the evidence base and in our ability to treat patients optimally.

  17. Large Steel Tank Fails and Rockets to Height of 30 meters - Rupture Disc Installed Incorrectly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedlund, Frank H; Selig, Robert S; Kragh, Eva K

    2016-06-01

    At a brewery, the base plate-to-shell weld seam of a 90-m(3) vertical cylindrical steel tank failed catastrophically. The 4 ton tank "took off" like a rocket leaving its contents behind, and landed on a van, crushing it. The top of the tank reached a height of 30 m. The internal overpressure responsible for the failure was an estimated 60 kPa. A rupture disc rated at < 50 kPa provided overpressure protection and thus prevented the tank from being covered by the European Pressure Equipment Directive. This safeguard failed and it was later discovered that the rupture disc had been installed upside down. The organizational root cause of this incident may be a fundamental lack of appreciation of the hazards of large volumes of low-pressure compressed air or gas. A contributing factor may be that the standard piping and instrumentation diagram (P&ID) symbol for a rupture disc may confuse and lead to incorrect installation. Compressed air systems are ubiquitous. The medium is not toxic or flammable. Such systems however, when operated at "slight overpressure" can store a great deal of energy and thus constitute a hazard that ought to be addressed by safety managers.

  18. Modelling ground rupture due to groundwater withdrawal: applications to test cases in China and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschini, A.; Teatini, P.; Janna, C.; Ferronato, M.; Gambolati, G.; Ye, S.; Carreón-Freyre, D.

    2015-11-01

    The stress variation induced by aquifer overdraft in sedimentary basins with shallow bedrock may cause rupture in the form of pre-existing fault activation or earth fissure generation. The process is causing major detrimental effects on a many areas in China and Mexico. Ruptures yield discontinuity in both displacement and stress field that classic continuous finite element (FE) models cannot address. Interface finite elements (IE), typically used in contact mechanics, may be of great help and are implemented herein to simulate the fault geomechanical behaviour. Two main approaches, i.e. Penalty and Lagrangian, are developed to enforce the contact condition on the element interface. The incorporation of IE incorporation into a three-dimensional (3-D) FE geomechanical simulator shows that the Lagrangian approach is numerically more robust and stable than the Penalty, thus providing more reliable solutions. Furthermore, the use of a Newton-Raphson scheme to deal with the non-linear elasto-plastic fault behaviour allows for quadratic convergence. The FE - IE model is applied to investigate the likely ground rupture in realistic 3-D geologic settings. The case studies are representative of the City of Wuxi in the Jiangsu Province (China), and of the City of Queretaro, Mexico, where significant land subsidence has been accompanied by the generation of several earth fissures jeopardizing the stability and integrity of the overland structures and infrastructure.

  19. Splenic rupture in a neonate – a rare complication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    differential diagnosis of a hypovolaemic shocked infant with an abdominal mass. The symptoms of splenic rupture are ... A diagnosis of splenic rupture due to possible birth trauma was made. The mother admitted a month later ... parenchyma, e.g. erythroblastosis fetalis and congenital syphilis, as an enlarged spleen is more ...

  20. Delayed splenic rupture presenting 70 days following blunt abdominal trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resteghini, Nancy; Nielsen, Jonpaul; Hoimes, Matthew L; Karam, Adib R

    2014-01-01

    Delayed splenic rupture following conservative management of splenic injury is an extremely rare complication. We report a case of an adult patient who presented with delayed splenic rupture necessitating splenectomy, 2 months following blunt abdominal trauma. Imaging at the initial presentation demonstrated only minimal splenic contusion and the patient was discharge following 24 hours of observation. © 2014.

  1. Frequency, predisposing factors and fetomaternal outcome in uterine rupture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, H.S.

    2006-01-01

    To determine the frequency and to analyze the predisposing factors, maternal and fetal outcome of uterine rupture. All cases of ruptured uterus, who were either admitted with or who developed this complication in the hospital, were included in the study. Demographic data, details regarding the most probable predisposing factor, type of rupture, the management and maternal and fetal outcome were taken into consideration for analysis.During three years, total number of deliveries was 18668, and there were 103 cases of uterine rupture (0.55%).Out of these, only 13 (12.62%) patients were booked. Most of the patients presented between the ages of 26-30 years (42.71%). Majority of ruptures occurred in para 2-4 (44.66%). Fifty five cases (53.39%) had a previous caesarean section scar. In 68 (66.01%) cases, the tear was located in lower uterine segment. In 93 (90.29%) cases, anterior uterine wall was involved. Rupture was complete in 79 (76.69%)cases. Repair of uterus was done in 79 (76.69%) cases. Hysterectomy was performed in 24 (23.30%) cases. There were 8 (7.76% or 77.66/1000) maternal deaths and 85 (81.73% or 825 / 1000) perinatal deaths.This study confirms high frequency of such serious preventable obstetrical problem which can lead to high fetomaternal mortality. Rupture of caesarean section scar was the most common cause of uterine rupture found in this series. (author)

  2. Unusual Cause of Acute Abdomen—Ruptured Retroperitoneal Paraganglioma

    OpenAIRE

    Kwok-Kay Yau; Wing-Tai Siu; Michael Ka-Wah Li

    2008-01-01

    Ruptured retroperitoneal paraganglioma is a rare cause of acute abdomen. Its clinical presentation and laparoscopic features have seldom been reported in the literature. Herein, we report a case of ruptured retroperitoneal paraganglioma that presented as acute abdomen, and its subsequent management.

  3. Unusual Cause of Acute Abdomen—Ruptured Retroperitoneal Paraganglioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwok-Kay Yau

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Ruptured retroperitoneal paraganglioma is a rare cause of acute abdomen. Its clinical presentation and laparoscopic features have seldom been reported in the literature. Herein, we report a case of ruptured retroperitoneal paraganglioma that presented as acute abdomen, and its subsequent management.

  4. Ruptured uterus in Azare, north eastern Nigeria | Dattijo | Jos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background:-Ruptured uterus is an obstetric emergency and results in significant maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality in Nigeria. The objective of the review is to determine the incidence, predisposing factors, maternal and foetal outcome in cases of ruptured uterus. Methods:- A 4-year retrospective review of ...

  5. Spontaneous Pre-Labour Rupture of Membranes at Term ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Spontaneous pre-labour rupture of membranes (SPROM) at term is one of the most common complications of pregnancy. It is an important cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality, particularly because it is associated with a latency period from membrane rupture to delivery. OBJECTIVE: To compare the ...

  6. Cutaneous Silicone Granuloma Mimicking Breast Cancer after Ruptured Breast Implant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waseem Asim Ghulam El-Charnoubi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous manifestations due to migration of silicone from ruptured implants are rare. Migrated silicone with cutaneous involvement has been found in the chest wall, abdominal wall, and lower extremities. We describe a case of cutaneous silicone granuloma in the breast exhibiting unusual growth mimicking breast cancer after a ruptured implant.

  7. Welded rupture disc assemblies for use in Tritium Research Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faltings, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    Welded rupture disc assemblies were investigated and developed in various ranges for probable use by experimenters in their activities in the Tritium Research Laboratory at Sandia Laboratories, Livermore. This study indicates that currently welded rupture disc assemblies with appropriate testing and installation by certified pressure installers may be used in pressure systems in the Tritium Research Laboratory and other areas at SLL

  8. Unique case of esophageal rupture after a fall from height

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heijl, Mark; Saltzherr, Teun P.; van Berge Henegouwen, Mark I.; Goslings, J. Carel

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Traumatic ruptures of the esophagus are relatively rare. This condition is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Most traumatic ruptures occur after motor vehicle accidents. Case Presentation: We describe a unique case of a 23 year old woman that presented at our trauma

  9. Non‑bleeding Spontaneous Rupture of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    split easily when the vascular load increases from hypertension or minor trauma is another hypothesis for of HCC ruptures.[6]. Abdominal pain is the only independent factor relating to rupture of HCC.[7] Doppler ultrasound and computer tomography (CT) scan are useful to exclude of hemoperitoneum and evaluation.

  10. Delayed primary realignment of posterior urethral rupture | Shittu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The treatment of acute posterior urethral rupture is controversial. Twelve patients who presented with acute posterior urethral rupture over a five--year period were treated by delayed primary realignment of the injury. The technique of this procedure and the outcome are the subject of this presentation. Eight patients had ...

  11. Traumatic rupture of the diaphragm | Jamabo | Sahel Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Those treated for traumatic rupture of the diaphragm were selected and analyzed for age, gender, cause of injury, associated injuries sustained and mode of treatment. They were all treated at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital and a private clinic in Port Harcourt. Results: 12 patients had traumatic rupture of ...

  12. Tetraventricular hydrocephalus due to ruptured intracranial dermoid cyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karabulut, N.; Oguzkurt, L.

    2000-01-01

    We present the MR imaging findings in a patient who developed tetraventricular hydrocephalus after massive rupture of dermoid cysts with generalized subarachnoid and ventricular spread of cyst contents. The development of tetraventricular hydrocephalus due to ruptured dermoid is a very unusual complication, and was attributed to cyst contents interfering with passage of cerebrospinal fluid through the arachnoid granulations and fourth ventricular outlet foramina. (orig.)

  13. Spontaneous calyceal rupture caused by a ureteral calculus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rupture of the urinary collecting system with perirenal and retroperitoneal extravasation of the urine is an unusual condition that is typically caused by ureteral-obstructing calculi. We report a case of calyceal rupture with urinoma formation, due to a stone in the distal ureter. The diagnosis was confirmed by computed ...

  14. Spontaneous calyceal rupture caused by a ureteral calculus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A. Chaabouni

    Ureteral calculus;. CT;. Ureterel stent. Abstract. Rupture of the urinary collecting system with perirenal and retroperitoneal extravasation of the urine is an unusual condition that is typically caused by ureteral-obstructing calculi. We report a case of calyceal rupture with urinoma formation, due to a stone in the distal ureter.

  15. The Danish anal sphincter rupture questionnaire: Validity and reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Ulla; Ottesen, Marianne

    2008-01-01

    Objective. To revise, validate and test for reliability an anal sphincter rupture questionnaire in relation to construct, content and face validity. Setting and background. Since 1996 women with anal sphincter rupture (ASR) at one of the public university hospitals in Copenhagen, Denmark have bee...

  16. Antibiotics after preterm premature rupture of the membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Katherine; Mercer, Brian

    2011-06-01

    Preterm premature rupture of the membranes remains a common cause of preterm deliveries and neonatal morbidities. The goal of this study is to review the evidence with regard to the antibiotic treatment after preterm premature rupture of the membranes, long-term outcomes related to antibiotic treatment, and possible complications with treatment. Future research goals are also discussed.

  17. Spontaneous gastric rupture after Sodium Bicarbonate consumption: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez, A; Domínguez, C; Perdomo, C F

    2017-08-01

    Spontaneous gastric rupture is a rare condition however a prompt diagnosis and treatment are necessary to decrease mortality and morbidity. We report a case of stomach rupture after the ingestion of Sodium Bicarbonate (SB); imaging findings with a brief review of the literature are presented. Copyright © 2017 The College of Radiographers. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Analysis of Fan Waves in a Laboratory Model Simulating the Propagation of Shear Ruptures in Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasov, B. G.; Sadovskii, V. M.; Sadovskaya, O. V.

    2017-12-01

    The fan-shaped mechanism of rotational motion transmission in a system of elastically bonded slabs on flat surface, simulating the propagation of shear ruptures in super brittle rocks, is analyzed. Such ruptures appear in the Earth's crust at seismogenic depths. They propagate due to the nucleation of oblique tensile microcracks, leading to the formation of a fan domino-structure in the rupture head. A laboratory physical model was created which demonstrates the process of fan-structure wave propagation. Equations of the dynamics of rotational motion of slabs as a mechanical system with a finite number of degrees of freedom are obtained. Based on the Merson method of solving the Cauchy problem for systems of ordinary differential equations, the computational algorithm taking into account contact interaction of slabs is developed. Within the framework of a simplified mathematical model of dynamic behavior of a fan-shaped system in the approximation of a continuous medium, the approximate estimates of the length of a fan depending on the velocity of its motion are obtained. It is shown that in the absence of friction a fan can move with any velocity that does not exceed the critical value, which depends on the size, the moment of inertia of slabs, the initial angle and the elasticity coefficient of bonds. In the presence of friction a fan stops. On the basis of discrete and continuous models, the main qualitative features of the behavior of a fan-structure moving under the action of applied tangential forces, whose values in a laboratory physical model are regulated by a change in the inclination angle of the rupture plane, are analyzed. Comparison of computations and laboratory measurements and observations shows good correspondence between the results.

  19. Microstructural study in a Fe–Ni-base superalloy during creep–rupture at intermediate temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Jingbo [High Temperature Materials Unit, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Xi’an Thermal Power Research Institute, Xingqing Road 136, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710032 (China); Gu, Yuefeng, E-mail: Gu.yuefeng@nims.go.jp [High Temperature Materials Unit, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Sun, Fei; Michinari, Yuyama [High Temperature Materials Unit, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Zhong, Zhihong [Departmant of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, Anhui 230009 (China); Yuan, Yong; Lu, Jintao [Xi’an Thermal Power Research Institute, Xingqing Road 136, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710032 (China)

    2015-07-15

    Creep–rupture behavior of a Fe–Ni-base alloy crept under various conditions has been studied using Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results indicate that grain orientation did not change after the alloy crept at 700 °C/300 MPa and changed greatly crept at 700 °C/200 MPa. The recrystallization texture near rupture–fracture surface was observed after the alloy crept at 750 °C/150 MPa. A better creep performance was found in the samples with the occurrence of grain rotation dependence of the microstructure and the grain store energy.

  20. Hemothorax caused by spontaneous rupture of hepatocellular carcinoma in the pleural cavity: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Hin Hee; Ohm, Joon Young [Dept. of Radiology, Chungnam National University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Song Soo; Kim, Jin Hwan [Dept. of Radiology, Chungnam National University School of Medicine, Daejeon(Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-15

    Hemothorax resulting from ruptured hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is extremely rare and is generally caused by ruptured intrathoracic metastatic lesions. However, we report a rare case of hemothorax resulting from intrathoracic rupture of primary HCC.

  1. Multi-Fault Rupture Scenarios in the Brawley Seismic Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriakopoulos, C.; Oglesby, D. D.; Rockwell, T. K.; Meltzner, A. J.; Barall, M.

    2017-12-01

    Dynamic rupture complexity is strongly affected by both the geometric configuration of a network of faults and pre-stress conditions. Between those two, the geometric configuration is more likely to be anticipated prior to an event. An important factor in the unpredictability of the final rupture pattern of a group of faults is the time-dependent interaction between them. Dynamic rupture models provide a means to investigate this otherwise inscrutable processes. The Brawley Seismic Zone in Southern California is an area in which this approach might be important for inferring potential earthquake sizes and rupture patterns. Dynamic modeling can illuminate how the main faults in this area, the Southern San Andreas (SSAF) and Imperial faults, might interact with the intersecting cross faults, and how the cross faults may modulate rupture on the main faults. We perform 3D finite element modeling of potential earthquakes in this zone assuming an extended array of faults (Figure). Our results include a wide range of ruptures and fault behaviors depending on assumptions about nucleation location, geometric setup, pre-stress conditions, and locking depth. For example, in the majority of our models the cross faults do not strongly participate in the rupture process, giving the impression that they are not typically an aid or an obstacle to the rupture propagation. However, in some cases, particularly when rupture proceeds slowly on the main faults, the cross faults indeed can participate with significant slip, and can even cause rupture termination on one of the main faults. Furthermore, in a complex network of faults we should not preclude the possibility of a large event nucleating on a smaller fault (e.g. a cross fault) and eventually promoting rupture on the main structure. Recent examples include the 2010 Mw 7.1 Darfield (New Zealand) and Mw 7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah (Mexico) earthquakes, where rupture started on a smaller adjacent segment and later cascaded into a larger

  2. Spontaneous atraumatic extensor pollicis longus rupture in the nonrheumatoid population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rada, Erin M; Shridharani, Sachin M; Lifchez, Scott D

    2013-01-01

    Extensor pollicis longus (EPL) tendon rupture is a well-described phenomenon in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Mechanisms of EPL tendon rupture in the nonrheumatoid population have also been described and include traumatic rupture, repetitive motion strain, and steroid injection into the tendon. The operative records for patients undergoing extensor pollicis longus reconstruction by the senior author were reviewed. Patients with a history of trauma to the wrist or inflammatory arthropathy were excluded. We identified 3 patients who presented with spontaneous EPL tendon rupture. These patients reported no risk factors (as listed earlier) or inciting event. All 3 patients had some exposure to local steroids but this exposure was not at the site of subsequent tendon rupture. All patients were operatively repaired and went on to full recovery of EPL function. In patients with sudden loss of extension of the thumb interphalangeal joint, a thorough history of steroid exposure including local steroid exposure remote to the affected EPL tendon may be relevant.

  3. Incidence of plantar fascia ruptures following corticosteroid injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chul; Cashdollar, Michael R; Mendicino, Robert W; Catanzariti, Alan R; Fuge, LaDonna

    2010-12-01

    Plantar fasciitis is commonly treated with corticosteroid injections to decrease pain and inflammation. Therapeutic benefits often vary in terms of efficacy and duration. Rupture of the plantar fascia has been reported as a possible complication following corticosteroid injection. A retrospective chart review of 120 patients who received corticosteroid injection for plantar fasciitis was performed at the authors' institution to determine the incidence of plantar fascia rupture. The plantar fascia rupture was diagnosed clinically and confirmed with magnetic resonance imaging. Various factors were analyzed, including the number of injections, interval between injections, body mass index (BMI), and activity level. Four patients (2.4%) consequently experienced plantar fascia rupture following an average of 2.67 injections. The average BMI of these patients was 38.6 kg/m². The authors conclude that corticosteroid injection therapy appears to be a safe and effective form of nonoperative treatment with minimal complications and a relatively low incident of plantar fascia rupture.

  4. Rupture of the urinary bladder after minimal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myrseth, L.E.; Johansen, T.E.B.

    1991-01-01

    Rupture of the urinary bladder is a rare injury most often encountered after severe trauma and in conjunction with injuries to other organ systems. It may occur, however, without concomitant injury and also after minimal trauma. This diagnosis must be suspected in a patient with abdominal pain who is unable to void or who presents hematuria. The diagnosis is made by means of a retrograde cystogram using 350-400 ml contrast medium and supplemented by a drainage film. Intrapertioneal ruptures should be treated surgically by closure in layers, and drainage. Patients with extraperitoneal ruptures can safely be treated with simple catheter drainage until the rupture has healed, usually within 10-20 days. The authors report three cases of bladder rupture after minimal trauma and describe the state of the art of diagnosis and treatment of these injuries. 15 refs., 3 figs

  5. Great Britain at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    From 14 to 16 November 2006 Administration Building, Bldg. 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 - 17.30 Fifteen companies will present their latest technologies at the 'Great Britain at CERN' exhibition. British industry will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The main fields represented will be computing technologies, electrical engineering, electronics, mechanical engineering, vacuum & low temperature technologies and particle detectors. The exhibition is organised by BEAMA Exhibitions (the British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturers Association). Below you will find: a list of the exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course: from your Departmental secretariat, from the Reception information desk, Building 33, at the exhibition itself. A detailed list of the companies is available at the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS 3D Metrics Almat...

  6. Great Britain at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    From 14 to 16 November 2006 Administration Building, Bldg. 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 - 17.30 Fifteen companies will present their latest technologies at the 'Great Britain at CERN' exhibition. British industry will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The main fields represented will be computing technologies, electrical engineering, electronics, mechanical engineering, vacuum & low temperature technologies and particle detectors. The exhibition is organised by BEAMA Exhibitions (the British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturers Association). Below you will find: a list of the exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course: from your Departmental secretariat, from the Reception information desk, Building 33, at the exhibition itself. A detailed list of the companies is available at the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS 3D Metrics Alma...

  7. Radioactivity transport following steam generator tube rupture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopenfeld, J.

    1985-03-01

    A review of the capabilities of the CITADEL computer code as well as plant experience to project radioactivity releases following a steam generator tube rupture in PWR's shows that certain experimental data are needed for reliable off-site dose predictions. This article defines five parameters which are the key for such predictions and discusses the functional dependence of these parameters on various operational variables. The above parameters can be used in conjunction with CITADEL or they can be inserted in the appropriate equations which then conveniently can be programmed as a subroutine in thermal-hydraulic system codes. A joint Westinghouse, Electric Power Research Institute and Nuclear Regulatory Commission Program aimed at obtaining the five parameters empirically is described

  8. Proposed new mechanism of traumatic aortic rupture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crass, J.R.; Cohen, A.M.; Motta, A.O.; Tomashefski, J.F.; Wiesen, E.

    1990-01-01

    The currently accepted mechanism to explain traumatic aortic rupture from rapid deceleration invokes a combination of traction, torsion, and hydrostatic forces. None of these forces individually is of adequate magnitude to result in aortic disruption. This paper proposes a theory, that aortic lacerations result from a pinch of the aorta between the spine and the anterior bony thorax during the chest compression caused by abrupt deceleration. Three sets of experiments were performed. Geometric analysis of CT images and compression of an articulated skeleton were performed to assess where the anterior and posterior osseous structures would contact if maximally compressed. Fresh dog aortas were pinched in a manner that would mimic the manubrium impacting the spine. Finally, attempts were made to tear an aorta via traction and torsion (whiplash)

  9. Hepatic echinococcosis ruptured into the biliary tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Steenbergen, W.; Fevery, J.; Broeckaert, L.; Ponette, E.; Marchal, G.; Baert, A.; Penninckx, F.; Kerremans, R.; De Groote, J.

    1987-01-01

    Three patients are described with hepatic involvement by Echinococcus granulosus, complicated by spontaneous rupture into the biliary tract. Abdominal computed tomography, showing the cystic wall, the presence of wall calcifications, daughter cysts and wall enhancement, provided a correct diagnosis of hepatic hydatidosis in all patients. Dilatation of the bile ducts with the presence of intraluminal material was clearly shown by sonography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiography. On sonography, the intraluminal material appeared as amorphous, sludge-like hydatid sand, and as daughter cysts. On ERCP, the intrabiliary parasitic material appeared as non-homogeneous, irregularly shaped and mobile filling defects. Other findings at ERCP were displacement and distortion of intrahepatic bile ducts by the hepatic cysts and a mild dilatation of the pancreatic duct. (Auth.)

  10. Powered AFO for Achilles tendon rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizawa, Nobuyuki

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a powered ankle foot orthosis (AFO) for the treatment of a ruptured Achilles tendon. Usually, conservative orthosis treatment requires about two months, and a motionless ankle degrades activities of daily living (ADL). It is difficult to go to school or work on foot, and a pair of crutches is needed to go up and down stairs. In order to improve the ADL, an electric powered AFO has been designed to improve the ability to walk with a fixed ankle joint. The sole of the proposed AFO is equipped with an electric actuator. The prototype actuator consists of Nd magnets and electromagnets and is lightweight and battery driven. The actuator can switch the upright posture and the stepped forward posture of the patient. In an experiment, the use of this electric AFO made it possible to walk and to ascend and descend stairs with a fixed ankle joint.

  11. Imaging of diaphragmatic rupture after trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eren, S.; Kantarci, M.; Okur, A.

    2006-01-01

    Traumatic rupture of the diaphragm usually results from blunt or penetrating injuries, or iatrogenic causes. Most cases are initially overlooked in the acute phase because they present with variable clinical and radiological signs. An overlooked diaphragmatic injury presents as a hernia many years later with potentially serious complications, therefore selection of the most appropriate radiological technique and accurate diagnosis of traumatic diaphragmatic hernias (DH) on the first admission is important. Although the diagnosis of diaphragmatic injuries is problematic, various investigations may be used for diagnosis. We describe the imaging findings of 19 traumatic DH cases with various imaging techniques. The patients were acute trauma cases or cases with prior trauma or thoraco-abdominal surgery with clinical suspicion of DH. An evaluation of the imaging techniques used in the diagnosis of DH is presented

  12. Can Severe Kyphoscoliosis Lead to Aorta Rupture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotopoulos, Constantinos; Karakasi, Maria Valeria; Kapetanakis, Stylianos; Pavlidis, Pavlos

    2016-09-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 is a polysystemic disease presenting with a multifaceted clinical picture. Clinical manifestations may present in the skin, as well as in the skeletal and cardiovascular system. The present study aims to describe and examine the case of a 46-year-old woman, who suffered from neurofibromatosis type 1 and died abruptly in the emergency room. The forensic examination attributed her death to traumatic rupture of the thoracic aorta resulting from an acute angulation that her vertebral column formed in the thoracic region (severe kyphosis). Outspread cutaneous neurofibromas, severe scoliosis, and osteoporosis (brittle bones) were observed during the autopsy. No atherosclerotic lesions were detected in the aortic lumen. To the authors' knowledge, no similar case has been reported throughout relevant literature.

  13. Risk factors of recurrent anal sphincter ruptures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jangö, Hanna; Langhoff-Roos, J; Rosthøj, Steen

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Jangö H, Langhoff-Roos J, Rosthøj S, Sakse A. Risk factors of recurrent anal sphincter ruptures: a population-based cohort study. BJOG 2012;00:000-000 DOI: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2012.03486.x. Objective  To determine the incidence and risk factors of recurrent anal sphincter...... were used to determine risk factors of recurrent ASR. Main outcome measures  The incidence of recurrent ASR and odds ratios for possible risk factors of recurrent ASR: age, body mass index, grade of ASR, birthweight, head circumference, gestational age, presentation, induction of labour, oxytocin...... augmentation, epidural, episiotomy, vacuum extraction, forceps, shoulder dystocia, delivery interval and year of second delivery. Results  Out of 159 446 women, 7336 (4.6%) experienced an ASR at first delivery, and 521 (7.1%) had a recurrent ASR (OR 5.91). The risk factors of recurrent ASR in the multivariate...

  14. [Aortic valve insufficiency due to rupture of the cusp in a patient with multiple trauma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidmar, J; Brilej, D; Voga, G; Kovacic, N; Smrkolj, V

    2003-06-01

    Lesions of the heart valve caused by blunt chest trauma is rare, but when it does occur it can significantly injure the patient. On the basis of autopsy studies, research shows that heart valves are injured in less than 5% of patients who have died due to impact thoracic trauma. Among the heart valves, the aortic valve is the most often lacerated, which has been proved by relevant autopsy and clinical studies. Aortic valve lesions can be the only injury, but it is possible that additional heart or large vessel injuries are also present (myocardial contusion, rupture of the atrial septum, aortic rupture, rupture of the left common carotid artery). The force that causes such an injury is often great and often causes injuries to other organs and organ systems. In a multiple trauma patient, it is very important to specifically look for heart-related injuries because it is possible that they may be overlooked or missed by the surgeon, because of other obvious injuries. We describe the case of a 41-year-old man with multiple trauma who was diagnosed with aortic valve insufficiency due to rupture of the left coronary cusp 6 weeks after a road accident. Valvuloplasty was performed. Seven years later the patient is free of symptoms and is in good physical condition. Echocardiography showed normal dimensions of the heart chambers, a normal thickness of the heart walls, and normal systolic and diastolic function of the left ventricle. Heart valves are morphologically normal, and only an unimportant aortic insufficiency was noticed by echocardiography.

  15. A Modified Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar Approach for Mimicking Dynamic Oscillatory Stress Fluctuations During Earthquake Rupture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunagel, M. J.; Griffith, W. A.

    2017-12-01

    Past experimental work has demonstrated that rock failure at high strain rates occurs by fragmentation rather than discrete fracture and is accompanied by a dramatic increase in rock strength. However, these observations are difficult to reconcile with the assertion that pulverized rocks in fault zones are the product of impulsive stresses during the passage of earthquake ruptures, as the distance from the principal slip zones of some pulverized rock is too great to exceed fragmentation transition. One potential explanation to this paradox that has been suggested is that repeated loading over the course of multiple earthquake ruptures may gradually reduce the pulverization threshold, in terms of both strain rate and strength. We propose that oscillatory loading during a single earthquake rupture may further lower these pulverization thresholds, and that traditional dynamic experimental approaches, such as the Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB) wherein load is applied as a single, smooth, sinusoidal compressive wave, may not reflect natural loading conditions. To investigate the effects of oscillatory compressive loading expected during earthquake rupture propagation, we develop a controlled cyclic loading model on a SHPB apparatus utilizing two striker bars connected by an elastic spring. Unlike traditional SHPB experiments that utilize a gas gun to fire a projectile bar and generate a single compressive wave on impact with the incident bar, our modified striker bar assembly oscillates while moving down the gun barrel and generates two separate compressive pulses separated by a lag time. By modeling the modified assembly as a mass-spring-mass assembly accelerating due to the force of the released gas, we can predict the compression time of the spring upon impact and therefore the time delay between the generation of the first and second compressive waves. This allows us to predictably control load cycles with durations of only a few hundred microseconds. Initial

  16. Source rupture process of the 2016 Kaikoura, New Zealand earthquake estimated from the kinematic waveform inversion of strong-motion data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ao; Wang, Mingfeng; Yu, Xiangwei; Zhang, Wenbo

    2018-03-01

    On 2016 November 13, an Mw 7.8 earthquake occurred in the northeast of the South Island of New Zealand near Kaikoura. The earthquake caused severe damages and great impacts on local nature and society. Referring to the tectonic environment and defined active faults, the field investigation and geodetic evidence reveal that at least 12 fault sections ruptured in the earthquake, and the focal mechanism is one of the most complicated in historical earthquakes. On account of the complexity of the source rupture, we propose a multisegment fault model based on the distribution of surface ruptures and active tectonics. We derive the source rupture process of the earthquake using the kinematic waveform inversion method with the multisegment fault model from strong-motion data of 21 stations (0.05-0.35 Hz). The inversion result suggests the rupture initiates in the epicentral area near the Humps fault, and then propagates northeastward along several faults, until the offshore Needles fault. The Mw 7.8 event is a mixture of right-lateral strike and reverse slip, and the maximum slip is approximately 19 m. The synthetic waveforms reproduce the characteristics of the observed ones well. In addition, we synthesize the coseismic offsets distribution of the ruptured region from the slips of upper subfaults in the fault model, which is roughly consistent with the surface breaks observed in the field survey.

  17. Dynamic rupture analysis of reinforced concrete shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebora, B.; Zimmermann, Th.; Wolf, J.P.

    1976-01-01

    Extreme dynamic loading conditions often require the rupture analysis of reinforced and prestressed-concrete structures. The study presented in this paper extends a method of analysis of dynamic loading conditions which has proven efficient for short-time loads. Another aim is to adapt the method to thin-walled structures. It is not sufficient to work only with plastic rupture and yield surfaces locally which are compared to the elastic distribution of the stress resultants; it is essential to account for the redistribution of the latter. The method proposed consists of discretizing the structure into isoparametric three-dimensional elements with 20 nodes for the concrete and one-dimensional bar elements with three nodes for the steel. The latter can also be handled with a 'smeared' two-dimensional membrane element. In compression a three-dimensional non-linear elastic constitutive law is introduced for the concrete, and a triaxial failure surface expressed in the stress invariants is used, determining cracking and crushing. Two- and three-dimensional cracking surfaces in which no components of stress are transmitted are accounted for. The possibility exists that, during the history of loading, cracks can close up again. For steel, a yield criterion is selected. The non-linear analysis is based on the concept of initial stress. Residual loads are calculated using information in Gauss integration points. The ultimate load is reached when the algorithm does not converge. The corresponding failure modes can be interpreted as those for which a state of equilibrium is no longer possible. The equations of motion are discretized in time, using an extension of the linear acceleration method. (Auth.)

  18. CFD modeling of a boiler's tubes rupture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahimi, Masoud; Khoshhal, Abbas; Shariati, Seyed Mehdi

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a study on the reason for tubes damage in the superheater Platen section of the 320 MW Bisotoun power plant, Iran. The boiler has three types of superheater tubes and the damage occurs in a series of elbows belongs to the long tubes. A three-dimensional modeling was performed using an in-house computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code in order to explore the reason. The code has ability of simultaneous solving of the continuity, the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations and employing the turbulence, combustion and radiation models. The whole boiler including; walls, burners, air channels, three types of tubes, etc., was modeled in the real scale. The boiler was meshed into almost 2,000,000 tetrahedral control volumes and the standard k-ε turbulence model and the Rosseland radiation model were used in the model. The theoretical results showed that the inlet 18.9 MPa saturated steam becomes superheated inside the tubes and exit at a pressure of 17.8 MPa. The predicted results showed that the temperature of the steam and tube's wall in the long tubes is higher than the short and medium size tubes. In addition, the predicted steam mass flow rate in the long tube was lower than other ones. Therefore, it was concluded that the main reason for the rupture in the long tubes elbow is changing of the tube's metal microstructure due to working in a temperature higher than the design temperature. In addition, the structural fatigue tension makes the last elbow of the long tube more ready for rupture in comparison with the other places. The concluded result was validated by observations from the photomicrograph of the tube's metal samples taken from the damaged and undamaged sections

  19. The influence of prolonged preterm premature rupture of the membranes on neonatal outcome of the presenting and non-presenting twin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Aviad; Skornick-Rapaport, Avital; Cohen, Yoni; Mandel, Dror; Rimon, Eli

    2014-10-01

    To compare the neonatal outcome in twin gestations complicated by prolonged preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM). Between the years 2000 and 2010 we identified 48 women with twin pregnancies who were diagnosed as having PPROM and a latency period to delivery >24h. We compared the neonatal morbidity and mortality between the presenting and non-presenting twins, assuming that the rupture occurred in the lower sac. Importantly, in 30 women we were able to identify the location of the ruptured sac by ultrasound examination demonstrating oligohydramnion. In these 30 cases, neonatal outcome of fetuses in the ruptured sac and those in the intact sac were compared. The median gestational age was 31 weeks (range 28-33) with a median latency period between PPROM and delivery of 9 days (range 1-18). Of the identified ruptures 90% (27/30) occurred in the lower sac (presenting twin). There was no significant difference between the presenting and non-presenting twin in terms of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Moreover, no difference was found when fetuses with ruptured sac were compared to those with intact membrane sac. Importantly, the outcomes were not affected by the length of the latency period. The current study results demonstrated that the outcome of fetuses exposed to prolonged preterm rupture of membranes is similar to that of fetuses with intact membranes. Our data suggest that rupture of membranes per se did not cause any deleterious clinical manifestations or lead to clinical discordant inflammation and poor neonatal outcome, supporting a conservative management of twin pregnancies with PPROM. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A review of the rupture characteristics of the 2011 Tohoku-oki Mw 9.1 earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay, Thorne

    2018-05-01

    The 2011 March 11 Tohoku-oki great (Mw 9.1) earthquake ruptured the plate boundary megathrust fault offshore of northern Honshu with estimates of shallow slip of 50 m and more near the trench. Non-uniform slip extended 220 km across the width and 400 km along strike of the subduction zone. Extensive data provided by regional networks of seismic and geodetic stations in Japan and global networks of broadband seismic stations, regional and global ocean bottom pressure sensors and sea level measurement stations, seafloor GPS/Acoustic displacement sites, repeated multi-channel reflection images, extensive coastal runup and inundation observations, and in situ sampling of the shallow fault zone materials and temperature perturbation, make the event the best-recorded and most extensively studied great earthquake to date. An effort is made here to identify the more robust attributes of the rupture as well as less well constrained, but likely features. Other issues involve the degree to which the rupture corresponded to geodetically-defined preceding slip-deficit regions, the influence of re-rupture of slip regions for large events in the past few centuries, and relationships of coseismic slip to precursory slow slip, foreshocks, aftershocks, afterslip, and relocking of the megathrust. Frictional properties associated with the slip heterogeneity and in situ measurements of frictional heating of the shallow fault zone support low stress during shallow sliding and near-total shear stress drop of 10-30 MPa in large-slip regions in the shallow megathrust. The roles of fault morphology, sediments, fluids, and dynamical processes in the rupture behavior continue to be examined; consensus has not yet been achieved. The possibility of secondary sources of tsunami excitation such as inelastic deformation of the sedimentary wedge or submarine slumping remains undemonstrated; dislocation models in an elastic continuum appear to sufficiently account for most mainshock observations

  1. Creep and rupture of an ODS alloy with high stress rupture ductility. [Oxide Dispersion Strengthened

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcalarney, M. E.; Arsons, R. M.; Howson, T. E.; Tien, J. K.; Baranow, S.

    1982-01-01

    The creep and stress rupture properties of an oxide (Y2O3) dispersion strengthened nickel-base alloy, which also is strengthened by gamma-prime precipitates, was studied at 760 and 1093 C. At both temperatures, the alloy YDNiCrAl exhibits unusually high stress rupture ductility as measured by both elongation and reduction in area. Failure was transgranular, and different modes of failure were observed including crystallographic fracture at intermediate temperatures and tearing or necking almost to a chisel point at higher temperatures. While the rupture ductility was high, the creep strength of the alloy was low relative to conventional gamma prime strengthened superalloys in the intermediate temperature range and to ODS alloys in the higher temperature range. These findings are discussed with respect to the alloy composition; the strengthening oxide phases, which are inhomogeneously dispersed; the grain morphology, which is coarse and elongated and exhibits many included grains; and the second phase inclusion particles occurring at grain boundaries and in the matrix. The creep properties, in particular the high stress dependencies and high creep activation energies measured, are discussed with respect to the resisting stress model of creep in particle strengthened alloys.

  2. Comparing slow and fast rupture in laboratory experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aben, F. M.; Brantut, N.; David, E.; Mitchell, T. M.

    2017-12-01

    During the brittle failure of rock, elastically stored energy is converted into a localized fracture plane and surrounding fracture damage, seismic radiation, and thermal energy. However, the partitioning of energy might vary with the rate of elastic energy release during failure. Here, we present the results of controlled (slow) and dynamic (fast) rupture experiments on dry Lanhélin granite and Westerly granite samples, performed under triaxial stress conditions at confining pressures of 50 and 100 MPa. During the tests, we measured sample shortening, axial load and local strains (with 2 pairs of strain gauges glued directly onto the sample). In addition, acoustic emissions (AEs) and changes in seismic velocities were monitored. The AE rate was used as an indicator to manually control the axial load on the sample to stabilize rupture in the quasi-static failure experiments. For the dynamic rupture experiments a constant strain rate of 10-5 s-1 was applied until sample failure. A third experiment, labeled semi-controlled rupture, involved controlled rupture up to a point where the rupture became unstable and the remaining elastic energy was released dynamically. All experiments were concluded after a macroscopic fracture had developed across the whole sample and frictional sliding commenced. Post-mortem samples were epoxied, cut and polished to reveal the macroscopic fracture and the surrounding damage zone. The samples failed with average rupture velocities varying from 5x10-6 m/s up to >> 0.1 m/s. The analyses of AE locations on the slow ruptures reveal that within Westerly granite samples - with a smaller grain size - fracture planes are disbanded in favor of other planes when a geometrical irregularity is encountered. For the coarser grained Lanhélin granite a single fracture plane is always formed, although irregularities are recognized as well. The semi-controlled experiments show that for both rock types the rupture can become unstable in response to these

  3. Finite rupture properties of the 2011 Lorca earthquake; Directividad y propiedades de la ruptura finita del terremoto de Lorca, 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Comino, J. A.; Mancilla, F. L.; Sitch, D.; Morales, J.

    2012-11-01

    On 11 May 2011 an earthquake (M{sub w} = 5.2) hit the region of Murcia (Spain), shaking mainly the city of Lorca and causing extensive personal and material damage. We have estimated that it involved an oblique reverse-faulting mechanism with a shallow hypocentre (4.6 km) at only 5.5 km epicentral distance from Lorca city centre. Double-difference relocations yield a rupture length of {approx} 4 km and suggest a propagation of the rupture from the northeast to the southwest along the Alhama de Murcia fault. We obtained apparent source-time functions at each station using empirical Green's function deconvolution and applying the 4.6 M{sub w} foreshock and the 3.9 M{sub w} aftershock, both of them with a similar location and mechanism. Two methods of deconvolution were used: spectral division and iterative time domain. Both methods gave consistent, stable results, revealing a clear directivity effect. We have modelled apparent durations with a unilateral and asymmetric bilateral rupture, in both cases obtaining a rupture directivity of {approx} N215 degree E towards Lorca, which may have contributed to the unfavourable scenario caused by this event. (Author) 23 refs.

  4. Tsunami inundation variability from stochastic rupture scenarios: Application to multiple inversions of the 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake

    KAUST Repository

    Mori, Nobuhito

    2017-06-28

    We develop a framework for assessing the sensitivity and variability of tsunami inundation characteristics for stochastic physics-based scenarios of mega-thrust subduction earthquakes. The method is applied to the 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake, and tested against observed inundation maps at several locations along the Tohoku coast, using 11 different, previously published, rupture models for this devastating tsunamgenic earthquake. The earthquake rupture models differ in fault dimension (length and width), geometry (dip, strike and top-edge depth), as well as asperity characteristics (slip heterogeneity on the fault plane). The resulting source variability allows exploring a wide range of tsunami scenarios for an Mw9 mega-thrust subduction earthquake in the Tohoku region to conduct thorough sensitivity analyses and to quantify the inundation variability. The numerical results indicate a strong influence of the reference source models on inundation variability, and demonstrate significant sensitivity of inundation to the details of the rupture realization. Therefore, relying on a single particular earthquake rupture model as a representative case when varying earthquake source characteristics may lead to under-representation of the variability of potential scenarios. Moreover, the proposed framework facilitates the rigorous development of critical scenarios for tsunami hazard and risk assessments, which are particularly useful for tsunami hazard mapping and disaster preparedness planning.

  5. Definitive diagnosis of breast implant rupture using magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, C Y; Shaw, W W; Narayanan, K; Gorczyca, D P; Sinha, S; Debruhl, N D; Bassett, L W

    1993-09-01

    Breast implant rupture is an important complication of augmented and reconstructed breasts. Although several techniques such as mammography, xeromammography, ultrasound, thermography, and computed tomographic (CT) scanning have been proven to be useful to detect implant rupture, they have several disadvantages and lack specificity. In the current study, we have established magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a definitive, reliable, and reproducible technique to diagnose both intracapsular and extracapsular ruptures. The study was conducted in 100 symptomatic patients. Our imaging parameters were able to identify ruptures in implants with silicone shells. All the ruptures showed the presence of wavy lines, free-floating silicone shell within the gel ("free-floating loose-thread sign" or "linguine sign"). We had a 3.75 percent incidence of false-positive and false-negative results. The sensitivity for detection of silicone implant rupture was 76 percent, with a specificity of 97 percent. In addition, we also were able to identify the artifacts that may interfere with the definitive diagnosis of implant rupture.

  6. Shigella subverts the host recycling compartment to rupture its vacuole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellouk, Nora; Weiner, Allon; Aulner, Nathalie; Schmitt, Christine; Elbaum, Michael; Shorte, Spencer L; Danckaert, Anne; Enninga, Jost

    2014-10-08

    Shigella enters epithlial cells via internalization into a vacuole. Subsequent vacuolar membrane rupture allows bacterial escape into the cytosol for replication and cell-to-cell spread. Bacterial effectors such as IpgD, a PI(4,5)P2 phosphatase that generates PI(5)P and alters host actin, facilitate this internalization. Here, we identify host proteins involved in Shigella uptake and vacuolar membrane rupture by high-content siRNA screening and subsequently focus on Rab11, a constituent of the recycling compartment. Rab11-positive vesicles are recruited to the invasion site before vacuolar rupture, and Rab11 knockdown dramatically decreases vacuolar membrane rupture. Additionally, Rab11 recruitment is absent and vacuolar rupture is delayed in the ipgD mutant that does not dephosphorylate PI(4,5)P₂ into PI(5)P. Ultrastructural analyses of Rab11-positive vesicles further reveal that ipgD mutant-containing vacuoles become confined in actin structures that likely contribute to delayed vacular rupture. These findings provide insight into the underlying molecular mechanism of vacuole progression and rupture during Shigella invasion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Morphological characteristics associated with rupture risk of multiple intracranial aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guang-Xian; Liu, Lan-Lan; Wen, Li; Cao, Yun-Xing; Pei, Yu-Chun; Zhang, Dong

    2017-10-01

    To identify the morphological parameters that are related to intracranial aneurysms (IAs) rupture using a case-control model. A total of 107 patients with multiple IAs and aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage between August 2011 and February 2017 were enrolled in this study. Characteristics of IAs location, shape, neck width, perpendicular height, depth, maximum size, flow angle, parent vessel diameter (PVD), aspect ratio (AR) and size ratio (SR) were evaluated using CT angiography. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify the independent risk factors associated with IAs rupture. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed on the final model, and the optimal thresholds were obtained. IAs located in the internal carotid artery (ICA) was associated with a negative risk of rupture, whereas AR, SR1 (height/PVD) and SR2 (depth/PVD) were associated with increased risk of rupture. When SR was calculated differently, the odds ratio values of these factors were also different. The receiver operating characteristic curve showed that AR, SR1 and SR2 had cut-off values of 1.01, 1.48 and 1.40, respectively. SR3 (maximum size/PVD) was not associated with IAs rupture. IAs located in the ICA are associated with a negative risk of rupture, while high AR (>1.01), SR1 (>1.48) or SR2 (>1.40) are risk factors for multiple IAs rupture. Copyright © 2017 Hainan Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Presence of Bacteria in Spontaneous Achilles Tendon Ruptures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolf, Christer G; Fu, Sai-Chuen; Hopkins, Chelsea; Luan, Ju; Ip, Margaret; Yung, Shu-Hang; Friman, Göran; Qin, Ling; Chan, Kai-Ming

    2017-07-01

    The structural pathology of Achilles tendon (AT) ruptures resembles tendinopathy, but the causes remain unknown. Recently, a number of diseases were found to be attributed to bacterial infections, resulting in low-grade inflammation and progressive matrix disturbance. The authors speculate that spontaneous AT ruptures may also be influenced by the presence of bacteria. Bacteria are present in ruptured ATs but not in healthy tendons. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Patients with spontaneous AT ruptures and patients undergoing anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction were recruited for this study. During AT surgical repair, excised tendinopathic tissue was collected, and healthy tendon samples were obtained as controls from hamstring tendon grafts used in ACL reconstruction. Half of every sample was reserved for DNA extraction and the other half for histology. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was conducted using 16S rRNA gene universal primers, and the PCR products were sequenced for the identification of bacterial species. A histological examination was performed to compare tendinopathic changes in the case and control samples. Five of 20 AT rupture samples were positive for the presence of bacterial DNA, while none of the 23 hamstring tendon samples were positive. Sterile operating and experimental conditions and tests on samples, controlling for harvesting and processing procedures, ruled out the chance of postoperative bacterial contamination. The species identified predominantly belonged to the Staphylococcus genus. AT rupture samples exhibited histopathological features characteristic of tendinopathy, and most healthy hamstring tendon samples displayed normal tendon features. There were no apparent differences in histopathology between the bacterial DNA-positive and bacterial DNA-negative AT rupture samples. The authors have demonstrated the presence of bacterial DNA in ruptured AT samples. It may suggest the potential involvement of bacteria

  9. Effect of some thermomechanical variables on plastic flow and creep-rupture of type 304 stainless steel at 5930C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swindeman, R.W.

    1977-01-01

    As part of an effort to examine sources of variability in the creep-rupture behavior of type 304 stainless steel, specimens subjected to a variety of prior thermomechanical treatments were tested. Included were different reannealing temperatures, cooling rates, types of prior straining, and a 24-hr age at 816 0 C. Two product forms of a single heat (heat 9T2796) were involved, and most testing was at 593 0 C. For material with coarse grain size, reannealing temperature had no pronounced influence. However, slow cooling rates and the 816 0 C aging significantly extended the rupture life. On the other hand, cold working by an equivalent of 4% tensile strain had very little influence on rupture life. Slow cooling or aging increased rupture life as a result of greatly improved creep ductility. This finding is consistent with similar observations in the literature for this and other stainless steels, and is believed to be due to the development of coarse, beneficial carbides on grain boundaries before stressing. The creep response in the primary and secondary stages was influenced by nearly all the thermomechanical treatments, but the variability in the response at relatively high stresses was scarcely greater than the variability observed in multiple tests on specimens having a common thermomechanical history. 10 figures, 1 table

  10. Review: The Great Gatsby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia de Jesus Sales

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A presente resenha busca discutir a tradução de The Great Gatsby para o contexto brasileiro. Diversas traduções foram feitas, em diversas épocas e com repercussão positiva no contexto brasileiro. Para o presente estudo, foi observada a tradução de Vanessa Bárbara, de 2011. Nesse sentido, o aspecto biográficos do autor e a forma como se apresentam os personagens na obra são fatores de cotejamento na obra original e na tradução brasileira. Francis Scott Key Fitzgerald (1896 – 1940 é famoso por ter em suas obras traços biográficos, algo que certamente influencia o leitor que adentra a sua obra. Quanto à recepção de O Grande Gatsby no contexto brasileiro, há que se considerar que O Grande Gatsby teve diversas traduções no Brasil. Depois dessa tradução de Vanessa Bárbara, em 2011, outras três vieram em 2013, juntamente com o filme. Há que considerar os aspectos comerciais embutidos nessas traduções e que muito corroboram para o resultado final. Prova disso são as capas, que são sempre diferenciadas em cada edição lançada. O tradutor nem sempre pode opinar sobre questões como estas. A tradução, a meu ver, é uma obra de qualidade, visto que a tradutora buscou ser fiel, sem dificultar a interpretação da obra para o leitor.

  11. Review: The Great Gatsby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia de Jesus Sales

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A presente resenha busca discutir a tradução de The Great Gatsby para o contexto brasileiro. Diversas traduções foram feitas, em diversas épocas e com repercussão positiva no contexto brasileiro. Para o presente estudo, foi observada a tradução de Vanessa Bárbara, de 2011. Nesse sentido, o aspecto biográficos do autor e a forma como se apresentam os personagens na obra são fatores de cotejamento na obra original e na tradução brasileira. Francis Scott Key Fitzgerald (1896 – 1940 é famoso por ter em suas obras traços biográficos, algo que certamente influencia o leitor que adentra a sua obra. Quanto à recepção de O Grande Gatsby no contexto brasileiro, há que se considerar que O Grande Gatsby teve diversas traduções no Brasil. Depois dessa tradução de Vanessa Bárbara, em 2011, outras três vieram em 2013, juntamente com o filme. Há que considerar os aspectos comerciais embutidos nessas traduções e que muito corroboram para o resultado final. Prova disso são as capas, que são sempre diferenciadas em cada edição lançada. O tradutor nem sempre pode opinar sobre questões como estas. A tradução, a meu ver, é uma obra de qualidade, visto que a tradutora buscou ser fiel, sem dificultar a interpretação da obra para o leitor.

  12. Laparoscopic splenectomy for spontaneous rupture of the spleen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinky M Thapar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Laparoscopic splenectomy is a gold standard for management of planned benign splenic pathologies. Spontaneous rupture of the spleen (SRS leading to acute abdomen occurs in only 1% of all splenic ruptures. Laparoscopic splenectomy in traumatic and atraumatic rupture due to intra-splenic pathology is reported. We present the first reported case of laparoscopic splenectomy in a 23-year-old male who presented with hemoperitoneum due to idiopathic or SRS. The procedure was safely accomplished with slight modified technique and minimum usage of advanced gadgets.

  13. CT diagnosis of traumatic bronchial rupture in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epelman, Monica; Ofer, Amos; Guralnik, Ludmila; Klein, Yoram; Best, Leal H.; Bentur, Lea; Traubici, Jeffrey

    2002-01-01

    Bronchial rupture is a rare and serious complication of blunt chest trauma in children. The diagnosis of this injury is challenging and requires a high degree of clinical suspicion. It is frequently associated with other severe injuries that may draw the focus of attention away from this potentially catastrophic but treatable injury. The radiographic findings of bronchial rupture have been reported in very few series. We report the findings in two children with bronchial rupture diagnosed by CT, in whom CT resulted in a significant change in patient management. (orig.)

  14. Crystal plastic earthquakes in dolostones: from slow to fast ruptures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passelegue, F. X.; Aubry, J.; Nicolas, A.; Fondriest, M.; Schubnel, A.; Di Toro, G.

    2017-12-01

    Dolostone is the most dominant lithology of the seismogenic upper crust around the Mediterranean Sea. Understanding the internal mechanisms controlling fault friction is crucial for understanding seismicity along active faults. Displacement in such fault zones is frequently highlighted by highly reflective (mirror-like) slip surfaces, created by thin films of nanogranular fault rock. Using saw-cut dolostone samples coming from natural fault zones, we conducted stick-slip experiments under triaxial loading conditions at 30, 60 and 90 MPa confining pressure and temperature ranging from 30 to 100 degrees C. At 30 and 65 degrees C, only slow rupture was observed and the experimental fault exhibits frictional behaviour, i.e. a dependence of normal stress on peak shear stress. At 65 degrees C, a strengthening behaviour is observed after the main rupture, leading to a succession of slow rupture. At 100 degrees C, the macroscopic behaviour of the fault becomes ductile, and no dependence of pressure on the peak shear stress is observed. In addition, the increase of the confining pressure up to 60 and 90 MPa allow the transition from slow to fast rupture, highlighted by the records of acoustic activity and by dynamic stress drop occurring in a few tens of microseconds. Using strain gages located along the fault surface and acoustic transducers, we were able to measure the rupture velocities during slow and fast rupture. Slow ruptures propagated around 0.1 m/s, in agreement with natural observations. Fast ruptures propagated up to supershear velocities, i.e. faster than the shear wave speed (>3500 m/s). A complete study of the microstructures was realized before and after ruptures. Slow ruptures lead to the production of mirror-like surface driven by the production of nanograins due to dislocation processes. Fast ruptures induce the production of amorphous material along the fault surface, which may come from decarbonation and melting processes. We demonstrate that the

  15. Rupture of a Solid Pseudopapillary Neoplasm of the pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Rampersad

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available An acute presentation of a spontaneously ruptured Solid-Pseudopapillary Neoplasm (SPN in an 8 year old female is discussed with a review of the world literature. Our literature search revealed 15 other cases of ruptured SPN and with this case the total is now 16. Notably, 12 patients were 16 years of age or less at presentation as in our case. Although rupture of a SPN is rarely reported it appears to be more probable in the pediatric patient. Additionally, larger tumor size and trauma may be contributing factors.

  16. Creep rupture behavior of welded Grade 91 steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrestha, Triratna [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844 (United States); Basirat, Mehdi [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844 (United States); Alsagabi, Sultan; Sittiho, Anumat [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844 (United States); Charit, Indrajit, E-mail: icharit@uidaho.edu [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844 (United States); Potirniche, Gabriel P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844 (United States)

    2016-07-04

    Creep rupture behavior of fusion welded Grade 91 steel was studied in the temperature range of 600 – 700 °C and at stresses of 50–200 MPa. The creep data were analyzed in terms of the Monkman-Grant relation and Larson-Miller parameter. The creep damage tolerance factor was used to identify the origin of creep damage. The creep damage was identified as the void growth in combination with microstructural degradation. The fracture surface morphology of the ruptured specimens was studied by scanning electron microscopy and deformed microstructure examined by transmission electron microscopy, to further elucidate the rupture mechanisms.

  17. Emergency endovascular coiling of a ruptured giant splenic artery aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Wernheden, MD

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Splenic artery aneurysms (SAAs are the third most common abdominal aneurysm. Endovascular treatment of SAAs is preferred, and coiling is the most commonly used technique. Ruptured giant (>5 cm SAAs are usually treated with open surgery including splenectomy. We present a rare case of a ruptured 15-cm giant SAA in an 84-year-old woman treated successfully with emergency endovascular coiling. To our knowledge, this is one of the few reports of emergency endovascular treatment for ruptured giant SAA.

  18. Principal modes of rupture encountered in expertise of advanced components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavassoli, A.A.; Bougault, A.

    1986-10-01

    Failure of many metallic components investigated can be classified into two categories: intergranular or transgranular according to their principal mode of rupture. Intergranular ruptures are often provoked by segregation of impurities at the grain boundaries. Three examples are cited where this phenomenon occured, one of them is a steel (A 508 cl 3) used for PWR vessel. Intergranular failures are in general induced by fatigue in the advanced components operating under thermal or load transients. One example concerning a sodium mixer which was subjected to thermal loadings is presented. Examples of stress corrosion and intergranular sensitization failures are cited. These examples show the importance of fractography for the determination of rupture causes [fr

  19. Radiological features of 80 cases of diaphragmatic rupture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, M.; Lee, R.

    1989-01-01

    The films from 80 cases of diaphragmatic rupture in the dog and cat over a 10 year period were examined. The most common findings were loss of the cupola and masking of the cardiac shadow. Identification of the stomach or intestine in the thorax made the diagnosis straightforward. However, in some animals these organs were not visible and there was considerable accumulation of free pleural fluid. The use of barium contrast studies and post drainage films were unable to confirm the presence of a rupture in all cases with inconclusive plain film findings. The identification of a rupture was only made by exploratory surgery in these animals

  20. Amnioinfusion for preterm premature rupture of membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeyr, G Justus; Essilfie-Appiah, George; Lawrie, Theresa A

    2011-12-07

    Preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) is a leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Amnioinfusion aims to restore amniotic fluid volume by infusing a solution into the uterine cavity. The objective of this review was to assess the effects of amnioinfusion for PPROM on perinatal and maternal morbidity and mortality. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 September 2011). Randomised trials of amnioinfusion compared to no amnioinfusion in women with PPROM. Three review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion. Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Data were checked for accuracy. We included five trials but we only analysed data from four studies (with a total of 241 participants). One trial did not contribute any data to the review.Transcervical amnioinfusion improved fetal umbilical artery pH at delivery (mean difference 0.11; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.08 to 0.14; one trial, 61 participants) and reduced persistent variable decelerations during labour (risk ratio (RR) 0.52; 95% CI 0.30 to 0.91; one trial, 86 participants).Transabdominal amnioinfusion was associated with a reduction in neonatal death (RR 0.30; 95% CI 0.14 to 0.66; two trials, 94 participants), neonatal sepsis (RR 0.26, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.61; one trial, 60 participants), pulmonary hypoplasia (RR 0.22; 95% CI 0.06 to 0.88; one trial, 34 participants) and puerperal sepsis (RR 0.20; 95% CI 0.05 to 0.84; one trial, 60 participants). Women in the amnioinfusion group were also less likely to deliver within seven days of membrane rupture (RR 0.18; 95% CI 0.05 to 0.70; one trial, 34 participants). These results should be treated with circumspection as the positive findings were mainly due to one trial with unclear allocation concealment. These results are encouraging but are limited by the sparse data and unclear methodological robustness, therefore further evidence is required before amnioinfusion for

  1. Antibiotics for preterm rupture of membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Sara; Boulvain, Michel; Neilson, James P

    2013-12-02

    Premature birth carries substantial neonatal morbidity and mortality. Subclinical infection is associated with preterm rupture of membranes (PROM). Prophylactic maternal antibiotic therapy might lessen infectious morbidity and delay labour, but could suppress labour without treating underlying infection. To evaluate the immediate and long-term effects of administering antibiotics to women with PROM before 37 weeks, on maternal infectious morbidity, neonatal morbidity and mortality, and longer-term childhood development. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 September 2013). Randomised controlled trials comparing antibiotic administration with placebo that reported clinically relevant outcomes were included as were trials of different antibiotics. Trials in which no placebo was used were included for the outcome of perinatal death alone. We extracted data from each report without blinding of either the results or the treatments that women received. We sought unpublished data from a number of authors. We included 22 trials, involving 6872 women and babies.The use of antibiotics following PROM is associated with statistically significant reductions in chorioamnionitis (average risk ratio (RR) 0.66, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.46 to 0.96, and a reduction in the numbers of babies born within 48 hours (average RR 0.71, 95% CI 0.58 to 0.87) and seven days of randomisation (average RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.89). The following markers of neonatal morbidity were reduced: neonatal infection (RR 0.67, 95% CI 0.52 to 0.85), use of surfactant (RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.72 to 0.96), oxygen therapy (RR 0.88, 95% CI 0.81 to 0.96), and abnormal cerebral ultrasound scan prior to discharge from hospital (RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.68 to 0.98). Co-amoxiclav was associated with an increased risk of neonatal necrotising enterocolitis (RR 4.72, 95% CI 1.57 to 14.23).One study evaluated the children's health at seven years of age (ORACLE Children Study) and found

  2. Great Lakes Environmental Database (GLENDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Great Lakes Environmental Database (GLENDA) houses environmental data on a wide variety of constituents in water, biota, sediment, and air in the Great Lakes area.

  3. A case of a ruptured dermoid cyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munemoto, Shigeru; Ishiguro, Shuso; Kimura, Akira; Kogure, Yuzaburou; Wakamatsu, Kouichi; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Morimoto

    1988-01-01

    A case of a ruptured dermoid cyst presenting headaches and dizziness as the only symptoms is presented. A 60-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital after complaining of headaches for 5 years and of dizziness for 1 week. The results of physical and neurological examinations were normal. An X-ray of the skull revealed an intracranial calcification in the left frontal region. CT disclosed calcification and a large low-density area in the left parasellar region and the frontal lobe. The mass consisted of two different areas of density. There were multiple, isolated, low-density spots in the left Sylvian fissure and the interpeduncular cistern. No abnormal enhancement was seen by CECT. Angiograms showed an elevation of the A 1 portion of ACA and a lateral shift of MCA. A left fronto-temporal craniotomy was performed. Chronic or past leptomeningitis was suspected because of the arachnoid-membrane thickening. Multiple fatty globules were present in the left Sylvian fissure. A large, soft, fatty tumor was completely removed. The histologic diagnosis was a dermoid cyst. After this operation, the headaches and dizziness were reduced. It is unclear whether the headaches were caused by the compression of the tumor or by the meningeal irritation of the fatty debris. According to the findings on the arachnoid membrane, however, it seems likely that fatty debris detached from the tumor spilled out intermittently from the cyst into the subarachnoid space, resulting in meningeal irritation. (author)

  4. Rupture detection device for pipeline in reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakoshi, Toshinori; Kanamori, Shigeru; Shirasawa, Hirofumi.

    1991-01-01

    A difference between each of the pressures in a plurality of pipelines disposed in a shroud a reactor container and a pressure outside of the shroud is detected, thereby enabling safety and reliable detection even for simultaneous rapture and leakage of the pipelines. That is, a difference between the pressure of a steam phase outside of the shroud and a pressure in each of a plurality of low pressure injection pipelines in an emergency core cooling system opened to the inside of the shroud in the reactor container is detected by a difference pressure detector for each of them. Then, an average value for each of the pressure difference is determined, which is compared with the difference pressure obtained from each of the detectors in a comparator. Then, if openings should be caused by rupture, leakage or the like in any of the pipelines, the pressure in that pipeline is lowered to a vicinity of an atmospheric pressure and at the vapor phase pressure at the lowest. If the pressure is compared with the average value by the comparator, a negative difference is caused. Accordingly, an alarming unit generates an alarm based on the pressure difference signal, thereby enabling to specify the failed pipeline and provide an announce of the failure. (I.S.)

  5. Stress analysis of a rupture disk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werne, R.W.

    1975-04-01

    The results of an elastic stress analysis of the rupture disk for an internal pressure of 45.5 MPa (6600 psi) indicate that the maximum von Mises stresses occur in the membrane and are on the order of 483 to 690 MPa (70,000 psi). This far exceeds the yield of the membrane material of 207 MPa (30,000 psi). These high stresses are expected since the membrane is designed to burst at that design pressure. The von Mises stresses in the rest of the body are less than 138 MPa (20,000 psi). An elastic-plastic analysis of the membrane alone subjected to the 45.5 MPa (6600 psi) pressure indicates that it becomes plastically unstable, i.e., it continues to deform under constant load. A second load case with a constant 6.9 MPa (1000 psi) pressure throughout the entire body (i.e., after release of pressure by burst of the membrane) was analyzed. The results indicate that the elastic von Mises stresses are less than 26.7 MPa (3880 psi) throughout the body. (U.S.)

  6. The stress rupture properties of austenitic steel weld metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, D.S.

    Elevated temperature stress rupture data on Mo containing and Mo free austenitic weld metals have been collected from French, Dutch, German and UK sources and the results analysed. The stress rupture strength of Mo containing weld metal is significantly higher than that of Mo free weld metal. At 10,000h the rupture strength of Mo containing weld metal is higher than that of Type 316 steel whereas the Mo free weld metal is about 20% lower than that of Type 304 steel. Austenitic weld metal can give low stress rupture ductility values. It is concluded that there are insufficient data to permit reliable extrapolations to long times and it is recommended that long term tests are performed to overcome this situation

  7. Spontaneous forniceal rupture: Can it be treated conservatively?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Gaber Al-mujalhem

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Spontaneous forniceal rupture is more likely to occur with smaller distal ureteric stones. Conservative management is a valid option in non-complicated cases. Intervention should be reserved to complicated cases or cases with sizable urinoma.

  8. Plantar fascia rupture in a professional soccer player.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzue, Naoto; Iwame, Toshiyuki; Kato, Kenji; Takao, Shoichiro; Tateishi, Tomohiko; Takeda, Yoshitsugu; Hamada, Daisuke; Goto, Tomohiro; Takata, Yoichiro; Matsuura, Tetsuya; Sairyo, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of a 29-year-old male professional soccer player who presented with symptoms of plantar fasciitis. His symptoms occurred with no remarkable triggers and gradually worsened despite conservative treatments including taping, use of insoles, and physical therapy. Local corticosteroid injection was given twice as a further intervention, but his plantar fascia partially ruptured 49 days after the second injection. He was treated conservatively with platelet-rich plasma, and magnetic resonance imaging showed regenerative change of the ruptured fascia. Five months after the rupture, he returned to his original level of training. If professional athletes find it difficult to refrain from athletic activity, as in the present case, the risk of rupture due to corticosteroid injection should not be overlooked.

  9. Rotator cuff ruptures of the shoulder joint, sonography - arthrography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triebel, H.J.; Wening, V.; Witte, G.; Hamburg Univ.

    1986-01-01

    47 patients suspected of rutpure of the rotator cuff were sonographed and arthrographed. Rupture of the rotator cuff was diagnosed in 12 cases, both diagnostic methods yielding the same result. In 29 patients sonography and arthrography did not reveal any abnormal findings. Six ruptures evident in sonography were not confirmed by arthrography and were considered false positive. Direct pointers towards rupture of the cuff would be: echoless defects, cuff cannot be visualised fully or in part and irregularities of movement during dynamic examination. Echoless 'cystic' areas in the periarticular soft parts must be considered an indirect pointer. Echorich focal findings in the echopoor cuff represent a differential diagnostic problem and we cannot give a final assessment as yet. Shoulder sonography is justified as a screening method in suspicion of rotator cuff rupture before initiating arthrography. If sonography reveals no abnormal findings, shoulder arthrography need not be performed. (orig.) [de

  10. Induced seismicity provides insight into why earthquake ruptures stop

    KAUST Repository

    Galis, Martin; Ampuero, Jean Paul; Mai, Paul Martin; Cappa, Fré dé ric

    2017-01-01

    the perturbed area and distinguishes self-arrested from runaway ruptures. We develop a theoretical scaling relation between the largest magnitude of self-arrested earthquakes and the injected volume and find it consistent with observed maximum magnitudes

  11. Multiple Tophaceous Gout of Hand with Extensor Tendon Rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruki Tobimatsu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A 45-year-old man presented with painless subcutaneous masses bilaterally on his hands and loss of motion or contracture of the fingers. Initially, drug therapy to reduce the serum uric acid was administered and was expected to reduce the tophi. However, during observation at the clinic, spontaneous rupture of an extensor tendon occurred, and surgical repair of the tendon and resection of the masses were performed. Surgical exploration of the right hand showed hypertrophic white-colored crystal deposits that both surrounded and invaded the extensor digitorum communis of the index finger, which was ruptured. Histopathologic examination of the specimen demonstrated findings consistent with gouty tophi. Tophaceous gout can induce a rupture of tendons during clinical observation, and surgical resection of the tophi might be needed to prevent ruptures.

  12. A rare knee extensor mechanism injury: Vastus intermedius tendon rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin Cetinkaya

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: We report the first case of isolated rupture of the vastus intermedius tendon in the literature and we claim that disorder may be succesfully treated with conservative treatment and adequate physiotheraphy.

  13. Pancreatic rupture in four cats with high-rise syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liehmann, Lea M; Dörner, Judith; Hittmair, Katharina M; Schwendenwein, Ilse; Reifinger, Martin; Dupré, Gilles

    2012-02-01

    Pancreatic trauma and rupture are rare after feline high-rise syndrome; however, should it happen, pancreatic enzymes will leak into the abdominal cavity and may cause pancreatic autodigestion and fatty tissue saponification. If not diagnosed and treated, it can ultimately lead to multiorgan failure and death. In this case series, 700 records of high-rise syndrome cats that presented between April 2001 and May 2006 were analysed, and four cats with pancreatic rupture were identified. Clinical signs, diagnosis using ultrasonography and lipase activity in blood and abdominal effusion, and treatment modalities are reported. Three cats underwent surgical abdominal exploration, one cat was euthanased. Rupture of the left pancreatic limb was confirmed in all cases. Two of the operated cats survived to date. High-rise syndrome can lead to abdominal trauma, including pancreatic rupture. A prompt diagnosis and surgical treatment should be considered.

  14. Consistent creep and rupture properties for creep-fatigue evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, C.C.

    1978-01-01

    The currently accepted practice of using inconsistent representations of creep and rupture behaviors in the prediction of creep-fatigue life is shown to introduce a factor of safety beyond that specified in current ASME Code design rules for 304 stainless steel Class 1 nuclear components. Accurate predictions of creep-fatigue life for uniaxial tests on a given heat of material are obtained by using creep and rupture properties for that same heat of material. The use of a consistent representation of creep and rupture properties for a mininum strength heat is also shown to provide adequate predictions. The viability of using consistent properties (either actual or those of a minimum heat) to predict creep-fatigue life thus identifies significant design uses for the results of characterization tests and improved creep and rupture correlations

  15. Indigenous development of rupture discs for FBTR (Paper No. 028)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chetal, S.C.; Raju, Chander; Anandkumar, V.; Seetharaman, V.

    1987-02-01

    Rupture discs are required as a safety device for protecting the secondary sodium circuit and its components against high pressure surges due to accidental water-steam leaks in sodium heated steam generator and the consequent sodium water reaction. For identical reasons, rupture discs are also required on the vessels used for decontamination of sodium components. As an import substitution of the costly items for the FBTR Project, development of the rupture disc assemblies has been in progress at Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam. Reverse buckling knife blade concept with stainless steel disc has been taken up for development. Hydroforming process without any die has been selected for disc fabrication. One rupture disc assembly required for steam generator has been tested in sodium satisfactorily. (author). 4 tables, 5 figs

  16. Consistent creep and rupture properties for creep-fatigue evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, C.C.

    1979-01-01

    The currently accepted practice of using inconsistent representations of creep and rupture behaviors in the prediction of creep-fatigue life is shown to introduce a factor of safety beyond that specified in current ASME Code design rules for 304 stainless steel Class 1 nuclear components. Accurate predictions of creep-fatigue life for uniaxial tests on a given heat of material are obtained by using creep and rupture properties for that same heat of material. The use of a consistent representation of creep and rupture properties for a minimum strength heat is also shown to provide reasonable predictions. The viability of using consistent properties (either actual or those of a minimum strength heat) to predict creep-fatigue life thus identifies significant design uses for the results of characterization tests and improved creep and rupture correlations. 12 refs

  17. Multi-Canister overpack necessity of the rupture disk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SMITH, K.E.

    1998-01-01

    The Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) rupture disk precludes the MCO from pressurization above the design limit during transport from the K Basins to the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility and prior to connection of the CVD process piping. Removal of the rupture disk from the MCO design would: (a) result in unacceptable dose consequences in the event a thermal runaway accident occurred; (b) increase residual risk; and (c) remove a degree of specificity from the dose calculations. The potential cost savings of removing the rupture disk from the MCO design is offset by the cost of design modifications, changes to hazard analyses and safety analyses, and changes to existing documentation. Retaining the rupture disk mitigates the consequences of MCO overpressurization, and considering the overall economic impacts to the SNF Project, is the most cost effective approach

  18. A support-operator method for 3-D rupture dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Geoffrey P.; Day, Steven M.; Minster, Jean-Bernard

    2009-06-01

    We present a numerical method to simulate spontaneous shear crack propagation within a heterogeneous, 3-D, viscoelastic medium. Wave motions are computed on a logically rectangular hexahedral mesh, using the generalized finite-difference method of Support Operators (SOM). This approach enables modelling of non-planar surfaces and non-planar fault ruptures. Our implementation, the Support Operator Rupture Dynamics (SORD) code, is highly scalable, enabling large-scale, multiprocessors calculations. The fault surface is modelled by coupled double nodes, where rupture occurs as dictated by the local stress conditions and a frictional failure law. The method successfully performs test problems developed for the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC)/U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) dynamic earthquake rupture code validation exercise, showing good agreement with semi-analytical boundary integral method results. We undertake further dynamic rupture tests to quantify numerical errors introduced by shear deformations to the hexahedral mesh. We generate a family of meshes distorted by simple shearing, in the along-strike direction, up to a maximum of 73°. For SCEC/USGS validation problem number 3, grid-induced errors increase with mesh shear angle, with the logarithm of error approximately proportional to angle over the range tested. At 73°, rms misfits are about 10 per cent for peak slip rate, and 0.5 per cent for both rupture time and total slip, indicating that the method (which, up to now, we have applied mainly to near-vertical strike-slip faulting) is also capable of handling geometries appropriate to low-angle surface-rupturing thrust earthquakes. Additionally, we demonstrate non-planar rupture effects, by modifying the test geometry to include, respectively, cylindrical curvature and sharp kinks.

  19. Ultrasound Diagnosis of Bilateral Quadriceps Tendon Rupture After Statin Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesselroade, Ryan D

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture is a rare injury. We report the case of bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture sustained with minimal force while refereeing a football game. The injury was suspected to be associated with statin use as the patient had no other identifiable risk factors.The diagnosis was confirmed using bedside ultrasound. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(4:306-309.

  20. Ultrasound, CT and MRI of ruptured and disseminated hydatid cysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinner, W.N. von (King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). Department of Radiology)

    Three cases of echinococcus granulosus with rupture of hydatid cysts and widespread abdominal, pelvic of pleural dissemination are described. Ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allowed recognition of ruptured hydatid cysts. This assisted to come to an appropriate therapy and exclusion or confirmation of hydatid cysts elsewhere in the body. Ultrasound, CT and MRI are also important for follow-up, evaluation of therapeutic response and/or early diagnosis of recurrence. (author). 22 refs.; 3 figs.

  1. Ultrasound, CT and MRI of ruptured and disseminated hydatid cysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinner, W.N. von

    1990-01-01

    Three cases of echinococcus granulosus with rupture of hydatid cysts and widespread abdominal, pelvic of pleural dissemination are described. Ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allowed recognition of ruptured hydatid cysts. This assisted to come to an appropriate therapy and exclusion or confirmation of hydatid cysts elsewhere in the body. Ultrasound, CT and MRI are also important for follow-up, evaluation of therapeutic response and/or early diagnosis of recurrence. (author). 22 refs.; 3 figs

  2. Delayed ventricular septal rupture complicating acute inferior wall myocardial infarction

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Jae Hyung; Sattiraju, Srinivasan; Mehta, Sanjay; Missov, Emil

    2013-01-01

    Background Ventricular septal rupture is a potentially fatal complication of acute myocardial infarction. Its incidence has declined with modern reperfusion therapy. In the era of percutaneous coronary interventions, it occurs a median of 18?24?hours after myocardial infarction and is most commonly associated with anterior myocardial infarction. We present a case of delayed ventricular septal rupture complicating acute inferior wall myocardial infarction. Case presentation A 53-year-old Cauca...

  3. Reliability assessment of creep rupture life for Gr. 91 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Woo-Gon; Park, Jae-Young; Kim, Seon-Jin; Jang, Jinsung

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Statistical analysis of a number of creep rupture data based on Z parameter. • Determination of the constant C in LM parameter and long-term creep life prediction. • Generation of random variables for Z s and Z cr by Monte-Carlo simulation in a SCRI model. • Examples for design application were reasonably drawn from the viewpoints of reliability. - Abstract: This paper presents reliability assessment of the long-term creep life of Gr. 91 steel, which is a major structural material for high temperature structural components of Generation-IV reactor systems. A number of creep rupture data for Gr. 91 steel were collected through literature surveys, and the long-term creep life was predicted by Larson–Miller parameter. A “Z parameter” method was used to describe the magnitude of the deviation of the creep rupture data to a master curve. A “Service Condition-creep Rupture property Interference (SCRI) model” based on the Z parameter was used to simultaneously consider the scattering of the creep rupture data of materials and the fluctuations of service conditions in reliability assessment. A statistical analysis of the creep rupture data was conducted by the Z parameter. To carry out the SCRI model, a number of random variables for Z s describing service conditions and Z cr describing the dispersion of the creep rupture data were generated using a Monte-Carlo simulation technique. As examples for application, the creep rupture life under a certain service conditions of Gr. 91 steel was reasonably drawn from the viewpoints of reliability

  4. Bifurcation of rupture path by linear and cubic damping force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis L. C., C.; Chew X., Y.; Lee Y., C.

    2014-06-01

    Bifurcation of rupture path is studied for the effect of linear and cubic damping. Momentum equation with Rayleigh factor was transformed into ordinary differential form. Bernoulli differential equation was obtained and solved by the separation of variables. Analytical or exact solutions yielded the bifurcation was visible at imaginary part when the wave was non dispersive. For the dispersive wave, bifurcation of rupture path was invisible.

  5. MICROBIOLOGICAL STUDY ON ENDOCERVIX IN PRETERM PREMATURE RUPTURE OF MEMBRANE

    OpenAIRE

    Elizebeth V. Issac; Sareena Gilvaz; Neetha B. George

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Preterm premature rupture of membrane (PPROM) is defined as premature rupture of membrane before 37 completed weeks. It is associated with 40% preterm deliveries and results in significant perinatal mortality and morbidity. Present study is an attempt to find the association between infection and PPROM. MATERIALS AND METHODS 100 pregnant women between 29 weeks and 34 weeks of gestation who were admitted in our labour room during a period from November 2012 to Nove...

  6. 3D Dynamic Rupture Simulations along Dipping Faults, with a focus on the Wasatch Fault Zone, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withers, K.; Moschetti, M. P.

    2017-12-01

    We study dynamic rupture and ground motion from dip-slip faults in regions that have high-seismic hazard, such as the Wasatch fault zone, Utah. Previous numerical simulations have modeled deterministic ground motion along segments of this fault in the heavily populated regions near Salt Lake City but were restricted to low frequencies ( 1 Hz). We seek to better understand the rupture process and assess broadband ground motions and variability from the Wasatch Fault Zone by extending deterministic ground motion prediction to higher frequencies (up to 5 Hz). We perform simulations along a dipping normal fault (40 x 20 km along strike and width, respectively) with characteristics derived from geologic observations to generate a suite of ruptures > Mw 6.5. This approach utilizes dynamic simulations (fully physics-based models, where the initial stress drop and friction law are imposed) using a summation by parts (SBP) method. The simulations include rough-fault topography following a self-similar fractal distribution (over length scales from 100 m to the size of the fault) in addition to off-fault plasticity. Energy losses from heat and other mechanisms, modeled as anelastic attenuation, are also included, as well as free-surface topography, which can significantly affect ground motion patterns. We compare the effect of material structure and both rate and state and slip-weakening friction laws have on rupture propagation. The simulations show reduced slip and moment release in the near surface with the inclusion of plasticity, better agreeing with observations of shallow slip deficit. Long-wavelength fault geometry imparts a non-uniform stress distribution along both dip and strike, influencing the preferred rupture direction and hypocenter location, potentially important for seismic hazard estimation.

  7. Root growth during molar eruption in extant great apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Jay; Dean, Christopher; Ross, Sasha

    2009-01-01

    While there is gradually accumulating knowledge about molar crown formation and the timing of molar eruption in extant great apes, very little is known about root formation during the eruption process. We measured mandibular first and second molar root lengths in extant great ape osteological specimens that died while either the first or second molars were in the process of erupting. For most specimens, teeth were removed so that root lengths could be measured directly. When this was not possible, roots were measured radiographically. We were particularly interested in the variation in the lengths of first molar roots near the point of gingival emergence, so specimens were divided into early, middle and late phases of eruption based on the number of cusps that showed protein staining, with one or two cusps stained equated with immediate post-gingival emergence. For first molars at this stage, Gorilla has the longest roots, followed by Pongo and Pan. Variation in first molar mesial root lengths at this stage in Gorilla and Pan, which comprise the largest samples, is relatively low and represents no more than a few months of growth in both taxa. Knowledge of root length at first molar emergence permits an assessment of the contribution of root growth toward differences between great apes and humans in the age at first molar emergence. Root growth makes up a greater percentage of the time between birth and first molar emergence in humans than it does in any of the great apes. Copyright (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. In-reactor creep rupture of 20% cold-worked AISI 316 stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovell, A.J.; Chin, B.A.; Gilbert, E.R.

    1981-01-01

    Results of an experiment designed to measure in-reactor stress-to-rupture properties of 20% cold-worked AISI 316 stainless steel are reported. The in-reactor rupture data are compared with postirradiation and unirradiated test results. In-reactor rupture lives were found to exceed rupture predictions of postirradiation tests. This longer in-reactor rupture life is attributed to dynamic point defect generation which is absent during postirradiation testing. The in-reactor stress-to-rupture properties are shown to be equal to or greater than the unirradiated material stress-to-rupture properties for times up to 7000 h. (author)

  9. Hemoperitoneum from corpus luteum rupture in patients with aplastic anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huaquan; Guo, Lifang; Shao, Zonghong

    2015-01-01

    Aplastic anemia is a rare hematopoietic stem-cell disorder that results in pancytopenia and hypocellular bone marrow. Women with aplastic anemia usually are at increased risk of corpus luteum rupture due to thrombocytopenia and infection. Here we report two cases had hemoperitoneum from corpus luteum rupture in patients with aplastic anemia in our center. Case 1 involved two episodes of hemoperitoneum resulting from rupture of the corpus luteum in a 23-year-old unmarried female with severe aplastic anemia. This patient was managed conservatively with platelet and packed red cell transfusion. Case 2 involved two episodes of hemoperitoneum resulting from rupture of the corpus luteum in a 33-year-old married patient with aplastic anemia. Emergency laparoscopy revealed massive hemoperitoneum. Bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy were performed successively with platelet and packed red cell transfusion. Hemoperitoneum resulting from a ruptured corpus luteum is a life-threatening condition in patients with aplastic anemia. Prompt and appropriate evaluation of corpus luteum rupture and emergent therapy are needed.

  10. Retrospective Review of Pectoralis Major Ruptures in Rodeo Steer Wrestlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breda H. F. Lau

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Pectoralis major tendon ruptures have been reported in the literature as occupational injuries, accidental injuries, and sporting activities. Few cases have been reported with respect to rodeo activities. Purpose. To describe a series of PM tendon ruptures in professional steer wrestlers. Study Design. Case series, level of evidence, 4. Methods. A retrospective analysis of PM ruptures in a steer wrestling cohort was performed. Injury data between 1992 and 2008 were reviewed using medical records from the University of Calgary Sport Medicine Center. Results. Nine cases of pectoralis major ruptures in professional steer wrestlers were identified. Injuries occurred during the throwing phase of the steer or while breaking a fall. All athletes reported unexpected or abnormal behavior of the steer that contributed to the mechanism of injury. Seven cases were surgically repaired, while two cases opted for nonsurgical intervention. Eight cases reported successful return to competition following the injury. Conclusion. Steer wrestlers represent a unique cohort of PM rupture case studies. Steer wrestling is a demanding sport that involves throwing maneuvers that may predispose the muscle to rupture. All cases demonstrated good functional outcomes regardless of surgical or non-surgical treatment.

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging and computed radiography in Achilles tendon rupture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenaga, Tateo; Hachiya, Junichi; Miyasaka, Yasuo

    1988-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Computed Radiography (CR) were performed in 15 patients with complete Achilles tendon rupture who were treated conservatively without surgery. MRI was obtained using Toshiba MRT 50 A superconductive machine, operaing at 0.5 Tesla. CR was performed by CR-101, Fuji Medical System. In fresh cases, ruptured tendons showed intermediate signal intensity on T1-weighted images and high intensity on T2-weighted images. Thickening of the tendon was observed in all cases except in very acute stage. Configuration of thickend tendons tends to be dumbbell shape in subacute stage and fusiform in chronic stage of more than six months after the initial trauma. In cases which showed high signal intensity at the ruptured area both on T1 and T2 weighted images, migration of fat into the sapces between the ruptured tendons was considered to be the major source of increased signal intensity. Computed radiography showed thickening of the tendon, blurring of anterior margin of the tendon, and decreased translucency of pre-Achilles fat pad. However, MRI better demonstrated the details of ruptured tendons when compared to CR, and thought to be an usefull way of following up the healing process of the ruptured tendon to facilitate more reasonable judgement of the time of removing plaster casts and stating exercise. (author)

  12. Steam generator tube rupture effects on a LOCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaChance, J.L.

    1979-01-01

    A problem currently experienced in commercial operating pressurized water reactors (PWR) in the United States is the degradation of steam generator tubes. Safety questions have arisen concerning the effect of these degraded tubes rupturing during a postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). To determine the effect of a small number of tube ruptures on the behavior of a large PWR during a postulated LOCA, a series of computer simulations was performed. The primary concern of the study was to determine whether a small number (10 or less of steam generator tubes rupturing at the beginning surface temperatures. Additional reflood analyses were performed to determine the system behavior when from 10 to 60 tubes rupture at the beginning of core reflood. The FLOOD4 code was selected as being the most applicable code for use in this study after an extensive analysis of the capabilities of existing codes to perform simulations of a LOCA with concurrent steam generator tube ruptures. The results of the study indicate that the rupturing of 10 or less steam generator tubes in any of the steam generators during a 200% cold leg break will not result in a significant increase in the peak cladding temperature. However, because of the vaporization of the steam generator secondary water in the primary side of the steam generator, a significant increase in the core pressure occurs which retards the reflooding process

  13. Pancreatic Pseudocyst Ruptured due to Acute Intracystic Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunishige Okamura

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Rupture of pancreatic pseudocyst is one of the rare complications and usually results in high mortality. The present case was a rupture of pancreatic pseudocyst that could be treated by surgical intervention. A 74-year-old man developed abdominal pain, vomiting, and diarrhea, and he was diagnosed with cholecystitis and pneumonia. Three days later, acute pancreatitis occurred and computed tomography (CT showed slight hemorrhage in the cyst of the pancreatic tail. After another 10 days, CT showed pancreatic cyst ruptured due to intracystic hemorrhage. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography revealed leakage of contrast agent from pancreatic tail cyst to enclosed abdominal cavity. His left hypochondrial pain was increasing, and CT showed rupture of the cyst of the pancreatic tail into the peritoneal cavity was increased in 10 days. CT showed also two left renal tumors. Therefore we performed distal pancreatectomy with concomitant resection of transverse colon and left kidney. We histopathologically diagnosed pancreatic pseudocyst ruptured due to intracystic hemorrhage and renal cell carcinoma. Despite postoperative paralytic ileus and fluid collection at pancreatic stump, they improved by conservative management and he could be discharged on postoperative day 29. He has achieved relapse-free survival for 6 months postoperatively. The mortality of pancreatic pseudocyst rupture is very high if some effective medical interventions cannot be performed. It should be necessary to plan appropriate treatment strategy depending on each patient.

  14. Location of Ruptured Bullae in Secondary Spontaneous Pneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinseok Choi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The surgical treatment of secondary spontaneous pneumothorax (SSP can be complicated by fragile lung parenchyma. The preoperative prediction of air leakage could help prevent intraoperative lung in-jury during manipulation of the lung. Common sites of bulla development and ruptured bullae were inves-tigated based on computed tomography (CT and intraoperative findings. Methods: The study enrolled 208 patients with SSP who underwent air leak control through video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS. We retrospectively reviewed the sites of bulla development on preoperative CT and the rupture sites during VATS. Results: Of the 135 cases of right-sided SSP, the most common rupture site was the apical segment (31.9%, followed by the azygoesophageal recess (27.4%. Of the 75 cases on the left side, the most com-mon rupture site was the apical segment (24.0%, followed by the anterior basal segment (17.3%. Conclusion: The azygoesophageal recess and parenchyma along the cardiac border were common sites of bul-la development and rupture. Studies of respiratory lung motion to measure the pleural pressure at the lung surface could help to determine the relationship between cardiogenic and diaphragmatic movement and bulla formation or rupture.

  15. Nontraumatic spontaneous rupture of the kidney : etiology and CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heo, Tae Haeng; Jeon, Hae Jeong; Shin, Hyun Joon; Kim, Bo Hyun; Cho, Kyoung Sik; Kim, Young Hwa; Kim, Seung Hyup; Park, Churl Min

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of CT scanning in determining the etiology of spontaneous rupture of the kidney We retrospectively analyzed the CT findings of spontaneous rupture of the kidney in eleven patients, Four were male and seven were female, and they were aged between 20 and 71 (mean, 46.6) years. Both pre- and post-contrast enhanced CT scanning was performed in all patients. Spontaneous renal rupture was induced in seven cases by neoplasms (three angiomyolipomas, three renal cell carcinomas, and one metastatic choriocarcinoma), in three cases by infection or inflammation (acute and chronic pyelonephritis, and renal abscess), and in one, by renal cyst. Common CT findings of rupture of the kidney were the accumulation of high density fluid in the perirenal and anterior pararenal space, and inhomogeneous irregular low density of renal parenchyma and the rupture site. Angiomyolipoma showed fat and an angiomatous component in the lesion, while acute and chronic pyelonephrities revealed thinning of the renal parenchyma and an irregular renal outline. Renal cell carcinoma showed a dense soft tissue mass in the parenchyma. Well-defined, round low-density lesions were noted in the case of renal cyst and renal abscess. CT is very useful in diagnosing and determining the etiology of non-traumatic spontaneous rupture of the kidney and plays an important role in the evaluation of emergency cases

  16. [Prediction of the latency period by cervical ultrasonography in premature rupture of the membranes before term].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, R; Morille, C; Drieux, L; Bige, V; Leymarie, F; Quereux, C

    2002-11-01

    To assess the value of ultrasonographic measurement of cervical length for predicting the duration of the latency period from admission to delivery in women with preterm premature rupture of the membranes (PROM). Prospective study in 88 women with preterm PROM before 34 weeks of amenorrhea. The median gestational age at admission was of 30.1 weeks. The clinical management included: no digital examination of the uterine cervix, antenatal corticosteroids, antibiotics (amoxicillin & clavulanic acid) for 7 days, and hoding back until 34 weeks. Cervical length at admission was determined with transvaginal ultrasonography. The duration of the latency period was studied in relation with cervical length, serum C-reactive protein (CRP) level and white blood cell (WBC) count at admission. The median latency period was longer in women with a cervical length > or = 25 mm (10 vs 5 days; p = 0.04), but this was not associated with a significant increase in birth weight. The median latency period was also longer in women with CRP < 20 mg/l (10 vs 3 days; p < 0.001) and this was associated with a significant increase in birth weight (1716 +/- 549 vs 1201 +/- 485 g; p < 0.01). Moreover, increased CRP levels were more frequent in women with a cervical length < 25 mm, and cervical length was no more predictive of the duration of the latency period in the subgroup of women with CRP < 20 mg/l and WBC < 20,000 cells/mm3. In women with preterm PROM, the latency period from admission to delivery is shorter when cervical length is < 25 mm. However, the clinical value of transvaginal ultrasonography is limited in comparison with serum CRP.

  17. Earthquake cycle modeling of multi-segmented faults: dynamic rupture and ground motion simulation of the 1992 Mw 7.3 Landers earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petukhin, A.; Galvez, P.; Somerville, P.; Ampuero, J. P.

    2017-12-01

    We perform earthquake cycle simulations to study the characteristics of source scaling relations and strong ground motions and in multi-segmented fault ruptures. For earthquake cycle modeling, a quasi-dynamic solver (QDYN, Luo et al, 2016) is used to nucleate events and the fully dynamic solver (SPECFEM3D, Galvez et al., 2014, 2016) is used to simulate earthquake ruptures. The Mw 7.3 Landers earthquake has been chosen as a target earthquake to validate our methodology. The SCEC fault geometry for the three-segmented Landers rupture is included and extended at both ends to a total length of 200 km. We followed the 2-D spatial correlated Dc distributions based on Hillers et. al. (2007) that associates Dc distribution with different degrees of fault maturity. The fault maturity is related to the variability of Dc on a microscopic scale. Large variations of Dc represents immature faults and lower variations of Dc represents mature faults. Moreover we impose a taper (a-b) at the fault edges and limit the fault depth to 15 km. Using these settings, earthquake cycle simulations are performed to nucleate seismic events on different sections of the fault, and dynamic rupture modeling is used to propagate the ruptures. The fault segmentation brings complexity into the rupture process. For instance, the change of strike between fault segments enhances strong variations of stress. In fact, Oglesby and Mai (2012) show the normal stress varies from positive (clamping) to negative (unclamping) between fault segments, which leads to favorable or unfavorable conditions for rupture growth. To replicate these complexities and the effect of fault segmentation in the rupture process, we perform earthquake cycles with dynamic rupture modeling and generate events similar to the Mw 7.3 Landers earthquake. We extract the asperities of these events and analyze the scaling relations between rupture area, average slip and combined area of asperities versus moment magnitude. Finally, the

  18. Long-term functional outcome of bilateral spontaneous and simultaneous Achilles tendon ruptures.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ellanti, Prasad

    2012-10-01

    Bilateral simultaneous ruptures are rare comprising less than 1% of all Achilles tendon ruptures. Risk factors for bilateral ruptures include chronic diseases and medications such as corticosteroids and fluoroquinolones. There is little in the literature on the long-term functional outcome of bilateral Achilles tendon ruptures. This article present a series of 3 cases of simultaneous and spontaneous bilateral Achilles tendon ruptures with a minimum of 5-year follow up suggesting a good functional outcome.

  19. CATHENA simulations of steam generator tube rupture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul-Razzak, A.; Lin, M.R.; Wright, A.C.D.

    1997-01-01

    The CATHENA thermalhydraulic computer code was used to simulate various scenarios following a CANDU 9 steam generator tube rupture (SGTR) event. The analysis included cases with class IV power and emergency core cooling system (ECCS) available and other cases with subsequent loss of class IV power (LCIVP) or impairment of ECCS injection. Two main approaches were followed in the analysis of each case. In the first approach, D 2 O feed was credited to provide conservative data for input to radionuclide release and dose calculations. Also operator actions are credited. The other approach is designed to give conservative predictions with respect to the acceptance criteria of fuel and fuel channel integrity and to prove that in case of such event, the operator will have enough time to mitigate the consequences. This is done by not crediting makeup for the inventory loss and relying on the automatic operation of safety systems. The analysis of the cases of the first approach provided the required data for radionuclide release and dose calculations and gave a good insight into the required sequence of operator timely actions to mitigate the consequences of such event. On the other hand, the cases of the second approach confirmed compliance with regulatory requirements for pressure tube and fuel integrity. The runs with ECCS available, showed the ECCS injection is effective in filling and cooling the core and that regulatory requirement's for fuel and channel integrity are met. In the event of ECCS impairment, the earliest indication of late fuel heat-up is late enough to provide the operator with an adequate time to act in mitigating the consequences of this event. (author)

  20. Prediction of imminent preterm delivery in women with preterm premature rupture of membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyo Hoon; Lee, Sung Youn; Kim, Shi Nae; Jeong, Eun Ha; Oh, Kyung Joon; Ryu, Aeli

    2011-11-16

    To develop a model based on non-invasive clinical parameters to predict the probability of imminent preterm delivery (delivery within 48 h) in women with preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM), and to determine if additional invasive test results improve the prediction of imminent delivery based on the non-invasive model. Transvaginal ultrasonographic assessment of cervical length was performed and maternal serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell (WBC) count were determined immediately after amniocentesis in 102 consecutive women with PPROM at 23-33+6 weeks. Amniotic fluid (AF) obtained by amniocentesis was cultured and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels and WBC counts were determined. Serum CRP, cervical length, and gestational age were chosen for the non-invasive model (model 1), which has an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.804. When adding AF IL-6 as an invasive marker to the non-invasive model, serum CRP was excluded from the final model (model 2) as not significant, whereas AF IL-6, cervical length, and gestational age remained in model 2. No significant difference in AUC was found between models 1 and 2. The non-invasive model based on cervical length, gestational age, and serum CRP is highly predictive of imminent delivery in women with PPROM. However, invasive test results did not add predictive information to the non-invasive model in this setting.

  1. Comparison between smaller ruptured intracranial aneurysm and larger un-ruptured intracranial aneurysm: gene expression profile analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Li, Haowen; Yue, Haiyan; Wang, Wen; Yu, Lanbing; ShuoWang; Cao, Yong; Zhao, Jizong

    2017-07-01

    As it grows in size, an intracranial aneurysm (IA) is prone to rupture. In this study, we compared two extreme groups of IAs, ruptured IAs (RIAs) smaller than 10 mm and un-ruptured IAs (UIAs) larger than 10 mm, to investigate the genes involved in the facilitation and prevention of IA rupture. The aneurismal walls of 6 smaller saccular RIAs (size smaller than 10 mm), 6 larger saccular UIAs (size larger than 10 mm) and 12 paired control arteries were obtained during surgery. The transcription profiles of these samples were studied by microarray analysis. RT-qPCR was used to confirm the expression of the genes of interest. In addition, functional group analysis of the differentially expressed genes was performed. Between smaller RIAs and larger UIAs, 101 genes and 179 genes were significantly over-expressed, respectively. In addition, functional group analysis demonstrated that the up-regulated genes in smaller RIAs mainly participated in the cellular response to metal ions and inorganic substances, while most of the up-regulated genes in larger UIAs were involved in inflammation and extracellular matrix (ECM) organization. Moreover, compared with control arteries, inflammation was up-regulated and muscle-related biological processes were down-regulated in both smaller RIAs and larger UIAs. The genes involved in the cellular response to metal ions and inorganic substances may facilitate the rupture of IAs. In addition, the healing process, involving inflammation and ECM organization, may protect IAs from rupture.

  2. Preliminary analysis of the rupture process of 11 March 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilotte, J.; Satriano, C.; Dionicio, V.; Lancieri, M.; Bernard, P.

    2011-12-01

    The great 11 March 2011 Off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku earthquake (Mw 9.1) ruptured a ~ 200 km wide mega-thrust fault, with average displacement of ~15-20 m. The earthquake triggered a large devastating tsunami as well as strong ground motion along the east Honshu coastline. Seismic activity in this area is characterized by a number of large earthquakes with Mw ~7.2-7.9 along the down-dip portion of the mega-thrust seaward of Miyagi prefecture, with only few events of magnitude greater than 8 in last hundred years. This region was also recognized to have had a large tsunami earthquake in 869 with a source area estimated further offshore. The rupture process of the Tohoku-Oki earthquake is investigated here combining teleseismic short period P-waves back-projection imaging and broadband P-wave finite fault inversions, together with a preliminary broadband analysis of the Kik-net strong motion recordings across Japan. The main features of the Tohoku-Oki rupture process imaged by the short period (1s) back-projection are: an initial 70-80s radiation phase eastward of the epicenter, with a slow (~1-1.5 km/s) along-dip rupture propagation; a short radiation phase northward of the epicenter; and ultimately a southward radiation phase with a relatively faster rupture propagation. These features are robust and consistent using both the North American and European arrays configurations. At lower periods, the back-projection analysis reveals a shift in the radiation centroid seaward toward the trench. In contrast, the broadband (1-200s) P-waves finite fault inversion exhibits a quite complementary image with a first long period radiation phase up-dip of the epicenter followed by down-dip late southwestward radiation phase that remains however poorly constraint. The robustness and the resolution of both the back-projection and the finite fault inversion analysis are carefully assessed through bootstrap analysis, and the analysis of some of the main foreshocks and aftershocks

  3. Coherence of Mach fronts during heterogeneous supershear earthquake rupture propagation: Simulations and comparison with observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizzarri, A.; Dunham, Eric M.; Spudich, P.

    2010-01-01

    We study how heterogeneous rupture propagation affects the coherence of shear and Rayleigh Mach wavefronts radiated by supershear earthquakes. We address this question using numerical simulations of ruptures on a planar, vertical strike-slip fault embedded in a three-dimensional, homogeneous, linear elastic half-space. Ruptures propagate spontaneously in accordance with a linear slip-weakening friction law through both homogeneous and heterogeneous initial shear stress fields. In the 3-D homogeneous case, rupture fronts are curved owing to interactions with the free surface and the finite fault width; however, this curvature does not greatly diminish the coherence of Mach fronts relative to cases in which the rupture front is constrained to be straight, as studied by Dunham and Bhat (2008a). Introducing heterogeneity in the initial shear stress distribution causes ruptures to propagate at speeds that locally fluctuate above and below the shear wave speed. Calculations of the Fourier amplitude spectra (FAS) of ground velocity time histories corroborate the kinematic results of Bizzarri and Spudich (2008a): (1) The ground motion of a supershear rupture is richer in high frequency with respect to a subshear one. (2) When a Mach pulse is present, its high frequency content overwhelms that arising from stress heterogeneity. Present numerical experiments indicate that a Mach pulse causes approximately an ω−1.7 high frequency falloff in the FAS of ground displacement. Moreover, within the context of the employed representation of heterogeneities and over the range of parameter space that is accessible with current computational resources, our simulations suggest that while heterogeneities reduce peak ground velocity and diminish the coherence of the Mach fronts, ground motion at stations experiencing Mach pulses should be richer in high frequencies compared to stations without Mach pulses. In contrast to the foregoing theoretical results, we find no average elevation

  4. Vortex dynamics in ruptured and unruptured intracranial aneurysms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trylesinski, Gabriel

    Intracranial aneurysms (IAs) are a potentially devastating pathological dilation of brain arteries that affect 1.5-5 % of the population. Causing around 500 000 deaths per year worldwide, their detection and treatment to prevent rupture is critical. Multiple recent studies have tried to find a hemodynamics predictor of aneurysm rupture, but concluded with distinct opposite trends using Wall Shear Stress (WSS) based parameters in different clinical datasets. Nevertheless, several research groups tend to converge for now on the fact that the flow patterns and flow dynamics of the ruptured aneurysms are complex and unstable. Following this idea, we investigated the vortex properties of both unruptured and ruptured cerebral aneurysms. A brief comparison of two Eulerian vortex visualization methods (Q-criterion and lambda 2 method) showed that these approaches gave similar results in our complex aneurysm geometries. We were then able to apply either one of them to a large dataset of 74 patient specific cases of intracranial aneurysms. Those real cases were obtained by 3D angiography, numerical reconstruction of the geometry, and then pulsatile CFD simulation before post-processing with the mentioned vortex visualization tools. First we tested the two Eulerian methods on a few cases to verify their implementation we made as well as compare them with each other. After that, the Q-criterion was selected as method of choice for its more obvious physical meaning (it shows the balance between two characteristics of the flow, its swirling and deformation). Using iso-surfaces of Q, we started by categorizing the patient-specific aneurysms based on the gross topology of the aneurysmal vortices. This approach being unfruitful, we found a new vortex-based characteristic property of ruptured aneurysms to stratify the rupture risk of IAs that we called the Wall-Kissing Vortices, or WKV. We observed that most ruptured aneurysms had a large amount of WKV, which appears to agree with

  5. Creep-rupture behavior of candidate Stirling engine iron supperalloys in high-pressure hydrogen. Volume 2: Hydrogen creep-rupture behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, S.; Peterman, W.; Hales, C.

    1984-01-01

    The creep rupture behavior of nine iron base and one cobalt base candidate Stirling engine alloys is evaluated. Rupture life, minimum creep rate, and time to 1% strain data are analyzed. The 3500 h rupture life stress and stress to obtain 1% strain in 3500 h are also estimated.

  6. Morphological parameters associated with ruptured posterior communicating aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Allen; Lin, Ning; Charoenvimolphan, Nareerat; Stanley, Mary; Frerichs, Kai U; Day, Arthur L; Du, Rose

    2014-01-01

    The rupture risk of unruptured intracranial aneurysms is known to be dependent on the size of the aneurysm. However, the association of morphological characteristics with ruptured aneurysms has not been established in a systematic and location specific manner for the most common aneurysm locations. We evaluated posterior communicating artery (PCoA) aneurysms for morphological parameters associated with aneurysm rupture in that location. CT angiograms were evaluated to generate 3-D models of the aneurysms and surrounding vasculature. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate morphological parameters including aneurysm volume, aspect ratio, size ratio, distance to ICA bifurcation, aneurysm angle, vessel angles, flow angles, and vessel-to-vessel angles. From 2005-2012, 148 PCoA aneurysms were treated in a single institution. Preoperative CTAs from 63 patients (40 ruptured, 23 unruptured) were available and analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that smaller volume (p = 0.011), larger aneurysm neck diameter (0.048), and shorter ICA bifurcation to aneurysm distance (p = 0.005) were the most strongly associated with aneurysm rupture after adjusting for all other clinical and morphological variables. Multivariate subgroup analysis for patients with visualized PCoA demonstrated that larger neck diameter (p = 0.018) and shorter ICA bifurcation to aneurysm distance (p = 0.011) were significantly associated with rupture. Intracerebral hemorrhage was associated with smaller volume, larger maximum height, and smaller aneurysm angle, in addition to lateral projection, male sex, and lack of hypertension. We found that shorter ICA bifurcation to aneurysm distance is significantly associated with PCoA aneurysm rupture. This is a new physically intuitive parameter that can be measured easily and therefore be readily applied in clinical practice to aid in the evaluation of patients with PCoA aneurysms.

  7. Composite Overwrap Pressure Vessels: Mechanics and Stress Rupture Lifting Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thesken, John C.; Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Phoenix, S. L.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) has been conducting an independent technical assessment to address safety concerns related to the known stress rupture failure mode of filament wound pressure vessels in use on Shuttle and the International Space Station. The Shuttle s Kevlar-49 (DuPont) fiber overwrapped tanks are of particular concern due to their long usage and the poorly understood stress rupture process in Kevlar-49 filaments. Existing long term data show that the rupture process is a function of stress, temperature and time. However due to the presence of load sharing liners and the complex manufacturing procedures, the state of actual fiber stress in flight hardware and test articles is not clearly known. Indeed nonconservative life predictions have been made where stress rupture data and lifing procedures have ignored the contribution of the liner in favor of applied pressure as the controlling load parameter. With the aid of analytical and finite element results, this paper examines the fundamental mechanical response of composite overwrapped pressure vessels including the influence of elastic plastic liners and degraded/creeping overwrap properties. Graphical methods are presented describing the non-linear relationship of applied pressure to Kevlar-49 fiber stress/strain during manufacturing, operations and burst loadings. These are applied to experimental measurements made on a variety of vessel systems to demonstrate the correct calibration of fiber stress as a function of pressure. Applying this analysis to the actual qualification burst data for Shuttle flight hardware revealed that the nominal fiber stress at burst was in some cases 23 percent lower than what had previously been used to predict stress rupture life. These results motivate a detailed discussion of the appropriate stress rupture lifing philosophy for COPVs including the correct transference of stress rupture life data between dissimilar vessels and test articles.

  8. Ectopic pregnancy with tubal rupture: an analysis of 80 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashfaq, S.; Aziz, S.; Hasan, M.; Sultan, S.; Irfan, S.M.

    2017-01-01

    Ectopic pregnancy (EP) is a major problem in obstetrics as there is evidence of increasing incidence throughout the world. It is an important cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. In Pakistan, the care seeking behaviour among female is limited that makes female vulnerable to die due to complication of ectopic pregnancy. The aim of this study is to determine the frequency of tubal rupture in ectopic pregnancy in Pakistani patients. Method: In this cross-sectional study data pertaining to age, gestational age, parity and duration of presenting symptoms were collected and analysed. Result: 80 patients were diagnosed to have ectopic pregnancy. The frequency of tubal rupture was 91.25%. It is encountered significantly more often in women with age of 26 years. More tubal rupture is found in patient with low parity, in which the frequency of tubal rupture is up to 100% and decrease up to 78.6% with increasing parity up to four. Furthermore, it is noted that increase in gestational age from 8 weeks to 10 weeks caused an increase in frequency of tubal rupture from 80 to 100% respectively. It is also noted that earlier the patient presents the lesser is the frequency of tubal rupture, as compared to late presentation beyond 3-4 days which make frequency up to 95%. Conclusion: Tubal rupture is still common cause of maternal morbidity and mortality, and is still a major challenge in gynaecological practice. Creating awareness amongst midwives and GPs regarding early diagnosis can contribute to decrease the mortality, morbidity and fertility loss related to EP. (author)

  9. Composite Overwrap Pressure Vessels: Mechanics and Stress Rupture Lifing Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thesken, John C.; Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Phoenix, Leigh

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) has been conducting an independent technical assessment to address safety concerns related to the known stress rupture failure mode of filament wound pressure vessels in use on Shuttle and the International Space Station. The Shuttle's Kevlar-49 fiber overwrapped tanks are of particular concern due to their long usage and the poorly understood stress rupture process in Kevlar-49 filaments. Existing long term data show that the rupture process is a function of stress, temperature and time. However due to the presence of load sharing liners and the complex manufacturing procedures, the state of actual fiber stress in flight hardware and test articles is not clearly known. Indeed non-conservative life predictions have been made where stress rupture data and lifing procedures have ignored the contribution of the liner in favor of applied pressure as the controlling load parameter. With the aid of analytical and finite element results, this paper examines the fundamental mechanical response of composite overwrapped pressure vessels including the influence of elastic-plastic liners and degraded/creeping overwrap properties. Graphical methods are presented describing the non-linear relationship of applied pressure to Kevlar-49 fiber stress/strain during manufacturing, operations and burst loadings. These are applied to experimental measurements made on a variety of vessel systems to demonstrate the correct calibration of fiber stress as a function of pressure. Applying this analysis to the actual qualification burst data for Shuttle flight hardware revealed that the nominal fiber stress at burst was in some cases 23% lower than what had previously been used to predict stress rupture life. These results motivate a detailed discussion of the appropriate stress rupture lifing philosophy for COPVs including the correct transference of stress rupture life data between dissimilar vessels and test articles.

  10. Application of discrete scale invariance method on pipe rupture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajkovic, M.; Mihailovic, Z.; Riznic, J.

    2007-01-01

    'Full text:' A process of material failure of a mechanical system in the form of cracks and microcracks, a catastrophic phenomenon of considerable technological and scientific importance, may be forecasted according to the recent advances in the theory of critical phenomena in statistical physics. Critical rupture scenario states that, in many concrete and composite heterogeneous materials under compression and materials with large distributed residual stresses, rupture is a genuine critical point, i.e., the culmination of a self-organization of damage and cracking characterized by power law signatures. The concept of discrete scale invariance leads to a complex critical exponent (or dimension) and may occur spontaneously in systems and materials developing rupture. It establishes, theoretically, the power law dependence of a measurable observable, such as the rate of acoustic emissions radiated during loading or rate of heat released during the process, upon the time to failure. However, the problem is the power law can be distinguished from other parametric functional forms such as an exponential only close to the critical time. In this paper we modify the functional renormalization method to include the noise elimination procedure and dimension reduction. The aim is to obtain the prediction of the critical rupture time only from the knowledge of the power law parameters at early times prior to rupture, and based on the assumption that the dynamics close to rupture is governed by the power law dependence of the temperature measured along the perimeter of the tube upon the time-to-failure. Such an analysis would not only enhance the precision of prediction related to the rupture mechanism but also significantly help in determining and predicting the leak rates. The prediction will be compared to experimental data on Zr-2.5%Nb made tubes. Note: The views expressed in the paper are those of the authors and do not necessary represents those of the commission. (author)

  11. Acute Associations Between Outdoor Temperature and Premature Rupture of Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Sandie; Liu, Danping; Zhu, Yeyi; Sherman, Seth; Mendola, Pauline

    2018-03-01

    Extreme ambient temperatures have been linked to preterm birth. Preterm premature rupture of membranes is a common precursor to preterm birth but is rarely studied in relation to temperature. We linked 15,381 singleton pregnancies with premature rupture of membranes from a nationwide US obstetrics cohort (2002-2008) to local temperature. Case-crossover analyses compared daily temperature during the week preceding delivery and the day of delivery to 2 control periods, before and after the case period. Conditional logistic regression models calculated the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of preterm and term premature rupture of membranes for a 1°C increase in temperature during the warm (May-September) and cold (October-April) season separately after adjusting for humidity, barometric pressure, ozone, and particulate matter. During the warm season, 1°C increase during the week before delivery was associated with a 5% (95% CI, 3%, 6%) increased preterm premature rupture of membranes risk, and a 4% (95% CI, 3%, 5%) increased term premature rupture of membranes risk. During the cold season, 1°C increase was associated with a 2% decreased risk for both preterm (95% CI, 1%, 3%) and term premature rupture of membranes (95% CI, 1%, 3%). The day-specific associations for the week before delivery were similar, but somewhat stronger for days closer to delivery. Relatively small ambient temperature changes were associated with the risk of both preterm and term premature of membranes. Given the adverse consequences of premature rupture of membranes and concerns over global climate change, these findings merit further investigation. See video abstract at, http://links.lww.com/EDE/B312.

  12. Antibiotics for preterm rupture of membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Sara; Boulvain, Michel; Neilson, James P

    2010-08-04

    Premature birth carries substantial neonatal morbidity and mortality. Subclinical infection is associated with preterm rupture of membranes (PROM). Prophylactic maternal antibiotic therapy might lessen infectious morbidity and delay labour, but could suppress labour without treating underlying infection. To evaluate the immediate and long-term effects of administering antibiotics to women with PROM before 37 weeks, on maternal infectious morbidity, neonatal morbidity and mortality, and longer-term childhood development. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (29 April 2010). Randomised controlled trials comparing antibiotic administration with placebo that reported clinically relevant outcomes were included as were trials of different antibiotics. Trials in which no placebo was used were included for the outcome of perinatal death alone. We extracted data from each report without blinding of either the results or the treatments that women received. We sought unpublished data from a number of authors. We included 22 trials, involving 6800 women and babies.The use of antibiotics following PROM is associated with statistically significant reductions in chorioamnionitis (average risk ratio (RR) 0.66, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.46 to 0.96, and a reduction in the numbers of babies born within 48 hours (average RR 0.71, 95% CI 0.58 to 0.87) and seven days of randomisation (average RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.89). The following markers of neonatal morbidity were reduced: neonatal infection (RR 0.67, 95% CI 0.52 to 0.85), use of surfactant (RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.72 to 0.96), oxygen therapy (RR 0.88, 95% CI 0.81 to 0.96), and abnormal cerebral ultrasound scan prior to discharge from hospital (RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.68 to 0.98). Co-amoxiclav was associated with an increased risk of neonatal necrotising enterocolitis (RR 4.72, 95% CI 1.57 to 14.23).One study evaluated the children's health at seven years of age (ORACLE Children Study) and found

  13. What Caused the Great Depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Jean; O'Driscoll, Timothy G.

    2007-01-01

    Economists and historians have struggled for almost 80 years to account for the American Great Depression, which began in 1929 and lasted until the early years of World War II. In this article, the authors discuss three major schools of thought on the causes of the Great Depression and the long failure of the American economy to return to full…

  14. Four cases of spontaneous rupture of the urinary bladder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Toshiyasu; Miwa, Sotaro; Takashima, Hiroshi; Takemae, Katsuro

    2002-01-01

    Between November 1997 and March 2001, 4 female patients from 44 to 65 years of age with a spontaneous rupture of the urinary bladder were analyzed. They complained of abdominal pain and had undergone an intra-pelvic gynecological operation (3 for uterine cancer, 1 for an ovarian cyst) several years before. The three with uterine cancer had also received radiation therapy. For their present condition, spontaneous urinary bladder rupture, their treatment was indwelling a urethral catheter. Two of them have had no recurrence of urinary bladder rupture after one month since having the urethral catheter indwelt. One, however, had to have the catheter re-indwelt due to unsuccessful suturing of the urinary bladder wall. The fourth patient had bilateral nephrostomy tubes due to severe radiation cystitis. Thus, one can infer that intra-pelvic gynecological operations and radiation therapy are major factors causing spontaneous urinary bladder rupture. While indwelling a urethral catheter may be effective for some patients with a spontaneous rupture of the urinary bladder, it may be very difficult to treat more complicated cases. (author)

  15. CT classification and clinical significance of rupture globe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diao Jinzhong; Zhang Guixiang

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To discuss CT appearances of the rupture globe, and CT classifications and their clinical significance. Materials and methods: Forty-nine rupture globes were verified; 79% patents were scanned within 24 hours. Axial plane scanning were done with 3 mm slice and 256 x 256 matrix. Bone and soft tissue conditions were adjusted to analyse the bone and globe structures. Results: CT showed that globe circle rupture in one point of 32%, two points of 20%, and multiple points of 28%. Thickening of globe circle was as follows: 5 mm in 10 globes, 6 mm in 24, and 7 mm in 9.20% injured globes were enlarged and 32% were contracted. 14 anterior chambers deepened more than 4 mm. 83% rupture globes also had intraglobe hemorrhage and 48% foreign bodies. 28% injured globes had exophthalmus, and 75% had injured parasinuses or orbits, or brain trauma. Conclusion: The authors classified the rupture globe into three types. Type III showed unrepaired that should ablate the injured globes, whereas type I and II had to repair and to debride

  16. Steam generator tube rupture simulation using extended finite element method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohanty, Subhasish, E-mail: smohanty@anl.gov; Majumdar, Saurin; Natesan, Ken

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Extended finite element method used for modeling the steam generator tube rupture. • Crack propagation is modeled in an arbitrary solution dependent path. • The FE model is used for estimating the rupture pressure of steam generator tubes. • Crack coalescence modeling is also demonstrated. • The method can be used for crack modeling of tubes under severe accident condition. - Abstract: A steam generator (SG) is an important component of any pressurized water reactor. Steam generator tubes represent a primary pressure boundary whose integrity is vital to the safe operation of the reactor. SG tubes may rupture due to propagation of a crack created by mechanisms such as stress corrosion cracking, fatigue, etc. It is thus important to estimate the rupture pressures of cracked tubes for structural integrity evaluation of SGs. The objective of the present paper is to demonstrate the use of extended finite element method capability of commercially available ABAQUS software, to model SG tubes with preexisting flaws and to estimate their rupture pressures. For the purpose, elastic–plastic finite element models were developed for different SG tubes made from Alloy 600 material. The simulation results were compared with experimental results available from the steam generator tube integrity program (SGTIP) sponsored by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and conducted at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). A reasonable correlation was found between extended finite element model results and experimental results.

  17. Morphology parameters for intracranial aneurysm rupture risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Sujan; Tremmel, Markus; Mocco, J; Kim, Minsuok; Yamamoto, Junichi; Siddiqui, Adnan H; Hopkins, L Nelson; Meng, Hui

    2008-08-01

    The aim of this study is to identify image-based morphological parameters that correlate with human intracranial aneurysm (IA) rupture. For 45 patients with terminal or sidewall saccular IAs (25 unruptured, 20 ruptured), three-dimensional geometries were evaluated for a range of morphological parameters. In addition to five previously studied parameters (aspect ratio, aneurysm size, ellipticity index, nonsphericity index, and undulation index), we defined three novel parameters incorporating the parent vessel geometry (vessel angle, aneurysm [inclination] angle, and [aneurysm-to-vessel] size ratio) and explored their correlation with aneurysm rupture. Parameters were analyzed with a two-tailed independent Student's t test for significance; significant parameters (P 41; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.92) and undulation index (odds ratio, 1.51; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-2.11) had the strongest independent correlation with ruptured IA. From the receiver operating characteristic analysis, size ratio and aneurysm angle had the highest area under the curve values of 0.83 and 0.85, respectively. Size ratio and aneurysm angle are promising new morphological metrics for IA rupture risk assessment. Because these parameters account for vessel geometry, they may bridge the gap between morphological studies and more qualitative location-based studies.

  18. Steam generator tube rupture simulation using extended finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohanty, Subhasish; Majumdar, Saurin; Natesan, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Extended finite element method used for modeling the steam generator tube rupture. • Crack propagation is modeled in an arbitrary solution dependent path. • The FE model is used for estimating the rupture pressure of steam generator tubes. • Crack coalescence modeling is also demonstrated. • The method can be used for crack modeling of tubes under severe accident condition. - Abstract: A steam generator (SG) is an important component of any pressurized water reactor. Steam generator tubes represent a primary pressure boundary whose integrity is vital to the safe operation of the reactor. SG tubes may rupture due to propagation of a crack created by mechanisms such as stress corrosion cracking, fatigue, etc. It is thus important to estimate the rupture pressures of cracked tubes for structural integrity evaluation of SGs. The objective of the present paper is to demonstrate the use of extended finite element method capability of commercially available ABAQUS software, to model SG tubes with preexisting flaws and to estimate their rupture pressures. For the purpose, elastic–plastic finite element models were developed for different SG tubes made from Alloy 600 material. The simulation results were compared with experimental results available from the steam generator tube integrity program (SGTIP) sponsored by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and conducted at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). A reasonable correlation was found between extended finite element model results and experimental results.

  19. Spontaneous splenic rupture in Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charakidis Michail

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction We report the case of a patient with Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia complicated by spontaneous splenic rupture. Case presentation A 49-year-old Caucasian woman was referred to our emergency department by her general practitioner following a three-week history of malaise, night sweats, six kilograms of weight loss, intermittent nausea and vomiting, progressive upper abdominal pain and easy bruising. On the fourth day following her admission, she had a rapid clinical deterioration, with subsequent radiological investigations revealing a splenic rupture. Her morphology, biochemistry, flow cytometry and histology were strongly suggestive of Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia. Conclusions Spontaneous splenic rupture is not an expected complication of low-grade lymphoplasmacytic lymphomas, such as Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia. To the best of our knowledge, this is the only reported case of early spontaneous splenic rupture due to Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia. Our case highlights that despite the typical disease course of low-grade hematological malignancies, signs and symptoms of imminent splenic rupture should be considered when formulating a clinical assessment.

  20. Intracapsular implant rupture: MR findings of incomplete shell collapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soo, M S; Kornguth, P J; Walsh, R; Elenberger, C; Georgiade, G S; DeLong, D; Spritzer, C E

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the frequency and significance of the MR findings of incomplete shell collapse for detecting implant rupture in a series of surgically removed breast prostheses. MR images of 86 breast implants in 44 patients were studied retrospectively and correlated with surgical findings at explantation. MR findings included (a) complete shell collapse (linguine sign), 21 implants; (b) incomplete shell collapse (subcapsular line sign, teardrop sign, and keyhole sign), 33 implants; (c) radial folds, 31 implants; and (d) normal, 1 implant. The subcapsular line sign was seen in 26 implants, the teardrop sign was seen in 27 implants, and the keyhole sign was seen in 23 implants. At surgery, 48 implants were found to be ruptured and 38 were intact. The MR findings of ruptured implants showed signs of incomplete collapse in 52% (n = 25), linguine sign in 44% (n = 21), and radial folds in 4% (n = 2). The linguine sign perfectly predicted implant rupture, but sensitivity was low. Findings of incomplete shell collapse improved sensitivity and negative predictive values, and the subcapsular line sign produced a significant incremental increase in predictive ability. MRI signs of incomplete shell collapse were more common than the linguine sign in ruptured implants and are significant contributors to the high sensitivity and negative predictive values of MRI for evaluating implant integrity.

  1. MR images of rupture and leakage of breast implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Ling; Liu Pengcheng; Huang Rong; Hu Huaxin; Chen Zaizhong; Du Duanming; Liu Hanqiao; Feng Fei

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the diagnostic value of magnetic resonance imaging in detecting rupture and leakage of breast implants. Methods: Seventeen cases with breast implants were imaged by MR scanner. 1 normal silicone breast implant outside the body was scanned by MR as an consultative standard. MR images of silicone implants and polypropylene acyl amine implants were classified and analyzed. Results: In 7 cases, 12 single lumen silicone implants were intact, among them 8 were silicone gel-filled implants, 4 were physiological saline-filled implants. 2 physiological saline-filled implants ruptured, among them 1 belonged to intracapsular silicone implant rupture with subsided silicone gel capsule which presented as long T 1 signal and short T 2 signal on MR images; The other belonged to extracapsular silicone implant rapture with physiological saline granule outside breast on MR images. 20 breast implants in 10 cases were injected by polypropylene acyl amine, among them 2 breast implants were intact, 16 breast implants ruptured completely with pieces and nodes of long T 1 signal and long T 2 signal on MR images, 14 of 16 also presented polypropylene acyl amine granule outside breast; 2 breast implants splited inside with linguine sign. Conclusion: The magnetic resonance imaging can make clear the type and the seat of breast implants, the type of rupture of breast implants, and the distribution of leakage material. Therefore magnetic resonance imaging can be an effective guidance for clinical operation and can be an consultative standard for follow-up

  2. Radiographic risk factors for contralateral rupture in dogs with unilateral cranial cruciate ligament rupture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connie Chuang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Complete cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CR is a common cause of pelvic limb lameness in dogs. Dogs with unilateral CR often develop contralateral CR over time. Although radiographic signs of contralateral stifle joint osteoarthritis (OA influence risk of subsequent contralateral CR, this risk has not been studied in detail. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a retrospective longitudinal cohort study of client-owned dogs with unilateral CR to determine how severity of radiographic stifle synovial effusion and osteophytosis influence risk of contralateral CR over time. Detailed survival analysis was performed for a cohort of 85 dogs after case filtering of an initial sample population of 513 dogs. This population was stratified based on radiographic severity of synovial effusion (graded on a scale of 0, 1, and 2 and severity of osteophytosis (graded on a scale of 0, 1, 2, and 3 of both index and contralateral stifle joints using a reproducible scoring method. Severity of osteophytosis in the index and contralateral stifles was significantly correlated. Rupture of the contralateral cranial cruciate ligament was significantly influenced by radiographic OA in both the index and contralateral stifles at diagnosis. Odds ratio for development of contralateral CR in dogs with severe contralateral radiographic stifle effusion was 13.4 at one year after diagnosis and 11.4 at two years. Odds ratio for development of contralateral CR in dogs with severe contralateral osteophytosis was 9.9 at one year after diagnosis. These odds ratios were associated with decreased time to contralateral CR. Breed, age, body weight, gender, and tibial plateau angle did not significantly influence time to contralateral CR. CONCLUSION: Subsequent contralateral CR is significantly influenced by severity of radiographic stifle effusion and osteophytosis in the contralateral stifle, suggesting that synovitis and arthritic joint degeneration are

  3. A Case of Ruptured Splenic Artery Aneurysm in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth K. Corey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Rupture of a splenic artery aneurysm is rare complication of pregnancy that is associated with a significant maternal and fetal mortality. Case. A multiparous female presented in the third trimester with hypotension, tachycardia, and altered mental status. A ruptured splenic artery aneurysm was discovered at the time of laparotomy and cesarean delivery. The patient made a full recovery following resection of the aneurysm. The neonate survived but suffered severe neurologic impairment. Conclusion. The diagnosis of ruptured splenic artery aneurysm should be considered in a pregnant woman presenting with signs of intra-abdominal hemorrhage. Early intervention by a multidisciplinary surgical team is key to preserving the life of the mother and fetus.

  4. Standards for Documenting Finite‐Fault Earthquake Rupture Models

    KAUST Repository

    Mai, Paul Martin

    2016-04-06

    In this article, we propose standards for documenting and disseminating finite‐fault earthquake rupture models, and related data and metadata. A comprehensive documentation of the rupture models, a detailed description of the data processing steps, and facilitating the access to the actual data that went into the earthquake source inversion are required to promote follow‐up research and to ensure interoperability, transparency, and reproducibility of the published slip‐inversion solutions. We suggest a formatting scheme that describes the kinematic rupture process in an unambiguous way to support subsequent research. We also provide guidelines on how to document the data, metadata, and data processing. The proposed standards and formats represent a first step to establishing best practices for comprehensively documenting input and output of finite‐fault earthquake source studies.

  5. Microstructural observation on helium injected and creep ruptured JPCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, N.; Shiraishi, H.; Hishinuma, A.

    1986-01-01

    Detailed and quantitative TEM observation was performed on high temperature helium injected and creep ruptured JPCA to seek the prominent TiC distribution developed for suppression of helium embrittlement. Three different preinjection treatments were adopted for changing the TiC distribution. Considerable degradation in creep rupture strength by helium occurred in solution-annealed specimens, although there was much less effect of other treatments which included aging prior to injection. The concentration of helium at grain boundaries and the promotion of precipitation by helium during injection were responsible for the degradation. Therefore, the presence of TiC precipitates before helium introduction will help prevent degradation. On the other hand, the rupture elongation was reduced by helium after all treatments, although helium trapping by TiC precipitates in the matrix was successfully achieved. Consequently, the combined use of several methods may be necessary for further suppression of helium embrittlement. (orig.)

  6. Transcervical intrapartum amnioinfusion for preterm premature rupture of the membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puertas, Alberto; Tirado, Pilar; Pérez, Isabel; López, María S; Montoya, Francisco; Cañizares, José M; Miranda, José A

    2007-03-01

    To investigate the effect of transcervical amnioinfusion on the management of labour and neonatal outcomes in preterm premature rupture of the membranes. This clinical trial included 86 patients with premature rupture of the membranes between weeks 27 and 35 of gestation. Patients were randomly assigned to receive amnioinfusion via a two-way catheter or to the control group. Clinical management was otherwise the same in both groups. Amnioinfusion decreased the frequency of variable decelerations in fetal heart rate (27.9% versus 53.5%, pamnioinfusion for preterm premature rupture of the membranes reduced the number of interventions needed because of nonreassuring fetal status, and improved neonatal gasometric values without increasing maternal or fetal morbidity.

  7. Validity and Reliability of the Achilles Tendon Total Rupture Score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganestam, Ann; Barfod, Kristoffer; Klit, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    study was to validate a Danish translation of the ATRS. The ATRS was translated into Danish according to internationally adopted standards. Of 142 patients, 90 with previous rupture of the Achilles tendon participated in the validity study and 52 in the reliability study. The ATRS showed moderately......The best treatment of acute Achilles tendon rupture remains debated. Patient-reported outcome measures have become cornerstones in treatment evaluations. The Achilles tendon total rupture score (ATRS) has been developed for this purpose but requires additional validation. The purpose of the present...... = .07). The limits of agreement were ±18.53. A strong correlation was found between test and retest (intercorrelation coefficient .908); the standard error of measurement was 6.7, and the minimal detectable change was 18.5. The Danish version of the ATRS showed moderately strong criterion validity...

  8. Spontaneous splenic rupture. Radiological findings in three cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arenal, F.; Barrera, J.; Merino, S.; Pedrosa, C. S.

    1999-01-01

    Spontaneous splenic rupture not associated with previous trauma is an uncommon disease. It can appear in the course of multiple systemic diseases or over a normal splenic architecture, which is even more infrequent. An early diagnosis results mandatory, since it is a potentially fatal disease if it is not promptly diagnosed and managed. We present three cases of spontaneous splenic rupture (two sub capsular hematomas opened to peritoneum and a rupture of splenic parenchyma). One patient had infectious mononucleosis, other was in the acute phase of a chronic pancreatitis and the third one had a normal splenic architecture. We emphasize the importance of CT in the early diagnosis of this entity. (Author) 21 refs

  9. A Case of Post Myocardial Infarction Papillary Muscle Rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuwatworn, Amornpol; Milnes, Christopher; Kumar, Vishesh; Raizada, Amol; Nykamp, Verlyn; Stys, Adam

    2016-06-01

    Papillary muscle rupture is a rare, life-threatening post myocardial infarction mechanical complication. Without surgical intervention, prognosis is very poor. Clinicians need to recognize this complication early, as prompt therapy is crucial. We present a case of inferior ST elevation myocardial infarction complicated by posteromedial papillary muscle rupture resulting in severe acute mitral regurgitation (flail anterior mitral leaflet), acute pulmonary edema and cardiogenic shock. In our patient, a new mitral regurgitation murmur suggested this mechanical complication. Complete disruption of papillary muscle was visualized by transesophageal echocardiography. This case illustrates the importance of good physical examination for early diagnosis of papillary muscle rupture, so that life-saving treatment can be administered without delay.

  10. Instationary discharge rates and shear factors in pipe ruptures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pana, P.

    1976-01-01

    The loads observed in ruptures of steam- or water-conducting pipes may occur as reactive forces on the pipes themselves or as jet forces on the structural components adjacent to the point of rupture. The present paper deals with the instationary acceleration phase directly after rupture. The general laws of conservation (mass, energy, momentum) may be used, but in their instationary form. This results in a system of partial differential equations which does not provide a comprehensive mathematical solution. However, since efficient electronic computer systems are available, difference methods are increasingly often used. Such calculations were carried out for water-steam as an ideal gas and under simplifying assumptions. (orig./AK) [de

  11. Emergency Stenting of a Ruptured Infected Anastomotic Femoral Pseudoaneurysm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klonaris, Chris; Katsargyris, Athanasios; Matthaiou, Alexandros; Giannopoulos, Athanasios; Tsigris, Chris; Papadopouli, Katerina; Tsiodras, Sotiris; Bastounis, Elias

    2007-01-01

    A 74-year-old man presented with a ruptured infected anastomotic femoral pseudoaneurysm. Due to severe medical comorbidities he was considered unsuitable for conventional surgical management and underwent an emergency endovascular repair with a balloon-expandable covered stent. The pseudoaneurysm was excluded successfully and the patient had an uneventful postoperative recovery with long-term suppressive antimicrobials. He remained well for 10 months after the procedure with no signs of recurrent local or systemic infection and finally died from an acute myocardial infarction. To our knowledge, emergency endovascular treatment of a free ruptured bleeding femoral artery pseudoaneurysm has not been documented before in the English literature. This case illustrates that endovascular therapy may be a safe and efficient alternative in the emergent management of ruptured infected anastomotic femoral artery pseudoaneurysms when traditional open surgery is contraindicated

  12. Standards for Documenting Finite‐Fault Earthquake Rupture Models

    KAUST Repository

    Mai, Paul Martin; Shearer, Peter; Ampuero, Jean‐Paul; Lay, Thorne

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we propose standards for documenting and disseminating finite‐fault earthquake rupture models, and related data and metadata. A comprehensive documentation of the rupture models, a detailed description of the data processing steps, and facilitating the access to the actual data that went into the earthquake source inversion are required to promote follow‐up research and to ensure interoperability, transparency, and reproducibility of the published slip‐inversion solutions. We suggest a formatting scheme that describes the kinematic rupture process in an unambiguous way to support subsequent research. We also provide guidelines on how to document the data, metadata, and data processing. The proposed standards and formats represent a first step to establishing best practices for comprehensively documenting input and output of finite‐fault earthquake source studies.

  13. Study of breast implant rupture: MRI versus surgical findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestito, A; Mangieri, F F; Ancona, A; Minervini, C; Perchinunno, V; Rinaldi, S

    2012-09-01

    This study evaluated the role of breast magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the selective study breast implant integrity. We retrospectively analysed the signs of breast implant rupture observed at breast MR examinations of 157 implants and determined the sensitivity and specificity of the technique in diagnosing implant rupture by comparing MR data with findings at surgical explantation. The linguine and the salad-oil signs were statistically the most significant signs for diagnosing intracapsular rupture; the presence of siliconomas/seromas outside the capsule and/or in the axillary lymph nodes calls for immediate explantation. In agreement with previous reports, we found a close correlation between imaging signs and findings at explantation. Breast MR imaging can be considered the gold standard in the study of breast implants.

  14. CT diagnosis of concealed rupture of intestine following abdominal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Jiansong; Wei Tiemin; Wang Zufei; Zhao Zhongwei; Tu Jianfei; Fan Xiaoxi; Xu Min

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate CT findings of concealed rupture of intestine following abdominal trauma. Methods: CT findings of 11 cases with concealed rupture of intestine following abdominal trauma proved by surgery were identified retrospectively. Results: The main special signs included: (1) Free air in 4 cases, mainly around injured small bowel or under the diaphragm, or in the retroperitoneal space or and in the lump. (2) High density hematoma between the intestines or in the bowel wall (4 cases). (3) Bowel wall injury sign, demonstrated as low density of the injured intestinal wall, attenuated locally but relatively enhanced in neighbor wall on enhanced CT. (4) Lump around the injured bowel wall with obvious ring-shaped enhancement (4 cases). Other signs included: (1) Free fluid in the abdominal cavity or between the intestines with blurred borders. (2) Bowel obstruction. Conclusion: CT is valuable in diagnosing concealed rupture of intestine following abdominal trauma. (authors)

  15. Structural factors controlling inter-plate coupling and earthquake rupture process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodaira, S.

    2007-05-01

    Recent availability of a large number of ocean bottom seismographs (OBSs), a large volume of air-gun array and a long streamer cable for academics provide several new findings of lithospheric scale structures in subduction seismogenic zones. JAMSTEC has acquired long-offset seismic data using a super-densely deploy OBS (i.e. 1 - 5 km spacing OBSs along 100 - 500 km long profiles) in the Nankai seismogeinc zone, SW. Japan, since 1999. Long-offset multichannel seismic (MCS) data by a two-ship experiment, as well as conventional 2D MCS data, have been also acquired at a part of the profiles. Some of those profiles have been designed as combined onshore - offshore profiles for imaging a land-ocean transition zone. One of the most striking findings is an image of several scales of subducted seamounts/ridges in the Nankai trough seismogenic zone. We detected the subducted seamount/ridges, which are 50 - 100 km wide, distributing from near trough axis to ~ 40 km deep beneath the Japanese island. From a point of seismogenic process, an important aspect is that those structures are strongly correlated with slip zones of magnitude 8-class earthquakes, i.e.; subducted seamounts/ridge control the rupture propagations. Moreover, the most recent seismic study crossing the segmentation boundary between M=8 class earthquakes detected a high seismic velocity body forming a strongly coupled patch at the segmentation boundary. The numerical simulation incorporating all those structures explained the historic rupture patterns, and shows the occurrence of a giant earthquake along the entire Nankai trough, a distance of over 600 km long (Mw=8.7). The growth processes of a rupture revealed from the simulation are; 1) prior to the giant earthquake, a small slow event (or earthquake) occurs near the segmentation boundary, 2) this accelerates a very slow slip (slower than the plate convergent rate), at the strong patch, which reduces a degree of coupling, 3) then a rupture easily propagates

  16. Source Rupture Process of the 2016 Kumamoto, Japan, Earthquake Inverted from Strong-Motion Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenbo; Zheng, Ao

    2017-04-01

    On 15 April, 2016 the great earthquake with magnitude Mw7.1 occurred in Kumamoto prefecture, Japan. The focal mechanism solution released by F-net located the hypocenter at 130.7630°E, 32.7545°N, at a depth of 12.45 km, and the strike, dip, and the rake angle of the fault were N226°E, 84˚ and -142° respectively. The epicenter distribution and focal mechanisms of aftershocks implied the mechanism of the mainshock might have changed in the source rupture process, thus a single focal mechanism was not enough to explain the observed data adequately. In this study, based on the inversion result of GNSS and InSAR surface deformation with active structures for reference, we construct a finite fault model with focal mechanism changes, and derive the source rupture process by multi-time-window linear waveform inversion method using the strong-motion data (0.05 1.0Hz) obtained by K-NET and KiK-net of Japan. Our result shows that the Kumamoto earthquake is a right-lateral strike slipping rupture event along the Futagawa-Hinagu fault zone, and the seismogenic fault is divided into a northern segment and a southern one. The strike and the dip of the northern segment are N235°E, 60˚ respectively. And for the southern one, they are N205°E, 72˚ respectively. The depth range of the fault model is consistent with the depth distribution of aftershocks, and the slip on the fault plane mainly concentrate on the northern segment, in which the maximum slip is about 7.9 meter. The rupture process of the whole fault continues for approximately 18-sec, and the total seismic moment released is 5.47×1019N·m (Mw 7.1). In addition, the essential feature of the distribution of PGV and PGA synthesized by the inversion result is similar to that of observed PGA and seismic intensity.

  17. Preliminary Results on Earthquake Recurrence Intervals, Rupture Segmentation, and Potential Earthquake Moment Magnitudes along the Tahoe-Sierra Frontal Fault Zone, Lake Tahoe, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howle, J.; Bawden, G. W.; Schweickert, R. A.; Hunter, L. E.; Rose, R.

    2012-12-01

    frequency. Utilizing regressions of earthquake moment-magnitude (MW) and surface-rupture length from well-characterized historic normal faults by Wells and Coppersmith (1994), coseismic rupture of the range-front sections of the Echo Peak and Mt. Tallac segments would potentially generate an earthquake with Mw ranging from 6.5±0.25 and 6.7±0.25. If the entire mapped length of the Rubicon Peak segment were to rupture, Mw could range from 6.6±0.25 to 6.9±0.25. In a worst-case scenario, where the entire length of the Rubicon Peak fault ruptures coseismically with the Mt. Tallac fault, the potential Mw could range from 6.8±0.25 to 7.0±0.25. Fault scarps along the Mt. Tallac and Rubicon Peak segments differ in morphology, indicating that the Rubicon Peak segment probably did not rupture coseismically during the last ground-rupturing earthquake along the Mt. Tallac segment. On the basis of this qualitative comparison, the estimated timing of the most recent earthquake along the Mt. Tallac segment (4.3±0.7 ka), and the maximum estimate of earthquake recurrence intervals for the Rubicon Peak segment (2.8±1.0x103 years), we believe that the Rubicon Peak segment of the TSFFZ is overdue for a ground-rupturing earthquake

  18. Validation of statistical models for creep rupture by parametric analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolton, J., E-mail: john.bolton@uwclub.net [65, Fisher Ave., Rugby, Warks CV22 5HW (United Kingdom)

    2012-01-15

    Statistical analysis is an efficient method for the optimisation of any candidate mathematical model of creep rupture data, and for the comparative ranking of competing models. However, when a series of candidate models has been examined and the best of the series has been identified, there is no statistical criterion to determine whether a yet more accurate model might be devised. Hence there remains some uncertainty that the best of any series examined is sufficiently accurate to be considered reliable as a basis for extrapolation. This paper proposes that models should be validated primarily by parametric graphical comparison to rupture data and rupture gradient data. It proposes that no mathematical model should be considered reliable for extrapolation unless the visible divergence between model and data is so small as to leave no apparent scope for further reduction. This study is based on the data for a 12% Cr alloy steel used in BS PD6605:1998 to exemplify its recommended statistical analysis procedure. The models considered in this paper include a) a relatively simple model, b) the PD6605 recommended model and c) a more accurate model of somewhat greater complexity. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The paper discusses the validation of creep rupture models derived from statistical analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It demonstrates that models can be satisfactorily validated by a visual-graphic comparison of models to data. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method proposed utilises test data both as conventional rupture stress and as rupture stress gradient. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The approach is shown to be more reliable than a well-established and widely used method (BS PD6605).

  19. Determine Earthquake Rupture Directivity Using Taiwan TSMIP Strong Motion Waveforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kaiwen; Chi, Wu-Cheng; Lai, Ying-Ju; Gung, YuanCheng

    2013-04-01

    Inverting seismic waveforms for the finite fault source parameters is important for studying the physics of earthquake rupture processes. It is also significant to image seismogenic structures in urban areas. Here we analyze the finite-source process and test for the causative fault plane using the accelerograms recorded by the Taiwan Strong-Motion Instrumentation Program (TSMIP) stations. The point source parameters for the mainshock and aftershocks were first obtained by complete waveform moment tensor inversions. We then use the seismograms generated by the aftershocks as empirical Green's functions (EGFs) to retrieve the apparent source time functions (ASTFs) of near-field stations using projected Landweber deconvolution approach. The method for identifying the fault plane relies on the spatial patterns of the apparent source time function durations which depend on the angle between rupture direction and the take-off angle and azimuth of the ray. These derived duration patterns then are compared with the theoretical patterns, which are functions of the following parameters, including focal depth, epicentral distance, average crustal 1D velocity, fault plane attitude, and rupture direction on the fault plane. As a result, the ASTFs derived from EGFs can be used to infer the ruptured fault plane and the rupture direction. Finally we used part of the catalogs to study important seismogenic structures in the area near Chiayi, Taiwan, where a damaging earthquake has occurred about a century ago. The preliminary results show a strike-slip earthquake on 22 October 1999 (Mw 5.6) has ruptured unilaterally toward SSW on a sub-vertical fault. The procedure developed from this study can be applied to other strong motion waveforms recorded from other earthquakes to better understand their kinematic source parameters.

  20. PIP breast implants: rupture rate and correlation with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschetta, M; Telegrafo, M; Cornacchia, I; Vincenti, L; Ranieri, V; Cirili, A; Rella, L; Stabile Ianora, A A; Angelelli, G

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the incidence of Poly Implant Prosthése (PIP) rupture as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the prevalence of the detected signs and the potential correlation with breast carcinoma. 67 patients with silicone breast implants and clinical indications for breast MRI were evaluated for a total of 125 implants: 40 (32%) PIP in 21 patients and 85 non-PIP in 46 patients (68%), the latest considered as control group. A 1.5-T MR imaging device was used in order to assess implant integrity with dedicated sequences and in 6 cases a dynamic study was performed for characterizing breast lesions. Two radiologists with more than 5 years' experience in the field of MRI evaluated in consensus all MR images searching for the presence of clear signs of intra or extra-capsular implant rupture. 20/40 (50%) PIP implants presented signs of intra-capsular rupture: linguine sign in 20 cases (100%), tear-drop sign in 6 (30%). In 12/20 cases (60%), MRI signs of extra-capsular rupture were detected. In the control group, an intra-capsular rupture was diagnosed in 12/85 cases (14%) associated with extra-capsular one in 5/12 cases (42%). Among the six cases with suspected breast lesions, in 2/21 patients with PIP implants (10%) a breast carcinoma was diagnosed (mucinous carcinoma, n=1; invasive ductal carcinoma, n=1). In 4/46 patients (9%) with non-PIP implants, an invasive ductal carcinoma was diagnosed. The rupture rate of PIP breast implants is significantly higher than non-PIP (50% vs 14%). MRI represents the most accurate imaging tool for evaluating breast prostheses and the linguine sign is the most common MRI sign to be searched. The incidence of breast carcinoma does not significantly differ between the PIP and non-PIP implants and a direct correlation with breast cancer can not been demonstrated.

  1. Suppression of follicular rupture with meloxicam, a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor: potential for emergency contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesam, Cristián; Salvatierra, Ana María; Schwartz, Jill L; Croxatto, Horacio B

    2010-02-01

    There is evidence that cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors can prevent or delay follicular rupture. COX-2 inhibitors, such as meloxicam, may offer advantages over emergency contraception with levonorgestrel, such as extending the therapeutic window for up to 24 h. We assessed the effect of meloxicam administered in the late follicular phase upon ovulation in women. This was a single center, double blind, crossover study designed to assess the effects in 27 eligible women (18-40 years old, surgically sterilized with regular menstrual cycles) of meloxicam, 15 or 30 mg/day, administered orally for five consecutive days during the late follicular phase, starting when the leading follicle reached 18 mm diameter. Volunteers underwent two treatment cycles separated by one resting cycle, with randomization to dose sequence. Main outcomes were follicular rupture; serum LH, progesterone and estradiol (E2) levels; and incidence of adverse events. Twenty-two volunteers completed the study. There were no differences between meloxicam doses in menstrual cycle length. Dysfunctional ovulation was observed in 11/22 (50%) cycles treated with 15 mg/day and 20/22 (90.9%) cycles with 30 mg/day (P = 0.0068). All women had normal luteal phase progesterone levels; mean maximal values +/- SEM were 42 +/- 4.1 and 46.8 +/- 2.6 nmol/l for 15 and 30 mg/day groups, respectively. There were no serious adverse events, and no changes in LH and E2 levels or in cycle length. Meloxicam 30 mg given for five consecutive days in the late follicular phase is safe, effective and may be an alternative form of emergency contraception.

  2. Rupture of Ovarian Mature Cystic Teratoma: Computerized Tomography Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebastia, C.; Sarrias, M.; Sanchez-Aliaga, E.; Quiroga, S.; Boye, R.; Alvarez-Castells, A.

    2004-01-01

    We present computed tomography findings of three cases of intraperitoneal rupture of ovarian mature cystic teratoma. Acute-phase radiological findings include presence of intraabdominal liquid, infiltration of mesenteric fat and calcified pelvic mass which also showed interior fatty content. Chronic-phase findings include infiltration of peritoneal fat, as well as increase in the size of adjacent ganglion due to chronic inflammatory response to histologically verified foreign bodies. Differential diagnoses between chronic and acute intraperitoneal ruptures of mature teratoma have been reviewed. (Author)

  3. Left ventricular rupture postmitral valve replacement: Surviving a catastrophe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samarjit Bisoyi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the dreaded mechanical complications of mitral valve replacement (MVR is rupture of the left ventricle (LV. This report describes the early diagnosis and successful repair of rupture of posterior wall of LV in an elderly patient who underwent MVR. We have discussed the risk factors and perioperative issues implicated in such complication. The anesthesiologist as an intra-operative echocardiographer can aid in identifying the patient at risk. Though important surgical steps are necessary to prevent the complication; nonetheless, the anesthesiologist needs to take key measures in the perioperative period.

  4. Rupture of an expander prosthesis mimics axillary cancer recurrence.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ismael, T

    2005-10-01

    Regional silicone gel migration from a ruptured breast implant has been reported at different locations including the upper extremity, chest wall muscles, axilla and back. We report a patient who presented with an axillary mass that mimicked a regional recurrence 5 years after breast cancer reconstruction with a latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flap and silicon gel expander-prosthesis. Surgical exploration revealed that the mass contained silicone gel around the port of the breast expander that had ruptured. The mass was confluent with an intracapsular silicone leak through a tract along the tube of the expander port.

  5. Ruptured rectal duplication cyst with classical bladder exstrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rahul K; Oak, Sanjay; Parelkar, Sandesh V; Sanghvi, Beejal; Kaltari, Deepak K; Prakash, Advait; Patil, Rajashekhar; Bachani, Mitesh

    2010-07-01

    A newborn boy was brought to us, 2 hours after birth, with a mucosal-lined left hemiperineal lesion associated with classical bladder exstrophy and an anterolaterally displaced anus. Perineal anatomy was restored by excising the mucosa lined lesion. The bladder closure for classical bladder exstrophy was done at the same time. Histologically, gastric, respiratory, and small intestinal epithelia were present in the mucosa. A rectal duplication cyst that had ruptured in utero through the hemiperineum could explain the anomaly. The association of classical bladder exstrophy with ruptured rectal duplication cyst has never previously been described in the literature. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Diagnosis of the rotator cuff rupture by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoh, Sansen; Takagishi, Naoto; Hirusaki, Takao; Hara, Masafumi; Nakamura, Kazuteru

    1983-01-01

    Twenty rotator cuff ruptures were diagnosed by CT. Plain CT was unable to reveal the damage, and CT arthrography was needed. CT arthrography was performed with a 3.25% low-concentration contrast medium to fill the shoulder joint by keeping the joint at the position of the maximal external rotation. CT identified the rotator cuff rupture more easily than other methods and disclosed the degree of the damage. CT may be useful in diagnosing the pathological state in various diseases of the shoulder joint.(Ueda, J.)

  7. Spontaneous rupture of thymic neuroendocrine carcinoma: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chan Yeong; Lee, In Jae; Min, Soo Kee [Hallym University College of Medicine, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    Thymic neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) is a rare neoplasm with tendencies of local invasion and metastasis. Usually, it is detected incidentally or by its symptoms caused by mass effect. Rupture of the tumor is extremely rare. In this study, we report a case of a ruptured thymic NEC that was combined with a potentially fatal hemorrhage. This lesion was manifested as a progressive bulging of the right cardiac border on serial chest radiographs, and on CT as a large anterior mediastinal mass with heterogeneous enhancement, internal necrosis, and hematoma.

  8. Umbilical cord rupture: a case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidu, Madhusudhan; Nama, Vivek; Karoshi, Mahantesh; Kakumani, Vijayasri; Worth, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The umbilical cord acts as a mechanical conduit between the fetus and placenta, allowing movement of water and nutrient substances between the fetal circulation and the amniotic fluid. Complications can occur antenatally or intranatally and are usually acute events that require immediate delivery to prevent intrauterine death. Even though the majority of the cord complications are unpreventable, significant improvement in perinatal mortality and morbidity can be achieved if such an event can be predicted. Umbilical cord rupture is not uncommon, but significantly underreported. We present an unusual cause of umbilical cord rupture and a review of literature.

  9. The 2016-2017 central Italy coseismic surface ruptures and their meaning with respect to foreseen active fault systems segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Martini, P. M.; Pucci, S.; Villani, F.; Civico, R.; Del Rio, L.; Cinti, F. R.; Pantosti, D.

    2017-12-01

    In 2016-2017 a series of moderate to large normal faulting earthquakes struck central Italy producing severe damage in many towns including Amatrice, Norcia and Visso and resulting in 299 casualties and >20,000 homeless. The complex seismic sequence depicts a multiple activation of the Mt. Vettore-Mt. Bove (VBFS) and the Laga Mts. fault systems, which were considered in literature as independent segments characterizing a recent seismic gap in the region comprised between two modern seismic sequences: the 1997-1998 Colfiorito and the 2009 L'Aquila. We mapped in detail the coseismic surface ruptures following three mainshocks (Mw 6.0 on 24th August, Mw 5.9 and Mw 6.5 on 26th and 30th October, 2016, respectively). Primary surface ruptures were observed and recorded for a total length of 5.2 km, ≅10 km and ≅25 km, respectively, along closely-spaced, parallel or subparallel, overlapping or step-like synthetic and antithetic fault splays of the activated fault systems, in some cases rupturing repeatedly the same location. Some coseismic ruptures were mapped also along the Norcia Fault System, paralleling the VBFS about 10 km westward. We recorded geometric and kinematic characteristics of the normal faulting ruptures with an unprecedented detail thanks to almost 11,000 oblique photographs taken from helicopter flights soon after the mainshocks, verified and integrated with field data (more than 7000 measurements). We analyze the along-strike coseismic slip and slip vectors distribution to be observed in the context of the geomorphic expression of the disrupted slopes and their depositional and erosive processes. Moreover, we constructed 1:10.000 scale geologic cross-sections based on updated maps, and we reconstructed the net offset distribution of the activated fault system to be compared with the morphologic throws and to test a cause-effect relationship between faulting and first-order landforms. We provide a reconstruction of the 2016 coseismic rupture pattern as

  10. Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NOAA-GLERL and its partners conduct innovative research on the dynamic environments and ecosystems of the Great Lakes and coastal regions to provide information for...

  11. What Caused the Great Recession?

    OpenAIRE

    Homburg, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines five possible explanations for the Great Recession of 2008 and 2009, using data for the United States and the eurozone. Of these five hypotheses, four are not supported by the data, while the fifth appears reasonable.

  12. Arthroscopy of the great toe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frey, C.; van Dijk, C. N.

    1999-01-01

    The few available reports of arthroscopic treatment of the first MTP joint in the literature indicate favorable outcome. However, arthroscopy of the great toe is an advanced technique and should only be undertaken by experienced surgeons

  13. Paleoseismic Trenching on 1939 Erzincan and 1942 Niksar-Erbaa Earthquake Surface Ruptures, the North Anatolian Fault (Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyuz, H. S.; Karabacak, V.; Zabci, C.; Sancar, T.; Altunel, E.; Gursoy, H.; Tatar, O.

    2009-04-01

    Two devastating earthquakes occurred between Erzincan (39.75N, 39.49E) and Erbaa, Tokat (40.70N, 36.58E) just three years one after another in 1939 and 1942. While 1939 Erzincan earthquake (M=7.8) ruptured nearly 360 km, 1942 Erbaa-Niksar earthquake (M=7.1) has a length of 50 km surface rupture. Totally, more than 35000 citizens lost their lives after these events. Although Turkey has one of the richest historical earthquake records, there is no clear evidence of the spatial distribution of paleoevents within these two earthquake segments of the North Anatolian Fault. 17 August 1668 Anatolian earthquake is one of the known previous earthquakes that may have occurred on the same segments with a probable rupture length of more than 400 km. It is still under debate in different catalogues, if it was ruptured in multiple events or a single one. We achieved paleoseismic trench studies to have a better understanding on the recurrence of large earthquakes on these two faults in the framework of T.C. DPT. Project no. 2006K120220. We excavated a total of 8 trenches in 7 different sites. While three of them are along the 1942 Erbaa-Niksar Earthquake rupture, others are located on the 1939 Erzincan one. Alanici and Direkli trenches were excavated on the 1942 rupture. Direkli trench site is located at the west of Niksar, Tokat (40.62N, 36.85E) on the fluvial terrace deposits of the Kelkit River. Only one paleoevent could be determined from the structural relationships of the trench wall stratigraphy. By radiocarbon dating of charcoal sample from above the event horizon indicates that this earthquake should have occurred before 480-412 BC. The second trench, Alanici, on the same segment was located between Erbaa and Niksar (40.65N, 36.78E) at the western boundary of a sag-pond. While signs of two (possible three) earthquakes were identified on the trench wall, the prior event to 1942 Earthquake is dated to be before 5th century AD. We interpreted this to have possibility of

  14. The Sixth Great Mass Extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagler, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Five past great mass extinctions have occurred during Earth's history. Humanity is currently in the midst of a sixth, human-induced great mass extinction of plant and animal life (e.g., Alroy 2008; Jackson 2008; Lewis 2006; McDaniel and Borton 2002; Rockstrom et al. 2009; Rohr et al. 2008; Steffen, Crutzen, and McNeill 2007; Thomas et al. 2004;…

  15. Design considerations for the protection from the effects of pipe rupture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-11-01

    The methods which are employed by Ebasco Services, Inc. to satisfy the requirement of 10 CFR 50, Appendix A, General Design Criterion (GDC) 4 are discussed. This criterion provides the design basis for protection against the dynamic effects of postulated piping failures (ruptures and cracks) in Nuclear Power Plants. The criteria for postulating pipe failure locations, determining the dynamic effects associated with the postulated failure and designing the plant to satisfactorily withstand postulated pipe failures have been the subject of a great deal of recent work by the nuclear power industry and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This topical report is largely based upon that work as well as upon Ebasco's independent development of analytical tools to aid in the plant design process

  16. The diagnosis of breast implant rupture: MRI findings compared with findings at explantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoelmich, Lisbet R.; Vejborg, Ilse; Conrad, Carsten; Sletting, Susanne; McLaughlin, Joseph K.

    2005-01-01

    Study objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) as performed according to a strict study protocol in diagnosing rupture of silicone breast implants. Material and methods: The study population consisted of 64 women with 118 implants, who had participated in either one or two study MRI examinations, aiming at determining the prevalence and incidence of silent implant rupture, respectively, and who subsequently underwent explantation. Implant rupture status was determined by four independent readers and a consensus diagnosis of either rupture (intracapsular or extracapsular), possible rupture or intact implant was then obtained. Strict predetermined rupture criteria were applied as described in this report and findings at surgery were abstracted in a standardised manner and results compared. Results: At MRI, 66 implants were diagnosed as ruptured, nine as possibly ruptured and 43 as intact. Among the ruptured implants, 27 were categorized as extracapsular. At surgery, on average 297 days after the MRI, 65 of the 66 rupture diagnoses were confirmed, as were 20 of the cases with extracapsular silicone. Eight of the nine possibly ruptured implants were in fact ruptured at surgery. Thirty-four of the 43 intact implants were described as intact at surgery. When categorising possible ruptures as ruptures, there were one false positive and nine false negative rupture diagnoses at MRI yielding an accuracy of 92%, a sensitivity of 89%, and a specificity of 97%. Correspondingly, the predictive value of a positive MRI examination was 99% and the predictive value of a negative MRI examination was 79%. Conclusions: We conclude that MRI is highly accurate for identification of silicone breast implant rupture, with a high sensitivity and specificity when evaluation of images are based on presence of well-defined rupture criteria

  17. Ground-rupturing earthquakes on the northern Big Bend of the San Andreas Fault, California, 800 A.D. to Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharer, Katherine M.; Weldon, Ray; Biasi, Glenn; Streig, Ashley; Fumal, Thomas E.

    2017-01-01

    Paleoseismic data on the timing of ground-rupturing earthquakes constrain the recurrence behavior of active faults and can provide insight on the rupture history of a fault if earthquakes dated at neighboring sites overlap in age and are considered correlative. This study presents the evidence and ages for 11 earthquakes that occurred along the Big Bend section of the southern San Andreas Fault at the Frazier Mountain paleoseismic site. The most recent earthquake to rupture the site was the Mw7.7–7.9 Fort Tejon earthquake of 1857. We use over 30 trench excavations to document the structural and sedimentological evolution of a small pull-apart basin that has been repeatedly faulted and folded by ground-rupturing earthquakes. A sedimentation rate of 0.4 cm/yr and abundant organic material for radiocarbon dating contribute to a record that is considered complete since 800 A.D. and includes 10 paleoearthquakes. Earthquakes have ruptured this location on average every ~100 years over the last 1200 years, but individual intervals range from ~22 to 186 years. The coefficient of variation of the length of time between earthquakes (0.7) indicates quasiperiodic behavior, similar to other sites along the southern San Andreas Fault. Comparison with the earthquake chronology at neighboring sites along the fault indicates that only one other 1857-size earthquake could have occurred since 1350 A.D., and since 800 A.D., the Big Bend and Mojave sections have ruptured together at most 50% of the time in Mw ≥ 7.3 earthquakes.

  18. Spontaneous rupture of a nonpancreatic mesenteric pseudocyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramon, J. F.; Orti, C.; Andrada, E.

    2001-01-01

    We report a new case of nonpacncreatic pseudocyst located in the mesentery in a 39-year-old woman whose personal history was unremarkable. She came to the Emergency Room with symptoms of acute abdomen. Admoninal ultrasound revealed the presence of a thick-walled cystic lesion at the level of the mesogastrium, containing echogenic materials and a fluid-fluid level. Subsequent computed tomography showed that the wall was enhanced by the contrast material and that the lesion arose from the mesentery. There was also a great amount of free peritoneal fluid. The patient underwent emergency surgery to excise a perforated mesenteric cyst. The pathological study of the excised tissue resulted in a diagnosis of mesenteric pseudocyst. (Author) 4 refs

  19. The Effect of Autologous Platelet Rich Plasma in the Treatment of Achilles Tendon Ruptures: An Experimental Study on Rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şen, Baran; Güler, Serkan; Çeçen, Berivan; Kumtepe, Erdem; Bağrıyanık, Alper; Özkal, Sermin; Ali Özcan, M; Özsan, Hayri; Şanlı, Namık; Tatari, M Hasan

    2016-01-01

    Achilles tendon ruptures are characterized by a long recovery period, high re-rupture rate and late return to work. To overcome these difficulties and augment tendon repair, many agents have been used. To determine the effect of autologous platelet rich plasma (PRP) in the treatment of Achilles tendon ruptures in rabbits. Animal experimentation. The study included 14 New Zealand albino rabbits that were divided randomly into 2 groups, A and B, each containing seven rabbits. On day zero, all 28 Achilles tendons were tenotomized and repaired. In group A, the tendons were injected with PRP post-surgery, whereas those in group B were left untreated. On day 28, the right tendons in both groups were examined histopathologically via both light and electron microscopy, and the left tendons were subjected to biomechanical testing. The histological and biomechanical findings in both light and electron microscopy in group A were better than those in group B, but the difference was not significant. According to Tang's scale, the mean value in Group A was 3.57, while it was 3.0 in Group B. The mean value of Group A for the length of collagen bands was 48.09 nm while the mean value of Group B was 46.58 nm (p=0.406). In biomechanical tests, although stiffness values were higher in group A, the difference between groups was not significant. In addition, maximum load values did not differ between groups A and B. PRP had no effect on the healing process 28 days post-Achilles tendon rupture.

  20. Does length or neighborhood size cause the word length effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalbert, Annie; Neath, Ian; Surprenant, Aimée M

    2011-10-01

    Jalbert, Neath, Bireta, and Surprenant (2011) suggested that past demonstrations of the word length effect, the finding that words with fewer syllables are recalled better than words with more syllables, included a confound: The short words had more orthographic neighbors than the long words. The experiments reported here test two predictions that would follow if neighborhood size is a more important factor than word length. In Experiment 1, we found that concurrent articulation removed the effect of neighborhood size, just as it removes the effect of word length. Experiment 2 demonstrated that this pattern is also found with nonwords. For Experiment 3, we factorially manipulated length and neighborhood size, and found only effects of the latter. These results are problematic for any theory of memory that includes decay offset by rehearsal, but they are consistent with accounts that include a redintegrative stage that is susceptible to disruption by noise. The results also confirm the importance of lexical and linguistic factors on memory tasks thought to tap short-term memory.

  1. Keeping disease at arm's length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Aske Juul

    2015-01-01

    active ageing change everyday life with chronic disease, and how do older people combine an active life with a range of chronic diseases? The participants in the study use activities to keep their diseases at arm’s length, and this distancing of disease at the same time enables them to engage in social...... and physical activities at the activity centre. In this way, keeping disease at arm’s length is analysed as an ambiguous health strategy. The article shows the importance of looking into how active ageing is practised, as active ageing seems to work well in the everyday life of the older people by not giving...... emphasis to disease. The article is based on ethnographic fieldwork and uses vignettes of four participants to show how they each keep diseases at arm’s length....

  2. Continuously variable focal length lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Bernhard W; Chollet, Matthieu C

    2013-12-17

    A material preferably in crystal form having a low atomic number such as beryllium (Z=4) provides for the focusing of x-rays in a continuously variable manner. The material is provided with plural spaced curvilinear, optically matched slots and/or recesses through which an x-ray beam is directed. The focal length of the material may be decreased or increased by increasing or decreasing, respectively, the number of slots (or recesses) through which the x-ray beam is directed, while fine tuning of the focal length is accomplished by rotation of the material so as to change the path length of the x-ray beam through the aligned cylindrical slows. X-ray analysis of a fixed point in a solid material may be performed by scanning the energy of the x-ray beam while rotating the material to maintain the beam's focal point at a fixed point in the specimen undergoing analysis.

  3. CEBAF Upgrade Bunch Length Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Mahmoud [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Many accelerators use short electron bunches and measuring the bunch length is important for efficient operations. CEBAF needs a suitable bunch length because bunches that are too long will result in beam interruption to the halls due to excessive energy spread and beam loss. In this work, bunch length is measured by invasive and non-invasive techniques at different beam energies. Two new measurement techniques have been commissioned; a harmonic cavity showed good results compared to expectations from simulation, and a real time interferometer is commissioned and first checkouts were performed. Three other techniques were used for measurements and comparison purposes without modifying the old procedures. Two of them can be used when the beam is not compressed longitudinally while the other one, the synchrotron light monitor, can be used with compressed or uncompressed beam.

  4. Rupture of the renal pelvis of a ureteropelvic junction hydronephrosis after blunt abdominal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashebu, Samuel D.; Dahniya, Mohamed H.; Aduh, Prosper; Ramadan, Salwa; Bopaiah, Harini; Elshebiny, Yahaya H.

    2004-01-01

    In the present case report, we present the unusual occurrence of traumatic rupture of a ureteropelvic junction hydronephrosis, and discuss the potential mechanisms producing such a rupture and the management options Copyright (2004) Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd

  5. Pseudodynamic Source Characterization for Strike-Slip Faulting Including Stress Heterogeneity and Super-Shear Ruptures

    KAUST Repository

    Mena, B.; Dalguer, L. A.; Mai, Paul Martin

    2012-01-01

    . (2004), we propose new relationships for PD models for moderate‐to‐large strike‐slip earthquakes that include local supershear rupture speed due to stress heterogeneities. We conduct dynamic rupture simulations using stochastic initial stress

  6. Impact of Partial and complete rupture of anterior cruciate ligament on medial meniscus: A cadavaric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: Similar to complete rupture, partial rupture of ACL can also trigger strain concentration on medial meniscus, especially posterior horn, which may be a more critical reason for meniscus injury associated with chronic ACL deficiency.

  7. On the initiation of sustained slip-weakening ruptures by localized stresses

    KAUST Repository

    Galis, Martin; Pelties, C.; Kristek, J.; Moczo, P.; Ampuero, J.- P.; Mai, Paul Martin

    2014-01-01

    stressed beyond the static frictional strength. The physical properties of the asperity (size, shape and overstress) may significantly impact rupture propagation. In particular, to induce a sustained rupture the asperity size needs to exceed a critical

  8. Kondo length in bosonic lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, Domenico; Sodano, Pasquale; Trombettoni, Andrea

    2017-09-01

    Motivated by the fact that the low-energy properties of the Kondo model can be effectively simulated in spin chains, we study the realization of the effect with bond impurities in ultracold bosonic lattices at half filling. After presenting a discussion of the effective theory and of the mapping of the bosonic chain onto a lattice spin Hamiltonian, we provide estimates for the Kondo length as a function of the parameters of the bosonic model. We point out that the Kondo length can be extracted from the integrated real-space correlation functions, which are experimentally accessible quantities in experiments with cold atoms.

  9. Continuous lengths of oxide superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, Donald M.; List, III, Frederick A.

    2000-01-01

    A layered oxide superconductor prepared by depositing a superconductor precursor powder on a continuous length of a first substrate ribbon. A continuous length of a second substrate ribbon is overlaid on the first substrate ribbon. Sufficient pressure is applied to form a bound layered superconductor precursor powder between the first substrate ribbon and the second substrate ribbon. The layered superconductor precursor is then heat treated to establish the oxide superconducting phase. The layered oxide superconductor has a smooth interface between the substrate and the oxide superconductor.

  10. Summary of neutron scattering lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koester, L.

    1981-12-01

    All available neutron-nuclei scattering lengths are collected together with their error bars in a uniform way. Bound scattering lengths are given for the elements, the isotopes, and the various spin-states. They are discussed in the sense of their use as basic parameters for many investigations in the field of nuclear and solid state physics. The data bank is available on magnetic tape, too. Recommended values and a map of these data serve for an uncomplicated use of these quantities. (orig.)

  11. Overview of bunch length measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumpkin, A. H.

    1999-01-01

    An overview of particle and photon beam bunch length measurements is presented in the context of free-electron laser (FEL) challenges. Particle-beam peak current is a critical factor in obtaining adequate FEL gain for both oscillators and self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) devices. Since measurement of charge is a standard measurement, the bunch length becomes the key issue for ultrashort bunches. Both time-domain and frequency-domain techniques are presented in the context of using electromagnetic radiation over eight orders of magnitude in wavelength. In addition, the measurement of microbunching in a micropulse is addressed

  12. Case Report: Ruptured Uterus in a Primigravida | Ibekwe | Tropical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A case of ruptured uterus in a 30 year-old primigravida is presented. ... and reported to a local maternity where it was discovered that the fetus had a breech presentation. The attending midwife decided to attempt an external cephalic version.

  13. Analytical evaluation of the environment effect on creep rupture strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Manabu; Ogawa, Yutaka; Kurata, Yuji; Kondo, Tatsuo

    1982-04-01

    An analytical approach was made in evaluating semi-quantitatively the effect of environment on rupture strength of materials. In the analysis the zone formed in the material by reaction with the environment was assumed to bear the applied load as one of the strength members. In calculations a law of mixtures of creep strength and the linear damage rule were applied. In the modeling of the load bearing by the composite structure of the environment-affected and intact zones, both parallel and series models were considered to formulate the equations. The equation for the parallel-loaded model was properly adopted in explaining semi-quantitatively the case of Incoloy alloy 800 crept in air, which was strengthened with the layer formed by nitrization. The equation for the serially loaded model was more successfully adopted to the evaluation of the rupture strength of dissimilar weld joints. The latter was also considered to be potentially adoptable to the problems of the effect of specimen size and shape on rupture strength, which had been often taken into account in evaluating the environment effect. For application of the developed method, examination was made to the possible decrease in rupture strength of Hastelloy alloy XR in long term tests by the formation of Cr depleted zone due to oxidation in HTGR impure helium, and the results were compared with the values obtained by experiments. (author)

  14. Ruptured splenic epidermoid cyst: case report and imaging appearances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, N.J.B.; Arthur, R.J.; Stringer, M.D.

    1996-01-01

    Traumatic rupture of a splenic epidermoid cyst is a rare but recognised cause of ''acute abdomen'' in a child. We describe such a case occurring after very minor trauma, show the influence that imaging had in making an accurate diagnosis, and discuss how this influenced clinical management. (orig.). With 1 fig

  15. Ruptured splenic epidermoid cyst: case report and imaging appearances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, N.J.B. [Department of Paediatric Radiology, Clarendon Wing, General Infirmary, Leeds (United Kingdom); Arthur, R.J. [Department of Paediatric Radiology, Clarendon Wing, General Infirmary, Leeds (United Kingdom); Stringer, M.D. [Department of Paediatric Surgery, General Infirmary, Leeds (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-01

    Traumatic rupture of a splenic epidermoid cyst is a rare but recognised cause of ``acute abdomen`` in a child. We describe such a case occurring after very minor trauma, show the influence that imaging had in making an accurate diagnosis, and discuss how this influenced clinical management. (orig.). With 1 fig.

  16. Uterine ruptures: epidemiological aspects and prognosis at N ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RESULT: We recorded 54 uterine ruptures among 9384 deliveries giving a frequency of 0.57%. The average age was 26. 8 years with a range of 15 to 40 years. Thirty two of the 54 patients (57.4%) were multiparous (average parity was 3.8). Eighteen had a scarred uterus (p=0,014). Among the causes, foeto–pelvic ...

  17. Ruptured heterotopic pregnancy and subsequent vaginal delivery at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Heterotopic pregnancy is the co- existence of intrauterine and extrauterine gestation at the same time. The condition is life threatening when the ectopic pregnancy ruptures and it is unrecognized. Objective: To report the first successfully managed case of heterotopic pregnancy in a woman without obvious risk ...

  18. Premature rupture of membranes at term: immediate induction of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To compare the maternal outcomes of immediate induction of labor with expectant management in women presenting with premature rupture of membranes (PROM) at term. Methods: One hundred and fifty two women with PROM at term were randomized into either immediate induction of labor with oxytocin or ...

  19. Management of premature rupture of the membranes after 34 weeks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To determine the optimal way to manage patients with premature rupture of the membranes after 34 weeks' gestation. Design. A prospective, randomised controlled trial comparing immediate induction and delayed induction after 24 • 48 hours. Setting. Tygerberg Hospital, Gape Town. Participants. Seventy ...

  20. A Review of Fetomaternal Outcome of Preterm Prelabour Rupture of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preterm prelabour rupture of membranes(PPROM) is an important obstetric complication. It accounts for a third of all preterm deliveries with associated increased risks of fetomaternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. To review the fetomatermal outcome of PPROM in a tertiary hospital in Lagos, South-west, Nigeria.

  1. Apoptosis of rabbit retinal cell after eyeball rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xue-Min; Zhu, Yu

    2013-04-13

    To establish rabbit eyeball rupture model by air gun in order to observe and analyze the early injury condition and reasons of retinal cell after eyeball rupture. Forty eight healthy rabbits were randomly divided into control group and 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 h after injury groups. After anesthesia, the rabbit eyeball rupture model was established by air gun. Then the early pathological changes of rabbit retina were observed, and apoptotic index (AI), oncosis index (OI), the relationship between the expression amounts of apoptosis-related genes and AI were analyzed. Obvious pathological lesion appeared in retina 6 h after injury. Irreversible damage occurred 12-24 h after injury. The results of AI and OI indicated that the OI peak appeared 6 h after injury and then gradually declined, while the AI increased with the prolongation of time, and the AI was higher than OI in 12 h after injury. Immunohistochemical results indicated that there was no obvious bcl-2 protein expression change. Compared with the control group and the 3, 6, 12 and 24 h after the injury groups, the expressions of p53 and Caspase-3 were significantly improved and peaked at 12 h (Peyeball rupture. Copyright © 2013 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Percutaneous and Endovascular Embolization of Ruptured Hepatic Artery Aneurysm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, Andrew F.; Lee, Wai Kit

    2002-01-01

    A 72-year-old woman presented with an intraperitoneal hemorrhage from a ruptured intrahepatic arteryaneurysm, with an associated pseudoaneurysm developing a high-flow arteriovenous fistula. Persistent coagulopathy and a median arcuate ligament stenosis of the celiac axis further complicated endovascular management. Aneurysm thrombosis required percutaneous embolization with coils, a removable core guidewire and polyvinyl alcohol particles

  3. Uterine rupture: UCH, Ibadan experience | Ogunnowo | West African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    85.7% of the patients were unbooked. Common modes of presentation were bleeding per vaginam and abdominal pain. Spontaneous cause of rupture predominates. The interval between diagnosis and surgery was greater than 7 hours in 75% of cases. Uterine repair with or without tubal ligation was commonly employed.

  4. Spontaneous rupture of the spleen after infectious mononucleosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulstad, Mikkel Bak; Thomsen, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Non-traumatic rupture of the spleen (NRS) is a rare but serious complication to infectious mononucleosis (IM) and it is important to have in mind, when patients have IM. Although splenectomy has been advocated as the appropriate treatment for this problem, the trend goes towards conservative...

  5. Tracheal rupture after misplacement of Sengstaken-Blakemore tube ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The balloon were immediately deflated and a chest X-ray was performed, showing the tube in the right bronchus airway (A), so it was withdrawn. Right pneumothorax appeared and was treated with an intercostal drainage. The patient required orotracheal intubation and a CT scan was performed to show the rupture level ...

  6. A LOCA analysis for AHWR caused by ECCS header rupture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, B.; Gawai, Amol; Gupta, S.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.

    2000-01-01

    Loss of coolant accident (LOCA) analyses for the proposed 750 MWth Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR), initiated by the rupture of 8 inch NB ECCS header has been carried out. This paper narrates the description of AHWR and associated ECCS, postulated scenario with which the analyses is carried out, results, discussion and conclusion

  7. Preterm Delivery in the Setting of Left Calyceal Rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brent Hanson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous rupture of the renal collecting system is a rare but serious complication of pregnancy. We report a case of nontraumatic left renal calyceal rupture in a pregnancy which ultimately progressed to preterm delivery. A 29-year-old primigravida with a remote history of urolithiasis presented with left flank pain, suprapubic pain, and signs of preterm labor at 33 weeks of gestation. The patient was believed to have urolithiasis, although initial renal ultrasound failed to demonstrate definitive calculi. After a temporary improvement in flank pain with medication, the patient experienced acute worsening of her left flank pain. Urology was consulted and further imaging was obtained. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI was consistent with bilateral hydronephrosis and rupture of the left renal calyx. Given the patient’s worsening pain in the setting of left calyceal rupture, the urology team planned for placement of a left ureteral stent. However, before the patient could receive her stent, she progressed to active labor and delivered a viable female infant vaginally. Following delivery, the patient’s flank pain resolved rapidly and spontaneously, so no surgical intervention was performed. A summary of the literature and the details of this specific clinical situation are provided.

  8. A minimal rupture cascade model for living cell plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polizzi, Stefano; Laperrousaz, Bastien; Perez-Reche, Francisco J.; Nicolini, Franck E.; Maguer Satta, Véronique; Arneodo, Alain; Argoul, Françoise

    2018-05-01

    Under physiological and pathological conditions, cells experience large forces and deformations that often exceed the linear viscoelastic regime. Here we drive CD34+ cells isolated from healthy and leukemic bone marrows in the highly nonlinear elasto-plastic regime, by poking their perinuclear region with a sharp AFM cantilever tip. We use the wavelet transform mathematical microscope to identify singular events in the force-indentation curves induced by local rupture events in the cytoskeleton (CSK). We distinguish two types of rupture events, brittle failures likely corresponding to irreversible ruptures in a stiff and highly cross-linked CSK and ductile failures resulting from dynamic cross-linker unbindings during plastic deformation without loss of CSK integrity. We propose a stochastic multiplicative cascade model of mechanical ruptures that reproduces quantitatively the experimental distributions of the energy released during these events, and provides some mathematical and mechanistic understanding of the robustness of the log-normal statistics observed in both brittle and ductile situations. We also show that brittle failures are relatively more prominent in leukemia than in healthy cells suggesting their greater fragility.

  9. Radiologic analysis of the medical collateral ligament rupture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Chung Che; Lee, Chang Jun; Kim, Kun Sang; Park, Soo Soung

    1979-01-01

    The medical collateral ligament rupture is the most common injury involving the knee joint ligaments. The ruptured medical collateral ligaments of 73 cases with clinical and surgical confirmations were radiologically analyzed. The results were obtained as follows: 1. The most risky age for tearing of the medical collateral ligament was third to fifth decades (50 cases of male and 23 of females). 2. The most common cause of the medical collateral ligament rupture was traffic accident (82.2%). 3. The mean distance of medial knee joint space was 7.9 ± 2.0 mm on the normal side and 13.7 ± 4.2 mm on the affected side. 4. The mean degree of knee joint space was 10.1 ± 2.5 on the normal side and 14.7 ± 3.8 on the affected side. 5. The fibula was the bone fractured most frequently in association with the medial collateral ligament rupture (30.6%).

  10. Anal incontinence in women with recurrent obstetric anal sphincter rupture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgeskov, Reneé; Nickelsen, Carsten Nahne Amtoft; Secher, Niels Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Abstract Objectives: To determine the risk of recurrent anal sphincter rupture (ASR), and compare the risk of anal incontinence (AI) after recurrent ASR, with that seen in women with previous ASR who deliver by caesarean section or vaginally without sustaining a recurrent ASR. METHODS...

  11. Ultrasound evaluation of a spontaneous plantar fascia rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louwers, Michael J; Sabb, Brian; Pangilinan, Percival H

    2010-11-01

    Plantar fascia rupture is an occasional complication in patients with chronic plantar fasciitis or in patients with plantar fasciitis treated with steroid injection. Very few cases of spontaneous plantar fascia rupture have been reported in the literature (Herrick and Herrick, Am J Sports Med 1983;11:95; Lun et al, Clin J Sports Med 1999;9:48-9; Rolf et al, J Foot Ankle Surg 1997;36:112-4; Saxena and Fullem, Am J Sports Med 2004;32:662-5). Spontaneous medial plantar fascia rupture in a 37-yr-old man with no preceding symptoms or steroid injections was confirmed with diagnostic ultrasound, which revealed severe fasciitis at the calcaneal insertion with partial tearing. After conservative treatment, the patient returned to full activities. We discuss the anatomy, risk factors, examination findings, and treatment for this condition, as well as the unique benefits that ultrasound offers over magnetic resonance imaging. It is important to consider plantar fascia rupture in patients with hindfoot pain and medioplantar ecchymosis, particularly if an injury occurred during acceleration maneuvers. Ultrasound in these cases can be used to diagnose a plantar fascia tear quickly, accurately, and cost-effectively.

  12. Spontaneous rupture of the middle colic artery resulting in delayed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mission for three days after delivery due to raised blood pressure which was controlled using antihypertensives. The baby weighed 3.8 kg with good Apgar score. ... Osamu C, Hiroshi K, Makoto S, Soichiro Y, Hiroyuki. K, Yasumasa K, Hiroyasu M. Spontaneous rupture of. Dissecting Aneurysm of the Middle colic Artery. Tokai.

  13. 60 Review Article PRETERM RUPTURE OF MEMBRANES: THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preterm prelabour rupture of membranes (PPROM) is one of the major factors that have been found to ... is because of the multiple risk factors that have been associated with PROM and also the non-uniformity in ... collagen within the extracellular matrix of the chorioamniotic membrane induced by an increased expression.

  14. Early onset neonatal sepsis in preterm premature rupture of membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashraf, M.N.

    2015-01-01

    To determine the frequency of early onset neonatal sepsis in newborn with various duration of preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM). Study Design: Cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Combined Military Hospital, Lahore from November 2009 to November 2010. Material and Methods: Neonates of singleton pregnancies complicated by preterm premature rupture of the membranes (PPROM) with delivery between 30 and 36 weeks gestation were included in the study. The overall frequency of neonatal sepsis was calculated on clinical and serological basis. Comparison of the frequency of sepsis among groups with varying duration of rupture of membranes was done. Results: Out of 164 babies, 84 (51.2%) were female and 80 (48.8%) were male. Mean maternal age was 23 years (range: 18-36 years). Mean gestational age was 33 weeks (range: 30-36 weeks). Sepsis was suspected in 41(25%) babies on clinical grounds. C-reactive protein was raised in 36 (22%) neonates. There was statistically insignificant difference between clinical versus serological diagnosis (p=0.515). Frequency of neonatal sepsis was significantly higher in mothers with longer duration of rupture of membrane (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Frequency of neonatal sepsis was observed to be 22%. PPROM is an important risk factor for early onset neonatal sepsis. (author)

  15. Rupture of steam lines between blocks D and G

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Analysis of steam lines rupture between blocks D and G of Ignalina NPP was performed. Model for evaluation of thermo hydrodynamic parameters was developed. Structural analysis of the shaft building was done as well. State of the art codes such as RELAP5, ALGOR, NEPTUNE were used in these calculations

  16. Functional rehabilitation of patients with acute Achilles tendon rupture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark-Christensen, Troels; Troelsen, Anders; Kallemose, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: The optimal treatment for acute Achilles tendon rupture (ATR) is continuously debated. Recent studies have proposed that the choice of either operative or non-operative treatment may not be as important as rehabilitation, suggesting that functional rehabilitation should be preferred over...

  17. Complex rupture during the 12 January 2010 Haiti earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, G.P.; Briggs, R.W.; Sladen, A.; Fielding, E.J.; Prentice, C.; Hudnut, K.; Mann, P.; Taylor, F.W.; Crone, A.J.; Gold, R.; Ito, T.; Simons, M.

    2010-01-01

    Initially, the devastating Mw 7.0, 12 January 2010 Haiti earthquake seemed to involve straightforward accommodation of oblique relative motion between the Caribbean and North American plates along the Enriquillog-Plantain Garden fault zone. Here, we combine seismological observations, geologic field data and space geodetic measurements to show that, instead, the rupture process may have involved slip on multiple faults. Primary surface deformation was driven by rupture on blind thrust faults with only minor, deep, lateral slip along or near the main Enriquillog-Plantain Garden fault zone; thus the event only partially relieved centuries of accumulated left-lateral strain on a small part of the plate-boundary system. Together with the predominance of shallow off-fault thrusting, the lack of surface deformation implies that remaining shallow shear strain will be released in future surface-rupturing earthquakes on the Enriquillog-Plantain Garden fault zone, as occurred in inferred Holocene and probable historic events. We suggest that the geological signature of this earthquakeg-broad warping and coastal deformation rather than surface rupture along the main fault zoneg-will not be easily recognized by standard palaeoseismic studies. We conclude that similarly complex earthquakes in tectonic environments that accommodate both translation and convergenceg-such as the San Andreas fault through the Transverse Ranges of Californiag-may be missing from the prehistoric earthquake record. ?? 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  18. Should preterm labour and preterm premature rupture of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Should preterm labour and preterm premature rupture of membranes be treated with antibiotics? AP Macdonald. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ogf.v19i2.43719 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO ...

  19. Uterine rupture: a retrospective analysis of causes, complications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We conducted a retrospective review of case notes (from 2003 to 2009) to determine the incidence, causes, complications and foetal/maternal outcome among women with a diagnosis of ... Out of 72,570 deliveries 163 cases of ruptured uterus were recorded in seven years, making an incidence of 2.25 per 1000 births.

  20. Total transverse rupture of the duodenum after blunt abdominal trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirozzi, Cesare; Di Marco, Carluccio; Loponte, Margherita; Savino, Grazia

    2014-05-11

    Complete transverse rupture of the duodenum as an isolated lesion in blunt trauma can be considered as exceptional. The aim of this report is to discuss diagnostic procedures and surgical options in such an infrequent presentation. We report on a 37 year old man who had a total transverse rupture of the duodenum after blunt abdominal trauma. Diagnosis was suspected after contrast enhanced CT scan and confirmed at laparotomy; duodenal rupture was repaired by an end to end duodenal-duodenal anastomosis, after Kocher maneuver. The patient had fast and complete recovery. A high index of suspicion is necessary for timely diagnosis. Multi detector contrast enhanced CT scan is the gold standard for that aim. Surgical management must be tailored on an individual basis, since many techniques are available for both reconstruction and duodenum decompression. Kocher maneuver is essential for complete inspection of the pancreatic duodenal block and for appropriate reconstruction. Management of isolated duodenal rupture can be difficult. Contrast enhanced TC scans is essential for timely diagnosis. Primary repair can be achieved by an end to end duodenum anastomosis after Kocher maneuver, although alternative techniques are available for tailored solutions. Complex duodenum decompression techniques are not mandatory.