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Sample records for great chiles earthquake

  1. The 1985 central chile earthquake: a repeat of previous great earthquakes in the region?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comte, D; Eisenberg, A; Lorca, E; Pardo, M; Ponce, L; Saragoni, R; Singh, S K; Suárez, G

    1986-07-25

    A great earthquake (surface-wave magnitude, 7.8) occurred along the coast of central Chile on 3 March 1985, causing heavy damage to coastal towns. Intense foreshock activity near the epicenter of the main shock occurred for 11 days before the earthquake. The aftershocks of the 1985 earthquake define a rupture area of 170 by 110 square kilometers. The earthquake was forecast on the basis of the nearly constant repeat time (83 +/- 9 years) of great earthquakes in this region. An analysis of previous earthquakes suggests that the rupture lengths of great shocks in the region vary by a factor of about 3. The nearly constant repeat time and variable rupture lengths cannot be reconciled with time- or slip-predictable models of earthquake recurrence. The great earthquakes in the region seem to involve a variable rupture mode and yet, for unknown reasons, remain periodic. Historical data suggest that the region south of the 1985 rupture zone should now be considered a gap of high seismic potential that may rupture in a great earthquake in the next few tens of years.

  2. 2017 Valparaíso earthquake sequence and the megathrust patchwork of central Chile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nealy, Jennifer L.; Herman, Matthew W.; Moore, Ginevra L.; Hayes, Gavin P.; Benz, Harley M.; Bergman, Eric A.; Barrientos, Sergio E.

    2017-01-01

    In April 2017, a sequence of earthquakes offshore Valparaíso, Chile, raised concerns of a potential megathrust earthquake in the near future. The largest event in the 2017 sequence was a M6.9 on 24 April, seemingly colocated with the last great-sized earthquake in the region—a M8.0 in March 1985.

  3. Understanding Great Earthquakes in Japan's Kanto Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Reiji; Curewitz, Daniel

    2008-10-01

    Third International Workshop on the Kanto Asperity Project; Chiba, Japan, 16-19 February 2008; The 1703 (Genroku) and 1923 (Taisho) earthquakes in Japan's Kanto region (M 8.2 and M 7.9, respectively) caused severe damage in the Tokyo metropolitan area. These great earthquakes occurred along the Sagami Trough, where the Philippine Sea slab is subducting beneath Japan. Historical records, paleoseismological research, and geophysical/geodetic monitoring in the region indicate that such great earthquakes will repeat in the future.

  4. The great East Japan earthquake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fluke, R.

    2011-06-15

    'Full text:' More formally called the Tohoku-Chihou-Taiheiyo-Oki Earthquake of March 11, 2011, it was the ensuing tsunami that caused the most death and destruction to the north-east coastal region of Japan. It is also what caused the multiple meltdowns at Fukushima Dai-ichi. Reactor Unit 1, ironically, was scheduled to be permanently shut down for decommissioning just two weeks later. The Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant has a tsunami protection barrier designed for the worst recorded tsunami in that area since 1896 - to a height of 5.7 m. The plant itself is on an elevated grade of about 10 m. The tsunami, reported to be 14-15 m, caused inundation of the entire site with at least four metres of seawater. The seawater flooded the turbine building and damaged electrical equipment including the emergency diesel generators, leaving the entire six-unit nuclear power plan without any source of AC power, known as the 'station blackout scenario'. There are numerous reports available on-line at various sites. The Japanese Government report is frank and forthcoming on the causes and the lessons learned, and the lAEA Mission report is in-depth and well presented, not only as a factual account of the events but as a unified source of the conclusions and lessons learned. Photos of the catastrophe are available at the TEPCO web site: http://www.tepco.co.jp/en/index-e.html. In this edition of the Bulletin there is a 'layman's' description of CANDU and BWR design in terms of the fundamental safety principles - Control, Cool and Contain as well as a description of how these principles were met, or not met at Fukushima Dai-ichi. Also, an excerpt from the IAEA Expert Mission is included. We 'technocrats' sometimes forget about the human aspects of a nuclear disaster. An essay by Dr. Michael Edwards is included entitled 'Psychology, Philosophy and Nuclear Science'. Other references to the events appear throughout this

  5. The great East Japan earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluke, R.

    2011-01-01

    'Full text:' More formally called the Tohoku-Chihou-Taiheiyo-Oki Earthquake of March 11, 2011, it was the ensuing tsunami that caused the most death and destruction to the north-east coastal region of Japan. It is also what caused the multiple meltdowns at Fukushima Dai-ichi. Reactor Unit 1, ironically, was scheduled to be permanently shut down for decommissioning just two weeks later. The Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant has a tsunami protection barrier designed for the worst recorded tsunami in that area since 1896 - to a height of 5.7 m. The plant itself is on an elevated grade of about 10 m. The tsunami, reported to be 14-15 m, caused inundation of the entire site with at least four metres of seawater. The seawater flooded the turbine building and damaged electrical equipment including the emergency diesel generators, leaving the entire six-unit nuclear power plan without any source of AC power, known as the 'station blackout scenario'. There are numerous reports available on-line at various sites. The Japanese Government report is frank and forthcoming on the causes and the lessons learned, and the lAEA Mission report is in-depth and well presented, not only as a factual account of the events but as a unified source of the conclusions and lessons learned. Photos of the catastrophe are available at the TEPCO web site: http://www.tepco.co.jp/en/index-e.html. In this edition of the Bulletin there is a 'layman's' description of CANDU and BWR design in terms of the fundamental safety principles - Control, Cool and Contain as well as a description of how these principles were met, or not met at Fukushima Dai-ichi. Also, an excerpt from the IAEA Expert Mission is included. We 'technocrats' sometimes forget about the human aspects of a nuclear disaster. An essay by Dr. Michael Edwards is included entitled 'Psychology, Philosophy and Nuclear Science'. Other references to the events appear throughout this edition.(author)

  6. Integrated geophysical characteristics of the 2015 Illapel, Chile, earthquake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herman, Matthew W.; Nealy, Jennifer L.; Yeck, William L.; Barnhart, William D.; Hayes, Gavin P.; Furlong, Kevin P.; Benz, Harley M.

    2017-01-01

    On 16 September 2015, a Mw 8.3 earthquake ruptured the subduction zone offshore of Illapel, Chile, generating an aftershock sequence with 14 Mw 6.0–7.0 events. A double source W phase moment tensor inversion consists of a Mw 7.2 subevent and the main Mw 8.2 phase. We determine two slip models for

  7. Modeling Seismic Cycles of Great Megathrust Earthquakes Across the Scales With Focus at Postseismic Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolev, Stephan V.; Muldashev, Iskander A.

    2017-12-01

    Subduction is substantially multiscale process where the stresses are built by long-term tectonic motions, modified by sudden jerky deformations during earthquakes, and then restored by following multiple relaxation processes. Here we develop a cross-scale thermomechanical model aimed to simulate the subduction process from 1 min to million years' time scale. The model employs elasticity, nonlinear transient viscous rheology, and rate-and-state friction. It generates spontaneous earthquake sequences and by using an adaptive time step algorithm, recreates the deformation process as observed naturally during the seismic cycle and multiple seismic cycles. The model predicts that viscosity in the mantle wedge drops by more than three orders of magnitude during the great earthquake with a magnitude above 9. As a result, the surface velocities just an hour or day after the earthquake are controlled by viscoelastic relaxation in the several hundred km of mantle landward of the trench and not by the afterslip localized at the fault as is currently believed. Our model replicates centuries-long seismic cycles exhibited by the greatest earthquakes and is consistent with the postseismic surface displacements recorded after the Great Tohoku Earthquake. We demonstrate that there is no contradiction between extremely low mechanical coupling at the subduction megathrust in South Chile inferred from long-term geodynamic models and appearance of the largest earthquakes, like the Great Chile 1960 Earthquake.

  8. UPDATE: MAJOR EARTHQUAKE IN CHILE (II) | CTIO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preserving the Dark Skies La Oficina de Protección de la Calidad del Cielo del Norte de Chile - OPCC Light el acceso a ambas cumbres. Los tanques de agua sobre Tololo fueron dañados causando una fuga importante, y las líneas de control se cortaron poniendo fuera de operación las bombas de agua. Las

  9. Smartphone-Based Earthquake and Tsunami Early Warning in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, B. A.; Baez, J. C.; Ericksen, T.; Barrientos, S. E.; Minson, S. E.; Duncan, C.; Guillemot, C.; Smith, D.; Boese, M.; Cochran, E. S.; Murray, J. R.; Langbein, J. O.; Glennie, C. L.; Dueitt, J.; Parra, H.

    2016-12-01

    Many locations around the world face high seismic hazard, but do not have the resources required to establish traditional earthquake and tsunami warning systems (E/TEW) that utilize scientific grade seismological sensors. MEMs accelerometers and GPS chips embedded in, or added inexpensively to, smartphones are sensitive enough to provide robust E/TEW if they are deployed in sufficient numbers. We report on a pilot project in Chile, one of the most productive earthquake regions world-wide. There, magnitude 7.5+ earthquakes occurring roughly every 1.5 years and larger tsunamigenic events pose significant local and trans-Pacific hazard. The smartphone-based network described here is being deployed in parallel to the build-out of a scientific-grade network for E/TEW. Our sensor package comprises a smartphone with internal MEMS and an external GPS chipset that provides satellite-based augmented positioning and phase-smoothing. Each station is independent of local infrastructure, they are solar-powered and rely on cellular SIM cards for communications. An Android app performs initial onboard processing and transmits both accelerometer and GPS data to a server employing the FinDer-BEFORES algorithm to detect earthquakes, producing an acceleration-based line source model for smaller magnitude earthquakes or a joint seismic-geodetic finite-fault distributed slip model for sufficiently large magnitude earthquakes. Either source model provides accurate ground shaking forecasts, while distributed slip models for larger offshore earthquakes can be used to infer seafloor deformation for local tsunami warning. The network will comprise 50 stations by Sept. 2016 and 100 stations by Dec. 2016. Since Nov. 2015, batch processing has detected, located, and estimated the magnitude for Mw>5 earthquakes. Operational since June, 2016, we have successfully detected two earthquakes > M5 (M5.5, M5.1) that occurred within 100km of our network while producing zero false alarms.

  10. Megathrust earthquakes in Central Chile: What is next after the Maule 2010 earthquake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madariaga, R.

    2013-05-01

    The 27 February 2010 Maule earthquake occurred in a well identified gap in the Chilean subduction zone. The event has now been studied in detail using both far-field, near field seismic and geodetic data, we will review this information gathered so far. The event broke a region that was much longer along strike than the gap left over from the 1835 Concepcion earthquake, sometimes called the Darwin earthquake because he was in the area when the earthquake occurred and made many observations. Recent studies of contemporary documents by Udias et al indicate that the area broken by the Maule earthquake in 2010 had previously broken by a similar earthquake in 1751, but several events in the magnitude 8 range occurred in the area principally in 1835 already mentioned and, more recently on 1 December 1928 to the North and on 21 May 1960 (1 1/2 days before the big Chilean earthquake of 1960). Currently the area of the 2010 earthquake and the region immediately to the North is undergoing a very large increase in seismicity with numerous clusters of seismicity that move along the plate interface. Examination of the seismicity of Chile of the 18th and 19th century show that the region immediately to the North of the 2010 earthquake broke in a very large megathrust event in July 1730. this is the largest known earthquake in central Chile. The region where this event occurred has broken in many occasions with M 8 range earthquakes in 1822, 1880, 1906, 1971 and 1985. Is it preparing for a new very large megathrust event? The 1906 earthquake of Mw 8.3 filled the central part of the gap but it has broken again on several occasions in 1971, 1973 and 1985. The main question is whether the 1906 earthquake relieved enough stresses from the 1730 rupture zone. Geodetic data shows that most of the region that broke in 1730 is currently almost fully locked from the northern end of the Maule earthquake at 34.5°S to 30°S, near the southern end of the of the Mw 8.5 Atacama earthquake of 11

  11. Antarctic icequakes triggered by the 2010 Maule earthquake in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhigang; Walter, Jacob I.; Aster, Richard C.; Nyblade, Andrew; Wiens, Douglas A.; Anandakrishnan, Sridhar

    2014-09-01

    Seismic waves from distant, large earthquakes can almost instantaneously trigger shallow micro-earthquakes and deep tectonic tremor as they pass through Earth's crust. Such remotely triggered seismic activity mostly occurs in tectonically active regions. Triggered seismicity is generally considered to reflect shear failure on critically stressed fault planes and is thought to be driven by dynamic stress perturbations from both Love and Rayleigh types of surface seismic wave. Here we analyse seismic data from Antarctica in the six hours leading up to and following the 2010 Mw 8.8 Maule earthquake in Chile. We identify many high-frequency seismic signals during the passage of the Rayleigh waves generated by the Maule earthquake, and interpret them as small icequakes triggered by the Rayleigh waves. The source locations of these triggered icequakes are difficult to determine owing to sparse seismic network coverage, but the triggered events generate surface waves, so are probably formed by near-surface sources. Our observations are consistent with tensile fracturing of near-surface ice or other brittle fracture events caused by changes in volumetric strain as the high-amplitude Rayleigh waves passed through. We conclude that cryospheric systems can be sensitive to large distant earthquakes.

  12. Distinguishing megathrust from intraplate earthquakes using lacustrine turbidites (Laguna Lo Encañado, Central Chile)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Daele, Maarten; Araya-Cornejo, Cristian; Pille, Thomas; Meyer, Inka; Kempf, Philipp; Moernaut, Jasper; Cisternas, Marco

    2017-04-01

    triggered by megathrust earthquakes. These findings are an important step forward in the interpretation of lacustrine turbidites in subduction settings, and will eventually improve hazard assessments based on such paleoseismic records in the study area, and in other subduction zones. References Howarth et al., 2014. Lake sediments record high intensity shaking that provides insight into the location and rupture length of large earthquakes on the Alpine Fault, New Zealand. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 403, 340-351. Lomnitz, 1960. A study of the Maipo Valley earthquakes of September 4, 1958, Second World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Tokyo and Kyoto, Japan, pp. 501-520. Sepulveda et al., 2008. New Findings on the 1958 Las Melosas Earthquake Sequence, Central Chile: Implications for Seismic Hazard Related to Shallow Crustal Earthquakes in Subduction Zones. Journal of Earthquake Engineering 12, 432-455. Van Daele et al., 2015. A comparison of the sedimentary records of the 1960 and 2010 great Chilean earthquakes in 17 lakes: Implications for quantitative lacustrine palaeoseismology. Sedimentology 62, 1466-1496.

  13. The Great Tangshan Earthquake of 1976

    OpenAIRE

    Huixian, Liu; Housner, George W.; Lili, Xie; Duxin, He

    2002-01-01

    At 4:00 a.m. on July 28, 1976 the city of Tangshan, China ceased to exist. A magnitude 7.8 earthquake was generated by a fault that passed through the city and caused 85% of the buildings to collapse or to be so seriously damaged as to be unusable, and the death toll was enormous. The earthquake caused the failures of the electric power system, the water supply system, the sewer system, the telephone and telegraph systems, and radio communications; and the large coal mines and the industries ...

  14. Liquefaction macrophenomena in the great Wenchuan earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Longwei; Yuan, Xiaoming; Cao, Zhenzhong; Hou, Longqing; Sun, Rui; Dong, Lin; Wang, Weiming; Meng, Fanchao; Chen, Hongjuan

    2009-06-01

    On May 12, 2008 at 14:28, a catastrophic magnitude M s 8.0 earthquake struck the Sichuan Province of China. The epicenter was located at Wenchuan (31.00°N, 103.40°E). Liquefaction macrophenomena and corresponding destruction was observed throughout a vast area of 500 km long and 200 km wide following the earthquake. This paper illustrates the geographic distribution of the liquefaction and the relationship between liquefaction behavior and seismic intensity, and summarizes the liquefaction macrophenomena, including sandboils and waterspouts, ground subsidence, ground fissures etc., and relevant liquefaction features. A brief summary of the structural damage caused by liquefaction is presented and discussed. Based on comparisons with liquefaction phenomena observed in the 1976 Tangshan and 1975 Haicheng earthquakes, preliminary analyses were performed, which revealed some new features of liquefaction behavior and associated issues arising from this event. The site investigation indicated that the spatial non-uniformity of liquefaction distribution was obvious and most of the liquefied sites were located in regions of seismic intensity VIII. However, liquefaction phenomena at ten different sites in regions of seismic intensity VI were also observed for the first time in China mainland. Sandboils and waterspouts ranged from centimeters to tens of meters, with most between 1 m to 3 m. Dramatically high water/sand ejections, e.g., more than 10 m, were observed at four different sites. The sand ejections included silty sand, fine sand, medium sand, course sand and gravel, but the ejected sand amount was less than that in the 1976 Tangshan earthquake. Possible liquefaction of natural gravel soils was observed for the first time in China mainland.

  15. Earthquake Complex Network Analysis Before and After the Mw 8.2 Earthquake in Iquique, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasten, D.

    2017-12-01

    The earthquake complex networks have shown that they are abble to find specific features in seismic data set. In space, this networkshave shown a scale-free behavior for the probability distribution of connectivity, in directed networks and theyhave shown a small-world behavior, for the undirected networks.In this work, we present an earthquake complex network analysis for the large earthquake Mw 8.2 in the north ofChile (near to Iquique) in April, 2014. An earthquake complex network is made dividing the three dimensional space intocubic cells, if one of this cells contain an hypocenter, we name this cell like a node. The connections between nodes aregenerated in time. We follow the time sequence of seismic events and we are making the connections betweennodes. Now, we have two different networks: a directed and an undirected network. Thedirected network takes in consideration the time-direction of the connections, that is very important for the connectivityof the network: we are considering the connectivity, ki of the i-th node, like the number of connections going out ofthe node i plus the self-connections (if two seismic events occurred successive in time in the same cubic cell, we havea self-connection). The undirected network is made removing the direction of the connections and the self-connectionsfrom the directed network. For undirected networks, we are considering only if two nodes are or not connected.We have built a directed complex network and an undirected complex network, before and after the large earthquake in Iquique. We have used magnitudes greater than Mw = 1.0 and Mw = 3.0. We found that this method can recognize the influence of thissmall seismic events in the behavior of the network and we found that the size of the cell used to build the network isanother important factor to recognize the influence of the large earthquake in this complex system. This method alsoshows a difference in the values of the critical exponent γ (for the probability

  16. The Great Kanto earthquake and F. Scott Fitzgerald

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakatsu, Hitoshi; Bina, Craig R.

    How many recall the following striking sentence from The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald, which appears on the second page of the novel, where Fitzgerald first introduces Gatsby? “If personality is an unbroken series of successful gestures, then there was something gorgeous about him, some heightened sensitivity to the promises of life, as if he were related to one of those intricate machines that register earthquakes ten thousand miles away.”This line may have failed to focus our attention when we first read the book in our younger days. Now, however, as a Japanese seismologist and an American geophysicist (and student of Japanese culture), we would be greatly remiss for failing to take greater note of this statement. Indeed, as The Great Gatsby was published in 1925, it occurred to us that the earthquake Fitzgerald might have been thinking of was the Great Kanto earthquake, which occurred on September 1, 1923 and devastated the Tokyo metropolitan area.

  17. High resolution tsunami inversion for 2010 Chile earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.-R. Wu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the feasibility of inverting high-resolution vertical seafloor displacement from tsunami waveforms. An inversion method named "SUTIM" (small unit tsunami inversion method is developed to meet this goal. In addition to utilizing the conventional least-square inversion, this paper also enhances the inversion resolution by Grid-Shifting method. A smooth constraint is adopted to gain stability. After a series of validation and performance tests, SUTIM is used to study the 2010 Chile earthquake. Based upon data quality and azimuthal distribution, we select tsunami waveforms from 6 GLOSS stations and 1 DART buoy record. In total, 157 sub-faults are utilized for the high-resolution inversion. The resolution reaches 10 sub-faults per wavelength. The result is compared with the distribution of the aftershocks and waveforms at each gauge location with very good agreement. The inversion result shows that the source profile features a non-uniform distribution of the seafloor displacement. The highly elevated vertical seafloor is mainly concentrated in two areas: one is located in the northern part of the epicentre, between 34° S and 36° S; the other is in the southern part, between 37° S and 38° S.

  18. High resolution tsunami inversion for 2010 Chile earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, T.-R.; Ho, T.-C.

    2011-12-01

    We investigate the feasibility of inverting high-resolution vertical seafloor displacement from tsunami waveforms. An inversion method named "SUTIM" (small unit tsunami inversion method) is developed to meet this goal. In addition to utilizing the conventional least-square inversion, this paper also enhances the inversion resolution by Grid-Shifting method. A smooth constraint is adopted to gain stability. After a series of validation and performance tests, SUTIM is used to study the 2010 Chile earthquake. Based upon data quality and azimuthal distribution, we select tsunami waveforms from 6 GLOSS stations and 1 DART buoy record. In total, 157 sub-faults are utilized for the high-resolution inversion. The resolution reaches 10 sub-faults per wavelength. The result is compared with the distribution of the aftershocks and waveforms at each gauge location with very good agreement. The inversion result shows that the source profile features a non-uniform distribution of the seafloor displacement. The highly elevated vertical seafloor is mainly concentrated in two areas: one is located in the northern part of the epicentre, between 34° S and 36° S; the other is in the southern part, between 37° S and 38° S.

  19. Elastic energy release in great earthquakes and eruptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agust eGudmundsson

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The sizes of earthquakes are measured using well-defined, measurable quantities such as seismic moment and released (transformed elastic energy. No similar measures exist for the sizes of volcanic eruptions, making it difficult to compare the energies released in earthquakes and eruptions. Here I provide a new measure of the elastic energy (the potential mechanical energy associated with magma chamber rupture and contraction (shrinkage during an eruption. For earthquakes and eruptions, elastic energy derives from two sources: (1 the strain energy stored in the volcano/fault zone before rupture, and (2 the external applied load (force, pressure, stress, displacement on the volcano/fault zone. From thermodynamic considerations it follows that the elastic energy released or transformed (dU during an eruption is directly proportional to the excess pressure (pe in the magma chamber at the time of rupture multiplied by the volume decrease (-dVc of the chamber, so that . This formula can be used as a basis for a new eruption magnitude scale, based on elastic energy released, which can be related to the moment-magnitude scale for earthquakes. For very large eruptions (>100 km3, the volume of the feeder-dike is negligible, so that the decrease in chamber volume during an eruption corresponds roughly to the associated volume of erupted materials , so that the elastic energy is . Using a typical excess pressures of 5 MPa, it is shown that the largest known eruptions on Earth, such as the explosive La Garita Caldera eruption (27-28 million years ago and largest single (effusive Colombia River basalt lava flows (15-16 million years ago, both of which have estimated volumes of about 5000 km3, released elastic energy of the order of 10EJ. For comparison, the seismic moment of the largest earthquake ever recorded, the M9.5 1960 Chile earthquake, is estimated at 100 ZJ and the associated elastic energy release at 10EJ.

  20. Impending ionospheric anomaly preceding the Iquique Mw8.2 earthquake in Chile on 2014 April 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jinyun; Li, Wang; Yu, Hongjuan; Liu, Zhimin; Zhao, Chunmei; Kong, Qiaoli

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the coupling relationship between great earthquake and ionosphere, the GPS-derived total electron contents (TECs) by the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe and the foF2 data from the Space Weather Prediction Center were used to analyse the impending ionospheric anomalies before the Iquique Mw8.2 earthquake in Chile on 2014 April 1. Eliminating effects of the solar and geomagnetic activities on ionosphere by the sliding interquartile range with the 27-day window, the TEC analysis results represent that there were negative anomalies occurred on 15th day prior to the earthquake, and positive anomalies appeared in 5th day before the earthquake. The foF2 analysis results of ionosonde stations Jicamarca, Concepcion and Ramey show that the foF2 increased by 40, 50 and 45 per cent, respectively, on 5th day before the earthquake. The TEC anomalous distribution indicates that there was a widely TEC decrement over the epicentre with the duration of 6 hr on 15th day before the earthquake. On 5th day before the earthquake, the TEC over the epicentre increased with the amplitude of 15 TECu, and the duration exceeded 6 hr. The anomalies occurred on the side away from the equator. All TEC anomalies in these days were within the bounds of equatorial anomaly zone where should be the focal area to monitor ionospheric anomaly before strong earthquakes. The relationship between ionospheric anomalies and geomagnetic activity was detected by the cross wavelet analysis, which implied that the foF2 was not affected by the magnetic activities on 15th day and 5th day prior to the earthquake, but the TECs were partially affected by anomalous magnetic activity during some periods of 5th day prior to the earthquake.

  1. Contributions to the Chile’s Seismic History: the Case of the Great Earthquake of 1730

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María X. Urbina Carrasco

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the new and previously known documents it is concluded the earthquake of Chile in 1730 was composed by two independent earthquakes, each associated to a tsunami. Considering the latitudinal extension of the damage and the size of the tsunamis, it can be taken as the largest seismic event occurred in the history of Metropolitan or Central Chile. These conclusions allow to know better the seismic sequence of Central Chile, the Seismic History of the country, and contribute to the knowledge of the colonial history of the kingdom of Chile.

  2. 1964 Great Alaska Earthquake: a photographic tour of Anchorage, Alaska

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    Thoms, Evan E.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Anderson, Rebecca D.; McGimsey, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    On March 27, 1964, at 5:36 p.m., a magnitude 9.2 earthquake, the largest recorded earthquake in U.S. history, struck southcentral Alaska (fig. 1). The Great Alaska Earthquake (also known as the Good Friday Earthquake) occurred at a pivotal time in the history of earth science, and helped lead to the acceptance of plate tectonic theory (Cox, 1973; Brocher and others, 2014). All large subduction zone earthquakes are understood through insights learned from the 1964 event, and observations and interpretations of the earthquake have influenced the design of infrastructure and seismic monitoring systems now in place. The earthquake caused extensive damage across the State, and triggered local tsunamis that devastated the Alaskan towns of Whittier, Valdez, and Seward. In Anchorage, the main cause of damage was ground shaking, which lasted approximately 4.5 minutes. Many buildings could not withstand this motion and were damaged or collapsed even though their foundations remained intact. More significantly, ground shaking triggered a number of landslides along coastal and drainage valley bluffs underlain by the Bootlegger Cove Formation, a composite of facies containing variably mixed gravel, sand, silt, and clay which were deposited over much of upper Cook Inlet during the Late Pleistocene (Ulery and others, 1983). Cyclic (or strain) softening of the more sensitive clay facies caused overlying blocks of soil to slide sideways along surfaces dipping by only a few degrees. This guide is the document version of an interactive web map that was created as part of the commemoration events for the 50th anniversary of the 1964 Great Alaska Earthquake. It is accessible at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Alaska Science Center website: http://alaska.usgs.gov/announcements/news/1964Earthquake/. The website features a map display with suggested tour stops in Anchorage, historical photographs taken shortly after the earthquake, repeat photography of selected sites, scanned documents

  3. The 2009 Samoa-Tonga great earthquake triggered doublet

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    Lay, T.; Ammon, C.J.; Kanamori, H.; Rivera, L.; Koper, K.D.; Hutko, Alexander R.

    2010-01-01

    Great earthquakes (having seismic magnitudes of at least 8) usually involve abrupt sliding of rock masses at a boundary between tectonic plates. Such interplate ruptures produce dynamic and static stress changes that can activate nearby intraplate aftershocks, as is commonly observed in the trench-slope region seaward of a great subduction zone thrust event1-4. The earthquake sequence addressed here involves a rare instance in which a great trench-slope intraplate earthquake triggered extensive interplate faulting, reversing the typical pattern and broadly expanding the seismic and tsunami hazard. On 29 September 2009, within two minutes of the initiation of a normal faulting event with moment magnitude 8.1 in the outer trench-slope at the northern end of the Tonga subduction zone, two major interplate underthrusting subevents (both with moment magnitude 7.8), with total moment equal to a second great earthquake of moment magnitude 8.0, ruptured the nearby subduction zone megathrust. The collective faulting produced tsunami waves with localized regions of about 12metres run-up that claimed 192 lives in Samoa, American Samoa and Tonga. Overlap of the seismic signals obscured the fact that distinct faults separated by more than 50km had ruptured with different geometries, with the triggered thrust faulting only being revealed by detailed seismic wave analyses. Extensive interplate and intraplate aftershock activity was activated over a large region of the northern Tonga subduction zone. ?? 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  4. Tsunami Simulations in the Western Makran Using Hypothetical Heterogeneous Source Models from World's Great Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi, Amin; Shomali, Zaher Hossein; Keshavarz Farajkhah, Nasser

    2018-03-01

    The western segment of Makran subduction zone is characterized with almost no major seismicity and no large earthquake for several centuries. A possible episode for this behavior is that this segment is currently locked accumulating energy to generate possible great future earthquakes. Taking into account this assumption, a hypothetical rupture area is considered in the western Makran to set different tsunamigenic scenarios. Slip distribution models of four recent tsunamigenic earthquakes, i.e. 2015 Chile M w 8.3, 2011 Tohoku-Oki M w 9.0 (using two different scenarios) and 2006 Kuril Islands M w 8.3, are scaled into the rupture area in the western Makran zone. The numerical modeling is performed to evaluate near-field and far-field tsunami hazards. Heterogeneity in slip distribution results in higher tsunami amplitudes. However, its effect reduces from local tsunamis to regional and distant tsunamis. Among all considered scenarios for the western Makran, only a similar tsunamigenic earthquake to the 2011 Tohoku-Oki event can re-produce a significant far-field tsunami and is considered as the worst case scenario. The potential of a tsunamigenic source is dominated by the degree of slip heterogeneity and the location of greatest slip on the rupture area. For the scenarios with similar slip patterns, the mean slip controls their relative power. Our conclusions also indicate that along the entire Makran coasts, the southeastern coast of Iran is the most vulnerable area subjected to tsunami hazard.

  5. Tsunami Simulations in the Western Makran Using Hypothetical Heterogeneous Source Models from World's Great Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi, Amin; Shomali, Zaher Hossein; Keshavarz Farajkhah, Nasser

    2018-04-01

    The western segment of Makran subduction zone is characterized with almost no major seismicity and no large earthquake for several centuries. A possible episode for this behavior is that this segment is currently locked accumulating energy to generate possible great future earthquakes. Taking into account this assumption, a hypothetical rupture area is considered in the western Makran to set different tsunamigenic scenarios. Slip distribution models of four recent tsunamigenic earthquakes, i.e. 2015 Chile M w 8.3, 2011 Tohoku-Oki M w 9.0 (using two different scenarios) and 2006 Kuril Islands M w 8.3, are scaled into the rupture area in the western Makran zone. The numerical modeling is performed to evaluate near-field and far-field tsunami hazards. Heterogeneity in slip distribution results in higher tsunami amplitudes. However, its effect reduces from local tsunamis to regional and distant tsunamis. Among all considered scenarios for the western Makran, only a similar tsunamigenic earthquake to the 2011 Tohoku-Oki event can re-produce a significant far-field tsunami and is considered as the worst case scenario. The potential of a tsunamigenic source is dominated by the degree of slip heterogeneity and the location of greatest slip on the rupture area. For the scenarios with similar slip patterns, the mean slip controls their relative power. Our conclusions also indicate that along the entire Makran coasts, the southeastern coast of Iran is the most vulnerable area subjected to tsunami hazard.

  6. The 2010 Chile Earthquake: Rapid Assessments of Tsunami

    OpenAIRE

    Michelini, A.; Lauciani, V.; Selvaggi, G.; Lomax, A.

    2010-01-01

    After an earthquake underwater, rapid real-time assessment of earthquake parameters is important for emergency response related to infrastructure damage and, perhaps more exigently, for issuing warnings of the possibility of an impending tsunami. Since 2005, the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) has worked on the rapid quantification of earthquake magnitude and tsunami potential, especially for the Mediterranean area. This work includes quantification of earthquake size fr...

  7. Facts about the Eastern Japan Great Earthquake of March 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, T.

    2011-12-01

    The 2011 great earthquake was a magnitude 9.0 Mw undersea megathrust earthquake off the coast of Japan that occurred early morning UTC on Friday, 11 March 2011, with the epicenter approximately 70 kilometres east of the Oshika Peninsula of Tohoku and the hypocenter at an underwater depth of approximately 32 km. It was the most powerful known earthquake to have hit Japan, and one of the five most powerful earthquakes in the world overall since modern record keeping began in 1900. The earthquake triggered extremely destructive tsunami waves of up to 38.9 metres that struck Tohoku Japan, in some cases traveling up to 10 km inland. In addition to loss of life and destruction of infrastructure, the tsunami caused a number of nuclear accidents, primarily the ongoing level 7 meltdowns at three reactors in the Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant complex, and the associated evacuation zones affecting hundreds of thousands of residents. The Japanese National Police Agency has confirmed 1,5457 deaths, 5,389 injured, and 7,676 people missing across eighteen prefectures, as well as over 125,000 buildings damaged or destroyed. JAXA carried out ALOS emergency observation just after the earthquake occured, and acquired more than 400 scenes over the disaster area. The coseismic interferogram by InSAR analysis cleary showing the epicenter of the earthquake and land surface deformation over Tohoku area. By comparison of before and after satellite images, the large scale damaged area by tunami are extracted. These images and data can access via JAXA website and also GEO Tohoku oki event supersite website.

  8. Streamflow responses in Chile to megathrust earthquakes in the 20th and 21st centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Christian; Manga, Michael; Wang, Chi-yuen; Korup, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    Both coseismic static stress and dynamic stresses associated with seismic waves may cause responses in hydrological systems. Such responses include changes in the water level, hydrochemistry and streamflow discharge. Earthquake effects on hydrological systems provide a means to study the interaction between stress changes and regional hydrology, which is otherwise rarely possible. Chile is a country of frequent and large earthquakes and thus provides abundant opportunities to study such interactions and processes. We analyze streamflow responses in Chile to several megathrust earthquakes, including the 1943 Mw 8.1 Coquimbo, 1950 Mw 8.2 Antofagasta, 1960 Mw 9.5 Valdivia, 1985 Mw 8.0 Valparaiso, 1995 Mw 8.0 Antofagasta, 2010 Mw 8.8 Maule, and the 2014 Mw 8.2 Iquique earthquakes. We use data from 716 stream gauges distributed from the Altiplano in the North to Tierra del Fuego in the South. This network covers the Andes mountain ranges, the central valley, the Coastal Mountain ranges and (mainly in the more southern parts) the Coastal flats. We combine empirical magnitude-distance relationships, machine learning tools, and process-based modeling to characterize responses. We first assess the streamflow anomalies and relate these to topographical, hydro-climatic, geological and earthquake-related (volumetric and dynamic strain) factors using various classifiers. We then apply 1D-groundwater flow modeling to selected catchments in order to test competing hypotheses for the origin of streamflow changes. We show that the co-seismic responses of streamflow mostly involved increasing discharges. We conclude that enhanced vertical permeability can explain most streamflow responses at the regional scale. The total excess water released by a single earthquake, i.e. the Maule earthquake, yielded up to 1 km3. Against the background of megathrust earthquakes frequently hitting Chile, the amount of water released by earthquakes is substantial, particularly for the arid northern

  9. Aftershocks of Chile's Earthquake for an Ongoing, Large-Scale Experimental Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Lorenzo; Trevino, Ernesto; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Mendive, Susana; Reyes, Joaquin; Godoy, Felipe; Del Rio, Francisca; Snow, Catherine; Leyva, Diana; Barata, Clara; Arbour, MaryCatherine; Rolla, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation designs for social programs are developed assuming minimal or no disruption from external shocks, such as natural disasters. This is because extremely rare shocks may not make it worthwhile to account for them in the design. Among extreme shocks is the 2010 Chile earthquake. Un Buen Comienzo (UBC), an ongoing early childhood program in…

  10. Chile Earthquake: U.S. and International Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    most regions far from the epicenter did not experience any serious damage. A tsunami caused significant damage to the city of Hilo , Hawaii ...Tsunami Warning Center for Hawaii , Japan, and other regions bordering the Pacific Ocean that may have been vulnerable to a damaging tsunami, although...earthquake. Why the 1960 earthquake generated a tsunami that caused damage and fatalities in Hawaii , Japan, and the Philippines while the 2010 earthquake did

  11. Long Period Source Characteristics of Great Earthquakes: diagnosing complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, L. A.; Kanamori, H.

    2013-12-01

    With the commonly used centroid moment tensor inversions, just one number represents the long period size of the event, the seismic moment Mo (or corresponding Mw). However, several recent studies have clearly demonstrated that this is not satisfactory, at least for some earthquakes. For example, for the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman Is. Earthquake, the amplitudes of long-period normal modes indicated that the effective seismic moment increases from 4.0x1022 to 7.1x1022 N-m as the period increases from 300 to 1000 sec. For the 2009 Samoa Is. earthquake (Mw=8.1), the moment tensor was found to be strongly dependent on frequency because the source of this earthquake consists of at least 2 distinct events with very different mechanisms. It is possible that other large and great earthquakes may have similar complex characteristics, but with the standard moment tensor inversion with a single frequency band, we may not notice this easily. Here we investigate the possible frequency dependence of the moment tensor of large earthquakes by performing W phase inversions using teleseismic data and equally spaced narrow overlapping frequency bands. We investigate frequencies from 2.6 to 3.8 mHz. We focus on the variation with frequency of the scalar moment, the amount of non double couple and the focal mechanism. We apply this technique to 30 major events in the period 1994-2013 and use the results to detect source complexity. We class them in three groups according to the variability of the source parameters with frequency: Simple, Complex and Intermediate events and we discuss the correlation of the result of this approach with independent observations of source complexity.

  12. Delphi survey of issues after the Great East Japan Earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Yasunobu; Seo, Kami; Motoyoshi, Tadahiro; Okada, Shinya

    2011-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011 has catastrophic impacts on Japan. Japan is currently on the way to recovery. However, as the damage on the country as well as society is so serious, Japanese society is urged to change some systems including hazard management, energy policy, information systems and city planning. These changes are accompanied with social group realignments, thus necessarily followed by various risks. To cope with these risk issues, SRA-Japan established the special research committee for the Great East Japan Earthquake. The aim of the committee is, from viewpoints of risk analysts, to create and relate messages about risk issues in 2-3 years, in ten years and in thirty years from the earthquake. To do this, the committee garners SRA-Japan member's opinions about possible risks in Japan by using Delphi method. In SRA-Japan, there are over 600 members in interdisciplinary fields from various backgrounds, thus the messages are expected to be helpful for Japanese society to lower its risks and to optimize the resource allocation. The research is now underway. An interim report will be presented. (author)

  13. The 2006-2007 Kuril Islands great earthquake sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay, T.; Kanamori, H.; Ammon, C.J.; Hutko, Alexander R.; Furlong, K.; Rivera, L.

    2009-01-01

    The southwestern half of a ???500 km long seismic gap in the central Kuril Island arc subduction zone experienced two great earthquakes with extensive preshock and aftershock sequences in late 2006 to early 2007. The nature of seismic coupling in the gap had been uncertain due to the limited historical record of prior large events and the presence of distinctive upper plate, trench and outer rise structures relative to adjacent regions along the arc that have experienced repeated great interplate earthquakes in the last few centuries. The intraplate region seaward of the seismic gap had several shallow compressional events during the preceding decades (notably an MS 7.2 event on 16 March 1963), leading to speculation that the interplate fault was seismically coupled. This issue was partly resolved by failure of the shallow portion of the interplate megathrust in an MW = 8.3 thrust event on 15 November 2006. This event ruptured ???250 km along the seismic gap, just northeast of the great 1963 Kuril Island (Mw = 8.5) earthquake rupture zone. Within minutes of the thrust event, intense earthquake activity commenced beneath the outer wall of the trench seaward of the interplate rupture, with the larger events having normal-faulting mechanisms. An unusual double band of interplate and intraplate aftershocks developed. On 13 January 2007, an MW = 8.1 extensional earthquake ruptured within the Pacific plate beneath the seaward edge of the Kuril trench. This event is the third largest normal-faulting earthquake seaward of a subduction zone on record, and its rupture zone extended to at least 33 km depth and paralleled most of the length of the 2006 rupture. The 13 January 2007 event produced stronger shaking in Japan than the larger thrust event, as a consequence of higher short-period energy radiation from the source. The great event aftershock sequences were dominated by the expected faulting geometries; thrust faulting for the 2006 rupture zone, and normal faulting for

  14. Urgent Safety Measures in Japan after Great East Japan Earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniura, Wataru; Otani, Hiroyasu

    2012-01-01

    Due to tsunami triggered by the Great East Japan Earthquake, the operating and refueling reactor facilities at Fukushima Dai-ichi and Dai-ni Nuclear Power Plants caused a nuclear hazard. Given the fact, Japanese electric power companies voluntarily began to compile various urgent measures against tsunami. And then the Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) ordered the licensees to put into practice the voluntarily compiled urgent safety measures, in order to ensure the effectiveness of the means for recovering cooling functions along with avoiding the release of radioactive substances to the possible minimum, even if a huge tsunami following a severe earthquake hits nuclear power plants. The following describes the state and the effect of the urgent safety measures implemented for 44 reactors (under operation) and 1 reactor (under construction) in Japan and also describes the measures to be implemented by the licensees of reactor operation in the future.

  15. Estimates of stress drop and crustal tectonic stress from the 27 February 2010 Maule, Chile, earthquake: Implications for fault strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luttrell, K.M.; Tong, X.; Sandwell, D.T.; Brooks, B.A.; Bevis, M.G.

    2011-01-01

    The great 27 February 2010 Mw 8.8 earthquake off the coast of southern Chile ruptured a ???600 km length of subduction zone. In this paper, we make two independent estimates of shear stress in the crust in the region of the Chile earthquake. First, we use a coseismic slip model constrained by geodetic observations from interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) and GPS to derive a spatially variable estimate of the change in static shear stress along the ruptured fault. Second, we use a static force balance model to constrain the crustal shear stress required to simultaneously support observed fore-arc topography and the stress orientation indicated by the earthquake focal mechanism. This includes the derivation of a semianalytic solution for the stress field exerted by surface and Moho topography loading the crust. We find that the deviatoric stress exerted by topography is minimized in the limit when the crust is considered an incompressible elastic solid, with a Poisson ratio of 0.5, and is independent of Young's modulus. This places a strict lower bound on the critical stress state maintained by the crust supporting plastically deformed accretionary wedge topography. We estimate the coseismic shear stress change from the Maule event ranged from-6 MPa (stress increase) to 17 MPa (stress drop), with a maximum depth-averaged crustal shear-stress drop of 4 MPa. We separately estimate that the plate-driving forces acting in the region, regardless of their exact mechanism, must contribute at least 27 MPa trench-perpendicular compression and 15 MPa trench-parallel compression. This corresponds to a depth-averaged shear stress of at least 7 MPa. The comparable magnitude of these two independent shear stress estimates is consistent with the interpretation that the section of the megathrust fault ruptured in the Maule earthquake is weak, with the seismic cycle relieving much of the total sustained shear stress in the crust. Copyright 2011 by the American

  16. Ionospheric F2-layer Perturbations Observed After the M8.8 Chile Earthquake on February 27, 2010, at Long Distance from the Epicenter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery V. Hegai

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The F2-layer critical frequency (foF2 data from several ionosondes are employed to study the long-distance effect of the M8.8 Chile Earthquake of February 27, 2010, on the F2 layer. Significant perturbations of the peak F2-layer electron density have been observed following the earthquake at two South African stations, Hermanus and Madimbo, which are located at great circle distances of ~8,000 and ~10,000 km from the earthquake epicenter, respectively. Simplified estimates demonstrate that the observed ionospheric perturbations can be caused by a long-period acoustic gravity wave produced in the F-region by the earthquake.

  17. Urgent Safety Measures in Japan after Great East Japan Earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniura, W.; Otani, H.

    2012-01-01

    Due to tsunami triggered by the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, the operating and refueling reactor facilities at Fukushima Dai-ichi and Dai-ni Nuclear Power Plants of Tokyo Electric Power Co. caused a nuclear hazard. Japanese electric power companies voluntarily began to compile various urgent measures against tsunami within the week the hazard was caused. As for the urgent safety measures of each licensee, it is clarified that effective measures have been appropriately implemented as a result of the inspection of the national government, the verification based on the guideline of the Japan Society of Maintenology and the stress test. (author)

  18. Foreshocks and aftershocks locations of the 2014 Pisagua, N. Chile earthquake: history of a megathrust earthquake nucleation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuenzalida Velasco, Amaya; Rietbrock, Andreas; Tavera, Hernando; Ryder, Isabelle; Ruiz, Sergio; Thomas, Reece; De Angelis, Silvio; Bondoux, Francis

    2015-04-01

    The April 2014 Mw 8.1 Pisagua earthquake occurred in the Northern Chile seismic gap: a region of the South American subduction zone lying between Arica city and the Mejillones Peninsula. It is believed that this part of the subduction zone has not experienced a large earthquake since 1877. Thanks to the identification of this seismic gap, the north of Chile was well instrumented before the Pisagua earthquake, including the Integrated Plate boundary Observatory Chile (IPOC) network and the Chilean local network installed by the Centro Sismologico Nacional (CSN). These instruments were able to record the full foreshock and aftershock sequences, allowing a unique opportunity to study the nucleation process of large megathrust earthquakes. To improve azimuthal coverage of the Pisagua seismic sequence, after the earthquake, in collaboration with the Instituto Geofisico del Peru (IGP) we installed a temporary seismic network in south of Peru. The network comprised 12 short-period stations located in the coastal area between Moquegua and Tacna and they were operative from 1st May 2014. We also installed three stations on the slopes of the Ticsiani volcano to monitor any possible change in volcanic activity following the Pisagua earthquake. In this work we analysed the continuous seismic data recorded by CSN and IPOC networks from 1 March to 30 June to obtain the catalogue of the sequence, including foreshocks and aftershocks. Using an automatic algorithm based in STA/LTA we obtained the picks for P and S waves. Association in time and space defined the events and computed an initial location using Hypo71 and the 1D local velocity model. More than 11,000 events were identified with this method for the whole period, but we selected the best resolved events that include more than 7 observed arrivals with at least 2 S picks of them, to relocate these events using NonLinLoc software. For the main events of the sequence we carefully estimate event locations and we obtained

  19. The Great Maule earthquake: seismicity prior to and after the main shock from amphibious seismic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieser, K.; Arroyo, I. G.; Grevemeyer, I.; Flueh, E. R.; Lange, D.; Tilmann, F. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Chilean subduction zone is among the seismically most active plate boundaries in the world and its coastal ranges suffer from a magnitude 8 or larger megathrust earthquake every 10-20 years. The Constitución-Concepción or Maule segment in central Chile between ~35.5°S and 37°S was considered to be a mature seismic gap, rupturing last in 1835 and being seismically quiet without any magnitude 4.5 or larger earthquakes reported in global catalogues. It is located to the north of the nucleation area of the 1960 magnitude 9.5 Valdivia earthquake and to the south of the 1928 magnitude 8 Talca earthquake. On 27 February 2010 this segment ruptured in a Mw=8.8 earthquake, nucleating near 36°S and affecting a 500-600 km long segment of the margin between 34°S and 38.5°S. Aftershocks occurred along a roughly 600 km long portion of the central Chilean margin, most of them offshore. Therefore, a network of 30 ocean-bottom-seismometers was deployed in the northern portion of the rupture area for a three month period, recording local offshore aftershocks between 20 September 2010 and 25 December 2010. In addition, data of a network consisting of 33 landstations of the GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam were included into the network, providing an ideal coverage of both the rupture plane and areas affected by post-seismic slip as deduced from geodetic data. Aftershock locations are based on automatically detected P wave onsets and a 2.5D velocity model of the combined on- and offshore network. Aftershock seismicity analysis in the northern part of the survey area reveals a well resolved seismically active splay fault in the accretionary prism of the Chilean forearc. Our findings imply that in the northernmost part of the rupture zone, co-seismic slip most likely propagated along the splay fault and not the subduction thrust fault. In addition, the updip limit of aftershocks along the plate interface can be verified to about 40 km landwards from the deformation front. Prior to

  20. Imaging and Understanding Foreshock and Aftershock Behavior Around the 2014 Iquique, Northern Chile, Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H.; Meng, X.; Peng, Z.; Newman, A. V.; Hu, S.; Williamson, A.

    2014-12-01

    On April 1st, 2014, a moment magnitude (MW) 8.2 earthquake occurred offshore Iquique, Northern Chile. There were numerous smaller earthquakes preceding and following the mainshock, making it an ideal case to study the spatio-temporal relation among these events and their association with the mainshock. We applied a matched-filter technique to detect previously missing foreshocks and aftershocks of the 2014 Iquique earthquake. Using more than 900 template events recorded by 19 broadband seismic stations (network code CX) operated by the GEOFON Program of GFZ Potsdam, we found 4392 earthquakes between March 1st and April 3rd, 2014, including more than 30 earthquakes with magnitude larger than 4 that were previously missed in the catalog from the Chile National Seismological Center. Additionally, we found numerous small earthquakes with magnitudes between 1 and 2 preceding the largest foreshock, an MW 6.7 event occurring on March 16th, approximately 2 weeks before the Iquique mainshock. We observed that the foreshocks migrated northward at a speed of approximately 6 km/day. Using a finite fault slip model of the mainshock determined from teleseismic waveform inversion (Hayes, 2014), we calculated the Coulomb stress changes in the nearby regions of the mainshock. We found that there was ~200% increase in seismicity in the areas with increased Coulomb stress. Our next step is to evaluate the Coulomb stress changes associated with earlier foreshocks and their roles in triggering later foreshocks, and possibly the mainshock. For this, we plan to create a fault model of the temporal evolution of the Coulomb behavior along the interface with time, assuming Wells and Coppersmith (1994) type fault parameters. These results will be compared with double-difference relocations (using HypoDD), presenting a more accurate understanding of the spatial-temporal evolution of foreshocks and aftershocks of the 2014 Iquique earthquake.

  1. Coastal evidence for Holocene subduction-zone earthquakes and tsunamis in central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dure, Tina; Cisternas, Marco; Horton, Benjamin; Ely, Lisa; Nelson, Alan R.; Wesson, Robert L.; Pilarczyk, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    The ∼500-year historical record of seismicity along the central Chile coast (30–34°S) is characterized by a series of ∼M 8.0–8.5 earthquakes followed by low tsunamis (tsunami (>10 m), but the frequency of such large events is unknown. We extend the seismic history of central Chile through a study of a lowland stratigraphic sequence along the metropolitan coast north of Valparaíso (33°S). At this site, higher relative sea level during the mid Holocene created a tidal marsh and the accommodation space necessary for sediment that preserves earthquake and tsunami evidence. Within this 2600-yr-long sequence, we traced six laterally continuous sand beds probably deposited by high tsunamis. Plant remains that underlie the sand beds were radiocarbon dated to 6200, 5600, 5000, 4400, 3800, and 3700 cal yr BP. Sediment properties and diatom assemblages of the sand beds—for example, anomalous marine planktonic diatoms and upward fining of silt-sized diatom valves—point to a marine sediment source and high-energy deposition. Grain-size analysis shows a strong similarity between inferred tsunami deposits and modern coastal sediment. Upward fining sequences characteristic of suspension deposition are present in five of the six sand beds. Despite the lack of significant lithologic changes between the sedimentary units under- and overlying tsunami deposits, we infer that the increase in freshwater siliceous microfossils in overlying units records coseismic uplift concurrent with the deposition of five of the sand beds. During our mid-Holocene window of evidence preservation, the mean recurrence interval of earthquakes and tsunamis is ∼500 years. Our findings imply that the frequency of historical earthquakes in central Chile is not representative of the greatest earthquakes and tsunamis that the central Chilean subduction zone has produced.

  2. Coastal evidence for Holocene subduction-zone earthquakes and tsunamis in central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dure, Tina; Cisternas, Marco; Horton, Benjamin; Ely, Lisa; Nelson, Alan R.; Wesson, Robert L.; Pilarczyk, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    The ∼500-year historical record of seismicity along the central Chile coast (30–34°S) is characterized by a series of ∼M 8.0–8.5 earthquakes followed by low tsunamis (10 m), but the frequency of such large events is unknown. We extend the seismic history of central Chile through a study of a lowland stratigraphic sequence along the metropolitan coast north of Valparaíso (33°S). At this site, higher relative sea level during the mid Holocene created a tidal marsh and the accommodation space necessary for sediment that preserves earthquake and tsunami evidence. Within this 2600-yr-long sequence, we traced six laterally continuous sand beds probably deposited by high tsunamis. Plant remains that underlie the sand beds were radiocarbon dated to 6200, 5600, 5000, 4400, 3800, and 3700 cal yr BP. Sediment properties and diatom assemblages of the sand beds—for example, anomalous marine planktonic diatoms and upward fining of silt-sized diatom valves—point to a marine sediment source and high-energy deposition. Grain-size analysis shows a strong similarity between inferred tsunami deposits and modern coastal sediment. Upward fining sequences characteristic of suspension deposition are present in five of the six sand beds. Despite the lack of significant lithologic changes between the sedimentary units under- and overlying tsunami deposits, we infer that the increase in freshwater siliceous microfossils in overlying units records coseismic uplift concurrent with the deposition of five of the sand beds. During our mid-Holocene window of evidence preservation, the mean recurrence interval of earthquakes and tsunamis is ∼500 years. Our findings imply that the frequency of historical earthquakes in central Chile is not representative of the greatest earthquakes and tsunamis that the central Chilean subduction zone has produced.

  3. Finite-fault slip model of the 2016 Mw 7.5 Chiloé earthquake, southern Chile, estimated from Sentinel-1 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenbin

    2017-05-01

    Subduction earthquakes have been widely studied in the Chilean subduction zone, but earthquakes occurring in its southern part have attracted less research interest primarily due to its lower rate of seismic activity. Here I use Sentinel-1 interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data and range offset measurements to generate coseismic crustal deformation maps of the 2016 Mw 7.5 Chiloé earthquake in southern Chile. I find a concentrated crustal deformation with ground displacement of approximately 50 cm in the southern part of the Chiloé island. The best fitting fault model shows a pure thrust-fault motion on a shallow dipping plane orienting 4° NNE. The InSAR-determined moment is 2.4 × 1020 Nm with a shear modulus of 30 GPa, equivalent to Mw 7.56, which is slightly lower than the seismic moment. The model shows that the slip did not reach the trench, and it reruptured part of the fault that ruptured in the 1960 Mw 9.5 earthquake. The 2016 event has only released a small portion of the accumulated strain energy on the 1960 rupture zone, suggesting that the seismic hazard of future great earthquakes in southern Chile is high.

  4. History of decontamination after the Great East Japan Earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omura, Takashi; Onodera, Hideaki; Morishita, Satoru; Kato, Sei

    2015-01-01

    The magnitude 9.0 earthquake (the Great East Japan Earthquake) hit Japan on March 11, 2011 brought tsunami hazard as well as a nuclear accident in addition to the seismic hazard. A wide area of the eastern Japan was contaminated by radioactive materials released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant of the Tokyo Electric Power Company. In response to the unprecedented situation of the radioactive pollution after the accident, the Act on Special Measures Concerning the Handling of Radioactive Pollution was enacted in August 2011. The Ministry of the Environment (MOE) has formulated a set of guidelines by the end of 2011 to provide information on how to store and manage contaminated waste. In addition, the MOE established 'The Policies for the Decontamination of Specific Areas (Decontamination Roadmap)' in January 2012. As a result, the radiation dose rate has decreased by approximately 46% in the residential area of Naraha town. The MOE will have been promoting decontamination and construction of interim storage facilities which are able to store and manage the removed soils and incineration ashes generated from decontamination works. (author)

  5. Aftershocks and triggered events of the Great 1906 California earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzner, A.J.; Wald, D.J.

    2003-01-01

    The San Andreas fault is the longest fault in California and one of the longest strike-slip faults in the world, yet little is known about the aftershocks following the most recent great event on the San Andreas, the Mw 7.8 San Francisco earthquake on 18 April 1906. We conducted a study to locate and to estimate magnitudes for the largest aftershocks and triggered events of this earthquake. We examined existing catalogs and historical documents for the period April 1906 to December 1907, compiling data on the first 20 months of the aftershock sequence. We grouped felt reports temporally and assigned modified Mercalli intensities for the larger events based on the descriptions judged to be the most reliable. For onshore and near-shore events, a grid-search algorithm (derived from empirical analysis of modern earthquakes) was used to find the epicentral location and magnitude most consistent with the assigned intensities. For one event identified as far offshore, the event's intensity distribution was compared with those of modern events, in order to contrain the event's location and magnitude. The largest aftershock within the study period, an M ???6.7 event, occurred ???100 km west of Eureka on 23 April 1906. Although not within our study period, another M ???6.7 aftershock occurred near Cape Mendocino on 28 October 1909. Other significant aftershocks included an M ???5.6 event near San Juan Bautista on 17 May 1906 and an M ???6.3 event near Shelter Cove on 11 August 1907. An M ???4.9 aftershock occurred on the creeping segment of the San Andreas fault (southeast of the mainshock rupture) on 6 July 1906. The 1906 San Francisco earthquake also triggered events in southern California (including separate events in or near the Imperial Valley, the Pomona Valley, and Santa Monica Bay), in western Nevada, in southern central Oregon, and in western Arizona, all within 2 days of the mainshock. Of these trigerred events, the largest were an M ???6.1 earthquake near Brawley

  6. Comparison of Ground Motion Prediction Equations (GMPE) for Chile and Canada With Recent Chilean Megathust Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, C.; Cassidy, J. F.; Dosso, S. E.

    2017-12-01

    The ground shaking assessment allows quantifying the hazards associated with the occurrence of earthquakes. Chile and western Canada are two areas that have experienced, and are susceptible to imminent large crustal, in-slab and megathrust earthquakes that can affect the population significantly. In this context, we compare the current GMPEs used in the 2015 National Building Code of Canada and the most recent GMPEs calculated for Chile, with observed accelerations generated by four recent Chilean megathrust earthquakes (MW ≥ 7.7) that have occurred during the past decade, which is essential to quantify how well current models predict observations of major events.We collected the 3-component waveform data of more than 90 stations from the Centro Sismologico Nacional and the Universidad de Chile, and processed them by removing the trend and applying a band-pass filter. Then, for each station, we obtained the Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA), and by using a damped response spectra, we calculated the Pseudo Spectral Acceleration (PSA). Finally, we compared those observations with the most recent Chilean and Canadian GMPEs. Given the lack of geotechnical information for most of the Chilean stations, we also used a new method to obtain the VS30 by inverting the H/V ratios using a trans-dimensional Bayesian inversion, which allows us to improve the correction of observations according to soil conditions.As expected, our results show a good fit between observations and the Chilean GMPEs, but we observe that although the shape of the Canadian GMPEs is coherent with the distribution of observations, in general they under predict the observations for PGA and PSA at shorter periods for most of the considered earthquakes. An example of this can be seen in the attached figure for the case of the 2014 Iquique earthquake.These results present important implications related to the hazards associated to large earthquakes, especially for western Canada, where the probability of a

  7. Multi-Sensors Observations of Pre-Earthquake Signals. What We Learned from the Great Tohoku Earthquake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouzonounov, D.; Pulinets, S.; Papadopoulos, G.; Kunitsyn, V.; Nesterov, I.; Hattori, K.; Kafatos, M.; Taylor, P.

    2012-01-01

    The lessons learned from the Great Tohoku EQ (Japan, 2011) will affect our future observations and an analysis is the main focus of this presentation. Multi-sensors observations and multidisciplinary research is presented in our study of the phenomena preceding major earthquakes Our approach is based on a systematic analysis of several physical and environmental parameters, which been reported by others in connections with earthquake processes: thermal infrared radiation; temperature; concentration of electrons in the ionosphere; radon/ion activities; and atmospheric temperature/humidity [Ouzounov et al, 2011]. We used the Lithosphere-Atmosphere-Ionosphere Coupling (LAIC) model, one of several possible paradigms [Pulinets and Ouzounov, 2011] to interpret our observations. We retrospectively analyzed the temporal and spatial variations of three different physical parameters characterizing the state of the atmosphere, ionosphere the ground surface several days before the March 11, 2011 M9 Tohoku earthquake Namely: (i) Outgoing Long wave Radiation (OLR) measured at the top of the atmosphere; (ii) Anomalous variations of ionospheric parameters revealed by multi-sensors observations; and (iii) The change in the foreshock sequence (rate, space and time); Our results show that on March 8th, 2011 a rapid increase of emitted infrared radiation was observed and an anomaly developed near the epicenter with largest value occurring on March 11 at 07.30 LT. The GPS/TEC data indicate an increase and variation in electron density reaching a maximum value on March 8. Starting from this day in the lower ionosphere there was also observed an abnormal TEC variation over the epicenter. From March 3 to 11 a large increase in electron concentration was recorded at all four Japanese ground-based ionosondes, which returned to normal after the main earthquake. We use the Japanese GPS network stations and method of Radio Tomography to study the spatiotemporal structure of ionospheric

  8. Japanese energy balances after the Great East Japan Earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuzuki, Kazuhiro; Moriyama, Ryo; Ishimoto, Yuki; Tomikatsu, Koji; Hagiwara, Naoto

    2012-01-01

    After the Great East Japan Earthquake, disaster response and risk of nuclear accident became a new issue and the public against nuclear power was increasing with knowing a long-term period required for restoration from Fukushima accident. This article described effects of 'de-nuclear power' policy with no additional plants on energy balances in 2030 and 2050 with simulated energy model based on government's long-term energy supply-demand outlook issued in 2009. Main assumed conditions were as follows; (1) nuclear power of case B) 40 years operation and C) 60 years operation, (2) share of photovoltaic and wind power was assumed to be 9% of total power generation and the same as planned before the earthquake disaster, which could not replace nuclear power and (3) final consumption of case 2) 8% saving and 3) 20% saving. Effects of 'de-nuclear power' in 2030 were (1) CO 2 emission difference between B) and C) was 50 Mt and (2) estimated cost increase between B) and C) was 0.1 T yen/year for CO 2 emission, 1 T yen/year for LNG procurement and 2.4 T yen for thermal power construction. Energy balances in 2050 were much influenced by trend of renewable energy technology development and fossil energy procurement and use. Sophisticated power change measures using storage battery for renewable energy should be developed, otherwise if power change were dealt with thermal power, share would be limited to 15-20% of total power generation. If CO 2 emission in 2050 was limited to 50% instead of formally announced 80% of CO 2 emission in 1990, share of non-fossil power (nuclear power + renewable energy) became almost 100% for case 3). Base technology of nuclear power should remain as option for the case where fossil energy procurement and CO 2 emission limit became restrictive in 2050. (T. Tanaka)

  9. Seismic gaps previous to certain great earthquakes occurring in North China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, K H; Lin, C H; Chu, H C; Chao, Y H; Chao, H L; Hou, H F

    1978-07-01

    The epicentral distributions of small and moderate earthquakes preceding nine great earthquakes (M greater than or equal to 7.0) in North China are analyzed. It can be seen that most of these earthquakes are preceded by gaps in the regions surrounding their epicenters. The relations between the parameters of the seismic gaps, such as the lengths of their long and short axes, the areas of the gaps, etc., and the parameters of the corresponding earthquakes are discussed.

  10. From Seismic Scenarios to Earthquake Risk Assessment: A Case Study for Iquique, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, P.; Fortuno, C.; Martin, J. C. D. L. L.; Vasquez, J.

    2015-12-01

    Iquique is a strategic city and economic center in northern Chile, and is located in a large seismic gap where a megathrust earthquake and tsunami is expected. Although it was hit by a Mw 8.2 earthquake on April 1st 2014, which caused moderate damage, geophysical evidence still suggests that there is potential for a larger event, so a thorough risk assessment is key to understand the physical, social, and economic effects of such potential event, and devise appropriate mitigation plans. Hence, Iquique has been selected as a prime study case for the implementation of a risk assessment platform in Chile. Our study integrates research on three main elements of risk calculations: hazard evaluation, exposure model, and physical vulnerabilities. To characterize the hazard field, a set of synthetic seismic scenarios have been developed based on plate interlocking and the residual slip potential that results from subtracting the slip occurred during the April 1st 2014 rupture fault mechanism, obtained using InSAR+GPS inversion. Additional scenarios were developed based of the fault rupture model of the Maule 2010 Mw 8.8 earthquake and on the local plate locking models in northern Chile. These rupture models define a collection of possible realizations of earthquake geometries parameterized in terms of critical variables like slip magnitude, rise time, mean propagation velocity, directivity, and other, which are propagated to obtain a hazard map for Iquique (e.g. PGA, PGV, PDG). Furthermore, a large body of public and local data was used to construct a detailed exposure model for Iquique, including aggregated building count, demographics, essential facilities, and lifelines. This model together with the PGA maps for the April 1st 2014 earthquake are used to calibrate HAZUS outputs against observed damage, and adjust the fragility curves of physical systems according to more detailed analyses of typical Chilean building types and their structural properties, plus historical

  11. State of damage of radiation facilities in great Hanshin earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The southern Hyogo Prefecture earthquake of magnitude 7.2 occurred in the early morning of January 17, 1995. The outline of the earthquake and dead and injured, the damages of buildings, life lines, roads, railways and harbors, liquefaction phenomena, the state of occurrence of fires and so on are reported. The districts where the earthquakes of magnitude 5 or stronger occurred, and the radiation facilities in those districts are shown. The state of damage of radiation facilities in past earthquakes is summarized. From January 17 to 19 after the earthquake, Science and Technology Agency gave necessary instruction to and heard the state of damage from 79 permitted facilities in the areas of magnitude 7 or 6 by telephone, and received the report that there was not the fear of radiation damage in all facilities. Also the state of damage of radiation facilities was investigated at the actual places, and the questionnaires on the state of radiation facilities and the action at the time of the earthquake were performed. The state of radiation facilities accompanying the earthquake is reported. The matters to be reflected to the countermeasures to earthquakes anew for the protection of facilities, communication system, facility checkup system and the resumption of use are pointed out. (K.I.)

  12. Earthquake precursors: spatial-temporal gravity changes before the great earthquakes in the Sichuan-Yunnan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yi-Qing; Liang, Wei-Feng; Zhang, Song

    2018-01-01

    Using multiple-scale mobile gravity data in the Sichuan-Yunnan area, we systematically analyzed the relationships between spatial-temporal gravity changes and the 2014 Ludian, Yunnan Province Ms6.5 earthquake and the 2014 Kangding Ms6.3, 2013 Lushan Ms7.0, and 2008 Wenchuan Ms8.0 earthquakes in Sichuan Province. Our main results are as follows. (1) Before the occurrence of large earthquakes, gravity anomalies occur in a large area around the epicenters. The directions of gravity change gradient belts usually agree roughly with the directions of the main fault zones of the study area. Such gravity changes might reflect the increase of crustal stress, as well as the significant active tectonic movements and surface deformations along fault zones, during the period of gestation of great earthquakes. (2) Continuous significant changes of the multiple-scale gravity fields, as well as greater gravity changes with larger time scales, can be regarded as medium-range precursors of large earthquakes. The subsequent large earthquakes always occur in the area where the gravity changes greatly. (3) The spatial-temporal gravity changes are very useful in determining the epicenter of coming large earthquakes. The large gravity networks are useful to determine the general areas of coming large earthquakes. However, the local gravity networks with high spatial-temporal resolution are suitable for determining the location of epicenters. Therefore, denser gravity observation networks are necessary for better forecasts of the epicenters of large earthquakes. (4) Using gravity changes from mobile observation data, we made medium-range forecasts of the Kangding, Ludian, Lushan, and Wenchuan earthquakes, with especially successful forecasts of the location of their epicenters. Based on the above discussions, we emphasize that medium-/long-term potential for large earthquakes might exist nowadays in some areas with significant gravity anomalies in the study region. Thus, the monitoring

  13. INVESTIGATIVE RESEARCH PROJECTS RELATED TO THE TOHOKU EARTHQUAKE (THE GREAT EAST JAPAN EARTHQUAKE) CONDUCTED IN FUKUSHIMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Toshiyuki; Hashimoto, Yasuhiro; Yoshida, Masayuki; Ohno, Kikuo; Ohto, Hitoshi; Abe, Masafumi

    2015-01-01

    On March 11(th) 2011, the Tohoku region of Japan was struck by catastrophic disasters. Thousands of people were killed due to a magnitude 9.0 earthquake and its subsequent tsunami. Furthermore, a serious nuclear crisis occurred in Fukushima Prefecture as a result of the disasters, and an emergency evacuation was ordered to people living near the nuclear power plants. There was a lot of anxiety regarding lost families as well as the influences of radioactivity on the health of people and their children. Based on these urgent and uncertain situations, a number of research projects were developed at many institutes both inside and outside Fukushima. We herein report the investigative research projects related to the Tohoku Earthquake (The Great East Japan Earthquake) conducted after the disasters. The research projects were reviewed by the Institutional Review Board in Fukushima Medical University during the two years following the disasters. The research projects conducted in universities other than Fukushima Medical University were also examined using questionnaire analysis. Among the research projects conducted in Fukushima Medical University (n=424), 7% (n=32) were disaster-related investigative research. The mean duration planned to pursue the projects was 25.5 months. Among these projects, those focusing on the health of Fukushima citizens were most common (n=9), followed by the influence of chronic exposure of radiation on chronic inflammatory disorders (n=6), and the mental health of Fukushima citizens (n=5). They were carefully reviewed for the purpose, suitability, and necessity from ethical as well as scientific viewpoints. The majority of the research projects focused on the effects of the Tohoku Earthquake and/or chronic exposure to low-dose radioactivity on the health of children and pregnant women, as well as on various disorders, such as mental health and chronic inflammatory diseases. On the other hand, among 58 projects we collected from 22

  14. Why the 1964 Great Alaska Earthquake matters 50 years later

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Michael E.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Ruppert, Natalia A.; Freymueller, Jeffrey T.; ,

    2014-01-01

    Spring was returning to Alaska on Friday 27 March 1964. A two‐week cold snap had just ended, and people were getting ready for the Easter weekend. At 5:36 p.m., an earthquake initiated 12 km beneath Prince William Sound, near the eastern end of what is now recognized as the Alaska‐Aleutian subduction zone. No one was expecting this earthquake that would radically alter the coastal landscape, influence the direction of science, and indelibly mark the growth of a burgeoning state.

  15. Spectral scaling of the aftershocks of the Tocopilla 2007 earthquake in northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancieri, M.; Madariaga, R.; Bonilla, F.

    2012-04-01

    We study the scaling of spectral properties of a set of 68 aftershocks of the 2007 November 14 Tocopilla (M 7.8) earthquake in northern Chile. These are all subduction events with similar reverse faulting focal mechanism that were recorded by a homogenous network of continuously recording strong motion instruments. The seismic moment and the corner frequency are obtained assuming that the aftershocks satisfy an inverse omega-square spectral decay; radiated energy is computed integrating the square velocity spectrum corrected for attenuation at high frequencies and for the finite bandwidth effect. Using a graphical approach, we test the scaling of seismic spectrum, and the scale invariance of the apparent stress drop with the earthquake size. To test whether the Tocopilla aftershocks scale with a single parameter, we introduce a non-dimensional number, ?, that should be constant if earthquakes are self-similar. For the Tocopilla aftershocks, Cr varies by a factor of 2. More interestingly, Cr for the aftershocks is close to 2, the value that is expected for events that are approximately modelled by a circular crack. Thus, in spite of obvious differences in waveforms, the aftershocks of the Tocopilla earthquake are self-similar. The main shock is different because its records contain large near-field waves. Finally, we investigate the scaling of energy release rate, Gc, with the slip. We estimated Gc from our previous estimates of the source parameters, assuming a simple circular crack model. We find that Gc values scale with the slip, and are in good agreement with those found by Abercrombie and Rice for the Northridge aftershocks.

  16. Calibrating coseismic coastal land-level changes during the 2014 Iquique (Mw=8.2) earthquake (northern Chile) with leveling, GPS and intertidal biota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Eduardo; Melnick, Daniel; Baez, Juan Carlos; Montecino, Henry; Lagos, Nelson A; Acuña, Emilio; Manzano, Mario; Camus, Patricio A

    2017-01-01

    The April 1st 2014 Iquique earthquake (MW 8.1) occurred along the northern Chile margin where the Nazca plate is subducted below the South American continent. The last great megathrust earthquake here, in 1877 of Mw ~8.8 opened a seismic gap, which was only partly closed by the 2014 earthquake. Prior to the earthquake in 2013, and shortly after it we compared data from leveled benchmarks, deployed campaign GPS instruments, continuous GPS stations and estimated sea levels using the upper vertical level of rocky shore benthic organisms including algae, barnacles, and mussels. Land-level changes estimated from mean elevations of benchmarks indicate subsidence along a ~100-km stretch of coast, ranging from 3 to 9 cm at Corazones (18°30'S) to between 30 and 50 cm at Pisagua (19°30'S). About 15 cm of uplift was measured along the southern part of the rupture at Chanabaya (20°50'S). Land-level changes obtained from benchmarks and campaign GPS were similar at most sites (mean difference 3.7±3.2 cm). Higher differences however, were found between benchmarks and continuous GPS (mean difference 8.5±3.6 cm), possibly because sites were not collocated and separated by several kilometers. Subsidence estimated from the upper limits of intertidal fauna at Pisagua ranged between 40 to 60 cm, in general agreement with benchmarks and GPS. At Chanavaya, the magnitude and sense of displacement of the upper marine limit was variable across species, possibly due to species-dependent differences in ecology. Among the studied species, measurements on lithothamnioid calcareous algae most closely matched those made with benchmarks and GPS. When properly calibrated, rocky shore benthic species may be used to accurately measure land-level changes along coasts affected by subduction earthquakes. Our calibration of those methods will improve their accuracy when applied to coasts lacking pre-earthquake data and in estimating deformation during pre-instrumental earthquakes.

  17. Scientific Information Platform for the 2008 Great Wenchuan Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, C.

    2012-12-01

    The 2008 MS 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake is one of the deadliest in recent human history. This earthquake has not just united the whole world to help local people to lead their life through the difficult time, it has also fostered significant global cooperation to study this event from various aspects: including pre-seismic events (such as the seismicity, gravity, electro-magnetic fields, well water level, radon level in water etc), co-seismic events (fault slipping, landslides, man-made structure damages etc) and post-seismic events (such as aftershocks, well water level changing etc) as well as the disaster relief efforts. In the last four years, more than 300 scientific articles have been published on peer-reviewed journals, among them about 50% are published in Chinese, 30% in English, and about 20% in both languages. These researches have advanced our understanding of earthquake science in general. It has also sparked open debates in many aspects. Notably, the role of the Zipingpu reservoir (built not long ago before the earthquake) in the triggering of this monstrous earthquake is still one of many continuing debates. Given that all these articles are ssporadically spread out on different journals and numerous issues and in different languages, it can be very inefficient, sometimes impossible, to dig out the information that are in need. The Earthquake Research Group in the Chengdu University of Technology (ERGCDUT) has initiated an effort to develop an information platform to collect and analyze scientific research on or related to this earthquake, the hosting faults and the surrounding tectonic regions. A preliminary website has been setup for this purpose: http://www.wenchuaneqresearch.org. Up to this point (July 2012), articles published in 6 Chinese journals and 7 international journals have been collected. Articles are listed journal by journal, and also grouped by contents into four major categories, including pre-seismic events, co-seismic events, post

  18. Seismotectonic framework of the 2010 February 27 Mw 8.8 Maule, Chile earthquake sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Gavin P.; Bergman, Eric; Johnson, Kendra J.; Benz, Harley M.; Brown, Lucy; Meltzer, Anne S.

    2013-01-01

    After the 2010 Mw 8.8 Maule earthquake, an international collaboration involving teams and instruments from Chile, the US, the UK, France and Germany established the International Maule Aftershock Deployment temporary network over the source region of the event to facilitate detailed, open-access studies of the aftershock sequence. Using data from the first 9-months of this deployment, we have analyzed the detailed spatial distribution of over 2500 well-recorded aftershocks. All earthquakes have been relocated using a hypocentral decomposition algorithm to study the details of and uncertainties in both their relative and absolute locations. We have computed regional moment tensor solutions for the largest of these events to produce a catalogue of 465 mechanisms, and have used all of these data to study the spatial distribution of the aftershock sequence with respect to the Chilean megathrust. We refine models of co-seismic slip distribution of the Maule earthquake, and show how small changes in fault geometries assumed in teleseismic finite fault modelling significantly improve fits to regional GPS data, implying that the accuracy of rapid teleseismic fault models can be substantially improved by consideration of existing fault geometry model databases. We interpret all of these data in an integrated seismotectonic framework for the Maule earthquake rupture and its aftershock sequence, and discuss the relationships between co-seismic rupture and aftershock distributions. While the majority of aftershocks are interplate thrust events located away from regions of maximum co-seismic slip, interesting clusters of aftershocks are identified in the lower plate at both ends of the main shock rupture, implying internal deformation of the slab in response to large slip on the plate boundary interface. We also perform Coulomb stress transfer calculations to compare aftershock locations and mechanisms to static stress changes following the Maule rupture. Without the

  19. Ground Motion Prediction for Great Interplate Earthquakes in Kanto Basin Considering Variation of Source Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiguchi, H.; Yoshimi, M.; Horikawa, H.

    2011-12-01

    Broadband ground motions are estimated in the Kanto sedimentary basin which holds Tokyo metropolitan area inside for anticipated great interplate earthquakes along surrounding plate boundaries. Possible scenarios of great earthquakes along Sagami trough are modeled combining characteristic properties of the source area and adequate variation in source parameters in order to evaluate possible ground motion variation due to next Kanto earthquake. South to the rupture area of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake along the Japan trench, we consider possible M8 earthquake. The ground motions are computed with a four-step hybrid technique. We first calculate low-frequency ground motions at the engineering basement. We then calculate higher-frequency ground motions at the same position, and combine the lower- and higher-frequency motions using a matched filter. We finally calculate ground motions at the surface by computing the response of the alluvium-diluvium layers to the combined motions at the engineering basement.

  20. Foreshock patterns preceding large earthquakes in the subduction zone of Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minadakis, George; Papadopoulos, Gerassimos A.

    2016-04-01

    Some of the largest earthquakes in the globe occur in the subduction zone of Chile. Therefore, it is of particular interest to investigate foreshock patterns preceding such earthquakes. Foreshocks in Chile were recognized as early as 1960. In fact, the giant (Mw9.5) earthquake of 22 May 1960, which was the largest ever instrumentally recorded, was preceded by 45 foreshocks in a time period of 33h before the mainshock, while 250 aftershocks were recorded in a 33h time period after the mainshock. Four foreshocks were bigger than magnitude 7.0, including a magnitude 7.9 on May 21 that caused severe damage in the Concepcion area. More recently, Brodsky and Lay (2014) and Bedford et al. (2015) reported on foreshock activity before the 1 April 2014 large earthquake (Mw8.2). However, 3-D foreshock patterns in space, time and size were not studied in depth so far. Since such studies require for good seismic catalogues to be available, we have investigated 3-D foreshock patterns only before the recent, very large mainshocks occurring on 27 February 2010 (Mw 8.8), 1 April 2014 (Mw8.2) and 16 September 2015 (Mw8.4). Although our analysis does not depend on a priori definition of short-term foreshocks, our interest focuses in the short-term time frame, that is in the last 5-6 months before the mainshock. The analysis of the 2014 event showed an excellent foreshock sequence consisting by an early-weak foreshock stage lasting for about 1.8 months and by a main-strong precursory foreshock stage that was evolved in the last 18 days before the mainshock. During the strong foreshock period the seismicity concentrated around the mainshock epicenter in a critical area of about 65 km mainly along the trench domain to the south of the mainshock epicenter. At the same time, the activity rate increased dramatically, the b-value dropped and the mean magnitude increased significantly, while the level of seismic energy released also increased. In view of these highly significant seismicity

  1. The 1964 Great Alaska Earthquake and tsunamis: a modern perspective and enduring legacies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocher, Thomas M.; Filson, John R.; Fuis, Gary S.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Holzer, Thomas L.; Plafker, George; Blair, J. Luke

    2014-01-01

    The magnitude 9.2 Great Alaska Earthquake that struck south-central Alaska at 5:36 p.m. on Friday, March 27, 1964, is the largest recorded earthquake in U.S. history and the second-largest earthquake recorded with modern instruments. The earthquake was felt throughout most of mainland Alaska, as far west as Dutch Harbor in the Aleutian Islands some 480 miles away, and at Seattle, Washington, more than 1,200 miles to the southeast of the fault rupture, where the Space Needle swayed perceptibly. The earthquake caused rivers, lakes, and other waterways to slosh as far away as the coasts of Texas and Louisiana. Water-level recorders in 47 states—the entire Nation except for Connecticut, Delaware, and Rhode Island— registered the earthquake. It was so large that it caused the entire Earth to ring like a bell: vibrations that were among the first of their kind ever recorded by modern instruments. The Great Alaska Earthquake spawned thousands of lesser aftershocks and hundreds of damaging landslides, submarine slumps, and other ground failures. Alaska’s largest city, Anchorage, located west of the fault rupture, sustained heavy property damage. Tsunamis produced by the earthquake resulted in deaths and damage as far away as Oregon and California. Altogether the earthquake and subsequent tsunamis caused 129 fatalities and an estimated $2.3 billion in property losses (in 2013 dollars). Most of the population of Alaska and its major transportation routes, ports, and infrastructure lie near the eastern segment of the Aleutian Trench that ruptured in the 1964 earthquake. Although the Great Alaska Earthquake was tragic because of the loss of life and property, it provided a wealth of data about subductionzone earthquakes and the hazards they pose. The leap in scientific understanding that followed the 1964 earthquake has led to major breakthroughs in earth science research worldwide over the past half century. This fact sheet commemorates Great Alaska Earthquake and

  2. Summary of Great East Japan Earthquake response at Onagawa Nuclear Power Station and further safety improvement measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Toru

    2013-01-01

    A large earthquake occurred on March 11, 2011 and tsunami was generated following it. The East Japan suffered serious damage by the earthquake and tsunami. This is called the Great East Japan Earthquake. Onagawa Nuclear Power Station (NPS) is located closest to the epicenter of Great East Japan Earthquake. We experienced intense shake by the earthquake and some flooding from the tsunami, however, we have succeeded safely cold shutdown of the reactors. In this paper, we introduce summary of Great East Japan Earthquake response a Onagawa NPS and safety improvement measures which are based on both experience of Onagawa NPS and lesson from Fukushima Daiichi NPS accident. (author)

  3. A remote sensing assessment of the impact of the 2010 Maule, Chile earthquake (Mw 8.8) on the volcanoes of the southern Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, M. E.; Welch, M.; Jay, J.; Button, N.

    2011-12-01

    There are tantalizing, but controversial, indications that great earthquakes affect arc-wide volcanic activity. For example, analysis of historic eruptions at volcanoes of the southern Andes has shown that 3-4 eruptions were likely seismically triggered by Mw > 8 earthquakes in the Chile subduction zone -- particularly the 1906 and 1960 earthquakes (e.g., Watt et al., 2009). However, the 27 February 2010 Mw 8.8 Maule, Chile earthquake that ruptured the subduction zone between the 1960 and 1906 earthquakes does not appear to have triggered 3-4 volcanic eruptions in the same area in the 12 months after the event. In an effort to understand the relation between a large earthquake and volcanic unrest, we use a variety of satellite instruments to look for more subtle (i.e., not leading to eruption), but detectable change in thermal or deformation activity at the volcanoes of the southern Andes after the Maule earthquake and its aftershocks. For all of the volcanoes in the catalog of the Smithsonian Institution (approximately 80), we use nighttime MODIS and ASTER data to assess the thermal activity and ALOS InSAR data to characterize the surface deformation before and after the earthquake. The ALOS InSAR data are not ideal for detecting changes in deformation before and after the earthquake because of the small number of acquisitions in austral summer as well as ionospheric and tropospheric artifacts. We estimate that we could detect deformation > 5 cm/year. Similarly, the ASTER and MODIS data suffer respectively from poor temporal and spatial resolution of thermal anomalies. We update previous InSAR work that identified at least 8 areas of volcanic deformation in the southern Andes related to eruptive processes, subsidence of past lava flows, or surface uplift not associated with an eruption (Fournier et al., 2010). Of greatest interest are the two volcanic areas with the largest deformation signals between 2007-2008 (both > 15 cm/yr in the radar line of sight): Laguna

  4. Foreshocks and aftershocks of the Great 1857 California earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzner, A.J.; Wald, D.J.

    1999-01-01

    The San Andreas fault is the longest fault in California and one of the longest strike-slip faults anywhere in the world, yet we know little about many aspects of its behavior before, during, and after large earthquakes. We conducted a study to locate and to estimate magnitudes for the largest foreshocks and aftershocks of the 1857 M 7.9 Fort Tejon earthquake on the central and southern segments of the fault. We began by searching archived first-hand accounts from 1857 through 1862, by grouping felt reports temporally, and by assigning modified Mercalli intensities to each site. We then used a modified form of the grid-search algorithm of Bakum and Wentworth, derived from empirical analysis of modern earthquakes, to find the location and magnitude most consistent with the assigned intensities for each of the largest events. The result confirms a conclusion of Sieh that at least two foreshocks ('dawn' and 'sunrise') located on or near the Parkfield segment of the San Andreas fault preceded the mainshock. We estimate their magnitudes to be M ~ 6.1 and M ~ 5.6, respectively. The aftershock rate was below average but within one standard deviation of the number of aftershocks expected based on statistics of modern southern California mainshock-aftershock sequences. The aftershocks included two significant events during the first eight days of the sequence, with magnitudes M ~ 6.25 and M ~ 6.7, near the southern half of the rupture; later aftershocks included a M ~ 6 event near San Bernardino in December 1858 and a M ~ 6.3 event near the Parkfield segment in April 1860. From earthquake logs at Fort Tejon, we conclude that the aftershock sequence lasted a minimum of 3.75 years.

  5. Emergency feature. Great east Japan earthquake disaster Fukushima Daiichi accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawata, Tomio; Tsujikura, Yonezo; Kitamura, Toshiro

    2011-01-01

    The Tohoku Pacific Ocean earthquake occurred in March 11, 2011. The disastrous tsunami attacked Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plants after automatically shutdown by the earthquake and all motor operated pumps became inoperable due to station black out. Despite the strenuous efforts of operators, if caused serious accident such as loss of cooling function, hydrogen explosion and release of large amount of radioactive materials into the environment, leading to nuclear power emergency that ordered resident to evacuate or remain indoors. This emergency feature consisted of four articles. The first was the interview with the president of JAIF (Japan Atomic Industrial Forum) on how to identify the cause of the accident completely, intensify safety assurance measures and promote discussions on a role of nuclear power in the nation's entire energy policy toward the reconstruction. Others were reactor states and events sequence after the accident with trend data of radiation in the reactor site, statement of president of AESJ (Atomic Energy Society of Japan) on nuclear crisis following Tohoku Pacific Ocean earthquake our response and my experience in evacuation life. (T. Tanaka)

  6. Rapid GNSS and Data Communication System Deployments In Chile and Argentina Following the M8.8 Maule Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume, F.; Meertens, C. M.; Brooks, B. A.; Bevis, M. G.; Smalley, R.; Parra, H.; Baez, J.

    2010-12-01

    Because the signal is so big, great earthquakes allow us to make quantum leaps in our understanding of Earth deformation process and material properties. The Maule earthquake, with its occurrence near a large subaerial landmass and the large numbers of instruments available to study it, will surely become one of the most important geophysical events in modern memory. Much of the important signal, however, decays and changes rapidly in the short-term following the event and so a rapid response is necessary. Actually delivering the data from the CGPS response stations, however, represents an intellectual challenge in terms of properly matching the engineering realities with the scientific desiderata. We expect multiple major science advances to come from these data: (1) Understanding earthquake and tsunami-genesis via use of the coseismic displacement field to create the most well-constrained fault slip and tsunami-genesis models. (2) The role of stress loading on both the principal thrust plane and subsidiary planes. (3) The relationship between fault afterslip to the main event as well as to the distribution of aftershocks (4) Study of large aftershocks jointly using conventional seismology and high-rate GPS coseismic displacement seismogram. (5) Rheological behavior of the fault interface. (6) The mechanical response of the bulk earth to large stress perturbations. Within 10 days of the earthquake 20 complete GPS systems were delivered by UNAVCO personnel to IGM and OSU staff in Santiago, and 5 were shipped via diplomatic pouch to Argentina. Consisting of of 10 Trimble NetRS and 15 Topcon GB-1000 receivers, the units were deployed througout the affected area during the following three weeks, using welded-in-place steel tripod monuments driven into soil or drilled into bedrock, or steel masts. Additional GPS hardware was procured from cooperating institutions and donated by GPS manufacturers, and a total of 43 post-earthquake GPS stations are continuously operating

  7. The Great East-Japan Earthquake and devastating tsunami: an update and lessons from the past Great Earthquakes in Japan since 1923.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishigaki, Akemi; Higashi, Hikari; Sakamoto, Takako; Shibahara, Shigeki

    2013-04-01

    Japan has a long history of fighting against great earthquakes that cause structural damage/collapses, fires and/or tsunami. On March 11, 2011 at 14:46 (Friday), the Great East-Japan Earthquake (magnitude 9.0) attacked the Tohoku region (northeastern Japan), which includes Sendai City. The earthquake generated a devastating tsunami, leading to unprecedented disasters (~18,500 victims) in coastal areas of Iwate, Miyagi and Fukushima prefectures, despite the fact that people living in the Tohoku region are well trained for tsunami-evacuation procedures, with the mindset of "Tsunami, ten-den-ko." This code means that each person should evacuate individually upon an earthquake. Sharing this rule, children and parents can escape separately from schools, houses or workplaces, without worrying about each other. The concept of ten-den-ko (individual evacuation) is helpful for people living in coastal areas of earthquake-prone zones around the world. It is also important to construct safe evacuation centers, because the March 11(th) tsunami killed people who had evacuated to evacuation sites. We summarize the current conditions of people living in the disaster-stricken areas, including the consequences of the Fukushima nuclear accident. We also describe the disaster responses as the publisher of the Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine (TJEM), located in Sendai, with online support from Tokyo. In 1923, the Great Kanto Earthquake (magnitude 7.9) evoked a massive fire that destroyed large areas of Tokyo (~105,000 victims), including the print company for TJEM, but the Wistar Institute printed three TJEM issues in 1923 in Philadelphia. Mutual aid relationships should be established between distant cities to survive future disasters.

  8. The Great East-Japan Earthquake and devastating tsunami. An update and lessons from the past great earthquakes in Japan since 1923

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishigaki, Akemi; Higashi, Hikari; Sakamoto, Takako; Shibahara, Shigeki

    2013-01-01

    Japan has a long history of fighting against great earthquakes that cause structural damage/collapses, fires and/or tsunami. On March 11, 2011 at 14:46 (Friday), the Great East-Japan Earthquake (magnitude 9.0) attacked the Tohoku region (northeastern Japan), which includes Sendai City. The earthquake generated a devastating tsunami, leading to unprecedented disasters (∼18,500 victims) in coastal areas of Iwate, Miyagi and Fukushima prefectures, despite the fact that people living in the Tohoku region are well trained for tsunami-evacuation procedures, with the mindset of ''Tsunami, ten-den-ko.'' This code means that each person should evacuate individually upon an earthquake. Sharing this rule, children and parents can escape separately from schools, houses or workplaces, without worrying about each other. The concept of ten-den-ko (individual evacuation) is helpful for people living in coastal areas of earthquake-prone zones around the world. It is also important to construct safe evacuation centers, because the March 11 th tsunami killed people who had evacuated to evacuation sites. We summarize the current conditions of people living in the disaster-stricken areas, including the consequences of the Fukushima nuclear accident. We also describe the disaster responses as the publisher of the Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine (TJEM), located in Sendai, with online support from Tokyo. In 1923, the Great Kanto Earthquake (magnitude 7.9) evoked a massive fire that destroyed large areas of Tokyo (∼105,000 victims), including the print company for TJEM, but the Wistar Institute printed three TJEM issues in 1923 in Philadelphia. Mutual aid relationships should be established between distant cities to survive future disasters. (author)

  9. The 2005 Tarapaca, Chile, Intermediate-depth Earthquake: Evidence of Heterogeneous Fluid Distribution Across the Plate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuge, K.; Kase, Y.; Urata, Y.; Campos, J.; Perez, A.

    2008-12-01

    The physical mechanism of intermediate-depth earthquakes remains unsolved, and dehydration embrittlement in subducting plates is a candidate. An earthquake of Mw7.8 occurred at a depth of 115 km beneath Tarapaca, Chile. In this study, we suggest that the earthquake rupture can be attributed to heterogeneous fluid distribution across the subducting plate. The distribution of aftershocks suggests that the earthquake occurred on the subhorizontal fault plane. By modeling regional waveforms, we determined the spatiotemporal distribution of moment release on the fault plane, testing a different suite of velocity models and hypocenters. Two patches of high slip were robustly obtained, although their geometry tends to vary. We tested the results separately by computing the synthetic teleseismic P and pP waveforms. Observed P waveforms are generally modeled, whereas two pulses of observed pP require that the two patches are in the WNW-ESE direction. From the selected moment-release evolution, the dynamic rupture model was constructed by means of Mikumo et al. (1998). The model shows two patches of high dynamic stress drop. Notable is a region of negative stress drop between the two patches. This was required so that the region could lack wave radiation but propagate rupture from the first to the second patches. We found from teleseismic P that the radiation efficiency of the earthquake is relatively small, which can support the existence of negative stress drop during the rupture. The heterogeneous distribution of stress drop that we found can be caused by fluid. The T-P condition of dehydration explains the locations of double seismic zones (e.g. Hacker et al., 2003). The distance between the two patches of high stress drop agrees with the distance between the upper and lower layers of the double seismic zone observed in the south (Rietbrock and Waldhauser, 2004). The two patches can be parts of the double seismic zone, indicating the existence of fluid from dehydration

  10. Analysis of ionospheric vertical total electron content before the 1 April 2014 Mw 8.2 Chile earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Weiping; Ma, Yifang; Zhou, Xiaohui; Li, Zhao; An, Xiangdong; Wang, Kaihua

    2017-11-01

    This paper studies ionospheric vertical total electron content (VTEC) variations before the 1 April 2014 Mw 8.2 Chile earthquake. VTEC derived from 14 global positioning system (GPS) stations and global ionospheric map (GIM) were used to analyze ionospheric variations before the earthquake using the sliding interquartile range method, and the results showed that significant positive VTEC anomalies occurred on 28 March. To explore possible causes of these anomalies, effects of solar and geomagnetic activities were examined, and VTEC variations during 17 March to 31 March in 2009-2013 were cross-compared. Also, VTEC for a full year before the earthquake was investigated. The results indicated that the anomalies were weakly associated with high solar activities and geomagnetic storms and that the anomalies were not normal seasonal and diurnal variations. An analysis of the spatial distribution of the observed anomalies was also presented, and it demonstrated that the anomalies specifically appeared around the epicenter on 28 March. We suggest that the observed anomalies may be associated with the subsequent Chile earthquake. Equatorial anomaly variations were analyzed to discuss the possible physical mechanism, and results showed that the equatorial anomaly unusually increased on 28 March, which indicates that anomalous electric fields generated in the earthquake preparation area and the meridional wind are possible causes of the observed ionospheric anomalies.

  11. Clinically Significant Behavior Problems among Young Children 2 Years after the Great East Japan Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Takeo; Yagi, Junko; Homma, Hiroaki; Mashiko, Hirobumi; Nagao, Keizo; Okuyama, Makiko

    2014-01-01

    Background On March 11, 2011, a massive undersea earthquake and tsunami struck East Japan. Few studies have investigated the impact of exposure to a natural disaster on preschool children. We investigated the association of trauma experiences during the Great East Japan Earthquake on clinically significant behavior problems among preschool children 2 years after the earthquake. Method Participants were children who were exposed to the 2011 disaster at preschool age (affected area, n = 178; unaffected area, n = 82). Data were collected from September 2012 to June 2013 (around 2 years after the earthquake), thus participants were aged 5 to 8 years when assessed. Severe trauma exposures related to the earthquake (e.g., loss of family members) were assessed by interview, and trauma events in the physical environment related to the earthquake (e.g. housing damage), and other trauma exposure before the earthquake, were assessed by questionnaire. Behavior problems were assessed by caregivers using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), which encompasses internalizing, externalizing, and total problems. Children who exceeded clinical cut-off of the CBCL were defined as having clinically significant behavior problems. Results Rates of internalizing, externalizing, and total problems in the affected area were 27.7%, 21.2%, and 25.9%, respectively. The rate ratio suggests that children who lost distant relatives or friends were 2.36 times more likely to have internalizing behavior problems (47.6% vs. 20.2%, 95% CI: 1.10–5.07). Other trauma experiences before the earthquake also showed significant positive association with internalizing, externalizing, and total behavior problems, which were not observed in the unaffected area. Conclusions One in four children still had behavior problems even 2 years after the Great East Japan Earthquake. Children who had other trauma experiences before the earthquake were more likely to have behavior problems. These data will be

  12. Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-01

    The background notes on Chile provide a statistical summary of the population, geography, government, and the economy, and more descriptive text on the history, population, government, economy, defense, and foreign relations. In brief, Chile has 13.3 million Spanish Indian (Mestizos), European, and Indian inhabitants and an annual growth rate of 1.6%. 96% are literate. Infant mortality is 18/1000. 34% of the population are involved in industry and commerce, 30% in services, 19% in agriculture and forestry and fishing, 7% in construction, and 2% in mining. The major city is Santiago. The government, which gained independence in 1810, is a republic with executive, legislative, and judicial branches. There are 12 regions. There are 6 major political parties. Suffrage is universal at 18 years. Gross domestic product (GDP) is $29.2 billion. The annual growth rate is 5% and inflation is 19%. Copper, timber, fish, iron ore, nitrates, precious metals, and molybdenum are its natural resources. Agricultural products are 9% of GDP and include wheat, potatoes, corn, sugar beets, onions, beans, fruits, and livestock. Industry is 21% of GDP and includes mineral refining, metal manufacturing, food and fish processing, paper and wood products, and finished textiles. $8.3 billion is the value of exports and $7 billion of imports. Export markets are in Japan, the US, Germany, Brazil, and the United Kingdom. Chile received $3.5 billion in economic aid between 1949-85, but little in recent years. 83% live in urban centers, principally around Santiago. Congressional representation is made on the basis of elections by a unique binomial majority system. Principal government officials are identified. Chile has a diversified free market economy and is almost self-sufficient in food production. The US is a primary trading partner. 49% of Chile's exports are minerals. Chile maintains diplomatic relations with 70 countries, however, relations are strained with Argentina and Bolivia. Relations

  13. Great earthquakes along the Western United States continental margin: implications for hazards, stratigraphy and turbidite lithology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. H. Nelson

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We summarize the importance of great earthquakes (Mw ≳ 8 for hazards, stratigraphy of basin floors, and turbidite lithology along the active tectonic continental margins of the Cascadia subduction zone and the northern San Andreas Transform Fault by utilizing studies of swath bathymetry visual core descriptions, grain size analysis, X-ray radiographs and physical properties. Recurrence times of Holocene turbidites as proxies for earthquakes on the Cascadia and northern California margins are analyzed using two methods: (1 radiometric dating (14C method, and (2 relative dating, using hemipelagic sediment thickness and sedimentation rates (H method. The H method provides (1 the best estimate of minimum recurrence times, which are the most important for seismic hazards risk analysis, and (2 the most complete dataset of recurrence times, which shows a normal distribution pattern for paleoseismic turbidite frequencies. We observe that, on these tectonically active continental margins, during the sea-level highstand of Holocene time, triggering of turbidity currents is controlled dominantly by earthquakes, and paleoseismic turbidites have an average recurrence time of ~550 yr in northern Cascadia Basin and ~200 yr along northern California margin. The minimum recurrence times for great earthquakes are approximately 300 yr for the Cascadia subduction zone and 130 yr for the northern San Andreas Fault, which indicates both fault systems are in (Cascadia or very close (San Andreas to the early window for another great earthquake.

    On active tectonic margins with great earthquakes, the volumes of mass transport deposits (MTDs are limited on basin floors along the margins. The maximum run-out distances of MTD sheets across abyssal-basin floors along active margins are an order of magnitude less (~100 km than on passive margins (~1000 km. The great earthquakes along the Cascadia and northern California margins

  14. A great earthquake in the Antarctic plate on 25 March 1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Tono

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available A great earthquake occurred in the Antarctic Plate at 03h 12m 24.7s (UT on 25 March 1998. The location and magnitude of the earthquake determined by United States Geological Survey are as follows : 62.876°S, 149.712°E, 10km depth m_b 6.8,M_s 8.0. In response to a request for earthquake information from Syowa Station (69°00′S, 39°35′E to Dumont d'Urville Station of France (66°40′S, 140°01′E, the station leader reported that all wintering members in the station felt a quake and something on the shelf in the building fell down. The intensity at the station was estimated to be III∿IV by the intensity scale of Japanese Meteorological Agency. This earthquake is the first great earthquake of magnitude 8 recorded in the Antarctic Plate since IGY of 1957 and the first earthquake felt in Antarctica except for volcanic earthquakes.

  15. Social media use and goals after the Great East Japan Earthquake

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Joo-Young

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the use of social media after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake. Based on media system dependency theory, the study focuses on the ways in which people used different types of social media to cope with a highly ambiguous situation created by the earthquake. A survey of Japanese university students revealed that the respondents used different forms of social media with different goals. Moreover, use of a particular social media type influenced the relative importance of ...

  16. Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    Chile is a long (2650 miles), narrow (250 miles at widest point) country sandwiched between the Andes mountains and the Pacific. The northern desert is rich in copper and nitrates; the temperate middle region is agricultural and supports the major cities, including Santiago, the capital, and the port of Valparaiso; and the southern region is a cold and damp area of forests, grasslands, lakes, and fjords. The country is divided into 12 administrative regions. Chile's population of 12.5 million are mainly of Spanish or Indian descent or mestizos. Literacy is 92.3%, and the national language is Spanish. Infant mortality is 18.1/1000, and life expectancy is 68.2 years. 82% of the people are urban, and most are Roman Catholics. Chile was settled by the Spanish in 1541 and attached to the Viceroyalty of Peru. Independence was won in 1818 under the leadership of Bernardo O'Higgins. In the 1880s Chile extended its sovereignty over the Strait of Magellan in the south and areas of southern Peru and Bolivia in the north. An officially parliamentary government, elected by universal suffrage, drifted into oligarchy and finally into a military dictatorship under Carlos Ibanez in 1924. Constitutional government was restored in 1932. The Christian Democratic government of Eduardo Frei (1964-70) inaugurated major reforms, including land redistribution, education, and far-reaching social and economic policies. A Marxist government under Salvador Allende lasted from 1970 to 1973 when the present military government of General Pinochet Ugarte took power, overthrew Allende, abolished the Congress, and banned political parties. It has moved the country in the direction of a free market economy but at the cost of systematic violations of human rights. A new constitution was promulgated in 1981, and congressional elections have been scheduled for October, 1989. A "National Accord for Transition to Full Democracy" was mediated by the Catholic Church in 1985. The social reforms of the

  17. Earthquakes in Fiordland, Southern Chile: Initiation and Development of a Magmatic Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrientos, S.; Service, N. S.

    2007-05-01

    Several efforts in Chile are being conducted in relation to geophysical monitoring with the objective of disaster mitigation. A long and permanent monitoring effort along the country has been the continuous effort resulting in the recognition and delineation of new seismogenic sources. Here we report on the seismo-volcanic crisis that is currently taking place in the in the region close to the triple junction (Nazca, Antarctica and South America) in southern Chile at around latitude 45°S. On January 22, 2007, an intensity V-VI (MMI) earthquake shook the cities of Puerto Aysén, Puerto Chacabuco and Coyhaique. This magnitude 5 event, was the first of a series of earthquakes that have taken place in the region for nearly a month and a half (until end of February, time when this abstract was written). The closest station to the source area -part of the GEOSCOPE network located in Coyhaique, about 80 km away from the epicenters- reveals seismic activity about 3 hours before the first event. Immediately after the first event, more than 20 events per hour were detected and recorded by this station, rate which decreased with time with the exception of those time intervals following larger events. More than six events with magnitude 5 or more have been recorded. Five seismic stations were installed surrounding the epicentral area between 27 - 29 January and are currently operational. After processing some of the recorded events, a sixth station was installed at the closest possible site of the source of the seismic activity. Preliminary analysis of the recorded seismic activity reveals a concentration of hypocenters - 5 to 10 km depth- along an eight-km NNE-SSW vertical plane crossing the Aysén fiord. Harmonic tremor has also been detected. This seismic activity is interpreted as the result of a magmatic process in progress which will most likely culminate in the generation of a new underwater volcanic edifice. Because the seismic activity fully extends across the Ays

  18. Great earthquakes along the Western United States continental margin: implications for hazards, stratigraphy and turbidite lithology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, C. H.; Gutiérrez Pastor, J.; Goldfinger, C.; Escutia, C.

    2012-11-01

    We summarize the importance of great earthquakes (Mw ≳ 8) for hazards, stratigraphy of basin floors, and turbidite lithology along the active tectonic continental margins of the Cascadia subduction zone and the northern San Andreas Transform Fault by utilizing studies of swath bathymetry visual core descriptions, grain size analysis, X-ray radiographs and physical properties. Recurrence times of Holocene turbidites as proxies for earthquakes on the Cascadia and northern California margins are analyzed using two methods: (1) radiometric dating (14C method), and (2) relative dating, using hemipelagic sediment thickness and sedimentation rates (H method). The H method provides (1) the best estimate of minimum recurrence times, which are the most important for seismic hazards risk analysis, and (2) the most complete dataset of recurrence times, which shows a normal distribution pattern for paleoseismic turbidite frequencies. We observe that, on these tectonically active continental margins, during the sea-level highstand of Holocene time, triggering of turbidity currents is controlled dominantly by earthquakes, and paleoseismic turbidites have an average recurrence time of ~550 yr in northern Cascadia Basin and ~200 yr along northern California margin. The minimum recurrence times for great earthquakes are approximately 300 yr for the Cascadia subduction zone and 130 yr for the northern San Andreas Fault, which indicates both fault systems are in (Cascadia) or very close (San Andreas) to the early window for another great earthquake. On active tectonic margins with great earthquakes, the volumes of mass transport deposits (MTDs) are limited on basin floors along the margins. The maximum run-out distances of MTD sheets across abyssal-basin floors along active margins are an order of magnitude less (~100 km) than on passive margins (~1000 km). The great earthquakes along the Cascadia and northern California margins cause seismic strengthening of the sediment, which

  19. Attenuation tomography in the rupture area of the 2010 M8.8 Maule, Chile, earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather-Smith, Helen; Rietbrock, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    In recent years several seismological studies have developed a detailed image of the megathrust interface between the subducting Nazca plate and and the overriding South American plate in the rupture area of the 2010 M8.8 Maule, Chile, earthquake. Hicks et al. (2014) have published a high resolution 3D seismic tomography model and characterised the different regimes acting along the interface based on their seismic properties. A more detailed study by Moreno et al. (2014) showed that the seismic Vp/Vs ratio and inter-seismic locking determined from GPS measurements are correlated. Together these observations open up the possibility to map the rupture potential of possible future earthquakes, although the underlying processes are yet not fully understood and a more in depth analysis of other physical properties is needed. 3D seismic attenuation structure as well as seismic stress-drop distribution based on the aftershock seismicity are providing independent data sets to better constrain the physical processes acting along the subduction zone interface. As seismic attenuation is particularly sensitive to fluid saturation it opens up the possibility to study more directly the influence of fluids on aftershock activity as compared to standard velocity tomography studies. Based on our event catalogue of approximately 30,000 aftershocks we are currently selecting the most appropriate data set for the staggered 3D attenuation tomography. The inverted attenuation model will then be used to calculate seismic stress drop values for the complete aftershock catalogue. We will present our preliminary 3D attenuation model together with our stress drop estimates and compare our finding to the 3D velocity structure and slip distribution.

  20. The current situation of the NDL Great East Japan Earthquake Archive 'HINAGIKU'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwa, Yasuko

    2014-01-01

    On March 7, 2013, the National Diet Library (NDL) started full-scale operation of the NDL Great East Japan Earthquake Archive 'HINAGIKU'. Hinagiku is the Searching Portal that enables integrated search and utilization of sound and videos, pictures, websites, etc., about the Great East Japan Earthquake. Its aim is to hand down all records and lessons to future generations and to utilize them for the restoration and reconstruction of the affected areas and for disaster prevention measures. Since its release last year, Hinagiku has been enlarging search targets in cooperation with related institutions. In this article, I will give an overview of the NDL Great East Japan Earthquake Archive and discuss about its challenges for the future. (author)

  1. Tsunami Numerical Simulation for Hypothetical Giant or Great Earthquakes along the Izu-Bonin Trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, T.; Ishibashi, K.; Satake, K.

    2013-12-01

    We performed tsunami numerical simulations from various giant/great fault models along the Izu-Bonin trench in order to see the behavior of tsunamis originated in this region and to examine the recurrence pattern of great interplate earthquakes along the Nankai trough off southwest Japan. As a result, large tsunami heights are expected in the Ryukyu Islands and on the Pacific coasts of Kyushu, Shikoku and western Honshu. The computed large tsunami heights support the hypothesis that the 1605 Keicho Nankai earthquake was not a tsunami earthquake along the Nankai trough but a giant or great earthquake along the Izu-Bonin trench (Ishibashi and Harada, 2013, SSJ Fall Meeting abstract). The Izu-Bonin subduction zone has been regarded as so-called 'Mariana-type subduction zone' where M>7 interplate earthquakes do not occur inherently. However, since several M>7 outer-rise earthquakes have occurred in this region and the largest slip of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake (M9.0) took place on the shallow plate interface where the strain accumulation had considered to be a little, a possibility of M>8.5 earthquakes in this region may not be negligible. The latest M 7.4 outer-rise earthquake off the Bonin Islands on Dec. 22, 2010 produced small tsunamis on the Pacific coast of Japan except for the Tohoku and Hokkaido districts and a zone of abnormal seismic intensity in the Kanto and Tohoku districts. Ishibashi and Harada (2013) proposed a working hypothesis that the 1605 Keicho earthquake which is considered a great tsunami earthquake along the Nankai trough was a giant/great earthquake along the Izu-Bonin trench based on the similarity of the distributions of ground shaking and tsunami of this event and the 2010 Bonin earthquake. In this study, in order to examine the behavior of tsunamis from giant/great earthquakes along the Izu-Bonin trench and check the Ishibashi and Harada's hypothesis, we performed tsunami numerical simulations from fault models along the Izu-Bonin trench

  2. THE GREAT SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA SHAKEOUT: Earthquake Science for 22 Million People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, L.; Cox, D.; Perry, S.; Hudnut, K.; Benthien, M.; Bwarie, J.; Vinci, M.; Buchanan, M.; Long, K.; Sinha, S.; Collins, L.

    2008-12-01

    Earthquake science is being communicated to and used by the 22 million residents of southern California to improve resiliency to future earthquakes through the Great Southern California ShakeOut. The ShakeOut began when the USGS partnered with the California Geological Survey, Southern California Earthquake Center and many other organizations to bring 300 scientists and engineers together to formulate a comprehensive description of a plausible major earthquake, released in May 2008, as the ShakeOut Scenario, a description of the impacts and consequences of a M7.8 earthquake on the Southern San Andreas Fault (USGS OFR2008-1150). The Great Southern California ShakeOut was a week of special events featuring the largest earthquake drill in United States history. The ShakeOut drill occurred in houses, businesses, and public spaces throughout southern California at 10AM on November 13, 2008, when southern Californians were asked to pretend that the M7.8 scenario earthquake had occurred and to practice actions that could reduce the impact on their lives. Residents, organizations, schools and businesses registered to participate in the drill through www.shakeout.org where they could get accessible information about the scenario earthquake and share ideas for better reparation. As of September 8, 2008, over 2.7 million confirmed participants had been registered. The primary message of the ShakeOut is that what we do now, before a big earthquake, will determine what our lives will be like after. The goal of the ShakeOut has been to change the culture of earthquake preparedness in southern California, making earthquakes a reality that are regularly discussed. This implements the sociological finding that 'milling,' discussing a problem with loved ones, is a prerequisite to taking action. ShakeOut milling is taking place at all levels from individuals and families, to corporations and governments. Actions taken as a result of the ShakeOut include the adoption of earthquake

  3. Study of the structure changes caused by earthquakes in Chile applying the lineament analysis to the Aster (Terra) satellite data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano-Baeza, A.; Zverev, A.; Malinnikov, V.

    Chile is one of the most seismically and volcanically active regions in the South America due to a constant subdiction of the South American plate, converging with the Nazca plate in the extreme North of Chile. Four events, namely: the Ovalle earthquake of Juny 18, 2003, M=6.3, with epicenter localized at (-30:49:33, -71:18:53), the Calama earthquake of Junly 19, 2001, M=5.2, (-30:29:38,-68:33:18), the Pica earthquake of April 10, 2003, M=5.1, (-21:03:20,-68:47:10) and the La Ligua earthquake of May 6, 2001, M=5.1, (-32:35:31,-71:07:58:) were analysed using the 15 m resolution satellite images, provided by the ASTER/VNIR instrument. The Lineament Extraction and Stripes Statistic Analysis (LESSA) software package was used to examine changes in the lineament features caused by sismic activity. Lack of vegetation facilitates the study of the changes in the topography common to all events and makes it possible to evaluate the sismic risk in this region for the future.

  4. Geodetic Finite-Fault-based Earthquake Early Warning Performance for Great Earthquakes Worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhl, C. J.; Melgar, D.; Grapenthin, R.; Allen, R. M.

    2017-12-01

    GNSS-based earthquake early warning (EEW) algorithms estimate fault-finiteness and unsaturated moment magnitude for the largest, most damaging earthquakes. Because large events are infrequent, algorithms are not regularly exercised and insufficiently tested on few available datasets. The Geodetic Alarm System (G-larmS) is a GNSS-based finite-fault algorithm developed as part of the ShakeAlert EEW system in the western US. Performance evaluations using synthetic earthquakes offshore Cascadia showed that G-larmS satisfactorily recovers magnitude and fault length, providing useful alerts 30-40 s after origin time and timely warnings of ground motion for onshore urban areas. An end-to-end test of the ShakeAlert system demonstrated the need for GNSS data to accurately estimate ground motions in real-time. We replay real data from several subduction-zone earthquakes worldwide to demonstrate the value of GNSS-based EEW for the largest, most damaging events. We compare predicted ground acceleration (PGA) from first-alert-solutions with those recorded in major urban areas. In addition, where applicable, we compare observed tsunami heights to those predicted from the G-larmS solutions. We show that finite-fault inversion based on GNSS-data is essential to achieving the goals of EEW.

  5. Characteristics of a Canine Distemper Virus Outbreak in Dichato, Chile Following the February 2010 Earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Acosta-Jamett

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Following the earthquake and tsunami disaster in Chile in February 2010, residents of Dichato reported high morbidity and mortality in dogs, descriptions of which resembled canine distemper virus (CDV. To assess the situation, free vaccine clinics were offered in April and May. Owner information, dog history and signalment were gathered; dogs received physical examinations and vaccines protecting against CDV, and other common canine pathogens. Blood was collected to screen for IgM antibodies to CDV. In total, 208 dogs received physical exams and vaccines were given to 177. IgM antibody titres to CDV were obtained for 104 dogs. Fifty-four dogs (51.9% tested positive for CDV at the cut off titre of >1:50, but a total of 91.4% of dogs had a detectable titre >1:10. Most of the positive test results were in dogs less than 2 years of age; 33.5% had been previously vaccinated against CDV, and owners of 84 dogs (42.2% reported clinical signs characteristic of CDV in their dogs following the disaster. The presence of endemic diseases in dog populations together with poor pre-disaster free-roaming dog management results in a potential for widespread negative effects following disasters. Creation of preparedness plans that include animal welfare, disease prevention and mitigation should be developed.

  6. Characteristics of a Canine Distemper Virus Outbreak in Dichato, Chile Following the February 2010 Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garde, Elena; Pérez, Guillermo; Acosta-Jamett, Gerardo; Bronsvoort, Barend Mark

    2013-08-27

    Following the earthquake and tsunami disaster in Chile in February 2010, residents of Dichato reported high morbidity and mortality in dogs, descriptions of which resembled canine distemper virus (CDV). To assess the situation, free vaccine clinics were offered in April and May. Owner information, dog history and signalment were gathered; dogs received physical examinations and vaccines protecting against CDV, and other common canine pathogens. Blood was collected to screen for IgM antibodies to CDV. In total, 208 dogs received physical exams and vaccines were given to 177. IgM antibody titres to CDV were obtained for 104 dogs. Fifty-four dogs (51.9%) tested positive for CDV at the cut off titre of >1:50, but a total of 91.4% of dogs had a detectable titre >1:10. Most of the positive test results were in dogs less than 2 years of age; 33.5% had been previously vaccinated against CDV, and owners of 84 dogs (42.2%) reported clinical signs characteristic of CDV in their dogs following the disaster. The presence of endemic diseases in dog populations together with poor pre-disaster free-roaming dog management results in a potential for widespread negative effects following disasters. Creation of preparedness plans that include animal welfare, disease prevention and mitigation should be developed.

  7. [The 2010 earthquake in Chile: the response of the health system and international cooperation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Tagle, Elizabeth; Santana Nazarit, Paula

    2011-08-01

    Understand the health system and international cooperation response to the catastrophic situation left by the earthquake and tsunami of 27 February 2010 in Chile, and draft proposals for improving strategies to mitigate the devastating effects of natural disasters. Descriptive and qualitative study with a first phase involving the analysis of secondary information-such as news articles, official statements, and technical reports-and a second phase involving semistructured interviews of institutional actors in the public health sector responsible for disaster response and users of the health system who acted as leaders and/or managers of the response. The study was conducted between May and October 2010, and information-gathering focused on the Maule, Bío Bío, and Metropolitan regions. Procedures for recording, distributing, and controlling donations were lacking. The health services suffered significant damage, including the complete destruction of 10 hospitals. The presence of field hospitals and foreign medical teams were appreciated by the community. The family health model and the commitment of personnel helped to ensure the quality of the response. While public health management was generally good, problems dealing with mental health issues were encountered due to a lack of local plans and predisaster simulations. The poor were the most affected. Women became social leaders, organizing the community. Although the health response to the emergency was satisfactory, both the health system and the mobilization of international assistance suffered from weaknesses that exacerbated existing inequities, revealing the need for multisectoral participatory mitigation plans for better disaster preparedness.

  8. Modelling psychological responses to the Great East Japan earthquake and nuclear incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Robin; Takahashi, Masahito; Sun, Shaojing; Gaines, Stanley O

    2012-01-01

    The Great East Japan (Tōhoku/Kanto) earthquake of March 2011 was followed by a major tsunami and nuclear incident. Several previous studies have suggested a number of psychological responses to such disasters. However, few previous studies have modelled individual differences in the risk perceptions of major events, or the implications of these perceptions for relevant behaviours. We conducted a survey specifically examining responses to the Great Japan earthquake and nuclear incident, with data collected 11-13 weeks following these events. 844 young respondents completed a questionnaire in three regions of Japan; Miyagi (close to the earthquake and leaking nuclear plants), Tokyo/Chiba (approximately 220 km from the nuclear plants), and Western Japan (Yamaguchi and Nagasaki, some 1000 km from the plants). Results indicated significant regional differences in risk perception, with greater concern over earthquake risks in Tokyo than in Miyagi or Western Japan. Structural equation analyses showed that shared normative concerns about earthquake and nuclear risks, conservation values, lack of trust in governmental advice about the nuclear hazard, and poor personal control over the nuclear incident were positively correlated with perceived earthquake and nuclear risks. These risk perceptions further predicted specific outcomes (e.g. modifying homes, avoiding going outside, contemplating leaving Japan). The strength and significance of these pathways varied by region. Mental health and practical implications of these findings are discussed in the light of the continuing uncertainties in Japan following the March 2011 events.

  9. Impact of intensity and loss assessment following the great Wenchuan Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yifan

    2008-09-01

    The great Wenchuan Earthquake occurred on May 12, 2008 in the Sichuan Province of China, and had a magnitude of 8.0. It is the most serious earthquake disaster in China since the great Tangshan Earthquake ( M s=7.8, July 28, 1976). According to official reports, there were 69,225 deaths, 379,640 injuries and 17,939 missing as of Aug. 11, 2008. The China Earthquake Administration quickly sent hundreds of experts to the field immediately after the event, to investigate the damage and assess the economic losses. This paper emphasizes the impact of seismic intensity and presents a preliminary loss assessment. A brief description of the geological features of the affected region is provided, followed by a summary of the earthquake damage. An isoseismal map is developed that shows that the high intensity region is distributed like a belt around the seimogenic fault, and that the epicentral intensity reached XI (Chinese Intensity Scale, similar to the Modified Mercalli Scale). The direct economic loss resulting from the earthquake is 692 billions RMB (about 100 billions US).

  10. Modelling psychological responses to the Great East Japan earthquake and nuclear incident.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Goodwin

    Full Text Available The Great East Japan (Tōhoku/Kanto earthquake of March 2011 was followed by a major tsunami and nuclear incident. Several previous studies have suggested a number of psychological responses to such disasters. However, few previous studies have modelled individual differences in the risk perceptions of major events, or the implications of these perceptions for relevant behaviours. We conducted a survey specifically examining responses to the Great Japan earthquake and nuclear incident, with data collected 11-13 weeks following these events. 844 young respondents completed a questionnaire in three regions of Japan; Miyagi (close to the earthquake and leaking nuclear plants, Tokyo/Chiba (approximately 220 km from the nuclear plants, and Western Japan (Yamaguchi and Nagasaki, some 1000 km from the plants. Results indicated significant regional differences in risk perception, with greater concern over earthquake risks in Tokyo than in Miyagi or Western Japan. Structural equation analyses showed that shared normative concerns about earthquake and nuclear risks, conservation values, lack of trust in governmental advice about the nuclear hazard, and poor personal control over the nuclear incident were positively correlated with perceived earthquake and nuclear risks. These risk perceptions further predicted specific outcomes (e.g. modifying homes, avoiding going outside, contemplating leaving Japan. The strength and significance of these pathways varied by region. Mental health and practical implications of these findings are discussed in the light of the continuing uncertainties in Japan following the March 2011 events.

  11. Geological evidence of recurrent great Kanto earthquakes at the Miura Peninsula, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazaki, K.; Kim, H. Y.; Chiba, T.; Satake, K.

    2011-12-01

    The Tokyo metropolitan area's well-documented earthquake history is dominated by the 1703 and 1923 great Kanto earthquakes produced by slip on the boundary between the subducting Philippine Sea plate and the overlying plate. Both earthquakes caused ˜1.5 m of uplift at the Miura Peninsula directly above the inferred fault rupture, and both were followed by tsunamis with heights of ˜5 m. We examined cores ˜2 m long from 8 tidal flat sites at the head of a small bay on the peninsula. The cores penetrated two to four layers of shelly gravel, as much as 0.5 m thick, with abundant shell fragments and mud clasts. The presence of gravel indicates strong tractive currents. Muddy bay deposits that bound the gravel layers show vertical changes in grain size and diatom assemblages consistent with abrupt shoaling at the times of the currents. The changes may further suggest gradual deepening of the bay during the intervals between the strong currents. We infer, based on 137Cs, 14C, and 210Pb dating, that the top two shelly gravel layers represent tsunamis associated with the 1703 and 1923 great Kanto earthquakes, and that the third layer was deposited by a tsunami during an earlier earthquake. The age range of this layer, AD 1060-1400, includes the time of an earthquake that occurred in 1293 according to a historical document. If so, the recurrence interval before the 1703 earthquake was almost twice as long as the interval between the 1703 and 1923 earthquakes.

  12. Pre-crisis Conditions and Government Policy Responses: Chile and Mexico during the Great Recession

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Martorano

    2014-01-01

    Chile and Mexico reacted to the crisis by implementing several policy responses, they achieved different outcomes. In particular, the Chilean economy recovered faster than the Mexican one. However, the main differences are related to social outcomes. On one hand, the Gini coefficient decreased in both countries. On the other hand, both overall and child poverty dropped in Chile while they rose sharply in Mexico. , Chile introduced a stimulus package twice as large the Mexican one. When the fi...

  13. Anomalies of total column CO and O3 associated with great earthquakes in recent years

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    Y. Cui

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Variations of total column CO and O3 in the atmosphere over the epicenter areas of 35 great earthquakes that occurred throughout the world in recent years were studied based on the hyper-spectrum data from Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS. It was found that anomalous increases of CO and/or O3 concentrations occurred over the epicenter areas of 12 earthquakes among the 35 studied ones. However, increases in both CO and O3 concentrations were found for 6 earthquakes. The O3 anomalies appeared in the month when the earthquake occurred and lasted for a few months, whereas CO anomalies occurred irregularly. The duration of CO and O3 anomalies related to the earthquakes ranged from 1 to 6 months. The anomalies of CO concentration related to the earthquake can be mainly attributed to gas emission from the lithosphere and photochemical reaction, while the anomalous increases in O3 concentration can be mainly due to the transport of O3-enriched air and photochemical reaction. However, more work needs to be done in order to understand the mechanism of the CO and O3 anomalies further.

  14. Suicide risk among young children after the Great East Japan Earthquake: A follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Takeo; Yagi, Junko; Homma, Hiroaki; Mashiko, Hirobumi; Nagao, Keizo; Okuyama, Makiko

    2017-07-01

    On 11 March 2011, the Great East Japan Earthquake and subsequent tsunami hit East Japan. We aim to investigate the impact of trauma experiences related to the earthquake on suicide risk among young children, stratified by child sex. Participants at baseline were children who were exposed to the 2011 disaster at preschool age (affected area, n=198; unaffected area, n=82, total n=280). From July 2013 to May 2014, suicide risk was assessed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for Children and Adolescents (MINI-KID) in a follow-up interview conducted by a child psychiatrist or psychologist (N=210, follow-up rate: 75%). Among young girls in the affected area, 12 out of 65 (18.5%) showed suicidal ideation, which is significantly higher than girls in the unaffected area (4.7%, p for chi-square=0.036). In the multivariate model adjusted for potential confounders and mediators, the odds ratio for 4 or more trauma experiences related to the earthquake was 5.74 (95% confidence interval: 0.83-39.6, p=0.076) compared to no trauma experience related to the earthquake. Among young boys, trauma exposure was not associated with suicidal ideation. Our findings showed that young girls who experienced earthquake-related trauma at preschool age had a higher suicidal ideation 3 years after the earthquake. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Subducting plate geology in three great earthquake ruptures of the western Alaska margin, Kodiak to Unimak

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Huene, Roland E.; Miller, John J.; Weinrebe, Wilhelm

    2012-01-01

    Three destructive earthquakes along the Alaska subduction zone sourced transoceanic tsunamis during the past 70 years. Since it is reasoned that past rupture areas might again source tsunamis in the future, we studied potential asperities and barriers in the subduction zone by examining Quaternary Gulf of Alaska plate history, geophysical data, and morphology. We relate the aftershock areas to subducting lower plate relief and dissimilar materials in the seismogenic zone in the 1964 Kodiak and adjacent 1938 Semidi Islands earthquake segments. In the 1946 Unimak earthquake segment, the exposed lower plate seafloor lacks major relief that might organize great earthquake rupture. However, the upper plate contains a deep transverse-trending basin and basement ridges associated with the Eocene continental Alaska convergent margin transition to the Aleutian island arc. These upper plate features are sufficiently large to have affected rupture propagation. In addition, massive slope failure in the Unimak area may explain the local 42-m-high 1946 tsunami runup. Although Quaternary geologic and tectonic processes included accretion to form a frontal prism, the study of seismic images, samples, and continental slope physiography shows a previous history of tectonic erosion. Implied asperities and barriers in the seismogenic zone could organize future great earthquake rupture.

  16. Heterogeneous rupture in the great Cascadia earthquake of 1700 inferred from coastal subsidence estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei-Ling; Engelhart, Simon E.; Wang, Kelin; Hawkes, Andrea D.; Horton, Benjamin P.; Nelson, Alan R.; Witter, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    Past earthquake rupture models used to explain paleoseismic estimates of coastal subsidence during the great A.D. 1700 Cascadia earthquake have assumed a uniform slip distribution along the megathrust. Here we infer heterogeneous slip for the Cascadia margin in A.D. 1700 that is analogous to slip distributions during instrumentally recorded great subduction earthquakes worldwide. The assumption of uniform distribution in previous rupture models was due partly to the large uncertainties of then available paleoseismic data used to constrain the models. In this work, we use more precise estimates of subsidence in 1700 from detailed tidal microfossil studies. We develop a 3-D elastic dislocation model that allows the slip to vary both along strike and in the dip direction. Despite uncertainties in the updip and downdip slip extensions, the more precise subsidence estimates are best explained by a model with along-strike slip heterogeneity, with multiple patches of high-moment release separated by areas of low-moment release. For example, in A.D. 1700, there was very little slip near Alsea Bay, Oregon (~44.4°N), an area that coincides with a segment boundary previously suggested on the basis of gravity anomalies. A probable subducting seamount in this area may be responsible for impeding rupture during great earthquakes. Our results highlight the need for more precise, high-quality estimates of subsidence or uplift during prehistoric earthquakes from the coasts of southern British Columbia, northern Washington (north of 47°N), southernmost Oregon, and northern California (south of 43°N), where slip distributions of prehistoric earthquakes are poorly constrained.

  17. My Road to Transform Faulting 1963; Long-Term Precursors to Recent Great Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, L. R.

    2017-12-01

    My road to plate tectonics started serendipitously in 1963 in a remote area of the southeast Pacific when I was studying the propagation of short-period seismic surface waves for my PhD. The earthquakes I used as sources were poorly located. I discovered that my relocated epicenters followed the crest of the East Pacific Rise but then suddenly took a sharp turn to the east at what I interpreted to be a major fracture zone 1000 km long before turning again to the north near 55 degrees south. I noted that earthquakes along that zone only occurred between the two ridge crests, an observation Tuzo Wilson used to develop his hypothesis of transform faulting. Finding a great, unknown fracture zone led me to conclude that work on similar faults that intersect the Mid-Oceanic Ridge System was more important than my study of surface waves. I found similar great faults over the next two years and obtained refined locations of earthquakes along several island arcs. When I was in Fiji and Tonga during 1965 studying deep earthquakes, James Dorman wrote to me about Wilson's paper and I thought about testing his hypothesis. I started work on it the spring of 1966 immediately after I learned about the symmetrical "magic magnetic anomaly profile" across the East Pacific Rise of Pitman and Heirtzler. I quickly obtained earthquake mechanisms that verified the transform hypothesis and its related concepts of seafloor spreading and continental drift. As an undergraduate in the late 1950s, my mentor told me that respectable young earth scientists should not work on vague and false mobilistic concepts like continental drift since continents cannot plow through strong oceanic crust. Hence, until spring 1966, I did not take continental drift seriously. The second part of my presentation involves new evidence from seismology and GPS of what appear to be long-term precursors to a number of great earthquakes of the past decade.

  18. Source to Sink Tectonic Fate of Large Oceanic Turbidite Systems and the Rupturing of Great and Giant Megathrust Earthquakes (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, D. W.; Kirby, S. H.; von Huene, R.

    2010-12-01

    OF THE TECTONIC SINK: Most great (Mw8.0 and larger) and giant (Mw8.5 and larger) megathrust earthquakes rupture along subduction zones fronted by thick sediment-filled (1 km and thicker) trench axes. For example, 75 percent of giant earthquakes broke at these trenches, and all earthquakes exceeding Mw9.0 ruptured adjacent to thickly sedimented trenches (2 km and thicker). Ruff (1989) first suggested that subduction of a thick section of sediment forms a relatively homogenous layer between the upper and lower plates that laterally smoothes the roughness of subducting sea-floor relief and rupture-arresting asperities. This condition favors long trench-parallel rupturing (more than 250 km), the hallmark of all great and giant megathrust earthquakes. In positive feedback, these huge strain-releasing shocks produce strong seafloor motions that trigger the flushing of sediment-charged turbidity currents to the trench axis and adjacent overflow fans. Subduction of these deposits recharges the subduction channel, sustaining conditions favorable to future great and giant megathrust ruptures. [Ruff, L., 1989, Do trench sediments affect great earthquakes occurrence in subduction zones, Pure and Applied Geophysics, v. 129, Nos. 1/2, p. 263-282].

  19. Lessons Learned from Data Management Activities after the Great East Japan Earthquake in March 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Kitamoto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes our effort towards managing the multi-disciplinary disaster-related data from the Great East Japan Earthquake, which happened on March 11, 2011 off the coast of Northeast Japan. This earthquake caused the largest tsunami in the recorded history of Japan, killed many people along the coast, and caused a nuclear disaster in Fukushima, which continues to affect a large area of Japan. Just after the earthquake, we started crisis response data management activities to provide useful information for supporting disaster response and recovery. This paper introduces the various types of datasets we made from the viewpoint of data management processing and draws lessons from our post-disaster activities.

  20. Refinements on the inferred causative faults of the great 2012 Indian Ocean earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revathy, P. M.; Rajendran, K.

    2014-12-01

    As the largest known intra-plate strike-slip events, the pair of 2012 earthquakes in the Wharton Basin is a rarity. Separated in time by 2 hours these events rouse interest also because of their short inter-event duration, complex rupture mechanism, and spatial-temporal proximity to the great 2004 Sumatra plate boundary earthquake. Reactivation of fossil ridge-transform pairs is a favoured mechanism for large oceanic plate earthquakes and their inherent geometry triggers earthquakes on conjugate fault systems, as observed previously in the Wharton Basin. The current debate is whether the ruptures occurred on the WNW-ESE paleo ridges or the NNE-SSW paleo transforms. Back-projection models give a complex rupture pattern that favours the WNW-ESE fault [1]. However, the static stress changes due to the 2004 Sumatra earthquake and 2005 Nias earthquake favour the N15°E fault [2]. We use the Teleseismic Body-Wave Inversion Program [3] and waveform data from Global Seismic Network, to obtain the best fit solutions using P and S-wave synthetic modelling. The preliminary P-wave analysis of both earthquakes gives source parameters that are consistent with the Harvard CMT solutions. The obtained slip distribution complies with the NNE-SSW transforms. Both these earthquakes triggered small tsunamis which appear as two distinctive pulses on 13 Indian Ocean tide gauges and buoys. Frequency spectra of the tsunami recordings from various azimuths provide additional constraint for the choice of the causative faults. References: [1] Yue, H., T. Lay, and K. D. Koper (2012), En echelon and orthogonal fault ruptures of the 11 April 2012 great intraplate earthquakes, Nature, 490, 245-249, doi:10.1038/nature11492 [2] Delescluse, M., N. Chamot-Rooke, R. Cattin, L. Fleitout, O. Trubienko and C. Vigny April 2012 intra-oceanic seismicity off Sumatra boosted by the Banda-Aceh megathrust, Nature, 490(2012), pp. 240-244, doi:10.1038/nature11520 [3] M. Kikuchi and H. Kanamori, Note on

  1. Kinds of damage that could result from a great earthquake in the central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, M.G.; Algermissen, S.T.

    1985-01-01

    In the winter of 1811-12 a series of three great earthquakes occurred in the New Madrid, Missouri seismic zone in the central United States. In addition to the three principal shocks, at least 15 other earthquakes of intensity VIII or more occurred within a year of the first large earthquake on December 16, 1811. The three main shocks were felt over the entire eastern United States. They were strong enough to cause minor damage cause minor damage as far away as Indiana and Ohio on the north, the Carolinas on the east, and southern Mississippi to the south. They were strong enough to cause severe or structural damage in parts of Missouri, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Tennessee, Mississippi, and Arkansas. A later section in this article describes what happened in the epicentral region. Fortunately, few people lived in the severely shaken area in 1811; that is not the case today. What would happen if a series of earthquakes as large and numerous as the "New Madrid" earthquakes were to occur in the New Madrid seismic zone today?

  2. COMPARING SEA LEVEL RESPONSE AT MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA FROM THE 1989 LOMA PRIETA EARTHQUAKE AND THE 1964 GREAT ALASKAN EARTHQUAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. Breaker

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Two of the largest earthquakes to affect water levels in Monterey Bay in recent years were the Loma Prieta Earthquake (LPE of 1989 with a moment magnitude of 6.9, and the Great Alaskan Earthquake (GAE of 1964 with a moment magnitude of 9.2. In this study, we compare the sea level response of these events with a primary focus on their frequency content and how the bay affected it, itself. Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA was employed to extract the primary frequencies associated with each event. It is not clear how or exactly where the tsunami associated with the LPE was generated, but it occurred inside the bay and most likely began to take on the characteristics of a seiche by the time it reached the tide gauge in Monterey Harbor. Results of the SSA decomposition revealed two primary periods of oscillation, 9-10 minutes, and 31-32 minutes. The first oscillation is in agreement with the range of periods for the expected natural oscillations of Monterey Harbor, and the second oscillation is consistent with a bay-wide oscillation or seiche mode. SSA decomposition of the GAE revealed several sequences of oscillations all with a period of approximately 37 minutes, which corresponds to the predicted, and previously observed, transverse mode of oscillation for Monterey Bay. In this case, it appears that this tsunami produced quarter-wave resonance within the bay consistent with its seiche-like response. Overall, the sea level responses to the LPE and GAE differed greatly, not only because of the large difference in their magnitudes but also because the driving force in one case occurred inside the bay (LPE, and in the second, outside the bay (GAE. As a result, different modes of oscillation were excited.

  3. Great Earthquakes, Gigantic Landslides, and the Continuing Enigma of the April Fool's Tsunami of 1946

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, G. J.; Tryon, M. D.

    2005-12-01

    Paleotsunami studies can extend the record of great earthquakes back into prehistory, but what if the historical record itself is ambiguous? There is growing controversy about whether great earthquakes really occur along the Shumagin and Unimak segments of the Alaska-Aleutian system. The last great tsunami there was April 1, 1946, initiated by an earthquake whose magnitude has variously been reported from 7.1 to 8.5. Okal et al (BSSA, 2003) surveyed the near-field runup and concluded there were two sources: a magnitude 8.5 earthquake, which generated a Pacific-wide tsunami but which produced near-field runups no more than 18 m, and an earthquake-triggered slump whose tsunami reached 42 m at Scotch Cap Light near the western end of Unimak Island, but with runup rapidly decaying eastwards. An M8.5 earthquake, however, is incompatible with GPS strain measurements, which indicate that the maximum earthquake size off Unimak is M7.5. We have long contended that near- and far-field tsunamis were the result of a single earthquake-triggered debris avalanche down the Aleutian slope. In 2004 we were part of an expedition to map and explore the landslide, whose location seemed to be very tightly constrained by the known tsunami travel time to Scotch Cap Light. We found that neither our giant landslide nor Okal et al's smaller slump exist within 100 km of the presumed location. The explanation is obvious in retrospect: the tsunami was so large that it crossed the shallow Aleutian shelf as a bore travelling faster than the theoretical long-wave speed (which we had used to fix the location). Any landslide could only have occurred in an unsurveyed area farther east, off Unimak Bight, the central coast of Unimak Island. That location, however, conflicts with Okal et al's measurements of smaller runup along the Bight. We are now convinced that Okal et al confused the 1946 debris line with the lower line left by the 1957 tsunami. They were apparently unaware that the 1946 tsunami

  4. Seismogenic Tectonic Environment of 1976 Great Tangshan Earthquake: Results from Dense Seismic Array Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    LIU, Qiyuan; WANG, Jun; CHEN, Jiuhui; LI, Shuncheng; GUO, Biao

    On July 28, 1976, the great Tangshan earthquake that shook the whole world took place in the Tangshan area of the Hebei Province, China. A big incomprehensible question is why such a tremendous earthquake took place in the Paleo-craton area in North China? It would be worth considering whether a similar event will reoccur in the Tangshan region. In this study, using the receiver function inversion technique and teleseismic P waveform data recorded at the Capital Circle Seismic network and our movable seismic array, we investigated the 3-D S-wave velocity structure of the crust and upper mantle down to 60 km beneath Tangshan area. Our results manifest that (1) the media beneath the Tangshan block cut by active faults are very different from the adjacent area, and all of the active faults surrounding the Tangshan block was through the whole crust; (2) in the upper and middle crust, there exist obvious heterogeneous low-velocity media beneath the Tangshan earthquake region; the crust-mantle boundary has an obvious block uplift and, in comparison with both sides, the top anomalous uplift of the upper mantle beneath the Tangshan block reaches to 10 km, and the upper mantle beneath has an anomalous heterogeneous structure; (4) beneath the Tangshan earthquake region, there are probably massive intrusions derived from the upper mantle, which form the low-velocity body in the upper and middle crust. Because of our results having much higher resolution than previous results, some new features of the crust and upper mantle velocity structure could be shown in this study; (5) the locations of destructive earthquakes are not random and are related closely to their deep structure of the crust and upper mantle. This provides a possibility of correctly estimating the location of destructive earthquakes. On the basis of our results, we discuss the dynamic genesis of the Tangshan earthquake. We consider that the main dynamic source for the Tangshan earthquake is the vertical

  5. Nucleation process and dynamic inversion of the Mw 6.9 Valparaíso 2017 earthquake in Central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, S.; Aden-Antoniow, F.; Baez, J. C., Sr.; Otarola, C., Sr.; Potin, B.; DelCampo, F., Sr.; Poli, P.; Flores, C.; Satriano, C.; Felipe, L., Sr.; Madariaga, R. I.

    2017-12-01

    The Valparaiso 2017 sequence occurred in mega-thrust Central Chile, an active zone where the last mega-earthquake occurred in 1730. An intense seismicity occurred 2 days before of the Mw 6.9 main-shock. A slow trench ward movement observed in the coastal GPS antennas accompanied the foreshock seismicity. Following the Mw 6.9 earthquake the seismicity migrated 30 Km to South-East. This sequence was well recorded by multi-parametric stations composed by GPS, Broad-Band and Strong Motion instruments. We built a seismic catalogue with 2329 events associated to Valparaiso sequence, with a magnitude completeness of Ml 2.8. We located all the seismicity considering a new 3D velocity model obtained for the Valparaiso zone, and compute the moment tensor for events with magnitude larger than Ml 3.5, and finally studied the presence of repeating earthquakes. The main-shock is studied by performing a dynamic inversion using the strong motion records and an elliptical patch approach to characterize the rupture process. During the two days nucleation stage, we observe a compact zone of repeater events. In the meantime a westward GPS movement was recorded in the coastal GPS stations. The aseismic moment estimated from GPS is larger than the foreshocks cumulative moment, suggesting the presence of a slow slip event, which potentially triggered the 6.9 mainshock. The Mw 6.9 earthquake is associated to rupture of an elliptical asperity of semi-axis of 10 km and 5 km, with a sub-shear rupture, stress drop of 11.71 MPa, yield stress of 17.21 MPa, slip weakening of 0.65 m and kappa value of 1.70. This sequence occurs close to, and with some similar characteristics that 1985 Valparaíso Mw 8.0 earthquake. The rupture of this asperity could stress more the highly locked Central Chile zone where a mega-thrust earthquake like 1730 is expected.

  6. Seismic Attenuation Tomography of the Rupture Zone of the 2010 Maule, Chile, Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torpey, M. E.; Russo, R. M.; Panning, M. P.

    2014-12-01

    We used measurements of differential S to P seismic attenuation in the rupture zone of the 2010 Mw 8.8 Maule, Chile earthquake (33°S-38°S) to characterize the seismic attenuation structure of the South American crust and upper mantle wedge. We used data obtained from the IRIS CHAMP rapid-response temporary seismic network, filtered between 0.7-20 Hz. For events with large signal to noise ratios, we visually identified the P and S arrivals on the seismograms and used an evolving time window to determine 400 individual Qs and t* values and their uncertainties using a spectral ratio method. Using a phase pair method allows us to neglect the source-time function and instrument response of each P-S phase pair. Assuming a constant Qp/Qs ratio for a given P-S phase pair, we evaluated the 400 spectral ratios and discarded portions of the evolving time window that incorporate multipathed phases. We recalculated the Qs and standard deviation of the retained window and excluded measurements with standard deviations larger than half of the Qs value. We also excluded measurements that span frequency windows longer than 10 Hz as they contain noise that contaminates Qs measurements. We examined ~200 local events yielding a total of 1,076 path-integrated Q­s measurements. Qs values are low (100-400) for the majority of ray paths evaluated, however we observe a spatial distribution of low path-integrated Qs values (100-300) in the northeastern portion of the rupture zone and higher values (300-600) in the southwest. We divided the rupture zone into cubes and implemented a bounded linear inequality least squares inversion (0

  7. Analysis of the burns profile and the admission rate of severely burned adult patient to the National Burn Center of Chile after the 2010 earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albornoz, Claudia; Villegas, Jorge; Sylvester, Marilu; Peña, Veronica; Bravo, Iside

    2011-06-01

    Chile is located in the Ring of Fire, in South America. An earthquake 8.8° affected 80% of the population in February 27th, 2010. This study was conducted to assess any change in burns profile caused by the earthquake. This was an ecologic study. We compared the 4 months following the earthquake in 2009 and 2010. age, TBSA, deep TBSA, agent, specific mortality rate and rate of admissions to the National burn Center of Chile. Mann-Whitney test and a Poisson regression were performed. Age, agent, TBSA and deep TBSA percentages did not show any difference. Mortality rate was lower in 2010 (0.52 versus 1.22 per 1,000,000 habitants) but no meaningful difference was found (Poisson regression p = 0.06). Admission rate was lower in 2010, 4.6 versus 5.6 per 1,000,000 habitants, but no differences were found (p = 0.26). There was not any admissions directly related to the earthquake. As we do not have incidence registries in Chile, we propose to use the rate of admission to the National Burn Reference Center as an incidence estimator. There was not any significant difference in the burn profile, probably because of the time of the earthquake (3 am). We conclude the earthquake did not affect the way the Chilean people get burned. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  8. The link between great earthquakes and the subduction of oceanic fracture zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. Müller

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Giant subduction earthquakes are known to occur in areas not previously identified as prone to high seismic risk. This highlights the need to better identify subduction zone segments potentially dominated by relatively long (up to 1000 yr and more recurrence times of giant earthquakes. We construct a model for the geometry of subduction coupling zones and combine it with global geophysical data sets to demonstrate that the occurrence of great (magnitude ≥ 8 subduction earthquakes is strongly biased towards regions associated with intersections of oceanic fracture zones and subduction zones. We use a computational recommendation technology, a type of information filtering system technique widely used in searching, sorting, classifying, and filtering very large, statistically skewed data sets on the Internet, to demonstrate a robust association and rule out a random effect. Fracture zone–subduction zone intersection regions, representing only 25% of the global subduction coupling zone, are linked with 13 of the 15 largest (magnitude Mw ≥ 8.6 and half of the 50 largest (magnitude Mw ≥ 8.4 earthquakes. In contrast, subducting volcanic ridges and chains are only biased towards smaller earthquakes (magnitude < 8. The associations captured by our statistical analysis can be conceptually related to physical differences between subducting fracture zones and volcanic chains/ridges. Fracture zones are characterised by laterally continuous, uplifted ridges that represent normal ocean crust with a high degree of structural integrity, causing strong, persistent coupling in the subduction interface. Smaller volcanic ridges and chains have a relatively fragile heterogeneous internal structure and are separated from the underlying ocean crust by a detachment interface, resulting in weak coupling and relatively small earthquakes, providing a conceptual basis for the observed dichotomy.

  9. Analysis of seismicity and stress before and after the Mw 8.1 Pisagua, Chile, 2014 earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoli, F.; Cesca, S.; Dahm, T.; Hainzl, S.

    2014-12-01

    On April 1st, 2014 at 23:46:50 UTC, a powerful earthquake of magnitude Mw 8.1 occurred offshore the Northern Chile in the region of the North Chilean seismic gap. The epicenter of the earthquake was approximately 50 km offshore the Chilean coast, near the town of Pisagua. Two days after the main event a Mw 7.6 aftershock struck approximately the same area. In order to identify spatio-temporal changes of source parameters and stress before and after the mainshock, we analyzed in detail the local seismicity above magnitude Mw 3.0 within the time period 01/01/2013-30/04/2014 and estimated long term trends in b-values and earthquake productivity. We used data from the IPOC (Integrated Plate boundary Observatory Chile) regional seismic network, consisting of 20 "in land" broadband station deployed and managed by the GFZ-Potsdam. The recorded earthquake catalog shows an intense foreshock activity consisting of more than 1000 M3+ events in the source region. Full waveform techniques are used to derive both locations and focal mechanisms of about 435 seismic events. The location process has been performed by using a waveform stacking method (Grigoli et al 2013, 2014) with a layered velocity model based on CRUST 2.0 (see the attached figure for the location results of one of these events). Moment tensor inversion has been performed by using the KIWI tool software (Cesca et al. 2010), which is based on a two-step inversion approach. The first step consists in the inversion of the amplitude spectra to retrieve the best fitting focal planes, while the second inversion step is carried out in time domain to solve the focal mechanism polarity and to obtain the centroid location and time. Both location and moment tensor inversion resulted in agreement with the geodynamical settings of the region. Mapping the b-value reveals a spatiotemporal anomaly of low b-values characterizing the frequency-magnitude distribution of the foreshocks in the source area of the mainshock. Finally

  10. Fluctuation patterns of groundwater levels in Tokyo caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Akira; Ishihara, Shigeyuki; Amaguchi, Hideo; Takasaki, Tadakatsu

    2016-04-01

    The hourly groundwater levels have been observed at 42 sites in Tokyo Metropolis since 1952. The Great East Japan Earthquake occurred at 14:46 JST on March 11, 2011. It was the strongest earthquake on record with a magnitude of 9.0 (Mw) and large fluctuations of unconfined and confined groundwater levels were observed at 102 observation wells in Tokyo, around 400 km away from the epicenter. Abrupt rises and sharp drawdowns of groundwater levels were observed right after the earthquake for most of the wells, although some did not show a change. In this study, taking full advantage of the unique rare case data from the dense groundwater monitoring network in Tokyo, we investigate the fluctuation patterns of unconfined and confined groundwater levels caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake. The groundwater level data used in this study consist of one month time series in March 2011 with one-hour interval. The fluctuation patterns of groundwater levels caused by the earthquake were identified using Self-Organizing Maps (SOM). The SOM, developed by Kohonen, can project high-dimensional, complex target data onto a two-dimensional regularly arranged map in proportion to the degree of properties. In general, the objective of the SOM application is to obtain useful and informative reference vectors. These vectors can be acquired after iterative updates through the training of the SOM. Design of the SOM structure, selection of a proper initialization method, and data transformation methods were carried out in the SOM application process. The reference vectors obtained from the SOM application were fine-tuned using cluster analysis methods. The optimal number of clusters was selected by the Davies-Bouldin index (DBI) using the k-means algorithm. Using the optimal number of cluster, a final fine-tuning cluster analysis was carried out by Ward's method. As a result, the fluctuation patterns of the confined and unconfined groundwater level were classified into eight clusters

  11. The Gibraltar Arc seismogenic zone and the great Lisbon earthquake of 1755

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutscher, M.-A.; Malod, J. A.; Rehault, J.-P.; Thiebot, E.; Contrucci, I.; Baptista, M. A.; Miranda, J. M.

    2003-04-01

    New geophysical data provide compelling evidence for an active east dipping subduction zone beneath the Gibraltar Arc. SISMAR marine seismic data in the Gulf of Cadiz image an actively deforming accretionary wedge, with east dipping thrust faults disrupting the seafloor and soleing out to an east dipping decollement. Tomographic cross-sections as well as hypocenter distribution support a continuous east dipping slab of oceanic lithosphere from the Atlantic domain to beneath the Western Alboran Sea. The great Lisbon earthquake of 1755 (felt as far away as Hamburg, the Azores and Cape Verde Islands) has the largest documented felt area of any shallow earthquake and an estimated magnitude of 8.5 - 9.0. The associated tsunami ravaged the coast of SW Portugal and the Gulf of Cadiz, with run-up heights reported to have reached 5 - 15 m. While several source regions offshore SW Portugal have been proposed (e.g. - Gorringe Bank, Marques de Pombal fault), no single source appears to be able to account for the great seismic moment and the tsunami amplitude and travel-time observations. We propose the Gibraltar arc seismogenic zone to be the source of the 1755 earthquake. This hypothesis may be tested in several ways. We perform tsunami wave form modeling for a shallow east dipping fault plane with dimensions of 180 km (N-S) x 210 km (E-W) and a co-seismic slip of 20 m. For convergence rates of 1 - 2 cm/yr an event of this magnitude could recur every 1000 - 2000 years. Furthermore, the DELILA geophysical cruise is proposed for 2004 to conduct a bathymetric and seismic survey of the accretionary wedge and to sample the turbidites in the adjacent abyssal plains which record the history of great earthquakes.

  12. The Pliocene Horcón Formation, Central Chile: a case study of earthquake-induced landslide susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivia, D.; Elgueta, S.; Hodgkin, A.; Marquardt, C.; del Valle, F.; Yáñez Morroni, G.

    2017-12-01

    Stability slope analysis is typically focused on modeling using cohesion and friction angle parameters but in earthquake-induced landslides, susceptibility is correlated more to lithological and stratigraphic parameters. In sedimentary deposits whose cohesion and diagenesis are very low, the risk of landslides increases. The Horcón Formation, which crops out continuously along cliffs in Central Chile between 32.5° and 33°S, is a Miocene-Pliocene well preserved, horizontally stratified unit composed of marine strata which overlies Paleozoic-Mesozoic igneous basement. During the Quaternary, the sequence was tectonically uplifted 80 meters and covered by unconsolidated eolian deposits. Given that Seismotectonic and Barrier-Asperity models suggest the occurrence of a forthcoming megathrust earthquake in a segment which includes this area, the Horcón Formation constitutes a good case study to characterize the susceptibility of this type of sediment for mass movements triggered by earthquakes. Field mapping, stratigraphic and sedimentological studies, including petrographic analyses to determine lithological composition and paragenesis of diagenetic events, have been carried out along with limited gravimetric profiling and CPTU drill tests. High resolution digital elevation modeling has also been applied. This work has led to the recognition of a shallow marine lithofacies association composed of weakly lithified fossiliferous and bioturbated medium to fine grained litharenite, mudstone, and fine conglomerate. The low grade of diagenesis in the sedimentary deposits was in response to a short period of burial and a subsequent accelerated uplift evidenced along the coast of Chile during the Quaternary. We have generated a predictive model of landslide susceptibility for the Horcón Formation and for the overlying Quaternary eolian deposits incorporating variables such as composition and diagenesis of lithofacies, slope, structures, weathering and landcover. The model

  13. Interviewing insights regarding the fatalities inflicted by the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, M.; Ishida, M.; Hayashi, Y.; Mizuki, C.; Nishikawa, Y.; Tu, Y.

    2013-09-01

    One hundred fifty survivors of the 11 March 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake (Tohoku-oki earthquake) (Mw = 9.0) were interviewed to study the causes of deaths from the associated tsunami in coastal areas of Tohoku. The first official tsunami warning underestimated the height of the tsunami and 40% of the interviewees did not obtain this warning due to immediate blackouts and a lack of communication after the earthquake. Many chose to remain in dangerous locations based on the underestimated warning and their experiences with previous smaller tsunamis and/or due to misunderstanding the mitigating effects of nearby breakwaters in blocking incoming tsunamis. Some delayed their evacuation to perform family safety checks, and in many situations, the people affected misunderstood the risks involved in tsunamis. In this area, three large tsunamis have struck in the 115 yr preceding the 2011 tsunami. These tsunamis remained in the collective memory of communities, and numerous measures against future tsunami damage, such as breakwaters and tsunami evacuation drills, had been implemented. Despite these preparedness efforts, approximately 18 500 deaths and cases of missing persons occurred. The death rate with the age of 65 and above was particularly high, four times higher than that with other age groups. These interviews indicate that deaths resulted from a variety of reasons, but if residents had taken immediate action after the major ground motion stopped, most residents might have been saved. Education about the science behind earthquakes and tsunamis could help save more lives in the future.

  14. Design and investigation of a continuous radon monitoring network for earthquake precursory process in Great Tehran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negarestani, A.; Namvaran, M.; Hashemi, S.M.; Shahpasandzadeh, M.; Fatemi, S.J.; Alavi, S.A.; Mokhtari, M.

    2014-01-01

    Earthquakes usually occur after some preliminary anomalies in the physical and chemical characteristics of environment and earth interior. Construction of the models which can explain these anomalies, prompt scientists to monitor geophysical and geochemical characteristics in the seismic areas for earthquake prediction. A review of studies has been done so far, denoted that radon gas shows more sensitivity than other geo-gas as a precursor. Based on previous researches, radon is a short-term precursor of earthquake from time point of view. There are equal experimental equations about the relation between earthquake magnitude and its effective distance on radon concentration variations. In this work, an algorithm based on Dobrovolsky equation (D=10 0.43M ) with defining the Expectation and Investigation circles for great Tehran has been used. Radon concentration was measured with RAD7 detector in the more than 40 springs. Concentration of radon in spring, spring discharge, water temperature and the closeness of spring location to active faults, have been considered as the significant factors to select the best spring for a radon continuous monitoring site implementation. According to these factors, thirteen springs have been selected as follow: Bayjan, Mahallat-Hotel, Avaj, Aala, Larijan, Delir, Lavij, Ramsar, Semnan, Lavieh, Legahi, Kooteh-Koomeh and Sarein. (author)

  15. PROPOSAL FOR IMPROVEMENT OF BUINESS CONTINUITY PLAN (BCP) BASED ON THE LESSONS OF THE GREAT EAST JAPAN EARTHQUAKE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruya, Hiroaki

    For most Japanese companies and organizations, the enormous damage of the Great East Japan Earthquake was more than expected. In addition to great tsunami and earthquake motion, the lack of electricity and fuel disturbed to business activities seriously, and they should be considered important constraint factors in future earthquakes. Furthermore, disruption of supply chains also led considerable decline of production in many industries across Japan and foreign countries. Therefore it becomes urgent need for Japanese government and industries to utilize the lessons of the Great Earthquake and execute effective countermeasures, considering great earthquakes such as Tonankai & Nankai earthquakes and Tokyo Inland Earthquakes. Obviously most basic step is improving earthquake-resistant ability of buildings and facilities. In addition the spread of BCP and BCM to enterprises and organizations is indispensable. Based on the lessons, the BCM should include the point of view of the supply chain management more clearly, and emphasize "substitute strategy" more explicitly because a company should survive even if it completely loses its present production base. The central and local governments are requested, in addition to develop their own BCP, to improve related systematic conditions for BCM of the private sectors.

  16. Measures for groundwater security during and after the Hanshin-Awaji earthquake (1995) and the Great East Japan earthquake (2011), Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Tadashi

    2016-03-01

    Many big earthquakes have occurred in the tectonic regions of the world, especially in Japan. Earthquakes often cause damage to crucial life services such as water, gas and electricity supply systems and even the sewage system in urban and rural areas. The most severe problem for people affected by earthquakes is access to water for their drinking/cooking and toilet flushing. Securing safe water for daily life in an earthquake emergency requires the establishment of countermeasures, especially in a mega city like Tokyo. This paper described some examples of groundwater use in earthquake emergencies, with reference to reports, books and newspapers published in Japan. The consensus is that groundwater, as a source of water, plays a major role in earthquake emergencies, especially where the accessibility of wells coincides with the emergency need. It is also important to introduce a registration system for citizen-owned and company wells that can form the basis of a cooperative during a disaster; such a registration system was implemented by many Japanese local governments after the Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake in 1995 and the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011, and is one of the most effective countermeasures for groundwater use in an earthquake emergency. Emphasis is also placed the importance of establishing of a continuous monitoring system of groundwater conditions for both quantity and quality during non-emergency periods.

  17. Reactor experiments, workshops, and human resource development education simulating the Great East Japan Earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiguchi, Tetsuo; Yamamoto, Tomosada

    2012-01-01

    Kinki University Atomic Energy Research Institute has been implementing a social education program such as reactor experiments and training sessions for junior and senior high school teachers since 1987, and in recent years, it has been implementing an education program for common citizens. However, the Great East Japan Earthquake has made it necessary to consider not only the dissemination of accurate knowledge, but also responding to the anxiety on nuclear power. This paper explains the contents of the social contribution activities and workshops conducted at Kinki University Atomic Energy Research Institute, after the Great East Japan Earthquake and the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident. As the activities that are carried out in addition to training sessions, it introduces the implementation state of telephone consultation about nuclear power, and earthquake reconstruction assistance advisory at Kawamata Town, Date-gun, Fukushima Prefecture. As workshop support, it reports human resource development education in the nuclear field at the university, activities at the workshops for junior/senior high school teachers and general public, and questionnaire survey at the time of the workshops. (A.O.)

  18. [Trust in organizations concerned with risks of the Great East Japan Earthquake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayachi, Kazuya; Kudo, Daisuke; Ozaki, Taku

    2014-06-01

    This study investigated the levels of public trust in organizations associated with the Great East Japan Earthquake. In Study 1 (N = 639), the levels of trust in eight organizations as well as the determinants of trust--perceived salient value similarity (SVS), ability, and motivation--were measured twice, first immediately after the earthquake and then a year later. The results indicated that the trust levels for six of the eight organizations had been preserved, supporting the double asymmetric effect of trust. The results of structural equation modeling (SEM) revealed that SVS explained trust more when the organization had been less trusted. Trust in the organization explains well the perceived reduction of the target risk. The results of SEM in Study 2 (N = 1,030) replicated those of Study 1, suggesting the stability of the explanatory power of the determinants of trust. Implications of the study for risk management practices are discussed.

  19. Damage by the Great East Japan Earthquake and current status of the Sendai cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakui, Takashi; Itoh, Masatoshi; Shimada, Kenzi; Yoshida, Hidetomo; Shinozuka, Tsutomu; Sakemi, Yasuhiro

    2012-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake has inflicted damages on the accelerator facility of the Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center (CYRIC), Tohoku University. The K=110 MeV cyclotron was slanted due to the damage of props supporting the cyclotron. The cyclotron building has also been slightly inclined. This situation requires the re-alignment of all the beam transport line and the cyclotron. Some of the shield doors at experimental rooms were broken and blocked the entrance. The earthquake caused also a lot of damages to some components of the cyclotron as well as the beam transport lines, such as beam ducts, magnets, vacuum pumps and power supplies. Fortunately, no one was injured at CYRIC. The restoration work was started on July 2011 and will be completed by July 2012. This report describes the situation of damages and the current status of the restoration work. (author)

  20. Study of temporal sequences of LANSAT images to detect the accumulation of stress prior of strong earthquakes in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano-Baeza, A. A.

    2016-12-01

    We studied the temporal evolution of the lineaments obtained from the LANSAT-8 associated to the accumulation of stress patterns related to the seismic activity. A lineament is generally defined as a straight or a somewhat curved feature in the landscape visible in a satellite image as an aligned sequence of pixels of a contrasting intensity compared to the background. The system of lineaments extracted from the satellite images is not identical to the geological lineaments; nevertheless, it generally reflects the structure of the faults and fractures in the Earth's crust. The satellite images were processed by the ADALGEO software developed by us. We selected two areas of study with different characteristics. The first area is located near to the Diego de Almagro town in the Copiapo region, Chile. This area did not show any strong seismic activity between 2010 and 2015. However, two strong earthquakes took place later on April 16, 2016 (Mw=5.3) and July 25, 2016 (Mw=6.1). The second area located near the Illapel town in Coquimbo region shows lack of strong earthquakes between 2010 and 2012 and strong seismic activity between 2012 and 2015, culminating by the September 16, 2015 earthquake (Mw=8.3). The distance between two areas is nearly 600 km. In case of the Diego de Almagro area, very few lineaments have been observed between 2010 and 2015, showing a significant increase during the 2016. In case of the Illapel region, the number of lineaments was always much higher, showing an explosive increase at the end of 2015. For both areas the lineaments changed its orientation before strong earthquakes.

  1. Two cases of severe pneumonia after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeatu Endo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2011, during the Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami, 90% of victims died from drowning. We report on two tsunami survivors with severe pneumonia potentially caused by Legionella pneumophila. Both victims aspirated a large quantity of contaminated water; sand, mud and a variety of microbes were thought to have entered into their lower respiratory tracts. One patient had a mycotic intracranial aneurysm; the other patient had co-infections with several organisms, including Scedosporium species. Although scedosporiosis is a relatively rare infectious disease, symptoms are progressive and prognosis is poor. These pathogens are not specific for tsunami lung, but are reported causative agents for pneumonia after near-drowning.

  2. Mental health and psychosocial support after the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Yutaka; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Mimura, Masaru

    2012-01-01

    Since the Great East Japan Earthquake, Keio University School of Medicine has, at the request of the Tokyo Metropolitan Government, provided mental health and psychosocial support to those living in Soma City in Fukushima Prefecture. This report covers the types of support provided in Soma City and discusses previous studies that were used as the model for current support practice and the results gained from actual performance. Also included is a summary of the objectives that were or were not achieved for medical support compared with recommendations from previous studies. Furthermore, future directions for medical support are also discussed.

  3. Report on maternal anxiety 16 months after the great East Japan earthquake disaster: anxiety over radioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshii, Hatsumi; Saito, Hidemitsu; Kikuchi, Saya; Ueno, Takashi; Sato, Kineko

    2014-06-25

    The Great East Japan Earthquake occurred on March 11, 2011. The tsunami caused extensive damage to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, resulting in a level 7 nuclear accident. Among those affected by this combined disaster were many pregnant and parturient women. Sixteen months after the earthquake, we conducted a questionnaire survey on anxiety among 259 women who gave birth around the time of the earthquake in Miyagi Prefecture, one of the affected areas. Participants reported 12 categories of anxiety, including anxiety over radioactivity. This study aimed to determine anxiety over radioactivity among this specific population and to record measures for future study. Anxiety over radiation was classified into seven subcategories: food safety, outdoor safety, effects on the fetuses of pregnant women, effects on children, radiation exposure, economic problems, and distrust of information disclosed. This study confirmed that concrete types of anxiety over radiation were keenly felt by mothers who had experienced the disaster who were currently raising children. The findings suggest the need to provide accurate information to these mothers, who are otherwise inundated with miscellaneous confusing information.

  4. Development of rupture process analysis method for great earthquakes using Direct Solution Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimoto, M.; Yamanaka, Y.; Takeuchi, N.

    2010-12-01

    Conventional rupture process analysis methods using teleseismic body waves were based on ray theory. Therefore, these methods have the following problems in applying to great earthquakes such as 2004 Sumatra earthquake: (1) difficulty in computing all later phases such as the PP reflection phase, (2) impossibility of computing called “W phase”, the long period phase arriving before S wave, (3) implausibility of hypothesis that the distance is far enough from the observation points to the hypocenter compared to the fault length. To solve above mentioned problems, we have developed a new method which uses the synthetic seismograms computed by the Direct Solution Method (DSM, e.g. Kawai et al. 2006) as Green’s functions. We used the DSM software (http://www.eri.u-tokyo.ac.jp/takeuchi/software/) for computing the Green’s functions up to 1 Hz for the IASP91 (Kennett and Engdahl, 1991) model, and determined the final slip distributions using the waveform inversion method (Kikuchi et al. 2003). First we confirmed whether the Green’s functions computed by DSM were accurate in higher frequencies up to 1 Hz. Next we performed the rupture process analysis of this new method for Mw8.0 (GCMT) large Solomon Islands earthquake on April 1, 2007. We found that this earthquake consisted of two asperities and the rupture propagated across the subducting Sinbo ridge. The obtained slip distribution better correlates to the aftershock distributions than existing method. Furthermore, this new method keep same accuracy of existing method (which has the advantage of calculating) with respect to direct P-wave and reflection phases near the source, and also accurately calculate the later phases such a PP-wave.

  5. Proposal of new framework in nuclear emergency response based on problem in East Japan Great Earthquake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    In the nuclear emergency response activity in a East Japan great earthquake, the weakness the frame and the activity procedure (scheme) of the emergency response activity of our country that had been constructed after the accident of JCO became clear. Especially, it is necessary to recognize the importance of the enhancement of a prior plan after not only provision to response but also the damage to the environment occurs in the emergency for measures for restoration. Moreover, it is necessary to examine a concrete strategy about the management system strengthening of the radiation exposure at the accident. In this study, the experience and the finding in a East Japan great earthquake are arranged. The accident scenario that should be targeted is rearranged, and it proposes a new frame in the nuclear emergency response field through the requirement examinations such as the points of procedure, equipment, and the capital machine parts that lie a regulations frame of the nuclear emergency response, the activity frame of the nuclear emergency response, and materialized of the nuclear emergency response activity. (author)

  6. Proposal of new framework in nuclear emergency response based on problem in East Japan Great Earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    In the nuclear emergency response activity in a East Japan great earthquake, the weakness the frame and the activity procedure (scheme) of the emergency response activity of our country that had been constructed after the accident of JCO became clear. Especially, it is necessary to recognize the importance of the enhancement of a prior plan after not only provision to response but also the damage to the environment occurs in the emergency for measures for restoration. Moreover, it is necessary to examine a concrete strategy about the management system strengthening of the radiation exposure at the accident. In this study, the experience and the finding in a East Japan great earthquake are arranged. The accident scenario that should be targeted is rearranged, and it proposes a new frame in the nuclear emergency response field through the requirement examinations such as the points of procedure, equipment, and the capital machine parts that lie a regulations frame of the nuclear emergency response, the activity frame of the nuclear emergency response, and materialized of the nuclear emergency response activity. (author)

  7. Proposal of new framework in nuclear emergency response based on problem in East Japan Great Earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    In the nuclear emergency response activity in a East Japan great earthquake, the weakness the frame and the activity procedure (scheme) of the emergency response activity of our country that had been constructed after the accident of JCO became clear. Especially, it is necessary to recognize the importance of the enhancement of a prior plan after not only provision to response but also the damage to the environment occurs in the emergency for measures for restoration. Moreover, it is necessary to examine a concrete strategy about the management system strengthening of the radiation exposure at the accident. In this study, the experience and the finding in a East Japan great earthquake are arranged. The accident scenario that should be targeted is rearranged, and it proposes a new frame in the nuclear emergency response field through the requirement examinations such as the points of procedure, equipment, and the capital machine parts that lie a regulations frame of the nuclear emergency response, the activity frame of the nuclear emergency response, and materialized of the nuclear emergency response activity. (author)

  8. ESTIMATION OF DAMAGED AREAS DUE TO THE 2010 CHILE EARTHQUAKE AND TSUNAMI USING SAR IMAGERY OF ALOS/PALSAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Ni Made

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A large-scale earthquake and tsunami affect thousands of people and cause serious damages worldwide every year. Quick observation of the disaster damage is extremely important for planning effective rescue operations. In the past, acquiring damage information was limited to only field surveys or using aerial photographs. In the last decade, space-borne images were used in many disaster researches, such as tsunami damage detection. In this study, SAR data of ALOS/PALSAR satellite images were used to estimate tsunami damage in the form of inundation areas in Talcahuano, the area near the epicentre of the 2010 Chile earthquake. The image processing consisted of three stages, i.e. pre-processing, analysis processing, and post-processing. It was conducted using multi-temporal images before and after the disaster. In the analysis processing, inundation areas were extracted through the masking processing. It consisted of water masking using a high-resolution optical image of ALOS/AVNIR-2 and elevation masking which built upon the inundation height using DEM image of ASTER-GDEM. The area result was 8.77 Km2. It showed a good result and corresponded to the inundation map of Talcahuano. Future study in another area is needed in order to strengthen the estimation processing method.

  9. Creating a tsunami disaster archive of the Great Northeastern Japan earthquake using images uploaded to the internet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, N; Takehara, A

    2014-01-01

    We think that the that the experiences from the disaster caused by the Great Northeastern Earthquake in Japan must be of great interest to people not only in the stricken areas but in the whole of Japan and the whole world. Accordingly, we tried to create a method to preserve the digital images of Great Northeastern Earthquake for the next generation. The Creative Commons License may be one of the most useful solutions to avoid complicated processes when a person other than authors would like to build a disaster archive using images uploaded to the Internet

  10. [The Great European Georg Friedrich Nicolai: physician and pacifist. Berlin, Germany, 1874 - Santiago, Chile, 1964].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello C, Felipe

    2013-04-01

    Georg Friedrich Nicolai (1874-1964) was a German physician and physiologist whose pacifism during the First World War led him in 1914 to cosign with W. J. Foerster, A. Einstein and O. Bueck a "Manifesto to the Europeans" against the entry of Germany into the war and the invasion of Belgium. As a result of this appeal and his strong pacifism, Nicolai lost his positions as cardiologist to the German royal family, professor at the University of Berlin and chief of laboratory at the Charite hospital also in Berlin, and was sent as a garrison physician in Graundenz, in today's Poland. There he began to write his book, The Biology of War. It managed to avoid censorship and was published in Leipzig in 1916. He was court-martialed in Danzig in 1916 but escaped to Denmark. Nicolai was reinstated to his faculty positions by the Weimar Republic after the war but was subsequently forced to emigrate from Germany to South America by the pressure of right wing student groups who accused him of being a deserter and a traitor. From 1922 to 1932 Nicolai lived in Argentina, and from 1932 until his death in 1964, in Chile. In this later country Nicolai was professor in the University of Chile and interacted with members of the Chilean intelligentsia, including the poets Vicente Huidobro, Gonzalo Rojas and Pablo Neruda. Through his friendship with Chilean psychiatrist Agustin Tellez, Nicolai influenced the development of phenomenological psychiatric school in Chile. The Chilean novelist Fernando Alegria compared him favorably with Robert J. Oppenheimer and Linus Pauling.

  11. Re‐estimated effects of deep episodic slip on the occurrence and probability of great earthquakes in Cascadia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeler, Nicholas M.; Roeloffs, Evelyn A.; McCausland, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    Mazzotti and Adams (2004) estimated that rapid deep slip during typically two week long episodes beneath northern Washington and southern British Columbia increases the probability of a great Cascadia earthquake by 30–100 times relative to the probability during the ∼58 weeks between slip events. Because the corresponding absolute probability remains very low at ∼0.03% per week, their conclusion is that though it is more likely that a great earthquake will occur during a rapid slip event than during other times, a great earthquake is unlikely to occur during any particular rapid slip event. This previous estimate used a failure model in which great earthquakes initiate instantaneously at a stress threshold. We refine the estimate, assuming a delayed failure model that is based on laboratory‐observed earthquake initiation. Laboratory tests show that failure of intact rock in shear and the onset of rapid slip on pre‐existing faults do not occur at a threshold stress. Instead, slip onset is gradual and shows a damped response to stress and loading rate changes. The characteristic time of failure depends on loading rate and effective normal stress. Using this model, the probability enhancement during the period of rapid slip in Cascadia is negligible (stresses of 10 MPa or more and only increases by 1.5 times for an effective normal stress of 1 MPa. We present arguments that the hypocentral effective normal stress exceeds 1 MPa. In addition, the probability enhancement due to rapid slip extends into the interevent period. With this delayed failure model for effective normal stresses greater than or equal to 50 kPa, it is more likely that a great earthquake will occur between the periods of rapid deep slip than during them. Our conclusion is that great earthquake occurrence is not significantly enhanced by episodic deep slip events.

  12. A Preliminary Analysis on the Dynamics of the Ms8.0 Great Wenchuan, Sichuan, China Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W.

    2008-12-01

    On May 12, 2008, a huge earthquake with magnitude Ms8.0 occurred in the Wenhuan, Sichuan Province of China. This event was the most devastating earthquake in the mainland of China since the 1976 M7.8 Tangshan earthquake. It resulted in tremendous losses of life and property. So far, there are 69,181 persons killed, and 18,522 still missing. Due to occur in the mountainous area, this great earthquake and the following thousands aftershocks also caused many other geological disasters, such as landslide, mud-rock flow and "quake lakes" which formed by landslide-induced reservoirs. This earthquake occurred along the Longmenshan fault, as the result of motion on a northeast striking reverse fault or thrust fault on the northwestern margin of the Sichuan Basin. The earthquake's epicenter and focal-mechanism are consistent with it having occurred as the result of movement on the Longmenshan fault or a tectonically related fault. The earthquake reflects tectonic stresses resulting from the convergence of crustal material slowly moving from the high Tibetan Plateau, to the west, against strong crust underlying the Sichuan Basin and southeastern China. In this study, the spatial and temporal distribution of the stress on the fault plane of this great earthquake is estimated from the inversion results (Chen Ji, 2008) by solving the elastodynamic equations. Then, the dynamic source parameters are determined and the relations between the shear stress and the slip, the shear stress and the slip-rate for all grid positions on the fault are investigated. Finally, the frictional law for the source rupture is inferred from the dynamic source parameters. Based on the obtained dynamic source parameters, we try to rebuild the dynamic rupture process of this event and discuss the characteristics of this great earthquake.

  13. Survey of awareness and analyses of related factors to volunteer activities of pharmacy students after the Great East Japan Earthquake

    OpenAIRE

    小武家, 優子; 吉田, 健; 吉武, 毅人

    2012-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake occurred on March 11, 2011. At the time of the earthquake, pharmacist and pharmacy students engaged in volunteer activities such as providing disaster medicine and relief supplies to disaster areas. Questionnaire survey for pharmacy students were carried out in order to clarify awareness to volunteer activities for disaster areas and to use data as a basis of Service-Learning in the 6 years pharmacy education. We divided subjects into pharmacy students those wo...

  14. Outline of geophysical investigations on the great earthquake in the south-west Japan on Dec. 21, 1946

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Takeshi

    1947-01-01

    In in the early morning of Dec. 21, 1946, a great destructive earthquake occurred in southern-western Japan. According to the seismogram obtained in our university, the earthquake motion began at Tokyo from 4 h 20 m 10.4 s on Dec. 21, 1946. The maximum amplitude of NS, EW, and up-down components of the earthquake motion at Tokyo was 12.0 mm, 14.0 mm and 3.0 mm respectively, while the initial motion was composed of 80 μ south, 67 μ west and 20 μ down movements.

  15. Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    An earthquake happens when two blocks of the earth suddenly slip past one another. Earthquakes strike suddenly, violently, and without warning at any time of the day or night. If an earthquake occurs in a populated area, it may cause ...

  16. DETECTION OF LOCAL SITE CONDITIONS INFLUENCING EARTHQUAKE SHOCK AND SECONDARY EFFECTS IN THE VALPARAISO AREA IN CENTRAL-CHILE USING REMOTE SENSING AND GIS METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Theilen-Willige

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential contribution of remote sensing and GIS techniques to earthquake hazard analysis was investigated in Valparaiso in Chile in order to improve the systematic, standardized inventory of those areas that are more susceptible to earthquake ground motions or to earthquake related secondary effects such as landslides, liquefaction, soil amplifications, compaction or even tsunami-waves. Geophysical, topographical, geological data and satellite images were collected, processed, and integrated into a spatial database using Geoinformation Systems (GIS and image processing techniques. The GIS integrated evaluation of satellite imageries, of digital topographic data and of various open-source geodata can contribute to the acquisition of those specific tectonic, geomorphologic/ topographic settings influencing local site conditions in Valparaiso, Chile. Using the weighted overlay techniques in GIS, susceptibility maps were produced indicating areas, where causal factors influencing near- surface earthquake shock occur aggregated. Causal factors (such as unconsolidated sedimentary layers within a basin’s topography, higher groundwater tables, etc. summarizing and interfering each other, rise the susceptibility of soil amplification and of earthquake related secondary effects. This approach was used as well to create a tsunami flooding susceptibility map. LANDSAT Thermal Band 6-imageries were analysed to get information of surface water currents in this area.

  17. TECTONIC AND SEISMOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF THE GREAT JAPAN EARTHQUAKE OF MARCH 11, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan N. Tikhonov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The publication presents a review of the structure and seismotectonic features of the Pacific margin of the NorthEastern Honshu Island on the basis of data from seismic reflection and CDP, drilling and detailed seismic studies in view of the megaearthquake (Mw=9.0 which occurred in Japan on March 11, 2011. The megaearthquake is discussed in terms of its position in the succession of the strongest events (M≥7.6 in the area under study within the historical period and in the recent timeline. It is suggested that the period of recurrence is about 40 years for great events and about 1000+ years for megaearthquakes. A number of facts suggesting a probability of a planetaryscale earthquake in the Honshu Island region are revealed. Specifically, a seismic gap with a total length of about 800 km is determined in the study area. It is located southward of 39° north latitude has already manifested aftershocks of the megaearthquake of March 11, 2011. It is probable that the megaearthquake was related to the deep thrust along the Benioff zone and the Oyashio nappe being its structural cap rock in the middle Pacific slope. The sequence of its aftershocks is compared with those of the SumatraAndaman (Mw=9.3, 2004 and Simushir (Mw=8.3, 2006 earthquakes. It is established that development of the aftershock sequences of the first and second events was very similar in time, and development of the areas of aftershock epicentres of the first and third earthquakes is similar in space. The above similarities give grounds to suggest that an aftershock (M~8.0 is possible with a relative shifting from the main shock towards the deep trench.

  18. Amplification of tsunami heights by delayed rupture of great earthquakes along the Nankai trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, K.; Satake, K.; Furumura, T.

    2010-04-01

    We investigated the effect of delayed rupture of great earthquakes along the Nankai trough on tsunami heights on the Japanese coast. As the tsunami source, we used a model of the 1707 Hoei earthquake, which consists of four segments: Tokai, Tonankai, and two Nankai segments. We first searched for the worst case, in terms of coastal tsunami heights, of rupture delay time on each segment, on the basis of superposition principle for the linear long wave theory. When the rupture starts on the Tonankai segment, followed by rupture on the Tokai segment 21 min later, as well as the eastern and western Nankai segments 15 and 28 min later, respectively, the average coastal tsunami height becomes the largest. To quantify the tsunami amplification, we compared the coastal tsunami heights from the delayed rupture with those from the simultaneous rupture model. Along the coasts of the sea of Hyu'uga and in the Bungo Channel, the tsunami heights become significantly amplified (>1.4 times larger) relative to the simultaneous rupture. Along the coasts of Tosa Bay and in the Kii Channel, the tsunami heights become amplified about 1.2 times. Along the coasts of the sea of Kumano and Ise Bay, and the western Enshu coast, the tsunami heights become slightly smaller for the delayed rupture. Along the eastern Enshu coast, the coast of Suruga Bay, and the west coast of Sagami Bay, the tsunami heights become amplified about 1.1 times.

  19. Needs for disaster medicine: lessons from the field of the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushizawa, Hiroto; Foxwell, Alice Ruth; Bice, Steven; Matsui, Tamano; Ueki, Yutaka; Tosaka, Naoki; Shoko, Tomohisa; Aiboshi, Junichi; Otomo, Yasuhiro

    2013-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake, which occurred in Tohoku, Japan on 11 March 2011, was followed by a devastating tsunami and damage to nuclear power plants that resulted in radiation leakage. The medical care, equipment and communication needs of four Disaster Medical Assistance Teams (DMAT) during four missions are discussed. DMATs are medically trained mobile teams used in the acute phase of disasters. The DMATs conducted four missions in devastated areas from the day of the earthquake to day 10. The first and second missions were to triage, resuscitate and treat trauma victims in Tokyo and Miyagi, respectively. The third mission was to conduct emergency medicine and primary care in Iwate. The fourth was to assist with the evacuation and screening of inpatients with radiation exposure in Fukushima. Triage, resuscitation and trauma expertise and equipment were required in Missions 1 and 2. Emergency medicine in hospitals and primary care in first-aid stations and evacuation areas were required for Mission 3. In Mission 4, the DMAT assisted with evacuation by ambulances and buses and screened people for radiation exposure. Only land phones and transceivers were available for Missions 1 to 3 although they were ineffective for urgent purposes. These DMAT missions showed that there are new needs for DMATs in primary care, radiation screening and evacuation after the acute phase of a disaster. Alternative methods for communication infrastructure post-disaster need to be investigated with telecommunication experts.

  20. Needs for disaster medicine: lessons from the field of the Great East Japan Earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohisa Shoko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem: The Great East Japan Earthquake, which occurred in Tohoku, Japan on 11 March 2011, was followed by a devastating tsunami and damage to nuclear power plants that resulted in radiation leakage. Context: The medical care, equipment and communication needs of four Disaster Medical Assistance Teams (DMAT during four missions are discussed. DMATs are medically trained mobile teams used in the acute phase of disasters. Action: The DMATs conducted four missions in devastated areas from the day of the earthquake to day 10. The first and second missions were to triage, resuscitate and treat trauma victims in Tokyo and Miyagi, respectively. The third mission was to conduct emergency medicine and primary care in Iwate. The fourth was to assist with the evacuation and screening of inpatients with radiation exposure in Fukushima. Outcome: Triage, resuscitation and trauma expertise and equipment were required in Missions 1 and 2. Emergency medicine in hospitals and primary care in first-aid stations and evacuation areas were required for Mission 3. In Mission 4, the DMAT assisted with evacuation by ambulances and buses and screened people for radiation exposure. Only land phones and transceivers were available for Missions 1 to 3 although they were ineffective for urgent purposes. Discussion: These DMAT missions showed that there are new needs for DMATs in primary care, radiation screening and evacuation after the acute phase of a disaster. Alternative methods for communication infrastructure post-disaster need to be investigated with telecommunication experts.

  1. VOLUNTARY ACTIVITIES AND ONLINE EDUCATION FOR DIGITAL HERITAGE INVENTORY DEVELOPMENT AFTER THE GREAT EAST JAPAN EARTHQUAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Kondo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Consortium for Earthquake-Damaged Cultural Heritage (CEDACH is a voluntary initiative launched just after the Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011. The consortium is developing a social network between local cultural resource managers restoring disaster-damaged cultural heritage on one side and remote researchers including historians, archaeologists and specialists of cultural information studies on the other side, in order to facilitate collaborative projects. This paper presents three projects in which CEDACH contributed to the development of a digital inventory for disaster-damaged heritage management through web-based collaborations by self-motivated workers. The first project, CEDACH GIS, developed an online archaeological site inventory for the disaster area. Although a number of individuals voluntarily participated in the project at the beginning, it gradually stagnated due to limited need for local rescue archaeology. However, the experience of online-based collaborations worked well for the second project proposed by local specialists, in which CEDACH restored the book catalogue of a tsunami-devastated research library. This experience highlighted the need for online education to improve information and communication technologies (ICT skills of data builders. Therefore, in the third project called CEDACHeLi, an e-Learning management system was developed to facilitate learning the fundamental knowledge and techniques required for information processing in rescue operations of disaster-damaged cultural heritage. This system will contribute to improved skills and motivation of potential workers for further developments in digital heritage inventory.

  2. Voluntary Activities and Online Education for Digital Heritage Inventory Development after the Great East Japan Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Y.; Uozu, T.; Seino, Y.; Ako, T.; Goda, Y.; Fujimoto, Y.; Yamaguchi, H.

    2013-07-01

    Consortium for Earthquake-Damaged Cultural Heritage (CEDACH) is a voluntary initiative launched just after the Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011. The consortium is developing a social network between local cultural resource managers restoring disaster-damaged cultural heritage on one side and remote researchers including historians, archaeologists and specialists of cultural information studies on the other side, in order to facilitate collaborative projects. This paper presents three projects in which CEDACH contributed to the development of a digital inventory for disaster-damaged heritage management through web-based collaborations by self-motivated workers. The first project, CEDACH GIS, developed an online archaeological site inventory for the disaster area. Although a number of individuals voluntarily participated in the project at the beginning, it gradually stagnated due to limited need for local rescue archaeology. However, the experience of online-based collaborations worked well for the second project proposed by local specialists, in which CEDACH restored the book catalogue of a tsunami-devastated research library. This experience highlighted the need for online education to improve information and communication technologies (ICT) skills of data builders. Therefore, in the third project called CEDACHeLi, an e-Learning management system was developed to facilitate learning the fundamental knowledge and techniques required for information processing in rescue operations of disaster-damaged cultural heritage. This system will contribute to improved skills and motivation of potential workers for further developments in digital heritage inventory.

  3. Multi-level functionality of social media in the aftermath of the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Joo-Young; Moro, Munehito

    2014-07-01

    This study examines the multi-level functionalities of social media in the aftermath of the Great East Japan Earthquake of 11 March 2011. Based on a conceptual model of multi-level story flows of social media (Jung and Moro, 2012), the study analyses the multiple functionalities that were ascribed to social media by individuals, organisations, and macro-level social systems (government and the mass media) after the earthquake. Based on survey data, a review of Twitter timelines and secondary sources, the authors derive five functionalities of social media: interpersonal communications with others (micro level); channels for local governments; organisations and local media (meso level); channels for mass media (macro level); information sharing and gathering (cross level); and direct channels between micro-/meso- and macro-level agents. The study sheds light on the future potential of social media in disaster situations and suggests how to design an effective communication network to prepare for emergency situations. © 2014 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2014.

  4. Report on Disaster Medical Operations with Acupuncture/Massage Therapy after the Great East Japan Earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Takayama

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Great East Japan Earthquake inflicted immense damage over a wide area of eastern Japan with the consequent tsunami. Department of Traditional Asian Medicine, Tohoku University, started providing medical assistance to the disaster-stricken regions mainly employing traditional Asian therapies. We visited seven evacuation centers in Miyagi and Fukushima Prefecture and provided acupuncture/massage therapy. While massage therapy was performed manually, filiform needles and press tack needles were used to administer acupuncture. In total, 553 people were treated (mean age, 54.0 years; 206 men, 347 women. Assessment by interview showed that the most common complaint was shoulder/back stiffness. The rate of therapy satisfaction was 92.3%. Many people answered that they experienced not only physical but also psychological relief. At the time of the disaster, acupuncture/massage therapy, which has both mental and physical soothing effects, may be a therapeutic approach that can be effectively used in combination with Western medical practices.

  5. Public perception of risks from nuclear power plants in Japan, before the Great East Japan Earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murayama, Rumiko; Nakaune, Naoko; Kishikawa, Hiroki; Uchiyama, Iwao

    2011-01-01

    On this research we aim to clarify public perception of risks from nuclear power plants before the Great East Japan Earthquake. The findings of the questionnaire survey conducted in 2010 showed that 1) about 70% of the people felt that they gained benefit from nuclear power plants and these were needed for their daily life. 2) Fifty percent respondents recognized there was danger to themselves and their family members with regards to nuclear power plants. The risks of nuclear power plants to Japanese society ware estimated higher than that risk to individuals of Japanese public. 3) Perception of risks from nuclear power plants to individual Japanese tended to be slightly lower between 1999 and 2010. (author)

  6. Radioactivity measurement of tsunami sediments due to the Great East Japan Earthquake in Miyagi prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Chihiro; Joe, Seongjin

    2014-01-01

    The tsunami sediments and their directly under soils from 25 tsunami flooded areas in Miyagi prefecture after the Great East Japan Earthquake were analyzed quantitatively for radiocesium ( 134 Cs and 137 Cs) concentrations. It was found that the radiocesium released in the reactor accidents of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant stayed for at least 6 months in the tsunami sediments layer of a few centimeter thickness. On the other hand, from the results of the radiocesium extraction test using the tsunami sediments and 3 kinds of inorganic solvents, it was also found that the radiocesium in the tsunami sediments passed ca. 6 months after fall was hardly eluted with rain water (pH 5.6 ∼ 7.0) and combined strongly with clay minerals in the tsunami sediments. (K. Kato)

  7. The way of the report in the Great East Japan Earthquake and the nuclear plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Yoshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Nearly four years pass from the Great East Japan Earthquake. Fukushima has a big influence of the nuclear plant accident, and more than 120,000 citizens of the prefecture are still forced to refuge. The citizens of Fukushima feel that the present conditions do not come outside a prefecture and have dissatisfaction for media. A gap occurs in what media convey and thinking that inhabitants want you to tell. One of the causes is a news value point of reference. The other is that the news is carried out in a viewpoint of Tokyo. Is there not the cancellation method? I consider it from the viewpoint of a reporter living in Fukushima city. (author)

  8. Modeling of periodic great earthquakes on the San Andreas fault: Effects of nonlinear crustal rheology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reches, Ze'ev; Schubert, Gerald; Anderson, Charles

    1994-01-01

    We analyze the cycle of great earthquakes along the San Andreas fault with a finite element numerical model of deformation in a crust with a nonlinear viscoelastic rheology. The viscous component of deformation has an effective viscosity that depends exponentially on the inverse absolute temperature and nonlinearity on the shear stress; the elastic deformation is linear. Crustal thickness and temperature are constrained by seismic and heat flow data for California. The models are for anti plane strain in a 25-km-thick crustal layer having a very long, vertical strike-slip fault; the crustal block extends 250 km to either side of the fault. During the earthquake cycle that lasts 160 years, a constant plate velocity v(sub p)/2 = 17.5 mm yr is applied to the base of the crust and to the vertical end of the crustal block 250 km away from the fault. The upper half of the fault is locked during the interseismic period, while its lower half slips at the constant plate velocity. The locked part of the fault is moved abruptly 2.8 m every 160 years to simulate great earthquakes. The results are sensitive to crustal rheology. Models with quartzite-like rheology display profound transient stages in the velocity, displacement, and stress fields. The predicted transient zone extends about 3-4 times the crustal thickness on each side of the fault, significantly wider than the zone of deformation in elastic models. Models with diabase-like rheology behave similarly to elastic models and exhibit no transient stages. The model predictions are compared with geodetic observations of fault-parallel velocities in northern and central California and local rates of shear strain along the San Andreas fault. The observations are best fit by models which are 10-100 times less viscous than a quartzite-like rheology. Since the lower crust in California is composed of intermediate to mafic rocks, the present result suggests that the in situ viscosity of the crustal rock is orders of magnitude

  9. Chile's seismogenic coupling zones - geophysical and neotectonic observations from the South American subduction zone prior to the Maule 2010 earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oncken With Tipteq, Onno; Ipoc Research Groups

    2010-05-01

    supported from recent findings along the exhumed, fossil seismogenic coupling zone of the European Alps. The data provide additional evidence that the degree of interseismic locking is closely mirrored by subsequent megathrust failure as evidenced by the slip and aftershock pattern of the Maule 2010 earthquake. Neogene surface deformation in Chile has been complex exhibiting tectonically uplifting areas along the coast driven by interseismically active reverse faulting. In addition, we observe coseismically subsiding domains along other parts of the coast. Moreover, the coseismic and interseismic vertical displacement identified is not coincident with long-term vertical motion that probably is superseded by slow basal underplating or tectonic erosion occurring at the downdip parts of the seismogenic zone causing discontinuous uplift. Analogue and numerical modelling lend additional support to the kinematic patterns linking slip at the seismogenic coupling zone and upper plate response. Finally we note that the characteristic peninsulas along the South American margin constitute stable rupture boundaries/barriers and appear to have done so for a protracted time as evidenced by their long-term uplift history since at least the Late Pliocene that points to anomalous properties of the plate interface affecting the mode of strain accumulation and plate interface rupture.

  10. Earthquake Preparedness Among Japanese Hemodialysis Patients in Prefectures Heavily Damaged by the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugisawa, Hidehiro; Shimizu, Yumiko; Kumagai, Tamaki; Sugisaki, Hiroaki; Ohira, Seiji; Shinoda, Toshio

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the factors related to earthquake preparedness in Japanese hemodialysis patients. We focused on three aspects of the related factors: health condition factors, social factors, and the experience of disasters. A mail survey of all the members of the Japan Association of Kidney Disease Patients in three Japanese prefectures (N = 4085) was conducted in March, 2013. We obtained 1841 valid responses for analysis. The health factors covered were: activities of daily living (ADL), mental distress, primary renal diseases, and the duration of dialysis. The social factors were: socioeconomic status, family structure, informational social support, and the provision of information regarding earthquake preparedness from dialysis facilities. The results show that the average percentage of participants that had met each criterion of earthquake preparedness in 2013 was 53%. Hemodialysis patients without disabled ADL, without mental distress, and requiring longer periods of dialysis, were likely to meet more of the earthquake preparedness criteria. Hemodialysis patients who had received informational social support from family or friends, had lived with spouse and children in comparison to living alone, and had obtained information regarding earthquake preparedness from dialysis facilities, were also likely to meet more of the earthquake preparedness criteria. © 2017 International Society for Apheresis, Japanese Society for Apheresis, and Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy.

  11. Symptoms of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Among Young Children 2 Years After the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Takeo; Yagi, Junko; Homma, Hiroaki; Mashiko, Hirofumi; Nagao, Keizo; Okuyama, Makiko

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and its association with each traumatic experience among 5- to 8-year-old children 2 years after the Great East Japan Earthquake. Children ages 5-8 years who were in selected preschool classes on March 11, 2011, in 3 prefectures affected by the earthquake and 1 prefecture that was unaffected, participated in the study (N=280). PTSD symptoms were assessed through questionnaires completed by caregivers and interviews by psychiatrists or psychologists conducted between September 2012 and May 2013 (ie, 1.5-2 years after the earthquake). Among children who experienced the earthquake, 33.8% exhibited PTSD symptoms. Of the different traumatic experiences, experiencing the earthquake and the loss of distant relatives or friends were independently associated with PTSD symptoms; prevalence ratios: 6.88 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.06-23.0) and 2.48 (95% CI: 1.21-5.08), respectively. Approximately 1 in 3 young children in the affected communities exhibited PTSD symptoms, even 2 years after the Great East Japan Earthquake. These data may be useful for preventing PTSD symptoms after natural disasters and suggest the importance of providing appropriate mental health services for children. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:207-215).

  12. Ionospheric density variations recorded before the 2010 Mw 8.8 earthquake in Chile

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Píša, David; Parrot, M.; Santolík, Ondřej

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 116, - (2011), A08309/1-A08309/8 ISSN 0148-0227 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME09107 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : DEMETER satellite * pre- seismic activity * Offshore Bio-bio earthquake Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.021, year: 2011 http://www.agu.org/pubs/crossref/2011/2011JA016611.shtml

  13. Peptic Ulcers in Fukushima Prefecture Related to the Great East Japan Earthquake, Tsunami and Nuclear Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikichi, Takuto; Sato, Masaki; Watanabe, Ko; Nakamura, Jun; Kikuchi, Hitomi; Ejiri, Yutaka; Ishihata, Ryoichi; Irisawa, Atsushi; Takahashi, Yuta; Saito, Hironobu; Takagi, Tadayuki; Suzuki, Rei; Sugimoto, Mitsuru; Konno, Naoki; Waragai, Yuichi; Asama, Hiroyuki; Takasumi, Mika; Sato, Yuki; Ohira, Hiromasa; Obara, Katsutoshi

    2017-01-01

    Objective Due to the Great East Japan Earthquake, which occurred in March 2011, many residents of Fukushima Prefecture were affected by a radiation accident in addition to suffering loss or damage from the earthquake and the subsequent tsunami. The aim of this study was to evaluate the actual condition of patients with peptic ulcers related to the disaster. Methods Patients with peptic ulcers at six hospitals in three different regions of Fukushima Prefecture during the two months following the disaster and the corresponding period of the year before and the year after the disaster were enrolled in this study. Changes by period and region in the number of esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) examinations and the number of peptic ulcer patients were evaluated as the primary endpoints. Changes in the frequencies of hemorrhagic ulcers were evaluated by period and by region as secondary endpoints. Results The numbers of EGDs and peptic ulcer cases compared to the previous year decreased in 2011 and then increased in 2012. However, the ratio of hemorrhagic ulcers to peptic ulcers was higher in 2011 (51.9%) than in 2010 (38.1%) and 2012 (31.1%), and the 2011 hemorrhagic ulcer ratio was the highest at 63.6% in the coastal area. Regarding bleeding cases during 2011, the rate at 1 month after the disaster (64.1%) was higher than the rate at 2 months after the disaster (40.5%) (p=0.033). Conclusion The number of patients with peptic ulcers did not increase immediately following the disaster in Fukushima Prefecture. However, the rate of bleeding patients increased soon after the disaster, especially in the coastal area. PMID:29269647

  14. Concern over radiation exposure and psychological distress among rescue workers following the Great East Japan Earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsuoka Yutaka

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background On March 11, 2011, the Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami that followed caused severe damage along Japans northeastern coastline and to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. To date, there are few reports specifically examining psychological distress in rescue workers in Japan. Moreover, it is unclear to what extent concern over radiation exposure has caused psychological distress to such workers deployed in the disaster area. Methods One month after the disaster, 424 of 1816 (24% disaster medical assistance team workers deployed to the disaster area were assessed. Concern over radiation exposure was evaluated by a single self-reported question. General psychological distress was assessed with the Kessler 6 scale (K6, depressive symptoms with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D, fear and sense of helplessness with the Peritraumatic Distress Inventory (PDI, and posttraumatic stress symptoms with the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R. Results Radiation exposure was a concern for 39 (9.2% respondents. Concern over radiation exposure was significantly associated with higher scores on the K6, CES-D, PDI, and IES-R. After controlling for age, occupation, disaster operation experience, duration of time spent watching earthquake news, and past history of psychiatric illness, these associations remained significant in men, but did not remain significant in women for the CES-D and PDI scores. Conclusion The findings suggest that concern over radiation exposure was strongly associated with psychological distress. Reliable, accurate information on radiation exposure might reduce deployment-related distress in disaster rescue workers.

  15. Influence of Great East Japan Earthquake on neutron source station in J-PARC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Kenji; Sakamoto, Shinichi; Kinoshita, Hidetaka; Seki, Masakazu; Haga, Katsuhiro; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Wakui, Takashi; Naoe, Takashi; Kasugai, Yoshimi; Tatsumoto, Hideki; Aso, Tomokazu; Hasegawa, Shoichi; Maekawa, Fujio; Oikawa, Kenichi; Ooi, Motoki; Watanabe, Akihiko; Teshigawara, Makoto; Meigo, Shin-ichiro; Ikezaki, Kiyomi; Akutsu, Atsushi; Harada, Masahide; Takada, Hiroshi; Futakawa, Masatoshi

    2012-03-01

    This report investigates the behavior, damage and restoration of each component in a neutron source station of the Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility (MLF) of J-PARC at the time of the Great East Japan Earthquake (M9.0) and verified the safety design for emergency accidents in the neutron source station. The neutron source station of the MLF at the J-PARC generates neutrons by injecting proton beams into a mercury target, and supplies to user experimental apparatuses. It consists of the mercury target, three moderators filled with supercritical hydrogen, reflectors, water cooling shields, a vessel filled with helium gas, neutron beam shutters, biological-shields and so on. In case of loss of their external electric power supply, a control function for the source station is kept by an emergency power supply. According to interlock sequences in an emergency, a signal for terminating the beam operation is transmitted, the circulators shut down automatically, and the hydrogen gas is released out of the building. On March 11 in 2011, strong shocks caused by the earthquake were observed all over Ibaraki prefecture. At the date, a status of the source station was ready for the restart of beam operation. In the MLF, after strong quakes were detected at the several instruments, the external power supply was lost, all of the circulators shut down automatically, and the hydrogen gas was released. The leakages of mercury, hydrogen and radio-activation gases did not occur. While, the quakes made gaps between the shield blocks and ruptured external pipe lines for compressed air and water by subsidence around the building. But significant damages to the components were not found though the pressure drop of compressed air lines influenced on the mercury target trolley lock system and pneumatic operation values. These results substantiated the validity of the safety design for emergency accidents in the neutron source station in the MLF, and suggested several points

  16. Long-term responses of sandy beach crustaceans to the effects of coastal armouring after the 2010 Maule earthquake in South Central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodil, Iván F.; Jaramillo, Eduardo; Acuña, Emilio; Manzano, Mario; Velasquez, Carlos

    2016-02-01

    Earthquakes and tsunamis are large physical disturbances frequently striking the coast of Chile with dramatic effects on intertidal habitats. Armouring structures built as societal responses to beach erosion and shoreline retreat are also responsible of coastal squeeze and habitat loss. The ecological implications of interactions between coastal armouring and earthquakes have recently started to be studied for beach ecosystems. How long interactive impacts persist is still unclear because monitoring after disturbance generally extends for a few months. During five years after the Maule earthquake (South Central Chile, February 27th 2010) we monitored the variability in population abundances of the most common crustacean inhabitants of different beach zones (i.e. upper, medium, and lower intertidal) at two armoured (one concrete seawall and one rocky revetment) and one unarmoured sites along the sandy beach of Llico. Beach morphology changed after the earthquake-mediated uplift, restoring upper- and mid-shore armoured levels that were rapidly colonized by typical crustacean species. However, post-earthquake increasing human activities affected the colonization process of sandy beach crustaceans in front of the seawall. Lower-shore crab Emerita analoga was the less affected by armouring structures, and it was the only crustacean species present at the three sites before and after the earthquake. This study shows that field sampling carried out promptly after major disturbances, and monitoring of the affected sites long after the disturbance is gone are effective approaches to increase the knowledge on the interactive effects of large-scale natural phenomena and artificial defences on beach ecology.

  17. Mental health and related factors after the Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukari Yokoyama

    Full Text Available Mental health is one of the most important issues facing disaster survivors. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence and correlates of mental health problems in survivors of the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami at 6-11 months after the disaster. The questionnaire and notification were sent to the survivors in three municipalities in the Tohoku area of the Northern part of Honshu, Japan's largest island, between September 2011 and February 2012. Questionnaires were sent to 12,772, 11,411, and 18,648 residents in the Yamada, Otsuchi, and Rikuzentakata municipalities, respectively. Residents were asked to bring the completed questionnaires to their health check-ups. A total of 11,124 or (26.0% of them underwent health check-ups, and 10,198 were enrolled. We excluded 179 for whom a K6 score was missing and two who were both 17 years of age, which left 10,025 study participants (3,934 male and 6,091 female, mean age 61.0 years. K6 was used to measure mental health problems. The respondents were classified into moderate (5-12 of K6 and serious mental health problems (13+. A total of 42.6% of the respondents had moderate or serious mental health problems. Multivariate analysis showed that women were significantly associated with mental health problems. Other variables associated with mental health problems were: younger male, health complaints, severe economic status, relocations, and lack of a social network. An interaction effect of sex and economic status on severe mental health problems was statistically significant. Our findings suggest that mental health problems were prevalent in survivors of the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami. For men and women, health complaints, severe economic status, relocations, and lack of social network may be important risk factors of poor mental health. For men, interventions focusing on economic support may be particularly useful in reducing mental health problems after the disaster.

  18. Perspective of Japanese energy policy after the Great East Japan Earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikkawa, Takeo

    2012-01-01

    After the Great East Japan Earthquake and following shutdown of damaged Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) with no admittance of restart of periodically inspected NPPs, Japan was to face a great danger of shortage of power supply which led to hollowing out of Japanese industry and shifting production capacity overseas. Toward needed restart of NPPs, safety standards against severe accidents should be newly established so as to implement hazards minimization measures of NPPs, which was harmonized with the requests of Fukui prefecture having the oldest and most numerous NPPs. Author's short-term or urgent proposals were (1) safety standards should incorporate site-specific historical utmost earthquake and tsunami and be updated by reflecting latest knowledge, (2) restart of old NPPs should be put off until investigation committee concluded the relation between oldness of Fukushima Daiichi NPPs and accident progression, and (3) separation of electric power production from power distribution and transmission should be careful and not be concluded with more haste than caution. Mid-and-long-term proposals were (1) reform of nuclear power; establishment of independent nuclear regulatory authority, separation of nuclear business from private company and nationalization, and promotion of transfer of power-resources development tax to local government, (2) institutional reform of electric power; reinforcement and expansion of frequency converter and electricity interconnectors, and promotion of intense competition among electric power companies, (3) thermal power shift response; gaining bargaining power for LNG procurement and carbon dioxide reduction using bilateral offset credit mechanism through technology transfer of coal-fired thermal power; (4) expansion of renewable energy; use of geothermal, small hydro and biomass power, use of solar and wind power as distributed generation, and promotion of Smart Community activities in north Kyushu and Kamaishi. Electric power sources

  19. Seismotectonics of the Nicobar Swarm and the geodynamic implications for the 2004 Great Sumatran Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lister, Gordon

    2017-04-01

    The Great Sumatran Earthquake took place on 26th December 2004. One month into the aftershock sequence, a dense swarm of earthquakes took place beneath the Andaman Sea, northeast of the Nicobar Islands. The swarm continued for ˜11 days, rapidly decreasing in intensity towards the end of that period. Unlike most earthquake swarms, the Nicobar cluster was characterised by a large number of shocks with moment magnitude exceeding five. This meant that centroid moment tensor data could be determined, and this data in turn allows geometric analysis of inferred fault plane motions. The classification obtained using program eQuakes shows aftershocks falling into distinct spatial groups. Thrusts dominate in the south (in the Sumatran domain), and normal faults dominate in the north (in the Andaman domain). Strike-slip faults are more evenly spread. They occur on the Sumatran wrench system, for example, but also on the Indian plate itself. Orientation groups readily emerge from such an analysis. Temporal variation in behaviour is immediately evident, changing after ˜12 months. Orientation groups in the first twelve months are consistent with margin perpendicular extension beneath the Andaman Sea (i.e. mode II megathrust behaviour) whereas afterward the pattern of deformation appears to have reverted to that expected in consequence of relative plate motion. In the first twelve months, strike-slip motion appears to have taken place on faults that are sub-parallel to spreading segments in the Andaman Sea. By early 2006 however normal fault clusters formed that showed ˜N-S extension across these spreading segments had resumed, while the overall density of aftershocks in the Andaman segment had considerably diminished. Throughout this entire period the Sumatran segment exhibited aftershock sequences consistent with ongoing Mode I megathrust behaviour. The Nicobar Swarm marks the transition from one sort of slab dynamics to the other. The earthquake swarm may have been

  20. Prevalence of insomnia among residents of Tokyo and osaka after the great East Japan earthquake: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Hiroaki; Akahane, Manabu; Ohkusa, Yasushi; Okabe, Nobuhiko; Sano, Tomomi; Jojima, Noriko; Bando, Harumi; Imamura, Tomoaki

    2013-01-18

    The Great East Japan Earthquake occurred on March 11, 2011. Tokyo and Osaka, which are located 375 km and 750 km, respectively, from the epicenter, experienced tremors of 5.0 lower and 3.0 seismic intensity on the Japan Meteorological Agency scale. The Great East Japan Earthquake was the fourth largest earthquake in the world and was accompanied by a radioactive leak at a nuclear power plant and a tsunami. In the aftermath of a disaster, some affected individuals presented to mental health facilities with acute stress disorder (ASD) and/or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, few studies have addressed mental stress problems other than ASD or PTSD among the general public immediately after a disaster. Further, the effects of such a disaster on residents living at considerable distances from the most severely affected area have not been examined. This study aimed to prospectively analyze the effect of a major earthquake on the prevalence of insomnia among residents of Tokyo and Osaka. A prospective online questionnaire study was conducted in Tokyo and Osaka from January 20 to April 30, 2011. An Internet-based questionnaire, intended to be completed daily for a period of 101 days, was used to collect the data. All of the study participants lived in Tokyo or Osaka and were Consumers' Co-operative Union (CO-OP) members who used an Internet-based food-ordering system. The presence or absence of insomnia was determined before and after the earthquake. These data were compared after stratification for the region and participants' age. Multivariate analyses were conducted using logistic regression and a generalized estimating equation. This study was conducted with the assistance of the Japanese CO-OP. The prevalence of insomnia among adults and minors in Tokyo and adults in Osaka increased significantly after the earthquake. No such increase was observed among minors in Osaka. The overall adjusted odds ratios for the risk of insomnia post-earthquake versus pre-earthquake

  1. Influence of living environments and working status on low back pain for survivors of the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Yoshihiro; Yabe, Yutaka; Sugawara, Yumi; Sato, Mari; Watanabe, Takashi; Kanazawa, Kenji; Sonofuchi, Kazuaki; Koide, Masashi; Sekiguchi, Takuya; Tsuchiya, Masahiro; Tsuji, Ichiro; Itoi, Eiji

    2016-03-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake and devastating Tsunami caused irreparable damage on the northeastern coast of Japan. This study aimed to examine the influencing factors of "Living environment" and "Working status" on low back pain for the survivors of the earthquake evaluated by a self-report questionnaire. Between 2011 and 2013, survivors replied to the self-report questionnaire, and 986 people consented to join this study. The living environment was divided into 3 categories (1. Living in the same house as before the earthquake, 2. Living in a safe shelter or temporary small house, 3. Living in a house of relatives or apartment house) and working status was divided into 5 categories (1. Unemployed before the earthquake, 2. Unemployed after the earthquake, 3. Decrease in income, 4. Different occupation after the earthquake, 5. The same occupation as before the earthquake). Age, gender, living areas, past history of arthritis, arthropathy, osteoporosis, sleep disturbance, psychological distress, and economic status were considered as confounding factors. Generalized estimating regression models with logit link function were used because outcome variables are repeatedly measured and binomial. We evaluated the correlation between the presence/severity of low back pain over time and housing status/working status at 1 year after the earthquake. There were no significant differences between age, gender, living areas, working status, or living environment before or after the earthquake. There was no significant difference in the risk of having low back pain in living environment or gender. There was significant difference in the risk of having low back pain in those with "Decrease in income" (OR = 1.93, 95% CI = 1.23-3.03) and "The same occupation as before the earthquake" (OR = 1.67, 95% CI = 1.1-2.52). Though living environment has little effect, "Decrease in income" and "The same occupation as before the earthquake" have strong influences on low back pain

  2. Preparing a population for an earthquake like Chi-Chi: The Great Southern California ShakeOut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lucile M.; ,

    2009-01-01

    The Great Southern California ShakeOut was a week of special events featuring the largest earthquake drill in United States history. On November 13, 2008, over 5 million southern Californians pretended that a magnitude-7.8 earthquake had occurred and practiced actions that could reduce its impact on their lives. The primary message of the ShakeOut is that what we do now, before a big earthquake, will determine what our lives will be like after. The drill was based on a scenario of the impacts and consequences of such an earthquake on the Southern San Andreas Fault, developed by over 300 experts led by the U.S. Geological Survey in partnership with the California Geological Survey, the Southern California Earthquake Center, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute, lifeline operators, emergency services and many other organizations. The ShakeOut campaign was designed and implemented by earthquake scientists, emergency managers, sociologists, art designers and community participants. The means of communication were developed using results from sociological research on what encouraged people to take action. This was structured around four objectives: 1) consistent messages – people are more inclined to believe something when they hear the same thing from multiple sources; 2) visual reinforcement – people are more inclined to do something they see other people doing; 3) encourage “milling” or discussing contemplated action – people need to discuss an action with others they care about before committing to undertaking it; and 4) focus on concrete actions – people are more likely to prepare for a set of concrete consequences of a particular hazard than for an abstract concept of risk. The goals of the ShakeOut were established in Spring 2008 and were: 1) to register 5 million people to participate in the drill; 2) to change the culture of earthquake preparedness in southern California; and 3) to reduce earthquake losses in southern California. All of these

  3. THE RESPONSE OF MONTEREY BAY TO THE GREAT TOHOKU EARTHQUAKE OF 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Carroll

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The response of Monterey Bay to the Great Tohoku earthquake of 2011 is examined in this study. From a practical standpoint, although the resulting tsunami did not cause any damage to the open harbors at Monterey and Moss Landing, it caused extensive damage to boats and infrastructure in Santa Cruz Harbor, which is closed to surrounding waters. From a scientific standpoint, the observed and predicted amplitudes of the tsunami at 1 km from the source were 21.3 and 22.5 m based on the primary arrival from one DART bottom pressure recorder located 986 km ENE of the epicenter. The predicted and observed travel times for the tsunami to reach Monterey Bay agreed within 3%. The predicted and observed periods of the tsunami-generated wave before it entered the bay yielded periods that approached 2 hours. Once the tsunami entered Monterey Bay it was transformed into a seiche with a primary period of 36-37 minutes, corresponding to quarter-wave resonance within the bay. Finally, from a predictive standpoint, major tsunamis that enter the bay from the northwest, as in the present case, are the ones most likely to cause damage to Santa Cruz harbor.

  4. Contribution of soil sciences for recovering from damages by the Great East Japan Earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miwa, Eitaro; Miyazaki, Tsuyoshi; Nanzyo, Masami

    2014-01-01

    This symposium was held in September 2013, under the joint hosting of Science Council of Japan, Agricultural Academy of Japan, and Japanese Society of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, as one of the programs of the Nagoya convention of Japanese Society of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition. The theme was the contribution of soil science to the restoration from the Great East Japan Earthquake and the issues involved in this. As the restoration from the tsunami, the following two topics were presented: 'Situation of Miyagi Prefecture and challenge of soil science', and 'Technological measures for the resumption of farming in tsunami-hit areas in Soma City, Fukushima Prefecture.' As the restoration from the radiation damage caused by Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station Accident, the following four topics were presented: 'Cooperation between villagers and scholars at Iitate Village; efforts for survey and decontamination with the hands of villagers,' 'Cesium fixation related to on-site soil,' 'Concentration and separation of cesium,' and 'Volume reduction of contaminated soil.' This paper summarizes these six topics of lectures, keynote comments by other specialists and relevant persons, and the atmosphere of the convention on the day. (A.O)

  5. Trends in psychological distress and alcoholism after The Great East Japan Earthquake of 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kanehara

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Many studies have shown that natural disasters affect mental health; however, longitudinal data on post-disaster mental health problems are scarce. The aims of our study were to investigate the trend in psychological distress and alcoholism after The Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami in north eastern Japan, in March 2011. Methods: A longitudinal study was conducted using annual health check data for the general population, in the city of Higashi-Matsushima, which was affected by the high impact of tsunami. In 2012 and 2013, the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale and the CAGE questionnaire (for screening for alcoholism were used to assess psychological distress and prevalence of alcoholism. Results: Of 11,855 total eligible residents, 2192 received the annual check in 2012 and 2013. The prevalence of mental illness and the mean score of alcoholism tendency increased during the follow-up period. The majority of respondents (43.8% with baseline serious mental illness (SMI continued to have SMI at follow-up; only 16.7% reported recovering. Older age, female sex, and severity of home damage predicted higher psychological distress, while male sex was a risk factor for alcoholism at follow-up. Conclusions: Psychological distress deteriorated 2 years after the huge natural disaster, compared with 1 year after the disaster. Long-term mental health care is needed for those affected by natural disasters, particularly those who have suffered loss. Keywords: Natural disaster, Psychological distress, Alcoholism, Longitudinal study

  6. Factors Associated With Worsened or Improved Mental Health in the Great East Japan Earthquake Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanouchi, Tomoko; Hiroshima, Mayo; Takeuchi, Yumiko; Sawada, Yumiko; Takahashi, Makiko; Amagai, Manami

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to identify factors contributing to the worsening or improved mental health of long-term evacuees over three years following the Great East Japan Earthquake. The Japanese version of the K6 questionnaire was used as a measure of mental health. The first- and third-year survey results were compared and differences in mental health status calculated. Respondents were then divided into two groups according to worsening or improved mental health status. Differences in stress factors, stress relief methods, and demographics were compared between the two groups. Factors associated with exacerbation of poor mental health were the stress factors "Uncertainty about future" (p=0.048) and "Loss of purpose in life" (p=0.023). Multivariable analysis identified two factors associated with improved mental health, the stress relief methods "Accepting myself" (odds ratio (OR): 2.15, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02-4.51) and "Interactions with others" (OR: 3.34, 95% CI: 1.43-7.79). While motivation and hope of livelihood reconstruction have gradually risen in the three years since the disaster, anxieties about an uncertain future, loss of purpose in life, and disruption of social networks continue adversely to affect the mental health of survivors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Preliminary earthquake locations in the Kenai Peninsula recorded by the MOOS Array and their relationship to structure in the 1964 great earthquake zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J.; Abers, G. A.; Christensen, D. H.; Kim, Y.; Calkins, J. A.

    2011-12-01

    Earthquakes in subduction zones are mostly generated at the interface between the subducting and overlying plates. In 2006-2009, the MOOS (Multidisciplinary Observations Of Subduction) seismic array was deployed around the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska, consisting of 34 broadband seismometers recording for 1-3 years. This region spans the eastern end of the Aleutian megathrust that ruptured in the 1964 Mw 9.2 great earthquake, the second largest recorded earthquake, and ongoing seismicity is abundant. Here, we report an initial analysis of seismicity recorded by MOOS, in the context of preliminary imaging. There were 16,462 events detected in one year from initial STA/LTA signal detections and subsequent event associations from the MOOS Array. We manually reviewed them to eliminate distant earthquakes and noise, leaving 11,879 local earthquakes. To refine this catalog, an adaptive auto-regressive onset estimation algorithm was applied, doubling the original dataset and producing 20,659 P picks and 22,999 S picks for one month (September 2007). Inspection shows that this approach lead to almost negligible false alarms and many more events than hand picking. Within the well-sampled part of the array, roughly 200 km by 300 km, we locate 250% more earthquakes for one month than the permanent network catalog, or 10 earthquakes per day on this patch of the megathrust. Although the preliminary locations of earthquakes still show some scatter, we can see a concentration of events in a ~20-km-wide belt, part of which can be interpreted as seismogenic thrust zone. In conjunction with the seismicity study, we are imaging the plate interface with receiver functions. The main seismicity zone corresponds to the top of a low-velocity layer imaged in receiver functions, nominally attributed to the top of the downgoing plate. As we refine velocity models and apply relative relocation algorithms, we expect to improve the precision of the locations substantially. When combined with image

  8. The Role of Museums in Recovery From Disaster: The Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudo Ken‘ichi

    2014-12-01

    in the wake of the Great East Japan Earthquake demonstrates that a museum’s efforts to revive and restore traditional performing arts can do more than sustain folk arts. It can also play a vital role in rebuilding the spirits of communities and localities affected by disasters.

  9. [Expression of negative emotional responses to the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake: Analysis of big data from social media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Asako; Komori, Masashi; Matsumura, Naohiro; Maeda, Kazutoshi

    2015-06-01

    In this article, we investigated the expression of emotional responses to the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake by analyzing the frequency of negative emotional terms in tweets posted on Twitter, one of the most popular social media platforms. We focused on differences in time-series variations and diurnal changes between two kinds of disasters: natural disasters (earthquakes and tsunamis) and nuclear accidents. The number of tweets containing negative emotional responses increased sharply shortly after the first huge earthquake and decreased over time, whereas tweets about nuclear accidents showed no correlation with elapsed time. Expressions of anxiety about natural disasters had a circadian rhythm, with a peak at midnight, whereas expressions of anger about the nuclear accident were highly sensitive to critical events related to the accident. These findings were discussed in terms of similarities and differences compared to earlier studies on emotional responses in social media.

  10. May 1960 Puerto Montt, Valdivia, Chile Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — On May 22, 1960, a Mw 9.5 earthquake, the largest earthquake ever instrumentally recorded, occurred in southern Chile. The series of earthquakes that followed...

  11. Types of damage that could result from a great earthquake in the New Madrid, Missouri, seismic zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, M.G.; Algermissen, S.T.

    1984-01-01

    In the winter of 1811–1812 a series of three great earthquakes occurred in the New Madrid seismic zone. In addition to the three principal shocks, at least 15 other earthquakes, Io ≥ VIII, occurred within a year of the first large earthquake on December 16, 1811. The three main shocks were felt over the entire eastern United States. They were strong enough to cause minor damage as far away as Indiana and Ohio on the north, the Carolinas on the east, and southern Mississippi on the south. They were strong enough to cause severe or structural damage in parts of Missouri, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Tennessee, Mississippi, and Arkansas. The section of this poster titled "Seismic history of the New Madrid region" describes what happened in the epicentral region. Fortunately, few people lived in the severely shaken area in 1811; that is not the case today. What would happen if a series of earthquakes as large and numerous as the "New Madrid" earthquakes were to occur in the New Madrid seismic zone today?

  12. Identifying the dynamic characteristics of a dual core-wall and frame building in Chile using aftershocks of the 27 February 2010 (Mw=8.8) Maule, Chile, earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelebi, Mehmet; Sereci, Mark; Boroschek, Ruben; Carreño, Rodrigo; Bonelli, Patricio

    2013-01-01

    Following the 27 February 2010 (Mw = 8.8) Offshore Maule, Chile earthquake, a temporary, 16-channel, real-time data streaming array was installed in a recently constructed building in Viña del Mar to capture its responses to aftershocks. The cast-in-place, reinforced concrete building is 16 stories high, with 3 additional basement levels, and has dual system comprising multiple structural walls and perimeter frames. This building was not damaged during the main-shock, but other buildings of similar design in Viña del Mar and other parts of Chile were damaged, although none collapsed. Dynamic characteristics of the building identified from the low-amplitude (PGA of about 2 Gal) response recordings of aftershocks are found to compare well with those determined from modal analyses using a design level FEM model. Distinct “major-axes” translational and torsional fundamental frequencies, as well as frequencies of secondary modes, are identified. Evidence of beating is consistently observed in the response data for each earthquake. Results do not match well with U.S. code formulas.

  13. Study of electrical power facilities and measures for planned outages in Japanese hemodialysis clinics after the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Kai; Sawa, Manami; Fujiwara, Kousaku; Hirose, Minoru; Tsuruta, Harukazu; Takeuchi, Akihiro; Ikeda, Noriaki

    2013-02-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011 caused major damage in northeastern Japan. The Kanto region experienced a massive electrical power shortage in the summer of 2011. A questionnaire was submitted to 354 hemodialysis clinics in Kanagawa prefecture and the Tokyo metropolitan area, excluding isolated islands, and 176 responses were analyzed (49.7%). The questions included evaluation of the availability of a private electricity generator, countermeasures in case of a planned outage, awareness of saving electricity, and improvement of safety of medical devices or electrical facilities after the earthquake. Only 12% of the clinics had private electricity generators and many clinics had no plans to introduce this facility. However, 96% of the clinics had established countermeasures to deal with a planned outage. Many clinics planned to provide dialysis on a different day or at a different time. All clinics had tried hard to establish procedures to save electricity in the summer of 2011, and 84% of the clinics had reconsidered and improved the safety of medical devices or electricity facilities after the earthquake. These results show that the awareness of crisis management was greatly improved in the wake of the earthquake. © 2012 The Authors. Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis © 2012 International Society for Apheresis.

  14. The 2005 volcano-tectonic earthquake swarm in the Andaman Sea: Triggered by the 2004 great Sumatra-Andaman earthquake

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kundu, B.; Legrand, D.; Gahalaut, K.; Gahalaut, V.K.; Mahesh, P.; KameshRaju, K.A.; Catherine, J.K.; Ambikapthy, A.; Chadha, R.K.

    Raju3, J.K. Catherine1, A. Ambikapthy1, R.K.Chadha1 1. National Geophysical Research Institute (CSIR), Hyderabad-500007, India 2. UNAM, Instituto de Geofísica, Av. Universidad 3000, Ciudad Universitaria, Del. Coyoacán, C.P. 04510. México D....F. México. 3. National Institute of Oceanography (CSIR), Dona Paula, Goa-403004, India *Corresponding Author (Email: rilbhaskar@gmail.com) Abstract: A 6-days duration earthquakes swarm occurred in the Andaman Sea, 31 days after the giant 2004...

  15. An Outbreak of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Yamagata Prefecture Following the Great East Japan Earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Iseki

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the aftermath of the Great East Japan Earthquake, most of the areas in Yamagata prefecture experienced a serious power failure lasting for approximately 24 hours. A number of households were subsequently poisoned with carbon monoxide (CO due to various causes. In this study, we conducted a survey of CO poisoning during the disaster. Methods: A questionnaire regarding CO poisoning associated with the disaster was sent to 37 emergency hospitals in Yamagata prefecture. Results: A total of 51 patients were treated for unintentional CO poisoning in 7 hospitals (hyperbaric oxygen chambers were present in 3 of the hospitals. The patients (18 men, 33 women ranged in age from 0 to 90 years. The source of CO exposure was charcoal briquettes (23 cases; 45%, gasoline-powered electric generators (18 cases; 35%, electric generators together with oil stoves (8 cases; 16%, oil stoves (1 cases; 2%, and automobile exhaust (1 cases; 2%. Blood carboxyhemoglobin levels ranged from 0.5% to 41.6% in 49 cases. Of these, 41 patients were treated by normobaric oxygen therapy, while one was intubated for artificial respiration. Additionally, 5 patients (10% were treated by hyperbaric oxygen therapy, and 3 patients (6% experienced delayed neuropsychiatric sequelae. Conclusion: CO sources included gasoline-powered electric generators and charcoal briquettes during the disaster. Storm-related CO poisoning is well recognized as a disaster-associated accident in the United States, but not in Japan. We emphasize that public education is needed to make people aware of the dangers of CO poisoning after a disaster. In addition, a pulse CO-oximeter should be set up in hospitals.  

  16. Characteristics of Physician Outflow from Disaster Areas following the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saori Kashima

    Full Text Available The shortage of physicians after a major disaster is a crucial issue. We aimed to evaluate the characteristics of physicians who left affected areas following the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011.Using data from a physician census conducted in 2010 (pre-disaster and 2012 (post-disaster, we evaluated changes in the number of physicians in affected areas. We then calculated the odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals using a logistic regression model to evaluate the association between physician characteristics and outflow. We also conducted stratified analyses based on physician characteristics.The number of physicians decreased in Fukushima Prefecture (-5.3% and increased in Miyagi Prefecture (2.8%. The decrease in Fukushima and increase in Miyagi were evident even after taking the prefecture's population change into account (change in physician to population ratios: -1.9% and 3.2%, respectively. Compared with physicians who lived in areas >100 km from the nuclear power plant, physicians living 20-50 km and 50-100 km were, respectively, 3.9 times (95% confidence interval, 2.6-5.7 and 2.6 times (95% confidence interval, 1.7-3.8 more likely to migrate to distant areas. In the stratified analysis, younger physicians and those earlier in their careers had higher odds ratios for outflow than other physicians (P for interaction = 0.02 and <0.01, respectively.The risk of outflow was greater among younger and early-career physicians in areas around the power plant. Political support may be necessary to recruit and retain such physicians, who will be responsible for future community health in the disaster area.

  17. Proposal of great eastern Japan earthquake. Message from Fukushima Medical University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Shin-ichi

    2012-01-01

    Described are what Fukushima Medical University (FMU) faced and how FMU responded at Fukushima Daiichi Power Plant (FDPP) Accident by hydrogen explosions (Mar. 12 and 14, 2011) following the Great Eastern Japan Earthquake (Mar. 11). The Accident accompanying the forced evacuation of resident in the area 20 km afar from FDPP brought about the concern, fear and anger, different from those in the neighboring Miyagi Prefecture; and strong psychosomatic stress; as well as the significant alteration of composition of generation in population and in sickness proportion in the whole Prefecture. Under these circumstances, FMU decided to hold information in common and make a service window single, to give the top leadership with rough-and-ready practice and a flexible policy, which all were the president's responsibility for making staff work relieved and united. For holding information in common, frequent meetings of the whole FMU personnel were held (42 times from Mar. 11 to Nov.) and of managing staff (81 times until Nov.). During the period, FMU took measures to meet with the situation of patient receiving and transporting, measures against rumor, and cooperation with related medical institutions. Medicare support included the acute phase medicare, and planning and practice of healthcare management for >30 years onward in the Prefecture. The author summarizes 9 lessons proposed from the Disaster to be considered hereafter, like the system perfection at an emergency, more education about radiation for the resident and medicare staff, measures for aging of engineers and scientists related to atomic energy, and so on. As well, 6 lessons are summarized for the next generation using old aphorism and recent commentary in media. The people should follow the excellent leader at crisis; but it's the problem whether there is such a leader on site or in administration at the very time. (T.T.)

  18. Obesity in elementary school children after the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, Hidenori; Fuchimukai, Toru; Kondo, Naoki; Takayama, John I

    2018-03-01

    Rikuzentakata was one of the cities most devastated by the Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011. Many buildings were swept away or destroyed and affected families were placed into temporary housing. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of long-term temporary housing on the body mass index (BMI) of elementary school children living in Rikuzentakata City. A retrospective cohort study of was carried out of students attending 1st-3rd grade in 2010, and 4th-6th grade in 2013, in eight elementary schools in Rikuzentakata City. Height and weight were measured annually. We compared changes in BMI between children in temporary housing and those in permanent housing. Separately, parents of students attending one of the elementary schools were surveyed in 2013. Of 526 children in the present study, 32% were living in temporary housing. The prevalence of obesity climbed from 5.3% in 2010 to 7.8% in 2013 in the temporary housing group, and from 7.6% to 7.8% in the permanent housing group. BMI z-score in the temporary housing group increased by 0.102 points between 2010 and 2013 (P comic books and their walking commute time had decreased by 2 min compared with before the disaster. Obesity prevalence and BMI z-score increased in children in temporary housing compared with permanent housing. A more sedentary lifestyle may explain this trend. It is important for policy makers and health-care providers to recognize potential consequences of long-term residence in temporary housing. © 2017 Japan Pediatric Society.

  19. Association between housing type and γ-GTP increase after the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Aya; Sugawara, Yumi; Tomata, Yasutake; Sugiyama, Kemmyo; Kaiho, Yu; Tanji, Fumiya; Tsuji, Ichiro

    2017-09-01

    It has been reported that alcohol consumption increases after natural disasters, with an impact on health. However, the impact of relocation upon drinking behavior has been unclear. The aim of this study was to clarify the association between housing type and the impact of alcohol consumption on health after the Great East Japan Earthquake (GEJE) of 2011. We analyzed 569 residents living in devastated areas of Ishinomaki city, who had undergone assessment of their γ-GTP levels at health check-ups in both 2010 and 2013, and had given details of the type of housing they occupied in 2013. The housing types were categorized into five groups: "same housing as that before the GEJE", "prefabricated temporary housing", "privately rented temporary housing/rental housing", "homes of relatives", and "reconstructed housing". We used fixed-effect regression analysis to examine the association between housing type after the GEJE and changes in γ-GTP after adjustment for age, BMI, housing damage, number of people in household, smoking status, presence of illness, psychological distress, and social network. The mean age of the participants was 71.5 years and 46.2% of them were men. The proportion of individuals who drank heavily, and suffered from psychological distress and insomnia, was highest among those living in privately rented temporary housing/rental housing. Compared with individuals who continued to occupy the same housing as those before the GEJE, the effect of change in γ-GTP was significantly higher in individuals who had moved to privately rented temporary housing/rental housing (b = 9.5, SE = 4.4, p housing/rental housing are at highest risk of negative health effects due to alcohol drinking. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Disease prevalence among nursery school children after the Great East Japan earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikuro, Mami; Matsubara, Hiroko; Kikuya, Masahiro; Obara, Taku; Sato, Yuki; Metoki, Hirohito; Isojima, Tsuyoshi; Yokoya, Susumu; Kato, Noriko; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Chida, Shoichi; Ono, Atsushi; Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Yokomichi, Hiroshi; Yamagata, Zentaro; Tanaka, Soichiro; Kure, Shigeo; Kuriyama, Shinichi

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between personal experience of the Great East Japan Earthquake and various disease types among nursery school children. We conducted a nationwide survey of nursery school children born between 2 April 2006 and 1 April 2007. Nursery school teachers completed questionnaires if they agreed to join the study. Questionnaire items for children consisted of their birth year and month, sex, any history of moving into or out of the current nursery school, presence of diseases diagnosed by a physician at the age of 66-78 months and type of disaster experience. The survey was conducted from September 2012 to December 2012. Japan, nationwide. A total of 60 270 nursery school children were included in the analysis, 840 of whom experienced the disaster on 11 March 2011. The health status of children 1.5 years after the disaster based on nursery school records. Experiencing the disaster significantly affected the prevalence of overall and individual diseases. Furthermore, there was a difference in disease prevalence between boys and girls. In boys, experiencing the tsunami (OR 2.53, 95% CI 1.22 to 5.24) and living in an evacuation centre (OR 2.92, 95% CI 1.46 to 5.83) were remarkably associated with a higher prevalence of atopic dermatitis, but these trends were not observed among girls. Instead, the home being destroyed (OR 3.50, 95% CI 2.02 to 6.07) and moving house (OR 4.19, 95% CI 2.01 to 8.71) were positively associated with a higher prevalence of asthma among girls. Our study indicates that experiencing the disaster may have affected the health status of nursery school children at least up to 1.5 years after the disaster. Continuous monitoring of the health status of children is necessary to develop strategic plans for child health.

  1. Stochastic strong motion generation using slip model of 21 and 22 May 1960 mega-thrust earthquakes in the main cities of Central-South Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, S.; Ojeda, J.; DelCampo, F., Sr.; Pasten, C., Sr.; Otarola, C., Sr.; Silva, R., Sr.

    2017-12-01

    In May 1960 took place the most unusual seismic sequence registered instrumentally. The Mw 8.1, Concepción earthquake occurred May, 21, 1960. The aftershocks of this event apparently migrated to the south-east, and the Mw 9.5, Valdivia mega-earthquake occurred after 33 hours. The structural damage produced by both events is not larger than other earthquakes in Chile and lower than crustal earthquakes of smaller magnitude. The damage was located in the sites with shallow soil layers of low shear wave velocity (Vs). However, no seismological station recorded this sequence. For that reason, we generate synthetic acceleration times histories for strong motion in the main cities affected by these events. We use 155 points of vertical surface displacements recopiled by Plafker and Savage in 1968, and considering the observations of this authors and local residents we separated the uplift and subsidence information associated to the first earthquake Mw 8.1 and the second mega-earthquake Mw 9.5. We consider the elastic deformation propagation, assume realist lithosphere geometry, and compute a Bayesian method that maximizes the probability density a posteriori to obtain the slip distribution. Subsequently, we use a stochastic method of generation of strong motion considering the finite fault model obtained for both earthquakes. We considered the incidence angle of ray to the surface, free surface effect and energy partition for P, SV and SH waves, dynamic corner frequency and the influence of site effect. The results show that the earthquake Mw 8.1 occurred down-dip the slab, the strong motion records are similar to other Chilean earthquake like Tocopilla Mw 7.7 (2007). For the Mw 9.5 earthquake we obtain synthetic acceleration time histories with PGA values around 0.8 g in cities near to the maximum asperity or that have low velocity soil layers. This allows us to conclude that strong motion records have important influence of the shallow soil deposits. These records

  2. The risk communication using the special website of the society of risk analysis for the Great East Japan Earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsubokawa, Hiroaki; Nagasaka, Toshinari; Sunaga, Yohei; Lee, Taiyoung; Taguchi, Hitoshi; Usuda, Yuichiro

    2011-01-01

    The Society for Risk Analysis Japan built the special website that reply to the people who are concerning the risk related to the Great East Japan Earthquake occurred on March 11, 2011. Although, there were many risk communication activities between the specialists of the risk research and citizens on the website, there are some significant problems for the risk communication using the website. This report summarizes the result of our activity. (author)

  3. Source Parameter Inversion for Recent Great Earthquakes from a Decade-long Observation of Global Gravity Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shin-Chan; Riva, Ricccardo; Sauber, Jeanne; Okal, Emile

    2013-01-01

    We quantify gravity changes after great earthquakes present within the 10 year long time series of monthly Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) gravity fields. Using spherical harmonic normal-mode formulation, the respective source parameters of moment tensor and double-couple were estimated. For the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake, the gravity data indicate a composite moment of 1.2x10(exp 23)Nm with a dip of 10deg, in agreement with the estimate obtained at ultralong seismic periods. For the 2010 Maule earthquake, the GRACE solutions range from 2.0 to 2.7x10(exp 22)Nm for dips of 12deg-24deg and centroid depths within the lower crust. For the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, the estimated scalar moments range from 4.1 to 6.1x10(exp 22)Nm, with dips of 9deg-19deg and centroid depths within the lower crust. For the 2012 Indian Ocean strike-slip earthquakes, the gravity data delineate a composite moment of 1.9x10(exp 22)Nm regardless of the centroid depth, comparing favorably with the total moment of the main ruptures and aftershocks. The smallest event we successfully analyzed with GRACE was the 2007 Bengkulu earthquake with M(sub 0) approx. 5.0x10(exp 21)Nm. We found that the gravity data constrain the focal mechanism with the centroid only within the upper and lower crustal layers for thrust events. Deeper sources (i.e., in the upper mantle) could not reproduce the gravity observation as the larger rigidity and bulk modulus at mantle depths inhibit the interior from changing its volume, thus reducing the negative gravity component. Focal mechanisms and seismic moments obtained in this study represent the behavior of the sources on temporal and spatial scales exceeding the seismic and geodetic spectrum.

  4. Nature of the Coastal Range Wedge Along the Rupture Area of the 2015, Illapel Chile Earthquake Mw 8.4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farías, M.; Comte, D.; Roecker, S. W.; Brandon, M. T.

    2017-12-01

    Wedge theory is usually applied to the pro-side of active subduction margins, where fold-and-thrust belts related to frontal accretion develop, but rarely to the entire wedge, where the retro-side is also relevant. We present a new 3D body wave tomographic image that combines data from the Chile-Illapel Aftershock Experiment (CHILLAX) with previous temporary seismic networks, with the aim of illuminating the nature of the wedge of the continental margin above the seismogenic part of the subducting slab. The downdip extent of the coupled part, called the S-point in the wedge theory, corresponds to the place where upper plate completely decouples from the subducting slab. This point is characterized by a Vp/Vs contrast at about 60 km depth that extends upward-and-eastward in a west-dipping ramp-like geometry. This ramp emerges about 180 km from the trench, near the topographic break related to the front of the Andean retro-side. The Coastal wedge domain is characterized by a monotonous east-dipping homocline with the older rocks of this region along the coast. The offshore region, corresponding to the pro-side, exhibits normal faulting and a very small frontal accretionary complex. Normal faulting in this region is related to rapid uplift of marine terraces since ca. 2 Ma, suggesting strong basal accretion and thus high friction on the thrust. In fact, the epicentral region of the 2015 Illapel Earthquake coincides with the highest elevations along the coast, i.e., the region with the highest slope of the margin. In this region, the lack of a continental forearc basin suggests an overlapping between the Andean and Coastal wedges. The western edge of the Andean wedge is also part of the homocline about 10 km east of the topographic boundary between both wedges, suggesting that the Coastal wedge has been deforming a part of the retro-side of the Andean wedge during the Miocene. The east-ward tilting of the retro-side was acquired mainly before the late Miocene, since at

  5. [After the Great East Japan Earthquake : suicide prevention and a gatekeeper program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Kotaro; Sakai, Akio; Nakamura, Hikaru; Akahira, Mitsuko

    2014-01-01

    When considering approaches to mental health in areas affected by the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake, as well as the resulting tsunami and Fukushima nuclear power plant accident, it is not sufficient to focus interventions solely on individuals experiencing mental health issues. The situation demands a comprehensive approach that includes programs that target improvements to mental health literacy among residents in areas affected by the disaster, the rebuilding of relationships between residents themselves, collaboration with recovery and support activities, and mental health support for people participating in recovery and support efforts. From a medium- to long-term perspective, suicide prevention is an important issue. Comprehensive suicide prevention efforts are being promoted in areas of Iwate Prefecture affected by the disaster. In suicide prevention programs, it is crucial to foster the development of human resources in the local community. In order to expand community supports, it is necessary to provide education on ways of supporting those affected by a disaster to local medical personnel, people staffing inquiry and consultation offices, and people in fields related to mental health. Suicide prevention and disaster relief efforts are both approaches that target people in difficulty, and they share commonalities in principles, systems, and approaches to human resource development. "Mental health first aid" is a program developed in Australia that defines methods of early intervention by non-professionals who encounter someone experiencing a mental health problem. The mental health first aid-based gatekeeper training program of the Japanese government's Cabinet Office, which the author's research team helped to develop, allows participants to obtain the knowledge and skills required of gatekeepers. In 2012, a module for disaster-affected areas was developed and added to the program, with additional content that provides program participants with the

  6. Role of the Vision Van, a mobile ophthalmic outpatient clinic, in the Great East Japan Earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki K

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Kenya Yuki,1 Toru Nakazawa,2 Daijiro Kurosaka,3 Tsunehiko Yoshida,4–6 Eduardo C Alfonso,7 Richard K Lee,7 Shigeru Takano,8 Kazuo Tsubota1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Miyagi, Japan; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Iwate Medical University, Iwate, Japan; 4The House of Representatives of Japan, Tokyo, Japan; 5Nagoya University Hospital, Aichi, Japan; 6Aichi Medical University Hospital, Aichi, Japan; 7Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA; 8Japan Ophthalmological Association, Tokyo, Japan Purpose: The Great East Japan Earthquake of March 11, 2011 triggered powerful tsunami waves off the northeastern Pacific coast of Japan that destroyed almost all of the built-up areas along the coast. The study reported here examined the role played by the Vision Van, a mobile outpatient ophthalmological clinic, in providing eye care to disaster evacuees. Methods: This was a retrospective case-series study of 2,070 victims (male: 732, female: 1,338 who visited the Vision Van. The subjects' medical records were examined retrospectively and analyzed in terms of age, sex, and date of visit to the Vision Van. Information regarding each patient's chief complaint, diagnosis, medication(s prescribed, and eyeglasses and contact lenses provided, was also examined. Results: The Vision Van was used to conduct medical examinations on 39 days between April 23 and June 29, 2011. The average number of subjects visiting the Vision Van each day was 53±31 (range: 7–135, with examinations carried out in Miyagi Prefecture and Iwate Prefecture. The most frequent complaint was a need for eye drops (871/2,070 [42.1%]. The second and third most frequent complaints, respectively, were the need for contact lenses (294/2,070 [14.2%] and eyeglasses (280/2,070 [13.5%]. The most frequent ocular disease diagnosis

  7. FEATURES AND PROBLEMS WITH HISTORICAL GREAT EARTHQUAKES AND TSUNAMIS IN THE MEDITERRANEAN SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lobkovsky L.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study examines the historical earthquakes and tsunamis of 21 July 365 and of 9 February 1948 in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Numerical simulations were performed for the tsunamis generated by underwater seismic sources in frames of the keyboard model, as well as for their propagation in the Mediterranean Sea basin. Similarly examined were three different types of seismic sources at the same localization near the Island of Crete for the earthquake of 21 July 365, and of two different types of seismic sources for the earthquake of 9 February 1948 near the Island of Karpathos. For each scenario, the tsunami wave field characteristics from the earthquake source to coastal zones in Mediterranean Sea’s basin were obtained and histograms were constructed showing the distribution of maximum tsunami wave heights, along a 5-m isobath. Comparison of tsunami wave characteristics for all the above mentioned scenarios, demonstrates that underwater earthquakes with magnitude M > 7 in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea basin, can generate waves with coastal runup up to 9 m.

  8. Good practice at Onagawa power plant during the 3.11 Great East Japan Earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakabayashi, Toshiaki

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the situation of Onagawa Nuclear Power Station after The off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake on March 11, 2011: (1) outline of situation of nuclear power plant Unit 1, 2 and 3, (2) assumption of push wave from the recognition of the tsunami due to large earthquakes that occurred in the past and tsunami countermeasures, and securement of cooling function at the time of push/pull wave based on emergency seawater pumps, (3) installation of handrail sticks on the central control room monitoring and control panel as a countermeasure from the lessons from the past earthquakes, (4) improvement of the seismic tolerance of facilities, and (5) earthquake resistant reinforcement of main office building and new construction of a seismic isolation office building. As response to emergency situation, the following are described: (1) unification of external response service at the head office, and the helicopter transportation of goods due to power plant needs as the power station support from the head office, and (2) as the countermeasures of on-site power plant, the duplication of information transmission route and the survey/examination and countermeasures by individual teams for each problem (especially, fire at Unit 1 and seawater infiltration at Unit 2). In additive, through the emergency response at the time of The off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake, this paper examined the required qualities of an on-site commander based on the experience stories of persons concerned. (A.O.)

  9. APPLICATION OF MOBILE LIDAR MAPPING FOR DAMAGE SURVEY AFTER GREAT EAST JAPAN EARTHQUAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ariyasu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A massive earthquake of magnitude 9.0 hit off Tohoku region, the east coast of the Japanese main land, on 11 March, 2011. It was one of the historically powerful earthquakes in the world. The earthquake triggered powerful tsunami and broad-scale subsidence, so that, residential areas and infrastructures were catastrophically damaged. After that, it is necessary to renew a new map for reconstruction, such as cadastral map. In the critical situation, Mobile LiDAR Mapping system is efficient to rapidly collect fine data at once and capture more details of terrain features than data from airborne. In this paper, we would like to introduce procured instruments in our company and implemented survey several areas after the event, and suggest how to survey for cadastral map by Mobile LiDAR Mapping System.

  10. Great earthquakes and slow slip events along the Sagami trough and outline of the Kanto Asperity Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, R.; Yamamoto, Y.; Sato, T.; Shishikura, M.; Ito, H.; Shinohara, M.; Kawamura, K.; Shibazaki, B.

    2010-12-01

    The Kanto region is one of the most densely populated urban areas in the world. Complicated plate configurations are due to T-T-T type triple junction, island arc-island arc collision zone, and very shallow angle between axis of the Sagami trough and subducting direction. Great earthquakes along the Sagami trough have repeatedly occurred. The 1703 Genroku and 1923 (Taisho) Kanto earthquakes caused severe damages in the Tokyo metropolitan area. Intriguingly slow slip events have also repeatedly occurred in an area adjacent to the asperities of the great earthquakes, off Boso peninsula (e.g., Ozawa et al 2007). In the cases of the Nankai and Cascadia subduction zones, slow slip events occur at deeper levels than the asperity, in a transition zone between the asperity and a region of steady slip. In contrast, slow slip events in the Kanto region have occurred at relatively shallow depths, at the same level as the asperity, raising the possibility of friction controlled by different conditions to those (temperature and pressure) encountered at Nankai and Cascadia. We focus on three different types of seismic events occurring repeatedly at the almost same depth of the seismogenic zone along the Sagami trough (5-20 km) (1) The 1923 M~7.9 Taisho earthquake, located in Sagami Bay. Maximum slip is about 6 m, the recurrence interval is 200-400 yr, and the coupling rate is 80-100% (“coupling rates” = “slip amounts during earthquakes or slow-slip events” / [“rate of motion of the Philippine Sea Plate” - “recurrence interval”]) . (2) The 1703 M~8.2 Genroku earthquake, located in Sagami Bay, but also extending to the southern part of Boso Peninsula. Maximum slip is 15-20 m, the recurrence interval is ~2000 yr, and the coupling rate at the southern part of the Boso Peninsula is 10-30%. (3) Boso slow-slip events, located southeast of Boso Peninsula. Maximum slip is 15-20 cm over ~10 days, the recurrence interval is 5-6 yr, and the coupling rate is 70

  11. Damage of the Unit 1 reactor building overhead bridge crane at Onagawa Nuclear Power Station caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake and its repair works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugamata, Norihiko

    2014-01-01

    The driving shaft bearings of the Unit 1 overhead bridge crane were damaged by the Great East Japan Earthquake at Onagawa Nuclear Power Station. The situation, investigation and repair works of the bearing failure are introduced in this paper. (author)

  12. Postseismic deformation following the 2010 Mw 8.8 Maule and 2014 Mw 8.1 Pisagua megathrust earthquakes in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, J. R.; Saunders, A.; Qiu, Q.; Foster, J. H.; Gomez, D.; Bevis, M. G.; Smalley, R., Jr.; Cimbaro, S.; Lenzano, L. E.; Barón, J.; Baez, J. C.; Echalar, A.; Avery, J.; Wright, T. J.

    2017-12-01

    We use a large regional network of continuous GPS sites to investigate postseismic deformation following the Mw 8.8 Maule and Mw 8.1 Pisagua earthquakes in Chile. Geodetic observations of surface displacements associated with megathrust earthquakes aid our understanding of the subduction zone earthquake cycle including postseismic processes such as afterslip and viscoelastic relaxation. The observations also help place constraints on the rheology and structure of the crust and upper mantle. We first empirically model the data and find that, while single-term logarithmic functions adequately fit the postseismic timeseries, they do a poor job of characterizing the rapid displacements in the days to weeks following the earthquakes. Combined exponential-logarithmic functions better capture the inferred near-field transition between afterslip and viscous relaxation, however displacements are best fit by three-term exponential functions with characteristic decay times of 15, 250, and 1500 days. Viscoelastic modeling of the velocity field and timeseries following the Maule earthquake suggests that the rheology is complex but is consistent with a 100-km-thick asthenosphere channel of viscosity 1018 Pa s sandwiched between a 40-km-thick elastic lid and a strong viscoelastic upper mantle. Variations in lid thickness of up to 40 km may be present and in some locations rapid deformation within the first months to years following the Maule event requires an even lower effective viscosity or a significant contribution from afterslip. We investigate this further by jointly inverting the GPS data for the time evolution of afterslip and viscous flow in the mantle wedge surrounding the Maule event.

  13. Tohoku Earthquake-associated Marine Sciences: the research project for the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitazato, Hiroshi; Kijima, Akihiro; Kogure, Kazuhiro; Hara, Motoyuki; Nagata, Toshi; Fujikura, Kasunori; Sonoda, Akira

    2015-04-01

    At 2:46 pm on March 11, 2011, a huge earthquake (M 9.0) occurred off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Region, Japan. The subsequent Tsunamis hit the coasts and seriously damaged fishing villages and towns in the area. Tohoku Region faces Northwestern Pacific where is one of the most productive oceans on the Earth. Then, what happened to the marine ecosystems in the Tohoku Region? What happened to the fishery bioresources? What is the mechanism to sustain high productivity in the Region? Is the ecosystem restoring after 4 years? What is required for the recovery of fisheries in the area? In order to answer these questions, the 10 years research project, TEAMS (Tohoku Ecosystem-Associated Marine Sciences) was launched in January 2012 funded by MEXT (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan) to conduct comprehensive research on the area. Tohoku University (TU), Atmosphere and Ocean Research Institute, the University of Tokyo (AORIUT), Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC), and 25 other institutions are conducting research for this project in close association with local government and fishery people. Currently, approximately 400 people (200 scientists, 160 students and others) covering physical, chemical, biological, and geological sciences including modeling take part in the project from all over Japan. MEXT also supports TEAMS by constructing R/V Shinsei Maru in 2013 for the oceanic investigations in the region. In this report, the overview of the ecosystem before and after the disaster, major findings and challenges of TEAMS will be described.

  14. Alterations in physique among young children after the Great East Japan Earthquake: Results from a nationwide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuya, Masahiro; Matsubara, Hiroko; Ishikuro, Mami; Sato, Yuki; Obara, Taku; Metoki, Hirohito; Isojima, Tsuyoshi; Yokoya, Susumu; Kato, Noriko; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Chida, Shoichi; Ono, Atsushi; Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Yokomichi, Hiroshi; Yamagata, Zentaro; Tanaka, Soichiro; Kure, Shigeo; Kuriyama, Shinichi

    2017-10-01

    Data for earthquake-related alterations in physique among young children in developed countries is lacking. The Great East Japan Earthquake caused severe damage in Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima Prefectures in northeastern Japan. We retrospectively obtained anthropometric measurements in nursery school from 40,046 (cohort 1, historical control) and 53,492 (cohort 2) children aged 3.5-4.5 years without overweight in October 2008, and in October 2010, respectively. At the time of the earthquake in March, 2011, children in cohort 1 had already graduated from nursery school; however, children in cohort 2 were still enrolled in nursery school at this time. We compared the onset of overweight at 1 year after the baseline between children enrolled in their school located in one of the three target prefectures versus those in other prefectures using a logistic regression model, with adjustment for sex, age, history of disease, and obesity index at baseline. Overweight was defined as an obesity index of >+15%, which was calculated as (weight minus sex- and height-specific standard weight)/sex- and height-specific standard weight. The odds ratio (OR) for the onset of overweight in the three target prefectures was significant in cohort 2 (OR 1.25; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-1.55) but not in cohort 1. When the two cohort were pooled (n = 93,538), the OR of the interaction term for school location × cohort was significant (OR 1.56; 95% CI, 1.09-2.23). Incident overweight in young children was significantly more common in the three prefectures affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake than in other prefectures after the disaster. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Impact of the great east Japan earthquake on the body mass index of preschool children: a nationwide nursery school survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokomichi, Hiroshi; Zheng, Wei; Matsubara, Hiroko; Ishikuro, Mami; Kikuya, Masahiro; Isojima, Tsuyoshi; Yokoya, Susumu; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Kato, Noriko; Chida, Shoichi; Ono, Atsushi; Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Tanaka, Soichiro; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Kure, Shigeo; Yamagata, Zentaro

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the impact of the 2011 great east Japan earthquake on body mass index (BMI) of preschool children. Design Retrospective cohort study and ecological study. Setting Affected prefectures (Fukushima, Miyagi and Iwate) and unaffected prefectures in northeast Japan. Participants The cohort study assessed 2033 and 1707 boys and 1909 and 1658 girls in 3 affected prefectures and unaffected prefectures, respectively, all aged 3–4 years at the time of the earthquake. The ecological study examined random samples of schoolchildren from the affected prefectures. Primary and secondary outcome measures The cohort study compared postdisaster changes in BMIs and the prevalence of overweight and obese children. The ecological study evaluated postdisaster changes in the prevalence of overweight children. Results 1 month after the earthquake, significantly increased BMIs were observed among girls (+0.087 kg/m2 vs unaffected prefectures) in Fukushima and among boys and girls (+0.165 and +0.124 kg/m2, respectively vs unaffected prefectures) in Iwate. 19 months after the earthquake, significantly increased BMIs were detected among boys and girls (+0.137 and +0.200 kg/m2, respectively vs unaffected prefectures) in Fukushima, whereas significantly decreased BMIs were observed among boys and girls (−0.218 and −0.082 kg/m2, respectively vs unaffected prefectures) in Miyagi. 1 month after the earthquake, Fukushima, Miyagi and Iwate had a slightly increased prevalence of overweight boys, whereas Fukushima had a slightly decreased prevalence of overweight girls, compared with the unaffected prefectures. The ecological study detected increases in the prevalence of overweight boys and girls in Fukushima who were 6–11 and 6–10 years of age, respectively. Conclusions These results suggest that in the affected prefectures, preschool children gained weight immediately after the earthquake. The long-term impact of the earthquake on early childhood

  16. Impact of the great east Japan earthquake on the body mass index of preschool children: a nationwide nursery school survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokomichi, Hiroshi; Zheng, Wei; Matsubara, Hiroko; Ishikuro, Mami; Kikuya, Masahiro; Isojima, Tsuyoshi; Yokoya, Susumu; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Kato, Noriko; Chida, Shoichi; Ono, Atsushi; Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Tanaka, Soichiro; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Kure, Shigeo; Yamagata, Zentaro

    2016-04-07

    To evaluate the impact of the 2011 great east Japan earthquake on body mass index (BMI) of preschool children. Retrospective cohort study and ecological study. Affected prefectures (Fukushima, Miyagi and Iwate) and unaffected prefectures in northeast Japan. The cohort study assessed 2033 and 1707 boys and 1909 and 1658 girls in 3 affected prefectures and unaffected prefectures, respectively, all aged 3-4 years at the time of the earthquake. The ecological study examined random samples of schoolchildren from the affected prefectures. The cohort study compared postdisaster changes in BMIs and the prevalence of overweight and obese children. The ecological study evaluated postdisaster changes in the prevalence of overweight children. 1 month after the earthquake, significantly increased BMIs were observed among girls (+0.087 kg/m(2) vs unaffected prefectures) in Fukushima and among boys and girls (+0.165 and +0.124 kg/m(2), respectively vs unaffected prefectures) in Iwate. 19 months after the earthquake, significantly increased BMIs were detected among boys and girls (+0.137 and +0.200 kg/m(2), respectively vs unaffected prefectures) in Fukushima, whereas significantly decreased BMIs were observed among boys and girls (-0.218 and -0.082 kg/m(2), respectively vs unaffected prefectures) in Miyagi. 1 month after the earthquake, Fukushima, Miyagi and Iwate had a slightly increased prevalence of overweight boys, whereas Fukushima had a slightly decreased prevalence of overweight girls, compared with the unaffected prefectures. The ecological study detected increases in the prevalence of overweight boys and girls in Fukushima who were 6-11 and 6-10 years of age, respectively. These results suggest that in the affected prefectures, preschool children gained weight immediately after the earthquake. The long-term impact of the earthquake on early childhood growth was more variable among the affected prefectures, possibly as a result of different speeds of

  17. The text of the Agreement of 22 September 1982 between Chile and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the supply of nuclear material from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-07-01

    The full text of the agreement of 22 September 1982 between Chile and the Agency for the application of safeguards to nuclear material supplied from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is presented

  18. Uplift and Subsidence Associated with the Great Aceh-Andaman Earthquake of 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The magnitude 9.2 Indian Ocean earthquake of December 26, 2004, produced broad regions of uplift and subsidence. In order to define the lateral extent and the downdip limit of rupture, scientists from Caltech, Pasadena, Calif.; NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.; Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, Calif.; the U.S. Geological Survey, Pasadena, Calif.; and the Research Center for Geotechnology, Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Bandung, Indonesia; first needed to define the pivot line separating those regions. Interpretation of satellite imagery and a tidal model were one of the key tools used to do this. These pre-Sumatra earthquake (a) and post-Sumatra earthquake (b) images of North Sentinel Island in the Indian Ocean, acquired from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument on NASA's Terra spacecraft, show emergence of the coral reef surrounding the island following the earthquake. The tide was 30 plus or minus 14 centimeters lower in the pre-earthquake image (acquired November 21, 2000) than in the post-earthquake image (acquired February 20, 2005), requiring a minimum of 30 centimeters of uplift at this locality. Observations from an Indian Coast Guard helicopter on the northwest coast of the island suggest that the actual uplift is on the order of 1 to 2 meters at this site. In figures (c) and (d), pre-earthquake and post-earthquake ASTER images of a small island off the northwest coast of Rutland Island, 38 kilometers east of North Sentinel Island, show submergence of the coral reef surrounding the island. The tide was higher in the pre-earthquake image (acquired January 1, 2004) than in the post-earthquake image (acquired February 4, 2005), requiring subsidence at this locality. The pivot line must run between North Sentinel and Rutland islands. Note that the scale for the North Sentinel Island images differs from that for the Rutland Island images. The tidal model used for this study was

  19. Charles Darwin's earthquake reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galiev, Shamil

    2010-05-01

    As it is the 200th anniversary of Darwin's birth, 2009 has also been marked as 170 years since the publication of his book Journal of Researches. During the voyage Darwin landed at Valdivia and Concepcion, Chile, just before, during, and after a great earthquake, which demolished hundreds of buildings, killing and injuring many people. Land was waved, lifted, and cracked, volcanoes awoke and giant ocean waves attacked the coast. Darwin was the first geologist to observe and describe the effects of the great earthquake during and immediately after. These effects sometimes repeated during severe earthquakes; but great earthquakes, like Chile 1835, and giant earthquakes, like Chile 1960, are rare and remain completely unpredictable. This is one of the few areas of science, where experts remain largely in the dark. Darwin suggested that the effects were a result of ‘ …the rending of strata, at a point not very deep below the surface of the earth…' and ‘…when the crust yields to the tension, caused by its gradual elevation, there is a jar at the moment of rupture, and a greater movement...'. Darwin formulated big ideas about the earth evolution and its dynamics. These ideas set the tone for the tectonic plate theory to come. However, the plate tectonics does not completely explain why earthquakes occur within plates. Darwin emphasised that there are different kinds of earthquakes ‘...I confine the foregoing observations to the earthquakes on the coast of South America, or to similar ones, which seem generally to have been accompanied by elevation of the land. But, as we know that subsidence has gone on in other quarters of the world, fissures must there have been formed, and therefore earthquakes...' (we cite the Darwin's sentences following researchspace. auckland. ac. nz/handle/2292/4474). These thoughts agree with results of the last publications (see Nature 461, 870-872; 636-639 and 462, 42-43; 87-89). About 200 years ago Darwin gave oneself airs by the

  20. Fukushima after the Great East Japan Earthquake: lessons for developing responsive and resilient health systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuma, Shingo; Ahmed, Shahira; Goto, Rei; Inui, Thomas S; Atun, Rifat; Fukuhara, Shunichi

    2017-01-01

    Background On 11 March 2011, the Great East Japan Earthquake, followed by a tsunami and nuclear–reactor meltdowns, produced one of the most severe disasters in the history of Japan. The adverse impact of this ‘triple disaster’ on the health of local populations and the health system was substantial. In this study we examine population–level health indicator changes that accompanied the disaster, and discuss options for re–designing Fukushima’s health system, and by extension that of Japan, to enhance its responsiveness and resilience to current and future shocks. Methods We used country–level (Japan–average) or prefecture–level data (2005–2014) available from the portal site of Official Statistics of Japan for Fukushima, Miyagi, and Iwate, the prefectures that were most affected by the disaster, to compare trends before (2005–2010) and after (2011–2014) the ‘disaster’. We made time–trend line plots to describe changes over time in age–adjusted cause–specific mortality rates in each prefecture. Findings All three prefectures, and in particular Fukushima, had lower socio–economic indicators, an older population, lower productivity and gross domestic product per capita, and less higher–level industry than the Japan average. All three prefectures were ‘medically underserved’, with fewer physicians, nurses, ambulance calls and clinics per 100 000 residents than the Japan average. Even before the disaster, age–adjusted all–cause mortality in Fukushima was in general higher than the national rates. After the triple disaster we found that the mortality rate due to myocardial infarction increased substantially in Fukushima while it decreased nationwide. Compared to Japan average, spikes in mortality due to lung disease (all three prefectures), stroke (Iwate and Miyagi), and all–cause mortality (Miyagi and Fukushima) were also observed post–disaster. The cause–specific mortality rate from cancer followed similar trends in

  1. The great East Japan earthquake of March 11, 2011, from the vantage point of blood banking and transfusion medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nollet, Kenneth E; Ohto, Hitoshi; Yasuda, Hiroyasu; Hasegawa, Arifumi

    2013-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake of March 11, 2011, and subsequent tsunami took nearly 20 000 lives in Tohoku, the northeastern part of Japan's main island. Most victims were either carried away by the tsunami or drowned. The ability to collect blood was disrupted on the Pacific coast of Tohoku. Inland areas were less affected, but allogeneic blood collected in Tohoku is tested at the Miyagi Red Cross Blood Center (Miyagi Center) in the coastal city of Sendai. Miyagi Center was damaged and could not test for 2 months. The aims of this study are as follows: (1) to assess transfusion practice at 8 disaster response hospitals in Tohoku's Fukushima Prefecture, for equal intervals before and after March 11, 2011; (2) to report activities related to blood collection and distribution in response to the disaster; and (3) to describe the Great East Japan Earthquake in the context of other disasters. Data were collected through a survey of transfusion services at 8 major disaster response hospitals, communication at transfusion conferences, and literature review. Transfused patients and units transfused were about 70% and 60% of normal in the surveyed hospitals because this was a disaster of mass casualty rather than mass injury, and patients requiring chronic care were evacuated out. A nationally coordinated effort allowed excess blood collected outside Tohoku to be transported in, despite infrastructure damage. Japan's national system of blood collection and distribution responded effectively to local needs after the Great East Japan Earthquake. Disasters such as Japan's 3.11 should guide discourse about emergency preparedness and centralization of services. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Survey of damage to 602 MR scanners after the Great East Japan Earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, Toshiharu; Yamaguchi-Sekino, Sachiko; Tsuchihashi, Toshio

    2013-01-01

    An earthquake of 9.0 magnitude, the largest in modern Japanese history, struck east Japan on March 11, 2011. We investigated hazards and observations related to magnetic resonance (MR) scanners in this earthquake to evaluate potential risks and consider further prevention or minimization of damage from and injury of patients in such large earthquakes. The investigation team funded by MHLW sent questionnaires to the 984 facilities with installed MR scanners in the 7 prefectures of east Japan (Iwate, Miyagi, Fukushima, Ibaraki, Chiba, Tokyo, Saitama) and collected 458 responses (46.6%) with information on 602 MR scanners (144 units≤0.5 tesla; 31 one-T units; 371 1.5-T units; and 56 units≥3 T). Significant differences in damage were observed between seismic scale 5 and 6 (χ 2 test, P<0.001 for all items of damage checked). The frequencies of typical damage were displacement of magnets (12.4%), failure of the chiller or air conditioning (9.6%), rapid decrease in liquid helium (8.4%), damage to magnet enclosure and its equipment (7.6%), damage to shielding of the MR scanner room (6.1%), damage to the quench duct (4.5%), breakage of devices anchoring system cabinets (4.4%), damage to the magnet base (3.9%), and flying of metal components (1.5%). Twelve facilities reported flooding by the subsequent tsunami, and quench was confirmed in 19 facilities. No fire damage was reported. It was confirmed that no one was severely injured in MR scanners, and base isolation of the building was very useful in completely preventing damage even at seismic scale 7. In the future, training for evacuation and establishment of a standard protocol for emergency shutdown of MR scanners, onsite checking by MR operators, and emergency power plant equipment to maintain chiller for MR scanners will further ensure MR safety in an earthquake. (author)

  3. SOCIETAL IMPLICATIONS OF GREAT HANSHIN-AWAJI EARTHQUAKE DISASTER OF JANUARY 17,1995

    OpenAIRE

    Haruo, HAYASHI; Yoshiaki, KAWATA; Associate Professor, Research Center for Disaster Reduction Systems, Disaster Prevention Research Institute, Kyoto University; Professor, Research Center for Disaster Reduction Systems, Disaster Prevention Research Institute, Kyoto University

    1995-01-01

    A brief overview of what happened during the first month after the Hyogoken-nambu earthquake of January 17,1995 is given in terms both of the emergency responses initiated and the societal impact. For emergency responses, formal organization responses are discussed in reference to "Saigai taisaku kihon-ho (the Fundamental Disaster Management Law)" and "Saigai kyujyo-ho (the Disaster Relief Law)". Using the Kobe Fire Department as an example, search and rescue efforts as well as fire suppressi...

  4. Societal implications of great Hanshin-awaji earthquake disaster of January 17, 1995

    OpenAIRE

    KAWATA, Yoshiaki; HAYASHI, Haruo

    1995-01-01

    A brief overview of what happened during the first month after the Hyogoken-nambu earthquake of January 17, 1995 is given in terms both of the emergency responses initiated and the societal impact. For emergency responses, formal organization responses are discussed in reference to "Saigai taisaku kihon-ho (the Fundamental Disaster Management Law)" and "Saigai kyujyo-ho (the Disaster Relief Law)". Using the Kobe Fire Department as an example, search and rescue efforts as well as fire suppress...

  5. REVIEW ARTICLE: A comparison of site response techniques using earthquake data and ambient seismic noise analysis in the large urban areas of Santiago de Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilz, Marco; Parolai, Stefano; Leyton, Felipe; Campos, Jaime; Zschau, Jochen

    2009-08-01

    Situated in an active tectonic region, Santiago de Chile, the country's capital with more than six million inhabitants, faces tremendous earthquake risk. Macroseismic data for the 1985 Valparaiso event show large variations in the distribution of damage to buildings within short distances, indicating strong effects of local sediments on ground motion. Therefore, a temporary seismic network was installed in the urban area for recording earthquake activity and a study was carried out aiming to estimate site amplification derived from horizontal-to-vertical (H/V) spectral ratios from earthquake data (EHV) and ambient noise (NHV), as well as using the standard spectral ratio (SSR) technique with a nearby reference station located on igneous rock. The results lead to the following conclusions: (1) The analysis of earthquake data shows significant dependence on the local geological structure with respect to amplitude and duration. (2) An amplification of ground motion at frequencies higher than the fundamental one can be found. This amplification would not be found when looking at NHV ratios alone. (3) The analysis of NHV spectral ratios shows that they can only provide a lower bound in amplitude for site amplification. (4) P-wave site responses always show lower amplitudes than those derived by S waves, and sometimes even fail to provide some frequencies of amplification. (5) No variability in terms of time and amplitude is observed in the analysis of the H/V ratio of noise. (6) Due to the geological conditions in some parts of the investigated area, the fundamental resonance frequency of a site is difficult to estimate following standard criteria proposed by the SESAME consortium, suggesting that these are too restrictive under certain circumstances.

  6. The Chiloé Mw 7.6 earthquake of 2016 December 25 in Southern Chile and its relation to the Mw 9.5 1960 Valdivia earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Dietrich; Ruiz, Javier; Carrasco, Sebastián; Manríquez, Paula

    2018-04-01

    On 2016 December 25, an Mw 7.6 earthquake broke a portion of the Southern Chilean subduction zone south of Chiloé Island, located in the central part of the Mw 9.5 1960 Valdivia earthquake. This region is characterized by repeated earthquakes in 1960 and historical times with very sparse interseismic activity due to the subduction of a young (˜15 Ma), and therefore hot, oceanic plate. We estimate the coseismic slip distribution based on a kinematic finite-fault source model, and through joint inversion of teleseismic body waves and strong motion data. The coseismic slip model yields a total seismic moment of 3.94 × 1020 N.m that occurred over ˜30 s, with the rupture propagating mainly downdip, reaching a peak slip of ˜4.2 m. Regional moment tensor inversion of stronger aftershocks reveals thrust type faulting at depths of the plate interface. The fore- and aftershock seismicity is mostly related to the subduction interface with sparse seismicity in the overriding crust. The 2016 Chiloé event broke a region with increased locking and most likely broke an asperity of the 1960 earthquake. The updip limit of the main event, aftershocks, foreshocks and interseismic activity are spatially similar, located ˜15 km offshore and parallel to Chiloé Islands west coast. The coseismic slip model of the 2016 Chiloé earthquake suggests a peak slip of 4.2 m that locally exceeds the 3.38 m slip deficit that has accumulated since 1960. Therefore, the 2016 Chiloé earthquake possibly released strain that has built up prior to the 1960 Valdivia earthquake.

  7. History of the great Kanto earthquakes inferred from the ages of Holocene marine terraces revealed by a comprehensive drilling survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komori, Junki; Shishikura, Masanobu; Ando, Ryosuke; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Miyairi, Yosuke

    2017-08-01

    We measured the emergence ages of four marine terraces in the Chikura lowland, which lies to the southeast of the Boso Peninsula, in eastern Japan, to reevaluate the history of the great earthquake occurrences along the Sagami Trough over the past 10,000 years. The dates of the marine terraces are measured via radiocarbon dating of shell fossils obtained from the marine deposits. The sampling method employed in this study collects core samples using a dense and systematic drilling survey, which increased the reliability when correlating shell fossils with marine terraces. In addition, radiocarbon dating was performed with accelerator mass spectrometry, which produces more highly accurate measurements than those measured in previous studies. Moreover, we explored the surface profiles of the terraces with detailed digital elevation model (DEM) data obtained using LiDAR. The maximum emergence ages of the marine terraces were dated at 6300 cal yBP, 3000 cal yBP, and 2200 cal yBP from the top terrace excepting the lowest terrace (which was estimated at AD1703). In addition, another previously unrecognized terrace was detected between the highest and the second terrace in both the dating and the geomorphological analyses and was dated at 5800 cal yBP. The newly obtained ages are nearly a thousand of years younger than previously estimated ages; consequently, the intervals of the great earthquakes that occurred along the Sagami Trough are estimated to be much shorter and more varied than those of previous estimations. This result revises the data used in the current assessment of the probabilities of earthquakes along the Sagami Trough, which could devastate the Tokyo metropolitan area. Furthermore, it demonstrates that the current approach could be a powerful tool to increase the accuracy of assessments of the other areas with depositional marine terraces.

  8. Reviewing information support during the Great East Japan Earthquake disaster : From the perspective of a hospital library that received support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terasawa, Motoko

    The Great East Japan Earthquake of March 11, 2011 caused extensive damage over a widespread area. Our hospital library, which is located in the affected area, was no exception. A large collection of books was lost, and some web content was inaccessible due to damage to the network environment. This greatly hindered our efforts to continue providing post-disaster medical information services. Information support, such as free access to databases, journals, and other online content related to the disaster areas, helped us immensely during this time. We were fortunate to have the cooperation of various medical employees and library members via social networks, such as twitter, during the process of attaining this information support.

  9. Macrofaunal community structure in Bahía Concepción (Chile) before and after the 8.8 Mw Maule mega-earthquake and tsunami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárcamo, Paula J; Hernández-Miranda, Eduardo; Veas, Rodrigo; Quiñones, Renato A

    2017-09-01

    Faunal assemblages of subtidal sedimentary environments are key components of coastal ecosystems. Benthic communities inhabiting the coastal zone near urban centers in Concepción Bay (Chile) have been described as highly disturbed (i.e. impoverished in diversity and species richness). This is due to the frequent presence of hypoxic conditions at the bottom due to the intrusion of low oxygen Equatorial Subsurface Water, high natural productivity and the high load of organic matter generated by several anthropogenic activities. A mega-earthquake (8.8 Mw) and subsequent tsunami occurred on the coast of south-central Chile on February 27, 2010 (27F), heavily impacting Concepción Bay, which is located 30 km south of the epicenter. The objectives of the present study are: (i) to evaluate the effect produced by the mega-earthquake and tsunami on the benthic community, and (ii) to assess dissimilarity in macrofauna composition and abundance in Concepción Bay at an inter-decadal time scale based on a comparison between our sampling conducted between 2010 and 2013 and information published since 1969. Our results show that the benthic macrofauna of Concepción Bay was disturbed by the 27F (i.e. high community dissimilarity in 2010). Changes in community structure were observed at an inter-annual scale (i.e. diminished community dissimilarity in 2013), suggesting a recovery post-27F. At an inter-decadal scale, community structure post-27F was dissimilar to the structure described for the 1980's and 1990's but more similar to that reported for 1969. The reducing conditions of the sediments due to the high input of organic matter that took place in the 1980's and 1990's may explain this dissimilarity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Paleoearthquake rupture behavior and recurrence of great earthquakes along the Haiyuan fault, northwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Peizhen; MIN Wei; DENG Qidong; MAO Fengying

    2005-01-01

    The Haiyuan fault is a major seismogenic fault in north-central China where the1920 Haiyuan earthquake of magnitude 8.5 occurred, resulting in more than 220000 deaths. The fault zone can be divided into three segments based on their geometric patterns and associated geomorphology. To study paleoseismology and recurrent history of devastating earthquakes along the fault, we dug 17 trenches along different segments of the fault zone. Although only 10of them allow the paleoearthquake event to be dated, together with the 8 trenches dug previously they still provide adequate information that enables us to capture major paleoearthquakes occurring along the fault during the past geological time. We discovered 3 events along the eastern segment during the past 14000 a, 7 events along the middle segment during the past 9000 a, and 6 events along the western segment during the past 10000 a. These events clearly depict two temporal clusters. The first cluster occurs from 4600 to 6400 a, and the second occurs from 1000to 2800 a, approximately. Each cluster lasts about 2000 a. Time period between these two clusters is also about 2000 a. Based on fault geometry, segmentation pattern, and paleoearthquake events along the Haiyuan fault we can identify three scales of earthquake rupture: rupture of one segment, cascade rupture of two segments, and cascade rupture of entire fault (three segments).Interactions of slip patches on the surface of the fault may cause rupture on one patch or ruptures of more than two to three patchs to form the complex patterns of cascade rupture events.

  11. Way of disposal of debris left after Great Tohoku Earthquake by using port

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Takeshi; Hayashi, Tomoya; Sugeno, Jinkatsu

    2012-01-01

    In order to dispose debris generated by the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake Tsunami, we have thought to break pieces of wood and to use it as fuel. And, we have thought to construct waste repository for radioactive waste and dump radioactive waste into the repository. We estimated cost for the projects and CO2 emission associated with the projects. The results showed that to use pieces of wood using as fuel at cement factory cost and emitted CO2 less than incineration disposal as waste. And, sea repository case cost and emitted CO2 less than land repository case. (author)

  12. Coseismic and postseismic deformation of the great 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Kristin Leigh Hellem

    The 26 December 2004 M9.2 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake (SAE) induced a devastating tsunami when it ruptured over 1300 km of the boundary between the Indo-Australian plate and Burma microplate (Vigny et al., 2005; Bilek, 2007). Three months later on 28 March 2005, the M8.7 Nias earthquake (NE) ruptured over 400 km along the same trench overlapping and progressing to the south of the M9.2 rupture (Banerjee et al., 2007). The spatial and temporal proximity of these two earthquakes suggests that the SAE mechanically influenced the timing of the NE. I analyze the coseismic and postseismic deformation, stress, and pore pressure of the 2004 SAE using 3D finite element models (FEMs) in order to determine the mechanical coupling of the SAE and NE. The motivation for using FEMs is two-fold. First, FEMs allow me to honor the geologic structure of the Sumatra-Andaman subduction zone, and second, FEMs simulate the mechanical behavior of quasi-static coseismic and postseismic deformation systems (e.g., elastic, poroelastic, and viscoelastic materials). The results of my study include: (1) Coseismic slip distributions are incredibly sensitive to the distribution of material properties (Masterlark and Hughes, 2008), (2) Slip models derived from tsunami wave heights do not match slip models derived from GPS data (Hughes and Masterlark, 2008), (3) These FEMs predict postseismic poroelastic deformation and viscoelastic deformation simultaneously (Masterlark and Hughes, 2008), (4) Pore pressure changes induced by the SAE triggered the NE via fluid flow in the subducting oceanic crust and caused the NE to occur 7 years ahead of interseismic strain accumulation predictions (Hughes et al., 2010; Hughes et al., 2011), (5) Global Conductance Matrices provide a way to smooth an underdetermined FEM for arbitrarily irregular surfaces, and (6) FEMs are capable and desired to model subduction zone deformation built around the complexity of a subducting slab which is usually ignored in geodetic

  13. Mega-city and great earthquake distributions: the search of basic links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Boris; Sasorova, Elena; Domanski, Andrej

    2013-04-01

    The ever-increasing population density in large metropolitan cities near major active faults (e.g. Tokyo, Lisbon, San-Francisco, et al.) and recent catastrophic earthquakes in Japan, Indonesia and Haiti (loss of life more 500000), highlight the need for searching of causal relationships between distributions of earthquake epicenters and mega-cities at the Earth [1]. The latitudinal distribution of mega-cities calculated with using Internet data base, discovers a curious peculiarity: the density of large city numbers, related to 10-degree latitude interval, demonstrates two maximums in middle latitudes (±30-40°) on both sides of the equator. These maximums are separated by clean local minimum near equator, and such objects (mega-cities) are practically absent in the high latitudes. In the last two decades, it was shown [2, 3, 4] that a seismic activity of the Earth is described by the similar bimodal latitudinal distribution. The similarity between bimodal distributions for geophysical phenomena and mega-city locations attracts common attention. The peak values in the both distributions (near ±35°) correspond to location of well-known "critical latitudes" at the planet. These latitudes were determined [5], as the lines of intersection of a sphere and a spheroid of equal volume (±35°15'52″). Increasing of the angular velocity of a celestial body rotation leads to growth of oblateness of planet, and vice versa, the oblateness is decreasing with reducing of velocity of rotation. So, well-known effect of the Earth rotation instability leads to small pulsations of the geoid. In the critical latitudes, the geoid radius-vector is equal to the radius of sphere. The zones of near critical latitudes are characterized by high density of faults in the Earth crust and manifestation of some geological peculiarities (hot spot distribution, large ore deposit distribution, et al.). The active faults existence has led to an emanation of depth fluids, which created the good

  14. Pre-, Co-, and Post-Seismic Fault Slip in the Northern Chile Seismic Gap Associated with the April 1, 2014 (Mw 8.2) Pisagua Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, M.; Duputel, Z.; Fielding, E. J.; Galetzka, J.; Genrich, J. F.; Jiang, J.; Jolivet, R.; Kanamori, H.; Moore, A. W.; Ortega Culaciati, F. H.; Owen, S. E.; Riel, B. V.; Rivera, L. A.; Carrizo, D.; Cotte, N.; Jara, J.; Klotz, J.; Norabuena, E. O.; Ortega, I.; Socquet, A.; Samsonov, S. V.; Valderas Bermejo, M.

    2014-12-01

    The April 1, 2014 (Mw 8.2) Pisagua Earthquake occurred in Northern Chile, within a long recognized seismic gap in the Central Andean region that last experienced major megathrust events in 1868 and 1877. We built a continuous GPS network starting in 2005, with the ultimate goal of understanding the kinematics and dynamics of this portion of the subduction zone. Using observations from this network, as well as others in the region, combined with InSAR, seismic and tsunami observations, we obtain estimates of inter-seismic, co-seismic and initial post-seismic fault slip using an internally consistent Bayesian unregularized approach. We evaluate the extent of spatial overlap between regions of fault slip during this different time periods. Of particular interest to this event is the extent and nature of any geodetic evidence for transient slow fault slip preceding the Pisagua Earthquake mainshock. To this end, we compare daily and high rate GPS solutions, the former of which shows long period transient motion started about 15 days before the mainshock and with maximum registered amplitude of 14.2 +/- 2 [mm] at site PSGA. Contrary to published findings, we find that pre-seismic deformation seen by the GPS network can be explained as coseismic motion associated with the multiple foreshocks.

  15. [My work giving university-funded lectures launched after Great East Japan Earthquake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisamura, Masaki

    2014-01-01

    On March 11, 2011, a mega earthquake shook the eastern part of Japan, recording a magnitude of 9.0. I have written about my work experience at the university hospital-funded lectures, set up to provide support in the disaster areas. When the lecture was launched, the university did not give official approval to it. For me, it was almost like I had just landed a job at a hospital in a rural area. Now, there are a number of funded lectures mainly in and around disaster-hit areas. I expect that these lectures will narrow down their objectives so that people involved in them will be able to end their tenure happily.

  16. Premenstrual symptoms and posttraumatic stress disorder in Japanese high school students 9 months after the great East-Japan earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Takashi; Tadakawa, Mari; Koga, Shoko; Nagase, Satoru; Yaegashi, Nobuo

    2013-07-01

    On March 11, 2011, the Great East-Japan Earthquake occurred and a massive tsunami hit the northeastern coast of Japan. Catastrophic disasters such as earthquakes and war cause tremendous damage, not only physically but also mentally. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder that occurs in the aftermath of a traumatic event. Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a cluster of psychological and somatic symptoms that are limited to the late luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is considered a severe form of PMS. To determine the relationship between premenstrual symptoms and natural disaster-induced PTSD among Japanese adolescent girls, we conducted a cross-sectional study. Overall, 1489 high school students who belong to two high schools in Sendai, the largest city in northeastern Japan, were assessed 9 months after the earthquake. These schools are located inland, far from the seashore, and were not damaged by the tsunami. Premenstrual symptoms were assessed using the Premenstrual Symptoms Questionnaire, and PTSD symptoms were assessed using the Japanese-language version of Impact of Event Scale-Revised, which is a widely used self-assessment questionnaire about PTSD symptoms. We analyzed the data of 1,180 girls who completed the questionnaires and 118 girls (10.0%) were classified as having PTSD. The prevalence rates of PMDD and moderate to severe PMS increased according to the comorbidity of PTSD (p PMS/PMDD and natural disaster-induced PTSD. The comorbidity of PMS/PMDD and PTSD may complicate the follow-up of both conditions.

  17. On the relationship between structure, morphology and large coseismic slip: A case study of the Mw 8.8 Maule, Chile 2010 earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Reyes, Eduardo; Maksymowicz, Andrei; Lange, Dietrich; Grevemeyer, Ingo; Muñoz-Linford, Pamela; Moscoso, Eduardo

    2017-11-01

    Subduction megathrust earthquakes show complex rupture behaviour and large lateral variations of slip. However, the factors controlling seismic slip are still under debate. Here, we present 2-D velocity-depth tomographic models across four trench-perpendicular wide angle seismic profiles complemented with high resolution bathymetric data in the area of maximum coseismic slip of the Mw 8.8 Maule 2010 megathrust earthquake (central Chile, 34°-36°S). Results show an abrupt lateral velocity gradient in the trench-perpendicular direction (from 5.0 to 6.0 km/s) interpreted as the contact between the accretionary prism and continental framework rock whose superficial expression spatially correlates with the slope-shelf break. The accretionary prism is composed of two bodies: (1) an outer accretionary wedge (5-10 km wide) characterized by low seismic velocities of 1.8-3.0 km/s interpreted as an outer frontal prism of poorly compacted and hydrated sediment, and (2) the middle wedge (∼50 km wide) with velocities of 3.0-5.0 km/s interpreted as a middle prism composed by compacted and lithified sediment. In addition, the maximum average coseismic slip of the 2010 megathrust event is fairly coincident with the region where the accretionary prism and continental slope are widest (50-60 km wide), and the continental slope angle is low (event, published differential multibeam bathymetric data confirms that coseismic slip must have propagated up to ∼6 km landwards of the deformation front and hence practically the entire base of the middle prism. Sediment dewatering and compaction processes might explain the competent rheology of the middle prism allowing shallow earthquake rupture. In contrast, the outer frontal prism made of poorly consolidated sediment has impeded the rupture up to the deformation front as high resolution seismic reflection and multibeam bathymetric data have not showed evidence for new deformation in the trench region.

  18. Ambulance Dispatches From Unaffected Areas After the Great East Japan Earthquake: Impact on Emergency Care in the Unaffected Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagihara, Akihito; Onozuka, Daisuke; Nagata, Takashi; Abe, Takeru; Hasegawa, Manabu; Nabeshima, Yoshihiro

    2015-12-01

    Although dispatching ambulance crews from unaffected areas to a disaster zone is inevitable when a major disaster occurs, the effect on emergency care in the unaffected areas has not been studied. We evaluated whether dispatching ambulance crews from unaffected prefectures to those damaged by the Great East Japan Earthquake was associated with reduced resuscitation outcomes in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) cases in the unaffected areas. We used the Box-Jenkins transfer function model to assess the relationship between ambulance crew dispatches and return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) before hospital arrival or 1-month survival after the cardiac event. In a model whose output was the rate of ROSC before hospital arrival, dispatching 1000 ambulance crews was associated with a 0.474% decrease in the rate of ROSC after the dispatch in the prefectures (p=0.023). In a model whose output was the rate of 1-month survival, dispatching 1000 ambulance crews was associated with a 0.502% decrease in the rate of 1-month survival after the dispatch in the prefectures (p=0.011). The dispatch of ambulances from unaffected prefectures to earthquake-stricken areas was associated with a subsequent decrease in the ROSC and 1-month survival rates in OHCA cases in the unaffected prefectures.

  19. Life-event stress induced by the Great East Japan Earthquake was associated with relapse in ulcerative colitis but not Crohn's disease: a retrospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiga, Hisashi; Miyazawa, Teruko; Kinouchi, Yoshitaka; Takahashi, Seiichi; Tominaga, Gen; Takahashi, Hiroki; Takagi, Sho; Obana, Nobuya; Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Oomori, Shinya; Nomura, Eiki; Shiraki, Manabu; Sato, Yuichirou; Takahashi, Shuichiro; Umemura, Ken; Yokoyama, Hiroshi; Endo, Katsuya; Kakuta, Yoichi; Aizawa, Hiroki; Matsuura, Masaki; Kimura, Tomoya; Kuroha, Masatake; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2013-01-01

    Objective Stress is thought to be one of the triggers of relapses in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We examined the rate of relapse in IBD patients before and after the Great East Japan Earthquake. Design A retrospective cohort study. Settings 13 hospitals in Japan. Participants 546 ulcerative colitis (UC) and 357 Crohn's disease (CD) patients who received outpatient and inpatient care at 13 hospitals located in the area that were seriously damaged by the earthquake. Data on patient's clinical characteristics, disease activity and deleterious effects of the earthquake were obtained from questionnaires and hospital records. Primary outcome We evaluated the relapse rate (from inactive to active) across two consecutive months before and two consecutive months after the earthquake. In this study, we defined ‘active’ as conditions with a partial Mayo score=2 or more (UC) or a Harvey-Bradshaw index=6 or more (CD). Results Among the UC patients, disease was active in 167 patients and inactive in 379 patients before the earthquake. After the earthquake, the activity scores increased significantly (p<0.0001). A total of 86 patients relapsed (relapse rate=15.8%). The relapse rate was about twice that of the corresponding period in the previous year. Among the CD patients, 86 patients had active disease and 271 had inactive disease before the earthquake. After the earthquake, the activity indices changed little. A total of 25 patients experienced a relapse (relapse rate=7%). The relapse rate did not differ from that of the corresponding period in the previous year. Multivariate analyses revealed that UC, changes in dietary oral intake and anxiety about family finances were associated with the relapse. Conclusions Life-event stress induced by the Great East Japan Earthquake was associated with relapse in UC but not CD. PMID:23396562

  20. Seismic properties of the Longmen Shan complex: Implications for the moment magnitude of the great 2008 Wenchuan earthquake in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shengsi; Ji, Shaocheng; Wang, Qian; Wang, Hongcai; Long, Changxing; Salisbury, Matthew

    2012-09-01

    The 12 May 2008 Wenchuan earthquake is the largest active tectonic event reported to date in Sichuan (China). We have experimentally calibrated, up to 800 MPa, seismic and elastic properties of 12 representative samples from the Longmen Shan complex in which this great earthquake took place and its coseismic ruptures nucleated and propagated. Most of the samples show little Vp or Vs anisotropy at pressures above the microcrack-closure pressure (Pc = 200-300 MPa), and so the variation of anisotropy with pressure provides important hints for the preferred orientation of microcracks in the nonlinear poroelastic regime below Pc. Geothermal and rheological profiles indicate that the focal depth (~ 19 km) corresponds to the base of the schizosphere, below which the Longmen Shan complex switches from the brittle to ductile behavior. The investigation reveals that the crust of the Longmen Shan range consists of 4 layers from the surface to the Moho: Layer 1: Vp < 4.88 km/s (0-3 km thick, sedimentary rocks such as limestone, sandstone, conglomerate, and mudstone); Layer 2: Vp = 5.95-6.25 km/s (25-28 km thick, felsic rocks); Layer 3: Vp = 6.55 km/s (10 km thick, 67.5% felsic and 32.5% mafic rocks); and Layer 4: Vp = 6.90 km/s (8 km thick, 20.0% felsic and 80.0% mafic rocks). The average Vp/Vs ratio of 1.71 or Poisson's ratio of 0.24 calculated for the whole crust is consistent with the results measured using teleseismic receiver function techniques. This study also offers necessary information for broadband simulations of strong ground motions in the assessment and forecast of earthquake hazards in the region. Furthermore, the study, which yields a moment magnitude of 7.9-8.0 given the variation in the dip of the coseismic ruptures and the uncertainty in the depth to which the coseismic rupture may propagate downwards below the depth of the mainshock hypocenter, presents the first accurate quantification of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake's size.

  1. Supports for libraries'restoration from the Great East Japan Earthquake : Challenges we address at Miyagi Prefectural Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Shinichiro

    This article overviews the situations of damage and reconstruction of mainly public libraries in Miyagi Prefecture about 9 months after the Great East Japan Earthquake. Serious damage of library buildings was due not only to the tsunami or seismic sea wave but to violent shaking, the latter less reported by the media. We at the Miyagi Prefectural Library implemented reconstruction assistance for regional public libraries in both direct and indirect ways. Among them, we report in detail on the support we offered until the Minami-sanriku Town Library reopened its service. We highlight a prefectural library's role, acting between supporters and those supportees, to consider the necessity of middle organizations. We clarify what challenges we face and examine how best to provide assistance in case of large-scale disasters.

  2. Sector model analysis of risk on cross-jurisdictional treatment of disaster waste related to the Great East Japan Earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagashima, Miori; Itokawa, Etsuko; Ozuka, Yohei

    2012-01-01

    This study addressed the controversial issue of disaster waste treatment in the reconstruction efforts following the Great East Japan Earthquake. Using the Sector Model (Matsumoto 2009), we categorized a range of actions taken in relation to the cross-jurisdictional treatment into the four sectors, government, industry, academia, and private. The analysis through this Sector Model made it possible to map the entire layout of waste treatment, inclusive of less-visible industry and academia sectors. Accordingly, we have argued that differences of risk awareness are not necessarily due to sector differences but rather depend on two aspects of the disaster waste treatment; the safety levels and the nationwide treatment of waste in Japan. We further suggest that the discrepancy in the arguments on safety levels emerged as a result of scientific under-determination and cross-jurisdictional treatment from social and/or political under-determination. (author)

  3. Public opinion on environmental and energy issues. Result of the census after 3 years of the Great East Japan Earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosugi, Motoko

    2014-01-01

    The public opinion on the energy and environmental issues has changed greatly in Japan through experiences in and along the Great East Japan Earthquake. We conducted a social survey in order to grasp public opinions for environment and energy issues in March, 2014, which obtained 2313 valid responses (response rate was 64.3%). For the energy and environmental issues, while respondents show high interests in matters related to the Fukushima accident and nuclear power generation as well as electricity prices, they show relatively low interest in every other aspect. With regard to Japan's energy policy in the future, as expectations for renewable and natural sources of energy are large, about 60% of respondents have negative attitude in restart of nuclear power. For nuclear power, as compared to the previous survey conducted in August 2008, evaluation of 'control-ability of environmental impacts' and 'the power companies' risk management ability' was greatly reduced in particular. These results suggest the importance of provoke interest in the energy issues in general, as a premise to seek an understanding of the activities of the government and power companies. Furthermore, in order for the power companies to restore trust from the public, it is important to sympathize to public's anticipations of impacts on the health and environment through uses of nuclear power in the future. (author)

  4. Elevation of Derivatives of Reactive Oxygen Metabolites Elevated in Young "Disaster Responders" in Hypertension due to Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Yasunaga; Kujiraoka, Takehiko; Hakuno, Daihiko; Masaki, Nobuyuki; Tokuno, Shinichi; Adachi, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    There have been very few studies on serum biomarkers associated with hypertension in disaster situations. We assessed biomarkers associated with disaster-related hypertension (DRH) due to the Great East Japan Earthquake of March 2011.We collected blood samples from members of the Japan Self Defense Forces (JSDF) (n = 77) after completing disaster relief operations. We divided them into two groups based on systolic blood pressure. We defined DRH as either systolic blood pressure greater than 140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure greater than 90 mmHg at the time of completing missions.In subjects with DRH, the mean blood pressure was 143.5 ± 5.0/99.5 ± 2.4 mmHg. Height and body weight measurements were slightly greater in the DRH group but the differences were not significant, and age was significantly higher in the DRH group. There were no differences in serum biochemical tests including metabolic markers, sulfur-containing amino acids, and cytokines. Among nitric oxide-related amino acids, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) was lower in the DRH group than in the normotension group (0.40 ± 0.02 versus 0.31 ± 0.02 μmol/L P = 0.04). The serum oxidative stress metabolite levels (d-ROMs; indicators of active oxygen metabolite products) were significantly higher in the DRH group (273.6 ± 6.08 versus 313.5 ± 13.7 U.CARR P = 0.016). Using multivariable regression analysis, d-ROMs levels were particularly predictive for DRH.Oxidative stress is associated with DRH in responders to the disaster of the Great East Japan Earthquake.

  5. Seismic measures and defence in depth of nuclear power plant. Lessons learned from the great east Japan earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochiai, Kanehiro

    2011-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake occurred in March 11, 2011 brought about severe accident at nuclear power plant, which gave significant lessons to nuclear experts concerned with safety measures. Concepts of defence in depth was basic philosophy to assure safety of nuclear power plant even against uncertainties exceeding design basis. This concept consisted of prevention, monitoring, and action to mitigate consequences of failures such as a series of physical barriers between the reactor core and the environment, which were called multiple safety systems, each with backup and designed to accommodate human error. As for natural disaster, depth of recognition of characteristic of natural phenomena and its effect and engineering judgment was of prime importance. Different waveforms of ground motion at Fukushima and Onagawa at the Great East Japan Earthquake showed that design ground motion should have large uncertainties. To cope with uncertainties of ground motion, robust seismic measures based on experience were such as design of static seismic intensity and rigid structure of natural period less than 0.1 sec. As for tsunami, defence in depth measures were prepared for the cooling of reactor core, spent fuel and related electric generation equipment with taking into account 1) time lag between tsunami generation and arrival, 2) tsunami affected area could be limited by coastal levee or anti-inundation measure, 3) system redundancy could be assured by different locations of equipments and 4) repair works could be done by shipment of replacement equipment from outside due to limitation of affected regional area. Success examples of Onagawa, Tokai unit 2, Fukushima Daiichi unit 6 and Fukushima Daini Nuclear Power Plants could suggest definite tsunami defence in depth measures. Containment vent system as final heat sink and emergency condenser as reactor core cooling at outage should be properly utilized for Fukushima Daiichi unit 1 Nuclear Power Plant. (T. Tanaka)

  6. Summary of November 2010 meeting to evaluate turbidite data for constraining the recurrence parameters of great Cascadia earthquakes for the update of national seismic hazard maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Arthur D.

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes a meeting of geologists, marine sedimentologists, geophysicists, and seismologists that was held on November 18–19, 2010 at Oregon State University in Corvallis, Oregon. The overall goal of the meeting was to evaluate observations of turbidite deposits to provide constraints on the recurrence time and rupture extent of great Cascadia subduction zone (CSZ) earthquakes for the next update of the U.S. national seismic hazard maps (NSHM). The meeting was convened at Oregon State University because this is the major center for collecting and evaluating turbidite evidence of great Cascadia earthquakes by Chris Goldfinger and his colleagues. We especially wanted the participants to see some of the numerous deep sea cores this group has collected that contain the turbidite deposits. Great earthquakes on the CSZ pose a major tsunami, ground-shaking, and ground-failure hazard to the Pacific Northwest. Figure 1 shows a map of the Pacific Northwest with a model for the rupture zone of a moment magnitude Mw 9.0 earthquake on the CSZ and the ground shaking intensity (in ShakeMap format) expected from such an earthquake, based on empirical ground-motion prediction equations. The damaging effects of such an earthquake would occur over a wide swath of the Pacific Northwest and an accompanying tsunami would likely cause devastation along the Pacifc Northwest coast and possibly cause damage and loss of life in other areas of the Pacific. A magnitude 8 earthquake on the CSZ would cause damaging ground shaking and ground failure over a substantial area and could also generate a destructive tsunami. The recent tragic occurrence of the 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku-Oki, Japan, earthquake highlights the importance of having accurate estimates of the recurrence times and magnitudes of great earthquakes on subduction zones. For the U.S. national seismic hazard maps, estimating the hazard from the Cascadia subduction zone has been based on coastal paleoseismic evidence of great

  7. Trace elements in bivalves from the Rio Cruces, Chile, trace watershed evolution after a major earthquake and challenge a postulated chemical spill from a pulp plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risk, M.; Burchell, M.; Nairn, R.; Tubrett, M.; Forsterra, G.

    2009-05-01

    In May, 1960, the largest recorded earthquake in the history of the planet hit southern Chile, dropping part of the course of the Rio Cruces by 2m and creating an extensive wetland. The Brazilian Waterweed Egeria densa colonised the area, and became a primary food source for large populations of the Black-necked Swan, Cygnus melancoryphus. In 2004, a large pulp mill commenced operations upstream on the river. According to local reports, immediately after the opening of the plant, the weed died and the swans left. There was public outcry, and a search for a cause or a culprit. It was postulated that some sort of chemical spill from the plant caused the weed to die, resulting in departure of the swans. In 2008, we collected specimens of the bivalve Diplodon chilensis from several locations downstream from the Plant and towards the wetland to see if there was evidence of a chemical spill recorded in the shells. We prepared thin-sections of the shells to observe growth line development and patterns. Additionally, shell samples were analysed for stable oxygen isotopes and trace elements, using LA-ICP/MS. Based on annual growth lines, some of the bivalves were long-lived, with an age of more than 50 years. These individuals settled in the river shortly after the earthquake, and have lived there continuously ever since. Annual and sub-annual banding was clear, and the annual cyclicity of the major bands was verified with oxygen isotope analysis. There are no changes in growth corresponding to 2004. Trace element scans provided a wealth of information on the evolution of this earthquake-impacted wetland. Barium, Strontium and Manganese all showed strong annual cyclicity. From the analysis of older specimens, we interpret the high peaks of the Ba signal as reflecting soil erosion-Ba peaks are large immediately after the earthquake, then they diminish through time. Sr is likely a temperature signal, and Mn reflects runoff. Minor peaks in Cu, As and Pb probably reflect

  8. Long-period Ground Motion Simulation in the Osaka Basin during the 2011 Great Tohoku Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, T.; Kubo, H.; Asano, K.; Sato, K.; Aoi, S.

    2014-12-01

    Large amplitude long-period ground motions (1-10s) with long duration were observed in the Osaka sedimentary basin during the 2011 Tohoku earthquake (Mw9.0) and its aftershock (Ibaraki-Oki, Mw7.7), which is about 600 km away from the source regions. Sato et al. (2013) analyzed strong ground motion records from the source region to the Osaka basin and showed the following characteristics. (1) In the period range of 1 to 10s, the amplitude of horizontal components of the ground motion at the site-specific period is amplified in the Osaka basin sites. The predominant period is about 7s in the bay area where the largest pSv were observed. (2) The velocity Fourier amplitude spectra with their predominant period of around 7s are observed at the bedrock sites surrounding the Osaka basin. Those characteristics were observed during both of the mainshock and the largest aftershock. Therefore, large long-period ground motions in the Osaka basin are generated by the combination of propagation-path and basin effects. They simulated ground motions due to the largest aftershock as a simple point source model using three-dimensional FDM (GMS; Aoi and Fujiwara, 1999). They used a three-dimensional velocity structure based on the Japan Integrated Velocity Structure Model (JIVSM, Koketsu et al., 2012), with the minimum effective period of the computation of 3s. Their simulation result reproduced the observation characteristics well and it validates the applicability of the JIVSM for the long period ground motion simulation. In this study, we try to simulate long-period ground motions during the mainshock. The source model we used for the simulation is based on the SMGA model obtained by Asano and Iwata (2012). We succeed to simulate long-period ground motion propagation from Kanto area to the Osaka basin fairly well. The long-period ground motion simulations with the several Osaka basin velocity structure models are done for improving the model applicability. We used strong motion

  9. Fault zone controlled seafloor methane seepage in the rupture area of the 2010 Maule Earthquake, Central Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Geersen, Jacob; Scholz, Florian; Linke, Peter; Schmidt, Mark; Lange, Dietrich; Behrmann, Jan H.; Völker, David; Hensen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Seafloor seepage of hydrocarbon-bearing fluids has been identified in a number of marine forearcs. However, temporal variations in seep activity and the structural and tectonic parameters that control the seepage often remain poorly constrained. Subduction-zone earthquakes for example, are often discussed to trigger seafloor seepage but causal links that go beyond theoretical considerations have not yet been fully established. This is mainly due to the inaccessibility of offshore epicentral a...

  10. Residential relocation and change in social capital: A natural experiment from the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikichi, Hiroyuki; Sawada, Yasuyuki; Tsuboya, Toru; Aida, Jun; Kondo, Katsunori; Koyama, Shihoko; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2017-07-01

    Social connections in the community ("social capital") represent an important source of resilience in the aftermath of major disasters. However, little is known about how residential relocation due to housing destruction affects survivors' social capital. We examined changes in social capital among survivors of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami. People who lost their homes were resettled to new locations by two primary means: (i) group relocation to public temporary trailer housing or (ii) individual relocation, in which victims moved into government-provided housing by lottery or arranged for their own accommodation (market rental housing or private purchase/new construction). The baseline for our natural experiment was established 7 months before the 11 March 2011 disaster, when we conducted a survey of older community-dwelling adults who lived 80-km west of the earthquake epicenter. Approximately 2.5 years after the disaster, the follow-up survey gathered information about personal experiences of disaster as well as health status and social capital. Among 3421 people in our study, 79 people moved via group relocation to public temporary trailer housing, whereas 96 people moved on their own. The individual fixed-effects model showed that group relocation was associated with improved informal socializing and social participation (β coefficient = 0.053, 95% confidence interval: 0.011 to 0.095). In contrast, individual relocation was associated with declining informal socializing and social participation (β coefficient = -0.039, 95% confidence interval: -0.074 to -0.003). Group relocation, as compared to individual relocation, appeared to preserve social participation and informal socializing in the community.

  11. Medical relief activities conducted by Nippon Medical School in the acute phase of the Great East Japan Earthquake 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuse, Akira; Shuto, Yuki; Ando, Fumihiko; Shibata, Masafumi; Watanabe, Akihiro; Onda, Hidetaka; Masuno, Tomohiko; Yokota, Hiroyuki

    2011-01-01

    At 14:46 on March 11, 2011, the Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami occurred off the coast of Honshu, Japan. In the acute phase of this catastrophe, one of our teams was deployed as a Tokyo Disaster Medical Assistance Team (DMAT) to Kudan Kaikan in Tokyo, where the ceiling of a large hall had partially collapsed as the result of the earthquake, to conduct triage at the scene: 6 casualties were assigned to the red category (immediate), which included 1 case of cardiopulmonary arrest and 1 of flail chest; 8 casualties in the yellow category (delayed); and 22 casualties in the green category (minor). One severely injured person was transported to our hospital. Separately, our medical team was deployed to Miyagi 2 hours after the earthquake in our multipurpose medical vehicle as part of Japan DMAT (J-DMAT). We were the first DMAT from the metropolitan area to arrive, but we were unable to start medical relief activities because the information infrastructure had been destroyed and no specific information had yet reached the local headquarters. Early next morning, J-DMAT decided to support Sendai Medical Center and search and rescue efforts in the affected area and to establish a staging care unit at Camp Kasuminome of the Japan Self-Defense Force. Our team joined others to establish the staging care unit. Because information was still confused until day 3 of the disaster and we could not adequately grasp onsite medical needs, our J-DMAT decided to provide onsite support at Ishinomaki Red Cross Hospital, a disaster base hospital, and relay information about its needs to the local J-DMAT headquarters. Although our medical relief teams were deployed as quickly as possible, we could not begin medical relief activities immediately owing to the severely damaged information infrastructure. Only satellite mobile phones could be operated, and information on the number of casualties and the severity of shortages of lifeline services could be obtained only through a "go and

  12. Survey of preventable disaster death at medical institutions in areas affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake: a retrospective preliminary investigation of medical institutions in Miyagi Prefecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanouchi, Satoshi; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Tsuruwa, Miho; Ueki, Yuzuru; Kohayagawa, Yoshitaka; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Otomo, Yasuhiro; Koido, Yuichi; Kushimoto, Shigeki

    2015-04-01

    The 2011, magnitude (M) 9, Great East Japan Earthquake and massive tsunami caused widespread devastation and left approximately 18,500 people dead or missing. The incidence of preventable disaster death (PDD) during the Great East Japan Earthquake remains to be clarified; the present study investigated PDD at medical institutions in areas affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake in order to improve disaster medical systems. A total of 25 hospitals in Miyagi Prefecture (Japan) that were disaster base hospitals (DBHs), or had at least 20 patient deaths between March 11, 2011 and April 1, 2011, were selected to participate based on the results of a previous study. A database was created using the medical records of all patient deaths (n=868), and PDD was determined from discussion with 10 disaster health care professionals. A total of 102 cases of PDD were identified at the participating hospitals. The rate of PDD was higher at coastal hospitals compared to inland hospitals (62/327, 19.0% vs 40/541, 7.4%; Pdeath at medical institutions in areas affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake occurred mainly at coastal hospitals. Insufficient resources (at GHs), environmental factors (at coastal hospitals), and delayed medical intervention (at all hospitals) constituted the major potential contributing factors. Further investigation of all medical institutions in Miyagi Prefecture, including those with fewer than 20 patient deaths, is required in order to obtain a complete picture of the details of PDD at medical institutions in the disaster area.

  13. The Role of Motivation and Creativity in Sustaining Volunteerism of Citizenship for Positive Youth Development after the Great East Japan Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oie, Mayumi

    2017-01-01

    This paper examined how the interdisciplinary field of volunteer motivation and creativity research helps improve our understanding of social issues. This research focused on the victims of the Great East Japan Earthquake, which occurred on March 11, 2011, and discussed how volunteer motivations support volunteer activities, positive youth…

  14. Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms and Burnout Among Medical Rescue Workers 4 Years After the Great East Japan Earthquake: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Yuzuru; Nishi, Daisuke; Noguchi, Hiroko; Usuki, Masato; Yamashita, Akihiro; Koido, Yuichi; Okubo, Yoshiro; Matsuoka, Yutaka J

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate factors associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and burnout 4 years after the Great East Japan Earthquake among medical rescue workers in Disaster Medical Assistance Teams (DMATs). We examined participants' background characteristics, prior health condition, rescue work experiences, and the Peritraumatic Distress Inventory (PDI) score at 1 month after the earthquake. Current psychological condition was assessed by the Impact of Event Scale-Revised and Maslach Burnout Inventory administered 4 years after the earthquake. By applying univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses, we assessed the relative value of the PDI and other baseline variables for PTSD symptoms and burnout at 4 years after the earthquake. We obtained baseline data from 254 participants during April 2 to 22, 2011. Of the 254 participants, 188 (74.0%) completed the follow-up assessment. PDI score 1 month after the earthquake was associated with symptoms of PTSD (β=0.35, Pburnout (β=0.21, PStress before deployment was a related factor for burnout 4 years after the earthquake in these medical rescue workers (β=2.61, Pstress prior to deployment (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:848-853).

  15. [Association between evacuation condition and habitual physical activity in Great East Japan Earthquake evacuees: The Fukushima Health Management Survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Masato; Ohira, Tetsuya; Yasumura, Seiji; Takahashi, Hideto; Yuki, Michiko; Nakano, Hironori; Wen, Zhang; Yabe, Hirooki; Ohtsuru, Akira; Maeda, Masaharu; Takase, Kanae

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Prevalence of life-style disease has increased dramatically in evacuees due to the Great East Japan Earthquake. One reason may be that physical activity level decreased from life environment changes due to evacuation. However, associations between evacuation condition and habitual physical activity have not been studied. We examined this association in Fukushima residents who participated in the Fukushima Health Management Survey. Methods: In this study, 37,843 evacuees from 13 municipal evacuation zones from the nuclear-power accident caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake, born before April 1, 1995, were included in the analysis. Evacuation condition was defined by disaster living place (13 zones), evacuation place (inside or outside the prefecture), and current living status (evacuation shelter or temporary housing, rental housing/ apartment, and relative's home or own home). Habitual physical activity was defined from self-administered questionnaires as participants who responded "almost every day" and "2-4 times/week" of regular exercise. In the analysis, habitual physical activity prevalence was aggregated by gender and variables (living place in the disaster, evacuation place, and current living status). Prevalence was adjusted for age, disaster living place, evacuation place, and current living status by standard analysis of covariance methods. Results: Adjusted prevalences of habitual physical activity were: men, 27.9-46.5%; women, 27.0-43.7% in each disaster living place. The differences were 18.6% point in men and 16.7% point in women. For evacuation place, physical activity outside the prefecture for men (37.7%) and inside the prefecture for women (32.1%) were higher, but those differences were only 2.2% point and 1.8% point in men and women, respectively. For current living status, physical activity of those in rental housing/ apartment was the lowest; evacuation shelter or temporary housing was the highest in both genders (men: 38

  16. Validation of the Davidson Trauma Scale in its original and a new shorter version in people exposed to the F-27 earthquake in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo C. Leiva-Bianchi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: On February 27, 2010 (F-27, an earthquake and tsunami occurred having a significant impact on the mental health of the Chilean population, leading to an increase in cases of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Objectives: Within this context, validated for the first time in Chile was the Davidson Trauma Scale (DTS using three samples (each one consisting of 200 participants, two of them random from the Chilean population. Results: Reliability analyses (i.e., α=0.933, concurrent validity (63% of the items are significantly correlated with the criteria variable “degree of damage to home” and construct validity (i.e., CMIN = 3.754, RMSEA = 0.118, NFI = 0.808, CFI = 0.850 and PNFI = 0.689 indicate validity between regular and good for DTS. However, a new short version of the scale (DTS-SF created using the items with heavier factor weights, presented better fits (CMIN = 2.170, RMSEA = 0.077, NFI = 0.935, CFI = 0.963, PNFI = 0.697. Discussion: Finally, the usefulness of DTS and DTS-SF is discussed, the latter being briefer, valid and having better psychometric characteristics.

  17. The psychological impact of a dual-disaster caused by earthquakes and radioactive contamination in Ichinoseki after the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niitsu, Tomihisa; Takaoka, Kota; Uemura, Saho; Kono, Akiko; Saito, Akihiko; Kawakami, Norito; Nakazato, Michiko; Shimizu, Eiji

    2014-05-20

    The psychological impact of dual-disasters (earthquakes and a nuclear accident), on affected communities is unknown. This study investigated the impact of a dual-disaster (earthquakes and radioactive contamination) on the prevalence of psychological distress in a landlocked city within the Tohoku area, Japan. A cross-sectional mail-in survey with a random sample of inhabitants from Ichinoseki city was conducted eleven months after the disasters, and data from 902 respondents were analyzed by logistic regression models, with multiple imputation methodology. The K6 was used to determine psychological distress. The estimated prevalence of psychological distress was 48.0 percent. House damage due to earthquakes and anxiety about radioactive contamination were significantly associated with psychological distress (p earthquake and radioactive contamination appeared additive.

  18. Lichenometry dating of rock collapse related to the great Lisbon Earthquake (1755) at the SE part of Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Lopez, Raul; Rodriguez-Pascua, Miguel Angel; Silva, Pablo G.; Bischoff, James L.; Owen, Lewis A.; Giner-Robles, Jorge L.; Díez-Herrero, Andres

    2010-05-01

    "De una montaña, se desprendió una parte" (A large part of a mountain has fallen down). This sentence was extracted from an ancient text written at the end of the 18th Century, in relation with the great Earthquake of Lisbon in 1755 (Martínez-Solares, 2001), and describing the rock collapse recorded near the small town of Agramón, 50 km southeastward of Albacete city (SE of Spain). Up to now, archaeologists have suggested this rock collapse to the archaeological site of "El Tolmo de Minateda", a small butte (420 m long) of calcarenitic sandstone bedrock with a flat top and scarped cliffs (20m high) bordering the butte. This ancient city was habited by several civilizations from Bronze Ages to modern times (i.e. Iberians, Roman, Visigoths, Muslims, Medieval ages, etc.). The landscape of this area is characterized by a flat terrain with isolated relict structural buttes consisting of Late Neogene marine sandstones created by differential erosion. The site exhibits three different stages of massive rock collapse. The oldest is located at the north of the site while the younger is located at the south part of the site and affecting Visigothic stone carved tombs. Archaeologists have postulated that the youngest of these was triggered by the Lisbon earthquake of 1755. We have carried out a lichenometric analysis over the free-faces of the rock blocks, with the aim of testing the postulate. For our purpose, we have calculated the calibrated growth curve for Aspicilia Radiosa (Hoff.), which yields a linear growth of 0.2425 mm per yr (R2 = 0.97, N=20). This growth rate was determined for the time interval from 800 BP yrs to the present by two different approaches: (1) rates obtained from cemetery measurements (200 yrs BP) and (2) rates determined from well-dated archaeological monuments (200-800 yrs BP). Our analysis revealed that the age of the rock-falling was in the year 1754 AD ±4. Thus, our results confirm that this collapse of ca. 5000 m3 of volume was triggered

  19. An asthma patient with steroid-resistant decrease in peak expiratory flow after the Great East Japan earthquake showing spontaneous recovery after 1 month.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagimoto, Shintaro; Haida, Michiko; Suko, Matsunobu

    2012-01-01

    People living in Japan were affected in various ways after the Great East Japan earthquake of March 11, 2011. A 52-year-old female asthma patient not directly affected by the disaster experienced a decrease in peak expiratory flow (PEF) immediately after the earthquake. Despite increasing the inhaled and oral corticosteroid doses, her PEF did not recover. One month later, her PEF level abruptly returned to normal with minimal medications, which were previously ineffective, and the asthma-related symptoms vanished. The stabilization of her state of mind and actual social state seemed to be a part of the reason for the patient's recovery.

  20. Emergency response of Fukushima Daini Nuclear Power Station during the Great East Japan Earthquake and its lessons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Shinichi

    2016-01-01

    At the time of the occurrence of the Great East Japan Earthquake, Fukushima Daini Nuclear Power Station (hereinafter, Fukushima Daini) was operating four units of BWRS-5 type plants with an output of 1,100 MWe/unit. Among these plants, No. 1, 2, and 4 Units lost all the functions of heat removal equipment of reactors affected by tsunami. However, ad-hoc activities such as the exchange of submerged motors and temporary power installation allowed the recovery of residual heat removal (RHR) system, leading to a success in cold shutdown. This is a success story more than expectation in dealing with emergency situations, but not necessarily all of the correspondences were successfully carried out, leaving some problems. As lessons, the following are pointed out: (1) confirmation of the damage situation of the site and setting of priority rank of recovery, (2) securement of the means that do not depend on initial on-site activities, and (3) possession at the site of the skills of emergency restoration, equipment diagnostic technology, and repair technology. With reflecting lessons and challenges in these correspondences, Tokyo Electric Power Company is working to improve the accident response capability of the organization including Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Station. As an example of effort of emergency response capability strengthening, there is an application of the US Incident Management System (IMS). The company is continuously making efforts for improving safety through training. (A.O.)

  1. Crisis management and recovery from the damage to the laboratory animal production facility due to the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Takuya

    2012-01-01

    Charles River Laboratories Japan produces laboratory animals, mainly mice and rats. In its history, we have experienced many crises such as mass food poisoning of staff and contamination of animals. However, we overcame these crises, accomplishing our corporate missions to secure steady supply of healthy animals. Under such circumstances, in 2008, we faced an unprecedented crisis involving a novel influenza possibly becoming pandemic. Therefore, we prepared a Crisis Management Plan (CMP) and Business Continuity Plan (BCP) to avoid the worst case scenario. Fortunately, the novel influenza did not develop into a pandemic and no major problems occurred in production of our laboratory animals. In March 2011, our Tsukuba Breeding Center was struck by the Great East Japan Earthquake. Many cages fell from racks, and consequently, 14,000 mice and rats were euthanized. Moreover, this animal production facility experienced not only blackouts and water outage but also various maintenance problems. After triage of the animals, almost half of the animals kept were eventually lost. However, we recovered and resumed shipment of animals two weeks after the disaster by utilizing the CMP and BCP we initially created as a countermeasure against novel influenza. After two months, our production volume returned to normal except for two strains. I sincerely hope this review, which highlights our experience and related issues, will be a useful resource in regard to crisis management for people who are engaged in laboratory animal care and use.

  2. Drinking Behavior and Mental Illness Among Evacuees in Fukushima Following the Great East Japan Earthquake: The Fukushima Health Management Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Yuka; Yabe, Hirooki; Maeda, Masaharu; Ohira, Tetsuya; Fujii, Senta; Niwa, Shin-ichi; Ohtsuru, Akira; Mashiko, Hirobumi; Harigane, Mayumi; Yasumura, Seiji

    2016-03-01

    Recent evidence from alcohol and trauma studies suggests that disasters are associated with increases in the consumption of alcohol. The Great East Japan Earthquake and the associated nuclear disaster have continued to affect the mental health of evacuees from Fukushima. This study aimed to extend these findings by examining the relationship between drinking behaviors and the risk of mental illness after the compound disaster. We conducted the Mental Health and Lifestyle Survey with 56,543 evacuees. Kessler's K6 was used to assess the risk of mental illness, and logistic regression models were applied to analyze how drinking behavior patterns influence the risk of serious mental illness after adjustment for confounding variables. Logistic regression analysis evidenced that beginning heavy and light drinkers had the highest and a higher risk of serious mental illness, respectively. Individuals who were nondrinkers pre- and postdisaster had the lowest proportional risk of mental illness. Abstainers also had some risk to their mental health after the compound disaster. The results of this study highlight that beginning drinkers have a high risk of serious mental illness. Thus, mental health professionals should pay attention to the drinking behaviors of evacuees, which might predict increased risk of serious mental illness and consequently indicate a need for psychological intervention. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  3. Changes in Cognitive Functions in the Elderly Living in Temporary Housing after the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiko Ishiki

    Full Text Available On March 11, 2011, Japan experienced an earthquake of magnitude 9.0 and subsequent enormous tsunamis. This disaster destroyed many coastal cities and caused nearly 20,000 casualties. In the aftermath of the disaster, many tsunami survivors who lost their homes were forced to live in small temporary apartments. Although all tsunami survivors were at risk of deteriorating health, the elderly people were particularly at a great risk with regard to not only their physical health but also their mental health. In the present study, we performed a longitudinal cohort study to investigate and analyze health conditions and cognitive functions at 28, 32, and 42 months after the disaster in the elderly people who were forced to reside in temporary apartments in Kesennuma, a city severely damaged by the tsunamis. The ratio of people considered to be cognitively impaired significantly increased during the research period. On the other hand, the mean scores of the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale-6 and Athens Insomnia Scale improved based on the comparison between the data at 24 and 42 months. The multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that frequency of "out-of-home activities" and "walking duration" were independently associated with an increase in the ratio of people with cognitive impairment. We concluded that the elderly people living in temporary apartments were at a high risk of cognitive impairment and "out-of-home activities" and "walking" could possibly maintain the stability of cognitive functions.

  4. The tsunami's impact on mortality in a town severely damaged by the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Satoko; Teramoto, Chie; Okamoto, Reiko; Koide, Keiko; Nishida, Masumi; Suzuki, Ruriko; Nomura, Michie; Tada, Toshiko; Kishi, Emiko; Sakai, Yoko; Jojima, Noriko; Kusano, Emiko; Iwamoto, Saori; Saito, Miki; Murashima, Sachiyo

    2014-07-01

    This study identifies the relationship between tsunami damage and mortality through a demographic pyramid of a town severely damaged by the tsunami following the Great East Japan Earthquake of 11 March 2011. It uses cross-sectional data collection. Volunteers visited all households, including shelters, and asked residents about the whereabouts of family members and neighbours. The information was collated with lists of evacuees and the dead to confirm the whereabouts of all residents about 50 days after the disaster. Demographic pyramids for the whole population based on pre- and post-disaster data were drawn. In all, 1,412 (8.8 per cent) were dead or missing, 60.2 per cent of whom were aged 65 and over and 37.5 per cent aged 75 and over, suggesting that the very old should be located beyond the reach of tsunamis. The mortality rate of children was lower than that in other studies, which may indicate the efficacy of disaster evacuation drills. © 2014 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2014.

  5. Implications of the World Trade Center Health Program (WTCHP) for the public health response to the Great East Japan Earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crane, Michael A.; Cho, Hyunje G.; Landrigan, Phillip J.

    2014-01-01

    The attacks on the World Trade Center (WTC) on September 11, 2001 resulted in a serious burden of physical and mental illness for the 50,000 rescue workers that responded to 9/11 as well as the 400,000 residents and workers in the surrounding areas of New York City. The Zadroga Act of 2010 established the WTC Health Program (WTCHP) to provide monitoring and treatment of WTC exposure-related conditions and health surveillance for the responder and survivor populations. Several reports have highlighted the applicability of insights gained from the WTCHP to the public health response to the Great East Japan Earthquake. Optimal exposure monitoring processes and attention to the welfare of vulnerable exposed sub-groups are critical aspects of the response to both incidents. The ongoing mental health care concerns of 9/11 patients accentuate the need for accessible and appropriately skilled mental health care in Fukushima. Active efforts to demonstrate transparency and to promote community involvement in the public health response will be highly important in establishing successful long-term monitoring and treatment programs for the exposed populations in Fukushima. (author)

  6. Social Capital Enhanced Disaster Preparedness and Health Consultations after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Nuclear Power Station Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Makoto; Murakami, Michio; Takebayashi, Yoshitake; Suzuki, Satoshi; Ohto, Hitoshi

    2018-03-14

    After the Great East Japan Earthquake and the subsequent Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident in 2011, there was a strong demand to promote disaster preparedness approaches and health checkups for the prevention of lifestyle diseases. This study examined the yearly change in the percentage of those who prepared for disasters and who utilized health checkups in Fukushima Prefecture, and identified the factors governing disaster preparedness and utilization of health checkups. We used the public opinion survey from 2011 to 2015 ( n = 677-779 each year) on prefectural policies that is conducted every year by the Fukushima Prefecture government Public Consultation Unit. We found that the percentage of those who prepare for disasters decreased, while that for health checkups did not significantly change. With regard to disaster preparedness, experiences of disaster enhance disaster preparedness, while bonds with other local people help to maintain preparedness. For health checkups, familiarity with the welfare service was the most important factor governing such consultations. The findings suggest that social capital should be promoted in order to improve disaster preparedness. The findings also suggest that residents' accessibility to medical and welfare services is also important in promoting the utilization of health checkups.

  7. Mental Health Problems in a Community After the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Shuntaro; Kuwabara, Hitoshi; Araki, Tsuyoshi; Kanehara, Akiko; Tanaka, Shintaro; Morishima, Ryo; Kondo, Shinsuke; Kasai, Kiyoto

    On March 11, 2011, the Great East Japan Earthquake caused a tsunami and led to the collapse of the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, thus severely damaging the surrounding area. A systematic review was conducted in March 2015 with the following objectives: (1) to clarify the type, severity, and prevalence of mental health problems in the areas affected by the disaster, (2) to investigate trends in mental health problems over time, (3) to reveal demographic and socio-environmental characteristics associated with the post-disaster risk for developing mental health problems, and (4) to examine the impact of this natural disaster on the mental health of people in Fukushima. Forty-two papers were included in this review. The reported prevalence of posttraumatic stress reaction exceeded 10% in all studies. While some longitudinal studies observed an improvement in posttraumatic stress reaction over time, none reported a decrease in depression. Most risk factors for mental health problems were related to resettlement of daily lives, preexisting illnesses, and social networks. Overall, the reported prevalence of posttraumatic stress reaction seemed to be higher in Fukushima than in other affected areas. Given that some mental health problems had not improved even two years after the disaster occurred, long-term mental health support is required for people in the affected area. Our finding that mental health problems seemed to be more severe in residents of Fukushima than among those in other areas suggests that residents in this prefecture require special care.

  8. Association between facial expression and PTSD symptoms among young children exposed to the Great East Japan Earthquake: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Takeo; Mizuki, Rie; Miki, Takahiro; Chemtob, Claude

    2015-01-01

    "Emotional numbing" is a symptom of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) characterized by a loss of interest in usually enjoyable activities, feeling detached from others, and an inability to express a full range of emotions. Emotional numbing is usually assessed through self-report, and is particularly difficult to ascertain among young children. We conducted a pilot study to explore the use of facial expression ratings in response to a comedy video clip to assess emotional reactivity among preschool children directly exposed to the Great East Japan Earthquake. This study included 23 child participants. Child PTSD symptoms were measured using a modified version of the Parent's Report of the Child's Reaction to Stress scale. Children were filmed while watching a 2-min video compilation of natural scenes ('baseline video') followed by a 2-min video clip from a television comedy ('comedy video'). Children's facial expressions were processed the using Noldus FaceReader software, which implements the Facial Action Coding System (FACS). We investigated the association between PTSD symptom scores and facial emotion reactivity using linear regression analysis. Children with higher PTSD symptom scores showed a significantly greater proportion of neutral facial expressions, controlling for sex, age, and baseline facial expression (p software, has the potential to index emotional numbing in young children. This pilot study adds to the emerging literature on using experimental psychopathology methods to characterize children's reactions to disasters.

  9. STUDIES ON SOIL LIQUEFACTION AND SETTLEMENT IN THE URAYASU DISTRICT USING EFFECTIVE STRESS ANALYSES FOR THE 2011 EAST JAPAN GREAT EARTHQUAKE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukutake, Kiyoshi; Jang, Jiho

    The 2011 East Japan Great Earthquake caused soil liquefaction over a wide area. In particular, severe soil liquefaction was reported in the northern parts of the reclaimed lands around Tokyo Bay, even though the seismic intensity in this area was only about 5 on the Japan scale with low acceleration. The authors surveyed the residual settlement in the Urayasu district and then conducted effective stress analyses of areas affected and not affected by liquefaction. The analyses compared with the acceleration waves monitored with K-NET Urayasu or ground settlements surveyed. It is based on the acceleration observed on the seismic bedrocks in earthquake engineering in some other districts adjacent to Urayasu. Much of the settlement was due to the long duration of the earthquake, with further settlement resulting from the aftershock. The study shows that the affects of aftershocks need to be monitored, as well as needs for improvement of simplified liquefaction prediction methods using the factor of safety, FL.

  10. Damage situation by the Great East Japan Earthquake and post-quake reconstruction project of the Tandem Accelerator Facility at the University of Tsukuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasa, Kimikazu

    2012-01-01

    The 12UD Pelletron tandem accelerator at the University of Tsukuba suffered serious damage from the Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011. On the day, the 12UD Pelletron tandem accelerator was in operation at 8 MV. The electricity supply went out during the earthquake. Fortunately, there were no causalties by the earthquake in the facility. However, all high voltage accelerating columns fell down in the accelerator tank. We decided to shut down the 12UD Pelletron tandem accelerator. At present, we have a plan to install a new middle-sized tandem accelerator instead of the broken 12UD Pelletron tandem accelerator at the 2nd target room connecting the beam line to existing facilities at the 1st target room. The construction of the new accelerator system will be completed by spring 2014. (author)

  11. The impact of the Great East Japan earthquake on mandatory psychiatric emergency hospitalizations in Tokyo: a retrospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, A; Aoki, Y; Harima, H

    2012-10-09

    On 11 March 2011, the eastern part of Japan was struck by a magnitude 9.0 quake. About 20 000 people were killed or were missing, and a nuclear crisis followed. In Tokyo, people were indirectly exposed to the earthquake and nuclear crisis by TV broadcast. The aim of our study was to evaluate the potential effect of the series of catastrophes on psychiatric emergency hospitalizations in Tokyo. Clinical records of patients who were mandatorily admitted to Tokyo Metropolitan Matsuzawa Hospital by law because of urgent risk to self or others were reviewed. Records regarding the 2 years of investigation, which include the 6 months after the earthquake, were reviewed. The six months after the earthquake were compared with the eighteen months before the earthquake in clinical and demographic data using independent t-tests or χ(2) tests. During the 6 months before and after the earthquake, 97 and 127 people were mandatorily admitted. χ(2) Tests demonstrated a significant increase in the number of patients after the earthquake (P = 0.045), attributable to the significant increase in the number of patients with schizophrenia after the earthquake (P = 0.011, 32 vs 56), whereas there were no significant differences in the number of patients with other diagnoses between those two periods. Independent t-tests revealed that patients admitted after the earthquake had marginally significantly shorter periods of education compared with those admitted before the earthquake (13.78 vs 12.82 years, P = 0.084). This work suggests that patients with schizophrenia were more sensitive to indirect exposure to the earthquake and that a shorter period of education was a potential risk factor.

  12. Pregnancy and birth survey after the Great East Japan Earthquake and Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in Fukushima prefecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimori, Keiya; Kyozuka, Hyo; Yasuda, Shun; Goto, Aya; Yasumura, Seiji; Ota, Misao; Ohtsuru, Akira; Nomura, Yasuhisa; Hata, Kenichi; Suzuki, Kouta; Nakai, Akihito; Sato, Mieko; Matsui, Shiro; Nakano, Kyoko; Abe, Masafumi

    2014-01-01

    On 11 March 2011, the Great East Japan Earthquake followed by a powerful tsunami hit the Pacific Coast of Northeast Japan and damaged Tokyo Electric Power Company's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, causing a radiation hazard in Fukushima Prefecture. The objective of this report is to describe some results of a questionnaire-based pregnancy and birth survey conducted by the Radiation Medical Science Center for the Fukushima Health Management Survey. Questionnaires were sent to women who received maternal and child health handbooks from municipal officers in Fukushima Prefecture between 1 August 2010 and 31 July 2011, with the aim of reaching those who were pregnant at the time of the disaster. Mailing began 18 January 2012. Data were analyzed separately for six geographic areas in Fukushima Prefecture. The total number of women meeting survey criteria was 15,972. The number of responses received to date is 9,298 (58.2%). Data from 8602 respondents were analyzed after excluding 634 invalid responses and 5 induced and 57 spontaneous abortions (less than 22 gestational weeks). The incidences of stillbirth (over 22 completed gestational weeks), preterm birth, low birth weight and congenital anomalies were 0.25%, 4.4%, 8.7% and 2.72%, respectively. These incidences are similar to recent averages elsewhere in Japan. Considering the pregnancy and birth survey data in aggregate, our disaster seemed to provoke no significant adverse outcomes over the whole of Fukushima prefecture. But post-disaster prenatal care and support intended for patients' safety and security should be coupled with ongoing surveillance and rigorous data analysis.

  13. Association between facial expression and PTSD symptoms among young children exposed to the Great East Japan Earthquake: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeo eFujiwara

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Emotional numbing is a symptom of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD characterized by a loss of interest in usually enjoyable activities, feeling detached from others, and an inability to express a full range of emotions. Emotional numbing is usually assessed through self-report, and is particularly difficult to ascertain among young children. We conducted a pilot study to explore the use of facial expression ratings in response to a comedy video clip, and to assess emotional reactivity among preschool children directly exposed to the Great East Japan Earthquake. This study included 23 child participants. Child PTSD symptoms were measured using a modified version of the Parent’s Report of the Child’s Reaction to Stress scale. Children were filmed while watching a 2-minute video compilation of natural scenes (‘baseline video’ followed by a 2-minute video clip from a television comedy (‘comedy video’. Children’s facial expressions were processed using Noldus FaceReader software, which implements the Facial Action Coding System (FACS. We investigated the association between PTSD symptom scores and facial emotion reactivity using linear regression analysis. Children with higher PTSD symptom scores showed a significantly greater proportion of neutral facial expressions, controlling for sex, age and baseline facial expression (p < .05. This pilot study suggests that facial emotion reactivity could provide an index against which emotional numbing could be measured in young children, using facial expression recognition software. This pilot study adds to the emerging literature on using experimental psychopathology methods to characterize children’s reactions to disasters.

  14. Social support improves mental health among the victims relocated to temporary housing following the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Shihoko; Aida, Jun; Kawachi, Ichiro; Kondo, Naoki; Subramanian, S V; Ito, Kanade; Kobashi, Gen; Masuno, Kanako; Kondo, Katsunori; Osaka, Ken

    2014-11-01

    The victims of the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami have been forced to live in temporary housing, mainly by two different methods of resettlement: group allocation that preserved pre-existing local social ties and lottery allocation. We examined the effects of various factors, including the resettlement methods and social support, on mental health. From February to March 2012, we completed a cross-sectional survey of 281 refugees aged 40 years or older, who had lost their homes in the tsunami and were living in temporary housing in Iwanuma city. Psychological distress of the victims was assessed using the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K6) that consists of six self-reported items. Participants were also asked whether they had provided or received social support during this time. Participants were categorized as "providing social support" if they listened to someone else's concerns and complaints, or "receiving social support" if they have someone who listened to their concerns and complaints. After adjusting for age and sex, multiple log-binomial regression analysis showed that participants without social support had a higher risk of psychological distress. Group allocation victims were more likely to receive social support than those who underwent lottery allocation. However, the resettlement approach did not significantly correlate with distress. Other factors associated with a higher risk of psychological distress were a younger age (55 or younger), living with either 3 people or 6 or more people, and having a lower income. The present results suggest that social support promotes the mental health of disaster victims.

  15. Fungal levels in houses in the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant evacuation zone after the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Naohide; Tokumura, Masahiro; Hashimoto, Kazuhiro; Asano, Katsuyoshi; Kawakami, Yuji

    2017-10-01

    Residences located within 20 km of the damaged Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant were evacuated shortly after the Great East Japan Earthquake. The levels of airborne and surface fungi were measured in six houses in the evacuation zone in August 2012 and February 2013. Airborne fungal levels in all of the houses in the summer were higher than the environmental standard levels for residential houses published in Architectural Institute of Japan (>1000 colony-forming units [CFU]/m 3 ). In two houses whose residents rarely returned to visit, fungal levels were extremely high (>52,000 CFU/m 3 ). Although fungal levels in the winter were much lower than those in the summer, they were still higher than environmental standard levels in several houses. Indoor fungal levels were significantly inversely related to the frequency with which residents returned, but they were not correlated with the air exchange rates, temperature, humidity, or radiation levels. Cladosporium spp. and Penicillium spp. were detected in every house. Aspergillus section Circumdati (Aspergillus ochraceus group) was also detected in several houses. These fungi produced ochratoxin A and ochratoxin B, which have nephrotoxic and carcinogenic potential. The present study suggests that further monitoring of fungal levels is necessary in houses in the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant evacuation zone, and that some houses may require fungal disinfection. The results suggest that residents' health could be at risk owing to the high levels of airborne fungi and toxic fungi Aspergillus section Circumdati. Therefore, monitoring and decontamination/disinfection of fungi are strongly recommended before residents are allowed to return permanently to their homes. In addition, returning to home with a certain frequency and adequate ventilation are necessary during similar situations, e.g., when residents cannot stay in their homes for a long period, because fungal levels in houses in the Fukushima Daiichi

  16. Longitudinal association between time-varying social isolation and psychological distress after the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sone, Toshimasa; Nakaya, Naoki; Sugawara, Yumi; Tomata, Yasutake; Watanabe, Takashi; Tsuji, Ichiro

    2016-03-01

    The association between social isolation and psychological distress among disaster survivors is inconclusive. In addition, because these previous studies were cross-sectional in design, the longitudinal association between time-varying social isolation and psychological distress was not clear. The present study examined the longitudinal association between social isolation and psychological distress after the Great East Japan Earthquake. We analyzed longitudinal data for 959 adults who had responded to the self-report questionnaires about Lubben Social Network Scale-6 (LSNS-6) and K6 in both a community-based baseline survey (2011) and a follow-up survey (2014) after the disaster. Participants were categorized into four groups according to changes in the presence of social isolation (socially isolated", "became not socially isolated", "remained not socially isolated", and "became socially isolated". We defined a K6 score of ≥ 10/24 as indicating the presence of psychological distress. We used multiple logistic regression analysis to estimate the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to indicate how the change in social isolation was related to changes in psychological distress over 3 years. Among the participants who had not shown psychological distress at the baseline, the rates of deterioration of psychological distress were significantly lower in participants who "became not socially isolated" (multivariate OR = 0.26, 95% CI = 0.08-0.70) and "remained not socially isolated" (multivariate OR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.27-0.91), compared with participants who "remained socially isolated". Among the participants who had psychological distress at the baseline, the rate of improvement of psychological distress was significantly higher in participants who "remained not socially isolated" (multivariate OR = 2.61, 95% CI = 1.08-6.44). The present findings suggest that prevention of social isolation may be an effective public health strategy for

  17. Influence of living environment and subjective economic hardship on new-onset of low back pain for survivors of the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabe, Yutaka; Hagiwara, Yoshihiro; Sekiguchi, Takuya; Sugawara, Yumi; Sato, Mari; Kanazawa, Kenji; Koide, Masashi; Itaya, Nobuyuki; Tsuchiya, Masahiro; Tsuji, Ichiro; Itoi, Eiji

    2017-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake and subsequent tsunami devastated the northeastern part of Japan. Low back pain is thought to increase after a natural disaster and is related to various factors. The aim of this study was to examine the influencing factors of "Living environment" and "Subjective economic hardship" on new-onset of low back pain in the chronic phase for the survivors of the earthquake evaluated by a self-report questionnaire. A panel study was conducted with the Great East Japan Earthquake survivors at 2 and 3 years after the disaster. New-onset of low back pain was defined as low back pain absent at the 1st period (2 years after the earthquake) and present at the 2nd period (3 years after the earthquake). Living environment was divided into 4 categories (1. Living in the same house as before the earthquake, 2. Living in a prefabricated house, 3. Living in a new house, 4. Others: Living in an apartment, house of relatives or acquaintance). Subjective economic hardship was obtained using the following self-report question: "How do you feel about the current economic situation of your household?" The response alternatives were "Normal", "A little bit hard", "Hard", and "Very hard". A univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used. 1357 survivors consented to join this study. There was no significant association between new-onset of low back pain and living environment. There was significant association between new-onset of low back pain and "A little hard" (OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.07-2.40), "Hard" (OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.56-3.74), and "Very hard" (OR = 3.19, 95% CI = 1.84-5.53) in subjective economic hardship. Subjective economic hardship was significantly associated with new-onset of low back pain in the chronic phase for survivors of the Great East Japan Earthquake. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Southern Peru desert shattered by the great 2001 earthquake: Implications for paleoseismic and paleo-El Niño–Southern Oscillation records

    OpenAIRE

    Keefer, David K.; Moseley, Michael E.

    2004-01-01

    In the desert region around the coastal city of Ilo, the great southern Peru earthquake of June 23, 2001 (8.2–8.4 moment magnitude), produced intense and widespread ground-failure effects. These effects included abundant landslides, pervasive ground cracking, microfracturing of surficial hillslope materials, collapse of drainage banks over long stretches, widening of hillside rills, and lengthening of first-order tributary channels. We have coined the term “shattered landscape” to describe th...

  19. El terremoto de 2010 en Chile: respuesta del sistema de salud y de la cooperación internacional The 2010 earthquake in Chile: the response of the health system and international cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth López Tagle

    2011-08-01

    estar mejor preparados frente a los desastres.OBJECTIVE: Understand the health system and international cooperation response to the catastrophic situation left by the earthquake and tsunami of 27 February 2010 in Chile, and draft proposals for improving strategies to mitigate the devastating effects of natural disasters. METHODS: Descriptive and qualitative study with a first phase involving the analysis of secondary information-such as news articles, official statements, and technical reports-and a second phase involving semistructured interviews of institutional actors in the public health sector responsible for disaster response and users of the health system who acted as leaders and/or managers of the response. The study was conducted between May and October 2010, and information-gathering focused on the Maule, Bío Bío, and Metropolitan regions. RESULTS: Procedures for recording, distributing, and controlling donations were lacking. The health services suffered significant damage, including the complete destruction of 10 hospitals. The presence of field hospitals and foreign medical teams were appreciated by the community. The family health model and the commitment of personnel helped to ensure the quality of the response. While public health management was generally good, problems dealing with mental health issues were encountered due to a lack of local plans and predisaster simulations. The poor were the most affected. Women became social leaders, organizing the community. CONCLUSIONS: Although the health response to the emergency was satisfactory, both the health system and the mobilization of international assistance suffered from weaknesses that exacerbated existing inequities, revealing the need for multisectoral participatory mitigation plans for better disaster preparedness.

  20. Reference frame access under the effects of great earthquakes: a least squares collocation approach for non-secular post-seismic evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, D. D.; Piñón, D. A.; Smalley, R.; Bevis, M.; Cimbaro, S. R.; Lenzano, L. E.; Barón, J.

    2016-03-01

    The 2010, (Mw 8.8) Maule, Chile, earthquake produced large co-seismic displacements and non-secular, post-seismic deformation, within latitudes 28°S-40°S extending from the Pacific to the Atlantic oceans. Although these effects are easily resolvable by fitting geodetic extended trajectory models (ETM) to continuous GPS (CGPS) time series, the co- and post-seismic deformation cannot be determined at locations without CGPS (e.g., on passive geodetic benchmarks). To estimate the trajectories of passive geodetic benchmarks, we used CGPS time series to fit an ETM that includes the secular South American plate motion and plate boundary deformation, the co-seismic discontinuity, and the non-secular, logarithmic post-seismic transient produced by the earthquake in the Posiciones Geodésicas Argentinas 2007 (POSGAR07) reference frame (RF). We then used least squares collocation (LSC) to model both the background secular inter-seismic and the non-secular post-seismic components of the ETM at the locations without CGPS. We tested the LSC modeled trajectories using campaign and CGPS data that was not used to generate the model and found standard deviations (95 % confidence level) for position estimates for the north and east components of 3.8 and 5.5 mm, respectively, indicating that the model predicts the post-seismic deformation field very well. Finally, we added the co-seismic displacement field, estimated using an elastic finite element model. The final, trajectory model allows accessing the POSGAR07 RF using post-Maule earthquake coordinates within 5 cm for ˜ 91 % of the passive test benchmarks.

  1. Great earthquake potential in Oregon and Washington: An overview of recent coastal geologic studies and possible segmentation of the central Cascadia subduction zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, A.R.; Personius, S.F.

    1990-01-01

    Fundamental questions in earthquake hazards research in the Pacific Northwest concern the magnitude and recurrence of great earthquakes in the Cascadia subduction zone in Oregon and Washington. Geologic work of the last few years has produced convincing evidence for coseismic subsidence along the Washington and Oregon coasts. Regional subsidence recorded by estuarine deposits suggests that plate-interface earthquakes of at least M w 8 (>100-km-long ruptures) occurred during the late Holocene in northern Oregon and southern Washington. Differences in the types of coastal marsh sequences between northern and south-central Oregon, however, suggest that regional coastal subsidence does not extend south of about 45.5 degrees N along the Oregon coast. North of this latitude, the coast may intersect the seaward edge of a zone of coseismic subsidence that continues southward onshore. Alternatively, the Cascadia subduction zone is segmented near 44-45 degrees N; a segment boundary at this location would suggest that plate-interface events near M w 8 along the central CSZ would be more frequent than larger (M w 9) events. South of this boundary in the Coos Bay region, the tectonic framework developed through mapping and dating of marine and fluvial terraces indicates that many episodes of abrupt marsh burial in south-central Oregon are best interpreted as the product of deformation on local structures. Some of the local deformation could be associated with moderate earthquakes (M s <6). At most sites in south-central Oregon, however, it is still unclear whether coseismic events were responses to local faulting or folding, to regional deformation during great plate-interface earthquakes, or to both. This study has potential implications for risk assessments for light water reactors in North America

  2. Vertical deformation through a complete seismic cycle at Isla Santa María, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesson, Robert L.; Melnick, Daniel; Cisternas, Marco; Moreno, Marcos; Ely, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Individual great earthquakes are posited to release the elastic strain energy that has accumulated over centuries by the gradual movement of tectonic plates1, 2. However, knowledge of plate deformation during a complete seismic cycle—two successive great earthquakes and the intervening interseismic period—remains incomplete3. A complete seismic cycle began in south-central Chile in 1835 with an earthquake of about magnitude 8.5 (refs 4, 5) and ended in 2010 with a magnitude 8.8 earthquake6. During the first earthquake, an uplift of Isla Santa María by 2.4 to 3 m was documented4, 5. In the second earthquake, the island was uplifted7 by 1.8 m. Here we use nautical surveys made in 1804, after the earthquake in 1835 and in 1886, together with modern echo sounder surveys and GPS measurements made immediately before and after the 2010 earthquake, to quantify vertical deformation through the complete seismic cycle. We find that in the period between the two earthquakes, Isla Santa María subsided by about 1.4 m. We simulate the patterns of vertical deformation with a finite-element model and find that they agree broadly with predictions from elastic rebound theory2. However, comparison with geomorphic and geologic records of millennial coastline emergence8, 9 reveal that 10–20% of the vertical uplift could be permanent.

  3. Resilience, post-traumatic growth, and work engagement among health care professionals after the Great East Japan Earthquake: A 4-year prospective follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Daisuke; Kawashima, Yuzuru; Noguchi, Hiroko; Usuki, Masato; Yamashita, Akihiro; Koido, Yuichi; Matsuoka, Yutaka J

    2016-07-22

    Although attention has been paid to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among health care professionals after disasters, the impact of traumatic events on their work has not been elucidated. The aim of this study was to examine whether disaster-related distress, resilience, and post-traumatic growth (PTG) affect work engagement among health care professionals who had been deployed to the areas affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake that occurred on March 11, 2011. We recruited disaster medical assistance team members who were engaged in rescue activities after the earthquake. The short version of the Resilience Scale (RS-14) and Peritraumatic Distress Inventory (PDI) were administered one month after the earthquake, and the short form of Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (SF-PTGI) and Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) were administered four years after the earthquake. Work engagement is composed of vigor, dedication, and absorption. Regression analyses were used to examine the relationship of UWES with RS-14, PDI, and SF-PTGI. We obtained baseline data of 254 participants in April 2011, and 191 (75.2%) completed the follow-up assessment between December 2014 and March 2015. The results showed that RS-14 predicted vigor, dedication, and absorption; in addition, SF-PTGI was positively related with these three parameters (pwork engagement among health care professionals after disasters. These findings could be useful for establishing a support system after rescue activities during a large-scale disaster and for managing work-related stress among health care professionals.

  4. Ethical challenges for the design and conduct of mega-biobanking from Great East Japan Earthquake victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Kenji; Tashiro, Shimon

    2014-07-04

    Amid continuing social unrest from the Great East Japan Earthquake and subsequent Fukushima nuclear accident of 2011, the Japanese government announced plans for a major biobanking project in the disaster-stricken areas, to be administered by the 'Tohoku Medical Megabank Organization' (ToMMo). This project differs from previous biobanking projects in that it 1) was initiated mainly to boost post-disaster recovery and reconstruction; and 2) targets the area's survivors as its primary subjects. Here, we review the ethics of the ToMMo biobanking project within the wider context of disaster remediation. Private citizens in the Tohoku region have criticized the project proposal, asking for further review of the ethics of targeting disaster survivors for this study. They claim the project violates the Declaration of Helsinki's ethical provisions in that (1) government and university researchers initiated it without consulting any Tohoku survivors; (2) survivors already suffering extreme losses may view study involvement as meaningless or even undesirable, yet feel forced to participate in exchange for tenuous promises of future assistance, thus exploiting those most in need.Although the ToMMo has promised certain future social benefits for the target population in exchange for participating in its biobanking research, it is questionable whether such research can address the immediate health needs of the Tohoku disaster survivors in any significant fashion. The ethics of recruiting still-struggling survivors is also questionable. This case analysis demonstrates that conducting a post-disaster biobanking project on survivors poses issues concerning potential exploitation and the just distribution of benefits and burdens. Though the ToMMo emphasizes the project's importance for individual survivors and regional recovery, it is questionable whether such research can justly respond to the survivors' immediate health needs and whether truly voluntary participation can be

  5. Heart Care in Japan: Before and After the 1995 Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake

    OpenAIRE

    Benedict, Timothy O.

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the emergence of the term "heart care (kokoro no kea)" to describe the psychological support for disaster victims in the wake of the 1995 Hanshin earthquake. By comparing the usage of this term in the Yomiuri and Asahi newspapers before and after the earthquake, as well as its relationship with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), this paper will show how heart care emerged in the context of hospice before expanding to include care for trauma more broadly. I will also di...

  6. Evaluating a kinematic method for generating broadband ground motions for great subduction zone earthquakes: Application to the 2003 Mw 8.3 Tokachi‐Oki earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Erin A.; Frankel, Arthur; Vidale, John E.

    2017-01-01

    We compare broadband synthetic seismograms with recordings of the 2003 Mw">MwMw 8.3 Tokachi‐Oki earthquake to evaluate a compound rupture model, in which slip on the fault consists of multiple high‐stress‐drop asperities superimposed on a background slip distribution with longer rise times. Low‐frequency synthetics (frequency (>1  Hz">>1  Hz>1  Hz) stochastic synthetics using a matched filter at 1 Hz. We show that this compound rupture model and overall approach accurately reproduces waveform envelopes and observed response spectral accelerations (SAs) from the Tokachi‐Oki event. We find that sufficiently short subfault rise times (i.e., ∼1  Hz∼1  Hz. This is achieved by either (1) including distinct subevents with short rise times, as may be suggested by the Tokachi‐Oki data, or (2) imposing a fast‐slip velocity over the entire rupture area. We also include a systematic study on the effects of varying several kinematic rupture parameters. We find that simulated strong ground motions are sensitive to the average rupture velocity and coherence of the rupture front, with more coherent ruptures yielding higher response SAs. We also assess the effects of varying the average slip velocity and the character (i.e., area, magnitude, and location) of high‐stress‐drop subevents. Even in the absence of precise constraints on these kinematic rupture parameters, our simulations still reproduce major features in the Tokachi‐Oki earthquake data, supporting its accuracy in modeling future large earthquakes.

  7. Case study of medical evacuation before and after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident in the great east Japan earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Tetsu; Tokuno, Shinichi

    2015-01-01

    In Japan, participants in the disaster-specific medical transportation system have received ongoing training since 2002, incorporating lessons learned from the Great Hanshin Earthquake. The Great East Japan Earthquake occurred on March 11, 2011, and the very first disaster-specific medical transport was performed. This article reviews in detail the central government's control and coordination of the disaster medical transportation process following the Great East Japan Earthquake and the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident. In total, 124 patients were air transported under the coordination of the C5 team in the emergency response headquarter of the Japanese Government. C5 includes experts from the Cabinet Office, Cabinet Secretariat, Fire Defense Agency, Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, and Ministry of Defense. In the 20-30 km evacuation zone around the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, 509 bedridden patients were successfully evacuated without any fatalities during transportation. Many lessons have been learned in disaster-specific medical transportation. The national government, local government, police, and fire agencies have made significant progress in their mutual communication and collaboration. Fortunately, hospital evacuation from the 20-30 km area was successfully performed with the aid of local emergency physicians and Disaster Medical Assistance Teams (DMATs) who have vast experience in patient transport in the course of day-to-day activities. The emergency procedures that are required during crises are an extension of basic daily procedures that are performed by emergency medical staff and first responders, such as fire fighters, emergency medical technicians, or police officers. Medical facilities including nursing homes should have a plan for long-distance (over 100 km) evacuation, and the plan should be routinely reevaluated with full-scale exercises. In addition, hospital evacuation in disaster settings should be

  8. Copper Bioleaching in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Carlos Gentina; Fernando Acevedo

    2016-01-01

    Chile has a great tradition of producing and exporting copper. Over the last several decades, it has become the first producer on an international level. Its copper reserves are also the most important on the planet. However, after years of mineral exploitation, the ease of extracting copper oxides and ore copper content has diminished. To keep the production level high, the introduction of new technologies has become necessary. One that has been successful is bioleaching. Chile had the first...

  9. The Great East Japan Earthquake, tsunami, and Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident: a triple disaster affecting the mental health of the country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Jun; Shigemura, Jun

    2013-09-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011 caused 2 other serious disasters: a tsunami and a nuclear power plant accident. A chronic shortage of mental health resources had been previously reported in the Tohoku region, and the triple disaster worsened the situation. Eventually a public health approach was implemented by providing a common room in temporary housing developments to build a sense of community and to approach evacuees so that they could be triaged and referred to mental health teams. Japan now advocates using psychological first aid to educate first responders. This article extracts key lessons from relevant literature. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Two Cases of Tsunami Dust Pneumonia: Organizing Pneumonia Caused by the Inhalation of Dried Tsunami Sludge after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanda, Shinsuke; Kobayashi, Seiichi; Hanagama, Masakazu; Sato, Hikari; Suzuki, Satoshi; Ueda, Shinsaku; Takahashi, Toru; Yanai, Masaru

    2016-01-01

    We report two cases of organizing pneumonia (OP) secondary to the inhalation of the dried tsunami sludge which formed during the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and the consequent tsunami. After the disaster, both of these patients had been engaged in the restoration work. About half a month later, they developed shortness of breath and pulmonary infiltrates. These patients were diagnosed with interstitial pneumonia. Their biopsy specimens revealed multifocal peribronchiolitis and OP. An electron probe microanalysis of these specimens demonstrated the presence of elements from the earth's crust in the inflammatory lesions. These two cases indicate that exposure to dried tsunami sludge can cause OP. PMID:27980267

  11. Impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake on Hotel Industry in Pacific Tohoku Prefectures ---From Spatio-Temporal Dependence of Hotel Availability---

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, A.

    This paper investigates the impact of the Great Japan Earthquake(and subsequent tsunami turmoil) on socio-economic activities by using data on hotel opportunities collected from an electronic hotel booking service. A method to estimate both primary and secondary regional effects of a natural disaster on human behavior is proposed. It is confirmed that temporal variation in the regional share of available hotels before and after a natural disaster may be an indicator to measure the socio-economic impact at each district.

  12. A Case of Persistent Generalized Retrograde Autobiographical Amnesia Subsequent to the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Odagaki, Yuji

    2017-01-01

    Functional retrograde autobiographical amnesia is often associated with physical and/or psychological trauma. On 11 March 2011, the largest earthquake on record in Japan took place, and subsequent huge tsunami devastated the Pacific coast of northern Japan. This case report describes a patient suffering from retrograde episodic-autobiographical amnesia for whole life, persisting for even more than five years after the disaster. A Japanese man, presumably in his 40s, got police protection in A...

  13. Changes in suicide rates in disaster-stricken areas following the Great East Japan Earthquake and their effect on economic factors: an ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orui, Masatsugu; Harada, Shuichiro; Hayashi, Mizuho

    2014-11-01

    Devastating disasters may increase suicide rates due to mental distress. Previous domestic studies have reported decreased suicide rates among men following disasters. Few reports are available regarding factors associated with disasters, making it difficult to discuss how these events affect suicide rates. This study aimed to observe changes in suicide rates in disaster-stricken and neighboring areas following the Great East Japan Earthquake, and examine associations between suicide rates and economic factors. Monthly suicide rates were observed from March 2009 to February 2013, during which time the earthquake occurred on March, 2011. Data were included from disaster-stricken (Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima Prefectures) and neighboring (control: Aomori, Akita, and Yamagata Prefectures) areas. The association between changes in suicide rates and economic variables was evaluated based on the number of bankruptcy cases and ratio of effective job offers. In disaster-stricken areas, post-disaster male suicide rates decreased during the 24 months following the earthquake. This trend differed relative to control areas. Female suicide rates increased during the first seven months. Multiple regression analysis showed that bankruptcy cases (β = 0.386, p = 0.038) and ratio of effective job offers (β = -0.445, p = 0.018) were only significantly associated with male post-disaster suicide rates in control areas. Post-disaster suicide rates differed by gender following the earthquake. Our findings suggest that considering gender differences might be important for developing future post-disaster suicide prevention measures. This ecological study revealed that increasing effective job offers and decreasing bankruptcy cases can affect protectively male suicide rates in control areas.

  14. Preparing for creative responses to “beyond assumed level” disasters: lessons from the ICT management in the 2011 Great East Japan earthquake crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihoko Sakurai

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the municipal government ICT divisions during and after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami crisis reveals the need for creative responses for “beyond assumed level” disasters. Complexity and diversity of the damage were simply too great for any plans to assume. Resident needs toward the municipal governments were also diverse and changed quickly as the time went by. The research also indicates that there would be ways to strengthen the capabilities to execute such spontaneous responses. Creative solutions executed during the 3.11 crisis were supported by the existence of open source software available on the net and skilled engineers that were capable of exploiting them. Frugal information system will be useful to improve preparedness for creative responses

  15. Impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami on health, medical care and public health systems in Iwate Prefecture, Japan, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohara, Masaru

    2011-10-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake was one of the largest earthquakes ever recorded in global history. The damage was spread over a wide area, with the worst-hit areas being Iwate, Miyagi and Fukushima prefectures. In this paper we report on the damage and the impact of the damage to describe the health consequences among disaster victims in Iwate Prefecture. In Iwate Prefecture the tsunami claimed 4659 lives, with 1633 people missing. In addition to electricity, water and gas being cut off following the disaster, communication functions were paralysed and there was a lack of gasoline. Medical and public health teams from Iwate Prefecture and around the country, including many different specialists, engaged in a variety of public health activities mainly at evacuation centres, including medical and mental health care and activities to prevent infectious diseases. Given the many fatalities, there were relatively few patients who required medical treatment for major injuries. However, there were significant medical needs in the subacute and chronic phases of care in evacuation centres, with great demand for medical treatment and public health assistance, measures to counteract infection and mental health care. By referring to past experiences of national and international large-scale disasters, it was possible to respond effectively to the health-related challenges. However, there are still challenges concerning how to share information and coordinate overall activities among multiple public health response teams. Further examination will be required to ensure better preparedness in response to future disasters.

  16. IMMEDIATE MENTAL CONSEQUENCES OF THE GREAT EAST JAPAN EARTHQUAKE AND FUKUSHIMA NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ACCIDENT ON MOTHERS EXPERIENCING MISCARRIAGE, ABORTION, AND STILLBIRTH: THE FUKUSHIMA HEALTH MANAGEMENT SURVEY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida-Komiya, Hiromi; Goto, Aya; Yasumura, Seiji; Fujimori, Keiya; Abe, Masafumi

    2015-01-01

    The Fukushima Pregnancy and Birth Survey was launched to monitor pregnant mothers' health after the Great East Japan Earthquake and Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident. Several lines of investigations have indicated that a disaster impacts maternal mental health with childbirth. However, there is no research regarding mental health of mothers with fetal loss after a disaster. In this report, we focus on those women immediately after the Great East Japan Earthquake and Fukushima NPP accident and discuss their support needs. Data regarding 61 miscarriages, 5 abortions, and 22 stillbirths were analyzed among the women who were pregnant at the time of the accident in the present study. We used a two-item case-finding instrument for depression screening, and compared the childbirth group with the fetal loss groups. We also analyzed mothers' opinions written as free-form text. Among the three fetal loss groups, the proportion of positive depression screens was significantly higher in the miscarriage and stillbirth group than in the childbirth group. Mothers' opinions were grouped into six categories, with pregnancy-related items being most common, especially in the miscarriage and stillbirth groups. A higher proportion of Fukushima mothers with fetal loss, especially those with miscarriage and stillbirth, had depressive symptoms compared to those who experienced childbirth. Health care providers need to pay close attention to this vulnerable group and respond to their concerns regarding the effects on their fertility.

  17. Assessing the Utility of Strong Motion Data to Determine Static Ground Displacements During Great Megathrust Earthquakes: Tohoku and Iquique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, M. W.; Furlong, K. P.; Hayes, G. P.; Benz, H.

    2014-12-01

    Strong motion accelerometers can record large amplitude shaking on-scale in the near-field of large earthquake ruptures; however, numerical integration of such records to determine displacement is typically unstable due to baseline changes (i.e., distortions in the zero value) that occur during strong shaking. We use datasets from the 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku earthquake to assess whether a relatively simple empirical correction scheme (Boore et al., 2002) can return accurate displacement waveforms useful for constraining details of the fault slip. The coseismic deformation resulting from the Tohoku earthquake was recorded by the Kiban Kyoshin network (KiK-net) of strong motion instruments as well as by a dense network of high-rate (1 Hz) GPS instruments. After baseline correcting the KiK-net records and integrating to displacement, over 85% of the KiK-net borehole instrument waveforms and over 75% of the KiK-net surface instrument waveforms match collocated 1 Hz GPS displacement time series. Most of the records that do not match the GPS-derived displacements following the baseline correction have large, systematic drifts that can be automatically identified by examining the slopes in the first 5-10 seconds of the velocity time series. We apply the same scheme to strong motion records from the 2014 Mw 8.2 Iquique earthquake. Close correspondence in both direction and amplitude between coseismic static offsets derived from the integrated strong motion time series and those predicted from a teleseismically-derived finite fault model, as well as displacement amplitudes consistent with InSAR-derived results, suggest that the correction scheme works successfully for the Iquique event. In the absence of GPS displacements, these strong motion-derived offsets provide constraints on the overall distribution of slip on the fault. In addition, the coseismic strong motion-derived displacement time series (50-100 s long) contain a near-field record of the temporal evolution of the

  18. Discovering the Complexity of Capable Faults in Northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, G.; del Río, I. A.; Rojas Orrego, C., Sr.; Astudillo, L. A., Sr.

    2017-12-01

    Great crustal earthquakes (Mw >7.0) in the upper plate of subduction zones are relatively uncommon and less well documented. We hypothesize that crustal earthquakes are poorly represented in the instrumental record because they have long recurrence intervals. In northern Chile, the extreme long-term aridity permits extraordinary preservation of landforms related to fault activity, making this region a primary target to understand how upper plate faults work at subduction zones. To understand how these faults relate to crustal seismicity in the long-term, we have conducted a detailed palaeoseismological study. We performed a palaeoseismological survey integrating trench logging and photogrammetry based on UAVs. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) age determinations were practiced for dating deposits linked to faulting. In this contribution we present the study case of two primary faults located in the Coastal Cordillera of northern Chile between Iquique (21ºS) and Antofagasta (24ºS). We estimate the maximum moment magnitude of earthquakes generated in these upper plate faults, their recurrence interval and the fault-slip rate. We conclude that the studied upper plate faults show a complex kinematics on geological timescales. Faults seem to change their kinematics from normal (extension) to reverse (compression) or from normal to transcurrent (compression) according to the stage of subduction earthquake cycle. Normal displacement is related to coseismic stages and compression is linked to interseismic period. As result this complex interaction these faults are capable of generating Mw 7.0 earthquakes, with recurrence times on the order of thousands of years during every stage of the subduction earthquake cycle.

  19. Inferences about the local stress field from focal mechanisms: Applications to earthquakes in the southern Great Basin of Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmsen, S.C.; Rogers, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    Focal mechanisms determined from regional-network earthquake data or aftershock field investigation often contain members ranging from strike slip to normal slip in extensional tectonic environments or from strike slip to thrust slip in compressional environments. Although the coexistence of normal and strike-slip faulting has suggested to some investigators that the maximum and intermediate principal stresses are of approximately equal magnitude, several have asserted that the directions of principle stresses can or must interchange to accommodate both types of mechanisms (Zoback and Zoback 1980b; Vetter and Ryall, 1983). A Coulomb-Navier criterion of slip is invoked to demonstrate that both types of mechanisms, as well as oblique members having preferred nodal-plane dips intermediate between those of the strike-slip and normal mechanisms, may be observed in a region where the stress field, resolved into principal components, is axially symmetric. The proximate coexistence of earthquakes having diverse focal mechanisms could be interpreted as evidence for an approximately axially symmetric stress field in a region where optimally oriented planes of weakness are known to exist in the host rock. 10 refs., 6 figs

  20. Resource utilization in the emergency department of a tertiary care university-based hospital in Tokyo before and after the 2011 Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Mai; Tanabe, Aska; Gunshin, Masataka; Riffenburgh, Robert H; Tanen, David A

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the resource utilization of a tertiary care Japanese emergency department (ED) that was not immediately adjacent to the area of the 2011 Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami. A retrospective chart review was performed at a tertiary care university-based urban ED located approximately 290 km from the primary site of destruction secondary to an earthquake measuring 9.0 on the Richter Scale and the resulting tsunami. All patients who presented for a period of twelve days before and twelve days after the disaster were included. Data were collected using preformed data collection sheets, and stored in an Excel file. Abstracted data included gender, time in the ED, intravenous fluid administration, blood transfusion, oxygen, laboratories, electrocardiograms (ECGs), radiographs, ultrasound, diagnoses, surgical and medical referrals, and prescriptions written. Ten percent of the charts were reviewed for accuracy, and an error rate reported. Data were analyzed using 2-tailed t-tests, Fisher's exact tests or rank sum tests. Bonferroni correction was used to adjust P values for multiple comparisons. Charts for 1193 patients were evaluated. The error rate for the abstracted data was 3.2% (95% CI, 2.4%-4.1%). Six hundred fifty-seven patients (53% male) were evaluated in the ED after the earthquake, representing a 23% increase in patient volume. Mean patient time spent in the ED decreased from 61 minutes to 52 minutes (median decrease from 35 minutes to 32 minutes; P = .005). Laboratory utilization decreased from 51% to 43% (P = .006). The percentage of patients receiving prescriptions increased from 48% to 54% (P = .002). There was no change in the number of patients evaluated for surgical complaints, but there was an increase in the number treated for medical or psychiatric complaints. There was a significant increase in the number of people utilizing the ED in Tokyo after the Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami. Time spent

  1. Comparative Roughness Characteristics of the Subducting Seafloor and Statistical Relationships with Seismogenic Potential, with Special Emphasis on Great Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallemand, S.; Peyret, M.; van Rijsingen, E.; Arcay, D.

    2017-12-01

    Do some topographic features or morphological characteristics promote earthquake nucleation, large coseismic slip or creep ? To answer this question, we have developed a new database called "SubRough" which provides few roughness parameters at selected spatial wavelengths. Since the currently subducting topography is generally unknown, we assume that the bathymetry of the oceanic plates, a few hundreds of km seaward of the trench, is a reasonable proxy for determining the roughness of the subduction interface. Given the selected wavelengths in our roughness study (detailed below), we do not expect major changes when entering the subduction zone, even though the presence of a subduction channel or significant sediment offscrapping may alter it. Morphological objects characterized by high spatial frequencies (isolated seamounts or fracture zones) are likely to play a role in large events initiation or termination. Similarly, wide "smooth" areas may likely favor rupture propagation and thus large events, while ridges or plateaus may also play a specific role in seismic behavior. Consequently, we only retain the roughness components Rsw and Rlw that are comprised respectively within 2 wavelength bands: [12-20 km] and [80-100 km]. The choice of these wavelengths is constrained by the resolution of the bathymetry, the size of the studied area and the characteristic wavelengths of the seafloor topography. This new morphological information is then statistically analyzed to better understand how topographic features are modeled by roughness data. From a worldwide statistical point of view, fracture zones show similar amplitudes as mean seafloor at both wavelengths, which indicates that it is not possible to distinguish them from the background signal. Conversely, seamounts show roughness amplitudes about two times larger than the averaged ones at both wavelengths. Ridges and plateaus show Rlw amplitudes similar to seamounts but lower Rsw than seamounts. Finally, the

  2. [Self-esteem Saves Brain and Health: Evidence from a Follow-up Investigation after the Great East Japan Earthquake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiguchi, Atsushi

    2015-10-01

    Self-esteem plays a crucial role in mental health status. Past studies have revealed higher self-esteem as one of the most important traits of resilience in the context of stressful life events. In fact, our recent studies demonstrated that high self-esteem is a predicting factor for the recovery from brain volume reduction due to the post-earthquake distress. In this article, we introduce structural brain magnetic resonance imaging research with respect to self-esteem as well as past investigations about psychological and physiological backgrounds of tolerance to psycho-social stressors in individuals with high self-esteem. Finally, we discuss effective methods for improving self-esteem to manage unusual events like natural disaster.

  3. Intense Seismic Activity at Chiles and Cerro Negro Volcanoes on the Colombia-Ecuador Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, R. A.; Cadena, O.; Gomez, D.; Ruiz, M. C.; Prejean, S. G.; Lyons, J. J.; White, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    The region of Chiles and Cerro Negro volcanoes, located on the Colombian-Ecuadorian border, has experienced an ongoing seismic swarm beginning in Aug. 2013. Based on concern for local residents and authorities, a cooperative broadband monitoring network was installed by the Servicio Geológico Colombiano in Colombia and the Instituto Geofísico of the Escuela Politécnica Nacional in Ecuador. Since November 2013 more than 538,000 earthquakes were recorded; although since May 2015 the seismicity has decreased significantly to an average of 70 events per day. Three large earthquake swarms with increasing energy occurred in Aug.-Oct. 2013, March-May 2014, and Sept.-Dec. 2014. By the end of 2014, roughly 400 earthquakes greater than M 3 had occurred with a maximum rate of 8000 earthquakes per day. The largest earthquake was a 5.6 ML on Oct. 20, 2014. This event produced an InSAR coseismic deformation of ~23 cm (S. Ebmeier, personal communication). Most events are typical brittle failure volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes that are located in a cluster beneath the southern flank of Chiles volcano, with depths between 1.5 and 10 km. Although the great majority of earthquakes are VT, some low-frequency (LF, ~0.5 Hz) and very-low-frequency (VLF) events have occurred. Particle motion analysis suggests that the VLF source migrated with time. While a VLF on Oct. 15, 2014 was located south of Chiles volcano, near the InSAR source, the VLF registered on Feb. 14, 2015 was likely located very close to Chiles Volcano. We infer that magma intrusion and resulting fluid exsolution at depths greater than 5 km are driving seismicity in the Chiles-Cerro Negro region. However earthquakes are failing in a manner consistent with regional tectonics. Relative relocations reveal a structure consistent with mapped regional faults. Thus seismicity is likely controlled by an interaction of magmatic and tectonic processes. Because the regional stress field is highly compressional and the volcanoes

  4. Gradual unlocking of plate boundary controlled initiation of the 2014 Iquique earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurr, Bernd; Asch, Günter; Hainzl, Sebastian; Bedford, Jonathan; Hoechner, Andreas; Palo, Mauro; Wang, Rongjiang; Moreno, Marcos; Bartsch, Mitja; Zhang, Yong; Oncken, Onno; Tilmann, Frederik; Dahm, Torsten; Victor, Pia; Barrientos, Sergio; Vilotte, Jean-Pierre

    2014-08-21

    On 1 April 2014, Northern Chile was struck by a magnitude 8.1 earthquake following a protracted series of foreshocks. The Integrated Plate Boundary Observatory Chile monitored the entire sequence of events, providing unprecedented resolution of the build-up to the main event and its rupture evolution. Here we show that the Iquique earthquake broke a central fraction of the so-called northern Chile seismic gap, the last major segment of the South American plate boundary that had not ruptured in the past century. Since July 2013 three seismic clusters, each lasting a few weeks, hit this part of the plate boundary with earthquakes of increasing peak magnitudes. Starting with the second cluster, geodetic observations show surface displacements that can be associated with slip on the plate interface. These seismic clusters and their slip transients occupied a part of the plate interface that was transitional between a fully locked and a creeping portion. Leading up to this earthquake, the b value of the foreshocks gradually decreased during the years before the earthquake, reversing its trend a few days before the Iquique earthquake. The mainshock finally nucleated at the northern end of the foreshock area, which skirted a locked patch, and ruptured mainly downdip towards higher locking. Peak slip was attained immediately downdip of the foreshock region and at the margin of the locked patch. We conclude that gradual weakening of the central part of the seismic gap accentuated by the foreshock activity in a zone of intermediate seismic coupling was instrumental in causing final failure, distinguishing the Iquique earthquake from most great earthquakes. Finally, only one-third of the gap was broken and the remaining locked segments now pose a significant, increased seismic hazard with the potential to host an earthquake with a magnitude of >8.5.

  5. Relationships between mental health distress and work-related factors among prefectural public servants two months after the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukasawa, Maiko; Suzuki, Yuriko; Obara, Akiko; Kim, Yoshiharu

    2015-02-01

    In times of disaster, public servants face multiple burdens as they engage in a demanding and stressful disaster-response work while managing their own needs caused by the disaster. We investigated the effects of work-related factors on the mental health of prefectural public servants working in the area devastated by the Great East Japan Earthquake to identify some ideas for organizational work modifications to protect their mental health. Two months after the earthquake, Miyagi prefecture conducted a self-administered health survey of prefectural public servants and obtained 4,331 (82.8%) valid responses. We investigated relationships between mental health distress (defined as K6 ≥ 13) and work-related variables (i.e., job type, overwork, and working environment) stratified by level of earthquake damage experienced. The proportion of participants with mental health distress was 3.0% in the group that experienced less damage and 5.9% in the group that experienced severe damage. In the group that experienced less damage, working >100 h of overtime per month (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 2.06; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11-3.82) and poor workplace communication (adjusted OR, 10.96; 95% CI, 6.63-18.09) increased the risk of mental health distress. In the group that experienced severe damage, handling residents' complaints (adjusted OR, 4.79; 95% CI, 1.55-14.82) and poor workplace communication (adjusted OR, 9.14; 95% CI, 3.34-24.97) increased the risk, whereas involvement in disaster-related work (adjusted OR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.18-0.86) decreased the risk. Workers who have experienced less disaster-related damage might benefit from working fewer overtime hours, and those who have experienced severe damage might benefit from avoiding contact with residents and engaging in disaster-related work. Facilitating workplace communication appeared important for both groups of workers.

  6. Long-term outcomes of patients evacuated from hospitals near the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant after the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Yutaka; Tagami, Takashi; Hagiwara, Jun; Kanaya, Takahiro; Kido, Norihiro; Omura, Mariko; Tosa, Ryoichi; Yokota, Hiroyuki

    2018-01-01

    After the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant due to the Great East Japan Earthquake in March 2011, the Japanese government issued a mandatory evacuation order for people living within a 20 km radius of the nuclear power plant. The aim of the current study was to investigate long-term outcomes of these patients and identify factors related to mortality. Patients who were evacuated from hospitals near the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant to the Aizu Chuo Hospital from 15 to 26 March, 2011 were included in this study. The following data were collected from medical records: age, sex, activities of daily life, hospital they were admitted in at the time of earthquake, distance between the facility and the nuclear power plant, reasons of evacuation and number of transfers. The patient outcomes were collected from medical records and/or investigated on the telephone in January 2012. A total of 97 patients (28 men and 69 women) were transferred from 10 hospitals via ambulances or buses. No patients died or experienced exacerbation during transfer. Median age of the patients was 86 years. Of the total, 36 patients were not able to obey commands, 44 were bed-ridden and 61 were unable to sustain themselves via oral intake of food. Among 86 patients who were followed-up, 41 (48%) died at the end of 2011. Multiple-regression analysis showed that non-oral intake [Hazard Ratio (HR): 6.07, 95% Confidence interval (CI): 1.94-19.0] and male sex [HR: 8.35, 95% CI: 2.14-32.5] had significant impact on mortality. This study found that 48% of the evacuated patients died 9 months after the earthquake and they had significantly higher mortality rate than the nursing home residents. Non-oral intake and male sex had significant impact on mortality. These patients should be considered as especially vulnerable in case of hospital evacuation.

  7. Rupture Propagation through the Big Bend of the San Andreas Fault: A Dynamic Modeling Case Study of the Great Earthquake of 1857

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozos, J.

    2017-12-01

    The great San Andreas Fault (SAF) earthquake of 9 January 1857, estimated at M7.9, was one of California's largest historic earthquakes. Its 360 km rupture trace follows the Carrizo and Mojave segments of the SAF, including the 30° compressional Big Bend in the fault. If 1857 were a characteristic rupture, the hazard implications for southern California would be dire, especially given the inferred 150 year recurrence interval for this section of the fault. However, recent paleoseismic studies in this region suggest that 1857-type events occur less frequently than single-segment Carrizo or Mojave ruptures, and that the hinge of the Big Bend is a barrier to through-going rupture. Here, I use 3D dynamic rupture modeling to attempt to reproduce the rupture length and surface slip distribution of the 1857 earthquake, to determine which physical conditions allow rupture to negotiate the Big Bend of the SAF. These models incorporate the nonplanar geometry of the SAF, an observation-based heterogeneous regional velocity structure (SCEC CVM), and a regional stress field from seismicity literature. Under regional stress conditions, I am unable to produce model events that both match the observed surface slip on the Carrizo and Mojave segments of the SAF and include rupture through the hinge of the Big Bend. I suggest that accumulated stresses at the bend hinge from multiple smaller Carrizo or Mojave ruptures may be required to allow rupture through the bend — a concept consistent with paleoseismic observations. This study may contribute to understanding the cyclicity of hazard associated with the southern-central SAF.

  8. Survey of Preventable Disaster Deaths at Medical Institutions in Areas Affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake: Retrospective Survey of Medical Institutions in Miyagi Prefecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanouchi, Satoshi; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Mase, Tomohiko; Otomo, Yasuhiro; Koido, Yuichi; Kushimoto, Shigeki

    2017-10-01

    Introduction In 2015, the authors reported the results of a preliminary investigation of preventable disaster deaths (PDDs) at medical institutions in areas affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake (2011). This initial survey considered only disaster base hospitals (DBHs) and hospitals that had experienced at least 20 patient deaths in Miyagi Prefecture (Japan); therefore, hospitals that experienced fewer than 20 patient deaths were not investigated. This was an additional study to the previous survey to better reflect PDD at hospitals across the entire prefecture. Of the 147 hospitals in Miyagi Prefecture, the 14 DBHs and 82 non-DBHs that agreed to participate were included in an on-site survey. A database was created based on the medical records of 1,243 patient deaths that occurred between March 11, 2011 and April 1, 2011, followed by determination of their status as PDDs. A total of 125 cases of PDD were identified among the patients surveyed. The rate of PDD was significantly higher at coastal hospitals than inland hospitals (17.3% versus 6.3%; Pdisaster deaths in non-DBHs were most numerous in facilities with few general beds, especially among patients hospitalized before the disaster in hospitals with fewer than 100 beds. Categorized by area, the most frequent causes of PDD were: insufficient medical resources, disrupted lifelines, delayed medical intervention, and deteriorated environmental conditions in homes and emergency shelters in coastal areas; and were delayed medical intervention and disrupted lifelines in inland areas. Categorized by hospital function, the most frequent causes were: delayed medical intervention, deteriorated environmental conditions in homes and emergency shelters, and insufficient medical resources at DBHs; while those at non-DBHs were disrupted lifelines, insufficient medical resources, delayed medical intervention, and lack of capacity for transport within the area. Preventable disaster death at medical institutions in areas

  9. Southern Peru desert shattered by the great 2001 earthquake: Implications for paleoseismic and paleo-El Niño–Southern Oscillation records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefer, David K.; Moseley, Michael E.

    2004-01-01

    In the desert region around the coastal city of Ilo, the great southern Peru earthquake of June 23, 2001 (8.2–8.4 moment magnitude), produced intense and widespread ground-failure effects. These effects included abundant landslides, pervasive ground cracking, microfracturing of surficial hillslope materials, collapse of drainage banks over long stretches, widening of hillside rills, and lengthening of first-order tributary channels. We have coined the term “shattered landscape” to describe the severity of these effects. Long-term consequences of this landscape shattering are inferred to include increased runoff and sediment transport during postearthquake rainstorms. This inference was confirmed during the first minor postearthquake rainstorm there, which occurred in June and July of 2002. Greater amounts of rainfall in this desert region have historically been associated with El Niño events. Previous studies of an unusual paleoflood deposit in this region have concluded that it is the product of El Niño-generated precipitation falling on seismically disturbed landscapes. The effects of the 2001 earthquake and 2002 rainstorm support that conclusion. PMID:15263069

  10. Southern Peru desert shattered by the great 2001 earthquake: implications for paleoseismic and paleo-El Nino-Southern Oscillation records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefer, David K; Moseley, Michael E

    2004-07-27

    In the desert region around the coastal city of Ilo, the great southern Peru earthquake of June 23, 2001 (8.2-8.4 moment magnitude), produced intense and widespread ground-failure effects. These effects included abundant landslides, pervasive ground cracking, microfracturing of surficial hillslope materials, collapse of drainage banks over long stretches, widening of hillside rills, and lengthening of first-order tributary channels. We have coined the term "shattered landscape" to describe the severity of these effects. Long-term consequences of this landscape shattering are inferred to include increased runoff and sediment transport during postearthquake rainstorms. This inference was confirmed during the first minor postearthquake rainstorm there, which occurred in June and July of 2002. Greater amounts of rainfall in this desert region have historically been associated with El Niño events. Previous studies of an unusual paleoflood deposit in this region have concluded that it is the product of El Niño-generated precipitation falling on seismically disturbed landscapes. The effects of the 2001 earthquake and 2002 rainstorm support that conclusion.

  11. What was the role of nurses during the 2011 great East earthquake of Japan? An integrative review of the Japanese literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kako, Mayumi; Ranse, Jamie; Yamamoto, Aiko; Arbon, Paul

    2014-06-01

    An earthquake and tsunami hit the east coast of Japan on March 11, 2011. Nurses were actively involved in the health response to this disaster and, subsequently, many authors have reported on the role nurses played in these efforts in Japanese nursing professional journals. Aim To describe the role of nurses who assisted in the 2011 Great East Earthquake of Japan by reviewing Japanese literature and reporting the findings in English. This research used an integrative literature review methodology. Manuscripts were obtained from the Japanese database Ichushi Ver. 5 (Japan Medical Abstracts Society, Tokyo, Japan). A total of 44 manuscripts were identified and included in a thematic analysis. Three main themes were identified: (1) nursing roles, (2) specialized nursing roles, and (3) preparedness education. Nurses fulfilled different roles in the period after the disaster (ie, as a clinician, a communicator, a leader, and a provider of psychosocial support). Additionally, the specialized nurse role was identified, along with the need for preparedness education to support the nurse's role in a disaster. The understanding of the role of nurses in disasters is expanding. There is a need to further explore the roles of specialized nurses in disasters. Further disaster education opportunities should be available as a part of continuing education for all nurses. Radiation aspects of disaster assistance should be included in disaster education programs where there are radio-nuclear hazards present in the environment.

  12. Incidence of Domestic Violence Against Pregnant Females After the Great East Japan Earthquake in Miyagi Prefecture: The Japan Environment and Children's Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Kasumi; Nishigori, Hidekazu; Nishigori, Toshie; Mizuno, Satoshi; Obara, Taku; Iwama, Noriyuki; Watanabe, Zen; Ishikuro, Mami; Tatsuta, Nozomi; Nishijima, Ichiko; Sugawara, Junichi; Fujiwara, Ikuma; Arima, Takahiro; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Metoki, Hirohito; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Nakai, Kunihiko; Yaegashi, Nobuo

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to clarify the correlation between the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and domestic violence (DV) against pregnant females after the disaster in Miyagi Prefecture, an area damaged by the earthquake and tsunami. We analyzed 7600 pregnant females from June to December 2011. The incidence of physical and mental DV and the proportions in the inland, north coastal, and south coastal areas of Miyagi Prefecture and nationwide were calculated, and a chi-square test was conducted for comparison. The risk factors for DV were estimated with multivariate logistic regression analyses on a prefecture-wide basis. The incidence levels for physical DV were found to be 5.9% in the north coastal area, which was significantly higher than in the inland area (1.3%, P=0.0007) and nationwide (1.5%, P<0.0001). There were no significant differences in the incidence of mental DV between the 3 areas in Miyagi Prefecture (inland 15.2%, north coast 15.7%, and south coast 18.8%) or nationwide (13.8%). Experiencing disease or injury in someone close and changes in the family structure were significantly associated with mental DV in Miyagi Prefecture. Continuous monitoring and support for pregnant females may be necessary to address this issue in disaster-affected areas. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:216-226).

  13. Impact of natural disaster combined with nuclear power plant accidents on local medical services: a case study of Minamisoma Municipal General Hospital after the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Yuko; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi; Hayashi, Kaoru; Takano, Michiko; Nagano, Mayumi; Onoda, Katsuko; Yoshida, Toshiharu; Takada, Akemi; Hanai, Tatsuo; Shimada, Shunji; Shimada, Satoko; Nishiuchi, Yasuyuki; Onoda, Syuichi; Monma, Kazuo; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Matsumura, Tomoko; Kami, Masahiro; Kanazawa, Yukio

    2014-12-01

    To elucidate the impacts of nuclear plant accidents on neighboring medical centers, we investigated the operations of our hospital within the first 10 days of the Great East Japan Earthquake followed by the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident. Data were extracted from medical records and hospital administrative records covering 11 to 20 March 2011. Factual information on the disaster was obtained from public access media. A total of 622 outpatients and 241 inpatients were treated. Outpatients included 43 injured, 6 with cardiopulmonary arrest, and 573 with chronic diseases. Among the 241 inpatients, 5 died, 137 were discharged, and the other 99 were transferred to other hospitals. No communication methods or medical or food supplies were available for 4 days after the earthquake. Hospital directors allowed employees to leave the hospital on day 4. All 39 temporary workers were evacuated immediately, and 71 of 239 full-time employees remained. These employees handled extra tasks besides patient care and patient transfer to other hospitals. Committed effective doses indicating the magnitude of health risks due to an intake of radioactive cesium into the human body were found to be minimal according to internal radiation exposure screening carried out from July to August 2011. After the disaster, hospitals located within the evacuation zone of a 30-km radius of the nuclear power plant were isolated. Maintenance of the health care system in such an event becomes difficult.

  14. A Case of Persistent Generalized Retrograde Autobiographical Amnesia Subsequent to the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odagaki, Yuji

    2017-01-01

    Functional retrograde autobiographical amnesia is often associated with physical and/or psychological trauma. On 11 March 2011, the largest earthquake on record in Japan took place, and subsequent huge tsunami devastated the Pacific coast of northern Japan. This case report describes a patient suffering from retrograde episodic-autobiographical amnesia for whole life, persisting for even more than five years after the disaster. A Japanese man, presumably in his 40s, got police protection in April 2016 but was unable to respond to question about his own name. He lost all information about his personal identity, and his memory was wholly lost until the disaster on 11 March 2011. He was able to recall his life after the disaster, and semantic memories and social abilities were largely preserved. A medical examination performed on 1 November 2016 verified that he was awake, alert, and oriented to time, place, and person (except for himself). General physical and neurological examinations revealed no pathological findings. He also experienced some symptoms associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), such as intrusive thoughts, flashbacks, and nightmares. No abnormalities were detected by biochemical test and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Physicians and other professionals who take care of victims of disaster should be aware of dissociative spectrum disorders, such as psychogenic amnesia.

  15. A Case of Persistent Generalized Retrograde Autobiographical Amnesia Subsequent to the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Odagaki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional retrograde autobiographical amnesia is often associated with physical and/or psychological trauma. On 11 March 2011, the largest earthquake on record in Japan took place, and subsequent huge tsunami devastated the Pacific coast of northern Japan. This case report describes a patient suffering from retrograde episodic-autobiographical amnesia for whole life, persisting for even more than five years after the disaster. A Japanese man, presumably in his 40s, got police protection in April 2016 but was unable to respond to question about his own name. He lost all information about his personal identity, and his memory was wholly lost until the disaster on 11 March 2011. He was able to recall his life after the disaster, and semantic memories and social abilities were largely preserved. A medical examination performed on 1 November 2016 verified that he was awake, alert, and oriented to time, place, and person (except for himself. General physical and neurological examinations revealed no pathological findings. He also experienced some symptoms associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, such as intrusive thoughts, flashbacks, and nightmares. No abnormalities were detected by biochemical test and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Physicians and other professionals who take care of victims of disaster should be aware of dissociative spectrum disorders, such as psychogenic amnesia.

  16. Impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami on health, medical care and public health systems in Iwate Prefecture, Japan, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaru Nohara

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Problem: The Great East Japan Earthquake was one of the largest earthquakes ever recorded in global history. The damage was spread over a wide area, with the worst-hit areas being Iwate, Miyagi and Fukushima prefectures. In this paper we report on the damage and the impact of the damage to describe the health consequences among disaster victims in Iwate Prefecture.Context: In Iwate Prefecture the tsunami claimed 4659 lives, with 1633 people missing. In addition to electricity, water and gas being cut off following the disaster, communication functions were paralysed and there was a lack of gasoline.Action: Medical and public health teams from Iwate Prefecture and around the country, including many different specialists, engaged in a variety of public health activities mainly at evacuation centres, including medical and mental health care and activities to prevent infectious diseases.Outcome: Given the many fatalities, there were relatively few patients who required medical treatment for major injuries. However, there were significant medical needs in the subacute and chronic phases of care in evacuation centres, with great demand for medical treatment and public health assistance, measures to counteract infection and mental health care.Discussion: By referring to past experiences of national and international large-scale disasters, it was possible to respond effectively to the health-related challenges. However, there are still challenges concerning how to share information and coordinate overall activities among multiple public health response teams. Further examination will be required to ensure better preparedness in response to future disasters.

  17. Water supply facility damage and water resource operation at disaster base hospitals in miyagi prefecture in the wake of the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Takashi; Osaki, Shizuka; Kudo, Daisuke; Furukawa, Hajime; Nakagawa, Atsuhiro; Abe, Yoshiko; Yamanouchi, Satoshi; Egawa, Shinichi; Tominaga, Teiji; Kushimoto, Shigeki

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to shed light on damage to water supply facilities and the state of water resource operation at disaster base hospitals in Miyagi Prefecture (Japan) in the wake of the Great East Japan Earthquake (2011), in order to identify issues concerning the operational continuity of hospitals in the event of a disaster. In addition to interview and written questionnaire surveys to 14 disaster base hospitals in Miyagi Prefecture, a number of key elements relating to the damage done to water supply facilities and the operation of water resources were identified from the chronological record of events following the Great East Japan Earthquake. Nine of the 14 hospitals experienced cuts to their water supplies, with a median value of three days (range=one to 20 days) for service recovery time. The hospitals that could utilize well water during the time that water supply was interrupted were able to obtain water in quantities similar to their normal volumes. Hospitals that could not use well water during the period of interruption, and hospitals whose water supply facilities were damaged, experienced significant disruption to dialysis, sterilization equipment, meal services, sanitation, and outpatient care services, though the extent of disruption varied considerably among hospitals. None of the hospitals had determined the amount of water used for different purposes during normal service or formulated a plan for allocation of limited water in the event of a disaster. The present survey showed that it is possible to minimize the disruption and reduction of hospital functions in the event of a disaster by proper maintenance of water supply facilities and by ensuring alternative water resources, such as well water. It is also clear that it is desirable to conclude water supply agreements and formulate strategic water allocation plans in preparation for the eventuality of a long-term interruption to water services.

  18. Bridge seismic retrofit measures considering subduction zone earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Over the years, earthquakes have exposed the vulnerability of reinforced concrete structures under : seismic loads. The recent occurrence of highly devastating earthquakes near instrumented regions, e.g. 2010 Maule, Chile : and 2011 Tohoku, Japan, ha...

  19. Speed or deliberation: a comparison of post-disaster recovery in Japan, Turkey, and Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Stephen; So, Emily

    2017-10-01

    This paper compares recovery in the wake of three recent earthquakes: the Great East Japan Earthquake in March 2011; the Van earthquake in Turkey in October 2011; and the Maule earthquake in Chile in February 2010. The authors visited all three locations approximately 12-18 months after the incidents and interviewed earthquake specialists, disaster managers, urban planners, and local authorities. A key challenge to post-disaster recovery planning is balancing speed and deliberation. While affected communities must rebuild as quickly as possible, they must also seek to maximise the opportunities for improvement that disasters provide. The three case studies bring this dilemma into stark relief, as recovery was respectively slow, fast, and just right in the aftermath of the events: the Government of Japan adopted a deliberate approach to recovery and reconstruction; speed was of the essence in Turkey; and an effective balance between speed and deliberation was achieved in Chile. © 2017 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2017.

  20. The Great East Japan Earthquake: a need to plan for post-disaster surveillance in developed countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Partridge

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available After a devastating earthquake and tsunami struck north-eastern Japan in March 2011, the public health system, including the infectious disease surveillance system, was severely compromised. While models for post-disaster surveillance exist, they focus predominantly on developing countries during the early recovery phase. Such models do not necessarily apply to developed countries, which differ considerably in their baseline surveillance systems. Furthermore, there is a need to consider the process by which a surveillance system recovers post-disaster. The event in Japan has highlighted a need to address these concerns surrounding post-disaster surveillance in developed countries.In May 2011, the World Health Organization convened a meeting where post-disaster surveillance was discussed by experts and public health practitioners. In this paper, we describe a post-disaster surveillance approach that was discussed at the meeting, based on what had actually occurred and what may have been, or would be, ideal. Briefly, we describe the evolution of a surveillance system as it returns to the pre-existing system, starting from an event-based approach during the emergency relief phase, a syndromic approach during the early recovery phase, an enhanced sentinel approach during the late recovery phase and a return to baseline during the development phase. Our aim is not to recommend a specific model but to encourage other developed countries to initiate their own discussions on post-disaster surveillance and develop plans according to their needs and capacities. As natural disasters will continue to occur, we hope that developing such plans during the “inter-disaster” period will help mitigate the surveillance challenges that will arise post-disaster.

  1. The Challenge of Centennial Earthquakes to Improve Modern Earthquake Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saragoni, G. Rodolfo

    2008-01-01

    The recent commemoration of the centennial of the San Francisco and Valparaiso 1906 earthquakes has given the opportunity to reanalyze their damages from modern earthquake engineering perspective. These two earthquakes plus Messina Reggio Calabria 1908 had a strong impact in the birth and developing of earthquake engineering. The study of the seismic performance of some up today existing buildings, that survive centennial earthquakes, represent a challenge to better understand the limitations of our in use earthquake design methods. Only Valparaiso 1906 earthquake, of the three considered centennial earthquakes, has been repeated again as the Central Chile, 1985, Ms = 7.8 earthquake. In this paper a comparative study of the damage produced by 1906 and 1985 Valparaiso earthquakes is done in the neighborhood of Valparaiso harbor. In this study the only three centennial buildings of 3 stories that survived both earthquakes almost undamaged were identified. Since for 1985 earthquake accelerogram at El Almendral soil conditions as well as in rock were recoded, the vulnerability analysis of these building is done considering instrumental measurements of the demand. The study concludes that good performance of these buildings in the epicentral zone of large earthquakes can not be well explained by modern earthquake engineering methods. Therefore, it is recommended to use in the future of more suitable instrumental parameters, such as the destructiveness potential factor, to describe earthquake demand

  2. A study on the factors that contribute to the practice of organizational behavior as coping with unexpected events. Exploration of the factors through the case survey of the Great East Japan Earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayase, Kenichi

    2016-01-01

    In the organizations in the face of unexpected events in the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake, the organizational behavior which was coped with by their members was seen. It is important to prepare emergency that the backgrounds of those organizational behavior were understood. This study aimed to explore the factors that contribute to the practice of organizational behavior as coping with unexpected events through the case survey of the Great East Japan Earthquake. This study carried out literature survey and interview survey of personnel in charge of disaster prevention, BCP in the 10 organizations which coped with the earthquake. As the result, the following two outcomes were obtained. 1) Factors that contribute to the practice of the 13 kinds of the organizational behavior were clarified. 2) Discussion from the view point of the factors classification indicated the importance of the factors which are classified into normal business and features of organization. (author)

  3. Global variations of large megathrust earthquake rupture characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, Hiroo

    2018-01-01

    Despite the surge of great earthquakes along subduction zones over the last decade and advances in observations and analysis techniques, it remains unclear whether earthquake complexity is primarily controlled by persistent fault properties or by dynamics of the failure process. We introduce the radiated energy enhancement factor (REEF), given by the ratio of an event’s directly measured radiated energy to the calculated minimum radiated energy for a source with the same seismic moment and duration, to quantify the rupture complexity. The REEF measurements for 119 large [moment magnitude (Mw) 7.0 to 9.2] megathrust earthquakes distributed globally show marked systematic regional patterns, suggesting that the rupture complexity is strongly influenced by persistent geological factors. We characterize this as the existence of smooth and rough rupture patches with varying interpatch separation, along with failure dynamics producing triggering interactions that augment the regional influences on large events. We present an improved asperity scenario incorporating both effects and categorize global subduction zones and great earthquakes based on their REEF values and slip patterns. Giant earthquakes rupturing over several hundred kilometers can occur in regions with low-REEF patches and small interpatch spacing, such as for the 1960 Chile, 1964 Alaska, and 2011 Tohoku earthquakes, or in regions with high-REEF patches and large interpatch spacing as in the case for the 2004 Sumatra and 1906 Ecuador-Colombia earthquakes. Thus, combining seismic magnitude Mw and REEF, we provide a quantitative framework to better represent the span of rupture characteristics of great earthquakes and to understand global seismicity. PMID:29750186

  4. The Great 1787 Earthquake (M 8.6) and Tsunami along The Mexican Subduction Zone - History, Geology and Tsunami Hazard Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Herrera, M. T.; Lagos, M.; Goguitchaichvili, A.; Machain-Castillo, M. L.; Caballero, M.; Ruiz-Fernandez, A. C.; Suarez, G.; Ortuño, M.

    2017-12-01

    The 1787 great earthquake (M 8.6) triggered a deadly tsunami that poured over the coast of Oaxaca, Guerrero, and Chiapas, along more than 500 km of the Mexican Pacific coast and up to 6 km inland. This tsunami, according with historical documents, destroyed mostly farmlands and livestock, and damaged few villages since the density of population was sparse at the time. We report first on geological evidence from the Corralero lagoon and adjacent coastal plain that seem in agreement with historical accounts. The deposit left by the 1787 tsunami can be traced along a transect of cores and test pits from the coastline and up to 1.6 km inland. The test pits showed an anomalous sand layer that was deposited in a single event in the swales of a series of beach ridges. The anomalous layer is almost continuous along the transect, about a 1000 m-long, and is formed of coarse to medium sand, at variable depths, with variable thickness, and pinching up with the distance from the coastline. We used stratigraphy, grain size, microfossils (foraminifera and diatoms), magnetic susceptibility and anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility proxies to reveal the nature of this anomalous sand layer. Stratigraphy, abrupt contacts, and magnetic properties support a sudden and rapid event, consisting of sands transported most probably by an extreme sea-wave far inland. Furthermore, based on the accounts of the 1787 earthquake (M 8.6) and tsunami, and estimates from 210Pb sedimentation rates, we suggest that this is the tsunami deposit left by the 1787 event. Tsunami modeling will further enhance the hazard and risk assessment of this area in Mexico.

  5. Onsite medical rounds and fact-finding activities conducted by Nippon Medical School in Miyagi prefecture after the Great East Japan Earthquake 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuse, Akira; Igarashi, Yutaka; Tanaka, Toshihiko; Kim, Shiei; Tsujii, Atsuko; Kawai, Makoto; Yokota, Hiroyuki

    2011-01-01

    This report describes our onsite medical rounds and fact-finding activities conducted in the acute phase and medical relief work conducted in the subacute phase in Miyagi prefecture following the Great East Japan Earthquake and subsequent tsunami that occurred off northeastern Honshu on March 11, 2011. As part of the All-Japan Hospital Association medical team deployed to the disaster area, a Nippon Medical School team conducted fact-finding and onsite medical rounds and evaluated basic life and medical needs in the affected areas of Shiogama and Tagajo. We performed triage for more than 2,000 casualties, but in our medical rounds of hospitals, clinics, and nursing homes, we found no severely injured person but did find 1 case of hyperglycemia. We conducted medical rounds at evacuation shelters in Kesennuma City during the subacute phase of the disaster, from March 17 through June 1, as part of the Tokyo Medical Association medical teams deployed. Sixty-seven staff members (17 teams), including 46 physicians, 11 nurses, 3 pharmacists, and 1 clinical psychotherapist, joined this mission. Most patients complained of a worsening of symptoms of preexisting conditions, such as hypertension, respiratory problems, and diabetes, rather than of medical problems specifically related to the tsunami. In the acute phase of the disaster, the information infrastructure was decimated and we could not obtain enough information about conditions in the affected areas, such as how many persons were severely injured, how severely lifeline services had been damaged, and what was lacking. To start obtaining this information, we conducted medical rounds. This proved to be a good decision, as we found many injured persons in evacuation shelters without medication, communication devices, or transportation. Also, basic necessities for life, such as water and food, were lacking. We were able to evaluate these basic needs and inform local disaster headquarters of them. In Kesennuma City, we

  6. How did rehabilitation professionals act when faced with the Great East Japan earthquake and disaster? Descriptive epidemiology of disability and an interim report of the relief activities of the ten Rehabilitation-Related Organizations.

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Meigen; Kohzuki, Masahiro; Hamamura, Akinori; Ishikawa, Makoto; Saitoh, Masami; Kurihara, Masaki; Handa, Kazuto; Nakamura, Haruki; Fukaura, Junichi; Kimura, Ryuji; Ito, Takao; Matsuzaka, Nobuou

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Inter-organizational coordination is important for rehabilitation disaster relief. The 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Disaster was unprecedented, being geographically widespread and multifaceted. Faced with the crisis, rehabilitation professionals established the 10 Rehabilitation- Related Organizations of Rehabilitation Support Service (10-RRO). The objectives of this paper are to provide descriptive epidemiology and assess the activities of 10- RRO. Design: Descriptive. Met...

  7. Earthquakes, September-October 1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, W.J.

    1987-01-01

    There was one great earthquake (8.0 and above) during this reporting period in the South Pacific in the Kermadec Islands. There were no major earthquakes (7.0-7.9) but earthquake-related deaths were reported in Greece and in El Salvador. There were no destrcutive earthquakes in the United States.

  8. Effect of Residence in Temporary Housing After the Great East Japan Earthquake on the Physical Activity and Quality of Life of Older Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, Nobuaki; Urabe, Yukio; Onoda, Shuichi; Maeda, Noriaki; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to compare the physical activity level and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) between older survivors residing in temporary housing after the Great East Japan Earthquake (GEJE; temporary housing group) and older individuals residing in their own homes (control group) and to clarify whether mobility function and muscle strength were correlated with physical activity among older temporary housing residents. Subjects were recruited to the temporary housing group (n=64, 19 men and 45 women) or control group (n=64, 33 men and 31 women) according to their residence. Physical activity was assessed by the number of walking steps determined by using a triaxial accelerometer, mobility function by the Timed Up and Go test, muscle strength by the grasping power test, and HRQOL by the Medical Outcome Study 36-Item Short Form Survey v2. In the temporary housing group, reduced physical activity and correlation between physical activity and mobility function in men, and muscle strength in both men and women, were observed. There was no significant difference in HRQOL between groups except for bodily pain in women. Support for older evacuees should focus on maintaining their physical activity level as well as on HRQOL to avoid deterioration of health in these survivors. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:701-710).

  9. Improved nuclear emergency management system reflecting lessons learned from the emergency response at Fukushima Daini Nuclear Power Station after the Great East Japan Earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Shinichi; Narabayashi, Tadashi

    2016-01-01

    Three nuclear reactors at Fukushima Daini Nuclear Power Station lost all their ultimate heat sinks owing to damage from the tsunami caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011. Water was injected into the reactors by alternate measures, damaged cooling systems were restored with promptly supplied substitute materials, and all the reactors were brought to a cold shutdown state within four days. Lessons learned from this experience were identified to improve emergency management, especially in the areas of strategic response planning, logistics, and functions supporting response activities continuing over a long period. It was found that continuous planning activities reflecting information from plant parameters and response action results were important, and that relevant functions in emergency response organizations should be integrated. Logistics were handled successfully but many difficulties were experienced. Therefore, their functions should be clearly established and improved by emergency response organizations. Supporting emergency responders in the aspects of their physical and mental conditions was important for sustaining continuous response. As a platform for improvement, the concept of the Incident Command System was applied for the first time to a nuclear emergency management system, with specific improvement ideas such as a phased approach in response planning and common operation pictures. (author)

  10. Epidemiological evaluation of cat health at a first-response animal shelter in Fukushima, following the Great East Japan Earthquakes of 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Aki; Kass, Philip H; Martinez-Lopez, Beatriz; Hayama, Shinichi

    2017-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquakes of March 11, 2011 caused immense harm to the community and subsequent nuclear accident in Fukushima Prefecture extended the damage. Local residents were forced to evacuated without pets and the left behind animals were rescued from the restricted zone one month later. Unplanned animal rescue and unregulated sheltering caused secondary damage to animals such as disease epidemics at impounded animal shelter. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the incidence of upper respiratory infection (URI) and diarrhea in cats at the first response animal shelter in Fukushima, and investigate factors affecting the duration of disease and determinants of treatments performed. Eighty percent and 59% of impounded cats developed URI, 71% and 54% of cats developed diarrhea, and 91% and 83% of cats had at least one disease in 2011 and 2012, respectively. Uses of multiple drug administration (more than five drugs) was associated with prolonged URI and diarrhea. Multiple antibiotics, antihistamines, interferon, and steroids were associated with relapse of and prolonged URI. Developing a standardized treatment protocol for commonly observed diseases at Japanese animal shelters to prevent and control diseases, to promote animal welfare, and protect public health in the face of future disasters is overdue.

  11. Social capital and cognitive decline in the aftermath of a natural disaster: a natural experiment from the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikichi, Hiroyuki; Tsuboya, Toru; Aida, Jun; Matsuyama, Yusuke; Kondo, Katsunori; Subramanian, S V; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2017-06-01

    We examined prospectively whether social capital mitigates the adverse effects of natural disaster on cognitive decline. The baseline for our study was established seven months before the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami in a survey of older community-dwelling adults who lived 80 kilometers west of the epicenter (59.0% response rate). Approximately two and a half years after the disaster, the follow-up survey gathered information about personal experiences of disaster as well as incidence of cognitive disability (82.1% follow-up rate). Our primary outcome was cognitive disability (measured on an 8-level scale) assessed by in-home assessment. The experience of housing damage was associated with risk of cognitive impairment (coefficient = 0.04, 95% confidence interval: 0.02 to 0.06). Factor analysis of our analytic sample (n = 3,566) established two sub-scales of social capital: a cognitive dimension (perceptions of community social cohesion) and a structural dimension (informal socializing and social participation). Fixed effects regression showed that informal socializing and social participation buffered the risk of cognitive decline resulting from housing damage. Informal socializing and social participation may prevent cognitive impairment following natural disaster. National Institutes of Health (R01AG042463-04), the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare and the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology.

  12. External effective radiation dose to workers in the restricted area of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant during the third year after the Great East Japan Earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakumi, Akira; Miyagawa, Ryu; Tamari, Yuki; Nawa, Kanabu; Sakura, Osamu; Nakagawa, Keiichi

    2016-01-01

    Since the Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011, Iitate Village has continued to be classified as a deliberate evacuation area, in which residents are estimated to receive an annual additional effective radiation dose of >20 mSv. Some companies still operate in Iitate Village, with a special permit from the Cabinet Office Team in Charge of Assisting the Lives of Disaster Victims. In this study, we measured the annual effective radiation dose to workers in Iitate Village from 15 January to 13 December 2013. The workers stayed in Iitate for 10 h and left the village for the remaining 14 h each working day. They worked for 5 days each week in Iitate Village, but stayed outside of the village for the remaining 2 days each week. We found that the effective radiation dose of 70% of the workers was <2 mSv, including natural radiation; the maximum dose was 3.6 mSv. We estimated the potential annual additional effective radiation dose if people returned full-time to Iitate. Our analysis supports the plan for people to return to their home village at the end of 2017

  13. The Relationship between Starting to Drink and Psychological Distress, Sleep Disturbance after the Great East Japan Earthquake and Nuclear Disaster: The Fukushima Health Management Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masatsugu Orui

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This longitudinal study aimed to investigate the prevalence of newly-started drinkers and their continuing drinking behaviors after the Great East Japan earthquake. Moreover, the relationships between newly-started drinking and psychological factor, disaster-related experience, and perceived radiation risk were examined. We used data from 37,687 pre-disaster non-drinkers who participated in the 2012 and 2013 surveys conducted in Fukushima. We defined newly-started drinkers as those who did not drink before the disaster but who began drinking after the disaster, based on information collected retrospectively. In 2012, 9.6% of non-drinkers began drinking, of which the prevalence of heavy drinkers was 18.4%. The prevalence of continued drinking among newly-started drinkers in 2013 was 53.8%. Logistic regression analyses revealed post-disaster newly-started drinking was significantly associated with being male, less than 65 years old, sleep dissatisfaction and psychological distress (Kessler 6 ≤ 13 when this model was adjusted for disaster-related experience and perceived radiation risk. Moreover, psychological distress and heavy drinking were significant risk factors for continued drinking among newly-started drinkers. Newly-started drinkers might use alcohol to cope with disaster-related stress. Thus, they may be targeted for disaster-related health services. Moreover, early intervention should encourage responsible drinking, since post-disaster heavy drinkers were likely to continue heavy drinking.

  14. Lifestyle factors and social ties associated with the frequency of laughter after the Great East Japan Earthquake: Fukushima Health Management Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirosaki, Mayumi; Ohira, Tetsuya; Yasumura, Seiji; Maeda, Masaharu; Yabe, Hirooki; Harigane, Mayumi; Takahashi, Hideto; Murakami, Michio; Suzuki, Yuriko; Nakano, Hironori; Zhang, Wen; Uemura, Mayu; Abe, Masafumi; Kamiya, Kenji

    2018-03-01

    Although mental health problems such as depression after disasters have been reported, positive psychological factors after disasters have not been examined. Recently, the importance of positive affect to our health has been recognised. We therefore investigated the frequency of laughter and its related factors among residents of evacuation zones after the Great East Japan Earthquake of 2011. In a cross-sectional study on 52,320 participants aged 20 years and older who were included in the Fukushima Health Management Survey in Japan's fiscal year 2012, associations of the frequency of laughter with changes in lifestyle after the disaster, such as a changed work situation, the number of family members, and the number of address changes, and other sociodemographic, psychological, and lifestyle factors were examined using logistic regression analysis. The frequency of laughter was assessed using a single-item question: "How often do you laugh out loud?" The proportion of those who laugh almost every day was 27.1%. Multivariable models adjusted for sociodemographic, psychological, and lifestyle factors demonstrated that an increase in the number of family members and fewer changes of address were significantly associated with a high frequency of laughter. Mental health, regular exercise, and participation in recreational activities were also associated with a high frequency of laughter. Changes in lifestyle factors after the disaster were associated with the frequency of laughter in the evacuation zone. Future longitudinal studies are needed to examine what factors can increase the frequency of laughter.

  15. Eight Personal Characteristics Associated with the Power to Live with Disasters as Indicated by Survivors of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake Disaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoaki Sugiura

    Full Text Available People perceive, judge, and behave differently in disasters and in a wide range of other difficult situations depending on their personal characteristics. The power to live, as captured by characteristics that are advantageous for survival in such situations, has thus far been modeled in arbitrary ways. Conceptualizing such characteristics in more objective ways may be helpful for systematic preparations for future disasters and life difficulties. Here, we attempted to identify the major factors of the power to live by summarizing the opinions of survivors of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake disaster. We conducted personal interviews with 78 survivors about their survival experiences and elicited their opinions about the power to live as relevant to those experiences. We then incorporated these opinions into a questionnaire that was completed by 1400 survivors. Factor analysis identified eight factors related to the power to live: leadership, problem solving, altruism, stubbornness, etiquette, emotional regulation, self-transcendence, and active well-being. All factors had sufficient internal construct validity, and six of them showed significant associations with one or more measures of survival success in the disaster, including immediate tsunami evacuation, problem solving in refugee situations, recovery during reconstruction, physical health, and mental health. Overall, the personal characteristics described by the eight factors largely overlap with those described in previous arbitrary models. Further research should investigate the domains, phases, and contexts in which each factor contributes to survival, address whether the factors are rooted in nature or in nurture, and explore their psychological or physiological bases.

  16. Eight Personal Characteristics Associated with the Power to Live with Disasters as Indicated by Survivors of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake Disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Motoaki; Sato, Shosuke; Nouchi, Rui; Honda, Akio; Abe, Tsuneyuki; Muramoto, Toshiaki; Imamura, Fumihiko

    2015-01-01

    People perceive, judge, and behave differently in disasters and in a wide range of other difficult situations depending on their personal characteristics. The power to live, as captured by characteristics that are advantageous for survival in such situations, has thus far been modeled in arbitrary ways. Conceptualizing such characteristics in more objective ways may be helpful for systematic preparations for future disasters and life difficulties. Here, we attempted to identify the major factors of the power to live by summarizing the opinions of survivors of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake disaster. We conducted personal interviews with 78 survivors about their survival experiences and elicited their opinions about the power to live as relevant to those experiences. We then incorporated these opinions into a questionnaire that was completed by 1400 survivors. Factor analysis identified eight factors related to the power to live: leadership, problem solving, altruism, stubbornness, etiquette, emotional regulation, self-transcendence, and active well-being. All factors had sufficient internal construct validity, and six of them showed significant associations with one or more measures of survival success in the disaster, including immediate tsunami evacuation, problem solving in refugee situations, recovery during reconstruction, physical health, and mental health. Overall, the personal characteristics described by the eight factors largely overlap with those described in previous arbitrary models. Further research should investigate the domains, phases, and contexts in which each factor contributes to survival, address whether the factors are rooted in nature or in nurture, and explore their psychological or physiological bases.

  17. Prevalence and risk factors for depressive reaction among resident survivors after the tsunami following the Great East Japan Earthquake, March 11, 2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chieko Matsubara

    Full Text Available The Great East Japan Earthquake caused a gigantic tsunami which devastated coastal areas of northern Japan on 11 March 2011. Despite the large number of 'resident survivors' who continued to reside in their damaged houses on the second or upper floors, research on the mental health of these individuals has been limited. This study explored the prevalence of depressive reaction and risk factors for depressive reaction among these resident survivors.A cross-sectional household health support needs screening was conducted for resident survivors in Higashi-Matsushima city, Miyagi prefecture, two to four months after the tsunami. The health interview that was conducted including mental status, assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire-2 (PHQ-2.Of 5,454 respondents, 8.1% had depressive reaction. After adjustment by the number of weeks from the tsunami and the mortality rate at each respondent's place of residence, depressive reaction was significantly associated with house flooding below or above the ground floor (odds ratios of 1.92, 2.36, respectively, the unavailability of gas supply (odds ratio, 1.67, being female (odds ratio, 1.47, middle aged or elderly (odds ratios of 2.41, 2.42, respectively, regular intake of psychotropic medicine(s since before the tsunami (odds ratio, 2.53 and the presence of one to five or more than six cohabiters (odds ratios of 0.61, 0.52, respectively.The results suggest a considerable psychological burden (depressive reaction following the tsunami among resident survivors. Special supports for families with psychiatric problems need to be considered among resident survivors. Restoration of lifeline utilities and the strengthening of social ties of persons living alone may help prevent depressive reaction among resident survivors after a tsunami.

  18. Prevalence and risk factors for depressive reaction among resident survivors after the tsunami following the Great East Japan Earthquake, March 11, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Chieko; Murakami, Hitoshi; Imai, Koubun; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Akashi, Hidechika; Miyoshi, Chiaki; Nakasa, Tamotsu

    2014-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake caused a gigantic tsunami which devastated coastal areas of northern Japan on 11 March 2011. Despite the large number of 'resident survivors' who continued to reside in their damaged houses on the second or upper floors, research on the mental health of these individuals has been limited. This study explored the prevalence of depressive reaction and risk factors for depressive reaction among these resident survivors. A cross-sectional household health support needs screening was conducted for resident survivors in Higashi-Matsushima city, Miyagi prefecture, two to four months after the tsunami. The health interview that was conducted including mental status, assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire-2 (PHQ-2). Of 5,454 respondents, 8.1% had depressive reaction. After adjustment by the number of weeks from the tsunami and the mortality rate at each respondent's place of residence, depressive reaction was significantly associated with house flooding below or above the ground floor (odds ratios of 1.92, 2.36, respectively), the unavailability of gas supply (odds ratio, 1.67), being female (odds ratio, 1.47), middle aged or elderly (odds ratios of 2.41, 2.42, respectively), regular intake of psychotropic medicine(s) since before the tsunami (odds ratio, 2.53) and the presence of one to five or more than six cohabiters (odds ratios of 0.61, 0.52, respectively). The results suggest a considerable psychological burden (depressive reaction) following the tsunami among resident survivors. Special supports for families with psychiatric problems need to be considered among resident survivors. Restoration of lifeline utilities and the strengthening of social ties of persons living alone may help prevent depressive reaction among resident survivors after a tsunami.

  19. Impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake on feeding methods and newborn growth at 1 month postpartum: results from the Fukushima Health Management Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyozuka, Hyo; Yasuda, Shun; Kawamura, Makoto; Nomura, Yasuhisa; Fujimori, Keiya; Goto, Aya; Yasumura, Seiji; Abe, Masafumi

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of three disasters (the Great East Japan Earthquake of March 11, 2011, followed by a tsunami and the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident) on feeding methods and growth in infants born after the disasters. Using results from the Fukushima Health Management Survey, Soso District (the affected area where the damaged nuclear power plant is located) and Aizu District (a less-affected area located farthest from the plant) were compared. In this study, newborn and maternal background characteristics were examined, as well as feeding methods, and other factors for newborn growth at the first postpartum examination for 1706 newborns born after the disaster in the affected (n = 836) and less-affected (n = 870) areas. Postpartum examinations took place 1 month after birth. Feeding method trends were examined, and multivariate regression analyses were used to investigate effects on newborn mass gain. There were no significant differences in background characteristics among newborns in these areas. When birth dates were divided into four periods to assess trends, no significant change in the exclusive breastfeeding rate was found, while the exclusive formula-feeding rate was significantly different across time periods in the affected area (p = 0.02). Multivariate analyses revealed no significant independent associations of maternal depression and change in medical facilities (possible disaster effects) with other newborn growth factors in either area. No area differences in newborn growth at the first postpartum examination or in exclusive breastfeeding rates were found during any period. Exclusive formula-feeding rates varied across time periods in the affected, but not in the less-affected area. It is concluded that effective guidance to promote breast-feeding and prevent exclusive use of formula is important for women in post-disaster circumstances. (orig.)

  20. Weight Gain in Survivors Living in Temporary Housing in the Tsunami-Stricken Area during the Recovery Phase following the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Shuko; Yonekura, Yuki; Sasaki, Ryohei; Yokoyama, Yukari; Tanno, Kozo; Sakata, Kiyomi; Ogawa, Akira; Kobayashi, Seichiro; Yamamoto, Taro

    2016-01-01

    Survivors who lost their homes in the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami were forced to live in difficult conditions in temporary housing several months after the disaster. Body weights of survivors living in temporary housing for a long period might increase due to changes in their life style and psychosocial state during the medium-term and long-term recovery phases. The aim of this study was to determine whether there were differences between body weight changes of people living in temporary housing and those not living in temporary housing in a tsunami-stricken area during the medium-term and long-term recovery phases. Health check-ups were performed about 7 months after the disaster (in 2011) and about 18 months after the disaster (in 2012) for people living in a tsunami-stricken area (n = 6,601, mean age = 62.3 y). We compared the changes in body weight in people living in temporary housing (TH group, n = 2,002) and those not living in temporary housing (NTH group, n = 4,599) using a multiple linear regression model. While there was no significant difference between body weights in the TH and NTH groups in the 2011 survey, there was a significant difference between the mean changes in body weight in both sexes. We found that the changes in body weight were significantly greater in the TH group than in the NTH group in both sexes. The partial regression coefficients of mean change in body weight were +0.52 kg (P-value tsunami- stricken area had a significant increase in body weight.

  1. Impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake on feeding methods and newborn growth at 1 month postpartum: results from the Fukushima Health Management Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyozuka, Hyo; Yasuda, Shun; Kawamura, Makoto; Nomura, Yasuhisa; Fujimori, Keiya [Fukushima Medical University, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, Fukushima (Japan); Goto, Aya; Yasumura, Seiji [Radiation Medical Science Center for the Fukushima Health Management Survey, Fukushima (Japan); Fukushima Medical University, Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, Fukushima (Japan); Abe, Masafumi [Radiation Medical Science Center for the Fukushima Health Management Survey, Fukushima (Japan)

    2016-05-15

    This study examined the effects of three disasters (the Great East Japan Earthquake of March 11, 2011, followed by a tsunami and the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident) on feeding methods and growth in infants born after the disasters. Using results from the Fukushima Health Management Survey, Soso District (the affected area where the damaged nuclear power plant is located) and Aizu District (a less-affected area located farthest from the plant) were compared. In this study, newborn and maternal background characteristics were examined, as well as feeding methods, and other factors for newborn growth at the first postpartum examination for 1706 newborns born after the disaster in the affected (n = 836) and less-affected (n = 870) areas. Postpartum examinations took place 1 month after birth. Feeding method trends were examined, and multivariate regression analyses were used to investigate effects on newborn mass gain. There were no significant differences in background characteristics among newborns in these areas. When birth dates were divided into four periods to assess trends, no significant change in the exclusive breastfeeding rate was found, while the exclusive formula-feeding rate was significantly different across time periods in the affected area (p = 0.02). Multivariate analyses revealed no significant independent associations of maternal depression and change in medical facilities (possible disaster effects) with other newborn growth factors in either area. No area differences in newborn growth at the first postpartum examination or in exclusive breastfeeding rates were found during any period. Exclusive formula-feeding rates varied across time periods in the affected, but not in the less-affected area. It is concluded that effective guidance to promote breast-feeding and prevent exclusive use of formula is important for women in post-disaster circumstances. (orig.)

  2. Impact of social capital on psychological distress and interaction with house destruction and displacement after the Great East Japan Earthquake of 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Naho; Nakaya, Naoki; Nakamura, Tomohiro; Narita, Akira; Kogure, Mana; Aida, Jun; Tsuji, Ichiro; Hozawa, Atsushi; Tomita, Hiroaki

    2017-01-01

    Social capital has been considered an important factor affecting mental-health outcomes, such as psychological distress in post-disaster settings. Although disaster-related house condition and displacement could affect both social capital and psychological distress, limited studies have investigated interactions. This study aimed to examine the association between social capital and psychological distress, taking into consideration the interaction of disaster-related house condition after the Great East Japan Earthquake of 2011. Using data from 3793 adults living in Shichigahama, Miyagi Prefecture, Japan, we examined the association between social capital measured by generalized trust and psychological distress measured by the Kessler 6 scale. We conducted stratified analysis to investigate an interaction of house destruction and displacement. Multivariate analyses taking into consideration the interaction were performed. In the crude analysis, low social capital (odds ratio [OR] 4.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.27-6.07) and large-scale house destruction (OR 1.96; 95%CI, 1.47-2.62) were significantly associated with psychological distress. Stratified analyses detected an interaction with house destruction and displacement (P for interaction = 0.04). Multivariate analysis with interaction term revealed that individuals with low social capital, large-scale house damage, and displacement were at greater risk of psychological distress, corresponding to adjusted OR of 5.78 (95%CI, 3.48-9.60). In the post-disaster setting, low social capital increased the risk of psychological distress, especially among individuals who had large-scale house destruction. Among the participants with severe disaster damage, high social capital would play an important role in protecting mental health. © 2016 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  3. Indoor air quality, air exchange rates, and radioactivity in new built temporary houses following the Great East Japan Earthquake in Minamisoma, Fukushima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, N; Tokumura, M; Kazama, M; Yoshino, H; Ochiai, S; Mizukoshi, A

    2013-08-01

    This study measured air exchange rates, indoor concentrations of aldehydes and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and radioactivity levels at 19 temporary houses in different temporary housing estate constructed in Minamisoma City following the Great East Japan Earthquake. The 19 surveyed houses represented all of the companies assigned to construct temporary houses in that Minamisoma City. Data were collected shortly after construction and before occupation, from August 2011 to January 2012. Mean air exchange rates in the temporary houses were 0.28/h, with no variation according to housing types and construction date. Mean indoor concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, toluene, ethylbenzene, m/p-xylene, o-xylene, styrene, p-dichlorobenzene, tetradecane, and total VOCs (TVOCs) were 29.2, 72.7, 14.6, 6.35, 3.05, 1.81, 7.29, 14.3, 8.32, and 901 μg/m(3), respectively. The levels of acetaldehyde and TVOCs exceeded the indoor guideline (48 μg/m(3)) and interim target (400 μg/m(3)) in more than half of the 31 rooms tested. In addition to guideline chemicals, terpenes (α-pinene and d-limonene) and acetic esters (butyl acetate and ethyl acetate) were often detected in these houses. The indoor radiation levels measured by a Geiger-Müller tube (Mean: 0.22 μSv/h) were lower than those recorded outdoors (Mean: 0.42 μSv/h), although the shielding effect of the houses was less than for other types of buildings. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Eczema and Asthma Symptoms among Schoolchildren in Coastal and Inland Areas after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake: The ToMMo Child Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyashita, Masako; Kikuya, Masahiro; Yamanaka, Chizuru; Ishikuro, Mami; Obara, Taku; Sato, Yuki; Metoki, Hirohito; Nakaya, Naoki; Nagami, Fuji; Tomita, Hiroaki; Kiyomoto, Hideyasu; Sugawara, Junichi; Hozawa, Atsushi; Fuse, Nobuo; Suzuki, Yoichi; Tsuji, Ichiro; Kure, Shigeo; Yaegashi, Nobuo; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Kuriyama, Shinichi

    2015-12-01

    After the Great East Japan Earthquake of 2011, there has been a concern about health problems among children. Therefore, we investigated the prevalence of wheeze and eczema symptoms and associated factors among children in areas primarily affected by the disaster. From 2012 to 2014, we distributed the parent-administered questionnaire to 25,198 children in all 233 public schools in the 13 municipalities of Miyagi Prefecture in northeast Japan. A total of 7,155 responses (mean age 10.5 ± 2.2 years) were received (response rate: 28.4%). The prevalence of allergic symptoms according to the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire in 2nd, 4th, 6th, and 8th graders was 12.4%, 9.9%, 9.3%, and 5.6% for wheeze, and 20.1%, 18.0%, 14.0%, and 12.4% for eczema. In multivariate logistic analysis, younger age, history of hospitalization, and difficulties in children's daily lives as assessed by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), were significantly and consistently associated with both allergic symptoms (both P < 0.05). Living in a coastal municipality was also associated with eczema symptoms (P = 0.0278). The prevalence of eczema symptoms in the 2nd (20.1%) and 8th (12.4%) grades was significantly higher than previously reported in Japan. Living in a coastal municipality was independently associated with eczema symptoms, and psychometric properties were also closely linked to allergic symptoms. These findings are clinically important for understanding the risks of allergic disorders after natural disasters.

  5. Who was concerned about radiation, food safety, and natural disasters after the great East Japan earthquake and Fukushima catastrophe? A nationwide cross-sectional survey in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Takashi; Shinozaki, Tomohiro; Naruse, Takashi; Miyamoto, Yuki

    2014-01-01

    Disaster-related concerns by sub-populations have not been clarified after the great East Japan earthquake and the Fukushima nuclear power plant incidents. This paper assesses who was concerned about radiation, food safety, and natural disasters among the general population in order to buffer such concerns effectively. The hypothesis that women, parents, and family caregivers were most concerned about radiation, food safety, and natural disaster was tested using a varying-intercept multivariable logistic regression with 5809 responses from a nationwide cross-sectional survey random-sampled in March 2012. Many people were at least occasionally concerned about radiation (53.5%), food safety (47.3%), and about natural disaster (69.5%). Women were more concerned than men about radiation (OR = 1.67; 95% CI = 1.35-2.06), food safety (1.70; 1.38-2.10), and natural disasters (1.74; 1.39-2.19). Parents and family care needs were not significant. Married couples were more concerned about radiation (1.53; 1.33-1.77), food safety (1.38; 1.20-1.59), and natural disasters (1.30; 1.12-1.52). Age, child-cohabitation, college-completion, retirement status, homemaker status, and the house-damage certificate of the last disaster were also associated with at least one concern. Participants from the Kanto region were more concerned about radiation (2.08; 1.58-2.74) and food safety (1.30; 1.07-1.59), which demonstrate similar positive associations to participants from Tohoku where a disaster relief act was invoked (3.36; 2.25-5.01 about radiation, 1.49; 1.08-2.06 about food safety). Sectioning the populations by gender and other demographics will clarify prospective targets for interventions, allow for a better understanding of post-disaster concerns, and help communicate relevant information effectively.

  6. From Multi-Sensors Observations Towards Cross-Disciplinary Study of Pre-Earthquake Signals. What have We Learned from the Tohoku Earthquake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouzounov, D.; Pulinets, S.; Papadopoulos, G.; Kunitsyn, V.; Nesterov, I.; Hayakawa, M.; Mogi, K.; Hattori, K.; Kafatos, M.; Taylor, P.

    2012-01-01

    The lessons we have learned from the Great Tohoku EQ (Japan, 2011) how this knowledge will affect our future observation and analysis is the main focus of this presentation.We present multi-sensors observations and multidisciplinary research in our investigation of phenomena preceding major earthquakes. These observations revealed the existence of atmospheric and ionospheric phenomena occurring prior to theM9.0 Tohoku earthquake of March 11, 2011, which indicates s new evidence of a distinct coupling between the lithosphere and atmosphere/ionosphere, as related to underlying tectonic activity. Similar results have been reported before the catastrophic events in Chile (M8.8, 2010), Italy (M6.3, 2009) and Sumatra (M9.3, 2004). For the Tohoku earthquake, our analysis shows a synergy between several independent observations characterizing the state of the lithosphere /atmosphere coupling several days before the onset of the earthquakes, namely: (i) Foreshock sequence change (rate, space and time); (ii) Outgoing Long wave Radiation (OLR) measured at the top of the atmosphere; and (iii) Anomalous variations of ionospheric parameters revealed by multi-sensors observations. We are presenting a cross-disciplinary analysis of the observed pre-earthquake anomalies and will discuss current research in the detection of these signals in Japan. We expect that our analysis will shed light on the underlying physics of pre-earthquake signals associated with some of the largest earthquake events

  7. Do community- and individual-level social relationships contribute to the mental health of disaster survivors?: A multilevel prospective study after the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuyama, Yusuke; Aida, Jun; Hase, Akihiro; Sato, Yukihiro; Koyama, Shihoko; Tsuboya, Toru; Osaka, Ken

    2016-02-01

    Disasters greatly threaten the health and lives of people all over the world. Japan experienced severe damage following the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, and some survivors continue to live in prefabricated temporary housing, built collectively in damaged areas. Previous studies have shown that social relationships in such communities have the potential to protect the mental health of disaster survivors. We examined the association between survivors' social support and social participation in 2012 and their psychological distress in 2013 using the K6 scale. Self-reported questionnaires were distributed to all 15,979 households in prefabricated temporary housing in eight municipalities in Miyagi prefecture in 2012, and 19,284 adults from 9366 (58.6%) households responded. One year later, 10,880 adults responded to a follow-up survey. Multivariate multilevel linear regression analyses with multiply imputed datasets showed that survivors' psychological distress at follow-up significantly differed between communities (community-level variance [standard error] = 0.38 [0.13]). The variance was reduced to 0.25 [0.09] after considering individual demographic characteristics and psychological distress at baseline. Individual- and community-level social relationships of 7.1% and 15.8%, respectively, explained the difference. After adjusting for covariates including K6 scale at baseline, individual-level social support, community-level social support, and individual-level social participation were significantly associated with low psychological distress at follow-up (coefficients [95% confidence intervals] were: -0.54 [-0.79, -0.30]; -0.43 [-0.72, -0.14]; and -0.22 [-0.40, -0.04], respectively). Community-level social participation was not significantly associated with psychological distress. The present study showed that: 1) survivors' psychological distress varied between temporary housing communities in 2013; 2) individual- and community-level social

  8. High-resolution, multi-proxy characterization of the event deposit generated by the catastrophic events associated with the Mw 6.2 earthquake of 21 April 2007 in Aysén fjord (Chile)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Batist, M. A.; Van Daele, M. E.; Cnudde, V.; Duyck, P.; Tjallingii, R. H.; Pino, M.; Urrutia, R.

    2012-12-01

    In 2007, a seismic swarm with more than 7000 recorded earthquakes affected the region around Aysén fjord, Chile (45°25'S). The series of seismic events reached a maximum on 21 April 2007, with an Mw 6.2 earthquake. Intensities as high as VIII to IX on the Modified Mercalli scale were reported around the epicenter. Multiple debris flows, rock slides and rock avalanches were triggered along the fjord's coastline, and several of these caused impact waves or tsunamis with wave heights of up to 6 m, which inundated the fjord shorelines and caused heavy damage and 10 casualties. In order to characterize in detail the imprint left by this series of catastrophic events in the sedimentary record of the fjord, we conducted a multi-disciplinary survey of the inner fjord region in December 2009. Multibeam bathymetry and high-resolution reflection seismic data reveal that large parts of the fjord basin floor, mostly at the foot of the fjord's steep underwater slopes, are covered by recent mass-wasting deposits or consist of mass-wasting-induced deformed basin-plain sediments. A series of short sediment cores collected throughout the inner fjord contain also the more distal deposits of this significant basin-wide mass-wasting event. By combining classical sedimentological techniques (i.e. grain-size analysis, LOI and magnetic susceptibility measurements, all at high resolution) with X-ray CT scanning and XRF scanning we were able to demonstrate that the event deposits encountered in the cores have a very complex signature and actually consist of a succession of several sub-deposits, comprising distal mass-flow deposits from different source areas (as evidenced by XRF-derived geochemical provenance indications) and with a different flow direction (as evidenced by CT-derived 3D flow-direction indications, such as imbricated rip-up mud clasts, cross and convolute laminations) and tsunami- or seiche-generated deposits. This allowed us to reconstruct the succession of sedimentary

  9. Moment-ration imaging of seismic regions for earthquake prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomnitz, Cinna

    1993-10-01

    An algorithm for predicting large earthquakes is proposed. The reciprocal ratio (mri) of the residual seismic moment to the total moment release in a region is used for imaging seismic moment precursors. Peaks in mri predict recent major earthquakes, including the 1985 Michoacan, 1985 central Chile, and 1992 Eureka, California earthquakes.

  10. Central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The beginning of spring in central Chile looked like this to SeaWiFS. The snow-covered Andes mark the country's eastern border, and phytoplankton blooms and river sediment plumes fill the waters off its west coast. A large eddy due west of Concepcion is highlighted by the phytoplankton it contains.

  11. The Mw=8.8 Maule earthquake aftershock sequence, event catalog and locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, A.; Benz, H.; Brown, L.; Russo, R. M.; Beck, S. L.; Roecker, S. W.

    2011-12-01

    The aftershock sequence of the Mw=8.8 Maule earthquake off the coast of Chile in February 2010 is one of the most well-recorded aftershock sequences from a great megathrust earthquake. Immediately following the Maule earthquake, teams of geophysicists from Chile, France, Germany, Great Britain and the United States coordinated resources to capture aftershocks and other seismic signals associated with this significant earthquake. In total, 91 broadband, 48 short period, and 25 accelerometers stations were deployed above the rupture zone of the main shock from 33-38.5°S and from the coast to the Andean range front. In order to integrate these data into a unified catalog, the USGS National Earthquake Information Center develop procedures to use their real-time seismic monitoring system (Bulletin Hydra) to detect, associate, location and compute earthquake source parameters from these stations. As a first step in the process, the USGS has built a seismic catalog of all M3.5 or larger earthquakes for the time period of the main aftershock deployment from March 2010-October 2010. The catalog includes earthquake locations, magnitudes (Ml, Mb, Mb_BB, Ms, Ms_BB, Ms_VX, Mc), associated phase readings and regional moment tensor solutions for most of the M4 or larger events. Also included in the catalog are teleseismic phases and amplitude measures and body-wave MT and CMT solutions for the larger events, typically M5.5 and larger. Tuning of automated detection and association parameters should allow a complete catalog of events to approximately M2.5 or larger for that dataset of more than 164 stations. We characterize the aftershock sequence in terms of magnitude, frequency, and location over time. Using the catalog locations and travel times as a starting point we use double difference techniques to investigate relative locations and earthquake clustering. In addition, phase data from candidate ground truth events and modeling of surface waves can be used to calibrate the

  12. Modeling strong‐motion recordings of the 2010 Mw 8.8 Maule, Chile, earthquake with high stress‐drop subevents and background slip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Arthur

    2017-01-01

    Strong‐motion recordings of the Mw 8.8 Maule earthquake were modeled using a compound rupture model consisting of (1) a background slip distribution with large correlation lengths, relatively low slip velocity, and long peak rise time of slip of about 10 s and (2) high stress‐drop subevents (asperities) on the deeper portion of the rupture with moment magnitudes 7.9–8.2, high slip velocity, and rise times of slip of about 2 s. In this model, the high‐frequency energy is not produced in the same location as the peak coseismic slip, but is generated in the deeper part of the rupture zone. Using synthetic seismograms generated for a plane‐layered velocity model, I find that the high stress‐drop subevents explain the observed Fourier spectral amplitude from about 0.1 to 1.0 Hz. Broadband synthetics (0–10 Hz) were calculated by combining deterministic synthetics derived from the background slip and asperities (≤1  Hz) with stochastic synthetics generated only at the asperities (≥1  Hz). The broadband synthetics produced response spectral accelerations with low bias compared to the data, for periods of 0.1–10 s. A subevent stress drop of 200–350 bars for the high‐frequency stochastic synthetics was found to bracket the observed spectral accelerations at frequencies greater than 1 Hz. For most of the stations, the synthetics had durations of the Arias intensity similar to the observed records.

  13. Environmental radiation level, radiation anxiety, and psychological distress of non-evacuee residents in Fukushima five years after the Great East Japan Earthquake: Multilevel analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiko Fukasawa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to clarify the associations among radiation exposure or psychological exposure to the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident (i.e., fear/anxiety immediately after the accident, current radiation anxiety, and psychological distress among non-evacuee community residents in Fukushima five years after the Great East Japan Earthquake, which occurred in March 2011. A questionnaire survey was administered to a random sample of non-evacuee community residents from 49 municipalities of Fukushima prefecture from February to April 2016, and data from 1684 respondents (34.4% were analyzed. Environmental radiation levels at the time of the accident were ascertained from survey meter data, while environmental radiation levels at the time of the survey were ascertained from monitoring post data. In the questionnaire, immediate fear/anxiety after the accident, current radiation anxiety, and psychological distress were measured using a single-item question, a 7-item scale, and K6, respectively. Multilevel linear or logistic regression models were applied to analyze the determinants of radiation anxiety and psychological distress. The findings showed that environmental radiation levels at the time of the survey were more strongly associated with radiation anxiety than radiation levels immediately after the accident. Disaster-related experiences, such as direct damage, disaster-related family stress, and fear/anxiety after the accident, and demographic characteristics (e.g., younger age, being married, low socioeconomic status were significantly associated with radiation anxiety. Environmental radiation levels at the time of the accident or survey were not significantly associated with psychological distress. Radiation anxiety largely mediated the association between fear/anxiety after the accident and psychological distress. In addition to environmental radiation levels, respondents’ radiation anxiety was affected by multiple factors

  14. Who was concerned about radiation, food safety, and natural disasters after the great East Japan earthquake and Fukushima catastrophe? A nationwide cross-sectional survey in 2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Sugimoto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Disaster-related concerns by sub-populations have not been clarified after the great East Japan earthquake and the Fukushima nuclear power plant incidents. This paper assesses who was concerned about radiation, food safety, and natural disasters among the general population in order to buffer such concerns effectively. METHODS: The hypothesis that women, parents, and family caregivers were most concerned about radiation, food safety, and natural disaster was tested using a varying-intercept multivariable logistic regression with 5809 responses from a nationwide cross-sectional survey random-sampled in March 2012. RESULTS: Many people were at least occasionally concerned about radiation (53.5%, food safety (47.3%, and about natural disaster (69.5%. Women were more concerned than men about radiation (OR = 1.67; 95% CI = 1.35-2.06, food safety (1.70; 1.38-2.10, and natural disasters (1.74; 1.39-2.19. Parents and family care needs were not significant. Married couples were more concerned about radiation (1.53; 1.33-1.77, food safety (1.38; 1.20-1.59, and natural disasters (1.30; 1.12-1.52. Age, child-cohabitation, college-completion, retirement status, homemaker status, and the house-damage certificate of the last disaster were also associated with at least one concern. Participants from the Kanto region were more concerned about radiation (2.08; 1.58-2.74 and food safety (1.30; 1.07-1.59, which demonstrate similar positive associations to participants from Tohoku where a disaster relief act was invoked (3.36; 2.25-5.01 about radiation, 1.49; 1.08-2.06 about food safety. CONCLUSIONS: Sectioning the populations by gender and other demographics will clarify prospective targets for interventions, allow for a better understanding of post-disaster concerns, and help communicate relevant information effectively.

  15. Co-Seismic Gravity Gradient Changes of the 2006-2007 Great Earthquakes in the Central Kuril Islands from GRACE Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, A.; Shahrisvand, M.

    2017-09-01

    GRACE satellites (the Gravity Recovery And climate Experiment) are very useful sensors to extract gravity anomalies after earthquakes. In this study, we reveal co-seismic signals of the two combined earthquakes, the 2006 Mw8.3 thrust and 2007 Mw8.1 normal fault earthquakes of the central Kuril Islands from GRACE observations. We compute monthly full gravitational gradient tensor in the local north-east-down frame for Kuril Islands earthquakes without spatial averaging and de-striping filters. Some of gravitational gradient components (e.g. ΔVxx, ΔVxz) enhance high frequency components of the earth gravity field and reveal more details in spatial and temporal domain. Therefore, co-seismic activity can be better illustrated. For the first time, we show that the positive-negative-positive co-seismic ΔVxx due to the Kuril Islands earthquakes ranges from - 0.13 to + 0.11 milli Eötvös, and ΔVxz shows a positive-negative-positive pattern ranges from - 0.16 to + 0.13 milli Eötvös, agree well with seismic model predictions.

  16. [Effects of psychological distress due to the Great East Japan Earthquake, tsunami, Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant disasters on psychiatric symptoms in patients with mental disorders: observational studies in Tochigi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suda, Shiro; Inoue, Koju; Inoue, Kana; Sato, Kazushige; Saito, Harumichi; Matsumoto, Takuya; Suzuki, Yohei; Miyata, Yoshihumi; Kuramochi, Motoki; Kikuchi, Senichiro; Shioda, Katsutoshi; Kobayashi, Toshiyuki; Kishi, Koichiro; Kato, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake and subsequent tsunami of March 11, 2011 severely damaged a widespread region of northeastern Japan. Consequently, the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant experienced a level seven 3 reactors melted down, which released a large amount of radioactive materials into the air. Due to the structural damage and radiation leaks, the victims are facing prolonged psychological distress. Eighty-two subjects with mental disorders who made their initial visit during the first 4 months after the earthquake and one hundred and ninety-four subjects with mental disorders who had been admitted during the first one year after the earthquake to the Jichi Medical University Hospital, which is located at the edge of the disaster-stricken region, were recruited for this study. Enrolled participants were assessed according to ICD-10. A questionnaire survey was employed to evaluate the severity of psychological distress and total amount of damage. The conditions of 22% of the outpatients had been worsened by the psychological distress related to the earthquake. Seven percent of the patients who had been hospitalized showed marked exacerbations due to the psychological distress associated with the disaster. It is of note that the exacerbation of psychiatric symptoms due to the disaster was evident among patients with mental disorders who lived even at the edge of the disaster area (i. e., subject to an earthquake intensity of 5 upper and 150 km from the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant). The results suggest that the close follow-up of disaster victims with mental disorders is of critical importance.

  17. Chance findings about early holocene tidal marshes of Grays Harbor, Washington, in relation to rapidly rising seas and great subduction earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, James B.; Hemphill-Haley, Eileen; Atwater, Brian F.

    2015-06-18

    Tidal marshes commonly build upward apace with gradual rise in the level of the sea. It is expected, however, that few tidal marshes will keep up with accelerated sea-level rise later in this century. Tidal marshes have been drowned, moreover, after subsiding during earthquakes.

  18. Outer rise seismicity related to the Maule, Chile 2010 megathrust earthquake and hydration of the incoming oceanic lithosphere Sismicidad 'outer rise' relacionada con el mega terremoto de Maule, Chile en el 2010 e hidratación de la litósfera oceánica subductante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Moscoso

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Most of the recent published geodetic models of the 2010 Maule, Chile mega-thrust earthquake (Mw=8.8 show a pronounced slip maximum of 15-20 m offshore Iloca (~35°S, indicating that co-seismic slip was largest north of the epicenter of the earthquake rupture area. A secondary slip maximum 8-10 m appears south of the epicenter west of the Arauco Peninsula. During the first weeks following the main shock and seaward of the main slip maximum, an outer rise seismic cluster of >450 events, mainly extensional, with magnitudes Mw=4-6 was formed. In contrast, the outer rise located seaward of the secondary slip maximum presents little seismicity. This observation suggests that outer rise seismicity following the Maule earthquake is strongly correlated with the heterogeneous coseismic slip distribution of the main megathrust event. In particular, the formation of the outer-rise seismic cluster in the north, which spatially correlates with the main maximum slip, is likely linked to strong extensional stresses transfered from the large slip of the subducting oceanic plate. In addition, high resolution bathymetric data reveals that bending-related faulting is more intense seaward of the main maximum slip, where well developed extensional faults strike parallel to the trench axis. Also published seismic constraints reveal reduced P-wave velocities in the uppermost mantle at the trench-outer rise region (7.5-7.8 km/s, which suggest serpentinization of the uppermost mantle. Seawater percolation up to mantle depths is likely driven by bending related-faulting at the outer rise. Water percolation into the upper mantle is expected to be more efficient during the co-seismic and early post-seismic periods of large megathrust earthquakes when intense extensional faulting of the oceanic lithosphere facilitates water infiltration seaward of the trench.La mayoría de los modelos geodésicos del terremoto de 2010 en la Región del Maule, Chile (Mw=8.8 muestran un

  19. Long-period Ground Motion Characteristics Inside and Outside of the Osaka Basin during the 2011 Great Tohoku Earthquake and Its Largest Aftershock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, K.; Iwata, T.; Asano, K.; Kubo, H.; Aoi, S.

    2013-12-01

    The 2011 great Tohoku earthquake (Mw 9.0) occurred on March 11, 2011, and the largest aftershock (Mw 7.7) at the region adjacent to south boundary of the mainshock's source region. Long-period ground motions (1-10s) of large amplitude were observed in the Osaka sedimentary basin about 550-800km away from the source regions during both events. We studied propagation and site characteristics of these ground motions, and found some common features between these two events in the Osaka basin. (1) The amplitude of horizontal components of the ground motion at the site-specific period is amplified at each sedimentary station. The predominant period is around 7s in the bayside area where the largest pSv were observed. (2) The velocity Fourier spectra have their peak values around 7s at the bedrock sites surrounding the Osaka basin. (3) Two remarkable wave packets separated by 30s propagating from stations around the Nobi plain to the bedrock sites near the Osaka basin were seen in the pasted-up velocity waveforms from the source regions to the Osaka basin for both events (Sato et al., 2012). Therefore, large long-period ground motions in the Osaka basin are generated by the combination of propagation-path and basin effects. Firstly, we simulate ground motions due to the largest aftershock using three-dimensional FDM (GMS; Aoi and Fujiwara, 1999). The reason we focus on the largest aftershock is that this event has a relatively small rupture area and simple rupture process compared to the mainshock. The source model is based on the model estimated by Kubo et al. (2013). The velocity structure model is a three-dimensional velocity structure based on the Japan Integrated Velocity Structure Model (Koketsu et al., 2012) and the layer of Vs 350m/s in this model is replaced with one of Vs 500m/s. The minimum effective period in this computation is 3s. Then, we compare synthetic waveforms with observed ones. At CHBH14, the nearest station to the source and 60km away from the

  20. Chile: Civil-Military Relations and Democratic Consolidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-12-01

    Publishers, 1992), 41. 26 Javier Martinez and Alvaro Diaz , Chile The Great Transformation (Harrisonburg, Virginia: The Brookings Institution, 1996...the world economy, by means of technological advancements, makes it necessary to reduce 32 Javier Martinez and Alvaro Diaz , Chile the Great...disapproves the executive’s budget. There is no 60 Alicia Frohman, "Chile: External Actors and the Transition to Democracy," in Beyond Sovereignty

  1. Postseismic Gravity Change After the 2006-2007 Great Earthquake Doublet and Constraints on the Asthenosphere Structure in the Central Kuril Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin-Chan, Han; Sauber, Jeanne; Pollitz, Fred

    2016-01-01

    Large earthquakes often trigger viscoelastic adjustment for years to decades depending on the rheological properties and the nature and spatial extent of coseismic stress. The 2006 Mw8.3 thrust and 2007 Mw8.1 normal fault earthquakes of the central Kuril Islands resulted in significant postseismic gravity change in GRACE but without a discernible coseismic gravity change. The gravity increase of approximately 4 micro-Gal, observed consistently from various GRACE solutions around the epicentral area during 2007-2015, is interpreted as resulting from gradual seafloor uplift by (is) approximately 6 cm produced by postseismic relaxation. The GRACE data are best fit with a model of 25-35 km for the elastic thickness and approximately 10(exp 18) Pa s for the Maxwell viscosity of the asthenosphere. The large measurable postseismic gravity change (greater than coseismic change) emphasizes the importance of viscoelastic relaxation in understanding tectonic deformation and fault-locking scenarios in the Kuril subduction zone.

  2. [Responding to patients with home mechanical ventilation after the Great East Japan Earthquake and during the planned power outages. How should we be prepared for a future disaster ?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takechi, Yukako

    2011-12-01

    The unprecedented earthquake(magnitude-9 in the Japanese seismic intensity scale)hit off the east coast of Japan on March 11, 2011. Consequently, there were planned power outages in the area nearby Tokyo to avoid massive blackouts caused by a stoppage of Fukushima nuclear plants.Our clinic located in Kawasaki city was also hit by the earthquake(magnitude- 5).During the period of two months(March and April 2011), we had a total of 52 patients with home respiratory care (5-TPPV, 11-NPPV and 36-HOT)at that time.Two out of three 24 hour-TPPV users had no external battery.After the earthquake, there was a 7-hour electricity failure in some areas, and a patient with ASV(adaptive servo ventilator)was living there.Moreover, 3-hour/day power outages were carried out from March 14 to March 28, affecting people's everyday lives. However, the patient had no harmful influences from the power failure because a ventilation company lent us an external battery(4-9 hour life capacity)for the patients, and we were able to avoid an emergency situation caused by the power failure.In conclusion, we ought to be prepared for patients with home mechanical ventilation in the future toward unforeseen large scale power outages.

  3. [The number of deaths by suicide after the Great East Japan Earthquake based on demographic statistics in the coastal and non-coastal areas of Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima prefectures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaki, Naoko; Hashimoto, Shuji; Kawado, Miyuki; Ojima, Toshiyuki; Takeshima, Tadashi; Matsubara, Miyuki; Mitoku, Kazuko; Ogata, Yukiko

    2018-01-01

    Objective The number of deaths by suicide after the Great East Japan Earthquake was surveyed based on demographic statistics. In particular, this study examined whether or not there were excessive deaths due to suicide (excluding people who were injured in the earthquake) after the Great East Japan Earthquake disaster. This examination surveyed municipalities in coastal and non-coastal areas of Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima prefectures (referred to below as the "three prefectures").Methods The demographic statistics questionnaire survey information supplied by Article 33 of the Statistics Act (Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare's published statistics Vol. 0925 No.4, September 25 th , 2014) were used as the basic data with particular reference to the information on the deaths from January 1 st , 2010 to March 31 st , 2013. The information obtained included the date of death, the municipality where the address of the deceased was registered, the gender of the deceased, age at the time of death, and cause of death codes (International Classification of Disease Codes 10 th revision: ICD-10). Additionally, information was gathered about the population based on the resident register from 2009 to 2013 and the 2010 National Census; the number of deaths by suicide was then totalled by period and area. The areas were classified as municipalities within three prefectures and those located elsewhere using the municipality where the address of the deceased was registered.Results The SMR for suicides did not show a tendency to increase for coastal or non-coastal areas throughout the two-year period after the earthquake disaster (from March 2011 to February 2013). The SMR for the three prefectures 0-1 years after the disaster compared with the year before the disaster was 0.92 and for 1-2 years after the disaster was 0.93. Both these values were significantly low. Looking at both the non-coastal and coastal areas from each of the three prefectures, the SMR for suicides

  4. Tourism in Chile | CTIO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Program PIA Program GO-FAAR Program Other Opportunities Tourism Visits to Tololo Astro tourism in Chile Tourism in Chile Information for travelers Visit Tololo Media Relations News Press Release Publications ‹› You are here CTIO Home » Outreach » Tourism » Tourism in Chile Tourism in Chile Map of

  5. Reliability of telecommunications systems following a major disaster: survey of secondary and tertiary emergency institutions in Miyagi Prefecture during the acute phase of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Daisuke; Furukawa, Hajime; Nakagawa, Atsuhiro; Abe, Yoshiko; Washio, Toshikatsu; Arafune, Tatsuhiko; Sato, Dai; Yamanouchi, Satoshi; Ochi, Sae; Tominaga, Teiji; Kushimoto, Shigeki

    2014-04-01

    Telecommunication systems are important for sharing information among health institutions to successfully provide medical response following disasters. The aim of this study was to clarify the problems associated with telecommunication systems in the acute phase of the Great East Japan Earthquake (March 11, 2011). All 72 of the secondary and tertiary emergency hospitals in Miyagi Prefecture were surveyed to evaluate the telecommunication systems in use during the 2011 Great Japan Earthquake, including satellite mobile phones, multi-channel access (MCA) wireless systems, mobile phones, Personal Handy-phone Systems (PHS), fixed-line phones, and the Internet. Hospitals were asked whether the telecommunication systems functioned correctly during the first four days after the earthquake, and, if not, to identify the cause of the malfunction. Each telecommunication system was considered to function correctly if the hospital staff could communicate at least once in every three calls. Valid responses were received from 53 hospitals (73.6%). Satellite mobile phones functioned correctly at the highest proportion of the equipped hospitals, 71.4%, even on Day 0. The MCA wireless system functioned correctly at the second highest proportion of the equipped hospitals. The systems functioned correctly at 72.0% on Day 0 and at 64.0% during Day 1 through Day 3. The main cause of malfunction of the MCA wireless systems was damage to the base station or communication lines (66.7%). Ordinary (personal or general communication systems) mobile phones did not function correctly at any hospital until Day 2, and PHS, fixed-line phones, and the Internet did not function correctly at any area hospitals that were severely damaged by the tsunami. Even in mildly damaged areas, these systems functioned correctly at telecommunications systems do not function.

  6. The support for a purification of water contaminated with radioactivity, and problems of the radioactivity standard in an emergency situation at the stricken area 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Yoshiaki

    2011-01-01

    The accident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Station of Tokyo Electric Power Company associated with the Great East Japan Earthquake incurred severe situation, where lifeline was cut off due to the discharge of a large amount of radioactive substances. In particular, the supply of safe foods and drinking water in radiation-polluted areas is urgently required. The authors have been developing up to now Crystal Valley water purifier and CV-Rescue water purifier that can purify well-water unsuitable for drinking due to contamination with toxic substances and produce drinkable water with safety without anxiety. This paper introduces the processes, in which verification test was performed to confirm that the above purifiers can be used for the removal of radioactivity discharged from the Great East Japan Earthquake this time, the validity of these purifiers was clarified, and these purifiers have actually been used for supporting water supply. This paper especially points out that a problem exists in the various standards on radioactivity that were temporarily determined in face of emergency of radiation pollution due to the nuclear power station accident this time. In these standards, the temporary standard on radioactive iodine 131 in drinking water is too high compared with the standards of WHO and those of advanced countries like U.S.A. It also points out the problem that radioactive substances in drinking water have not been removed yet. (O.A.)

  7. Postseismic gravity change after the 2006–2007 great earthquake doublet and constraints on the asthenosphere structure in the central Kuril Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shin-Chan; Sauber, Jeanne; Pollitz, Fred

    2016-01-01

    Large earthquakes often trigger viscoelastic adjustment for years to decades depending on the rheological properties and the nature and spatial extent of coseismic stress. The 2006 Mw8.3 thrust and 2007 Mw8.1 normal fault earthquakes of the central Kuril Islands resulted in significant postseismic gravity change in Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) but without a discernible coseismic gravity change. The gravity increase of ~4 μGal, observed consistently from various GRACE solutions around the epicentral area during 2007–2015, is interpreted as resulting from gradual seafloor uplift by ~6 cm produced by postseismic relaxation. The GRACE data are best fit with a model of 25–35 km for the elastic thickness and ~1018 Pa s for the Maxwell viscosity of the asthenosphere. The large measurable postseismic gravity change (greater than coseismic change) emphasizes the importance of viscoelastic relaxation in understanding tectonic deformation and fault-locking scenarios in the Kuril subduction zone.

  8. Assessing the Mental Health Impact of the 2011 Great Japan Earthquake, Tsunami, and Radiation Disaster on Elementary and Middle School Children in the Fukushima Prefecture of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieber, Mark

    2017-01-01

    On March 11, 2011, a magnitude 9.0 earthquake occurred off of Japan's Pacific coast, which was followed by huge tsunamis that destroyed many coastal cities in the area. Due to the earthquake and subsequent tsunami, malfunctions occurred at the Fukushima Daiichi (Fukushima I) nuclear power plant, resulting in the release of radioactive material in the region. While recent studies have investigated the effects of these events on the mental health of adults in the region, no studies have yet been performed investigating similar effects among children. This study aims to fill that gap by: 1) assessing the mental health of elementary and middle school children living within the Fukushima prefecture of Japan, and 2) identifying risk and protective factors that are associated with the children's mental health scores. These factors were quantified using an original demographics survey, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), the latter two of which have been previously validated in a Japanese setting. The surveys were distributed to approximately 3,650 elementary and middle school students during the months of February and March, 2012. The data suggests that those children who had been relocated to the city of Koriyama had significantly higher SDQ scores than those children who were native to Koriyama (p children affected by natural disasters, younger children and those with parents suffering from trauma-related distress are particularly vulnerable to the onset of pediatric mental disturbances.

  9. Facing the great disaster : How the men and women of the U.S. Geological Survey responded to the 1906 "San Francisco Earthquake"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvard, Elizabeth M.; Rogers, James

    2006-01-01

    It was the most devastating earthquake in California’s history. At 5:12 a.m. on April 18, 1906, the ground under the San Francisco Bay Area shook violently for more than 40 seconds. The magnitude 7.8 earthquake created a rupture along nearly 300 miles of the San Andreas Fault and was felt from southern Oregon to Los Angeles. Because the earthquake’s epicenter was just offshore from San Francisco, the impact on that city was catastrophic. Fragments of broken houses and buildings tumbled into the streets. The pipeline carrying water into the city was severed; fires triggered by broken gas mains raged out of control for 3 days. An area of almost 5 square miles in the heart of the city was destroyed by shaking and fire, and earthquake damage was widespread elsewhere. At least 3,000 people were killed, and 225,000 were left homeless. Drinking water, food, and supplies quickly became scarce.In 1906, the only permanent U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) office in California was the Pacific Division topographic mapping office in Sacramento, 70 miles up the Sacramento River from San Francisco Bay. The office had been established just 3 years earlier and was the only USGS office ever created for the sole function of topographic mapping. At the time of the earthquake, many USGS topographers were in Sacramento preparing for a summer of field work.Although moderate shaking was felt in Sacramento, then a town of about 30,000 people, detailed information about the earthquake was slow to reach the residents there. USGS topographic engineer George R. Davis, not knowing the full extent of the damage, was fearful that his 62-year-old father Edward Davis in San Francisco was caught up in the devastation. George therefore left Sacramento on the first train bound for the San Francisco Bay area. “He was very worried. The phones were down and he wasn’t sure whether or not the hotel his father was living in was damaged,” said George Davis’s daughter Anna (Davis) Rogers, then an

  10. IAEA Mission to Onagawa Nuclear Power Station to Examine the Performance of Systems, Structures and Components Following the Great East Japanese Earthquake and Tsunami, Onagawa and Tokyo, Japan, 30 July - 11 August 2012. IAEA Mission Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    To strengthen global nuclear safety, the IAEA Action Plan on Nuclear Safety (1) recommends the use of IAEA technical peer review services for plant safety, in the light of the accident at TEPCO's Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant, and (2) encourages that Member States promptly use IAEA review services to gather and disseminate information on the performance of their nuclear power plants (NPPs) and the performance of the designed protective measures against site specific extreme natural hazards and to utilize the lessons learned in the enhancement of NPP safety worldwide. The Government of Japan and the IAEA have concurred to deploy a mission to Onagawa Nuclear Power Station (NPS), owned and operated by Tohoku Electric Power Co., Inc. (Tohoku EPCo), with the objective of gathering information, during the course of a two-week period on site. This included collecting data on the performance of the structures, systems and components of the Onagawa NPS, in the 11 March 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake (GEJE) and its major aftershocks, as well as compiling the information gathered in a seismic experience database for future use by the Member States to gauge the performance of their facilities against external hazards. The Onagawa NPS has three boiling water reactors (units); with the first unit operating for the last twenty-eight years. Unit 1 began commercial operation in June 1984. Unit 2 began commercial operation in July 1995 and Unit 3 began commercial operation in January 2002. The three units have a combined electric generation capacity of 2,174 Megawatts. Situated on the eastern coast of Japan facing the Pacific Ocean, the Onagawa NPS was the closest nuclear power station to the epicentre of the enormous M9.0 GEJE. Due to its proximity to the earthquake source, the plant experienced very high levels of ground motion -the strongest shaking that any nuclear power plant has ever experienced from an earthquake. The plant shut down safely. The mission objective

  11. Report on the 2010 Chilean earthquake and tsunami response

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2011-01-01

    In July 2010, in an effort to reduce future catastrophic natural disaster losses for California, the American Red Cross coordinated and sent a delegation of 20 multidisciplinary experts on earthquake response and recovery to Chile. The primary goal was to understand how the Chilean society and relevant organizations responded to the magnitude 8.8 Maule earthquake that struck the region on February 27, 2010, as well as how an application of these lessons could better prepare California communities, response partners and state emergency partners for a comparable situation. Similarities in building codes, socioeconomic conditions, and broad extent of the strong shaking make the Chilean earthquake a very close analog to the impact of future great earthquakes on California. To withstand and recover from natural and human-caused disasters, it is essential for citizens and communities to work together to anticipate threats, limit effects, and rapidly restore functionality after a crisis. The delegation was hosted by the Chilean Red Cross and received extensive briefings from both national and local Red Cross officials. During nine days in Chile, the delegation also met with officials at the national, regional, and local government levels. Technical briefings were received from the President’s Emergency Committee, emergency managers from ONEMI (comparable to FEMA), structural engineers, a seismologist, hospital administrators, firefighters, and the United Nations team in Chile. Cities visited include Santiago, Talca, Constitución, Concepción, Talcahuano, Tumbes, and Cauquenes. The American Red Cross Multidisciplinary Team consisted of subject matter experts, who carried out special investigations in five Teams on the (1) science and engineering findings, (2) medical services, (3) emergency services, (4) volunteer management, and (5) executive and management issues (see appendix A for a full list of participants and their titles and teams). While developing this

  12. [Redo ascending aorta replacement using a homograft for graft infection caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; report of an emergently air-transferred case just after Great East Japan Earthquake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Ken; Uchida, Tetsuro; Yoshimura, Yukihiro; Kim, Cholsu; Maekawa, Yoshiyuki; Minagawa, Tadanori; Mizumoto, Masahiro; Yamashita, Atsushi; Sadahiro, Mitsuaki; Saiki, Yoshikatsu; Kawamoto, Shunsuke

    2012-10-01

    We describe a case of replacement with a cryopreserved homograft for graft infection. A 48-year-old man had been performed ascending aorta replacement using woven dacron graft for type A aortic dissection. Two months ago, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection was suspected because of high-grade fever. Computed tomography (CT) scan revealed abscess formation around the prosthetic graft and redo operation using cryopreserved homograft was scheduled to avoid re-infection into mediastinum at Tohoku University Hospital, an institute cooperating with University of Tokyo tissue bank. However, Catastrophic Great East Japan Earthquake occurred the day before the scheduled date, and the patient could not have an operation at the institution. He was transferred to our hospital by helicopter. Then homograft was successfully implanted in ascending aorta after complete excision of infectious graft.

  13. The 2012 Mw 8.6 Wharton Basin sequence: A cascade of great earthquakes generated by near-orthogonal, young, oceanic mantle faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Emma M.; Yue, Han; Barbot, Sylvain; Lay, Thorne; Tapponnier, Paul; Hermawan, Iwan; Hubbard, Judith; Banerjee, Paramesh; Feng, Lujia; Natawidjaja, Danny; Sieh, Kerry

    2015-05-01

    We improve constraints on the slip distribution and geometry of faults involved in the complex, multisegment, Mw 8.6 April 2012 Wharton Basin earthquake sequence by joint inversion of high-rate GPS data from the Sumatran GPS Array (SuGAr), teleseismic observations, source time functions from broadband surface waves, and far-field static GPS displacements. This sequence occurred under the Indian Ocean, ˜400 km offshore Sumatra. The events are extraordinary for their unprecedented rupture of multiple cross faults, deep slip, large strike-slip magnitude, and potential role in the formation of a discrete plate boundary between the Indian and Australian plates. The SuGAr recorded static displacements of up to ˜22 cm, along with time-varying arrivals from the complex faulting, which indicate that the majority of moment release was on young, WNW trending, right-lateral faults, counter to initial expectations that an old, lithospheric, NNE trending fracture zone played the primary role. The new faults are optimally oriented to accommodate the present-day stress field. Not only was the greatest moment released on the younger faults, but it was these that sustained very deep slip and high stress drop (>20 MPa). The rupture may have extended to depths of up to 60 km, suggesting that the oceanic lithosphere in the northern Wharton Basin may be cold and strong enough to sustain brittle failure at such depths. Alternatively, the rupture may have occurred with an alternative weakening mechanism, such as thermal runaway.

  14. Defeating Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    our actions. Using these global datasets will help to make the model as uniform as possible. The model must be built by scientists in the affected countries with GEM's support, augmented by their insights and data. The model will launch in 2014; to succeed it must be open, international, independent, and continuously tested. But the mission of GEM is not just the likelihood of ground shaking, but also gaging the economic and social consequences of earthquakes, which greatly amplify the losses. For example, should the municipality of Istanbul retrofit schools, or increase its insurance reserves and recovery capacity? Should a homeowner in a high-risk area move or strengthen her building? This is why GEM is a public-private partnership. GEM's fourteen public sponsors and eight non-governmental organization members are standing for the developing world. To extend GEM into the financial world, we draw upon the expertise of companies. GEM's ten private sponsors have endorsed the acquisition of public knowledge over private gain. In a competitive world, this is a courageous act. GEM is but one link in a chain of preparedness: from earth science and engineering research, through groups like GEM, to mitigation, retrofit or relocate decisions, building codes and insurance, and finally to prepared hospitals, schools, and homes. But it is a link that our community can make strong.

  15. Making the Handoff from Earthquake Hazard Assessments to Effective Mitigation Measures (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applegate, D.

    2010-12-01

    This year has witnessed a barrage of large earthquakes worldwide with the resulting damages ranging from inconsequential to truly catastrophic. We cannot predict when earthquakes will strike, but we can build communities that are resilient to strong shaking as well as to secondary hazards such as landslides and liquefaction. The contrasting impacts of the magnitude-7 earthquake that struck Haiti in January and the magnitude-8.8 event that struck Chile in April underscore the difference that mitigation and preparedness can make. In both cases, millions of people were exposed to severe shaking, but deaths in Chile were measured in the hundreds rather than the hundreds of thousands that perished in Haiti. Numerous factors contributed to these disparate outcomes, but the most significant is the presence of strong building codes in Chile and their total absence in Haiti. The financial cost of the Chilean earthquake still represents an unacceptably high percentage of that nation’s gross domestic product, a reminder that life safety is the paramount, but not the only, goal of disaster risk reduction measures. For building codes to be effective, both in terms of lives saved and economic cost, they need to reflect the hazard as accurately as possible. As one of four federal agencies that make up the congressionally mandated National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) develops national seismic hazard maps that form the basis for seismic provisions in model building codes through the Federal Emergency Management Agency and private-sector practitioners. This cooperation is central to NEHRP, which both fosters earthquake research and establishes pathways to translate research results into implementation measures. That translation depends on the ability of hazard-focused scientists to interact and develop mutual trust with risk-focused engineers and planners. Strengthening that interaction is an opportunity for the next generation

  16. Earthquake prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, P.L.

    1978-01-01

    The state of the art of earthquake prediction is summarized, the possible responses to such prediction are examined, and some needs in the present prediction program and in research related to use of this new technology are reviewed. Three basic aspects of earthquake prediction are discussed: location of the areas where large earthquakes are most likely to occur, observation within these areas of measurable changes (earthquake precursors) and determination of the area and time over which the earthquake will occur, and development of models of the earthquake source in order to interpret the precursors reliably. 6 figures

  17. How did rehabilitation professionals act when faced with the Great East Japan earthquake and disaster? Descriptive epidemiology of disability and an interim report of the relief activities of the ten Rehabilitation-Related Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Meigen; Kohzuki, Masahiro; Hamamura, Akinori; Ishikawa, Makoto; Saitoh, Masami; Kurihara, Masaki; Handa, Kazuto; Nakamura, Haruki; Fukaura, Junichi; Kimura, Ryuji; Ito, Takao; Matsuzaka, Nobuou

    2012-05-01

    Inter-organizational coordination is important for rehabilitation disaster relief. The 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Disaster was unprecedented, being geographically widespread and multifaceted. Faced with the crisis, rehabilitation professionals established the 10 Rehabilitation-Related Organizations of Rehabilitation Support Service (10-RRO). The objectives of this paper are to provide descriptive epidemiology and assess the activities of 10-RRO. Descriptive. Epidemiological data on disability were collected, mainly from official sources. Relief activities were reviewed from daily reports, and the preparedness, initial response and functioning of 10-RRO were assessed with a questionnaire directed at 36 executives of individual organizations. The disaster was characterized by a very low ratio of injuries to death of 0.372, and an odds ratio of deaths among disabled persons of 2.32. 10-RRO provided relief activities at 3 shelters. The total number of dispatch days ranged from 107 to 146, and the cumulative number of professionals and evacuees served was 1,202 and 7,300, respectively. Support activities included prevention of immobilization, daily life support, environmental improvement and transition to temporary housing. The questionnaire survey revealed poor preparedness, satisfactory initial response and support activities, and problems of data collection and advocacy. The disaster was characterized by minimal trauma and a great need for preventing immobilization. This first collaborative endeavour was successful.

  18. The Road to Total Earthquake Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohlich, Cliff

    Cinna Lomnitz is possibly the most distinguished earthquake seismologist in all of Central and South America. Among many other credentials, Lomnitz has personally experienced the shaking and devastation that accompanied no fewer than five major earthquakes—Chile, 1939; Kern County, California, 1952; Chile, 1960; Caracas,Venezuela, 1967; and Mexico City, 1985. Thus he clearly has much to teach someone like myself, who has never even actually felt a real earthquake.What is this slim book? The Road to Total Earthquake Safety summarizes Lomnitz's May 1999 presentation at the Seventh Mallet-Milne Lecture, sponsored by the Society for Earthquake and Civil Engineering Dynamics. His arguments are motivated by the damage that occurred in three earthquakes—Mexico City, 1985; Loma Prieta, California, 1989; and Kobe, Japan, 1995. All three quakes occurred in regions where earthquakes are common. Yet in all three some of the worst damage occurred in structures located a significant distance from the epicenter and engineered specifically to resist earthquakes. Some of the damage also indicated that the structures failed because they had experienced considerable rotational or twisting motion. Clearly, Lomnitz argues, there must be fundamental flaws in the usually accepted models explaining how earthquakes generate strong motions, and how we should design resistant structures.

  19. Pain, quality of life and activity in aged evacuees living in temporary housing after the Great East Japan earthquake of 11 March 2011: a cross-sectional study in Minamisoma City, Fukushima prefecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabuki, Shoji; Ouchi, Kazuo; Kikuchi, Shin-ichi; Konno, Shin-ichi

    2015-09-10

    The aim of this study was to clarify pain, quality of life and activity in the aged evacuees living in temporary housing after the Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011. The study was a cross-sectional study performed in Minamisoma City, Fukushima Prefecture 1 year and 6 months after the disaster. Inclusion criteria were the ability to walk independently and consent to answer questionnaires. Seventy-one evacuees who met the inclusion criteria were included in this study. There were 16 men and 55 women with a mean age of 75.9 years. Sixty evacuees were surveyed when they gathered at the assembly hall in the temporary housing (Assembled group) and 11 evacuees were surveyed through individual visits to their residences (Individual group). Evacuees in the Individual group agreed to participate in this study, but refused to visit the assembly hall to engage in exercise and recreation. Pain, quality of life (QOL) and level of activity were assessed with the Numeric Rating Scale (NRS), the MOS Short-Form 36 item Health Survey (SF-36) and a pedometer, respectively. Student's t-test, Mann-Whitney U test, and Fisher's exact test were used for statistical analysis. Forty-four (62.0 %) residents had chronic pain with a mean NRS of 2.74. Twenty-one (29.6 %) of these residents had relatively severe pain rated 5 or above on the NRS. QOL was significantly lower for the subscales of "physical functioning," "role physical", "general health", "social functioning", "role emotional" and "mental health", when compared with the national standard values. Values were also visibly lower for "physical component summary" in the summary score. On comparing the Assembled group and the Individual group, "physical function", "role physical", "social functioning" and "physical component summary" were found to be significantly lower in the Individual group. The mean daily number of steps was 1,892 in the Individual group and 4,579 in the Assembled group. The Individual group thus

  20. Earthquake potential revealed by tidal influence on earthquake size-frequency statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ide, Satoshi; Yabe, Suguru; Tanaka, Yoshiyuki

    2016-11-01

    The possibility that tidal stress can trigger earthquakes is long debated. In particular, a clear causal relationship between small earthquakes and the phase of tidal stress is elusive. However, tectonic tremors deep within subduction zones are highly sensitive to tidal stress levels, with tremor rate increasing at an exponential rate with rising tidal stress. Thus, slow deformation and the possibility of earthquakes at subduction plate boundaries may be enhanced during periods of large tidal stress. Here we calculate the tidal stress history, and specifically the amplitude of tidal stress, on a fault plane in the two weeks before large earthquakes globally, based on data from the global, Japanese, and Californian earthquake catalogues. We find that very large earthquakes, including the 2004 Sumatran, 2010 Maule earthquake in Chile and the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake in Japan, tend to occur near the time of maximum tidal stress amplitude. This tendency is not obvious for small earthquakes. However, we also find that the fraction of large earthquakes increases (the b-value of the Gutenberg-Richter relation decreases) as the amplitude of tidal shear stress increases. The relationship is also reasonable, considering the well-known relationship between stress and the b-value. This suggests that the probability of a tiny rock failure expanding to a gigantic rupture increases with increasing tidal stress levels. We conclude that large earthquakes are more probable during periods of high tidal stress.

  1. Global correlations between maximum magnitudes of subduction zone interface thrust earthquakes and physical parameters of subduction zones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellart, W. P.; Rawlinson, N.

    2013-01-01

    The maximum earthquake magnitude recorded for subduction zone plate boundaries varies considerably on Earth, with some subduction zone segments producing giant subduction zone thrust earthquakes (e.g. Chile, Alaska, Sumatra-Andaman, Japan) and others producing relatively small earthquakes (e.g.

  2. [Haiti, new immigrant community in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez P, Katherin; Valderas J, Jaime; Messenger C, Karen; Sánchez G, Carolina; Barrera Q, Francisco

    2018-04-01

    Migration is a growing phenomenon in Latin America influenced by several factors such as economic stability, employment, social welfare, education and health system. Currently Chile has a positive migration flow rate. Particularly, a significant number of Haitian immigrants has been observed du ring the last years, especially after earthquake of 2010. These immigrants present a different cultural background expressed in relevant aspects of living including parenting and healthcare. Knowing the Haitian culture and its health situation is relevant for a better understanding of their health needs. Haitian people come to Chile looking for a cordial reception and willing to find a place with better perspectives of wellbeing in every sense. Immigration represents a major challenge for Chilean health system that must be embraced. Integration efforts in jobs, health, education system and community living should be enhanced to ensure a prosper settlement in our country. A new immigration law is crucial to solving major problems derived from current law created in 1975.

  3. Call for action for setting up an infectious disease control action plan for disaster area activities: learning from the experience of checking suffering volunteers in the field after the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kenzo; Kodama, Mitsuya; Kanda, Hideyuki

    2013-12-01

    After the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11th, 2011, a journalist visited the disaster area with febrile symptoms and was diagnosed with measles of the D genotype, which is not indigenous to Japan. After continuing activities in disaster areas and Tokyo, 11 measles cases were reported, some of which were identified as genotype D. Meanwhile non-profit activities directed towards volunteers were offered including interviews to screen for subjective symptoms, check body temperature and advise volunteers to refrain from working in shelter areas during the period of sickness. As a consequence, disease transmission was controlled among volunteers. In disaster areas, anyone can be an infection vector. In order to prevent transmission of infectious diseases, a field action plan, which includes body temperature checks and standard precautions should be formulated and put into place. If the action plans are shared among local governments and non-governmental organizations (NGOs), they can become a norm and be expected to control infectious disease transmission.

  4. Migrant Labor and Massacres: A Comparison of the 1923 Massacre of Koreans and Chinese during the Great Kanto Earthquake and the 1931 Anti-Chinese Riots and Massacre of Chinese in Colonial Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Wook Jung

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article compares two historical massacres that resulted from ethnic antagonism during the Japanese colonial period: the massacre of Koreans and Chinese by the Japanese during the Great Kanto Earthquake in 1923 and a series of anti-Chinese riots and the massacre of Chinese that erupted in colonial Korea in 1931. A similar trajectory led up to both massacres: most of the assailants and victims were lower-class male workers, and both incidents occurred during economic depressions when competition between indigenous workers and immigrants had intensified due to a massive influx of migrant labor. The fact that the majority of the assailants were from the lower class suggests that their own resentment, long condensed from years of experiencing discrimination in their home society, combined with nationalism and anti-foreignism to explode in the form of massacres. In addition, the reality that all assailants were male workers implies that their value system, their mode of life, and the consciousness of a patriarchal hierarchy, which dominated the everyday lives of the male workers of the lower class, were transformed into violence under exceptional circumstances. Lastly, the fact that the victims of the two massacres were migrant workers means that, from the outset, the trigger for the massacres can be understood from a transnational perspective on migrant labor and cannot be confined to the boundary of a single nation.

  5. Criticism by community people and poor workplace communication as risk factors for the mental health of local welfare workers after the Great East Japan Earthquake: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Ikki; Sakuma, Atsushi; Takahashi, Yoko; Shoji, Wataru; Nagao, Ayami; Abe, Mikika; Suzuki, Yuriko; Matsuoka, Hiroo; Matsumoto, Kazunori

    2017-01-01

    After a large-scale natural disaster, demand for social welfare services increases, and the mental health of local social welfare workers becomes a matter of great concern because of their dual role as support providers and disaster survivors. We examined whether work-related social stressors, including criticism by community people and poor workplace communication, were associated with increased risk of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, or psychological distress 20-22 months after the Great East Japan Earthquake (GEJE; March 11, 2011) in local social welfare workers. Demographic characteristics, disaster-related risk factors (near-death experience, dead/missing family members, loss of housing), and work-related social risk factors (criticism, lack of communication) were obtained 20-22 months after the GEJE from 822 local workers. Questionnaires measured PTSD, depression, and psychological stress. Bivariate and multivariate regression analyses were applied. More local social welfare workers suffered from mental health problems than would be expected. Criticism by community people was significantly associated with probable PTSD and high psychological distress (adjusted odds ratio = 2.31 and 2.55, respectively). Furthermore, lack of workplace communication was associated with probable PTSD, depression, and high psychological distress (adjusted odds ratio = 3.97, 4.27, and 4.65, respectively). Almost 2 years after the disaster, local relief workers still suffered from mental health problems. Because post-disaster work-related social stressors constitute risk factors for these mental health problems, measures to improve working conditions and prevent and treat mental disorders should be a priority.

  6. Criticism by community people and poor workplace communication as risk factors for the mental health of local welfare workers after the Great East Japan Earthquake: A cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikki Ueda

    Full Text Available After a large-scale natural disaster, demand for social welfare services increases, and the mental health of local social welfare workers becomes a matter of great concern because of their dual role as support providers and disaster survivors. We examined whether work-related social stressors, including criticism by community people and poor workplace communication, were associated with increased risk of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, depression, or psychological distress 20-22 months after the Great East Japan Earthquake (GEJE; March 11, 2011 in local social welfare workers. Demographic characteristics, disaster-related risk factors (near-death experience, dead/missing family members, loss of housing, and work-related social risk factors (criticism, lack of communication were obtained 20-22 months after the GEJE from 822 local workers. Questionnaires measured PTSD, depression, and psychological stress. Bivariate and multivariate regression analyses were applied. More local social welfare workers suffered from mental health problems than would be expected. Criticism by community people was significantly associated with probable PTSD and high psychological distress (adjusted odds ratio = 2.31 and 2.55, respectively. Furthermore, lack of workplace communication was associated with probable PTSD, depression, and high psychological distress (adjusted odds ratio = 3.97, 4.27, and 4.65, respectively. Almost 2 years after the disaster, local relief workers still suffered from mental health problems. Because post-disaster work-related social stressors constitute risk factors for these mental health problems, measures to improve working conditions and prevent and treat mental disorders should be a priority.

  7. The HayWired Earthquake Scenario—Earthquake Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detweiler, Shane T.; Wein, Anne M.

    2017-04-24

    The HayWired scenario is a hypothetical earthquake sequence that is being used to better understand hazards for the San Francisco Bay region during and after an earthquake of magnitude 7 on the Hayward Fault. The 2014 Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities calculated that there is a 33-percent likelihood of a large (magnitude 6.7 or greater) earthquake occurring on the Hayward Fault within three decades. A large Hayward Fault earthquake will produce strong ground shaking, permanent displacement of the Earth’s surface, landslides, liquefaction (soils becoming liquid-like during shaking), and subsequent fault slip, known as afterslip, and earthquakes, known as aftershocks. The most recent large earthquake on the Hayward Fault occurred on October 21, 1868, and it ruptured the southern part of the fault. The 1868 magnitude-6.8 earthquake occurred when the San Francisco Bay region had far fewer people, buildings, and infrastructure (roads, communication lines, and utilities) than it does today, yet the strong ground shaking from the earthquake still caused significant building damage and loss of life. The next large Hayward Fault earthquake is anticipated to affect thousands of structures and disrupt the lives of millions of people. Earthquake risk in the San Francisco Bay region has been greatly reduced as a result of previous concerted efforts; for example, tens of billions of dollars of investment in strengthening infrastructure was motivated in large part by the 1989 magnitude 6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake. To build on efforts to reduce earthquake risk in the San Francisco Bay region, the HayWired earthquake scenario comprehensively examines the earthquake hazards to help provide the crucial scientific information that the San Francisco Bay region can use to prepare for the next large earthquake, The HayWired Earthquake Scenario—Earthquake Hazards volume describes the strong ground shaking modeled in the scenario and the hazardous movements of

  8. The CATDAT damaging earthquakes database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Daniell

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The global CATDAT damaging earthquakes and secondary effects (tsunami, fire, landslides, liquefaction and fault rupture database was developed to validate, remove discrepancies, and expand greatly upon existing global databases; and to better understand the trends in vulnerability, exposure, and possible future impacts of such historic earthquakes.

    Lack of consistency and errors in other earthquake loss databases frequently cited and used in analyses was a major shortcoming in the view of the authors which needed to be improved upon.

    Over 17 000 sources of information have been utilised, primarily in the last few years, to present data from over 12 200 damaging earthquakes historically, with over 7000 earthquakes since 1900 examined and validated before insertion into the database. Each validated earthquake includes seismological information, building damage, ranges of social losses to account for varying sources (deaths, injuries, homeless, and affected, and economic losses (direct, indirect, aid, and insured.

    Globally, a slightly increasing trend in economic damage due to earthquakes is not consistent with the greatly increasing exposure. The 1923 Great Kanto ($214 billion USD damage; 2011 HNDECI-adjusted dollars compared to the 2011 Tohoku (>$300 billion USD at time of writing, 2008 Sichuan and 1995 Kobe earthquakes show the increasing concern for economic loss in urban areas as the trend should be expected to increase. Many economic and social loss values not reported in existing databases have been collected. Historical GDP (Gross Domestic Product, exchange rate, wage information, population, HDI (Human Development Index, and insurance information have been collected globally to form comparisons.

    This catalogue is the largest known cross-checked global historic damaging earthquake database and should have far-reaching consequences for earthquake loss estimation, socio-economic analysis, and the global

  9. The CATDAT damaging earthquakes database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniell, J. E.; Khazai, B.; Wenzel, F.; Vervaeck, A.

    2011-08-01

    The global CATDAT damaging earthquakes and secondary effects (tsunami, fire, landslides, liquefaction and fault rupture) database was developed to validate, remove discrepancies, and expand greatly upon existing global databases; and to better understand the trends in vulnerability, exposure, and possible future impacts of such historic earthquakes. Lack of consistency and errors in other earthquake loss databases frequently cited and used in analyses was a major shortcoming in the view of the authors which needed to be improved upon. Over 17 000 sources of information have been utilised, primarily in the last few years, to present data from over 12 200 damaging earthquakes historically, with over 7000 earthquakes since 1900 examined and validated before insertion into the database. Each validated earthquake includes seismological information, building damage, ranges of social losses to account for varying sources (deaths, injuries, homeless, and affected), and economic losses (direct, indirect, aid, and insured). Globally, a slightly increasing trend in economic damage due to earthquakes is not consistent with the greatly increasing exposure. The 1923 Great Kanto (214 billion USD damage; 2011 HNDECI-adjusted dollars) compared to the 2011 Tohoku (>300 billion USD at time of writing), 2008 Sichuan and 1995 Kobe earthquakes show the increasing concern for economic loss in urban areas as the trend should be expected to increase. Many economic and social loss values not reported in existing databases have been collected. Historical GDP (Gross Domestic Product), exchange rate, wage information, population, HDI (Human Development Index), and insurance information have been collected globally to form comparisons. This catalogue is the largest known cross-checked global historic damaging earthquake database and should have far-reaching consequences for earthquake loss estimation, socio-economic analysis, and the global reinsurance field.

  10. A Tsunami Model for Chile for (Re) Insurance Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arango, Cristina; Rara, Vaclav; Puncochar, Petr; Trendafiloski, Goran; Ewing, Chris; Podlaha, Adam; Vatvani, Deepak; van Ormondt, Maarten; Chandler, Adrian

    2014-05-01

    Catastrophe models help (re)insurers to understand the financial implications of catastrophic events such as earthquakes and tsunamis. In earthquake-prone regions such as Chile,(re)insurers need more sophisticated tools to quantify the risks facing their businesses, including models with the ability to estimate secondary losses. The 2010 (M8.8) Maule (Chile) earthquake highlighted the need for quantifying losses from secondary perils such as tsunamis, which can contribute to the overall event losses but are not often modelled. This paper presents some key modelling aspects of a new earthquake catastrophe model for Chile developed by Impact Forecasting in collaboration with Aon Benfield Research partners, focusing on the tsunami component. The model has the capability to model tsunami as a secondary peril - losses due to earthquake (ground-shaking) and induced tsunamis along the Chilean coast are quantified in a probabilistic manner, and also for historical scenarios. The model is implemented in the IF catastrophe modelling platform, ELEMENTS. The probabilistic modelling of earthquake-induced tsunamis uses a stochastic event set that is consistent with the seismic (ground shaking) hazard developed for Chile, representing simulations of earthquake occurrence patterns for the region. Criteria for selecting tsunamigenic events (from the stochastic event set) are proposed which take into consideration earthquake location, depth and the resulting seabed vertical displacement and tsunami inundation depths at the coast. The source modelling software RuptGen by Babeyko (2007) was used to calculate static seabed vertical displacement resulting from earthquake slip. More than 3,600 events were selected for tsunami simulations. Deep and shallow water wave propagation is modelled using the Delft3D modelling suite, which is a state-of-the-art software developed by Deltares. The Delft3D-FLOW module is used in 2-dimensional hydrodynamic simulation settings with non-steady flow

  11. Measuring the size of an earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, W.; Sipkin, S.A.; Choy, G.L.

    1989-01-01

    Earthquakes range broadly in size. A rock-burst in an Idaho silver mine may involve the fracture of 1 meter of rock; the 1965 Rat Island earthquake in the Aleutian arc involved a 650-kilometer length of the Earth's crust. Earthquakes can be even smaller and even larger. If an earthquake is felt or causes perceptible surface damage, then its intensity of shaking can be subjectively estimated. But many large earthquakes occur in oceanic areas or at great focal depths and are either simply not felt or their felt pattern does not really indicate their true size.

  12. Analog earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, R.B.

    1995-01-01

    Analogs are used to understand complex or poorly understood phenomena for which little data may be available at the actual repository site. Earthquakes are complex phenomena, and they can have a large number of effects on the natural system, as well as on engineered structures. Instrumental data close to the source of large earthquakes are rarely obtained. The rare events for which measurements are available may be used, with modfications, as analogs for potential large earthquakes at sites where no earthquake data are available. In the following, several examples of nuclear reactor and liquified natural gas facility siting are discussed. A potential use of analog earthquakes is proposed for a high-level nuclear waste (HLW) repository

  13. IDRC in Chile

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    occupied by Morocco). SENEGAL. GUINEA BISSAU. CHILE. Santiago. %. 0. 300 km. ARGENTINA. BOLIVIA. PERU. Arica. Punta Arenas . Puerto Montt . South. Pacific. Ocean. South. Atlantic. Ocean. Antofagasta. Coquimbo. Valparaiso. Concepcíon.

  14. Tectonic feedback and the earthquake cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomnitz, Cinna

    1985-09-01

    The occurrence of cyclical instabilities along plate boundaries at regular intervals suggests that the process of earthquake causation differs in some respects from the model of elastic rebound in its simplest forms. The model of tectonic feedback modifies the concept of this original model in that it provides a physical interaction between the loading rate and the state of strain on the fault. Two examples are developed: (a) Central Chile, and (b) Mexico. The predictions of earthquake hazards for both types of models are compared.

  15. Psychological distress after the Great East Japan Earthquake and Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident: results of a mental health and lifestyle survey through the Fukushima Health Management Survey in FY2011 and FY2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabe, Hirooki; Suzuki, Yuriko; Mashiko, Hirobumi; Nakayama, Yoko; Hisata, Mitsuru; Niwa, Shin-Ichi; Yasumura, Seiji; Yamashita, Shunichi; Kamiya, Kenji; Abe, Masafumi

    2014-01-01

    On 11 March 2011, the Great East Japan Earthquake followed by a gigantic tsunami hit the Pacific coast of Northeast Japan (Tohoku) and damaged Tokyo Electric Power Company's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, causing a radiation hazard in the entire Fukushima Prefecture. The radiation dose exposed either externally and internally in Fukushima residents have been evaluated to be low so far and it is hardly believed that they may have any direct radiation risk on physical condition. The purpose of this report is, therefore, to describe results of a mental health and lifestyle survey intended to facilitate adequate care for residents who are at a higher risk of developing mental health problems after the complicated accident. The target population of this survey is the residents of evacuation zones including Hirono Town, Naraha Town, Tomioka Town, Kawauchi Village, Okuma Town, Futaba Town, Namie Town, Katsurao Village, Minamisoma City, Tamura City, Yamakiya district of Kawamata Town, and Iitate Village. The targeted population was 210,189 in fiscal year 2011 (FY2011) and 211,615 in fiscal year 2012 (FY2012). Questionnaires have been mailed since January 2012, and subsequently, January 2013, 10 and 22 months after the disaster. Among of them, children 63.4%, adults 40.7% for FY2011, and children 41.0%, adults 29.7% for FY2012 responded to the questionnaires mailed. Sociodemographic data showed that many evacuee households were separated after the disaster and had to move several times. K6 was used in this survey to estimate general mental health. The proportion (14.6% in FY2011 and 11.9% inFY2012) of adults who scored above the K6 cut-off (≥13) for general mental health was higher than usual, indicating severe mental health problems among evacuees. The proportion (21.6% in FY2011 and 18.3% inFY2012) of adults who scored above the cut-off (≥44) of PTSD checklist (PCL), reflecting traumatic symptoms, was almost equal to that of the workers after the 9.11 World

  16. Effects of socioeconomic factors on cardiovascular-related symptoms among residents in Fukushima after the Great East Japan Earthquake: a cross-sectional study using data from the Fukushima Health Management Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen; Ohira, Tetsuya; Yasumura, Seiji; Maeda, Masaharu; Otsuru, Akira; Harigane, Mayumi; Horikoshi, Naoko; Suzuki, Yuriko; Yabe, Hirooki; Nagai, Masato; Nakano, Hironori; Hirosaki, Mayumi; Uemura, Mayu; Takahashi, Hideto; Kamiya, Kenji; Yamashita, Shunichi; Abe, Masafumi

    2017-06-23

    To investigate the association between socioeconomic factors and the exacerbation of cardiovascular symptoms among evacuees after the Great East Japan Earthquake. A sample of 73 433 individuals was included in the Fukushima Health Management Survey. Self-report questionnaires were used to determine the influence of socioeconomic factors including living arrangements, loss of employment and decreased income on the exacerbation of headache, dizziness, palpitations and shortness of breath. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs of the effect of socioeconomic factors were estimated for each symptom using multiple logistic regression analyses. Exacerbation of headaches was reported by 1893 individuals, dizziness by 1229, palpitations by 1085 and shortness of breath by 626 individuals. Evacuation accommodation was associated with all of these symptoms. Compared with participants living in their own home (OR=1.00), individuals living in relatives' homes had increased probability of experiencing exacerbation of headache (1.58; 95% CI 1.19 to 2.09) and dizziness (1.42; 95% CI 1.02 to 1.98); those living in rental housing or apartments experienced exacerbation of headache (1.54; 95% CI 1.32 to 1.80), dizziness (1.45; 95% CI 1.20 to 1.75), palpitations (1.25; 95% CI 1.03 to 1.51) and shortness of breath (1.76; 95% CI 1.35 to 2.28); participants living in evacuation shelters experienced exacerbation of headache (1.80; 95% CI 1.09 to 2.96); and refugees living in temporary housing also experienced exacerbation of headache (1.42; 95% CI 1.15 to 1.72), dizziness (1.40; 95% CI 1.09 to 1.79) and shortness of breath (1.49; 95% CI 1.07 to 2.08). Compared with the evacuees who retained their jobs, unemployed individuals showed increased probability of exacerbation of headache (1.28, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.46), dizziness (1.26, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.48) and palpitations (1.21, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.45). Decreased income was associated with exacerbation of headache (1.39, 95% CI 1

  17. A global outer-rise/outer-trench-slope (OR/OTS) earthquake study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartman, J. M.; Kita, S.; Kirby, S. H.; Choy, G. L.

    2009-12-01

    Using improved seismic, bathymetric, satellite gravity and other geophysical data, we investigated the seismicity patterns and focal mechanisms of earthquakes in oceanic lithosphere off the trenches of the world that are large enough to be well recorded at teleseismic distances. A number of prominent trends are apparent, some of which have been previously recognized based on more limited data [1], and some of which are largely new [2-5]: (1) The largest events and the highest seismicity rates tend to occur where Mesozoic incoming plates are subducting at high rates (e.g., those in the western Pacific and the Banda segment of Indonesia). The largest events are predominantly shallow normal faulting (SNF) earthquakes. Less common are reverse-faulting (RF) events that tend to be deeper and to be present along with SNF events where nearby seamounts, seamount chains and other volcanic features are subducting [Seno and Yamanaka, 1996]. Blooms of SNF OR/OTS events usually occur just after and seaward of great interplate thrust (IPT) earthquakes but are far less common after smaller IPT events. (2) Plates subducting at slow rates (Chile, the Ninety East Ridge in Sumatra, and the D’Entrecastaux Ridge in Vanuatu).

  18. Letter from Chile: Re-establishing health care in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Jorge

    1993-01-01

    Chile's long term social policy has produced very impressive outcomes in general health indicators, with a national health service established as early as 1952. During the years of the Pinochet dictatorship (1973-89) public health institutions were greatly affected, with sharp diminution in financing which affected investment and salaries. The democratic government initiated in 1990 faced a difficult situation, with underpaid staff and decrepit hospitals. The ministry took immediate action to improve salaries and start an ambitious health sector reform including investment in infrastructure, technology, and modern management. Decentralisation and autonomy, changes in payment for service mechanisms, and a public-private mix are the main objectives of this reform, keeping the public role as predominant in the proposed structure. This process has been affected by union unrest and public opinion dissatisfaction, which tend to present obstacles to progress in this complicated issue. Imagesp729-ap730-a

  19. Geological and historical evidence of irregular recurrent earthquakes in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satake, Kenji

    2015-10-28

    Great (M∼8) earthquakes repeatedly occur along the subduction zones around Japan and cause fault slip of a few to several metres releasing strains accumulated from decades to centuries of plate motions. Assuming a simple 'characteristic earthquake' model that similar earthquakes repeat at regular intervals, probabilities of future earthquake occurrence have been calculated by a government committee. However, recent studies on past earthquakes including geological traces from giant (M∼9) earthquakes indicate a variety of size and recurrence interval of interplate earthquakes. Along the Kuril Trench off Hokkaido, limited historical records indicate that average recurrence interval of great earthquakes is approximately 100 years, but the tsunami deposits show that giant earthquakes occurred at a much longer interval of approximately 400 years. Along the Japan Trench off northern Honshu, recurrence of giant earthquakes similar to the 2011 Tohoku earthquake with an interval of approximately 600 years is inferred from historical records and tsunami deposits. Along the Sagami Trough near Tokyo, two types of Kanto earthquakes with recurrence interval of a few hundred years and a few thousand years had been recognized, but studies show that the recent three Kanto earthquakes had different source extents. Along the Nankai Trough off western Japan, recurrence of great earthquakes with an interval of approximately 100 years has been identified from historical literature, but tsunami deposits indicate that the sizes of the recurrent earthquakes are variable. Such variability makes it difficult to apply a simple 'characteristic earthquake' model for the long-term forecast, and several attempts such as use of geological data for the evaluation of future earthquake probabilities or the estimation of maximum earthquake size in each subduction zone are being conducted by government committees. © 2015 The Author(s).

  20. Connecting slow earthquakes to huge earthquakes

    OpenAIRE

    Obara, Kazushige; Kato, Aitaro

    2016-01-01

    Slow earthquakes are characterized by a wide spectrum of fault slip behaviors and seismic radiation patterns that differ from those of traditional earthquakes. However, slow earthquakes and huge megathrust earthquakes can have common slip mechanisms and are located in neighboring regions of the seismogenic zone. The frequent occurrence of slow earthquakes may help to reveal the physics underlying megathrust events as useful analogs. Slow earthquakes may function as stress meters because of th...

  1. Astro Tourism in Chile | CTIO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Program PIA Program GO-FAAR Program Other Opportunities Tourism Visits to Tololo Astro tourism in Chile Tourism in Chile Information for travelers Visit Tololo Media Relations News Press Release Publications ‹› You are here CTIO Home » Outreach » Tourism » Astro Tourism in Chile Astro Tourism in

  2. The GNSS Component of the Seismic Monitoring System in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrientos, S. E.

    2016-12-01

    Chile is amongst the most seismically active countries in the world. Since mid-XVI Century, a magnitude 8 or more earthquake has taken place every dozen of years, as an average. In the last 100 years, more than ten events with magnitudes around 8 or larger have taken place in this part of world. Three events with M>8 have taken place only in the last six years. The largest earthquake ever recorded took place in May, 1960, in southern Chile. Such extreme seismic activity is the result of the interaction of the Nazca, Antarctic, Scotia and South American plates in southwestern South America where Chile is located. These megathrust earthquakes exhibit long rupture regions reaching several hundreds of km with fault displacements of several tens of meters. At least eighteen of these earthquakes have generated local tsunamis with runups larger than 4 m -including events in 2010, 2014 and 2015- therefore it is mandatory to establish a system with capabilities to rapidly evaluate the tsunamigenic potential of these events. In 2013, the newly created National Seismological Center (CSN) of the University of Chile was tasked to upgrade the countrýs seismic network by increasing the numbers of real-time monitoring stations. The most important change to previous practices is the establishment of a GNSS network composed by 130 devices, in addition to the incorporation of 65 new collocated broadband and strong motion instruments. Additional 297 strong motion instruments for engineering purposes complement the system. Forty units -of the 130 devices- present an optional RTX capability, where satellite orbits and clock corrections are sent to the field device producing a 1-Hz position stream at 4-cm level. First records of ground displacement -using this technology-were recorded at the time of the largest aftershock (Mw=7.6) of the sequence that affected northern Chile in 2014. The CSN is currently developing automatic detectors and amplitude estimators of displacement from the

  3. A study of tectonic activity in the Basin-Range Province and on the San Andreas Fault. No. 3: Kinematics of Great Basin intraplate extension from earthquake, geodetic and geologic information. Final Technical Report, 15 Apr. 1981 - 31 Jan. 1986 M.S. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddington, P. K.

    1986-01-01

    Strain rates assessed from brittle fracture, associated with earthquakes, and total brittle-ductile deformation measured from geodetic data were compared to paleostrain from Quaternary geology for the intraplate Great Basin of the western United States. These data provide an assessment of the kinematics and mode of lithospheric extension that the western U.S. Cordillera has experienced in the last 5 to 10 million years. Strain and deformation rates were determined by the seismic moment tensor method using historic seismicity and fault plane solutions. Contemporary deformation of the Great Basin occurs principally along the active seismic zones. The earthquake related strain shows that the Great Basin is characterized by regional E-W extension at 8.4 mm/a in the north that diminishes to NW-SE extension of 3.5 mm/a in the south. Zones of maximum extension correspond to belts of shallow crust, high heat flow, and Quaternary basaltic volcanism, suggesting that these parameters are related through an effect such as a stress relaxation allowing bouyant uplift and ascension of magmas.

  4. The EM Earthquake Precursor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, K. B., II; Saxton, P. T.

    2013-12-01

    Many attempts have been made to determine a sound forecasting method regarding earthquakes and warn the public in turn. Presently, the animal kingdom leads the precursor list alluding to a transmission related source. By applying the animal-based model to an electromagnetic (EM) wave model, various hypotheses were formed, but the most interesting one required the use of a magnetometer with a differing design and geometry. To date, numerous, high-end magnetometers have been in use in close proximity to fault zones for potential earthquake forecasting; however, something is still amiss. The problem still resides with what exactly is forecastable and the investigating direction of EM. After the 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake, American earthquake investigators predetermined magnetometer use and a minimum earthquake magnitude necessary for EM detection. This action was set in motion, due to the extensive damage incurred and public outrage concerning earthquake forecasting; however, the magnetometers employed, grounded or buried, are completely subject to static and electric fields and have yet to correlate to an identifiable precursor. Secondly, there is neither a networked array for finding any epicentral locations, nor have there been any attempts to find even one. This methodology needs dismissal, because it is overly complicated, subject to continuous change, and provides no response time. As for the minimum magnitude threshold, which was set at M5, this is simply higher than what modern technological advances have gained. Detection can now be achieved at approximately M1, which greatly improves forecasting chances. A propagating precursor has now been detected in both the field and laboratory. Field antenna testing conducted outside the NE Texas town of Timpson in February, 2013, detected three strong EM sources along with numerous weaker signals. The antenna had mobility, and observations were noted for recurrence, duration, and frequency response. Next, two

  5. El IDRC en Chile

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    prácticas para promover la innovación ... Estudios para Latino américa sentaron las ... Argentina, Brasil, Canadá, Chile y Colombia. ... soluciones locales innovadoras y duraderas que apuntan a proporcionar opciones y cambios a aquellos ...

  6. Earthquake Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... North Dakota, and Wisconsin. The core of the earth was the first internal structural element to be identified. In 1906 R.D. Oldham discovered it from his studies of earthquake records. The inner core is solid, and the outer core is liquid and so does not transmit ...

  7. Understanding Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Amanda; Gray, Ron

    2018-01-01

    December 26, 2004 was one of the deadliest days in modern history, when a 9.3 magnitude earthquake--the third largest ever recorded--struck off the coast of Sumatra in Indonesia (National Centers for Environmental Information 2014). The massive quake lasted at least 10 minutes and devastated the Indian Ocean. The quake displaced an estimated…

  8. A new survey method of tsunami inundation area using chemical analysis of soil. Application to the field survey on the 2010 Chilean tsunami at Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshii, Takumi; Matsuyama, Masafumi; Koshimura, Shunichi; Mas, Erick; Matsuoka, Masashi; Jimenez, Cesar

    2011-01-01

    The severe earthquake of Mw 8.8 occurred on 27 Feb. 2010 at the center of Chile. The tsunami generated by the earthquake attacked the coast of Chile and it propagated to the Pacific Ocean coastline. The field survey on the disaster damages due to the tsunami was conducted near Talcahuano in Chile to prepare for the great tsunamis accompanied by the earthquakes predicted to occur near Japan within several decades. The aims of this field survey were to survey disaster damages especially relevant to electric equipments and to develop the survey method based on a chemical analysis of the inundated soil which supplies objective data with high accuracy compared to the conventional methods. In the survey area, the average of inundation heights was 6 m, however it locally reached up to 25 m. The maximum sea-level height of the series of the tsunamis was recorded in the third or fourth wave (roughly 3 hours after the earthquake occurrence). The first floors of houses were severely destroyed and some ships were carried and left on land by the tsunamis. Furthermore, the large amount of sediment was deposited in towns. Removing the drifted ships and tsunami deposit is important consideration for quick recovery from a disaster due to a tsunami. The soil samples were obtained from both the inundated and the not-inundated position. The stirred solution was made by the soil and ultrapure water, then, the content of water-soluble ions, electric conductivity (EC), and pH were measured. The soil obtained in the tsunami inundated area contains much water-soluble ions (Na + , Mg 2+ , Cl - , Br - , SO 4 2- ) compared to the samples obtained in the not-inundated area. The discriminant analysis of the tsunami inundation was conducted using the amount of ions in the soil. High discriminant accuracy (over 90%) was obtained with Na + , Mg 2+ , Cl - , Br - , SO 4 2- and EC. Br - , Cl - , Na + are believed to be suitable for the discriminant analysis about tsunamis considering the contaminant

  9. ESO and Chile: 10 Years of Productive Scientific Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    ESO and the Government of Chile launched today the book "10 Years Exploring the Universe", written by the beneficiaries of the ESO-Chile Joint Committee. This annual fund provides grants for individual Chilean scientists, research infrastructures, scientific congresses, workshops for science teachers and astronomy outreach programmes for the public. In a ceremony held in Santiago on 19 June 2006, the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere (ESO) and the Chilean Ministry of Foreign Affairs marked the 10th Anniversary of the Supplementary Agreement, which granted to Chilean astronomers up to 10 percent of the total observing time on ESO telescopes. This agreement also established an annual fund for the development of astronomy, managed by the so-called "ESO-Chile Joint Committee". ESO PR Photo 21/06 ESO PR Photo 21/06 Ten Years ESO-Chile Agreement Ceremony The celebration event was hosted by ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky, and the Director of Special Policy for the Chilean Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ambassador Luis Winter. "ESO's commitment is, and always will be, to promote astronomy and scientific knowledge in the country hosting our observatories", said ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky. "We hope Chile and Europe will continue with great achievements in this fascinating joint adventure, the exploration of the universe." On behalf of the Government of Chile, Ambassador Luis Winter outlined the historical importance of the Supplementary Agreement, ratified by the Chilean Congress in 1996. "Such is the magnitude of ESO-Chile Joint Committee that, only in 2005, this annual fund represented 8 percent of all financing sources for Chilean astronomy, including those from Government and universities", Ambassador Winter said. The ESO Representative and Head of Science in Chile, Dr. Felix Mirabel, and the appointed Chilean astronomer for the ESO-Chile Joint Committee, Dr. Leonardo Bronfman, also took part in the

  10. Behavioral problems and tobacco use among adolescents in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caris Luis

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between behavioral problems and tobacco smoking among adolescent students in Chile. METHODS: Data were drawn from a study that included questionnaire surveys of 46 907 school-attending adolescents in all 13 of the administrative regions of Chile. Assessments were based on an adapted, Spanish-language version of the Drug Use Screening Inventory. The conditional form of the logistic regression model was used for analysis, with matching of students on individual schools, and with further statistical adjustments for sex, age, and selected risk factors. RESULTS: The prevalence of tobacco smoking among the adolescents was very high across all of Chile, with a level between 56% and 65% in each of the 13 regions. The estimated odds of tobacco use in youths at the highest level of behavioral problems was about twice that for youths at the lowest levels, both before and after controlling for sex, age, lack of participation in recreational activities, level of irritability, and levels of problems with school, family attention, and mental health. CONCLUSIONS: These findings help to complement and complete the evidence of prior studies on tobacco smoking among adolescents with behavior problems, including recent research on Central American youths. Although the magnitude of observed associations in Chile was not as great as that for the associations found in Central America, both the strength of these associations and their statistical significance were observed throughout Chile. This is the first study in Chile on potentially causal relationships such as these.

  11. Spent Fuel in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López Lizana, F.

    2015-01-01

    The government has made a complete and serious study of many different aspects and possible road maps for nuclear electric power with strong emphasis on safety and energy independence. In the study, the chapter of SFM has not been a relevant issue at this early stage due to the fact that it has been left for later implementation stage. This paper deals with the options Chile might consider in managing its Spent Fuel taking into account foreign experience and factors related to safety, economics, public acceptance and possible novel approaches in spent fuel treatment. The country’s distinctiveness and past experience in this area taking into account that Chile has two research reactors which will have an influence in the design of the Spent Fuel option. (author)

  12. Computational methods in earthquake engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Plevris, Vagelis; Lagaros, Nikos

    2017-01-01

    This is the third book in a series on Computational Methods in Earthquake Engineering. The purpose of this volume is to bring together the scientific communities of Computational Mechanics and Structural Dynamics, offering a wide coverage of timely issues on contemporary Earthquake Engineering. This volume will facilitate the exchange of ideas in topics of mutual interest and can serve as a platform for establishing links between research groups with complementary activities. The computational aspects are emphasized in order to address difficult engineering problems of great social and economic importance. .

  13. Connecting slow earthquakes to huge earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara, Kazushige; Kato, Aitaro

    2016-07-15

    Slow earthquakes are characterized by a wide spectrum of fault slip behaviors and seismic radiation patterns that differ from those of traditional earthquakes. However, slow earthquakes and huge megathrust earthquakes can have common slip mechanisms and are located in neighboring regions of the seismogenic zone. The frequent occurrence of slow earthquakes may help to reveal the physics underlying megathrust events as useful analogs. Slow earthquakes may function as stress meters because of their high sensitivity to stress changes in the seismogenic zone. Episodic stress transfer to megathrust source faults leads to an increased probability of triggering huge earthquakes if the adjacent locked region is critically loaded. Careful and precise monitoring of slow earthquakes may provide new information on the likelihood of impending huge earthquakes. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  14. Great Apes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeman, Jonathan M.; Cerveny, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    Anesthesia of great apes is often necessary to conduct diagnostic analysis, provide therapeutics, facilitate surgical procedures, and enable transport and translocation for conservation purposes. Due to the stress of remote delivery injection of anesthetic agents, recent studies have focused on oral delivery and/or transmucosal absorption of preanesthetic and anesthetic agents. Maintenance of the airway and provision of oxygen is an important aspect of anesthesia in great ape species. The provision of analgesia is an important aspect of the anesthesia protocol for any procedure involving painful stimuli. Opioids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are often administered alone, or in combination to provide multi-modal analgesia. There is increasing conservation management of in situ great ape populations, which has resulted in the development of field anesthesia techniques for free-living great apes for the purposes of translocation, reintroduction into the wild, and clinical interventions.

  15. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Chile 2012 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-06

    Chile has experienced several serious energy supply incidents over the last decade, including major droughts, a sustained gas supply cut from Argentina (since 2004), and a major earthquake in early 2010 which affected electricity networks and refineries, and caused several black-outs. Due to Chile's unique and sinuous geography - it runs 4 300 kilometres from North to South and only 175 kms from East to West- the country's energy markets are regionally disjointed, particularly as the regional gas and electricity grids are not connected. In the arid North, energy demand is dominated by the mining industry, and operates based on a separate thermal-based Sistema Interconectado Norte Grande (SING) electricity grid. The more densely-populated central region (including Santiago) operates on the more hydro-dependent Sistema Interconectado Central (SIC) electricity grid. The southernmost, hydro-rich regions of the country are not connected to the rest of Chile in terms of electricity and gas. The following report is based on an IEA Emergency Response Assessment carried out in 2010 and 2011 which looked specifically at Chile's capacity to respond to short-term emergencies in oil, gas and electricity.

  16. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Chile 2012 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-06

    Chile has experienced several serious energy supply incidents over the last decade, including major droughts, a sustained gas supply cut from Argentina (since 2004), and a major earthquake in early 2010 which affected electricity networks and refineries, and caused several black-outs. Due to Chile's unique and sinuous geography - it runs 4 300 kilometres from North to South and only 175 kms from East to West- the country's energy markets are regionally disjointed, particularly as the regional gas and electricity grids are not connected. In the arid North, energy demand is dominated by the mining industry, and operates based on a separate thermal-based Sistema Interconectado Norte Grande (SING) electricity grid. The more densely-populated central region (including Santiago) operates on the more hydro-dependent Sistema Interconectado Central (SIC) electricity grid. The southernmost, hydro-rich regions of the country are not connected to the rest of Chile in terms of electricity and gas. The following report is based on an IEA Emergency Response Assessment carried out in 2010 and 2011 which looked specifically at Chile's capacity to respond to short-term emergencies in oil, gas and electricity.

  17. All projects related to chile | Page 7 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Latin American Schoolnets (REDAL) network and the Latin American Education Portals Network (RELPE) have made a substantive contribution to ... The municipality of Peñalolén in Santiago, Chile, is characterized by great socioeconomic diversity and strong social networks (clubs for the elderly and young people, ...

  18. Thermal infrared anomalies of several strong earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Congxin; Zhang, Yuansheng; Guo, Xiao; Hui, Shaoxing; Qin, Manzhong; Zhang, Ying

    2013-01-01

    In the history of earthquake thermal infrared research, it is undeniable that before and after strong earthquakes there are significant thermal infrared anomalies which have been interpreted as preseismic precursor in earthquake prediction and forecasting. In this paper, we studied the characteristics of thermal radiation observed before and after the 8 great earthquakes with magnitude up to Ms7.0 by using the satellite infrared remote sensing information. We used new types of data and method to extract the useful anomaly information. Based on the analyses of 8 earthquakes, we got the results as follows. (1) There are significant thermal radiation anomalies before and after earthquakes for all cases. The overall performance of anomalies includes two main stages: expanding first and narrowing later. We easily extracted and identified such seismic anomalies by method of "time-frequency relative power spectrum." (2) There exist evident and different characteristic periods and magnitudes of thermal abnormal radiation for each case. (3) Thermal radiation anomalies are closely related to the geological structure. (4) Thermal radiation has obvious characteristics in abnormal duration, range, and morphology. In summary, we should be sure that earthquake thermal infrared anomalies as useful earthquake precursor can be used in earthquake prediction and forecasting.

  19. Earthquake Early Warning Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Pei-Yang Lin

    2011-01-01

    Because of Taiwan’s unique geographical environment, earthquake disasters occur frequently in Taiwan. The Central Weather Bureau collated earthquake data from between 1901 and 2006 (Central Weather Bureau, 2007) and found that 97 earthquakes had occurred, of which, 52 resulted in casualties. The 921 Chichi Earthquake had the most profound impact. Because earthquakes have instant destructive power and current scientific technologies cannot provide precise early warnings in advance, earthquake ...

  20. Preliminary analysis of the rupture process of 11 March 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilotte, J.; Satriano, C.; Dionicio, V.; Lancieri, M.; Bernard, P.

    2011-12-01

    The great 11 March 2011 Off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku earthquake (Mw 9.1) ruptured a ~ 200 km wide mega-thrust fault, with average displacement of ~15-20 m. The earthquake triggered a large devastating tsunami as well as strong ground motion along the east Honshu coastline. Seismic activity in this area is characterized by a number of large earthquakes with Mw ~7.2-7.9 along the down-dip portion of the mega-thrust seaward of Miyagi prefecture, with only few events of magnitude greater than 8 in last hundred years. This region was also recognized to have had a large tsunami earthquake in 869 with a source area estimated further offshore. The rupture process of the Tohoku-Oki earthquake is investigated here combining teleseismic short period P-waves back-projection imaging and broadband P-wave finite fault inversions, together with a preliminary broadband analysis of the Kik-net strong motion recordings across Japan. The main features of the Tohoku-Oki rupture process imaged by the short period (1s) back-projection are: an initial 70-80s radiation phase eastward of the epicenter, with a slow (~1-1.5 km/s) along-dip rupture propagation; a short radiation phase northward of the epicenter; and ultimately a southward radiation phase with a relatively faster rupture propagation. These features are robust and consistent using both the North American and European arrays configurations. At lower periods, the back-projection analysis reveals a shift in the radiation centroid seaward toward the trench. In contrast, the broadband (1-200s) P-waves finite fault inversion exhibits a quite complementary image with a first long period radiation phase up-dip of the epicenter followed by down-dip late southwestward radiation phase that remains however poorly constraint. The robustness and the resolution of both the back-projection and the finite fault inversion analysis are carefully assessed through bootstrap analysis, and the analysis of some of the main foreshocks and aftershocks

  1. Low cost earthquake resistant ferrocement small house

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, M.A.; Ashraf, M.; Ashraf, M.

    2008-01-01

    The greatest humanitarian challenge faced even today after one year of Kashmir Hazara earthquake is that of providing shelter. Currently on the globe one in seven people live in a slum or refugee camp. The earthquake of October 2005 resulted in a great loss of life and property. This research work is mainly focused on developing a design of small size, low cost and earthquake resistant house. Ferrocement panels are recommended as the main structural elements with lightweight truss roofing system. Earthquake resistance is ensured by analyzing the structure on ETABS for a seismic activity of zone 4. The behavior of structure is found satisfactory under the earthquake loading. An estimate of cost is also presented which shows that it is an economical solution. (author)

  2. Field survey of the 16 September 2015 Chile tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagos, Marcelo; Fritz, Hermann M.

    2016-04-01

    On the evening of 16 September, 2015 a magnitude Mw 8.3 earthquake occurred off the coast of central Chile's Coquimbo region. The ensuing tsunami caused significant inundation and damage in the Coquimbo or 4th region and mostly minor effects in neighbouring 3rd and 5th regions. Fortunately, ancestral knowledge from the past 1922 and 1943 tsunamis in the region along with the catastrophic 2010 Maule and recent 2014 tsunamis, as well as tsunami education and evacuation exercises prompted most coastal residents to spontaneously evacuate to high ground after the earthquake. There were a few tsunami victims; while a handful of fatalities were associated to earthquake induced building collapses and the physical stress of tsunami evacuation. The international scientist joined the local effort from September 20 to 26, 2015. The international tsunami survey team (ITST) interviewed numerous eyewitnesses and documented flow depths, runup heights, inundation distances, sediment deposition, damage patterns, performance of the navigation infrastructure and impact on the natural environment. The ITST covered a 500 km stretch of coastline from Caleta Chañaral de Aceituno (28.8° S) south of Huasco down to Llolleo near San Antonio (33.6° S). We surveyed more than 40 locations and recorded more than 100 tsunami and runup heights with differential GPS and integrated laser range finders. The tsunami impact peaked at Caleta Totoral near Punta Aldea with both tsunami and runup heights exceeding 10 m as surveyed on September 22 and broadcasted nationwide that evening. Runup exceeded 10 m at a second uninhabited location some 15 km south of Caleta Totoral. A significant variation in tsunami impact was observed along the coastlines of central Chile at local and regional scales. The tsunami occurred in the evening hours limiting the availability of eyewitness video footages. Observations from the 2015 Chile tsunami are compared against the 1922, 1943, 2010 and 2014 Chile tsunamis. The

  3. Identified EM Earthquake Precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kenneth, II; Saxton, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    Many attempts have been made to determine a sound forecasting method regarding earthquakes and warn the public in turn. Presently, the animal kingdom leads the precursor list alluding to a transmission related source. By applying the animal-based model to an electromagnetic (EM) wave model, various hypotheses were formed, but the most interesting one required the use of a magnetometer with a differing design and geometry. To date, numerous, high-end magnetometers have been in use in close proximity to fault zones for potential earthquake forecasting; however, something is still amiss. The problem still resides with what exactly is forecastable and the investigating direction of EM. After a number of custom rock experiments, two hypotheses were formed which could answer the EM wave model. The first hypothesis concerned a sufficient and continuous electron movement either by surface or penetrative flow, and the second regarded a novel approach to radio transmission. Electron flow along fracture surfaces was determined to be inadequate in creating strong EM fields, because rock has a very high electrical resistance making it a high quality insulator. Penetrative flow could not be corroborated as well, because it was discovered that rock was absorbing and confining electrons to a very thin skin depth. Radio wave transmission and detection worked with every single test administered. This hypothesis was reviewed for propagating, long-wave generation with sufficient amplitude, and the capability of penetrating solid rock. Additionally, fracture spaces, either air or ion-filled, can facilitate this concept from great depths and allow for surficial detection. A few propagating precursor signals have been detected in the field occurring with associated phases using custom-built loop antennae. Field testing was conducted in Southern California from 2006-2011, and outside the NE Texas town of Timpson in February, 2013. The antennae have mobility and observations were noted for

  4. Study on construction of temporary dwellings and problems caused by living long time on Hanshin-Awaji Great Earthquake; Hanshin / Awaji daishinsai ni okeru okyu kasetsu jutaku no secchi to chokikan shiyo suru baai no kadai ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, K.; Nakamura, Y. [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan)] Shimizu, Y. [Kumagai Gumi Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-10-20

    Two years after the above-titled earthquake, an examination was performed on inhabitants in the temporary dwelling houses in Kobe, center of the calamity, and problems caused by a long stay there were clarified together with a grasp of the evolving problems by comparing the result of survey carried out immediately after the disaster. The number of such temporary dwelling houses amounted to 29,128 within Kobe City and 3,168 outside of the city. According to the room arrangement, they were either one f 4 types : 2-rooms with a kitchen, 1 room with a kitchen, dormitory and those specifically for aged persons. There were 59,449 applications at the first offer of 2,702 houses. The priority of their assignments and so on are explained. As for the housing structure, numerous complaints concerned with the room temperature, noise and so forth. As for the living environment, lack of nearby commodity shop, omission of transportation access, ill drainage of the housing sites were pointed out and the matters of demand to the local authorities included the installation of mail post and street lights. As for the health management, insomnia, stiff shoulder, lumbago and other bad physical conditions were revealed. The financial difficulty and the high house rent were obstacles to migrate to other places. The prolonged temporary lives worsened the apprehension of dwellers for the earthquake, typhoon, fire and alike. Some features for the calamity are described in comparison with the result of survey on those who were compelled to live under similar conditions by the eruption of Mr. Fugen. 6 refs., 13 figs., 15 tabs.

  5. Occurrence of depressive tendency and associated social factors among elderly persons forced by the Great East Japan Earthquake and nuclear disaster to live as long-term evacuees: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Yujiro; Iwasa, Hajime; Goto, Aya; Yoshida, Kazuki; Matsuda, Kumiko; Iwamitsu, Yumi; Yasumura, Seiji

    2017-09-03

    This study examined the incidence of depression and associated factors among elderly persons from Iitate village after the March 2011 earthquake. This was a prospective cohort study. As a baseline survey, in May 2010 a self-assessment Basic Checklist (BCL) was distributed to 1611 elderly villagers, of which 1277 responded. Of these respondents, 885 without a tendency to depression (69.3%) were given a follow-up survey in May 2013. The BCL was used to assess depression tendency, instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), physical function, nutritional status, oral function, homeboundness, cognitive function and social activities. Univariate analysis was used to examine differences in risk between those with a presence of depression tendency (PDT) and those without (non-PDT) depending on demographic and BCL variables. Variables found to be significant were analysed by Poisson regression analysis. Of the 438 respondents in the second survey, 163 (37.2%) showed depression tendency. PDT risk was significantly increased by female gender, age, history of diabetes and cognitive disorder. It was significantly reduced by increased IADL. Engagement in social activities decreased PDT risk in rental accommodation. Renters faced a higher risk of PDT than persons evacuated in groups to purpose-built housing. The inclusion of social activities in the multivariate Poisson regression analysis weakened this effect. Female gender, a history of diabetes, reduced IADL and a tendency to cognitive disorder each independently affected PDT risk. These findings may inform future responses to earthquakes and the technical disasters that may accompany them. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Great Expectations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickens, Charles

    2005-01-01

    One of Dickens's most renowned and enjoyable novels, Great Expectations tells the story of Pip, an orphan boy who wishes to transcend his humble origins and finds himself unexpectedly given the opportunity to live a life of wealth and respectability. Over the course of the tale, in which Pip

  7. Rule of Repression in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Indian Journal, 1979

    1979-01-01

    This report on the current condition of the Mapuche Indians of Chile is edited from a document on the "Situation of Human Rights in Chile" and details the repressive and inhumane treatment of the largest indigenous ethnic minority in the country. (Author/RTS)

  8. Primary Medical Care in Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scarpaci, Joseph L.

    Primary medical care in Chile: accessibility under military rule [Front Cover] [Front Matter] [Title Page] Contents Tables Figures Preface Chapter 1: Introduction Chapter 2: The Restructuring of Medical Care Financing in Chile Chapter 3: Inflation and Medical Care Accessibility Chapter 4: Help......-Seeking Behavior of the Urban Poor Chapter 5: Spatial Organization and Medical Care Accessibility Chapter 6: Conclusion...

  9. The Alaska earthquake, March 27, 1964: effects on communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Wallace R.; Kachadoorian, Reuben; Coulter, Henry W.; Migliaccio, Ralph R.; Waller, Roger M.; Stanley, Kirk W.; Lemke, Richard W.; Plafker, George; Eckel, Edwin B.; Mayo, Lawrence R.

    1969-01-01

    This is the second in a series of six reports that the U.S. Geological Survey published on the results of a comprehensive geologic study that began, as a reconnaissance survey, within 24 hours after the March 27, 1964, Magnitude 9.2 Great Alaska Earthquake and extended, as detailed investigations, through several field seasons. The 1964 Great Alaska earthquake was the largest earthquake in the U.S. since 1700. Professional Paper 542, in 7 parts, describes the effects of the earthquake on Alaskan communities.

  10. A New, Continuous 5400 Yr-long Paleotsunami Record from Lake Huelde, Chiloe Island, South Central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempf, P.; Moernaut, J.; Vandoorne, W.; Van Daele, M. E.; Pino, M.; Urrutia, R.; De Batist, M. A. O.

    2014-12-01

    After the last decade of extreme tsunami events with catastrophic damage to infrastructure and a horrendous amount of casualties, it is clear that more and better paleotsunami records are needed to improve our understanding of the recurrence intervals and intensities of large-scale tsunamis. Coastal lakes (e.g. Bradley Lake, Cascadia; Kelsey et al., 2005) have the potential to contain long and continuous sedimentary records, which is an important asset in view of the centennial- to millennial-scale recurrence times of great tsunami-triggering earthquakes. Lake Huelde on Chiloé Island (42.5°S), Chile, is a coastal lake located in the middle of the Valdivia segment, which is known for having produced the strongest ever instrumentally recorded earthquake in 1960 AD (MW: 9.5), and other large earthquakes prior to that: i.e. 1837 AD, 1737 AD (no report of a tsunami) and 1575 AD (Lomnitz, 1970, 2004, Cisternas et al., 2005). We present a new 5400 yr-long paleotsunami record with a Bayesian age-depth model based on 23 radiocarbon dates that exceeds all previous paleotsunami records from the Valdivia segment, both in terms of length and of continuity. 18 events are described and a semi-quantitative measure of the event intensity at the study area is given, revealing at least two predecessors of the 1960 AD event in the mid to late Holocene that are equal in intensity. The resulting implications from the age-depth model and from the semi-quantitative intensity reconstruction are discussed in this contribution.

  11. Protecting Dark Skies in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. Chris; Sanhueza, Pedro; Phillips, Mark

    2018-01-01

    Current projections indicate that Chile will host approximately 70% of the astronomical collecting area on Earth by 2030, augmenting the enormous area of ALMA with that of three next-generation optical telescopes: LSST, GMTO, and E-ELT. These cutting-edge facilities represent billions of dollars of investment in the astronomical facilities hosted in Chile. The Chilean government, Chilean astronomical community, and the international observatories in Chile have recognized that these investments are threatened by light pollution, and have formed a strong collaboration to work at managing the threats. We will provide an update on the work being done in Chile, ranging from training municipalities about new lighting regulations to exploring international recognition of the dark sky sites of Northern Chile.

  12. Chile rural electrification cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flowers, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The author describes a joint program to use renewables for rural electrification projects in Chile. The initial focus was in a limited part of the country, involving wind mapping, pilot project planning, training, and development of methodologies for comparative evaluations of resources. To this point three wind hybrid systems have been installed in one region, as a part of the regional private utility, and three additional projects are being designed. Additional resource assessment and training is ongoing. The author points out the difficulties in working with utilities, the importance of signed documentation, and the need to look at these programs as long term because of the time involved in introducing such new technologies.

  13. Charles Darwin and the 1835 earthquake at Concepcion, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spall, H.

    1981-01-01

    On a stormy night in October 1836, H.M.S Beagle hove to and dropped anchor at Falmouth, a remote harbor in southwest England. Charles Darwin, the ship's naturalist, came ashore to take the mail coach to Shrewsbury. This was inauspicious end to an epic 5-year voyage around the coast of South America, the results of which were to have a tumultuous impact on scientific thought that has lasted to this day. 

  14. Geomodels of coseismic landslides environments in Central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serey, A.; Sepulveda, S. A.; Murphy, W.; Petley, D. N.

    2017-12-01

    Landslides are a major source of fatalities and damage during strong earthquakes in mountain areas. Detailed geomodels of coseismic landslides environments are essential parts of seismic landslide hazard analyses. The development of a site specific geological model is required, based on consideration of the regional and local geological and geomorphological history and the current ground surface conditions. An engineering geological model is any approximation of the geological conditions, at varying scales, created for the purpose of solving an engineering problem. In our case, the objective is the development of a methodology for earthquake-induced landslide hazard assessment applicable to urban/territorial planning and disaster prevention strategies assessment at a regional scale adapted for the Chilean tectonic conditions. We have developed the only 2 complete inventories of landslides triggered by earthquakes in Chile. The first from the Mw 6.2, shallow crustal Aysén earthquake in 2007. Second one from the Mw 8.8, megathrust subduction Maule earthquake in 2010. From the comparison of these 2 inventories with others from abroad, as well as analysis of large, prehistoric landslide inventories proposed as likely induced by seismic activity we have determined topographic, geomorphological, geological and seismic controlling factors in the occurrence of earthquake-triggered landslides. With the information collected we have defined different environments for generation of coseismic landslides based on the construction of geomodels. As a result we have built several geomodels in the Santiago Cordillera in central Chile (33°S), based upon the San Ramón Fault, a west-vergent reverse fault that outcrops at the edge of Santiago basin recently found to be active and a likely source of seismic activity in the future, with potential of triggering landslides in the Santiago mountain front as well as inland into the Mapocho and Maipo Cordilleran valleys. In conclusion

  15. Forensic psychiatry in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Denis, Emily E; Sepúlveda, Enrique; Téllez, Carlos; Arboleda-Flórez, Julio; Stuart, Heather; Lam, Miu

    2012-01-01

    Mental disorders are among the most prevalent of chronic disorders, and a high prevalence of these disorders has been consistently found in jails and prisons. This study was a retrospective case series that described the population of adults charged with a criminal offense who were court ordered to undergo a psychiatric assessment within the Medical Legal Service in Santiago, Chile from 2005 to 2006. Characteristics were explored in order to better understand this population in light of the recent reforms in the judicial and health systems of Chile. Ninety percent of sampled individuals were male, primarily between the ages of 18-39 years. Seventy percent of the evaluations came from the pre-reformed judicial system and 30% were from the reformed system. Approximately 63% of evaluated offenders were considered to have a psychiatric pathology, the most common being the personality disorders. Of the evaluated offenders, approximately 84% were considered by a psychiatrist to be criminally responsible for their crime, 7% were regarded as having diminished criminal responsibility, 4% were considered to be not criminally responsible for their crime, and 4% were cases where criminal responsibility was not applicable. Profession status, municipality of residence, type of residence, ICD-10 diagnosis, treatment recommendation, and criminal responsibility were found to be significantly different between male and female evaluated offenders. Results from this investigation will contribute to knowledge about forensic psychiatry and mental health in Latin America, and will hopefully pave the way for more research and international comparisons. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Robotics research in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Ruiz-del-Solar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of research in robotics in a developing country is a challenging task. Factors such as low research funds, low trust from local companies and the government, and a small number of qualified researchers hinder the development of strong, local research groups. In this article, and as a case of study, we present our research group in robotics at the Advanced Mining Technology Center of the Universidad de Chile, and the way in which we have addressed these challenges. In 2008, we decided to focus our research efforts in mining, which is the main industry in Chile. We observed that this industry has needs in terms of safety, productivity, operational continuity, and environmental care. All these needs could be addressed with robotics and automation technology. In a first stage, we concentrate ourselves in building capabilities in field robotics, starting with the automation of a commercial vehicle. An important outcome of this project was the earn of the local mining industry confidence. Then, in a second stage started in 2012, we began working with the local mining industry in technological projects. In this article, we describe three of the technological projects that we have developed with industry support: (i an autonomous vehicle for mining environments without global positioning system coverage; (ii the inspection of the irrigation flow in heap leach piles using unmanned aerial vehicles and thermal cameras; and (iii an enhanced vision system for vehicle teleoperation in adverse climatic conditions.

  17. Estimation of co-seismic stress change of the 2008 Wenchuan Ms8.0 earthquake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Dongsheng; Wang Hongcai; Ma Yinsheng; Zhou Chunjing [Key laboratory of Neotectonic movement and Geohazard, Ministry of Land and Resources, Beijing 100081 (China) and Institute of Geomechanics, Chinese academy of Geological Sciences, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2012-09-26

    In-situ stress change near the fault before and after a great earthquake is a key issue in the geosciences field. In this work, based on the 2008 Great Wenchuan earthquake fault slip dislocation model, the co-seismic stress tensor change due to the Wenchuan earthquake and the distribution functions around the Longmen Shan fault are given. Our calculated results are almost consistent with the before and after great Wenchuan earthquake in-situ measuring results. The quantitative assessment results provide a reference for the study of the mechanism of earthquakes.

  18. Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edsall, Thomas A.; Mac, Michael J.; Opler, Paul A.; Puckett Haecker, Catherine E.; Doran, Peter D.

    1998-01-01

    The Great Lakes region, as defined here, includes the Great Lakes and their drainage basins in Minnesota, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New York. The region also includes the portions of Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the 21 northernmost counties of Illinois that lie in the Mississippi River drainage basin, outside the floodplain of the river. The region spans about 9º of latitude and 20º of longitude and lies roughly halfway between the equator and the North Pole in a lowland corridor that extends from the Gulf of Mexico to the Arctic Ocean.The Great Lakes are the most prominent natural feature of the region (Fig. 1). They have a combined surface area of about 245,000 square kilometers and are among the largest, deepest lakes in the world. They are the largest single aggregation of fresh water on the planet (excluding the polar ice caps) and are the only glacial feature on Earth visible from the surface of the moon (The Nature Conservancy 1994a).The Great Lakes moderate the region’s climate, which presently ranges from subarctic in the north to humid continental warm in the south (Fig. 2), reflecting the movement of major weather masses from the north and south (U.S. Department of the Interior 1970; Eichenlaub 1979). The lakes act as heat sinks in summer and heat sources in winter and are major reservoirs that help humidify much of the region. They also create local precipitation belts in areas where air masses are pushed across the lakes by prevailing winds, pick up moisture from the lake surface, and then drop that moisture over land on the other side of the lake. The mean annual frost-free period—a general measure of the growing-season length for plants and some cold-blooded animals—varies from 60 days at higher elevations in the north to 160 days in lakeshore areas in the south. The climate influences the general distribution of wild plants and animals in the region and also influences the activities and distribution of the human

  19. Widespread seismicity excitation following the 2011 M=9.0 Tohoku, Japan, earthquake and its implications for seismic hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, S.; Stein, R. S.; Lin, J.

    2011-12-01

    The 11 March 2011 Tohoku-chiho Taiheiyo-oki earthquake (Tohoku earthquake) was followed by massive offshore aftershocks including 6 M≧7 and 94 M≧6 shocks during the 4.5 months (until July 26). It is also unprecedented that a broad increase in seismicity was observed over inland Japan at distances of up to 425 km from the locus of high seismic slip on the megathrust. Such an increase was not seen for the 2004 M=9.1 Sumatra or 2010 M=8.8 Chile earthquakes, but they lacked the seismic networks necessary to detect such small events. Here we explore the possibility that the rate changes are the product of static Coulomb stress transfer to small faults. We use the nodal planes of M≧3.5 earthquakes as proxies for such small active faults, and find that of fifteen regions averaging ˜80 by 80 km in size, 11 show a positive association between calculated stress changes and the observed seismicity rate change, 3 show a negative correlation, and for one the changes are too small to assess. This work demonstrates that seismicity can turn on in the nominal stress shadow of a mainshock as long as small geometrically diverse active faults exist there, which is likely quite common in areas having complex geologic background like Tohoku. In Central Japan, however, there are several regions where the usual tectonic stress has been enhanced by the Tohoku earthquake, and the moderate and large faults have been brought closer to failure, producing M˜5 to 6 shocks, including Nagano, near Mt. Fuji, Tokyo metropolitan area and its offshore. We confirmed that at least 5 of the seven large, exotic, or remote aftershocks were brought ≧0.3 bars closer to failure. Validated by such correlations, we evaluate the effects of the Tohoku event on the other subduction zones nearby and major active faults inland. The majorities of thrust faults inland Tohoku are brought farther from failure by the M9 event. However, we found that the large sections of the Japan trench megathrust, the outer

  20. Detection of Repeating Earthquakes within the Cascadia Subduction Zone Using 2013-2014 Cascadia Initiative Amphibious Network Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenefic, L.; Morton, E.; Bilek, S.

    2017-12-01

    It is well known that subduction zones create the largest earthquakes in the world, like the magnitude 9.5 Chile earthquake in 1960, or the more recent 9.1 magnitude Japan earthquake in 2011, both of which are in the top five largest earthquakes ever recorded. However, off the coast of the Pacific Northwest region of the U.S., the Cascadia subduction zone (CSZ) remains relatively quiet and modern seismic instruments have not recorded earthquakes of this size in the CSZ. The last great earthquake, a magnitude 8.7-9.2, occurred in 1700 and is constrained by written reports of the resultant tsunami in Japan and dating a drowned forest in the U.S. Previous studies have suggested the margin is most likely segmented along-strike. However, variations in frictional conditions in the CSZ fault zone are not well known. Geodetic modeling indicates that the locked seismogenic zone is likely completely offshore, which may be too far from land seismometers to adequately detect related seismicity. Ocean bottom seismometers, as part of the Cascadia Initiative Amphibious Network, were installed directly above the inferred seismogenic zone, which we use to better detect small interplate seismicity. Using the subspace detection method, this study looks to find new seismogenic zone earthquakes. This subspace detection method uses multiple previously known event templates concurrently to scan through continuous seismic data. Template events that make up the subspace are chosen from events in existing catalogs that likely occurred along the plate interface. Corresponding waveforms are windowed on the nearby Cascadia Initiative ocean bottom seismometers and coastal land seismometers for scanning. Detections that are found by the scan are similar to the template waveforms based upon a predefined threshold. Detections are then visually examined to determine if an event is present. The presence of repeating event clusters can indicate persistent seismic patches, likely corresponding to

  1. Seismicity Structure of the Downgoing Nazca Slab in Northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sippl, C.; Schurr, B.

    2017-12-01

    We applied an automatized earthquake detection and location algorithm to 8 years of continuous seismic data from the IPOC network in Northern Chile, located in the forearc between about 18.5°S and 24°S. The resulting seismicity catalog contains more than 113k double-difference relocated earthquake hypocenters and features a completeness magnitude around 2.8. Despite the occurrence of two megathrust earthquakes with vigorous aftershock seismicity in the studied time period (the 2007 Tocopilla and the 2014 Iquique earthquakes), >60% of the retrieved seismicity is located in a highly active band of intermediate-depth earthquakes (80-120 km deep) within the downgoing Nazca slab.We obtain a triple seismic zone in the updip part of the slab, with the three parallel dipping planes corresponding to the plate interface, the oceanic Moho (ca. 8 km below the interface) and a third band in the mantle lithosphere 26-28 km beneath the slab top. The plate interface seismicity terminates abruptly at a depth of 55 km. At about 80-90 km depth, the remaining two planes of seismicity then merge into the single, 20 km thick cluster of vigorous seismicity mentioned above, which terminates at 120 km depth. This cluster is located directly beneath the volcanic arc and shows a pronounced kink in the slab dipping angle. Intra-slab seismicity is most likely related to metamorphic dehydration reactions, hence our high-resolution earthquake distribution can be considered a map of metamorphic reactions (although a possibly incomplete one, since not all reactions necessarily invoke seismicity). By correlating this distribution with isotherms from thermal models as well as geophysical imaging results from previous studies, we attempt to get a glimpse at the processes that produce the different patches of intraslab seismicity at intermediate depths.

  2. Five centuries of tsunamis and land-level changes in the overlapping rupture area of the 1960 and 2010 Chilean earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Lisa L.; Cisternas, Marco; Wesson, Robert L.; Dura, Tina

    2014-01-01

    A combination of geological and historical records from south-central Chile provides a means to address general questions about the stability of megathrust rupture patches and the range of variation expected among earthquakes and tsunamis along a particular stretch of a subduction zone. The Tirúa River estuary (38.3°S) records four large tsunamis and coseismic land-level changes over the past 450 years within the overlapping rupture zones of the great subduction-zone earthquakes of A.D. 1960 (Mw9.5) and 2010 (Mw 8.8). Sand layers 2 km up the Tirúa River represent the 2010 and 1960 tsunamis and two historical tsunamis, most likely in A.D. 1751 and 1575. Differing land-level changes during these earthquakes likely denote differences in the spatial distribution of slip on the megathrust in both the strike and dip directions within the overlapping rupture zone, with the uplift at Tirúa in 1751 and 2010 probably caused by slip extending farther landward and to greater depth than in 1575 and 1960, which showed subsidence or little change.

  3. Change in and long-term investigation of neuro-otologic disorders in disaster-stricken Fukushima prefecture: retrospective cohort study before and after the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Hasegawa

    Full Text Available On March 11, 2011, Japan's northeast Pacific coast was hit by a gigantic earthquake and subsequent tsunami. Soma City in Fukushima Prefecture is situated approximately 44 km north of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. Soma General Hospital is the only hospital in Soma City that provides full-time otolaryngological medical care. We investigated the changes in new patients from one year before to three years after the disaster. We investigated 18,167 new patients treated at our department during the four years from April 1, 2010 to March 31, 2014. Of the new patients, we categorized the diagnoses into Meniere's disease, acute low-tone sensorineural hearing loss, vertigo, sudden deafness, tinnitus, and facial palsy as neuro-otologic symptoms. We also investigated the changes in the numbers of patients whom we examined at that time concerning other otolaryngological disorders, including epistaxis, infectious diseases of the laryngopharynx, and allergic rhinitis. The total number of new patients did not change remarkably on a year-to-year basis. Conversely, cases of vertigo, Meniere's disease, and acute low-tone sensorineural hearing loss increased in number immediately after the disaster, reaching a plateau in the second year and slightly decreasing in the third year. Specifically, 4.8% of patients suffering from these neuro-otologic diseases had complications from depression and other mental diseases. With regard to new patients in our department, there was no apparent increase in the number of patients suffering from diseases other than neuro-otologic diseases, including epistaxis, and allergic rhinitis. Patients suffering from vertigo and/or dizziness increased during the first few years after the disaster. These results are attributed to the continuing stress and tension of the inhabitants. This investigation of those living in the disaster area highlights the need for long-term support.

  4. Fires in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    On February 5, 2002, the dense smoke from numerous forest fires stretched out over the Pacific Ocean about 400 miles south of Santiago, Chile. This true-color Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image shows the fires, which are located near the city of Temuco. The fires are indicated with red dots (boxes in the high-resolution imagery). The fires were burning near several national parks and nature reserves in an area of the Chilean Andes where tourism is very popular. Southeast of the fires, the vegetation along the banks of the Rio Negro in Argentina stands out in dark green. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  5. Eso's Situation in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-02-01

    ESO, the European Southern Observatory, in reply to questions raised by the international media, as well as an ongoing debate about the so-called "Paranal case" in Chilean newspapers, would like to make a number of related observations concerning its status and continued operation in that country [1]. THE ESO OBSERVATORY SITES IN CHILE The European Southern Observatory, an international organisation established and supported by eight European countries, has been operating more than 30 years in the Republic of Chile. Here ESO maintains one of the world's prime astronomical observatories on the La Silla mountain in the southern part of the Atacama desert. This location is in the Fourth Chilean Region, some 600 km north of Santiago de Chile. In order to protect the La Silla site against dust and light pollution from possible future mining industries, roads and settlements, ESO early acquired the territory around this site. It totals about 825 sq. km and has effectively contributed to the preservation of its continued, excellent "astronomical" quality. Each year, more than 500 astronomers from European countries, Chile and elsewhere profit from this when they come to La Silla to observe with one or more of the 15 telescopes now located there. In 1987, the ESO Council [2] decided to embark upon one of the most prestigious and technologically advanced projects ever conceived in astronomy, the Very Large Telescope (VLT). It will consist of four interconnected 8.2-metre telescopes and will become the largest optical telescope in the world when it is ready. It is safe to predict that many exciting discoveries will be made with this instrument, and it will undoubtedly play a very important role in our exploration of the distant universe and its many mysteries during the coming decades. THE VLT AND PARANAL In order to find the best site for the VLT, ESO performed a thorough investigation of many possible mountain tops, both near La Silla and in Northern Chile. They showed

  6. The earthquake problem in engineering design: generating earthquake design basis information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    Designing earthquake resistant structures requires certain design inputs specific to the seismotectonic status of the region, in which a critical facility is to be located. Generating these inputs requires collection of earthquake related information using present day techniques in seismology and geology, and processing the collected information to integrate it to arrive at a consolidated picture of the seismotectonics of the region. The earthquake problem in engineering design has been outlined in the context of a seismic design of nuclear power plants vis a vis current state of the art techniques. The extent to which the accepted procedures of assessing seismic risk in the region and generating the design inputs have been adherred to determine to a great extent the safety of the structures against future earthquakes. The document is a step towards developing an aproach for generating these inputs, which form the earthquake design basis. (author)

  7. El proceso emprendedor en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    José Miguel Benavente

    2004-01-01

    Este estudio analiza los factores que afectan en forma positiva y negativa el proceso de creación de emprendimientos dinámicos en Chile. Se basa en una encuesta a 200 empresas jóvenes, la cual es parte de una muestra de casi 2000 empresas de América Latina. El presente estudio se enfoca básicamente en el segmento de nuevos emprendimientos existentes en Chile.

  8. Plan for 3-D full-scale earthquake testing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtani, K.

    2001-01-01

    Based on the lessons learnt from the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake, National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention plan to construct the 3-D Full-Scale Earthquake Testing Facility. This will be the world's largest and strongest shaking table facility. This paper describes the outline of the project for this facility. This facility will be completed in early 2005. (author)

  9. Earthquakes: hydrogeochemical precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Manga, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Earthquake prediction is a long-sought goal. Changes in groundwater chemistry before earthquakes in Iceland highlight a potential hydrogeochemical precursor, but such signals must be evaluated in the context of long-term, multiparametric data sets.

  10. Ground water and earthquakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ts' ai, T H

    1977-11-01

    Chinese folk wisdom has long seen a relationship between ground water and earthquakes. Before an earthquake there is often an unusual change in the ground water level and volume of flow. Changes in the amount of particulate matter in ground water as well as changes in color, bubbling, gas emission, and noises and geysers are also often observed before earthquakes. Analysis of these features can help predict earthquakes. Other factors unrelated to earthquakes can cause some of these changes, too. As a first step it is necessary to find sites which are sensitive to changes in ground stress to be used as sensor points for predicting earthquakes. The necessary features are described. Recording of seismic waves of earthquake aftershocks is also an important part of earthquake predictions.

  11. Franchising of infrastructure concessions in Chile: A Policy Report

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Engel; Ronald Fischer; Alexander Galetovic

    2000-01-01

    This report describes and evaluates the present state of the Chilean infrastructure concessions program. This program is leading to a complete upgrade of Chile's highway system and has been recently extended to seaports. The main principles underlying the economics of franchising are examined and used to evaluate the programof privatizations of highways and seaports. Compared with experiences in other countries, theresults are fairly good. The infrastructure deficit has been greatly reduced, ...

  12. Food, water, and fault lines: Remote sensing opportunities for earthquake-response management of agricultural water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, Jenna; Ustin, Susan; Sandoval-Solis, Samuel; O'Geen, Anthony Toby

    2016-01-01

    Earthquakes often cause destructive and unpredictable changes that can affect local hydrology (e.g. groundwater elevation or reduction) and thus disrupt land uses and human activities. Prolific agricultural regions overlie seismically active areas, emphasizing the importance to improve our understanding and monitoring of hydrologic and agricultural systems following a seismic event. A thorough data collection is necessary for adequate post-earthquake crop management response; however, the large spatial extent of earthquake's impact makes challenging the collection of robust data sets for identifying locations and magnitude of these impacts. Observing hydrologic responses to earthquakes is not a novel concept, yet there is a lack of methods and tools for assessing earthquake's impacts upon the regional hydrology and agricultural systems. The objective of this paper is to describe how remote sensing imagery, methods and tools allow detecting crop responses and damage incurred after earthquakes because a change in the regional hydrology. Many remote sensing datasets are long archived with extensive coverage and with well-documented methods to assess plant-water relations. We thus connect remote sensing of plant water relations to its utility in agriculture using a post-earthquake agrohydrologic remote sensing (PEARS) framework; specifically in agro-hydrologic relationships associated with recent earthquake events that will lead to improved water management. - Highlights: • Remote sensing to improve agricultural disaster management • Introduce post-earthquake agrohydrologic remote sensing (PEARS) framework • Apply PEARS framework to 2010 Maule Earthquake in Central Chile

  13. Food, water, and fault lines: Remote sensing opportunities for earthquake-response management of agricultural water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, Jenna, E-mail: jmmartin@ucdavis.edu; Ustin, Susan; Sandoval-Solis, Samuel; O' Geen, Anthony Toby

    2016-09-15

    Earthquakes often cause destructive and unpredictable changes that can affect local hydrology (e.g. groundwater elevation or reduction) and thus disrupt land uses and human activities. Prolific agricultural regions overlie seismically active areas, emphasizing the importance to improve our understanding and monitoring of hydrologic and agricultural systems following a seismic event. A thorough data collection is necessary for adequate post-earthquake crop management response; however, the large spatial extent of earthquake's impact makes challenging the collection of robust data sets for identifying locations and magnitude of these impacts. Observing hydrologic responses to earthquakes is not a novel concept, yet there is a lack of methods and tools for assessing earthquake's impacts upon the regional hydrology and agricultural systems. The objective of this paper is to describe how remote sensing imagery, methods and tools allow detecting crop responses and damage incurred after earthquakes because a change in the regional hydrology. Many remote sensing datasets are long archived with extensive coverage and with well-documented methods to assess plant-water relations. We thus connect remote sensing of plant water relations to its utility in agriculture using a post-earthquake agrohydrologic remote sensing (PEARS) framework; specifically in agro-hydrologic relationships associated with recent earthquake events that will lead to improved water management. - Highlights: • Remote sensing to improve agricultural disaster management • Introduce post-earthquake agrohydrologic remote sensing (PEARS) framework • Apply PEARS framework to 2010 Maule Earthquake in Central Chile.

  14. Ionospheric earthquake precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulachenko, A.L.; Oraevskij, V.N.; Pokhotelov, O.A.; Sorokin, V.N.; Strakhov, V.N.; Chmyrev, V.M.

    1996-01-01

    Results of experimental study on ionospheric earthquake precursors, program development on processes in the earthquake focus and physical mechanisms of formation of various type precursors are considered. Composition of experimental cosmic system for earthquake precursors monitoring is determined. 36 refs., 5 figs

  15. Children's Ideas about Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, Canan Lacin

    2007-01-01

    Earthquake, a natural disaster, is among the fundamental problems of many countries. If people know how to protect themselves from earthquake and arrange their life styles in compliance with this, damage they will suffer will reduce to that extent. In particular, a good training regarding earthquake to be received in primary schools is considered…

  16. [Protomedicato in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Olea, J

    1991-09-01

    In 1566 Alonso de Villadiego was nominated by the Chilean Cabildo as "Adviser and Examiner in Surgery". By means of this edict, the Spanish Crown paralleled its classical health organization, inspired in rules coming from XIIIth century. The Hospital del Socorro was the focal point of these activities. It turned to be prosperous under the administration of "San Juan de Dios" monks (1617), who rebaptized the Hospital with their name. During the administration of the "Universidad de San Felipe" (1738-1839), the Protomedicato followed the standards imposed by the Cahir of Prima Medicina. Domingo Nevin, Frenchman, and José Antonio Ríos, Chilean, were the first and the last doctors in charge of this task. Ríos conducted the antivariolic campaign, supervised the "Midwifery Law" and controlled the medical and paramedical practice. Afterwards, the Institution plunged into a profound crisis to reflourish in 1833 when it was incorporated within the structure of the School of Medicine. Blest, Cox, Bustillos and Moran were the architects of its splendour. With the foundation of the Universidad de Chile in 1842, its Faculty of Medicine took over the Protomedicato functions. The Institution came to an end in 1892.

  17. Country watch: Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya Leiva, M

    1996-01-01

    Servicio Paz y Justicia (SERPAJ) is a nongovernmental organization (NGO) established in Chile in 1977. It supports fundamental human dignity and rights by fighting discrimination and exclusion based upon individual differences. SERPAJ promotes training, organization, and the political participation of community members as part of the democratic process, working mainly with the at risk women, street children, and youth of Santiago's working-class neighborhoods. Groups participate in workshops and training courses on human rights and development, civic education, and methods of non-violent community action. In 1987, SERPAJ-Sur Oriente began to include the topic of sexuality and AIDS/STDs in courses training working-class women as community human rights agents. The NGO is therefore one of the first mainstream Chilean human rights organizations to incorporate HIV/AIDS issues. A basic facts brochure was developed, followed by a pilot education project developed in one neighborhood which was then systematically replicated in other neighborhoods. The comments of some people who have participated in SERPAJ workshops are presented.

  18. complejidad en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Alejandro Bustamante-Ubilla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio tiene por objetivo caracterizar el clima organizacional al interior de 2 hospitales dealta complejidad de Chile, determinando las dimensiones más y menos influyentes. Para su desarrollose aplicó un cuestionario que consta de 71 variables agrupadas en 14 dimensiones a una muestra de561 funcionarios. La interpretación de los resultados se realizó a través del análisis del valor prome-dio estandarizado y su confiabilidad ratificada mediante el alfa de Cronbach. A partir de lo anterior, sedeterminó que las dimensiones que influyen por encima del promedio fueron: identidad, motivaciónlaboral y responsabilidad; en tanto que las dimensiones que muestran un nivel de impacto por debajodel promedio resultaron ser: equipo y distribución de personas y material, administración del conflictoy comunicación.© 2015 Universidad ICESI. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. Este es un artículo Open Access bajo lalicencia CC BY (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

  19. Modernitet og forbrugskultur i Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cristoffanini, Pablo Rolando

    2012-01-01

    I de sidste årtier er Chile blevet et egentligt forbrugersamfund. Udbredelsen af forbrugskulturen og forbrugerismen er centrale fænomener i chilenernes dagligliv og har nået et omfang, som har konsekvenser for de borgere, der ikke kan deltage fuldt ud heri, noget som er typisk for et samfund med en...... ujævn økonomisk udvikling og med store sociale forskelle. Denne proces er ikke et produkt af en stille, fredelig og naturlig samfundsudvikling, således som magteliten og de toneangivende intellektuelle i Chile har fremstillet det. Som jeg vil vise, er skabelsen af et egentlig forbrugssamfund knyttet til...... til i dag. Ifølge disse er Chile blevet et moderne samfund netop i kraft af, at Chile er et ægte forbrugersamfund med alt, hvad dette indebærer, såvel materielt som symbolsk. For det tredje er billedet af Chile som en ”supermoderne” nation i den latinamerikanske kontekst en udbredt forestilling hos...

  20. Chilean megathrust earthquake recurrence linked to frictional contrast at depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, M.; Li, S.; Melnick, D.; Bedford, J. R.; Baez, J. C.; Motagh, M.; Metzger, S.; Vajedian, S.; Sippl, C.; Gutknecht, B. D.; Contreras-Reyes, E.; Deng, Z.; Tassara, A.; Oncken, O.

    2018-04-01

    Fundamental processes of the seismic cycle in subduction zones, including those controlling the recurrence and size of great earthquakes, are still poorly understood. Here, by studying the 2016 earthquake in southern Chile—the first large event within the rupture zone of the 1960 earthquake (moment magnitude (Mw) = 9.5)—we show that the frictional zonation of the plate interface fault at depth mechanically controls the timing of more frequent, moderate-size deep events (Mw shallow earthquakes (Mw > 8.5). We model the evolution of stress build-up for a seismogenic zone with heterogeneous friction to examine the link between the 2016 and 1960 earthquakes. Our results suggest that the deeper segments of the seismogenic megathrust are weaker and interseismically loaded by a more strongly coupled, shallower asperity. Deeper segments fail earlier ( 60 yr recurrence), producing moderate-size events that precede the failure of the shallower region, which fails in a great earthquake (recurrence >110 yr). We interpret the contrasting frictional strength and lag time between deeper and shallower earthquakes to be controlled by variations in pore fluid pressure. Our integrated analysis strengthens understanding of the mechanics and timing of great megathrust earthquakes, and therefore could aid in the seismic hazard assessment of other subduction zones.

  1. Threat of an earthquake right under the capital in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rikitake, T.

    1990-01-01

    Tokyo, Japan's capital, has been enjoying a seismically quiet period following the 1923 Kanto earthquake of magnitude 7.9 that killed more than 140,000 people. Such a quiet period seems likely to be a repetition of the 80-year quiescence after the great 1703 Genroku earthquake of magntidue 8.2 that occurred in an epicentral area adjacent to that of the 1923 Kanto earthquake. In 1784, seismic activity immediately under the capital area revived with occasional occurrence of magnitude 6 to 7 shocks. Earthquakes of this class tended to occur more frequently as time went on and they eventually culminated in the 1923 Kanto earthquake. As more than 60 years have passed since the Kanto earthquake, we may well expect another revival of activity immediately under the capital area. 

  2. Internationalization of SMES: business opportunities in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Correia, João Filipe Amado

    2016-01-01

    The main goal of this study is to identify the main business opportunities in Chile, legal advantages in the business perspective and entry strategies for small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). The methodology used was qualitative, by conducting several interviews with chamber of commerce representative from Portugal in Chile and Chile in Portugal, several young entrepreneurs from different nations operating in Chile, the CEO of a Spanish company that decided to not internationalize to...

  3. Crowdsourced earthquake early warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minson, Sarah E.; Brooks, Benjamin A.; Glennie, Craig L.; Murray, Jessica R.; Langbein, John O.; Owen, Susan E.; Heaton, Thomas H.; Iannucci, Robert A.; Hauser, Darren L.

    2015-01-01

    Earthquake early warning (EEW) can reduce harm to people and infrastructure from earthquakes and tsunamis, but it has not been implemented in most high earthquake-risk regions because of prohibitive cost. Common consumer devices such as smartphones contain low-cost versions of the sensors used in EEW. Although less accurate than scientific-grade instruments, these sensors are globally ubiquitous. Through controlled tests of consumer devices, simulation of an Mw (moment magnitude) 7 earthquake on California’s Hayward fault, and real data from the Mw 9 Tohoku-oki earthquake, we demonstrate that EEW could be achieved via crowdsourcing.

  4. The Alaska earthquake, March 27, 1964: effects on hydrologic regimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Roger M.; Coble, R.W.; Post, Austin; McGarr, Arthur; Vorhis, Robert C.

    1966-01-01

    This is the fourth in a series of six reports that the U.S. Geological Survey published on the results of a comprehensive geologic study that began, as a reconnaissance survey, within 24 hours after the March 27, 1964, Magnitude 9.2 Great Alaska Earthquake and extended, as detailed investigations, through several field seasons. The 1964 Great Alaska earthquake was the largest earthquake in the U.S. since 1700. Professional Paper 544, in 5 parts, describes the effects on hydrologic regimen.

  5. Earthquake forecasting and warning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rikitake, T.

    1983-01-01

    This review briefly describes two other books on the same subject either written or partially written by Rikitake. In this book, the status of earthquake prediction efforts in Japan, China, the Soviet Union, and the United States are updated. An overview of some of the organizational, legal, and societal aspects of earthquake prediction in these countries is presented, and scientific findings of precursory phenomena are included. A summary of circumstances surrounding the 1975 Haicheng earthquake, the 1978 Tangshan earthquake, and the 1976 Songpan-Pingwu earthquake (all magnitudes = 7.0) in China and the 1978 Izu-Oshima earthquake in Japan is presented. This book fails to comprehensively summarize recent advances in earthquake prediction research.

  6. Investigating landslides caused by earthquakes - A historical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefer, D.K.

    2002-01-01

    Post-earthquake field investigations of landslide occurrence have provided a basis for understanding, evaluating, and mapping the hazard and risk associated with earthquake-induced landslides. This paper traces the historical development of knowledge derived from these investigations. Before 1783, historical accounts of the occurrence of landslides in earthquake are typically so incomplete and vague that conclusions based on these accounts are of limited usefulness. For example, the number of landslides triggered by a given event is almost always greatly underestimated. The first formal, scientific post-earthquake investigation that included systematic documentation of the landslides was undertaken in the Calabria region of Italy after the 1783 earthquake swarm. From then until the mid-twentieth century, the best information on earthquake-induced landslides came from a succession of post-earthquake investigations largely carried out by formal commissions that undertook extensive ground-based field studies. Beginning in the mid-twentieth century, when the use of aerial photography became widespread, comprehensive inventories of landslide occurrence have been made for several earthquakes in the United States, Peru, Guatemala, Italy, El Salvador, Japan, and Taiwan. Techniques have also been developed for performing "retrospective" analyses years or decades after an earthquake that attempt to reconstruct the distribution of landslides triggered by the event. The additional use of Geographic Information System (GIS) processing and digital mapping since about 1989 has greatly facilitated the level of analysis that can applied to mapped distributions of landslides. Beginning in 1984, synthesis of worldwide and national data on earthquake-induced landslides have defined their general characteristics and relations between their occurrence and various geologic and seismic parameters. However, the number of comprehensive post-earthquake studies of landslides is still

  7. Chile Energy Policy Review 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-10-22

    Since 1990, Chile has been the fastest growing economy in Latin America thanks to sound economic management and integration into the global economy. Chile can also be proud of its energy policy achievements. The pioneering privatisation and liberalisation of its electricity sector in the 1980s was the foundation for a competitive energy sector, which has sustained the rapid growth of the Chilean economy over the past two decades. Nonetheless, Chile faces the continuing challenge of finding additional energy supplies to fuel economic growth. Chile has limited fossil energy resources and depends on imports to meet three-quarters of its energy needs. The country's electricity sector has faced three periods of significant stress over the past decade. The last episode took place in 2007/2008, when the loss of natural gas imports from Argentina was further exacerbated by a drought in the central system, where hydropower normally accounts for over half of electricity generation. Drawing on the experience of IEA member countries, the Review assesses Chile's major energy challenges and provides recommendations. Six main themes emerge: the successful liberalisation of the power sector in the 1980s; the essential role played by the state in ensuring energy security; the re-formulation of Chile's long-term energy policy; the proposed reorganisation of the institutional framework; greater independence for the system operators; and the need for a clear framework of regulation so that long-term investment decisions integrate social and environmental costs. This publication is essential reading for all who are interested in Chilean energy issues and in learning about the important role sound energy policy can play in developing a nation's economic and social welfare.

  8. Wildfires in Chile: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Úbeda, Xavier; Sarricolea, Pablo

    2016-11-01

    This paper reviews the literature examining the wildfire phenomenon in Chile. Since ancient times, Chile's wildfires have shaped the country's landscape, but today, as in many other parts of the world, the fire regime - pattern, frequency and intensity - has grown at an alarming rate. In 2014, > 8000 fires were responsible for burning c. 130,000 ha, making it the worst year in Chile's recent history. The reasons for this increase appear to be the increment in the area planted with flammable species; the rejection of these landscape modifications on the part of local communities that target these plantations in arson attacks; and, the adoption of intensive forest management practices resulting in the accumulation of a high fuel load. These trends have left many native species in a precarious situation and forest plantation companies under considerable financial pressure. An additional problem is posed by fires at the wildland urban interface (WUI), threatening those inhabitants that live in Chile's most heavily populated cities. The prevalence of natural fires in Chile; the relationship between certain plant species and fire in terms of seed germination strategies and plant adaptation; the relationship between fire and invasive species; and, the need for fire prevention systems and territorial plans that include fire risk assessments are some of the key aspects discussed in this article. Several of the questions raised will require further research, including just how fire-dependent the ecosystems in Chile are, how the forest at the WUI can be better managed to prevent human and material damage, and how best to address the social controversy that pits the Mapuche population against the timber companies.

  9. Crowd-Sourced Global Earthquake Early Warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minson,