WorldWideScience

Sample records for great potential application

  1. Application of theory and research in fishery management of the Laurentian Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stanford H.

    1973-01-01

    The Great Lakes have a high potential for the conduct of research and useful application of research findings, but the history of the Great Lakes indicates that extensive research and intensive management have failed to prevent deterioration of the fisheries. At times the research was not done before a loss occurred, or did not provide the information needed to solve a problem, or was not interpreted to indicate a need for corrective action.

  2. A great potential for market power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trong, Maj Dang

    2003-01-01

    In a report the competition authorities of Norway, Sweden and Denmark conclude that there is a great potential for exerting market power in the Nordic countries. Bottlenecks in the transmission grid divide the Nordic market in shifting constellations of geographic markets and the market concentration in each market may therefore become very high

  3. Great Basin land managers provide detailed feedback about usefulness of two climate information web applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad Zanocco

    Full Text Available Land managers in the Great Basin are working to maintain or restore sagebrush ecosystems as climate change exacerbates existing threats. Web applications delivering climate change and climate impacts information have the potential to assist their efforts. Although many web applications containing climate information currently exist, few have been co-produced with land managers or have incorporated information specifically focused on land managers’ needs. Through surveys and interviews, we gathered detailed feedback from federal, state, and tribal sagebrush land managers in the Great Basin on climate information web applications targeting land management. We found that a managers are searching for weather and climate information they can incorporate into their current management strategies and plans; b they are willing to be educated on how to find and understand climate related web applications; c both field and administrative-type managers want data for timescales ranging from seasonal to decadal; d managers want multiple levels of climate information, from simple summaries, to detailed descriptions accessible through the application; and e managers are interested in applications that evaluate uncertainty and provide projected climate impacts. Keywords: Great Basin, Sagebrush, Land management, Climate change, Web application, Co-production

  4. Horticulture in Argentina: a productive alternative with great potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Castagnino

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Horticulture in Argentina is an activity with great potential whose history has mainly been driven by Italian immigrants who arrived during the last two centuries. It is a valuable complement for traditional primary productions on which the country is focused with more than 30 millions of cultivated hectares and different agro-climatic conditions that characterize the different horticultural regions distributed throughout the country. The aim of this article is to give a panorama of the history, reality and perspectives in Argentina of an activity that is an opportunity for producers and entrepreneurs interested in it. Due to its characteristics, horticulture generates and dynamizes employment with great importance for regional economies. The proportion between vegetables and fruit produced and commercialized in Argentina is 63 and 34% respectively. Horticultural products for exportation largely are garlic, onion and beans. Concerning the most commercialized vegetables in Argentina, potato, tomato, onion, squash, lettuce, pepper, marrow and sweet potato stand out, whereas orange, tangerine, apple, banana, lemon, pear, grape and grapefruit may be highlighted among fruit. At present, the main challenge of the Argentinian horticultural sector is given not only by the possibilities of productive diversification and the expansion of the productive area but also of the technological level optimization, the application of quality norms and the agro-industry growth.

  5. Potential of Starch Nanocomposites for Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, N. H.; Muhammad, N.; Abdullah, M. M. A. B.

    2017-06-01

    In recent years, the development of biodegradable materials from renewable sources based on polymeric biomaterials have grown rapidly due to increase environmental concerns and the shortage of petroleum sources. In this regard, naturally renewable polymers such as starch has shown great potential as environmental friendly materials. Besides, the unique properties of starch such as biodegradable and non-toxic, biocompatible and solubility make them useful for a various biomedical applications. Regardless of their unique properties, starch materials are known to have limitations in term of poor processability, low mechanical properties, poor long term stability and high water sensitivity. In order to overcome these limitations, the incorporation of nano size fillers into starch materials (nanocomposites) has been introduced. This review aims to give an overview about structure and characteristics of starch, modification of starch by nanocomposites and their potential for biomedical applications.

  6. From the printer: Potential of three-dimensional printing for orthopaedic applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mok, Sze-Wing; Nizak, Razmara; Fu, Sai-Chuen; Ho, Ki-Wai Kevin; Qin, Ling; Saris, Daniel B. F.; Chan, Kai-Ming; Malda, J

    Three-dimensional (3D) printers can create complex structures based on digital models. The combination of medical diagnostic imaging with 3D printing has great potential in day-to-day clinics for patient-specific solutions and applications. In the musculoskeletal system, 3D printing is used to

  7. From the printer: Potential of three-dimensional printing for orthopaedic applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mok, S.; Nizak, R.; Fu, S.C.; Ho, K.K.; Qin, L.; Saris, Daniël B.F.; Chan, K.; Malda, J.

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printers can create complex structures based on digital models. The combination of medical diagnostic imaging with 3D printing has great potential in day-to-day clinics for patient-specific solutions and applications. In the musculoskeletal system, 3D printing is used to

  8. Potential future impacts of climatic change on the Great Plains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smit, B.

    1991-01-01

    A synopsis is provided of approaches to impact studies in the Great Plains, findings from studies of future impacts are summarized, and opportunities for enhancing understanding of future impacts are discussed. Potential impacts of climate change on agriculture, water resources, forestry, recreation/tourism, and energy are summarized. Impact analyses need to look more rigorously at variability in climate, the probabilities of various climatic conditions, and the sensitivity of social and economic activities to climatic variability. Most economic impact studies have assumed no adaptive behavior on the part of economic decision makers. Credible impact assessments require an improved understanding of the sensitivity and adaptability of sectors to climatic conditions, particularly variability. The energy sector in the Great Plains region is likely to be more sensitive to political developments in the Middle East than to climatic variability and change. Speculation and analysis of climate impacts have focused on supply conditions and demands, yet the sector is more keenly sensitive to policy implications of climatic change, such as the potential for fossil fuel taxes or other legislative or pricing constraints. 28 refs

  9. Horizon scanning for invasive alien species with the potential to threaten biodiversity in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Helen E; Peyton, Jodey; Aldridge, David C; Bantock, Tristan; Blackburn, Tim M; Britton, Robert; Clark, Paul; Cook, Elizabeth; Dehnen-Schmutz, Katharina; Dines, Trevor; Dobson, Michael; Edwards, François; Harrower, Colin; Harvey, Martin C; Minchin, Dan; Noble, David G; Parrott, Dave; Pocock, Michael J O; Preston, Chris D; Roy, Sugoto; Salisbury, Andrew; Schönrogge, Karsten; Sewell, Jack; Shaw, Richard H; Stebbing, Paul; Stewart, Alan J A; Walker, Kevin J

    2014-12-01

    Invasive alien species (IAS) are considered one of the greatest threats to biodiversity, particularly through their interactions with other drivers of change. Horizon scanning, the systematic examination of future potential threats and opportunities, leading to prioritization of IAS threats is seen as an essential component of IAS management. Our aim was to consider IAS that were likely to impact on native biodiversity but were not yet established in the wild in Great Britain. To achieve this, we developed an approach which coupled consensus methods (which have previously been used for collaboratively identifying priorities in other contexts) with rapid risk assessment. The process involved two distinct phases: Preliminary consultation with experts within five groups (plants, terrestrial invertebrates, freshwater invertebrates, vertebrates and marine species) to derive ranked lists of potential IAS. Consensus-building across expert groups to compile and rank the entire list of potential IAS. Five hundred and ninety-one species not native to Great Britain were considered. Ninety-three of these species were agreed to constitute at least a medium risk (based on score and consensus) with respect to them arriving, establishing and posing a threat to native biodiversity. The quagga mussel, Dreissena rostriformis bugensis, received maximum scores for risk of arrival, establishment and impact; following discussions the unanimous consensus was to rank it in the top position. A further 29 species were considered to constitute a high risk and were grouped according to their ranked risk. The remaining 63 species were considered as medium risk, and included in an unranked long list. The information collated through this novel extension of the consensus method for horizon scanning provides evidence for underpinning and prioritizing management both for the species and, perhaps more importantly, their pathways of arrival. Although our study focused on Great Britain, we suggest

  10. POTENTIAL APPLICATION OF NANOMETALS IN ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmara Malina

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, great interest in metallic nanoparticles has been observed, both because of their unlimited application possibilities, and also because of the unusual biological, chemical and physical features. It is expected that developments in nanotechnology will become the main promoter of scientific and technological innovations in the coming decades. Searching for a new and safe alternative to chemical pesticides, high hopes are associated with nanotechnology development. Particularly useful may be preparations containing nanoscale metal particles with strong antimicrobial properties. Importantly, safe and non-toxic for the plant components of biological origin may be used in nanoparticles synthesis. This article is a description of the potential applications of nanomaterials in environmental protection, which may become the basis for developing of new protection plant products with antimicrobial properties relative to plant pathogens and non-toxic to higher organisms.

  11. Potential applications of immunoassays in studies of flatfish recruitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, Robert J.

    The fisheries recruitment-stock problem, a lack of correlation between measures of reproductive output of the parent stock and recruitment to the fishery, has several potential biotic and abiotic causes. Immunoassays may be useful in examining several aspects of this and several other problems in flatfish ecology: stock identification, parasitism and disease, and trophic interactions. Given stage-specific antisera capable of recognozing antigenic moieties of, for instance, eggs, larvae, or newly-settled juveniles, it is possible to screen stomach contents of many putative predators ( e.g., shrimp or crabs) rapidly for the presence and amounts of platfish prey. This trophic application of immunological methods has great promise for measuring loss of potential recruits to predation. All immunoassays are limited by the quality of antisera used and the researcher's ability to interpret quantitative data in an ecologically meaningful way. Key references for applications of immunoassays in fish-related questions are provided with recommendations for their utilization.

  12. Diatoms - nature materials with great potential for bioapplications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medarević Đorđe P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diatoms are widespread unicellular photosynthetic algae that produce unique highly ordered siliceous cell wall, called frustule. Micro- to nanoporous structure with high surface area that can be easily modified, high mechanical resistance, unique optical features (light focusing and luminescence and biocompatibility make diatom frustule as a suitable raw material for the development of devices such as bio- and gas sensors, microfluidic particle sorting devices, supercapacitors, batteries, solar cells, electroluminescent devices and drug delivery systems. Their wide availability in the form of fossil remains (diatomite or diatomaceous earth as well as easy cultivation in the artificial conditions further supports use of diatoms in many different fields of application. This review focused on the recent achievements in the diatom bioapplications such as drug delivery, biomolecules immobilization, bio- and gas sensing, since great progress was made in this field over the last several years.

  13. Potential uranium host rocks and structures in the central Great Plains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeller, E.J.; Dreschhoff, G.; Angino, E.; Holdoway, K.; Hakes, W.; Jayaprakash, G.; Crisler, K.; Saunders, D.F.

    1975-01-01

    A preliminary study was completed of the uranium potential of the Central Great Plains. The study area extends from longitude 99 to 104 0 W and is bounded by the North Platte River on the north and the Canadian River on the south. This region has no known commercial uranium accumulations, but is an area which contains formations with similar facies that are known to have deposits in other areas. A new method of utilizing petroleum exploration gamma-ray well log data was tested in the western Kansas portion of the survey area. Gamma activities in the Dakota and Morrison formations were computer-processed by trend surface analysis, statistically analyzed, and the anomalies were compared with regional geomorphic lineaments derived from satellite imagery as well as regional geology, to draw conclusions as to their origin and significance. Conclusions are: (1) possible uraniferous provinces have been outlined in the subsurface of western Kansas; (2) the new well log data approach can be used to define potential uraniferous provinces in any well-explored petroleum region; (3) the close spatial correlation between anomalies and regional geomorphic lineaments provides strong support for the concept that the lineaments represent vertical fracture zones which can act as preferred pathways for vertical fluid migration; and (4) the location of the strongest anomalies over impervious salt bodies indicates that any uranium bearing mineralizers must have moved down through the geologic section rather than upward. Recommendations are made to extend the application of the well-log approach, to do drilling and sampling to prove whether the anomalies are really due to uranium, and to add geobotanical and emanometric measurements during future studies

  14. Minor snake venom proteins: Structure, function and potential applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldrini-França, Johara; Cologna, Camila Takeno; Pucca, Manuela Berto; Bordon, Karla de Castro Figueiredo; Amorim, Fernanda Gobbi; Anjolette, Fernando Antonio Pino; Cordeiro, Francielle Almeida; Wiezel, Gisele Adriano; Cerni, Felipe Augusto; Pinheiro-Junior, Ernesto Lopes; Shibao, Priscila Yumi Tanaka; Ferreira, Isabela Gobbo; de Oliveira, Isadora Sousa; Cardoso, Iara Aimê; Arantes, Eliane Candiani

    2017-04-01

    Snake venoms present a great diversity of pharmacologically active compounds that may be applied as research and biotechnological tools, as well as in drug development and diagnostic tests for certain diseases. The most abundant toxins have been extensively studied in the last decades and some of them have already been used for different purposes. Nevertheless, most of the minor snake venom protein classes remain poorly explored, even presenting potential application in diverse areas. The main difficulty in studying these proteins lies on the impossibility of obtaining sufficient amounts of them for a comprehensive investigation. The advent of more sensitive techniques in the last few years allowed the discovery of new venom components and the in-depth study of some already known minor proteins. This review summarizes information regarding some structural and functional aspects of low abundant snake venom proteins classes, such as growth factors, hyaluronidases, cysteine-rich secretory proteins, nucleases and nucleotidases, cobra venom factors, vespryns, protease inhibitors, antimicrobial peptides, among others. Some potential applications of these molecules are discussed herein in order to encourage researchers to explore the full venom repertoire and to discover new molecules or applications for the already known venom components. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Potential for DNA-based ID of Great Lakes fauna: Species inventories vs. barcode libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    DNA-based identification of mixed-organism samples offers the potential to greatly reduce the need for resource-intensive morphological identification, which would be of value both to biotic condition assessment and non-native species early-detection monitoring. However the abil...

  16. Dehalogenases: From Improved Performance to Potential Microbial Dehalogenation Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiau-Fu Ang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The variety of halogenated substances and their derivatives widely used as pesticides, herbicides and other industrial products is of great concern due to the hazardous nature of these compounds owing to their toxicity, and persistent environmental pollution. Therefore, from the viewpoint of environmental technology, the need for environmentally relevant enzymes involved in biodegradation of these pollutants has received a great boost. One result of this great deal of attention has been the identification of environmentally relevant bacteria that produce hydrolytic dehalogenases—key enzymes which are considered cost-effective and eco-friendly in the removal and detoxification of these pollutants. These group of enzymes catalyzing the cleavage of the carbon-halogen bond of organohalogen compounds have potential applications in the chemical industry and bioremediation. The dehalogenases make use of fundamentally different strategies with a common mechanism to cleave carbon-halogen bonds whereby, an active-site carboxylate group attacks the substrate C atom bound to the halogen atom to form an ester intermediate and a halide ion with subsequent hydrolysis of the intermediate. Structurally, these dehalogenases have been characterized and shown to use substitution mechanisms that proceed via a covalent aspartyl intermediate. More so, the widest dehalogenation spectrum of electron acceptors tested with bacterial strains which could dehalogenate recalcitrant organohalides has further proven the versatility of bacterial dehalogenators to be considered when determining the fate of halogenated organics at contaminated sites. In this review, the general features of most widely studied bacterial dehalogenases, their structural properties, basis of the degradation of organohalides and their derivatives and how they have been improved for various applications is discussed.

  17. Dehalogenases: From Improved Performance to Potential Microbial Dehalogenation Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Thiau-Fu; Maiangwa, Jonathan; Salleh, Abu Bakar; Normi, Yahaya M; Leow, Thean Chor

    2018-05-07

    The variety of halogenated substances and their derivatives widely used as pesticides, herbicides and other industrial products is of great concern due to the hazardous nature of these compounds owing to their toxicity, and persistent environmental pollution. Therefore, from the viewpoint of environmental technology, the need for environmentally relevant enzymes involved in biodegradation of these pollutants has received a great boost. One result of this great deal of attention has been the identification of environmentally relevant bacteria that produce hydrolytic dehalogenases—key enzymes which are considered cost-effective and eco-friendly in the removal and detoxification of these pollutants. These group of enzymes catalyzing the cleavage of the carbon-halogen bond of organohalogen compounds have potential applications in the chemical industry and bioremediation. The dehalogenases make use of fundamentally different strategies with a common mechanism to cleave carbon-halogen bonds whereby, an active-site carboxylate group attacks the substrate C atom bound to the halogen atom to form an ester intermediate and a halide ion with subsequent hydrolysis of the intermediate. Structurally, these dehalogenases have been characterized and shown to use substitution mechanisms that proceed via a covalent aspartyl intermediate. More so, the widest dehalogenation spectrum of electron acceptors tested with bacterial strains which could dehalogenate recalcitrant organohalides has further proven the versatility of bacterial dehalogenators to be considered when determining the fate of halogenated organics at contaminated sites. In this review, the general features of most widely studied bacterial dehalogenases, their structural properties, basis of the degradation of organohalides and their derivatives and how they have been improved for various applications is discussed.

  18. Great Lakes waters: radiation dose commitments, potential health effects, and cost-benefit considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainsworth, E.J.

    1977-07-01

    In 1972, a Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement was signed by the United States and Canadian Governments. It was stipulated that the operation and effectiveness of the agreement were to be reviewed comprehensively in 1977. Aspects of the agreement concern nondegradation of Great Lakes waters and maintenance of levels of radioactivity or other potential pollutants at levels considered as low as practicable. A refined radioactivity objective of one millirem is proposed in the Water Quality Agreement. The implications of adoption of this objective are not known fully. The Division of Environmental Impact Studies was commissioned by ERDA's Division of Technology Overview to summarize the information available on the current levels of radioactivity in Great Lakes waters, compute radiation-dose commitment (integrated dose over 50 years after consumption of 2.2 liters of water of one year), and to comment on the feasibility and cost-benefit considerations associated with the refined one-millirem objective. Current levels of radioactivity in the waters of Lakes Michigan, Ontario, Erie, and Huron result in dose commitments in excess of 1 mrem for whole body and 6 mrem for bone. Future projections of isotope concentrations in Great lakes water indicate similar dose commitments for drinking water in the year 2050. Reduction of the levels of radioactivity in Great Lakes waters is not feasible, but cost-benefit considerations support removal of 226 Ra and 90 Sr through interceptive technology before water consumption. Adoption of the one-millirem objective is not propitious

  19. Microfluidic 3D cell culture: potential application for tissue-based bioassays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, XiuJun (James); Valadez, Alejandra V.; Zuo, Peng; Nie, Zhihong

    2014-01-01

    Current fundamental investigations of human biology and the development of therapeutic drugs, commonly rely on two-dimensional (2D) monolayer cell culture systems. However, 2D cell culture systems do not accurately recapitulate the structure, function, physiology of living tissues, as well as highly complex and dynamic three-dimensional (3D) environments in vivo. The microfluidic technology can provide micro-scale complex structures and well-controlled parameters to mimic the in vivo environment of cells. The combination of microfluidic technology with 3D cell culture offers great potential for in vivo-like tissue-based applications, such as the emerging organ-on-a-chip system. This article will review recent advances in microfluidic technology for 3D cell culture and their biological applications. PMID:22793034

  20. The great opportunity: Evolutionary applications to medicine and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesse, Randolph M; Stearns, Stephen C

    2008-02-01

    Evolutionary biology is an essential basic science for medicine, but few doctors and medical researchers are familiar with its most relevant principles. Most medical schools have geneticists who understand evolution, but few have even one evolutionary biologist to suggest other possible applications. The canyon between evolutionary biology and medicine is wide. The question is whether they offer each other enough to make bridge building worthwhile. What benefits could be expected if evolution were brought fully to bear on the problems of medicine? How would studying medical problems advance evolutionary research? Do doctors need to learn evolution, or is it valuable mainly for researchers? What practical steps will promote the application of evolutionary biology in the areas of medicine where it offers the most? To address these questions, we review current and potential applications of evolutionary biology to medicine and public health. Some evolutionary technologies, such as population genetics, serial transfer production of live vaccines, and phylogenetic analysis, have been widely applied. Other areas, such as infectious disease and aging research, illustrate the dramatic recent progress made possible by evolutionary insights. In still other areas, such as epidemiology, psychiatry, and understanding the regulation of bodily defenses, applying evolutionary principles remains an open opportunity. In addition to the utility of specific applications, an evolutionary perspective fundamentally challenges the prevalent but fundamentally incorrect metaphor of the body as a machine designed by an engineer. Bodies are vulnerable to disease - and remarkably resilient - precisely because they are not machines built from a plan. They are, instead, bundles of compromises shaped by natural selection in small increments to maximize reproduction, not health. Understanding the body as a product of natural selection, not design, offers new research questions and a framework for

  1. Injectable Nanocurcumin-Formulated Chitosan-g-Pluronic Hydrogel Exhibiting a Great Potential for Burn Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Hang Dang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Burn wound healing is a complex multifactorial process that relies on coordinated signaling molecules to succeed. Curcumin is believed to be a potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent; therefore, it can prevent the prolonged presence of oxygen free radicals which is a significant factor causing inhabitation of optimum healing process. This study describes an extension of study about the biofunctional nanocomposite hydrogel platform that was prepared by using curcumin and an amphiphilic chitosan-g-pluronic copolymer specialized in burn wound healing application. This formular (nCur-CP, nanocomposite hydrogel was a free-flowing sol at ambient temperature and instantly converted into a nonflowing gel at body temperature. In addition, the storage study determined the great stability level of nCur-CP in long time using UV-Vis and DLS. Morphology and distribution of nCur in its nanocomposite hydrogels were observed by SEM and TEM, respectively. In vitro studies suggested that nCur-CP exhibited well fibroblast proliferation and ability in antimicrobacteria. Furthermore, second- and third-degree burn wound models were employed to evaluate the in vivo wound healing activity of the nCur-CP. In the second-degree wound model, the nanocomposite hydrogel group showed a higher regenerated collagen density and thicker epidermis layer formation. In third degree, the nCur-CP group also exhibited enhancement of wound closure. Besides, in both models, the nanocomposite material-treated groups showed higher collagen content, better granulation, and higher wound maturity. Histopathologic examination also implied that the nanocomposite hydrogel based on nanocurcumin and chitosan could enhance burn wound repair. In conclusion, the biocompatible and injectable nanocomposite scaffold might have great potential to apply for wound healing.

  2. Subsurface Transport Behavior of Micro-Nano Bubbles and Potential Applications for Groundwater Remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hengzhen Li

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Micro-nano bubbles (MNBs are tiny bubbles with diameters on the order of micrometers and nanometers, showing great potential in environmental remediation. However, the application is only in the beginning stages and remains to be intensively studied. In order to explore the possible use of MNBs in groundwater contaminant removal, this study focuses on the transport of MNBs in porous media and dissolution processes. The bubble diameter distribution was obtained under different conditions by a laser particle analyzer. The permeability of MNB water through sand was compared with that of air-free water. Moreover, the mass transfer features of dissolved oxygen in water with MNBs were studied. The results show that the bubble diameter distribution is influenced by the surfactant concentration in the water. The existence of MNBs in pore water has no impact on the hydraulic conductivity of sand. Furthermore, the dissolved oxygen (DO in water is greatly increased by the MNBs, which will predictably improve the aerobic bioremediation of groundwater. The results are meaningful and instructive in the further study of MNB research and applications in groundwater bioremediation.

  3. The application of X-ray fluorescence spectrometry to prospecting potential gold deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang Fengjun; Wang Haixia; Zhou Rongsheng

    2001-01-01

    The fieldwork high-sensitivity X-ray fluorescence analysis (FXFA) adopting miniaturized X-ray tube, Si-PIN detector with peltier cooler and notebook PC spectrometry is presented. Using this system, the authors carried out a preliminary research of its application to some gold mine in Sichuan. According to the close relationship between the high-grade element arsenic and gold in ore-forming components, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry can be used to reveal the existence of potential gold mineralization in fields rapidly. This is of great significance in guiding the field geological collection

  4. Synthesis, characterization, bioactivity and potential application of phenolic acid grafted chitosan: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Pu, Huimin; Liu, Shuang; Kan, Juan; Jin, Changhai

    2017-10-15

    In recent years, increasing attention has been paid to the grafting of phenolic acid onto chitosan in order to enhance the bioactivity and widen the application of chitosan. Here, we present a comprehensive overview on the recent advances of phenolic acid grafted chitosan (phenolic acid-g-chitosan) in many aspects, including the synthetic method, structural characterization, biological activity, physicochemical property and potential application. In general, four kinds of techniques including carbodiimide based coupling, enzyme catalyzed grafting, free radical mediated grafting and electrochemical methods are frequently used for the synthesis of phenolic acid-g-chitosan. The structural characterization of phenolic acid-g-chitosan can be determined by several instrumental methods. The physicochemical properties of chitosan are greatly altered after grafting. As compared with chitosan, phenolic acid-g-chitosan exhibits enhanced antioxidant, antimicrobial, antitumor, anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities. Notably, phenolic acid-g-chitosan shows potential applications in many fields as coating agent, packing material, encapsulation agent and bioadsorbent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Enhancing the laccase production and laccase gene expression in the white-rot fungus Trametes velutina 5930 with great potential for biotechnological applications by different metal ions and aromatic compounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    Full Text Available Laccase is useful for various biotechnological and industrial applications. The white-rot fungus Trametes velutina 5930 and its laccase, isolated from the Shennongjia Nature Reserve in China by our laboratory, has great potential for practical application in environmental biotechnology. However, the original level of laccase produced by Trametes velutina 5930 was relatively low in the absence of any inducer. Therefore, in order to enhance the laccase production by Trametes velutina 5930 and make better use of this fungus in the field of environmental biotechnology, the regulation of laccase production and laccase gene expression in Trametes velutina 5930 were investigated in this study. Different metal ions such as Cu(2+ and Fe(2+ could stimulate the laccase synthesis and laccase gene transcription in Trametes velutina 5930. Some aromatic compounds structurally related to lignin, such as tannic acid, syringic acid, cinnamic acid, gallic acid and guaiacol, could also enhance the level of laccase activity and laccase gene transcription. We also found that there existed a positive synergistic effect of aromatic compound and metal ion on the laccase production and laccase gene transcription in Trametes velutina 5930. Taken together, our study may contribute to the improvement of laccase productivity by Trametes velutina 5930.

  6. Enhancing the laccase production and laccase gene expression in the white-rot fungus Trametes velutina 5930 with great potential for biotechnological applications by different metal ions and aromatic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Wei, Fuxiang; Zhuo, Rui; Fan, Fangfang; Liu, Huahua; Zhang, Chen; Ma, Li; Jiang, Mulan; Zhang, Xiaoyu

    2013-01-01

    Laccase is useful for various biotechnological and industrial applications. The white-rot fungus Trametes velutina 5930 and its laccase, isolated from the Shennongjia Nature Reserve in China by our laboratory, has great potential for practical application in environmental biotechnology. However, the original level of laccase produced by Trametes velutina 5930 was relatively low in the absence of any inducer. Therefore, in order to enhance the laccase production by Trametes velutina 5930 and make better use of this fungus in the field of environmental biotechnology, the regulation of laccase production and laccase gene expression in Trametes velutina 5930 were investigated in this study. Different metal ions such as Cu(2+) and Fe(2+) could stimulate the laccase synthesis and laccase gene transcription in Trametes velutina 5930. Some aromatic compounds structurally related to lignin, such as tannic acid, syringic acid, cinnamic acid, gallic acid and guaiacol, could also enhance the level of laccase activity and laccase gene transcription. We also found that there existed a positive synergistic effect of aromatic compound and metal ion on the laccase production and laccase gene transcription in Trametes velutina 5930. Taken together, our study may contribute to the improvement of laccase productivity by Trametes velutina 5930.

  7. From the printer: Potential of three-dimensional printing for orthopaedic applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sze-Wing Mok

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional (3D printers can create complex structures based on digital models. The combination of medical diagnostic imaging with 3D printing has great potential in day-to-day clinics for patient-specific solutions and applications. In the musculoskeletal system, 3D printing is used to create custom-made implants, patient-specific instrumentation, and to regenerate tissues, in particular bone and cartilage. The major limiting factors for bioprinting include the lack of printing techniques with optimal printing resolution and materials with ideal mechanical strengths while maintaining cellular functionality. Before “tissues from the printer” can be widely applied, further research and development on improving and optimising printing techniques and biomaterials, and knowledge on the development of printed constructs into living tissues, is essential for future clinical application of this technology.

  8. Cocoa Shell: A By-Product with Great Potential for Wide Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panak Balentić, Jelena; Ačkar, Đurđica; Jokić, Stela; Jozinović, Antun; Babić, Jurislav; Miličević, Borislav; Šubarić, Drago; Pavlović, Nika

    2018-06-09

    Solving the problem of large quantities of organic waste, which represents an enormous ecological and financial burden for all aspects of the process industry, is a necessity. Therefore, there is an emerged need to find specific solutions to utilize raw materials as efficiently as possible in the production process. The cocoa shell is a valuable by-product obtained from the chocolate industry. It is rich in protein, dietary fiber, and ash, as well as in some other valuable bioactive compounds, such as methylxanthines and phenolics. This paper gives an overview of published results related to the cocoa shell, mostly on important bioactive compounds and possible applications of the cocoa shell in different areas. The cocoa shell, due to its nutritional value and high-value bioactive compounds, could become a desirable raw material in a large spectrum of functional, pharmaceutical, or cosmetic products, as well as in the production of energy or biofuels in the near future.

  9. Cocoa Shell: A By-Product with Great Potential for Wide Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Panak Balentić

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Solving the problem of large quantities of organic waste, which represents an enormous ecological and financial burden for all aspects of the process industry, is a necessity. Therefore, there is an emerged need to find specific solutions to utilize raw materials as efficiently as possible in the production process. The cocoa shell is a valuable by-product obtained from the chocolate industry. It is rich in protein, dietary fiber, and ash, as well as in some other valuable bioactive compounds, such as methylxanthines and phenolics. This paper gives an overview of published results related to the cocoa shell, mostly on important bioactive compounds and possible applications of the cocoa shell in different areas. The cocoa shell, due to its nutritional value and high-value bioactive compounds, could become a desirable raw material in a large spectrum of functional, pharmaceutical, or cosmetic products, as well as in the production of energy or biofuels in the near future.

  10. Diuron tolerance and potential degradation by pelagic microbiomes in the Great Barrier Reef lagoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florent E. Angly

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Diuron is a herbicide commonly used in agricultural areas where excess application causes it to leach into rivers, reach sensitive marine environments like the Great Barrier Reef (GBR lagoon and pose risks to marine life. To investigate the impact of diuron on whole prokaryotic communities that underpin the marine food web and are integral to coral reef health, GBR lagoon water was incubated with diuron at environmentally-relevant concentration (8 µg/L, and sequenced at specific time points over the following year. 16S rRNA gene amplicon profiling revealed no significant short- or long-term effect of diuron on microbiome structure. The relative abundance of prokaryotic phototrophs was not significantly altered by diuron, which suggests that they were largely tolerant at this concentration. Assembly of a metagenome derived from waters sampled at a similar location in the GBR lagoon did not reveal the presence of mutations in the cyanobacterial photosystem that could explain diuron tolerance. However, resident phages displayed several variants of this gene and could potentially play a role in tolerance acquisition. Slow biodegradation of diuron was reported in the incubation flasks, but no correlation with the relative abundance of heterotrophs was evident. Analysis of metagenomic reads supports the hypothesis that previously uncharacterized hydrolases carried by low-abundance species may mediate herbicide degradation in the GBR lagoon. Overall, this study offers evidence that pelagic phototrophs of the GBR lagoon may be more tolerant of diuron than other tropical organisms, and that heterotrophs in the microbial seed bank may have the potential to degrade diuron and alleviate local anthropogenic stresses to inshore GBR ecosystems.

  11. Diuron tolerance and potential degradation by pelagic microbiomes in the Great Barrier Reef lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantos, Olga; Morgan, Thomas C.; Rich, Virginia; Tonin, Hemerson; Bourne, David G.; Mercurio, Philip; Negri, Andrew P.; Tyson, Gene W.

    2016-01-01

    Diuron is a herbicide commonly used in agricultural areas where excess application causes it to leach into rivers, reach sensitive marine environments like the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) lagoon and pose risks to marine life. To investigate the impact of diuron on whole prokaryotic communities that underpin the marine food web and are integral to coral reef health, GBR lagoon water was incubated with diuron at environmentally-relevant concentration (8 µg/L), and sequenced at specific time points over the following year. 16S rRNA gene amplicon profiling revealed no significant short- or long-term effect of diuron on microbiome structure. The relative abundance of prokaryotic phototrophs was not significantly altered by diuron, which suggests that they were largely tolerant at this concentration. Assembly of a metagenome derived from waters sampled at a similar location in the GBR lagoon did not reveal the presence of mutations in the cyanobacterial photosystem that could explain diuron tolerance. However, resident phages displayed several variants of this gene and could potentially play a role in tolerance acquisition. Slow biodegradation of diuron was reported in the incubation flasks, but no correlation with the relative abundance of heterotrophs was evident. Analysis of metagenomic reads supports the hypothesis that previously uncharacterized hydrolases carried by low-abundance species may mediate herbicide degradation in the GBR lagoon. Overall, this study offers evidence that pelagic phototrophs of the GBR lagoon may be more tolerant of diuron than other tropical organisms, and that heterotrophs in the microbial seed bank may have the potential to degrade diuron and alleviate local anthropogenic stresses to inshore GBR ecosystems. PMID:26989611

  12. Diuron tolerance and potential degradation by pelagic microbiomes in the Great Barrier Reef lagoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angly, Florent E; Pantos, Olga; Morgan, Thomas C; Rich, Virginia; Tonin, Hemerson; Bourne, David G; Mercurio, Philip; Negri, Andrew P; Tyson, Gene W

    2016-01-01

    Diuron is a herbicide commonly used in agricultural areas where excess application causes it to leach into rivers, reach sensitive marine environments like the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) lagoon and pose risks to marine life. To investigate the impact of diuron on whole prokaryotic communities that underpin the marine food web and are integral to coral reef health, GBR lagoon water was incubated with diuron at environmentally-relevant concentration (8 µg/L), and sequenced at specific time points over the following year. 16S rRNA gene amplicon profiling revealed no significant short- or long-term effect of diuron on microbiome structure. The relative abundance of prokaryotic phototrophs was not significantly altered by diuron, which suggests that they were largely tolerant at this concentration. Assembly of a metagenome derived from waters sampled at a similar location in the GBR lagoon did not reveal the presence of mutations in the cyanobacterial photosystem that could explain diuron tolerance. However, resident phages displayed several variants of this gene and could potentially play a role in tolerance acquisition. Slow biodegradation of diuron was reported in the incubation flasks, but no correlation with the relative abundance of heterotrophs was evident. Analysis of metagenomic reads supports the hypothesis that previously uncharacterized hydrolases carried by low-abundance species may mediate herbicide degradation in the GBR lagoon. Overall, this study offers evidence that pelagic phototrophs of the GBR lagoon may be more tolerant of diuron than other tropical organisms, and that heterotrophs in the microbial seed bank may have the potential to degrade diuron and alleviate local anthropogenic stresses to inshore GBR ecosystems.

  13. 75 FR 45106 - Great River Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-02

    ... Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and Soliciting Additional... License. b. Project No.: P-13637-001. c. Date filed: July 12, 2010. d. Applicant: Great River Hydropower.... 21, and would consist of the following facilities: (1) A new hydropower structure, located about 100...

  14. Overview of current development in electrical energy storage technologies and the application potential in power system operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Xing; Wang, Jihong; Dooner, Mark; Clarke, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An overview of the state-of-the-art in Electrical Energy Storage (EES) is provided. • A comprehensive analysis of various EES technologies is carried out. • An application potential analysis of the reviewed EES technologies is presented. • The presented synthesis to EES technologies can be used to support future R and D and deployment. - Abstract: Electrical power generation is changing dramatically across the world because of the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to introduce mixed energy sources. The power network faces great challenges in transmission and distribution to meet demand with unpredictable daily and seasonal variations. Electrical Energy Storage (EES) is recognized as underpinning technologies to have great potential in meeting these challenges, whereby energy is stored in a certain state, according to the technology used, and is converted to electrical energy when needed. However, the wide variety of options and complex characteristic matrices make it difficult to appraise a specific EES technology for a particular application. This paper intends to mitigate this problem by providing a comprehensive and clear picture of the state-of-the-art technologies available, and where they would be suited for integration into a power generation and distribution system. The paper starts with an overview of the operation principles, technical and economic performance features and the current research and development of important EES technologies, sorted into six main categories based on the types of energy stored. Following this, a comprehensive comparison and an application potential analysis of the reviewed technologies are presented

  15. Lantibiotics produced by Actinobacteria and their potential applications (a review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Karen Machado; Duarte, Rafael Silva; de Freire Bastos, Maria do Carmo

    2017-02-01

    The phylum Actinobacteria, which comprises a great variety of Gram-positive bacteria with a high G+C content in their genomes, is known for its large production of bioactive compounds, including those with antimicrobial activity. Among the antimicrobials, bacteriocins, ribosomally synthesized peptides, represent an important arsenal of potential new drugs to face the increasing prevalence of resistance to antibiotics among microbial pathogens. The actinobacterial bacteriocins form a heterogeneous group of substances that is difficult to adapt to most proposed classification schemes. However, recent updates have accommodated efficiently the diversity of bacteriocins produced by this phylum. Among the bacteriocins, the lantibiotics represent a source of new antimicrobials to control infections caused mainly by Gram-positive bacteria and with a low propensity for resistance development. Moreover, some of these compounds have additional biological properties, exhibiting activity against viruses and tumour cells and having also potential to be used in blood pressure or inflammation control and in pain relief. Thus, lantibiotics already described in Actinobacteria exhibit potential practical applications in medical settings, food industry and agriculture, with examples at different stages of pre-clinical and clinical trials.

  16. Diatomic interaction potential theory applications

    CERN Document Server

    Goodisman, Jerry

    2013-01-01

    Diatomic Interaction Potential Theory, Volume 2: Applications discusses the variety of applicable theoretical material and approaches in the calculations for diatomic systems in their ground states. The volume covers the descriptions and illustrations of modern calculations. Chapter I discusses the calculation of the interaction potential for large and small values of the internuclear distance R (separated and united atom limits). Chapter II covers the methods used for intermediate values of R, which in principle means any values of R. The Hartree-Fock and configuration interaction schemes des

  17. Preparation and characterization of silk sericin/PVA blend film with silver nanoparticles for potential antimicrobial application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Huawei; Cai, Rui; Wang, Yejing; Tao, Gang; Guo, Pengchao; Zuo, Hua; Chen, Liqun; Liu, Xinyu; Zhao, Ping; Xia, Qingyou

    2017-11-01

    Sericin has great potentials in biomedical applications for its good reactive activity, biocompatibility and biodegradability. However, the undesirable mechanical performance limits its application. Here, we developed a green, facile and economic approach to prepare sericin/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) blend film. Further, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized in situ on the surface of sericin/PVA film via UV-assisted green synthesis method. Mechanical performance, swelling, mass losing and water retention tests showed the blend film had good mechanical performance, hygroscopicity, water retention capacity and low mass losing ratio. Scanning electron microscopy, fourier transfer infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated the blending of PVA and sericin promoted the formation of hydrogen bond network between sericin and PVA, thus enhanced the mechanical performance and the stability of sericin, as well as the hygroscopicity and water retention capacity. UV irradiation and AgNPs modification did not affect the inner crystalline structure of sericin/PVA blend film. The inhibition zone and bacteria growth curve assay suggested AgNPs-sericin/PVA film had good antibacterial activities against E. coli and S. aureus. This novel AgNPs-sericin/PVA film shows great potentials in biomedical materials such as wound dressing and skin tissue engineering. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Genome-editing technologies and their potential application in horticultural crop breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Jin-Song; Ding, Jing; Li, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Plant breeding, one of the oldest agricultural activities, parallels human civilization. Many crops have been domesticated to satisfy human's food and aesthetical needs, including numerous specialty horticultural crops such as fruits, vegetables, ornamental flowers, shrubs, and trees. Crop varieties originated through selection during early human civilization. Other technologies, such as various forms of hybridization, mutation, and transgenics, have also been invented and applied to crop breeding over the past centuries. The progress made in these breeding technologies, especially the modern biotechnology-based breeding technologies, has had a great impact on crop breeding as well as on our lives. Here, we first review the developmental process and applications of these technologies in horticultural crop breeding. Then, we mainly describe the principles of the latest genome-editing technologies and discuss their potential applications in the genetic improvement of horticultural crops. The advantages and challenges of genome-editing technologies in horticultural crop breeding are also discussed. PMID:26504570

  19. 76 FR 2359 - Great River Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Motions To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    ... Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Motions To Intervene and Protests... No.: P-13637-001. c. Date filed: July 12, 2010. d. Applicant: Great River Hydropower, LLC. e. Name of...: (1) A new 796-foot-long by 46-foot-wide by 25-foot-high concrete hydropower structure consisting of...

  20. Potential application of population models in the European ecological risk assessment of chemicals. II. Review of models and their potential to address environmental protection aims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galic, Nika; Hommen, Udo; Baveco, J M Hans; van den Brink, Paul J

    2010-07-01

    Whereas current chemical risk assessment (RA) schemes within the European Union (EU) focus mainly on toxicity and bioaccumulation of chemicals in individual organisms, most protection goals aim at preserving populations of nontarget organisms rather than individuals. Ecological models are tools rarely recommended in official technical documents on RA of chemicals, but are widely used by researchers to assess risks to populations, communities and ecosystems. Their great advantage is the relatively straightforward integration of the sensitivity of species to chemicals, the mode of action and fate in the environment of toxicants, life-history traits of the species of concern, and landscape features. To promote the usage of ecological models in regulatory risk assessment, this study tries to establish whether existing, published ecological modeling studies have addressed or have the potential to address the protection aims and requirements of the chemical directives of the EU. We reviewed 148 publications, and evaluated and analyzed them in a database according to defined criteria. Published models were also classified in terms of 5 areas where their application would be most useful for chemical RA. All potential application areas are well represented in the published literature. Most models were developed to estimate population-level responses on the basis of individual effects, followed by recovery process assessment, both in individuals and at the level of metapopulations. We provide case studies for each of the proposed areas of ecological model application. The lack of clarity about protection goals in legislative documents made it impossible to establish a direct link between modeling studies and protection goals. Because most of the models reviewed here were not developed for regulatory risk assessment, there is great potential and a variety of ecological models in the published literature. (c) 2010 SETAC.

  1. Development of a GIS interface for WEPP Model application to Great Lakes forested watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. R. Frankenberger; S. Dun; D. C. Flanagan; J. Q. Wu; W. J. Elliot

    2011-01-01

    This presentation will highlight efforts on development of a new online WEPP GIS interface, targeted toward application in forested regions bordering the Great Lakes. The key components and algorithms of the online GIS system will be outlined. The general procedures used to provide input to the WEPP model and to display model output will be demonstrated.

  2. Potential Applications of Manual Games,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-02-01

    34 just because some electronic equipment is used to keep track of logistics, combat results, and force status. Even a highly computerized game like...D-A152 541 POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS OF MANUAL GAMES (U) RAND CORP ii SANTA MONICA CA T A BROW~N FEB 84 RAND/P-6957 UNCLASI7FIED F/G 12/2 N El..I 111 1...128 112.5 111 m; * _ 1.8 I1111 ’I’ll MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART NATI NAl fii~ t1 RI 1A L4k, I POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS OF MANUJAL GAMES Lfl N Lfl

  3. Production of Enzymes From Agricultural Wastes and Their Potential Industrial Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharathiraja, S; Suriya, J; Krishnan, M; Manivasagan, P; Kim, S-K

    Enzymatic hydrolysis is the significant technique for the conversion of agricultural wastes into valuable products. Agroindustrial wastes such as rice bran, wheat bran, wheat straw, sugarcane bagasse, and corncob are cheapest and plentifully available natural carbon sources for the production of industrially important enzymes. Innumerable enzymes that have numerous applications in industrial processes for food, drug, textile, and dye use have been produced from different types of microorganisms from agricultural wastes. Utilization of agricultural wastes offers great potential for reducing the production cost and increasing the use of enzymes for industrial purposes. This chapter focuses on economic production of actinobacterial enzymes from agricultural wastes to make a better alternative for utilization of biomass generated in million tons as waste annually. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Potential therapeutic applications of biosurfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudiña, Eduardo J; Rangarajan, Vivek; Sen, Ramkrishna; Rodrigues, Lígia R

    2013-12-01

    Biosurfactants have recently emerged as promising molecules for their structural novelty, versatility, and diverse properties that are potentially useful for many therapeutic applications. Mainly due to their surface activity, these molecules interact with cell membranes of several organisms and/or with the surrounding environments, and thus can be viewed as potential cancer therapeutics or as constituents of drug delivery systems. Some types of microbial surfactants, such as lipopeptides and glycolipids, have been shown to selectively inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells and to disrupt cell membranes causing their lysis through apoptosis pathways. Moreover, biosurfactants as drug delivery vehicles offer commercially attractive and scientifically novel applications. This review covers the current state-of-the-art in biosurfactant research for therapeutic purposes, providing new directions towards the discovery and development of molecules with novel structures and diverse functions for advanced applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Discussion on the application potential of thermal infrared remote sensing technology in uranium deposits exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Junhu; Zhang Jielin; Liu Dechang

    2011-01-01

    With the continual development of new thermal infrared sensors and thermal radiation theory, the technology of thermal infrared remote sensing has shown great potential for applications in resources exploration, especially in the field of uranium exploration. The paper makes a systemic summary of the theoretical basis and research status of the thermal infrared remote sensing applications in resources exploration from the surface temperature, thermal inertia and thermal infrared spectrum. What's more, the research objective and the research content of thermal infrared remote sensing in the uranium deposits exploration applications are discussed in detail. Besides, based on the thermal infrared ASTER data, the paper applies this technology to the granite-type uranium deposits in South China and achieves good result. Above all, the practice proves that the thermal infrared remote sensing technology has a good application prospects and particular value in the field of uranium prospecting and will play an important role in the prospecting target of the uranium deposits. (authors)

  6. Pesticide presence in Great Lakes tributaries and comparison to ToxCast and other water quality benchmarks to screen for potential biological effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Product Description:Pesticides are a broad category of current use chemicals that pose potential threats to aquatic organisms in and around the Great Lakes basin. In this study, we monitored for over 200 pesticides or their break down products in 16 major tributaries to the Great...

  7. Leadership conversations challenging high potential managers to become great leaders

    CERN Document Server

    Berson, Alan S

    2012-01-01

    Conversation techniques and tools that can help strong managers become great leaders Often the very same skills and traits that enable rising stars to achieve success ""tenacity, aggressiveness, self-confidence"" become liabilities when promoted into a leadership track. While managers'' conversations are generally transactional and centered on the task at hand, leaders must focus on people, asking great questions and aligning them with the vision for the future. Leadership mindsets and skills can be developed, and Leadership Conversations provides practical guidance for connecting with others

  8. Zeta potential in colloid science principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hunter, Robert J; Rowell, R L

    2013-01-01

    Zeta Potential in Colloid Science: Principles and Applications covers the concept of the zeta potential in colloid chemical theory. The book discusses the charge and potential distribution at interfaces; the calculation of the zeta potential; and the experimental techniques used in the measurement of electrokinetic parameters. The text also describes the electroviscous and viscoelectric effects; applications of the zeta potential to areas of colloid science; and the influence of simple inorganic ions or more complex adsorbates on zeta potential. Physical chemists and people involved in the stu

  9. Neural networks and their potential application to nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhrig, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    A network of artificial neurons, usually called an artificial neural network is a data processing system consisting of a number of highly interconnected processing elements in an architecture inspired by the structure of the cerebral cortex portion of the brain. Hence, neural networks are often capable of doing things which humans or animals do well but which conventional computers often do poorly. Neural networks exhibit characteristics and capabilities not provided by any other technology. Neural networks may be designed so as to classify an input pattern as one of several predefined types or to create, as needed, categories or classes of system states which can be interpreted by a human operator. Neural networks have the ability to recognize patterns, even when the information comprising these patterns is noisy, sparse, or incomplete. Thus, systems of artificial neural networks show great promise for use in environments in which robust, fault-tolerant pattern recognition is necessary in a real-time mode, and in which the incoming data may be distorted or noisy. The application of neural networks, a rapidly evolving technology used extensively in defense applications, alone or in conjunction with other advanced technologies, to some of the problems of operating nuclear power plants has the potential to enhance the safety, reliability and operability of nuclear power plants. The potential applications of neural networking include, but are not limited to diagnosing specific abnormal conditions, identification of nonlinear dynamics and transients, detection of the change of mode of operation, control of temperature and pressure during start-up, signal validation, plant-wide monitoring using autoassociative neural networks, monitoring of check valves, modeling of the plant thermodynamics, emulation of core reload calculations, analysis of temporal sequences in NRC's ''licensee event reports,'' and monitoring of plant parameters

  10. Potential applications of high temperature helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleicher, R.W. Jr.; Kennedy, A.J.

    1992-09-01

    This paper discusses the DOE MHTGR-SC program's recent activity to improve the economics of the MHTGR without sacrificing safety performance and two potential applications of high temperature helium, the MHTGR gas turbine plant and a process heat application for methanol production from coal

  11. Bacteriology of the teeth from a great white shark: potential medical implications for shark bite victims.

    OpenAIRE

    Buck, J D; Spotte, S; Gadbaw, J J

    1984-01-01

    Bacteria were cultured for the first time from the teeth of a great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias). Isolates included Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio fluvialis, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and other genera. All are common in the marine environment and some may be associated with wound infections in humans. Shark bite lacerations may serve as a source of these potentially infectious bacteria, particularly Vibrio spp., and should be treated immediately. Antibiotic susceptibility patterns are sh...

  12. Potential biomedical applications of marine algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui-Min David; Li, Xiao-Chun; Lee, Duu-Jong; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2017-11-01

    Functional components extracted from algal biomass are widely used as dietary and health supplements with a variety of applications in food science and technology. In contrast, the applications of algae in dermal-related products have received much less attention, despite that algae also possess high potential for the uses in anti-infection, anti-aging, skin-whitening, and skin tumor treatments. This review, therefore, focuses on integrating studies on algae pertinent to human skin care, health and therapy. The active compounds in algae related to human skin treatments are mentioned and the possible mechanisms involved are described. The main purpose of this review is to identify serviceable algae functions in skin treatments to facilitate practical applications in this high-potential area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. One-Step Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles on Polydopamine-Coated Sericin/Polyvinyl Alcohol Composite Films for Potential Antimicrobial Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Cai

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Silk sericin has great potential as a biomaterial for biomedical applications due to its good hydrophilicity, reactivity, and biodegradability. To develop multifunctional sericin materials for potential antibacterial application, a one-step synthesis method for preparing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs modified on polydopamine-coated sericin/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA composite films was developed. Polydopamine (PDA acted as both metal ion chelating and reducing agent to synthesize AgNPs in situ on the sericin/PVA composite film. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis revealed that polydopamine could effectively facilitate the high-density growth of AgNPs as a 3-D matrix. X-ray diffractometry studies suggested the synthesized AgNPs formed good face-centered cubic crystalline structures. Contact angle measurement and mechanical test indicated AgNPs modified PDA-sericin/PVA composite film had good hydrophilicity and mechanical property. The bacterial growth curve and inhibition zone assays showed the AgNPs modified PDA-sericin/PVA composite film had long-term antibacterial activities. This work develops a new method for the preparation of AgNPs modified PDA-sericin/PVA film with good hydrophilicity, mechanical performance and antibacterial activities for the potential antimicrobial application in biomedicine.

  14. Potential for DNA-based identification of Great Lakes fauna: Match and mismatch between taxa inventories and DNA barcode libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    DNA-based identification of mixed-organism samples offers the potential to greatly reduce the need for resource-intensive morphological identification, which would be of value both to biotic condition assessment and non-native species early-detection monitoring. However, the abi...

  15. Monitoring the environment and human sentiment on the Great Barrier Reef: Assessing the potential of collective sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becken, Susanne; Stantic, Bela; Chen, Jinyan; Alaei, Ali Reza; Connolly, Rod M

    2017-12-01

    With the growth of smartphone usage the number of social media posts has significantly increased and represents potentially valuable information for management, including of natural resources and the environment. Already, evidence of using 'human sensor' in crises management suggests that collective knowledge could be used to complement traditional monitoring. This research uses Twitter data posted from the Great Barrier Reef region, Australia, to assess whether the extent and type of data could be used to Great Barrier Reef organisations as part of their monitoring program. The analysis reveals that large amounts of tweets, covering the geographic area of interest, are available and that the pool of information providers is greatly enhanced by the large number of tourists to this region. A keyword and sentiment analysis demonstrates the usefulness of the Twitter data, but also highlights that the actual number of Reef-related tweets is comparatively small and lacks specificity. Suggestions for further steps towards the development of an integrative data platform that incorporates social media are provided. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Assessing potential impacts of climate change and variability on the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Basin: A binational approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, F.H.; Mortsch, L.D.

    1997-01-01

    The potential impacts of climate change and variability on the Great Lakes environment are serious and complex. The Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Basin is home to 42.5 million US and Canadian citizens and is the industrial and commercial heartland of both nations. The region is rich in human and natural resources, with diverse economic activities and substantial infrastructure which would be affected by major shifts in climate. For example, water level changes could affect wetland distribution and functioning; reductions in streamflow would alter assimilative capacities while warmer water temperatures would influence spring and fall turnover and incidence of anoxia. A binational program has been initiated to conduct interdisciplinary, integrated impact assessments for the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River Basin. The goal of this program is to undertake interdisciplinary, integrated studies to improve the understanding of the complex interactions between climate, the environment, and socioeconomic systems in order to develop informed regional adaptation responses

  17. Characterization of Pectinase from Bacillus subtilis Strain Btk 27 and Its Potential Application in Removal of Mucilage from Coffee Beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliyad Jeilu Oumer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The demand for enzymes in the global market is projected to rise at a fast pace in recent years. There has been a great increase in industrial applications of pectinase owing to their significant biotechnological uses. For applying enzymes at industrial scale primary it is important to know the features of the enzyme. Thus, this study was undertaken with aims of characterizing the pectinase enzyme from Bacillus subtilis strain Btk27 and proving its potential application in demucilisation of coffee. In this study, the maximum pectinase activity was achieved at pH 7.5 and 50°C. Also, the enzyme activity was found stimulated with Mg2+ and Ca2+ metal ions. Moreover, it was stable on EDTA, Trixton-100, Tween 80, and Tween 20. Since Bacillus subtilis strain Btk27 was stable in most surfactants and inhibitors it could be applicable in various industries whenever pectin degradation is needed. The enzyme Km and Vmax values were identified as 1.879 mg/ml and 149.6 U, respectively. The potential application of the enzyme for coffee processing was studied, and it is found that complete removal of mucilage from coffee beans within 24 hours of treatment indicates the potential application in coffee processing.

  18. Potential applications for halloysite nanotubes based drug delivery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lin

    could be released in a sustained manner; (2) cytotoxicity test confirmed the biocompatibility of HNTs and methotrexate coated HNTs; (3) proliferation test confirmed the growth inhibition of released methotrexate on osteosarcoma cells; and (4) nylon-6 could prolong the sustained release of methotrexate from polyelectrolytes coated HNTs. Another application comes from the prevention of surgical site infection. It is a common complication in surgery, which may prolong hospital stay, increase mortality rate, and cause additional financial burden for patients. By directly releasing antibiotics at the surgical site, it is supposed to enhance the drug efficacy and improve the treatment outcome. Therefore, the same HNTs based system was tested with E. coli in vitro to show the potential of delivering antibiotics to enhance the prevention of surgical site infection. Nitrofurantoin was incorporated within HNTs using the layer-by-layer coating technique, and the drug coated HNTs were filled into nylon-6 again. Results showed that (1) nitrofurantoin could be incorporated with this HNTs based drug delivery system, and released in a sustained manner; (2) nylon-6 could prolong the sustained release of nitrofurantoin from polyelectrolytes coated HNTs; and (3) released nitrofurantoin could severely inhibit E. coil growth. Therefore, a tunable drug delivery system based on HNTs was developed, and a great potential of medical application in drug delivery was shown.

  19. Thermal Stability of Nanocrystalline Copper for Potential Use in Printed Wiring Board Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Patrick Kai Fai

    Copper is a widely used conductor in the manufacture of printed wiring boards (PWB). The trends in miniaturization of electronic devices create increasing challenges to all electronic industries. In particular PWB manufacturers face great challenges because the increasing demands in greater performance and device miniaturization pose enormous difficulties in manufacturing and product reliability. Nanocrystalline and ultra-fine grain copper can potentially offer increased reliability and functionality of the PWB due to the increases in strength and achievable wiring density by reduction in grain size. The first part of this thesis is concerned with the synthesis and characterization of nanocrystalline and ultra-fine grain-sized copper for potential applications in the PWB industry. Nanocrystalline copper with different amounts of sulfur impurities (25-230ppm) and grain sizes (31-49nm) were produced and their hardness, electrical resistivity and etchability were determined. To study the thermal stability of nanocrystalline copper, differential scanning calorimetry and isothermal heat treatments combined with electron microscopy techniques for microstructural analysis were used. Differential scanning calorimetry was chosen to continuously monitor the grain growth process in the temperature range from 40?C to 400?C. During isothermal annealing experiments samples were annealed at 23?C, 100?C and 300?C to study various potential thermal issues for these materials in PWB applications such as the long-term room temperature thermal stability as well as for temperature excursions above the operation temperature and peak temperature exposure during the PWB manufacturing process. From all annealing experiments the various grain growth events and the overall stability of these materials were analyzed in terms of driving and dragging forces. Experimental evidence is presented which shows that the overall thermal stability, grain boundary character and texture evolution of

  20. Construction and Potential Applications of Biosensors for Proteins in Clinical Laboratory Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuan; Jiang, Hui

    2017-12-04

    Biosensors for proteins have shown attractive advantages compared to traditional techniques in clinical laboratory diagnosis. In virtue of modern fabrication modes and detection techniques, various immunosensing platforms have been reported on basis of the specific recognition between antigen-antibody pairs. In addition to profit from the development of nanotechnology and molecular biology, diverse fabrication and signal amplification strategies have been designed for detection of protein antigens, which has led to great achievements in fast quantitative and simultaneous testing with extremely high sensitivity and specificity. Besides antigens, determination of antibodies also possesses great significance for clinical laboratory diagnosis. In this review, we will categorize recent immunosensors for proteins by different detection techniques. The basic conception of detection techniques, sensing mechanisms, and the relevant signal amplification strategies are introduced. Since antibodies and antigens have an equal position to each other in immunosensing, all biosensing strategies for antigens can be extended to antibodies under appropriate optimizations. Biosensors for antibodies are summarized, focusing on potential applications in clinical laboratory diagnosis, such as a series of biomarkers for infectious diseases and autoimmune diseases, and an evaluation of vaccine immunity. The excellent performances of these biosensors provide a prospective space for future antibody-detection-based disease serodiagnosis.

  1. Survey of potential electronic applications of high temperature superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, R.B.; Bourne, L.C.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper the authors present a survey of the potential electronic applications of high temperature superconductor (HTSC) thin films. During the past four years there has been substantial speculation on this topic. The authors will cover only a small fraction of the potential electronic applications that have been identified. Their treatment is influenced by the developments over the past few years in materials and device development and in market analysis. They present their view of the most promising potential applications. Superconductors have two important properties that make them attractive for electronic applications. These are (a) low surface resistance at high frequencies, and (b) the Josephson effect

  2. Nanotechnologies, technologies converging and potential biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capuano, Vincenzo

    2005-01-01

    The applications of nanotechnology to biology and medicine appear really promising far diagnostics, for various therapeutic approaches and in medical instrumentations. The growing synergism among nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology and cognitive sciences, their convergence (NBIC) from the nano scale, could involve on next decades great changes in medicine, from a reactive to a predictive and preventive approach. It is expected that NBIC converging technologies could achieve tremendous improvements in human abilities and enhance societal achievements. It appears therefore necessary a careful assessment of related social and ethical implications, in the framework of a constant dialogue between science and society [it

  3. Bacteriology of the teeth from a great white shark: potential medical implications for shark bite victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, J D; Spotte, S; Gadbaw, J J

    1984-11-01

    Bacteria were cultured for the first time from the teeth of a great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias). Isolates included Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio fluvialis, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and other genera. All are common in the marine environment and some may be associated with wound infections in humans. Shark bite lacerations may serve as a source of these potentially infectious bacteria, particularly Vibrio spp., and should be treated immediately. Antibiotic susceptibility patterns are shown for representatives of Vibrio isolates and indicate that a variety of new agents may be appropriate chemotherapy for shark bite victims.

  4. Assessing offshore wind potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adelaja, Adesoji; McKeown, Charles; Calnin, Benjamin; Hailu, Yohannes

    2012-01-01

    Quantifying wind potential is a pivotal initial step in developing and articulating a state’s policies and strategies for offshore wind industry development. This is particularly important in the Great Lakes States where lessons from other offshore environments are not directly applicable. This paper presents the framework developed for conducting a preliminary assessment of offshore wind potential. Information on lake bathymetry and wind resources were combined in simulating alternative scenarios of technically feasible turbine construction depths and distance concerns by stakeholders. These yielded estimates of developable offshore wind areas and potential power generation. While concerns about the visibility of turbines from shore reduce the power that can be generated, engineering solutions that increase the depths at which turbines can be sited increase such potential power output. This paper discusses the costs associated with technical limitations on depth and the social costs related to public sentiments about distance from the shoreline, as well as the possible tradeoffs. The results point to a very large untapped energy resource in the Michigan’s Great Lakes, large enough to prompt policy action from the state government. - Highlights: ▶ We build a theoretical framework for modeling offshore wind power production. ▶ Illustration of the impact of technology and social limitations on offshore wind energy development. ▶ Geospatial modeling of the offshore wind potential of the Great Lakes.

  5. Potential effects of anthropogenic greenhouse gases on avian habitats and populations in the northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Diane L.

    1994-01-01

    Biotic response to the buildup of greenhouse gases in Earth's atmosphere is considerably more complex than an adjustment to changing temperature and precipitation. The fertilization effect carbon dioxide has on some plants, the impact UVB radiation has on health and productivity of organisms, and the resulting changes in competitive balance and trophic structure must also be considered. The intent of this paper is to review direct and indirect effects of anthropogenic greenhouse gases on wildlife, and to explore possible effects on populations of birds and their habitats in the northern Great Plains.Many of the potential effects of increasing greenhouse gases, such as declining plant nutritional value, changes in timing of insect emergence, and fewer and saltier wetlands, foreshadow a decline in avian populations on the Great Plains. However, other possible effects such as increased drought resistance and water use efficiency of vegetation, longer growing seasons, and greater overall plant biomass promise at least some mitigation. Effects of multiple simultaneous perturbations such as can be expected under doubled carbon dioxide scenarios will require substantial basic research to clarify.

  6. Potential game theory applications in radio resource allocation

    CERN Document Server

    Lã, Quang Duy; Soong, Boon-Hee

    2016-01-01

    This book offers a thorough examination of potential game theory and its applications in radio resource management for wireless communications systems and networking. The book addresses two major research goals: how to identify a given game as a potential game, and how to design the utility functions and the potential functions with certain special properties in order to formulate a potential game. After proposing a unifying mathematical framework for the identification of potential games, the text surveys existing applications of this technique within wireless communications and networking problems found in OFDMA 3G/4G/WiFi networks, as well as next-generation systems such as cognitive radios and dynamic spectrum access networks. Professionals interested in understanding the theoretical aspect of this specialized field will find Potential Game Theory a valuable resource, as will advanced-level engineering students. It paves the way for extensive and rigorous research exploration on a topic whose capacity for...

  7. Advanced Semiconductor Heterostructures Novel Devices, Potential Device Applications and Basic Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Stroscio, Michael A

    2003-01-01

    This volume provides valuable summaries on many aspects of advanced semiconductor heterostructures and highlights the great variety of semiconductor heterostructures that has emerged since their original conception. As exemplified by the chapters in this book, recent progress on advanced semiconductor heterostructures spans a truly remarkable range of scientific fields with an associated diversity of applications. Some of these applications will undoubtedly revolutionize critically important facets of modern technology. At the heart of these advances is the ability to design and control the pr

  8. Application potential of sequence stratigraphy to prospecting for sandstone-type uranium deposit in continental depositional basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shengxiang; Chen Zhaobo; Chen Zuyi; Xiang Weidong; Cai Yuqi

    2001-01-01

    Sequence stratigraphy has been widely used in hydrocarbon exploration and development, and great achievements have been achieved. However, its application to the prospecting for sandstone-type uranium deposits is just beginning. The metallogenic characteristics of sandstone-type uranium deposits and those of oil and gas are compared, and the relationship between sandstone-type uranium metallogenesis and the system tracts of sequence stratigraphy is studied. The authors propose that highest and system tracts are the main targets for prospecting interlayer oxidation zone type sandstone uranium deposits, and the incised valleys of low stand system tracts are favourable places for phreatic oxidation zone type sandstone uranium deposits, and transgressive system tracts are generally unfavorable to the formation of in-situ leachable sandstone-type uranium deposits. Finally, the authors look ahead the application potential of sequence stratigraphy to the prospecting for sandstone-type uranium deposits in continental depositional basins

  9. Nano technologies, technologies converging and potential biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capuano, V.

    2005-01-01

    The applications of nano technology to biology and medicine appear really promising for diagnostics, for various therapeutic approaches and in medical instrumentations. The growing synergism among nano technology, biotechnology, information technology and cognitive sciences, their convergence (NBIC) from the nano scale, could involve on next decades great changes in medicine, from a reactive to a predictive and preventive approach. It is expected that NBIC converging technologies could achieve tremendous improvements in human abilities and enhance societal achievement of related social and ethical implications, in the framework of a constant dialogue between science and society [it

  10. Bacteriophages-potential for application in wastewater treatment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Withey, S.; Cartmell, E.; Avery, L.M.; Stephenson, T.

    2005-01-01

    Bacteriophages are viruses that infect and lyse bacteria. Interest in the ability of phages to control bacterial populations has extended from medical applications into the fields of agriculture, aquaculture and the food industry. Here, the potential application of phage techniques in wastewater treatment systems to improve effluent and sludge emissions into the environment is discussed. Phage-mediated bacterial mortality has the potential to influence treatment performance by controlling the abundance of key functional groups. Phage treatments have the potential to control environmental wastewater process problems such as: foaming in activated sludge plants; sludge dewaterability and digestibility; pathogenic bacteria; and to reduce competition between nuisance bacteria and functionally important microbial populations. Successful application of phage therapy to wastewater treatment does though require a fuller understanding of wastewater microbial community dynamics and interactions. Strategies to counter host specificity and host cell resistance must also be developed, as should safety considerations regarding pathogen emergence through transduction

  11. Novel and potential application of cryopreservation to plant genetic transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Biao; Zhang, Zhibo; Yin, Zhenfang; Feng, Chaohong; Wang, Qiaochun

    2012-01-01

    The world population now is 6.7 billion and is predicted to reach 9 billion by 2050. Such a rapid growing population has tremendously increased the challenge for food security. Obviously, it is impossible for traditional agriculture to ensure the food security, while plant biotechnology offers considerable potential to realize this goal. Over the last 15 years, great benefits have been brought to sustainable agriculture by commercial cultivation of genetically modified (GM) crops. Further development of new GM crops will with no doubt contribute to meeting the requirements for food by the increasing population. The present article provides updated comprehensive information on novel and potential application of cryopreservation to genetic transformation. The major progresses that have been achieved in this subject include (1), long-term storage of a large number of valuable plant genes, which offers a good potential for further development of novel cultivars by genetic transformation; (2), retention of regenerative capacity of embryogenic tissues and protoplasts, which ensures efficient plant regeneration system for genetic transformation; (3), improvement of transformation efficiency and plant regeneration of transformed cells; (4), long-term preservation of transgenic materials with stable expression of transgenes and productive ability of recombinant proteins, which allows transgenic materials to be stored in a safe manner before being analyzed and evaluated, and allows establishment of stable seed stocks for commercial production of homologous proteins. Data provided in this article clearly demonstrate that cryo-technique has an important role to play in the whole chain of genetic transformation. Further studies coupling cryotechnique and genetic transformation are expected to significantly improve development of new GM crops. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Schumann Resonances and Their Potential Applications: a Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Fathi Alrais

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Schumann resonances is an important topic gains great interest in research areas which has extensive use of Schumann resonances in a variety of desplines such as biological evolutionary processes, the optimal functioning of the human brain waves and lightning-related studies. Materials and Methods: This dictates the major emphasis on economic, environmental, and engineering applications and hazard assessments in the form of earthquake and volcano monitoring. Results: This review is aimed at the reader generally unfamiliar with the Schumann Resonances. It is our hope that this review will increase the interest in SR among researchers previously unfamiliar with this phenomenon. Discussion and Conclusions: In this review paper, a brief introduction about Schumann resonances is presented. A general description of Earth’s ionosphere is outlined. The electromagnetic waves spectrum from lightning is discussed. The history of Schumann resonances is briefly presented. The connection of man with nature through Schumann resonances is introduced. Present Schumann resonances researches are briefly outlined. Schumann (global electromagnetic resonances in the cavity Earth – ionosphere play a critical role in all biological evolutionary processes. However, there is a great need for independent research into the bio-compatibility between natural and manmade signals. Serious attention must now be paid to the possible biological role of standing waves in the atmosphere. Being a global phenomenon, Schumann resonances have numerous applications in lightning research.

  13. Evaluation of the allelopathic potential of water-soluble compounds of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. subsp.vulgare and great brome (Bromus diandrus Roth. using a modified bioassay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouhaouel, I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. The present study focuses on the description of the allelopathic interactions between wild and crop species that may occur in a given ecosystem. Objectives. The objective is the evaluation of the allo- and autoinhibition activity of root exudates of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare and great brome (Bromus diandrus Roth. seedlings by water-soluble allelochemicals. Method. The allelopathic activities of five Tunisian barley genotypes (modern varieties and landraces, one Saudi Arabian barley landrace and great brome were assessed using a modified laboratory bioassay named "seedling-after-seedling agar method". Results. The barley or the great brome reduced, to a greater extent, the root growth compared to the shoot growth of receiver species. The response of the root system architecture of the great brome towards barley root exudates was studied in detail. All the measured root traits were highly sensitive to the presence of barley. In our conditions, the allelopathic activity of barley root exudates had no apparent relationship with the size of the root and a prominent action of genetic determinants in the allelopathic potential between genotypes is proposed. The alloinhibitory activity of barley or great brome root exudates deferred between the receiver species but was always higher than the autoinhibition potential. The autoinhibition in barley proved to depend on whether the genotypes used as donor and receiver are identical or different, suggesting a specific interaction of allelochemicals with the receiver plant. These molecules seem to be the main actors in the allelopathic barley potential as external factors such variations of pH have no evident relevance in the inhibition process. Conclusions. Barley and great brome exude molecules in their surroundings. This affects the growth of the receiver plants, suggesting that these compounds might contribute to the plant community dynamics.

  14. Potential Agricultural Uses of Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum in the Northern Great Plains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSutter, T.M.; Cihacek, L.J. [North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND (United States). Department of Soil Science

    2009-07-15

    Flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) is a byproduct from the combustion of coal for electrical energy production. Currently, FGDG is being produced by 15 electrical generating stations in Alabama, Florida, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Ohio, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and Wisconsin. Much of this byproduct is used in the manufacturing of wallboard. The National Network for Use of FGDG in Agriculture was initiated to explore alternative uses of this byproduct. In the northern Great Plains (North Dakota, South Dakota, and Montana), FGDG has the potential to be used as a Ca or S fertilizer, as an acid soil ameliorant, and for reclaiming or mitigating sodium-affected soils. Greater than 1.4 million Mg of FGDG could initially be used in these states for these purposes. Flue gas desulfurization gypsum can be an agriculturally important resource for helping to increase the usefulness of problem soils and to increase crop and rangeland production. Conducting beneficial use audits would increase the public awareness of this product and help identify to coal combustion electrical generating stations the agriculturally beneficial outlets for this byproduct.

  15. Geothermal Direct Heat Application Potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, Paul J

    1989-01-01

    The geothermal direct-use industry growth trends, potential, needs, and how they can be met, are addressed. Recent investigations about the current status of the industry and the identification of institutional and technical needs provide the basis on which this paper is presented. Initial drilling risk is the major obstacle to direct-use development. The applications presented include space and district heating projects, heat pumps (heating and cooling), industrial processes, resorts and pools, aquaculture and agriculture.

  16. The applications of nanotechnology in cosmetic products – growth potential or potential hazard?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zh. N. Polova

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Nanotechnology is the science of manipulating atoms and molecules in the nanoscale. Applications of nanotechnology are widely used in electronics and medicine and now are founded in the field of cosmetics (nanocosmetics. Nowadays cosmetology became science. Progress in the study of the physiology of the skin, the mechanisms of aging and skin diseases pathogenesis, allowed developers to create cosmetic products consciously based on the needs of the skin and the mechanisms of action of active components. However, there are debates over their toxicity. The aim. The aim of our study was to analyze scientific literature about types of nanomaterials used in cosmetics and the potential risks of nanoparticles. Materials and methods. Informational search about: different types of nanomaterials in cosmetics including nanosomes, liposomes, fullerenes, solid lipid nanoparticles and also toxicity and safety; in scientific editions, medical and pharmaceutical databases, and other web-resources was carried out. Results. There are currently exist two main uses for nanotechnology in cosmetics. First of all - use of nanoparticles as UV filters. Titanium dioxide and zinc oxide are the main compounds used in these applications. The second use is nanotechnology for delivery. Liposomes and nanosomes are used in the cosmetic industry as delivery vehicles. Scientists currently believe that these nanomaterials are unlikely to have a toxic effect on humans or ecosystems that differ them from the effect of the larger particles of other substances. However, these carrier systems can change the bioavailability and the toxicological behaviour of the agents that they transport. For several years, many studies assess the health risks of the nanomaterials. Toxicologists’ thoughts about approach to the safety assessment of nanomaterials vary greatly: some scientists suggest that nanomaterials should be considered as new substances and therefore careful study of

  17. The great scientific revolutions of the 20. century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parrochia, D.

    1997-01-01

    Three great physical revolutions are studied here: the theory of relativity (general and restricted); the quantum mechanics (and its different interpretations); the theory of the determinist chaos (its pre-history as its applications). These three theories contribute to modify the answers that it is possible to bring to great metaphysical questions and to give a hint of a new philosophical landscape. (N.C.)

  18. Synthesis and optimization of chitosan nanoparticles: Potential applications in nanomedicine and biomedical engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadi, Arezou; Mahjoub, Soleiman; Tabandeh, Fatemeh; Talebnia, Farid

    2014-01-01

    Chitosan nanoparticles have become of great interest for nanomedicine, biomedical engineering and development of new therapeutic drug release systems with improved bioavailability, increased specificity and sensitivity, and reduced pharmacological toxicity. The aim of the present study was to synthesis and optimize of the chitosan nanoparticles for industrial and biomedical applications. Fe3O4 was synthesized and optimized as magnetic core nanoparticles and then chitosan covered this magnetic core. The size and morphology of the nano-magnetic chitosan was analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Topography and size distribution of the nanoparticles were shown with two-dimensional and three-dimensional images of atomic force microscopy (AFM). The nanoparticles were analyzed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The chitosan nanoparticles prepared in the experiment exhibited white powder shape. The SEM micrographs of the nano-magnetic chitosan showed that they were approximately uniform spheres. The unmodified chitosan nanoparticles composed of clusters of nanoparticles with sizes ranging from 10 nm to 80 nm. AFM provides a three-dimensional surface profile. The TEM image showed physical aggregation of the chitosan nanoparticles. The results show that a novel chitosan nanoparticle was successfully synthesized and characterized. It seems that this nanoparticle like the other chitosan nano particles has potential applications for nanomedicine, biomedical engineering, industrial and pharmaceutical fields.

  19. Appraisal of the tight sands potential of the Sand Wash and Great Divide Basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    The volume of future tight gas reserve additions is difficult to estimate because of uncertainties in the characterization and extent of the resource and the performance and cost-effectiveness of stimulation and production technologies. Ongoing R ampersand D by industry and government aims to reduce the risks and costs of producing these tight resources, increase the certainty of knowledge of their geologic characteristics and extent, and increase the efficiency of production technologies. Some basins expected to contain large volumes of tight gas are being evaluated as to their potential contribution to domestic gas supplies. This report describes the results of one such appraisal. This analysis addresses the tight portions of the Eastern Greater Green River Basin (Sand Wash and Great Divide Subbasins in Northwestern Colorado and Southwestern Wyoming, respectively), with respect to estimated gas-in-place, technical recovery, and potential reserves. Geological data were compiled from public and proprietary sources. The study estimated gas-in-place in significant (greater than 10 feet net sand thickness) tight sand intervals for six distinct vertical and 21 areal units of analysis. These units of analysis represent tight gas potential outside current areas of development. For each unit of analysis, a ''typical'' well was modeled to represent the costs, recovery and economics of near-term drilling prospects in that unit. Technically recoverable gas was calculated using reservoir properties and assumptions about current formation evaluation and extraction technology performance. Basin-specific capital and operating costs were incorporated along with taxes, royalties and current regulations to estimate the minimum required wellhead gas price required to make the typical well in each of unit of analysis economic

  20. Future Flows Climate: an ensemble of 1-km climate change projections for hydrological application in Great Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Prudhomme

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The dataset Future Flows Climate was developed as part of the project ''Future Flows and Groundwater Levels'' to provide a consistent set of climate change projections for the whole of Great Britain at both space and time resolutions appropriate for hydrological applications, and to enable climate change uncertainty and climate variability to be accounted for in the assessment of their possible impacts on the environment.

    Future Flows Climate is derived from the Hadley Centre's ensemble projection HadRM3-PPE that is part of the basis of UKCP09 and includes projections in available precipitation (water available to hydrological processes after snow and ice storages have been accounted for and potential evapotranspiration. It corresponds to an 11-member ensemble of transient projections from January 1950 to December 2098, each a single realisation from a different variant of HadRM3. Data are provided on a 1-km grid over the HadRM3 land areas at a daily (available precipitation and monthly (PE time step as netCDF files.

    Because systematic biases in temperature and precipitation were found between HadRM3-PPE and gridded temperature and precipitation observations for the 1962–1991 period, a monthly bias correction procedure was undertaken, based on a linear correction for temperature and a quantile-mapping correction (using the gamma distribution for precipitation followed by a spatial downscaling. Available precipitation was derived from the bias-corrected precipitation and temperature time series using a simple elevation-dependant snow-melt model. Potential evapotranspiration time series were calculated for each month using the FAO-56 Penman-Monteith equations and bias-corrected temperature, cloud cover, relative humidity and wind speed from HadRM3-PPE along with latitude of the grid and the day of the year.

    Future Flows Climate is freely available for non-commercial use under certain licensing conditions. It is the

  1. Advanced biomaterials and their potential applications in the treatment of periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Wu, Guofeng; Feng, Zhihong; Dong, Yan; Zhou, Wei; Li, Bei; Bai, Shizhu; Zhao, Yimin

    2016-08-01

    Periodontal disease is considered as a widespread infectious disease and the most common cause of tooth loss in adults. Attempts for developing periodontal disease treatment strategies, including drug delivery and regeneration approaches, provide a useful experimental model for the evaluation of future periodontal therapies. Recently, emerging advanced biomaterials including hydrogels, films, micro/nanofibers and particles, hold great potential to be utilized as cell/drug carriers for local drug delivery and biomimetic scaffolds for future regeneration therapies. In this review, first, we describe the pathogenesis of periodontal disease, including plaque formation, immune response and inflammatory reactions caused by bacteria. Second, periodontal therapy and an overview of current biomaterials in periodontal regenerative medicine have been discussed. Third, the roles of state-of-the-art biomaterials, including hydrogels, films, micro/nanofibers and micro/nanoparticles, developed for periodontal disease treatment and periodontal tissue regeneration, and their fabrication methods, have been presented. Finally, biological properties, including biocompatibility, biodegradability and immunogenicity of the biomaterials, together with their current applications strategies are given. Conclusive remarks and future perspectives for such advanced biomaterials are discussed.

  2. Predicting Great Lakes fish yields: tools and constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, C.A.; Schupp, D.H.; Taylor, W.W.; Collins, J.J.; Hatch, Richard W.

    1987-01-01

    Prediction of yield is a critical component of fisheries management. The development of sound yield prediction methodology and the application of the results of yield prediction are central to the evolution of strategies to achieve stated goals for Great Lakes fisheries and to the measurement of progress toward those goals. Despite general availability of species yield models, yield prediction for many Great Lakes fisheries has been poor due to the instability of the fish communities and the inadequacy of available data. A host of biological, institutional, and societal factors constrain both the development of sound predictions and their application to management. Improved predictive capability requires increased stability of Great Lakes fisheries through rehabilitation of well-integrated communities, improvement of data collection, data standardization and information-sharing mechanisms, and further development of the methodology for yield prediction. Most important is the creation of a better-informed public that will in turn establish the political will to do what is required.

  3. Cahora Bassa and Tete Province (Mozambique): A great potential for an industrial hub in Southern Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebitosi, A.B.; Graca, A. da

    2009-01-01

    Mozambique is host to the great Zambezi River Basin and the World Famous Cahora Bassa power plant that generates some 13,000 GWh annually. The bulk of this energy (85%) is exported but the revenue raised does not appear to have any appreciable impact on the host economy. Moreover it is estimated that a further 10% of the generated energy is lost along the 1414 km long transmission line to South Africa. So quite evidently, Mozambique would benefit more if its energy were utilized by locally based industry. This would also save on the losses that are currently incurred during regional transmission. In this paper the authors visit Tete, the Mozambican Province that hosts the Zambezi Basin. They examine its natural and human resources. They observe that its strategic location gives it easy access to regional markets. They also hold interviews with a number of administrators in the Province. Finally, they conclude that Tete is uniquely advantaged to develop into the next regional industrial hub for the Southern African region. This would also greatly add value to the local resources. To realize this dream will require, conviction supported by strong and timely political commitment as well as hard work. Current trends towards integrated regional trading blocks will provide an even easier access to potential markets and human skills pools.

  4. Phytochemistry, biological activities and potential of annatto in natural colorant production for industrial applications - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid-Ul-Islam; Rather, Luqman J; Mohammad, Faqeer

    2016-05-01

    Bixa orellana commonly known as annatto is one of the oldest known natural dye yielding plants native to Central and South America. Various parts of annatto have been widely used in the traditional medical system for prevention and treatment of a wide number of health disorders. The plethora of traditional uses has encouraged researchers to identify and isolate phytochemicals from all parts of this plant. Carotenoids, apocarotenoids, terpenes, terpenoids, sterols, and aliphatic compounds are main compounds found in all parts of this plant and are reported to exhibit a wide range of pharmacological activities. In recent years annatto has received tremendous scientific interest mainly due to the isolation of yellow-orange natural dye from its seeds which exhibits high biodegradability, low toxicity, and compatibility with the environment. Considerable research work has already been done and is currently underway for its applications in food, textile, leather, cosmetic, solar cells, and other industries. The present review provides up-to-date systematic and organized information on the traditional usage, phytochemistry and pharmacology of annatto. It also highlights its non-food industrial applications in order to bring more interest on this dye plant, identifies the existing gaps and provides potential for future studies. Studies reported in this review have demonstrated that annatto holds a great potential for being exploited as source of drugs and a potential natural dye. However, further efforts are required to identify extract biomolecules and their action mechanisms in exhibiting certain biological activities in order to understand the full phytochemical profile and the complex pharmacological effects of this plant.

  5. The Great Recession was not so Great

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ours, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    The Great Recession is characterized by a GDP-decline that was unprecedented in the past decades. This paper discusses the implications of the Great Recession analyzing labor market data from 20 OECD countries. Comparing the Great Recession with the 1980s recession it is concluded that there is a

  6. Basic Potential of Carbon Nanotubes in Tissue Engineering Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisao Haniu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs are attracting interest in various fields of science because they possess a high surface area-to-volume ratio and excellent electronic, mechanical, and thermal properties. Various medical applications of CNTs are expected, and the properties of CNTs have been greatly improved for use in biomaterials. However, the safety of CNTs remains unclear, which impedes their medical application. Our group is evaluating the biological responses of multiwall CNTs (MWCNTs in vivo and in vitro for the promotion of tissue regeneration as safe scaffold materials. We recently showed that intracellular accumulation is important for the cytotoxicity of CNTs, and we reported the active physiological functions CNTs in cells. In this review, we describe the effects of CNTs in vivo and in vitro observed by our group from the standpoint of tissue engineering, and we introduce the findings of other research groups.

  7. The potentials of ICT application to increased relevance and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potentials of ICT application to increased relevance and sustainability of University Library Services in Nigeria. ... in Kenneth Dike library, University of Ibadan and University of Lagos Libraries and library search of recent literature on ICT application and marketing of ICT based services in Nigerian University libraries.

  8. Canadian wind energy technical and market potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Templin, R.J.; Rangli, R.S.

    1992-01-01

    The current status of wind energy technology in Canada is reviewed, the technical potential of wind energy in Canada is estimated, and the economic market potential is assessed under several scenarios over about the next 25 years. The technical potential is seen to be large, with applications to water pumping on farms, the coupling of wind turbines to diesel-electric systems in remote communities where fuel costs are high, and the supply of electricity to main power grids. The main-grid application has greatest technical potential, but it cannot be economically exploited under the present utility buyback rate structure for intermittent power sources. A change in government policy toward market development of renewable energy sources, such as is already taking place in several European countries, would greatly increase market potential, decrease emissions of CO 2 and SO 2 , and benefit the Canadian wind energy industry. 2 figs., 1 tab

  9. Coral skeletons provide historical evidence of phosphorus runoff on the great barrier reef.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennie Mallela

    Full Text Available Recently, the inshore reefs of the Great Barrier Reef have declined rapidly because of deteriorating water quality. Increased catchment runoff is one potential culprit. The impacts of land-use on coral growth and reef health however are largely circumstantial due to limited long-term data on water quality and reef health. Here we use a 60 year coral core record to show that phosphorus contained in the skeletons (P/Ca of long-lived, near-shore Porites corals on the Great Barrier Reef correlates with annual records of fertiliser application and particulate phosphorus loads in the adjacent catchment. Skeletal P/Ca also correlates with Ba/Ca, a proxy for fluvial sediment loading, again linking near-shore phosphorus records with river runoff. Coral core records suggest that phosphorus levels increased 8 fold between 1949 and 2008 with the greatest levels coinciding with periods of high fertiliser-phosphorus use. Periods of high P/Ca correspond with intense agricultural activity and increased fertiliser application in the river catchment following agricultural expansion and replanting after cyclone damage. Our results demonstrate how coral P/Ca records can be used to assess terrestrial nutrient loading of vulnerable near-shore reefs.

  10. POTENTIAL FOR GREAT EGRETS (ARDEA ALBA) TO TRANSMIT A VIRULENT STRAIN OF AEROMONAS HYDROPHILA AMONG CHANNEL CATFISH (ICTALURUS PUNCTATUS) CULTURE PONDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jubirt, Madison M; Hanson, Larry A; Hanson-Dorr, Katie C; Ford, Lorelei; Lemmons, Scott; Fioranelli, Paul; Cunningham, Fred L

    2015-07-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is a gram-negative, rod-shaped, facultative, anaerobic bacterium that is ubiquitous in freshwater and slightly brackish aquatic environments and infects fish, humans, reptiles, and birds. Recent severe outbreaks of disease in commercial channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) aquaculture ponds have been associated with a highly virulent A. hydrophila strain (VAH), which is genetically distinct from less-virulent strains. The epidemiology of this disease has not been determined. Given that A. hydrophila infects birds, we hypothesized that fish-eating birds may serve as a reservoir for VAH and spread the pathogen by flying to uninfected ponds. Great Egrets (Ardea alba) were used in this transmission model because these wading birds frequently prey on farmed catfish. Great Egrets that were fed VAH-infected catfish shed VAH in feces demonstrating their potential to spread VAH.

  11. Metabolic Capabilities of the Members of the Order Halanaerobiales and Their Potential Biotechnological Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roush, Daniel W [Missouri University of Science and Technology; Elias, Dwayne A [ORNL; Mormile, Dr. Melanie R. [Missouri University of Science and Technology

    2014-01-01

    The order Halanaerobiales contains a number of well-studied halophiles that possess great potential for biotechnological applications. The unique halophilic adaptations that these organisms utilize, such as salting-in mechanisms to increase their intercellular concentration of KCl, combined with their ability to ferment simple sugars, provides an excellent platform for biotechnological development over a wide range of salt levels and possible other extreme conditions, such as alkaline conditions. From fermented foods to oil reservoirs, members of Halanaerobiales are found in many environments. The environmental conditions many of these organisms grow are similar to industrially important processes, such as alkaline pre-treated biomass stocks, treatment of crude glycerol from biodiesel production, salty fermented foods, as well as bioremediation of contaminants under extreme conditions of salinity and in some cases, alkalinity. From salt stable enzymes to waste fermentations, bioremediation options, bioenergy, and microbially enhanced oil recovery (MEOR), Halanaerobiales can provide a wide spectrum of environmentally friendly solutions to current problems.

  12. Tunable resistive pulse sensing: potential applications in nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumaran, Muttuswamy; Platt, Mark

    2016-08-01

    An accurate characterization of nanomaterials used in clinical diagnosis and therapeutics is of paramount importance to realize the full potential of nanotechnology in medicine and to avoid unexpected and potentially harmful toxic effects due to these materials. A number of technical modalities are currently in use to study the physical, chemical and biological properties of nanomaterials but they all have advantages and disadvantages. In this review, we discuss the potential of a relative newcomer, tunable resistive pulse sensing, for the characterization of nanomaterials and its applications in nanodiagnostics.

  13. An Innovative Approach to Effective Climate Science Application through Stakeholder Participation in Great Plains Grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athearn, N.; Broska, J.

    2015-12-01

    For natural resource managers and other Great Plains stakeholders, climate uncertainties further confound decision-making on a highly altered landscape. Partner organizations comprising the Great Plains Landscape Conservation Cooperative (GPLCC) acknowledge climate change as a high-priority threat to grasslands and associated habitats, affecting water availability, species composition, and other factors. Despite its importance, incorporation of climate change impacts into planning is hindered by high uncertainty and lack of translation to a tangible outcome: effects on species and their habitats. In 2014, the GPLCC initiated a Landscape Conservation Design (LCD) process to ultimately improve the size and connectivity of grasslands - informing land managers of the landscape-scale impacts of local decisions about where to restore, enhance, protect, and develop lands. Defining this goal helped stakeholders envision a tangible product. High resolution land cover data recently completed for Texas and Oklahoma represent current grassland locations. By focusing climate change models to project changes in these land cover datasets, resulting land cover projections can be directly incorporated into LCD-based models to focus restoration where future climates will support grasslands. Broad organizational cooperation has been critical for this USGS-led project, which uses downscaled climate data and other support from the South Central Climate Science Center Consortium and builds on existing work including LCD efforts of the Playa Lakes Joint Venture and the Bureau of Land Management's Southern Great Plains Rapid Ecological Assessment. Ongoing stakeholder guidance through an advisory team ensures effective application of a product that will be both relevant to and understood by decision makers, for whom the primary role of research is to reduce uncertainties and clear the path for more efficient decision-making in the face of climatic uncertainty.

  14. Molecular breeding to create optimized crops: from genetic manipulation to potential applications in plant factories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoko eHiwasa-Tanase

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Crop cultivation in controlled environment plant factories offers great potential to stabilize the yield and quality of agricultural products. However, many crops are currently unsuited to these environments, particularly closed cultivation systems, due to space limitations, low light intensity, high implementation costs, and high energy requirements. A major barrier to closed system cultivation is the high running cost, which necessitates the use of high-margin crops for economic viability. High-value crops include those with enhanced nutritional value or containing additional functional components for pharmaceutical production or with the aim of providing health benefits. In addition, it is important to develop cultivars equipped with growth parameters that are suitable for closed cultivation. Small plant size is of particular importance due to the limited cultivation space. Other advantageous traits are short production cycle, the ability to grow under low light, and high nutriculture availability. Cost-effectiveness is improved from the use of cultivars that are specifically optimized for closed system cultivation. This review describes the features of closed cultivation systems and the potential application of molecular breeding to create crops that are optimized for cost-effectiveness and productivity in closed cultivation systems.

  15. Potential commercial applications of centrifuge technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    As part of an effort to prevent the loss of and maximize the use of unique developments of the centrifuge program, this document identifies and briefly describes unclassified technologies potentially available for transfer. In addition, this document presents a preliminary plan for action needed to carry out the transfer activity. Continuing efforts will provide additional descriptions of technologies which have applications that are not as apparent or as obvious as those presented here. Declassification of some of the program information, now classified as restricted data, would permit the descriptions of additional technologies which have significant commercial potential. The following are major areas of technology where transfer opportunities exist: biomedical; separation; motors and control systems; materials; vacuum; dynamics and balancing; and diagnostics and instrumentation

  16. Preparation of Laponite Bioceramics for Potential Bone Tissue Engineering Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai; Ju, Yaping; Li, Jipeng; Zhang, Yongxing; Li, Jinhua; Liu, Xuanyong; Shi, Xiangyang; Zhao, Qinghua

    2014-01-01

    We report a facile approach to preparing laponite (LAP) bioceramics via sintering LAP powder compacts for bone tissue engineering applications. The sintering behavior and mechanical properties of LAP compacts under different temperatures, heating rates, and soaking times were investigated. We show that LAP bioceramic with a smooth and porous surface can be formed at 800°C with a heating rate of 5°C/h for 6 h under air. The formed LAP bioceramic was systematically characterized via different methods. Our results reveal that the LAP bioceramic possesses an excellent surface hydrophilicity and serum absorption capacity, and good cytocompatibility and hemocompatibility as demonstrated by resazurin reduction assay of rat mesenchymal stem cells (rMSCs) and hemolytic assay of pig red blood cells, respectively. The potential bone tissue engineering applicability of LAP bioceramic was explored by studying the surface mineralization behavior via soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF), as well as the surface cellular response of rMSCs. Our results suggest that LAP bioceramic is able to induce hydroxyapatite deposition on its surface when soaked in SBF and rMSCs can proliferate well on the LAP bioceramic surface. Most strikingly, alkaline phosphatase activity together with alizarin red staining results reveal that the produced LAP bioceramic is able to induce osteoblast differentiation of rMSCs in growth medium without any inducing factors. Finally, in vivo animal implantation, acute systemic toxicity test and hematoxylin and eosin (H&E)-staining data demonstrate that the prepared LAP bioceramic displays an excellent biosafety and is able to heal the bone defect. Findings from this study suggest that the developed LAP bioceramic holds a great promise for treating bone defects in bone tissue engineering. PMID:24955961

  17. Waste Derived Sorbents and Their Potential Roles in Heavy Metal Remediation Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiang Y. W.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Inorganic waste materials that have the suitable inherent characteristics could be used as precursors for the synthesis of micro- and mesoporous materials, which present great potential to be re-utilized as sorbent materials for heavy metal remediation. Three inorganic waste materials were studied in the present work: water treatment residuals (WTRs from an integrated drinking water/wastewater treatment plant, and fly ash and bottom ash samples from a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI. These wastes were converted into three sorbent materials: ferrihydrite-like materials derived from drying of WTRs, hydroxyapatite-like material derived from ultrasound assisted synthesis of MSWI fly ash with phosphoric acid solution, and a zeolitic material derived from alkaline hydrothermal conversion of MSWI bottom ash. The performance of these materials, as well as their equivalent commercially available counterparts, was assessed for the adsorption of multiple heavy metals (As, Cd, Co, Ni, Pb, Zn from synthetic solutions, contaminated sediments and surface waters; and satisfactory results were obtained. In addition, it was observed that the combination of sorbents into sorbent mixtures enhanced the performance levels and, where applicable, stabilized inherently mobile contaminants from the waste derived sorbents.

  18. Fast radial basis functions for engineering applications

    CERN Document Server

    Biancolini, Marco Evangelos

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the first “How To” guide to the use of radial basis functions (RBF). It provides a clear vision of their potential, an overview of ready-for-use computational tools and precise guidelines to implement new engineering applications of RBF. Radial basis functions (RBF) are a mathematical tool mature enough for useful engineering applications. Their mathematical foundation is well established and the tool has proven to be effective in many fields, as the mathematical framework can be adapted in several ways. A candidate application can be faced considering the features of RBF:  multidimensional space (including 2D and 3D), numerous radial functions available, global and compact support, interpolation/regression. This great flexibility makes RBF attractive – and their great potential has only been partially discovered. This is because of the difficulty in taking a first step toward RBF as they are not commonly part of engineers’ cultural background, but also due to the numerical complex...

  19. Application of quasiexactly solvable potential method to the N-body ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    physics pp. 985–996. Application of quasiexactly solvable potential method to the N-body ... Application of QES method to N-particle quantum model interacting via an ... Now, if we choose the centre of mass R as the origin of the coordinates,.

  20. Thermophilic and alkaliphilic Actinobacteria: biology and potential applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivlata, L.; Satyanarayana, Tulasi

    2015-01-01

    Microbes belonging to the phylum Actinobacteria are prolific sources of antibiotics, clinically useful bioactive compounds and industrially important enzymes. The focus of the current review is on the diversity and potential applications of thermophilic and alkaliphilic actinobacteria, which are highly diverse in their taxonomy and morphology with a variety of adaptations for surviving and thriving in hostile environments. The specific metabolic pathways in these actinobacteria are activated for elaborating pharmaceutically, agriculturally, and biotechnologically relevant biomolecules/bioactive compounds, which find multifarious applications. PMID:26441937

  1. Potential applications of biosurfactant rhamnolipids in agriculture and biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianwei; Wu, Qihao; Hua, Yi; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Huawei; Wang, Hong

    2017-12-01

    Rhamnolipids have recently emerged as promising bioactive molecules due to their novel structures, diverse and versatile biological functions, lower toxicity, higher biodegradability, as well as production from renewable resources. The advantages of rhamnolipids make them attractive targets for research in a wide variety of applications. Especially rhamnolipids are likely to possess potential applications of the future in areas such as biomedicine, therapeutics, and agriculture. The purpose of this mini review is to provide a comprehensive prospective of biosurfactant rhamnolipids as potential antimicrobials, immune modulators, and virulence factors, and anticancer agents in the field of biomedicine and agriculture that may meet the ever-increasing future pharmacological treatment and food safety needs in human health.

  2. Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) and potential system applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, David L.; Balombin, Joseph R.; Sohn, Philip Y.

    1990-01-01

    A description of the advanced communications technology satellite (ACTS) system is given with special emphasis on the communication characteristics. Potential satellite communications scenarios, including future operational ACTS-like satellite systems, are discussed. The description of the ACTS system updates previously published ACTS system references. Detailed information on items such as experimental ground stations is presented. The potential services can be generically described as voice, video, and data services. The implementation of these services on future operational ACTS-like systems can lead to unique quality, flexibility, and capacity characteristics at lower service costs. The specific service applications that could be supported range from low to high data rates and include both domestic and international applications.

  3. Nanotecnologia: aspectos gerais e potencial de aplicação em catálise Nanotechnology: general aspects and potential applications in catalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadma Sousa Ferreira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years nanomaterials, such as metallic nanoparticles, nanowires, nanotapes, nanotubes and nanocomposites, have attracted increasing interest for several technological applications. In catalysis, the great potential of nanomaterials is related to the high catalytic activity exhibited by these materials as a function of the high surface/volume ratio when the particles acquire diameter below 5 nm. In this work, a review about concepts and background of nanoscience and nanotechnology is presented with emphasis in catalysis. Special attention is given to gold nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes, focusing the properties and characteristics of these materials in several catalytic reactions.

  4. Phytotoxicity induced in isolated zooxanthellae by herbicides extracted from Great Barrier Reef flood waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, C M; Brodie, J; Mueller, J F

    2012-01-01

    To date there has been limited evidence anthropogenically sourced pollution from catchments reaching corals of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR). In this study, freshly isolated zooxanthellae were exposed to polar chemicals (chiefly herbicides) extracted from water samples collected in a flood plume in the GBR lagoon. Photosynthetic potential of the isolated zooxanthellae declined after exposure to concentrated extracts (10 times) from all but one of the sampling sites. Photosynthetic potential demonstrated a significant positive relationship with the concentration of diuron in the concentrated extracts and a significant inverse relationship with salinity measured at the sampling site. This study demonstrates that runoff from land based application of herbicides may reduce photosynthetic efficiency in corals of inshore reefs in the GBR. The ecological impacts of the chemicals in combination with other potential stressors on corals remain unclear. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. International Evoked Potentials Symposium

    CERN Document Server

    1980-01-01

    The past decade has seen great progress in the measurement of evoked potentials in man; a steady increase in our understanding of their charac­ teristics, their origins and their usefulness; and a growing application in the field of clinical diagnosis. The topic is a truly multidisciplinary one. Important research contributions have been made by workers of many different backgrounds and clinical applications span the specialities. This book represents a revised and updated version of the work originally presented at the international evoked potential symposium held in Nottingham 4-6 1978. The Nottingham Symposium provided a forum for a state-of-the-art discussion amongst workers from many different disciplines and from many different countries. For each major topic in the field an expert review set the scene for discussion of current research presentations. This format is retained in the book: the chapters in Part A provide the context in which the research presented in Part B is set. The task of selecting m...

  6. Thermophilic and alkaliphilic Actinobacteria: Biology and potential applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L eShivlata

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Microbes belonging to the phylum Actinobacteria are prolific sources of antibiotics, clinically useful bioactive compounds and industrially important enzymes. The focus of the current review is on the diversity and potential applications of thermophilic and alkaliphilic actinobacteria, which are highly diverse in their taxonomy and morphology with a variety of adaptations for surviving and thriving in hostile environments. The specific metabolic pathways in these actinobacteria are activated for elaborating pharmaceutically, agriculturally and biotechnologically relevant biomolecules/bioactive compounds, which find multifarious applications.

  7. High-power CO laser and its potential applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Shunichi; Takahashi, Kunimitsu; Shimamoto, Kojiro; Takashima, Yoichi; Matsuda, Keiichi; Kuribayashi, Shizuma; Noda, Osamu; Imatake, Shigenori; Kondo, Motoe.

    1995-01-01

    The R and D program for the development of a high-power CO laser and its application technologies is described. Based on a self-sustained discharge excitation scheme, the available laser output has been successfully scaled to over 20 kW. The CO laser cutting experiments for thick metals have been performed in association with the decommissioning technologies development. Other potential applications, which include those based on photo chemical process, are reviewed. Recently demonstrated high-power tunable operation and room-temperature operation are also reported. (author)

  8. Nanodiamond applications in skin preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namdar, Roshanak; Nafisi, Shohreh

    2018-04-13

    The biocompatibility and nontoxicity of nanodiamonds (NDs) in combination with their excellent physical performance have rendered them attractive candidates for biomedical applications. NDs have great potential in drug nanoformulations because of their small size compared with other carbon nanomaterials. They are nontoxic with excellent adsorption properties and can be formulated into skin care products. Even though NDs have shown encouraging potential in skin preparations, only a few studies have reviewed their application in topical drug delivery systems. Therefore, here we focus on the application of NDs in skin care preparations, skin cancer medication, and wound healing. We also highlight the development of topical drug delivery by NDs and their cytotoxicity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Potential aerospace applications of high temperature superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selim, Raouf

    1994-01-01

    The recent discovery of High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) with superconducting transition temperature, T(sub c), above the boiling point of liquid nitrogen has opened the door for using these materials in new and practical applications. These materials have zero resistance to electric current, have the capability of carrying large currents and as such have the potential to be used in high magnetic field applications. One of the space applications that can use superconductors is electromagnetic launch of payloads to low-earth-orbit. An electromagnetic gun-type launcher can be used in small payload systems that are launched at very high velocity, while sled-type magnetically levitated launcher can be used to launch larger payloads at smaller velocities. Both types of launchers are being studied by NASA and the aerospace industry. The use of superconductors will be essential in any of these types of launchers in order to produce the large magnetic fields required to obtain large thrust forces. Low Temperature Superconductor (LTS) technology is mature enough and can be easily integrated in such systems. As for the HTS, many leading companies are currently producing HTS coils and magnets that potentially can be mass-produced for these launchers. It seems that designing and building a small-scale electromagnetic launcher is the next logical step toward seriously considering this method for launching payloads into low-earth-orbit. A second potential application is the use of HTS to build sensitive portable devices for the use in Non Destructive Evaluation (NDE). Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUID's) are the most sensitive instruments for measuring changes in magnetic flux. By using HTS in SQUID's, one will be able to design a portable unit that uses liquid nitrogen or a cryocooler pump to explore the use of gradiometers or magnetometers to detect deep cracks or corrosion in structures. A third use is the replacement of Infra-Red (IR) sensor leads on

  10. Potential impacts of nanotechnology on energy transmission applications and needs.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D.; Environmental Science Division

    2007-11-30

    The application of nanotechnologies to energy transmission has the potential to significantly impact both the deployed transmission technologies and the need for additional development. This could be a factor in assessing environmental impacts of right-of-way (ROW) development and use. For example, some nanotechnology applications may produce materials (e.g., cables) that are much stronger per unit volume than existing materials, enabling reduced footprints for construction and maintenance of electricity transmission lines. Other applications, such as more efficient lighting, lighter-weight materials for vehicle construction, and smaller batteries having greater storage capacities may reduce the need for long-distance transport of energy, and possibly reduce the need for extensive future ROW development and many attendant environmental impacts. This report introduces the field of nanotechnology, describes some of the ways in which processes and products developed with or incorporating nanomaterials differ from traditional processes and products, and identifies some examples of how nanotechnology may be used to reduce potential ROW impacts. Potential environmental, safety, and health impacts are also discussed.

  11. Potential Applications of Zeolite Membranes in Reaction Coupling Separation Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tunde V. Ojumu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Future production of chemicals (e.g., fine and specialty chemicals in industry is faced with the challenge of limited material and energy resources. However, process intensification might play a significant role in alleviating this problem. A vision of process intensification through multifunctional reactors has stimulated research on membrane-based reactive separation processes, in which membrane separation and catalytic reaction occur simultaneously in one unit. These processes are rather attractive applications because they are potentially compact, less capital intensive, and have lower processing costs than traditional processes. Therefore this review discusses the progress and potential applications that have occurred in the field of zeolite membrane reactors during the last few years. The aim of this article is to update researchers in the field of process intensification and also provoke their thoughts on further research efforts to explore and exploit the potential applications of zeolite membrane reactors in industry. Further evaluation of this technology for industrial acceptability is essential in this regard. Therefore, studies such as techno-economical feasibility, optimization and scale-up are of the utmost importance.

  12. Profiling application potential for alkali treated sisal fiber ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of alkali treatment on sisal fiber from the plant agave sisalana in appropriation for composite material application is presented. Effectiveness of the fiber's reinforcement potential within polypropylene (PP) matrix is evaluated through morphological analysis, crystallinity levels, and tensile, where ultimate tensile ...

  13. Application of nanotechnology in biology and promising application in radiobiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Sanhu; Ni Jin; Cai Jianming

    2011-01-01

    As one of the 21-Century high and new technologies, nanotechnology (NT) has been widely applied in all aspects of biology. From now on, it has been used for detecting substance, carrying drug, antibacterial and tumour therapy by its photometric characteristics, mechanics characteristics, thermal property and other characteristics. Because of the unique advantages of nanoparticles, nanotechnology has great potential in radioprotection. In this article, we introduced the application of nanotechnology in modern biology and the primal problems. Meantime, we explain the prospect of its application in radioprotection. (authors)

  14. Synthesis, Properties and Potential Applications of Porous Graphene: A Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paola Russo; Anming Hu; Giuseppe Compagnini

    2013-01-01

    Since the discovery of graphene, many efforts have been done to modify the graphene structure for integrating this novel material to nanoelectronics, fuel cells, energy storage devices and in many other applications. This leads to the production of different types of graphene-based materials, which possess properties different from those of pure graphene. Porous graphene is an example of this type of materials. It can be considered as a graphene sheet with some holes/pores within the atomic plane. Due to its spongy structure, porous graphene can have potential applications as membranes for molecular sieving, energy storage components and in nanoelectronics. In this review, we present the recent progress in the synthesis of porous graphene. The properties and the potential applications of this new material are also discussed.

  15. Individual and population-level impacts of an emerging poxvirus disease in a wild population of great tits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelly Lachish

    Full Text Available Emerging infectious diseases of wildlife can have severe effects on host populations and constitute a pressing problem for biodiversity conservation. Paridae pox is an unusually severe form of avipoxvirus infection that has recently been identified as an emerging infectious disease particularly affecting an abundant songbird, the great tit (Parus major, in Great Britain. In this study, we study the invasion and establishment of Paridae pox in a long-term monitored population of wild great tits to (i quantify the impact of this novel pathogen on host fitness and (ii determine the potential threat it poses to population persistence. We show that Paridae pox significantly reduces the reproductive output of great tits by reducing the ability of parents to fledge young successfully and rear those young to independence. Our results also suggested that pathogen transmission from diseased parents to their offspring was possible, and that disease entails severe mortality costs for affected chicks. Application of multistate mark-recapture modelling showed that Paridae pox causes significant reductions to host survival, with particularly large effects observed for juvenile survival. Using an age-structured population model, we demonstrate that Paridae pox has the potential to reduce population growth rate, primarily through negative impacts on host survival rates. However, at currently observed prevalence, significant disease-induced population decline seems unlikely, although pox prevalence may be underestimated if capture probability of diseased individuals is low. Despite this, because pox-affected model populations exhibited lower average growth rates, this emerging infectious disease has the potential to reduce the resilience of populations to other environmental factors that reduce population size.

  16. Insulator applications in a Tokamak reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leger, D.

    1986-06-01

    Insulators, among which insulators ceramics, have great potential applications in fusion reactors. They will be used for all plasma-facing components as protection and, magnetic fusion devices being subject to large electrical currents flowing in any parts of the device, for their electrical insulating properties

  17. Electric Potential and Electric Field Imaging with Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generazio, Ed

    2016-01-01

    The technology and techniques for remote quantitative imaging of electrostatic potentials and electrostatic fields in and around objects and in free space is presented. Electric field imaging (EFI) technology may be applied to characterize intrinsic or existing electric potentials and electric fields, or an externally generated electrostatic field may be used for (illuminating) volumes to be inspected with EFI. The baseline sensor technology, electric field sensor (e-sensor), and its construction, optional electric field generation (quasistatic generator), and current e-sensor enhancements (ephemeral e-sensor) are discussed. Demonstrations for structural, electronic, human, and memory applications are shown. This new EFI capability is demonstrated to reveal characterization of electric charge distribution, creating a new field of study that embraces areas of interest including electrostatic discharge mitigation, crime scene forensics, design and materials selection for advanced sensors, dielectric morphology of structures, inspection of containers, inspection for hidden objects, tether integrity, organic molecular memory, and medical diagnostic and treatment efficacy applications such as cardiac polarization wave propagation and electromyography imaging.

  18. Southern Great Plains Safety Orientation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schatz, John

    2014-05-01

    Welcome to the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site is managed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). It is very important that all visitors comply with all DOE and ANL safety requirements, as well as those of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the National Fire Protection Association, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and with other requirements as applicable.

  19. Policies and practices of beach monitoring in the Great Lakes, USA: a critical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevers, Meredith B.; Whitman, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    Beaches throughout the Great Lakes are monitored for fecal indicator bacteria (typically Escherichia coli) in order to protect the public from potential sewage contamination. Currently, there is no universal standard for sample collection and analysis or results interpretation. Monitoring policies are developed by individual beach management jurisdictions, and applications are highly variable across and within lakes, states, and provinces. Extensive research has demonstrated that sampling decisions for time, depth, number of replicates, frequency of sampling, and laboratory analysis all influence the results outcome, as well as calculations of the mean and interpretation of the results in policy decisions. Additional shortcomings to current monitoring approaches include appropriateness and reliability of currently used indicator bacteria and the overall goal of these monitoring programs. Current research is attempting to circumvent these complex issues by developing new tools and methods for beach monitoring. In this review, we highlight the variety of sampling routines used across the Great Lakes and the extensive body of research that challenges comparisons among beaches. We also assess the future of Great Lakes monitoring and the advantages and disadvantages of establishing standards that are evenly applied across all beaches.

  20. Environmental Response Management Application (ERMA®), Great Lakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Environmental Response Management Application (ERMA®) is a web-based Geographic Information System (GIS) tool that assists both emergency responders and...

  1. Electrochemically Active Biofilms Assisted Nanomaterial Synthesis for Environmental Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Elaf

    2017-01-01

    Nanomaterials have a great potential for environmental applications due to their high surface areas and high reactivity. This dissertation investigated the use of electrochemically active biofilms (EABs) as a synthesis approach for the fabrication

  2. Tourist Potential in a Sustainable Approach. An Application Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddy Soria-Leyva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this research is proposed a methodology to evaluate the tourist potential with a sustainable approach and it is validated through an application in the municipality of the Tercer Frente, Santiago de Cuba. With this aim, some instruments of measure and mathematical formulas are submitted in order to obtain discriminating information about tourist resources, taking into account the delimitation of zones for the tourist development and the classification of determining factors of the tourist potential according to the capability of attraction and reception of the tourist demand, becoming adapted to the historic concrete conditions of the territory. Therefore, its application will determine a solid base for the future planning of tourist local development of this municipality. Among the main conclusions, it is deduced that Tercer Frente is a secondary semi-specialized destination which has medium tourist potential and possibilities to increase the spatial correlation among the tourist plant and the distribution of attractions in five zones.

  3. Reuse of assembly systems: a great ecological and economical potential for facility suppliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weule, Hartmut; Buchholz, Carsten

    2001-02-01

    In addition to the consumer goods, capital goods offer a great potential for ecological and economic optimization. In view of this fact the project WiMonDi (Re-Use of Assembly Systems as new Business Fields), started in September 1998, focuses a marketable Remanufacturing and Re-Use of modules and components of assembly systems by using technically and organizationally continuous concepts. The objective of the closed Facility-Management-System is to prolong the serviceable lifespan of assembly facilities through the organized dismantling, refurbishment and reconditioning of the assembly facilities as well as their components. Therefore, it is necessary to develop easible and methodical strategies to realize a workable Re-Use concept. Within the project the focus is based on the optimization of Re-Use-strategies - the direct Re-Use, the Re-Use including Refurbishment as well as Material Recycling. The decision for an optimal strategy depends on economical (e.g. residual value, cost/benefit of relevant processes, etc.), ecological (e.g. pollutant components /substances), etc.) and technical parameters (e.g. reliability, etc.). For the purpose to integrate the total cost-of-ownership of products or components, WiMonDi integrates the costs of the use of products as well as the Re-Use costs/benefits. To initiate the conception of new distribution and user models between the supplier and the user of assembly facilities the described approach is conducted in close cooperation between Industry and University.

  4. Development of Optically Active Nanostructures for Potential Applications in Sensing, Therapeutics and Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Padmanabh

    Materials at nanoscale are finding manifold applications in the various fields like sensing, plasmonics, therapeutics, to mention a few. Large amount of development has taken place regarding synthesis and exploring the novel applications of the various types of nanomaterials like organic, inorganic and hybrid of both. Yet, it is believed that the full potential of different nanomaterials is yet to be fully established stimulating researchers to explore more in the field of nanotechnology. Building on the same premise, in the following studies we have developed the nanomaterials in the class of optically active nanoparticles. First part of the study we have successfully designed, synthesized, and characterized Ag-Fe3O4 nanocomposite substrate for potential applications in quantitative Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) measurements. Quantitative SERS-based detection of dopamine was performed successfully. In subsequent study, facile, single-step synthesis of polyethyleneimine (PEI) coated lanthanide based NaYF4 (Yb, Er) nanoparticles was developed and their application as potential photodynamic therapy agent was studied using excitations by light in near infra-red and visible region. In the following and last study, synthesis and characterization of the conjugated polymer nanoparticles was attempted successfully. Functionalization of the conjugated nanoparticles, which is a bottleneck for their potential applications, was successfully performed by encapsulating them in the silica nanoparticles, surface of which was then functionalized by amine group. Three types of optically active nanoparticles were developed for potential applications in sensing, therapeutics and imaging.

  5. Magnetic nanoparticles as potential candidates for biomedical and biological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeinali Sehrig, Fatemeh; Majidi, Sima; Nikzamir, Nasrin; Nikzamir, Nasim; Nikzamir, Mohammad; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles have become the main candidates for biomedical and biological applications, and the application of small iron oxide nanoparticles in in vitro diagnostics has been practiced for about half a century. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), in combination with an external magnetic field and/or magnetizable grafts, allow the delivery of particles to the chosen target area, fix them at the local site while the medication is released, and act locally. In this review, we focus mostly on the potential use of MNPs for biomedical and biotechnological applications, and the improvements made in using these nanoparticles (NPs) in biological applications.

  6. Advances in the synthesis and application of nanoparticles for drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Wooram; Na, Kun

    2015-01-01

    The continuous development of drug delivery systems (DDSs) has been extensively researched by the need to maximize therapeutic efficacy while minimizing undesirable side effects. Nanoparticle technology was recently shown to hold great promise for drug delivery applications in nanomedicine due to its beneficial properties, such as better encapsulation, bioavailability, control release, and lower toxic effect. Despite the great progress in nanomedicine, there remain many limitations for clinical application. To overcome these limitations, advanced nanoparticles for drug delivery have been developed to enable the spatially and temporally controlled release of drugs in response to specific stimuli at disease sites. Furthermore, the controlled self-assembly of organic and inorganic materials may enable their use in theranostic applications. This review presents an overview of a recent advanced nanoparticulate system that can be used as a potential drug delivery carrier and focuses on the potential applications of nanoparticles in various biomedical fields for human health care. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. 2016 RFA for Great Lakes Long-Term Biology Monitoring Program: Phytoplankton Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Request for Applications solicits applications from eligible entities for a cooperative agreement to be awarded for a project to continue the long-term monitoring of phytoplankton in the open waters of the Great Lakes.

  8. Geopolymer Composites for Potential Applications in Cultural Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Ricciotti

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A new class of geopolymer composites, as materials alternative to traditional binders, was synthesized and its potentialities as restoration material in Cultural Heritage has been explored. This material has been prepared through a co-reticulation reaction in mild conditions of a metakaolin-based geopolymer inorganic matrix and a commercial epoxy resin. The freshly prepared slurry displays a consistency, workability and thixotropic behavior that make it suitable to be spread on different substrates in restoration, repair and reinforcement actions, even on walls and ceilings. Applicability and compatibility tests on tuff and concrete substrates were carried out and the microstructure of the samples in correspondence of the transition zone was analyzed by means of scanning electron microscope (SEM observations and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS mapping. Our studies pointed out the formation of a continuous phase between the geopolymer composite and tuff and concrete substrates, highlighting a high compatibility of the geopolymer binder with different kinds of materials. These features indicate a large potential for applications of these materials in Cultural Heritage.

  9. Young (gold deposits and active geothermal systems of the Great Basin: Enigmas, questions, and exploration potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coolbaugh, Mark F.; Vikre, Peter G.; Faulds, James E.

    2011-01-01

    Young gold systems in the Great Basin (£ 7 Ma), though not as well studied as their older counterparts, comprise a rapidly growing and in some ways controversial group. The gold inventory for these systems has more than doubled in the last 5 years from roughly 370 tonnes (12 Moz) to 890 tonnes (29 Moz). Although these deposits are characterized by low grades, tonnages can be high and stripping ratios low, and they have been mined profitably, as exemplified by Florida Canyon and Hycroft. Active geothermal systems in the Great Basin also comprise a rapidly growing group, as evidenced by a number of recent discoveries of geothermal groundwater and a more than 50% increase in electricity production capacity from these systems in the last 5 years. Many young gold deposits are closely associated with active geothermal systems, suggesting that gold deposits may be forming today in the Great Basin. Measured or estimated geothermal reservoir temperatures commonly approach or exceed 200∞C, and other characteristics and processes (advanced argillic caps, hydrothermal eruption breccias) of these young deposits resemble those of nearby Tertiary precious metal deposits. Nonetheless, many young gold systems, especially in Nevada, are not associated with coeval igneous rocks. Similarly, almost all electricity-grade geothermal systems in Nevada are not associated with Quaternary silicic volcanic rocks, and have lower temperature gradients, lower 3He/4He ratios, and lower dissolved trace element concentrations than most magmatic-heated geothermal systems elsewhere in the world. The increasing economic significance of young gold deposits and active geothermal systems justifies more research to better understand their origins, particularly because in some aspects they remain enigmatic and controversial. Are young gold deposits in Nevada truly amagmatic, or have they received metal and fluid contributions from magmas deeper within the crust? Has gold in these deposits been

  10. Small-scale fuel cell cogen: application potentials and market strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, Bernd

    2000-01-01

    Small (less than 5 kW) fuel-cell cogeneration systems are now being developed for use in residential buildings. The devices are expected to be on the market in five years. The article discusses the potential for their large-scale introduction, the impact of this new technology on the natural gas business, potential applications and marketing strategies

  11. Influence of latitude on the US great plains East-West precipitation gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precipitation varies greatly from east to west across the US Great Plains as a result of a combination of the rain shadow of the Rocky Mountains and the moisture flow from the Gulf of Mexico. Because of this precipitation gradient, application of research results obtained in one location to other lo...

  12. Laser wakefield accelerator based light sources: potential applications and requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). NIF and Photon Sciences; Thomas, A. G. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences; Mangles, S. P.D. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). Blackett Lab.; Banerjee, S. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States); Corde, S. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Flacco, A. [ENSTA, CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France); Litos, M. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Neely, D. [Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), Oxford (United Kingdom). Rutherford Appleton Lab. (RAL). Central Laser Facility; Viera, J. [Univ. of Lisbon (Portugal). GoLP-Inst. de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear-Lab. Associado; Najmudin, Z. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). Blackett Lab.; Bingham, R. [Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), Oxford (United Kingdom). Rutherford Appleton Lab. (RAL). Central Laser Facility; Joshi, C. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Katsouleas, T. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States). Platt School of Engineering

    2015-01-15

    In this article we review the prospects of laser wakefield accelerators as next generation light sources for applications. This work arose as a result of discussions held at the 2013 Laser Plasma Accelerators Workshop. X-ray phase contrast imaging, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and nuclear resonance fluorescence are highlighted as potential applications for laser-plasma based light sources. We discuss ongoing and future efforts to improve the properties of radiation from plasma betatron emission and Compton scattering using laser wakefield accelerators for these specific applications.

  13. Market Potential for Non-electric Applications of Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, T.; Kononov, S.; Kupitz, J.; McDonald, A.; Rogner, H.H.; Nisan, S.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents results of a recent IAEA study to assess the market potential for non-electric applications of nuclear energy in the near (before 2020) and long term (2020-2050). The applications covered are district heating, desalination, industrial heat supply, ship propulsion, energy supply for spacecraft, and, to a lesser extent, 'innovative' applications such as hydrogen production, coal gasification, etc. While technical details are covered only briefly, emphasis is placed on economics and other factors that may promote or hinder the penetration of nuclear options in the markets for non-electric energy services. The study makes a distinction between the market size (demand for a given service) and the market potential for nuclear penetration (which may be smaller because of technical or non-technical constraints). Near-term nuclear prospects are assessed on the basis of on-going projects in the final stages of design or under construction. For the long term, use has been made of a qualitative scale ranging from 0 to 2 for five critical areas: market structure, demand pressure, technical basis, economic competitiveness, and public acceptance. The paper presents the resulting evaluation of long-term prospects for nuclear energy entering into non-electric markets. (authors)

  14. Potential applications of electron emission membranes in medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilevych, Yevgen [Fraunhofer Institute for Reliability and Microintegration (IZM), Berlin (Germany); University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Brunner, Stefan E. [Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Stefan Meyer Institute for Subatomic Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Chan, Hong Wah; Charbon, Edoardo [Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Graaf, Harry van der, E-mail: vdgraaf@nikhef.nl [Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Nikhef, Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hagen, Cornelis W. [Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Nützel, Gert; Pinto, Serge D. [Photonis, Roden (Netherlands); Prodanović, Violeta [Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Rotman, Daan [Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Nikhef, Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Santagata, Fabio [State Key Lab for Solid State Lighti Changzhou base, F7 R& D HUB 1, Science and Education Town, Changzhou 213161, Jangsu Province (China); Sarro, Lina; Schaart, Dennis R. [Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Sinsheimer, John; Smedley, John [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Tao, Shuxia; Theulings, Anne M.M.G. [Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Nikhef, Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2016-02-11

    With a miniaturised stack of transmission dynodes, a noise free amplifier is being developed for the detection of single free electrons, with excellent time- and 2D spatial resolution and efficiency. With this generic technology, a new family of detectors for individual elementary particles may become possible. Potential applications of such electron emission membranes in medicine are discussed.

  15. Potential nitrogen critical loads for northern Great Plains grassland vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symstad, Amy J.; Smith, Anine T.; Newton, Wesley E.; Knapp, Alan K.

    2015-01-01

    The National Park Service is concerned that increasing atmospheric nitrogen deposition caused by fossil fuel combustion and agricultural activities could adversely affect the northern Great Plains (NGP) ecosystems in its trust. The critical load concept facilitates communication between scientists and policy makers or land managers by translating the complex effects of air pollution on ecosystems into concrete numbers that can be used to inform air quality targets. A critical load is the exposure level below which significant harmful effects on sensitive elements of the environment do not occur. A recent review of the literature suggested that the nitrogen critical load for Great Plains vegetation is 10-25 kg N/ha/yr. For comparison, current atmospheric nitrogen deposition in NGP National Park Service (NPS) units ranges from ~4 kg N/ha/yr in the west to ~13 kg N/ha/yr in the east. The suggested critical load, however, was derived from studies far outside of the NGP, and from experiments investigating nitrogen loads substantially higher than current atmospheric deposition in the region.Therefore, to better determine the nitrogen critical load for sensitive elements in NGP parks, we conducted a four-year field experiment in three northern Great Plains vegetation types at Badlands and Wind Cave National Parks. The vegetation types were chosen because of their importance in NGP parks, their expected sensitivity to nitrogen addition, and to span a range of natural fertility. In the experiment, we added nitrogen at rates ranging from below current atmospheric deposition (2.5 kg N/ha/yr) to far above those levels but commensurate with earlier experiments (100 kg N/ha/yr). We measured the response of a variety of vegetation and soil characteristics shown to be sensitive to nitrogen addition in other studies, including plant biomass production, plant tissue nitrogen concentration, plant species richness and composition, non-native species abundance, and soil inorganic

  16. Potential Applications of PET/MR Imaging in Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratib, Osman; Nkoulou, René

    2014-06-01

    Recent advances in hybrid PET/MR imaging have opened new perspectives for cardiovascular applications. Although cardiac MR imaging has gained wider adoption for routine clinical applications, PET images remain the reference in many applications for which objective analysis of metabolic and physiologic parameters is needed. In particular, in cardiovascular diseases-more specifically, coronary artery disease-the use of quantitative and measurable parameters in a reproducible way is essential for the management of therapeutic decisions and patient follow-up. Functional MR images and dynamic assessment of myocardial perfusion from transit of intravascular contrast medium can provide useful criteria for identifying areas of decreased myocardial perfusion or for assessing tissue viability from late contrast enhancement of scar tissue. PET images, however, will provide more quantitative data on true tissue perfusion and metabolism. Quantitative myocardial flow can also lead to accurate assessment of coronary flow reserve. The combination of both modalities will therefore provide complementary data that can be expected to improve the accuracy and reproducibility of diagnostic procedures. But the true potential of hybrid PET/MR imaging may reside in applications beyond the domain of coronary artery disease. The combination of both modalities in assessment of other cardiac diseases such as inflammation and of other systemic diseases can also be envisioned. It is also predicted that the 2 modalities combined could help characterize atherosclerotic plaques and differentiate plaques with a high risk of rupture from stable plaques. In the future, the development of new tracers will also open new perspectives in evaluating myocardial remodeling and in assessing the kinetics of stem cell therapy in myocardial infarction. New tracers will also provide new means for evaluating alterations in cardiac innervation, angiogenesis, and even the assessment of reporter gene technologies

  17. Decay model for biocide treatment of unballasted vessels: application for the Laurentian Great Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Larissa L; Bartell, Steven M; Landrum, Peter F

    2005-10-01

    A biocide decay model was developed to assess the potential efficacy and environmental impacts associated with using glutaraldehyde to treat unballasted overseas vessels trading on the Laurentian Great Lakes. The results of Monte Carlo simulations indicate that effective glutaraldehyde concentrations can be maintained for the duration of a vessel's oceanic transit (approximately 9-12 days): During this transit, glutaraldehyde concentrations were predicted to decrease by approximately 10% from initial treatment levels (e.g., 500 mgL(-1)). In terms of environmental impacts, mean glutaraldehyde concentrations released at Duluth-Superior Harbor, MN were predicted to be 100-fold lower than initial treatment concentrations, and ranged from 3.2 mgL(-1) (2 SD: 2.74) in April to 0.7 mgL(-1) (2 SD: 1.28) in August. Sensitivity analyses indicated that the re-ballasting dilution factor was the major variable governing final glutaraldehyde concentrations; however, lake surface temperatures became increasingly important during the warmer summer months.

  18. Synthesis, Prop erties and Potential Applications of Porous Graphene:A Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paola Russo; Anming Hu; Giuseppe Compagnini

    2013-01-01

    Since the discovery of graphene, many efforts have been done to modify the graphene structure for integrating this novel material to nanoelectronics, fuel cells, energy storage devices and in many other appli-cations. This leads to the production of different types of graphene-based materials, which possess properties different from those of pure graphene. Porous graphene is an example of this type of materials. It can be con-sidered as a graphene sheet with some holes/pores within the atomic plane. Due to its spongy structure, porous graphene can have potential applications as membranes for molecular sieving, energy storage components and in nanoelectronics. In this review, we present the recent progress in the synthesis of porous graphene. The properties and the potential applications of this new material are also discussed.

  19. Application of Research on the Metallogenic Background in the Assessment of Mineral Resources Potentiality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, D.; Feng, Y.; Liu, J.; Yao, X.; Zhang, Z.; Ye, T.

    2017-12-01

    1. Working BackgroundCurrent Status of Geological Prospecting: Detecting boundaries and bottoms, making ore search nearby; Seeing the stars, not seeing the Moon; Deep prospecting, undesirable results. The reasons of these problems are the regional metallogenic backgroud unclear and the metallogenic backgroud of the exploration regions unknown. Accordingly, Development and Research Center, CGS organized a geological setting research, in detail investigate metallogenic geological features and acquire mineralization information. 2. Technical SchemeCore research content is prediction elements of Metallogenic Structure. Adopt unified technical requirements from top to bottom, and technical route from bottom to top; Divide elements of mineral forecast and characteristics of geological structure into five elements for research and expression; Make full use of geophysical, geochemical and remote sensing inferences for the interpretation of macro information. After eight years the great project was completed. 3. Main AchievementsInnovation of basic maps compilation content of geological background, reinforce of geological structure data base of potentiality valuation. Preparation of geotectonic facies maps in different scales and professions, providing brand-new geologic background for potentiality assessment, promoting Chinese geotectonic research to the new height. Preparation of 3,375 geological structure thematic base maps of detecting working area in 6 kinds of prediction methods, providing base working maps, rock assemblage, structure of the protolith of geologic body / mineralization / ore controlling for mineral prediction of 25 ores. Enrichment and development of geotectonic facies analysis method, establishment of metallogenic background research thoughts and approach system for assessment of national mineral resources potentiality for the first time. 4. Application EffectOrientation——More and better results with less effort. Positioning——Have a definite

  20. [A SAS marco program for batch processing of univariate Cox regression analysis for great database].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rendong; Xiong, Jie; Peng, Yangqin; Peng, Xiaoning; Zeng, Xiaomin

    2015-02-01

    To realize batch processing of univariate Cox regression analysis for great database by SAS marco program. We wrote a SAS macro program, which can filter, integrate, and export P values to Excel by SAS9.2. The program was used for screening survival correlated RNA molecules of ovarian cancer. A SAS marco program could finish the batch processing of univariate Cox regression analysis, the selection and export of the results. The SAS macro program has potential applications in reducing the workload of statistical analysis and providing a basis for batch processing of univariate Cox regression analysis.

  1. Protection from potential exposures: application to selected radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    This ICRP Report begins with the general principles of radiation protection in the case of potential exposures, followed by special issues in application and compliance with regulatory aims. The rest of the report uses event trees or fault trees to derive the logical structure of six scenarios of potential exposure, i.e. two irradiators, a large research accelerator, an accelerator for industrial isotope production, an industrial radiography device using a mobile source of radiation, and finally a medical gamma radiotherapy device. (UK)

  2. Efficient and Adaptive Methods for Computing Accurate Potential Surfaces for Quantum Nuclear Effects: Applications to Hydrogen-Transfer Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGregorio, Nicole; Iyengar, Srinivasan S

    2018-01-09

    We present two sampling measures to gauge critical regions of potential energy surfaces. These sampling measures employ (a) the instantaneous quantum wavepacket density, an approximation to the (b) potential surface, its (c) gradients, and (d) a Shannon information theory based expression that estimates the local entropy associated with the quantum wavepacket. These four criteria together enable a directed sampling of potential surfaces that appears to correctly describe the local oscillation frequencies, or the local Nyquist frequency, of a potential surface. The sampling functions are then utilized to derive a tessellation scheme that discretizes the multidimensional space to enable efficient sampling of potential surfaces. The sampled potential surface is then combined with four different interpolation procedures, namely, (a) local Hermite curve interpolation, (b) low-pass filtered Lagrange interpolation, (c) the monomial symmetrization approximation (MSA) developed by Bowman and co-workers, and (d) a modified Shepard algorithm. The sampling procedure and the fitting schemes are used to compute (a) potential surfaces in highly anharmonic hydrogen-bonded systems and (b) study hydrogen-transfer reactions in biogenic volatile organic compounds (isoprene) where the transferring hydrogen atom is found to demonstrate critical quantum nuclear effects. In the case of isoprene, the algorithm discussed here is used to derive multidimensional potential surfaces along a hydrogen-transfer reaction path to gauge the effect of quantum-nuclear degrees of freedom on the hydrogen-transfer process. Based on the decreased computational effort, facilitated by the optimal sampling of the potential surfaces through the use of sampling functions discussed here, and the accuracy of the associated potential surfaces, we believe the method will find great utility in the study of quantum nuclear dynamics problems, of which application to hydrogen-transfer reactions and hydrogen

  3. The potential application of stem cell in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketut Suardita

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells are generally defined as cells that have the capacity to self-renewal and differentiate to specialize cell. There are two kinds of stem cell, embryonic stem cell and adult stem cells. Stem cell therapy has been used to treat diseases including Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases, spinal cord injury, stroke, burns, heart diseases, diabetes, osteoarthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Stem cells were found in dental pulp, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone marrow. Because of their potential in medical therapy, stem cells were used to regenerate lost or damage teeth and periodontal structures. This article discusses the potential application of stem cells for dental field.

  4. Pacific salmonines in the Great Lakes Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claramunt, Randall M.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Clapp, David; Taylor, William W.; Lynch, Abigail J.; Léonard, Nancy J.

    2012-01-01

    Pacific salmon (genus Oncorhynchus) are a valuable resource, both within their native range in the North Pacific rim and in the Great Lakes basin. Understanding their value from a biological and economic perspective in the Great Lakes, however, requires an understanding of changes in the ecosystem and of management actions that have been taken to promote system stability, integrity, and sustainable fisheries. Pacific salmonine introductions to the Great Lakes are comprised mainly of Chinook salmon, coho salmon, and steelhead and have accounted for 421, 177, and 247 million fish, respectively, stocked during 1966-2007. Stocking of Pacific salmonines has been effective in substantially reducing exotic prey fish abundances in several of the Great Lakes (e.g., lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario). The goal of our evaluation was to highlight differences in management strategies and perspectives across the basin, and to evaluate policies for Pacific salmonine management in the Great Lakes. Currently, a potential conflict exists between Pacific salmonine management and native fish rehabilitation goals because of the desire to sustain recreational fisheries and to develop self-sustaining populations of stocked Pacific salmonines in the Great Lakes. We provide evidence that suggests Pacific salmonines have not only become naturalized to the food webs of the Great Lakes, but that their populations (specifically Chinook salmon) may be fluctuating in concert with specific prey (i.e., alewives) whose populations are changing relative to environmental conditions and ecosystem disturbances. Remaining questions, however, are whether or not “natural” fluctuations in predator and prey provide enough “stability” in the Great Lakes food webs, and even more importantly, would a choice by managers to attempt to reduce the severity of predator-prey oscillations be antagonistic to native fish restoration efforts. We argue that, on each of the Great Lakes, managers are pursuing

  5. Application of GaN in Hard-switching Converters:Challenges and Potential Solutions%Application of GaN in Hard-switching Converters: Challenges and Potential Solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo LIU; Zhe-yu ZHANG; Edward Jones; Fei(Fred) WANG

    2017-01-01

    This paper overviews the benefits,challenges,research trends and potential solutions on the design and application of gallium nitride (GaN) technology in hard-switching power electronic converters from the device level up to converter level.

  6. Application of dental nanomaterials: potential toxicity to the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaoli; Chen, Aijie; Zhang, Yanli; Wang, Jianfeng; Shao, Longquan; Wei, Limin

    2015-01-01

    Nanomaterials are defined as materials with one or more external dimensions with a size of 1-100 nm. Such materials possess typical nanostructure-dependent properties (eg, chemical, biological, optical, mechanical, and magnetic), which may differ greatly from the properties of their bulk counterparts. In recent years, nanomaterials have been widely used in the production of dental materials, particularly in light polymerization composite resins and bonding systems, coating materials for dental implants, bioceramics, endodontic sealers, and mouthwashes. However, the dental applications of nanomaterials yield not only a significant improvement in clinical treatments but also growing concerns regarding their biosecurity. The brain is well protected by the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which separates the blood from the cerebral parenchyma. However, in recent years, many studies have found that nanoparticles (NPs), including nanocarriers, can transport through the BBB and locate in the central nervous system (CNS). Because the CNS may be a potential target organ of the nanomaterials, it is essential to determine the neurotoxic effects of NPs. In this review, possible dental nanomaterials and their pathways into the CNS are discussed, as well as related neurotoxicity effects underlying the in vitro and in vivo studies. Finally, we analyze the limitations of the current testing methods on the toxicological effects of nanomaterials. This review contributes to a better understanding of the nano-related risks to the CNS as well as the further development of safety assessment systems.

  7. BIOTECHNOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS AND POTENTIAL USES OF THE MUSHROOM TRAMESTES VERSICOLOR

    OpenAIRE

    CÓRDOBA M., Ketty A.; RÍOS H., Alicia

    2012-01-01

    The use of products obtained from fungi (particularly mushrooms) has increased lately due to their broad applicability in different scientific and industrial fields. The genus Trametes comprises a group of white rot producing ligninolytic fungi, with medicinal properties, biotechnological importance and environmental applications. One of the most potentially useful species is T. versicolor, formerly known as Coriolus versicolor or Polyporus versicolor. Also known as Yun Zhi in China, is a fun...

  8. Idiopathic great saphenous phlebosclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadreza Jodati

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Arterial sclerosis has been extensively described but reports on venous sclerosis are very sparse. Phlebosclerosis refers to the thickening and hardening of the venous wall. Despite its morphological similarities with arteriosclerosis and potential morbid consequences, phlebosclerosis has gained only little attention. We report a 72 year old male with paralysis and atrophy of the right leg due to childhood poliomyelitis who was referred for coronary artery bypass surgery. The great saphenous vein, harvested from the left leg, showed a hardened cord-like obliterated vein. Surprisingly, harvested veins from the atrophic limb were normal and successfully used for grafting.

  9. Co-polymerization of methyl methacrylate and styrene via surfactant-free emulsion polymerization, as a potential material for photonic crystal application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassim, Syara; Zahari, Siti Balqis; Tahrin, Rabiatul Addawiyah Azwa; Harun, Noor Aniza

    2017-09-01

    Photonic crystals are being the great interest of researcher to studies due to a variety of potential application for the interaction of light including the solar cells, optical sensors and paints. In order to evaluate the fabrication of photonic crystals thin film, a free-emulsifier emulsion copolymerization of styrene and methyl methacrylate was carried out. By using the self -assembly approach, this method offers the opportunity to produce crystalline polymer sphere in more ease operation, low cost and environmental friendly. The influences of the mixing ratio of monomer and amount of initiators were studied. In advance, the presence of styrene as co-monomer had improved the thermal degradation of polymer methyl methacrylate. While in changing the mixing ratio of styrene and methyl methacrylate resulted in particle size of the sphere. The size of polymer particles slightly increased on increasing volume of styrene monomer ratio. This occurred because the properties of styrene in water where it sparingly soluble and lead to coagulation of particles. This simple, yet effective method for preparing functional complex 3D structures has the potential to be used generically to fabricate a variety of functional porous 3D structures that could find application not only in new or improved photonic crystal (PC) devices but also in areas such as catalysis, solar cell, separation, fuel cells technology, microelectronics and optoelectronics.

  10. Progress toward determining the potential of ODS alloys for gas turbine applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreshfield, R. L.; Hoppin, G., III; Sheffler, K.

    1983-01-01

    The Materials for Advanced Turbine Engine (MATE) Program managed by the NASA Lewis Research Center is supporting two projects to evaluate the potential of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys for aircraft gas turbine applications. One project involves the evaluation of Incoloy (TM) MA-956 for application as a combustor liner material. An assessment of advanced engine potential will be conducted by means of a test in a P&WA 2037 turbofan engine. The other project involves the evaluation of Inconel (TM) MA 6000 for application as a high pressure turbine blade material and includes a test in a Garrett TFE 731 turbofan engine. Both projects are progressing toward these engine tests in 1984.

  11. Potential non-oncological applications of histone deacetylase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ververis, Katherine; Karagiannis, Tom C

    2011-01-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors have emerged as a new class of anticancer therapeutic drugs. Their clinical utility in oncology stems from their intrinsic cytotoxic properties and combinatorial effects with other conventional cancer therapies. To date, the histone deacetylase inhibitors suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (Vorinostat, Zolinza®) and depsipeptide (Romidepsin, Istodax®) have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of refractory cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Further, there are currently over 100 clinical trials involving the use of histone deacetylase inhibitors in a wide range of solid and hematological malignancies. The therapeutic potential of histone deacetylase inhibitors has also been investigated for numerous other diseases. For example, the cytotoxic properties of histone deacetylase inhibitors are currently being harnessed as a potential treatment for malaria, whereas the efficacy of these compounds for HIV relies on de-silencing latent virus. The anti-inflammatory properties of histone deacetylase inhibitors are the predominant mechanisms for other diseases, such as hepatitis, systemic lupus erythematosus and a wide range of neurodegenerative conditions. Additionally, histone deacetylase inhibitors have been shown to be efficacious in animal models of cardiac hypertrophy and asthma. Broad-spectrum histone deacetylase inhibitors are clinically available and have been used almost exclusively in preclinical systems to date. However, it is emerging that class- or isoform-specific compounds, which are becoming more readily available, may be more efficacious particularly for non-oncological applications. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the effects and clinical potential of histone deacetylase inhibitors in various diseases. Apart from applications in oncology, the discussion is focused on the potential efficacy of histone deacetylase inhibitors for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, cardiac

  12. Carbon nanotubes from synthesis to in vivo biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajid, Muhammad Imran; Jamshaid, Usama; Jamshaid, Talha; Zafar, Nadiah; Fessi, H; Elaissari, Abdelhamid

    2016-03-30

    Owing to their unique and interesting properties, extensive research round the globe has been carried out on carbon nanotubes and carbon nanotubes based systems to investigate their practical usefulness in biomedical applications. The results from these studies demonstrate a great promise in their use in targeted drug delivery systems, diagnostic techniques and in bio-analytical applications. Although, carbon nanotubes possess quite interesting properties, which make them potential candidates in the biomedical science, but they also have some inherent properties which arise great concern regarding their biosafety. In this comprehensive review, we have discussed different aspects of carbon nanotubes and carbon nanotube based systems related to biomedical applications. In the beginning, a short historical account of these tiny yet powerful particles is given followed by discussion regarding their types, properties, methods of synthesis, large scale production method, purification techniques and characterization aspects of carbon nanotubes. In the second part of the review, the functionalization of carbon nanotubes is reviewed in detail, which is not only important to make them biocompatible and stable in biological systems but also render them a great property of loading various biomolecules, diagnostic and therapeutic moieties resulting in diversified applications. In the final part of the review, emphasis is given on the pharmacokinetic aspects of carbon nanotubes including administration routes, absorption mechanisms, distribution and elimination of carbon nanotubes based systems. Lastly, a comprehensive account about the potential biomedical applications has been given followed by insights into the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Poly aspartic acid peptide-linked PLGA based nanoscale particles: potential for bone-targeting drug delivery applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tao; Yu, Xiaohua; Carbone, Erica J; Nelson, Clarke; Kan, Ho Man; Lo, Kevin W-H

    2014-11-20

    Delivering drugs specifically to bone tissue is very challenging due to the architecture and structure of bone tissue. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-based nanoparticles (NPs) hold great promise for the delivery of therapeutics to bone tissue. The goal of the present research was to formulate a PLGA-based NP drug delivery system for bone tissue exclusively. Since poly-aspartic acids (poly-Asp) peptide sequence has been shown to bind to hydroxyapatite (HA), and has been suggested as a molecular tool for bone-targeting applications, we fabricated PLGA-based NPs linked with poly-Asp peptide sequence. Nanoparticles made of methoxy - poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-PLGA and maleimide-PEG-PLGA were prepared using a water-in-oil-in-water double emulsion and solvent evaporation method. Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-tagged poly-Asp peptide was conjugated to the surface of the nanoparticles via the alkylation reaction between the sulfhydryl groups at the N-terminal of the peptide and the CC double bond of maleimide at one end of the polymer chain to form thioether bonds. The conjugation of FITC-tagged poly-Asp peptide to PLGA NPs was confirmed by NMR analysis and fluorescent microscopy. The developed nanoparticle system is highly aqueous dispersible with an average particle size of ∼80 nm. In vitro binding analyses demonstrated that FITC-poly-Asp NPs were able to bind to HA gel as well as to mineralized matrices produced by human mesenchymal stem cells and mouse bone marrow stromal cells. Using a confocal microscopy technique, an ex vivo binding study of mouse major organ ground sections revealed that the FITC-poly-Asp NPs were able to bind specifically to the bone tissue. In addition, proliferation studies indicated that our FITC-poly-Asp NPs did not induce cytotoxicity to human osteoblast-like MG63 cell lines. Altogether, these promising results indicated that this nanoscale targeting system was able to bind to bone tissue specifically and might have a great

  14. Application of potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petris, L.

    1979-01-01

    This report summarizes the results obtained with the nucleon-nucleon potential presented previously for: 1) the deuteron properties and wave function, 2) a Hartree-Fock calculation on O 16 , and 3) the perturbation V-matrix and G-matrix results for the potential in relation to the results of other potentials and to saturation

  15. Potential National Security Applications of Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, Glen A.; Peplowski, Patrick N.; Caggiano, Joseph A.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this report is to document the initial investigation into the possible research issues related to the development of NRF-based national security applications. The report discusses several potential applications ranging from measuring uranium enrichment in UF6 canisters to characterization of gas samples. While these applications are varied, there are only a few research issues that need to be addressed to understand the limitation of NRF in solving these problems. These research issues range from source and detector development to measuring small samples. The next effort is to determine how best to answer the research issues, followed by a prioritization of those questions to ensure that the most important are addressed. These issues will be addressed through either analytical calculations, computer simulations, analysis of previous data or collection of new measurements. It will also be beneficial to conduct a thorough examination of a couple of the more promising applications in order to develop concrete examples of how NRF may be applied in specific situations. The goals are to develop an understanding of whether the application of NRF is limited by technology or physics in addressing national security applications, to gain a motivation to explore those possible applications, and to develop a research roadmap so that those possibilities may be made reality.

  16. Great Apes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeman, Jonathan M.; Cerveny, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    Anesthesia of great apes is often necessary to conduct diagnostic analysis, provide therapeutics, facilitate surgical procedures, and enable transport and translocation for conservation purposes. Due to the stress of remote delivery injection of anesthetic agents, recent studies have focused on oral delivery and/or transmucosal absorption of preanesthetic and anesthetic agents. Maintenance of the airway and provision of oxygen is an important aspect of anesthesia in great ape species. The provision of analgesia is an important aspect of the anesthesia protocol for any procedure involving painful stimuli. Opioids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are often administered alone, or in combination to provide multi-modal analgesia. There is increasing conservation management of in situ great ape populations, which has resulted in the development of field anesthesia techniques for free-living great apes for the purposes of translocation, reintroduction into the wild, and clinical interventions.

  17. Organic Bioelectronic Tools for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Löffler

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Organic bioelectronics forms the basis of conductive polymer tools with great potential for application in biomedical science and medicine. It is a rapidly growing field of both academic and industrial interest since conductive polymers bridge the gap between electronics and biology by being electronically and ionically conductive. This feature can be employed in numerous ways by choosing the right polyelectrolyte system and tuning its properties towards the intended application. This review highlights how active organic bioelectronic surfaces can be used to control cell attachment and release as well as to trigger cell signaling by means of electrical, chemical or mechanical actuation. Furthermore, we report on the unique properties of conductive polymers that make them outstanding materials for labeled or label-free biosensors. Techniques for electronically controlled ion transport in organic bioelectronic devices are introduced, and examples are provided to illustrate their use in self-regulated medical devices. Organic bioelectronics have great potential to become a primary platform in future bioelectronics. We therefore introduce current applications that will aid in the development of advanced in vitro systems for biomedical science and of automated systems for applications in neuroscience, cell biology and infection biology. Considering this broad spectrum of applications, organic bioelectronics could lead to timely detection of disease, and facilitate the use of remote and personalized medicine. As such, organic bioelectronics might contribute to efficient healthcare and reduced hospitalization times for patients.

  18. Augmented reality application for industrial non-destructive inspection training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amza, Catalin Gheorghe; Zapciu, Aurelian; Teodorescu, Octav

    2018-02-01

    Such a technology - Augmented Reality (AR) has great potential of use, especially for training purposes of new operators on using expensive equipment. In this context, the paper presents an augmented reality training system developed for phased-array ultrasonic non-destructive testing (NDT) equipment. The application has been developed using Unity 5.6.0 game-engine platform integrated with Vuforia sdk toolkit for devices with Android operating system. The test results performed by several NDT operators showed good results, thus proving the potential of using the application in the industrial field.

  19. Marine bioactives and potential application in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammone, Maria Alessandra; Gemello, Eugenio; Riccioni, Graziano; D'Orazio, Nicolantonio

    2014-04-30

    An enriched diet with antioxidants, such as vitamin E, vitamin C, β-carotene and phenolic compounds, has always been suggested to improve oxidative stress, preventing related diseases. In this respect, marine natural product (MNP), such as COX inhibitors, marine steroids, molecules interfering with factors involved in the modulation of gene expression (such as NF-κB), macrolides, many antioxidant agents, thermogenic substances and even substances that could help the immune system and that result in the protection of cartilage, have been recently gaining attention. The marine world represents a reserve of bioactive ingredients, with considerable potential as functional food. Substances, such as chitin, chitosan, n-3 oils, carotenoids, vitamins, minerals and bioactive peptides, can provide several health benefits, such as the reduction of cardiovascular diseases, anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic activities. In addition, new marine bioactive substances with potential anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and thermogenic capacity may provide health benefits and performance improvement, especially in those who practice physical activity, because of their increased free radical and Reacting Oxygen Species (ROS) production during exercise, and, particularly, in athletes. The aim of this review is to examine the potential pharmacological properties and application of many marine bioactive substances in sports.

  20. Discrete parametric band conversion in silicon for mid-infrared applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tien, En-Kuang; Huang, Yuewang; Gao, Shiming; Song, Qi; Qian, Feng; Kalyoncu, Salih K; Boyraz, Ozdal

    2010-10-11

    Silicon photonics has great potential for mid-wave-infrared applications. The dispersion of waveguide can be manipulated by waveguide dimension and cladding materials. Simulation shows that <3 μm wide conversion can be achieved by tuning the pump wavelength.

  1. Application of non-bijective transformations to various potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kibler, M.

    1987-11-01

    Some results about non-bijective quadratic transformations generalizing the Kustaanheimo-Stiefel and Levi-Civita transformations are reviewed in Chapter 1. The three remaining sections are devoted to new results: Chapter 2 deals with the Lie algebras under constraints associated to some Hurwitz transformations; Chapter 3 and Chapter 4 are concerned with several applications of some Hurwitz transformations to wave equations for various potentials in R 3 and R 5

  2. Contact structures in the poultry industry in Great Britain: Exploring transmission routes for a potential avian influenza virus epidemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyder Kieran

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The commercial poultry industry in United Kingdom (UK is worth an estimated £3.4 billion at retail value, producing over 174 million birds for consumption per year. An epidemic of any poultry disease with high mortality or which is zoonotic, such as avian influenza virus (AIV, would result in the culling of significant numbers of birds, as seen in the Netherlands in 2003 and Italy in 2000. Such an epidemic would cost the UK government millions of pounds in compensation costs, with further economic losses through reduction of international and UK consumption of British poultry. In order to better inform policy advisers and makers on the potential for a large epidemic in GB, we investigate the role that interactions amongst premises within the British commercial poultry industry could play in promoting an AIV epidemic, given an introduction of the virus in a specific part of poultry industry in Great Britain (GB. Results Poultry premises using multiple slaughterhouses lead to a large number of premises being potentially connected, with the resultant potential for large and sometimes widespread epidemics. Catching companies can also potentially link a large proportion of the poultry population. Critical to this is the maximum distance traveled by catching companies between premises and whether or not between-species transmission could occur within individual premises. Premises closely linked by proximity may result in connections being formed between different species and or sectors within the industry. Conclusion Even quite well-contained epidemics have the potential for geographically widespread dissemination, potentially resulting in severe logistical problems for epidemic control, and with economic impact on a large part of the country. Premises sending birds to multiple slaughterhouses or housing multiple species may act as a bridge between otherwise separate sectors of the industry, resulting in the potential for large

  3. GEANT Monte Carlo simulations for the GREAT spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreyev, A.N.; Butler, P.A.; Page, R.D.; Appelbe, D.E.; Jones, G.D.; Joss, D.T.; Herzberg, R.-D.; Regan, P.H.; Simpson, J.; Wadsworth, R.

    2004-01-01

    GEANT Monte Carlo simulations for the recently developed GREAT spectrometer are presented. Some novel applications of the spectrometer for γ-ray, conversion-electron and β-decay spectroscopy are discussed. The conversion-electron spectroscopy of heavy nuclei with strongly converted transitions and the extension of the recoil decay tagging method to β-decaying nuclei are considered in detail

  4. The potential spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus via dynamic contacts between poultry premises in Great Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kao Rowland R

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI viruses have had devastating effects on poultry industries worldwide, and there is concern about the potential for HPAI outbreaks in the poultry industry in Great Britain (GB. Critical to the potential for HPAI to spread between poultry premises are the connections made between farms by movements related to human activity. Movement records of catching teams and slaughterhouse vehicles were obtained from a large catching company, and these data were used in a simulation model of HPAI spread between farms serviced by the catching company, and surrounding (geographic areas. The spread of HPAI through real-time movements was modelled, with the addition of spread via company personnel and local transmission. Results The model predicted that although large outbreaks are rare, they may occur, with long distances between infected premises. Final outbreak size was most sensitive to the probability of spread via slaughterhouse-linked movements whereas the probability of onward spread beyond an index premises was most sensitive to the frequency of company personnel movements. Conclusions Results obtained from this study show that, whilst there is the possibility that HPAI virus will jump from one cluster of farms to another, movements made by catching teams connected fewer poultry premises in an outbreak situation than slaughterhouses and company personnel. The potential connection of a large number of infected farms, however, highlights the importance of retaining up-to-date data on poultry premises so that control measures can be effectively prioritised in an outbreak situation.

  5. Application of the North American Multi-Model Ensemble to seasonal water supply forecasting in the Great Lakes basin through the use of the Great Lakes Seasonal Climate Forecast Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronewold, A.; Apps, D.; Fry, L. M.; Bolinger, R.

    2017-12-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) contribution to the internationally coordinated 6-month forecast of Great Lakes water levels relies on several water supply models, including a regression model relating a coming month's water supply to past water supplies, previous months' precipitation and temperature, and forecasted precipitation and temperature. Probabilistic forecasts of precipitation and temperature depicted in the Climate Prediction Center's seasonal outlook maps are considered to be standard for use in operational forecasting for seasonal time horizons, and have provided the basis for computing a coming month's precipitation and temperature for use in the USACE water supply regression models. The CPC outlook maps are a useful forecast product offering insight into interpretation of climate models through the prognostic discussion and graphical forecasts. However, recent evolution of USACE forecast procedures to accommodate automated data transfer and manipulation offers a new opportunity for direct incorporation of ensemble climate forecast data into probabilistic outlooks of water supply using existing models that have previously been implemented in a deterministic fashion. We will present results from a study investigating the potential for applying data from the North American Multi-Model Ensemble to operational water supply forecasts. The use of NMME forecasts is facilitated by a new, publicly available, Great Lakes Seasonal Climate Forecast Tool that provides operational forecasts of monthly average temperatures and monthly total precipitation summarized for each lake basin.

  6. Structural investigations of Great Basin geothermal fields: Applications and implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faulds, James E [Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology, Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Hinz, Nicholas H. [Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology, Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Coolbaugh, Mark F [Great Basin Center for Geothermal Energy, Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

    2010-11-01

    Because fractures and faults are commonly the primary pathway for deeply circulating hydrothermal fluids, structural studies are critical to assessing geothermal systems and selecting drilling targets for geothermal wells. Important tools for structural analysis include detailed geologic mapping, kinematic analysis of faults, and estimations of stress orientations. Structural assessments are especially useful for evaluating geothermal fields in the Great Basin of the western USA, where regional extension and transtension combine with high heat flow to generate abundant geothermal activity in regions having little recent volcanic activity. The northwestern Great Basin is one of the most geothermally active areas in the USA. The prolific geothermal activity is probably due to enhanced dilation on N- to NNE-striking normal faults induced by a transfer of NW-directed dextral shear from the Walker Lane to NW-directed extension. Analysis of several geothermal fields suggests that most systems occupy discrete steps in normal fault zones or lie in belts of intersecting, overlapping, and/or terminating faults. Most fields are associated with steeply dipping faults and, in many cases, with Quaternary faults. The structural settings favoring geothermal activity are characterized by subvertical conduits of highly fractured rock along fault zones oriented approximately perpendicular to the WNW-trending least principal stress. Features indicative of these settings that may be helpful in guiding exploration for geothermal resources include major steps in normal faults, interbasinal highs, groups of relatively low discontinuous ridges, and lateral jogs or terminations of mountain ranges.

  7. SARAL/Altika for inland water: current and potential applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarpanelli, Angelica; Brocca, Luca; Barbetta, Silvia; Moramarco, Tommaso; Santos da Silva, Joécila; Calmant, Stephane

    2015-04-01

    Although representing less than 1% of the total amount of water on Earth the freshwater is essential for terrestrial life and human needs. Over one third of the world's population is not served by adequate supplies of clean water and for this reason freshwater wars are becoming one of the most pressing environmental issues exacerbating the already difficult tensions between the riparian nations. Notwithstanding the foregoing, we have surprisingly poor knowledge of the spatial and temporal dynamics of surface discharge. In-situ gauging networks quantify the instantaneous water volume in the main river channels but provide few information about the spatial dynamics of surface water extent, such as floodplain flows and the dynamics of wetlands. The growing reduction of hydrometric monitoring networks over the world, along with the inaccessibility of many remote areas and the difficulties for data sharing among developing countries feed the need to develop new procedures for river discharge estimation based on remote sensing technology. The major challenge in this case is the possibility of using Earth Observation data without ground measurements. Radar altimeters are a valuable tool to retrieve hydrological information from space such as water level of inland water. More than a decade of research on the application of radar altimetry has demonstrated its advantages also for monitoring continental water, providing global coverage and regular temporal sampling. The high accuracy of altimetry data provided by the latest spatial missions and the convincing results obtained in the previous applications suggest that these data may be employed for hydraulic/hydrological applications as well. If used in synergy with the modeling, the potential benefits of the altimetry measurements can grow significantly. The new SARAL French-Indian mission, providing improvements in terms of vertical accuracy and spatial resolution of the onboard altimeter Altika, can offer a great

  8. Epi-Side-Down Mounting of Interband Cascade Lasers for Army Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tobin, M. S; Monroy, C. J; Oliver, K. A; Tober, R. L; Bradshaw, J. L; Bruno, J. D; Towner, F. J

    2006-01-01

    The interband cascade laser, based on the type II energy band alignment in the InAs/GaSb material system, has great potential to meet the power and the wall plug efficiency requirements of many Army applications...

  9. 40 CFR Appendix E to Part 132 - Great Lakes Water Quality Initiative Antidegradation Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... most cost effective pollution prevention and treatment techniques available, and minimizes the... shall adopt an antidegradation standard applicable to all waters of the Great Lakes System and identify... result in an increased loading of BCCs to surface waters of the Great Lakes System and for which...

  10. Multimodal Magnetic-Plasmonic Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelley Stafford

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic plasmonic nanomaterials are of great interest in the field of biomedicine due to their vast number of potential applications, for example, in molecular imaging, photothermal therapy, magnetic hyperthermia and as drug delivery vehicles. The multimodal nature of these nanoparticles means that they are potentially ideal theranostic agents—i.e., they can be used both as therapeutic and diagnostic tools. This review details progress in the field of magnetic-plasmonic nanomaterials over the past ten years, focusing on significant developments that have been made and outlining the future work that still needs to be done in this fast emerging area. The review describes the main synthetic approaches to each type of magnetic plasmonic nanomaterial and the potential biomedical applications of these hybrid nanomaterials.

  11. Properties and applications of chemically functionalized graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craciun, M F; Khrapach, I; Barnes, M D; Russo, S

    2013-01-01

    The vast and yet largely unexplored family of graphene materials has great potential for future electronic devices with novel functionalities. The ability to engineer the electrical and optical properties in graphene by chemically functionalizing it with a molecule or adatom is widening considerably the potential applications targeted by graphene. Indeed, functionalized graphene has been found to be the best known transparent conductor or a wide gap semiconductor. At the same time, understanding the mechanisms driving the functionalization of graphene with hydrogen is proving to be of fundamental interest for energy storage devices. Here we discuss recent advances on the properties and applications of chemically functionalized graphene. (topical review)

  12. Market potential for non-electric applications of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this report is to assess the market potential for the non-electric applications of nuclear energy in the near (before 2020) and long (2020-2050) terms. The main non-electric applications are defined here as district heating, desalination (of sea, brackish and waste water), industrial heat supply, ship propulsion and the energy supply for spacecraft. This report is principally devoted to these applications, although a less detailed assessment of some innovative applications (e.g. hydrogen production and coal gasification) is also provided. While the technical details of these applications are covered briefly, emphasis is placed on the economic and other factors that may promote or hinder the penetration of the nuclear option into the market for non-electric energy services. The report is intentionally targeted towards expected demands. It is for this reason that its sections are structured by demand categories and not according to possible reactor types. At the same time, the orientation on the demand side can result in overlaps at the supply side, because the same nuclear reactor can often serve more than one type of demand. Such cases are noted as appropriate. Each section characterizes a specific non-electric application in terms of its market size, its prospects for nuclear technologies and the economic competitiveness of the technologies

  13. Evaluate prevailing climate change on Great Lakes water levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, M.

    2009-01-01

    'Full text:'In this paper, results of a comprehensive water mass balance modeling for the Great Lakes against prevailing and different anticipated climate change scenarios would be presented. Modeling is done in evaluating the changes in the lake storages and then changes in the lake's water level considering present condition, uncertainty and variability of climate and hydrologic conditions in the future. Inflow-outflow and consequent changes in the five Great Lake's storages are simulated for the last 30 years and then projected to evaluate the changes in the lake storages for the next 50 years. From the predicted changes in the lake storage data, water level is calculated using mass to linear conversion equation. Modeling and analysis results are expected to be helpful in understanding the possible impacts of the climate change on the Great Lakes water environment and preparing strategic plan for the sustainable management of lake's water resources. From the recent past, it is observed that there is a depleting trend in the lakes water level and hence there is a potential threat to lake's water environment and uncertainty of the availability of quality and quantity of water for the future generations, especially against prevailing and anticipated climate changes. For this reason, it is an urgent issue of understanding and quantifying the potential impacts of climate change on the Great Lake's water levels and storages. (author)

  14. Microbial siderophores and their potential applications: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Maumita; Sarkar, Subhasis; Sarkar, Biplab; Sharma, Bipin Kumar; Bhattacharjee, Surajit; Tribedi, Prosun

    2016-03-01

    Siderophores are small organic molecules produced by microorganisms under iron-limiting conditions which enhance the uptake of iron to the microorganisms. In environment, the ferric form of iron is insoluble and inaccessible at physiological pH (7.35-7.40). Under this condition, microorganisms synthesize siderophores which have high affinity for ferric iron. These ferric iron-siderophore complexes are then transported to cytosol. In cytosol, the ferric iron gets reduced into ferrous iron and becomes accessible to microorganism. In recent times, siderophores have drawn much attention due to its potential roles in different fields. Siderophores have application in microbial ecology to enhance the growth of several unculturable microorganisms and can alter the microbial communities. In the field of agriculture, different types of siderophores promote the growth of several plant species and increase their yield by enhancing the Fe uptake to plants. Siderophores acts as a potential biocontrol agent against harmful phyto-pathogens and holds the ability to substitute hazardous pesticides. Heavy-metal-contaminated samples can be detoxified by applying siderophores, which explicate its role in bioremediation. Siderophores can detect the iron content in different environments, exhibiting its role as a biosensor. In the medical field, siderophore uses the "Trojan horse strategy" to form complexes with antibiotics and helps in the selective delivery of antibiotics to the antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Certain iron overload diseases for example sickle cell anemia can be treated with the help of siderophores. Other medical applications of siderophores include antimalarial activity, removal of transuranic elements from the body, and anticancer activity. The aim of this review is to discuss the important roles and applications of siderophores in different sectors including ecology, agriculture, bioremediation, biosensor, and medicine.

  15. The versatile biopolymer chitosan: potential sources, evaluation of extraction methods and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Surinder; Dhillon, Gurpreet Singh

    2014-05-01

    Among the biopolymers, chitin and its derivative chitosan (CTS) have been receiving increasing attention. Both are composed of randomly distributed β-(1-4)-linked d-glucosamine and N-acetyl glucosamine units. On commercial scale, CTS is mainly obtained from the crustacean shells. The chemical methods employed for extraction of CTS from crustacean shells are laden with many disadvantages. Waste fungal biomass represents a potential biological source of CTS, in fact with superior physico-chemical properties, such as high degree of deacetylation, low molecular weight, devoid of protein contamination and high bioactivity. Researchers around the globe are attempting to commercialize CTS production and extraction from fungal sources. Fungi are promising and environmentally benign source of CTS and they have the potential to completely replace crustacean-derived CTS. Waste fungal biomass resulting from various pharmaceutical and biotechnological industries is grown on inexpensive agro-industrial wastes and its by-products are a rich and inexpensive source of CTS. CTS is emerging as an important natural polymer having broad range of applications in different fields. In this context, the present review discusses the potential sources of CTS and their advantages and disadvantages. This review also deals with potential applications of CTS in different fields. Finally, the various attributes of CTS sought in different applications are discussed.

  16. Flood frequency estimation by national-scale continuous hydrological simulations: an application in Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formetta, Giuseppe; Stewart, Elizabeth; Bell, Victoria; Reynard, Nick

    2017-04-01

    Estimation of peak discharge for an assigned return period is a crucial issue in engineering hydrology. It is required for designing and managing hydraulic infrastructure such as dams, reservoirs and bridges. In the UK, the Flood Estimation Handbook (FEH) recommends the use of the index flood method to estimate the design flood as the product of a local scale factor (the index flood, IF) and a dimensionless regional growth factor (GF). For gauged catchments the IF is usually estimated as the median annual maximum flood (QMED), while for ungauged catchments it is computed through multiple linear regression models based on a set of morpho-climatic indices of the basin. The GF is estimated by fitting the annual maxima with the generalised logistic distribution (GL) using two methods depending on the record length and the target return period: single-site or pooled analysis. The single site-analysis estimates the GF from the annual maxima of the subject site alone; the pooled analysis uses data from a set of catchments hydrologically similar to the subject site. In this work estimates of floods up to 100-year return period obtained from the FEH approach are compared to those obtained using Grid-to-Grid, a continuous physically-based hydrological model. The model converts rainfall and potential evapotranspiration into river flows by modelling surface/sub-surface runoff, lateral water movements, and snow-pack. It is configured on a 1km2 grid resolution and it uses spatial datasets of topography, soil, and land cover. It was set up in Great Britain and has been evaluated for the period 1960-2014 in forward-mode (i.e. without parameter calibration) using daily meteorological forcing data. The modelled floods with a given return period (5,10, 30, 50, and 100 years) were computed from the modelled discharge annual maxima and compared to the FEH estimates for 100 catchments in Great Britain. Preliminary results suggest that there is a good agreement between modelled and

  17. Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Great Lakes Mussel Watch(2009-2014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Following the inception of the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI) to address the significant environmental issues plaguing the Great Lakes region, the...

  18. Greener production of nanomaterials and their applications in catalysis and environmental remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metal nanomaterials have attracted considerable attention because of their unique magnetic, optical, electrical, and catalytic properties and their potential applications in nanoelectronics. There is great interest in synthesizing metal nanoparticles due to their extraordinary pr...

  19. Modeling, investigation and formulation of hydrophobic coatings for potential self-cleaning applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Pablo Fabian

    Self-cleaning surfaces have received a great deal of attention, both in research and commercial applications. Transparent and non-transparent self-cleaning surfaces are highly desired. The Lotus flower is a symbol of purity in Asian cultures, even when rising from muddy waters it stays clean and untouched by dirt. The Lotus leaf "self-cleaning" surface is hydrophobic and rough, showing a two-layer morphology. While hydrophobicity produces a high contact angle, surface morphology reduces the adhesion of dirt and water to the surface, thus water drops slide easily across the leaf carrying the dirt particles with them. Nature example in the Lotus-effect and extensive scientific research on related fields have rooted wide acceptance that high hydrophobicity can be obtained only by a proper combination of surface chemistry and roughness. Most researchers relate hydrophobicity to a high contact angle. However, the contact angle is not the only parameter that defines liquid-solid interactions. An additional parameter, the sliding angle, related to the adhesion between the liquid drop and the solid surface is also important in cases where liquid sliding is involved, such as self-cleaning applications. In this work, it is postulated that wetting which is related to the contact angle, and interfacial adhesion, which is related to the sliding angle, are interdependent phenomena and have to be considered simultaneously. A variety of models that relate the sliding angle to forces developed along the contact line between a liquid drop and a solid surface have been proposed in the literature. A new model is proposed here that quantifies the drop sliding phenomenon, based also on the interfacial adhesion across the contact area of the liquid/solid interface. The effects of roughness and chemical composition on the contact and sliding angles of hydrophobic smooth and rough surfaces were studied theoretically and experimentally. The validity of the proposed model was investigated

  20. DESIGN OF THE CONTACT POTENTIALS DIFFERENCE PROBES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. U. Pantsialeyeu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The contact potential difference probes distinguished by great variety and produced mostly in the laboratory for specific experimental applications. As a rule, they consist of commercially available instrumentation, and have a number of disadvantages: large dimensions, complexity and high cost, small sensitivity, operating speed, noiseproof, etc. The purpose of this paper is to describe the basic approaches to design of the small dimension, complete contact potential difference probes, providing high sensitivity, operating speed, and noise immunity. In this paper the contact potential difference probe, which is a electrometer with dynamic capacitor plate at about 0.1–5 mm2 . These probes are could be used in scanning systems, such as a Scanning Kelvin Probe, as well as for controlling system of manufacturing processes, e.g. under friction. The design of such contact potential difference probes conducted using modern electronic components, unique circuitry and design solutions described in detail at paper. The electromechanical modulator applied for mechanical vibrations of the reference sample. To provide a high amplitude and phase stability the upgraded generator with Wien bridge was used instead traditional oscillation sensor. The preamplifier made on the base of modern operational amplifiers with femtoampere current input. The power of the preamplifier designed with «floating ground». It allows keeping the relation constant potential to the probe components when changing over a wide range the compensation voltage. The phase detector-integrator based on the electronic antiphase switches with the modulation frequency of the contact potential difference and the integrator. Fullwave phase detection would greatly increase the sensitivity of the probe. In addition, the application of the phase detection allows suppressing noise and crosstalk at frequencies different from the modulation frequency. The preamplifier and the reference sample

  1. Vibration Energy Harvesting Potential for Turbomachinery Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian STOICESCU

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The vibration energy harvesting process represents one of the research directions for increasing power efficiency of electric systems, increasing instrumentation nodes autonomy in hard to reach locations and decreasing total system mass by eliminating cables and higher-power adapters. Research based on the possibility of converting vibration energy into useful electric energy is used to evaluate the potential of its use on turbomachinery applications. Aspects such as the structure and characteristics of piezoelectric generators, harvesting networks, their setup and optimization, are considered. Finally, performance test results are shown using piezoelectric systems on a turbine engine.

  2. The principle of vulnerability and its potential applications in bioethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demény Enikő

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The principle of vulnerability is a specific principle within European Bioethics. On the one hand, vulnerability expresses human limits and frailty on the other hand it represents moral and ethical action principles. In this paper a discussion on the relationship between the concepts of autonomy, vulnerability and responsibility is proposed and presentation of some possible applications of the principle of vulnerability within bioethics. In conclusion, some potential benefits of applying the principle of vulnerability as well as possible difficulties in its application are highlighted.

  3. Using Stellarium to cyber-observe the Great American Eclipse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prim, Ellie R.; Sitar, David J.

    2017-09-01

    The Great American Eclipse is over. Somewhat sad, is it not? Individuals who were unable to experience the event on August 21, 2017, can now cyber-observe the eclipse with Stellarium (http://www.stellarium.org). In the authors' opinion, it is fun and has many great applications in the classroom. In addition it is open source and available for Android, iOS, and Linux users. We here at Appalachian use it in our introductory astronomy labs for specific activities such as investigating coordinate systems, discovering differences between solar and sidereal days, as well as determining why your "astrological sign" is most often not your "astronomical sign."

  4. Observing Semi-Arid Ecoclimates across Mountain Gradients in the Great Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strachan, Scotty

    Observation of climate and ecohydrological variables in mountain systems is a necessary (if challenging) endeavor for modern society. Water resources are often intimately tied to mountains, and high elevation environments are frequently home to unique landscapes and biota with limited geographical distributions. This is especially true in the temperate and semi-arid mountains of the western United States, and specifically the Great Basin. Stark contrasts in annual water balance and ecological populations are visible across steep elevational gradients in the region; and yet the bulk of our historical knowledge of climate and related processes comes from lowland observations. Interpolative models that strive to estimate conditions in mountains using existing datasets are often found to be inaccurate, making future projections of mountain climate and ecosystem response suspect. This study details the results of high-resolution topographically-diverse ecohydrological monitoring, and describes the character and seasonality of basic climatic variables such as temperature and precipitation as well as their impact on soil moisture and vegetation during the 2012-2015 drought sequence. Relationships of topography (elevation/aspect) to daily and seasonal temperatures are shown. Tests of the PRISM temperature model are performed at the large watershed scale, revealing magnitudes, modes, and potential sources of bias that could dramatically affect derivative scientific conclusions. A new method of precipitation phase partitioning to detect and quantify frozen precipitation on a sub-daily basis is described. Character of precipitation from sub-daily to annual scales is quantified across all major Great Basin vegetation/elevation zones, and the relationship of elevation to precipitation phase, intensity, and amount is explored. Water-stress responses of Great Basin conifers including Pinus flexilis, Pinus longaeva, and Pinus ponderosa are directly observed, showing potential

  5. Assessment of a new seasonal to inter-annual operational Great Lakes water supply, water levels, and connecting channel flow forecasting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronewold, A.; Fry, L. M.; Hunter, T.; Pei, L.; Smith, J.; Lucier, H.; Mueller, R.

    2017-12-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) has recently operationalized a suite of ensemble forecasts of Net Basin Supply (NBS), water levels, and connecting channel flows that was developed through a collaboration among USACE, NOAA's Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ontario Power Generation (OPG), New York Power Authority (NYPA), and the Niagara River Control Center (NRCC). These forecasts are meant to provide reliable projections of potential extremes in daily discharge in the Niagara and St. Lawrence Rivers over a long time horizon (5 years). The suite of forecasts includes eight configurations that vary by (a) NBS model configuration, (b) meteorological forcings, and (c) incorporation of seasonal climate projections through the use of weighting. Forecasts are updated on a weekly basis, and represent the first operational forecasts of Great Lakes water levels and flows that span daily to inter-annual horizons and employ realistic regulation logic and lake-to-lake routing. We will present results from a hindcast assessment conducted during the transition from research to operation, as well as early indications of success rates determined through operational verification of forecasts. Assessment will include an exploration of the relative skill of various forecast configurations at different time horizons and the potential for application to hydropower decision making and Great Lakes water management.

  6. The New Great Game in Muslim Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    and maci]ine tools, petrol - chemicals, agro-processing and textiles. ’’~ 14 THE NEW GREAT GAME IN MUSLIM CENTRAL ASIA Kazakhstan is well endowed...Algeria, Tunisia , and Morocco---are keeping a wary eye. But at the popular level, this pan-Islmnism has the potential to attract a considerable amount of

  7. Heterostructures based on two-dimensional layered materials and their potential applications

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ming-yang; Chen, Chang-Hsiao; Shi, Yumeng; Li, Lain-Jong

    2015-01-01

    The development of two-dimensional (2D) layered materials is driven by fundamental interest and their potential applications. Atomically thin 2D materials provide a wide range of basic building blocks with unique electrical, optical, and thermal properties which do not exist in their bulk counterparts. The van der Waals interlayer interaction enables the possibility to exfoliate and reassemble different 2D materials into arbitrarily and vertically stacked heterostructures. Recently developed vapor phase growth of 2D materials further paves the way of directly synthesizing vertical and lateral heterojunctions. This review provides insights into the layered 2D heterostructures, with a concise introduction to preparative approaches for 2D materials and heterostructures. These unique 2D heterostructures have abundant implications for many potential applications.

  8. An introduction to metabolomics and its potential application in veterinary science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Oliver A H; Cheung, Victoria L

    2007-10-01

    Metabolomics has been found to be applicable to a wide range of fields, including the study of gene function, toxicology, plant sciences, environmental analysis, clinical diagnostics, nutrition, and the discrimination of organism genotypes. This approach combines high-throughput sample analysis with computer-assisted multivariate pattern-recognition techniques. It is increasingly being deployed in toxico- and pharmacokinetic studies in the pharmaceutical industry, especially during the safety assessment of candidate drugs in human medicine. However, despite the potential of this technique to reduce both costs and the numbers of animals used for research, examples of the application of metabolomics in veterinary research are, thus far, rare. Here we give an introduction to metabolomics and discuss its potential in the field of veterinary science.

  9. Heterostructures based on two-dimensional layered materials and their potential applications

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ming-yang

    2015-12-04

    The development of two-dimensional (2D) layered materials is driven by fundamental interest and their potential applications. Atomically thin 2D materials provide a wide range of basic building blocks with unique electrical, optical, and thermal properties which do not exist in their bulk counterparts. The van der Waals interlayer interaction enables the possibility to exfoliate and reassemble different 2D materials into arbitrarily and vertically stacked heterostructures. Recently developed vapor phase growth of 2D materials further paves the way of directly synthesizing vertical and lateral heterojunctions. This review provides insights into the layered 2D heterostructures, with a concise introduction to preparative approaches for 2D materials and heterostructures. These unique 2D heterostructures have abundant implications for many potential applications.

  10. The Great Deluge Algorithm applied to a nuclear reactor core design optimization problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacco, Wagner F.; Oliveira, Cassiano R.E. de

    2005-01-01

    The Great Deluge Algorithm (GDA) is a local search algorithm introduced by Dueck. It is an analogy with a flood: the 'water level' rises continuously and the proposed solution must lie above the 'surface' in order to survive. The crucial parameter is the 'rain speed', which controls convergence of the algorithm similarly to Simulated Annealing's annealing schedule. This algorithm is applied to the reactor core design optimization problem, which consists in adjusting several reactor cell parameters, such as dimensions, enrichment and materials, in order to minimize the average peak-factor in a 3-enrichment-zone reactor, considering restrictions on the average thermal flux, criticality and sub-moderation. This problem was previously attacked by the canonical genetic algorithm (GA) and by a Niching Genetic Algorithm (NGA). NGAs were designed to force the genetic algorithm to maintain a heterogeneous population throughout the evolutionary process, avoiding the phenomenon known as genetic drift, where all the individuals converge to a single solution. The results obtained by the Great Deluge Algorithm are compared to those obtained by both algorithms mentioned above. The three algorithms are submitted to the same computational effort and GDA reaches the best results, showing its potential for other applications in the nuclear engineering field as, for instance, the nuclear core reload optimization problem. One of the great advantages of this algorithm over the GA is that it does not require special operators for discrete optimization. (author)

  11. Great Basin geologic framework and uranium favorability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, L.T.; Beal, L.H.

    1978-01-01

    Work on this report has been done by a team of seven investigators assisted over the project span by twenty-three undergraduate and graduate students from May 18, 1976 to August 19, 1977. The report is presented in one volume of text, one volume or Folio of Maps, and two volumes of bibliography. The bibliography contains approximately 5300 references on geologic subjects pertinent to the search for uranium in the Great Basin. Volume I of the bibliography lists articles by author alphabetically and Volume II cross-indexes these articles by location and key word. Chapters I through IV of the Text volume and accompanying Folio Map Sets 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, discuss the relationship of uranium to rock and structural environments which dominate the Great Basin. Chapter 5 and Map Sets 6 and 7 provide a geochemical association/metallogenic grouping of mineral occurrences in the Great Basin along with information on rock types hosting uranium. Chapter VI summarizes the results of a court house claim record search for 'new' claiming areas for uranium, and Chapter VII along with Folio Map Set 8 gives all published geochronological data available through April 1, 1977 on rocks of the Great Basin. Chapter VIII provides an introduction to a computer analysis of characteristics of certain major uranium deposits in crystalline rocks (worldwide) and is offered as a suggestion of what might be done with uranium in all geologic environments. We believe such analysis will assist materially in constructing exploration models. Chapter IX summarizes criteria used and conclusions reached as to the favorability of uranium environments which we believe to exist in the Great Basin and concludes with recommendations for both exploration and future research. A general summary conclusion is that there are several geologic environments within the Great Basin which have considerable potential and that few, if any, have been sufficiently tested

  12. The potential of diffraction grating for spatial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourlin, Y.; Parriaux, O.; Pigeon, F.; Tischenko, A. V.

    2017-11-01

    Diffraction gratings are know, and have been fabricated for more than one century. They are now making a come back for two reasons: first, because they are now better understood which leads to the efficient exploitation of what was then called their "anomalies"; secondly, because they are now fabricable by means of the modern manufacturing potential of planar technologies. Novel grating can now perform better than conventional gratings, and address new application fields which were not expected to be theirs. This is the case of spatial applications where they can offer multiple optical functions, low size, low weight and mechanical robustness. The proposed contribution will briefly discuss the use of gratings for spatial applications. One of the most important applications is in the measurement of displacement. Usual translation and rotation sensors are bulky devices, which impose a system breakdown leading to cumbersome and heavy assemblies. We are proposing a miniaturized version of the traditional moving grating technique using submicron gratings and a specific OptoASIC which enables the measurement function to be non-obtrusively inserted into light and compact electro-mechanical systems. Nanometer resolution is possible with no compromise on the length of the measurement range. Another family of spatial application is in the field of spectrometers where new grating types allow a more flexible processing of the optical spectrum. Another family of applications addresses the question of inter-satellite communications: the introduction of gratings in laser cavities or in the laser mirrors enables the stabilization of the emitted polarization, the stabilization of the frequency as well as wide range frequency sweeping without mobile parts.

  13. Calculation of Rydberg interaction potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Sebastian; Büchler, Hans Peter; Tresp, Christoph; Urvoy, Alban; Hofferberth, Sebastian; Menke, Henri; Firstenberg, Ofer

    2017-01-01

    The strong interaction between individual Rydberg atoms provides a powerful tool exploited in an ever-growing range of applications in quantum information science, quantum simulation and ultracold chemistry. One hallmark of the Rydberg interaction is that both its strength and angular dependence can be fine-tuned with great flexibility by choosing appropriate Rydberg states and applying external electric and magnetic fields. More and more experiments are probing this interaction at short atomic distances or with such high precision that perturbative calculations as well as restrictions to the leading dipole–dipole interaction term are no longer sufficient. In this tutorial, we review all relevant aspects of the full calculation of Rydberg interaction potentials. We discuss the derivation of the interaction Hamiltonian from the electrostatic multipole expansion, numerical and analytical methods for calculating the required electric multipole moments and the inclusion of electromagnetic fields with arbitrary direction. We focus specifically on symmetry arguments and selection rules, which greatly reduce the size of the Hamiltonian matrix, enabling the direct diagonalization of the Hamiltonian up to higher multipole orders on a desktop computer. Finally, we present example calculations showing the relevance of the full interaction calculation to current experiments. Our software for calculating Rydberg potentials including all features discussed in this tutorial is available as open source. (tutorial)

  14. 76 FR 71341 - BASINS and WEPP Climate Assessment Tools: Case Study Guide to Potential Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    ... Climate Assessment Tools: Case Study Guide to Potential Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection... Tools (CAT): Case Study Guide to Potential Applications (EPA/600/R-11/123A). EPA also is announcing that... report presents a series of short case studies designed to illustrate the capabilities of these tools for...

  15. Mutual mortality of great horned owl and southern black racer: a potential risk of raptors preying on snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger W. Perry; Raymond E. Brown; D. Craig Rudolph

    2001-01-01

    We encountered a dead southern black racer snake (Coluber constrictor priapus) coiled around a dead Great Horned Owl (Bubo virginianus). We suggest the owl was strangled by the snake before the snake did of wounds inflicted by the owl. There are previous reports of intense physical struggle between Great Horned Owls (and...

  16. Highly stressed carbon film coatings on silicon potential applications

    CERN Multimedia

    Sharda, T

    2002-01-01

    The fabrication of highly stressed and strongly adhered nanocrystalline diamond films on Si substrates is presented. A microwave plasma CVD method with controlled and continuous bias current density was used to grow the films. The stress/curvature of the films can be varied and controlled by altering the BCD. Potential applications for these films include particle physics and x-ray optics.

  17. Expert system characteristics and potential applications in safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, L.D.

    1986-01-01

    The general growth of expert, knowledge-based (KB) or rule based systems will significantly increase in the next three to five years. Improvements in computer hardware (speed, reduced size, power) and software (rule based, data based, user interfaces) in recent years are providing the foundations for the growth of expert systems. A byproduct of this growth will undoubtedly be the application of expert systems to various safeguards problems. Characteristics of these expert systems will involve 1) multiple rules governing an outcome, 2) confidence factors on individual variables and rule sets, 3) priority, cost, and risk based rule sets, and 4) the reasoning behind the advice or decision given by the expert system. This paper presents characteristics, structures, and examples of simple rule based systems. Potential application areas for these expert systems may include training, operations, management, designs, evaluations, and specific hardware operation

  18. 3D-Printed Biopolymers for Tissue Engineering Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoming Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 3D printing technology has recently gained substantial interest for potential applications in tissue engineering due to the ability of making a three-dimensional object of virtually any shape from a digital model. 3D-printed biopolymers, which combine the 3D printing technology and biopolymers, have shown great potential in tissue engineering applications and are receiving significant attention, which has resulted in the development of numerous research programs regarding the material systems which are available for 3D printing. This review focuses on recent advances in the development of biopolymer materials, including natural biopolymer-based materials and synthetic biopolymer-based materials prepared using 3D printing technology, and some future challenges and applications of this technology are discussed.

  19. An Overview of Food Emulsions: Description, Classification and Recent Potential Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem Serdaroğlu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Emulsions take place partially or completely in the structures of many natural and processed foods or some foods are already emulsified in certain stages of production. In general “emulsion” is described as a structure created through the dispersion of one of two immiscible liquids within the other one in form of little droplets. Many terms are available to describe different emulsion types and it is very important to define and clarify these terms like “macro emulsion”, “nanoemulsion” and “multiple emulsion”. Nanoemulsions become increasingly important in food industry as an innovative approach in carrying functional agents. Application potential of multiple emulsions (W/O/W is also stated to be very high in food industry. The two main strategic purposes of utilization of multiple emulsions in food applications are to encapsulate various aromas, bioactive compounds or sensitive food compounds and to allow the production of the low-fat products. This review provides an overview to the general terms of emulsion types, the role of various emulsifying agents, and the application potential of emulsions in food industry.

  20. 7T: Physics, safety, and potential clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraff, Oliver; Quick, Harald H

    2017-12-01

    With more than 60 installed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems worldwide operating at a magnetic field strength of 7T or higher, ultrahigh-field (UHF) MRI has been established as a platform for clinically oriented research in recent years. Profound technical and methodological developments have helped overcome the inherent physical challenges of UHF radiofrequency (RF) signal homogenization in the human body. The ongoing development of dedicated RF coil arrays was pivotal in realizing UHF body MRI, beyond mere brain imaging applications. Another precondition to clinical application of 7T MRI is the safety testing of implants and the establishment of safety concepts. Against this backdrop, 7T MRI and MR spectroscopy (MRS) recently have demonstrated capabilities and potentials for clinical diagnostics in a variety of studies. This article provides an overview of the immanent physical challenges of 7T UHF MRI and discusses recent technical solutions and safety concepts. Furthermore, recent clinically oriented studies are highlighted that span a broad application spectrum from 7T UHF brain to body MRI. 4 Technical Efficacy: Stage 1 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2017;46:1573-1589. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  1. Graphene-plasmon polaritons: from fundamental properties to potential applications [arXiv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Sanshui; Zhu, Xiaolong; Li, Bo-Hong

    2016-01-01

    With the unique possibilities for controlling light in nanoscale devices, graphene plasmonics has opened new perspectives to the nanophotonics community with potential applications in metamaterials, modulators, photodetectors, and sensors. This paper briefly reviews the recent exciting progress i...... plasmonics with applications in modulators and sensors. Finally, we seek to address some of the apparent challenges and promising perspectives of graphene plasmonics. [Front. Phys. 11(2), 117801 (2016) doi:10.1007/s11467-016-0551-z]....

  2. Development of empirical potential functions for the study of molecular geometry, and applications to chlorophyll a dimers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oie, Tetsuro [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States); Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence, KS (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1980-07-28

    A purpose of the present studies is twofold: (1) development of an empirical potential function (EPF) and (2) application of it to the studies of photoreaction center chlorophyll a dimer. The reliable estimate of geometric structures and energies of large molecules by quantum mechanical methods is not possible at the present time. An alternative method is, therefore, needed for the studies of large molecular systems, and Chapter I is dedicated to the development of this tool, i.e., an empirical potential function, which could suffice this purpose. Because of a large number of variable chemical compositions and functional groups characteristically present in a large molecule, it is important to include a large number of structurally diverse molecules in the development of the EPF. In Chapter II, the EPF is applied to study the geometrical structure of a chlorophyll a (Chl a) dimer, which is believed to exist at the photoreaction center of green plants and is known to play an essential role in photosynthetic energy conversion. Although various models have been proposed for this dimer structure, there is still a great need for information concerning the detailed geometric structure of this dimer. Therefore, in this chapter the structural stabilities of various dimer models are examined by the EPF, and detailed and quantitative information on the structure and stability of these models is provided.

  3. V-amylose structural characteristics, methods of preparation, significance, and potential applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Obiro, WC

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available , and postprandial hyperglycaemia in diabetics. Various aspects of V-amylose structure, methods of preparation, factors that affect its formation, and the significance and potential applications of the V-amylose complexes are reviewed....

  4. Potential Coir Fibre Composite for Small Wind Turbine Blade Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakri Bakri

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Natural fibers have been developed as reinforcement of composite to shift synthetic fibers. One of potential natural fibers developed is coir fiber. This paper aims to describe potential coir fiber as reinforcement of composite for small wind turbine blade application. The research shows that mechanical properties ( tensile, impact, shear, flexural and compression strengths of coir fiber composite have really similar to wood properties for small wind turbine blade material, but inferior to glass fiber composite properties. The effect of weathering was also evaluated to coir fiber composite in this paper.

  5. Applications of Alternative Nucleases in the Age of CRISPR/Cas9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuhin K. Guha

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Breakthroughs in the development of programmable site-specific nucleases, including zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs, transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs, meganucleases (MNs, and most recently, the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR associated proteins (including Cas9 have greatly enabled and accelerated genome editing. By targeting double-strand breaks to user-defined locations, the rates of DNA repair events are greatly enhanced relative to un-catalyzed events at the same sites. However, the underlying biology of each genome-editing nuclease influences the targeting potential, the spectrum of off-target cleavages, the ease-of-use, and the types of recombination events at targeted double-strand breaks. No single genome-editing nuclease is optimized for all possible applications. Here, we focus on the diversity of nuclease domains available for genome editing, highlighting biochemical properties and the potential applications that are best suited to each domain.

  6. Engineering ultrasmall water-soluble gold and silver nanoclusters for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhentao; Zheng, Kaiyuan; Xie, Jianping

    2014-05-25

    Gold and silver nanoclusters or Au/Ag NCs with core sizes smaller than 2 nm have been an attractive frontier of nanoparticle research because of their unique physicochemical properties such as well-defined molecular structure, discrete electronic transitions, quantized charging, and strong luminescence. As a result of these unique properties, ultrasmall size, and good biocompatibility, Au/Ag NCs have great potential for a variety of biomedical applications, such as bioimaging, biosensing, antimicrobial agents, and cancer therapy. In this feature article, we will first discuss some critical biological considerations, such as biocompatibility and renal clearance, of Au/Ag NCs that are applied for biomedical applications, leading to some design criteria for functional Au/Ag NCs in the biological settings. According to these biological considerations, we will then survey some efficient synthetic strategies for the preparation of protein- and peptide-protected Au/Ag NCs with an emphasis on our recent contributions in this fast-growing field. In the last part, we will highlight some potential biomedical applications of these protein- and peptide-protected Au/Ag NCs. It is believed that with continued efforts to understand the interactions of biomolecule-protected Au/Ag NCs with the biological systems, scientists can largely realize the great potential of Au/Ag NCs for biomedical applications, which could finally pave their way towards clinical use.

  7. Great Lakes Literacy Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortner, Rosanne W.; Manzo, Lyndsey

    2011-03-01

    Lakes Superior, Huron, Michigan, Ontario, and Erie together form North America's Great Lakes, a region that contains 20% of the world's fresh surface water and is home to roughly one quarter of the U.S. population (Figure 1). Supporting a $4 billion sport fishing industry, plus $16 billion annually in boating, 1.5 million U.S. jobs, and $62 billion in annual wages directly, the Great Lakes form the backbone of a regional economy that is vital to the United States as a whole (see http://www.miseagrant.umich.edu/downloads/economy/11-708-Great-Lakes-Jobs.pdf). Yet the grandeur and importance of this freshwater resource are little understood, not only by people in the rest of the country but also by many in the region itself. To help address this lack of knowledge, the Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE) Great Lakes, supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, developed literacy principles for the Great Lakes to serve as a guide for education of students and the public. These “Great Lakes Literacy Principles” represent an understanding of the Great Lakes' influences on society and society's influences on the Great Lakes.

  8. Terahertz Sensing, Imaging and Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otani, C.; Hoshing, H.; Sasaki, Y.; Maki, K.; Hayashi, A. [RIKEN Advanced Science Institute, Sendai (Japan)

    2008-11-15

    Diagnosis using terahertz (THz) wave holds a great potential for various applications in various fields because of its transmittance to many soft materials with the good spatial resolution. In addition, the presence of specific spectral absorption features of crystalline materials is also important for many applications. Such features are different from material to material to material and is applicable for identifying materials inside packages that are opaque to visible light. One of the most impressive examples of such applications is the detection of illicit drugs inside envelopes. In this talk, we will present our recent topics of THz sensing, imaging and applications including this example. We will also present the cancer diagnosis, an application of the photonic crystal to high sensitivity detection, and gas spectroscopy if we have enough time. We also would like to briefly review the recent topics related to THz applications.

  9. Terahertz Sensing, Imaging and Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otani, C.; Hoshing, H.; Sasaki, Y.; Maki, K.; Hayashi, A.

    2008-01-01

    Diagnosis using terahertz (THz) wave holds a great potential for various applications in various fields because of its transmittance to many soft materials with the good spatial resolution. In addition, the presence of specific spectral absorption features of crystalline materials is also important for many applications. Such features are different from material to material to material and is applicable for identifying materials inside packages that are opaque to visible light. One of the most impressive examples of such applications is the detection of illicit drugs inside envelopes. In this talk, we will present our recent topics of THz sensing, imaging and applications including this example. We will also present the cancer diagnosis, an application of the photonic crystal to high sensitivity detection, and gas spectroscopy if we have enough time. We also would like to briefly review the recent topics related to THz applications

  10. Double perovskite Ca2GdNbO6:Mn4+ deep red phosphor: Potential application for warm W-LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zuizhi; Huang, Tianjiao; Deng, Ruopeng; Wang, Huan; Wen, Lingling; Huang, Meixin; Zhou, Liya; Yao, Chunying

    2018-05-01

    A novel Mn4+-doped Ca2GdNbO6 (CGN) phosphor was prepared by high-temperature solid-state reaction. The crystal structure was investigated by X-ray diffraction patterns and unit cell structure. Mn4+ replaced the location of Nb5+ in the CGN lattice, and the value of energy gap (Egap) decreased from 2.16 eV to 1.13 eV, indicating that Mn4+ ions play a great influence on the absorption of CGN hosts. The broad excitation band from 250 nm to 550 nm matches well with commercial near-UV light emitting diodes, and the emission peak centered at 680 nm is due to 2E→4A2g transition in Mn4+ ions. The CIE chromaticity coordinates (0.698, 0.303) of CGN:Mn4+ phosphor was close to standard red color coordinates (0.666, 0.333). These investigations demonstrate CGN:Mn4+ phosphor as an efficient red phosphor for potential applications.

  11. Graphene plasmonics: physics and potential applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Shenyang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Plasmon in graphene possesses many unique properties. It originates from the collective motion of massless Dirac fermions, and the carrier density dependence is distinctively different from conventional plasmons. In addition, graphene plasmon is highly tunable and shows strong energy confinement capability. Most intriguingly, as an atom-thin layer, graphene and its plasmon are very sensitive to the immediate environment. Graphene plasmons strongly couple to polar phonons of the substrate, molecular vibrations of the adsorbates, and lattice vibrations of other atomically thin layers. In this review, we present the most important advances in graphene plasmonics field. The topics include terahertz plasmons, mid-infrared plasmons, plasmon-phonon interactions, and potential applications. Graphene plasmonics opens an avenue for reconfigurable metamaterials and metasurfaces; it is an exciting and promising new subject in the nanophotonics and plasmonics research field.

  12. Offense-defense aspects of nanotechnologies: a forecast of potential military applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipbaugh, Calvin

    2006-01-01

    Potential military applications of nanotechnology will evolve in the next few decades. The implications for both defense and offense should be carefully assessed. Nanotechnology can push major changes in stability, and shape the consequences of future conflict.

  13. Precipitation Dynamical Downscaling Over the Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiao-Ming; Xue, Ming; McPherson, Renee A.; Martin, Elinor; Rosendahl, Derek H.; Qiao, Lei

    2018-02-01

    Detailed, regional climate projections, particularly for precipitation, are critical for many applications. Accurate precipitation downscaling in the United States Great Plains remains a great challenge for most Regional Climate Models, particularly for warm months. Most previous dynamic downscaling simulations significantly underestimate warm-season precipitation in the region. This study aims to achieve a better precipitation downscaling in the Great Plains with the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model. To this end, WRF simulations with different physics schemes and nudging strategies are first conducted for a representative warm season. Results show that different cumulus schemes lead to more pronounced difference in simulated precipitation than other tested physics schemes. Simply choosing different physics schemes is not enough to alleviate the dry bias over the southern Great Plains, which is related to an anticyclonic circulation anomaly over the central and western parts of continental U.S. in the simulations. Spectral nudging emerges as an effective solution for alleviating the precipitation bias. Spectral nudging ensures that large and synoptic-scale circulations are faithfully reproduced while still allowing WRF to develop small-scale dynamics, thus effectively suppressing the large-scale circulation anomaly in the downscaling. As a result, a better precipitation downscaling is achieved. With the carefully validated configurations, WRF downscaling is conducted for 1980-2015. The downscaling captures well the spatial distribution of monthly climatology precipitation and the monthly/yearly variability, showing improvement over at least two previously published precipitation downscaling studies. With the improved precipitation downscaling, a better hydrological simulation over the trans-state Oologah watershed is also achieved.

  14. Microencapsulation of indocyanine green for potential applications in image-guided drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhiqiang; Si, Ting; Xu, Ronald X

    2015-02-07

    We present a novel process to encapsulate indocyanine green (ICG) in liposomal droplets at high concentration for potential applications in image-guided drug delivery. The microencapsulation process follows two consecutive steps of droplet formation by liquid-driven coaxial flow focusing (LDCFF) and solvent removal by oil phase dewetting. These biocompatible lipid vesicles may have important applications in drug delivery and fluorescence imaging.

  15. The potential of methane-oxidizing bacteria for applications in environmental biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendlandt, Karin-Dagmar; Stottmeister, Ulrich; Jechorek, Mirko [Helmholtz-Center for Environmental Research UFZ, Leipzig (Germany); Helm, Jana [School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Soltmann, Bettina [Institute for Materials Science, Dresden University of Technology, Dresden (Germany); Beck, Matthias [Oncotec, Pharma Production GmbH, Dessau-Rosslau (Germany)

    2010-04-15

    Methanotrophic bacteria possess a unique set of enzymes enabling them to oxidize, degrade and transform organic molecules and synthesize new compounds. Therefore, they have great potential in environmental biotechnology. The application of these unique properties was demonstrated in three case studies: (i) Methane escaping from leaky gas pipes may lead to massive mortality of trees in urban areas. Lack of oxygen within the soil surrounding tree roots caused by methanotrophic activity was identified as one of the reasons for this phenomenon. The similarity between metabolic reactions performed by the key enzymes of methanotrophs (methane monooxygenase) and ammonium oxidizers (ammonium monooxygenase) might offer a solution to this problem by applying commercially available nitrification and urease inhibitors. (ii) Methanotrophs are able to co-metabolically degrade contaminants such as low-molecular-weight-chlorinated hydrocarbons in soil and water in the presence of methane. Batch and continuous trichloroethylene degradation experiments in laboratory-scale reactors using Methylocystis sp. GB 14 were performed, partly with cells entrapped in a polymer matrix. (iii) Using a short, two-stage pilot-scale process, the intracellular polymer accumulation of poly-{beta}-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) in methanotrophs reached a maximum of 52%. Interestingly, an ultra-high-molecular-weight PHB of 3.1 MDa was accumulated under potassium deficiency. Under strictly controlled conditions (temperature, pH and methane supply) this process can be nonsterile because of the establishment of a stable microbial community (dominant species Methylocystis sp. GB 25 {>=}86% by biomass). The possibility to substitute methane with biogas from renewable sources facilitates the development of a methane-based PHB production process that yields a high-quality biopolymer at competitive costs. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  16. Potential Applications of Polyamines in Agriculture and Plant Biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiburcio, Antonio F; Alcázar, Rubén

    2018-01-01

    The polyamines putrescine, spermidine and spermine have been implicated in a myriad of biological functions in many organisms. Research done during the last decades has accumulated a large body of evidence demonstrating that polyamines are key modulators of plant growth and development. Different experimental approaches have been employed including the measurement of endogenous polyamine levels and the activities of polyamine metabolic enzymes, the study of the effects resulting from exogenous polyamine applications and chemical or genetic manipulation of endogenous polyamine titers. This chapter reviews the role of PAs in seed germination, root development, plant architecture, in vitro plant regeneration, flowering and plant senescence. Evidence presented here indicates that polyamines should be regarded as plant growth regulators with potential applications in agriculture and plant biotechnology.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of NaSbS2 thin film for potential photodetector and photovoltaic application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhe Xia; Jiang Tang; Feng-Xin Yu; Shuai-Cheng Lu; Ding-Jiang Xue; Yi-Su He; Bo Yang; Chong Wang; Rui-Qing Ding; Jie Zhong

    2017-01-01

    Solution-processed semiconductors such as perovskite compounds have attracted tremendous attention to photovoltaic research due to the significantly higher energy conversion efficiencies and lower processing costs.However,concerns over stability and the toxicity on lead in CH3NH3PbI3 create the need for still easily-accessible but more stable and environmentally friendly materials.Here,we present NaSbS2 as a non-toxic,earth-abundant promising material consisting of densely packed (1/∞) [SbS2-] polymeric chains and sodium ions.The ionic nature makes it sharing the similar dissolution superiority with perovskite,providing great potential for low-cost and large-scale fabrication.Phase pure NaSbS2 thin film was successfully fabricated using spray-pyrolysis method,and its photovoltaic relevant material,optical and electrical properties were carefully studied.Finally,a prototype NaSbS2-based thinfilm solar cell has been successfully demonstrated,yielding a power conversion efficiency of 0.13%.The systematic experimental and theoretical investigations,combined with proof-of-principle device results,indicate that NaSbS2 is indeed very promising for photovoltaic application.

  18. Potential applications of nanostructured materials in nuclear waste management.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braterman, Paul S. (The University of North Texas, Denton, TX); Phol, Phillip Isabio; Xu, Zhi-Ping (The University of North Texas, Denton, TX); Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Yang, Yi (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Bryan, Charles R.; Yu, Kui; Xu, Huifang (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Wang, Yifeng; Gao, Huizhen

    2003-09-01

    This report summarizes the results obtained from a Laboratory Directed Research & Development (LDRD) project entitled 'Investigation of Potential Applications of Self-Assembled Nanostructured Materials in Nuclear Waste Management'. The objectives of this project are to (1) provide a mechanistic understanding of the control of nanometer-scale structures on the ion sorption capability of materials and (2) develop appropriate engineering approaches to improving material properties based on such an understanding.

  19. Development and potential applications of CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing technology in sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tang; Shen, Jacson K; Li, Zhihong; Choy, Edwin; Hornicek, Francis J; Duan, Zhenfeng

    2016-04-01

    Sarcomas include some of the most aggressive tumors and typically respond poorly to chemotherapy. In recent years, specific gene fusion/mutations and gene over-expression/activation have been shown to drive sarcoma pathogenesis and development. These emerging genomic alterations may provide targets for novel therapeutic strategies and have the potential to transform sarcoma patient care. The RNA-guided nuclease CRISPR-Cas9 (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)-associated protein-9 nuclease) is a convenient and versatile platform for site-specific genome editing and epigenome targeted modulation. Given that sarcoma is believed to develop as a result of genetic alterations in mesenchymal progenitor/stem cells, CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing technologies hold extensive application potentials in sarcoma models and therapies. We review the development and mechanisms of the CRISPR-Cas9 system in genome editing and introduce its application in sarcoma research and potential therapy in clinic. Additionally, we propose future directions and discuss the challenges faced with these applications, providing concise and enlightening information for readers interested in this area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Potential Medicinal Application and Toxicity Evaluation of Extracts from Bamboo Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panee, Jun

    2015-06-01

    Bamboo plants play a significant role in traditional Asian medicine, especially in China and Japan. Biomedical investigations on the health-benefiting effects as well as toxicity of different parts and species of bamboo have been carried out worldwide since the 1960s, and documented a wide range of protective effects of bamboo-derived products, such as protection against oxidative stress, inflammation, lipotoxicity, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. Some of these products may interfere with male and female reproductive function, thyroid hormone metabolism, and hepatic xenobiotransformation enzymes. The diversity of bamboo species, parts of the plants available for medicinal use, and different extraction methods suggest that bamboo has great potential for producing a range of extracts with functional utility in medicine.

  1. Potential applications of cryogenic technologies to plant genetic improvement and pathogen eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Biao; Wang, Ren-Rui; Cui, Zhen-Hua; Bi, Wen-Lu; Li, Jing-Wei; Li, Bai-Quan; Ozudogru, Elif Aylin; Volk, Gayle M; Wang, Qiao-Chun

    2014-01-01

    Rapid increases in human populations provide a great challenge to ensure that adequate quantities of food are available. Sustainable development of agricultural production by breeding more productive cultivars and by increasing the productive potential of existing cultivars can help meet this demand. The present paper provides information on the potential uses of cryogenic techniques in ensuring food security, including: (1) long-term conservation of a diverse germplasm and successful establishment of cryo-banks; (2) maintenance of the regenerative ability of embryogenic tissues that are frequently the target for genetic transformation; (3) enhancement of genetic transformation and plant regeneration of transformed cells, and safe, long-term conservation for transgenic materials; (4) production and maintenance of viable protoplasts for transformation and somatic hybridization; and (5) efficient production of pathogen-free plants. These roles demonstrate that cryogenic technologies offer opportunities to ensure food security. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Electric Potential and Electric Field Imaging with Dynamic Applications & Extensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generazio, Ed

    2017-01-01

    The technology and methods for remote quantitative imaging of electrostatic potentials and electrostatic fields in and around objects and in free space is presented. Electric field imaging (EFI) technology may be applied to characterize intrinsic or existing electric potentials and electric fields, or an externally generated electrostatic field made be used for volumes to be inspected with EFI. The baseline sensor technology (e-Sensor) and its construction, optional electric field generation (quasi-static generator), and current e- Sensor enhancements (ephemeral e-Sensor) are discussed. Critical design elements of current linear and real-time two-dimensional (2D) measurement systems are highlighted, and the development of a three dimensional (3D) EFI system is presented. Demonstrations for structural, electronic, human, and memory applications are shown. Recent work demonstrates that phonons may be used to create and annihilate electric dipoles within structures. Phonon induced dipoles are ephemeral and their polarization, strength, and location may be quantitatively characterized by EFI providing a new subsurface Phonon-EFI imaging technology. Results from real-time imaging of combustion and ion flow, and their measurement complications, will be discussed. Extensions to environment, Space and subterranean applications will be presented, and initial results for quantitative characterizing material properties are shown. A wearable EFI system has been developed by using fundamental EFI concepts. These new EFI capabilities are demonstrated to characterize electric charge distribution creating a new field of study embracing areas of interest including electrostatic discharge (ESD) mitigation, manufacturing quality control, crime scene forensics, design and materials selection for advanced sensors, combustion science, on-orbit space potential, container inspection, remote characterization of electronic circuits and level of activation, dielectric morphology of

  3. Synthetic Biology and Human Health: Potential Applications for Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karouia, Fathi; Carr, Christopher; Cai, Yizhi; Chen, Y.; Grenon, Marlene; Larios-Sanz, Maia; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Santos, Orlando

    2011-01-01

    Human space travelers experience a unique environment that affects homeostasis and physiologic adaptation. Spaceflight-related changes have been reported in the musculo-skeletal, cardiovascular, neurovestibular, endocrine, and immune systems. The spacecraft environment further subjects the traveler to noise and gravitational forces, as well as airborne chemical, microbiological contaminants, and radiation exposure. As humans prepare for longer duration missions effective countermeasures must be developed, verified, and implemented to ensure mission success. Over the past ten years, synthetic biology has opened new avenues for research and development in areas such as biological control, biomaterials, sustainable energy production, bioremediation, and biomedical therapies. The latter in particular is of great interest to the implementation of long-duration human spaceflight capabilities. This article discusses the effects of spaceflight on humans, and reviews current capabilities and potential needs associated with the health of the astronauts where synthetic biology could play an important role in the pursuit of space exploration.

  4. Synthesis of Amphiphilic Hyperbranched AIE-active Fluorescent Organic Nanoparticles and Their Application in Biological Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Qiulan; Wang, Ke; Xu, Dazhuang; Liu, Meiying; Wan, Qing; Huang, Hongye; Liang, Shangdong; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Wei, Yen

    2016-02-01

    Aggregation-induced emission (AIE) dyes have recently attracted much attention for biomedical applications for their remarkable AIE properties. However, the hydrophobic nature of AIE dyes made them difficult to be dispersed in physiological solution and problematic for biomedical application directly. Great efforts have been made to overcome this problem, and different strategies for preparation of water dispersible AIE based nanoprobes had been explored previously. However, a facile and effective strategy is still highly desirable and of great importance for the biomedical applications of AIE dye based on nanoprobes. In this work, the fabrication of amphiphilic hyperbranched fluorescent organic nanoparticles with a core-shell structure based on an AIE dye [tetraphenylethene acrylate (TPE-O-E)] and a hyperbranched polyamino compound [polyethylene imine (PEI)] through Michael addition reaction is described for the first time. The AIE dye as well as the final product PEI-TPE-O-E was characterized in detail by a number of techniques. To test their biomedical application potential, the cell viability as well as cell imaging properties of the PEI-TPE-O-E was also examined. The results showed that the PEI-TPE-O-E organic nanoparticles presented high water dispersiblity, ultrabright fluroerescence, low cytotoxicity and excellent biocompatibility, making them promising for biological imaging and gene delivery applications. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Potential applications of the Internet of Things in sustainable rural development in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dlodlo, N

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Conference of Information Science and Computer Applications (ICISCA), Bali, Indonesia, 19-20 November 2012 Potential applications of the Internet of Things in sustainable rural development in South Africa Nomusa Dlodlo and Mofolo Mofolo CSIR...

  6. The Application of RFID Technologies in Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAN Meng

    2009-01-01

    RFID technologies have advanced greatly and deployed successfully in many industry sectors in recent years. Construction industry could benefit from the applications of RFID technologies but as yet has not found sufficient application areas. This project gives a comprehensive awareness of the RFID technologies, which focus on the investigation on the UK construction industry. The current status of RFID in construction and its potentials are specified in the analysis of questionnaires and case studies. Finally, basing on the investigations, some further tasks in developing RFID technologies are carried, including some recommendations, for the construction industry.

  7. Beyond Bitcoin: Potential Applications of Blockchain Technology in Dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, J K; Nambudiri, V E

    2018-06-26

    Since its initial popularization in 2008 as the underpinnings of the digital currency Bitcoin, blockchain has seen its implications spread beyond the financial industry. 1 The field of dermatology presents promising potential applications for this burgeoning technology. Blockchain facilitates communication on a peer-to-peer platform with users sharing data directly with each other (Figure). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. Development of microfluidic devices for biomedical applications of synchrotron radiation infrared microspectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Birarda, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    2009/2010 ABSTRACT DEVELOPMENT OF MICROFLUIDIC DEVICES FOR BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS OF SYNCHROTRON RADIATION INFRARED MICROSPECTROSCOPY by Birarda Giovanni The detection and measurement of biological processes in a complex living system is a discipline at the edge of Physics, Biology, and Engineering, with major scientific challenges, new technological applications and a great potential impact on dissection of phenomena occurring at tissue, cell, and sub cellular level. The ...

  9. Development of ZIF-8 membranes: opportunities and challenges for commercial applications

    KAUST Repository

    Lai, Zhiping

    2018-03-24

    Metal organic framework (MOF) membranes have attracted significant attentions in recent years because of their potentials in gas and liquid separations and other applications such as catalysis and chemical sensors, etc. More than half of the MOF membrane publications up to date are related to ZIF-8 system, because of its easy synthesis, relatively high stability, and excellent gas separation performance, which allows many novel ideas to be easily implemented. Extensive studies have shown that ZIF-8 membranes hold great potentials in gas separations, but may face great challenges in liquid separations mainly because of their poor stability. This is also a common observation for other MOF membranes. As such, in this article we use ZIF-8 membrane as a prototype and focus on its development in gas separations for the discussions of the most concerned issues related to membrane commercialization including membrane synthesis, separation performance, stability, process reproducibility, and finally on the opportunities and challenges that MOF membranes may face in industrial applications.

  10. Development of ZIF-8 membranes: opportunities and challenges for commercial applications

    KAUST Repository

    Lai, Zhiping

    2018-01-01

    Metal organic framework (MOF) membranes have attracted significant attentions in recent years because of their potentials in gas and liquid separations and other applications such as catalysis and chemical sensors, etc. More than half of the MOF membrane publications up to date are related to ZIF-8 system, because of its easy synthesis, relatively high stability, and excellent gas separation performance, which allows many novel ideas to be easily implemented. Extensive studies have shown that ZIF-8 membranes hold great potentials in gas separations, but may face great challenges in liquid separations mainly because of their poor stability. This is also a common observation for other MOF membranes. As such, in this article we use ZIF-8 membrane as a prototype and focus on its development in gas separations for the discussions of the most concerned issues related to membrane commercialization including membrane synthesis, separation performance, stability, process reproducibility, and finally on the opportunities and challenges that MOF membranes may face in industrial applications.

  11. Nanotechnology and stem cell therapy for cardiovascular diseases: potential applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Francesca, Saverio

    2012-01-01

    The use of stem cell therapy for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases has generated significant interest in recent years. Limitations to the clinical application of this therapy center on issues of stem cell delivery, engraftment, and fate. Nanotechnology-based cell labeling and imaging techniques facilitate stem cell tracking and engraftment studies. Nanotechnology also brings exciting new opportunities to translational stem cell research as it enables the controlled engineering of nanoparticles and nanomaterials that can properly relate to the physical scale of cell-cell and cell-niche interactions. This review summarizes the most relevant potential applications of nanoscale technologies to the field of stem cell therapy for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  12. Worldwide wind/diesel hybrid power system study: Potential applications and technical issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, W.R.; Johnson, B.L. III (Science Applications International Corp., McLean, VA (USA))

    1991-04-01

    The world market potential for wind/diesel hybrid technology is a function of the need for electric power, the availability of sufficient wind resource to support wind/diesel power, and the existence of buyers with the financial means to invest in the technology. This study includes data related to each of these three factors. This study does not address market penetration, which would require analysis of application specific wind/diesel economics. Buyer purchase criteria, which are vital to assessing market penetration, are discussed only generally. Countries were screened for a country-specific market analysis based on indicators of need and wind resource. Both developed countries and less developed countries'' (LDCs) were screened for wind/diesel market potential. Based on the results of the screening, ten countries showing high market potential were selected for more extensive market analyses. These analyses provide country-specific market data to guide wind/diesel technology developers in making design decisions that will lead to a competitive product. Section 4 presents the country-specific data developed for these analyses, including more extensive wind resource characterization, application-specific market opportunities, business conditions, and energy market characterizations. An attempt was made to identify the potential buyers with ability to pay for wind/diesel technology required to meet the application-specific market opportunities identified for each country. Additionally, the country-specific data are extended to corollary opportunities in countries not covered by the study. Section 2 gives recommendations for wind/diesel research based on the findings of the study. 86 refs.

  13. Worldwide wind/diesel hybrid power system study: Potential applications and technical issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, W. R.; Johnson, B. L., III

    1991-04-01

    The world market potential for wind/diesel hybrid technology is a function of the need for electric power, the availability of sufficient wind resource to support wind/diesel power, and the existence of buyers with the financial means to invest in the technology. This study includes data related to each of these three factors. This study does not address market penetration, which would require analysis of application specific wind/diesel economics. Buyer purchase criteria, which are vital to assessing market penetration, are discussed only generally. Countries were screened for a country-specific market analysis based on indicators of need and wind resource. Both developed countries and less developed countries (LDCs) were screened for wind/diesel market potential. Based on the results of the screening, ten countries showing high market potential were selected for more extensive market analyses. These analyses provide country-specific market data to guide wind/diesel technology developers in making design decisions that will lead to a competitive product. Section 4 presents the country-specific data developed for these analyses, including more extensive wind resource characterization, application-specific market opportunities, business conditions, and energy market characterizations. An attempt was made to identify the potential buyers with ability to pay for wind/diesel technology required to meet the application-specific market opportunities identified for each country. Additionally, the country-specific data are extended to corollary opportunities in countries not covered by the study. Section 2 gives recommendations for wind/diesel research based on the findings of the study.

  14. Potential food applications of biobased materials. An EU- concerted action project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, V.K.; Udsen, A.M.; Mortensen, G.

    2001-01-01

    and coatings to food but novel commercial applications of these are scarce. Based on information currently available on the properties of biobased packaging materials the study identified products in the fresh meat, dairy, ready meal, beverage, fruit and vegetable, snack, frozen food and dry food categories......The objective of the study was to ascertain the state of the art with regard to the applicability of biobased packaging materials to foods and to identify potential food applications for biobased materials. The study revealed relatively few examples of biobased materials used as primary, secondary...... or tertiary packaging materials for foods. This is due to the fact that published investigations on the use of biobased materials are still scarce, and results obtained remain unpublished because of commercial pressures. The scientific literature contains numerous reports on applications of edible films...

  15. Potential application of biodrying to treat solid waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Badrus; Oktiawan, Wiharyanto; Hadiwidodo, Mochtar; Sutrisno, Endro; Purwono; Wardana, Irawan Wisnu

    2018-02-01

    The generation of solid waste around the world creates problems if not properly managed. The method of processing solid waste by burning or landfill is currently not optimal. The availability of land where the final processing (TPA) is critical, looking for a new TPA alternative will be difficult and expensive, especially in big cities. The processing of solid waste using bio drying technology has the potential to produce renewable energy and prevention of climate change. Solid waste processing products can serve as Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF), reduce water content of solid waste, meningkatkan kualitas lindi and increase the amount of recycled solid waste that is not completely separated from home. Biodrying technology is capable of enhancing the partial disintegration and hydrolysis of macromolecule organic compounds (such as C-Organic, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, total nitrogen). The application of biodrying has the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions such as carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and dinitrooksida (N2O). These gases cause global warming.

  16. Social environment affects juvenile dispersal in great tits (Parus major)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicolaus, Marion; Michler, Stephanie P. M.; Jalvingh, Kirsten M.; Ubels, Richard; van der Velde, Marco; Komdeur, Jan; Both, Christiaan; Tinbergen, Joost M.; Wilson, Ken

    1. Habitat selection can affect individual fitness, and therefore, individuals are expected to assess habitat quality of potential breeding sites before settlement. 2. We investigated the role of social environment on juvenile dispersal behaviour in the great tit (Parus major). Two main

  17. In situ vitrification: Demonstrated capabilities and potential applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luey, J.K.

    1993-01-01

    A large-scale demonstration of the in situ vitrification (ISV) process was performed in April 1990 on the 116-B-6A Crib in the 100 Area of the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington. The 116-B-6A Crib is a radioactive mixed waste site and was selected to demonstrate the applicability of ISV to soils contaminated with mixed wastes common to many US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Results from the demonstration show that the ISV process is a viable remediation technology for contaminated soils. The demonstration of the ISV process on an actual contaminated soil site followed research and development efforts by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) over the last 10 years. PNL's research has led to the development of the ISV process as a viable remediation technology for contaminated soils and the creation of a commercial supplier of ISV services, Geosafe Corporation. Development efforts for ISV applications other than treatment of contaminated soils, by PNL and in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), show the ISV process has potential applicability for remediating buried waste sites, remediating underground storage tanks, and enabling the placement of subsurface vitrified barriers and engineered structures. This paper discusses the results from the April 1990 large-scale demonstration and provides a general overview of the current capabilities of the ISV process for contaminated soils. In addition, this paper outlines some of the technical issues associated with other ISV applications and provides a qualitative discussion of the level of effort needed to resolve these technical issues

  18. Advances in photobioreactors for intensive microalgal production: configurations, operating strategies and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivieri, G.; Salatino, P.; Marzocchella, A.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past ten years a great deal of literature has focused on the biotechnological potential of microalgal commercial applications, mainly in the field of biofuel production. However, the biofuel production is not yet competitive, mainly due to the incidence of the photobioreactor technology on

  19. Potential Applications of Smart Multifunctional Wearable Materials to Gerontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, David G; Najafi, Bijan; Shahinpoor, Mohsen

    2017-01-01

    Smart multifunctional materials can play a constructive role in addressing some very important aging-related issues. Aging affects the ability of older adults to continue to live safely and economically in their own residences for as long as possible. Thus, there will be a greater need for preventive, acute, rehabilitative, and long-term health care services for older adults as well as a need for tools to enable them to function independently during daily activities. The objective of this paper is, thus, to present a comprehensive review of some potential smart materials and their areas of applications to gerontology. Thus, brief descriptions of various currently available multifunctional smart materials and their possible applications to aging-related problems are presented. It is concluded that some of the most important applications to geriatrics may be in various sensing scenarios to collect health-related feedback or information and provide personalized care. Further described are the applications of wearable technologies to aging-related needs, including devices for home rehabilitation, remote monitoring, social well-being, frailty monitoring, monitoring of diabetes and wound healing and fall detection or prediction. It is also concluded that wearable technologies, when combined with an appropriate application and with appropriate feedback, may help improve activities and functions of older patients with chronic diseases. Finally, it is noted that methods developed to measure what one collectively manages in this population may provide a foundation to establish new definitions of quality of life. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Fly ashes from coal and petroleum coke combustion: current and innovative potential applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Aixa; Navia, Rodrigo; Moreno, Natalia

    2009-12-01

    Coal fly ashes (CFA) are generated in large amounts worldwide. Current combustion technologies allow the burning of fuels with high sulfur content such as petroleum coke, generating non-CFA, such as petroleum coke fly ash (PCFA), mainly from fluidized bed combustion processes. The disposal of CFA and PCFA fly ashes can have severe impacts in the environment such as a potential groundwater contamination by the leaching of heavy metals and/or particulate matter emissions; making it necessary to treat or reuse them. At present CFA are utilized in several applications fields such as cement and concrete production, agriculture and soil stabilization. However, their reuse is restricted by the quality parameters of the end-product or requirements defined by the production process. Therefore, secondary material markets can use a limited amount of CFA, which implies the necessity of new markets for the unused CFA. Some potential future utilization options reviewed herein are zeolite synthesis and valuable metals extraction. In comparison to CFA, PCFA are characterized by a high Ca content, suggesting a possible use as neutralizers of acid wastewaters from mining operations, opening a new potential application area for PCFA that could solve contamination problems in emergent and mining countries such as Chile. However, this potential application may be limited by PCFA heavy metals leaching, mainly V and Ni, which are present in PCFA in high concentrations.

  1. Marine Bacteria from Eastern Indonesia Waters and Their Potential Use in Biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosmina H Tapilatu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Indonesian vast marine waters, which constitute 81% of the country’s total area, have a great potential in terms of marine bacteria biodiversity. However, marine bacteria are still under-explored in Indonesia, especially in its eastern area. Known as one of the biodiversity hotspots worldwide, this area surely harbors various marine bacteria of particular interest. Despite the growing number of oceanic expeditions carried out in this area, only little attention has been attributed to marine bacteria. Limited literatures exist on the isolation of marine bacteria producing compounds with potential biotechnological applications from the aforementioned waters. There are two main causes of this problem, namely lack of infrastructures and limited competent human resources. In this paper, I will highlight the preliminary results of isolation and bioprospecting attempts on this group of bacteria during the last fifteen years. These results indicate that research activities on marine bacteria in this area need to be intensified, to uncover their potential applications in various biotechnological fields. Keywords: marine bacteria, eastern Indonesian waters, biotechnological application

  2. Potential of Nanocellulose Composite for Electromagnetic Shielding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabila Yah Nurul Fatihah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, most people rely on the electronic devices for work, communicating with friends and family, school and personal enjoyment. As a result, more new equipment or devices operates in higher frequency were rapidly developed to accommodate the consumers need. However, the demand of using wireless technology and higher frequency in new devices also brings the need to shield the unwanted electromagnetic signals from those devices for both proper operation and human health concerns. This paper highlights the potential of nanocellulose for electromagnetic shielding using the organic environmental nanocellulose composite materials. In addition, the theory of electromagnetic shielding and recent development of green and organic material in electromagnetic shielding application has also been reviewed in this paper. The use of the natural fibers which is nanocelllose instead of traditional reinforcement materials provides several advantages including the natural fibers are renewable, abundant and low cost. Furthermore, added with other advantages such as lightweight and high electromagnetic shielding ability, nanocellulose has a great potential as an alternative material for electromagnetic shielding application.

  3. Bee Pollen: Chemical Composition and Therapeutic Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Komosinska-Vassev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bee pollen is a valuable apitherapeutic product greatly appreciated by the natural medicine because of its potential medical and nutritional applications. It demonstrates a series of actions such as antifungal, antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, anticancer immunostimulating, and local analgesic. Its radical scavenging potential has also been reported. Beneficial properties of bee pollen and the validity for their therapeutic use in various pathological condition have been discussed in this study and with the currently known mechanisms, by which bee pollen modulates burn wound healing process.

  4. Nanotechnology in meat processing and packaging: potential applications - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandraiah, Karna; Han, Sung Gu; Chin, Koo Bok

    2015-02-01

    Growing demand for sustainable production, increasing competition and consideration of health concerns have led the meat industries on a path to innovation. Meat industries across the world are focusing on the development of novel meat products and processes to meet consumer demand. Hence, a process innovation, like nanotechnology, can have a significant impact on the meat processing industry through the development of not only novel functional meat products, but also novel packaging for the products. The potential benefits of utilizing nanomaterials in food are improved bioavailability, antimicrobial effects, enhanced sensory acceptance and targeted delivery of bioactive compounds. However, challenges exist in the application of nanomaterials due to knowledge gaps in the production of ingredients such as nanopowders, stability of delivery systems in meat products and health risks caused by the same properties which also offer the benefits. For the success of nanotechnology in meat products, challenges in public acceptance, economics and the regulation of food processed with nanomaterials which may have the potential to persist, accumulate and lead to toxicity need to be addressed. So far, the most promising area for nanotechnology application seems to be in meat packaging, but the long term effects on human health and environment due to migration of the nanomaterials from the packaging needs to be studied further. The future of nanotechnology in meat products depends on the roles played by governments, regulatory agencies and manufacturers in addressing the challenges related to the application of nanomaterials in food.

  5. Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA: Review of synthesis, characteristics, processing and potential applications in packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Bugnicourt

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs are gaining increasing attention in the biodegradable polymer market due to their promising properties such as high biodegradability in different environments, not just in composting plants, and processing versatility. Indeed among biopolymers, these biogenic polyesters represent a potential sustainable replacement for fossil fuel-based thermoplastics. Most commercially available PHAs are obtained with pure microbial cultures grown on renewable feedstocks (i.e. glucose under sterile conditions but recent research studies focus on the use of wastes as growth media. PHA can be extracted from the bacteria cell and then formulated and processed by extrusion for production of rigid and flexible plastic suitable not just for the most assessed medical applications but also considered for applications including packaging, moulded goods, paper coatings, non-woven fabrics, adhesives, films and performance additives. The present paper reviews the different classes of PHAs, their main properties, processing aspects, commercially available ones, as well as limitations and related improvements being researched, with specific focus on potential applications of PHAs in packaging.

  6. Potential Use of Plant Fibres and their Composites for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Namvar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant-based fibers such as flax, jute, sisal, hemp, and kenaf have been frequently used in the manufacturing of biocomposites. Natural fibres possess a high strength to weight ratio, non-corrosive nature, high fracture toughness, renewability, and sustainability, which give them unique advantages over other materials. The development of biocomposites by reinforcing natural fibres has attracted attention of scientists and researchers due to environmental benefits and improved mechanical performance. Manufacturing of biocomposites from renewable sources is a challenging task, involving metals, polymers, and ceramics. Biocomposites are already utilized in biomedical applications such as drug/gene delivery, tissue engineering, orthopedics, and cosmetic orthodontics. The first essential requirement of materials to be used as biomaterial is its acceptability by the human body. A biomaterial should obtain some important common properties in order to be applied in the human body either for use alone or in combination. Biocomposites have potential to replace or serve as a framework allowing the regeneration of traumatized or degenerated tissues or organs, thus improving the patients’ quality of life. This review paper addresses the utilization of plant fibres and its composites in biomedical applications and considers potential future research directed at environment-friendly biodegradable composites for biomedical applications.

  7. Potential biodefense model applications for portable chlorine dioxide gas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubblefield, Jeannie M; Newsome, Anthony L

    2015-01-01

    Development of decontamination methods and strategies to address potential infectious disease outbreaks and bioterrorism events are pertinent to this nation's biodefense strategies and general biosecurity. Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) gas has a history of use as a decontamination agent in response to an act of bioterrorism. However, the more widespread use of ClO2 gas to meet current and unforeseen decontamination needs has been hampered because the gas is too unstable for shipment and must be prepared at the application site. Newer technology allows for easy, onsite gas generation without the need for dedicated equipment, electricity, water, or personnel with advanced training. In a laboratory model system, 2 unique applications (personal protective equipment [PPE] and animal skin) were investigated in the context of potential development of decontamination protocols. Such protocols could serve to reduce human exposure to bacteria in a decontamination response effort. Chlorine dioxide gas was capable of reducing (2-7 logs of vegetative and spore-forming bacteria), and in some instances eliminating, culturable bacteria from difficult to clean areas on PPE facepieces. The gas was effective in eliminating naturally occurring bacteria on animal skin and also on skin inoculated with Bacillus spores. The culturable bacteria, including Bacillus spores, were eliminated in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Results of these studies suggested portable, easily used ClO2 gas generation systems have excellent potential for protocol development to contribute to biodefense strategies and decontamination responses to infectious disease outbreaks or other biothreat events.

  8. The potential of bioash for utilization in road construction in eastern Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagvozda, Martina; Dimter, Sanja; Rukavina, Tatjana

    2017-12-01

    In recent years usage of biomass as energy source has intensified in eastern Croatia. Newly built biomass power plants generate great amounts of bioash that is being disposed at landfills. Due to its favorable properties bioashes could be reused as alternative materials in road construction or road fundation. Therefore, research on application of bioashes in construction industry is being conducted at Faculty of Civil Engineering in Osijek. The main motivation behind this research, in a form of biomass and bioash production in eastern Croatia as well as international research on potential application of this types of bioashes, is show in this paper.

  9. Potential for production of ‘mini-mussels’ in Great Belt (Denmark) evaluated on basis of actual and modeled growth of young mussels Mytilus edulis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgård, Hans Ulrik; Lundgreen, Kim; Larsen, Poul Scheel

    2014-01-01

    The present study is a first step towards evaluation of the potential for line-mussel production in the Great Belt region between the Kattegat and Baltic Sea, Denmark. We present experimental results for actual growth rates of juvenile/adult mussels Mytilus edulis in suspended net bags in terms......) as a function of dry weight of soft parts (W, g) by a previously developed simple bioenergetic growth model μ = aW −0.34. Results were generally in good agreement with the model which assumes the prevailing average chlorophyll a concentration at field sites to essentially account for the nutrition. Our studies...

  10. College Costs, Prices and the Great Recession. Lumina Issue Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nate

    2014-01-01

    As states and families begin to recover from the effects of the Great Recession, some of the urgency about college affordability may start to ease. The most recent "Trends in College Pricing" report shows tuition rising more slowly than in recent years (Baum and Ma 2013). Growth in Pell grant applications is also expected to slow as…

  11. Two Years of ePrescription in Slovenia - Applications and Potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanimirovic, Dalibor; Savic, Dusan

    2018-01-01

    ePrescription is one of the most successful eHealth solutions in Slovenia. Since its national roll-out in early 2016, the quality of its operations has been constantly improving, and the number of users has been growing ever since to reach today's 90% of all healthcare providers. ePrescription facilitates more transparent and safer prescribing of medications, an overview of possible medication interactions, and reduction of administrative and opportunity costs. This paper initially explores the current state of ePrescription in Slovenia and different aspects of its application. Based on the research findings, the paper finally outlines potentials of ePrescription, which could be transformed into tangible benefits with particular implications for healthcare system. The research is based on focus group methodology. Structured discussions were conducted with eminent experts currently in charge of ePrescription (and other eHealth solutions) development and implementation in Slovenia. Research results imply that certain application aspects are relatively easy to define and evaluate, while the overall potentials of ePrescription are difficult to determine in many cases, and relatively unexplored in terms of their implications and operational feasibility.

  12. NANOTECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS IN AGRICULTURE: AN UPDATE

    OpenAIRE

    Tejpal Dhewa

    2015-01-01

    Although the scientific studies on the applications of nanotechnology in the agriculture are less than a decade old yet the prospects of nanotechnology in this field has been considerable. The rapid developments in the nanosciences have a great impact on agricultural practices and food manufacturing industries. Nanotechnology has an enormous potential to offer smarter, stronger, cost-effective packaging materials, biosensors for the rapid detection of the food pathogens, toxins and other cont...

  13. Technology update on fast plastic scintillators for medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, P.B.

    1977-01-01

    Plastic scintillators appear to have potential utility in three research areas related to nuclear medicine: (1) high count rate applications in general, (2) positron camera applications, and (3) positron source localization through measurement of relative arrival times of annihilation quanta at two co-linear detectors. These three areas of applicability depend on improvement in three specific areas of plastic scintillator technology: (a) development of plastics with very fast decay times, (b) development of plastics with greatly improved high energy photon detection efficiencies (high-Z loaded plastics), and (c) improvement of fast timing system capabilities. The three preceding areas of improvement are discussed

  14. Assessment of renewable energy resources potential for large scale and standalone applications in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tucho, Gudina Terefe; Weesie, Peter D.M.; Nonhebel, Sanderine

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to determine the contribution of renewable energy to large scale and standalone application in Ethiopia. The assessment starts by determining the present energy system and the available potentials. Subsequently, the contribution of the available potentials for large scale and

  15. The great scientific revolutions of the 20. century; Les grandes revolutions scientifiques du 20. siecle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrochia, D. [Universite Paul Valery, Montpellier 3, 34 - Montpellier (France)

    1997-12-31

    Three great physical revolutions are studied here: the theory of relativity (general and restricted); the quantum mechanics (and its different interpretations); the theory of the determinist chaos (its pre-history as its applications). These three theories contribute to modify the answers that it is possible to bring to great metaphysical questions and to give a hint of a new philosophical landscape. (N.C.)

  16. ICTs for rural development: potential applications and barriers involved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Stratigea

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Rural policy nowadays is at the heart of the policy discussion in many countries all over the world, in the effort to address and effectively support the specific needs and opportunities of rural places and their population in the new era. Along these lines, the focus of the present paper is twofold: on the one hand it attempts to shed light on the role of ICTs and their applications as enabling tools empowering rural development; while on the other hand it explores the barriers appearing towards the adoption and use of ICTs in rural regions. In such a context, it firstly places emphasis on the evolving new rural development paradigm. Then, the range and potential of ICTs applications is explored, that can serve the implementation of the new policy paradigm in rural regions. It follows a discussion on the steps that are needed in order to develop value-added ICTs applications in rural regions and the barriers appearing in the adoption and use of ICTs in these regions. Finally, are presented some issues of policy concern in respect to the adoption and use of ICTs in a rural development perspective.

  17. Digital projection radiography. Technical principles, image properties and potential applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, H.P.

    1999-01-01

    The history of development of digital projection radiography as a diagnostic method is presented in a comprehensive survey. The various technical principles are explained in detail and illustrated by means of graphic figures and digital X-ray pictures. A comparative assessment of currently applied radiographic systems is given and the potential clinical applications of the method of digital projection radiography are discussed. (orig./CB) [de

  18. Numerical implementation and oceanographic application of the Gibbs thermodynamic potential of seawater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Feistel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The 2003 Gibbs thermodynamic potential function represents a very accurate, compact, consistent and comprehensive formulation of equilibrium properties of seawater. It is expressed in the International Temperature Scale ITS-90 and is fully consistent with the current scientific pure water standard, IAPWS-95. Source code examples in FORTRAN, C++ and Visual Basic are presented for the numerical implementation of the potential function and its partial derivatives, as well as for potential temperature. A collection of thermodynamic formulas and relations is given for possible applications in oceanography, from density and chemical potential over entropy and potential density to mixing heat and entropy production. For colligative properties like vapour pressure, freezing points, and for a Gibbs potential of sea ice, the equations relating the Gibbs function of seawater to those of vapour and ice are presented.

  19. Grave pit modifications and wooden structures in the Great Moravian graves and their information potential for cognition of the social structure of the Great Moravian society

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mazuch, Marian; Hladík, Marek

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 2 (2013), s. 45-55 ISSN 1211-7250 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP13-20936P Keywords : Early Middle Ages * Great Moravia * Mikulčice * burial sites * graves * grave pits * burial pits * wooden structures * funeral rite * social structure * GIS * statistics Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  20. Some arachnidan peptides with potential medical application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ME De Lima

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The search for new active drugs that can alleviate or cure different diseases is a constant challenge to researchers in the biological area and to the pharmaceutical industry. Historically, research has focused on the study of substances from plants. More recently, however, animal venoms have been attracting attention and studies have been successful in addressing treatment of accidents. Furthermore, venoms and their toxins have been considered good tools for prospecting for new active drugs or models for new therapeutic drugs. In this review, we discuss some possibilities of using different toxins, especially those from arachnid venoms, which have shown some potential application in diseases involving pain, hypertension, epilepsy and erectile dysfunction. A new generation of drugs is likely to emerge from peptides, including those found in animal venoms.

  1. Great Lakes Science Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Since 1927, Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC) research has provided critical information for the sound management of Great Lakes fish populations and other important...

  2. The potential of protein-nanomaterial interaction for advanced drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Qiang; Mu, Huiling

    2016-03-10

    Nanomaterials, like nanoparticles, micelles, nano-sheets, nanotubes and quantum dots, have great potentials in biomedical fields. However, their delivery is highly limited by the formation of protein corona upon interaction with endogenous proteins. This new identity, instead of nanomaterial itself, would be the real substance the organs and cells firstly encounter. Consequently, the behavior of nanomaterials in vivo is uncontrollable and some undesired effects may occur, like rapid clearance from blood stream; risk of capillary blockage; loss of targeting capacity; and potential toxicity. Therefore, protein-nanomaterial interaction is a great challenge for nanomaterial systems and should be inhibited. However, this interaction can also be used to functionalize nanomaterials by forming a selected protein corona. Unlike other decoration using exogenous molecules, nanomaterials functionalized by selected protein corona using endogenous proteins would have greater promise for clinical use. In this review, we aim to provide a comprehensive understanding of protein-nanomaterial interaction. Importantly, a discussion about how to use such interaction is launched and some possible applications of such interaction for advanced drug delivery are presented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Thermal plasma spraying for SOFCs: Applications, potential advantages, and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hui, Rob; Wang, Zhenwei; Jankovic, Jasna; Yick, Sing; Maric, Radenka; Ghosh, Dave [National Research Council Institute for Fuel Cell Innovation, 4250 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 1W5 (Canada); Kesler, Olivera [National Research Council Institute for Fuel Cell Innovation, 4250 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 1W5 (Canada); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of British Columbia, 2054-6250 Applied Science Lane, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Rose, Lars [National Research Council Institute for Fuel Cell Innovation, 4250 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 1W5 (Canada); Department of Materials Engineering, University of British Columbia, 309-6350 Stores Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 (Canada)

    2007-07-10

    In this article, the applications, potential advantages, and challenges of thermal plasma spray (PS) processing for nanopowder production and cell fabrication of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are reviewed. PS processing creates sufficiently high temperatures to melt all materials fed into the plasma. The heated material can either be quenched into oxide powders or deposited as coatings. This technique has been applied to directly deposit functional layers as well as nanopowder for SOFCs application. In particularly, low melting point and highly active electrodes can be directly fabricated on zirconia-based electrolytes. This is a simple processing technique that does not require the use of organic solvents, offering the opportunity for flexible adjustment of process parameters, and significant time saving in production of the cell and cost reduction compared with tape casting, screen printing and sintering processing steps. Most importantly, PS processing shows strong potential to enable the deposition of metal-supported SOFCs through the integrated fabrication of membrane-electrode assemblies (MEA) on porous metallic substrates with consecutive deposition steps. On the other hand, the application of PS processing to produce SOFCs faces some challenges, such as insufficient porosity of the electrodes, the difficulty of obtaining a thin (<10 {mu}m) and dense electrolyte layer. Fed with H{sub 2} as the fuel gas and oxygen as the oxidant gas, the plasma sprayed cell reached high power densities of 770 mW cm{sup -2} at 900 C and 430 mW cm{sup -2} at 800 C at a cell voltage of 0.7 V. (author)

  4. Great ape gestures: intentional communication with a rich set of innate signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, R W; Cartmill, E; Genty, E; Graham, K E; Hobaiter, C; Tanner, J

    2017-09-08

    Great apes give gestures deliberately and voluntarily, in order to influence particular target audiences, whose direction of attention they take into account when choosing which type of gesture to use. These facts make the study of ape gesture directly relevant to understanding the evolutionary precursors of human language; here we present an assessment of ape gesture from that perspective, focusing on the work of the "St Andrews Group" of researchers. Intended meanings of ape gestures are relatively few and simple. As with human words, ape gestures often have several distinct meanings, which are effectively disambiguated by behavioural context. Compared to the signalling of most other animals, great ape gestural repertoires are large. Because of this, and the relatively small number of intended meanings they achieve, ape gestures are redundant, with extensive overlaps in meaning. The great majority of gestures are innate, in the sense that the species' biological inheritance includes the potential to develop each gestural form and use it for a specific range of purposes. Moreover, the phylogenetic origin of many gestures is relatively old, since gestures are extensively shared between different genera in the great ape family. Acquisition of an adult repertoire is a process of first exploring the innate species potential for many gestures and then gradual restriction to a final (active) repertoire that is much smaller. No evidence of syntactic structure has yet been detected.

  5. Assessment of potential solder candidates for high temperature applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    pressure to eliminate lead containing materials despite the fact that materials for high Pb containing alloys are currently not affected by any legislations. A tentative assessment was carried out to determine the potential solder candidates for high temperature applications based on the solidification...... criterion, phases predicted in the bulk solder and the thermodynamic stability of chlorides. These promising solder candidates were precisely produced using the hot stage microscope and its respective anodic and cathodic polarization curves were investigated using a micro-electrochemical set up...

  6. Using prediction uncertainty analysis to design hydrologic monitoring networks: Example applications from the Great Lakes water availability pilot project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fienen, Michael N.; Doherty, John E.; Hunt, Randall J.; Reeves, Howard W.

    2010-01-01

    The importance of monitoring networks for resource-management decisions is becoming more recognized, in both theory and application. Quantitative computer models provide a science-based framework to evaluate the efficacy and efficiency of existing and possible future monitoring networks. In the study described herein, two suites of tools were used to evaluate the worth of new data for specific predictions, which in turn can support efficient use of resources needed to construct a monitoring network. The approach evaluates the uncertainty of a model prediction and, by using linear propagation of uncertainty, estimates how much uncertainty could be reduced if the model were calibrated with addition information (increased a priori knowledge of parameter values or new observations). The theoretical underpinnings of the two suites of tools addressing this technique are compared, and their application to a hypothetical model based on a local model inset into the Great Lakes Water Availability Pilot model are described. Results show that meaningful guidance for monitoring network design can be obtained by using the methods explored. The validity of this guidance depends substantially on the parameterization as well; hence, parameterization must be considered not only when designing the parameter-estimation paradigm but also-importantly-when designing the prediction-uncertainty paradigm.

  7. Antenna size reduction as a strategy to increase biomass productivity: a great potential not yet realized

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, de T.; Janssen, M.G.J.; Cerezo-Chinarro, O.; Mussgnug, J.H.; Kruse, O.; Ballottari, M.; Bassi, R.; Bujaldon, S.; Wollman, F.A.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2015-01-01

    A major limitation in achieving high photosynthetic efficiency in microalgae mass cultures is the fact that the intensity of direct sunlight greatly exceeds the photosynthetic capacity of the cells. Due to the high pigment content of algal cells, the light absorption rate surpasses the much slower

  8. Potential applications of biotechnology in the energy and the environment sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakrabarty, A.M.

    1988-06-01

    Biotechnological approaches to solving some of the problems of environmental pollution or developing better or alternate sources of energy are considered realistic and technically feasible within the near future. Some of the potential applications of biotechnology of interest to chemists in the energy and the environment sectors are considered briefly in this article.

  9. Beneficial use of dredged materials in Great Lakes commercial ports for transportation projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    This report describes an effort to facilitate beneficial use of dredged materials (DM) from Great Lakes ports and harbors as an alternative construction : material in transportation-related earthwork applications. The overall objective is to link tog...

  10. Exploiting biological activities of brown seaweed Ecklonia cava for potential industrial applications: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesinghe, W A J P; Jeon, You-Jin

    2012-03-01

    Seaweeds are rich in vitamins, minerals, dietary fibres, proteins, polysaccharides and various functional polyphenols. Many researchers have focused on brown algae as a potential source of bioactive materials in the past few decades. Ecklonia cava is a brown seaweed that is abundant in the subtidal regions of Jeju Island in the Republic of Korea. This seaweed attracted extensive interest due to its multiple biological activities. E. cava has been identified as a potential producer of wide spectrum of natural substances such as carotenoids, fucoidans and phlorotannins showing different biological activities in vital industrial applications including pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, cosmeceutical and functional food. This review focuses on biological activities of the brown seaweed E. cava based on latest research results, including antioxidant, anticoagulative, antimicrobial, antihuman immunodeficiency virus, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, antimutagenic, antitumour and anticancer effects. The facts summarized here may provide novel insights into the functions of E. cava and its derivatives and potentially enable their use as functional ingredients in potential industrial applications.

  11. Oxygen-Rich Lithium Oxide Phases Formed at High Pressure for Potential Lithium-Air Battery Electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenge; Kim, Duck Young; Yang, Liuxiang; Li, Nana; Tang, Lingyun; Amine, Khalil; Mao, Ho-Kwang

    2017-09-01

    The lithium-air battery has great potential of achieving specific energy density comparable to that of gasoline. Several lithium oxide phases involved in the charge-discharge process greatly affect the overall performance of lithium-air batteries. One of the key issues is linked to the environmental oxygen-rich conditions during battery cycling. Here, the theoretical prediction and experimental confirmation of new stable oxygen-rich lithium oxides under high pressure conditions are reported. Three new high pressure oxide phases that form at high temperature and pressure are identified: Li 2 O 3 , LiO 2 , and LiO 4 . The LiO 2 and LiO 4 consist of a lithium layer sandwiched by an oxygen ring structure inherited from high pressure ε-O 8 phase, while Li 2 O 3 inherits the local arrangements from ambient LiO 2 and Li 2 O 2 phases. These novel lithium oxides beyond the ambient Li 2 O, Li 2 O 2 , and LiO 2 phases show great potential in improving battery design and performance in large battery applications under extreme conditions.

  12. Potential of low-temperature nuclear heat applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    At present, more than one third of the fossil fuel currently used is being consumed to produce space heating and to meet industrial needs in many countries of the world. Imported oil still represents a large portion of this fossil fuel and despite its present relatively low price future market evolutions with consequent upward cost revisions cannot be excluded. Thus the displacement of the fossil fuel by cheaper low-temperature heat produced in nuclear power plants is a matter which deserves careful consideration. Technico-economic studies in many countries have shown that the use of nuclear heat is fully competitive with most of fossil-fuelled plants, the higher investment costs being offset by lower production cost. Another point in favour of heat generation by nuclear source is its indisputable advantage in terms of benefits to the environment. The IAEA activity plans for 1985-86 concentrate on information exchange with specific emphasis on the design criteria, operating experience, safety requirements and specifications of heat-only reactors, co-generation plants and existing power plants backfitted for additional heat applications. The information gained up to 1985 was discussed during the Advisory Group Meeting on the Potential of Low-Temperature Nuclear Heat Applications held in the Federal Institute for Reactor Research, Wuerenlingen, Switzerland in September 1985 and, is included in the present Technical Document

  13. Investigating the Potential of Using Off-Axis 3D Woven Composites in Composite Joints’ Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Saleh, Mohamed Nasr; Wang, Ying; Yudhanto, Arief; Joesbury, Adam; Potluri, Prasad; Lubineau, Gilles; Soutis, Constantinos

    2016-01-01

    The effect of circular notch has been evaluated for three different architectures of three-dimensional (3D) carbon fibre woven composites (orthogonal, ORT; layer-to-layer, LTL; angle interlock, AI) through open-hole quasi-static tension and double-lap bearing strength tests in the off-axis (45°) direction. Damage characterisation is monitored using Digital Image correlation (DIC) for open-hole testing and X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) for double-lap bearing strength test. The off-axis notched 3D woven composites exhibits minor reduction (less than 10 %) of the notched strength compared to the un-notched strength. DIC strain contour clearly show stress/strain localisation regions around the hole periphery and stress/strain redistribution away from the whole due to the z-binder existence, especially for ORT architecture. Up to 50 % bearing strain, no significant difference in the bearing stress/bearing strain response is observed. However when ORT architecture was loaded up to failure, it demonstrates higher strain to failure (~140 %) followed by AI (~105 %) and lastly LTL (~85 %). X-ray CT scans reveal the effect of the z-binder architecture on damage evolution and delamination resistance. The study suggests that off-axis loaded 3D woven composites, especially ORT architecture, has a great potential of overcoming the current challenges facing composite laminates when used in composite joints’ applications. © 2016 The Author(s)

  14. Investigating the Potential of Using Off-Axis 3D Woven Composites in Composite Joints’ Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Saleh, Mohamed Nasr

    2016-09-26

    The effect of circular notch has been evaluated for three different architectures of three-dimensional (3D) carbon fibre woven composites (orthogonal, ORT; layer-to-layer, LTL; angle interlock, AI) through open-hole quasi-static tension and double-lap bearing strength tests in the off-axis (45°) direction. Damage characterisation is monitored using Digital Image correlation (DIC) for open-hole testing and X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) for double-lap bearing strength test. The off-axis notched 3D woven composites exhibits minor reduction (less than 10 %) of the notched strength compared to the un-notched strength. DIC strain contour clearly show stress/strain localisation regions around the hole periphery and stress/strain redistribution away from the whole due to the z-binder existence, especially for ORT architecture. Up to 50 % bearing strain, no significant difference in the bearing stress/bearing strain response is observed. However when ORT architecture was loaded up to failure, it demonstrates higher strain to failure (~140 %) followed by AI (~105 %) and lastly LTL (~85 %). X-ray CT scans reveal the effect of the z-binder architecture on damage evolution and delamination resistance. The study suggests that off-axis loaded 3D woven composites, especially ORT architecture, has a great potential of overcoming the current challenges facing composite laminates when used in composite joints’ applications. © 2016 The Author(s)

  15. BASINs and WEPP Climate Assessment Tools (CAT): Case Study Guide to Potential Applications (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA announced the release of the final report, BASINs and WEPP Climate Assessment Tools (CAT): Case Study Guide to Potential Applications. This report supports application of two recently developed water modeling tools, the Better Assessment Science Integrating point & ...

  16. Potential, velocity, and density fields from redshift-distance samples: Application - Cosmography within 6000 kilometers per second

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertschinger, E.; Dekel, A.; Faber, S.M.; Dressler, A.; Burstein, D.

    1990-01-01

    A potential flow reconstruction algorithm has been applied to the real universe to reconstruct the three-dimensional potential, velocity, and mass density fields smoothed on large scales. The results are shown as maps of these fields, revealing the three-dimensional structure within 6000 km/s distance from the Local Group. The dominant structure is an extended deep potential well in the Hydra-Centaurus region, stretching across the Galactic plane toward Pavo, broadly confirming the Great Attractor (GA) model of Lynden-Bell et al. (1988). The Local Supercluster appears to be an extended ridge on the near flank of the GA, proceeding through the Virgo Southern Extension to the Virgo and Ursa Major clusters. The Virgo cluster and the Local Group are both falling toward the bottom of the GA potential well with peculiar velocities of 658 + or - 121 km/s and 565 + or - 125 km/s, respectively. 65 refs

  17. Potential, velocity, and density fields from redshift-distance samples: Application - Cosmography within 6000 kilometers per second

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertschinger, Edmund; Dekel, Avishai; Faber, Sandra M.; Dressler, Alan; Burstein, David

    1990-12-01

    A potential flow reconstruction algorithm has been applied to the real universe to reconstruct the three-dimensional potential, velocity, and mass density fields smoothed on large scales. The results are shown as maps of these fields, revealing the three-dimensional structure within 6000 km/s distance from the Local Group. The dominant structure is an extended deep potential well in the Hydra-Centaurus region, stretching across the Galactic plane toward Pavo, broadly confirming the Great Attractor (GA) model of Lynden-Bell et al. (1988). The Local Supercluster appears to be an extended ridge on the near flank of the GA, proceeding through the Virgo Southern Extension to the Virgo and Ursa Major clusters. The Virgo cluster and the Local Group are both falling toward the bottom of the GA potential well with peculiar velocities of 658 + or - 121 km/s and 565 + or - 125 km/s, respectively.

  18. Climate change and water quality in the Great Lakes Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-08-01

    The Great Lakes Basin is subjected to several stresses, such as land use changes, chemical contamination, nutrient over-enrichment, alien invasive species, and acid precipitation. Climate change is now added to this list. The Water Quality Board was asked to provide advice concerning the impacts of climate change on the water quality of the Great Lakes and on how to address the issue. A White Paper was commissioned by the Board to address four key questions: (1) what are the Great Lakes water quality issues associated with climate change, (2) what are potential impacts of climate change on beneficial uses, (3) how might impacts vary across the Great Lakes region, and (4) what are the implications for decision making. The conclusions and findings of the White Paper were then discussed at a workshop held in May 2003. Part 1 of the document provides an executive summary. The advice of the Water Quality Board was based on the findings of the White Paper and presented in Part 2. Part 3 presented the White Paper, while a summary of the workshop was provided in Part 4. A presentation on cross border tools and strategies was also presented by a workshop participant.

  19. Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edsall, Thomas A.; Mac, Michael J.; Opler, Paul A.; Puckett Haecker, Catherine E.; Doran, Peter D.

    1998-01-01

    The Great Lakes region, as defined here, includes the Great Lakes and their drainage basins in Minnesota, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New York. The region also includes the portions of Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the 21 northernmost counties of Illinois that lie in the Mississippi River drainage basin, outside the floodplain of the river. The region spans about 9º of latitude and 20º of longitude and lies roughly halfway between the equator and the North Pole in a lowland corridor that extends from the Gulf of Mexico to the Arctic Ocean.The Great Lakes are the most prominent natural feature of the region (Fig. 1). They have a combined surface area of about 245,000 square kilometers and are among the largest, deepest lakes in the world. They are the largest single aggregation of fresh water on the planet (excluding the polar ice caps) and are the only glacial feature on Earth visible from the surface of the moon (The Nature Conservancy 1994a).The Great Lakes moderate the region’s climate, which presently ranges from subarctic in the north to humid continental warm in the south (Fig. 2), reflecting the movement of major weather masses from the north and south (U.S. Department of the Interior 1970; Eichenlaub 1979). The lakes act as heat sinks in summer and heat sources in winter and are major reservoirs that help humidify much of the region. They also create local precipitation belts in areas where air masses are pushed across the lakes by prevailing winds, pick up moisture from the lake surface, and then drop that moisture over land on the other side of the lake. The mean annual frost-free period—a general measure of the growing-season length for plants and some cold-blooded animals—varies from 60 days at higher elevations in the north to 160 days in lakeshore areas in the south. The climate influences the general distribution of wild plants and animals in the region and also influences the activities and distribution of the human

  20. Is holography ready for yet another life? or make holography great again

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trolinger, James D.

    2016-08-01

    Holographic metrology, unlike most other applications of holography, has always thrived and continues to thrive by continuously incorporating new supporting technologies that make it more powerful and useful. Successes, failures, lives, and deaths are examined and recognized as evolutionary steps that position the field where opportunities are as great and as many as ever. This is a story of that evolution. Comparisons and analogies with other applications of holography such as data storage, archiving, the arts, entertainment, advertising, and security and their evolution are interesting. Critical events, successes, mistakes, and coincidences represent milestones of abandonment or failure to deliver in many holography communities that followed a different evolutionary path. Events and new technical developments continue to emerge in supporting fields that can revive and expand all holography applications. New opportunities are described with encouragement to act on them and take some risks. Don't wait until all of the required technology and hardware are available, because good scientists always act before then. The paper is about "making holography great again" and your opportunity to be a part of the upcoming revolution. Although the discussion focuses on holographic metrology, the same principles should apply to other holography communities.

  1. POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS OF BIOCHAR FOR COMPOSTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Malińska

    2014-10-01

    for composting of materials with high moisture and/or nitrogen contents. The addition of biochar to composting mixtures can reduce ammonia emissions, and thus limit nitrogen losses during composting, increase water holding capacity and retention of nutrients. Biochar can also function as a carrier substrate for microbial inoculants and a scrubing material used in biofilters at composting facilities. Due to the fact that the literature does not provide many examples of biochar applications for composting, and there is little known about the effects of biochar added to composting mixtures on composting dynamics and properties of final composts, futher investigations should focus on mechanisms of biochar-composting mixtures interactions and analysis of properties of biochar-based composts. The overall goal of the article is to analyze the potentials of biochars for composting, to report the effects of various biochars on composting dynamics and quality of produced biochar-based composts, and to indicate the areas of further studies on biochar properties that would allow optimization of composting and improve the quality of final products.

  2. Regional applicability and potential of salt-gradient solar ponds in the United States. Volume 2: Detailed report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, E. I. H.

    1982-03-01

    A comprehensive assessment of the regional applicability and potential of salt-gradient solar ponds in the United States is provided. The assessment is focused on the general characteristics of twelve defined geographic regions. Natural resources essential to solar ponds are surveyed. Meteorological and hydrogeological conditions affecting pond performance are examined. Potentially favorable pond sites are identified. Regional thermal and electrical energy output from solar ponds is calculated. Selected pond design cases are studied. Five major potential market sectors are evaluated in terms of technical and energy-consumption characteristics, and solar-pond applicability and potential. Relevant pond system data and financial factors are analyzed. Solar-pond energy costs are compared with conventional energy costs. The assessment concludes that, excepting Alaska, ponds are applicable in all regions for at least two market sectors. Total solar pond energy supply potential in the five market sectors examined is estimated to be 8.94 quads/yr by the year 2000, approximately 7.2% of the projected total national energy demand.

  3. Preparation of aluminum doped zinc oxide films with low resistivity and outstanding transparency by a sol–gel method for potential applications in perovskite solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Xingyue; Shen, Heping; Zhou, Chen [State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics & Fine Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 10084 (China); Lin, Shiwei [Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Advanced Materials in Tropical Island Resources, Hainan University, Haikou 570228 (China); Li, Xin [State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics & Fine Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 10084 (China); Zhao, Xiaochong [State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics & Fine Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 10084 (China); Science and Technology on Surface Physics and Chemistry Laboratory, Mianyang 621907 (China); Deng, Xiangyun [Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Advanced Materials in Tropical Island Resources, Hainan University, Haikou 570228 (China); College of Physics and Electronic Information, Tianjin, Normal University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Li, Jianbao [State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics & Fine Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 10084 (China); Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Advanced Materials in Tropical Island Resources, Hainan University, Haikou 570228 (China); Lin, Hong [State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics & Fine Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 10084 (China)

    2016-04-30

    Highly transparent and conductive aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) films were prepared by sol–gel method on the glass substrates. The effects of doping concentration, annealing temperature and facing direction during annealing on the structural, electrical and optical properties of AZO films were studied by performing a series of characterizations including X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, UV–vis spectrophotometry, four-point probe method and Hall effect measurement system. The results showed that the AZO films were wurtzite crystallized with c-axis preferred orientation. A minimum resistivity of 1.8 × 10{sup −3} Ω cm and a transmittance above 90% were obtained for the film doped with 1.5 at.% aluminum, annealed at 510 °C and faced-down in the oven, which was among the best performance of the currently reported works based on sol–gel process. Moreover, energy level analysis revealed that the AZO film has a work function of 4.3 eV, exhibiting great potential in perovskite solar cell applications. - Highlights: • Highly transparent and conductive AZO films were prepared by sol–gel based process. • Different facing directions during annealing had effects on the carrier mobility. • Less aluminum ions at the grain boundary would favor the carrier transport. • The potential of AZO film in the perovskite solar cell application was discussed.

  4. Evanescent field: A potential light-tool for theranostics application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polley, Nabarun; Singh, Soumendra; Giri, Anupam; Pal, Samir Kumar

    2014-03-01

    A noninvasive or minimally invasive optical approach for theranostics, which would reinforce diagnosis, treatment, and preferably guidance simultaneously, is considered to be major challenge in biomedical instrument design. In the present work, we have developed an evanescent field-based fiber optic strategy for the potential theranostics application in hyperbilirubinemia, an increased concentration of bilirubin in the blood and is a potential cause of permanent brain damage or even death in newborn babies. Potential problem of bilirubin deposition on the hydroxylated fiber surface at physiological pH (7.4), that masks the sensing efficacy and extraction of information of the pigment level, has also been addressed. Removal of bilirubin in a blood-phantom (hemoglobin and human serum albumin) solution from an enhanced level of 77 μM/l (human jaundice >50 μM/l) to ˜30 μM/l (normal level ˜25 μM/l in human) using our strategy has been successfully demonstrated. In a model experiment using chromatography paper as a mimic of biological membrane, we have shown efficient degradation of the bilirubin under continuous monitoring for guidance of immediate/future course of action.

  5. Biosynthesis and derivatization of microbial glycolipids and their potential application in tribology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microbial-produced glycolipids are biobased products with immense potential for commercial applications. Advances in the production process have led to the lowering of production cost and the appearance of commercial products in niche markets. The ability to manipulate the molecular structure by f...

  6. Fish trypsins: potential applications in biomedicine and prospects for production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesús-de la Cruz, Kristal; Álvarez-González, Carlos Alfonso; Peña, Emyr; Morales-Contreras, José Antonio; Ávila-Fernández, Ángela

    2018-04-01

    In fishes, trypsins are adapted to different environmental conditions, and the biochemical and kinetic properties of a broad variety of native isoforms have been studied. Proteolytic enzymes remain in high demand in the detergent, food, and feed industries; however, our analysis of the literature showed that, in the last decade, some fish trypsins have been studied for the synthesis of industrial peptides and for specific biomedical uses as antipathogenic agents against viruses and bacteria, which have been recently patented. In addition, innovative strategies of trypsin administration have been studied to ensure that trypsins retain their properties until they exert their action. Biomedical uses require the production of high-quality enzymes. In this context, the production of recombinant trypsins is an alternative. For this purpose, E. coli -based systems have been tested for the production of fish trypsins; however, P. pastoris -based systems also seem to show great potential in the production of fish trypsins with higher production quality. On the other hand, there is a lack of information regarding the specific structures, biochemical and kinetic properties, and characteristics of trypsins produced using heterologous systems. This review describes the potential uses of fish trypsins in biomedicine and the enzymatic and structural properties of native and recombinant fish trypsins obtained to date, outlining some prospects for their study.

  7. Active compounds from cyanobacteria and microalgae: properties and potential applications in biomedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Llopiz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria and microalgae are source of many chemicals substances with potential applications on biopharmaceutical industry. Many structures have been characterized in these organism, such as: peptides, proteins, carbohydrates, terpenoids, polyinsatured fatty acids, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, vitamins, porfirins and other organic substances. Chemicals structures of isolated compounds are diverse and it depends of microalgae habitats. Pharmacological activities located in microalgae are bactericides, immunomodulatory, antioxidants, cytoprotective, fungicides and antivirals. These properties may possible the potential treatment of many diseases including autoimmunes disorders, tumoral, and infectious process. In this review are presented and discussed some elements associated to chemical structure and biological activities around of compounds with potential uses as biopharmaceuticals.

  8. β-pyrophosphate: A potential biomaterial for dental applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anastasiou, A.D., E-mail: a.anastasiou@leeds.ac.uk [School of Chemical and Process Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Strafford, S. [Leeds Dental School, Worsley Building, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Posada-Estefan, O. [Leeds Institute of Cardiovascular and Metabolic Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Thomson, C.L. [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Hussain, S.A. [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Cambridge Graphene Centre, Engineering Department, University of Cambridge, 9, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Edwards, T.J. [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Malinowski, M. [Leeds Dental School, Worsley Building, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Hondow, N. [School of Chemical and Process Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Metzger, N.K.; Brown, C.T.A. [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Routledge, M.N. [Leeds Institute of Cardiovascular and Metabolic Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Brown, A.P. [School of Chemical and Process Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Duggal, M.S. [Leeds Dental School, Worsley Building, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Jha, A. [School of Chemical and Process Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2017-06-01

    Tooth hypersensitivity is a growing problem affecting both the young and ageing population worldwide. Since an effective and permanent solution is not yet available, we propose a new methodology for the restoration of dental enamel using femtosecond lasers and novel calcium phosphate biomaterials. During this procedure the irradiated mineral transforms into a densified layer of acid resistant iron doped β-pyrophosphate, bonded with the surface of eroded enamel. Our aim therefore is to evaluate this densified mineral as a potential replacement material for dental hard tissue. To this end, we have tested the hardness of β-pyrophosphate pellets (sintered at 1000 °C) and its mineral precursor (brushite), the wear rate during simulated tooth-brushing trials and the cytocompatibility of these minerals in powder form. It was found that the hardness of the β-pyrophosphate pellets is comparable with that of dental enamel and significantly higher than dentine while, the brushing trials prove that the wear rate of β-pyrophosphate is much slower than that of natural enamel. Finally, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity tests suggest that iron doped β-pyrophosphate is cytocompatible and therefore could be used in dental applications. Taken together and with the previously reported results on laser irradiation of these materials we conclude that iron doped β-pyrophosphate may be a promising material for restoring acid eroded and worn enamel. - Highlights: • A novel procedure for the restoration of dental enamel is introduced. • Fe-doped ß-pyrophosphate is evaluated as potential biomaterial for enamel restoration. • Fe-doped ß-pyrophosphate found to have the same hardness as natural enamel and dramatically lower wear rate. • Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity tests suggest that Fe-doped ß-pyrophosphate is safe for dental applications.

  9. β-pyrophosphate: A potential biomaterial for dental applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anastasiou, A.D.; Strafford, S.; Posada-Estefan, O.; Thomson, C.L.; Hussain, S.A.; Edwards, T.J.; Malinowski, M.; Hondow, N.; Metzger, N.K.; Brown, C.T.A.; Routledge, M.N.; Brown, A.P.; Duggal, M.S.; Jha, A.

    2017-01-01

    Tooth hypersensitivity is a growing problem affecting both the young and ageing population worldwide. Since an effective and permanent solution is not yet available, we propose a new methodology for the restoration of dental enamel using femtosecond lasers and novel calcium phosphate biomaterials. During this procedure the irradiated mineral transforms into a densified layer of acid resistant iron doped β-pyrophosphate, bonded with the surface of eroded enamel. Our aim therefore is to evaluate this densified mineral as a potential replacement material for dental hard tissue. To this end, we have tested the hardness of β-pyrophosphate pellets (sintered at 1000 °C) and its mineral precursor (brushite), the wear rate during simulated tooth-brushing trials and the cytocompatibility of these minerals in powder form. It was found that the hardness of the β-pyrophosphate pellets is comparable with that of dental enamel and significantly higher than dentine while, the brushing trials prove that the wear rate of β-pyrophosphate is much slower than that of natural enamel. Finally, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity tests suggest that iron doped β-pyrophosphate is cytocompatible and therefore could be used in dental applications. Taken together and with the previously reported results on laser irradiation of these materials we conclude that iron doped β-pyrophosphate may be a promising material for restoring acid eroded and worn enamel. - Highlights: • A novel procedure for the restoration of dental enamel is introduced. • Fe-doped ß-pyrophosphate is evaluated as potential biomaterial for enamel restoration. • Fe-doped ß-pyrophosphate found to have the same hardness as natural enamel and dramatically lower wear rate. • Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity tests suggest that Fe-doped ß-pyrophosphate is safe for dental applications.

  10. Potential Applications of Carbohydrases Immobilization in the Food Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contesini, Fabiano Jares; de Alencar Figueira, Joelise; Kawaguti, Haroldo Yukio; de Barros Fernandes, Pedro Carlos; de Oliveira Carvalho, Patrícia; Nascimento, Maria da Graça; Sato, Hélia Harumi

    2013-01-01

    Carbohydrases find a wide application in industrial processes and products, mainly in the food industry. With these enzymes, it is possible to obtain different types of sugar syrups (viz. glucose, fructose and inverted sugar syrups), prebiotics (viz. galactooligossacharides and fructooligossacharides) and isomaltulose, which is an interesting sweetener substitute for sucrose to improve the sensory properties of juices and wines and to reduce lactose in milk. The most important carbohydrases to accomplish these goals are of microbial origin and include amylases (α-amylases and glucoamylases), invertases, inulinases, galactosidases, glucosidases, fructosyltransferases, pectinases and glucosyltransferases. Yet, for all these processes to be cost-effective for industrial application, a very efficient, simple and cheap immobilization technique is required. Immobilization techniques can involve adsorption, entrapment or covalent bonding of the enzyme into an insoluble support, or carrier-free methods, usually based on the formation of cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEAs). They include a broad variety of supports, such as magnetic materials, gums, gels, synthetic polymers and ionic resins. All these techniques present advantages and disadvantages and several parameters must be considered. In this work, the most recent and important studies on the immobilization of carbohydrases with potential application in the food industry are reviewed. PMID:23344046

  11. Potential for beneficial application of sulfate reducing bacteria in sulfate containing domestic wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brand, T P H; Roest, K; Chen, G H; Brdjanovic, D; van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2015-11-01

    The activity of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) in domestic wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) is often considered as a problem due to H2S formation and potential related odour and corrosion of materials. However, when controlled well, these bacteria can be effectively used in a positive manner for the treatment of wastewater. The main advantages of using SRB in wastewater treatment are: (1) minimal sludge production, (2) reduction of potential pathogens presence, (3) removal of heavy metals and (4) as pre-treatment of anaerobic digestion. These advantages are accessory to efficient and stable COD removal by SRB. Though only a few studies have been conducted on SRB treatment of domestic wastewater, the many studies performed on industrial wastewater provide information on the potential of SRB in domestic wastewater treatment. A key-parameter analyses literature study comprising pH, organic substrates, sulfate, salt, temperature and oxygen revealed that the conditions are well suited for the application of SRB in domestic wastewater treatment. Since the application of SRB in WWTP has environmental benefits its application is worth considering for wastewater treatment, when sulfate is present in the influent.

  12. Through the Loupe: Visitor engagement with a primarily text-based handheld AR application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vaart, M.; Damala, A.; Guidi, G; Scopigno, R.; Torres, J.C.; Graf, H.; Remondino, F.; Duranti, L.; Brunet, P.; Hazan, S.; Barceló, J.

    2015-01-01

    The use of Augmented Reality (AR) in a museum or heritage setting holds great potential. However, until now, introducing AR into their buildings has been prohibitively expensive for most museums. On the one hand, programming the AR application could not be done in-house and would be rather costly.

  13. Credit spread variability in U.S. business cycles: the Great Moderation versus the Great Recession

    OpenAIRE

    Hylton Hollander; Guangling Liu

    2014-01-01

    This paper establishes the prevailing financial factors that influence credit spread variability, and its impact on the U.S. business cycle over the Great Moderation and Great Recession periods. To do so, we develop a dynamic general equilibrium framework with a central role of financial intermediation and equity assets. Over the Great Moderation and Great Recession periods, we find an important role for bank market power (sticky rate adjustments and loan rate markups) on credit spread variab...

  14. Credit spread variability in U.S. business cycles: The Great Moderation versus the Great Recession

    OpenAIRE

    Hylton Hollander and Guangling Liu

    2014-01-01

    This paper establishes the prevailing financial factors that influence credit spread variability, and its impact on the U.S. business cycle over the Great Moderation and Great Recession periods. To do so, we develop a dynamic general equilibrium framework with a central role of financial intermediation and equity assets. Over the Great Moderation and Great Recession periods, we find an important role for bank market power (sticky rate adjustments and loan rate markups) on credit spread variab...

  15. Increasing the applicability of density functional theory. V. X-ray absorption spectra with ionization potential corrected exchange and correlation potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Prakash; Bartlett, Rodney J., E-mail: bartlett@qtp.ufl.edu [Quantum Theory Project, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States)

    2016-07-21

    Core excitation energies are computed with time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) using the ionization energy corrected exchange and correlation potential QTP(0,0). QTP(0,0) provides C, N, and O K-edge spectra to about an electron volt. A mean absolute error (MAE) of 0.77 and a maximum error of 2.6 eV is observed for QTP(0,0) for many small molecules. TD-DFT based on QTP (0,0) is then used to describe the core-excitation spectra of the 22 amino acids. TD-DFT with conventional functionals greatly underestimates core excitation energies, largely due to the significant error in the Kohn-Sham occupied eigenvalues. To the contrary, the ionization energy corrected potential, QTP(0,0), provides excellent approximations (MAE of 0.53 eV) for core ionization energies as eigenvalues of the Kohn-Sham equations. As a consequence, core excitation energies are accurately described with QTP(0,0), as are the core ionization energies important in X-ray photoionization spectra or electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis.

  16. Increasing the applicability of density functional theory. V. X-ray absorption spectra with ionization potential corrected exchange and correlation potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Prakash; Bartlett, Rodney J

    2016-07-21

    Core excitation energies are computed with time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) using the ionization energy corrected exchange and correlation potential QTP(0,0). QTP(0,0) provides C, N, and O K-edge spectra to about an electron volt. A mean absolute error (MAE) of 0.77 and a maximum error of 2.6 eV is observed for QTP(0,0) for many small molecules. TD-DFT based on QTP (0,0) is then used to describe the core-excitation spectra of the 22 amino acids. TD-DFT with conventional functionals greatly underestimates core excitation energies, largely due to the significant error in the Kohn-Sham occupied eigenvalues. To the contrary, the ionization energy corrected potential, QTP(0,0), provides excellent approximations (MAE of 0.53 eV) for core ionization energies as eigenvalues of the Kohn-Sham equations. As a consequence, core excitation energies are accurately described with QTP(0,0), as are the core ionization energies important in X-ray photoionization spectra or electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis.

  17. Evaluation of the Xanthan-Based Film Incorporated with Silver Nanoparticles for Potential Application in the Nonhealing Infectious Wound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinjian Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Xanthan gum is a high molecular weight polysaccharide biocompatible to biological systems, so its products promise high potential in medicine. In this study, we crosslinked xanthan gum with citric acid to develop a transparent film for protecting the wound. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs are incorporated into the film to enhance the antimicrobial property of our biomaterial. This paper discussed the characteristics and manufacturing of this nanocomposite dressing. The safety of the dressing was studied using fibroblasts (L929 by the method of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay and staining of ethidium homodimer (PI and calcein AM. The bacterial inhibition test and application of the dressing to nonhealing wounds infected with methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA were performed to evaluate the antibacterial effects in vitro and in vivo, respectively. The results indicated that the dressing could restrict the formation of biofilms, reduce inflammatory reactions, and promote the angiogenesis of granulation tissues in infectious wounds. Therefore, this dressing has a great advantage over traditional clinical products especially when administered under the condition of infections or for the purpose of infection prevention.

  18. Bacterial and Fungal Proteolytic Enzymes: Production, Catalysis and Potential Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Ronivaldo Rodrigues

    2017-09-01

    Submerged and solid-state bioprocesses have been extensively explored worldwide and employed in a number of important studies dealing with microbial cultivation for the production of enzymes. The development of these production technologies has facilitated the generation of new enzyme-based products with applications in pharmaceuticals, food, bioactive peptides, and basic research studies, among others. The applicability of microorganisms in biotechnology is potentiated because of their various advantages, including large-scale production, short time of cultivation, and ease of handling. Currently, several studies are being conducted to search for new microbial peptidases with peculiar biochemical properties for industrial applications. Bioprospecting, being an important prerequisite for research and biotechnological development, is based on exploring the microbial diversity for enzyme production. Limited information is available on the production of specific proteolytic enzymes from bacterial and fungal species, especially on the subgroups threonine and glutamic peptidases, and the seventh catalytic type, nonhydrolytic asparagine peptide lyase. This gap in information motivated the present study about these unique biocatalysts. In this study, the biochemical and biotechnological aspects of the seven catalytic types of proteolytic enzymes, namely aspartyl, cysteine, serine, metallo, glutamic, and threonine peptidase, and asparagine peptide lyase, are summarized, with an emphasis on new studies, production, catalysis, and application of these enzymes.

  19. Potential Applications of Immobilized β-Galactosidase in Food Processing Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmjit S. Panesar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The enzyme β-galactosidase can be obtained from a wide variety of sources such as microorganisms, plants, and animals. The use of β-galactosidase for the hydrolysis of lactose in milk and whey is one of the promising enzymatic applications in food and dairy processing industries. The enzyme can be used in either soluble or immobilized forms but the soluble enzyme can be used only for batch processes and the immobilized form has the advantage of being used in batch wise as well as in continuous operation. Immobilization has been found to be convenient method to make enzyme thermostable and to prevent the loss of enzyme activity. This review has been focused on the different types of techniques used for the immobilization of β-galactosidase and its potential applications in food industry.

  20. The detection of great crested newts year round via environmental DNA analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Helen C; Baker, Claire A; Gardner, David S; Maddison, Ben C; Gough, Kevin C

    2017-07-26

    Analysis of environmental DNA (eDNA) is a method that has been used for the detection of various species within water bodies. The great crested newt (Triturus cristatus) has a short eDNA survey season (mid-April to June). Here we investigate whether this season could be extended into other months using the current methodology as stipulated by Natural England. Here we present data to show that in monthly water samples taken from two ponds (March 2014-February 2015) we were able to detect great crested newt DNA in all months in at least one of the ponds. Similar levels of great crested newt eDNA (i.e. highly positive identification) were detected through the months of March-August, suggesting it may be possible to extend the current survey window. In order to determine how applicable these observations are for ponds throughout the rest of the UK, further work in multiple other ponds over multiple seasons is suggested. Nevertheless, the current work clearly demonstrates, in two ponds, the efficacy and reproducibility of eDNA detection for determining the presence of great crested newts.

  1. Measurement of Streaming Potential in Downhole Application: An Insight for Enhanced Oil Recovery Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tengku Mohd Tengku Amran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Downhole monitoring using streaming potential measurement has been developing in order to respond to actual reservoir condition. Most studies have emphasized on monitoring water flooding at various reservoir condition and improving the approaches of measurement. Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR could significantly improve oil recovery and the efficiency of the process should be well-monitored. Alkaline-surfactant-polymer (ASP flooding is the most promising chemical EOR method due to its synergy of alkaline, surfactant and polymer, which could enhance the extraction of residual oil. However, limited studies have been focused on the application of streaming potential in EOR processes, particularly ASP. Thus, this paper aims to review the streaming potential measurement in downhole monitoring with an insight for EOR application and propose the potential measurement in monitoring ASP flooding. It is important for a preliminary study to investigate the synergy in ASP and the effects on oil recovery. The behaviour of streaming potential should be investigated when the environment of porous media changes with respect to ASP flooding. Numerical model can be generated from the experimental data to forecast the measured streaming potential signal during production associated with ASP flooding. Based on the streaming potential behaviour on foam assisted water alternate gas (FAWAG and water alternate gas (WAG processes, it is expected that the streaming potential could change significantly when ASP flooding alters the environment and surface properties of porous media. The findings could provide new prospect and knowledge in the relationship between streaming potential and ASP mechanisms, which could be a potential approach in monitoring the efficiency of the process.

  2. Use and application of gelatin as potential biodegradable packaging materials for food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur Hanani, Z A; Roos, Y H; Kerry, J P

    2014-11-01

    The manufacture and potential application of biodegradable films for food application has gained increased interest as alternatives to conventional food packaging polymers due to the sustainable nature associated with their availability, broad and abundant source range, compostability, environmentally-friendly image, compatibility with foodstuffs and food application, etc. Gelatin is one such material and is a unique and popularly used hydrocolloid by the food industry today due to its inherent characteristics, thereby potentially offering a wide range of further and unique industrial applications. Gelatin from different sources have different physical and chemical properties as they contain different amino acid contents which are responsible for the varying characteristics observed upon utilization in food systems and when being utilized more specifically, in the manufacture of films. Packaging films can be successfully produced from all gelatin sources and the behaviour and characteristics of gelatin-based films can be altered through the incorporation of other food ingredients to produce composite films possessing enhanced physical and mechanical properties. This review will present the current situation with respect to gelatin usage as a packaging source material and the challenges that remain in order to move the manufacture of gelatin-based films nearer to commercial reality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth Science Research for Energy Management. Part 1; Overview of Energy Issues and an Assessment of the Potential for Application of NASA Earth Science Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zell, E.; Engel-Cox, J.

    2005-01-01

    Effective management of energy resources is critical for the U.S. economy, the environment, and, more broadly, for sustainable development and alleviating poverty worldwide. The scope of energy management is broad, ranging from energy production and end use to emissions monitoring and mitigation and long-term planning. Given the extensive NASA Earth science research on energy and related weather and climate-related parameters, and rapidly advancing energy technologies and applications, there is great potential for increased application of NASA Earth science research to selected energy management issues and decision support tools. The NASA Energy Management Program Element is already involved in a number of projects applying NASA Earth science research to energy management issues, with a focus on solar and wind renewable energy and developing interests in energy modeling, short-term load forecasting, energy efficient building design, and biomass production.

  4. Hamiltonian and potentials in derivative pricing models: exact results and lattice simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baaquie, Belal E.; Corianò, Claudio; Srikant, Marakani

    2004-03-01

    The pricing of options, warrants and other derivative securities is one of the great success of financial economics. These financial products can be modeled and simulated using quantum mechanical instruments based on a Hamiltonian formulation. We show here some applications of these methods for various potentials, which we have simulated via lattice Langevin and Monte Carlo algorithms, to the pricing of options. We focus on barrier or path dependent options, showing in some detail the computational strategies involved.

  5. Wind erosion potential after land application of biosolids

    Science.gov (United States)

    PI, H.; Sharratt, B. S.; Schillinger, W. F.; Bary, A.; Cogger, C.

    2017-12-01

    The world population is currently 7.6 billion and, along with continued population growth, comes the challenge of disposing of wastewater and sewage sludge (biosolids). Applying biosolids to agricultural land to replace synthetic fertilizers represents a relatively safe method to recycle or sustainably use biosolids. While land application of biosolids is recognized as a sustainable management practice for enhancing soil health, no studies have determined the effects of biosolids on soil wind erosion. Wind erosion potential of a silt loam was assessed using a portable wind tunnel after applying synthetic and biosolid fertilizer to conventional and conservation tillage practices during the summer fallow phase of a winter wheat-summer fallow rotation in 2015 and 2016 in east-central Washington. Little difference in soil loss was observed between biosolid and synthetic fertilizer treatments, but this result appeared to be dependent on susceptibility of the soil to erosion. Regression analysis between soil loss from fertilizer or tillage treatments indicated that soil loss was lower from biosolid versus synthetic fertilizer and conservation versus conventional tillage at high erosion rates. This suggests that biosolids may reduce wind erosion under highly erodible conditions. Meanwhile, heavy metal concentrations in the windblown sediment were similar for the biosolid and synthetic fertilizer treatments whereas metal loss in windblown sediment was 10% lower from biosolid than synthetic fertilizer. Our results indicate that land application of biosolids did not accelerate the loss of metals or nutrients from soils during high winds. KeywordsLand application of biosolids; wind erosion; wind tunnel; sustainable agriculture

  6. Nanotechnology in Meat Processing and Packaging: Potential Applications — A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karna Ramachandraiah

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Growing demand for sustainable production, increasing competition and consideration of health concerns have led the meat industries on a path to innovation. Meat industries across the world are focusing on the development of novel meat products and processes to meet consumer demand. Hence, a process innovation, like nanotechnology, can have a significant impact on the meat processing industry through the development of not only novel functional meat products, but also novel packaging for the products. The potential benefits of utilizing nanomaterials in food are improved bioavailability, antimicrobial effects, enhanced sensory acceptance and targeted delivery of bioactive compounds. However, challenges exist in the application of nanomaterials due to knowledge gaps in the production of ingredients such as nanopowders, stability of delivery systems in meat products and health risks caused by the same properties which also offer the benefits. For the success of nanotechnology in meat products, challenges in public acceptance, economics and the regulation of food processed with nanomaterials which may have the potential to persist, accumulate and lead to toxicity need to be addressed. So far, the most promising area for nanotechnology application seems to be in meat packaging, but the long term effects on human health and environment due to migration of the nanomaterials from the packaging needs to be studied further. The future of nanotechnology in meat products depends on the roles played by governments, regulatory agencies and manufacturers in addressing the challenges related to the application of nanomaterials in food.

  7. Recent progresses in application of functionalized graphene sheets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Graphene,a rapidly rising star on the horizon of material science,has a unique two-dimensional nanostructure as well as exceptional mechanical and electronic properties.Despite its short history,graphene has exhibited great potential in various applications.In order to implement the potential applications,functionalization of graphene is necessary to obtain uniform dispersions for good processability.Two kinds are dominant for functionalization such as covalent and non-covalent methods.The former is based on the formation of covalent bonds,and the latter the interaction among molecules.In this review,we summarized briefly the recent progress of functionalized graphene sheets (FGs) in different fields,such as optoelectronic materials,sensors,energy storage materials,catalytic,reinforcing components and so on,and also prospected the development trend of FGs in the future.

  8. Photocatalytic semiconductors synthesis, characterization, and environmental applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hernández-Ramírez, Aracely

    2014-01-01

    This critical volume examines the different methods used for the synthesis of a great number of photocatalysts, including TiO2, ZnO and other modified semiconductors, as well as characterization techniques used for determining the optical, structural and morphological properties of the semiconducting materials. Additionally, the authors discuss photoelectrochemical methods for determining the light activity of the photocatalytic semiconductors by means of measurement of properties such as band gap energy, flat band potential and kinetics of hole and electron transfer. Photocatalytic Semiconductors: Synthesis, Characterization and Environmental Applications provide an overview of the semiconductor materials from first- to third-generation photocatalysts and their applications in wastewater treatment and water disinfection. The book further presents economic and toxicological aspects in the production and application of photocatalytic materials.

  9. Biotechnological conversion of methane to methanol: evaluation of progress and potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte E. Bjorck

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sources of methane are numerous, and vary greatly in their use and sustainable credentials. A Jekyll and Hyde character, it is a valuable energy source present as geological deposits of natural gas, however it is also potent greenhouse gas, released during many waste management processes. Gas-to-liquid technologies are being investigated as a means to exploit and monetise non-traditional and unutilised methane sources. The product identified as having the greatest potential is methanol due to it being a robust, commercially mature conversion process from methane and its beneficial fuel characteristics. Commercial methane to methanol conversion requires high temperatures and pressures, in an energy intensive and costly process. In contrast methanotrophic bacteria perform the desired transformation under ambient conditions, using methane monooxygenase (MMO enzymes. Despite the great potential of these bacteria a number of biotechnical difficulties are hindering progress towards an industrially suitable process. We have identified five major challenges that exist as barriers to a viable conversion process that, to our knowledge, have not previously been examined as distinct process challenges. Although biotechnological applications of methanotrophic bacteria have been reviewed in part, no review has comprehensively covered progress and challenges for a methane to methanol process from an industrial perspective. All published examples to date of methanotroph catalysed conversion of methane to methanol are collated, and standardised to allow direct comparison. The focus will be on conversion of methane to methanol by whole-cell, wild type, methanotroph cultures, and the potential for their application in an industrially relevant process. A recent shift in the research community focus from a mainly biological angle to an overall engineering approach, offers potential to exploit methanotrophs in an industrially relevant biotechnological gas

  10. The origin of 'Great Walls'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shandarin, Sergei F.

    2009-01-01

    A new semi-analytical model that explains the formation and sizes of the 'great walls' - the largest structures observed in the universe is suggested. Although the basis of the model is the Zel'dovich approximation it has been used in a new way very different from the previous studies. Instead of traditional approach that evaluates the nonlinear density field it has been utilized for identification of the regions in Lagrangian space that after the mapping to real or redshift space (depending on the kind of structure is studied) end up in the regions where shell-crossing occurs. The set of these regions in Lagrangian space form the progenitor of the structure and after the mapping it determines the pattern of the structure in real or redshift space. The particle trajectories have crossed in such regions and the mapping is no longer unique there. The progenitor after mapping makes only one stream in the multi-stream flow regions therefore it does not comprise all the mass. Nevertheless, it approximately retains the shape of the structure. The progenitor of the structure in real space is determined by the linear density field along with two non-Gaussian fields derived from the initial potential. Its shape in Eulerian space is also affected by the displacement field. The progenitor of the structure in redshift space also depends on these fields but in addition it is strongly affected by two anisotropic fields that determine the pattern of great walls as well as their huge sizes. All the fields used in the mappings are derived from the linear potential smoothed at the current scale of nonlinearity which is R nl = 2.7 h −1 Mpc for the adopted parameters of the ΛCDM universe normalized to σ 8 = 0.8. The model predicts the existence of walls with sizes significantly greater than 500 h −1 Mpc that may be found in sufficiently large redshift surveys

  11. Out-of-equilibrium body potential measurements in pseudo-MOSFET for sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benea, Licinius; Bawedin, Maryline; Delacour, Cécile; Ionica, Irina

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the out-of-equilibrium body potential behaviour in the Ψ-MOSFET configuration. Consistent measurements in this experimental setup succeeded in providing a substantial understanding of its characteristics in the depletion region. The final objective of this work is to envision this new measurement technique for biochemical sensor applications. Among its advantages, the most important are its simplicity, the good sensitivity, the measurement of a potential instead of a current and the low bias needed for detection compared to the conventional drain current measurements.

  12. The Time Scale of Recombination Rate Evolution in Great Apes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevison, Laurie S.; Woerner, August E.; Kidd, Jeffrey M.; Kelley, Joanna L.; Veeramah, Krishna R.; McManus, Kimberly F.; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Hammer, Michael F.; Wall, Jeffrey D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We present three linkage-disequilibrium (LD)-based recombination maps generated using whole-genome sequence data from 10 Nigerian chimpanzees, 13 bonobos, and 15 western gorillas, collected as part of the Great Ape Genome Project (Prado-Martinez J, et al. 2013. Great ape genetic diversity and population history. Nature 499:471–475). We also identified species-specific recombination hotspots in each group using a modified LDhot framework, which greatly improves statistical power to detect hotspots at varying strengths. We show that fewer hotspots are shared among chimpanzee subspecies than within human populations, further narrowing the time scale of complete hotspot turnover. Further, using species-specific PRDM9 sequences to predict potential binding sites (PBS), we show higher predicted PRDM9 binding in recombination hotspots as compared to matched cold spot regions in multiple great ape species, including at least one chimpanzee subspecies. We found that correlations between broad-scale recombination rates decline more rapidly than nucleotide divergence between species. We also compared the skew of recombination rates at centromeres and telomeres between species and show a skew from chromosome means extending as far as 10–15 Mb from chromosome ends. Further, we examined broad-scale recombination rate changes near a translocation in gorillas and found minimal differences as compared to other great ape species perhaps because the coordinates relative to the chromosome ends were unaffected. Finally, on the basis of multiple linear regression analysis, we found that various correlates of recombination rate persist throughout the African great apes including repeats, diversity, and divergence. Our study is the first to analyze within- and between-species genome-wide recombination rate variation in several close relatives. PMID:26671457

  13. Machine Learning-Empowered Biometric Methods for Biomedicine Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingxue Zhang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, pervasive computing technologies are paving a promising way for advanced smart health applications. However, a key impediment faced by wide deployment of these assistive smart devices, is the increasing privacy and security issue, such as how to protect access to sensitive patient data in the health record. Focusing on this challenge, biometrics are attracting intense attention in terms of effective user identification to enable confidential health applications. In this paper, we take special interest in two bio-potential-based biometric modalities, electrocardiogram (ECG and electroencephalogram (EEG, considering that they are both unique to individuals, and more reliable than token (identity card and knowledge-based (username/password methods. After extracting effective features in multiple domains from ECG/EEG signals, several advanced machine learning algorithms are introduced to perform the user identification task, including Neural Network, K-nearest Neighbor, Bagging, Random Forest and AdaBoost. Experimental results on two public ECG and EEG datasets show that ECG is a more robust biometric modality compared to EEG, leveraging a higher signal to noise ratio and also more distinguishable morphological patterns. Among different machine learning classifiers, the random forest greatly outperforms the others and owns an identification rate as high as 98%. This study is expected to demonstrate that properly selected biometric empowered by an effective machine learner owns a great potential, to enable confidential biomedicine applications in the era of smart digital health.

  14. Potential applications of ionizing radiation in postharvest handling of fresh fruits and vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kader, A.A.

    1986-01-01

    The advantages and limitations of potential uses of ionizing radiation of harvested fresh fruits and vegetables are discussed. Potential applications include: sprout inhibition of tuber, bulb, and root vegetables; inhibition of post-harvest growth of asparagus and mushrooms; insect disinfestation; alteration of ripening and senescence in fresh fruits; and post-harvest microorganism disease control. Cost, consumer acceptance, and logistical problems are cited as possible limiting factors. Factors influencing response also are discussed

  15. What Makes a Great Journal Great in Economics? The Singer Not the Song.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael); L. Oxley (Les)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe paper is concerned with analysing what makes a great journal great in economics, based on quantifiable measures. Alternative Research Assessment Measures (RAM) are discussed, with an emphasis on the Thomson Reuters ISI Web of Science database (hereafter ISI). The various ISI RAM that

  16. Preliminary evaluation of the radioactive waste isolation potential of the alluvium-filled valleys of the Great Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smyth, J.R.; Crowe, B.M.; Halleck, P.M.; Reed, A.W.

    1979-08-01

    The occurrences, geologic features, hydrology, and thermal, mechanical, and mineralogical properties of the alluvium-filled valleys are compared with those of other media within the Great Basin. Computer modeling of heat conduction indicates that heat generated by the radioactive waste can be dissipated through the alluvium in a manner that will not threaten the integrity of the repository, although waste emplacement densities will be lower than for other media available. This investigation has not revealed any failure mechanism by which one can rule out alluvium as a primary waste isolation medium. However, the alluvium appears to rank behind one or more other possible media in all properties examined except, perhaps, in sorption properties. It is therefore recommended that alluvium be considered as a secondary isolation medium unless primary sites in other rock types in the Great Basin are eliminated from consideration on grounds other than those considered here

  17. Research on pathogens at Great Lakes beaches: sampling, influential factors, and potential sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    The overall mission of this work is to provide science-based information and methods that will allow beach managers to more accurately make beach closure and advisory decisions, understand the sources and physical processes affecting beach contaminants, and understand how science-based information can be used to mitigate and restore beaches and protect the public. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with many Federal, State, and local agencies and universities, has conducted research on beach health issues in the Great Lakes Region for more than a decade. The work consists of four science elements that align with the USGS Beach Health Initiative Mission: real-time assessments of water quality; coastal processes; pathogens and source tracking; and data analysis, interpretation, and communication. The ongoing or completed research for the pathogens and source tracking topic is described in this fact sheet.

  18. Great Basin Experimental Range: Annotated bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Durant McArthur; Bryce A. Richardson; Stanley G. Kitchen

    2013-01-01

    This annotated bibliography documents the research that has been conducted on the Great Basin Experimental Range (GBER, also known as the Utah Experiment Station, Great Basin Station, the Great Basin Branch Experiment Station, Great Basin Experimental Center, and other similar name variants) over the 102 years of its existence. Entries were drawn from the original...

  19. Molecular mechanisms and theranostic potential of miRNAs in drug resistance of gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wanli; Ma, Jiaojiao; Zhou, Wei; Cao, Bo; Zhou, Xin; Yang, Zhiping; Zhang, Hongwei; Zhao, Qingchuan; Fan, Daiming; Hong, Liu

    2017-11-01

    Systemic chemotherapy is a curative approach to inhibit gastric cancer cells proliferation. Despite the great progress in anti-cancer treatment achieved during the last decades, drug resistance and treatment refractoriness still extensively persists. Recently, accumulating studies have highlighted the role of miRNAs in drug resistance of gastric cancers by modulating some drug resistance-related proteins and genes expression. Pre-clinical reports indicate that miRNAs might serve as ideal biomarkers and potential targets, thus holding great promise for developing targeted therapy and personalized treatment for the patients with gastric cancer. Areas covered: This review provide a comprehensive overview of the current advances of miRNAs and molecular mechanisms underlying miRNA-mediated drug resistance in gastric cancer. We particularly focus on the potential values of drug resistance-related miRNAs as biomarkers and novel targets in gastric cancer therapy and envisage the future research developments of these miRNAs and challenges in translating the new findings into clinical applications. Expert opinion: Although the concrete mechanisms of miRNAs in drug resistance of gastric cancer have not been fully clarified, miRNA may be a promising theranostic approach. Further studies are still needed to facilitate the clinical applications of miRNAs in drug resistant gastric cancer.

  20. The GREAT3 challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyatake, H; Mandelbaum, R; Rowe, B

    2014-01-01

    The GRavitational lEnsing Accuracy Testing 3 (GREAT3) challenge is an image analysis competition that aims to test algorithms to measure weak gravitational lensing from astronomical images. The challenge started in October 2013 and ends 30 April 2014. The challenge focuses on testing the impact on weak lensing measurements of realistically complex galaxy morphologies, realistic point spread function, and combination of multiple different exposures. It includes simulated ground- and space-based data. The details of the challenge are described in [1], and the challenge website and its leader board can be found at http://great3challenge.info and http://great3.projects.phys.ucl.ac.uk/leaderboard/, respectively

  1. Low-dose glyphosate does not control annual bromes in the northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annual bromes (downy brome and Japanese brome) have been shown to decrease perennial grass forage production and alter ecosystem functions in northern Great Plains rangelands. Large-scale chemical control might be a method for increasing rangeland forage production if low application rates confer co...

  2. Economic suicides in the Great Recession in Europe and North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Aaron; McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David

    2014-09-01

    There has been a substantial rise in 'economic suicides' in the Great Recessions afflicting Europe and North America. We estimate that the Great Recession is associated with at least 10 000 additional economic suicides between 2008 and 2010. A critical question for policy and psychiatric practice is whether these suicide rises are inevitable. Marked cross-national variations in suicides in the recession offer one clue that they are potentially avoidable. Job loss, debt and foreclosure increase risks of suicidal thinking. A range of interventions, from upstream return-to-work programmes through to antidepressant prescriptions may help mitigate suicide risk during economic downturn. Royal College of Psychiatrists.

  3. Electronic excitation of atoms and molecules by electron impact in a linear algebraic, separable potential approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, L.A.; Schneider, B.I.

    1984-01-01

    The linear algebraic, separable potential approach is applied to the electronic excitation of atoms and molecules by electron impact. By representing the exchange and off-diagonal direct terms on a basis, the standard set of coupled inelastic equations is reduced to a set of elastic inhomogeneous equations. The procedure greatly simplifies the formulation by allowing a large portion of the problem to be handled by standard bound-state techniques and by greatly reducing the order of the scattering equations that must be solved. Application is made to the excitation of atomic hydrogen in the three-state close-coupling (1s, 2s, 2p) approximation. (author)

  4. ANAEROBIC DDT BIOTRANSFORMATION: ENHANCEMENT BY APPLICATION OF SURFACTANTS AND LOW OXIDATION REDUCTION POTENTIAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enhancement of anaerobic DDT (1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethane) biotransformation by mixed cultures was studied with application of surfactants and oxidation reduction potential reducing agents. Without amendments, DDT transformation resulted mainly in the pr...

  5. Preparation, Modification, and Application of Hollow Gold Nanospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong-Qiong Ren

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hollow gold nanospheres (HGNs have great potential applications in biological sensing, biomedical imaging, photothermal therapy, and drug delivery due to their unique localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR feature, easy modification, good biocompatibility, and excellent photothermal conversion properties. In this review, the latest developments of HGNs in biosensing, bioimaging, photothermal therapy, and drug delivery are summarized, the synthesis methods, surface modification and bioconjugation of HGNs are also covered in this summary.

  6. Synthetic algae and cyanobacteria: Great potential but what is the exposure risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green algae and cyanobacteria (hereafter, algae) have the attractive properties of relatively simple genomes, rapid growth rates, and an ability to synthesize useful compounds using solar energy and carbon dioxide. They are attractive targets for applications of synthetic biology...

  7. Potential applications of insect symbionts in biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berasategui, Aileen; Shukla, Shantanu; Salem, Hassan; Kaltenpoth, Martin

    2016-02-01

    Symbiotic interactions between insects and microorganisms are widespread in nature and are often the source of ecological innovations. In addition to supplementing their host with essential nutrients, microbial symbionts can produce enzymes that help degrade their food source as well as small molecules that defend against pathogens, parasites, and predators. As such, the study of insect ecology and symbiosis represents an important source of chemical compounds and enzymes with potential biotechnological value. In addition, the knowledge on insect symbiosis can provide novel avenues for the control of agricultural pest insects and vectors of human diseases, through targeted manipulation of the symbionts or the host-symbiont associations. Here, we discuss different insect-microbe interactions that can be exploited for insect pest and human disease control, as well as in human medicine and industrial processes. Our aim is to raise awareness that insect symbionts can be interesting sources of biotechnological applications and that knowledge on insect ecology can guide targeted efforts to discover microorganisms of applied value.

  8. Great ape skeletal collections: making the most of scarce and irreplaceable resources in the digital age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Adam D; Marcus, Emily; Wood, Bernard

    2013-12-01

    Information about primate genomes has re-emphasized the importance of the great apes (Pan, Gorilla, and Pongo) as, for most purposes, the appropriate comparators when generating hypotheses about the most recent common ancestor of the hominins and panins, or the most recent common ancestor of the hominin clade. Great ape skeletal collections are thus an important and irreplaceable resource for researchers conducting these types of comparative analyses, yet the integrity of these collections is threatened by unnecessary use and their availability is threatened by financial pressures on the institutions in which the collections reside. We discuss the general history of great ape skeletal collections, and in order to get a better sense of the utility and potential of these important sources of data we assemble the equivalent of a biography of the Powell-Cotton Collection. We explore the history of how this collection of chimpanzee and gorilla skeletons was accumulated, how it came to be recognized as a potentially important source of comparative information, who has made use of it, and what types of data have been collected. We present a protocol for collecting information about each individual animal (e.g., which bones are preserved, their condition, etc.) and have made that information about the Powell-Cotton Collection freely available in an online relational database (Human Origins Database, www.humanoriginsdatabase.org). As an illustration of the practical application of these data, we developed a tabular summary of ontogenetic information about each individual (see Appendices A and B). Collections like the Powell-Cotton are irreplaceable sources of material regarding the hard-tissue evidence and recent history of the closest living relatives of modern humans. We end this contribution by suggesting ways that curators and the researchers who use and rely on these reference collections could work together to help preserve and protect them so that future generations

  9. Potential applications of luminescent molecular rotors in food science and engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhassawi, Fatemah M; Corradini, Maria G; Rogers, Michael A; Ludescher, Richard D

    2017-06-29

    Fluorescent molecular rotors (MRs) are compounds whose emission is modulated by segmental mobility; photoexcitation generates a locally excited (LE), planar state that can relax either by radiative decay (emission of a photon) or by formation of a twisted intramolecular charge transfer (TICT) state that can relax nonradiatively due to internal rotation. If the local environment around the probe allows for rapid internal rotation in the excited state, fast non-radiative decay can either effectively quench the fluorescence or generate a second, red-shifted emission band. Conversely, any environmental restriction to twisting in the excited state due to free volume, crowding or viscosity, slows rotational relaxation and promotes fluorescence emission from the LE state. The environmental sensitivity of MRs has been exploited extensively in biological applications to sense microviscosity in biofluids, the stability and physical state of biomembranes, and conformational changes in macromolecules. The application of MRs in food research, however, has been only marginally explored. In this review, we summarize the main characteristics of fluorescent MRs, their current applications in biological research and their current and potential applications as sensors of physical properties in food science and engineering.

  10. Great Lake beach-goer behavior during a retrospectively detected bloom of cyanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyanobacteria blooms pose a potential health risk to beachgoers. We conducted a prospective study of weekend beachgoers at a public Great Lake site during July – September 2003. We recorded each person’s health status and activity during their beach visit. We measured...

  11. Won-Buddhism and a Great Turning in Civilization: The Role of Religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paik Nak-chung

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Addressing the theme of a great turning in civilization, this essay focuses on the Korean religion Won-Buddhism with its founding motto, “With this Great Opening of matter, let there be a Great Opening of spirit.” Both its doctrine and practice arguably possess great potential. Unlike the traditional Buddhist view of enlightenment, Won-Buddhism’s “Great Opening of spirit” starts from a specific diagnosis of the current time as an age of “Great Opening of matter” and proposes a double project of at once adapting to and overcoming modernity. In this way, it carries on the tradition of Korea’s indigenous religious movements since the mid-nineteenth century, but by combining that strain with Buddhism as its core doctrine, it achieves a fuller global significance than its predecessors. The essay examines Roberto Unger’s The Religion of the Future for both parallels and divergences, sympathizing with Unger’s emphasis on a religious revolution, but finding his thought essentially confined within the limits of Western metaphysics. Martin Heidegger is brought in to elucidate this point, as is Karl Marx, for comparison and contrast with Won-Buddhism’s diagnosis of and response to modernity. In closing, the essay takes up two Won-Buddhist agendas that are also of global concern: gender equality and the “church and state” relation.

  12. White Paper: Interventional MRI: Current Status and Potential for Development Considering Economic Perspectives, Part 1: General Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkhausen, Jörg; Kahn, Thomas; Krombach, Gabriele A; Kuhl, Christiane K; Lotz, Joachim; Maintz, David; Ricke, Jens; Schönberg, Stefan O; Vogl, Thomas J; Wacker, Frank K

    2017-07-01

    Background  MRI is attractive for the guiding and monitoring of interventional procedures due to its high intrinsic soft tissue contrast and the possibility to measure physiologic parameters like flow and cardiac function. Method  The current status of interventional MRI for the clinical routine was analyzed. Results  The effort needed for the development of MR-safe monitoring systems and instruments initially resulted in the application of interventional MRI only for procedures that could not be performed by other means. Accordingly, biopsy of lesions in the breast, which are not detectable by other modalities, has been performed under MRI guidance for decades. Currently, biopsies of the prostate under MRI guidance are established in a similar fashion. At many sites blind biopsy has already been replaced by MR-guided biopsy or at least by the fusion of MR images with ultrasound. Cardiovascular interventions are performed at several centers for ablation as a treatment for atrial fibrillation. Conclusion  Interventional MRI has been established in the clinical routine for a variety of indications. Broader application can be expected in the clinical routine in the future owing to the multiple advantages compared to other techniques. Key points   · Due to the significant technical effort, MR-guided interventions are only recommended in the long term for regions in which MRI either facilitates or greatly improves the intervention.. · Breast biopsy of otherwise undetectable target lesions has long been established in the clinical routine. Prostate biopsy is currently being introduced in the clinical routine for similar reasons. Other methods such as MR-guided focused ultrasound for the treatment of uterine fibroids or tumor ablation of metastases represent alternative methods and are offered in many places.. · Endovascular MR-guided interventions offer advantages for a number of indications and have already been clinically established for the treatment of

  13. Potential nanotechnology applications for reducing freshwater consumption at coal fired power plants : an early view.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D. (Environmental Science Division)

    2010-09-17

    This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements the overall research effort of the Existing Plants Research Program by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. A growing challenge to the economic production of electricity from coal-fired power plants is the demand for freshwater, particularly in light of the projected trends for increasing demands and decreasing supplies of freshwater. Nanotechnology uses the unique chemical, physical, and biological properties that are associated with materials at the nanoscale to create and use materials, devices, and systems with new functions and properties. It is possible that nanotechnology may open the door to a variety of potentially interesting ways to reduce freshwater consumption at power plants. This report provides an overview of how applications of nanotechnology could potentially help reduce freshwater use at coal-fired power plants. It was developed by (1) identifying areas within a coal-fired power plant's operations where freshwater use occurs and could possibly be reduced, (2) conducting a literature review to identify potential applications of nanotechnology for facilitating such reductions, and (3) collecting additional information on potential applications from researchers and companies to clarify or expand on information obtained from the literature. Opportunities, areas, and processes for reducing freshwater use in coal-fired power plants considered in this report include the use of nontraditional waters in process and cooling water systems, carbon capture alternatives, more efficient processes for removing sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, coolants that have higher thermal conductivities than water alone, energy storage options, and a variety of plant inefficiencies, which

  14. 75 FR 6354 - NOAA Great Lakes Habitat Restoration Program Project Grants under the Great Lakes Restoration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-09

    ...-04] RIN 0648-ZC10 NOAA Great Lakes Habitat Restoration Program Project Grants under the Great Lakes... Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of funding availability; Date... on January 19, 2010. That notice announced the NOAA Great Lakes Habitat Restoration Program Project...

  15. The Next Great Generation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownstein, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    Discusses ideas from a new book, "Millennials Rising: The Next Great Generation," (by Neil Howe and William Strauss) suggesting that youth culture is on the cusp of a radical shift with the generation beginning with this year's college freshmen who are typically team oriented, optimistic, and poised for greatness on a global scale. Includes a…

  16. Moessbauer studies of raw materials from Misti volcano of Arequipa (Peru) for its potential application in the ceramic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustamante, Angel, E-mail: angelbd1@gmail.com [Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos (Peru); Capel, Francisco; Barba, Flora, E-mail: flora@icv.csic.es; Callejas, Pio [Consejo Superior de investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio (Spain); Guzman, Rivalino [Universidad Nacional de San Agustin de Arequipa (Peru); Trujillo, Alejandro [Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos (Peru)

    2009-04-15

    We would like to introduce, the study of two different colour 'sillar' samples: white and pink, belonging to the Anashuayco quarry in the Arequipa Region (Peru). The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicates the presence of several mineralogical phases, such as feldpars and biotite for the both white and pink 'sillar' whereas cristobalite and quartz are detected only in the first sample and amorphous phase in the second one. In room temperature, Moessbauer spectroscopy, the presence of hematite ({alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) was detected as the main phase for both samples, this was not detected in the XRD measurements. Moreover, corresponding doublets in the Moessbauer spectra indicate the presence of iron in the aluminium-silicate minerals. The rates Fe{sup 2+}/Fe{sup 3+} are 0.0752 and 0.0526 to the white and pink samples respectively. The minerals composing the white tuff form a heterogeneous aggregate of uniform aspect. Mining of these materials generates a great amount of waste in the form of lumps of varying size and which are raw materials studied in the present work for potential application in the ceramic field.

  17. Manipulation and application of orbital ordering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng Zhigao; Sun Yuping

    2014-01-01

    Under certain conditions, the orbits of the outmost shell electrons in strong correlated materials can be localized in order, which gives birth to so-called orbital ordering. During the construction or destruction of the orbital ordering, strongly correlated materials show fruitful quantum critical phenomena with great potential for future applications. We first present the mechanism for the construction of orbital ordering. Then, some physical properties associated with orbits are discussed. Finally, we emphasize the key points and progress in the research of orbital ordering controlling. (authors)

  18. Potential Application of ENR/EPDM Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.L. Chan

    2017-06-01

    resistance properties, or some in the development of potential thermoplastic rubber and its thermoplastic vulcanizates. In this paper, the author would like to share some findingsof the ENR/EPDM blends that have good flexand dynamic properties, relatively low compression set, and tolerant tensile properties that satisfy most rubber products that are required for and used in the industrial, mechanical, and even automotive parts. More importantly, the sliding skid resistance/frictional property and wear resistance of the blends are also examined. In some blends, the thermal dynamic behaviour is also measured over a temperature range depicting the low-temperature stability, its temperature of transition and the dynamic factor like tangent delta (σ. These are the potential factors that could enhance the blend properties that give possible, good high speed and traction, applicable in tyres.

  19. In-Space Assembly Capability Assessment for Potential Human Exploration and Science Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferies, Sharon A.; Jones, Christopher A.; Arney, Dale C.; Stillwagen, Frederic H.; Chai, Patrick R.; Hutchinson, Craig D.; Stafford, Matthew A.; Moses, Robert W.; Dempsey, James A.; Rodgers, Erica M.; hide

    2017-01-01

    Human missions to Mars present several major challenges that must be overcome, including delivering multiple large mass and volume elements, keeping the crew safe and productive, meeting cost constraints, and ensuring a sustainable campaign. Traditional methods for executing human Mars missions minimize or eliminate in-space assembly, which provides a narrow range of options for addressing these challenges and limits the types of missions that can be performed. This paper discusses recent work to evaluate how the inclusion of in-space assembly in space mission architectural concepts could provide novel solutions to address these challenges by increasing operational flexibility, robustness, risk reduction, crew health and safety, and sustainability. A hierarchical framework is presented to characterize assembly strategies, assembly tasks, and the required capabilities to assemble mission systems in space. The framework is used to identify general mission system design considerations and assembly system characteristics by assembly strategy. These general approaches are then applied to identify potential in-space assembly applications to address each challenge. Through this process, several focus areas were identified where applications of in-space assembly could affect multiple challenges. Each focus area was developed to identify functions, potential assembly solutions and operations, key architectural trades, and potential considerations and implications of implementation. This paper helps to identify key areas to investigate were potentially significant gains in addressing the challenges with human missions to Mars may be realized, and creates a foundation on which to further develop and analyze in-space assembly concepts and assembly-based architectures.

  20. Genetic Differences Between Humans and Great Apes -- Implications for the Evolution of Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varki, Ajit

    2004-06-01

    At the level of individual protein sequences, humans are 97-100% identical to the great apes, our closest evolutionary relatives. The evolution of humans (and of human intelligence) from a common ancestor with the chimpanzee and bonobo involved many steps, influenced by interactions amongst factors of genetic, developmental, ecological, microbial, climatic, behavioral, cultural and social origin. The genetic factors can be approached by direct comparisons of human and great ape genomes, genes and gene products, and by elucidating biochemical and biological consequences of any differences found. We have discovered multiple genetic and biochemical differences between humans and great apes, particularly with respect to a family of cell surface molecules called sialic acids, as well as in the metabolism of thyroid hormones. The hormone differences have potential consequences for human brain development. The differences in sialic acid biology have multiple implications for the human condition, ranging from susceptibility or resistance to microbial pathogens, effects on endogenous receptors in the immune system, and potential effects on placental signaling, expression of oncofetal antigens in cancers, consequences of dietary intake of animal foods, and development of the mammalian brain.

  1. Nanotechnology in food science: Functionality, applicability, and safety assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojia He

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Rapid development of nanotechnology is expected to transform many areas of food science and food industry with increasing investment and market share. In this article, current applications of nanotechnology in food systems are briefly reviewed. Functionality and applicability of food-related nanotechnology are highlighted in order to provide a comprehensive view on the development and safety assessment of nanotechnology in the food industry. While food nanotechnology offers great potential benefits, there are emerging concerns arising from its novel physicochemical properties. Therefore, the safety concerns and regulatory policies on its manufacturing, processing, packaging, and consumption are briefly addressed. At the end of this article, the perspectives of nanotechnology in active and intelligent packaging applications are highlighted.

  2. Rationally designed polyimides for high-energy density capacitor applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Rui; Baldwin, Aaron F; Wang, Chenchen; Offenbach, Ido; Cakmak, Mukerrem; Ramprasad, Rampi; Sotzing, Gregory A

    2014-07-09

    Development of new dielectric materials is of great importance for a wide range of applications for modern electronics and electrical power systems. The state-of-the-art polymer dielectric is a biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP) film having a maximal energy density of 5 J/cm(3) and a high breakdown field of 700 MV/m, but with a limited dielectric constant (∼2.2) and a reduced breakdown strength above 85 °C. Great effort has been put into exploring other materials to fulfill the demand of continuous miniaturization and improved functionality. In this work, a series of polyimides were investigated as potential polymer materials for this application. Polyimide with high dielectric constants of up to 7.8 that exhibits low dissipation factors (dielectric constant and band gap. Correlations of experimental and theoretical results through judicious variations of polyimide structures allowed for a clear demonstration of the relationship between chemical functionalities and dielectric properties.

  3. Wages, Productivity and Work Intensity in the Great Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Julia Darby; Robert A Hart

    2002-01-01

    We show that U.S. manufacturing wages during the Great Depression were importantly determined by forces on firms' intensive margins. Short-run changes in work intensity and the longer-term goal of restoring full potential productivity combined to influence real wage growth. By contrast, the external effects of unemployment and replacement rates had much less impact. Empirical work is undertaken against the background of an efficient bargaining model that embraces employment, hours of work and...

  4. Fundamental transport mechanisms, fabrication and potential applications of nanoporous atomically thin membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Luda; Boutilier, Michael S H; Kidambi, Piran R; Jang, Doojoon; Hadjiconstantinou, Nicolas G; Karnik, Rohit

    2017-06-06

    Graphene and other two-dimensional materials offer a new approach to controlling mass transport at the nanoscale. These materials can sustain nanoscale pores in their rigid lattices and due to their minimum possible material thickness, high mechanical strength and chemical robustness, they could be used to address persistent challenges in membrane separations. Here we discuss theoretical and experimental developments in the emerging field of nanoporous atomically thin membranes, focusing on the fundamental mechanisms of gas- and liquid-phase transport, membrane fabrication techniques and advances towards practical application. We highlight potential functional characteristics of the membranes and discuss applications where they are expected to offer advantages. Finally, we outline the major scientific questions and technological challenges that need to be addressed to bridge the gap from theoretical simulations and proof-of-concept experiments to real-world applications.

  5. Fundamental transport mechanisms, fabrication and potential applications of nanoporous atomically thin membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Luda; Boutilier, Michael S. H.; Kidambi, Piran R.; Jang, Doojoon; Hadjiconstantinou, Nicolas G.; Karnik, Rohit

    2017-06-01

    Graphene and other two-dimensional materials offer a new approach to controlling mass transport at the nanoscale. These materials can sustain nanoscale pores in their rigid lattices and due to their minimum possible material thickness, high mechanical strength and chemical robustness, they could be used to address persistent challenges in membrane separations. Here we discuss theoretical and experimental developments in the emerging field of nanoporous atomically thin membranes, focusing on the fundamental mechanisms of gas- and liquid-phase transport, membrane fabrication techniques and advances towards practical application. We highlight potential functional characteristics of the membranes and discuss applications where they are expected to offer advantages. Finally, we outline the major scientific questions and technological challenges that need to be addressed to bridge the gap from theoretical simulations and proof-of-concept experiments to real-world applications.

  6. Some applications of mirror-generated electric potentials to alternative fusion concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, R.F.

    1990-01-01

    Transient electrical potentials can be generated in plasmas by utilizing impulsive mirror-generated forces acting on the plasma electrons together with ion inertia to cause momentary charge imbalance. In the Mirrortron such potentials are generated by applying a rapidly rising (tens of nanoseconds) localized mirror field to the central region of a hot-electron plasma confined between static mirrors. Because of the loss-cone nature of the electron distribution the sudden appearance of the pulsed mirror tends to expel electrons, whereas the ion density remains nearly constant. The quasi-neutrality condition then operates to create an electrical potential the equipotential surfaces of which can be shown theoretically to be congruent with surfaces of constant B. An alternative way of generating transient potentials is to apply a pulse of high-power microwaves to a plasma residing on a magnetic field with a longitudinal gradient. This technique resembles one employed in the Pleiade experiments. At gigawatt power levels, such as those produced by a Free Electron Laser, the production of very high transient potentials is predicted. Fusion-relevant applications of these ideas include heavy-ion drivers for inertial fusion, and the possibility of employing these techniques to enhance the longitudinal confinement of fusion plasmas in multiple-mirror systems. 23 refs., 3 figs

  7. Great Lakes Environmental Database (GLENDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Great Lakes Environmental Database (GLENDA) houses environmental data on a wide variety of constituents in water, biota, sediment, and air in the Great Lakes area.

  8. Effects of Neuropeptide Y on Stem Cells and Their Potential Applications in Disease Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Peng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuropeptide Y (NPY, a 36-amino acid peptide, is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems and other peripheral tissues. It takes part in regulating various biological processes including food intake, circadian rhythm, energy metabolism, and neuroendocrine secretion. Increasing evidence indicates that NPY exerts multiple regulatory effects on stem cells. As a kind of primitive and undifferentiated cells, stem cells have the therapeutic potential to replace damaged cells, secret paracrine molecules, promote angiogenesis, and modulate immunity. Stem cell-based therapy has been demonstrated effective and considered as one of the most promising treatments for specific diseases. However, several limitations still hamper its application, such as poor survival and low differentiation and integration rates of transplanted stem cells. The regulatory effects of NPY on stem cell survival, proliferation, and differentiation may be helpful to overcome these limitations and facilitate the application of stem cell-based therapy. In this review, we summarized the regulatory effects of NPY on stem cells and discussed their potential applications in disease therapy.

  9. HTR process heat applications, status of technology and economical potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnet, H.

    1997-01-01

    The technical and industrial feasibility of the production of high temperature heat from nuclear fuel is presented. The technical feasibility of high temperature heat consuming processes is reviewed and assessed. The conclusion is drawn that the next technological step for pilot plant scale demonstration is the nuclear heated steam reforming process. The economical potential of HTR process heat applications is reviewed: It is directly coupled to the economical competitiveness of HTR electricity production. Recently made statements and pre-conditions on the economic competitiveness in comparison to world market coal are reported. (author). 8 figs

  10. A short review of nanographenes: structures, properties and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yafei; Liu, Yi; Ding, Kai; Yang, Jinlong

    2018-04-01

    Graphene has attracted great interest in the science and technology since it was exfoliated mechanically from the graphite in 2004. Although graphene has various potential applications, its practical applications are constrained enormously by its serious drawbacks, such as zero band gap, tendency of aggregation between layers and hydrophobicity, which mainly caused by the infinite planar hexagonal structure of graphene. Considering that the structural defects in the honeycomb lattice and the edges of graphene break the infinite structure and thus change the properties, which may improve the application efficiency, nanographene (NG) is proposed and attracts extensive attention. In this work, we review the structures of multifarious well-defined NGs synthesised in recent experiments. The effects of the shape, size, edges and substituents of NGs to the properties are discussed in detail and the regulation for various properties of NG is analysed. For the well-defined NGs, including planar and non-planar ones, the challenges and perspectives of their potential applications in nonlinear optical material, gas molecular detector and gas separation material, hydrogen storage material, and hole-transporting material in perovskite solar cells are envisioned.

  11. [Clinical evaluation of female pelvic tumors : Application fields of integrated PET/MRI].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grueneisen, J; Umutlu, L

    2016-07-01

    Integrated positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanning has recently become established in clinical imaging. Various studies have demonstrated the great potential of this new hybrid imaging procedure for applications in the field of oncology and the diagnostics of inflammatory processes. With initial studies demonstrating the feasibility and high diagnostic potential of PET/MRI comparable to PET-computed tomography (CT), the focus of future studies should be on the identification of application fields with a potential diagnostic benefit of PET/MRI over other established diagnostic tools. Both MRI and PET/CT are widely used in the diagnostic algorithms for malignancies of the female pelvis. A simultaneous acquisition of PET and MRI data within a single examination provides complementary information which can be used for a more comprehensive evaluation of the primary tumor as well as for whole body staging. Therefore, the aim of this article is to outline potential clinical applications of integrated PET/MRI for the diagnostic work-up of primary or recurrent gynecological neoplasms of the female pelvis.

  12. Synfuels from low-rank coals at the Great Plains Gasification Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollock, D.

    1992-01-01

    This presentation focuses on the use of low rank coals to form synfuels. A worldwide abundance of low rank coals exists. Large deposits in the United States are located in Texas and North Dakota. Low rank coal deposits are also found in Europe, India and Australia. Because of the high moisture content of lignite ranging from 30% to 60% or higher, it is usually utilized in mine mouth applications. Lignite is generally very reactive and contains varying amounts of ash and sulfur. Typical uses for lignite are listed. A commercial application using lignite as feedstock to a synfuels plant, Dakota Gasification Company's Great Plains Gasification Plant, is discussed

  13. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from different cell sources and their potential for regenerative and personalized medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtrichman, R; Germanguz, I; Itskovitz-Eldor, J

    2013-06-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) have great potential as a robust source of progenitors for regenerative medicine. The novel technology also enables the derivation of patient-specific cells for applications to personalized medicine, such as for personal drug screening and toxicology. However, the biological characteristics of iPSCs are not yet fully understood and their similarity to human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) is still unresolved. Variations among iPSCs, resulting from their original tissue or cell source, and from the experimental protocols used for their derivation, significantly affect epigenetic properties and differentiation potential. Here we review the potential of iPSCs for regenerative and personalized medicine, and assess their expression pattern, epigenetic memory and differentiation capabilities in relation to their parental tissue source. We also summarize the patient-specific iPSCs that have been derived for applications in biological research and drug discovery; and review risks that must be overcome in order to use iPSC technology for clinical applications.

  14. Aspects of land application of sewage solids and gamma-irradiated dried sewage solids on calcareous soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCaslin, B.D.; O'Connor, G.A.; Sivinski, J.S.

    1980-01-01

    One of the cheapest and generally most convenient methods of disposing of sewage sludge is by land application. The greatest risks of land application are potential contamination of the environment by heavy metals, other toxicants, and pathogens. Irradiation of sewage sludge has been shown to have little or no effect on sludge elements available to plants, and can remove the potential pathogen problem. Work at New Mexico State University has shown that, with little risk, gamma-irradiated sewage sludge can be used to great advantage for crop production, especially on highly calcareous soils low in heavy metals essential for plant growth

  15. The use and potential application of electron accelerator in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danu, Sugiarto

    2003-01-01

    The use of electron accelerator in Indonesia for research and development, radiation services, commercial purposes and potential application in the future is described. A pilot plant for radiation curing technology particularly for wood surface coating using low energy electron accelerator (300 keV, 50 mA; installed in 1984) and a EBM GJ 2 (2 MeV, 10 mA, installed in 1994) for R and D of crosslinking process such as wire and cable and heat shrinkable tube and sheets in Center for Research and Development of Isotopes and Radiation Technology, Jakarta, and also a low energy electron accelerator (installed in 1998) in a private company, PT Gajah Tunggai, are being mainly used. Their performances are presented with activities achieved in the fields of wood surface coating, vulcanization of natural rubber latex, grafting of polyethylene terephthalate (PET), radiation sterilization, degradation of cellulose and, as promising applications, radiation curing for composite production and uses for environmental preservation are introduced. (S. Ohno)

  16. Neural networks and their potential application in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhrig, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    A neural network is a data processing system consisting of a number of simple, highly interconnected processing elements in an architecture inspired by the structure of the cerebral cortex portion of the brain. Hence, neural networks are often capable of doing things which humans or animals do well but which conventional computers often do poorly. Neural networks have emerged in the past few years as an area of unusual opportunity for research, development and application to a variety of real world problems. Indeed, neural networks exhibit characteristics and capabilities not provided by any other technology. Examples include reading Japanese Kanji characters and human handwriting, reading a typewritten manuscript aloud, compensating for alignment errors in robots, interpreting very noise signals (e.g., electroencephalograms), modeling complex systems that cannot be modeled mathematically, and predicting whether proposed loans will be good or fail. This paper presents a brief tutorial on neural networks and describes research on the potential applications to nuclear power plants

  17. The use and potential application of electron accelerator in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danu, Sugiarto [National Nuclear Energy Agency, Center for Research and Development of Isotopes and Radiation Technology, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    2003-02-01

    The use of electron accelerator in Indonesia for research and development, radiation services, commercial purposes and potential application in the future is described. A pilot plant for radiation curing technology particularly for wood surface coating using low energy electron accelerator (300 keV, 50 mA; installed in 1984) and a EBM GJ 2 (2 MeV, 10 mA, installed in 1994) for R and D of crosslinking process such as wire and cable and heat shrinkable tube and sheets in Center for Research and Development of Isotopes and Radiation Technology, Jakarta, and also a low energy electron accelerator (installed in 1998) in a private company, PT Gajah Tunggai, are being mainly used. Their performances are presented with activities achieved in the fields of wood surface coating, vulcanization of natural rubber latex, grafting of polyethylene terephthalate (PET), radiation sterilization, degradation of cellulose and, as promising applications, radiation curing for composite production and uses for environmental preservation are introduced. (S. Ohno)

  18. RBC micromotors carrying multiple cargos towards potential theranostic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhiguang; Esteban-Fernández de Ávila, Berta; Martín, Aída; Christianson, Caleb; Gao, Weiwei; Thamphiwatana, Soracha Kun; Escarpa, Alberto; He, Qiang; Zhang, Liangfang; Wang, Joseph

    2015-08-01

    Red blood cell (RBC)-based micromotors containing both therapeutic and diagnostic modalities are described as a means for potential theranostic applications. In this natural RBC-based multicargo-loaded micromotor system, quantum dots (QDs), anti-cancer drug doxorubicin (DOX), and magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), were co-encapsulated into RBC micromotors. The fluorescent emission of both QDs and DOX provides direct visualization of their loading inside the RBC motors at two distinct wavelengths. The presence of MNPs within the RBCs allows for efficient magnetic guidance under ultrasound propulsion along with providing the potential for magnetic resonance imaging. The simultaneous encapsulation of the imaging nanoparticles and therapeutic payloads within the same RBC micromotor has a minimal effect upon its propulsion behavior. The ability of the RBC micromotors to transport imaging and therapeutic agents at high speed and spatial precision through a complex microchannel network is also demonstrated. Such ability to load and transport diagnostic imaging agents and therapeutic drugs within a single cell-based motor, in addition to a lower toxicity observed once the drug is encapsulated within the multicargo RBC motor, opens the door to the development of theranostic micromotors that may simultaneously treat and monitor diseases.Red blood cell (RBC)-based micromotors containing both therapeutic and diagnostic modalities are described as a means for potential theranostic applications. In this natural RBC-based multicargo-loaded micromotor system, quantum dots (QDs), anti-cancer drug doxorubicin (DOX), and magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), were co-encapsulated into RBC micromotors. The fluorescent emission of both QDs and DOX provides direct visualization of their loading inside the RBC motors at two distinct wavelengths. The presence of MNPs within the RBCs allows for efficient magnetic guidance under ultrasound propulsion along with providing the potential for magnetic

  19. Application of Electroporation Technique in Biofuel Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousuf Abu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofuels production is mostly oriented with fermentation process, which requires fermentable sugar as nutrient for microbial growth. Lignocellulosic biomass (LCB represents the most attractive, low-cost feedstock for biofuel production, it is now arousing great interest. The cellulose that is embedded in the lignin matrix has an insoluble, highly-crystalline structure, so it is difficult to hydrolyze into fermentable sugar or cell protein. On the other hand, microbial lipid has been studying as substitute of plant oils or animal fat to produce biodiesel. It is still a great challenge to extract maximum lipid from microbial cells (yeast, fungi, algae investing minimum energy.Electroporation (EP of LCB results a significant increase in cell conductivity and permeability caused due to the application of an external electric field. EP is required to alter the size and structure of the biomass, to reduce the cellulose crystallinity, and increase their porosity as well as chemical composition, so that the hydrolysis of the carbohydrate fraction to monomeric sugars can be achieved rapidly and with greater yields. Furthermore, EP has a great potential to disrupt the microbial cell walls within few seconds to bring out the intracellular materials (lipid to the solution. Therefore, this study aims to describe the challenges and prospect of application of EP technique in biofuels processing.

  20. Industrial applications and current trends in supercritical fluid technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Gamse Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Supercritical fluids have a great potential for wide fields of processes Although CO2 is still one of the most used supercritical gases, for special purposes propane or even fluorinated-chlorinated fluids have also been tested. The specific characteristics of supercritical fluids behaviour were analyzed such as for example the solubilities of different components and the phase equilibria between the solute and solvent. The application at industrial scale (decaffeinating of tea and coffee, hop...

  1. Radiation applications of physical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talrose, V.L.

    1993-01-01

    Many chemical energy problems have a physical chemistry nature connected with chemical kinetics and thermodynamics. In our country, the development in this field is associated with the name N.N. Semenov, who was involved in a large number of fundamental and applied physical chemistry problems.Energy development during the last decades created or sharpened new problems. Our new Institute, the Institute of Energy problems of Chemical Physics, USSR Academy of Sciences, is dealing with some of them. The present article is an overview of our work on radiation applications. Examples of the use of radiation in power industry (such as coal gasification), tire production, mechanical joints, metal powder production and sterilization of pharmaceutical products are given. Methods and problems involved in these applications are discussed and the great potential for vast utilization is demonstrated. (authors)

  2. Considering the potential effect of faulting on regional-scale groundwater flow: an illustrative example from Australia's Great Artesian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smerdon, Brian D.; Turnadge, Chris

    2015-08-01

    Hydraulic head measurements in the Great Artesian Basin (GAB), Australia, began in the early 20th century, and despite subsequent decades of data collection, a well-accepted smoothed potentiometric surface has continually assumed a contiguous aquifer system. Numerical modeling was used to produce alternative potentiometric surfaces for the Cadna-owie-Hooray aquifers with and without the effect of major faults. Where a fault created a vertical offset between the aquifers and was juxtaposed with an aquitard, it was assumed to act as a lateral barrier to flow. Results demonstrate notable differences in the central portion of the study area between potentiometric surfaces including faults and those without faults. Explicitly considering faults results in a 25-50 m difference where faults are perpendicular to the regional flow path, compared to disregarding faults. These potential barriers create semi-isolated compartments where lateral groundwater flow may be diminished or absent. Groundwater management in the GAB relies on maintaining certain hydraulic head conditions and, hence, a potentiometric surface. The presence of faulting has two implications for management: (1) a change in the inferred hydraulic heads (and associated fluxes) at the boundaries of regulatory jurisdictions; and (2) assessment of large-scale extractions occurring at different locations within the GAB.

  3. Graphene-based fibers for supercapacitor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Lianlian; Zhao, Yang; Chen, Nan; Qu, Liangti; Liu, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Energy conversion and storage devices play an important role in industry and society with the rapid growth of energy consumption. Supercapacitors are very attractive due to their superior power density, fast charge/discharge rates and long cycle lifetime. Graphene fiber (GF), a fascinating material, has drawn considerable attention and shown great potential as an active material in the field of supercapacitors owing to its unique and tunable nanostructure, high electrical conductivity, excellent mechanical flexibility, light weight, and ease of functionalization. This review focuses on the recent significant advances in the fabrication and application of graphene-based fiber as electrode material in supercapacitors. The synthetic strategies and application in the supercapacitor are presented, accompanied with the summary and outlook for the future development of GFs. (topical review)

  4. Radon, methane, carbon dioxide, oil seeps and potentially harmful elements from natural sources and mining area: relevance to planning and development in Great Britain. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appleton, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    Contaminated land is a major environmental issue in Great Britain mainly due to increased awareness and the change in public attitudes, but also due to pressures of UK and EC environmental legislation and directives. Government policy with respect to contaminated land is to deal with actual threats to health on a risk-based approach taking into account the use and environmental setting of the land; and to bring contaminated land back into beneficial use as far as practicable, and taking into account the principles of sustainability. The government has been concerned primarily with land which is being or has been put to potentially contaminative uses. However, some potentially harmful substances occur naturally and this review is concerned principally with three groups of 'natural' contaminants from geological sources: natural radioactivity, including radon, background radioactivity, and radioactive waters, derived mainly from uranium minerals and their weathering products in rocks and soils; methane, carbon dioxide and oil derived from coal bearing rocks, hydrocarbon source rocks, peat and other natural accumulations of organic matter; and potentially harmful chemical elements (PHEs), including arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, fluorine, lead, mercury, nickel, and zinc, derived from naturally occurring rocks and minerals. (author)

  5. 33 CFR 100.124 - Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York. 100.124 Section 100.124 Navigation and Navigable... NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.124 Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York...

  6. A low-power bio-potential acquisition system with flexible PDMS dry electrodes for portable ubiquitous healthcare applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Yuan; Chang, Chia-Lin; Chang, Chih-Wei; Lai, Shin-Chi; Chien, Tsung-Fu; Huang, Hong-Yi; Chiou, Jin-Chern; Luo, Ching-Hsing

    2013-03-04

    This work describes a bio-potential acquisition system for portable ubiquitous healthcare applications using flexible polydimethylsiloxane dry electrodes (FPDEs) and a low-power recording circuit. This novel FPDE used Au as the skin contact layer, which was made using a CO2 laser and replica method technology. The FPDE was revised from a commercial bio-potential electrode with a conductive snap using dry electrodes rather than wet electrodes that proposed reliable and robust attachment for the purpose of measurement, and attaching velcro made it wearable on the forearm for bio-potential applications. Furthermore, this study proposes a recording device to store bio-potential signal data and provides portability and low-power consumption for the proposed acquisition system. To acquire differential bio-potentials, such as electrocardiogram (ECG) signals, the proposed recording device includes a low-power front-end acquisition chip fabricated using a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process, a commercial microcontroller (MSP430F149), and a secure digital (SD) card for portable healthcare applications. The proposed system can obtain ECG signals efficiently and are comfortable to the skin. The power consumption of the system is about 85 mW for continuous working over a 3 day period with two AA batteries. It can also be used as a compact Holter ECG system.

  7. Potential consequences of clinical application of artificial gametes: a systematic review of stakeholder views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Saskia; Dondorp, Wybo; de Wert, Guido; Hamer, Geert; Repping, Sjoerd; Dancet, Eline A F

    2015-01-01

    Recent progress in the formation of artificial gametes, i.e. gametes generated from progenitors or somatic cells, has led to scientific and societal discussion about their use in medically assisted reproduction. In animals, live births have already been achieved using artificial gametes of varying (cell type) sources and biological research seems to be progressing steadily toward clinical application in humans. Artificial gametes could potentially help not only infertile heterosexual couples of reproductive age of which one or both partners lacks functional gametes, but also post-menopausal women and same-sex couples, to conceive a child who will be genetically related to them. But as clinical application of these new technologies may have wider societal consequences, a proactive consideration of the possible impact seems timely and important. This review aims to contribute to this by providing a systematic overview of the potential consequences of clinical application of artificial gametes anticipated by different stakeholders. The electronic database 'Medline/Pubmed' was systematically searched with medical subject heading terms (MesH) for articles published in English between January 1970 and December 2013. Articles were selected based on eligibility and reference lists of eligible studies were hand searched. The reported potential consequences of clinical application of artificial gametes were extracted from the articles and were grouped into categories by content analysis. Per category, we noted which stakeholders referred to which potential consequences, based on author affiliations and, if applicable, study participants. The systematic search yielded 2424 articles, and 84 studies were included after screening. Nine positive consequences, 21 specific consequences requiring consideration and 22 recommendations referring to clinical application of artificial gametes were documented. All positive consequences, consequences requiring consideration and

  8. The 1985 central chile earthquake: a repeat of previous great earthquakes in the region?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comte, D; Eisenberg, A; Lorca, E; Pardo, M; Ponce, L; Saragoni, R; Singh, S K; Suárez, G

    1986-07-25

    A great earthquake (surface-wave magnitude, 7.8) occurred along the coast of central Chile on 3 March 1985, causing heavy damage to coastal towns. Intense foreshock activity near the epicenter of the main shock occurred for 11 days before the earthquake. The aftershocks of the 1985 earthquake define a rupture area of 170 by 110 square kilometers. The earthquake was forecast on the basis of the nearly constant repeat time (83 +/- 9 years) of great earthquakes in this region. An analysis of previous earthquakes suggests that the rupture lengths of great shocks in the region vary by a factor of about 3. The nearly constant repeat time and variable rupture lengths cannot be reconciled with time- or slip-predictable models of earthquake recurrence. The great earthquakes in the region seem to involve a variable rupture mode and yet, for unknown reasons, remain periodic. Historical data suggest that the region south of the 1985 rupture zone should now be considered a gap of high seismic potential that may rupture in a great earthquake in the next few tens of years.

  9. Trace elements in animal nutrition: Can a great potential be realized

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mertz, W.

    1976-01-01

    Few of the advances in trace element research have found universal application to practical problems of animal nutrition in the field. Environmental or man-made imbalances of trace elements can result in significant reduction of animal performance resulting in substantial economic loss and, indirectly, in a poorer nutritional status of human populations. Extrapolation of existing data suggests that wide areas of the world will be found to have considerable problems of animal trace element nutrition. Once diagnosed, correction of existing imbalances is feasible and inexpensive, with a resulting improvement of animal productivity and of human health. (author)

  10. International Conference on Recent Trends in Materials Science and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book gathers the proceedings of the plenary sessions, invited lectures, and papers presented at the International Conference on Recent Trends in Materials Science and Applications (ICRTMSA-2016). It also features revealing presentations on various aspects of Materials Science, such as nanomaterials, photonic crystal fibers, quantum dots, thin film techniques, crystal growth, spectroscopic procedures, fabrication and characterisation of new materials / compounds with enhanced features, and potential applications in nonlinear optical and electro-optic devices, solar cell device, chemical sensing, biomedical imaging, diagnosis and treatment of cancer, energy storage device etc. This book will be of great interest to beginning and seasoned researchers alike.

  11. SWAT Check: A Screening Tool to Assist Users in the Identification of Potential Model Application Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Michael J; Harmel, R Daren; Arnold, Jeff G; Williams, Jimmy R

    2014-01-01

    The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is a basin-scale hydrologic model developed by the United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. SWAT's broad applicability, user-friendly model interfaces, and automatic calibration software have led to a rapid increase in the number of new users. These advancements also allow less experienced users to conduct SWAT modeling applications. In particular, the use of automated calibration software may produce simulated values that appear appropriate because they adequately mimic measured data used in calibration and validation. Autocalibrated model applications (and often those of unexperienced modelers) may contain input data errors and inappropriate parameter adjustments not readily identified by users or the autocalibration software. The objective of this research was to develop a program to assist users in the identification of potential model application problems. The resulting "SWAT Check" is a stand-alone Microsoft Windows program that (i) reads selected SWAT output and alerts users of values outside the typical range; (ii) creates process-based figures for visualization of the appropriateness of output values, including important outputs that are commonly ignored; and (iii) detects and alerts users of common model application errors. By alerting users to potential model application problems, this software should assist the SWAT community in developing more reliable modeling applications. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  12. [Applied anatomy study and clinical application of great saphenous veno-saphenous neurocutaneous vascular flap].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zelong; Ding, Zihai; Wang, Peixin; Xie, Yibo; Zeng, Bo

    2006-03-01

    To provide the anatomic basis for defect repair of the knee, leg, foot and ankle with great saphenous veno-saphenous neurocutaneous vascular island flaps. The origin, diameter, branches, distribution and anastomoses of the saphenous artery and saphenous neurocutaneous vascular were observed on 20 sides of adult leg specimens and 4 fresh cadaver voluntary legs. Another 4 fresh cadaver voluntary legs were radiographed with a soft X-ray system after the intravenous injection of Vermilion and cross-sections under profound fascial, other hand, micro-anatomic examination was also performed in these 4 fresh cadaver legs. The soft tissue defects in lower extremity, upper extremity, heel or Hucou in hand were repaired with the proximal or distal pedicle flaps or free flaps in 18 patients (12 males and 6 females,aging from 7 to 53 years). The defect was caused by trauma, tumour, ulcer and scar. The locations were Hucou (1 case), upper leg (3 cases), lower extremity and heal (14 cases). Of then, 7 cases were complicated by bone exposure, 3 cases by tendon exposure and 1 case by steel espouse, the defect size were 4 cm x 4 cm to 7 cm x 13 cm. The flap sizes were 4 cm x 6 cm to 8 cm x 15 cm, which pedicle length was 8-11 cm with 2.5-4.0 cm fascia and 1-2 cm skin at width. Genus descending genicular artery began from 9.33 +/- 0.81 cm away from upper the condyles medialis, it branched saphenous artery accompanying saphenous nerve descendent. And saphenous artery reached the surface of the skin 7.21 +/- 0.82 cm away from lower the condyles medialis, and anastomosed with the branches of tibialis posterior artery, like "Y" or "T" pattern. The chain linking system of arteries were found accompanying along the great saphenous vein as saphenous nerve, and then a axis blood vessel was formed. The small artery of only 0.05-0.10 mm in diameter, distributed around the great saphenous vein within 5-8 mm and arranged parallelly along the vein like water wave in soft X-ray film. All proximal

  13. Nano/micromotors for security/defense applications. A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Virendra V.; Wang, Joseph

    2015-11-01

    The new capabilities of man-made micro/nanomotors open up considerable opportunities for diverse security and defense applications. This review highlights new micromotor-based strategies for enhanced security monitoring and detoxification of chemical and biological warfare agents (CBWA). The movement of receptor-functionalized nanomotors offers great potential for sensing and isolating target bio-threats from complex samples. New mobile reactive materials based on zeolite or activated carbon offer considerable promise for the accelerated removal of chemical warfare agents. A wide range of proof-of-concept motor-based approaches, including the detection and destruction of anthrax spores, `on-off' nerve-agent detection or effective neutralization of chemical warfare agents have thus been demonstrated. The propulsion of micromotors and their corresponding bubble tails impart significant mixing that greatly accelerates such detoxification processes. These nanomotors will thus empower sensing and destruction where stirring large quantities of decontaminating reagents and controlled mechanical agitation are impossible or undesired. New technological breakthroughs and greater sophistication of micro/nanoscale machines will lead to rapid translation of the micromotor research activity into practical defense applications, addressing the escalating threat of CBWA.

  14. Higher order statistical moment application for solar PV potential analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basri, Mohd Juhari Mat; Abdullah, Samizee; Azrulhisham, Engku Ahmad; Harun, Khairulezuan

    2016-10-01

    Solar photovoltaic energy could be as alternative energy to fossil fuel, which is depleting and posing a global warming problem. However, this renewable energy is so variable and intermittent to be relied on. Therefore the knowledge of energy potential is very important for any site to build this solar photovoltaic power generation system. Here, the application of higher order statistical moment model is being analyzed using data collected from 5MW grid-connected photovoltaic system. Due to the dynamic changes of skewness and kurtosis of AC power and solar irradiance distributions of the solar farm, Pearson system where the probability distribution is calculated by matching their theoretical moments with that of the empirical moments of a distribution could be suitable for this purpose. On the advantage of the Pearson system in MATLAB, a software programming has been developed to help in data processing for distribution fitting and potential analysis for future projection of amount of AC power and solar irradiance availability.

  15. Great Expectations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickens, Charles

    2005-01-01

    One of Dickens's most renowned and enjoyable novels, Great Expectations tells the story of Pip, an orphan boy who wishes to transcend his humble origins and finds himself unexpectedly given the opportunity to live a life of wealth and respectability. Over the course of the tale, in which Pip

  16. Computer technology: its potential for industrial energy conservation. A technology applications manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    Today, computer technology is within the reach of practically any industrial corporation regardless of product size. This manual highlights a few of the many applications of computers in the process industry and provides the technical reader with a basic understanding of computer technology, terminology, and the interactions among the various elements of a process computer system. The manual has been organized to separate process applications and economics from computer technology. Chapter 1 introduces the present status of process computer technology and describes the four major applications - monitoring, analysis, control, and optimization. The basic components of a process computer system also are defined. Energy-saving applications in the four major categories defined in Chapter 1 are discussed in Chapter 2. The economics of process computer systems is the topic of Chapter 3, where the historical trend of process computer system costs is presented. Evaluating a process for the possible implementation of a computer system requires a basic understanding of computer technology as well as familiarity with the potential applications; Chapter 4 provides enough technical information for an evaluation. Computer and associated peripheral costs and the logical sequence of steps in the development of a microprocessor-based process control system are covered in Chapter 5.

  17. Current knowledge and potential applications of cavitation technologies for the petroleum industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avvaru, Balasubrahmanyam; Venkateswaran, Natarajan; Uppara, Parasuveera; Iyengar, Suresh B; Katti, Sanjeev S

    2018-04-01

    Technologies based on cavitation, produced by either ultrasound or hydrodynamic means, are part of growing literature for individual refinery unit processes. In this review, we have explained the mechanism through which these cavitation technologies intensify individual unit processes such as enhanced oil recovery, demulsification of water in oil emulsions during desalting stage, crude oil viscosity reduction, oxidative desulphurisation/demetallization, and crude oil upgrading. Apart from these refinery processes, applications of this technology are also mentioned for other potential crude oil sources such as oil shale and oil sand extraction. The relative advantages and current situation of each application/process at commercial scale is explained. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Atherosclerosis and Nanotechnology: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratz, Jeremy D; Chaddha, Ashish; Bhattacharjee, Somnath; Goonewardena, Sascha N

    2016-02-01

    Over the past several decades, tremendous advances have been made in the understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of coronary artery disease (CAD). However, with shifting demographics and evolving risk factors we now face new challenges that must be met in order to further advance are management of patients with CAD. In parallel with advances in our mechanistic appreciation of CAD and atherosclerosis, nanotechnology approaches have greatly expanded, offering the potential for significant improvements in our diagnostic and therapeutic management of CAD. To realize this potential we must go beyond to recognize new frontiers including knowledge gaps between understanding atherosclerosis to the translation of targeted molecular tools. This review highlights nanotechnology applications for imaging and therapeutic advancements in CAD.

  19. Modelling the emerging pollutant diclofenac with the GREAT-ER model: Application to the Llobregat River Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldekoa, Joana; Medici, Chiara; Osorio, Victoria; Pérez, Sandra; Marcé, Rafael; Barceló, Damià; Francés, Félix

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Diclofenac levels were measured in 14 sampling sites of the Llobregat River (Spain). • GREAT-ER model was used to simulate diclofenac concentrations in the Llobregat River. • Deterministic and stochastic modelling approaches were contrasted. • Diclofenac discharge into the basin was estimated for the studied period. • Consistent degradation rates were predicted and compared with literature values. -- Abstract: The present research aims at giving an insight into the increasingly important issue of water pollution due to emerging contaminants. In particular, the source and fate of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac have been analyzed at catchment scale for the Llobregat River in Catalonia (Spain). In fact, water from the Llobregat River is used to supply a significant part of the Metropolitan Area of Barcelona. At the same time, 59 wastewater treatment plants discharge into this basin. GREAT-ER model has been implemented in this basin in order to reproduce a static balance for this pollutant for two field campaigns data set. The results highlighted the ability of GREAT-ER to simulate the diclofenac concentrations in the Llobregat Catchment; however, this study also pointed out the urgent need for longer time series of observed data and a better knowledge of wastewater plants outputs and their parameterization in order to obtain more reliable results

  20. Modelling the emerging pollutant diclofenac with the GREAT-ER model: Application to the Llobregat River Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldekoa, Joana, E-mail: joaalma2@cam.upv.es [Universitat Politècnica de València, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Medici, Chiara [Universitat Politècnica de València, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Osorio, Victoria; Pérez, Sandra [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research, Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Marcé, Rafael [Catalan Institute for Water Research, Emili Grahit 101, 17003 Girona (Spain); Barceló, Damià [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research, Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Francés, Félix [Universitat Politècnica de València, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Diclofenac levels were measured in 14 sampling sites of the Llobregat River (Spain). • GREAT-ER model was used to simulate diclofenac concentrations in the Llobregat River. • Deterministic and stochastic modelling approaches were contrasted. • Diclofenac discharge into the basin was estimated for the studied period. • Consistent degradation rates were predicted and compared with literature values. -- Abstract: The present research aims at giving an insight into the increasingly important issue of water pollution due to emerging contaminants. In particular, the source and fate of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac have been analyzed at catchment scale for the Llobregat River in Catalonia (Spain). In fact, water from the Llobregat River is used to supply a significant part of the Metropolitan Area of Barcelona. At the same time, 59 wastewater treatment plants discharge into this basin. GREAT-ER model has been implemented in this basin in order to reproduce a static balance for this pollutant for two field campaigns data set. The results highlighted the ability of GREAT-ER to simulate the diclofenac concentrations in the Llobregat Catchment; however, this study also pointed out the urgent need for longer time series of observed data and a better knowledge of wastewater plants outputs and their parameterization in order to obtain more reliable results.

  1. The Impacts of the Great Recession on State Natural Resource Extension Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serenari, Christopher; Peterson, M. Nils; Bardon, Robert E.; Brown, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    The Great Recession contributed to major budget cuts for natural resource Extension programs in the United States. Despite the potentially large cuts, their impacts and how Extension has adapted their programs have not been evaluated. We begin addressing these needs with surveys of Association of Natural Resource Extension Professionals members…

  2. RBC micromotors carrying multiple cargos towards potential theranostic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhiguang; Esteban-Fernández de Ávila, Berta; Martín, Aída; Christianson, Caleb; Gao, Weiwei; Thamphiwatana, Soracha Kun; Escarpa, Alberto; He, Qiang; Zhang, Liangfang; Wang, Joseph

    2015-08-28

    Red blood cell (RBC)-based micromotors containing both therapeutic and diagnostic modalities are described as a means for potential theranostic applications. In this natural RBC-based multicargo-loaded micromotor system, quantum dots (QDs), anti-cancer drug doxorubicin (DOX), and magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), were co-encapsulated into RBC micromotors. The fluorescent emission of both QDs and DOX provides direct visualization of their loading inside the RBC motors at two distinct wavelengths. The presence of MNPs within the RBCs allows for efficient magnetic guidance under ultrasound propulsion along with providing the potential for magnetic resonance imaging. The simultaneous encapsulation of the imaging nanoparticles and therapeutic payloads within the same RBC micromotor has a minimal effect upon its propulsion behavior. The ability of the RBC micromotors to transport imaging and therapeutic agents at high speed and spatial precision through a complex microchannel network is also demonstrated. Such ability to load and transport diagnostic imaging agents and therapeutic drugs within a single cell-based motor, in addition to a lower toxicity observed once the drug is encapsulated within the multicargo RBC motor, opens the door to the development of theranostic micromotors that may simultaneously treat and monitor diseases.

  3. Nanotechnology in food science: Functionality, applicability, and safety assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaojia; Hwang, Huey-Min

    2016-10-01

    Rapid development of nanotechnology is expected to transform many areas of food science and food industry with increasing investment and market share. In this article, current applications of nanotechnology in food systems are briefly reviewed. Functionality and applicability of food-related nanotechnology are highlighted in order to provide a comprehensive view on the development and safety assessment of nanotechnology in the food industry. While food nanotechnology offers great potential benefits, there are emerging concerns arising from its novel physicochemical properties. Therefore, the safety concerns and regulatory policies on its manufacturing, processing, packaging, and consumption are briefly addressed. At the end of this article, the perspectives of nanotechnology in active and intelligent packaging applications are highlighted. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. The great intimidators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Roderick M

    2006-02-01

    After Disney's Michael Eisner, Miramax's Harvey Weinstein, and Hewlett-Packard's Carly Fiorina fell from their heights of power, the business media quickly proclaimed thatthe reign of abrasive, intimidating leaders was over. However, it's premature to proclaim their extinction. Many great intimidators have done fine for a long time and continue to thrive. Their modus operandi runs counter to a lot of preconceptions about what it takes to be a good leader. They're rough, loud, and in your face. Their tactics include invading others' personal space, staging tantrums, keeping people guessing, and possessing an indisputable command of facts. But make no mistake--great intimidators are not your typical bullies. They're driven by vision, not by sheer ego or malice. Beneath their tough exteriors and sharp edges are some genuine, deep insights into human motivation and organizational behavior. Indeed, these leaders possess political intelligence, which can make the difference between paralysis and successful--if sometimes wrenching--organizational change. Like socially intelligent leaders, politically intelligent leaders are adept at sizing up others, but they notice different things. Those with social intelligence assess people's strengths and figure out how to leverage them; those with political intelligence exploit people's weaknesses and insecurities. Despite all the obvious drawbacks of working under them, great intimidators often attract the best and brightest. And their appeal goes beyond their ability to inspire high performance. Many accomplished professionals who gravitate toward these leaders want to cultivate a little "inner intimidator" of their own. In the author's research, quite a few individuals reported having positive relationships with intimidating leaders. In fact, some described these relationships as profoundly educational and even transformational. So before we throw out all the great intimidators, the author argues, we should stop to consider what

  5. Mechanisms driving recruitment variability in fish: comparisons between the Laurentian Great Lakes and marine systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritt, Jeremy J.; Roseman, Edward F.; O'Brien, Timothy P.

    2014-01-01

    In his seminal work, Hjort (in Fluctuations in the great fisheries of Northern Europe. Conseil Parmanent International Pour L'Exploration De La Mar. Rapports et Proces-Verbaux, 20: 1–228, 1914) observed that fish population levels fluctuated widely, year-class strength was set early in life, and egg production by adults could not alone explain variability in year-class strength. These observations laid the foundation for hypotheses on mechanisms driving recruitment variability in marine systems. More recently, researchers have sought to explain year-class strength of important fish in the Laurentian Great Lakes and some of the hypotheses developed for marine fisheries have been transferred to Great Lakes fish. We conducted a literature review to determine the applicability of marine recruitment hypotheses to Great Lakes fish. We found that temperature, interspecific interactions, and spawner effects (abundance, age, and condition of adults) were the most important factors in explaining recruitment variability in Great Lakes fish, whereas relatively fewer studies identified bottom-up trophodynamic factors or hydrodynamic factors as important. Next, we compared recruitment between Great Lakes and Baltic Sea fish populations and found no statistical difference in factors driving recruitment between the two systems, indicating that recruitment hypotheses may often be transferable between Great Lakes and marine systems. Many recruitment hypotheses developed for marine fish have yet to be applied to Great Lakes fish. We suggest that future research on recruitment in the Great Lakes should focus on forecasting the effects of climate change and invasive species. Further, because the Great Lakes are smaller and more enclosed than marine systems, and have abundant fishery-independent data, they are excellent candidates for future hypothesis testing on recruitment in fish.

  6. Ecological risk of methylmercury to piscivorous fish of the Great Lakes region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandheinrich, Mark B; Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Bodaly, R A; Drevnick, Paul E; Paul, Eric A

    2011-10-01

    Contamination of fish populations with methylmercury is common in the region of the Laurentian Great Lakes as a result of atmospheric deposition and methylation of inorganic mercury. Using fish mercury monitoring data from natural resource agencies and information on tissue concentrations injurious to fish, we conducted a screening-level risk assessment of mercury to sexually mature female walleye (Sander vitreus), northern pike (Esox lucius), smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu), and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) in the Great Lakes and in interior lakes, impoundments, and rivers of the Great Lakes region. The assessment included more than 43,000 measurements of mercury in fish from more than 2000 locations. Sexually mature female fish that exceeded threshold-effect tissue concentrations of 0.20 μg g(-1) wet weight in the whole body occurred at 8% (largemouth bass) to 43% (walleye) of sites. Fish at 3% to 18% of sites were at risk of injury and exceeded 0.30 μg g(-1) where an alteration in reproduction or survival is predicted to occur. Most fish at increased risk were from interior lakes and impoundments. In the Great Lakes, no sites had sexually mature fish that exceeded threshold-effect concentrations. Results of this screening-level assessment indicate that fish at a substantive number of locations within the Great Lakes region are potentially at risk from methylmercury contamination and would benefit from reduction in mercury concentrations.

  7. Electrically and Thermally Conducting Nanocomposites for Electronic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryl Santos

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Nanocomposites made up of polymer matrices and carbon nanotubes are a class of advanced materials with great application potential in electronics packaging. Nanocomposites with carbon nanotubes as fillers have been designed with the aim of exploiting the high thermal, electrical and mechanical properties characteristic of carbon nanotubes. Heat dissipation in electronic devices requires interface materials with high thermal conductivity. Here, current developments and challenges in the application of nanotubes as fillers in polymer matrices are explored. The blending together of nanotubes and polymers result in what are known as nanocomposites. Among the most pressing current issues related to nanocomposite fabrication are (i dispersion of carbon nanotubes in the polymer host, (ii carbon nanotube-polymer interaction and the nature of the interface, and (iii alignment of carbon nanotubes in a polymer matrix. These issues are believed to be directly related to the electrical and thermal performance of nanocomposites. The recent progress in the fabrication of nanocomposites with carbon nanotubes as fillers and their potential application in electronics packaging as thermal interface materials is also reported.

  8. [Ecological memory and its potential applications in ecology: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhong-yu; Ren, Hai

    2011-03-01

    Ecological memory (EM) is defined as the capability of the past states or experiences of a community to influence the present or future ecological responses of the community. As a relatively new concept, EM has received considerable attention in the study of ecosystem structure and function, such as community succession, ecological restoration, biological invasion, and natural resource management. This review summarized the definition, components, and categories of EM, and discussed the possible mechanisms and affecting factors of EM. Also, the potential applications of EM were proposed, in order to further understand the mechanisms of community succession and to guide ecological restoration.

  9. Will oil palm's homecoming spell doom for Africa's great apes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wich, Serge A; Garcia-Ulloa, John; Kühl, Hjalmar S; Humle, Tatanya; Lee, Janice S H; Koh, Lian Pin

    2014-07-21

    Expansion of oil palm plantations has led to extensive wildlife habitat conversion in Southeast Asia [1]. This expansion is driven by a global demand for palm oil for products ranging from foods to detergents [2], and more recently for biofuels [3]. The negative impacts of oil palm development on biodiversity [1, 4, 5], and on orangutans (Pongo spp.) in particular, have been well documented [6, 7] and publicized [8, 9]. Although the oil palm is of African origin, Africa's production historically lags behind that of Southeast Asia. Recently, significant investments have been made that will likely drive the expansion of Africa's oil palm industry [10]. There is concern that this will lead to biodiversity losses similar to those in Southeast Asia. Here, we analyze the potential impact of oil palm development on Africa's great apes. Current great ape distribution in Africa substantially overlaps with current oil palm concessions (by 58.7%) and areas suitable for oil palm production (by 42.3%). More importantly, 39.9% of the distribution of great ape species on unprotected lands overlaps with suitable oil palm areas. There is an urgent need to develop guidelines for the expansion of oil palm in Africa to minimize the negative effects on apes and other wildlife. There is also a need for research to support land use decisions to reconcile economic development, great ape conservation, and avoiding carbon emissions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Prediction of potential drug targets based on simple sequence properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Luhua

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the past decades, research and development in drug discovery have attracted much attention and efforts. However, only 324 drug targets are known for clinical drugs up to now. Identifying potential drug targets is the first step in the process of modern drug discovery for developing novel therapeutic agents. Therefore, the identification and validation of new and effective drug targets are of great value for drug discovery in both academia and pharmaceutical industry. If a protein can be predicted in advance for its potential application as a drug target, the drug discovery process targeting this protein will be greatly speeded up. In the current study, based on the properties of known drug targets, we have developed a sequence-based drug target prediction method for fast identification of novel drug targets. Results Based on simple physicochemical properties extracted from protein sequences of known drug targets, several support vector machine models have been constructed in this study. The best model can distinguish currently known drug targets from non drug targets at an accuracy of 84%. Using this model, potential protein drug targets of human origin from Swiss-Prot were predicted, some of which have already attracted much attention as potential drug targets in pharmaceutical research. Conclusion We have developed a drug target prediction method based solely on protein sequence information without the knowledge of family/domain annotation, or the protein 3D structure. This method can be applied in novel drug target identification and validation, as well as genome scale drug target predictions.

  11. Moringa oleifera Seed Derivatives as Potential Bio-Coagulant for Microalgae Chlorella sp. Harvesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azizah Endut; Azizah Endut; Siti Hajar Abdul Hamid; Fathurrahman Lananan; Helena Khatoon

    2016-01-01

    Microalgae is an economical and potential raw material of biomass energy, which offer a wide range of commercial potential to produce valuable substances for applications in aquaculture feed, pharmaceutical purposes and bio fuels production. However, lack of an economical, efficient and convenient method to harvest microalgae is a bottleneck to boost their full-scale application. Hence, this study was performed to investigate the potentialities of Moringa oleifera seed derivatives as an environmentally bio-coagulant to harvest microalgae Chlorella sp. biomass from the water column, which acts as a binder to coagulate particulate impurities to form larger aggregates. Results shown M. oleifera to have better biomass recovery of 122.51 % as compared to 37.08 % of alum at similar dosages of 10 mgL"-"1. In addition, it was found that the zeta potential values of mixed microalgae-coagulant suspension shows positive correlation on the flocculation parameters. For biomass recovery, the correlation for M. oleifera protein powder showed the R"2-value of 0.9565 whereas the control chemical flocculant, alum with the R"2-value of 0.7920. It was evidence that M. oleifera has a great potential in efficient and economical for environmentally microalgae harvesting and the adaptation of biological harvesting technology especially for the purpose of aquaculture feed in Malaysia. (author)

  12. Enamel biorhythms of humans and great apes: the Havers-Halberg Oscillation hypothesis reconsidered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Patrick; Miszkiewicz, Justyna J; Pitfield, Rosie; Deter, Chris; Guatelli-Steinberg, Debbie

    2017-02-01

    The Havers-Halberg Oscillation (HHO) hypothesis links evidence for the timing of a biorhythm retained in permanent tooth enamel (Retzius periodicity) to adult body mass and life history traits across mammals. Potentially, these links provide a way to access life history of fossil species from teeth. Recently we assessed intra-specific predictions of the HHO on human children. We reported Retzius periodicity (RP) corresponded with enamel thickness, and cusp formation time, when calculated from isolated deciduous teeth. We proposed the biorhythm might not remain constant within an individual. Here, we test our findings. RP is compared between deciduous second and permanent first molars within the maxillae of four human children. Following this, we report the first RPs for deciduous teeth from modern great apes (n = 4), and compare these with new data for permanent teeth (n = 18) from these species, as well as with previously published values. We also explore RP in teeth that retain hypoplastic defects. Results show RP changed within the maxilla of each child, from thinner to thicker enameled molars, and from one side of a hypoplastic defect to the other. When considered alongside correlations between RP and cusp formation time, these observations provide further evidence that RP is associated with enamel growth processes and does not always remain constant within an individual. RP of 5 days for great ape deciduous teeth lay below the lowermost range of those from permanent teeth of modern orangutan and gorilla, and within the lowermost range of RPs from chimpanzee permanent teeth. Our data suggest associations between RP and enamel growth processes of humans might extend to great apes. These findings provide a new framework from which to develop the HHO hypothesis, which can incorporate enamel growth along with other physiological systems. Applications of the HHO to fossil teeth should avoid transferring RP between deciduous and permanent enamel, or including

  13. Exploiting Redundancy and Application Scalability for Cost-Effective, Time-Constrained Execution of HPC Applications on Amazon EC2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marathe, Aniruddha P.; Harris, Rachel A.; Lowenthal, David K.; Supinski, Bronis R. de; Rountree, Barry L.; Schulz, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The use of clouds to execute high-performance computing (HPC) applications has greatly increased recently. Clouds provide several potential advantages over traditional supercomputers and in-house clusters. The most popular cloud is currently Amazon EC2, which provides fixed-cost and variable-cost, auction-based options. The auction market trades lower cost for potential interruptions that necessitate checkpointing; if the market price exceeds the bid price, a node is taken away from the user without warning. We explore techniques to maximize performance per dollar given a time constraint within which an application must complete. Specifically, we design and implement multiple techniques to reduce expected cost by exploiting redundancy in the EC2 auction market. We then design an adaptive algorithm that selects a scheduling algorithm and determines the bid price. We show that our adaptive algorithm executes programs up to seven times cheaper than using the on-demand market and up to 44 percent cheaper than the best non-redundant, auction-market algorithm. We extend our adaptive algorithm to incorporate application scalability characteristics for further cost savings. In conclusion, we show that the adaptive algorithm informed with scalability characteristics of applications achieves up to 56 percent cost savings compared to the expected cost for the base adaptive algorithm run at a fixed, user-defined scale.

  14. Assessing trail conditions in protected areas: Application of a problem-assessment method in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Y.-F.; Marion, J.

    1999-01-01

    The degradation of trail resources associated with expanding recreation and tourism visitation is a growing management problem in protected areas worldwide. In order to make judicious trail and visitor management decisions, protected area managers need objective and timely information on trail resource conditions. This paper introduces a trail survey method that efficiently characterizes the lineal extent of common trail problems. The method was applied to a large sample of trails within Great Smoky Mountains National Park, a highuse protected area in the USA. The Trail ProblemAssessment Method (TPAM) employs a continuous search for multiple indicators of predefined tread problems, yielding census data documenting the location, occurrence and extent of each problem. The present application employed 23 different indicators in three categories to gather inventory, resource condition, and design and maintenance data of each surveyed trail. Seventy-two backcountry hiking trails (528 km), or 35% of the Park's total trail length, were surveyed. Soil erosion and wet soil were found to be the two most common impacts on a lineal extent basis. Trails with serious tread problems were well distributed throughout the Park, although wet muddy treads tended to be concentrated in areas where horse use was high. The effectiveness of maintenance features installed to divert water from trail treads was also evaluated. Water bars were found to be more effective than drainage dips. The TPAM was able to provide Park managers with objective and quantitative information for use in trail planning, management and maintenance decisions, and is applicable to other protected areas elsewhere with different environmental and impact characteristics.

  15. Use of the GREAT-ER model to estimate mass fluxes of chemicals, carried into the Western Scheldt estuary from the Rupel basin

    OpenAIRE

    Schowanek, D.

    2002-01-01

    The poster illustrates the application of the GREAT-ER model to estimate the mass flux of chemicals carried from a river basin into an estuary. GREAT-ER (Geo-referenced Regional Exposure Assessment Tool for European Rivers) is a newly developed model (1999) for management and risk assessment of chemicals in river basins (see www.great-er.org). Recently the Rupel basin has been made available for use within GREAT-ER. This now allows to make a reliable estimation of the contribution of pollu...

  16. An assessment of potential applications with pulsed electric field in wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drosou Foteini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulsed electric fields (PEF is a non-thermal processing technology that uses instantaneous, pulses of high voltage for a short period in the range of milliseconds to microseconds; the application of high intensity electric field on toasted wood chips leads to a quick diffusion of extractable molecules. Currently most PEF studies, in the field of oenology, have been focusing on the application of PEF as a pretreatment of grape musts by examining the microbial inactivation and the enhancement of polyphenol extraction. In this study a post-treatment of wine is introduced as method to enhance the wood flavor in the wine with a green noninvasive technology. Major phenolic aldehydes that have been identified as the characteristic compounds of oak volatile compounds were selected as markers and were analyzed instrumentally to compare the influence of PEF processing to non-treated samples. PEF treated samples brought about higher concentrations of the examined oak compounds in the samples treated with PEF, which may explain the advantages of its application. The modulation of the intensity of the electric field and the period of pulses influenced the concentrations of the volatile phenols that were leached out. Differences found between the assayed treatments indicate that PEF application could be a potential practice for a rapid extraction of volatile compounds from oak.

  17. Usability and Applicability of Microfluidic Cell Culture Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmingsen, Mette

    possibilities for, for example, precise control of the chemical environment, 3D cultures, controlled co-culture of different cell types or automated, individual control of up to 96 cell culture chambers in one integrated system. Despite the great new opportunities to perform novel experimental designs......Microfluidic cell culture has been a research area with great attention the last decade due to its potential to mimic the in vivo cellular environment more closely compared to what is possible by conventional cell culture methods. Many exciting and complex devices have been presented providing......, these devices still lack general implementation into biological research laboratories. In this project, the usability and applicability of microfluidic cell culture systems have been investigated. The tested systems display good properties regarding optics and compatibility with standard laboratory equipment...

  18. Optical fiber configurations for transmission of laser energy over great distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinzler, Charles C; Zediker, Mark S

    2013-10-29

    There are provided optical fiber configurations that provide for the delivery of laser energy, and in particular, the transmission and delivery of high power laser energy over great distances. These configurations further are hardened to protect the optical fibers from the stresses and conditions of an intended application. The configurations provide means for determining the additional fiber length (AFL) need to obtain the benefits of such additional fiber, while avoiding bending losses.

  19. What great managers do.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham, Marcus

    2005-03-01

    Much has been written about the qualities that make a great manager, but most of the literature overlooks a fundamental question: What does a great manager actually do? While there are countless management styles, one thing underpins the behavior of all great managers. Above all, an exceptional manager comes to know and value the particular quirks and abilities of her employees. She figures out how to capitalize on her staffers' strengths and tweaks her environment to meet her larger goals. Such a specialized approach may seem like a lot of work. But in fact, capitalizing on each person's uniqueness can save time. Rather than encourage employees to conform to strict job descriptions that may include tasks they don't enjoy and aren't good at, a manager who develops positions for his staff members based on their unique abilities will be rewarded with behaviors that are far more efficient and effective than they would be otherwise. This focus on individuals also makes employees more accountable. Because staffers are evaluated on their particular strengths and weaknesses, they are challenged to take responsibility for their abilities and to hone them. Capitalizing on a person's uniqueness also builds a stronger sense of team. By taking the time to understand what makes each employee tick, a great manager shows that he sees his people for who they are. This personal investment not only motivates individuals but also galvanizes the entire team. Finally, this approach shakes up existing hierarchies, which leads to more creative thinking. To take great managing from theory to practice, the author says, you must know three things about a person: her strengths, the triggers that activate those strengths, and how she learns. By asking the right questions, squeezing the right triggers, and becoming aware of your employees' learning styles, you will discover what motivates each person to excel.

  20. Evaluation of the potential application of 2-acetylpyridine N4- phenyl thiosemicarbazones derivatives for cancer therapy and diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Marcella Araugio

    2013-01-01

    Despite the wide range of antineoplastic agents available, resistance of some types of cancer and toxicity to normal cells have been identified as the main causes of treatment failure and death. The lack of early and precise diagnosis is also responsible for reducing survival of cancer patients. In this context, the development of substances with low toxicity and therapeutic potential and/or diagnosis purpose, is the major tool in an attempt to increase the survival of patients and assure the safety and efficacy of treatment. Thiosemicarbazones (TSC) are a class of synthetic compounds that have several biological activities, including antitumor. Although several studies have shown the great potential of TSC as therapeutic and / or diagnostic agents, different chemical modifications performed on this class of molecules indicate new possibilities for applications and still require further studies. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential applicability of 2-acetylpyridine N-4-phenyl thiosemicarbazones derivatives for cancer therapy and diagnosis. The results showed that all 13 TSC tested were cytotoxic to breast and glioblastoma tumor cell lines, presenting higher in vitro antitumor activity than etoposide, an antineoplastic and inhibitor of topoisomerase II frequently used for cancer therapy. The TSC that have halogen or nitro on ortho position showed higher antitumor activity in vitro than their isomers with halogen or nitro on meta or para position of the phenyl group. H2Ac4oFPh and H2Ac4oClPh compounds showed the highest antitumor activity among all tested compounds, with IC 50 in nanomolar order. These TSC induced cell death by apoptosis and oxidative stress was responsible, at least in part, for this type of cell death. The 5 mg.kg -1 H2Ac4oFPh dose, administered s.c., for 4 consecutive days, did not induce important toxicity; however, the same treatment protocol was not effective for tumor growth reduction in an animal model of brain tumor

  1. Potential applications of helium-cooled high-temperature reactors to process heat use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambill, W.R.; Kasten, P.R.

    1981-01-01

    High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors (HTRs) permit nuclear energy to be applied to a number of processes presently utilizing fossil fuels. Promising applications of HTRs involve cogeneration, thermal energy transport using molten salt systems, steam reforming of methane for production of chemicals, coal and oil shale liquefaction or gasification, and - in the longer term - energy transport using a chemical heat pipe. Further, HTRs might be used in the more distant future as the energy source for thermochemical hydrogen production from water. Preliminary results of ongoing studies indicate that the potential market for Process Heat HTRs by the year 2020 is about 150 to 250 GW(t) for process heat/cogeneration application, plus approximately 150 to 300 GW(t) for application to fossil conversion processes. HTR cogeneration plants appear attractive in the near term for new industrial plants using large amounts of process heat, possibly for present industrial plants in conjunction with molten-salt energy distribution systems, and also for some fossil conversion processes. HTR reformer systems will take longer to develop, but are applicable to chemicals production, a larger number of fossil conversion processes, and to chemical heat pipes

  2. Fenugreek: Potential Applications as a Functional Food and Nutraceutical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasim Khorshidian

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Fenugreek (Trigonella  foenum graecum, native to southern Europe and Asia, is an annual herb with white flowers and hard, yellowish brown and angular seeds, known from ancient times, for nutritional value beside of its medicinal effects. Fenugreek seeds are rich source of gum, fiber, alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins and volatile content. Due to its high content of fiber, fenugreek could be used as food stabilizer, adhesive and emulsifying agent to change food texture for some special purposes. Some evidence suggests that fenugreek may also be regarded as antidiabetic, anticarcinogenic, antioxidant, antibacterial agent, antianorexia agent, and gastric stimulant, as well as remedy for hypocholesterolemia and hypoglycemia. The present article is aimed to review the potential applications of fenugreek as a functional food and nutraceutical agent.

  3. Hierarchical multi-scale classification of nearshore aquatic habitats of the Great Lakes: Western Lake Erie

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, J.E.; Castiglione, C.

    2010-01-01

    Classification is a valuable conservation tool for examining natural resource status and problems and is being developed for coastal aquatic habitats. We present an objective, multi-scale hydrospatial framework for nearshore areas of the Great Lakes. The hydrospatial framework consists of spatial units at eight hierarchical scales from the North American Continent to the individual 270-m spatial cell. Characterization of spatial units based on fish abundance and diversity provides a fish-guided classification of aquatic areas at each spatial scale and demonstrates how classifications may be generated from that framework. Those classification units then provide information about habitat, as well as biotic conditions, which can be compared, contrasted, and hierarchically related spatially. Examples within several representative coastal or open water zones of the Western Lake Erie pilot area highlight potential application of this classification system to management problems. This classification system can assist natural resource managers with planning and establishing priorities for aquatic habitat protection, developing rehabilitation strategies, or identifying special management actions.

  4. Post-traumatic stress reactions before the advent of post-traumatic stress disorder: potential effects on the lives and legacies of Alexander the Great, Captain James Cook, Emily Dickinson, and Florence Nightingale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackowiak, Philip A; Batten, Sonja V

    2008-12-01

    Evidence is presented that Alexander the Great, Captain James Cook, Emily Dickinson, and Florence Nightingale each developed symptoms consistent with post-traumatic stress disorder in the aftermath of repeated potentially traumatizing events of differing character. Their case histories also varied with respect to background, premorbid personality style, risk factors, clinical presentation, and course of the illness, illustrating the pleomorphic character of the disorder, as well as the special problems in diagnosing it in historical figures.

  5. Insights into lignin degradation and its potential industrial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Hamid, Ahmed M; Solbiati, Jose O; Cann, Isaac K O

    2013-01-01

    Lignocellulose is an abundant biomass that provides an alternative source for the production of renewable fuels and chemicals. The depolymerization of the carbohydrate polymers in lignocellulosic biomass is hindered by lignin, which is recalcitrant to chemical and biological degradation due to its complex chemical structure and linkage heterogeneity. The role of fungi in delignification due to the production of extracellular oxidative enzymes has been studied more extensively than that of bacteria. The two major groups of enzymes that are involved in lignin degradation are heme peroxidases and laccases. Lignin-degrading peroxidases include lignin peroxidase (LiP), manganese peroxidase (MnP), versatile peroxidase (VP), and dye-decolorizing peroxidase (DyP). LiP, MnP, and VP are class II extracellular fungal peroxidases that belong to the plant and microbial peroxidases superfamily. LiPs are strong oxidants with high-redox potential that oxidize the major non-phenolic structures of lignin. MnP is an Mn-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of various phenolic substrates but is not capable of oxidizing the more recalcitrant non-phenolic lignin. VP enzymes combine the catalytic activities of both MnP and LiP and are able to oxidize Mn(2+) like MnP, and non-phenolic compounds like LiP. DyPs occur in both fungi and bacteria and are members of a new superfamily of heme peroxidases called DyPs. DyP enzymes oxidize high-redox potential anthraquinone dyes and were recently reported to oxidize lignin model compounds. The second major group of lignin-degrading enzymes, laccases, are found in plants, fungi, and bacteria and belong to the multicopper oxidase superfamily. They catalyze a one-electron oxidation with the concomitant four-electron reduction of molecular oxygen to water. Fungal laccases can oxidize phenolic lignin model compounds and have higher redox potential than bacterial laccases. In the presence of redox mediators, fungal laccases can oxidize non

  6. The text of the Agreement of 22 September 1982 between Chile and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the supply of nuclear material from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-07-01

    The full text of the agreement of 22 September 1982 between Chile and the Agency for the application of safeguards to nuclear material supplied from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is presented

  7. Values and potentials of grid-connected solar photovoltaic applications in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Hadri Haris; Iszuan Shah Syed Ismail

    2006-01-01

    Since early 1998, TNB Research Sdn Bhd has been conducting a pilot project to evaluate the performance and economics of grid-connected solar photovoltaic (PV) applications in Malaysia. The project is co-funded by Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB) and Malaysia Electricity Supply Industry Trust Account (MESITA). Currently, research project is being concluded with many valuable findings that would be able to provide the direction for the next solar PV development in Malaysia. In total, six pilot grid-connected solar PV systems were installed, where five are located within Klang Valley area and one in Port Dickson. The systems installation and commissioning were staggered between August 1998 to November 2001. A variety of building type was also selected for the system installation. In addition, various PV systems technologies and configurations were applied with average PV power capacity of 3 kW. These variances provide a good opportunity to assess the actual performances and economics of the solar PV applications under the Malaysian environment. This paper would discuss some of the findings, but with a focus on the values and potentials of the grid-connected solar PV applications in Malaysia

  8. Paraffin-based hybrid rocket engines applications: A review and a market perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzetti, Alessandro; Merotto, Laura; Pinarello, Giordano

    2016-09-01

    Hybrid propulsion technology for aerospace applications has received growing attention in recent years due to its important advantages over competitive solutions. Hybrid rocket engines have a great potential for several aeronautics and aerospace applications because of their safety, reliability, low cost and high performance. As a consequence, this propulsion technology is feasible for a number of innovative missions, including space tourism. On the other hand, hybrid rocket propulsion's main drawback, i.e. the difficulty in reaching high regression rate values using standard fuels, has so far limited the maturity level of this technology. The complex physico-chemical processes involved in hybrid rocket engines combustion are of major importance for engine performance prediction and control. Therefore, further investigation is ongoing in order to achieve a more complete understanding of such phenomena. It is well known that one of the most promising solutions for overcoming hybrid rocket engines performance limits is the use of liquefying fuels. Such fuels can lead to notably increased solid fuel regression rate due to the so-called "entrainment phenomenon". Among liquefying fuels, paraffin-based formulations have great potentials as solid fuels due to their low cost, availability (as they can be derived from industrial waste), low environmental impact and high performance. Despite the vast amount of literature available on this subject, a precise focus on market potential of paraffins for hybrid propulsion aerospace applications is lacking. In this work a review of hybrid rocket engines state of the art was performed, together with a detailed analysis of the possible applications of such a technology. A market study was carried out in order to define the near-future foreseeable development needs for hybrid technology application to the aforementioned missions. Paraffin-based fuels are taken into account as the most promising segment for market development

  9. Twin support vector machines models, extensions and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Jayadeva; Chandra, Suresh

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a systematic and focused study of the various aspects of twin support vector machines (TWSVM) and related developments for classification and regression. In addition to presenting most of the basic models of TWSVM and twin support vector regression (TWSVR) available in the literature, it also discusses the important and challenging applications of this new machine learning methodology. A chapter on “Additional Topics” has been included to discuss kernel optimization and support tensor machine topics, which are comparatively new but have great potential in applications. It is primarily written for graduate students and researchers in the area of machine learning and related topics in computer science, mathematics, electrical engineering, management science and finance.

  10. The equivalence of gravitational potential and rechargeable battery for high-altitude long-endurance solar-powered aircraft on energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Xian-Zhong; Hou, Zhong-Xi; Guo, Zheng; Fan, Rong-Fei; Chen, Xiao-Qian

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The scope of this paper is to apply solar energy to achieve the high-altitude long-endurance flight. • The equivalence of gravitational potential and rechargeable battery is discussed. • Four kinds of factors have been discussed to compare the two method of energy storage. • This work can provide some governing principles for the application of solar-powered aircraft. - Abstract: Applying solar energy is one of the most promising methods to achieve the aim of High-altitude Long-endurance (HALE) flight, and solar-powered aircraft is usually taken by the research groups to develop HALE aircraft. However, the crucial factor which constrains the solar-powered aircraft to achieve the aim of HALE is the problem how to fulfill the power requirement under weight constraint of rechargeable batteries. Motivated by the birds store energy from thermal by gaining height, the method of energy stored by gravitational potential for solar-powered aircraft have attracted great attentions in recent years. In order to make the method of energy stored in gravitational potential more practical in solar-powered aircraft, the equivalence of gravitational potential and rechargeable battery for aircraft on energy storage has been analyzed, and four kinds of factors are discussed in this paper: the duration of solar irradiation, the charging rate, the energy density of rechargeable battery and the initial altitude of aircraft. This work can provide some governing principles for the solar-powered aircraft to achieve the unlimited endurance flight, and the endurance performance of solar-powered aircraft may be greatly improved by the application of energy storage using gravitational potential

  11. A GIS-based tool for bioaccumulation risk analysis and its application to study polychlorinated biphenyls in the Great Lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda P. Maciel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a GIS-based tool named Arc-BEST (Bioaccumulation Evaluation Screening Tool to perform spatially distributed bioaccumulation risk analyses. Estimating bioaccumulation risk is important to help predict potentially adverse effects from contaminants on ecosystems and human health, which are key factors in the development of sound public policy. Arc-BEST is based on the BEST model in the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers BRAMS (Bioaccumulation Risk Assessment Modeling System software, released in 2012. It predicts concentration of concern contaminants in predators’ tissues from concentrations in organisms at the bottom of the food chain, and corresponding bioaccumulation factors. Additionally, it estimates carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks for humans that consume those species. The greatest contribution of Arc-BEST is that it enables the automated use of digital spatial data sets, which improves model creation speed, analysis and visualization of results, and comparison and cross-referencing with other geographic datasets. Furthermore, the model was improved to consider up to four trophic levels. The code is written in Python and is open-source. In this work Arc-BEST is used as part of a screening-level risk assessment process in order to identify hot spots where further studies and monitoring should be performed to ensure humans and ecosystems health. The tool is successfully applied to a case study in the Laurentian Great Lakes, where long-term effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs is performed, based on measured concentrations in zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha, and local bioaccumulation factors from previous studies. Zebra mussels have a great filtration capacity and high bioconcentration rates, increasing the bioavailability of contaminants for predator species. PCBs concentrations in different-level predators are predicted. Furthermore, health risks for humans that consume sport fish are estimated for various

  12. Anthropogenic contaminants in Indo-Pacific humpback and Australian snubfin dolphins from the central and southern Great Barrier Reef

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cagnazzi, Daniele; Fossi, Maria Cristina; Parra, Guido J.; Harrison, Peter L.; Maltese, Silvia; Coppola, Daniele; Soccodato, Alice; Bent, Michael; Marsili, Letizia

    2013-01-01

    We present the first evidence of accumulation of organochlorine compounds (DDTs, PCBs, HCB) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Indo-Pacific humpback and Australian snubfin dolphins from the central and southern Great Barrier Reef. These dolphins are considered by the Great Barrier Marine Park Authority to be high priority species for management. Analyses of biopsy samples, collected from free ranging individuals, showed PAHs levels comparable to those reported from highly industrialized countries. DDTs and HCB were found at low levels, while in some individuals, PCBs were above thresholds over which immunosuppression and reproductive anomalies occur. These results highlight the need for ongoing monitoring of these and other contaminants, and their potential adverse effects on dolphins and other marine fauna. This is particularly important given the current strategic assessment of the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area being undertaken by the Australian Government and the Queensland Government. -- Potentially hazardous levels of some coastal contaminants were found in two species of dolphins inhabiting the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park coastal region

  13. Geopolymers and their potential applications in the nuclear waste management field. A bibliographical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantarel, Vincent; Motooka, Takafumi; Yamagishi, Isao

    2017-06-01

    After a necessary decay time, the zeolites used for the water decontamination will eventually be conditioned for their long-term storage. Geopolymer is considered as a potential matrix to manage radioactive cesium and strontium containing waste. For such applications, a correct comprehension of the binder structure, its macroscopic properties, its interactions with the waste and the physico-chemical phenomena occurring in the wasteform is needed to be able to judge of the soundness and viability of the material. Although the geopolymer is a young binder, a lot of research has been carried out over the last fifty years and our understanding of this matrix and its potential applications is progressing fast. This review aims at gathering the actual knowledge on geopolymer studies about geopolymer composites, geopolymer as a confinement matrix for nuclear wastes and geopolymer under irradiation. This information will finally provide guidance for the future studies and experiments. (author)

  14. UWB Technology and Applications on Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Phong; Phan, Chau; Gross, Julia; Dusl, John; Ni, Jianjun; Rafford, Melinda

    2006-01-01

    Ultra-wideband (UWB), also known as impulse or carrier-free radio technology, is one promising new technology. In February 2002, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) approved the deployment of this technology. It is increasingly recognized that UWB technology holds great potential to provide significant benefits in many terrestrial and space applications such as precise positioning/tracking and high data rate mobile wireless communications. This talk presents an introduction to UWB technology and some applications on space exploration. UWB is characterized by several uniquely attractive features, such as low impact on other RF systems due to its extremely low power spectral densities, immunity to interference from narrow band RF systems due to its ultra-wide bandwidth, multipath immunity to fading due to ample multipath diversity, capable of precise positioning due to fine time resolution, capable of high data rate multi-channel performance. The related FCC regulations, IEEE standardization efforts and industry activities also will be addressed in this talk. For space applications, some projects currently under development at NASA Johnson Space Center will be introduced. These include the UWB integrated communication and tracking system for Lunar/Mars rover and astronauts, UWB-RFID ISS inventory tracking, and UWB-TDOA close-in high resolution tracking for potential applications on robonaut.

  15. Derivation of RCM-driven potential evapotranspiration for hydrological climate change impact analysis in Great Britain: a comparison of methods and associated uncertainty in future projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Prudhomme

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Potential evapotranspiration (PET is the water that would be lost by plants through evaporation and transpiration if water was not limited in the soil, and it is commonly used in conceptual hydrological modelling in the calculation of runoff production and hence river discharge. Future changes of PET are likely to be as important as changes in precipitation patterns in determining changes in river flows. However PET is not calculated routinely by climate models so it must be derived independently when the impact of climate change on river flow is to be assessed. This paper compares PET estimates from 12 equations of different complexity, driven by the Hadley Centre's HadRM3-Q0 model outputs representative of 1961–1990, with MORECS PET, a product used as reference PET in Great Britain. The results show that the FAO56 version of the Penman–Monteith equations reproduces best the spatial and seasonal variability of MORECS PET across GB when driven by HadRM3-Q0 estimates of relative humidity, total cloud, wind speed and linearly bias-corrected mean surface temperature. This suggests that potential biases in HadRM3-Q0 climate do not result in significant biases when the physically based FAO56 equations are used. Percentage changes in PET between the 1961–1990 and 2041–2070 time slices were also calculated for each of the 12 PET equations from HadRM3-Q0. Results show a large variation in the magnitude (and sometimes direction of changes estimated from different PET equations, with Turc, Jensen–Haise and calibrated Blaney–Criddle methods systematically projecting the largest increases across GB for all months and Priestley–Taylor, Makkink, and Thornthwaite showing the smallest changes. We recommend the use of the FAO56 equation as, when driven by HadRM3-Q0 climate data, this best reproduces the reference MORECS PET across Great Britain for the reference period of 1961–1990. Further, the future changes of PET estimated by FAO56 are within

  16. The Great Warming Brian Fagan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, B. M.

    2010-12-01

    The Great Warming is a journey back to the world of a thousand years ago, to the Medieval Warm Period. Five centuries of irregular warming from 800 to 1250 had beneficial effects in Europe and the North Atlantic, but brought prolonged droughts to much of the Americas and lands affected by the South Asian monsoon. The book describes these impacts of warming on medieval European societies, as well as the Norse and the Inuit of the far north, then analyzes the impact of harsh, lengthy droughts on hunting societies in western North America and the Ancestral Pueblo farmers of Chaco Canyon, New Mexico. These peoples reacted to drought by relocating entire communities. The Maya civilization was much more vulnerable that small-scale hunter-gatherer societies and subsistence farmers in North America. Maya rulers created huge water storage facilities, but their civilization partially collapsed under the stress of repeated multiyear droughts, while the Chimu lords of coastal Peru adapted with sophisticated irrigation works. The climatic villain was prolonged, cool La Niñalike conditions in the Pacific, which caused droughts from Venezuela to East Asia, and as far west as East Africa. The Great Warming argues that the warm centuries brought savage drought to much of humanity, from China to Peru. It also argues that drought is one of the most dangerous elements in today’s humanly created global warming, often ignored by preoccupied commentators, but with the potential to cause over a billion people to starve. Finally, I use the book to discuss the issues and problems of communicating multidisciplinary science to the general public.

  17. Grass carp in the Great Lakes region: establishment potential, expert perceptions, and re-evaluation of experimental evidence of ecological impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Marion E.; Jerde, Christopher L.; Howeth, Jennifer G.; Maher, Sean P.; Deines, Andrew M.; Jenkins, Jill A.; Whitledge, Gregory W.; Burbank, Sarah B.; Chadderton, William L.; Mahon, Andrew R.; Tyson, Jeffrey T.; Gantz, Crysta A.; Keller, Reuben P.; Drake, John M.; Lodge, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Intentional introductions of nonindigenous fishes are increasing globally. While benefits of these introductions are easily quantified, assessments to understand the negative impacts to ecosystems are often difficult, incomplete, or absent. Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) was originally introduced to the United States as a biocontrol agent, and recent observations of wild, diploid individuals in the Great Lakes basin have spurred interest in re-evaluating its ecological risk. Here, we evaluate the ecological impact of grass carp using expert opinion and a suite of the most up-to-date analytical tools and data (ploidy assessment, eDNA surveillance, species distribution models (SDMs), and meta-analysis). The perceived ecological impact of grass carp by fisheries experts was variable, ranging from unknown to very high. Wild-caught triploid and diploid individuals occurred in multiple Great Lakes waterways, and eDNA surveillance suggests that grass carp are abundant in a major tributary of Lake Michigan. SDMs predicted suitable grass carp climate occurs in all Great Lakes. Meta-analysis showed that grass carp introductions impact both water quality and biota. Novel findings based on updated ecological impact assessment tools indicate that iterative risk assessment of introduced fishes may be warranted.

  18. Multiple multicontrol unitary operations: Implementation and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qing

    2018-04-01

    The efficient implementation of computational tasks is critical to quantum computations. In quantum circuits, multicontrol unitary operations are important components. Here, we present an extremely efficient and direct approach to multiple multicontrol unitary operations without decomposition to CNOT and single-photon gates. With the proposed approach, the necessary two-photon operations could be reduced from O( n 3) with the traditional decomposition approach to O( n), which will greatly relax the requirements and make large-scale quantum computation feasible. Moreover, we propose the potential application to the ( n- k)-uniform hypergraph state.

  19. Great Ellipse Route Planning Based on Space Vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Wenchao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the problem of navigation error caused by unified earth model in great circle route planning using sphere model and modern navigation equipment using ellipsoid mode, a method of great ellipse route planning based on space vector is studied. By using space vector algebra method, the vertex of great ellipse is solved directly, and description of great ellipse based on major-axis vector and minor-axis vector is presented. Then calculation formulas of great ellipse azimuth and distance are deduced using two basic vectors. Finally, algorithms of great ellipse route planning are studied, especially equal distance route planning algorithm based on Newton-Raphson(N-R method. Comparative examples show that the difference of route planning between great circle and great ellipse is significant, using algorithms of great ellipse route planning can eliminate the navigation error caused by the great circle route planning, and effectively improve the accuracy of navigation calculation.

  20. Recent advances and potential applications of modulated differential scanning calorimetry (mDSC) in drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopp, Matthias Manne; Löbmann, Korbinian; Elder, David P; Rades, Thomas; Holm, René

    2016-05-25

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is frequently the thermal analysis technique of choice within preformulation and formulation sciences because of its ability to provide detailed information about both the physical and energetic properties of a substance and/or formulation. However, conventional DSC has shortcomings with respect to weak transitions and overlapping events, which could be solved by the use of the more sophisticated modulated DSC (mDSC). mDSC has multiple potential applications within the pharmaceutical field and the present review provides an up-to-date overview of these applications. It is aimed to serve as a broad introduction to newcomers, and also as a valuable reference for those already practising in the field. Complex mDSC was introduced more than two decades ago and has been an important tool for the quantification of amorphous materials and development of freeze-dried formulations. However, as discussed in the present review, a number of other potential applications could also be relevant for the pharmaceutical scientist. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Luminescent Metal Nanoclusters for Potential Chemosensor Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthaiah Shellaiah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies of metal nanocluster (M-NCs-based sensors for specific analyte detection have achieved significant progress in recent decades. Ultra-small-size (<2 nm M-NCs consist of several to a few hundred metal atoms and exhibit extraordinary physical and chemical properties. Similar to organic molecules, M-NCs display absorption and emission properties via electronic transitions between energy levels upon interaction with light. As such, researchers tend to apply M-NCs in diverse fields, such as in chemosensors, biological imaging, catalysis, and environmental and electronic devices. Chemo- and bio-sensory uses have been extensively explored with luminescent NCs of Au, Ag, Cu, and Pt as potential sensory materials. Luminescent bi-metallic NCs, such as Au-Ag, Au-Cu, Au-Pd, and Au-Pt have also been used as probes in chemosensory investigations. Both metallic and bi-metallic NCs have been utilized to detect various analytes, such as metal ions, anions, biomolecules, proteins, acidity or alkalinity of a solution (pH, and nucleic acids, at diverse detection ranges and limits. In this review, we have summarized the chemosensory applications of luminescent M-NCs and bi-metallic NCs.

  2. Potential Dermal Exposure to Flonicamid and Risk Assessment of Applicators During Treatment in Apple Orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mei-Ai; Yu, Aili; Zhu, Yong-Zhe; Kim, Jeong-Han

    2015-01-01

    Exposure and risk assessments of flonicamid for applicators were performed in apple orchards in Korea. Fifteen experiments were done with two experienced applicators under typical field conditions using a speed sprayer. In this study, cotton gloves, socks, masks, and dermal patches were used to monitor potential dermal exposure to flonicamid, and personal air samplers with XAD-2 resin and glass fiber filter were used to monitor potential inhalation exposure. The analytical methods were validated for the limit of detection, limit of quantitation, reproducibility, linearity of the calibration curve, and recovery of flonicamid from various exposure matrices. The results were encouraging and acceptable for an exposure study. The applicability of XAD-2 resin was evaluated via a trapping efficiency and breakthrough test. During the mixing/loading, the average total dermal exposure was 22.6 μg of flonicamid, corresponding to 4.5×10(-5)% of the prepared amount. For the spraying, the potential dermal exposure was 9.32 mg, and the ratio to applied amount was 1.9 × 10(-2%). The primary exposed body parts were the thigh (2.90 mg), upper arm (1.75 mg), and lower leg (1.66 mg). By comparison, absorbable quantity of exposure was small, only 1.62 μg (3.2×10(-6)%). The margin of safety (MOS) were calculated for risk assessment, in all sets of trials, MOS > 1, indicating the exposure level of flonicamid was considered to be safe in apple orchards. Although this was a limited study, it provided a good estimate of flonicamid exposure for orchard applicators.

  3. Nothing Great Is Easy

    OpenAIRE

    Stansbie, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    A solo exhibition of 13 pieces of art work.\\ud \\ud Nothing Great is Easy is an exhibition of sculpture, film, drawing and photography that proposes reconstructed narratives using the sport of swimming and in particular the collective interaction and identity of the channel swimmer. The work utilises the processes, rituals/rules, language and the apparatus of sport.\\ud \\ud “Nothing great is easy” are the words on the memorial to Captain Matthew Webb who was the first man to swim the English ch...

  4. Bee venom therapy: Potential mechanisms and therapeutic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuai; Liu, Yi; Ye, Yang; Wang, Xue-Rui; Lin, Li-Ting; Xiao, Ling-Yong; Zhou, Ping; Shi, Guang-Xia; Liu, Cun-Zhi

    2018-04-11

    Bee venom is a very complex mixture of natural products extracted from honey bee which contains various pharmaceutical properties such as peptides, enzymes, biologically active amines and nonpeptide components. The use of bee venom into the specific points is so called bee venom therapy, which is widely used as a complementary and alternative therapy for 3000 years. A growing number of evidence has demonstrated the anti-inflammation, the anti-apoptosis, the anti-fibrosis and the anti-arthrosclerosis effects of bee venom therapy. With these pharmaceutical characteristics, bee venom therapy has also been used as the therapeutic method in treating rheumatoid arthritis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, liver fibrosis, atherosclerosis, pain and others. Although widely used, several cases still reported that bee venom therapy might cause some adverse effects, such as local itching or swelling. In this review, we summarize its potential mechanisms, therapeutic applications, and discuss its existing problems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The convenience food market in Great Britain: convenience food lifestyle (CFL) segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Marie; Cowan, Cathal; McCarthy, Mary

    2007-11-01

    Convenience foods enable the consumer to save time and effort in food activities, related to shopping, meal preparation and cooking, consumption and post-meal activities. The objective of this paper is to report on the attitudes and reported behaviour of food consumers in Great Britain based on a review of their convenience food lifestyle (CFLs). The paper also reports the development and application of a segmentation technique that can supply information on consumer attitudes towards convenience foods. The convenience food market in Great Britain is examined and the key drivers of growth in this market are highlighted. A survey was applied to a nationally representative sample of 1000 consumers (defined as the persons primarily responsible for food shopping and cooking in the household) in Great Britain in 2002. Segmentation analysis, based on the identification of 20 convenience lifestyle factors, identified four CFL segments of consumers: the 'food connoisseurs' (26%), the 'home meal preparers' (25%), the 'kitchen evaders' (16%) and the 'convenience-seeking grazers' (33%). In particular, the 'kitchen evaders' and the 'convenience-seeking grazers' are identified as convenience-seeking segments. Implications for food producers, in particular, convenience food manufacturers are discussed. The study provides an understanding of the lifestyles of food consumers in Great Britain, and provides food manufacturers with an insight into what motivates individuals to purchase convenience foods.

  6. A semiclassical study of optical potentials - potential resonances -

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.Y.; Takigawa, N.; Marty, C.

    1977-01-01

    A semiclassical method is used to analyze resonances produced by complex potentials. The absorption plays a central role: when it is not too great, resonances manifest themselves by enhancement of cross sections near π. The reverse is not necessarily true, for instance the anomalous large angle scattering for α-Ca is due to a coherent superposition of many partial waves

  7. An Overview of the Great Puerto Rico ShakeOut 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, G.; Soto-Cordero, L.; Huérfano-Moreno, V.; Ramos-Gómez, W.; De La Matta, M.

    2012-12-01

    With a population of 4 million, Puerto Rico will be celebrating this year, for first time, an Island-wide earthquake drill following the Great California ShakeOut model. Most of our population has never experienced a large earthquake, since our last significant event occurred on 1918, and is not adequately prepared to respond to a sudden ground movement. During the moderate-size earthquakes (M5.2-5.8) that have been felt in Puerto Rico since 2010, and despite Puerto Rico Seismic Network education efforts, the general public reaction was inappropriate, occasionally putting themselves and others at risk. Our overarching goal for the Great Puerto Rico ShakeOut is to help develop seismic awareness and preparedness in our communities. In addition, our main objectives include: to teach the public to remain calm and act quickly and appropriately during a seismic event, the identification and correction of potential hazards that may cause injuries, and the development/update of mitigation plans for home, work place and/or school. We are also taking this opportunity to clarify the misconceptions of other methods of protection (e.g. triangle of life) and warning equipment and systems that do not have sound scientific or applicable basis for our country. We will be presenting an overview of the accomplishment of our earthquake drill and the different strategies we are using, such as internet, social media and collaboration with state government agencies and professional groups, to reach diverse age and educational level groups and to promote their participation. One of our main target groups this year are school students since their experience can have a direct and positive impact on their families. The drill webpage was developed in Spanish and English as well as our promotional and educational materials. Being the first time a Spanish-speaking country coordinates a ShakeOut exercise we hope our experience and the materials we are developing could be of use and benefit to

  8. Cellular concrete: a potential load-bearing insulation for cryogenic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, T.G.; Dobogai, J.A.; Gerhardt, T.D.; Young, W.C.

    1975-01-01

    The need for low cost, low thermal conductivity, high strength insulation suitable for cryogenic applications is becoming more evident. An investigation of the potential of cellular concretes to fulfill this function was initiated. A review of the thermal and mechanical characteristics of foamed plastics and cellular concrete is presented along with relative cost comparisons. Test data from preliminary investigations is presented to define the influence of material constituents, density, and temperature on the mechanical and thermal response of cellular concrete. Specimen densities range from 0.64 to 1.44 gr/cc. The influence of temperature variations from 22 0 C to -196 0 C is reported for selected densities

  9. Assessment of foreign decommissioning technology with potential application to US decommissioning needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, R.P.; Konzek, G.J.; Schneider, K.J.; Smith, R.I.

    1987-09-01

    This study was conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) to identify and technically assess foreign decommissioning technology developments that may represent significant improvements over decommissioning technology currently available or under development in the United States. Technology need areas for nuclear power reactor decommissioning operations were identified and prioritized using the results of past light water reactor (LWR) decommissioning studies to quantitatively evaluate the potential for reducing cost and decommissioning worker radiation dose for each major decommissioning activity. Based on these identified needs, current foreign decommissioning technologies of potential interest to the US were identified through personal contacts and the collection and review of an extensive body of decommissioning literature. These technologies were then assessed qualitatively to evaluate their uniqueness, potential for a significant reduction in decommissioning costs and/or worker radiation dose, development status, and other factors affecting their value and applicability to US needs

  10. Significance of antioxidant potential of plants and its relevance to therapeutic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasote, Deepak M; Katyare, Surendra S; Hegde, Mahabaleshwar V; Bae, Hanhong

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been identified as the root cause of the development and progression of several diseases. Supplementation of exogenous antioxidants or boosting endogenous antioxidant defenses of the body is a promising way of combating the undesirable effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced oxidative damage. Plants have an innate ability to biosynthesize a wide range of non-enzymatic antioxidants capable of attenuating ROS- induced oxidative damage. Several in vitro methods have been used to screen plants for their antioxidant potential, and in most of these assays they revealed potent antioxidant activity. However, prior to confirming their in vivo therapeutic efficacy, plant antioxidants have to pass through several physiopharmacological processes. Consequently, the findings of in vitro and in vivo antioxidant potential assessment studies are not always the same. Nevertheless, the results of in vitro assays have been irrelevantly extrapolated to the therapeutic application of plant antioxidants without undertaking sufficient in vivo studies. Therefore, we have briefly reviewed the physiology and redox biology of both plants and humans to improve our understanding of plant antioxidants as therapeutic entities. The applications and limitations of antioxidant activity measurement assays were also highlighted to identify the precise path to be followed for future research in the area of plant antioxidants.

  11. Climate variability and Great Plains agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, N.J.; Katz, L.A.

    1991-01-01

    The ways in which inhabitants of the Great Plains, including Indians, early settlers, and 20th century farmers, have adapted to climate changes on the Great Plains are explored. The climate of the Great Plains, because of its variability and extremes, can be very stressful to plants, animals and people. It is suggested that agriculture and society on the Great Plains have, during the last century, become less vulnerable to the stresses imposed by climate. Opinions as to the sustainability of agriculture on the Great Plains vary substantially. Lockeretz (1981) suggests that large scale, high cost technologies have stressed farmers by creating surpluses and by requiring large investments. Opie (1989) sees irrigation as a climate substitute, however he stresses that the Ogallala aquifer must inevitably become depleted. Deborah and Frank Popper (1987) believe that farming on the Plains is unsustainable, and destruction of shelterbelts, out-migration of the rural population and environmental problems will lead to total collapse. With global warming, water in the Great Plains is expected to become scarcer, and although improvements in irrigation efficiency may slow depletion of the Ogallala aquifer, ultimately the acreage under irrigation must decrease to levels that can be sustained by natural recharge and reliable surface flows. 23 refs., 2 figs

  12. APPLICATION OF THE GREAT CORMORANT'S (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis DAILY MEAL IN THE STIMATION OF DAMAGES AT FISHPONDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelko Opačak

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Daily meal of the Great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis, joined with the number of birds and composition of fish in the meal, has high importance in total calculation of damage-costs on fish stock. The weight of fish in daily meal is regarding as the world-wide indicator for the estimation of damages. Various methods are being developed for the reliable estimation of daily fish quantity that Cormorant consummate. Diversity of the applied methods lead to variability of the results. This paper presents the estimation results from 24 studies. Daily meal of the Great Cormorant determined by the stomach content analysis is 359.5 g in average per bird (n=3 study reports; by the pellets analysis 347 g (n=10 is determined, and mean weight values of regurgitated fish was 384 g (n=2. Analyses of the nourished, captured birds (n=4 show 371 g mean value of daily meal while the stomach temperature method show 336 g (n=1 study. The energy requirement methods determined daily meal of 596 g (n=1, a study dealing on the empirical basal metabolism measurements, and 751 g (n=3, studies dealing on daily energetic requirements of the Great Cormorant.

  13. Three-Dimensional Bioprinting Materials with Potential Application in Preprosthetic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahmy, Mina D; Jazayeri, Hossein E; Razavi, Mehdi; Masri, Radi; Tayebi, Lobat

    2016-06-01

    Current methods in handling maxillofacial defects are not robust and are highly dependent on the surgeon's skills and the inherent potential in the patients' bodies for regenerating lost tissues. Employing custom-designed 3D printed scaffolds that securely and effectively reconstruct the defects by using tissue engineering and regenerative medicine techniques can revolutionize preprosthetic surgeries. Various polymers, ceramics, natural and synthetic bioplastics, proteins, biomolecules, living cells, and growth factors as well as their hybrid structures can be used in 3D printing of scaffolds, which are still under development by scientists. These scaffolds not only are beneficial due to their patient-specific design, but also may be able to prevent micromobility, make tension free soft tissue closure, and improve vascularity. In this manuscript, a review of materials employed in 3D bioprinting including bioceramics, biopolymers, composites, and metals is conducted. A discussion of the relevance of 3D bioprinting using these materials for craniofacial interventions is included as well as their potential to create analogs to craniofacial tissues, their benefits, limitations, and their application. © 2016 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  14. Bacterial CRISPR Regions: General Features and their Potential for Epidemiological Molecular Typing Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Zahra; Ahmadi, Ali; Najafi, Ali; Ranjbar, Reza

    2018-01-01

    CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats) loci as novel and applicable regions in prokaryotic genomes have gained great attraction in the post genomics era. These unique regions are diverse in number and sequence composition in different pathogenic bacteria and thereby can be a suitable candidate for molecular epidemiology and genotyping studies. Results:Furthermore, the arrayed structure of CRISPR loci (several unique repeats spaced with the variable sequence) and associated cas genes act as an active prokaryotic immune system against viral replication and conjugative elements. This property can be used as a tool for RNA editing in bioengineering studies. The aim of this review was to survey some details about the history, nature, and potential applications of CRISPR arrays in both genetic engineering and bacterial genotyping studies.

  15. Cosmetics and Cosmeceutical Applications of Chitin, Chitosan and Their Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada Aranaz

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Marine resources are well recognized for their biologically active substances with great potential applications in the cosmeceutical industry. Among the different compounds with a marine origin, chitin and its deacetylated derivative—chitosan—are of great interest to the cosmeceutical industry due to their unique biological and technological properties. In this review, we explore the different functional roles of chitosan as a skin care and hair care ingredient, as an oral hygiene agent and as a carrier for active compounds, among others. The importance of the physico-chemical properties of the polymer in its use in cosmetics are particularly highlighted. Moreover, we analyse the market perspectives of this polymer and the presence in the market of chitosan-based products.

  16. Soft Computing Applications : Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop Soft Computing Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Fodor, János; Várkonyi-Kóczy, Annamária; Dombi, Joszef; Jain, Lakhmi

    2013-01-01

                    This volume contains the Proceedings of the 5thInternational Workshop on Soft Computing Applications (SOFA 2012).                                The book covers a broad spectrum of soft computing techniques, theoretical and practical applications employing knowledge and intelligence to find solutions for world industrial, economic and medical problems. The combination of such intelligent systems tools and a large number of applications introduce a need for a synergy of scientific and technological disciplines in order to show the great potential of Soft Computing in all domains.                   The conference papers included in these proceedings, published post conference, were grouped into the following area of research: ·         Soft Computing and Fusion Algorithms in Biometrics, ·         Fuzzy Theory, Control andApplications, ·         Modelling and Control Applications, ·         Steps towa...

  17. Experimental Investigation of the Properties of Electrospun Nanofibers for Potential Medical Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anhui Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymer based nanofibers using ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol (EVOH were fabricated by electrospinning technology. The nanofibers were studied for potential use as dressing materials for skin wounds treatment. Properties closely related to the clinical requirements for wound dressing were investigated, including the fluid uptake ability (FUA, the water vapour transmission rate (WVTR, the bacteria control ability of nanofibers encapsulated with different antibacterial drugs, and Ag of various concentrations. Nanofibre degradation under different environmental conditions was also studied for the prospect of long term usage. The finding confirms the potential of EVOH nanofibers for wound dressing application, including the superior performance compared to cotton gauze and the strong germ killing capacity when Ag particles are present in the nanofibers.

  18. An overview of means-end theory: potential application in consumer-oriented food product design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa, A.I.A.; Dekker, M.; Jongen, W.M.F.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the means-end chain theory and associated techniques, and discusses the virtues and shortcomings of its potential application in consumer-oriented food product design. This overview, based on literature in the food area, presents also the process of conducting a

  19. Highly ductile multilayered films by layer-by-layer assembly of oppositely charged polyurethanes for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podsiadlo, Paul; Qin, Ming; Cuddihy, Meghan; Zhu, Jian; Critchley, Kevin; Kheng, Eugene; Kaushik, Amit K; Qi, Ying; Kim, Hyoung-Sug; Noh, Si-Tae; Arruda, Ellen M; Waas, Anthony M; Kotov, Nicholas A

    2009-12-15

    Multilayered thin films prepared with the layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly technique are typically "brittle" composites, while many applications such as flexible electronics or biomedical devices would greatly benefit from ductile, and tough nanostructured coatings. Here we present the preparation of highly ductile multilayered films via LBL assembly of oppositely charged polyurethanes. Free-standing films were found to be robust, strong, and tough with ultimate strains as high as 680% and toughness of approximately 30 MJ/m(3). These results are at least 2 orders of magnitude greater than most LBL materials presented until today. In addition to enhanced ductility, the films showed first-order biocompatibility with animal and human cells. Multilayered structures incorporating polyurethanes open up a new research avenue into the preparation of multifunctional nanostructured films with great potential in biomedical applications.

  20. Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Basic Research to Potential Clinical Applications in Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa de Souza Fernandez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs are derived from a direct reprogramming of human somatic cells to a pluripotent stage through ectopic expression of specific transcription factors. These cells have two important properties, which are the self-renewal capacity and the ability to differentiate into any cell type of the human body. So, the discovery of hiPSCs opens new opportunities in biomedical sciences, since these cells may be useful for understanding the mechanisms of diseases in the production of new diseases models, in drug development/drug toxicity tests, gene therapies, and cell replacement therapies. However, the hiPSCs technology has limitations including the potential for the development of genetic and epigenetic abnormalities leading to tumorigenicity. Nowadays, basic research in the hiPSCs field has made progress in the application of new strategies with the aim to enable an efficient production of high-quality of hiPSCs for safety and efficacy, necessary to the future application for clinical practice. In this review, we show the recent advances in hiPSCs’ basic research and some potential clinical applications focusing on cancer. We also present the importance of the use of statistical methods to evaluate the possible validation for the hiPSCs for future therapeutic use toward personalized cell therapies.

  1. Antimicrobial Activity of TiO2 Nanoparticle-Coated Film for Potential Food Packaging Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Hajar Othman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent uses of titanium dioxide (TiO2 have involved various applications which include the food industry. This study aims to develop TiO2 nanoparticle-coated film for potential food packaging applications due to the photocatalytic antimicrobial property of TiO2. The TiO2 nanoparticles with varying concentrations (0–0.11 g/ 100 mL organic solvent were coated on food packaging film, particularly low density polyethylene (LDPE film. The antimicrobial activity of the films was investigated by their capability to inactivate Escherichia coli (E. coli in an actual food packaging application test under various conditions, including types of light (fluorescent and ultraviolet (UV and the length of time the film was exposed to light (one–three days. The antimicrobial activity of the TiO2 nanoparticle-coated films exposed under both types of lighting was found to increase with an increase in the TiO2 nanoparticle concentration and the light exposure time. It was also found that the antimicrobial activity of the films exposed under UV light was higher than that under fluorescent light. The developed film has the potential to be used as a food packaging film that can extend the shelf life, maintain the quality, and assure the safety of food.

  2. Microbial processes in the Athabasca Oil Sands and their potential applications in microbial enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harner, N K; Richardson, T L; Thompson, K A; Best, R J; Best, A S; Trevors, J T

    2011-11-01

    The Athabasca Oil Sands are located within the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin, which covers over 140,200 km(2) of land in Alberta, Canada. The oil sands provide a unique environment for bacteria as a result of the stressors of low water availability and high hydrocarbon concentrations. Understanding the mechanisms bacteria use to tolerate these stresses may aid in our understanding of how hydrocarbon degradation has occurred over geological time, and how these processes and related tolerance mechanisms may be used in biotechnology applications such as microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). The majority of research has focused on microbiology processes in oil reservoirs and oilfields; as such there is a paucity of information specific to oil sands. By studying microbial processes in oil sands there is the potential to use microbes in MEOR applications. This article reviews the microbiology of the Athabasca Oil Sands and the mechanisms bacteria use to tolerate low water and high hydrocarbon availability in oil reservoirs and oilfields, and potential applications in MEOR.

  3. Nanotechnology: Principles and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logothetidis, S.

    Nanotechnology is one of the leading scientific fields today since it combines knowledge from the fields of Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Medicine, Informatics, and Engineering. It is an emerging technological field with great potential to lead in great breakthroughs that can be applied in real life. Novel nano- and biomaterials, and nanodevices are fabricated and controlled by nanotechnology tools and techniques, which investigate and tune the properties, responses, and functions of living and non-living matter, at sizes below 100 nm. The application and use of nanomaterials in electronic and mechanical devices, in optical and magnetic components, quantum computing, tissue engineering, and other biotechnologies, with smallest features, widths well below 100 nm, are the economically most important parts of the nanotechnology nowadays and presumably in the near future. The number of nanoproducts is rapidly growing since more and more nanoengineered materials are reaching the global market The continuous revolution in nanotechnology will result in the fabrication of nanomaterials with properties and functionalities which are going to have positive changes in the lives of our citizens, be it in health, environment, electronics or any other field. In the energy generation challenge where the conventional fuel resources cannot remain the dominant energy source, taking into account the increasing consumption demand and the CO2 emissions alternative renewable energy sources based on new technologies have to be promoted. Innovative solar cell technologies that utilize nanostructured materials and composite systems such as organic photovoltaics offer great technological potential due to their attractive properties such as the potential of large-scale and low-cost roll-to-roll manufacturing processes The advances in nanomaterials necessitate parallel progress of the nanometrology tools and techniques to characterize and manipulate nanostructures. Revolutionary new approaches

  4. An Evaluation of the Application of ISD to P-3 Pilot Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    THESIS AN EVALUATION OF THE APPLICATION OF ISD TO P-3 PILOT TRAINING by William Allen. Snider June 1980 Thesis Advisor: J. K. Arima Approved for...also from quasi-governmental agencies such as RAND and HUMRRO, saw great potential in the use of techniques such as modelling to increase the precision...scores. The preceding discussion suggests that organizational climate , as well as experience, is strongly related to pilot performance on NATOPS

  5. MICRO- AND NANOENCAPSULATION VIA ELECTRO-HYDRODYNAMIC PROCESSING OF INTEREST IN FOOD APPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    PÉREZ MASIÁ, ROCÍO

    2016-01-01

    Micro- and nanoencapsulation have generated great interest over the last years in multiple fields. Particularly in the food industry, this technology presents potential applications for the development of smart packaging structures, as well as for the protection of sensitive ingredients and the production of novel healthy foods. Therefore, in this thesis, the development of different encapsulation structures of interest in the food area was carried out. Specifically, c...

  6. Alkali-etching growth of nest-like Ag@mTiO2 hierarchical nanostructures and their potential applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zongnan; Zhang, Haijiao

    2017-06-01

    Porous nanomaterials have attracted extensive interests in adsorption, catalysis, biosensors, and biomedicine due to their high surface area, well-defined pore structure and tunable pore size. However, how to obtain porous nanomaterials of desirable component and unique structure with multifunctionalities and synergetic properties is still a great challenge. In this work, a novel nest-like Ag@mTiO 2 hierarchical nanostructure with Ag nanoparticle as the core and a mesoporous crystalline TiO 2 as the protective shell was successfully prepared by layer-by-layer assembly technique and alkali-etching hydrothermal route. By simply changing the conditions of alkali etching, different nanostructures could be obtained, such as core-shell or rattle type. In the process, the thickness of coating silica layer and TiO 2 shell both played important roles for the formation of desired nanostructures. The as-prepared products had a large specific surface area of 301m 2 /g and a tailored TiO 2 outer shell. Raman spectra results showed perfect SERS signal of the tags enhanced and remained good stability even after one month. Doxycycline (Doxy) was chosen to evaluate their drug loading and controlled release properties. The results indicated that the obtained Ag@mTiO 2 nanoparticles exhibited good biocompatibility and excellent drug-loading capacity. Consequently, they are also expected to serve as ideal candidates for more potential applications including photocatalysis, drug controlled release, biosensor and cell imaging, etc. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Der Einfluss von personeller Einkommensverteilung auf die „Great Depression“ und die „Great Recession“

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Trappl

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Der Einfluss gestiegener Einkommensungleichheit auf die „Great Depression“ und die „Great Recession“ wurde mehrfach postuliert (Galbraith 1954/2009; Eccles 1951; Rajan 2010; Stiglitz 2012; Piketty 2014. Konkrete empirische Arbeiten zum Zusammenhang zwischen Einkommensverteilung und dem Entstehen von Wirtschaftskrisen gibt es aber bislang wenige. Kumhof/Ranciere (2010 überprüften die von Rajan (2010 aufgestellte Hypothese, die einen entsprechenden Zusammenhang postuliert, mittels Modellrechnung. Bordo/Meissner (2012 und darauf aufbauend Gu/Huang (2014 verwendeten unterschiedliche Regressionsmodelle in Bezug auf einen entsprechenden Zusammenhang, ohne jedoch eindeutige Ergebnisse zu liefern. Die vorliegende Arbeit schließt an diese Arbeiten an, beschränkt die Untersuchung allerdings auf Staaten, für die Daten für die letzten hundert Jahre verfügbar sind, und untersucht zudem explizit die Zeiträume um die beiden größten Krisen der letzten hundert Jahre, die „Great Depression“ und die „Great Recession“. Die Auswertungen zeigen, dass die personelle Einkommensverteilung ein guter Prädiktor für die Kriseneintrittswahrscheinlichkeit ist.

  8. Great Lakes Bathymetry

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lakes Michigan, Erie, Saint Clair, Ontario and Huron has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and...

  9. Cannabis, Cannabinoids, and Cerebral Metabolism: Potential Applications in Stroke and Disorders of the Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre, Julius Gene S; Schmidt, Elena B

    2015-09-01

    No compound has generated more attention in both the scientific and recently in the political arena as much as cannabinoids. These diverse groups of compounds referred collectively as cannabinoids have both been vilified due to its dramatic and potentially harmful psychotropic effects and glorified due to its equally dramatic and potential application in a number of acute and chronic neurological conditions. Previously illegal to possess, cannabis, the plant where natural form of cannabinoids are derived, is now accepted in a growing number of states for medicinal purpose, and some even for recreational use, increasing opportunities for more scientific experimentation. The purpose of this review is to summarize the growing body of literature on cannabinoids and to present an overview of our current state of knowledge of the human endocannabinoid system in the hope of defining the future of cannabinoids and its potential applications in disorders of the central nervous system, focusing on stroke.

  10. Graphene-like two-dimensional layered nanomaterials: applications in biosensors and nanomedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guohai; Zhu, Chengzhou; Du, Dan; Zhu, Junjie; Lin, Yuehe

    2015-08-01

    The development of nanotechnology provides promising opportunities for various important applications. The recent discovery of atomically-thick two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials can offer manifold perspectives to construct versatile devices with high-performance to satisfy multiple requirements. Many studies directed at graphene have stimulated renewed interest on graphene-like 2D layered nanomaterials (GLNs). GLNs including boron nitride nanosheets, graphitic-carbon nitride nanosheets and transition metal dichalcogenides (e.g. MoS2 and WS2) have attracted significant interest in numerous research fields from physics and chemistry to biology and engineering, which has led to numerous interdisciplinary advances in nano science. Benefiting from the unique physical and chemical properties (e.g. strong mechanical strength, high surface area, unparalleled thermal conductivity, remarkable biocompatibility and ease of functionalization), these 2D layered nanomaterials have shown great potential in biochemistry and biomedicine. This review summarizes recent advances of GLNs in applications of biosensors and nanomedicine, including electrochemical biosensors, optical biosensors, bioimaging, drug delivery and cancer therapy. Current challenges and future perspectives in these rapidly developing areas are also outlined. It is expected that they will have great practical foundation in biomedical applications with future efforts.

  11. What Caused the Great Depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Jean; O'Driscoll, Timothy G.

    2007-01-01

    Economists and historians have struggled for almost 80 years to account for the American Great Depression, which began in 1929 and lasted until the early years of World War II. In this article, the authors discuss three major schools of thought on the causes of the Great Depression and the long failure of the American economy to return to full…

  12. The Sixth Great Mass Extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagler, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Five past great mass extinctions have occurred during Earth's history. Humanity is currently in the midst of a sixth, human-induced great mass extinction of plant and animal life (e.g., Alroy 2008; Jackson 2008; Lewis 2006; McDaniel and Borton 2002; Rockstrom et al. 2009; Rohr et al. 2008; Steffen, Crutzen, and McNeill 2007; Thomas et al. 2004;…

  13. Proceedings of the DAE-BRNS workshop on superconductivity and its application in electrical systems: abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This workshop aims to provide an opportunity for young scientists and researchers to interact with eminent scientists and specialists working in frontier areas of science and technology of superconductivity, superconducting cable developments, superconducting magnets, superconducting radio frequency cavity for particle accelerators, power applications and detectors using superconductor. Superconductivity plays an important role in modern scientific applications starting from modern accelerators to medical diagnostics. It has great potential in future electrical systems to minimize losses and increase efficiency in the system. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  14. Low offspring survival in mountain pine beetle infesting the resistant Great Basin bristlecone pine supports the preference-performance hypothesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika L Eidson

    Full Text Available The preference-performance hypothesis states that ovipositing phytophagous insects will select host plants that are well-suited for their offspring and avoid host plants that do not support offspring performance (survival, development and fitness. The mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae, a native insect herbivore in western North America, can successfully attack and reproduce in most species of Pinus throughout its native range. However, mountain pine beetles avoid attacking Great Basin bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva, despite recent climate-driven increases in mountain pine beetle populations at the high elevations where Great Basin bristlecone pine grows. Low preference for a potential host plant species may not persist if the plant supports favorable insect offspring performance, and Great Basin bristlecone pine suitability for mountain pine beetle offspring performance is unclear. We infested cut bolts of Great Basin bristlecone pine and two susceptible host tree species, limber (P. flexilis and lodgepole (P. contorta pines with adult mountain pine beetles and compared offspring performance. To investigate the potential for variation in offspring performance among mountain pine beetles from different areas, we tested beetles from geographically-separated populations within and outside the current range of Great Basin bristlecone pine. Although mountain pine beetles constructed galleries and laid viable eggs in all three tree species, extremely few offspring emerged from Great Basin bristlecone pine, regardless of the beetle population. Our observed low offspring performance in Great Basin bristlecone pine corresponds with previously documented low mountain pine beetle attack preference. A low preference-low performance relationship suggests that Great Basin bristlecone pine resistance to mountain pine beetle is likely to be retained through climate-driven high-elevation mountain pine beetle outbreaks.

  15. Datenschutz- und Medizinprodukterecht bei Ubiquitous Computing-Anwendungen im Gesundheitssektor / Data protection and medical product law with respect to medical ubiquitous computing applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skistims, Hendrik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available With respect to ubiquitous computing there is a great potential of application, particularly in medicine and health care. This work deals with the legal problems which ubiquitous computing is facing in these areas. At the beginning, issues with respect to data protection and professional secrecy are treated. Afterwards the problem of applicability of medical product law for medical ubiquitous computing applications as well as the resulting requirements for manufactures, operators and users will be discussed.

  16. [Advances in the application of smart phones in modern medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Hu, Jie; Li, Fei; Wei, Huilin; Li, Ying; Lu, Tianjian; Wang, Shuqi; Xu, Feng

    2014-02-01

    Since smart phones have been developed, significant advances in the function of mobile phone due to the development of software, hardware and accessories have been reached. Till now, smart phones have been engaged in daily life with an increasing impact. As a new medical model, mobile phone medicine is emerging and has found wide spread applications in medicine, especially in diagnosing, monitoring and screening various diseases. In addition, mo bile phone medical application shows great potential trend to improve healthcare in resource-limited regions due to its advantageous features of portability and information communication capability. Nowadays, the scientific and technological issues related to mobile phone medicine have attracted worldwide attention. In this review, we summarize state-of-the-art advances of mobile phone medicine with focus on its diagnostics applications in order to expand the fields of their applications and promote healthcare informatization.

  17. Great magnetic storms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsurutani, B.T.; Yen Te Lee; Tang, F.; Gonzalez, W.D.

    1992-01-01

    The five largest magnetic storms that occurred between 1971 and 1986 are studied to determine their solar and interplanetary causes. All of the events are found to be associated with high speed solar wind streams led by collisionless shocks. The high speed streams are clearly related to identifiable solar flares. It is found that (1) it is the extreme values of the southward interplanetary magnetic fields rather than solar wind speeds that are the primary causes of great magnetic storms, (2) shocked and draped sheath fields preceding the driver gas (magnetic cloud) are at least as effective in causing the onset of great magnetic storms (3 of 5 events ) as the strong fields within the driver gas itself, and (3) precursor southward fields ahead of the high speed streams allow the shock compression mechanism (item 2) to be particularly geoeffective

  18. Examination of the embargo hypothesis as an explanation for the Great Silence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deardorff, J. W.

    1987-08-01

    The embargo or quarantine hypothesis for explaining the 'Great Silence' is reviewed and found to be more plausible than the view that, at most, earth might expect to receive radio messages from some distant star. The latter hypothesis is shown to be compatible with extraterrestrial technologies only a few hundred years in advance of those on earth, whereas the embargo hypothesis more reasonably infers that they should be tens of thousands of years in advance and in control of any contact with humanity. Reasons why the embargo hypothesis has received insufficient attention are presented; they involve failure to allow for the application of both greatly advanced technology and high ethical values by maturing societies of extraterrestrial intelligence. The implication of the embargo hypothesis for space development is that planets already harboring diverse biota are ethically off-limits for exploitive colonization.

  19. Rating impacts in a multi-stressor world: a quantitative assessment of 50 stressors affecting the Great Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sigrid D P; Mcintyre, Peter B; Halpern, Benjamin S; Cooke, Roger M; Marino, Adrienne L; Boyer, Gregory L; Buchsbaum, Andy; Burton, G A; Campbell, Linda M; Ciborowski, Jan J H; Doran, Patrick J; Infante, Dana M; Johnson, Lucinda B; Read, Jennifer G; Rose, Joan B; Rutherford, Edward S; Steinman, Alan D; Allan, J David

    2015-04-01

    Ecosystems often experience multiple environmental stressors simultaneously that can differ widely in their pathways and strengths of impact. Differences in the relative impact of environmental stressors can guide restoration and management prioritization, but few studies have empirically assessed a comprehensive suite of stressors acting on a given ecosystem. To fill this gap in the Laurentian Great Lakes, where considerable restoration investments are currently underway, we used expert elicitation via a detailed online survey to develop ratings of the relative impacts of 50 potential stressors. Highlighting the multiplicity of stressors in this system, experts assessed all 50 stressors as having some impact on ecosystem condition, but ratings differed greatly among stressors. Individual stressors related to invasive and nuisance species (e.g., dreissenid mussels and ballast invasion risk) and climate change were assessed as having the greatest potential impacts. These results mark a shift away from the longstanding emphasis on nonpoint phosphorus and persistent bioaccumulative toxic substances in the Great Lakes. Differences in impact ratings among lakes and ecosystem zones were weak, and experts exhibited surprisingly high levels of agreement on the relative impacts of most stressors. Our results provide a basin-wide, quantitative summary of expert opinion on the present-day influence of all major Great Lakes stressors. The resulting ratings can facilitate prioritizing stressors to achieve management objectives in a given location, as well as providing a baseline for future stressor impact assessments in the Great Lakes and elsewhere.

  20. Application of monetary valuation in Life Cycle Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weidema, Bo Pedersen; Pizzol, Massimo; Miguel, Brandão

    Monetary valuation, or monetarisation, is the determination of the economic value of non-market goods, i.e. goods for which no market exists. Although monetary valuation has a great potential to be applied in Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), in particular in the weighting phase, several challenges...... for LCA. For the two surveys, the total number of respondents was 209. The critial review showed that observed- and revealed-preference methods and the abatement cost method have limited applicability in LCA, whereas the conjoint analysis method and the budget constraint method are the best options...

  1. Sb/Mn co-doped oxyfluoride silicate glasses for potential applications in photosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Chaofeng [Key Laboratory of Processing and Testing Technology of Glass & Functional Ceramics of Shandong Province, Qilu University of Technology, Jinan 250353 (China); Laboratoire des Verres et Céramiques, UMR-CNRS 6226, Université de Rennes 1, Rennes 35042 (France); Zhang, Xianghua, E-mail: xiang-hua.zhang@univ-rennes1.fr [Laboratoire des Verres et Céramiques, UMR-CNRS 6226, Université de Rennes 1, Rennes 35042 (France); Ma, Hongli [Laboratoire des Verres et Céramiques, UMR-CNRS 6226, Université de Rennes 1, Rennes 35042 (France)

    2016-03-15

    A series of Sb/Mn co-doped oxyfluoride silicate glasses were prepared via the melt-quenching method to explore red luminescent materials for potential applications in photosynthesis of green plants, and these glasses are investigated by means of luminescence decay curves, absorption, emission, and excitation spectra. We find that the as-prepared glasses are transparent in the visible region and can emit strong red light under ultraviolet, purple, and green light excitations. Furthermore, energy transfer from Sb{sup 3+} to Mn{sup 2+} ions occurs in Sb/Mn co-doped glasses. The results demonstrate that the as-prepared Sb/Mn co-doped oxyfluoride silicate glasses may serve as a potential candidate for developing glass greenhouse, which can enhance the utilization of solar energy for the photosynthesis of the green plants.

  2. Photovoltaic applications of Cu(Sb,Bi)SM (M = Ag, Pb, Pt)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tablero, C.

    2017-04-01

    Ternary Cu-(Sb,Bi)-S compounds are great absorbents of the solar radiation with a variety of applications including optoelectronic and photovoltaic applications. The analyses of several quaternary semiconductors derived from Cu-(Sb,Bi)-S materials is carried out using first-principles density-functional theory with orbital-dependent one-electron potentials. These analyses focus on the optoelectronic properties and the potential for solar cells. The optical properties are obtained from first-principles calculations, and split into inter- and intra-shell-species contributions in order to quantify the optical transitions responsible for the absorption. The absorption coefficients are then used as criteria to evaluate the efficiencies of these materials under several sunlight concentrations. The results indicate high energy photovoltaic conversion efficiency because of the large intra shell s-p absorption of the S and Sb or Bi atomic species.

  3. Meta-modeling soil organic carbon sequestration potential and its application at regional scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhongkui; Wang, Enli; Bryan, Brett A; King, Darran; Zhao, Gang; Pan, Xubin; Bende-Michl, Ulrike

    2013-03-01

    Upscaling the results from process-based soil-plant models to assess regional soil organic carbon (SOC) change and sequestration potential is a great challenge due to the lack of detailed spatial information, particularly soil properties. Meta-modeling can be used to simplify and summarize process-based models and significantly reduce the demand for input data and thus could be easily applied on regional scales. We used the pre-validated Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM) to simulate the impact of climate, soil, and management on SOC at 613 reference sites across Australia's cereal-growing regions under a continuous wheat system. We then developed a simple meta-model to link the APSIM-modeled SOC change to primary drivers, i.e., the amount of recalcitrant SOC, plant available water capacity of soil, soil pH, and solar radiation, temperature, and rainfall in the growing season. Based on high-resolution soil texture data and 8165 climate data points across the study area, we used the meta-model to assess SOC sequestration potential and the uncertainty associated with the variability of soil characteristics. The meta-model explained 74% of the variation of final SOC content as simulated by APSIM. Applying the meta-model to Australia's cereal-growing regions reveals regional patterns in SOC, with higher SOC stock in cool, wet regions. Overall, the potential SOC stock ranged from 21.14 to 152.71 Mg/ha with a mean of 52.18 Mg/ha. Variation of soil properties induced uncertainty ranging from 12% to 117% with higher uncertainty in warm, wet regions. In general, soils in Australia's cereal-growing regions under continuous wheat production were simulated as a sink of atmospheric carbon dioxide with a mean sequestration potential of 8.17 Mg/ha.

  4. Biomass yield potential of short-rotation hardwoods in the Great Plains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geyer, W A [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (USA). Dept. of Forestry

    1989-01-01

    Wood for fuel has increased in importance. Its primary use in the world is for energy, increasingly coming from wood wastes and new biomass sources. One solution to the potential problem of using high-quality trees for fuel could be woody biomass grown under a short-rotation intensive culture system. Species, size, age and spacing are factors that affect biomass production of broadleafed trees. Trials of several species grown at close spacing (0.3 m x 0.3 m) and cut at various ages are described and related to the growth and yield of more conventionally spaced plantings on an alluvial site in eastern Kansas. (author).

  5. SOCIAL MEDIA IN POLAND – GREAT POTENTIAL UTILIZED BY FEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael SEDKOWSKI

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Social media are very popular around the world. More and more people adopt this method of communication, as it brings instant and effective ways to stay in touch with ones relatives, coworkers, brands and products. Poland is no exception, as all major brands of the social sphere have decided to prepare localized versions of their product for the Polish market. One could say that Poland is following the global trends very accurately as Facebook has dominated the market and pushed out the indigenous services Brands and corporation utilize the medium to get in touch with their consumers. On the other side, there are public institutions like universities, local governments , that should be interested in getting in touch with people, as reaching out to one’s potential customers has never been easier. This is happening, but on a very small scale and many attempts fail. In this paper, Author explores the possible reasons behind the situation and attempts to form a prognosis for the market of social media in Poland.

  6. Increased Paracrine Immunomodulatory Potential of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Three-Dimensional Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Follin, Bjarke; Juhl, Morten; Cohen, Smadar

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) have been investigated extensively through the past years, proving to have great clinical therapeutic potential. In vitro cultivation of MSCs in three-dimensional (3D) culture systems, such as scaffolds, hydrogels, or spheroids, have recently gained attention...... for tissue engineering applications. Studies on MSC spheroids demonstrated that such cultivation increased the paracrine immunomodulatory potential of the MSCs, accompanied by phenotypic alterations. In this review, we gather results from recent experimental studies on the immunomodulatory abilities of MSCs...... when cultured as spheroids or in biomaterials like scaffolds or hydrogels compared to regular two-dimensional (2D) culture and show that alterations occurring to MSCs in spheroids also occur in MSCs in biomaterials. We provide a brief description of known mechanisms of MSC immunomodulatory capacity...

  7. Protocol Additional to the agreement between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in the Annex to this document for the information of all Members. The Additional Protocol was approved by the Board of Governors on 11 June 1998. It was signed in Vienna on 22 September 1998. Pursuant to Article 17 of the Additional Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on 30 April 2004, the date on which the Agency received written notification that the European Atomic Energy Community and the United Kingdom had met their respective internal requirements for entry into force

  8. 'Great Power Style' in China's Economic Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Yang

    2011-01-01

    China’s ascendance attracts concern, even though Beijing claims to be a responsible great power and tries to demonstrate its ‘great power style’ in economic diplomacy. This article therefore discusses the following questions: to what extent does the current notion and practice of Chinese ‘great...... power style’ in economic diplomacy comply with, or differ from, the criteria of benign hegemony; and what are the major constraining factors? Conceptually, China’s ‘great power style’ is rooted in ancient Chinese political philosophy and institution, but it highly resembles the Western notion of benign...

  9. Clinical applications of resting state functional connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D Fox

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available During resting conditions the brain remains functionally and metabolically active. One manifestation of this activity that has become an important research tool is spontaneous fluctuations in the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD signal of fMRI. The identification of correlation patterns in these spontaneous fluctuations has been termed resting state functional connectivity (fcMRI and has the potential to greatly increase the translation of fMRI into clinical care. In this article we review the advantages of the resting state signal for clinical applications including detailed discussion of signal to noise considerations. We include guidelines for performing resting state research on clinical populations, outline the different areas for clinical application, and identify important barriers to be addressed to facilitate the translation of resting state fcMRI into the clinical realm.

  10. Phytosanitary irradiation - Development and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman, Guy J.; Loaharanu, Paisan

    2016-12-01

    Phytosanitary irradiation, the use of ionizing radiation to disinfest traded agricultural commodities of regulated pests, is a growing use of food irradiation that has great continued potential for increase in commercial application. In 2015 approximately 25,000 t of fresh fruits and vegetables were irradiated globally for phytosanitary purposes. Phytosanitary irradiation has resulted in a paradigm shift in phytosanitation in that the final burden of proof of efficacy of the treatment has shifted from no live pests upon inspection at a port of entry (as for all previous phytosanitary treatments) to total dependence on certification that the treatment for target pests is based on adequate science and is commercially conducted and protected from post-treatment infestation. In this regard phytosanitary irradiation is managed more like a hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) approach more consistent with food safety than phytosanitation. Thus, phytosanitary irradiation offers a more complete and rigorous methodology for safeguarding than other phytosanitary measures. The role of different organizations in achieving commercial application of phytosanitary irradiation is discussed as well as future issues and applications, including new generic doses.

  11. Nanoparticle-Based Delivery System for Biomedical Applications of RNAi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Chuanxu

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a post-transcriptional gene silencing process triggered by double-strand RNA, including synthetic short interfering RNA (siRNA) and endogenous microRNA (miRNA). RNAi has attracted great attention for developing a new class of therapeutics, due to its capability to speci......RNA/miRNA and transport them to the action site in the target cells. This thesis describes the development of various nanocarriers for siRNA/miRNA delivery and investigate their potential biomedical applications including: anti-inflammation, tissue engineering and cancer...

  12. Great earthquake potential in Oregon and Washington: An overview of recent coastal geologic studies and possible segmentation of the central Cascadia subduction zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, A.R.; Personius, S.F.

    1990-01-01

    Fundamental questions in earthquake hazards research in the Pacific Northwest concern the magnitude and recurrence of great earthquakes in the Cascadia subduction zone in Oregon and Washington. Geologic work of the last few years has produced convincing evidence for coseismic subsidence along the Washington and Oregon coasts. Regional subsidence recorded by estuarine deposits suggests that plate-interface earthquakes of at least M w 8 (>100-km-long ruptures) occurred during the late Holocene in northern Oregon and southern Washington. Differences in the types of coastal marsh sequences between northern and south-central Oregon, however, suggest that regional coastal subsidence does not extend south of about 45.5 degrees N along the Oregon coast. North of this latitude, the coast may intersect the seaward edge of a zone of coseismic subsidence that continues southward onshore. Alternatively, the Cascadia subduction zone is segmented near 44-45 degrees N; a segment boundary at this location would suggest that plate-interface events near M w 8 along the central CSZ would be more frequent than larger (M w 9) events. South of this boundary in the Coos Bay region, the tectonic framework developed through mapping and dating of marine and fluvial terraces indicates that many episodes of abrupt marsh burial in south-central Oregon are best interpreted as the product of deformation on local structures. Some of the local deformation could be associated with moderate earthquakes (M s <6). At most sites in south-central Oregon, however, it is still unclear whether coseismic events were responses to local faulting or folding, to regional deformation during great plate-interface earthquakes, or to both. This study has potential implications for risk assessments for light water reactors in North America

  13. Graphene electrochemistry: an overview of potential applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownson, Dale A C; Banks, Craig E

    2010-11-01

    Graphene, a 2D nanomaterial that possesses spectacular physical, chemical and thermal properties, has caused immense excitement amongst scientists since its freestanding form was isolated in 2004. With research into graphene rife, it promises enhancements and vast applicability within many industrial aspects. Furthermore, graphene possesses a vast array of unique and highly desirable electrochemical properties, and it is this application that offers the most enthralling and spectacular journey. We present a review of the current literature concerning the electrochemical applications and advancements of graphene, starting with its use as a sensor substrate through to applications in energy production and storage, depicting the truly remarkable journey of a material that has just come of age.

  14. Fungal Ribotoxins: A Review of Potential Biotechnological Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Olombrada

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Fungi establish a complex network of biological interactions with other organisms in nature. In many cases, these involve the production of toxins for survival or colonization purposes. Among these toxins, ribotoxins stand out as promising candidates for their use in biotechnological applications. They constitute a group of highly specific extracellular ribonucleases that target a universally conserved sequence of RNA in the ribosome, the sarcin-ricin loop. The detailed molecular study of this family of toxic proteins over the past decades has highlighted their potential in applied research. Remarkable examples would be the recent studies in the field of cancer research with promising results involving ribotoxin-based immunotoxins. On the other hand, some ribotoxin-producer fungi have already been studied in the control of insect pests. The recent role of ribotoxins as insecticides could allow their employment in formulas and even as baculovirus-based biopesticides. Moreover, considering the important role of their target in the ribosome, they can be used as tools to study how ribosome biogenesis is regulated and, eventually, may contribute to a better understanding of some ribosomopathies.

  15. Application development with Qt creator

    CERN Document Server

    Rischpater, Ray

    2013-01-01

    Written in a concise and easy-to-follow approach, this book will guide you to develop your first application with Qt with illustrated examples and screenshots.If you are a developer who is new to Qt and Qt Creator and is interested in harnessing the power of Qt for cross-platform development, this book is great for you. If you have basic experience programming in C++, you have what it takes to create great cross-platform applications using Qt and Qt Creator!

  16. Potential in hot and tepid waters in the department of Landes - Present and future applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauquin, J.P.; Godard, J.M.; Tronel, F.; Pouchan, P.

    1994-12-31

    This study of the geothermal waters potentialities in the Landes department has selectively reviewed the areas of interest in respect of geology and hydrogeology and gives a picture of their potential valorizations. In the Landes, the exploitation of geothermal fields outside of the use for spa bathing was mainly geared to conventional applications (flats heating, swimming pools). Today geothermal potentialities can be extended to balneotherapy, horticultural and market garden greenhouses, fish farming and wood drying. The study performed delivers a data base to be used by the investor to define and to accurately devise their projects of hot and tepid waters utilization. (Authors). 12 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  17. Complete genome sequence of Lactobacillus plantarum LZ95, a potential probiotic strain producing bacteriocins and B-group vitamin riboflavin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Gu, Qing

    2016-07-10

    Lactobacillus plantarum LZ95 is a potential probiotic isolated from newborn infant fecal and it is identified to produce riboflavin with great antimicrobial activity. The complete genome sequence of this strain was reported in the present study. The genome contains a 3,261,418-bp chromosome and two plasmids. Genes, related to the biosynthesis of bacteriocins and riboflavin, were identified. This work will facilitate to reveal the biosynthetic mechanism of bacteriocins and B-group vitamins in lactic acid bacteria and provide evidence for its potential application in food industry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Natural gas is not electricity. Switzerland is not Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinmann, H. P.

    1999-01-01

    The production and procurement of natural gas and electricity are governed by different criteria. The electricity industry model cannot simply be transposed to the Swiss gas market after liberalization. Moreover, the structure of the Swiss gas industry is not the same as that of the electricity sector. For similar reasons, the privatization model adopted for the United Kingdom gas industry is not applicable to Switzerland. Competition already exists on the heating market, while procurement costs do not vary greatly because of the investments involved. Big price cuts cannot therefore be anticipated when the Swiss gas market is liberalized. (author)

  19. Design and surface modification of potential luminomagnetic nanocarriers for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, Ranu K.; Sharma, Prashant K.; Pandey, Avinash C.

    2010-01-01

    Targeted delivery of therapeutics possesses the potential to localize therapeutic agents to a specific tissue as a mechanism to enhance treatment efficacy and mitigate side effects. Moeities that combine imaging and therapeutic modalities in a single macromolecular construct may confer advantages in the development and applications of nanomedicine. Here is an insight into the synthesis of luminomagnetic (luminescent and magnetic, simultaneously) nanocarriers of ZnO:Fe, synthesized by a simple co-precipitation method and surface modified by the ligand folate. This functionalized luminomagnetic nanocarrier system is a bioconjugation approach which combines the specificity of folate receptors on cancer cells with the excellent optical and magnetic properties of the nanoparticles so as to develop biocompatible molecular imaging agents, drug delivery systems, and hyperthermia agents. The vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) studies showed clear hysteresis loops having coercivity 5.1 mT with corresponding magnetization of remanence 7.6 x 10 -3 emu/g, indicating strong magnetic character of the samples. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements show that these nanoparticles are spherical with 6-9 nm size and hence are quite appropriate for in vivo applications as well. The immobilization of folic acid was confirmed by fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis. All these properties make these luminomagnetic nanocarriers one of the most feasible candidates for folate receptor-mediated biomedical applications.

  20. Survey of potential applications of superconducting suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, D.K.; Bupara, S.S.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to survey the recent developments in applying the bulk superconductors to mechanical applications. These applications, called superconducting suspensions, can be broadly divided into three groups - Passive Magnetic Bearings, Passive Superconducting Dampers and Active Superconducting Bearings. Basically, passive magnetic bearings utilize bulk superconductors to support a rotating shaft without contact while active superconducting bearings employ superconducting wires. Passive superconducting dampers, on the other hand, dissipate energy from a vibrating component. Over the past one year, dramatic improvements have been made in processing large-size specimens made of high grade bulk superconductors. As a result, they can meet the size requirements and load capacity requirements of many applications. With this size-scale up, one can utilize them in a wider number of applications than what was possible a few years back. At present several organizations have demonstrated the capability of passive magnetic bearings. The targeted applications include miniature cryoturboexpanders, cryoturbopumps, energy storage wheels and turbomolecular pumps. These demonstrations indicate that the passive magnetic bearings are closer to technology maturity. (orig.)

  1. Flexible devices: from materials, architectures to applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Mingzhi; Ma, Yue; Yuan, Xin; Hu, Yi; Liu, Jie; Jin, Zhong

    2018-01-01

    Flexible devices, such as flexible electronic devices and flexible energy storage devices, have attracted a significant amount of attention in recent years for their potential applications in modern human lives. The development of flexible devices is moving forward rapidly, as the innovation of methods and manufacturing processes has greatly encouraged the research of flexible devices. This review focuses on advanced materials, architecture designs and abundant applications of flexible devices, and discusses the problems and challenges in current situations of flexible devices. We summarize the discovery of novel materials and the design of new architectures for improving the performance of flexible devices. Finally, we introduce the applications of flexible devices as key components in real life. Project supported by the National Key R&D Program of China (Nos. 2017YFA0208200, 2016YFB0700600, 2015CB659300), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 21403105, 21573108), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (No. 020514380107).

  2. Spatial distribution and ecological environment analysis of great gerbil in Xinjiang Plague epidemic foci based on remote sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Mengxu; Wang, Juanle; Li, Qun; Cao, Chunxiang

    2014-01-01

    Yersinia pestis (Plague bacterium) from great gerbil was isolated in 2005 in Xinjiang Dzungarian Basin, which confirmed the presence of the plague epidemic foci. This study analysed the spatial distribution and suitable habitat of great gerbil based on the monitoring data of great gerbil from Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, as well as the ecological environment elements obtained from remote sensing products. The results showed that: (1) 88.5% (277/313) of great gerbil distributed in the area of elevation between 200 and 600 meters. (2) All the positive points located in the area with a slope of 0–3 degree, and the sunny tendency on aspect was not obvious. (3) All 313 positive points of great gerbil distributed in the area with an average annual temperature from 5 to 11 °C, and 165 points with an average annual temperature from 7 to 9 °C. (4) 72.8% (228/313) of great gerbil survived in the area with an annual precipitation of 120–200mm. (5) The positive points of great gerbil increased correspondingly with the increasing of NDVI value, but there is no positive point when NDVI is higher than 0.521, indicating the suitability of vegetation for great gerbil. This study explored a broad and important application for the monitoring and prevention of plague using remote sensing and geographic information system

  3. Regulations and policies that limit the growth of the U.S. Great Lakes cruising market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    The worldwide cruise industry has seen remarkable growth since the 1990s. The cruise market on the Great Lakes has lagged the worldwide growth and compared to historical records, has fallen far short of its full potential. This paper reviews the hist...

  4. Possible applications for municipal solid waste fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, C; Ribeiro, A; Ottosen, L

    2003-01-31

    The present study focuses on existing practices related to the reuse of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) fly ash and identifies new potential uses. Nine possible applications were identified and grouped into four main categories: construction materials (cement, concrete, ceramics, glass and glass-ceramics); geotechnical applications (road pavement, embankments); "agriculture" (soil amendment); and, miscellaneous (sorbent, sludge conditioning). Each application is analysed in detail, including final-product technical characteristics, with a special emphasis on environmental impacts. A comparative analysis of the different options is performed, stressing the advantages but also the weaknesses of each option. This information is systemized in order to provide a framework for the selection of best technology and final products. The results presented here show new possibilities for this waste reuse in a short-term, in a wide range of fields, resulting in great advantages in waste minimization as well as resources conservation.

  5. Potential applications of optical coherence tomography angiography in glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastiridou, Anna; Chopra, Vikas

    2018-05-01

    Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is a novel, noninvasive imaging modality that allows assessment of the retinal and choroidal vasculature. The scope of this review is to summarize recent studies using OCTA in glaucoma and highlight potential applications of this new technology in the field of glaucoma. OCTA studies have shown that retinal vascular changes may not develop solely as a result of advanced glaucoma damage. OCTA-derived measurements have provided evidence for lower retinal vascular densities at the optic nerve head, peripapillary and macula in preperimetric-glaucoma and early-glaucoma, as well as, in more advanced glaucoma, in comparison to with normal eyes. OCTA is a novel imaging modality that has already started to expand our knowledge base regarding the role of ocular blood flow in glaucoma. Future studies will better elucidate the role of OCTA-derived measurements in clinical practice, research, and clinical trials in glaucoma.

  6. Engineered Nanomaterials, Sexy New Technology and Potential Hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaulieu, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    Engineered nanomaterials enhance exciting new applications that can greatly benefit society in areas of cancer treatments, solar energy, energy storage, and water purification. While nanotechnology shows incredible promise in these and other areas by exploiting nanomaterials unique properties, these same properties can potentially cause adverse health effects to workers who may be exposed during work. Dispersed nanoparticles in air can cause adverse health effects to animals not merely due to their chemical properties but due to their size, structure, shape, surface chemistry, solubility, carcinogenicity, reproductive toxicity, mutagenicity, dermal toxicity, and parent material toxicity. Nanoparticles have a greater likelihood of lung deposition and blood absorption than larger particles due to their size. Nanomaterials can also pose physical hazards due to their unusually high reactivity, which makes them useful as catalysts, but has the potential to cause fires and explosions. Characterization of the hazards (and potential for exposures) associated with nanomaterial development and incorporation in other products is an essential step in the development of nanotechnologies. Developing controls for these hazards are equally important. Engineered controls should be integrated into nanomaterial manufacturing process design according to 10CFR851, DOE Policy 456.1, and DOE Notice 456.1 as safety-related hardware or administrative controls for worker safety. Nanomaterial hazards in a nuclear facility must also meet control requirements per DOE standards 3009, 1189, and 1186. Integration of safe designs into manufacturing processes for new applications concurrent with the developing technology is essential for worker safety. This paper presents a discussion of nanotechnology, nanomaterial properties/hazards and controls

  7. Aquatic Insects of New York Salt Marsh Associated with Mosquito Larval Habitat and their Potential Utility as Bioindicators

    OpenAIRE

    Rochlin, Ilia; Dempsey, Mary E.; Iwanejko, Tom; Ninivaggi, Dominick V.

    2011-01-01

    The aquatic insect fauna of salt marshes is poorly characterized, with the possible exception of biting Diptera. Aquatic insects play a vital role in salt marsh ecology, and have great potential importance as biological indicators for assessing marsh health. In addition, they may be impacted by measures to control mosquitoes such as changes to the marsh habitat, altered hydrology, or the application of pesticides. Given these concerns, the goals of this study were to conduct the first taxonom...

  8. Recensie "The Great Reset" : Richard Florida

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roy van Dalm

    2010-01-01

    Like the Great Depression and the Long Depression before it, experts have viewed prolonged economic downturns as crises. In The Great Reset , bestselling author Richard Florida argues that we should instead see the recent recession as an opportunity to create entirely new ways of working and living

  9. Mechanics of biting in great white and sandtiger sharks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, T L; Clausen, P; Huber, D R; McHenry, C R; Peddemors, V; Wroe, S

    2011-02-03

    Although a strong correlation between jaw mechanics and prey selection has been demonstrated in bony fishes (Osteichthyes), how jaw mechanics influence feeding performance in cartilaginous fishes (Chondrichthyes) remains unknown. Hence, tooth shape has been regarded as a primary predictor of feeding behavior in sharks. Here we apply Finite Element Analysis (FEA) to examine form and function in the jaws of two threatened shark species, the great white (Carcharodon carcharias) and the sandtiger (Carcharias taurus). These species possess characteristic tooth shapes believed to reflect dietary preferences. We show that the jaws of sandtigers and great whites are adapted for rapid closure and generation of maximum bite force, respectively, and that these functional differences are consistent with diet and dentition. Our results suggest that in both taxa, insertion of jaw adductor muscles on a central tendon functions to straighten and sustain muscle fibers to nearly orthogonal insertion angles as the mouth opens. We argue that this jaw muscle arrangement allows high bite forces to be maintained across a wider range of gape angles than observed in mammalian models. Finally, our data suggest that the jaws of sub-adult great whites are mechanically vulnerable when handling large prey. In addition to ontogenetic changes in dentition, further mineralization of the jaws may be required to effectively feed on marine mammals. Our study is the first comparative FEA of the jaws for any fish species. Results highlight the potential of FEA for testing previously intractable questions regarding feeding mechanisms in sharks and other vertebrates. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Thirty years of great ape gestures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasello, Michael; Call, Josep

    2018-02-21

    We and our colleagues have been doing studies of great ape gestural communication for more than 30 years. Here we attempt to spell out what we have learned. Some aspects of the process have been reliably established by multiple researchers, for example, its intentional structure and its sensitivity to the attentional state of the recipient. Other aspects are more controversial. We argue here that it is a mistake to assimilate great ape gestures to the species-typical displays of other mammals by claiming that they are fixed action patterns, as there are many differences, including the use of attention-getters. It is also a mistake, we argue, to assimilate great ape gestures to human gestures by claiming that they are used referentially and declaratively in a human-like manner, as apes' "pointing" gesture has many limitations and they do not gesture iconically. Great ape gestures constitute a unique form of primate communication with their own unique qualities.

  11. Evaluation of thermal, chemical, and mechanical seed scarification methods for 4 Great Basin lupine species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covy D. Jones; Mikel R. Stevens; Von D. Jolley; Bryan G. Hopkins; Scott L. Jensen; Dave Turner; Jason M. Stettler

    2016-01-01

    Seeds of most Great Basin lupine (Lupinus spp. [Fabaceae]) species are physically dormant and thus, difficult to establish in uniform stands in seed production fields. We designed this study to examine 5 seed scarification techniques, each with 11 levels of application (including a non-scarified control), to reduce the physical seed dormancy of longspur lupine...

  12. Applications of nutrient profiling: potential role in diet-related chronic disease prevention and the feasibility of a core nutrient-profiling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, G; Rayner, M; Stockley, L; Scarborough, P; Snowdon, W; Swinburn, B

    2011-03-01

    A number of different nutrient-profiling models have been proposed and several applications of nutrient profiling have been identified. This paper outlines the potential role of nutrient-profiling applications in the prevention of diet-related chronic disease (DRCD), and considers the feasibility of a core nutrient-profiling system, which could be modified for purpose, to underpin the multiple potential applications in a particular country. The 'Four 'P's of Marketing' (Product, Promotion, Place and Price) are used as a framework for identifying and for classifying potential applications of nutrient profiling. A logic pathway is then presented that can be used to gauge the potential impact of nutrient-profiling interventions on changes in behaviour, changes in diet and, ultimately, changes in DRCD outcomes. The feasibility of a core nutrient-profiling system is assessed by examining the implications of different model design decisions and their suitability to different purposes. There is substantial scope to use nutrient profiling as part of the policies for the prevention of DRCD. A core nutrient-profiling system underpinning the various applications is likely to reduce discrepancies and minimise the confusion for regulators, manufacturers and consumers. It seems feasible that common elements, such as a standard scoring method, a core set of nutrients and food components, and defined food categories, could be incorporated as part of a core system, with additional application-specific criteria applying. However, in developing and in implementing such a system, several country-specific contextual and technical factors would need to be balanced.

  13. Mineral potential modelling of gold and silver mineralization in the Nevada Great Basin - a GIS-based analysis using weights of evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalasky, Mark J.

    2001-01-01

    The distribution of 2,690 gold-silver-bearing occurrences in the Nevada Great Basin was examined in terms of spatial association with various geological phenomena. Analysis of these relationships, using GIS and weights of evidence modelling techniques, has predicted areas of high mineral potential where little or no mining activity exists. Mineral potential maps for sedimentary (?disseminated?) and volcanic (?epithermal?) rock-hosted gold-silver mineralization revealed two distinct patterns that highlight two sets of crustal-scale geologic features that likely control the regional distribution of these deposit types. The weights of evidence method is a probability-based technique for mapping mineral potential using the spatial distribution of known mineral occurrences. Mineral potential maps predicting the distribution of gold-silver-bearing occurrences were generated from structural, geochemical, geomagnetic, gravimetric, lithologic, and lithotectonic-related deposit-indicator factors. The maps successfully predicted nearly 70% of the total number of known occurrences, including ~83% of sedimentary and ~60% of volcanic rock-hosted types. Sedimentary and volcanic rockhosted mineral potential maps showed high spatial correlation (an area cross-tabulation agreement of 85% and 73%, respectively) with expert-delineated mineral permissive tracts. In blind tests, the sedimentary and volcanic rock-hosted mineral potential maps predicted 10 out of 12 and 5 out of 5 occurrences, respectively. The key mineral predictor factors, in order of importance, were determined to be: geology (including lithology, structure, and lithotectonic terrane), geochemistry (indication of alteration), and geophysics. Areas of elevated sedimentary rock-hosted mineral potential are generally confined to central, north-central, and north-eastern Nevada. These areas form a conspicuous ?V?-shape pattern that is coincident with the Battle Mountain-Eureka (Cortez) and Carlin mineral trends and a

  14. Holocene climate in the western Great Lakes national parks and lakeshores: Implications for future climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Margaret; Douglas, Christine; Cole, K.L.; Winkler, Marge; Flaknes, Robyn

    2000-01-01

    We reconstruct Holocene climate history (last 10,000 years) for each of the U.S. National Park Service units in the western Great Lakes region in order to evaluate their sensitivity to global warming. Annual precipitation, annual temperature, and July and January temperatures were reconstructed by comparing fossil pollen in lake sediment with pollen in surface samples, assuming that ancient climates were similar to modern climate near analogous surface samples. In the early Holocene, most of the parks experienced colder winters, warmer summers, and lower precipitation than today. An exception is Voyageurs National Park in northern Minnesota where, by 8000 years ago, January temperatures were higher than today. The combination of high mean annual temperature and lower precipitation at Voyageurs resulted in a dry period between 8000 and 5000 years ago, similar to the Prairie Period in regions to the south and west. A mid-Holocene warm-dry period also occurred at other northern and central parks but was much less strongly developed. In southern parks there was no clear evidence of a mid-Holocene warm-dry period. These differences suggest that global model predictions of a warm, dry climate in the northern Great Plains under doubled atmospheric CO2 may be more applicable to Voyageurs than to the other parks. The contrast in reconstructed temperatures at Voyageurs and Isle Royale indicates that the ameliorating effect of the Great Lakes on temperatures has been in effect throughout the Holocene and presumably will continue in the future, thus reducing the potential for species loss caused by future temperature extremes. Increased numbers of mesic trees at all of the parks in the late Holocene reflect increasing annual precipitation. This trend toward more mesic conditions began 6000 years ago in the south and 4000 years ago in the north and increased sharply in recent millennia at parks located today in lake-effect snow belts. This suggests that lake-effect snowfall is

  15. Oriented Decoration in Metal-Functionalized Ordered Mesoporous Silicas and Their Catalytic Applications in the Oxidation of Aromatic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijian Zhou

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Ordered mesoporous silicas (OMSs attract considerable attention due to their advanced structural properties. However, for the pristine silica materials, the inert property greatly inhibits their catalytic applications. Thus, to contribute to the versatile surface of OMSs, different metal active sites, including acidic/basic sites and redox sites, have been introduced into specific locations (mesoporous channels and framework of OMSs and the metal-functionalized ordered mesoporous silicas (MOMSs show great potential in the catalytic applications. In this review, we first present the categories of metal active sites. Then, the synthesized processes of MOMSs are thoroughly discussed, in which the metal active sites would be introduced with the assistance of organic groups into the specific locations of OMSs. In addition, the structural morphologies of OMSs are elaborated and the catalytic applications of MOMSs in the oxidation of aromatic compounds are illustrated in detail. Finally, the prospects for the future development in this field are proposed.

  16. Wind erosion potential of a winter wheat–summer fallow rotation after land application of biosolids

    Science.gov (United States)

    While land application of biosolids is recognized as a sustainable management practice for enhancing soil health, no studies have determined the effects of biosolids on soil wind erosion. Wind erosion potential of a silt loam was assessed using a portable wind tunnel after applying synthetic and bio...

  17. ["Great jobs"-also in psychiatry?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiessl, H; Hübner-Liebermann, B

    2003-09-01

    Against the background of a beginning shortage of psychiatrists, results from interviews with 112 employees of an automotive company with the topic "Great Job" are presented to discuss their relevance to psychiatry. The interviews were analysed by means of a qualitative content analysis. Most employees assigned importance to great pay, constructive collaboration with colleagues, and work appealing to personal interests. Further statements particularly relevant to psychiatry were: successful career, flexible working hours, manageable job, work-life balance, well-founded training, no bureaucracy within the company, and personal status in society. The well-known economic restrictions in health care and the still negative attitude towards psychiatry currently reduce the attraction of psychiatry as a profession. From the viewpoint of personnel management, the attractors of a great job revealed in this study are proposed as important clues for the recruitment of medical students for psychiatry and the development of psychiatric staff.

  18. The National Landslide Database of Great Britain: Acquisition, communication and the role of social media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Catherine; Freeborough, Katy; Dashwood, Claire; Dijkstra, Tom; Lawrie, Kenneth

    2015-11-01

    The British Geological Survey (BGS) is the national geological agency for Great Britain that provides geoscientific information to government, other institutions and the public. The National Landslide Database has been developed by the BGS and is the focus for national geohazard research for landslides in Great Britain. The history and structure of the geospatial database and associated Geographical Information System (GIS) are explained, along with the future developments of the database and its applications. The database is the most extensive source of information on landslides in Great Britain with over 17,000 records of landslide events to date, each documented as fully as possible for inland, coastal and artificial slopes. Data are gathered through a range of procedures, including: incorporation of other databases; automated trawling of current and historical scientific literature and media reports; new field- and desk-based mapping technologies with digital data capture, and using citizen science through social media and other online resources. This information is invaluable for directing the investigation, prevention and mitigation of areas of unstable ground in accordance with Government planning policy guidelines. The national landslide susceptibility map (GeoSure) and a national landslide domains map currently under development, as well as regional mapping campaigns, rely heavily on the information contained within the landslide database. Assessing susceptibility to landsliding requires knowledge of the distribution of failures, an understanding of causative factors, their spatial distribution and likely impacts, whilst understanding the frequency and types of landsliding present is integral to modelling how rainfall will influence the stability of a region. Communication of landslide data through the Natural Hazard Partnership (NHP) and Hazard Impact Model contributes to national hazard mitigation and disaster risk reduction with respect to weather and

  19. Estimating the potential for solar thermal applications in the industrial process heat market 1990-2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demeter, C.P.; Gray, E.E.; Carwile, C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a preliminary evaluation of the potential domestic market for solar thermal energy supply technologies matched to industrial process heat applications. The study estimates current and projects future industrial process heat demand to the year 2030 by two-digit standard industrial classification code for the manufacturing industrial sector and discusses the potential to displace conventional fossil fuel sources such as natural gas with alternative sources of supply. The PC Industrial Model, used by DOE's Energy Information Administration in support of the National Energy Strategy (NES) is used for forecast industrial energy demand. Demand is disaggregated by census region to account for geographic variations in solar insolation, and by heat medium and temperature to facilitate end-use matching with appropriate solar energy supply technologies. Levelized energy costs (LEC) are calculated for flat plate collectors for low- temperature preheat applications, parabolic troughs for intermediate temperature process steam and direct heat, and parabolic dish technologies for high-temperature, direct heat applications. LEC is also developed for a conventional natural gas-fueled Industrial Process Heat (IPH) supply source assuming natural gas price escalation consistent with NES forecasts to develop a relative figure of merit used in a market penetration model

  20. 76 FR 7835 - Great River Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Scoping Meetings and Environmental Site Review and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Scoping Meetings and Environmental Site Review and Soliciting Scoping Comments.... c. Date filed: July 12, 2010. d. Applicant: Great River Hydropower, LLC. e. Name of Project: Upper... 796-foot-long by 46-foot-wide by 25-foot-high concrete hydropower structure consisting of 30 turbine...