WorldWideScience

Sample records for great britain living

  1. Great Britain at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    From 14 to 16 November 2006 Administration Building, Bldg. 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 - 17.30 Fifteen companies will present their latest technologies at the 'Great Britain at CERN' exhibition. British industry will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The main fields represented will be computing technologies, electrical engineering, electronics, mechanical engineering, vacuum & low temperature technologies and particle detectors. The exhibition is organised by BEAMA Exhibitions (the British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturers Association). Below you will find: a list of the exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course: from your Departmental secretariat, from the Reception information desk, Building 33, at the exhibition itself. A detailed list of the companies is available at the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS 3D Metrics Almat...

  2. Great Britain at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    From 14 to 16 November 2006 Administration Building, Bldg. 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 - 17.30 Fifteen companies will present their latest technologies at the 'Great Britain at CERN' exhibition. British industry will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The main fields represented will be computing technologies, electrical engineering, electronics, mechanical engineering, vacuum & low temperature technologies and particle detectors. The exhibition is organised by BEAMA Exhibitions (the British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturers Association). Below you will find: a list of the exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course: from your Departmental secretariat, from the Reception information desk, Building 33, at the exhibition itself. A detailed list of the companies is available at the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS 3D Metrics Alma...

  3. Pricing regulations in Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicoletti, G.

    1993-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the structure and functions of Great Britain's essential electric power regulatory authority institutionalized by the 1989 British Electricity Act, i.e., the Office of Electricity Regulation, OFFER, and the responsibilities and tasks of the head of OFFER -the Director General of Electricity Supply (DGES). In particular, with regard to the latter, the paper describes how the DGES works together with regional electricity commissions to ensure the respect, by the various utilities, of consumer price caps and compliance with overall quality of service standards, as well as, to oversee 'pooling' activities by producers and distributors

  4. Pricing regulations in Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicoletti, G.

    1993-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the structure and functions of Great Britain's essential electric power regulatory authority institutionalized by the 1989 British Electricity Act, i.e., the Office of Electricity Regulation, OFFER, and the responsibilities and tasks of the head of OFFER - the Director General of Electricity Supply (DGES). In particular, with regard to the latter, the paper describes how the DGES works together with regional electricity commissions to ensure the respect, by the various utilities, of consumer price caps and compliance with overall quality of service standards, as well as, to oversee 'pooling' activities by producers and distributors

  5. Gypsum karst in Great Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooper A.H.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available In Great Britain the most spectacular gypsum karst development is in the Zechstein gypsum (late Permian mainly in north-eastern England. The Midlands of England also has some karst developed in the Triassic gypsum in the vicinity of Nottingham. Along the north-east coast, south of Sunderland, well-developed palaeokarst, with magnificent breccia pipes, was produced by dissolution of Permian gypsum. In north-west England a small gypsum cave system of phreatic origin has been surveyed and recorded. A large actively evolving phreatic gypsum cave system has been postulated beneath the Ripon area on the basis of studies of subsidence and boreholes. The rate of gypsum dissolution here, and the associated collapse lead to difficult civil engineering and construction conditions, which can also be aggravated by water abstraction.

  6. Great-Britain at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Laignel

    2004-01-01

    From 23 to 25 November 2004 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 - 17.30 Twenty five companies will present their latest technology at the "Great-Britain at CERN" exhibition. British industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: electrical engineering, electronics, mechanical engineering, vacuum & low temperatures technologies, particles detectors and telecommunications. The exhibition is organised by BEAMA Exhibitions, The British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturer's Association There follows : the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Departemental secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition. A detailed list of firms is available under the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm 1 Accles & Pollock 2 A S Scientific Products Ltd 3 C...

  7. Chernobyl fallout in Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horrill, A.D.; Lowe, V.P.W.; Howson, G.

    1988-09-01

    Chernobyl deposition in the UK was sampled in May and October 1986 and in June of 1987. The sampling concentrated on grassy vegetation but in October 1986 other vegetation, soils and wildlife were included. Deposition patterns have been established and a greater degree of retention and recycling indicated for the organic soils of upland Britain. For wild animals concentration factors varied not only between species but with sex and age. Highest tissue concentrations were recorded in species feeding on heather (Blue hares and Grouse) and the lowest in rabbits feeding on grass over mineral soils. Radiocaesium was found in a carnivore (the fox) at the top of the food chain. (author)

  8. The power mix in Great-Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trebuchet, Charlotte

    2012-11-01

    This study addresses a new reform of the electric power sector in Great Britain: RIIO (Revenue = Incentives + Innovations + Outputs). The author discusses aspects related to market organisation and aspects related to the grid. First, she gives an overview of the situation of the electricity sector in Great-Britain by describing its evolution from the start of the liberalisation policy until our days, and by presenting the regulation of the electric power transport network. In a second part, she analyses which changes will be introduced by RIIO. She comments the general principles of this reform and discusses its implications for the sector. Appendices describe the LCN Fund (Low carbon network Fund) mechanism which is a specific bidding and selection process, and briefly indicate the projects selected by this fund in 2010 and 2011

  9. Employment services in Great Britain and Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZKANLI, Özlem

    2001-01-01

    This artiele criticaUy compares the institutions and procedures for the employment services of Great Britain (GB) and Turkey. The similarities and differences of two employment organisations, the Department for Education and Employment in GB and the Turkish Employment Organisation, are examined. Data is collected in field study from these organisations, based in London and Ankara, through interviews and observation techniques. Field study in London is financed by the World Bank. After briefly...

  10. Material Stock Demographics: Cars in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera Serrenho, André; Allwood, Julian M

    2016-03-15

    Recent literature on material flow analysis has been focused on quantitative characterization of past material flows. Fewer analyses exist on past and prospective quantification of stocks of materials in-use. Some of these analyses explore the composition of products' stocks, but a focus on the characterization of material stocks and its relation with service delivery is often neglected. We propose the use of the methods of human demography to characterize material stocks, defined herein as stock demographics, exploring the insights that this approach could provide for the sustainable management of materials. We exemplify an application of stock demographics by characterizing the composition and service delivery of iron, steel, and aluminum stocks of cars in Great Britain, 2002-2012. The results show that in this period the stock has become heavier, it is traveling less, and it is idle for more time. The visualization of material stocks' dynamics demonstrates the pace of product replacement as a function of its usefulness and enables the formulation of policy interventions and the exploration of future trends.

  11. Regional Personality Differences in Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentfrow, Peter J.; Jokela, Markus; Lamb, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Recent investigations indicate that personality traits are unevenly distributed geographically, with some traits being more prevalent in certain places than in others. The geographical distributions of personality traits are associated with a range of important political, economic, social, and health outcomes. The majority of research on this subject has focused on the geographical distributions and macro-level correlates of personality across nations or regions of the United States. The aim of the present investigation was to replicate and extend that past work by examining regional personality differences in Great Britain. Using a sample of nearly 400,000 British residents, we mapped the geographical distributions of the Big Five Personality traits across 380 Local Authority Districts and examined the associations with important political, economic, social, and health outcomes. The results revealed distinct geographical clusters, with neighboring regions displaying similar personality characteristics, and robust associations with the macro-level outcome variables. Overall, the patterns of results were similar to findings from past research. PMID:25803819

  12. Electricity utility deregulation in Great Britain: economic and industrial consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we analyze in the first part how was made the deregulation of the public electric utilities in Great Britain and in the second the logic and the contradictions of this deregulation in an industrial point of view

  13. Restraint use by car occupants: Great Britain, 1982-91.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broughton, J.

    1992-01-01

    One of the major developments in road safety in Great Britain during the last decade has been the increasing use of seat belts by people travelling in cars. This has been achieved by legislation, with supporting publicity.

  14. Exposure to grain dust in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spankie, Sally; Cherrie, John W

    2012-01-01

    Airborne grain dust is a complex mixture of fragments of organic material from grain, plus mineral matter from soil, and possible insect, fungal, or bacterial contamination or their toxic products, such as endotoxin. In the 1990s, grain workers in Britain were frequently exposed to inhalable dust >10 mg.m(-3) (8 h), with particularly high exposures being found at terminals where grain was imported or exported and in drying operations (personal exposure typically approximately 20 mg.m(-3)). Since then, the industry has made substantial progress in improving the control of airborne dust through better-designed processes, increased automation, and an improved focus on product quality. We have used information from the published scientific literature and a small survey of industry representatives to estimate current exposure levels. These data suggest that current long-term exposure to inhalable dust for most workers is on average less than approximately 3 mg.m(-3), with perhaps 15-20% of individual personal exposures being >10 mg.m(-3). There are no published data from Britain on short-term exposure during cleaning and other tasks. We have estimated average levels for a range of tasks and judge that the highest levels, for example during some cleaning activities and certain process tasks such as loading and packing, are probably approximately10 mg.m(-3). Endotoxin levels were judged likely to be dust levels are <10 mg.m(-3). There are no published exposure data on mycotoxin, respirable crystalline silica, and mite contamination but these are not considered to present widespread problems in the British industry. Further research should be carried out to confirm these findings.

  15. Food-related life style in Great Britain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Brunsø, Karen; Bisp, Søren

    1995-01-01

    Executive summary 1. This report is about an investigation of food-related lifestyle in Great Britain, based on a representative sample of 1000 households. 2. The British consumers are described by five segments, which differ in how and to which extent they use food and cooking to attain their ce...

  16. Epidemiological analysis of data for scrapie in Great Britain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagenaars, T.H.J.; Donnelly, C.; Ferguson, N.M.

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, the control or eradication of scrapie and any other transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) possibly circulating in the sheep population has become a priority in Britain and elsewhere in Europe. A better understanding of the epidemiology of scrapie would greatly aid the

  17. Plutonium and Cs-137 in autopsy tissues in Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popplewell, D.S.; Ham, G.J.; Dodd, N.J.; Shuttler, S.D.

    1988-01-01

    Tissues removed at autopsy from members of the general public contain significantly higher concentrations of plutonium and 137 Cs in west Cumbrians than in people from three other regions of Great Britain. Several autopsy cases from Cumbria showed unusually high values of plutonium. Subsequently it was found that the subjects had been former employees of British Nuclear Fuels. 7 refs.; 8 tabs

  18. Changing distributions of Cantharidae and Buprestidae within Great Britain (Coleoptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alexander, K.

    2003-01-01

    Changing distributions of Cantharidae and Buprestidae within Great Britain (Coleoptera) Data are presented on the distribution of selected species from two coleopteran families chosen to represent a random slice of the British fauna. The species have been chosen as exhibiting extremes of range

  19. Enriching Great Britain's National Landslide Database by searching newspaper archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Faith E.; Malamud, Bruce D.; Freeborough, Katy; Demeritt, David

    2015-11-01

    Our understanding of where landslide hazard and impact will be greatest is largely based on our knowledge of past events. Here, we present a method to supplement existing records of landslides in Great Britain by searching an electronic archive of regional newspapers. In Great Britain, the British Geological Survey (BGS) is responsible for updating and maintaining records of landslide events and their impacts in the National Landslide Database (NLD). The NLD contains records of more than 16,500 landslide events in Great Britain. Data sources for the NLD include field surveys, academic articles, grey literature, news, public reports and, since 2012, social media. We aim to supplement the richness of the NLD by (i) identifying additional landslide events, (ii) acting as an additional source of confirmation of events existing in the NLD and (iii) adding more detail to existing database entries. This is done by systematically searching the Nexis UK digital archive of 568 regional newspapers published in the UK. In this paper, we construct a robust Boolean search criterion by experimenting with landslide terminology for four training periods. We then apply this search to all articles published in 2006 and 2012. This resulted in the addition of 111 records of landslide events to the NLD over the 2 years investigated (2006 and 2012). We also find that we were able to obtain information about landslide impact for 60-90% of landslide events identified from newspaper articles. Spatial and temporal patterns of additional landslides identified from newspaper articles are broadly in line with those existing in the NLD, confirming that the NLD is a representative sample of landsliding in Great Britain. This method could now be applied to more time periods and/or other hazards to add richness to databases and thus improve our ability to forecast future events based on records of past events.

  20. Determinants of residential space heating expenditures in Great Britain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, Helena [Department of Economics, University of Hamburg, Von Melle Park 5, 20146 Hamburg (Germany); Rehdanz, Katrin [Department of Economics, University of Kiel, Olshausenstrasse 40, 24118 Kiel (Germany)

    2010-09-15

    In Great Britain, several policy measures have been implemented in order to increase energy efficiency and reduce carbon emissions. In the domestic sector, this could, for example, be achieved by improving space heating efficiency and thus decreasing heating expenditure. However, in order to efficiently design and implement such policy measures, a better understanding of the determinants affecting heating expenditure is needed. In this paper we examine the following determinants: socio-economic factors, building characteristics, heating technologies and weather conditions. In contrast to most other studies we use panel data to investigate household demand for heating in Great Britain. Our data sample is the result of an annual set of interviews with more than 5000 households, starting in 1991 and ending in 2005. The sample represents a total of 64,000 observations over the fifteen-year period. Our aim is to derive price and income elasticities both for Britain as a whole and for different types of household. Our results suggest that differences exist between owner-occupied and renter households. These households react differently to changes in income and prices. Our results also imply that a number of socio-economic criteria have a significant influence on heating expenditure, independently of the fuel used for heating. Understanding the impacts of different factors on heating expenditure and impact differences between types of household is helpful in designing target-oriented policy measures. (author)

  1. What made Britannia great? Did the Industrial Revolution make Britain a world power?

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Gregory

    2006-01-01

    How much of Britain's high living standards and military power compared to its competitors in 1850 should be attributed to Britain having first experienced the Industrial Revolution? Examining data on real wages in the north and south of England, the Netherlands and Ireland in the Industrial Revolution era, this paper contends that most of the technological advances of the Industrial Revolution benefited Britain's competitors as much as Britain itself. Britain attained higher outputs per pers...

  2. Review of Infectious Disease Report in Great Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.D. Sorokhan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with an analysis of infectious disease report in Great Britain that is a member of the European Union. There are listed the infectious diseases and infectious agents of these diseases. There are described in detail how to fill the notification form and the methods and terms of sending it to Public Health England. Attention is focused on the importance of the analysis of infectious disease report in the European Union in the light of cooperation between Ukraine and the EU after the economic component of the Association Agreement has been signed.

  3. Annual survey of radioactive discharges in Great Britain 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-09-01

    Details are given of main discharges to the environment of radioactive waste in 1978 together with those in 1977 and 1976 for comparison with comment on the environmental effect of the discharges in 1977. The statutory control over the discharges of radioactive wastes in Great Britain is outlined in the Introduction. Details of the discharges are set out in tabular form, grouped under: UKAEA establishments; the Radiochemical Centre Limited; British Nuclear Fuels Limited; CEGB and SSEB nuclear power stations; Ministry of Defence. Part 7 deals with radioactivity in drinking waters and rivers. (U.K.)

  4. An Overview of the Smart Grid in Great Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Jenkins

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of the current status of the development of the smart grid in Great Britain (GB. The definition, policy and technical drivers, incentive mechanisms, technological focus, and the industry's progress in developing the smart grid are described. In particular, the Low Carbon Networks Fund and Electricity Network Innovation Competition projects, together with the rollout of smart metering, are detailed. A more observable, controllable, automated, and integrated electricity network will be supported by these investments in conjunction with smart meter installation. It is found that the focus has mainly been on distribution networks as well as on real-time flows of information and interaction between suppliers and consumers facilitated by improved information and communications technology, active power flow management, demand management, and energy storage. The learning from the GB smart grid initiatives will provide valuable guidelines for future smart grid development in GB and other countries.

  5. Publication productivity of neurosurgeons in Great Britain and Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, Fiona A; Akram, Harith; Hyam, Jonathan A; Kitchen, Neil D; Hariz, Marwan I; Zrinzo, Ludvic

    2015-04-01

    Bibliometrics are the methods used to quantitatively analyze scientific literature. In this study, bibliometrics were used to quantify the scientific output of neurosurgical departments throughout Great Britain and Ireland. A list of neurosurgical departments was obtained from the Society of British Neurological Surgeons website. Individual departments were contacted for an up-to-date list of consultant (attending) neurosurgeons practicing in these departments. Scopus was used to determine the h-index and m-quotient for each neurosurgeon. Indices were measured by surgeon and by departmental mean and total. Additional information was collected about the surgeon's sex, title, listed superspecialties, higher research degrees, and year of medical qualification. Data were analyzed for 315 neurosurgeons (25 female). The median h-index and m-quotient were 6.00 and 0.41, respectively. These were significantly higher for professors (h-index 21.50; m-quotient 0.71) and for those with an additional MD or PhD (11.0; 0.57). There was no significant difference in h-index, m-quotient, or higher research degrees between the sexes. However, none of the 16 British neurosurgery professors were female. Neurosurgeons who specialized in functional/epilepsy surgery ranked highest in terms of publication productivity. The 5 top-scoring departments were those in Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge; St. George's Hospital, London; Great Ormond Street Hospital, London; National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Queen Square, London; and John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford. The h-index is a useful bibliometric marker, particularly when comparing between studies and individuals. The m-quotient reduces bias toward established researchers. British academic neurosurgeons face considerable challenges, and women remain underrepresented in both clinical and academic neurosurgery in Britain and Ireland.

  6. Between resentment and aid: German and Austrian psychiatrist and neurologist refugees in Great Britain since 1933.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenau, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    This article is a historiographical exploration of the experiences that German and Austrian émigré psychiatrists and neurologists made in Great Britain since 1933, after the Nazi Governments in Central Europe had ousted them from their positions. When placing these occurrences in a wider historiographical perspective, the in-depth analysis provided here also describes the living and working conditions of the refugee neuroscientists on the British Isles. In particular, it looks at the very elements and issues that influenced the international forced migration of physicians and psychiatrists during the 1930s and 1940s. Only a fraction of refugee neuroscientists had however been admitted to Britain. Those lucky ones were assisted by a number of charitable, local, and academic organizations. This article investigates the rather lethargic attitude of the British government and medical circles towards German-speaking Jewish refugee neuroscientists who wished to escape Nazi Germany. It will also analyze the help that those refugees received from the academic establishment and British Jewish organizations, while likewise examining the level and extent of the relationship between social and scientific resentments in Great Britain. A special consideration will be given to the aid programs that had already began in the first year after the Nazis had seized power in Germany, with the foundation of the British Assistance Council by Sir William Henry Beveridge (1879-1963) in 1933.

  7. Mycobacterium bovis infection in domestic pigs in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Suzanne S; Crawshaw, Timothy R; Smith, Noel H; Palgrave, Christopher J

    2013-11-01

    Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (TB), infects a wide range of wild and domestic mammals. Despite a control programme spanning decades, M. bovis infection levels in cattle in Great Britain (GB) have continued to rise over recent years. As the incidence of infection in cattle and wildlife may be linked to that in swine, data relating to infection of pigs identified at slaughter were examined in this study. Between 2007 and 2011, almost all M. bovis-infected pigs originated from farms in the South-West and West-Midland regions of England. The data suggest that pigs raised outdoors or on holdings with poor biosecurity may be more vulnerable to infection with M. bovis. In the majority of cases, the same strains of M. bovis were found in pigs and cattle, despite that fact that direct contact between these species was rarely observed. Genotyping and geographical mapping data indicated that some strains found in pigs may correlate better with those present in badgers, rather than cattle. In consequence, it is proposed that pigs may represent a useful sentinel for M. bovis infection in wildlife in GB. Given the potential implications of this infection for the pig industry, and for the on-going effort to control bovine TB, the importance of understanding the epidemiology and pathogenesis of M. bovis infection, as well as monitoring its prevalence, in pigs should not be underestimated. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Life cycle assessment of the transmission network in Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, Gareth P.; Maclean, Edward J.; Karamanlis, Serafeim; Ochoa, Luis F.

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of lower carbon power systems has tended to focus on the operational carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions from power stations. However, to achieve the large cuts required it is necessary to understand the whole-life contribution of all sectors of the electricity industry. Here, a preliminary assessment of the life cycle carbon emissions of the transmission network in Great Britain is presented. Using a 40-year period and assuming a static generation mix it shows that the carbon equivalent emissions (or global warming potential) of the transmission network are around 11 gCO 2-eq /kWh of electricity transmitted and that almost 19 times more energy is transmitted by the network than is used in its construction and operation. Operational emissions account for 96% of this with transmission losses alone totalling 85% and sulphur hexafluoride (SF 6 ) emissions featuring significantly. However, the CO 2 embodied within the raw materials of the network infrastructure itself represents a modest 3%. Transmission investment decisions informed by whole-life cycle carbon assessments of network design could balance higher financial and carbon 'capital' costs of larger conductors with lower transmission losses and CO 2 emissions over the network lifetime. This will, however, necessitate new regulatory approaches to properly incentivise transmission companies.

  9. The energy programme in Great Britain and Northern Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fells, I.

    1985-01-01

    Great Britain and Northern Ireland are for the time being, thanks to North Sea oil and gas, self-supporting in energy supply (coal 36%, oil 34%, gas 23%, nuclear 6%, hydraulic 1%) a situation which may continue for 2 or 3 decades. By AD2101 it is expected that nuclear generation, including the use of fast-breeder reactors, will supply 50% of electrical energy (currently 14%). The article discusses primary energy sources with tabulated statistics from Government information, and mentions the 2000MW link with France now under construction. Among alternative resources the more promising appear to be wind generation and a Severn barrage; the latter could provide 2000-4000MW. Water power has very small potential but pumped storage (Dinorwic 1700MW) is important. The prospects for wave energy are poor. Acid rain is seen as a growing problem. Various ideas for energy saving are discussed and the present policy of examining the future of energy consumption in terms of 'scenarios' is briefly described. All of these include an increase in the proportion of electrical energy in the total consumption. (C.J.O.G.)

  10. Work experiences of internationally trained pharmacists in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaei, Zainab; Hassell, Karen; Schafheutle, Ellen I

    2015-04-01

    Internationally trained health professionals are an important part of the domestic workforce, but little is known about the working experiences of internationally trained pharmacists (ITPs) in Great Britain (GB). The purpose of this study is to explore the work experiences of ITPs practising in the community or hospital sector in GB. Twenty-five semi-structured, face-to-face interviews were conducted with a sample of European Economic Area (EEA) and non-EEA pharmacists who, at the time of the study, practised in the community (n = 20) or hospital sector (n = 5) in the North West England from March to May 2009. In general, ITPs complained about their heavy workload, long working hours and lack of support from their employers. Specifically, EEA pharmacists in most cases felt excluded from the professional network and sensed colleagues saw them as 'foreigners' while some non-EEA pharmacists had to deal with a level of hostility from patients. This novel research provides a foundation for future work on ITPs in GB and could assist employers to better target their efforts in development of standards to support the working experiences of ITPs in GB. © 2014 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  11. Electricity transmission arrangements in Great Britain: Time for change?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strbac, Goran; Pollitt, Michael; Konstantinidis, Christos Vasilakos; Konstantelos, Ioannis; Moreno, Rodrigo; Newbery, David; Green, Richard

    2014-01-01

    In Great Britain (GB) and across Europe significant investment in electricity transmission is expected over the coming years as decarbonisation and market integration efforts are intensified. However, there is also significant uncertainty with the amount, location and timing of new generation connection, which in turn will drive the transmission investment needs. Given the absence of efficient market design, we identify three key areas of concern with the current transmission investment arrangements: (i) a mis-aligned incentives framework for transmission investment and operation; (ii) lack of coordination of investment and operation; and (iii) conflicts of interest. We then propose three options for future evolution of transmission regimes, which cover the full spectrum of institutional arrangements with respect to transmission planning and delivery, i.e. how and who plans, owns, builds and operates the transmission system. For each option we present: key characteristics; evolution of the current regimes; the ability of the option to address the concerns; and key strengths and weaknesses. Overall, we conclude in the case of GB (this conclusion could be extended to other European countries) that the most appropriate option would be that of an Independent System Operator (ISO) who would be responsible for planning and operating the transmission system. - Highlights: • We identify three key areas of concern with the current transmission arrangements. • We then propose three options for transmission network planning and delivery. • Key strengths and weaknesses of each above option are identified and studied. • We conclude that the most appropriate option for GB would be that of an ISO

  12. The political economy of bovine tuberculosis in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, R M

    2017-04-01

    A brief history of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) and its control in Great Britain (GB) is presented. Numerous diverse policies to control the disease in humans, cattle and wildlife have been pursued over the last 100 years and many millions of pounds have been spent. After notable success in reducing the incidence and prevalence of bTB in cattle in GB from the 1950s to the mid-1980s, the geographical spread of the disease and the number of cattle slaughtered have increased continually since that time, with a high point of bTB incidence in 2008. This increase appeared to coincide with changing policy regarding the control of the disease in badgers, with a more humane approach adopted and with strengthened protection for badgers through legislation. Indeed, there has been much controversy in the debate on the role of badgers in disease transmission to cattle and the need for their control as vectors of the disease. The issue has attracted the attention of the media and there have been various commissioned research projects, trials and public consultations. The findings of two social science investigations presented as examples showed that citizens generally believed that bTB in cattle is an important issue that needs to be tackled, but objected to badgers being killed, whilst cattle farmers were willing to pay around £17/animal/year for a bTB cattle vaccine. It is noted that successes regarding the control of bTB in other countries have combined both cattle and wildlife controls and involved industry working in close partnership with government.

  13. Policy processes and decision making of environmental policy in Great Britain and France. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, H.

    1991-01-01

    Research of central aspects of British environmental policy. This report concentrates on the role of the constitutional system of environmental policy, on the evaluation of a growing of 'Green Policy' in Great Britain, on the central problems of environmental policy and finally on the role of international environmental policy for Great Britain and Great Britain's role in international environmental activities. Beyond that this report contains a presentation of the state of the British environment (Pollution: Air, Water, Waste, Soil; Radioactivity and Noise). (orig.) With 205 refs., 18 tabs., 14 figs [de

  14. Flexible working: understanding the locum pharmacist in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shann, Phillip; Hassell, Karen

    2006-09-01

    There is a growing trend in Great Britain (GB) for pharmacists to work as self-employed "locums" rather than as permanent employees. Despite this trend, little is known about their work patterns or why they choose to pursue nonstandard forms of work. The overall aim of the study was to explore why locums choose self-employment over a permanent contract and to explore a number of issues commonly associated with nonstandard working, such as marginalization and job satisfaction. A qualitative interview study was undertaken. In-depth telephone interviews were conducted with 34 locum pharmacists randomly selected from the GB register of pharmacists. Locums from a range of age groups, different sectors of practice, and with different work patterns were selected to ensure that a wide range of experiences and views were covered. The need or desire for flexibility was the overriding factor for choosing to work as a locum. A wide range and variety of individual personal circumstances were important drivers, but a desire for work-life balance was fundamental to many. A variety of work patterns were found, ranging from those with more ad hoc working arrangements to those who worked in the same store on a regular basis. Avoiding stress, paperwork, and nonprofessional duties were among reasons for choosing to locum. Disadvantages associated with being a locum included being viewed and treated negatively by peers, and having fewer opportunities for training. No conclusive evidence could be found for locums being marginalized, except for the training issues for some pharmacists. The findings do suggest some cause for concern, with some locums selecting places to work on the basis of attitudes not congruent with socially inclusive approaches to public health care. The locum workforce is far from homogenous or uniform. Freelance working of this kind has advantages for the individual: freedom and independence. But there may be risks for the profession if nonstandard work practices

  15. DUALISM OF GEOSTRATEGIC PROSPECTS OF GREAT BRITAIN IN THE MODERN SYSTEM OF GLOBAL UNCERTAINTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey N. Yeletsky

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Peculiarities of a modern position of Great Britain in the global economy are analysed. Its role as one of the local centres of influence in the European Union is emphasized. «Special relationship» between England and the United States in the context of formation of a new «Anglo-Saxon empire» is examined. Particular attention is paid to the key role of Great Britain in the alliance of English-speaking powers.

  16. Employment, Family Union, and Childbearing Decisions in Great Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Arnstein Aassve; Simon Burgess; Matt Dickson; Carol Propper

    2004-01-01

    The paper investigates the relationship between work and family life in Britain. Using appropriate statistical techniques we estimate a five-equation model, which includes birth events, union formation, union dissolution, employment and non-employment events. The model allows for unobserved heterogeneity that is correlated across all five equations. We use information from the British Household Panel Survey, including the retrospective histories concerning work, union, and child bearing, to e...

  17. Great Britain and German-Polish Relations, 1929–1931

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zotova Ekaterina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the study of British-German relations during the period of exacerbation of territorial disputes between Germany and Poland in 1929-1931. Germany was making plans for revising the eastern borders. It sought to enlist the support of the new Labour government. Britain didn’t only approve of Germany's intention to carry out revision of the Treaty of Versailles (reparation issue, the evacuation of the Rhineland and the change in the German-Polish border, but also supported the strengthening of the political and economic situation in Germany as a whole. Assistance to Germany was advantageous for Britain. Firstly, the British support helped to improve the capacity of the purchasing power of the German market as one of the traditional markets of the English sale. Secondly, the strengthening of the position of the German cabinet meant failure of the French policy in Europe at this stage. The defeat of France in a dispute on the issue of early evacuation of the Rhineland would seriously devalue the foreign policy initiatives of Paris. Thirdly, the British government hoped that Germany will go into orbit of British political influence. The identity of the positions of the German and the British cabinets were considered as the components of British policy success not only in relations with France and Italy, but also with Czechoslovakia and Poland. Since the formation of the MacDonald’s cabinet, anti-Polish moods increased in the British course for the settlement of German-Polish relations. However, the threat of an attack on Poland by Germany was regarded by the government of Britain as unacceptable way of resolving the German-Polish conflict. Britain tried to follow the traditional foreign policy concept of “balance of power”, but the inefficiency of British policy “mediation” in European affairs was clearly shown in times of growing financial and economic crisis. The issue of the German-Polish border remained unsolved.

  18. Bat population genetics and Lyssavirus presence in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G C; Aegerter, J N; Allnutt, T R; MacNicoll, A D; Learmount, J; Hutson, A M; Atterby, H

    2011-10-01

    Most lyssaviruses appear to have bat species as reservoir hosts. In Europe, of around 800 reported cases in bats, most were of European bat lyssavirus type 1 (EBLV-1) in Eptesicus serotinus (where the bat species was identified). About 20 cases of EBLV-2 were recorded, and these were in Myotis daubentonii and M. dasycneme. Through a passive surveillance scheme, Britain reports about one case a year of EBLV-2, but no cases of the more prevalent EBLV-1. An analysis of E. serotinus and M. daubentonii bat genetics in Britain reveals more structure in the former population than in the latter. Here we briefly review these differences, ask if this correlates with dispersal and movement patterns and use the results to suggest an hypothesis that EBLV-2 is more common than EBLV-1 in the UK, as genetic data suggest greater movement and regular immigration from Europe of M. daubentonii. We further suggest that this genetic approach is useful to anticipate the spread of exotic diseases in bats in any region of the world.

  19. Great Britain 1994: Starting a new era for nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collier, J.G.

    1994-01-01

    In the course of the British program of privatization of the state-owned electricity generating industry the nuclear power plants in England and Wales were incorporated into the newly founded (and state-owned) NE in 1989. In addition, the government decided in favor of a moratorium in the construction of more nuclear power plants. Only Sizewell B, Britain's first pressurized water reactor (PWR), was to be completed. At that point in time, three other PWRs were in the planning stage. The government decision included a review of the future of nuclear technology to be held in 1994. At the beginning of 1994, the nuclear future of Britain appears in a much more positive light than had been thought possible in 1989. When founding NE, the British government endowed it with a startup capital and also instituted a tax levied on fossil energy sources, the revenue from which is being made available to NE in compensation for the old liabilities NE had to assume. (orig./UA) [de

  20. Conjectures and Contrivances: Economic Growth and the Standard of Living in Britain,During the Industrial Revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Charles Feinstein

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents new estimates of nominal earnings, the cost of living earnings for manual workers in Great Britain over the period 1770 to 1870. The estimates are adjusted to allow for unemployment and for the inclusion of agricultural workers in Ireland. The series are then analyzed to establish their implications for the debates about the impact of the industrial revolution on the standard of living; and about the pace of economic growth during this period. The main findings are that th...

  1. WIND TURBINES CAUSE CHRONIC STRESS IN BADGERS (MELES MELES) IN GREAT BRITAIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew, Roseanna C N; Smith, Valerie J; Fowkes, Robert C

    2016-07-01

    A paucity of data exists with which to assess the effects of wind turbines noise on terrestrial wildlife, despite growing concern about the impact of infrasound from wind farms on human health and well-being. In 2013, we assessed whether the presence of turbines in Great Britain impacted the stress levels of badgers ( Meles meles ) in nearby setts. Hair cortisol levels were used to determine if the badgers were physiologically stressed. Hair of badgers living 10 km from a wind farm. This demonstrates that affected badgers suffer from enhanced hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal activity and are physiologically stressed. No differences were found between the cortisol levels of badgers living near wind farms operational since 2009 and 2012, indicating that the animals do not become habituated to turbine disturbance. Cortisol levels in the affected badgers did not vary in relation to the distance from turbines within 1 km, wind farm annual power output, or number of turbines. We suggest that the higher cortisol levels in affected badgers is caused by the turbines' sound and that these high levels may affect badgers' immune systems, which could result in increased risk of infection and disease in the badger population.

  2. The Characteristics of the Systems of Continuing Pedagogical Education in Great Britain, Canada and the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukan, Nataliya; Myskiv, Iryna; Kravets, Svitlana

    2016-01-01

    In the article the systems of continuing pedagogical education in Great Britain, Canada and the USA have been characterized. The main objectives are defined as the theoretical analysis of scientific-pedagogical literature, which highlights different aspects of the problem under research; identification of the common and distinctive features of the…

  3. Development of nuclear power and its influence on the energy-supply strategy in Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hryniszak, W.

    1977-01-01

    Great Britain was one of the first countries to use nuclear energy on a large scale. The good experience with the reactors already installed in the basis for the development programme which is not opposed. Preliminary work for the use of the fast breeder reactor and collaboration with other countries in nuclear energy techniques is described. (H.E.G.)

  4. Motivation to Study in Higher Education: A Comparison between Germany and Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeber, Sandra; Higson, Helen E.

    2009-01-01

    This article deals with reasons for the motivation to study in higher education. To find out about motives, around 200 A-level students in Germany and Great Britain were asked about their plans for the time after completion of their A-levels. Through socio-demographic data the authors could deploy facts about social backgrounds and the…

  5. The convenience food market in Great Britain: convenience food lifestyle (CFL) segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Marie; Cowan, Cathal; McCarthy, Mary

    2007-11-01

    Convenience foods enable the consumer to save time and effort in food activities, related to shopping, meal preparation and cooking, consumption and post-meal activities. The objective of this paper is to report on the attitudes and reported behaviour of food consumers in Great Britain based on a review of their convenience food lifestyle (CFLs). The paper also reports the development and application of a segmentation technique that can supply information on consumer attitudes towards convenience foods. The convenience food market in Great Britain is examined and the key drivers of growth in this market are highlighted. A survey was applied to a nationally representative sample of 1000 consumers (defined as the persons primarily responsible for food shopping and cooking in the household) in Great Britain in 2002. Segmentation analysis, based on the identification of 20 convenience lifestyle factors, identified four CFL segments of consumers: the 'food connoisseurs' (26%), the 'home meal preparers' (25%), the 'kitchen evaders' (16%) and the 'convenience-seeking grazers' (33%). In particular, the 'kitchen evaders' and the 'convenience-seeking grazers' are identified as convenience-seeking segments. Implications for food producers, in particular, convenience food manufacturers are discussed. The study provides an understanding of the lifestyles of food consumers in Great Britain, and provides food manufacturers with an insight into what motivates individuals to purchase convenience foods.

  6. 19 CFR 10.69 - Samples to Great Britain and Ireland under reciprocal agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the United States and one for the use of the foreign customs authorities. The latter copy must have... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Samples to Great Britain and Ireland under reciprocal agreement. 10.69 Section 10.69 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  7. Population cigarette consumption in Great Britain: novel insights using retail sales data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Mark; Reid, Garth

    2017-12-20

    Accurate data to measure population cigarette consumption are vital for surveillance and for evaluating the impact of tobacco control policies. This study uses cigarette retail sales data to provide novel insights into trends and patterns in cigarette consumption in Great Britain. Cigarette sales estimates derived from electronic sales from most large grocery stores and a weighted representative sample of smaller convenience stores were obtained from Nielsen. Data on the number of cigarette sticks sold per calendar month and per week were obtained for Scotland and England/Wales (combined) for the period January 2008 to December 2015. Cigarette consumption per adult smoker per month was calculated using survey-based smoking prevalence estimates and mid-year population estimates. Population cigarette consumption in Great Britain declined between 2008 and 2013. Cigarette sales have since stabilised at around 400 cigarettes per adult smoker per month. Cigarettes sold in 14- to 19-packs have substituted a sharp decline in 20-packs and now account for over half of all cigarettes sold in Great Britain. Cigarette consumption has been consistently higher in Scotland than England/Wales. This is due to higher sales of 20-packs in Scotland between 2008 and 2013, which has been substituted by higher sales of 14- to 19-packs in recent years. Cigarette retail sales data provide unique insights into levels and patterns of cigarette consumption and should be used for monitoring and evaluating tobacco control policy in Great Britain.

  8. Conceptual Ideas of Masters' Professional Training in International Relations in Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tretko, Vitalii

    2014-01-01

    The conceptual positions of professional training of Masters in International Relations in Great Britain have been studied. On the basis of literary and documentary sources the basic concepts laid into contemporary theories of constructivism and cognitivism, theory of development and self-realisation of creative personality on the basis of…

  9. The stability and instability of organic expenditures in Denmark, Great Britain, and Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denver, Sigrid; Christensen, Tove; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård

    2012-01-01

    This article concerns demand for organic foods in 3 European countries: Denmark, Great Britain, and Italy. Based on extensive sets of household panel data we categorize households into 4 groups according to their levels of organic consumption. Importance of sociodemographics is estimated by apply...

  10. Internationally trained pharmacists in Great Britain: what do registration data tell us about their recruitment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassell Karen

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Internationally trained health professionals are an important part of the domestic workforce, but little is known about pharmacists who come to work in Great Britain. Recent changes in the registration routes onto the Register of Pharmacists of the Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain may have affected entries from overseas: reciprocal arrangements for pharmacists from Australia and New Zealand ended in June 2006; 10 new states joined the European Union in 2004 and a further two in 2007, allowing straightforward registration. Aims The aims of the paper are to extend our knowledge about the extent to which Great Britain is relying on the contribution of internationally trained pharmacists and to explore their routes of entry and demographic characteristics and compare them to those of pharmacists trained in Great Britain. Methods The August 2007 Register of Pharmacists provided the main data for analysis. Register extracts between 2002 and 2005 were also explored, allowing longitudinal comparison, and work pattern data from the 2005 Pharmacist Workforce Census were included. Results In 2007, internationally trained pharmacists represented 8.8% of the 43 262 registered pharmacists domiciled in Great Britain. The majority (40.6% had joined the Register from Europe; 33.6% and 25.8% joined via adjudication and reciprocal arrangements. Until this entry route ended for pharmacists from Australia and New Zealand in 2006, annual numbers of reciprocal pharmacists increased. European pharmacists are younger (mean age 31.7 than reciprocal (40.0 or adjudication pharmacists (43.0, and the percentage of women among European-trained pharmacists is much higher (68% when compared with British-trained pharmacists (56%. While only 7.1% of pharmacists registered in Great Britain have a London address, this proportion is much higher for European (13.9%, adjudication (19.5% and reciprocal pharmacists (28.9%. The latter are more likely to

  11. Natural gas is not electricity. Switzerland is not Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinmann, H. P.

    1999-01-01

    The production and procurement of natural gas and electricity are governed by different criteria. The electricity industry model cannot simply be transposed to the Swiss gas market after liberalization. Moreover, the structure of the Swiss gas industry is not the same as that of the electricity sector. For similar reasons, the privatization model adopted for the United Kingdom gas industry is not applicable to Switzerland. Competition already exists on the heating market, while procurement costs do not vary greatly because of the investments involved. Big price cuts cannot therefore be anticipated when the Swiss gas market is liberalized. (author)

  12. Redrawing the map of Great Britain from a network of human interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratti, Carlo; Sobolevsky, Stanislav; Calabrese, Francesco; Andris, Clio; Reades, Jonathan; Martino, Mauro; Claxton, Rob; Strogatz, Steven H

    2010-12-08

    Do regional boundaries defined by governments respect the more natural ways that people interact across space? This paper proposes a novel, fine-grained approach to regional delineation, based on analyzing networks of billions of individual human transactions. Given a geographical area and some measure of the strength of links between its inhabitants, we show how to partition the area into smaller, non-overlapping regions while minimizing the disruption to each person's links. We tested our method on the largest non-Internet human network, inferred from a large telecommunications database in Great Britain. Our partitioning algorithm yields geographically cohesive regions that correspond remarkably well with administrative regions, while unveiling unexpected spatial structures that had previously only been hypothesized in the literature. We also quantify the effects of partitioning, showing for instance that the effects of a possible secession of Wales from Great Britain would be twice as disruptive for the human network than that of Scotland.

  13. Redrawing the map of Great Britain from a network of human interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Ratti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Do regional boundaries defined by governments respect the more natural ways that people interact across space? This paper proposes a novel, fine-grained approach to regional delineation, based on analyzing networks of billions of individual human transactions. Given a geographical area and some measure of the strength of links between its inhabitants, we show how to partition the area into smaller, non-overlapping regions while minimizing the disruption to each person's links. We tested our method on the largest non-Internet human network, inferred from a large telecommunications database in Great Britain. Our partitioning algorithm yields geographically cohesive regions that correspond remarkably well with administrative regions, while unveiling unexpected spatial structures that had previously only been hypothesized in the literature. We also quantify the effects of partitioning, showing for instance that the effects of a possible secession of Wales from Great Britain would be twice as disruptive for the human network than that of Scotland.

  14. Prevalence of zoonotic important parasites in the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G C; Gangadharan, B; Taylor, Z; Laurenson, M K; Bradshaw, H; Hide, G; Hughes, J M; Dinkel, A; Romig, T; Craig, P S

    2003-12-01

    A national necropsy survey of red foxes was carried out across Great Britain to record Echinococcus, Trichinella and Toxoplasma. The survey did not record directly, or indirectly using coproantigen/PCR tests, evidence for the presence of Echinococcus multilocularis in 588 animals, although E. granulosus was suspected in six animals. Parasitological evidence for Trichinella spp. could not be found in 587 fox muscle digests, and a specific PCR test also failed to detect Toxoplasma in a sub-set of 61 random fox tongue biopsies. The upper 95% confidence interval for the above parasites was 0.60% (E. multilocularis), 0.60% (Trichinella spp.) and 5.6% (Toxoplasma). The commonest gut parasites were the hookworm Uncinaria stenocephala (41.3%) and the ascarid Toxocara canis (61.6%). This study also reports the second occurrence of Trichuris vulpis in Great Britain.

  15. Comparative Study of Flexible Pavement Designs for New Road in Great Britain and Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Basri, Hanafi

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this article is to compare the design methods for flexible pavements for new roads and overlays between two countries, Great Britain and Indonesia.Pavement design procedures provide a structure that can be accepted in a specific environmental condition and able to satisfy the anticipated traffic loading. There are many factors influencing the thickness design of pavement, such as pavement materials, traffic load and climatic conditions, there is no doubt that the method of pa...

  16. Return transport of processed radioactive waste from France and Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-11-01

    The report on returning transport and interim storage of processed radioactive waste from France and Great Britain in vitrified block containers covers the following issues: German contracts with radioactive waste processing plants concerning the return of processed waste to Germany; optimized radioactive waste processing using vitrified block containers; the transport casks as basic safety with respect to radiation protection; interim storage of processes high-level waste by GNS in Gorleben; licensing, inspections and declarations; quality assurance and control.

  17. Concepts on border control of the immigration movements supporters in the Great Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariya D. Lada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the current activization of immigration movements towards Europe the problem of border control and possibility of free migration has become especially topical and critical in political and social discussion in the countries of the European Union and Great Britain in particular. The arguments of free border supporters in modern Great Britain are reviewed in terms of the research of works by Teresa Hayter. Teresa Hayter – scientist, publicist, active participant of the antiracist movement and one of the most radical supporters of «free migration» in Great Britain Her views were fully presented in the monograph «Open borders: case against immigration controls» (first edition 2000, second – 2004, third – 2015. The key arguments of the supporters of active migration movements include the very idea of such movements being objectively and historically predetermined, while their control or preventing is a form of discrimination. Teresa Hayter debunks a range of myths and stereotypes concerning this problem, in particular the effectiveness of repressive methods of control and absolutely negative consequences for the population and country caused by these movements. The researcher states that the only way to ensure that the refuges are truly protected is to eliminate immigration control. Such sphere of government policy as immigration regulation and control is a form of racism. The majority of her arguments have moral and political context. On the other hand, they can be a special source of studying social discussion of the issue of free borders and migration processes in Great Britain.

  18. Fish, field, habitus and madness: the first wave mental health users movement in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, N

    1999-12-01

    This paper traces and explains the emergence of the mental health users movement in Great Britain, focusing specifically upon the formation of the Mental Patients Union in the early 1970s. The analysis presented in the paper draws, to some extent, from conventional movement theory. In addition, however, it draws from the work of Pierre Bourdieu. This represents an innovation in movement analysis and the necessity of this innovation is argued for in an early section of the paper.

  19. Waterpipe tobacco smoking prevalence among young people in Great Britain, 2013-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawad, Mohammed; Cheeseman, Hazel; Brose, Leonie S

    2018-06-01

    One percent of adults in Great Britain use waterpipe tobacco at least monthly, however national epidemiological evidence among young people is absent. This study aims to assess waterpipe tobacco prevalence and correlates among young people in Great Britain. Data were analyzed from online surveys conducted annually from 2013 to 2016 with weighted national samples of 11 to 18-year olds in Great Britain (annual n = 1936-2059). Primary outcome measures were at least monthly waterpipe tobacco use and lifetime waterpipe tobacco use. Binary logistic regression models tested the association between these outcomes and age, sex, country of residence and other tobacco consumption. Between 2013 and 2016, 1.7% (95% CI 1.5-2.1%) used waterpipe tobacco at least monthly and 9.9% (95% CI 9.2-10.7%) used waterpipe in their lifetime. There were no changes in prevalence over time. At least monthly use was associated with older age groups [16-18 years vs. 11-15 years, adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.63, 95% CI 1.55-4.46], male sex (AOR 1.82, 95% CI 1.23-2.71) and other tobacco consumption (e.g. lifetime cigarette use AOR 10.30, 95% CI 5.22-20.29). Lifetime use had similar correlates, but was not associated with male sex (AOR 0.97, 95% CI 0.80-1.17). One in 10 young people in Great Britain have tried waterpipe tobacco, though more frequent use appears low. We found no evidence of increasing or decreasing prevalence of waterpipe use between 2013 and 2016. Being male, older and a concurrent user of other tobacco products were correlated with waterpipe tobacco use.

  20. The discharge of radioactive effluents from the nuclear power programme into western waters of Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allday, C.

    1977-01-01

    A brief account is presented of the British nuclear power programme and the types of radioactive effluent that arise from the power stations and from the Windscale reprocessing plant. Routes by which these effluents could affect human populations, and radiation dose limits which have been laid down, are discussed. The discharge of permitted amounts of activity into western coastal waters of Great Britain, and the requirements for monitoring the discharges, are described. (U.K.)

  1. The International Relations Committee of the Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, H; O'Sullivan, E

    2007-12-01

    The International Relations Committee of the Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland was established over 30 years ago to assist anaesthetists working in developing countries. The committee has attempted to make an impact through distribution of educational materials, supporting training courses and investing in a number of small equipment projects. In 2005, the Overseas Anaesthesia Fund was set up to allow members to donate directly to support our work.

  2. Changes in the structure and relations of property in the Great Britain nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rumyantsev, V.V.

    1990-01-01

    Analysis of nuclear power development in the Great Britain is given. Currently it is reoriented to a wide application of PWR reactors instead of gas cooled ones, their economic indices being incapable of providing sufficient competitiveness on the British market. Reasons and state of affairs in denationalizing nuclear power, economic and financial difficulties connected with the realization of this politico-economic procedure are reported

  3. Iraq: Usa and Great Britain hold up an agreement on limited sales of Iraq petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    The negotiations United Nations/Iraq have been stopped because of objections coming from Usa and Great Britain. Three points were developed: The distribution of medicine and foods in three Kurdish countries, these countries are actually under the United nations control, Iraq wants to participate at the distribution but Usa and Great Britain think that it could be a way of pressure from Iraq on Kurdish countries and in this mind they refuse. The second point is about the sequestered banking account on which must be deposited the receipts of Iraqi petroleum sales which must be put under United Nation control in order to avoid, according to Washington and London, that Iraq uses it to get round the sanctions. The third point is that Usa and Great Britain consider that the resolution number 986 has only for object to relieve the pains of Iraqi people and its application must not be interpreted as a lightening of international sanctions against Iraq. The results of the suspension are a surge of petroleum prices on international market and a fall of Iraqi Dinar. (N.C.)

  4. Childhood leukaemia in Great Britain and fallout from nuclear weapons testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haynes, R.; Bentham, G.

    1995-01-01

    The possible effects of radiation from fallout on childhood leukaemia mortality from 1950 to 1987 and registrations from 1963 to 1987 were assessed using a division of Great Britain into regions with higher rainfall and a consequently higher fallout radiation dose in the 1960s and regions with lower rainfall and a lower radiation dose. Childhood leukaemia mortality rates declined and registration rates increased throughout the period. For ages 0-14 years, the differences between rates in wet regions and dry regions were small and appeared unrelated to periods of low, medium and high radiation exposure based on dose equivalent to the red bone marrow after birth. For the 0-4 years age group the highest ratios of leukaemia death rates and registration rates in the wet compared with the dry part of Great Britain occurred in the period of highest radiation exposure after birth. The death rate ratio was significantly raised in the period of high exposure compared with the surrounding medium exposure periods, but the difference in registration rate ratios between the high exposure period and the medium exposure period following was not statistically significant. The results might be explained by survival and registration changes, or chance in the case of registrations, but do not exclude the possibility that low doses of radiation from fallout were responsible for an increased risk of leukaemia in young children in Great Britain. (author)

  5. The genetically significant dose from diagnostic radiology in Great Britain in 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darby, S.C.; Kendall, G.M.; Rae, S.; Wall, B.F.

    1980-09-01

    This report is the third in a series concerned with the annual genetically significant dose to the population of Great Britain from diagnostic radiology. It combines information from a frequency survey of diagnostic radiological examinations carried out in Great Britain in 1977 and estimates of gonadal doses for different examination types, together with population and child expectancy data. The annual genetically significant dose from diagnostic radiology carried out in Great Britain in 1977, is estimated to 118 μGy (11.8 millirad) of which 113 μGy (11.3 millirad) is contributed by diagnostic radiology carried out in National Health Service hospitals. There has been a sharp fall in the contribution from obstetric examinations since 1957 when the last national survey was carried out. The contribution from most other examination types is broadly similar and there is little evidence of a change in the overall level of genetically significant dose. This is in spite of an increase in the frequency of radiological examinations per thousand of the population of about 50 per cent. No significant differences were found as between England, Scotland and Wales. The British figure compares favourably with the levels of GSD reported from other countries with developed radiological services. (author)

  6. Barriers to accessing abortion services and perspectives on using mifepristone and misoprostol at home in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, Abigail R A; Guthrie, Katherine A; Schellekens, Marlies; Trussell, James; Gomperts, Rebecca

    2018-02-01

    To examine reasons for seeking abortion services outside the formal healthcare system in Great Britain, where abortion is legally available. We conducted a mixed-methods study among women resident in England, Scotland, and Wales who requested at-home medication abortion through online telemedicine initiative Women on Web (WoW) between November 22, 2016, and March 22, 2017. We examined the demographics and circumstances of all women requesting early medication abortion and conducted a content analysis of a sample of their anonymized emails to the service to explore their reasons for seeking help. Over a 4-month period, 519 women contacted WoW seeking medication abortion. These women were diverse with respect to age, parity, and circumstance. One hundred eighty women reported 209 reasons for seeking abortion outside the formal healthcare setting. Among all reasons, 49% were access barriers, including long waiting times, distance to clinic, work or childcare commitments, lack of eligibility for free NHS services, and prior negative experiences of abortion care; 30% were privacy concerns, including lack of confidentiality of services, perceived or experienced stigma, and preferring the privacy and comfort of using pills at home; and 18% were controlling circumstances, including partner violence and partner/family control. Despite the presence of abortion services in Great Britain, a diverse group of women still experiences logistical and personal barriers to accessing care through the formal healthcare system, or prefer the privacy of conducting their abortions in their own homes. Health services commissioning bodies could address existing barriers if supported by policy frameworks. The presence of multiple barriers to accessing abortion care in Great Britain highlights the need for future guidelines to recommend a more woman-centered approach to service provision. Reducing the number of clinic visits and designing services to meet the needs of those living in

  7. Demographics of dogs, cats, and rabbits attending veterinary practices in Great Britain as recorded in their electronic health records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Fernando; Noble, Peter-John M; Jones, Phil H; Menacere, Tarek; Buchan, Iain; Reynolds, Suzanna; Dawson, Susan; Gaskell, Rosalind M; Everitt, Sally; Radford, Alan D

    2017-07-11

    Understanding the distribution and determinants of disease in animal populations must be underpinned by knowledge of animal demographics. For companion animals, these data have been difficult to collect because of the distributed nature of the companion animal veterinary industry. Here we describe key demographic features of a large veterinary-visiting pet population in Great Britain as recorded in electronic health records, and explore the association between a range of animal's characteristics and socioeconomic factors. Electronic health records were captured by the Small Animal Veterinary Surveillance Network (SAVSNET), from 143 practices (329 sites) in Great Britain. Mixed logistic regression models were used to assess the association between socioeconomic factors and species and breed ownership, and preventative health care interventions. Dogs made up 64.8% of the veterinary-visiting population, with cats, rabbits and other species making up 30.3, 2.0 and 1.6% respectively. Compared to cats, dogs and rabbits were more likely to be purebred and younger. Neutering was more common in cats (77.0%) compared to dogs (57.1%) and rabbits (45.8%). The insurance and microchipping relative frequency was highest in dogs (27.9 and 53.1%, respectively). Dogs in the veterinary-visiting population belonging to owners living in least-deprived areas of Great Britain were more likely to be purebred, neutered, insured and microchipped. The same association was found for cats in England and for certain parameters in Wales and Scotland. The differences we observed within these populations are likely to impact on the clinical diseases observed within individual veterinary practices that care for them. Based on this descriptive study, there is an indication that the population structures of companion animals co-vary with human and environmental factors such as the predicted socioeconomic level linked to the owner's address. This 'co-demographic' information suggests that further

  8. History: A Great Lives Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, F. Washington

    1973-01-01

    After examining the drawbacks of some of the currently popular teaching methods, the author proposes an approach to the teaching of high school history focusing on the matter of history -- the lives of men and ideas of the past. (SM)

  9. The Production of National Scale Models for Natural Geohazards in Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royse, Katherine

    2010-05-01

    Although Great Britain (GB), is untroubled by large-magnitude earthquakes or tsunamis, there is a growing financial and health threat from geohazards affecting both people and property (principally from flooding, shrink-swell clays, landslides, coastal erosion, radon and soluble rocks). This is both in terms of direct costs for remediation and indirectly from higher insurance premiums. For example, the Association of British Insurers reported that the 2007 summer floods cost Britain approximately £3billion; a figure which is predicted to triple every decade due to the increasing value of assets and potential increase in flood occurrence due to environmental change. Remediation from damage caused by shrink-swell clays alone is estimated to cost the insurance industry an average of over £300 million per year an amount that will inevitably increase given current predictions for future climate it is therefore essential that we are able to quantify and strategically assess the occurrence of geohazards in GB as a whole. This will enable us to understand their relationship to critical infrastructure (hospitals, utilities and major transportation routes), industry and major urban centres and provide an understanding of the environmental impacts that an increase in any one of these geohazards might have on, the lives of the British people, for example, flooding and associated landslides can affect the mobilisation of confined contaminants and subsequently the character and use of available land in the future. Since 2002 the British Geological Survey (BGS) has been developing national-scale models of natural geohazards in GB for just this purpose. These include, to date, landslides, shrink-swell, soluble rocks, compressible and collapsible deposits, groundwater flooding, geological indicators of flooding, radon potential, potentially harmful elements in soil, and mining hazards. The models have been created using a combination of expert knowledge (from both within BGS and

  10. Small-area analyses of bone cancer diagnosed in Great Britain provide clues to aetiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNally Richard J Q

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aetiology of bone cancers is poorly understood. This study examined geographical patterning in incidence of primary bone cancers diagnosed in 0–49 year olds in Great Britain during 1980–2005 to provide information on factors linked with disease development. We investigated putative associations with deprivation and population density. Methods Data on osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma were obtained from national population-based registries. Negative binomial regression was used to examine the relationship between incidence rates and the Townsend deprivation score (and its component variables and small-area population density. Results The study analyzed 2566 osteosarcoma and 1650 Ewing sarcoma cases. For females with osteosarcoma, statistically significant decreased risk was associated with higher levels of deprivation (relative risk [RR] per unit increase in deprivation score = 0.969; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.946–0.993. For all Ewing sarcoma combined, statistically significant decreased risk was associated with greater area-level population density and higher levels of non-car ownership (RR per person per hectare increase = 0.984; 95% CI 0.976–0.993, RR per 1% increase in non-car ownership = 0.994; 95% CI 0.991–0.998. Conclusions Higher incidence of osteosarcoma was observed for females in areas with lower deprivation levels indicating increased risk is linked to some aspect of affluent living. Higher incidence of Ewing sarcoma occurred in areas of low population density and where more people owned cars, both characteristic of rural environments. The study adds substantially to evidence associating Ewing sarcoma risk with rural environmental exposures. Putative risk factors include agricultural exposures, such as pesticides and zoonotic agents.

  11. Horizon scanning for invasive alien species with the potential to threaten biodiversity in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Helen E; Peyton, Jodey; Aldridge, David C; Bantock, Tristan; Blackburn, Tim M; Britton, Robert; Clark, Paul; Cook, Elizabeth; Dehnen-Schmutz, Katharina; Dines, Trevor; Dobson, Michael; Edwards, François; Harrower, Colin; Harvey, Martin C; Minchin, Dan; Noble, David G; Parrott, Dave; Pocock, Michael J O; Preston, Chris D; Roy, Sugoto; Salisbury, Andrew; Schönrogge, Karsten; Sewell, Jack; Shaw, Richard H; Stebbing, Paul; Stewart, Alan J A; Walker, Kevin J

    2014-12-01

    Invasive alien species (IAS) are considered one of the greatest threats to biodiversity, particularly through their interactions with other drivers of change. Horizon scanning, the systematic examination of future potential threats and opportunities, leading to prioritization of IAS threats is seen as an essential component of IAS management. Our aim was to consider IAS that were likely to impact on native biodiversity but were not yet established in the wild in Great Britain. To achieve this, we developed an approach which coupled consensus methods (which have previously been used for collaboratively identifying priorities in other contexts) with rapid risk assessment. The process involved two distinct phases: Preliminary consultation with experts within five groups (plants, terrestrial invertebrates, freshwater invertebrates, vertebrates and marine species) to derive ranked lists of potential IAS. Consensus-building across expert groups to compile and rank the entire list of potential IAS. Five hundred and ninety-one species not native to Great Britain were considered. Ninety-three of these species were agreed to constitute at least a medium risk (based on score and consensus) with respect to them arriving, establishing and posing a threat to native biodiversity. The quagga mussel, Dreissena rostriformis bugensis, received maximum scores for risk of arrival, establishment and impact; following discussions the unanimous consensus was to rank it in the top position. A further 29 species were considered to constitute a high risk and were grouped according to their ranked risk. The remaining 63 species were considered as medium risk, and included in an unranked long list. The information collated through this novel extension of the consensus method for horizon scanning provides evidence for underpinning and prioritizing management both for the species and, perhaps more importantly, their pathways of arrival. Although our study focused on Great Britain, we suggest

  12. The use of karst geomorphology for planning, hazard avoidance and development in Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Anthony H.; Farrant, Andrew R.; Price, Simon J.

    2011-11-01

    Within Great Britain five main types of karstic rocks - dolomite, limestone, chalk, gypsum and salt - are present. Each presents a different type and severity of karstic geohazard which are related to the rock solubility and geological setting. Typical karstic features associated with these rocks have been databased by the British Geological Survey (BGS) with records of sinkholes, cave entrances, stream sinks, resurgences and building damage; data for more than half of the country has been gathered. BGS has manipulated digital map data, for bedrock and superficial deposits, with digital elevation slope models, superficial deposit thickness models, the karst data and expertly interpreted areas, to generate a derived dataset assessing the likelihood of subsidence due to karst collapse. This dataset is informed and verified by the karst database and marketed as part of the BGS GeoSure suite. It is currently used by environmental regulators, the insurance and construction industries, and the BGS semi-automated enquiry system. The database and derived datasets can be further combined and manipulated using GIS to provide other datasets that deal with specific problems. Sustainable drainage systems, some of which use soak-aways into the ground, are being encouraged in Great Britain, but in karst areas they can cause ground stability problems. Similarly, open loop ground source heat or cooling pump systems may induce subsidence if installed in certain types of karstic environments such as in chalk with overlying sand deposits. Groundwater abstraction also has the potential to trigger subsidence in karst areas. GIS manipulation of the karst information is allowing Great Britain to be zoned into areas suitable, or unsuitable, for such uses; it has the potential to become part of a suite of planning management tools for local and National Government to assess the long term sustainable use of the ground.

  13. Post-Chernobyl surveys of radiocaesium in soil, vegetation, wildlife and fungi in Great Britain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaplow, J.S.; Beresford, N.A.; Barnett, C.L. [Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster (United Kingdom). Centre for Ecology and Hydrology,

    2015-07-01

    The data set ''Post Chernobyl surveys of radiocaesium in soil, vegetation, wildlife and fungi in Great Britain'' was developed to enable data collected by the Natural Environment Research Council after the Chernobyl accident to be made publicly available. Data for samples collected between May 1986 (immediately after Chernobyl) to spring 1997 are presented. Additional data to radiocaesium concentrations are presented where available. The data have value in trying to assess the contribution of new sources of radiocaesium in the environment, providing baseline data for future planned releases and to aid the development and testing of models.

  14. CRIMEAN WAR AND ESTABLISHING OF PUBLIC HEALTH SYSTEM IN GREAT BRITAIN

    OpenAIRE

    SKLYAROVA ELENA

    2017-01-01

    Crimean War of 1853 1856 is a factor of important socio-political and socio-medical reforms. Study of these cases is characterized as interdisciplinary. At the edge of Crimean War Great Britain press highlighted aspiration of the empire to capture russian territories of Black sea region, also reforms and work of E.Chadwick, founder of public health system, were criticized, he was wanted to be away from members of parliament and London oligarchs due to his extreme reforms and British corruptio...

  15. COMPARATIVE LEGISLATIVE ANALYSIS OF ACTIVE BRIBERY IN THE UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijo Galiot

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Confronting socially unacceptable activities, especially corruptive criminal acts, including bribing, makes an important issue of every regulated legal system. The crucial part of such policies are the criminal polices. In this paper, the author deals with the criminal legislation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, related to the matters of active bribing as one of the basic forms of corruptive behaviour. While comparing the way the penal system is regulated in the said country, the author comments basic similarities and differences of the passive bribing legal regulation in the United Kingdom and the Republic of Croatia.

  16. National report of Great Britain. Risks and risk assessment according to British legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieweg, K.

    1980-01-01

    Who has got the competence in Great Britain to decide about criteria to be applied and methods to be taken in the prevention of damage thus ensuring the required safety standards and definine the maximum acceptable risk to be taken due to the operation of industrial and other facilities. The answer is laid down in the legal regulations covering virtually all industrial and technical installations. The author discusses the skeleton regulations of the 'Health and Safety at Work Act 1974', which is to be considered as the basis of British industrial law. Giving numerous examples, the author explains the legal status and administrative practice concerning the wide range of conventional technical facilities. Furthermore, he describes legal status and administrative practice concerning nuclear facilities and aircraft. After discussing methods of environmental pollution control, especially air pollution, the author enters into the regulations governing planning procedures of great relevance in Britain's legal practice, and the administrative procedures, shown by the example of the Windscale Inquiry. Finally, the author describes methods of risk assessment in other fields of law and some possible approaches to use risk analyses in the framework of the legal system. (orig./HSCH) [de

  17. The economic impacts of a submarine HVDC interconnection between Norway and Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doorman, Gerard L.; Frøystad, Dag Martin

    2013-01-01

    In the present paper we analyze the profitability of different HVDC interconnection alternatives between Norway and Great Britain for present and future scenarios. The analysis is done from a merchant and a social welfare perspective. The analyses include interconnections between Norway and Scotland and Southern Great Britain, respectively, as well as an alternative link to a future offshore wind farm. From a social welfare perspective the northern interconnection alternative is profitable under all sets of assumptions. The southern alternative is profitable under present conditions, but less than the northern alternative. The alternative link to the offshore wind park is not profitable, but this result is highly dependent on market conditions. From a merchant perspective none of the alternatives is profitable, clearly illustrating that leaving investments to commercial parties does not realize all projects that increase social welfare. - Highlights: • Profitability of interconnection between Norway and GB is analyzed using simulation. • The Northern alternative increases social welfare under all assumptions. • None of the alternatives is profitable from a merchant perspective. • A link to a prospective wind farm 200 km from the GB coast is not profitable. • Social welfare increasing infrastructure may not be built on commercial conditions

  18. Individual Educational Paths in the Universities of Russia and Great Britain (Theoretical Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Yu. Shaposhnikova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The author highlights the necessity for higher education institutions to form and realize students' individual educational paths in the learning process, which is stated in the Federal Law on Education and FSES HPE of the third generation. The article presents an overview of the different approaches to the definition of the term «individual educational path» (IEP. It also gives a brief overview of the existing terms in the Russian terminological system, which are close in meaning to the term above. The author formulates her own tentative definition of the term «IEP» which is based on the analysis made. The article further addresses the solution to the problem of the individualization of higher education learning process in Great Britain, which is described through the term «Personal Development Planning». The meaning of the term is shown through the set of actions: planning, doing things, recording of the self experience, reviewing and evaluating, using the personal knowledge derived from reflection and self understanding as well as own learning abilities to plan future actions. In conclusion, the meanings of the terms «IEP» and «PDP» are compared. The author emphasires the importance of studying Great Britain's experience - the practice of solving problems connected with the individualization of the university learning process and the possibilities to use it to facilitate the implementation of students' individual educational paths in Russian higher education institutions.

  19. The current contribution of diagnostic radiology to the population dose in Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, B.F.; Rae, S.; Kendall, G.M.; Darby, S.C.; Fischer, E.S.; Harries, S.V.

    1980-01-01

    The National Radiological Protection Board of the UK has just completed a national survey to determine the genetically significant dose (GSD) to the population of Great Britain from diagnostic radiology. A statistically selected sample of about 80 hospitals spread throughout England, Scotland and Wales has supplied information on the numbers of patients examined in their X-ray departments during a week in June 1977, together with details of age, sex and examination technique. This sample is sufficient to make a reliable estimate of the total diagnostic work-load in all National Health Service Hospitals throughout Great Britain for a year. Gonadal doses from 16 examination types that are likely to be the main contributors to the GSD have been measured on nearly 5000 patients at 20 hospitals throug'out the country using specially developed thermoluminescent dosemeters. These gonadal doses are combined with the examination frequency figures and current values for child expectancy derived from data supplied by tthe registrar general, to estimate the GSD. Those changes in practice which have occurred since the late 1950's which may have influenced the new value for the GSD are discussed, as well as the progress that has been made in estimating population somatic doses from diagnostic radiology using clinical measurements that are currently underway. (H.K.)

  20. [French doctors working in Great Britain: a study of their characteristics and motivations for migration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duverne, A; Carnet, D; d'Athis, P; Quantin, C

    2008-10-01

    As member states in the European Union now recognize the national qualifications of other member states, doctors will be able to move more freely within Europe according to the opportunities on offer and the constraints imposed by the different health-care systems. The aim of this study is to understand the reasons why French doctors choose to work in Great Britain. A self-completed questionnaire was used to conduct a survey among French doctors registered with the British Medical Council in 2005 who had done their studies in France and for whom the address was correct. The response rate, which was difficult to assess (impossible to distinguish between incorrect addresses and absence of response), was about 37%. The results show that doctors move to Britain for various reasons. In most cases (59%), the decision to emigrate is made for both professional and personal reasons. The second most common profile (29%), including essentially women, comprises those who emigrate to join a spouse. The third profile (12%) concerns those who emigrate for purely professional reasons: this group is made up of men who, for the most part, are disappointed with conditions in the French-hospital system: lack of recognition, poor pay and limited career prospects. Doctors who are dissatisfied with working conditions and low revenues in France seem to find that the National Health Service provides a better environment. Whatever the original reasons for expatriation, doctors particularly appreciate the salaried status, organization of working hours and teamwork, as well as more recognition of the work done. Because of uncertainties in the representativity of the returned questionnaires, the results of our study cannot be generalized to the whole population of French doctors currently working in Britain, but it does bring to light the principal reasons for their move to Britain. Though few doctors emigrate, the trend testifies to the dissatisfaction felt by certain doctors in the French

  1. Fasciola hepatica from naturally infected sheep and cattle in Great Britain are diploid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beesley, N J; Cwiklinski, K; Williams, D J L; Hodgkinson, J

    2015-08-01

    Diploid (2n = 2x = 20) and triploid (2n = 3x = 30) Fasciola hepatica have been reported in the UK, and in Asia diploid, triploid and mixoploid (2x/3x) Fasciola spp. exist but there is little information to indicate how common triploidy is, particularly in UK fluke. Here the ploidy of 565 adult F. hepatica from 66 naturally infected British sheep and 150 adult F. hepatica from 35 naturally infected British cattle was determined. All 715 of these parasites were diploid, based on observation of 10 bivalent chromosomes and sperm (n = 335) or, since triploids are aspermic, sperm alone (n = 380). This constitutes the first extensive analysis of the ploidy of F. hepatica field isolates from Great Britain and shows that most F. hepatica isolated from cattle and sheep are diploid and have the capacity to sexually reproduce. These data suggest that triploidy, and by extension parthenogenesis, is rare or non-existent in wild British F. hepatica populations. Given that F. hepatica is the only species of Fasciola present in Britain our results indicate that the parasite is predominantly diploid in areas where F. hepatica exists in isolation and suggests that triploidy may only originate in natural populations where co-infection of F. hepatica and its sister species Fasciola gigantica commonly occurs.

  2. From Shell Shock to Shellac: The Great War, Blindness, and Britain's Talking Book Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubery, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Britain's Talking Book Service began as a way of providing reading material to soldiers blinded during the First World War. This account traces the talking book's development from the initial experiments after the War to its debut and reception among blind soldiers and civilians in the 1930s. It has been put together using archives held by the Royal National Institute of Blind People (before its Royal Charter, the NIB) and Blind Veterans UK (formerly St. Dunstan's), the two organizations responsible for Britain's Talking Book Service. The essay's first section reconstructs the search for an alternative way of reading that would benefit people with vision impairments. The next part demonstrates the talking book's impact on the lives of people with disabilities, recovering the voices of blind readers left out of most histories of books, literacy, and reading practices in the twentieth century. The final section reconstructs a debate over the value of recorded books, showing that disputes over their legitimacy are as old as recorded books themselves. In sum, this essay confronts the central issue raised by the convergence of books, media, and disability in the War's aftermath: can a book talk?

  3. Flood frequency estimation by national-scale continuous hydrological simulations: an application in Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formetta, Giuseppe; Stewart, Elizabeth; Bell, Victoria; Reynard, Nick

    2017-04-01

    Estimation of peak discharge for an assigned return period is a crucial issue in engineering hydrology. It is required for designing and managing hydraulic infrastructure such as dams, reservoirs and bridges. In the UK, the Flood Estimation Handbook (FEH) recommends the use of the index flood method to estimate the design flood as the product of a local scale factor (the index flood, IF) and a dimensionless regional growth factor (GF). For gauged catchments the IF is usually estimated as the median annual maximum flood (QMED), while for ungauged catchments it is computed through multiple linear regression models based on a set of morpho-climatic indices of the basin. The GF is estimated by fitting the annual maxima with the generalised logistic distribution (GL) using two methods depending on the record length and the target return period: single-site or pooled analysis. The single site-analysis estimates the GF from the annual maxima of the subject site alone; the pooled analysis uses data from a set of catchments hydrologically similar to the subject site. In this work estimates of floods up to 100-year return period obtained from the FEH approach are compared to those obtained using Grid-to-Grid, a continuous physically-based hydrological model. The model converts rainfall and potential evapotranspiration into river flows by modelling surface/sub-surface runoff, lateral water movements, and snow-pack. It is configured on a 1km2 grid resolution and it uses spatial datasets of topography, soil, and land cover. It was set up in Great Britain and has been evaluated for the period 1960-2014 in forward-mode (i.e. without parameter calibration) using daily meteorological forcing data. The modelled floods with a given return period (5,10, 30, 50, and 100 years) were computed from the modelled discharge annual maxima and compared to the FEH estimates for 100 catchments in Great Britain. Preliminary results suggest that there is a good agreement between modelled and

  4. The National Landslide Database of Great Britain: Acquisition, communication and the role of social media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Catherine; Freeborough, Katy; Dashwood, Claire; Dijkstra, Tom; Lawrie, Kenneth

    2015-11-01

    The British Geological Survey (BGS) is the national geological agency for Great Britain that provides geoscientific information to government, other institutions and the public. The National Landslide Database has been developed by the BGS and is the focus for national geohazard research for landslides in Great Britain. The history and structure of the geospatial database and associated Geographical Information System (GIS) are explained, along with the future developments of the database and its applications. The database is the most extensive source of information on landslides in Great Britain with over 17,000 records of landslide events to date, each documented as fully as possible for inland, coastal and artificial slopes. Data are gathered through a range of procedures, including: incorporation of other databases; automated trawling of current and historical scientific literature and media reports; new field- and desk-based mapping technologies with digital data capture, and using citizen science through social media and other online resources. This information is invaluable for directing the investigation, prevention and mitigation of areas of unstable ground in accordance with Government planning policy guidelines. The national landslide susceptibility map (GeoSure) and a national landslide domains map currently under development, as well as regional mapping campaigns, rely heavily on the information contained within the landslide database. Assessing susceptibility to landsliding requires knowledge of the distribution of failures, an understanding of causative factors, their spatial distribution and likely impacts, whilst understanding the frequency and types of landsliding present is integral to modelling how rainfall will influence the stability of a region. Communication of landslide data through the Natural Hazard Partnership (NHP) and Hazard Impact Model contributes to national hazard mitigation and disaster risk reduction with respect to weather and

  5. ‘Banter, Bollockings & Beatings’: The occupational socialisation process in Michelin-starred kitchen brigades in Great Britain and Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Giousmpasoglou, Charalampos; Marinakou, Evangelia; Cooper, J.C.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose\\ud This study seeks to conceptualise how the occupational socialisation of young chefs is conducted in Michelin-starred restaurants in Great Britain and Ireland; the key role of banter and bullying in this process is explored and critically discussed.\\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach\\ud This qualitative research critically discusses the data from 54 in-depth, face-to-face interviews with male and female Michelin-starred chefs in Great Britain and Ireland. A flexible interview guide ...

  6. The current contribution of diagnostic radiology to the population dose in Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, B.F.; Rae, S.; Kendall, G.M.; Darby, S.C.; Fisher, E.S.; Harries, S.V.

    1980-01-01

    An outline account is given of a survey carried out by the NRPB in 1977 to make a reappraisal of the genetically significant dose to the population of Great Britain from diagnostic x-ray examinations. Provisional estimates for the value of the GSD to the population from all diagnostic examinations conducted within the NHS and elsewhere was 17 x 10 -5 Gy (17 mrad). This represented an increase of 20% over the value of 14.1 x 10 -5 Gy (14.1 mrad) found in 1957. This was considered insignificant, considering the errors involved in the surveys. This estimate of GSD is compared with recent estimations in the following countries: Sweden, West Germany, Italy, Romania, Netherlands, USA, Japan, Taiwan, India. The frequency of x-ray examinations per thousand head of population in the U.K. is compared with that of the following countries: West Germany, Switzerland, Netherlands, Japan, USA, Sweden. (U.K.)

  7. Comparing electricity distribution network revenues and costs in New South Wales, Great Britain and Victoria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mountain, Bruce; Littlechild, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    A decade ago, electricity distribution network revenues per customer in New South Wales (NSW) were twice those in Great Britain (GB). Recent price controls imply that by 2014 they will be nearly four times as high. This paper examines possible reasons for this. The main reason does not seem to be geography, operating environment or industry structure. GB and Victoria have managed to accommodate increasing demand at broadly constant or even declining costs and revenues while delivering higher quality of service, while NSW has not. The regulatory framework and the practice of the regulatory body within that framework seem relevant. Australian regulators have not used benchmarking techniques as the GB regulator has. Perhaps the most important explanatory factor is private ownership in GB and Victoria compared to state ownership in NSW. This could also impact on the nature and effectiveness of regulation. (author)

  8. Great Britain Against Libya’s state Terrorism in the 1980s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Jureńczyk

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present and assess Britain’s attitude towards Libya’s state terrorism in the 1980s. It presents the circumstances of involvement of Libyan authorities in the acts of terror, as well as the reasons for directing such activity against the United Kingdom. The paper discusses the response of the British authorities to the Libyan-backed terrorist activity and the results of investigations into attacks perpetrated by Libyans against British citizens. The main thesis of the paper is the statement that the politics of Great Britain in reaction for support offered by Muammar Gaddafi’s regime to the international terrorist network was formulated in line with the main directions of US policy towards Libya.

  9. The evolution of pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 (PPMV-1) in Great Britain: a molecular epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldous, E W; Fuller, C M; Ridgeon, J H; Irvine, R M; Alexander, D J; Brown, I H

    2014-04-01

    Newcastle disease (ND), caused by virulent strains of avian paramyxovirus type 1 (APMV-1), is considered throughout the world as one of the most important animal diseases. For over three decades now, there has been a continuing panzootic caused by a variant virulent APMV-1 strain, so-called pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 (PPMV-1), primarily in racing pigeons, which has also spread to wild birds and poultry. PPMV-1 isolations have been made in Great Britain every year since 1983. In this study, we have completed a comparative phylogenetic analysis based on a 374 nucleotide section of the fusion protein gene of 63 isolates of PPMV-1 that were isolated over a 26-year period; 43 of these were sequenced for this study. Phylogenetic analysis of these sequences revealed that all were closely related and placed in the genetic sublineage 4b (VIb), subdivision 4biif. © 2012 Crown copyright.

  10. Mixing height and mass balance of SO/sub 2/ in the atmosphere above Great Britain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garland, J.A.; Branson, J.R.

    1976-01-01

    Measurements of the SO/sub 2/ concentration at heights ranging from 150 to 1200 m were made at Cardington, Bedfordshire, using lightweight samplers carried on the cable of the tethered balloon. A value of 1200 m for the mean mixing height for SO/sub 2/ was deduced from the measurements. This value indicates that dry deposition limits the mean lifetime of SO/sub 2/ to about 2 days. The results of the national survey of air pollution were used to derive an area-mean concentration of 36 micrograms/m3 for SO/sub 2/ over Great Britain (excluding the north of Scotland, West Wales and the South West Peninsula) and this result is used in a discussion of the mass balance of atmospheric sulphur over this area.

  11. The resilience of citizenship traditions: Civic integration in Germany, Great Britain and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, Per

    2013-01-01

    Many western European states are adopting integration and naturalization policies that focus on the practices, values and identities of citizenship. On this background, and given the combined crisis of multiculturalism and decline of old-school ethno-nationalism, it has been argued that national......, cultural–ideological distinctiveness matters less for what is traditionally the heartland of national sovereignty and identity. A comparison of three citizenship/integration trajectories – Germany, Great Britain and Denmark – suggests that the thesis of liberal convergence must be qualified. Although...... occurring in civic and liberal registers, national citizenship policies still reflect continuities, and path-dependent reactions to such continuities, of culturally bounded nation states. Germany’s development reflects a republican normalization, facilitated by reunification, but also a distinct liberal...

  12. [Need-based resource allocation--experiences with the RAWP formula in Great Britain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, H; Menke, R

    1997-07-01

    The RAWP formula used for resource allocation in Great Britain between 1976 and 1991 is a morbidity-oriented instrument of controlling, which has so far received only little attention in Germany. The development of this model was supported by the intention to intervene in the regional pattern of hospital supply by means of resource allocation and to refine it according to the guiding principles of equity and efficiency. The basic elements-regional population, average bed use, ICD chapter-specific SMRs-are discussed and the various modifications outlined. The RAWP formula's potentials of controlling resulted in a progressive reduction of the apparent disparities between regions in hospital supply, and knee was considered to be a "qualified success". The future development in the sense of an internal market addressed.

  13. The ITE Land classification: Providing an environmental stratification of Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunce, R G; Barr, C J; Gillespie, M K; Howard, D C

    1996-01-01

    The surface of Great Britain (GB) varies continuously in land cover from one area to another. The objective of any environmentally based land classification is to produce classes that match the patterns that are present by helping to define clear boundaries. The more appropriate the analysis and data used, the better the classes will fit the natural patterns. The observation of inter-correlations between ecological factors is the basis for interpreting ecological patterns in the field, and the Institute of Terrestrial Ecology (ITE) Land Classification formalises such subjective ideas. The data inevitably comprise a large number of factors in order to describe the environment adequately. Single factors, such as altitude, would only be useful on a national basis if they were the only dominant causative agent of ecological variation.The ITE Land Classification has defined 32 environmental categories called 'land classes', initially based on a sample of 1-km squares in Great Britain but subsequently extended to all 240 000 1-km squares. The original classification was produced using multivariate analysis of 75 environmental variables. The extension to all squares in GB was performed using a combination of logistic discrimination and discriminant functions. The classes have provided a stratification for successive ecological surveys, the results of which have characterised the classes in terms of botanical, zoological and landscape features.The classification has also been applied to integrate diverse datasets including satellite imagery, soils and socio-economic information. A variety of models have used the structure of the classification, for example to show potential land use change under different economic conditions. The principal data sets relevant for planning purposes have been incorporated into a user-friendly computer package, called the 'Countryside Information System'.

  14. Using Information Technologies in Professional Training of Future Security Specialists in the USA, Great Britain, Poland and Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyslenko, Dmytro

    2017-01-01

    The paper discusses the use of information technologies in professional training of future security specialists in the United States, Great Britain, Poland and Israel. The probable use of computer-based techniques being available within the integrated Web-sites have been systematized. It has been suggested that the presented scheme may be of great…

  15. Methodology of Comparative Analysis of Public School Teachers' Continuing Professional Development in Great Britain, Canada and the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukan, Nataliya; Kravets, Svitlana

    2015-01-01

    In the article the methodology of comparative analysis of public school teachers' continuing professional development (CPD) in Great Britain, Canada and the USA has been presented. The main objectives are defined as theoretical analysis of scientific and pedagogical literature, which highlights different aspects of the problem under research;…

  16. "Against Fascism, War and Economies": The Communist Party of Great Britain's Schoolteachers during the Popular Front, 1935-1939

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    The Popular Front line made the Communist Party of Great Britain (CPGB) a more hospitable place for "brain workers." The emphasis the line placed on mass ideological and cultural struggle against fascism meant that they became important allies to be won for the working class. As the principal transmitters of ideology and culture to the…

  17. Constructivist Approach in a Paradigm of Public School Teachers' Professional Development in Great Britain, Canada, the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukan, Nataliya; Fuchyla, Olena; Ihnatiuk, Halyna

    2017-01-01

    The article dwells on professional development of public school teachers as an inevitable constituent of education systems in the 21st century. In such economically developed countries as Great Britain, Canada and the USA, the problem of preparing teachers to a difficult and responsible task of upbringing and educating future citizens always…

  18. A method to add richness to the National Landslide Database of Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Faith; Freeborough, Katy; Malamud, Bruce; Demeritt, David

    2014-05-01

    Landslides in Great Britain (GB) pose a risk to infrastructure, property and livelihoods. Our understanding of where landslide hazard and impact will be greatest is based on our knowledge of past events. Here, we present a method to supplement existing records of landslides in GB by searching electronic archives of local and regional newspapers. In Great Britain, the British Geological Survey (BGS) are responsible for updating and maintaining records of GB landslide events and their impacts in the National Landslide Database (NLD). The NLD contains records of approximately 16,500 landslide events in Great Britain. Data sources for the NLD include field surveys, academic articles, grey literature, news, public reports and, since 2012, social media. Here we aim to supplement the richness of the NLD by (i) identifying additional landslide events and (ii) adding more detail to existing database entries. This is done by systematically searching the LexisNexis digital archive of 568 local and regional newspapers published in the UK. The first step in the methodology was to construct Boolean search criteria that optimised the balance between minimising the number of irrelevant articles (e.g. "a landslide victory") and maximising those referring to landslide events. This keyword search was then applied to the LexisNexis archive of newspapers for all articles published between 1 January and 31 December 2012, resulting in 1,668 articles. These articles were assessed to determine whether they related to a landslide event. Of the 1,668 articles, approximately 30% (~700) referred to landslide events, with others referring to landslides more generally or themes unrelated to landslides. Examples of information obtained from newspaper articles included: date/time of landslide occurrence, spatial location, size, impact, landslide type and triggering mechanism, although the amount of detail and precision attainable from individual articles was variable. Of the 700 articles found for

  19. Abu Dhabi-Great Britain and the crisis over jurisdiction 1959-1960

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Velez

    2011-06-01

    Abu Dhabi and Great Britain.Keywords: Abu Dhabi, Great Britain, colonialism.

  20. Electronic cigarette use in young people in Great Britain 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, B; Dockrell, M J; Arnott, D; Britton, J; Cheeseman, H; Jarvis, M J; McNeill, A

    2015-09-01

    The recent growth in the market for electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) has led to concerns over their use by young people. It is therefore important to examine trends in the perception and use of e-cigarettes and conventional cigarettes in this group. Two-wave cross-sectional survey design. Young people aged 11-18 in Great Britain were surveyed online by YouGov in 2013 and 2014. Use of e-cigarettes, together with perceived health harms and intention to use were assessed and compared in relation to cigarette smoking history, age and gender. Ever-use of e-cigarettes increased significantly from 4.6% (95% CI 3.8-5.7) in 2013 to 8.2% (95% CI 7.0-9.6) in 2014. Monthly or more use of e-cigarettes increased from 0.9% (95% CI 0.5-1.5) to 1.7 (1.2-2.4), but remained rare in never-smokers at under 0.2%. The proportion of young people who perceived e-cigarettes to be less harmful to users than cigarettes fell from 73.4% (95% CI 71.0-75.8) to 66.9% (95% CI 64.5-69.2), while the proportion who considered e-cigarettes to cause similar levels of harm increased from 11.8% (95% CI 10.0-13.5) to 18.2% (95% CI 16.3-20.1). Of the 8.2% of e-cigarette ever-users in 2014, 69.8% (95% CI 62.2%-77.3%) had smoked a cigarette prior to using an e-cigarette, while 8.2% (95% CI 4.1%-12.2%) first smoked a cigarette after e-cigarette use. A growing proportion of young people in Great Britain believe e-cigarettes are as harmful as smoking tobacco. Use of e-cigarettes by young people is increasing, but is largely confined to those who smoke. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Empirical study of peak-load pricing and investment policies for the domestic market of gas in Great Britain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzoannos, J

    1977-06-01

    This paper reports the main results of a study aimed at determining empirically an optimal structure of seasonal tariffs for the domestic sector of gas in Great Britain. The study first involves the development of a peak-load pricing model which maximizes social welfare. The model is then quantified with cost and demand functions which have been statistically estimated for Great Britian using data for town gas. The procedure of estimating these functions is based on an error components model. The seasonal pricing and investment policy resulting from the solution to the above model is then compared with the existing policy for the domestic sector of gas in Great Britain. It is shown that the former is superior to the latter in terms of improvements in social welfare and capacity utilization. 22 references.

  2. Sea level change in Great Britain between 1859 and the present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodworth, Philip L.

    2018-04-01

    Short records of sea level measurements by the Ordnance Survey at 31 locations in 1859-1860, together with recent Mean Sea Level (MSL) information from the UK tide gauge network, have been used to estimate the average rates of sea level change around the coast of Great Britain since the mid-19th century. Rates are found to be approximately 1 mm yr-1 in excess of those expected for the present day based on geological information, providing evidence for a climate-change related component of the increase in UK sea level. In turn, the rates of change of MSL for the past 60 yr are estimated to be ˜1 mm yr-1 in excess of the long-term rates since 1859, suggesting an acceleration in the rate of sea level rise between the 19th and 20th/21st centuries. Although the historical records are very short (approximately a fortnight), this exercise in `data archaeology' shows how valuable to research even the shortest records can be, as long as the measurements were made by competent people and the datums of the measurements were fully documented.

  3. The United States, Great Britain, and Iranian oil, 1950-1954

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiss, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    This study examines the controversy surrounding the nationalization of the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company (AIOC). It traces the events leading to Iran's nationalization of the company in 1951 and details efforts to negotiate a settlement that would reconcile Iranian grievances against the AIOC with British claims for compensation. Because the British and the Iranians sought, and ultimately received, American assistance in resolving their dispute, this study places the nationalization crisis in a tripartite framework. It reveals the global as well as the regional nature of a struggle that historians have slighted, and follows this struggle to the autumn of 1954, when the American government helped to organize an international consortium to replace the AIOC. This study covers the nationalization imbroglio from a variety of angles. It draws on archives in Great Britain and the US in order to integrate British and American policy into a coherent analysis. It uses similar sources, as well as the literature on Iran, to trace the Iranian side of the story, link the nationalization crisis to earlier and subsequent events, and place it within a global context

  4. Ecological investigations on plant associations in differently disturbed heavy-metal contaminated soils of Great Britain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, W

    1968-01-01

    In different areas of Great Britain comparing ecological studies have been made on disturbed and undisturbed heavy metal contaminated soils. In Grizedale (Pennine), sampling of an undisturbed transect having high levels of major nutrients showed marked differentiation within a small area, only related to the plant available levels of zinc, copper, and lead. However, studies on disturbed heavy metal soils and spoil-heaps revealed a low water capacity and a low supply of major nutrients, particularly of N and P. These suggest that here both the enrichment of heavy metals and the considerable decrease of other nutrients are important in determining the heavy metal vegetation, and in maintaining it against other species. The quantity of zinc in plants is not related to the total or plant-available amount of zinc in soil, but confirmed physiological experiments on the influence of phosphorus and different zinc compounds (complexed or inorganic) on the uptake and distribution of zinc in Thlaspi alpestre and Minnartia rerum. Also an antagonism between lead and copper was revealed. 24 references.

  5. Welfare and competition effects of electricity interconnection between Ireland and Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaguzzi Valeri, Laura

    2009-01-01

    This study analyzes the effects of additional interconnection on welfare and competition in the Irish electricity market. I simulate the wholesale electricity markets of the island of Ireland and Great Britain for 2005. I find that in order for the two markets to be integrated in 2005, additional interconnection would have to be large. The amount of interconnection decreases for high costs of carbon, since this causes the markets to become more similar. This suggests that in the absence of strategic behavior of firms, most of the gains from trade derive not from differences in size between countries, but from technology differences and are strongly influenced by fuel and carbon costs. Social welfare increases with interconnection, although at a decreasing rate. As the amount of interconnection increases, there are also positive effects on competition in Ireland, the less competitive of the two markets. Finally, it is unlikely that private investors will pay for the optimal amount of interconnection since their returns are significantly smaller than the total social benefit of interconnection. (author)

  6. Preventive health care and owner-reported disease prevalence of horses and ponies in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, J L; Wylie, C E; Collins, S N; Verheyen, K L P; Newton, J R

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed to describe the provision of preventive health care and owner-reported disease prevalence in horses and ponies within Great Britain (GB), and to assess geographical variations in health care provision. A cross-sectional survey was conducted, using a postal questionnaire administered to a random sample of veterinary-registered owners of horses and ponies in GB (n=797). The majority of animals received regular preventive health care: 95.6% had regular hoof care; 71.3% were vaccinated for both influenza and tetanus and median time since last anthelmintic administration was 8.7 weeks. Thirty-one percent of owners indicated their animal was overweight/obese. A new health problem within the previous 7 days was reported for 7.4% of animals, 59.3% of which were veterinary-diagnosed. Thirty-two percent of animals were reported to have a long-term/recurrent condition, of which osteoarthritis (13.9%) was the most prevalent. Obesity, musculoskeletal disorders, and dermatological conditions were the most prevalent conditions affecting veterinary-registered horses/ponies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The impact of reducing car weight on global emissions: the future fleet in Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrenho, André Cabrera; Norman, Jonathan B.; Allwood, Julian M.

    2017-05-01

    Current European policies define targets for future direct emissions of new car sales that foster a fast transition to electric drivetrain technologies. However, these targets do not consider the emissions produced in electricity generation and material production, and therefore fail to incentivise car manufacturers to consider the benefits of vehicle weight reduction. In this paper, we examine the potential benefits of limiting the average weight and altering the material composition of new cars in terms of global greenhouse gas emissions produced during the use phase, electricity generation and material production. We anticipate the emissions savings for the future car fleet in Great Britain until 2050 for various alternative futures, using a dynamic material flow analysis of ferrous metals and aluminium, and considering an evolving demand for car use. The results suggest that fostering vehicle weight reduction could produce greater cumulative emissions savings by 2050 than those obtained by incentivising a fast transition to electric drivetrains, unless there is an extreme decarbonization of the electricity grid. Savings promoted by weight reduction are immediate and do not depend on the pace of decarbonization of the electricity grid. Weight reduction may produce the greatest savings when mild steel in the car body is replaced with high-strength steel. This article is part of the themed issue 'Material demand reduction'.

  8. Changes in self-reported driving intentions and attitudes while learning to drive in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helman, S; Kinnear, N A D; McKenna, F P; Allsop, R E; Horswill, M S

    2013-10-01

    Novice drivers are overrepresented in traffic collisions, especially in their first year of solo driving. It is widely accepted that some driving behaviours (such as speeding and thrill-seeking) increase risk in this group. Increasingly research is suggesting that attitudes and behavioural intentions held in the pre-driver and learning stage are important in determining later driver behaviour in solo driving. In this study we examine changes in several self-reported attitudes and behavioural intentions across the learning stage in a sample of learner drivers in Great Britain. A sample of 204 learner drivers completed a self-report questionnaire near the beginning of their learning, and then again shortly after they passed their practical driving test. Results showed that self-reported intentions regarding speed choice, perceptions regarding skill level, and intentions regarding thrill-seeking (through driving) became less safe over this time period, while self-reported intentions regarding following distance and overtaking tendency became safer. The results are discussed with reference to models of driver behaviour that focus on task difficulty; it is suggested that the manner in which behind-the-wheel experience relates to the risk measures of interest may be the key determining factor in how these change over the course of learning to drive. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. 'Do no harm'? Professional regulation of disabled nursing students and nurses in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Chih Hoong; Fong, Janice

    2008-06-01

    This paper is a report of the findings of a General Formal Investigation launched by the Disability Rights Commission, Great Britain into the impact of regulatory fitness standards on disabled people, and on nursing students and nurses in particular. The potential for systemic discrimination against disabled nursing professionals lies in the existence and nature of regulatory fitness standards, as well as in how these are interpreted and implemented in practice. A review of relevant legislation, regulation and guidance was conducted to explore the interaction of the regulatory framework with the Disability Discrimination Act. A formal call to key national stakeholder organizations solicited information on perceptions of the regulatory framework and the adequacy of guidance issued. Independent research was commissioned on disabled people's disclosure of disability, informal and formal decision-making around fitness within the educational, and employment contexts. An Inquiry Panel examined all evidence sources, solicited further oral evidence from key organizations, and developed recommendations. No mention was found of the Disability Discrimination Act in any regulation and guidance governing nursing prior to 2006. There are particular requirements for 'good health and good character'. Respondents from key national stakeholder organizations, higher educational institutions and employers struggle to interpret the fitness requirements consistently. Implementation is variable, with reliance on ad hoc self-initiated strategies. The variability of interpretation and implementation can lead to discrimination against disabled people. The imprecision of fitness requirements and variability of implementation raise serious doubts about their utility in managing risk.

  10. Spatial variation of natural radiation and childhood leukaemia incidence in Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, Sylvia; Monfort, Christine; Green, Martyn; Muirhead, Colin; Draper, Gerald

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes an analysis of the geographical variation of childhood leukaemia incidence in Great Britain over a 15 year period in relation to natural radiation (gamma and radon). Data at the level of the 459 district level local authorities in England, Wales and regional districts in Scotland are analysed in two complementary ways: first, by Poisson regressions with the inclusion of environmental covariates and a smooth spatial structure; secondly, by a hierarchical Bayesian model in which extra-Poisson variability is modelled explicitly in terms of spatial and non-spatial components. From this analysis, we deduce a strong indication that a main part of the variability is accounted for by a local neighbourhood 'clustering' structure. This structure is furthermore relatively stable over the 15 year period for the lymphocytic leukaemias which make up the majority of observed cases. We found no evidence of a positive association of childhood leukaemia incidence with outdoor or indoor gamma radiation levels. There is no consistent evidence of any association with radon levels. Indeed, in the Poisson regressions, a significant positive association was only observed for one 5-year period, a result which is not compatible with a stable environmental effect. Moreover, this positive association became clearly non-significant when over-dispersion relative to the Poisson distribution was taken into account. (author)

  11. Work-related ill health in doctors working in Great Britain: incidence rates and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Anli Yue; Carder, Melanie; Gittins, Matthew; Agius, Raymond

    2017-11-01

    Background Doctors have a higher prevalence of mental ill health compared with other professional occupations but incidence rates are poorly studied. Aims To determine incidence rates and trends of work-related ill health (WRIH) and work-related mental ill health (WRMIH) in doctors compared with other professions in Great Britain. Method Incidence rates were calculated using an occupational physician reporting scheme from 2005-2010. Multilevel regression was use to study incidence rates from 2001 to 2014. Results Annual incidence rates for WRIH and WRIMH in doctors were 515 and 431 per 100 000 people employed, respectively. Higher incidence rates for WRIH and WRMIH were observed for ambulance staff and nurses, respectively. Doctors demonstrated an annual average incidence rates increase for WRIH and WRMIH, especially in women, whereas the other occupations demonstrated a decreasing or static trend. The difference in trends between the occupations was statistically significant. Conclusions WRIH and WRMIH incidence rate are increasing in doctors, especially in women, warranting further research. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017.

  12. Prevalence of ticks and tick-borne pathogens: Babesia and Borrelia species in ticks infesting cats of Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Saran; Abdullah, Swaid; Helps, Chris; Tasker, Séverine; Newbury, Hannah; Wall, Richard

    2017-09-15

    In a study of tick and tick-borne pathogen prevalence, between May and October 2016, 278 veterinary practices in Great Britain examined 1855 cats. Six-hundred and one cats were found to have attached ticks. The most frequently recorded tick species was Ixodes ricinus (57.1%), followed by Ixodes hexagonus (41.4%) and Ixodes trianguliceps (1.5%). Male cats, 4-6 years of age living in rural areas were most likely to be carrying a tick; hair length and tick treatment history had no significant association with attachment. For cats that were parasitized by ticks in large urban areas, I. hexagonus was the most frequent species recorded. Molecular analysis was possible for 541 individual tick samples, others were too damaged for analysis; Babesia spp., and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato were identified in 1.1% (n=6) and 1.8% (n=10) of these, respectively. Babesia spp. included Babesia vulpes sp. nov./Babesia microti-like (n=4) in I. hexagonus and Babesia venatorum (n=2) in I. ricinus. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. species included Borrelia garinii (n=6) and Borrelia afzelii (n=4). The majority of B. burgorferi s.l. cases were found in I. ricinus, with B. afzelii in one I. hexagonus nymph. No Borrelia or Babesia spp. were present in I. trianguliceps. To determine a true prevalence for ticks on cats, practices that only submitted questionnaires from cats with ticks and practices that submitted fewer than 5 returns per week were removed; amongst those considered to have adhered strictly to the collection protocol, feline tick prevalence amongst cats that had access to the outdoors was 6.6%. These results show that ticks can be found on cats throughout Great Britain, which harbour a range of species of Babesia and B. burgdorferi s.l. and that cats, particularly in green spaces within urban areas, may form an important host for I. hexagonus, a known vector of pathogens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Fatal accidents at railway level crossings in Great Britain 1946-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Andrew W

    2011-09-01

    This paper investigates fatal accidents and fatalities at level crossings in Great Britain over the 64-year period 1946-2009. The numbers of fatal accidents and fatalities per year fell by about 65% in the first half of that period, but since then have remained more or less constant at about 11 fatal accidents and 12 fatalities per year. At the same time other types of railway fatalities have fallen, so level crossings represent a growing proportion of the total. Nevertheless, Britain's level crossing safety performance remains good by international standards. The paper classifies level crossings into three types: railway-controlled, automatic, and passive. The safety performance of the three types of crossings has been very different. Railway-controlled crossings are the best-performing crossing type, with falling fatal accident rates. Automatic crossings have higher accident rates per crossing than railway controlled or passive crossings, and the accident rates have not decreased. Passive crossings are by far the most numerous, but many have low usage by road users. Their fatal accident rate has remained remarkably constant over the whole period at about 0.9 fatal accidents per 1000 crossings per year. A principal reason why fatal accidents and fatalities have not fallen in the second half of the period as they did in the first half is the increase in the number of automatic crossings, replacing the safer railway controlled crossings on some public roads. However, it does not follow that this replacement was a mistake, because automatic crossings have advantages over controlled crossings in reducing delays to road users and in not needing staff. Based on the trends for each type of crossing and for pedestrian and non-pedestrian accidents separately, in 2009 a mean of about 5% of fatal accidents were at railway controlled crossings, 52% were at automatic crossings, and 43% were at passive crossings. Fatalities had similar proportions. About 60% of fatalities were

  14. Spatial clustering of childhood cancer in Great Britain during the period 1969-1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Richard J Q; Alexander, Freda E; Vincent, Tim J; Murphy, Michael F G

    2009-02-15

    The aetiology of childhood cancer is poorly understood. Both genetic and environmental factors are likely to be involved. The presence of spatial clustering is indicative of a very localized environmental component to aetiology. Spatial clustering is present when there are a small number of areas with greatly increased incidence or a large number of areas with moderately increased incidence. To determine whether localized environmental factors may play a part in childhood cancer aetiology, we analyzed for spatial clustering using a large set of national population-based data from Great Britain diagnosed 1969-1993. The Potthoff-Whittinghill method was used to test for extra-Poisson variation (EPV). Thirty-two thousand three hundred and twenty-three cases were allocated to 10,444 wards using diagnosis addresses. Analyses showed statistically significant evidence of clustering for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) over the whole age range (estimate of EPV = 0.05, p = 0.002) and for ages 1-4 years (estimate of EPV = 0.03, p = 0.015). Soft-tissue sarcoma (estimate of EPV = 0.03, p = 0.04) and Wilms tumours (estimate of EPV = 0.04, p = 0.007) also showed significant clustering. Clustering tended to persist across different time periods for cases of ALL (estimate of between-time period EPV = 0.04, p =0.003). In conclusion, we observed low level spatial clustering that is attributable to a limited number of cases. This suggests that environmental factors, which in some locations display localized clustering, may be important aetiological agents in these diseases. For ALL and soft tissue sarcoma, but not Wilms tumour, common infectious agents may be likely candidates.

  15. HERBERT HOOVER, GREAT BRITAIN, AND THE RUBBER CRISIS, 1923-1926

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvano A. Wueschner

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the controversy arising out of Great Britain’s decision to implement the Stevenson plan. It examines, in particular, the role played by Herbert Hoover, both behind the scenes and in an effort to affect the repeal of the Stevenson scheme and at the same time to encourage and support the development of new sources of rubber under the control of American producers. During the period 1920-1922 rubber producing countries were confronted by the specter of overproduction. The existence of even a short term oversupply coupled with the business slump, a reaction from the war, led to a decline in the price of rubber. British producers succeeded in inducing the British Colonial authorities to support a scheme whereby rubber exports would be regulated in order to bring about an increase in the price of rubber. This plan, developed by the Stevenson Committee, called for a small minimum tax on all exports. Moreover, it soughtto limit production by establishing a quota based on the actual production of rubber during the 1919-1920 growing season. A progressive tax was applied to exports beyond standard production. American reaction to the scheme was varied. Secretary of Commerce Hoover, while publicly stating that the price of rubber had been low and was supportive of efforts to regulate production, behind the scenes showed a great deal of concern about the actions of the British government in regulating a commodity of which the United States was the single largest consumer. He was also linked, by some, to the idea that Great Britain sought to pay its war debt to the United States through the application of this tax. Much was made in American newspapers and the British press about Hoover’s criticism of British rubber restrictions. He was not opposed to regulating the supply of rubber, but only to the involvement of a government in the process, especially when it affected American producers and consumers. In response he proposed a scheme

  16. The ins and outs of poverty in advanced economies: poverty dynamics in Canada, Germany, Great Britain, and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Robert G. Valletta

    2004-01-01

    Comparative analysis of poverty dynamics—incidence, transitions, and persistence—can yield important insights about the nature of poverty and the effectiveness of alternative policy responses. This manuscript compares poverty dynamics in four advanced industrial countries (Canada, unified Germany, Great Britain, and the United States) for overlapping six-year periods in the 1990s. The data indicate that poverty persistence is higher in North America than in Europe; for example, despite high i...

  17. The Paranormal is (Still) Normal: The Sociological Implications of a Survey of Paranormal Experiences in Great Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, MA; Burrows, R; Wooffitt, R

    2014-01-01

    Historically, there has been limited sociological interest in the paranormal and no systematic study of reported paranormal experiences. There are also few medium-to-large-scale survey results with nationally representative populations focusing on paranormal experiences. This paper provides details of an exploratory survey conducted in 2009 with a nationally representative sample of 4,096 adults aged 16 years and over across Great Britain . Our findings show that 37 per cent of British adults...

  18. Representativeness of Social Media in Great Britain: Investigating Facebook, LinkedIn, Twitter, Pinterest, Google+, and Instagram

    OpenAIRE

    Blank, Grant; Lutz, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    The accepted and peer reviewed manuscript to the article Sociological studies show that Internet access, skills, uses, and outcomes vary between different population segments. However, we lack differentiated statistical evidence of the social characteristics of users of distinct social media platforms. We address this issue using a representative survey of Great Britain and investigate the social characteristics of six major social media platforms. We find that age and socioeconomic status...

  19. Quantifying gross vs. net agricultural land use change in Great Britain using the Integrated Administration and Control System

    OpenAIRE

    Tomlinson, Samuel J.; Dragosits, Ulrike; Levy, Peter E.; Thomson, Amanda M.; Moxley, Janet

    2018-01-01

    Land use change has impacts upon many natural processes, and is one of the key measures of anthropogenic disturbance on ecosystems. Agricultural land covers 70% of Great Britain's (GB) land surface and annually undergoes disturbance and change through farming practices such as crop rotation, ploughing and the planting and subsequent logging of forestry. It is important to quantify how much of GB's agricultural land undergoes such changes and what those changes are at an annual temporal resolu...

  20. Using large hydrological datasets to create a robust, physically based, spatially distributed model for Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Elizabeth; Kilsby, Chris; Fowler, Hayley

    2014-05-01

    The impact of climate change on hydrological systems requires further quantification in order to inform water management. This study intends to conduct such analysis using hydrological models. Such models are of varying forms, of which conceptual, lumped parameter models and physically-based models are two important types. The majority of hydrological studies use conceptual models calibrated against measured river flow time series in order to represent catchment behaviour. This method often shows impressive results for specific problems in gauged catchments. However, the results may not be robust under non-stationary conditions such as climate change, as physical processes and relationships amenable to change are not accounted for explicitly. Moreover, conceptual models are less readily applicable to ungauged catchments, in which hydrological predictions are also required. As such, the physically based, spatially distributed model SHETRAN is used in this study to develop a robust and reliable framework for modelling historic and future behaviour of gauged and ungauged catchments across the whole of Great Britain. In order to achieve this, a large array of data completely covering Great Britain for the period 1960-2006 has been collated and efficiently stored ready for model input. The data processed include a DEM, rainfall, PE and maps of geology, soil and land cover. A desire to make the modelling system easy for others to work with led to the development of a user-friendly graphical interface. This allows non-experts to set up and run a catchment model in a few seconds, a process that can normally take weeks or months. The quality and reliability of the extensive dataset for modelling hydrological processes has also been evaluated. One aspect of this has been an assessment of error and uncertainty in rainfall input data, as well as the effects of temporal resolution in precipitation inputs on model calibration. SHETRAN has been updated to accept gridded rainfall

  1. The development of occupational, public and environmental radiation protection legislation in Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bines, W.P.; Chandler, S.D.

    2000-01-01

    In Great Britain, legislation to protect workers exposed to ionising radiation has developed separately from, but largely in parallel with, legislation to protect the public and the environment. Occupational radiation protection started from a narrow and industry specific base in 1947. Over the succeeding years, and partly in response to the obligations arising from the United Kingdom's accession to the European Community, this narrow base has broadened. As the nuclear power industry developed in Great Britain so did a separate and rigorous regulatory regime for nuclear installations, starting with the Nuclear Installations (Licensing and Insurance) Act 1959. The 1959 Act was amended by the Nuclear Installations Act 1965. From 1974, all occupational health and safety legislation began to be brought under the umbrella of a new legal framework, the Health and Safety at Work etc. Act, which for the first time adopted an across-the board approach to all work activities and goal-setting, rather than prescriptive, legislation. The purpose of the Act was to provide one comprehensive and integrated system of law concerning health and safety (including the self-employed) and also public safety, so far as it was affected by work activities. The Act also provided for consultation with all interested parties during the development of legislation. The first across the board occupational radiation protection legislation, covering all uses and users of ionising radiation (including, for the first time, exposure to natural radiation), arrived with the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1985 and supporting Approved Codes of Practice and non-statutory guidance. The need for some controls on the use of radioactive materials that went wider than simply the protection of workers was recognised in 1948, when the first Radioactive Substances Act was made. Although the 1948 Act was the first to mention radioactive waste specifically, it proved ineffective as a regulatory tool. The first

  2. Work aggravated asthma in Great Britain: a cross-sectional postal survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Lisa; Sumner, Jade; Delic, Julian; Henneberger, Paul; Fishwick, David

    2018-04-12

    Work aggravated asthma (WAA), asthma made worse by but not caused by workplace exposures, can have a negative impact on personal, social, financial and societal costs. There is limited data on prevalence levels of WAA in Great Britain (GB). The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of WAA in GB, and to assess its potential causes.Materials and methodsA cross-sectional postal questionnaire study was carried out. A total of 1620 questionnaires were sent to three populations of adults with asthma. The questionnaire recorded; demographic details, current job, self-reported health status, presence of asthma and respiratory symptoms, duration and severity of symptoms and medication requirements. Questions relating to work environment and employers' actions were included, and each participant completed an assessment of health-related quality of life using the EuroQol Research Foundation EQ-5D. There were 207 completed questionnaires; response rates were 6% primary care, 45% secondary care and 71% Asthma UK. This represented a 13% overall response rate. Self-reported prevalence of WAA was 33% (95% CI 24.4-41.6%). In all, 19% of workers had changed their job because of breathing problems. Workers with WAA reported higher levels of work-related stress. Quality of life using the EQ-5D utility index was lower in those with WAA. WAA is a common problem in asthmatics in GB. This result is in keeping with international prevalence rates. Further research could assist the understanding of the most significant aggravants to asthma at work and help define appropriate interventions by workplaces.

  3. Work-related ill-health: Republic of Ireland, Northern Ireland, Great Britain 2005-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Money, A; Carder, M; Noone, P; Bourke, J; Hayes, J; Turner, S; Agius, R

    2015-01-01

    Data on work-related ill-health (WRIH) in the Republic of Ireland is inconsistent. To compare the incidence of WRIH in the Republic of Ireland (ROI), Northern Ireland (NI) and Great Britain (GB) reported by clinical specialists in skin and respiratory medicine and by specialist occupational physicians (OPs). Analysis of data reported to three surveillance schemes in The Health and Occupation Research (THOR) network in ROI and corresponding UK schemes. Contact dermatitis was the most frequently reported skin disease in the three areas. Asthma was the most frequently-reported respiratory disease in the ROI, while asbestos-related cases predominate in GB and NI. Mental health disorders, followed by musculoskeletal disorders were reported most frequently by OPs. Annual average incidence rates for skin disease were 2 per 100000 employed (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.9-2.8) in the ROI and 7 per 100000 for GB (95% CI 4.8-9.4). Unadjusted incidence rates for respiratory disease were 1 (95% CI 0.3-1) and 8 (95% CI 6.1-10.7) per 100000 in the ROI and GB, respectively; adjusted for reporter non-response, these figures increased to 15 (95% CI 11.3-19.6) and 32 (95% CI 28.4-35.6) per 100000 respectively. This is the first paper to include THOR data on WRIH from the ROI, NI and GB. Consistent and dedicated data collection in the ROI via the THOR schemes is viable and important in the light of a deficit of occupational ill-health data. Sustained efforts to improve participation are underway. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Current Welfare Problems Facing Horses in Great Britain as Identified by Equine Stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horseman, Susan V; Buller, Henry; Mullan, Siobhan; Whay, Helen R

    2016-01-01

    Despite growing concerns about the welfare of horses in Great Britain (GB) there has been little surveillance of the welfare status of the horse population. Consequently we have limited knowledge of the range of welfare problems experienced by horses in GB and the situations in which poor welfare occurs. Thirty-one in-depth interviews were conducted with a cross -section of equine stakeholders, in order to explore their perceptions of the welfare problems faced by horses in GB. Welfare problems relating to health, management and riding and training were identified, including horses being under or over weight, stabling 24 hours a day and the inappropriate use of training aids. The interviewees also discussed broader contexts in which they perceived that welfare was compromised. The most commonly discussed context was where horses are kept in unsuitable environments, for example environments with poor grazing. The racing industry and travellers horses were identified as areas of the industry where horse welfare was particularly vulnerable to compromise. Lack of knowledge and financial constraints were perceived to be the root cause of poor welfare by many interviewees. The findings give insight into the range of welfare problems that may be faced by horses in GB, the contexts in which these may occur and their possible causes. Many of the problems identified by the interviewees have undergone limited scientific investigation pointing to areas where further research is likely to be necessary for welfare improvement. The large number of issues identified suggests that some form of prioritisation may be necessary to target research and resources effectively.

  5. Current Welfare Problems Facing Horses in Great Britain as Identified by Equine Stakeholders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horseman, Susan V.; Buller, Henry

    2016-01-01

    Despite growing concerns about the welfare of horses in Great Britain (GB) there has been little surveillance of the welfare status of the horse population. Consequently we have limited knowledge of the range of welfare problems experienced by horses in GB and the situations in which poor welfare occurs. Thirty-one in-depth interviews were conducted with a cross -section of equine stakeholders, in order to explore their perceptions of the welfare problems faced by horses in GB. Welfare problems relating to health, management and riding and training were identified, including horses being under or over weight, stabling 24 hours a day and the inappropriate use of training aids. The interviewees also discussed broader contexts in which they perceived that welfare was compromised. The most commonly discussed context was where horses are kept in unsuitable environments, for example environments with poor grazing. The racing industry and travellers horses were identified as areas of the industry where horse welfare was particularly vulnerable to compromise. Lack of knowledge and financial constraints were perceived to be the root cause of poor welfare by many interviewees. The findings give insight into the range of welfare problems that may be faced by horses in GB, the contexts in which these may occur and their possible causes. Many of the problems identified by the interviewees have undergone limited scientific investigation pointing to areas where further research is likely to be necessary for welfare improvement. The large number of issues identified suggests that some form of prioritisation may be necessary to target research and resources effectively. PMID:27501387

  6. Grassland futures in Great Britain - Productivity assessment and scenarios for land use change opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Aiming; Holland, Robert A; Taylor, Gail; Richter, Goetz M

    2018-09-01

    To optimise trade-offs provided by future changes in grassland use intensity, spatially and temporally explicit estimates of respective grassland productivities are required at the systems level. Here, we benchmark the potential national availability of grassland biomass, identify optimal strategies for its management, and investigate the relative importance of intensification over reversion (prioritising productivity versus environmental ecosystem services). Process-conservative meta-models for different grasslands were used to calculate the baseline dry matter yields (DMY; 1961-1990) at 1km 2 resolution for the whole UK. The effects of climate change, rising atmospheric [CO 2 ] and technological progress on baseline DMYs were used to estimate future grassland productivities (up to 2050) for low and medium CO 2 emission scenarios of UKCP09. UK benchmark productivities of 12.5, 8.7 and 2.8t/ha on temporary, permanent and rough-grazing grassland, respectively, accounted for productivity gains by 2010. By 2050, productivities under medium emission scenario are predicted to increase to 15.5 and 9.8t/ha on temporary and permanent grassland, respectively, but not on rough grassland. Based on surveyed grassland distributions for Great Britain in 2010 the annual availability of grassland biomass is likely to rise from 64 to 72milliontonnes by 2050. Assuming optimal N application could close existing productivity gaps of ca. 40% a range of management options could deliver additional 21∗10 6 tonnes of biomass available for bioenergy. Scenarios of changes in grassland use intensity demonstrated considerable scope for maintaining or further increasing grassland production and sparing some grassland for the provision of environmental ecosystem services. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The invasion, provenance and diversity of Vespa velutina Lepeletier (Hymenoptera: Vespidae in Great Britain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giles E Budge

    Full Text Available The yellow-legged or Asian hornet (Vespa velutina colour form nigrithorax was introduced into France from China over a decade ago. Vespa velutina has since spread rapidly across Europe, facilitated by suitable climatic conditions and the ability of a single nest to disperse many mated queens over a large area. Yellow-legged hornets are a major concern because of the potential impact they have on populations of many beneficial pollinators, most notably the western honey bee (Apis mellifera, which shows no effective defensive behaviours against this exotic predator. Here, we present the first report of this species in Great Britain. Actively foraging hornets were detected at two locations, the first around a single nest in Gloucestershire, and the second a single hornet trapped 54 km away in Somerset. The foraging activity observed in Gloucestershire was largely restricted to within 700 m of a single nest, suggesting highly localised movements. Genetic analyses of individuals from the Gloucestershire nest and the single hornet from Somerset suggest that these incursions represent an expansion of the European population, rather than a second incursion from Asia. The founding queen of the Gloucestershire nest mated with a single male, suggesting that sexual reproduction may have occurred in an area of low nest density. Whilst the nest contained diploid adult males, haploid 'true' males were only present at the egg stage, indicating that the nest was detected and removed before the production of queens. Members of the public reported additional dead hornets associated with camping equipment recently returned from France and imported timber products, highlighting possible pathways of incursion. The utility of microsatellites to inform surveillance during an incursion and the challenge of achieving eradication of this damaging pest are discussed.

  8. Risk factors for epistaxis in jump racing in Great Britain (2001-2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Richard J M; Boden, Lisa A; Mellor, Dominic J; Love, Sandy; Newton, Richard J; Stirk, Anthony J; Parkin, Timothy D

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate risk factors associated with developing epistaxis in jump racing in Great Britain (GB). A retrospective analysis of records from horses running in all hurdle and steeplechase races in GB between 2001 and 2009 identified diagnoses of epistaxis whilst still at the racecourse. Data were used from 603 starts resulting in epistaxis (event) and 169,065 starts resulting in no epistaxis (non-event) in hurdle racing, and from 550 event starts and 102,344 non-event starts in steeplechase racing. Two multivariable logistic regression models to evaluate risk factors associated with epistaxis were produced. The potential effect of clustering of data (within horse, horse dam, horse sire, trainer, jockey, course, race and race meet) on the associations between risk factors and epistaxis was examined using mixed-effects models. Multiple factors associated with increased risk of epistaxis were identified. Those identified in both types of jump racing included running on firmer ground; horses with >75% of career starts in flat racing and a previous episode of epistaxis recorded during racing. Risk factors identified only in hurdle racing included racing in the spring and increased age at first race; and those identified only in steeplechase racing included running in a claiming race and more starts in the previous 3-6 months. The risk factors identified provide important information about the risk of developing epistaxis. Multiple avenues for further investigation are highlighted, including unmeasured variables at the level of the racecourse. The results of this study can be used to guide the development of interventions to minimise the risk of epistaxis in jump racing. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Development of an instrument to measure organisational culture in community pharmacies in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Iuri; Willis, Sarah Caroline; Schafheutle, Ellen Ingrid; Hassell, Karen

    2018-04-09

    Purpose Organisational culture (OC) shapes individuals' perceptions and experiences of work. However, no instrument capable of measuring specific aspects of OC in community pharmacy exists. The purpose of this paper is to report the development and validation of an instrument to measure OC in community pharmacy in Great Britain (GB), and conduct a preliminary analysis of data collected using it. Design/methodology/approach Instrument development comprised three stages: Stage I: 12 qualitative interviews and relevant literature informed instrument design; Stage II: 30 cognitive interviews assessed content validity; and Stage III: a cross-sectional survey mailed to 1,000 community pharmacists in GB, with factor analysis for instrument validation. Statistical analysis investigated how community pharmacists perceived OC in their place of work. Findings Factor analysis produced an instrument containing 60 items across five OC dimensions - business and work configuration, social relationships, personal and professional development, skills utilisation, and environment and structures. Internal reliability for the dimensions was high (0.84 to 0.95); item-total correlations were adequate ( r=0.46 to r=0.76). Based on 209 responses, analysis suggests different OCs in community pharmacy, with some community pharmacists viewing the environment in which they worked as having a higher frequency of aspects related to patient contact and safety than others. Since these aspects are important for providing high healthcare standards, it is likely that differences in OC may be linked to different healthcare outcomes. Originality/value This newly developed and validated instrument to measure OC in community pharmacy can be used to benchmark existing OC across different pharmacies and design interventions for triggering change to improve outcomes for community pharmacists and patients.

  10. Marginal greenhouse gas emissions displacement of wind power in Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, R. Camilla; Harrison, Gareth P.; Chick, John P.

    2017-01-01

    There is considerable uncertainty over the effect of wind power on the operation of power systems, and the consequent greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions displacement; this is used to project emissions reductions that inform energy policy. Currently, it is approximated as the average emissions of the whole system, despite an acknowledgement that wind will actually displace only the generators operating on the margin. This article presents a methodology to isolate the marginal emissions displacement of wind power from historical empirical data, taking into account the impact on the operating efficiency of coal and CCGT plants. For Great Britain over 2009–2014, it was found that marginal emissions displacement has generally been underestimated with, for example, the emissions displacement factor for wind being 21% higher than that the average emissions factor in 2010. The actual displacement depends upon the relative merit of coal and CCGT, with a greater discrepancy between marginal displacement and average emissions during more normal system operation, suggesting that policies to penalise high-carbon generation can increase the effectiveness of wind at reducing GHG emissions. Furthermore, it was also identified that wind power is almost as technically effective as demand-side reductions at decreasing GHG emissions from power generation. - Highlights: • Marginal emissions displacement was calculated from operational data for 2009–2014. • Existing estimates of emissions displacement are generally low. • Emissions displacement is a function of the relative merit of coal and CCGT plants. • Policies to penalise high-carbon generation should increase emissions displacement. • Wind almost as effective as demand-reduction at reducing emissions.

  11. Cognitive Ageing in Great Britain in the New Century: Cohort Differences in Episodic Memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gindo Tampubolon

    Full Text Available Dementias in high income countries are set to be the third major burden of disease even as older people are increasingly required to think for themselves how to provide for their lives in retirement. Meanwhile the period of older age continues to extend with increase in life expectancy. This challenge demands an understanding of how cognition changes over an extended period in later life. But studying cognitive ageing in the population faces a difficulty from the fact that older respondents are liable to leave (attrite before study completion. This study tested three hypotheses: trajectories of cognitive ageing in Britain show an improvement beyond the age of 50; and they are lifted by secular improvement in cognition across cohorts; lastly they are susceptible to distortion due to attrition.Using the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, this paper studied trajectories of episodic memory of Britons aged 50-89 from 2002 to 2013 (N = 5931. Using joint models the analysis found that levels of episodic memory follow a curvilinear shape, not a steady decline, in later life. The findings also revealed secular improvement in cognitive ageing such that as a cohort is being replaced episodic memory levels in the population improve. The analysis lastly demonstrated that failure to simultaneously model attrition can produce distorted pictures of cognitive ageing.Old age in this century is not necessarily a period dominated by cognitive decline. In identifying behavioural factors associated with better cognitive ageing, such as social connections of traditional and online kinds, the paper raises possibilities of mustering an adequate response to the cognition challenge.

  12. Great Britain Storm Surge Modeling for a 10,000-Year Stochastic Catalog with the Effect of Sea Level Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshtpoor, M.; Carnacina, I.; Blair, A.; Yablonsky, R. M.

    2017-12-01

    Storm surge caused by Extratropical Cyclones (ETCs) has significantly impacted not only the life of private citizens but also the insurance and reinsurance industry in Great Britain. The storm surge risk assessment requires a larger dataset of storms than the limited recorded historical ETCs. Thus, historical ETCs were perturbed to generate a 10,000-year stochastic catalog that accounts for surge-generating ETCs in the study area with return periods from one year to 10,000 years. Delft3D-Flexible Mesh hydrodynamic model was used to numerically simulate the storm surge along the Great Britain coastline. A nested grid technique was used to increase the simulation grid resolution up to 200 m near the highly populated coastal areas. Coarse and fine mesh models were calibrated and validated using historical recorded water elevations. Then, numerical simulations were performed on a 10,000-year stochastic catalog. The 50-, 100-, and 500-year return period maps were generated for Great Britain coastal areas. The corresponding events with return periods of 50-, 100-, and 500-years in Humber Bay and Thames River coastal areas were identified, and simulated with the consideration of projected sea level rises to reveal the effect of rising sea levels on the inundation return period maps in two highly-populated coastal areas. Finally, the return period of Storm Xaver (2013) was determined with and without the effect of rising sea levels.

  13. Why Great Britain's success in Beijing could have been anticipated and why it should continue beyond 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevill, A M; Balmer, N J; Winter, E M

    2009-12-01

    Home advantage in the summer Olympic Games is well known. What is not so well known is that countries that host the Olympic Games perform better in the games before and after the games in which they were hosts. To model/quantify the significance associated with these "hosting" effects and to explain the likely causes of Great Britain's improved medals haul in Beijing, while examining implications for London 2012 and beyond. Using all hosting cities/countries since World War II and analysing the number of medals awarded to competitors as a binomial proportion (p) response variable within a logit model, we identified a significant increase in the probability/odds of a country obtaining a medal in the Olympic Games before, during and after hosting the Olympics. Funding appears to be an important factor when explaining these findings. Almost all countries that have been awarded the games after World War II would appear to have invested heavily in sport before being awarded the games. A second factor in Great Britain's success is the legacy of hosting the Commonwealth Games in 2002 (a post-hosting games effect) that undoubtedly provided an infrastructure that benefited, in particular, cycling. Whether the International Olympics Committee either consciously or subconsciously take these factors into account is unclear when awarding the games to a city. What is clear is that based on these findings, Great Britain's prospects of maintaining the Olympic success achieved in Beijing is likely to continue to London 2012 and beyond.

  14. Communication of 19 June 1997 received from the resident representative of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    The document reproduces the text of a letter dated 19 June 1997 received by the Director General of the IAEA from the Resident Representative of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, referring to the Revised Supplementary Agreement Concerning the Provision of Technical Assistance by the International Atomic Energy Agency to the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland on behalf of the Government of Hong Kong done at Vienna on 4 February 1983

  15. Fitness for purpose of pharmacy technician education and training: The case of Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafheutle, Ellen I; Jee, Samuel D; Willis, Sarah C

    To enable pharmacists to become increasingly patient-centered, clinical professionals, they need to work with suitably trained and competent support staff; pharmacy technicians (PTs) may be the most appropriate to take on additional roles and responsibilities. However, clarity on PT roles, particularly in community pharmacy, is lacking, and pharmacists may be reluctant to delegate due to concerns over PTs' competence. This paper aims to explore the fitness for purpose of PT education and training in Great Britain. A mixed methods study was conducted in 2013-14. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with face-to-face and distance education providers; and different types of community (n = 16) and hospital pharmacy (n = 15) employers. Interviews explored views on education delivery, work-based learning and assessment, and quality assurance; they were transcribed verbatim and analyzed thematically. Interviews informed a questionnaire that was piloted and distributed (with reminders) to all 1457 recently registered PTs. Survey data were analyzed using SPSS v20, employing comparative statistics (Mann-Whitney U, Chi-Square). University ethics approval was obtained. Staff in 17 Further Education (FE) colleges, 6 distance providers, 16 community pharmacies and 15 NHS organizations were interviewed. Participants from different sectors, education providers and employing organizations questioned whether standards met current practice requirements. Certain topics were considered as redundant or over-taught whereas others, such as professionalism (attitudes, behaviors), were perceived to be lacking. Hospital interviewees felt that PT education and training lacked clinical detail, whereas many community interviewees felt that requirements for PTs were more advanced than required. Various comments suggested that PTs' roles in community pharmacy were not clearly defined or sufficiently different from other support staff. In order to define appropriate and up

  16. Chest physician-reported, work-related, long-latency respiratory disease in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carder, Melanie; Darnton, Andrew; Gittins, Matthew; Stocks, S Jill; Ross, David; Barber, Chris M; Agius, Raymond M

    2017-12-01

    Much of the current burden of long-latency respiratory disease (LLRD) in Great Britain is attributed to historical asbestos exposure. However, continuing exposure to other agents, notably silica, also contributes to disease burden. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of work-related LLRD reported by chest physicians in Great Britain, including variations by age, gender, occupation and suspected agent.LLRD incidence and incidence rate ratios by occupation were estimated (1996-2014). Mesothelioma cases by occupation were compared with proportional mortality ratios.Cases were predominantly in men (95%) and 92% of all cases were attributed to asbestos. Annual average incidence rates (males) per 100 000 were: benign pleural disease, 7.1 (95% CI 6.0-8.2); mesothelioma, 5.4 (4.8-6.0); pneumoconiosis, 1.9 (1.7-2.2); lung cancer, 0.8 (0.6-1.0); chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), 0.3 (0.2-0.4). Occupations with a particularly high incidence of LLRD were miners and quarrymen (COPD), plumbers and gas fitters (asbestosis), and shipyard and dock workers (all other categories). There was a clear concordance between cases of SWORD mesothelioma and proportional mortality ratios by occupation.Occupationally caused LLRD continues to contribute to a significant disease burden. Many cases are attributable to past exposure to agents such as asbestos and silica, but the potential for occupational exposures persists. Copyright ©ERS 2017.

  17. Detection of Babesia annae DNA in lung exudate samples from Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartley, Paul M; Hamilton, Clare; Wilson, Cari; Innes, Elisabeth A; Katzer, Frank

    2016-02-12

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of Babesia species DNA in lung exudate samples collected from red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from across Great Britain. Babesia are small piroplasmid parasites which are mainly transmitted through the bite of infected ticks of the family Ixodidae. Babesia can cause potentially fatal disease in a wide-range of mammalian species including humans, dogs and cattle, making them of significant economic importance to both the medical and veterinary fields. DNA was extracted from lung exudate samples of 316 foxes. A semi-nested PCR was used to initially screen samples, using universal Babesia-Theileria primers which target the 18S rRNA gene. A selection of positive PCR amplicons were purified and sequenced. Subsequently specific primers were designed to detect Babesia annae and used to screen all 316 DNA samples. Randomly selected positive samples were purified and sequenced (GenBank accession KT580786). Clones spanning a 1717 bp region of the 18S rRNA gene were generated from 2 positive samples, the resultant consensus sequence was submitted to GenBank (KT580785). Sequence KT580785 was used in the phylogenetic analysis Babesia annae DNA was detected in the fox samples, in total 46/316 (14.6%) of samples tested positive for the presence of Babesia annae DNA. The central region of England had the highest prevalence at 36.7%, while no positive samples were found from Wales, though only 12 samples were tested from this region. Male foxes were found to have a higher prevalence of Babesia annae DNA than females in all regions of Britain. Phylogenetic and sequence analysis of the GenBank submissions (Accession numbers KT580785 and KT580786) showed 100% identity to Babesia sp.-'Spanish Dog' (AY534602, EU583387 and AF188001). This is the first time that Babesia annae DNA has been reported in red foxes in Great Britain with positive samples being found across England and Scotland indicating that this parasite is well established within the

  18. Comparing of the Financial Ratios: A case study on United States, Great Britain, Greece Due Financial Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Stamatis Kontsas

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present a comparative study of the countries through the financial ratios that were analysed. This study was carried out in order to find the characteristics of each economy in comparison to the others. It would be worthy to mention that the three economies that were put under comparative study, are not of the same dynamic. The United States of America and Great Britain show some common characteristics due to the positions of power that they possess in the allocation of the global economy. However, in the case of Greece the same dynamic with the other two countries doesn’t exist, a fact that is greatly imprinted in their in-between comparison.

  19. Developing pathways to low carbon land-based passenger transport in Great Britain by 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bristow, Abigail L.; Tight, Miles; Pridmore, Alison; May, Anthony D.

    2008-01-01

    The key aim of this paper is to examine strategic pathways to low carbon personal transport in Britain and to compare these with the current trajectory of transport policy. A 2050 baseline was established using trend information, forecasts and best evidence from the literature on response to policy intervention. A range of strategies are tested including: technological development, pricing, public transport and soft measures. We conclude that even dramatic technological advance cannot meet the more stringent targets for carbon reduction in the absence of considerable behavioural change. The most promising combinations of measures involve clear price signals to encourage both a reduction in the use of motorised transport and the development and purchase of more efficient vehicles; decarbonisation of public transport and facilitating measures to enhance access whilst reducing the need for motorised travel

  20. Priority setting for invasive species management: risk assessment of Ponto-Caspian invasive species into Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, Belinda; Aldridge, David C

    2013-03-01

    Invasive species drive important ecological and economic losses across wide geographies, with some regions supporting especially large numbers of nonnative species and consequently suffering relatively high impacts. For this reason, integrated risk assessments able to screen a suite of multiple invaders over large geographic areas are needed for prioritizing the allocation of limited resources. A total of 16 Ponto-Caspian aquatic species (10 gammarids, one isopod, two mysids, and three fishes) have been short-listed as recent or potential future invaders of British waters, whose introduction and spread is of high concern. In this study, we use multiple modeling techniques to assess their risk of establishment and spread into Great Britain. Climate suitability maps for these 16 species differed depending on the eastern and western distribution of species in continental Europe, which was related to their respective migration corridor: southern (Danube-Rhine rivers), and northern (Don and Volga rivers and Baltic lakes). Species whose suitability was high across large parts of Great Britain included four gammarids (Cheliorophium robustum, Dikerogammarus bispinosus, D. villosus, and Echinogammarus trichiatus) and a mysid (Hemimysis anomala). A climatic "heat map" combining the results of all 16 species together pointed to the southeast of England as the area most vulnerable to multiple invasions, particularly the Thames, Anglian, Severn, and Humber river basin districts. Regression models further suggested that alkalinity concentration > 120 mg/L in southeast England may favor the establishment of Ponto-Caspian invaders. The production of integrated risk maps for future invaders provides a means for the scientifically informed prioritization of resources toward particular species and geographic regions. Such tools have great utility in helping environmental managers focus efforts on the most effective prevention, management, and monitoring programs.

  1. The development of a sub-daily gridded rainfall product to improve hydrological predictions in Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Niall; Freer, Jim; Coxon, Gemma; O'Loughlin, Fiachra; Woods, Ross; Liguori, Sara

    2015-04-01

    In Great Britain and many other regions of the world, flooding resulting from short duration, high intensity rainfall events can lead to significant economic losses and fatalities. At present, such extreme events are often poorly evaluated using hydrological models due, in part, to their rarity and relatively short duration and a lack of appropriate data. Such storm characteristics are not well represented by daily rainfall records currently available using volumetric gauges and/or derived gridded products. This research aims to address this important data gap by developing a sub-daily gridded precipitation product for Great Britain. Our focus is to better understand these storm events and some of the challenges and uncertainties in quantifying such data across catchment scales. Our goal is to both improve such rainfall characterisation and derive an input to drive hydrological model simulations. Our methodology involves the collation, error checking, and spatial interpolation of approximately 2000 rain gauges located across Great Britain, provided by the Scottish Environment Protection Agency (SEPA) and the Environment Agency (EA). Error checking was conducted over the entirety of the TBR data available, utilising a two stage approach. First, rain gauge data at each site were examined independently, with data exceeding reasonable thresholds marked as suspect. Second, potentially erroneous data were marked using a neighbourhood analysis approach whereby measurements at a given gauge were deemed suspect if they did not fall within defined bounds of measurements at neighbouring gauges. A total of eight error checks were conducted. To provide the user with the greatest flexibility possible, the error markers associated with each check have been recorded at every site. This approach aims to enable the user to choose which checks they deem most suitable for a particular application. The quality assured TBR dataset was then spatially interpolated to produce a national

  2. The response of the radionuclide monitoring programme for agricultural products in Great Britain to the accident at Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    The overall objective of the radiation monitoring and control programme of the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food in Great Britain is to ensure the safety of foodstuffs. The particular responsibility of my department within the Ministry is the analysis of agricultural products for the presence of radionuclides entering the human food chain from atmospheric releases. The Ministry also has a laboratory which monitors the marine environment. This presentation describes the surveillance programme for agricultural foodstuffs and show how it was used to monitor the deposition from the Chernobyl accident, and shows some of the monitoring data obtained and indicate how the information was used in formulating protective measures. It also mentions future plans

  3. A Trans-National Audience Study of a Global Format Genre: Talent Shows in Denmark, Finland, Germany and Great Britain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pia Majbritt; Esser, Andrea; Keinonen, Heidi

    This paper will discuss the methodology and present the preliminary findings of a trans-national, comparative audience study of the musical talent show genre undertaken in Denmark, Finland, Germany and Great Britain in early 2013. Within the international business model of selling and adapting...... continents (Zwaan & de Bruin 2012). Such global reach inevitably raises the question of the genre’s audience appeal, to what degree its reach has to do with a universal appeal inherent in the genre and/or the innovative character of individual formats (Armbruster and Mikos 2009), and to what degree...... the global success is due to local broadcasters’ ability to successfully adapt the format to local audience tastes. A few trans-national, comparative textual analyses of various adaptations of the same formats have been carried out to reveal the differences between adaptations (e.g. Mikos and Perotta 2012...

  4. The response of the radionuclide monitoring programme for agricultural products in Great Britain to the accident at Chernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, J A [Central Veterinary Laboratory, Weybridge, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    1986-07-01

    The overall objective of the radiation monitoring and control programme of the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food in Great Britain is to ensure the safety of foodstuffs. The particular responsibility of my department within the Ministry is the analysis of agricultural products for the presence of radionuclides entering the human food chain from atmospheric releases. The Ministry also has a laboratory which monitors the marine environment. This presentation describes the surveillance programme for agricultural foodstuffs and show how it was used to monitor the deposition from the Chernobyl accident, and shows some of the monitoring data obtained and indicate how the information was used in formulating protective measures. It also mentions future plans.

  5. Values and love styles in Turkey and Great Britain: an intercultural and intracultural comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanrı, Çağla; Goodwin, Robin

    2013-01-01

    Little previous research has examined the relationship between values and love styles, and none has done so across cultures or intracultural regions. This research was the first attempt to explore the correlation between individual-level values and love styles, and examined both within- and between-cultural variations in love styles. In this study 224 participants from Turkey and Britain, from urban or rural locations, completed the Portrait Values Questionnaire and the Love Attitudes Scale measure of love styles. Pancultural analyses demonstrated significant correlations between certain value dimensions and love styles. In particular, agape (selfless love) was positively correlated with self-transcendence, ludus (game-playing love) was positively correlated with self-enhancement, and pragma (realistic love) was positively correlated with conservation. The inclusion of location and nationality and their interactions with values in the multiple regression analyses significantly increased the variance explained by values for five of the six love styles. Multivariate analyses indicated that ludus, storge, mania, and pragma were all significantly higher among Turkish respondents; pragma, mania, and agape all higher amongst rural respondents. Eros was highest among rural British respondents; storge, pragma, and agape highest among rural Turks. When these culture effects were explored, conservation significantly mediated the relationship between the groups of more conservative rural Turks (versus other participants) and both pragmatic and storgic love styles. Findings are discussed in the light of disparities in values and relationship styles within cultures, and the need to include both intracultural and intercultural variations in cross cultural research.

  6. Experiences with Railway Regulation in Great Britain and the Czech Republic – Round Table Report1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nash Chris

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the Round Table was to compare British and Czech experiences with railway regulation and competition introduction and to determine which lessons can be learnt. Special attention was paid to the question of whether the very complex British reform can be an inspiration for further liberalisation of the railway sector in the Czech Republic or whether there are any reform mistakes that are best avoided. Based on two introductory presentations and subsequent plenary discussion, some consensus emerged. The participants agreed that there is no one-size-fits-all solution to railway regulation and that the introduction of competition should take into account the different circumstances of a particular country. Franchising in passenger operations in Britain successfully stimulated demand but also increased costs to the industry, so its implementation should be completed with care. It seems very unlikely that open-access competition would be a viable solution for the whole passenger rail market because it is limited to a few commercially attractive routes, and as Czech experience suggests, it creates many new problems. Finally, it was confirmed that a strong and dedicated regulator is needed in a newly liberalised environment in order to solve many emerging conflicts and disputes.

  7. Sports injury and illness epidemiology: Great Britain Olympic Team (TeamGB) surveillance during the Sochi 2014 Winter Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer-Green, Debbie; Elliott, Niall

    2015-01-01

    Sports injury and illness surveillance is the first step in injury and illness prevention, and is important for the protection of both athlete health and performance in major competitions. To identify the prevalence, severity nature and causes of athlete injuries and illnesses in the Great Britain Olympic Team (TeamGB) during the Sochi 2014 Winter Olympic Games. The observational prospective cohort study followed the Great Britain Injury/Illness Performance Project surveillance methodology and obtained information on injuries and illnesses that occurred during the Games between 30 January and 23 February 2014 in TeamGB athletes (n=56). Among the 56 TeamGB athletes, there were 27 injuries and 11 illnesses during the Olympic Games period. This equated to 39% sustaining at least one injury and 18% at least one illness, with an incidence of 48.2 injuries and 19.6 illnesses per 100 athletes, respectively. Of all injuries and illnesses, 9% and 7%, respectively, resulted in time loss. The risk of sustaining an injury was highest for freestyle skiing, skeleton and snowboarding; and lowest for curling, biathlon and Alpine skiing (with no reported injuries); with the lower limb being the most commonly injured location. Respiratory system illnesses were most frequently reported overall, and older female athletes were the ones most affected by illness. The risk of injury was double the risk of illness for TeamGB athletes. Overall, the rate of time-loss issues was low. Methodological considerations are important when interpreting data, and prevention strategies should focus on those issues causing the greatest risk, in terms of prevalence and severity, to athlete health and performance. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. Country specific associations between social contact and mental health: evidence from civil servant studies across Great Britain, Japan and Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable, N; Chandola, T; Lallukka, T; Sekine, M; Lahelma, E; Tatsuse, T; Marmot, M G

    2016-08-01

    Little is known about which component, such as social contact of social networks is associated with mental health or whether such an association can be observed across countries. This study examined whether the association between frequent social contact and mental health differs by composition (relatives or friends) and whether the associations are similar across three occupational cohorts from Great Britain, Japan, and Finland. Cross-sectional analysis of data from three prospective cohort studies. Participants were civil servants of a prospective cohort study based in London (Men: n = 4519; Women: n = 1756), in the West Coast of Japan (Men: n = 2571; Women: n = 1102), and in Helsinki, Finland (Men: n = 1181; Women: n = 5633); we included the information on study variables which is complete. Mental health function was the study outcome, indicated by the total score from the Mental Health Component on the Short Form Health Survey36. Participants reported frequencies of contacts with their relatives or friends via a questionnaire. Age, marital status, and occupational position were treated as confounders in this study. Findings from multiple regression showed that the associations between social contact and mental health function were different depending on country of origin and gender. Among British or Japanese men, frequent contact with both friends and relatives was positively associated with their mental health function, while only social contact with friends was significantly associated with mental health of Finnish men. In women, the patterns of the associations between social contact and mental health were more distinctive: friends for Great Britain, relatives for Japan, and friends and relatives for Finland. These significant associations were independent of the confounders. Social contact was related to mental health of working people; however, culture and gender are likely to be tapped into. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public

  9. A frequency survey of radiological examinations carried out in National Health Service hospitals in Great Britain in 1977 for diagnostic purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kendall, G.M.; Darby, S.C.; Harries, S.V.; Rae, S.

    1980-06-01

    Medical irradiation is the largest man-made contributor to the radiation dose received by the population of Great Britain, and diagnostic radiology is the most important component of medical irradiation. The work described here is a survey of the numbers and types of radiological examinations carried out in National Health Service hospitals in Great Britain in 1977. The overall level of diagnostic radiology in Great Britain as a whole is reported and separate estimates for England, Wales and Scotland are given. Discussion of topics such as the frequency of particular types of examination, the number of films per examination and the use of gonad shields is included, and the results of the present survey are compared with those of the last national survey which was carried out in 1957. Also reported is an estimate of the amount of radiology undertaken outside the Health Service. The findings will be combined with estimates of gonadal doses from the different examinations and child expectancy data to estimate the genetically significant dose to the population of Great Britain. (author)

  10. Hemigrapsus takanoi Asakura and Watanabe, 2005 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Grapsoidea): first records of the brush-clawed shore crab from Great Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, C. A.; Bishop, J. D. D.; Davies, Clare J.; Delduca, E. L.; Hatton, J. C.; Herbert, Roger J.H.; Clark, P. F.

    2015-01-01

    The brush-clawed shore crab is reported from the River Medway, Kent and the River Colne, Essex, England. These represent the first records of Hemigrapsus takanoi Asakura and Watanabe, 2005 from Great Britain. If H. takanoi becomes established in GB, it may pose a threat to populations of the native shore crab Carcinus maenas.

  11. Communication received from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland concerning its national holdings of civil high enriched uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the note verbale and its attachment dated 1 July 1998 received by the Director General of the IAEA from the Permanent Mission to the IAEA of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, making available information on its national holdings of civil high enriched uranium as of 31 December 1997

  12. The Model of Unification and the Model of Diversification of Public School Teachers' Continuing Professional Development in Great Britain, Canada and the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukan, Nataliya; Myskiv, Iryna; Kravets, Svitlana

    2016-01-01

    In the article the theoretical framework of public school teachers' continuing professional development (CPD) in Great Britain, Canada and the USA has been presented. The main objectives have been defined as theoretical analysis of scientific and pedagogical literature, which highlights different aspects of the problem under research; presentation…

  13. Entanglement and Transnational Transfer in the History of Infant Schools in Great Britain and "Salles D'asile" in France, 1816-1881

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Kaspar

    2014-01-01

    The historical developments of infant schools in Great Britain and "salles d'asile" in France--both precursors of present-day preschools--were interconnected. However, historians have not yet analysed specifically how transnational exchange influenced the growth and nature of these institutions. Drawing on archival data and secondary…

  14. The Analysis of Content and Operational Components of Public School Teachers' Continuing Professional Development in Great Britain, Canada and the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukan, Nataliya; Kravets, Svitlana; Khamulyak, Nataliya

    2016-01-01

    In the article the content and operational components of continuing professional development of public school teachers in Great Britain, Canada, the USA have been characterized. The main objectives are defined as the theoretical analysis of scientific-pedagogical literature, which highlights different aspects of the problem under research;…

  15. Presentation of the Book “The Golden Horde in World History” (Oxford, Great Britain, April 7–8, 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S. Giniyatullina

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available April 8, 2017 the multi-authored monograph “The Golden Horde in World History” (Kazan, Sh.Marjani Institute of History of Tatarstan Academy of Sciences Publ., 2017. 968 p. + 28 p. with colour insert was presented at the conference “Tatars in World History” (April 7–8, 2017, Oxford, Great Britain. The conference was organized by the University of Oxford and Sh.Marjani Institute of History of Tatarstan Academy of Sciences. The idea was also supported by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation, the World Congress of Tatars, the Alliance of Tatars of Europe and the Association of Tatars of Great Britain. The conference was opened with welcoming speeches by the deputy mayor of Oxford, Ray Hamberstone; Head of Sh.Marjani Institute of History of Tatarstan Academy of Sciences, Rafael Khakimov; famous British historian, specialist in early medieval Russia, the Caucasus and Byzantium, Professor Jonathan Shepard. Also the adviser on information, press and culture, Konstantin Shlykov, welcomed the guests and participants of the conference on behalf of the Embassy of the Russian Federation in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. In his welcoming address, Head of Sh.Marjani Institute of History of Tatarstan Academy of Sciences, Rafael Khakimov, noted that the monograph “The Golden Horde in World History” is the fruit of the joint work of the researchers of Sh.Marjani Institute of History of Tatarstan Academy of Sciences and the University of Oxford. Now these works are also available in English at the Bodleian Library of Oxford University. The chief editor of “The Golden Horde in World History”, a researcher at the University of Oxford, Marie Favereau, thanked colleagues from the Institute of History of Tatarstan Academy of Sciences and from the Institute of Russian History of the Russian Academy of Sciences for fruitful academic cooperation and stressed the importance of conducting further research on

  16. Implementation of guidelines on oxytocin use at caesarean section: a survey of practice in Great Britain and Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sheehan, Sharon R

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: Caesarean section is one of the most commonly performed major operations on women worldwide. Operative morbidity includes haemorrhage, anaemia, blood transfusion and in severe cases, maternal death. Various clinical guidelines address oxytocin use at the time of caesarean section. We previously reported wide variation in practice amongst clinicians in the United Kingdom in the use of oxytocin at caesarean section. The aim of this current study was to determine whether the variation in approach is universal across the individual countries of Great Britain and Ireland and whether this reflects differences in interpretation and implementation of clinical practice guidelines. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a survey of practice in the five individual countries of Great Britain and Ireland. A postal questionnaire was sent to all lead consultant obstetricians and anaesthetists with responsibility for the labour ward. We explored the use of oxytocin bolus and infusion, the measurement of blood loss at caesarean section and the rates of major haemorrhage. Existing clinical guidelines from the National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE), the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG) and ALSO (Advanced Life Support in Obstetrics) were used to benchmark reported practice against recommended practice for the management of blood loss at caesarean section. RESULTS: The response rate was 82% (391 respondents). Use of a 5 IU oxytocin bolus was reported by 346 respondents (85-95% for individual countries). In some countries, up to 14% used a 10 IU oxytocin bolus despite recommendations against this. Routine use of an oxytocin infusion varied greatly between countries (11% lowest-55% highest). Marked variations in choice of oxytocin regimens were noted with inconsistencies in the country-specific recommendations, e.g. NICE (which covers England and Wales) recommends a 30 IU oxytocin infusion over 4h, but only 122 clinicians (40%) used this. CONCLUSIONS

  17. Vocational training and career employment precariousness in Great Britain, the Netherlands and Sweden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korpi, T.; Graaf, de P.; Hendrickx, J.; Layte, R.

    2003-01-01

    The skills, qualifications and credentials generated by educational systems are strongly related to labour market attainment. The centrality of the educational system for the structuring of individuals' life chances has generated a long-lived and intense debate around the proper design of

  18. Vocational Training and Career Employment Precariousness in Great Britain, the Netherlands and Sweden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korpi, Tomas; Graaf, Paul de; Hendrickx, John; Layte, Richard

    2003-01-01

    The skills, qualifications and credentials generated by educational systems are strongly related to labour market attainment. The centrality of the educational system for the structuring of individuals’ life chances has generated a long-lived and intense debate around the proper design of

  19. Activities for the privatisation of the electricity supply industry in Great Britain. Electricity changing from public ownership to administrative, regulatory control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermann, H P

    1988-11-01

    According to Great Britain's energy policy, the electricity industry is going to be denationalised, so that the electricity sector will be governed by the principles of free competition, releaved from governmental intervention and political constraints, and supervised by the Director General of Electricity Supply. This restructurisation is intended to improve Britain's electricity industry in terms of dynamics, creativity, supply quality, and efficiency. A major goal is to strengthen the competitiveness of the British industry, and to enhance electricity supply to private consumers by way of more favourable electricity rates.

  20. Prevalence and characteristics of e-cigarette users in Great Britain: Findings from a general population survey of smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jamie; West, Robert; Beard, Emma; Michie, Susan; Shahab, Lion; McNeill, Ann

    2014-06-01

    E-cigarettes may be effective smoking cessation aids and their use by smokers has been growing rapidly. It is important to observe and assess natural patterns in the use of e-cigarettes whilst experimental data accumulates. This paper reports the prevalence of e-cigarette awareness, beliefs and usage, including brand choice, and characterises the socio-demographic and smoking profile associated with current use, among the general population of smokers and recent ex-smokers. Data were obtained from 3538 current and 579 recent ex-smokers in a cross-sectional online survey of a national sample of smokers in Great Britain in November and December 2012. Differences between current and recent ex-smokers in the prevalence of e-cigarette awareness, beliefs and usage were examined and the socio-demographic and smoking profile associated with current use of e-cigarettes was assessed in a series of simple and multiple logistic regressions. Ninety-three percent of current and recent ex-smokers (n=3841) were aware of e-cigarettes. Approximately a fifth (n=884) were currently using e-cigarettes, whilst just over a third (n=1507) had ever used them. Sixty-seven percent of the sample (n=2758) believed e-cigarettes to be less harmful than cigarettes; however, almost a quarter (n=994) remained unsure. Among both current and recent ex-smokers, the most popular reasons for using were health, cutting down and quitting (each >80%) and 38% used the brand 'E-lites'. Among current smokers who were aware of but had never used e-cigarettes, approximately half (n=1040) were interested in using them in the future. Among current smokers, their use was associated with higher socio-economic status (OR=1.48, 95%CI=1.25-1.75), smoking more cigarettes (OR=1.02, 95%CI=1.01-1.03) and having a past-year quit attempt (OR=2.82, 95%CI=2.38-3.34). There is a near universal awareness of e-cigarettes and their use appears to be common among smokers in Great Britain although a quarter of all smokers are

  1. Future Flows Climate: an ensemble of 1-km climate change projections for hydrological application in Great Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Prudhomme

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The dataset Future Flows Climate was developed as part of the project ''Future Flows and Groundwater Levels'' to provide a consistent set of climate change projections for the whole of Great Britain at both space and time resolutions appropriate for hydrological applications, and to enable climate change uncertainty and climate variability to be accounted for in the assessment of their possible impacts on the environment.

    Future Flows Climate is derived from the Hadley Centre's ensemble projection HadRM3-PPE that is part of the basis of UKCP09 and includes projections in available precipitation (water available to hydrological processes after snow and ice storages have been accounted for and potential evapotranspiration. It corresponds to an 11-member ensemble of transient projections from January 1950 to December 2098, each a single realisation from a different variant of HadRM3. Data are provided on a 1-km grid over the HadRM3 land areas at a daily (available precipitation and monthly (PE time step as netCDF files.

    Because systematic biases in temperature and precipitation were found between HadRM3-PPE and gridded temperature and precipitation observations for the 1962–1991 period, a monthly bias correction procedure was undertaken, based on a linear correction for temperature and a quantile-mapping correction (using the gamma distribution for precipitation followed by a spatial downscaling. Available precipitation was derived from the bias-corrected precipitation and temperature time series using a simple elevation-dependant snow-melt model. Potential evapotranspiration time series were calculated for each month using the FAO-56 Penman-Monteith equations and bias-corrected temperature, cloud cover, relative humidity and wind speed from HadRM3-PPE along with latitude of the grid and the day of the year.

    Future Flows Climate is freely available for non-commercial use under certain licensing conditions. It is the

  2. Regional alcohol consumption and alcohol-related mortality in Great Britain: novel insights using retail sales data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Mark; Shipton, Deborah; Walsh, David; Whyte, Bruce; McCartney, Gerry

    2015-01-07

    Regional differences in population levels of alcohol-related harm exist across Great Britain, but these are not entirely consistent with differences in population levels of alcohol consumption. This incongruence may be due to the use of self-report surveys to estimate consumption. Survey data are subject to various biases and typically produce consumption estimates much lower than those based on objective alcohol sales data. However, sales data have never been used to estimate regional consumption within Great Britain (GB). This ecological study uses alcohol retail sales data to provide novel insights into regional alcohol consumption in GB, and to explore the relationship between alcohol consumption and alcohol-related mortality. Alcohol sales estimates derived from electronic sales, delivery records and retail outlet sampling were obtained. The volume of pure alcohol sold was used to estimate per adult consumption, by market sector and drink type, across eleven GB regions in 2010-11. Alcohol-related mortality rates were calculated for the same regions and a cross-sectional correlation analysis between consumption and mortality was performed. Per adult consumption in northern England was above the GB average and characterised by high beer sales. A high level of consumption in South West England was driven by on-trade sales of cider and spirits and off-trade wine sales. Scottish regions had substantially higher spirits sales than elsewhere in GB, particularly through the off-trade. London had the lowest per adult consumption, attributable to lower off-trade sales across most drink types. Alcohol-related mortality was generally higher in regions with higher per adult consumption. The relationship was weakened by the South West and Central Scotland regions, which had the highest consumption levels, but discordantly low and very high alcohol-related mortality rates, respectively. This study provides support for the ecological relationship between alcohol

  3. The potential spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus via dynamic contacts between poultry premises in Great Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kao Rowland R

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI viruses have had devastating effects on poultry industries worldwide, and there is concern about the potential for HPAI outbreaks in the poultry industry in Great Britain (GB. Critical to the potential for HPAI to spread between poultry premises are the connections made between farms by movements related to human activity. Movement records of catching teams and slaughterhouse vehicles were obtained from a large catching company, and these data were used in a simulation model of HPAI spread between farms serviced by the catching company, and surrounding (geographic areas. The spread of HPAI through real-time movements was modelled, with the addition of spread via company personnel and local transmission. Results The model predicted that although large outbreaks are rare, they may occur, with long distances between infected premises. Final outbreak size was most sensitive to the probability of spread via slaughterhouse-linked movements whereas the probability of onward spread beyond an index premises was most sensitive to the frequency of company personnel movements. Conclusions Results obtained from this study show that, whilst there is the possibility that HPAI virus will jump from one cluster of farms to another, movements made by catching teams connected fewer poultry premises in an outbreak situation than slaughterhouses and company personnel. The potential connection of a large number of infected farms, however, highlights the importance of retaining up-to-date data on poultry premises so that control measures can be effectively prioritised in an outbreak situation.

  4. The impact of tropospheric ozone pollution on trial plot winter wheat yields in Great Britain - an econometric approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliakatsou, Evridiki; Bell, J Nigel B; Thirtle, Colin; Rose, Daniel; Power, Sally A

    2010-05-01

    Numerous experiments have demonstrated reductions in the yields of cereal crops due to tropospheric O(3), with losses of up to 25%. However, the only British econometric study on O(3) impacts on winter wheat yields, found that a 10% increase in AOT40 would decrease yields by only 0.23%. An attempt is made here to reconcile these observations by developing AOT40 maps for Great Britain and matching levels with a large number of standardised trial plot wheat yields from many sites over a 13-year period. Panel estimates (repeated measures on the same plots with time) show a 0.54% decrease in yields and it is hypothesised that plant breeders may have inadvertently selected for O(3) tolerance in wheat. Some support for this is provided by fumigations of cultivars of differing introduction dates. A case is made for the use of econometric as well as experimental studies in prediction of air pollution induced crop loss. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Humans as major geological and geomorphological agents in the Anthropocene: the significance of artificial ground in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Simon J; Ford, Jonathan R; Cooper, Anthony H; Neal, Catherine

    2011-03-13

    Since the first prehistoric people started to dig for stone to make implements, rather than pick up loose material, humans have modified the landscape through excavation of rock and soil, generation of waste and creation of artificial ground. In Great Britain over the past 200 years, people have excavated, moved and built up the equivalent of at least six times the volume of Ben Nevis. It is estimated that the worldwide deliberate annual shift of sediment by human activity is 57,000 Mt (million tonnes) and exceeds that of transport by rivers to the oceans (22,000 Mt) almost by a factor of three. Humans sculpt and transform the landscape through the physical modification of the shape and properties of the ground. As such, humans are geological and geomorphological agents and the dominant factor in landscape evolution through settlement and widespread industrialization and urbanization. The most significant impact of this has been since the onset of the Industrial Revolution in the eighteenth century, coincident with increased release of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. The anthropogenic sedimentological record, therefore, provides a marker on which to characterize the Anthropocene.

  6. Survey of the provision of prophylactic dental care for horses in Great Britain and Ireland between 1999 and 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, P M; Andrew, R; Brannon, H; Burgess, R; Gibson, A; Little, J C; Orange, B; Ross, L; Rudolph, T; Shaw, D J

    2004-11-27

    A survey of 854 horse owners, trainers and equestrian managers in 10 regions of Great Britain and Ireland showed that 83 per cent provided their horses with routine prophylactic dental care at fixed intervals, including 49 per cent at intervals of 12 months and 30 per cent at intervals of six months; a further 10 per cent provided it only when they felt it was required and 7 per cent did not provide it at all. Overall, 44 per cent of the owners had their horse's wolf teeth (first premolar) extracted routinely; when prophylactic dentistry was provided, it was carried out solely by equine dental technicians (EDTS) for 53 per cent of owners, solely by veterinarians for 35 per cent, by both EDTS or veterinarians for 10 per cent of owners and by other than veterinarians or EDTS for 1 per cent. There was confusion among some horse owners concerning the qualifications of the EDTS, because no recognised British qualification was available until towards the end of this survey in 2001. Several reasons were cited by owners for choosing between veterinarians and EDTS including their perceived qualifications, personal recommendations, costs, the availability of a wide range of dental equipment and sedation, and the time and effort devoted to the procedures.

  7. Current levels of gonadal irradiation from a selection of routine diagnostic X-ray examinations in Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, B.F.; Fisher, E.S.; Shrimpton, P.C.; Rae, S.

    1980-07-01

    The gonadal doses from 13 types of diagnostic examination have been measured at 21 hospitals throughout the country in preparation for a new assessment of the genetically significant dose to the population of Great Britain from diagnostic radiology. Thermoluminescent dosemeters, consisting of lithium borate powder contained in adhesive polythene sachets, were used for the measurements. They were attached to patients to monitor the testes dose directly or the entrance skin dose at the level of the ovaries. Skin doses were converted to ovarian doses using factors obtained by measurements in an anthropomorphic phantom exposed to a range of typical diagnostic X-ray fields. The results indicate that for some types of examination there has been an increase and for others there has been a reduction in the mean gonadal dose delivered per examination since a similar survey was made 20 years ago. Individual gonadal doses for the same examination still ranged over 3 or 4 orders of magnitude throughout the country with distributions described by coefficients of variation that were no less than those found in the late 1950s. This large variability in patient exposure, together with the observation that examinations were satisfactorily conducted on children with a much higher degree of gonadal protection than that offered to young adults, indicates that many patients must be receiving doses that are unnecessarily high. (author)

  8. Evidence for more cost-effective surveillance options for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and scrapie in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Ben A; Arnold, Mark E; Radia, Devi; Gilbert, Will; Ortiz-Pelaez, Angel; Stärk, Katharina Dc; Van Klink, Ed; Guitian, Javier

    2017-08-10

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are an important public health concern. Since the emergence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) during the 1980s and its link with human Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, active surveillance has been a key element of the European Union's TSE control strategy. Success of this strategy means that now, very few cases are detected compared with the number of animals tested. Refining surveillance strategies would enable resources to be redirected towards other public health priorities. Cost-effectiveness analysis was performed on several alternative strategies involving reducing the number of animals tested for BSE and scrapie in Great Britain and, for scrapie, varying the ratio of sheep sampled in the abattoir to fallen stock (which died on the farm). The most cost-effective strategy modelled for BSE involved reducing the proportion of fallen stock tested from 100% to 75%, producing a cost saving of ca GBP 700,000 per annum. If 50% of fallen stock were tested, a saving of ca GBP 1.4 million per annum could be achieved. However, these reductions are predicted to increase the period before surveillance can detect an outbreak. For scrapie, reducing the proportion of abattoir samples was the most cost-effective strategy modelled, with limited impact on surveillance effectiveness. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2017.

  9. Service utilization by children with conduct disorders: findings from the 2004 Great Britain child mental health survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivram, Raghuram; Bankart, John; Meltzer, Howard; Ford, Tamsin; Vostanis, Panos; Goodman, Robert

    2009-09-01

    Children with conduct disorders (CD) and their families are in contact with multiple agencies, but there is limited evidence on their patterns of service utilization. The aim of this study was to establish the patterns, barriers and correlates of service use by analysing the cohort of the 2004 Great Britain child mental health survey (N = 7,977). Use of social services was significantly higher by children with CD than emotional disorders (ED) in the absence of co-morbidity, while use of specialist child mental health and paediatric was significantly higher by children with hyperkinetic disorders (HD) than CD. Children who had comorbid physical disorders used more primary healthcare services compared to those without physical disorders. Utilization of specialist child mental heath and social services was significantly higher among children with unsocialized CD than socialized CD and oppositional defiant disorders. Services utilization and its correlates varied with the type of service. Overall, specialist services use was associated with co-morbidity with learning disabilities, physical and psychiatric disorders. Several correlates of services use in CD appeared non-specific, i.e. associated with use of different services indicating the possibility of indiscriminate use of different types of services. The findings led to the conclusion that there is the need for effective organization and co-ordination of services, and clear care pathways. Involvement of specialist child mental health services should be requested in the presence of mental health co-morbidity.

  10. Immigration agenda in Domestic Politics in the Great Britain: Main Participants and Controversy in Conditions of Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Людмила Константиновна Мамедова

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available British Labour government has been implementing a policy of multiculcuralism in Great Britain for the last ten years. New Labour multicultural policy is based on cultural diversity and could be built up in a society of social cohesion. But in the beginning of the XXI century the tolerant attitude towards members of the British ethnic minorities clashed with the religious consciousness strengthening among radical British Muslims. It was obvious that Labour government lacked effective instruments to deal with this group of people. Serious mistakes in immigration policy have made sufficient negative impact on Labour government popularity rates. Global financial recession have caused more troubles and made political perspectives of Mr. Brown government vaguer. Such situation in its turn leads to the increase of popularity of British Conservative party and even of far right party - British National party, which is famous for its racist statements. British observers star to talk that the political leadership faces the necessity to revise the multicultural policy.

  11. The Impact of Renewable Energy Policies on the Adoption of Anaerobic Digesters with Farm-Fed Wastes in Great Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baboo Lesh Gowreesunker

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the effects of the feed-in tariff (FiT and renewable heat incentive (RHI schemes on the adoption of anaerobic digesters (AD, and the potential energy generation from farm-fed wastes in Great Britain. This paper adopts a linear programming model, developed in the International Energy Agency (IEA TIMES platform, aiming to quantify the degree of adoption of AD and the type of energy generation technologies that can be driven by digester biogas to reduce farm energy costs. The results show that the adoption of AD is cost-beneficial for all farms, but different rates of the FiT and RHI schemes will influence the competitiveness between the implementation of combined heat and power (CHP systems and the utilisation of biogas to only generate heat. The choice of technology is further dependent on the electricity/heat use ratio of the farms and the energy content of the feedstock. The results show that pig farms will more readily adopt CHP, because of its relatively higher electricity-to-heat use ratio, compared to other types of farms, which will favour biogas boilers.

  12. The impact of tropospheric ozone pollution on trial plot winter wheat yields in Great Britain - An econometric approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaliakatsou, Evridiki; Bell, J. Nigel B.; Thirtle, Colin; Rose, Daniel; Power, Sally A.

    2010-01-01

    Numerous experiments have demonstrated reductions in the yields of cereal crops due to tropospheric O 3 , with losses of up to 25%. However, the only British econometric study on O 3 impacts on winter wheat yields, found that a 10% increase in AOT40 would decrease yields by only 0.23%. An attempt is made here to reconcile these observations by developing AOT40 maps for Great Britain and matching levels with a large number of standardised trial plot wheat yields from many sites over a 13-year period. Panel estimates (repeated measures on the same plots with time) show a 0.54% decrease in yields and it is hypothesised that plant breeders may have inadvertently selected for O 3 tolerance in wheat. Some support for this is provided by fumigations of cultivars of differing introduction dates. A case is made for the use of econometric as well as experimental studies in prediction of air pollution induced crop loss. - Econometric study of British winter wheat trial plot data suggests lower economic loss than predicted from experiments.

  13. Boxing injury epidemiology in the Great Britain team: a 5-year surveillance study of medically diagnosed injury incidence and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loosemore, Michael; Lightfoot, Joseph; Palmer-Green, Deborah; Gatt, Ian; Bilzon, James; Beardsley, Chris

    2015-09-01

    There has been no comprehensive injury report of elite-level amateur boxers in competition and training. We reviewed injuries in training and competition in the Great Britain (GB) amateur boxing squad between 2005 and 2009. Longitudinal, prospective injury surveillance over 5 years of the GB boxing squad from 2005 to 2009. 66 boxers passed through the squad. The location, region affected, description, and the duration of each injury were recorded by the team doctor and team physiotherapist. We recorded whether the injury occurred during competition or training, and also whether it was a new or a recurrent injury. The injury rate during competition was calculated as the number of injuries per 1000 h. More injuries affected the hand than any other body location. This was the case overall, in training and competition individually, and for both new and recurrent injuries. More injuries occurred during training than during competition, and most injuries were new rather than recurrent. Total injury rate during competition was 828 per 1000 h and hand injury rate in competition was 302 injuries per 1000 h. Hand injury rate in competition was significantly higher than at the other locations. The incidence of concussion is comparatively low. Injury prevention should aim to protect the hands and wrists of elite amateur boxers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Wider-community Segregation and the Effect of Neighbourhood Ethnic Diversity on Social Capital: An Investigation into Intra-Neighbourhood Trust in Great Britain and London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurence, James

    2017-10-01

    Extensive research has demonstrated that neighbourhood ethnic diversity is negatively associated with intra-neighbourhood social capital. This study explores the role of segregation and integration in this relationship. To do so it applies three-level hierarchical linear models to two sets of data from across Great Britain and within London, and examines how segregation across the wider-community in which a neighbourhood is nested impacts trust amongst neighbours. This study replicates the increasingly ubiquitous finding that neighbourhood diversity is negatively associated with neighbour-trust. However, we demonstrate that this relationship is highly dependent on the level of segregation across the wider-community in which a neighbourhood is nested. Increasing neighbourhood diversity only negatively impacts neighbour-trust when nested in more segregated wider-communities. Individuals living in diverse neighbourhoods nested within integrated wider-communities experience no trust-penalty. These findings show that segregation plays a critical role in the neighbourhood diversity/trust relationship, and that its absence from the literature biases our understanding of how ethnic diversity affects social cohesion.

  15. Determinants of a GP visit and cervical cancer screening examination in Great Britain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Michael Labeit

    Full Text Available In the UK, women are requested to attend a cervical cancer test every 3 years as part of the NHS Cervical Screening Programme. This analysis compares the determinants of a cervical cancer screening examination with the determinants of a GP visit in the same year and investigates if cervical cancer screening participation is more likely for women who visit their GP.A recursive probit model was used to analyse the determinants of GP visits and cervical cancer screening examinations. GP visits were considered to be endogenous in the cervical cancer screening examination. The analysed sample consisted of 52,551 observations from 8,386 women of the British Household Panel Survey.The analysis showed that a higher education level and a worsening self-perceived health status increased the probability of a GP visit, whereas smoking decreased the probability of a GP visit. GP visits enhanced the uptake of a cervical cancer screening examination in the same period. The only variables which had the same positive effect on both dependent variables were higher education and living with a partner. The probability of a cervical cancer screening examination increased also with previous cervical cancer screening examinations and being in the recommended age groups. All other variables had different results for the uptake of a GP visit or a cervical cancer screening examination.Most of the determinants of visiting a GP and cervical cancer screening examination differ from each other and a GP visit enhances the uptake of a smear test.

  16. Tomorrow We Live: Fascist Visions of Education in 1930s Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Pamela; Fisher, Roy

    2009-01-01

    The present paper explores the fascist vision for education in 1930s Britain through the presentation of extracts from official publications of the British Union of Fascists (BUF), as well as from the writings of Party members. The paper presents a socio-historical study of British adherents to fascism and provides an account of their thinking in…

  17. Providing Retraining and Advancement Training for Primary/Elementary School Teachers at the State Level in Great Britain and the USA

    OpenAIRE

    Chychuk Antonina

    2017-01-01

    In Great Britain and the USA the normative basis of primary/elementary school teachers’ qualification advancement is being actively developed, i. e. this issue is considered at the state level. For a long time the development of retraining and advancement training system for primary/elementary school teachers has been grounded on conceptual foundations of pedagogy that ensures the functionality of the mentioned system. The research results on conceptual foundations for forming an education sy...

  18. Support for e-cigarette policies: a survey of smokers and ex-smokers in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brose, Leonie S; Partos, Timea R; Hitchman, Sara C; McNeill, Ann

    2017-03-01

    E-cigarette regulations are the topic of extensive debate. Approaches vary worldwide, and limited evidence is available on public support for specific policies or what influences support. The present study aimed to assess smokers' and ex-smokers' support for 3 e-cigarette policies: (1) equal or higher availability relative to cigarettes, (2) advertising, (3) use in smoke-free places, and to assess changes in support over time and associations with respondent characteristics. Smokers and ex-smokers (n=1848) provided 3279 observations over 2 waves (2013 and 2014) of a longitudinal web-based survey in Great Britain. Multivariable logistic regressions fitted using generalised estimating equations assessed change in policy support over time, and associations between support and demographics (age, gender and income), smoking and e-cigarette use status, nicotine knowledge and perceived relative harm. Equal or higher relative availability was supported by 79% in 2013 and 76% in 2014; advertising by 66% and 56%, respectively; neither change was significant in adjusted analyses. Support for use in smoke-free places decreased significantly from 55% to 45%. Compared with ex-smokers, smokers were more likely to support advertising and use in smoke-free places. Respondents using e-cigarettes, those who perceived e-cigarettes as less harmful than cigarettes, and those with more accurate knowledge about nicotine were more likely to support all 3 policies. Less restrictive e-cigarette policies were more likely to be supported by e-cigarette users, and respondents who perceived e-cigarettes to be less harmful than cigarettes, or knew that nicotine was not a main cause of harm to health. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. Use of Flood Seasonality in Pooling-Group Formation and Quantile Estimation: An Application in Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formetta, Giuseppe; Bell, Victoria; Stewart, Elizabeth

    2018-02-01

    Regional flood frequency analysis is one of the most commonly applied methods for estimating extreme flood events at ungauged sites or locations with short measurement records. It is based on: (i) the definition of a homogeneous group (pooling-group) of catchments, and on (ii) the use of the pooling-group data to estimate flood quantiles. Although many methods to define a pooling-group (pooling schemes, PS) are based on catchment physiographic similarity measures, in the last decade methods based on flood seasonality similarity have been contemplated. In this paper, two seasonality-based PS are proposed and tested both in terms of the homogeneity of the pooling-groups they generate and in terms of the accuracy in estimating extreme flood events. The method has been applied in 420 catchments in Great Britain (considered as both gauged and ungauged) and compared against the current Flood Estimation Handbook (FEH) PS. Results for gauged sites show that, compared to the current PS, the seasonality-based PS performs better both in terms of homogeneity of the pooling-group and in terms of the accuracy of flood quantile estimates. For ungauged locations, a national-scale hydrological model has been used for the first time to quantify flood seasonality. Results show that in 75% of the tested locations the seasonality-based PS provides an improvement in the accuracy of the flood quantile estimates. The remaining 25% were located in highly urbanized, groundwater-dependent catchments. The promising results support the aspiration that large-scale hydrological models complement traditional methods for estimating design floods.

  20. The effect of badger culling on breakdown prolongation and recurrence of bovine tuberculosis in cattle herds in Great Britain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Karolemeas

    Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis is endemic in cattle herds in Great Britain, with a substantial economic impact. A reservoir of Mycobacterium bovis within the Eurasian badger (Meles meles population is thought to have hindered disease control. Cattle herd incidents, termed breakdowns, that are either 'prolonged' (lasting ≥ 240 days or 'recurrent' (with another breakdown within a specified time period may be important foci for onward spread of infection. They drain veterinary resources and can be demoralising for farmers. Randomised Badger Culling Trial (RBCT data were re-analysed to examine the effects of two culling strategies on breakdown prolongation and recurrence, during and after culling, using a Bayesian hierarchical model. Separate effect estimates were obtained for the 'core' trial areas (where culling occurred and the 'buffer' zones (up to 2 km outside of the core areas. For breakdowns that started during the culling period, 'reactive' (localised culling was associated with marginally increased odds of prolongation, with an odds ratio (OR of 1.7 (95% credible interval [CI] 1.1-2.4 within the core areas. This effect was not present after the culling ceased. There was no notable effect of 'proactive' culling on prolongation. In contrast, reactive culling had no effect on breakdown recurrence, though there was evidence of a reduced risk of recurrence in proactive core areas during the culling period (ORs and 95% CIs: 0.82 (0.64-1.0 and 0.69 (0.54-0.86 for 24- and 36-month recurrence respectively. Again these effects were not present after the culling ceased. There seemed to be no effect of culling on breakdown prolongation or recurrence in the buffer zones. These results suggest that the RBCT badger culling strategies are unlikely to reduce either the prolongation or recurrence of breakdowns in the long term, and that reactive strategies (such as employed during the RBCT are, if anything, likely to impact detrimentally on breakdown persistence.

  1. Performance of industrial melting pots in the provision of dynamic frequency response in the Great Britain power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Meng; Wu, Jianzhong; Galsworthy, Stephen J.; Gargov, Nikola; Hung, William H.; Zhou, Yue

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Thermodynamics of Melting Pot (MP) loads is modeled based on field measurements. •Power consumption of MPs is controlled to keep varying with grid frequency changes. •Frequency response (FR) of MPs is similar but faster than that of generators. •FR provided by loads can mitigate the impact of reduced system inertia. •Firm FR in the GB power system is most beneficial for load aggregators to tender. -- Abstract: As a result of the increasing integration of Renewable Energy Source (RES), maintenance of the balance between supply and demand in the power system is more challenging because of RES’s intermittency and uncontrollability. The smart control of demand is able to contribute to the balance by providing the grid frequency response. This paper uses the industrial Melting Pot (MP) loads as an example. A thermodynamic model depicting the physical characteristics of MPs was firstly developed based on field measurements carried out by Open Energi. A distributed control was applied to each MP which dynamically changes the aggregated power consumption of MPs in proportion to changes in grid frequency while maintaining the primary heating function of each MP. An aggregation of individual MP models equipped with the control was integrated with the Great Britain (GB) power system models. Case studies verified that the aggregated MPs are able to provide frequency response to the power system. The response from MPs is similar but faster than the conventional generators and therefore contributes to the reduction of carbon emissions by replacing the spinning reserve capacity of fossil-fuel generators. Through the reviews of the present balancing services in the GB power system, with the proposed frequency control strategy, the Firm Frequency Response service is most beneficial at present for demand aggregators to tender for. All studies have been conducted in partnership between Cardiff University, Open Energi London – Demand Aggregator, and National

  2. This is GREAT Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dart, J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives a summary of the state of the nuclear industry in the UK. It outlines business opportunities for decommissioning and radioactive waste management, manufacturing and services for nuclear new build and future nuclear reactor and fuel cycle development.

  3. Professor Sir Mark Walport Government Chief Scientific Adviser Head of Government Science and Engineering Profession Chief Executive Designate of UK Research and Innovation United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

    CERN Multimedia

    Bennett, Sophia Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Professor Sir Mark Walport Government Chief Scientific Adviser Head of Government Science and Engineering Profession Chief Executive Designate of UK Research and Innovation United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

  4. The text of the Agreement of 22 September 1982 between Chile and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the supply of nuclear material from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-07-01

    The full text of the agreement of 22 September 1982 between Chile and the Agency for the application of safeguards to nuclear material supplied from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is presented

  5. 20 January 2014 - Members of the Regional Assemblies and Parliaments United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 8 with Technology Department, Vacuum, Surfaces and Coatings Group P. Cruikshank.

    CERN Document Server

    Pantelia, Anna

    2014-01-01

    20 January 2014 - Members of the Regional Assemblies and Parliaments United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 8 with Technology Department, Vacuum, Surfaces and Coatings Group P. Cruikshank.

  6. Her Excellency Mrs Sarah Gillett Her Majesty's Ambassador to the Swiss Confederation United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland on the occasion of the Antony Gormley sculpture unveiling ceremony Wednesday 7th December 2011

    CERN Document Server

    Maximilien Brice

    2011-01-01

    Her Excellency Mrs Sarah Gillett Her Majesty's Ambassador to the Swiss Confederation United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland on the occasion of the Antony Gormley sculpture unveiling ceremony Wednesday 7th December 2011

  7. Impact of Climate Change on high and low flows across Great Britain: a temporal analysis and uncertainty assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beevers, Lindsay; Collet, Lila

    2017-04-01

    Over the past decade there have been significant challenges to water management posed by both floods and droughts. In the UK, since 2000 flooding has caused over £5Bn worth of damage, and direct costs from the recent drought (2011-12) are estimated to be between £70-165M, arising from impacts on public and industrial water supply. Projections of future climate change suggest an increase in temperature and precipitation trends which may exacerbate the frequency and severity of such hazards, but there is significant uncertainty associated with these projections. It thus becomes urgent to assess the possible impact of these changes on extreme flows and evaluate the uncertainties related to these projections, particularly changes in the seasonality of such hazards. This paper aims to assess the changes in seasonality of peak and low flows across Great Britain as a result of climate change. It is based on the Future Flow database; an 11-member ensemble of transient river flow projections from January 1951 to December 2098. We analyse the daily river flow over the baseline (1961-1990) and the 2080s (2069-2098) for 281 gauging stations. For each ensemble member, annual maxima (AMAX) and minima (AMIN) are extracted for both time periods for each gauging station. The month of the year the AMAX and AMIN occur respectively are recorded for each of the 30 years in the past and the future time periods. The uncertainty of the AMAX and AMIN occurrence temporally (monthly) is assessed across the 11 ensemble members, as well as the changes to this temporal signal between the baseline and the 2080s. Ultimately, this work gives a national picture (spatially) of high and low flows occurrence temporally and allows the assessment of possible changes in hydrological dynamics as a result of climate change in a statistical framework. Results will quantify the uncertainty related to the Climate Model parameters which are cascaded into the modelling chain. This study highlights the issues

  8. Contact structures in the poultry industry in Great Britain: Exploring transmission routes for a potential avian influenza virus epidemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyder Kieran

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The commercial poultry industry in United Kingdom (UK is worth an estimated £3.4 billion at retail value, producing over 174 million birds for consumption per year. An epidemic of any poultry disease with high mortality or which is zoonotic, such as avian influenza virus (AIV, would result in the culling of significant numbers of birds, as seen in the Netherlands in 2003 and Italy in 2000. Such an epidemic would cost the UK government millions of pounds in compensation costs, with further economic losses through reduction of international and UK consumption of British poultry. In order to better inform policy advisers and makers on the potential for a large epidemic in GB, we investigate the role that interactions amongst premises within the British commercial poultry industry could play in promoting an AIV epidemic, given an introduction of the virus in a specific part of poultry industry in Great Britain (GB. Results Poultry premises using multiple slaughterhouses lead to a large number of premises being potentially connected, with the resultant potential for large and sometimes widespread epidemics. Catching companies can also potentially link a large proportion of the poultry population. Critical to this is the maximum distance traveled by catching companies between premises and whether or not between-species transmission could occur within individual premises. Premises closely linked by proximity may result in connections being formed between different species and or sectors within the industry. Conclusion Even quite well-contained epidemics have the potential for geographically widespread dissemination, potentially resulting in severe logistical problems for epidemic control, and with economic impact on a large part of the country. Premises sending birds to multiple slaughterhouses or housing multiple species may act as a bridge between otherwise separate sectors of the industry, resulting in the potential for large

  9. Men who have sex with men in Great Britain: comparing methods and estimates from probability and convenience sample surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Prah, Philip; Hickson, Ford; Bonell, Chris; McDaid, Lisa M; Johnson, Anne M; Wayal, Sonali; Clifton, Soazig; Sonnenberg, Pam; Nardone, Anthony; Erens, Bob; Copas, Andrew J; Riddell, Julie; Weatherburn, Peter; Mercer, Catherine H

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine sociodemographic and behavioural differences between men whohave sex with men (MSM) participating in recent UK convenience surveys and a national probability sample survey.\\ud Methods: We compared 148 MSM aged 18–64 years interviewed for Britain's third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3) undertaken in 2010–2012, with men inthe same age range participating in contemporaneous convenience surveys of MSM: 15 500 British resident men in the European...

  10. Cross-scale modelling of alien and native vascular plant species richness in Great Britain: where is geodiversity information most relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Joseph; Field, Richard; Boyd, Doreen

    2016-04-01

    We assess the scale-dependency of the relationship between biodiversity and novel geodiversity information by studying spatial patterns of native and alien (archaeophytes and neophytes) vascular plant species richness at varying spatial scales across Great Britain. Instead of using a compound geodiversity metric, we study individual geodiversity components (GDCs) to advance our understanding of which aspects of 'geodiversity' are most important and at what scale. Terrestrial native (n = 1,490) and alien (n = 1,331) vascular plant species richness was modelled across the island of Great Britain at two grain sizes and several extent radii. Various GDCs (landforms, hydrology, geology) were compiled from existing national datasets and automatically extracted landform coverage information (e.g. hollows, valleys, peaks), the latter using a digital elevation model (DEM) and geomorphometric techniques. More traditional predictors of species richness (climate, widely-used topography metrics, land cover diversity, and human population) were also incorporated. Boosted Regression Tree (BRT) models were produced at all grain sizes and extents for each species group and the dominant predictors were assessed. Models with and without geodiversity data were compared. Overarching patterns indicated a clear dominance of geodiversity information at the smallest study extent (12.5km radius) and finest grain size (1x1km), which substantially decreased for each increase in extent as the contribution of climatic variables increased. The contribution of GDCs to biodiversity models was chiefly driven by landform information from geomorphometry, but hydrology (rivers and lakes), and to a lesser extent materials (soil, superficial deposits, and geology), were important, also. GDCs added significantly to vascular plant biodiversity models in Great Britain, independently of widely-used topographic metrics, particularly for native species. The wider consideration of geodiversity alongside

  11. J.M. Gratale on Tore T. Petersen’s Richard Nixon, Great Britain and the Anglo-American Alignment in the Persian Gulf and Arabian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Tore T. Petersen. Richard Nixon, Great Britain and the Anglo-American Alignment in the Persian Gulf and Arabian Peninsula: Making Allies out of Clients. Sussex Academic Press, 2009.  172pp.  978-1-84519-277-8.Since the events of 9-11 there has been a sizeable quantity of books published on American foreign policy in broad terms, as well as more focused studies on contemporary developments in southwest Asia, more commonly referred to as the Middle East. Many of these volumes are highly politic...

  12. The image of Great Britain in the interpretation of journalists of the military periodical “The Chronicle of the War against Japan”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frolov Vasiliy Vladimirovich

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article examines and analyses the image of Great Britain which at the beginning of the last century was formed by Russian journalists on the pages of the pro-government periodical “The Chronicle of the War against Japan”. Within this work the British Empire appears to be one of Russia's main competitors in the struggle for the leading positions in the international arena. This research analyses more than 60 issues of this periodical. In conclusion, in Russia at the beginning of the 20th century periodicals had a special role in informational impact on people's minds.

  13. A first estimate of the structure and density of the populations of pet cats and dogs across Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aegerter, James; Fouracre, David; Smith, Graham C

    2017-01-01

    Policy development, implementation, and effective contingency response rely on a strong evidence base to ensure success and cost-effectiveness. Where this includes preventing the establishment or spread of zoonotic or veterinary diseases infecting companion cats and dogs, descriptions of the structure and density of the populations of these pets are useful. Similarly, such descriptions may help in supporting diverse fields of study such as; evidence-based veterinary practice, veterinary epidemiology, public health and ecology. As well as maps of where pets are, estimates of how many may rarely, or never, be seen by veterinarians and might not be appropriately managed in the event of a disease outbreak are also important. Unfortunately both sources of evidence are absent from the scientific and regulatory literatures. We make this first estimate of the structure and density of pet populations by using the most recent national population estimates of cats and dogs across Great Britain and subdividing these spatially, and categorically across ownership classes. For the spatial model we used the location and size of veterinary practises across GB to predict the local density of pets, using client travel time to define catchments around practises, and combined this with residential address data to estimate the rate of ownership. For the estimates of pets which may provoke problems in managing a veterinary or zoonotic disease we reviewed the literature and defined a comprehensive suite of ownership classes for cats and dogs, collated estimates of the sub-populations for each ownership class as well as their rates of interaction and produced a coherent scaled description of the structure of the national population. The predicted density of pets varied substantially, with the lowest densities in rural areas, and the highest in the centres of large cities where each species could exceed 2500 animals.km-2. Conversely, the number of pets per household showed the opposite

  14. The Lancet Countdown on health benefits from the UK Climate Change Act: a modelling study for Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Martin L; Lott, Melissa C; Kitwiroon, Nutthida; Dajnak, David; Walton, Heather; Holland, Mike; Pye, Steve; Fecht, Daniela; Toledano, Mireille B; Beevers, Sean D

    2018-05-01

    Climate change poses a dangerous and immediate threat to the health of populations in the UK and worldwide. We aimed to model different scenarios to assess the health co-benefits that result from mitigation actions. In this modelling study, we combined a detailed techno-economic energy systems model (UK TIMES), air pollutant emission inventories, a sophisticated air pollution model (Community Multi-scale Air Quality), and previously published associations between concentrations and health outcomes. We used four scenarios and focused on the air pollution implications from fine particulate matter (PM 2·5 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) and ozone. The four scenarios were baseline, which assumed no further climate actions beyond those already achieved and did not meet the UK's Climate Change Act (at least an 80% reduction in carbon dioxide equivalent emissions by 2050 compared with 1990) target; nuclear power, which met the Climate Change Act target with a limited increase in nuclear power; low-greenhouse gas, which met the Climate Change Act target without any policy constraint on nuclear build; and a constant scenario that held 2011 air pollutant concentrations constant until 2050. We predicted the health and economic impacts from air pollution for the scenarios until 2050, and the inequalities in exposure across different socioeconomic groups. NO 2 concentrations declined leading to 4 892 000 life-years saved for the nuclear power scenario and 7 178 000 life-years saved for the low-greenhouse gas scenario from 2011 to 2154. However, the associations that we used might overestimate the effects of NO 2 itself. PM 2·5 concentrations in Great Britain are predicted to decrease between 42% and 44% by 2050 compared with 2011 in the scenarios that met the Climate Change Act targets, especially those from road traffic and off-road machinery. These reductions in PM 2·5 are tempered by a 2035 peak (and subsequent decline) in biomass (wood burning), and by a large

  15. 'Saving the lives of our dogs': the development of canine distemper vaccine in interwar Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresalier, Michael; Worboys, Michael

    2014-06-01

    This paper examines the successful campaign in Britain to develop canine distemper vaccine between 1922 and 1933. The campaign mobilized disparate groups around the common cause of using modern science to save the nation's dogs from a deadly disease. Spearheaded by landed patricians associated with the country journal The Field, and funded by dog owners and associations, it relied on collaborations with veterinary professionals, government scientists, the Medical Research Council (MRC) and the commercial pharmaceutical house the Burroughs Wellcome Company (BWC). The social organization of the campaign reveals a number of important, yet previously unexplored, features of interwar science and medicine in Britain. It depended on a patronage system that drew upon a large base of influential benefactors and public subscriptions. Coordinated by the Field Distemper Fund, this system was characterized by close relationships between landed elites and their social networks with senior science administrators and researchers. Relations between experts and non-experts were crucial, with high levels of public engagement in all aspects of research and vaccine development. At the same time, experimental and commercial research supported under the campaign saw dynamic interactions between animal and human medicine, which shaped the organization of the MRC's research programme and demonstrated the value of close collaboration between veterinary and medical science, with the dog as a shared object and resource. Finally, the campaign made possible the translation of 'laboratory' findings into field conditions and commercial products. Rather than a unidirectional process, translation involved negotiations over the very boundaries of the 'laboratory' and the 'field', and what constituted a viable vaccine. This paper suggests that historians reconsider standard historical accounts of the nature of patronage, the role of animals, and the interests of landed elites in interwar British

  16. Protocol Additional to the agreement between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in the Annex to this document for the information of all Members. The Additional Protocol was approved by the Board of Governors on 11 June 1998. It was signed in Vienna on 22 September 1998. Pursuant to Article 17 of the Additional Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on 30 April 2004, the date on which the Agency received written notification that the European Atomic Energy Community and the United Kingdom had met their respective internal requirements for entry into force

  17. [The coroner's autopsies in the Great Britain: the problems related to the quality of the studies, standardization, auditing, financial support and the approaches to their solution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, I Yu; Kuprina, T A; Fetisov, V A; Minaeva, P V

    2018-01-01

    This article continues the series of previous publications of the authors based on the analysis of the detailed report of the experts of the National Confidential Enquiry into Patient Outcome and Death program (NCEPOD) designed to evaluate the quality of autopsies carried out by the coroners in the Great Britain. It was shown that only in 13 to 55% of the 1,691 case the operators had an opportunity to refer the necropsy materials for the pathological study. The problems encountered in association with histological and toxicological analysis arose from the misunderstanding between the coroners and the pathologists as regard the organizational aspects of autopsy studies as swell as the financial and economic considerations. The Coroner Rules that had been adopted in 1984 and remained in force in the country until 2005 needed to be radically revised, corrected, and amended to facilitate the solution of a number of problems and eliminate the formal organizational and technical contradictions that hampered the further improvement of the quality of autopsies that must be performed by the corners at the national rather than the local level. The maximum number of the unacceptable results were revealed in the protocols of autopsires carried out by the forensic medical experts. All pathologists in the Great Britain are recommended to pay special attention to all cases of sudden death of the adult subjects and the deceased epileptic patients. The detailed investigations are mandatory in all cases of death following medical manipulations, such as surgical interventions, and complications.

  18. Updated estimates of the proportion of childhood leukaemia incidence in Great Britain that may be caused by natural background ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, Mark P; Wakeford, Richard; Kendall, Gerald M

    2009-01-01

    The aetiology of childhood leukaemia remains generally unknown, although exposure to moderate and high levels of ionising radiation, such as was experienced during the atomic bombings of Japan or from radiotherapy, is an established cause. Risk models based primarily upon studies of the Japanese A-bomb survivors imply that low-level exposure to ionising radiation, including to ubiquitous natural background radiation, also raises the risk of childhood leukaemia. In a recent paper (Wakeford et al 2009 Leukaemia 23 770-6) we estimated the proportion of childhood leukaemia incidence in Great Britain attributable to natural background radiation to be about 20%. In this paper we employ the two sets of published leukaemia risk models used previously, but use recently published revised estimates of natural background radiation doses received by the red bone marrow of British children to update the previous results. Using the newer dosimetry we calculate that the best estimate of the proportion of cases of childhood leukaemia in Great Britain predicted to be attributable to this source of exposure is 15-20%, although the uncertainty associated with certain stages in the calculation (e.g. the nature of the transfer of risk between populations and the pertinent dose received from naturally occurring alpha-particle-emitting radionuclides) is significant. The slightly lower attributable proportions compared with those previously derived by Wakeford et al (Leukaemia 2009 23 770-6) are largely due to the lower doses (and in particular lower high LET doses) for the first year of life.

  19. Similarities and differences in imperial administration Great Britain in Egypt and Austria-Hungary in Bosnia-Herzegovina 1878-1903

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Anja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the similarities and differences of the position of Great Britain in Egypt and Austria-Hungary in Bosnia-Herzegovina in the age of New Imperialism. Comparative approach will allow us to put both situations in their historical context. Austria-Hungary’s absorption of Bosnia-Herzegovina was part of colonial involvement throughout the world. Egypt and Bosnia-Herzegovina were formally parts of the Ottoman Empire, although occupied and administrated by European Powers. Two administrators, Evelyn Baring as consul-general in Egypt and Benjamin von Kállay as civil administrator of Bosnia-Herzegovina, believed that it was their duty to bring “civilization”, prosperity and western culture to these lands - a classic argumentation found in the New Imperialism discourse. One of the most important tasks for both administrators was fighting the national movements, which led to the suppression of political freedoms and the introduction of a large administrative apparatus to govern the newly-occupied lands. Complete control over political life and the educational system was also one of the major features of both administrations. Both Great Britain in Egypt and Austria-Hungary in Bosnia-Herzegovina never tackled the agrarian question for their own political reasons. British rule in Egypt and Austro-Hungarian in Bosnia-Herzegovina bore striking resemblances.

  20. Ecological landscape elements: long-term monitoring in Great Britain, the Countryside Survey 1978-2007 and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Claire M.; Bunce, Robert G. H.; Norton, Lisa R.; Maskell, Lindsay C.; Smart, Simon M.; Scott, W. Andrew; Henrys, Peter A.; Howard, David C.; Wright, Simon M.; Brown, Michael J.; Scott, Rod J.; Stuart, Rick C.; Watkins, John W.

    2018-04-01

    The Countryside Survey (CS) of Great Britain (GB) provides a unique and statistically robust series of datasets, consisting of an extensive set of repeated ecological measurements at a national scale, covering a time span of 29 years. CS was first undertaken in 1978 to provide a baseline for ecological and land use change monitoring in the rural environment of GB, following a stratified random design, based on 1 km squares. Originally, eight random 1 km squares were drawn from each of 32 environmental classes, thus comprising 256 sample squares in the 1978 survey. The number of these sites increased to 382 in 1984, 506 in 1990, 569 in 1998 and 591 in 2007. Detailed information regarding vegetation types and land use was mapped in all five surveys, allowing reporting by defined standard habitat classifications. Additionally, point and linear landscape features (such as trees and hedgerows) are available from all surveys after 1978. From these stratified, randomly located sample squares, information can be converted into national estimates, with associated error terms. Other data, relating to soils, freshwater and vegetation, were also sampled on analogous dates. However, the present paper describes only the surveys of landscape features and habitats. The resulting datasets provide a unique, comprehensive, quantitative ecological coverage of extent and change in these features in GB. Basic results are presented and their implications discussed. However, much opportunity for further analyses remains. Data from each of the survey years are available via the following DOIs: Landscape area data 1978: https://doi.org/10.5285/86c017ba-dc62-46f0-ad13-c862bf31740e" target="_blank">https://doi.org/10.5285/86c017ba-dc62-46f0-ad13-c862bf31740e, 1984: https://doi.org/10.5285/b656bb43-448d-4b2c-aade-7993aa243ea3" target="_blank">https://doi.org/10.5285/b656bb43-448d-4b2c-aade-7993aa243ea3, 1990: https://doi.org/10.5285/94f664e5-10f2-4655-bfe6-44d745f5dca7" target

  1. A collection of evidence for the impact of the economic recession on road fatalities in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Louise; Wallbank, Caroline; Broughton, Jeremy

    2015-07-01

    There was a considerable reduction in the number of fatalities on British roads between 2007 and 2010. This substantial change led to debate as to the cause of the reduction. Multiple sources of information and evidence have been collated including STATS19 road accident data, population data, socio-demographic data, economic patterns, weather trends and traffic and vehicle data. Summary analyses of these data sources show a reduction in overall traffic, a large reduction in HGV traffic, a reduction in young male drivers, a reduction in speeding, and a reduction in drink driving during the recession period. All of these reductions can be associated with a reduction in fatal accidents and have led to the conclusion that the economic recession changed behaviours in such a way that fewer people were killed on the roads in Britain during this period. Copyright © 2015 TRL Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Geogenic lead isotope signatures from meat products in Great Britain: Potential for use in food authentication and supply chain traceability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jane A; Pashley, Vanessa; Richards, Gemma J; Brereton, Nicola; Knowles, Toby G

    2015-12-15

    This paper presents lead (Pb) isotope data from samples of farm livestock raised in three areas of Britain that have elevated natural Pb levels: Central Wales, the Mendips and the Derbyshire Peak District. This study highlights three important observations; that the Pb found in modern British meat from these three areas is geogenic and shows no clear evidence of modern tetraethyl anthropogenic Pb contribution; that the generally excellent match between the biological samples and the ore field data, particularly for the Mendip and Welsh data, suggests that this technique might be used to provenance biological products to specific ore sites, under favourable conditions; and that modern systems reflect the same process of biosphere averaging that is analogous to cultural focusing in human archaeological studies that is the process of biological averaging leading to an homogenised isotope signature with increasing Pb concentration. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Derivation of RCM-driven potential evapotranspiration for hydrological climate change impact analysis in Great Britain: a comparison of methods and associated uncertainty in future projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Prudhomme

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Potential evapotranspiration (PET is the water that would be lost by plants through evaporation and transpiration if water was not limited in the soil, and it is commonly used in conceptual hydrological modelling in the calculation of runoff production and hence river discharge. Future changes of PET are likely to be as important as changes in precipitation patterns in determining changes in river flows. However PET is not calculated routinely by climate models so it must be derived independently when the impact of climate change on river flow is to be assessed. This paper compares PET estimates from 12 equations of different complexity, driven by the Hadley Centre's HadRM3-Q0 model outputs representative of 1961–1990, with MORECS PET, a product used as reference PET in Great Britain. The results show that the FAO56 version of the Penman–Monteith equations reproduces best the spatial and seasonal variability of MORECS PET across GB when driven by HadRM3-Q0 estimates of relative humidity, total cloud, wind speed and linearly bias-corrected mean surface temperature. This suggests that potential biases in HadRM3-Q0 climate do not result in significant biases when the physically based FAO56 equations are used. Percentage changes in PET between the 1961–1990 and 2041–2070 time slices were also calculated for each of the 12 PET equations from HadRM3-Q0. Results show a large variation in the magnitude (and sometimes direction of changes estimated from different PET equations, with Turc, Jensen–Haise and calibrated Blaney–Criddle methods systematically projecting the largest increases across GB for all months and Priestley–Taylor, Makkink, and Thornthwaite showing the smallest changes. We recommend the use of the FAO56 equation as, when driven by HadRM3-Q0 climate data, this best reproduces the reference MORECS PET across Great Britain for the reference period of 1961–1990. Further, the future changes of PET estimated by FAO56 are within

  4. Decomposition of factors determining the trend of CO{sub 2} emissions from car travel in Great Britain (1970-2000)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Tae-Hyeong [The Korea Transport Institute (KOTI), 2311 Daehwa-dong, Ilsan-gu, Goyang-Shi, Gyeonggi-do, 411-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-04-15

    Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is the most important of the greenhouse gases that are causing global warming. The transport sector currently accounts for more than one-quarter of CO{sub 2} emissions and more importantly its share in total emissions is increasing in most countries. This paper investigates the key factors in the change in CO{sub 2} emissions from car travel in Great Britain over the last 30 years. It attempts to disentangle determinants of growth in CO{sub 2} emissions from car travel, which has the largest share of emissions in road transport. The study is based on various decomposition analyses, starting from the IPAT identity. As summarised in the IPAT identity, the degree of the Impact of human activity on the environment is determined by changes in Population, Affluence (per-capita consumption) and Technology (environmental impact per quantity of consumption). In the case of CO{sub 2} emissions from car travel in Great Britain, the affluence (A) factor (car driving distance per person) was a dominant force for the growth of emissions over the last 30 years. Not only do people travel longer distances by cars than 30 years ago, but car occupancy rates have also decreased, contributing to the growth of car driving distance per person. Although technology (T) factors such as fuel efficiency and fuel substitution to diesel fuel partly cancelled out these growth effects of affluence factors, this contribution was relatively small. However, in the 1990s there emerged a different pattern in the trend. Of the affluence (A) factors, the growth rate of car trip distance per person weakened considerably. As for the technology (T) effect, the carbon intensity of car driving kept decreasing over this period. Therefore, although CO{sub 2} emissions from car travel (I) continued to increase, the growth rate became substantially lower than in the earlier periods. More detailed investigation into the determinants of both affluence (A) factors and technology (T

  5. [The coroner's autopsies in the Great Britain: the problems related to the quality of the studies, standardization, auditing, financial support and the approaches to their solution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, I Yu; Fetisov, V A; Filimonov, B A; Gusarov, A A

    The objective of the present study was to analyze the experience of the coroners and pathologists in the Great Britain based on the results of the coroner's autopsies and recommendations of the experts involved in the activities carried out in the framework of the National Confidential Enquiry into Patient Outcome and Death program (NCEPOD). The recommendations are designed to reform the country's medical examiner system, improve the equipment of the mortuary facilities, and optimize funding for the autopsy studies. The authors consider in the chronological order the following issues of the coroners and pathologists' activities: organization of their work and its procedural aspects, ordering coroner's autopsies, preparation for their performance, analysis of the relevant documentation (autopsy reports) and medical case histories (discharge summaries). Also discussed are the recommendations of the NCEPOD experts for the improvement of the said studies with the detailed analysis of the causes underlying the aforementioned problems and concise comments of the authors.

  6. Recruitment of childhood leukaemia patients to clinical trials in Great Britain during 1980-2007: variation by birth weight, congenital malformation, socioeconomic status and ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Anjali; Diggens, Nicole; Stiller, Charles; Richards, Sue; Stevens, Michael C G; Murphy, Michael F G

    2014-05-01

    To assess recruitment of children to national clinical trials for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) in Great Britain during 1980-2007 and describe variation by some factors that might influence trial entry. Records of leukaemia patients aged 0-14 years at diagnosis were identified in the National Registry of Childhood Tumours and linked to birth registrations, Children's Cancer and Leukaemia Group records, Hospital Episode Statistics and Medical Research Council clinical trial registers. Trial entry rates were compared between categories of birth weight, congenital malformation, socioeconomic status and ethnicity. 9147 ALL and 1466 AML patients were eligible for national clinical trials during 1980-2007. Overall recruitment rates were 81% and 60% respectively. For ALL, rates varied significantly with congenital malformation (Down syndrome 61%, other malformations 80%, none 82%; p4000 g 67%; p=0.001) and congenital malformation (Down syndrome 28%, other malformations 56%, none 63%; pcongenital malformations.

  7. Geogenic lead isotope signatures from meat products in Great Britain: Potential for use in food authentication and supply chain traceability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Jane A.; Pashley, Vanessa [NIGL, BGS, Keyworth, NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Richards, Gemma J. [School of Veterinary Science, University of Bristol, Bristol BS40 5DU (United Kingdom); Brereton, Nicola [The Food and Environment Research Agency, Sand Hutton, York YO41 1LZ (United Kingdom); Knowles, Toby G. [School of Veterinary Science, University of Bristol, Bristol BS40 5DU (United Kingdom)

    2015-12-15

    This paper presents lead (Pb) isotope data from samples of farm livestock raised in three areas of Britain that have elevated natural Pb levels: Central Wales, the Mendips and the Derbyshire Peak District. This study highlights three important observations; that the Pb found in modern British meat from these three areas is geogenic and shows no clear evidence of modern tetraethyl anthropogenic Pb contribution; that the generally excellent match between the biological samples and the ore field data, particularly for the Mendip and Welsh data, suggests that this technique might be used to provenance biological products to specific ore sites, under favourable conditions; and that modern systems reflect the same process of biosphere averaging that is analogous to cultural focusing in human archaeological studies that is the process of biological averaging leading to an homogenised isotope signature with increasing Pb concentration. - Highlights: • Lead (Pb) isotopes measured in modern British meat were geogenic in origin. • The match indicates that this technique may be used to provenance biological products. • There was no evidence for a contribution from modern anthropogenic Pb sources.

  8. Comparing the Costs and Revenues of Transformation to Continuous Cover Forestry for Sitka Spruce in Great Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owen Davies

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently continuous cover forestry (CCF has become an accepted approach to forest management in Britain, but uncertainty about its economic consequences may be a barrier to its wider use. A study was carried out to examine the costs and revenues of transforming a stand of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong. Carr. to CCF. The main conclusion is that transformation to CCF need not be more costly than clearfelling and replanting if natural regeneration is successful and the aim is to produce a simple canopy structure. The long-term value of transformation to a more complex canopy structure, with three or more strata, is lower and the extra costs need to be justified in terms of management objectives. The main output from the study is an analysis spreadsheet that empowers practitioners and policy makers to investigate the effects of costs, revenues and discount rates on estimates of net present value over 20 years, 100 years and in perpetuity, to suit local conditions. This paper summarises the method and results of the study in a British context, sets these in a wider international context, and considers the merits, applications and possible further developments of the approach.

  9. Geogenic lead isotope signatures from meat products in Great Britain: Potential for use in food authentication and supply chain traceability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Jane A.; Pashley, Vanessa; Richards, Gemma J.; Brereton, Nicola; Knowles, Toby G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents lead (Pb) isotope data from samples of farm livestock raised in three areas of Britain that have elevated natural Pb levels: Central Wales, the Mendips and the Derbyshire Peak District. This study highlights three important observations; that the Pb found in modern British meat from these three areas is geogenic and shows no clear evidence of modern tetraethyl anthropogenic Pb contribution; that the generally excellent match between the biological samples and the ore field data, particularly for the Mendip and Welsh data, suggests that this technique might be used to provenance biological products to specific ore sites, under favourable conditions; and that modern systems reflect the same process of biosphere averaging that is analogous to cultural focusing in human archaeological studies that is the process of biological averaging leading to an homogenised isotope signature with increasing Pb concentration. - Highlights: • Lead (Pb) isotopes measured in modern British meat were geogenic in origin. • The match indicates that this technique may be used to provenance biological products. • There was no evidence for a contribution from modern anthropogenic Pb sources.

  10. Britain at sea; Briten in Seenot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Lewis

    2012-08-15

    Offshore wind power in Great Britain is not developing as expected. While Britain is still the world's leader in this field, uncertainty concerning the future reimbursement and rate structure model is delaying investments.

  11. Men who have sex with men in Great Britain: comparing methods and estimates from probability and convenience sample surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prah, Philip; Hickson, Ford; Bonell, Chris; McDaid, Lisa M; Johnson, Anne M; Wayal, Sonali; Clifton, Soazig; Sonnenberg, Pam; Nardone, Anthony; Erens, Bob; Copas, Andrew J; Riddell, Julie; Weatherburn, Peter; Mercer, Catherine H

    2016-09-01

    To examine sociodemographic and behavioural differences between men who have sex with men (MSM) participating in recent UK convenience surveys and a national probability sample survey. We compared 148 MSM aged 18-64 years interviewed for Britain's third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3) undertaken in 2010-2012, with men in the same age range participating in contemporaneous convenience surveys of MSM: 15 500 British resident men in the European MSM Internet Survey (EMIS); 797 in the London Gay Men's Sexual Health Survey; and 1234 in Scotland's Gay Men's Sexual Health Survey. Analyses compared men reporting at least one male sexual partner (past year) on similarly worded questions and multivariable analyses accounted for sociodemographic differences between the surveys. MSM in convenience surveys were younger and better educated than MSM in Natsal-3, and a larger proportion identified as gay (85%-95% vs 62%). Partner numbers were higher and same-sex anal sex more common in convenience surveys. Unprotected anal intercourse was more commonly reported in EMIS. Compared with Natsal-3, MSM in convenience surveys were more likely to report gonorrhoea diagnoses and HIV testing (both past year). Differences between the samples were reduced when restricting analysis to gay-identifying MSM. National probability surveys better reflect the population of MSM but are limited by their smaller samples of MSM. Convenience surveys recruit larger samples of MSM but tend to over-represent MSM identifying as gay and reporting more sexual risk behaviours. Because both sampling strategies have strengths and weaknesses, methods are needed to triangulate data from probability and convenience surveys. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  12. Men who have sex with men in Great Britain: comparing methods and estimates from probability and convenience sample surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prah, Philip; Hickson, Ford; Bonell, Chris; McDaid, Lisa M; Johnson, Anne M; Wayal, Sonali; Clifton, Soazig; Sonnenberg, Pam; Nardone, Anthony; Erens, Bob; Copas, Andrew J; Riddell, Julie; Weatherburn, Peter; Mercer, Catherine H

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine sociodemographic and behavioural differences between men who have sex with men (MSM) participating in recent UK convenience surveys and a national probability sample survey. Methods We compared 148 MSM aged 18–64 years interviewed for Britain's third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3) undertaken in 2010–2012, with men in the same age range participating in contemporaneous convenience surveys of MSM: 15 500 British resident men in the European MSM Internet Survey (EMIS); 797 in the London Gay Men's Sexual Health Survey; and 1234 in Scotland's Gay Men's Sexual Health Survey. Analyses compared men reporting at least one male sexual partner (past year) on similarly worded questions and multivariable analyses accounted for sociodemographic differences between the surveys. Results MSM in convenience surveys were younger and better educated than MSM in Natsal-3, and a larger proportion identified as gay (85%–95% vs 62%). Partner numbers were higher and same-sex anal sex more common in convenience surveys. Unprotected anal intercourse was more commonly reported in EMIS. Compared with Natsal-3, MSM in convenience surveys were more likely to report gonorrhoea diagnoses and HIV testing (both past year). Differences between the samples were reduced when restricting analysis to gay-identifying MSM. Conclusions National probability surveys better reflect the population of MSM but are limited by their smaller samples of MSM. Convenience surveys recruit larger samples of MSM but tend to over-represent MSM identifying as gay and reporting more sexual risk behaviours. Because both sampling strategies have strengths and weaknesses, methods are needed to triangulate data from probability and convenience surveys. PMID:26965869

  13. Changes in the distribution of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes in urban areas in Great Britain: findings and limitations of a media-driven nationwide survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn M Scott

    Full Text Available Urbanization is one of the major forms of habitat alteration occurring at the present time. Although this is typically deleterious to biodiversity, some species flourish within these human-modified landscapes, potentially leading to negative and/or positive interactions between people and wildlife. Hence, up-to-date assessment of urban wildlife populations is important for developing appropriate management strategies. Surveying urban wildlife is limited by land partition and private ownership, rendering many common survey techniques difficult. Garnering public involvement is one solution, but this method is constrained by the inherent biases of non-standardised survey effort associated with voluntary participation. We used a television-led media approach to solicit national participation in an online sightings survey to investigate changes in the distribution of urban foxes in Great Britain and to explore relationships between urban features and fox occurrence and sightings density. Our results show that media-based approaches can generate a large national database on the current distribution of a recognisable species. Fox distribution in England and Wales has changed markedly within the last 25 years, with sightings submitted from 91% of urban areas previously predicted to support few or no foxes. Data were highly skewed with 90% of urban areas having <30 fox sightings per 1000 people km(-2. The extent of total urban area was the only variable with a significant impact on both fox occurrence and sightings density in urban areas; longitude and percentage of public green urban space were respectively, significantly positively and negatively associated with sightings density only. Latitude, and distance to nearest neighbouring conurbation had no impact on either occurrence or sightings density. Given the limitations associated with this method, further investigations are needed to determine the association between sightings density and actual fox

  14. Style Congruency and Persuasion: A Cross-Cultural Study Into the Influence of Differences in Style Dimensions on the Persuasiveness of Business Newsletters in Great Britain and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, B.C.; Meurs, W.F.J. van; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.; Pair, R.G. le; Blanc-Damen, S. le

    2012-01-01

    Abstract—Research problem: The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether style congruency on the dimensions succinct-elaborate and instrumental-affective influenced the persuasiveness of business newsletters in the Netherlands and Great Britain. Research question: Is a writing style

  15. Psychosocial stressors in the lives of great jazz musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patalano, F

    1997-02-01

    Brief biographical information on four great jazz tenor saxophone players of the past is presented to illustrate the similar psychosocial stressors these men seemed to experience, namely, severe substance abuse, haphazard working conditions, lack of acceptance of their art form in the United States, marital and family discord, and a vagabond life style. Ages at death of 80 great jazz musicians may indicate that the stressful life style of jazz musicians may be reflected in a shortened life span, but a control group is needed.

  16. El estudio de la historia del Reino Unido y la tecnología educativa / IT supportedlearning of the history of Great Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Macias Macias

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The major in English Language was inaugurated in 2005 in the University of Camagüey, starting with the improved Syllabus “C”. Prevailing conditions in the Cuban economy cause that literature for teaching the vast number of students in higher education to become a critical issue for the teaching-learning process. Nonetheless, with the ever-increasing existence of computers, laptops, and tablets, the number of computer labs in schools, and the Youth Computer Clubs in neighborhoods, to provide computer products for independent study is one of the solutions to the aforementioned problem of literature. Out of this reality, there emerged the idea of developing a computer program as a teaching aid for the subject History of the English Speaking People (Great Britain, which will not only offer the contents for studying but also exercises to help assimilate these contents. The program was used in the second semester of the 15-16 school term with good results as exposed in this paper. Keywords: Foreign languages, IT, independent study, CALL

  17. Mycobacterium bovis infections in domesticated non-bovine mammalian species. Part 1: Review of epidemiology and laboratory submissions in Great Britain 2004-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughan, J M; Downs, S H; Crawshaw, T R; Upton, P A; Brewer, J; Clifton-Hadley, R S

    2013-11-01

    Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (bTB), can infect a broad range of mammalian species in addition to domestic and feral cattle and badgers. Since legislation introduced in 2006 in Great Britain requires animal keepers, meat inspectors and veterinarians to notify the authorities of suspect bTB lesions or the isolation of M. bovis in any mammal excluding humans, the organism has been increasingly identified in domestic species other than cattle. Although in most cases 'spill-over' hosts, these remain a potential source of infection for cattle, wildlife, and possibly humans. In this first part of a two-part review of M. bovis infections in non-bovine domestic species, current knowledge of the epidemiology of such infections is presented along with novel data relating to diagnostic submissions for mycobacterial culture between 2004 and 2010. Over this period M. bovis infection was identified in 116 cats, 7 dogs, 34 llamas, 133 alpacas, 35 goats, 24 sheep and 85 pigs and wild boar. The risk that such infections pose to the control of bTB, and as zoonoses, is discussed. In part two, the options available to diagnose bTB in these species, as well as the challenges posed to disease detection and control will be discussed in depth. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. The analysis of isurance in case of travel agency insolvency on the Czech market and the comparison with other kinds of bonding in the Great Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Vajčnerová

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is focused on the topic of customer protection. The protection covers insolvency of travel agency and comes out from the Council Directive 90/314/EEC. In the Czech Republic this Council directive is implemented into Czech law through the Act No. 159/1999 Coll. on Conducting Business in Some Areas of the Tourism Sector. Unfortunately, the act is considered to be not up to date therefore novelization is being prepared. The article describes insurance as the one and only customer protection in the Czech Republic. Simultaneously, there are set other possibilities of customer guarantee in case of travel agency bankrupt which are successfully used in other European countries. One part of the article is dedicated to detail analysis of this problem in Great Britain. The result of provided analyses and research – proposal of guarantee model through insurance section which would be a part of Association of Travel Agencies and Tour operators. The goal of the model is to clear away present weaknesses in this field.

  19. [The coroner's autopsies in the Great Britain: the problems related to the quality of the studies, standardization, auditing, financial support and the approaches to their solution (part 2)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, I Ju; Kuprina, T A; Gusarov, A A; Fetisov, V A

    This article extends the previous publication of the authors based on the analysis of the detailed report of the experts of the National Confidential Enquiry into Patient Outcome and Death program (NCEPOD) issued in the Great Britain in 2006. The analysis has demonstrated that all autopsy studies should invariably involve measurement of the corpse length and weight (including body mass index) as well as the detailed description of all injuries to the body (or references to their absence). All autopsy studies should be carried out only by a medical professional (e.g. a pathologist, histologist, forensic medical expert, etc.). The thorough examination of the cadaver is mandatory prior to evisceration. The maximum scope of the examination of all body cavities with the comprehensive description of all internal organs and systems is compulsory. Putrefaction and decomposition of the corpse can not be regarded as a justification for its perfunctory ('restricted') inspection; on the contrary, these dictate the necessity of a more careful examination with the compulsory description of all organs and body systems as well as harvesting biological fluids and tissues for the laboratory analyses (including histological, toxicological, and other relevant studies).

  20. Radon, methane, carbon dioxide, oil seeps and potentially harmful elements from natural sources and mining area: relevance to planning and development in Great Britain. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appleton, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    Contaminated land is a major environmental issue in Great Britain mainly due to increased awareness and the change in public attitudes, but also due to pressures of UK and EC environmental legislation and directives. Government policy with respect to contaminated land is to deal with actual threats to health on a risk-based approach taking into account the use and environmental setting of the land; and to bring contaminated land back into beneficial use as far as practicable, and taking into account the principles of sustainability. The government has been concerned primarily with land which is being or has been put to potentially contaminative uses. However, some potentially harmful substances occur naturally and this review is concerned principally with three groups of 'natural' contaminants from geological sources: natural radioactivity, including radon, background radioactivity, and radioactive waters, derived mainly from uranium minerals and their weathering products in rocks and soils; methane, carbon dioxide and oil derived from coal bearing rocks, hydrocarbon source rocks, peat and other natural accumulations of organic matter; and potentially harmful chemical elements (PHEs), including arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, fluorine, lead, mercury, nickel, and zinc, derived from naturally occurring rocks and minerals. (author)

  1. The Practical Management of Chronic Pancreatitis: A Multidisciplinary Symposium Held at the Annual Meeting of the Pancreatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, Manchester 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegatheeswaran, Santhalingam; Puleston, Joanne M; Duggan, Sinead; Hart, Andrew; Conlon, Kevin C; Siriwardena, Ajith K

    2018-01-16

    This study is about a questionnaire survey of delegates attending the chronic pancreatitis symposium at the 2016 meeting of the Pancreatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland and seeks a multidisciplinary "snapshot" overview of practice. A questionnaire was developed with multidisciplinary input. Questions on access to specialist care, methods of diagnosis and treatment including specific scenarios were incorporated. Eighty-three (66%) of 125 delegates effectively participated in this survey. Twenty-four (29%) had neither a chronic pancreatitis MDT in their hospital nor a chronic pancreatitis referral MDT. Most frequently utilised diagnostic modalities were CT, MR and EUS with no respondents utilising duodenal intubation tests. Initial treatment was provided through non-opiate analgesia by 69 (93%), through the use of opiates by 56 (76%) and through the use of co-analgesics by 49 (66%). Fifty two (68%) routinely referred patients with alcohol-related disease for counselling. Preferred treatment for large duct disease without mass was endoscopic therapy. In older patients with a mass, pancreaticoduodenectomy was preferred. This is a small study likely to be skewed by sampling bias but is thought to be the first multidisciplinary survey of the management of chronic pancreatitis in the United Kingdom and Ireland. The results show a need for comprehensive access to specialist pancreatitis MDT care and there remains substantial variation in management. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. "The greatest victory which the chemist has won in the fight (…) against Nature": Nitrogenous fertilizers in Great Britain and the British Empire, 1910s-1950s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Arnaud

    2016-12-01

    This paper analyses the rise of synthetic nitrogen in Great Britain and its empire, from the First World War to the aftermath of the Second World War. Rather than focus solely on technological innovations and consumption statistics, it seeks to explain how nitrogen was a central element in the expansion of a form of agricultural governance, which needed simplified, stable, and seemingly universal input/output formulae. In the first half of the twentieth century, nitrogen was thus gradually constructed as a global indicator of development, as it was particularly adapted to scientific and political regimes increasingly relying upon abstraction and quantification. Yet, the history of nitrogenous fertilizers in the interwar years also shows that this cannot be reduced to a simple story of triumphant modernity, as their development and globalization was imperfect, unstable, accompanied by resistance and the resilience or emergence of other models. Rather than assuming an all-powerful "state" project, the paper thus seeks to recover the multiplicity of actors, and attempts to account for the rise of nitrogenous fertilizers; not just as the progressive application of a technological breakthrough, but as a difficult process embedded in technological, financial, and military constraints, corporate strategies, political imperatives, and the changing institutional framework of agricultural research.

  3. Hyalomma ticks on northward migrating birds in southern Spain: Implications for the risk of entry of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus to Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Marion E; Phipps, Paul; Medlock, Jolyon M; Atkinson, Peter M; Atkinson, Barry; Hewson, Roger; Gale, Paul

    2016-06-01

    Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a zoonotic virus transmitted by Hyalomma ticks, the immature stages of which may be carried by migratory birds. In this study, a total of 12 Hyalomma ticks were recovered from five of 228 migratory birds trapped in Spring, 2012 in southern Spain along the East Atlantic flyway. All collected ticks tested negative for CCHFV. While most birds had zero Hyalomma ticks, two individuals had four and five ticks each and the statistical distribution of Hyalomma tick counts per bird is over-dispersed compared to the Poisson distribution, demonstrating the need for intensive sampling studies to avoid underestimating the total number of ticks. Rates of tick exchange on migratory birds during their northwards migration will affect the probability that a Hyalomma tick entering Great Britain is positive for CCHFV. Drawing on published data, evidence is presented that the latitude of a European country affects the probability of entry of Hyalomma ticks on wild birds. Further data on Hyalomma infestation rates and tick exchange rates are required along the East Atlantic flyway to further our understanding of the origin of Hyalomma ticks (i.e., Africa or southern Europe) and hence the probability of entry of CCHFV into GB. © 2016 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  4. The impact of increased interconnection on electricity systems with large penetrations of wind generation. A case study of Ireland and Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denny, E.; Tuohy, A.; Keane, A.; Flynn, D.; O'Malley, M.; Meibom, P.; Mullane, A.

    2010-01-01

    Increased interconnection has been highlighted as potentially facilitating the integration of wind generation in power systems by increasing the flexibility to balance the variable wind output. This paper utilizes a stochastic unit commitment model to simulate the impacts of increased interconnection for the island of Ireland with large penetrations of wind generation. The results suggest that increased interconnection should reduce average prices in Ireland, and the variability of those prices. The simulations also suggest that while increased interconnection may reduce carbon dioxide emissions in Ireland, Great Britain would experience an increase in emissions, resulting in total emissions remaining almost unchanged. The studies suggest that increased interconnection would not reduce excess wind generation. This is because under unit commitment techniques which incorporate wind power forecasts in the scheduling decisions, wind curtailment is minimal even with low levels of interconnection. As would be expected an increase in interconnection should improve system adequacy considerably with a significant reduction in the number of hours when the load and reserve constraints are not met. (author)

  5. Overview of incursions of Asian H5N1 subtype highly pathogenic avian influenza virus into Great Britain, 2005-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Dennis J; Manvell, Ruth J; Irvine, Richard; Londt, Brandon Z; Cox, Bill; Ceeraz, Vanessa; Banks, Jill; Browna, Ian H

    2010-03-01

    Since 2005 there have been five incursions into Great Britain of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of subtype H5N1 related to the ongoing global epizootic. The first incursion occurred in October 2005 in birds held in quarantine after importation from Taiwan. Two incursions related to wild birds: one involved a single dead whooper swan found in March 2006 in the sea off the east coast of Scotland, and the other involved 10 mute swans and a Canada goose found dead over the period extending from late December 2007 to late February 2008 on or close to a swannery on the south coast of England. The other two outbreaks occurred in commercial poultry in January 2007 and November 2007, both in the county of Suffolk. The first of these poultry outbreaks occurred on a large turkey farm, and there was no further spread. The second outbreak occurred on a free-range farm rearing turkeys, ducks, and geese and spread to birds on a second turkey farm that was culled as a dangerous contact. Viruses isolated from these five outbreaks were confirmed to be Asian H5N1 HPAI viruses; the quarantine outbreak was attributed to a clade 2.3 virus and the other four to clade 2.2 viruses. This article describes the outbreaks, their control, and the possible origins of the responsible viruses.

  6. Environmental impacts of the foot and mouth disease outbreak in Great Britain in 2001: the use of risk analysis to manage the risks in the countryside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, K C

    2002-12-01

    Restrictions imposed for more than ten months throughout Great Britain in 2001 to control and eradicate foot and mouth disease (FMD) had a damaging effect on tourism and rural businesses. Risk assessment can play a valuable role in ensuring that the action taken is proportionate to the risk, and that countryside activities are allowed to resume when this can be done without compromising the objective of controlling and eradicating the disease. A risk assessment unit was established at the commencement of the epidemic to consider the risks posed by particular activities, to identify ways of managing those risks, and to make recommendations which could be used by policy makers when deciding what action to take. The assessments produced by the unit were published and the scientific rationale which supported policy and procedural changes was thereby exposed to public scrutiny and criticism. The author lists the activities subjected to veterinary risk assessments and describes how the process was used to consider public access to the countryside, leading to policy changes which within nine months resulted in the reopening of more than 96% of footpaths and bridleways without causing new outbreaks of FMD. A completed risk assessment is also included.

  7. Estimating risk factors for farm-level transmission of disease: Foot and mouth disease during the 2001 epidemic in Great Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul R. Bessell

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Controlling an epidemic would be aided by establishing whether particular individuals in infected populations are more likely to transmit infection. However, few analyses have characterised such individuals. Such analyses require both data on who infected whom and on the likely determinants of transmission; data that are available at the farm level for the 2001 Foot and Mouth Disease epidemic in Great Britain. Using these data a putative number of daughter infected premises (IPs resulting from each IP was calculated where these daughters were within 3 km of the IP. A set of possible epidemiological, demographic, spatial and temporal risk factors were analysed, with the final multivariate generalised linear model (Poisson error term having 6 statistically significant (p<0.05 main effects including geographic area, local cattle and sheep densities, and the number of non-IP culls. This model demonstrates that farms are heterogeneous in their propensity to transmit infection to other farms and, importantly, that it may be possible to identify holdings that are at high risk of spreading disease a priori. Such information could be used to help prioritise the response to an epidemic. Keywords: Foot and mouth disease, Epidemiology, Risk modelling, Livestock, Disease control

  8. Designing low-carbon power systems for Great Britain in 2050 that are robust to the spatiotemporal and inter-annual variability of weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeyringer, Marianne; Price, James; Fais, Birgit; Li, Pei-Hao; Sharp, Ed

    2018-05-01

    The design of cost-effective power systems with high shares of variable renewable energy (VRE) technologies requires a modelling approach that simultaneously represents the whole energy system combined with the spatiotemporal and inter-annual variability of VRE. Here, we soft-link a long-term energy system model, which explores new energy system configurations from years to decades, with a high spatial and temporal resolution power system model that captures VRE variability from hours to years. Applying this methodology to Great Britain for 2050, we find that VRE-focused power system design is highly sensitive to the inter-annual variability of weather and that planning based on a single year can lead to operational inadequacy and failure to meet long-term decarbonization objectives. However, some insights do emerge that are relatively stable to weather-year. Reinforcement of the transmission system consistently leads to a decrease in system costs while electricity storage and flexible generation, needed to integrate VRE into the system, are generally deployed close to demand centres.

  9. Hand and Wrist Injuries in Elite Boxing: A Longitudinal Prospective Study (2005-2012) of the Great Britain Olympic Boxing Squad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loosemore, Michael; Lightfoot, Joseph; Gatt, Ian; Hayton, Mike; Beardsley, Chris

    2017-03-01

    Background: The purpose of this investigation was to explore prospectively the nature and duration of hand and wrist injuries in training and competition in the Great Britain (GB) amateur boxing squad between 2005 and 2012. Methods: Longitudinal prospective injury surveillance of the GB boxing squad was performed from 2005 to 2012. The location, region affected, description, and the duration of each injury were recorded by the team doctor and team physiotherapist. We recorded whether the injury occurred during competition or training and also whether it was a new or a recurrent injury. The injury rate during competition was calculated as the number of injuries per 1000 hours. Results: Finger carpometacarpal instability and finger metacarpophalangeal joint extensor hood and capsule sprain also known as "boxer's knuckle" injuries were significantly more common than other injury diagnoses. The number of injuries during training or competition was similar, which is remarkable given the far greater number of training hours than competition hours performed. Injury rate for hand and wrist injuries in competition was 347 injuries per 1000 hours, while the estimated injury rate in training was <0.5 injuries per 1000 hours. Conclusion: Carpometacarpal instability and boxer's knuckle were more common than any other kind of hand and wrist injury in this cohort of elite amateur boxers. The rate of hand and wrist injuries was higher in competition than in training. Our study highlights the importance of hand and wrist injury prevention in the competition environment.

  10. Communication dated 30 May 2007 from the Permanent Mission of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the IAEA concerning enrichment bonds - A voluntary scheme for reliable access to nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a letter dated 30 May 2007 from the Permanent Mission of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the IAEA attaching a UK Non-paper entitled 'Food for Thought: Enrichment Bonds - A Voluntary Scheme for Reliable Access to Nuclear Fuel'. As requested in that letter, the letter and the attachment is now being circulated for the information of all Member States

  11. Communication dated 19 May 2011 received from the Resident Representative of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the Agency regarding Assurance of Supply of Enrichment Services and Low Enriched Uranium for Use in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a letter dated 19 May 2011 from the Resident Representative of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the Agency, attaching the Proposal for the Assurance of Supply of Enrichment Services and Low Enriched Uranium for Use in Nuclear Power Plants, as described in document GOV/2011/10. As requested by the Resident Representative, the letter and its attachment are circulated herewith for information of all Member States

  12. The Text of the Agreement of 6 September 1976 between The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, The European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1978-10-15

    The text of the Agreement, and of the Protocol which is an integral part thereof, between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency for the application of safeguards in the United Kingdom in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members.

  13. Communication dated 19 May 2011 received from the Resident Representative of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the Agency regarding Assurance of Supply of Enrichment Services and Low Enriched Uranium for Use in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a letter dated 19 May 2011 from the Resident Representative of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the Agency, attaching the Proposal for the Assurance of Supply of Enrichment Services and Low Enriched Uranium for Use in Nuclear Power Plants, as described in document GOV/2011/10. As requested by the Resident Representative, the letter and its attachment are circulated herewith for information of all Member States [es

  14. The Text of the Agreement of 6 September 1976 between The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, The European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-10-01

    The text of the Agreement, and of the Protocol which is an integral part thereof, between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency for the application of safeguards in the United Kingdom in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members

  15. Exploring Attitudes and Beliefs towards Implementing Cattle Disease Prevention and Control Measures: A Qualitative Study with Dairy Farmers in Great Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marnie L. Brennan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Disease prevention and control practices are frequently highlighted as important to ensure the health and welfare of farmed animals, although little is known as to why not many practices are carried out. The aim of this study was to identify the motivators and barriers of dairy cattle farmers towards the use of biosecurity measures on dairy farms using a health psychology approach. Twenty-five farmers on 24 farms in Great Britain (GB were interviewed using the Theory of Planned Behaviour framework. Results indicated that farmers perceived they had the ability to control what happened on their farms in terms of preventing and controlling disease, and described benefits from being proactive and vigilant. However, barriers were cited in relation to testing inaccuracies, effectiveness and time-efficiency of practices, and disease transmission route (e.g., airborne transmission. Farmers reported they were positively influenced by veterinarians and negatively influenced by the government (Department for Environment Food & Rural Affairs (DEFRA and the general public. Decisions to implement practices were influenced by the perceived severity of the disease in question, if disease was diagnosed on the farm already, or was occurring on other farms. Farmers described undertaking a form of personal risk assessment when deciding if practices were worth doing, which did not always involve building in disease specific factors or opinions from veterinarians or other advisors. These results indicate that further guidance about the intricacies of control and prevention principles in relation to specific animal diseases may be required, with an obvious role for veterinarians. There appears to be an opportunity for farm advisors and herd health professionals to further understand farmer beliefs behind certain attitudes and target communication and advice accordingly to further enhance dairy cattle health and welfare.

  16. Non-European Union doctors in the National Health Service: why, when and how do they come to the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude Edward B

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As many as 30% of doctors working for the National Health System (NHS of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (UK have obtained their primary qualifications from a country outside the European Union. However, factors driving this migration of doctors to the UK merit continuing exploration. Our objective was to obtain training and employment profile of UK doctors who obtained their primary medical qualification outside the European Union (non-European doctors and to assess self-reported reasons for their migration. Methods We conducted an online survey of non-European doctors using a pre-validated questionnaire. Results One thousand six hundred and nineteen doctors of 26 different nationalities completed the survey. Of the respondents, 90.1% were from India and over three-quarters migrated to the UK mainly for 'training'. Other reasons cited were 'better pay' (7.2%, 'better work environment' (7.1% and 'having family and friends in the UK' (2.8%. Many of the respondents have been in the UK for more than a year (88.8%, with 31.3% having spent more than 3 years gaining experience of working in the NHS. Most respondents believe they will be affected by recent changes to UK immigration policy (86.6%, few report that they would be unaffected (3.7% and the rest are unsure (9.8%. Conclusion The primary reason for many non-European doctors to migrate to the UK is for training within the NHS. Secondary reasons like better pay, better work environment and having friends and family in the UK also play a role in attracting these doctors, predominantly from the Indian subcontinent and other British Commonwealth countries.

  17. Socio-economic patterning in early mortality of patients aged 0-49 years diagnosed with primary bone cancer in Great Britain, 1985-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakey, Karen; Feltbower, Richard G; James, Peter W; Libby, Gillian; Stiller, Charles; Norman, Paul; Gerrand, Craig; McNally, Richard J Q

    2018-04-01

    Studies have shown marked improvements in survival between 1981 and 2000 for Ewing sarcoma patients but not for osteosarcoma. This study aimed to explore socio-economic patterning in early mortality rates for both tumours. The study analysed all 2432 osteosarcoma and 1619 Ewing sarcoma cases, aged 0-49 years, diagnosed in Great Britain 1985-2008 and followed to 31/12/2009. Logistic regression models were used to calculate risk of dying within three months, six months, one year, three years and five years after diagnosis. Associations with Townsend deprivation score and its components were examined at small-area level. Urban/rural status was studied at larger regional level. For osteosarcoma, after age adjustment, mortality at three months, six months and one year was associated with higher area unemployment, OR = 1.05 (95% CI 1.00, 1.10), OR = 1.04 (95% CI 1.01, 1.08) and OR = 1.04 (95% CI 1.02, 1.06) respectively per 1% increase in unemployment. Mortality at six months was associated with greater household non-car ownership, OR = 1.02 (95% CI 1.00, 1.03). For Ewing sarcoma, there were no significant associations between mortality and overall Townsend score, nor its components for any time period. For both tumours increasing mortality was associated with less urban and more remote rural areas. This study found that for osteosarcoma, early mortality was associated with residence at diagnosis in areas of higher unemployment, suggesting risk of early death may be socio-economically determined. For both tumours, distance from urban centres may lead to greater risk of early death. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparing post-combustion CO2 capture operation at retrofitted coal-fired power plants in the Texas and Great Britain electric grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Stuart M.; Chalmers, Hannah L.; Webber, Michael E.; King, Carey W.

    2011-04-01

    This work analyses the carbon dioxide (CO2) capture system operation within the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) and Great Britain (GB) electric grids using a previously developed first-order hourly electricity dispatch and pricing model. The grids are compared in their 2006 configuration with the addition of coal-based CO2 capture retrofits and emissions penalties from 0 to 100 US dollars per metric ton of CO2 (USD/tCO2). CO2 capture flexibility is investigated by comparing inflexible CO2 capture systems to flexible ones that can choose between full- and zero-load CO2 capture depending on which operating mode has lower costs or higher profits. Comparing these two grids is interesting because they have similar installed capacity and peak demand, and both are isolated electricity systems with competitive wholesale electricity markets. However, differences in capacity mix, demand patterns, and fuel markets produce diverging behaviours of CO2 capture at coal-fired power plants. Coal-fired facilities are primarily base load in ERCOT for a large range of CO2 prices but are comparably later in the dispatch order in GB and consequently often supply intermediate load. As a result, the ability to capture CO2 is more important for ensuring dispatch of coal-fired facilities in GB than in ERCOT when CO2 prices are high. In GB, higher overall coal prices mean that CO2 prices must be slightly higher than in ERCOT before the emissions savings of CO2 capture offset capture energy costs. However, once CO2 capture is economical, operating CO2 capture on half the coal fleet in each grid achieves greater emissions reductions in GB because the total coal-based capacity is 6 GW greater than in ERCOT. The market characteristics studied suggest greater opportunity for flexible CO2 capture to improve operating profits in ERCOT, but profit improvements can be offset by a flexibility cost penalty.

  19. Comparing post-combustion CO2 capture operation at retrofitted coal-fired power plants in the Texas and Great Britain electric grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, Stuart M; Webber, Michael E; Chalmers, Hannah L; King, Carey W

    2011-01-01

    This work analyses the carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) capture system operation within the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) and Great Britain (GB) electric grids using a previously developed first-order hourly electricity dispatch and pricing model. The grids are compared in their 2006 configuration with the addition of coal-based CO 2 capture retrofits and emissions penalties from 0 to 100 US dollars per metric ton of CO 2 (USD/tCO 2 ). CO 2 capture flexibility is investigated by comparing inflexible CO 2 capture systems to flexible ones that can choose between full- and zero-load CO 2 capture depending on which operating mode has lower costs or higher profits. Comparing these two grids is interesting because they have similar installed capacity and peak demand, and both are isolated electricity systems with competitive wholesale electricity markets. However, differences in capacity mix, demand patterns, and fuel markets produce diverging behaviours of CO 2 capture at coal-fired power plants. Coal-fired facilities are primarily base load in ERCOT for a large range of CO 2 prices but are comparably later in the dispatch order in GB and consequently often supply intermediate load. As a result, the ability to capture CO 2 is more important for ensuring dispatch of coal-fired facilities in GB than in ERCOT when CO 2 prices are high. In GB, higher overall coal prices mean that CO 2 prices must be slightly higher than in ERCOT before the emissions savings of CO 2 capture offset capture energy costs. However, once CO 2 capture is economical, operating CO 2 capture on half the coal fleet in each grid achieves greater emissions reductions in GB because the total coal-based capacity is 6 GW greater than in ERCOT. The market characteristics studied suggest greater opportunity for flexible CO 2 capture to improve operating profits in ERCOT, but profit improvements can be offset by a flexibility cost penalty.

  20. Demand response and energy efficiency in the capacity resource procurement: Case studies of forward capacity markets in ISO New England, PJM and Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yingqi

    2017-01-01

    Demand-side resources like demand response (DR) and energy efficiency (EE) can contribute to the capacity adequacy underpinning power system reliability. Forward capacity markets are established in many liberalised markets to procure capacity, with a strong interest in procuring DR and EE. With case studies of ISO New England, PJM and Great Britain, this paper examines the process and trends of procuring DR and EE in forward capacity markets, and the design for integration mechanisms. It finds that the contribution of DR and EE varies wildly across these three capacity markets, due to a set of factors regarding mechanism design, market conditions and regulatory provisions, and the offering of EE is more heavily influenced by regulatory utility EE obligation. DR and EE are complementary in targeting end-uses and customers for capacity resources, thus highlighting the value of procuring them both. System needs and resources’ market potential need to be considered in defining capacity products. Over the long-term, it is important to ensure the removal of barriers for these demand-side resources and the capability of providers in addressing risks of unstable funding and forward planning. For the EDR Pilot in the UK, better coordination with forward capacity auction needs to be achieved. - Highlights: • Trends of demand response and energy efficiency in capacity markets are analysed. • Integration mechanisms, market conditions and regulatory provisions are key factors. • Participation of energy efficiency is influenced by regulatory utility obligations. • Procuring both demand response and energy efficiency in capacity market is valuable. • Critical analysis of the design of capacity products and integration mechanisms.

  1. Description of veterinary events and risk factors for fatality in National Hunt flat racing Thoroughbreds in Great Britain (2000-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, S E; Rosanowski, S M; Stirk, A J; Verheyen, K L P

    2017-11-01

    No large-scale studies have described veterinary events occurring in National Hunt (NH) flat racing or investigated risk factors for fatality in this race type. To describe injuries and conditions requiring veterinary attendance on race day and to determine risk factors for racehorse fatality in NH flat racing in Great Britain. Retrospective cohort study (2000-2013). Information from all NH flat races held over the study period, including horse, race and veterinary event report details, was combined. Veterinary events were described by type and anatomical structure(s) affected. Incidence per 1000 starts were calculated for all veterinary events and by event group, and stratified by certain horse- and race-level variables. Risk factors for fatality were determined using multivariable logistic regression modelling. Over the 14-year study period, 544 veterinary events were recorded, providing an overall incidence of 13.0 events per 1000 starts. The most common events were bone injuries (23.5%) and tendon or ligament injuries (16.4%). A fatal outcome was recorded for 117 horses (21.5% of all events), resulting in an incidence of 2.9 deaths per 1000 starts. Odds of fatality were 4.33 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.59-11.82; P = 0.02) times higher in races restricted to conditional jockeys compared to those that were not. Horses starting in their first race experienced 1.44 (95% CI 1.00-2.08; P = 0.05) times the odds of death compared to those that had raced before. Classification of veterinary events frequently relied upon presumptive diagnosis. This study provides a benchmark for the ongoing surveillance of veterinary events in NH flat racing. These results support the phasing out of NH flat races restricted to conditional jockeys and highlight the need for further work to establish why NH flat racing Thoroughbreds competing in their first race are at increased risk for death. © 2017 EVJ Ltd.

  2. Current UK practice of pediatric supraglottic airway devices - a survey of members of the Association of Paediatric Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Anthony E D; White, Michelle C; Engelhardt, Thomas; Bayley, Guy; Beringer, Richard M

    2013-11-01

    Over half of general anesthetics in the UK involve supraglottic airway devices (SADs). The National Audit Project 4 undertaken by the Royal College of Anaesthetists demonstrated that aspiration was the most frequent complication relating to SAD use. SADs designed to reduce this risk (second-generation devices) are increasingly recommended in both adults and children. As well as routine use, SADs are recommended for use in cases of 'difficult airway'. This survey assessed current usage of SADs in routine practice and difficult airways. Sixteen questions, approved by the Association of Paediatric Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland (APAGBI) survey committee, were distributed to all its members. Two hundred and forty-four members responded. Eighty-eight percent preferentially use first-generation rather than second-generation devices. The most important design feature was the availability of a complete range of sizes (84%). Seventy-seven percent felt that randomized controlled trials assessing SAD safety in children are needed. In cases of failed intubation, classically shaped SADs are preferred (79%). Three percent of responders intubate via an SAD routinely. Eighteen percent have employed this technique in an emergency. Thirty-six percent of responders have found an SAD to function poorly. Pediatric anesthesiologists appear slow to embrace second-generation SADs. The role of SADs in the management of difficult airways is widely accepted. Research currently has little influence over the choice of which SAD to use, which is more likely determined by personal choice and departmental preference. There is a risk that some SADs are unsafe. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Restrictions on the use of e-cigarettes in public and private places-current practice and support among adults in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brose, Leonie S; McNeill, Ann; Arnott, Deborah; Cheeseman, Hazel

    2017-08-01

    Debates around policies regulating e-cigarette use make it important to obtain an overview of current practice, people's attitudes and correlates of policy support. Aims were to assess (i) current practices for e-cigarette use in homes and workplaces; (ii) characteristics associated with allowing e-cigarette use in the home; and (iii) level of, and characteristics associated with, support for extending smoke-free legislation to include e-cigarettes. Online survey in 2016, n = 11 389 adults in Great Britain. Descriptives for all measures; multivariable logistic regressions assessed correlates of allowing e-cigarette use and support for extension of legislation. Most (79%) reporting on workplace policies reported some level of restrictions on e-cigarette use. Small majorities would not allow e-cigarette use in their home (58%) and supported an extension of smoke-free legislation (52%; 21% opposed). Allowing use was less likely and supporting an extension more likely among men, respondents from a higher socio-economic status, ex-smokers, never-smokers, non-users of e-cigarettes and respondents with increased perceived harm of e-cigarettes or nicotine (all P e-cigarette use. Over half of adults would not allow use of e-cigarettes in their home and support prohibiting the use of e-cigarettes in smoke-free places. Adjusting for socio-demographics, more restrictive attitudes are more common among never-smokers, never-users and those with increased perception of relative harms of e-cigarettes or nicotine as cause of smoking-related illness. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  4. No nocturnal energetic savings in response to hard work in free-living great tits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersma, P; Tinbergen, JM

    We measured energy expenditure in free-living great tits (Pares major) during the active (day) and the inactive period (night) with the aim of determining whether great tits compensate for energy costs made during periods of high activity in periods of low activity. If such compensation occurs,

  5. The accuracy of the National Equine Database in relation to vector-borne disease risk modelling of horses in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, C A; Lo Iacono, G; Gubbins, S; Wood, J L N; Newton, J R

    2013-05-01

    The National Equine Database (NED) contains information on the size and distribution of the horse population, but the data quality remains unknown. These data could assist with surveillance, research and contingency planning for equine infectious disease outbreaks. 1) To assess the extent of obsolete and missing data from NED, 2) evaluate the extent of spatial separation between horse and owner location and 3) identify relationships between spatial separation and land use. Two questionnaires were used to assess data accuracy in NED utilising local authority passport inspections and distribution of questionnaires to 11,000 horse owners. A subset of 1010 questionnaires was used to assess horse-owner geographic separation. During 2005-2010, 17,048 passports were checked through local authority inspections. Of these, 1558 passports (9.1%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 8.7-9.5%) were noncompliant, with 963 (5.6%; 95% CI 5.3-6.0%) containing inaccurate information and 595 (3.5%; 95% CI 3.2-3.8%) classified as missing. Of 1382 questionnaires completed by horse owners, 380 passports were obsolete (27.5%; 95% CI 25.2-29.9%), with 162 (11.7%; 95% CI 10.0-13.4%) being retained for deceased horses and 218 (15.8%; 95% CI 13.9-17.7%) having incorrect ownership details. Fifty-three per cent (95% CI 49.9-56.1%) of owners kept their horse(s) at home and 92% (95% CI 90.3-93.7%) of horses resided within 10 km of their owners. Data from a small sample survey suggest the majority of data on NED are accurate but a proportion of inaccuracies exist that may cause delay in locating horses and contacting owners during a disease outbreak. The probability that horses are located in the same postcode sector as the owner's home address is larger in rural areas. Appropriate adjustment for population size, horse-owner spatial separation and land usage would facilitate meaningful use of the national horse population derived from NED for risk modelling of incursions of equine diseases into Great

  6. Price promotions on healthier compared with less healthy foods: a hierarchical regression analysis of the impact on sales and social patterning of responses to promotions in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Ryota; Suhrcke, Marc; Jebb, Susan A; Pechey, Rachel; Almiron-Roig, Eva; Marteau, Theresa M

    2015-04-01

    There is a growing concern, but limited evidence, that price promotions contribute to a poor diet and the social patterning of diet-related disease. We examined the following questions: 1) Are less-healthy foods more likely to be promoted than healthier foods? 2) Are consumers more responsive to promotions on less-healthy products? 3) Are there socioeconomic differences in food purchases in response to price promotions? With the use of hierarchical regression, we analyzed data on purchases of 11,323 products within 135 food and beverage categories from 26,986 households in Great Britain during 2010. Major supermarkets operated the same price promotions in all branches. The number of stores that offered price promotions on each product for each week was used to measure the frequency of price promotions. We assessed the healthiness of each product by using a nutrient profiling (NP) model. A total of 6788 products (60%) were in healthier categories and 4535 products (40%) were in less-healthy categories. There was no significant gap in the frequency of promotion by the healthiness of products neither within nor between categories. However, after we controlled for the reference price, price discount rate, and brand-specific effects, the sales uplift arising from price promotions was larger in less-healthy than in healthier categories; a 1-SD point increase in the category mean NP score, implying the category becomes less healthy, was associated with an additional 7.7-percentage point increase in sales (from 27.3% to 35.0%; P sales uplift from promotions was larger for higher-socioeconomic status (SES) groups than for lower ones (34.6% for the high-SES group, 28.1% for the middle-SES group, and 23.1% for the low-SES group). Finally, there was no significant SES gap in the absolute volume of purchases of less-healthy foods made on promotion. Attempts to limit promotions on less-healthy foods could improve the population diet but would be unlikely to reduce health

  7. Britain and Europe: what ways forward?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold James

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzed some of the reasons why Britain participated only half-way in the European Union and ended up voting for Bremen on 23 June 2016. It also examines the options open to the European Union and Great Britain. Europe must show that it can work by showing results. In Britain it is necessary to break the established molds of thought and reshape the structure of political parties

  8. Communication Received from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Concerning its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium. Statements on the Management of Plutonium and of High Enriched Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a note verbale dated 28 July 2010 from the Permanent Mission of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines'), and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for its holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2009 [es

  9. Communication Received from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Concerning its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium. Statements on the Management of Plutonium and of High Enriched Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a note verbale dated 6 June 2011 from the Permanent Mission of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines') and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for its holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2010 [es

  10. Communication Received from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Concerning its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium. Statements on the Management of Plutonium and of High Enriched Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a note verbale dated 17 June 2013 from the Permanent Mission of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines') and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for its holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2012 [es

  11. Communication Received from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Concerning Its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium. Statements on the Management of Plutonium and of High Enriched Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a Note Verbale dated 23 August 2007 from the Permanent Mission of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the United Nations and the International Organizations in Vienna in the enclosures of which the Government, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines') and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for its holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2006 [es

  12. Communication Received from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Concerning its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium. Statements on the Management of Plutonium and of High Enriched Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a note verbale dated 3 July 2012 from the Permanent Mission of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines') and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for its holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2011 [es

  13. Communication Received from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Concerning its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium. Statements on the Management of Plutonium and of High Enriched Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a note verbale dated 26 June 2009 from the Permanent Mission of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines') and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for its holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2008 [es

  14. Communication Received from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Concerning Its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium. Statements on the Management of Plutonium and of High Enriched Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The Director General has received a Note Verbale dated 3 August 2005 from the Permanent Mission of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines') and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for its holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2004

  15. Communication received from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland concerning its policies regarding the management of plutonium. Statements on the management of plutonium and of highly enriched uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Director General has received a Note Verbale dated 2 August 2004 from the Permanent Mission of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines') and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for its holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2003

  16. Communication Received from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Concerning Its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium. Statements on the Management of Plutonium and of High Enriched Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a Note Verbale dated 23 August 2007 from the Permanent Mission of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the United Nations and the International Organizations in Vienna in the enclosures of which the Government, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines') and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for its holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2006 [fr

  17. Communication Received from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Concerning its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium. Statements on the Management of Plutonium and of High Enriched Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a note verbale dated 3 July 2012 from the Permanent Mission of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines') and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for its holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2011 [fr

  18. Communication Received from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Concerning its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium. Statements on the Management of Plutonium and of High Enriched Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a note verbale dated 17 June 2013 from the Permanent Mission of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines') and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for its holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2012 [fr

  19. Communication Received from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Concerning its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium. Statements on the Management of Plutonium and of High Enriched Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a note verbale dated 3 July 2012 from the Permanent Mission of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines') and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for its holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2011

  20. Communication Received from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Concerning Its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium. Statements on the Management of Plutonium and of High Enriched Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a Note Verbale dated 23 August 2007 from the Permanent Mission of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the United Nations and the International Organizations in Vienna in the enclosures of which the Government, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines') and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for its holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2006

  1. Communication Received from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Concerning its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium. Statements on the Management of Plutonium and of High Enriched Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a note verbale dated 6 June 2011 from the Permanent Mission of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines') and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for its holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2010

  2. Communication Received from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Concerning its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium. Statements on the Management of Plutonium and of High Enriched Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a note verbale dated 17 June 2013 from the Permanent Mission of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines') and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for its holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2012

  3. Communication Received from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Concerning its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium. Statements on the Management of Plutonium and of High Enriched Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a note verbale dated 28 July 2010 from the Permanent Mission of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines'), and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for its holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2009

  4. Communication Received from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Concerning its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium. Statements on the Management of Plutonium and of High Enriched Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a note verbale dated 26 June 2009 from the Permanent Mission of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines') and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for its holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2008

  5. Communication Received from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Concerning its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium. Statements on the Management of Plutonium and of High Enriched Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a note verbale dated 6 June 2011 from the Permanent Mission of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines') and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for its holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2010 [fr

  6. Communication Received from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Concerning its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium. Statements on the Management of Plutonium and of High Enriched Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a note verbale dated 28 July 2010 from the Permanent Mission of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines'), and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for its holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2009 [fr

  7. Communication Received from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Concerning its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium. Statements on the Management of Plutonium and of High Enriched Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a note verbale dated 26 June 2009 from the Permanent Mission of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines') and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for its holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2008 [fr

  8. Towards monitoring of geohazards with ESA's Sentinel-1 C-band SAR data: nationwide feasibility mapping over Great Britain calibrated using ERS-1/2 and ENVISAT PSI data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigna, Francesca; Bateson, Luke; Dashwood, Claire; Jordan, Colm

    2013-04-01

    Following the success of its predecessors ERS-1/2 and ENVISAT, ESA's Sentinel-1 constellation will provide routine, free of charge and globally-available Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) observations of the Earth's surface starting in 2013, with 12day repeat cycle and up to 5m spatial resolution. The upcoming availability of this unprecedented and long-term radar-based observation capacity is stimulating new scientific and operational perspectives within the geohazards and land monitoring community, who initiated and is being working on target preparatory studies to exploit this attractive and rich reservoir of SAR data for, among others, interferometric applications. The Earth and Planetary Observation and Monitoring, and the Shallow Geohazards and Risks Teams of the British Geological Survey (BGS) are routinely assessing new technologies for geohazard mapping, and carrying out innovative research to improve the understanding of landslide processes and their dynamics. Building upon the successful achievements of recent applications of Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) to geohazards mapping and monitoring in Europe, and with the aim of enhancing further the research on radar EO for landslide management in Britain, since the beginning of 2012 the BGS has been carrying out a research project funded by internal NERC grants aimed at evaluating the potential of these techniques to better understand landslide processes over Great Britain. We mapped the PSI feasibility over the entire landmass, based on the combination of topographic and landuse effects which were modelled by using medium to high resolution DEMs, land cover information from the EEA CORINE Land Cover map 2006, and six PSI datasets over London, Stoke-on-Trent, Bristol/Bath, and the Northumberland-Durham region, made available to BGS through the projects ESA-GMES Terrafirma and EC-FP7 PanGeo. The feasibility maps for the ERS-1/2 and ENVISAT ascending and descending modes showed that topography is not

  9. Ethnic Minorities in Britain. CRE Factsheet. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commission for Racial Equality, London (England).

    This factsheet provides information about the status of ethnic minorities in Great Britain. At the 1991 census, just over 3 million (5.5%) of the people in Britain did not classify themselves as White. About half were of South Asian descent (Indian, Pakistani, and Bangladeshi) and 30% were Black. Nearly 7.3% of the British population had been born…

  10. Preferences for care towards the end of life when decision-making capacity may be impaired: A large scale cross-sectional survey of public attitudes in Great Britain and the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Clarke

    Full Text Available There is continuing public debate about treatment preferences at the end of life, and the acceptability and legal status of treatments that sustain or end life. However, most surveys use binary yes/no measures, and little is known about preferences in neurological disease when decision-making capacity is lost, as most studies focus on cancer. This study investigates changes in public preferences for care towards the end of life, with a focus on measures to sustain or end life.Large-scale international public opinion surveys using a six-stage patient vignette, respondents chose a level of intervention for each stage as health and decision-making capacity deteriorated. Cross-sectional representative samples of the general public in Great Britain and the USA (N = 2016. Primary outcome measure: changes in respondents' preferences for care, measured on a four-point scale designed before data collection. The scale ranged from: maintaining life at all costs; to intervention with agreement; to no intervention; to measures for ending life.There were no significant differences between GB and USA. Preference for measures to sustain life at all costs peaked at short-term memory loss (30.2%, n = 610. Respondents selecting 'measures to help me die peacefully' increased from 3.9% to 37.0% as the condition deteriorated, with the largest increase occurring when decision-making capacity was lost (10.3% to 23.0%. Predictors of choosing 'measures to help me die peacefully' at any stage were: previous personal experience (OR = 1.34, p<0.010, and older age (OR = 1.09 per decade, p<0.010. Negative predictors: living with children (OR = 0.72, p<0.010 and being of "black" race/ethnicity (OR = 0.45, p<0.001.Public opinion was uniform between GB and USA, but markedly heterogeneous. Despite contemporaneous capacitous consent providing an essential legal safeguard in most jurisdictions, there was a high prevalence of preference for "measures to end my life peacefully" when

  11. Soil to plant transfer factors for Cs-137 and Pu-239+240 determined by field and glasshouse measurements in Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cawse, P.A.; Baker, S.J.

    1984-01-01

    Further data on soil to plant transfer factors is provided for Cs-137 and Pu-239+240, as an extension of results presented at the previous IUR Workshop at Wageningen in December 1982. Field crops of grass, barley and oats produced in 1982 at 11 locations in Britain were analysed for radionuclides. Analysis of soils that produced these crops showed that they contained 'background' nuclear weapons fallout concentrations of Cs-137 and plutonium which were elevated in regions with high rainfall. Analysis of basic soil properties was also made. In separate experiments, transfer factors were derived for 10 crop plants grown in pot trials under glasshouse conditions. In one trial the soil used contained low concentrations of radionuclides derived from nuclear weapons fallout. In a second trial a brown earth was used, which contained additional radionuclides from long-term deposition by nuclear fuel reprocessing. (orig.)

  12. “How Grand is Our Design For Europe?”: Integration Plans of The Great Britain in the Late of 1950s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V. Khakhalkina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The UK European Union membership referendum 2016 and its results actualized the study of the British initiatives in the sphere of integration before the entry into the European Economic Community in 1973. The article is devoted to the little-known in Russian historiography "Grand Design"of H. Macmillan, nominated in the wake of the failure of the Suez operation against Egypt in 1956. Plan with such bright and eye-catching name suggested the creation of a broad integration group in Europe as alternative with Britain as a leader to the preparing for the establishment of projects of the European Economic Community and the European Atomic energy community. The project was designed to restore the prestige of the Conservative Party and to strengthen the shaky position of Britain in NATO and European affairs after Suez Crisis. At the same time the emergence of the plan reflected the desire of the Prime Minister, Harold Macmillan to weaken the struggle inside political establishment between supporters and opponents of the country's full-fledged participation in the European integration and take the lead in the integration movement from France. Analysis of the content of the project and attempts to implement it within the framework of a Free Trade Area (FTA reveals the essence of the "special position" of the UK towards supranational integration and the British vision of the future of European integration. Modern United Kingdom appeared in the new European realities after the Referendum on the country’s membership in the European Union and returns to the starting point on the path of supranational integration and to the search for its place in Europe. In these circumstances, the ideas expressed by British politicians more than half a century ago, may again prove to be demanded and relevant.

  13. Opencast coal mining and site restoration in Britain today

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitworth, K.

    1981-05-07

    Production of opencast coal in Great Britain totalled around 13 million tons in 1980. Compared with underground coal, average profits are high and production costs low. Opencast mines thus make an important contribution to high-grade coal supply in Great Britain and to the financial situation of the National Coal Board. Former open-cast mines in Great Britain have been restored into leisure and pleasure regions that have become part of the rural scene.

  14. The measurement of adult blood pressure and management of hypertension before elective surgery: Joint Guidelines from the Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland and the British Hypertension Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartle, A; McCormack, T; Carlisle, J; Anderson, S; Pichel, A; Beckett, N; Woodcock, T; Heagerty, A

    2016-03-01

    This guideline aims to ensure that patients admitted to hospital for elective surgery are known to have blood pressures below 160 mmHg systolic and 100 mmHg diastolic in primary care. The objective for primary care is to fulfil this criterion before referral to secondary care for elective surgery. The objective for secondary care is to avoid spurious hypertensive measurements. Secondary care should not attempt to diagnose hypertension in patients who are normotensive in primary care. Patients who present to pre-operative assessment clinics without documented primary care blood pressures should proceed to elective surgery if clinic blood pressures are below 180 mmHg systolic and 110 mmHg diastolic. © 2016 The Authors. Anaesthesia published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  15. Medicalising disability? Regulation and practice around fitness assessment of disabled students and professionals in nursing, social work and teaching professions in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Chih Hoong

    2009-01-01

    The reliance on medical information and on occupational health (OH) professionals in ascertaining fitness of applicants and registrants within the educational and employment contexts may lead to the medicalisation of disability. The Disability Rights Commission's Formal Investigation into the regulation of three public sector professions of nursing, social work and teaching in Britain sheds light on the nature of regulatory fitness requirements and how these are implemented in practice. The multi-pronged investigation included a review of relevant statutory and regulatory frameworks, formal written and oral evidence submitted by key stakeholder organisations and research into formal and informal fitness assessments within the education and employment contexts. There are varied and vague fitness requirements in all three professions. OH professionals figure prominently in formal and informal decision-making around fitness within education and employment settings, regardless of regulatory prescriptions. There is a multitude of approaches. There are, however, particular issues in the deployment of OH expertise within the employment setting. The determination of fitness should not rely solely on medical information. Blanket fitness requirements that are not contextualized against specific competencies for particular jobs are inappropriate. More collaborative and integrated working is necessary, particularly in exploring how reasonable adjustments may be provided to enable safe and effective practice. The positive spirit of the disability equality duty should be embraced.

  16. Report of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland/British Society of Gastroenterology Colorectal Polyp Working Group: the development of a complex colorectal polyp minimum dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattree, A; Barbour, J A; Thomas-Gibson, S; Bhandari, P; Saunders, B P; Veitch, A M; Anderson, J; Rembacken, B J; Loughrey, M B; Pullan, R; Garrett, W V; Lewis, G; Dolwani, S; Rutter, M D

    2017-01-01

    The management of large non-pedunculated colorectal polyps (LNPCPs) is complex, with widespread variation in management and outcome, even amongst experienced clinicians. Variations in the assessment and decision-making processes are likely to be a major factor in this variability. The creation of a standardized minimum dataset to aid decision-making may therefore result in improved clinical management. An official working group of 13 multidisciplinary specialists was appointed by the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland (ACPGBI) and the British Society of Gastroenterology (BSG) to develop a minimum dataset on LNPCPs. The literature review used to structure the ACPGBI/BSG guidelines for the management of LNPCPs was used by a steering subcommittee to identify various parameters pertaining to the decision-making processes in the assessment and management of LNPCPs. A modified Delphi consensus process was then used for voting on proposed parameters over multiple voting rounds with at least 80% agreement defined as consensus. The minimum dataset was used in a pilot process to ensure rigidity and usability. A 23-parameter minimum dataset with parameters relating to patient and lesion factors, including six parameters relating to image retrieval, was formulated over four rounds of voting with two pilot processes to test rigidity and usability. This paper describes the development of the first reported evidence-based and expert consensus minimum dataset for the management of LNPCPs. It is anticipated that this dataset will allow comprehensive and standardized lesion assessment to improve decision-making in the assessment and management of LNPCPs. Colorectal Disease © 2016 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  17. GREENHOUSE BRITAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Haley

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available We believe that the cultural landscape is largely formed by the dominant cultures of a place. “It is formed by a sometimes conflicted, sometimes consensual discourse or narrative from an array of stories, observations and intentions, first spoken by people of these dominant cultures and thereafter enacted on the ground. To our view, such a story has certain fluidity about it, and may change directions for any number of reasons. This work, Greenhouse Britain, is designed literally to express what the risingof waters would mean to the landscape of the island. It takes the 3 positions of defense, withdrawal and then defense, withdrawal to the high grounds. We suggest that the existing plans for greenhouse emissions control will be insufficient to keep temperature rise at 2° or less. In fact, we believe that the tipping point is past. In this context, the rising ocean becomes a form determinant. By “form determinant”, we mean, the rising ocean will determine many of the new forms that culture, industry and many other elements of civilization will have to take. There is another piece of this picture that we wish to give Voice to. That is up until this present rising of the world oceans, the creators of Western civilization have held and enacted the belief that all limitations in the physical world, particularly in the ecological world are there to be used and overcome. We think that the rising ocean is an opportunity for transformation, but it is exactly the reverse of a new frontier to overcome from civilization’s perspective. Now, from the ocean’s perspective, its boundary is perhaps a continuing, evolving transforming new frontier. Therefore, assuming a rapid rise of waters, even for a modest 5 meters in 100 years, there are apparently no models of precedence, no information, design, nor planning on the table, with the exception of ocean defenses and typical development models, albeit more energy efficient ones. It is the intention of

  18. Widespread exposure to lead affects the body condition of free-living whooper swans Cygnus cygnus wintering in Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newth, J.L.; Rees, E.C.; Cromie, R.L.; McDonald, R.A.; Bearhop, S.; Pain, D.J.; Norton, G.J.; Deacon, C.; Hilton, G.M.

    2016-01-01

    Lead poisoning, through the ingestion of spent lead gunshot, is an established cause of morbidity and mortality in waterbirds globally, but the thresholds at which blood levels begin to affect the physiology of birds in the wild are less well known. Here we determine the prevalence of lead exposure in whooper swans and, for the first time, identify the level of blood lead associated with initial reductions in body condition. Blood lead elevated above background levels (i.e. >20 μg dL"−"1) was found in 41.7% (125/300) of swans tested. Blood lead was significantly negatively associated with winter body condition when levels were ≥44 μg dL"−"1 (27/260 = 10%). Our findings indicating that sub-lethal impacts of lead on body condition occur at the lower end of previously established clinical thresholds and that a relatively high proportion of individuals in this population may be affected, reaffirm the importance of reducing contamination of the environment with lead shot. - Highlights: • Elevated blood lead levels of >20 μg dL"−"1 were found in 41.7% of whooper swans. • Blood lead levels of ≥44 μg dL"−"1 were negatively associated with body condition. • Clinical effects were at lower levels than previously described for Anseriformes. • Reduction of lead shot in the environment would reduce the risk of lead exposure. - Blood lead was significantly negatively associated with the body condition of free-living whooper swans in winter when levels were ≥44 μg dL"−"1 (27/260 = 10% of birds were above this threshold).

  19. 6 March 2013 - Committee for Employment and Learning, Northern Ireland Legislative Assembly, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in the LHC tunnel and visiting the LHCb experiment at LHC Point 8. Director for Accelerators and Technology S. Myers with Vice-Chair T. Buchanan.

    CERN Multimedia

    Anna Pantelia

    2013-01-01

    6 March 2013 - Committee for Employment and Learning, Northern Ireland Legislative Assembly, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in the LHC tunnel and visiting the LHCb experiment at LHC Point 8. Director for Accelerators and Technology S. Myers with Vice-Chair T. Buchanan.

  20. 27 June 2012 - Ambassador K. Pierce, Permanent Representative of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 5 with Department Head P. Collier and CMS control room with Former Collaboration Spokesperson J. Virdee.

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Egli

    2012-01-01

    27 June 2012 - Ambassador K. Pierce, Permanent Representative of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 5 with Department Head P. Collier and CMS control room with Former Collaboration Spokesperson J. Virdee.

  1. 9 April 2013 - Minister for Universities and Science United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland D. Willetts in the ATLAS experimental cavern with ATLAS Collaboration Spokesperson D. Charlton and in the LHC tunnel at Point 1 with Beams Department Head P. Collier. Director for Accelerators and Technology S. Myers, Editor at the Communication Group K. Kahle and Beams Department Engineer R. Veness present.

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Gadmer

    2013-01-01

    9 April 2013 - Minister for Universities and Science United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland D. Willetts in the ATLAS experimental cavern with ATLAS Collaboration Spokesperson D. Charlton and in the LHC tunnel at Point 1 with Beams Department Head P. Collier. Director for Accelerators and Technology S. Myers, Editor at the Communication Group K. Kahle and Beams Department Engineer R. Veness present.

  2. The Role Of Public Opinion Of Great Britain Of The Second Half Of The 19th Century In The Development Of The Social Legislation In Years 1870-1890 Of Queen Victoria’s Reign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Tsvetkova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Using primary sources in Russian and British historiography, the author analyzes the evolution of public thought in Great Britain in the second half of the 19th century, its turn from individualism and principle of “night-watchman state” to a more socially-oriented position. This transformation, which occurred under the influence of both evident and hidden factors, was one of the key prerequisites for formation in the seventh decade of the 19th century of the New Toryism and “social liberalism” doctrines, the framework of which was used by the British government to chart a course for systematic social reforms in the areas of health care, elementary education, residential development and labor law. By analyzing the views of J. Bentham, J.S. Mill and T.H. Green, as well as literary works of the period in question, the author traces the process of alienation of the “laissez-faire” policy (the classical principle of state non-interference in economy by a certain part of the British society and the readiness to reassess the role of the state in the social sphere. The article presents in detail the search for philosophical, social and socialistic thought, aimed at solving the deepest social problems and predicating, in many aspects, the cycle of social reforms carried out by the Disraeli and Gladstone cabinets under the auspices of the state in the middle of the late Victorian period. The author points out that the social policy of the prime ministers W. Gladstone in 1868-1874 and B. Disraeli in 1874-1800 was historically the first precedent when the liberal doctrine which took the shape of the so-called Manchester liberalism in Great Britain had to recognize the principles of social state, economic regulation and a stronger role of the state in the British society. The author notes that the foundations of most of the social reforms that are now perceived as integral components of a modern democratic society were laid precisely in this

  3. Energy from waste. State-of-the-art report. Statistics 1996-1999. Data 2000/2001. Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain, Hungary, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This is the 4. edition of the report on waste to energy plants in the member countries of the ISWA Working Group on Thermal Treatment of Waste. This edition presents information on the plants by year 2000/2001 and includes operational data covering the years 1996-1999. The report is based on a questionnaire that was distributed to the waste to energy plants in the member countries in 2000. Only normal MSW incineration plants with a capacity of more than 15 tonnes/day or 10,000 tonnes/year are included, which means that special plants for hazardous waste, sludge, agricultural and hospital wastes are not included. Most, but not all, plants have answered a questionnaire, and this report is mainly based on the questionnaires received and the information provided by the questionnaires. In the first section the report presents a comparison of the situation of waste to energy in: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain, Hungary, Italy, Portugal, Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, and Switzerland. The statistics in this section present the number of plants, the national capacity and flue gas cleaning systems. The section also presents the amount of waste incinerated, the energy recovered and the residues generated in 1999 in the 14 countries. The second section presents the national data on the incineration plants. For the USA the figures are listed in the second part of the report. (BA)

  4. Communication received from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland concerning its policies regarding the management of plutonium. Statements on the management of plutonium and of highly enriched uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The Director General has received a Note Verbale, dated 17 July 2003, from the Permanent Mission of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government of the United Kingdom, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines'), and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for its national holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2002. The Government of the United Kingdom has also made available a statement of its annual figures for holdings of civil high enriched uranium (HEU), and of civil depleted, natural and low enriched uranium (DNLEU) in the civil nuclear fuel cycle, as of 31 December 2002. 3. In the light of the requests expressed by the Government of the United Kingdom in its Note Verbale of 1 December 1997 concerning its policies regarding the management of plutonium (INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998) and in its Note Verbale of 17 July 2003, the Note Verbale of 17 July 2003 and the enclosures thereto are attached for the information of all Member States

  5. A high prevalence of antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli isolated from pigs and a low prevalence of antimicrobial resistant E. coli from cattle and sheep in Great Britain at slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enne, Virve I; Cassar, Claire; Sprigings, Katherine; Woodward, Martin J; Bennett, Peter M

    2008-01-01

    The incidence of antimicrobial resistance and expressed and unexpressed resistance genes among commensal Escherichia coli isolated from healthy farm animals at slaughter in Great Britain was investigated. The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among the isolates varied according to the animal species; of 836 isolates from cattle tested only 5.7% were resistant to one or more antimicrobials, while only 3.0% of 836 isolates from sheep were resistant to one or more agents. However, 92.1% of 2480 isolates from pigs were resistant to at least one antimicrobial. Among isolates from pigs, resistance to some antimicrobials such as tetracycline (78.7%), sulphonamide (66.9%) and streptomycin (37.5%) was found to be common, but relatively rare to other agents such as amikacin (0.1%), ceftazidime (0.1%) and coamoxiclav (0.2%). The isolates had a diverse range of resistance gene profiles, with tet(B), sul2 and strAB identified most frequently. Seven out of 615 isolates investigated carried unexpressed resistance genes. One trimethoprim-susceptible isolate carried a complete dfrA17 gene but lacked a promoter for it. However, in the remaining six streptomycin-susceptible isolates, one of which carried strAB while the others carried aadA, no mutations or deletions in gene or promoter sequences were identified to account for susceptibility. The data indicate that antimicrobial resistance in E. coli of animal origin is due to a broad range of acquired genes.

  6. Inspiration from britain?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vagnby, Bo

    2008-01-01

    Danish housing policy needs a dose of renewed social concern - and could find new inspiration in Britain's housing and urban planning policies, says Bo Vagnby. Udgivelsesdato: November......Danish housing policy needs a dose of renewed social concern - and could find new inspiration in Britain's housing and urban planning policies, says Bo Vagnby. Udgivelsesdato: November...

  7. REVISITING PUBLIC SPACE IN POST-WAR SOCIAL HOUSING IN GREAT BRITAIN / Repensando el espacio público de las viviendas sociales de post-guerra en Gran Bretaña

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Sendra

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY This paper addresses the issue of the urban obsolescence of public space of social housing neighbourhoods built during the post-war period in Great Britain. Great Britain has been chosen because of the active role played by modern architects in the construction of the welfare state advocated by post-war governments, which involved building large areas of social housing. The aims of this paper are to understand the context in which these neighbourhoods were built as well as their evolution and the complexity of their obsolescence. To achieve these objectives, it first looks at the causes that prompted the slum clearance process, at its implementation during the post-war reconstruction and at the effects that this process has had on contemporary cities. Secondly, it is illustrated through a detailed analysis of a case study, Loughborough Estate in Brixton, London, looking at the initial conditions of the council estate when it was built, investigating its evolution over the past five decades and factors that may have contributed to the obsolescence of its public space and to its social problems. The paper concludes with a warning that a generalist critique of modern architecture does not solve the problems of such neighbourhoods, but a substantial intervention on the public space is needed to bring them to life. These interventions should focus on the spatial configuration of public space and its design and maintenance.RESUMEN Este artículo aborda la cuestión de la obsolescencia urbana del espacio público en las barriadas de viviendas sociales construidas durante el periodo de post-guerra en Gran Bretaña. Se ha escogido el caso de Gran Bretaña debido al papel tan activo que tuvieron los arquitectos del movimiento moderno en la construcción del estado del bienestar, por la que abogaron los gobiernos de post-guerra y la cual implicó la construcción de una gran cantidad de viviendas. Los objetivos de este artículo son comprender el

  8. Trend analysis and modelling of gender-specific age, period and birth cohort effects on alcohol abstention and consumption level for drinkers in Great Britain using the General Lifestyle Survey 1984-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yang; Holmes, John; Hill-McManus, Daniel; Brennan, Alan; Meier, Petra Sylvia

    2014-02-01

    British alcohol consumption and abstinence rates have increased substantially in the last 3 decades. This study aims to disentangle age, period and birth cohort effects to improve our understanding of these trends and suggest groups for targeted interventions to reduce resultant harms. Age, period, cohort analysis of repeated cross-sectional surveys using separate logistic and negative binomial models for each gender. Great Britain 1984-2009. Annual nationally representative samples of approximately 20 000 adults (16+) within 13 000 households. Age (eight groups: 16-17 to 75+ years), period (six groups: 1980-84 to 2005-09) and birth cohorts (19 groups: 1900-04 to 1990-94). Outcome measures were abstinence and average weekly alcohol consumption. Controls were income, education, ethnicity and country. After accounting for period and cohort trends, 18-24-year-olds have the highest consumption levels (incident rate ratio = 1.18-1.15) and lower abstention rates (odds ratio = 0.67-0.87). Consumption generally decreases and abstention rates increase in later life. Until recently, successive birth cohorts' consumption levels were also increasing. However, for those born post-1985, abstention rates are increasing and male consumption is falling relative to preceding cohorts. In contrast, female drinking behaviours have polarized over the study period, with increasing abstention rates accompanying increases in drinkers' consumption levels. Rising female consumption of alcohol and progression of higher-consuming birth cohorts through the life course are key drivers of increased per capita alcohol consumption in the United Kingdom. Recent declines in alcohol consumption appear to be attributable to reduced consumption and increased abstinence rates among the most recent birth cohorts, especially males, and general increased rates of abstention across the study period. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  9. Standardization of Primary Education in Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarovaya, Yelena B.

    2015-01-01

    The article examines the standardization of primary education as one of the development trends of the British school at the present moment in the context of improving its efficiency and quality. It analyses the positive results of the standard-based reforms (modernization of primary education content, improvement of younger students' outcomes,…

  10. Plutonium in autopsy tissues in Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popplewell, D.S.; Ham, G.J.; Johnson, T.E.; Barry, S.F.

    1985-01-01

    From time to time the authors have measured the Pu content of tissues taken at autopsy from people who had worked in the Pu-processing industries including some from Sellafield Works in Cumbria. During the work it became apparent that the results would be more enlightening if they could be compared with the levels of Pu in people who had not worked in the nuclear energy industries. With the objective of making this comparison, the authors commenced a series of Pu analyses on tissues removed at autopsy from members of the general public, who might be expected to have received their body deposits of Pu from fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons explosions. This note augments some results reported previously in summary form

  11. GREAT BRITAIN AND GERMANY SUPREME AUDIT INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobre Cornelia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Overall progress recorded in contemporary society, has increased at the same time the aspirations and expectations of the population, marked by phenomena which are based on the financial policy of the Executive. Of course, for the legislature to know the financial activity carried out by the Executive Board, in each State was established a Supreme Audit Institution (SAI, whose independence is guaranteed by the Constitution, as it is in Germany, or by law, as is the case of the United Kingdom. The variety of powers of supreme audit, is the result of various economic areas, each demonstrations through specific activities and suitable approaches to organizational cultures, which gives them their distinct identities. The work is conducted under the public responsibility with an emphasis on developing and improving continuously audit methodologies to present best practices. The two supreme institutions operate according to an annual plan of action which includes financial audit or regularity and performance auditing actions, and additional Federal Court of Audit of Germany practice preventive control institutions contained in its area of activity. By tradition, the role of supreme consists of the evaluation as regards the legality and regularity of financial management and accounting, but since the 80's but it was noticeable trend internationally to audit performance or "value for money" (United Kingdom, since the latter refers to the essence of the problem and is the final attainment of the envisaged at the time of allocation of resources. The topic researched is distinguished by originality, marked being the fact that a area so important as that of external public audit is least known works, and I wish to point out the vacuum bibliographic Supreme Audit Institutions experience in the international arena and beyond. Research methodology consists in the evaluation of resources in the area, using foreign literature. For the study of the subject of this material have been followed the official sites of the Federal Court of Audit of Germany and of the National Audit Office of United Kindom, including consulting on hypothetical case studies submitted by the specialists of the two institutions on the occasion of seminars held at the Romanian Court of Auditors. This work focuses on developing institutional development,role, experience and traditions performed in the field of external public audit, as well as their relationship with the Parliament, including the measures taken as a result of recovery audit reports. Thus, the supreme institutions analysed may constitute "models" for Romania's economic reality. In our opinion, any "model" should be adapted to the situation on the field and in this case the model becomes the solution. An assessment of the current business of the supreme audit institutions, we ask where is heading and how they will look in the future. Perhaps the future will provide this response.

  12. FAB - Underwater and underground electric connection between France and Great Britain via Aurigny. File of presentation of the project and of its investigation area. Project synthesis. Impact study constituting an incidence document under the Law on Water. Ground brochure + Sea brochure. Non technical summary. Deliberated opinion of the Environmental Authority on the underwater and underground electrical interconnection between France and Great-Britain via Aurigny (FAB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-11-01

    This document gathers several reports. The first one indicates the actors involved in the project of electrical interconnection between France and Great-Britain via Aurigny, presents various technical aspects and works of this project, and proposes a definition and a description of the concerned area. The second report proposes a synthetic presentation of the project: agreement process, project interest, project definition and equipment locations, project technical components and aspects, onshore and offshore environmental aspects, project status and planning. The third report analyses the various onshore aspects of the interconnection project: project description, initial situation of the environment, analysis of the project effects on the environment and on health, analysis of cumulated effects with other known projects, sketches of examined substitution solutions and reasons for the selection of the project, elements of analysis of compliance with land uses and various planning documents, measures aimed at avoiding, reducing or compensating project effects, methods to assess initial status and effects, faced difficulties. The fourth report addresses the same issues as the previous one but for offshore aspects. The fifth report is a non technical summarised presentation of the project which presents the French side, describes the elaboration approach, the offshore and onshore legs of the project, an assessment of impacts on Natura 2000 sites. It notably contains several detailed geographical and geological maps to illustrate and to highlight the various environmental, geological, economic, social, urban or landscape impacts. The last document is the detailed opinion of the Environmental Authority on this project. It addresses the context, the project principle, implementation and cost, environmental stakes and challenges, and impacts

  13. The Brexit challenge for Britain and Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gjon Boriçi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the membership of the Great Britain in the European Union in 1973, the relations of Britain with the institutions and member countries of the European Union have been correct. The greatest problem of the Great Britain remains beyond any doubt the delegation of its "independence" in the European Union’s structures. For the ultra conservatives was unimaginable that a country that has never been conquered (since the times of the Romans 55 B.C. would deliver the proper sovereignty to a community of continental countries and above all to the Franco-German policies who, especially the last one, enjoys a great doubt among the British politics. The paper I present tries to explain the obstacles between British and European politics in historic, economic and diplomatic terms as well as the rise of skepticism among the European leaders themselves during the past decades following the end of the Second World War. In an academic approach, in this paper, between the research and comparative methods, I have been trying to get the maxims between European and British economy, politics and diplomacy in their efforts of affecting the policies of the European Union in the global era. Brexit of course represents the sharpest challenge of the moment for the Great Britain and the European Union in the global era.

  14. Price promotions on healthier compared with less healthy foods: a hierarchical regression analysis of the impact on sales and social patterning of responses to promotions in Great Britain12345

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Ryota; Suhrcke, Marc; Jebb, Susan A; Pechey, Rachel; Almiron-Roig, Eva; Marteau, Theresa M

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is a growing concern, but limited evidence, that price promotions contribute to a poor diet and the social patterning of diet-related disease. Objective: We examined the following questions: 1) Are less-healthy foods more likely to be promoted than healthier foods? 2) Are consumers more responsive to promotions on less-healthy products? 3) Are there socioeconomic differences in food purchases in response to price promotions? Design: With the use of hierarchical regression, we analyzed data on purchases of 11,323 products within 135 food and beverage categories from 26,986 households in Great Britain during 2010. Major supermarkets operated the same price promotions in all branches. The number of stores that offered price promotions on each product for each week was used to measure the frequency of price promotions. We assessed the healthiness of each product by using a nutrient profiling (NP) model. Results: A total of 6788 products (60%) were in healthier categories and 4535 products (40%) were in less-healthy categories. There was no significant gap in the frequency of promotion by the healthiness of products neither within nor between categories. However, after we controlled for the reference price, price discount rate, and brand-specific effects, the sales uplift arising from price promotions was larger in less-healthy than in healthier categories; a 1-SD point increase in the category mean NP score, implying the category becomes less healthy, was associated with an additional 7.7–percentage point increase in sales (from 27.3% to 35.0%; P sales uplift from promotions was larger for higher–socioeconomic status (SES) groups than for lower ones (34.6% for the high-SES group, 28.1% for the middle-SES group, and 23.1% for the low-SES group). Finally, there was no significant SES gap in the absolute volume of purchases of less-healthy foods made on promotion. Conclusion: Attempts to limit promotions on less-healthy foods could improve the

  15. Emotions, the Great Captains of Our Lives: Their Role in the Process of Change in Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Leslie S.

    2012-01-01

    A view of human functioning is presented in which functioning is seen as integrating head and heart, emotion and reason, in a process by which people are constantly making sense of their lived emotional experience to form narratives of told experience. Because much of the processing involved in the generation of emotional experience occurs…

  16. Britain at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Press Office. Geneva

    1998-01-01

    It was thirty years ago that British industry held the first ever trade fair at CERN and industrial links between Britain and the Laboratory have never looked back. Speaking at the opening of the 1998 "Britain at CERN" exhibition on 20 October, H.E. Mr Christopher Hulse, British Ambassador to Switzerland, underlined the value of CERN contracts to British industry saying that "The prize is well worth going for, I understand that contracts worth  1.5bn will be awarded over the next six years".

  17. Great Historical Events That Were Significantly Affected by the Weather: Part 10, Crop Failure in Britain in 1799 and 1800 and the British Decision to Send a Naval Force to the Baltic Early in 1801.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, J.; Kington, J.

    1992-02-01

    In 1799 and 1800, crop failures struck the British Isles. The crop failure of 1799 was due to the combined effects of the cold winter of 1798-99 and the cool and rainy growing season of the year. The summer was characterized by the prevalence of low-pressure systems resembling cyclonic weather patterns of the winter.The crop failure of 1800 was mainly due to a drought early in summer. In July there was either no rain at all (especially in the south) or the amounts were negligible. The general synoptic situation indicated an extension of the Azores High to Britain and beyond to central Europe. In the London area the pressure in duly was never below 1020 mb.The wheat harvests of 1799 and 1800 were about one-half and three-quarters of the average, respectively. The deficiencies could not be made up by imports, for, at least in 1799, the weather conditions were also unfavorable to grain production in the countries of northern Europe that were "traditional" exporters of grain to Britain. We estimate that in the "bread-consumption year", October 1799 to September 1800, harvest and imports accounted for but 60% of the required quantity of wheat, the principal ingredient of bread in England and Wales at the time. In consequence of the bread scarcity, there were sharp rises in the price of bread and in bread riots. Some of the slogans of the rioters made mention of the French Revolution.In parallel with the increasing scarcity of bread, diplomatic relations between Britain and Russia worsened from 1799 on. Its significance on the bread crisis, as well as a crisis of naval supplies, was that the Baltic ports through which the grain of the northern countries (East Prussia, Poland, and Russia) was channeled for Britain stood under the tsar's direct or indirect control. The strained relations between Britain and Russia peaked in November 1800. On 18 November, Tsar Paul I imposed an embargo on British ships and their crews. This embargo meant that the bread scarcity was to

  18. THE THIRD GREAT QUESTION IN RUSSIAN LITERATURE: “WHAT MEN LIVE BY” BY L. N. TOLSTOY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Anoshkina-Kasatkina

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available There are two great questions raised in Russian literature of the 19th century – “Who is to blame?” by A. I. Herzen and “What shall we do?” by N. G. Chernyshevsky. This article for the first time draws attention to the third great spiritual and ethic question of Russian literature – “what men live by?”. It was raised and answered by Leo Tolstoy in his short story “What men live by” (1881. A religious crisis the writer was undergoing while writing the story did not impede his discovering the truth by the fallen angel Michael: “there is love in men”, Man is not able to know his future, “each person lives not by self-concern but by love”. Individual welfare is manifested in global welfare. Analysis of moral and ethic problems of this parabolic story reveals the affirmation of supernatural and consecrated reality in life of the mankind, a chance for salvation by praying. Peculiarities of realism and psychologism, man’s soul dialectics, genre specificity of Tolstoy’s story of his late period are revealed in the article.

  19. Underground gasification in Britain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1952-08-29

    A report of the discussion held on the paper Underground Gasification in Britain, by C.A. Masterman (Iron and Coal Trades Rev., Vol. 165, Aug. 22, 1952, pp. 413-422). The water question, preheating the air, controlling the gas, using the product, choosing the site, thickness of seam and faulted areas are discussed.

  20. Britain's Ethnic Minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Central Office of Information, London (England).

    This pamphlet discusses the situation of ethnic minorities--particularly those of Caribbean, Asian, or African origin--in the United Kingdom. Following introductory material, the background to immigration in Britain is described and the numbers and geographic distribution of the different ethnic groups are discussed. Next comes a general…

  1. Influence of living environments and working status on low back pain for survivors of the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Yoshihiro; Yabe, Yutaka; Sugawara, Yumi; Sato, Mari; Watanabe, Takashi; Kanazawa, Kenji; Sonofuchi, Kazuaki; Koide, Masashi; Sekiguchi, Takuya; Tsuchiya, Masahiro; Tsuji, Ichiro; Itoi, Eiji

    2016-03-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake and devastating Tsunami caused irreparable damage on the northeastern coast of Japan. This study aimed to examine the influencing factors of "Living environment" and "Working status" on low back pain for the survivors of the earthquake evaluated by a self-report questionnaire. Between 2011 and 2013, survivors replied to the self-report questionnaire, and 986 people consented to join this study. The living environment was divided into 3 categories (1. Living in the same house as before the earthquake, 2. Living in a safe shelter or temporary small house, 3. Living in a house of relatives or apartment house) and working status was divided into 5 categories (1. Unemployed before the earthquake, 2. Unemployed after the earthquake, 3. Decrease in income, 4. Different occupation after the earthquake, 5. The same occupation as before the earthquake). Age, gender, living areas, past history of arthritis, arthropathy, osteoporosis, sleep disturbance, psychological distress, and economic status were considered as confounding factors. Generalized estimating regression models with logit link function were used because outcome variables are repeatedly measured and binomial. We evaluated the correlation between the presence/severity of low back pain over time and housing status/working status at 1 year after the earthquake. There were no significant differences between age, gender, living areas, working status, or living environment before or after the earthquake. There was no significant difference in the risk of having low back pain in living environment or gender. There was significant difference in the risk of having low back pain in those with "Decrease in income" (OR = 1.93, 95% CI = 1.23-3.03) and "The same occupation as before the earthquake" (OR = 1.67, 95% CI = 1.1-2.52). Though living environment has little effect, "Decrease in income" and "The same occupation as before the earthquake" have strong influences on low back pain

  2. Institutional Determinants of Organizational Change in Primary Education in Nineteenth Century America and Britain. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smelser, Neil J.

    Using historical documents, this report traces the development of the system of primary education in Great Britain and the United States. During the period between 1810 and 1870, both Britain and the United States attempted to form an organization for primary schooling and achieved great progress in the institutionalization and growth of mass…

  3. Evaluating Living Standard Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birčiaková Naďa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the evaluation of selected available indicators of living standards, divided into three groups, namely economic, environmental, and social. We have selected six countries of the European Union for analysis: Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Luxembourg, France, and Great Britain. The aim of this paper is to evaluate indicators measuring living standards and suggest the most important factors which should be included in the final measurement. We have tried to determine what factors influence each indicator and what factors affect living standards. We have chosen regression analysis as our main method. From the study of factors, we can deduce their impact on living standards, and thus the value of indicators of living standards. Indicators with a high degree of reliability include the following factors: size and density of population, health care and spending on education. Emissions of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere also have a certain lower degree of reliability.

  4. Evidence for free-living Bacteroides in Cladophora along the shores of the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Richard L.; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara; Spoljaric, Ashley; Przybyla-Kelly, Katarzyna; Shively, Dawn A.; Nevers, Meredith

    2014-01-01

    Bacteroides is assumed to be restricted to the alimentary canal of animals and humans and is considered to be non-viable in ambient environments. We hypothesized that Bacteroides could persist and replicate within beach-stranded Cladophora glomerata mats in southern Lake Michigan, USA. Mean Bacteroides concentration (per GenBac3 Taqman quantitative PCR assay) during summer 2012 at Jeorse Park Beach was 5.2 log calibrator cell equivalents (CCE) g-1 dry weight (dw), ranging from 3.7 to 6.7. We monitored a single beach-stranded mat for 3 wk; bacterial concentrations increased by 1.6 log CCE g-1 dw and correlated significantly with ambient temperature (p = 0.003). Clonal growth was evident, as observed by >99% nucleotide sequence similarity among clones. In in vitro studies, Bacteroides concentrations increased by 5.5 log CCE g-1 after 7 d (27°C) in fresh Cladophora collected from rocks. Partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene of 36 clones from the incubation experiment showed highly similar genotypes (≥97% sequence overlap). The closest enteric Bacteroides spp. from the National Center for Biotechnology Information database were only 87 to 91% similar. Genomic similarity, clonality, growth, and persistence collectively suggest that putative, free-living Bacteroides inhabit Cladophora mats of southern Lake Michigan. These findings may have important biological, medical, regulatory, microbial source tracking, and public health implications.

  5. Britain's nuclear workhorses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, A.E.

    1975-01-01

    Britain's record in the field of nuclear power is briefly summarised. The success of the Magnox reactors is attributed to their reliability, good safety record, and the competitiveness of the fuel costs. The GR stations are expected to prove extremely valuable in spite of initial setbacks. In planning for future plant, it is suggested that the best way of utilizing the financial, human, and material resources required is by international collaboration on design and development. (U.K.)

  6. Britain at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    H. E. Mr Christopher Hulse, Ambassador of United Kingdom in Switzerland, CERN Director General Luciano Maiani, Sir David Wright, Chief Executive of British Trade International and Roger Cashmore, CERN Director of research visit the Britain at CERN exhibition. From 14 to 17 November 30 British companies exhibited leading edge technologies at CERN. This is Britain's 18th exhibition at CERN since 1968. Out of the 30 companies, which attended the Britain at CERN exhibition in 1998, 25 have received an order or a contract relating to CERN during the last two years. The exhibition was inaugurated on Tuesday by Sir David Wright, Chief Executive of British Trade International. He was accompanied by H.E. Mr Christopher Hulse CMG, OBE, Her Majesty's Ambassador to Switzerland, and Mr. David Roberts, Deputy Head of Mission and Director of Trade Promotion at the British Embassy in Bern. CERN Director-General, Professor Luciano Maiani, underlined the major contribution of British physicists to CERN, pointing out the fact ...

  7. Fertility expectations and residential mobility in Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ermisch

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is plausible that people take into account anticipated changes in family size in choosing where to live. But estimation of the impact of anticipated events on current transitions in an event history framework is challenging because expectations must be measured in some way and, like indicators of past childbearing, expected future childbearing may be endogenous with respect to housing decisions. Objective: The objective of the study is to estimate how expected changes in family size affect residential movement in Great Britain in a way which addresses these challenges. Methods: We use longitudinal data from a mature 18-wave panel survey, the British Household Panel Survey, which incorporates a direct measure of fertility expectations. The statistical methods allow for the potential endogeneity of expectations in our estimation and testing framework. Results: We produce evidence consistent with the idea that past childbearing mainly affects residential mobility through expectations of future childbearing, not directly through the number of children in the household. But there is heterogeneity in response. In particular, fertility expectations have a much greater effect on mobility among women who face lower costs of mobility, such as private tenants. Conclusions: Our estimates indicate that expecting to have a(nother child in the future increases the probability of moving by about 0.036 on average, relative to an average mobility rate of 0.14 per annum in our sample. Contribution: Our contribution is to incorporate anticipation of future events into an empirical model of residential mobility. We also shed light on how childbearing affects mobility.

  8. Changes in Cognitive Functions in the Elderly Living in Temporary Housing after the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiko Ishiki

    Full Text Available On March 11, 2011, Japan experienced an earthquake of magnitude 9.0 and subsequent enormous tsunamis. This disaster destroyed many coastal cities and caused nearly 20,000 casualties. In the aftermath of the disaster, many tsunami survivors who lost their homes were forced to live in small temporary apartments. Although all tsunami survivors were at risk of deteriorating health, the elderly people were particularly at a great risk with regard to not only their physical health but also their mental health. In the present study, we performed a longitudinal cohort study to investigate and analyze health conditions and cognitive functions at 28, 32, and 42 months after the disaster in the elderly people who were forced to reside in temporary apartments in Kesennuma, a city severely damaged by the tsunamis. The ratio of people considered to be cognitively impaired significantly increased during the research period. On the other hand, the mean scores of the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale-6 and Athens Insomnia Scale improved based on the comparison between the data at 24 and 42 months. The multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that frequency of "out-of-home activities" and "walking duration" were independently associated with an increase in the ratio of people with cognitive impairment. We concluded that the elderly people living in temporary apartments were at a high risk of cognitive impairment and "out-of-home activities" and "walking" could possibly maintain the stability of cognitive functions.

  9. A composite perspective on British living standards during the Industrial Revolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallardo Albarrán, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Few topics in economic history have received more attention than the profound transformations undergone by Great Britain during the 18th and 19th century. Even though the positive outcomes of this process for human living standards nowadays are not disputed, the same does not apply to the century

  10. Reviews Book: Voyage to the Heart of the Matter: The ATLAS Experiment at CERN Equipment: SEP Spectroscope Books: Quantum Gods / The Universe Places to visit: The Royal Institution of Great Britain Book: What is this Thing Called Science? Book: Don't be Such a Scientist: Talking Substance in the Age of Style Equipment: La Crosse Anemometer Book: Wonder and Delight Web Watch

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    WE RECOMMEND SEP Spectroscope Flatpacked classroom equipment for pupils aged 10 and over Quantum Gods Book attacks spiritualism and religion with physics The Universe Study of whether physics alone can explain origin of universe La Crosse Anemometer Handheld monitor is packed with useful features Wonder and Delight Essays in science education in honour of Eric Rogers WORTH A LOOK Voyage to the Heart of the Matter: The ATLAS Experiment at CERN Pop-up book explains background to complex physics The Royal Institution of Great Britain RI museum proves interesting but not ideal for teaching What is this Thing Called Science? Theory and history of science in an opinionated study Don't be Such a Scientist: Talking Substance in the Age of Style Explanation of how science is best communicated to the public WEB WATCH Particle physics simulations vary in complexity, usefulness and how well they work

  11. Grammar of Kove: An Austronesian Language of the West New Britain Province, Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hiroko

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation is a descriptive grammar of Kove, an Austronesian language spoken in the West New Britain Province of Papua New Guinea. Kove is primarily spoken in 18 villages, including some on the small islands north of New Britain. There are about 9,000 people living in the area, but many are not fluent speakers of Kove. The dissertation…

  12. BRITAIN AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Abel/SPL

    2002-01-01

    12 - 14 November 2002 Administration Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09h30 - 17h00 OPENING CEREMONY 10h00 - 12 November Twenty-seven companies will present their latest technology at the 'Britain at CERN' exhibition. The British industry will exhibit products and technologies, which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technologies, gas detection, power supplies, welding, precision machined mechanical components, special metals, electronics, control and communication cables, particle detectors. The exhibition is being organised by the BEAMA, Federation of British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturers' Associations. There follows: the list of exhibitors, A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Divisional secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition. LIST OF EXHIBITORS Accles & Pollock Argon Services BlueArc UK Ltd BOC Edwards Cadburn-MDC Ltd Calder Industrial Materials Essex...

  13. BRITAIN AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    12 - 14 November 2002 Administration Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09h30 - 17h00 OPENING CEREMONY 10h00 - 12 November Twenty-seven companies will present their latest technology at the 'Britain at CERN' exhibition. The British industry will exhibit products and technologies, which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technologies, gas detection, power supplies, welding, precision machined mechanical components, special metals, electronics, control and communication cables, particle detectors. The exhibition is being organised by the BEAMA, Federation of British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturers' Associations. There follows: the list of exhibitors, A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Divisional secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition. LIST OF EXHIBITORS Accles & Pollock Argon Services BlueArc UK Ltd BOC Edwards Cadburn-MDC Ltd Calder Industrial Materials E...

  14. BRITAIN AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Abel/SPL-PS

    2002-01-01

    12 - 14 November 2002 Administration Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09h30 - 17h00 OPENING CEREMONY 10h00 - 12 November Twenty-seven companies will present their latest technology at the 'Britain at CERN' exhibition. The British industry will exhibit products and technologies, which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technologies, gas detection, power supplies, welding, precision machined mechanical components, special metals, electronics, control and communication cables, particle detectors. The exhibition is being organised by the BEAMA, Federation of British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturers' Associations. There follows: the list of exhibitors, A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Divisional secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition. LIST OF EXHIBITORS Accles & Pollock Argon Services BOC Edwards Cadburn-MDC Ltd Calder Industrial Materials Essex X-Ray &...

  15. BRITAIN AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    14 - 17 November 2000 Administration Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09.00 hrs - 17.30 hrs Twenty-nine companies will present their latest technology at the “Britain at CERN” exhibition. The British industry will exhibit products and technologies, which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technologies, gas detection, power supplies, welding, precision machined mechanical components, special metals, electronics, control and communication cables, particle detectors. The exhibition is being organised by the BEAMA, Federation of British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturers’ Associations. There follows: the list of exhibitors A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Divisional secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition. LIST OF EXHIBITORS 1. A S Scientific Products Ltd 2. BICC General UK 3. BOC Edwards 4. D+J Fabrications (Atherton) Ltd 5. Data Systems & Solutions (Advanced Con...

  16. BRITAIN AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    14 - 17 November 2000 Administration Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09.00 hrs - 17.30 hrs (Friday 09h00-12h00) Thirty companies will present their latest technology at the “Britain at CERN” exhibition. The British industry will exhibit products and technologies, which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technologies, gas detection, power supplies, welding, precision machined mechanical components, special metals, electronics, control and communication cables, particle detectors. The exhibition is being organised by the BEAMA, Federation of British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturers’ Associations. There follows: the list of exhibitors the list of lectures. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Divisional secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition. LIST OF EXHIBITORS 1. A S Scientific Products Ltd 2. BICC General UK (Pirelli Cables) 3. BOC Edwards 4. D+J Fabrications (Atherto...

  17. "Roots" in Britain: A Uses and Gratifications Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, K. Kyoon; Robinson, John P.

    A study was undertaken to investigate, from a uses and gratifications perspective, the effects of serious television drama shown in a foreign country. Specifically, the study examined the impact of "Roots," a highly acclaimed American television drama on slavery, in Great Britain and provided comparisons with the findings of…

  18. Juvenile delinquency and correctional treatment in Britain

    OpenAIRE

    堀尾, 良弘; ホリオ, ヨシヒロ; Yoshihiro, Horio

    2006-01-01

    Japanese modernistic culture is influenced not a little from Britain. In looking at the Juvenile Law and the history of correctional treatment in Britain, understanding of today's juvenile delinquency and treatment deepen. Moreover, the background and issue of juvenile delinquency in Britain are also discussed. As a feature of the juvenile delinquency in Britain, the common field with Japan and the field peculiar to Britain became clear in each. It is common to the world that the juvenile del...

  19. Social Policy and Immigrant Joblessness in Britain, Germany and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, Christel

    2006-01-01

    I examine patterns of joblessness among immigrant men and women from 33 countries of origin now living in Britain, Germany and Sweden. Access to welfare, access to the labor market, job segregation and institutional support for women's employment define distinct policy configurations in these three destinations. Findings show that gaps in…

  20. Punjabi Childrearing in Britain: Development of Identity, Religion and Bilingualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosanjh, J. S.; Ghuman, Paul A. S.

    1997-01-01

    Interviewed two generations of Punjabi mothers living in Britain. Found that while second-generation Punjabis are changing some traditional mores (equal treatment of boys and girls, modified system of arranged marriage), they are also eager to transmit the core values (religion, mother tongue, familial spirit) of their culture and want their…

  1. Nuclear energy policy in Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fishlock, David.

    1978-01-01

    The history of nuclear energy development in Britain is outlined. Presently three major strategic decisions remain undecided. One is the choice of a thermal reactor type for the steady expansion of nuclear electricity capacity until the end of this century. Another is the reprocessing of spent oxide fuel which at present offers Britain its most promising foreign market. The third one is the future of fast breeders after the successfull demonstration of the 250 MWe prototype reactor at Dounreay [fr

  2. Activity Patterns during Food Provisioning Are Affected by Artificial Light in Free Living Great Tits (Parus major)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Titulaer, M.; Spoelstra, K.; Lange, C.Y.M.J.G.; Visser, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Artificial light may have severe ecological consequences but there is limited experimental work to assess these consequences. We carried out an experimental study on a wild population of great tits (Parus major) to assess the impact of light pollution on daily activity patterns during the chick

  3. Great Expectations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickens, Charles

    2005-01-01

    One of Dickens's most renowned and enjoyable novels, Great Expectations tells the story of Pip, an orphan boy who wishes to transcend his humble origins and finds himself unexpectedly given the opportunity to live a life of wealth and respectability. Over the course of the tale, in which Pip

  4. Influence of living environment and subjective economic hardship on new-onset of low back pain for survivors of the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabe, Yutaka; Hagiwara, Yoshihiro; Sekiguchi, Takuya; Sugawara, Yumi; Sato, Mari; Kanazawa, Kenji; Koide, Masashi; Itaya, Nobuyuki; Tsuchiya, Masahiro; Tsuji, Ichiro; Itoi, Eiji

    2017-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake and subsequent tsunami devastated the northeastern part of Japan. Low back pain is thought to increase after a natural disaster and is related to various factors. The aim of this study was to examine the influencing factors of "Living environment" and "Subjective economic hardship" on new-onset of low back pain in the chronic phase for the survivors of the earthquake evaluated by a self-report questionnaire. A panel study was conducted with the Great East Japan Earthquake survivors at 2 and 3 years after the disaster. New-onset of low back pain was defined as low back pain absent at the 1st period (2 years after the earthquake) and present at the 2nd period (3 years after the earthquake). Living environment was divided into 4 categories (1. Living in the same house as before the earthquake, 2. Living in a prefabricated house, 3. Living in a new house, 4. Others: Living in an apartment, house of relatives or acquaintance). Subjective economic hardship was obtained using the following self-report question: "How do you feel about the current economic situation of your household?" The response alternatives were "Normal", "A little bit hard", "Hard", and "Very hard". A univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used. 1357 survivors consented to join this study. There was no significant association between new-onset of low back pain and living environment. There was significant association between new-onset of low back pain and "A little hard" (OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.07-2.40), "Hard" (OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.56-3.74), and "Very hard" (OR = 3.19, 95% CI = 1.84-5.53) in subjective economic hardship. Subjective economic hardship was significantly associated with new-onset of low back pain in the chronic phase for survivors of the Great East Japan Earthquake. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Weight Gain in Survivors Living in Temporary Housing in the Tsunami-Stricken Area during the Recovery Phase following the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Shuko; Yonekura, Yuki; Sasaki, Ryohei; Yokoyama, Yukari; Tanno, Kozo; Sakata, Kiyomi; Ogawa, Akira; Kobayashi, Seichiro; Yamamoto, Taro

    2016-01-01

    Survivors who lost their homes in the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami were forced to live in difficult conditions in temporary housing several months after the disaster. Body weights of survivors living in temporary housing for a long period might increase due to changes in their life style and psychosocial state during the medium-term and long-term recovery phases. The aim of this study was to determine whether there were differences between body weight changes of people living in temporary housing and those not living in temporary housing in a tsunami-stricken area during the medium-term and long-term recovery phases. Health check-ups were performed about 7 months after the disaster (in 2011) and about 18 months after the disaster (in 2012) for people living in a tsunami-stricken area (n = 6,601, mean age = 62.3 y). We compared the changes in body weight in people living in temporary housing (TH group, n = 2,002) and those not living in temporary housing (NTH group, n = 4,599) using a multiple linear regression model. While there was no significant difference between body weights in the TH and NTH groups in the 2011 survey, there was a significant difference between the mean changes in body weight in both sexes. We found that the changes in body weight were significantly greater in the TH group than in the NTH group in both sexes. The partial regression coefficients of mean change in body weight were +0.52 kg (P-value tsunami- stricken area had a significant increase in body weight.

  6. Great Apes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeman, Jonathan M.; Cerveny, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    Anesthesia of great apes is often necessary to conduct diagnostic analysis, provide therapeutics, facilitate surgical procedures, and enable transport and translocation for conservation purposes. Due to the stress of remote delivery injection of anesthetic agents, recent studies have focused on oral delivery and/or transmucosal absorption of preanesthetic and anesthetic agents. Maintenance of the airway and provision of oxygen is an important aspect of anesthesia in great ape species. The provision of analgesia is an important aspect of the anesthesia protocol for any procedure involving painful stimuli. Opioids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are often administered alone, or in combination to provide multi-modal analgesia. There is increasing conservation management of in situ great ape populations, which has resulted in the development of field anesthesia techniques for free-living great apes for the purposes of translocation, reintroduction into the wild, and clinical interventions.

  7. Activity patterns during food provisioning are affected by artificial light in free living great tits (Parus major.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieke Titulaer

    Full Text Available Artificial light may have severe ecological consequences but there is limited experimental work to assess these consequences. We carried out an experimental study on a wild population of great tits (Parus major to assess the impact of light pollution on daily activity patterns during the chick provisioning period. Pairs that were provided with a small light outside their nest box did not alter the onset, cessation or duration of their working day. There was however a clear effect of artificial light on the feeding rate in the second half of the nestling period: when provided with artificial light females increased their feeding rate when the nestlings were between 9 and 16 days old. Artificial light is hypothesised to have affected the perceived photoperiod of either the parents or the offspring which in turn led to increased parental care. This may have negative fitness consequences for the parents, and light pollution may thus create an ecological trap for breeding birds.

  8. News on the development of nuclear energy in Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oppenfeld, M. von

    1991-01-01

    Governmental influence on public utilities and on the government-controlled nuclear industry so far has been much stronger than in the Federal Republic. This influence was cut back considerable when denationalization pursuant to the Electricity Act 1989 took effect, but not for the nuclear industry. Despite governmental declarations to the contrary, the big reactor building program has shrunk to one started reactor being finished. The reasons for turning away from nuclear energy are not so much to be found with the greens, who have little influence because of majority suffrage, but with orientating at short-term maximization of profits as a result of the denationalization process which prevents at present the realization of financing large-scale projects in the field of nuclear energy on a long-term basis. With the Magnox reactors coming to the end of their working life and neither coal-fired power stations nor nuclear power plants being built, with the exception of Sizewell II, this situation will sooner or later lead to an out-of-date power plant pool, and considerations concerning power plant capacities (including nuclear reactors) will become necessary. As regards reprocessing, the abandonment of Wackersdorf has led to the Internal Market being already anticipated by long-term contracts concluded with BNF. (orig./HSCH) [de

  9. Probabilistic soil moisture projections to assess Great Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Pritchard, Oliver; Hallett, Stephen; Farewell, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    This research was presented at the Lloyds Science of Risk Prize 2015 as a shortlisted entry into the category 'Big Data Analytics and Machine Learning'. It is a research paper now published in Climatic Change: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10584-015-1486-z 

  10. Minerals Planning Policies and Supply Practices in Great Britain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ike, P.; van der Molen, S.D.A.

    Table of Contents: 1 Country background. 2 General description of the mineral industry. 3 National system legislation governing ownership resources. 4 National system governing securing supply of minerals. 5 Land use planning. 6 Evaluation of sustainability of mineral supply. 7 Identification of the

  11. The Effects of Great Britain's Exit from the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarița Adrian

    2017-01-01

    The withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the European Union directly influences the economicdevelopment of Romania, which will force our country to take all the necessary measures in thecurrent economic conjuncture in order to anchor in the international trade relations.

  12. Farmers' current attitudes to energy forestry in Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tranter, R.B.; Carruthers, S.P.; Jones, P.J.; Miller, F.A.

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of the project were twofold: first, to assess the current level of interest in energy coppice among farmers in GB and, hence, its present potential as a farm enterprise; and, second, to gauge the effects of any changes in the agricultural situation and in the 'state-of-the-art' of energy coppice that have occurred since a similar study was carried out some five years ago. (Author)

  13. Genetically significant dose from diagnostic radiology in Great Britain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darby, S C; Wall, B F [National Radiological Protection Board, Harwell (UK)

    1981-01-01

    A brief discussion is presented of the use of population and child expectancy data to estimate the annual genetically significant dose for diagnostic radiology (GSD). The current estimate of GSD is compared with that reported in a survey 20 years previously. Comparisons are made with estimates of GSD from other countries.

  14. The multilayer temporal network of public transport in Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallotti, Riccardo; Barthelemy, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Despite the widespread availability of information concerning public transport coming from different sources, it is extremely hard to have a complete picture, in particular at a national scale. Here, we integrate timetable data obtained from the United Kingdom open-data program together with timetables of domestic flights, and obtain a comprehensive snapshot of the temporal characteristics of the whole UK public transport system for a week in October 2010. In order to focus on multi-modal aspects of the system, we use a coarse graining procedure and define explicitly the coupling between different transport modes such as connections at airports, ferry docks, rail, metro, coach and bus stations. The resulting weighted, directed, temporal and multilayer network is provided in simple, commonly used formats, ensuring easy access and the possibility of a straightforward use of old or specifically developed methods on this new and extensive dataset.

  15. The System of Teacher Education Management in Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chychuk, Antonina

    2015-01-01

    The system of teacher education management, namely, forms and principles of teacher education management according to the normative base (Education Reform Act (1988); Education Act (1992; 1993; 1996; 1997; 2002); School Standards and Framework Act (1998); Higher Education Act (2004), etc.), monitoring and participation of the public in its…

  16. Great Britain prepares permanent storage of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    A brief outline is presented of the background and reasearch programme for the disposal of vitrified radioactive wastes in granite formations in the United Kingdom. This programme is coordinated with those of other member countries of EC, financed by EC, in which Germany, Italy Belgium and Holland study formations such as clay and salt, while the UK and France study hard crystalline rocks, such as granite. The UK studies are concentrated on Newton Stewart in Scotland where the granite at grent depths is thought to be free from cracks, in the North of England and in Cornwall. Heat transfer studies are to be done in Cornwall where the rock is so cracked as to be otherwise unuseable. A public meeting with representatives from local authorities and Parliament has been held in Newton Stewart to inform on the project. (JIW)

  17. Eight Personal Characteristics Associated with the Power to Live with Disasters as Indicated by Survivors of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake Disaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoaki Sugiura

    Full Text Available People perceive, judge, and behave differently in disasters and in a wide range of other difficult situations depending on their personal characteristics. The power to live, as captured by characteristics that are advantageous for survival in such situations, has thus far been modeled in arbitrary ways. Conceptualizing such characteristics in more objective ways may be helpful for systematic preparations for future disasters and life difficulties. Here, we attempted to identify the major factors of the power to live by summarizing the opinions of survivors of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake disaster. We conducted personal interviews with 78 survivors about their survival experiences and elicited their opinions about the power to live as relevant to those experiences. We then incorporated these opinions into a questionnaire that was completed by 1400 survivors. Factor analysis identified eight factors related to the power to live: leadership, problem solving, altruism, stubbornness, etiquette, emotional regulation, self-transcendence, and active well-being. All factors had sufficient internal construct validity, and six of them showed significant associations with one or more measures of survival success in the disaster, including immediate tsunami evacuation, problem solving in refugee situations, recovery during reconstruction, physical health, and mental health. Overall, the personal characteristics described by the eight factors largely overlap with those described in previous arbitrary models. Further research should investigate the domains, phases, and contexts in which each factor contributes to survival, address whether the factors are rooted in nature or in nurture, and explore their psychological or physiological bases.

  18. Eight Personal Characteristics Associated with the Power to Live with Disasters as Indicated by Survivors of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake Disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Motoaki; Sato, Shosuke; Nouchi, Rui; Honda, Akio; Abe, Tsuneyuki; Muramoto, Toshiaki; Imamura, Fumihiko

    2015-01-01

    People perceive, judge, and behave differently in disasters and in a wide range of other difficult situations depending on their personal characteristics. The power to live, as captured by characteristics that are advantageous for survival in such situations, has thus far been modeled in arbitrary ways. Conceptualizing such characteristics in more objective ways may be helpful for systematic preparations for future disasters and life difficulties. Here, we attempted to identify the major factors of the power to live by summarizing the opinions of survivors of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake disaster. We conducted personal interviews with 78 survivors about their survival experiences and elicited their opinions about the power to live as relevant to those experiences. We then incorporated these opinions into a questionnaire that was completed by 1400 survivors. Factor analysis identified eight factors related to the power to live: leadership, problem solving, altruism, stubbornness, etiquette, emotional regulation, self-transcendence, and active well-being. All factors had sufficient internal construct validity, and six of them showed significant associations with one or more measures of survival success in the disaster, including immediate tsunami evacuation, problem solving in refugee situations, recovery during reconstruction, physical health, and mental health. Overall, the personal characteristics described by the eight factors largely overlap with those described in previous arbitrary models. Further research should investigate the domains, phases, and contexts in which each factor contributes to survival, address whether the factors are rooted in nature or in nurture, and explore their psychological or physiological bases.

  19. The Bible in America and Britain at War

    OpenAIRE

    MacDonald, Nathan

    2017-01-01

    This year marks the centenary of America’s entrance into what was known as the Great War on the side of France and Great Britain. On April 6, 1917, having passed both the Senate and the House of Representatives, the United States of America declared war against Germany. Whereas the Imperial German Government has committed repeated acts of war against the people of the United States of America: Therefore, be it Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of...

  20. Female genital mutilation in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, J A; Debelle, G D

    1995-06-17

    The practice of female genital mutilation predates the founding of both Christianity and Islam. Though largely confined among Muslims, the operation is also practiced in some Christian communities in Africa such that female genital mutilation takes place in various forms in more than twenty African countries, Oman, Yemen, the United Arab Emirates, and by some Muslims in Malaysia and Indonesia. In recent decades, ethnic groups which practice female genital mutilation have immigrated to Britain. The main groups are from Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia, and Yemen. In their own countries, an estimated 80% of women have had the operation. Female genital mutilation has been illegal in Britain since 1985, but it is practiced illegally or children are sent abroad to undergo the operation typically at age 7-9 years. It is a form of child abuse which poses special problems. The authors review the history of female genital mutilation and describe its medical complications. Assuming that the size of the population in Britain of ethnic groups which practice or favor female genital mutilation remains more or less unchanged, adaptation and acculturation will probably cause the practice to die out within a few generations. Meanwhile, there is much to be done. A conspiracy of silence exists in medical circles as well as widespread ignorance. Moreover, none of a number of well-known obstetric and pediatric textbooks mentions female genital mutilation, while the National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children has neither information nor instructional material. It is high time that the problem was more widely and openly discussed.

  1. Great Men, Great Deeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Charles W.

    1985-01-01

    An excellent way to teach history is by focusing on the lives of individual historical figures. History is the story of living persons, who for good or ill have made history as it is. To understand history, students must learn about the men and women who shaped events. (RM)

  2. Youth, Terrorism and Education: Britain's Prevent Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Since the 7/7 bombings of July 2005, Britain has experienced a domestic terror threat posed by a small minority of young Muslims. In response, Britain has initiated "Prevent," a preventative counter-terrorism programme. Building on previous, general critiques of Prevent, this article outlines and critically discusses the ways in which…

  3. Young People in Britain. CRE Factsheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commission for Racial Equality, London (England).

    This factsheet provides information about young people from ethnic minorities in Britain. In spring 1997, 48% of the ethnic minority population of Britain was under 24 years of age, in comparison with 31% of the White population. Twenty-two percent of the ethnic minority population was of compulsory school age, compared with 14% of the White…

  4. Education and Training in Britain. CRE Factsheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commission for Racial Equality, London (England).

    This factsheet provides information about education and training in Britain for people from nonWhite ethnic groups. In spring 1997, 545,000 men and women of working age from nonWhite ethnic groups in Britain were receiving education and training in schools, colleges, and universities and through other courses, compared with an average of 15% of…

  5. Myxomatosis in 1950s Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartrip, P W J

    2008-01-01

    In 1953 myxomatosis, a viral disease of rabbits, broke out in Britain for the first time. It rapidly killed tens of millions of the animals from Kent to the Shetlands. Many farmers and foresters welcomed a disease that virtually eliminated a longstanding and serious agricultural pest. Others were horrified by the sight of thousands of dead and dying animals. With meat still rationed, consumers rued the loss of a cheap and nutritious foodstuff. Rough shooters deplored the loss of prey and hatters and furriers the unavailability of the fur on which their businesses depended. Rabbits also had champions within the 'establishment'; these included Winston Churchill who was personally influential in making deliberate transmission of the disease a criminal offence. The arrival in Britain of myxomatosis presented the authorities with difficult questions: should they try to contain it, spread it or do nothing; should they take advantage of rabbit depopulation and try to exterminate such a destructive animal? In the event the outbreak was allowed to run its course and rabbit extermination became government policy. This article considers who or what was responsible for the disease reaching the UK and how it then spread throughout the country. It examines the responses of government, other institutions and members of the public. Finally, it explores the impact of rabbit de-population on agriculture, the natural environment and public opinion.

  6. Sexual health of ethnic minority MSM in Britain (MESH project: design and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Low Nicola

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Men who have sex with men (MSM remain the group most at risk of acquiring HIV infection in Britain. HIV prevalence appears to vary widely between MSM from different ethnic minority groups in this country for reasons that are not fully understood. The aim of the MESH project was to examine in detail the sexual health of ethnic minority MSM living in Britain. Methods/Design The main objectives of the MESH project were to explore among ethnic minority MSM living in Britain: (i sexual risk behaviour and HIV prevalence; (ii their experience of stigma and discrimination; (iii disclosure of sexuality; (iv use of, and satisfaction with sexual health services; (v the extent to which sexual health services (for treatment and prevention are aware of the needs of ethnic minority MSM. The research was conducted between 2006 and 2008 in four national samples: (i ethnic minority MSM living in Britain; (ii a comparison group of white British MSM living in Britain; (iii NHS sexual health clinic staff in 15 British towns and cities with significant ethnic minority communities and; (iv sexual health promotion/HIV prevention service providers. We also recruited men from two "key migrant" groups living in Britain: MSM born in Central or Eastern Europe and MSM born in Central or South America. Internet-based quantitative and qualitative research methods were used. Ethnic minority MSM were recruited through advertisements on websites, in community venues, via informal networks and in sexual health clinics. White and "key migrant" MSM were recruited mostly through Gaydar, one of the most popular dating sites used by gay men in Britain. MSM who agreed to take part completed a questionnaire online. Ethnic minority MSM who completed the online questionnaire were asked if they would be willing to take part in an online qualitative interview using email. Service providers were identified through the British Association of Sexual Health and HIV (BASHH and

  7. Britain between the wars: the historical context of Bowlby's theory of attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcombe, N; Lerner, J C

    1982-02-01

    As developmental psychology "comes of age," there is increasing interest in tracing the history of thought and research concerning children (Lomax, Kagan, and Rosenkrantz 1978; Sears 1975; Senn 1975). Such an enterprise offers the possibility of providing not only a descriptive chronicle of personal or anecdotal interest, but a basis for insights into how our ideas have been shaped by the cultural context in which they were developed. It is, for instance, by now commonplace to note that much of Freud's thought should be seen in the context of 19th-century Vienna, and that many of his perceptions may have been correct for the individuals he observed although they may fail as immutable observations of human behavior in general (see, e.g., Mitchell 1974). The present paper explores the cultural and historical context of another major theorist of child development, John Bowlby. The early origins of Bowlby's theory are sought in events set in train in Britain by the First World War, and occurring during the interwar period. This may surprise readers who think of Bowlby's work as beginning with the WHO Report (Bowlby 1951) and consequently as related to the Second World War, to observations by Burlingham and Freud (1942, 1944) of children separated from their families, and to Spitz's (Spitz and Wolf 1946) work on infants in foundling homes and orphanages. But formulations in the WHO report clearly appear in Bowlby's work before World War II and are also evident in the writings of Klein (1935, 1940) and Suttie (1935), who were working on themes first drawn into focus during the first World War. In a personal interview, Bowlby identified 1929 as the time when he was first struck by the importance of separation in children's lives. Thus, this paper focuses on the effect of the "Great War" on psychoanalytic thought and, more generally, on psychiatry in Britain.

  8. Britain honours its particle physicists

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental particle physicists figure among the winners for 2004 of Britain's most prestigious prizes for physics, awarded by the Institute of Physics (IOP). The IOP's own Paul Dirac medal and prize, goes to this year to CERN's John Ellis for "his highly influential work on particle-physics phenomenology; in particular on the properties of gluons, the Higgs boson and the top quark". One of the institute's premier wards, it is made for outstanding contributions to theoretical (including mathematical and computational) physics. The Duddell medal and prize, in memory of William du Bois Duddell, the inventor of the electromagnetic oscillograph, is awarded for outstanding contributions to the advancement of knowledge through the application of physics, including the invention or design of scientific instruments or the discovery of materials used in their construction. It is shared this year by Geoff Hall, of Imperial College London, Alessandro Marchioro from CERN and Peter Sharp of the Rutherfor...

  9. Multiculturalism as Governmentality in Britain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinding, Niels Valdemar

    Britain has been a multicultural nation for the better part of the past century, but multiculturalism has only manifested itself as a political phenomenon roughly since the Rushdie affair. Multiculturalism did not emerge as a proactive political initiative, but became a strategy for solving...... the problems ushered in by the multicultural society. Specifically, the challenges arose following the recent history immigration and emerged as discrimination, hate speech, reaffirmed religious identities, terrorism and radicalism. These challenges and politics of British multiculturalism have been studied...... be understood as the guiding principles of the modern British state? Is a multicultural politics, as applied by the British government, the better strategy for solving the problems and reaffirming its position as the immediately apparent governing institution of society?...

  10. Occupation and cancer in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, L; Bagga, S; Bevan, R; Brown, T P; Cherrie, J W; Holmes, P; Fortunato, L; Slack, R; Van Tongeren, M; Young, C; Hutchings, S J

    2010-04-27

    Prioritising control measures for occupationally related cancers should be evidence based. We estimated the current burden of cancer in Britain attributable to past occupational exposures for International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) group 1 (established) and 2A (probable) carcinogens. We calculated attributable fractions and numbers for cancer mortality and incidence using risk estimates from the literature and national data sources to estimate proportions exposed. 5.3% (8019) cancer deaths were attributable to occupation in 2005 (men, 8.2% (6362); women, 2.3% (1657)). Attributable incidence estimates are 13 679 (4.0%) cancer registrations (men, 10 063 (5.7%); women, 3616 (2.2%)). Occupational attributable fractions are over 2% for mesothelioma, sinonasal, lung, nasopharynx, breast, non-melanoma skin cancer, bladder, oesophagus, soft tissue sarcoma, larynx and stomach cancers. Asbestos, shift work, mineral oils, solar radiation, silica, diesel engine exhaust, coal tars and pitches, occupation as a painter or welder, dioxins, environmental tobacco smoke, radon, tetrachloroethylene, arsenic and strong inorganic mists each contribute 100 or more registrations. Industries and occupations with high cancer registrations include construction, metal working, personal and household services, mining, land transport, printing/publishing, retail/hotels/restaurants, public administration/defence, farming and several manufacturing sectors. 56% of cancer registrations in men are attributable to work in the construction industry (mainly mesotheliomas, lung, stomach, bladder and non-melanoma skin cancers) and 54% of cancer registrations in women are attributable to shift work (breast cancer). This project is the first to quantify in detail the burden of cancer and mortality due to occupation specifically for Britain. It highlights the impact of occupational exposures, together with the occupational circumstances and industrial areas where exposures to carcinogenic agents

  11. The Part-Time Pay Penalty for Women in Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Manning, Alan; Petrongolo, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Women in Britain who work part-time have, on average, hourly earnings about 25% less than that of women working full-time. This gap has widened greatly over the past 30 years. This paper tries to explain this part-time pay penalty. It shows that a sizeable part of the penalty can be explained by the differing characteristics pf FT and PT women. Inclusion of standard demographics halves the estimate of the pay penalty. But inclusion of occupation makes the pay penalty very small, suggesting th...

  12. Agricultural Extension: Farm Extension Services in Australia, Britain and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Donald B.

    By analyzing the scope and structure of agricultural extension services in Australia, Great Britain, and the United States, this work attempts to set guidelines for measuring progress and guiding extension efforts. Extension training, agricultural policy, and activities of national, international, state, and provincial bodies are examined. The…

  13. The changing face of britain -images and reality-

    OpenAIRE

    John,Herbert

    2012-01-01

    There are many famous images of Britain held by people in Japan. Those images can be wide-ranging, influenced by tourist trips to Britain, television programs or school textbooks. Some of the populer images include things such as Royal weddings and "kiri on London" (foggy London). However, are these images truly representative of modern Britain? Other cultures, inbluding Japan, are changing the face of Britain in many ways. This lecture shows how Britain is changing, and ezamines some of the ...

  14. The development of genetic resistance to myxomatosis in wild rabbits in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, J; Sanders, M F

    1984-06-01

    The presence of genetic resistance to myxomatosis in a sample of wild rabbits from one area in England was reported in 1977. Rabbits from three other areas in Great Britain have been tested subsequently, and all cases showed similar resistance to a moderately virulent strain of myxoma virus. Rabbits from one area also showed a significant degree of resistance to a fully virulent strain of virus. It is concluded that genetic resistance to myxomatosis is widespread in wild rabbit populations in Britain. The implications of the results are discussed in relation to the co-evolution of the disease and its host.

  15. Communication Received from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Concerning its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium. Statements on the Management of Plutonium and of High Enriched Uranium; Comunicacion recibida del Reino Unido de Gran Bretana e Irlanda del Norte en relacion con sus politicas referentes a la gestion del plutonio. Declaraciones sobre la gestion del plutonio y del uranio muy enriquecido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-19

    The Secretariat has received a note verbale dated 6 June 2011 from the Permanent Mission of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines') and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for its holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2010 [Spanish] La Secretaria ha recibido una nota verbal, de fecha 6 de junio de 2011, de la Mision Permanente del Reino Unido de Gran Bretana e Irlanda del Norte ante el OIEA, en cuyos anexos el Gobierno, en cumplimiento de su compromiso contraido en virtud de las Directrices para la gestion del plutonio (transcritas en el documento INFCIRC/549 de 22 de junio de 1998 y denominadas en adelante las 'directrices') y de conformidad con los anexos B y C de las directrices, presenta las cifras anuales de sus existencias de plutonio no irradiado de uso civil y las cantidades estimadas de plutonio contenido en el combustible gastado de reactores de uso civil, a 31 de diciembre de 2010.

  16. Communication Received from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Concerning its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium. Statements on the Management of Plutonium and of High Enriched Uranium; Comunicacion recibida del Reino Unido de Gran Bretana e Irlanda del Norte en relacion con sus politicas referentes a la gestion del plutonio. Declaraciones sobre la gestion del plutonio y del uranio muy enriquecido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-09-13

    The Secretariat has received a note verbale dated 28 July 2010 from the Permanent Mission of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines'), and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for its holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2009 [Spanish] La Secretaria ha recibido una nota verbal, de fecha 28 de julio de 2010, de la Mision Permanente del Reino Unido de Gran Bretana e Irlanda del Norte ante el OIEA, en cuyos anexos el Gobierno, en cumplimiento de su compromiso contraido en virtud de las Directrices para la gestion del plutonio (transcritas en el documento INFCIRC/549 de 16 de marzo de 1998 y denominadas en adelante las 'directrices') y de conformidad con los anexos B y C de las directrices, presenta las cifras anuales de sus existencias de plutonio no irradiado de uso civil y las cantidades estimadas de plutonio contenido en el combustible gastado de reactores de uso civil, a 31 de diciembre de 2009.

  17. Communication Received from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Concerning its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium. Statements on the Management of Plutonium and of High Enriched Uranium; Comunicacion recibida del Reino Unido de Gran Bretana e Irlanda del Norte en relacion con sus politicas referentes a la gestion del plutonio. Declaraciones sobre la gestion del plutonio y del uranio muy enriquecido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-10-30

    The Secretariat has received a note verbale dated 26 June 2009 from the Permanent Mission of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines') and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for its holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2008 [Spanish] La Secretaria ha recibido una nota verbal, de fecha 26 de junio de 2009, de la Mision Permanente del Reino Unido de Gran Bretana e Irlanda del Norte ante el OIEA, en cuyos anexos el Gobierno, en cumplimiento de su compromiso contraido en virtud de las Directrices para la gestion del plutonio (transcritas en el documento INFCIRC/549 de 22 de junio de 1998 y denominadas en adelante las 'directrices') y de conformidad con los anexos B y C de las directrices, presenta las cifras anuales de sus existencias de plutonio no irradiado de uso civil y las cantidades estimadas de plutonio contenido en el combustible gastado de reactores de uso civil, a 31 de diciembre de 2008.

  18. Communication Received from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Concerning Its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium. Statements on the Management of Plutonium and of High Enriched Uranium; Comunicacion recibida del Reino Unido de Gran Bretana e Irlanda del Norte en relacion con sus politicas referentes a la gestion del plutonio. Declaraciones sobre la gestion del plutonio y del uranio muy enriquecido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-09-25

    The Secretariat has received a Note Verbale dated 23 August 2007 from the Permanent Mission of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the United Nations and the International Organizations in Vienna in the enclosures of which the Government, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines') and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for its holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2006 [Spanish] La Secretaria ha recibido una nota verbal, de fecha 23 de agosto de 2007, de la Mision Permanente del Reino Unido de Gran Bretana e Irlanda del Norte ante las Naciones Unidas y las Organizaciones Internacionales con sede en Viena, en cuyos anexos el Gobierno, en cumplimiento de su compromiso contraido en virtud de las Directrices para la gestion del plutonio (transcritas en el documento INFCIRC/549 de 16 de marzo de 1998 y denominadas en adelante las 'Directrices') y de conformidad con los anexos B y C de las Directrices, presenta las cifras anuales de sus existencias de plutonio no irradiado de uso civil y las cantidades estimadas de plutonio contenido en el combustible gastado de reactores de uso civil, a 31 de diciembre de 2006.

  19. Sources of variation in innate immunity in great tit nestlings living along a metal pollution gradient: An individual-based approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vermeulen, Anke; Müller, Wendt; Matson, Kevin D.; Irene Tieleman, B.; Bervoets, Lieven; Eens, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Excessive deposition of metals in the environment is a well-known example of pollution worldwide. Chronic exposure of organisms to metals can have a detrimental effect on reproduction, behavior, health and survival, due to the negative effects on components of the immune system. However, little is known about the effects of chronic sublethal metal exposure on immunity, especially for wildlife. In our study, we examined the constitutive innate immunity of great tit (Parus major) nestlings (N = 234) living in four populations along a metal pollution gradient. For each nestling, we determined the individual metal concentrations (lead, cadmium, arsenic) present in the red blood cells and measured four different innate immune parameters (agglutination, lysis, haptoglobin concentrations and nitric oxide concentrations) to investigate the relationship between metal exposure and immunological condition. While we found significant differences in endogenous metal concentrations among populations with the highest concentrations closest to the pollution source, we did not observe corresponding patterns in our immune measures. However, when evaluating relationships between metal concentrations and immune parameters at the individual level, we found negative effects of lead and, to a lesser extent, arsenic and cadmium on lysis. In addition, high arsenic concentrations appear to elicit inflammation, as reflected by elevated haptoglobin concentrations. Thus despite the lack of a geographic association between pollution and immunity, this type of association was present at the individual level at a very early life stage. The high variation in metal concentrations and immune measures observed within populations indicates a high level of heterogeneity along an existing pollution gradient. Interestingly, we also found substantial within nest variation, for which the sources remain unclear, and which highlights the need of an individual-based approach. - Highlights: • Innate immunity

  20. Sources of variation in innate immunity in great tit nestlings living along a metal pollution gradient: An individual-based approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermeulen, Anke, E-mail: anke.vermeulen@uantwerpen.be [Department of Biology — Ethology, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Müller, Wendt, E-mail: wendt.mueller@uantwerpen.be [Department of Biology — Ethology, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Matson, Kevin D., E-mail: k.d.matson@rug.nl [Animal Ecology Group, Centre for Ecological and Evolutionary Studies, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 11103, 9700 CC Groningen (Netherlands); The Resource Ecology Group, Department of Environmental Sciences, Wageningen University, Droevendaalsesteeg 3a, 6708PB Wageningen (Netherlands); Irene Tieleman, B., E-mail: b.i.tieleman@rug.nl [Animal Ecology Group, Centre for Ecological and Evolutionary Studies, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 11103, 9700 CC Groningen (Netherlands); Bervoets, Lieven, E-mail: lieven.bervoets@uantwerpen.be [Department of Biology — SPHERE, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Eens, Marcel, E-mail: marcel.eens@uantwerpen.be [Department of Biology — Ethology, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)

    2015-03-01

    Excessive deposition of metals in the environment is a well-known example of pollution worldwide. Chronic exposure of organisms to metals can have a detrimental effect on reproduction, behavior, health and survival, due to the negative effects on components of the immune system. However, little is known about the effects of chronic sublethal metal exposure on immunity, especially for wildlife. In our study, we examined the constitutive innate immunity of great tit (Parus major) nestlings (N = 234) living in four populations along a metal pollution gradient. For each nestling, we determined the individual metal concentrations (lead, cadmium, arsenic) present in the red blood cells and measured four different innate immune parameters (agglutination, lysis, haptoglobin concentrations and nitric oxide concentrations) to investigate the relationship between metal exposure and immunological condition. While we found significant differences in endogenous metal concentrations among populations with the highest concentrations closest to the pollution source, we did not observe corresponding patterns in our immune measures. However, when evaluating relationships between metal concentrations and immune parameters at the individual level, we found negative effects of lead and, to a lesser extent, arsenic and cadmium on lysis. In addition, high arsenic concentrations appear to elicit inflammation, as reflected by elevated haptoglobin concentrations. Thus despite the lack of a geographic association between pollution and immunity, this type of association was present at the individual level at a very early life stage. The high variation in metal concentrations and immune measures observed within populations indicates a high level of heterogeneity along an existing pollution gradient. Interestingly, we also found substantial within nest variation, for which the sources remain unclear, and which highlights the need of an individual-based approach. - Highlights: • Innate immunity

  1. Book Review Who lives where. Habitability conditions of the population living in the great Andalusian cities / Reseña Del Libro Quién vive dónde. Las condiciones de habitabilidad de la población que vive en las grandes ciudades andaluzas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Sánchez González

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Book Review Who lives where. Habitability conditions of the population living in the great Andalusian cities Reseña Del Libro Quién vive dónde. Las condiciones de habitabilidad de la población que vive en las grandes ciudades andaluzas

  2. The Marketisation of Guidance Services in Germany, France and Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Teresa; Bartlett, Will; Watts, A. G.

    1999-01-01

    Compares developments in Britain, France, and Germany, focusing on the trends toward marketing adult career guidance services. Describes how Germany's centralized system and the quasi-market based system in France might apply in Britain. (JOW)

  3. Shiatsu in Britain and Japan: Personhood, holism and embodied aesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Glyn

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, globalisation processes are examined through the prism of shiatsu, an originally Japanese, touch-based therapy, now practised in Europe, Japan, North America, and many other places. Examining this emergent plane of therapeutic practice provides an opportunity to reflect on categories of personhood, notably that of the individual, and its place within processes of globalisation. The article is divided into two parts. In the first part the holisms inherent to East Asian medical practice and underlying notions of personhood in Japan and Britain are critically examined. The seemingly reductionistic practice of 'bodily holism' in Japan is shown to reflect socio-centred notions of the person. The concept of holism animating shiatsu in a British school in London, far from being Japanese, 'ancient', or 'timeless', is shown to reflect individualism characteristic of the New Age movement. In the second part of the paper, using an auto-phenomenological approach, a description of practitioner (my own) and client's lived experience of shiatsu is given in case study form. This illustrates how 'holism' is felt within the context of a shiatsu treatment. The aesthetic form of the shiatsu touch described is shown to be implicitly individualising. This has, it is argued, profound implications for understanding the embodied dimensions of practitioner-patient encounters, the potential efficacy of treatment, and more generally the practice of globalised East Asian 'holistic' therapies in Britain and other settings.

  4. How Britain underdeveloped Bechuanaland protectorate: a brief ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Britain declared Bechuanaland a 'protectorate' in 1885 in a move largely driven by military strategic considerations rather than by the availability of economic resources. This can give the impression that in Botswana the process of economic underdevelopment that is often associated with colonialism never took place in this ...

  5. The Long American Grain Invasion of Britain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Paul Richard

    and Britain. Both trade statistics and contemporary comment reveal the importance of this trade from the middle to late eighteenth century, long before the so-called grain invasion of the late nineteenth century. Using data on imports from America and a large volume of substantiating primary evidence...

  6. Cohousing in Britain - a Diggers & Dreamers Review

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Book provides a comprehensive review of what has been happening with cohousing projects in Britain to date, and particularly since 2004 publication of Thinking about Cohousing. M Field has been guest editor and devised main format and content of the book, writing various sections and engaging other contributors across the sector

  7. Living the Utopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, John; Warring, Anette Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    This article examines experiments in communal living in Britain and Denmark in the early 1970s, using life-story interviews from seventeen members of two British and two Danish communes. It examines communal living as a fusion of radical political principles with the practice of experimental...... collective living. It concludes that the movement's egalitarian principles of resource-sharing, gender equality and the avoidance of hierarchies were broadly achieved, even if the movement obviously did not realize its more ambitious objective of undermining the bourgeois family. Though none...... of the interviewees lives communally now, most remain faithful to the principles behind the movement....

  8. Reproductive technology: in Britain, the debate after the Warnock Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillon, Raanan

    1987-06-01

    Gillon contributes an article on Great Britain to the Hastings Center Report series on reproductive technologies outside the United States. In 1984 the Warnock Committee's report represented the first attempt by a national government to formulate a policy on reproductive issues such as artificial insemination, in vitro fertilization, surrogate mothers, and research on human embryos. Reaction to the Warnock report has focused on its recommendations to ban commercial surrogacy and to allow experimentation on embryos up to 14 days after fertilization. Legislation on surrogacy was passed in 1985, while bills banning embryo research failed in 1986. A 1986 government consultation paper called for discussion of other aspects of the Warnock report, including its recommendation that a statutory licensing authority to regulate reproductive technologies be established. Gillon predicts that no new legislation will be enacted under the present government.

  9. The development of genetic resistance to myxomatosis in wild rabbits in Britain.

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, J.; Sanders, M. F.

    1984-01-01

    The presence of genetic resistance to myxomatosis in a sample of wild rabbits from one area in England was reported in 1977. Rabbits from three other areas in Great Britain have been tested subsequently, and all cases showed similar resistance to a moderately virulent strain of myxoma virus. Rabbits from one area also showed a significant degree of resistance to a fully virulent strain of virus. It is concluded that genetic resistance to myxomatosis is widespread in wild rabbit populations in...

  10. Kidney for sale by live donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahams, D

    1989-02-04

    The capacity to consent to bodily harm is explored in relation to the trade in kidneys obtained from impoverished healthy live donors for cash. The British medical profession has unambiguously condemned the practice, but the law in Britain allows a donor to consent to serious injury where the act had some social purpose, recognized by the law as valid. Allegations against the private Humana Hospital Wellington that indigent Turks were brought to Britain to be paid kidney donors, and similar practices elsewhere, are discussed. Questions are raised about the illegality of such contracts in Britain and the possibility of a Parliamentary Act making brokerage and involvement with such cash transactions a criminal offense.

  11. Britain's dirty deeds at Maralinga

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, I.

    1993-01-01

    Following the United Kingdom's nuclear tests at Maralinga in Australia in the 1960's, the Australian government signed away its rights to claim compensation for decontamination costs in a 1968 agreement. Controversy now rages as the Australian government is claiming pound33 million for this purpose from the United Kingdom to compensate the Maralinga Tjarutja for the loss of access to their traditional lands. They claim that the UK clean-up operation was inadequate and that much plutonium was spread over the land, rather than contained in pits. Measurements of contamination at the site were wrong by a factor of ten according to a 1984 visit when Australian scientists were horrified to realize that an Aboriginal child living near Taranaki could inhale more than 460 millisieverts a year. As ministers from both countries meet in June 1993 the debate is likely to be heated and hotly defended. (UK)

  12. Climate change and water resources in Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnell, N.W.

    1998-01-01

    This paper explores the potential implications of climate change for the use and management of water resources in Britain. It is based on a review of simulations of changes in river flows, groundwater recharge and river water quality. These simulations imply, under feasible climate change scenarios, that annual, winter and summer runoff will decrease in southern Britain, groundwater recharge will be reduced and that water quality - as characterised by nitrate concentrations and dissolved oxygen contents - will deteriorate. In northern Britain, river flows are likely to increase throughout the year, particularly in winter. Climate change may lead to increased demands for water, over and above that increase which is forecast for non-climatic reasons, primarily due to increased use for garden watering. These increased pressures on the water resource base will impact not only upon the reliability of water supplies, but also upon navigation, aquatic ecosystems, recreation and power generation, and will have implications for water management. Flood risk is likely to increase, implying a reduction in standards of flood protection. The paper discusses adaptation options. 39 refs., 5 figs

  13. The role of income differences in explaining social inequalities in self rated health in Sweden and Britain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yngwe, M A; Diderichsen, F; Whitehead, M

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To analyse to what extent differences in income, using two distinct measures-as distribution across quintiles and poverty-explain social inequalities in self rated health, for men and women, in Sweden and Britain. DESIGN: Series of cross sectional surveys, the Swedish Survey...... of Living Conditions (ULF) and the British General Household Survey (GHS), during the period 1992-95. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: Swedish and British men and women aged 25-64 years. Approximately 4000 Swedes and 12 500 Britons are interviewed each year in the cross sectional studies used. The sample contains...... 15 766 people in the Swedish dataset and 49 604 people in the British dataset. MAIN RESULTS: The magnitude of social inequalities in less than good self rated health was similar in Sweden and in Britain, but adjusting for income differences explained a greater part of these in Britain than in Sweden...

  14. First report of Trichinella pseudospiralis in a red fox in mainland Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learmount, Jane; Boughtflower, Valerie; Allanson, Peter C; Hartley, Kayleigh M; Gutierrez, Alba Barrecheguren; Stephens, Nathalie A; Marucci, Gianluca; Smith, Graham C

    2015-03-15

    Active surveillance of red foxes for Trichinella has been undertaken in mainland Britain since 1999. Post-mortems are carried out, followed by a magnetic stirrer method for sample digestion based on European Commission (EC) Regulation 216/2014 (which amends 2075/2005). Initially samples are tested in batches of 20 foxes and in December 2013, for the first time under the surveillance programme, a batch tested positive for Trichinella at the Animal and Plant Health Agency, York. Further individual tests identified one infected fox, from the Bristol area. The larvae were identified as Trichinella pseudospiralis. This is the first report of T. pseudospiralis in Great Britain and suggests the possibility of a cycle of infection existing in wildlife. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Britain's first pressurised-water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenward, M.

    1982-01-01

    The recent announcement that the public inquiry into the CEGB's plans to build a PWR at Sizewell will begin in January 1983 and the statement which followed from the task force that was set up in July 1981 to consider the future of the PWR programme in the UK, are considered. The relevant time scales, costs and safety, in particular the cost incurred due to the added safety features for the British PWR, are discussed. The effect of political aspects on the future of the PWR in Britain is considered. (U.K.)

  16. Corporate ownership and control in Victorian Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Acheson, Graeme G.; Campbell, Gareth; Turner, John D.; Vanteeva, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    Using ownership and control data for 890 firm‐years, this article examines the concentration of capital and voting rights in British companies in the second half of the nineteenth century. We find that both capital and voting rights were diffuse by modern‐day standards. However, this does not necessarily mean that there was a modern‐style separation of ownership from control in Victorian Britain. One major implication of our findings is that diffuse ownership was present in the UK much earlie...

  17. Future arrangements for Great Britain's gas quality specifications. Government Response (including Summary of Responses) to consultation on future arrangements for Great Britain's gas quality specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Last year the Government consulted on GB's future gas quality specifications. The background is that some streams of imported gases have an energy content that exceeds the upper limit specified in GB's current gas quality regulations. The policy issue was whether to stick with the current regulated specifications, but at the cost of having to process imported gas to bring it within those specifications; or, at some time after 2020, to adjust those specifications, but at the cost of having to check (and potentially change) approximately 45m domestic gas appliances in 22m households, to ensure that they are capable of burning the high energy gas safely (and with a residual safety risk that some appliances are missed). The Consultation Document sought views on the proposal (backed up by the Partial Regulatory Impact Assessment) to adopt the 'no change' option. In the light of the responses, this is what the Government now proposes. The associated Impact Assessment estimates the total net benefit of the 'no change' option at UK Pounds 1.5bn - 14bn, with a best estimate of UK Pounds 8bn (NPV, 2005). The risks for gas prices and security of supply (included in the Impact Assessment) are judged to be small. The Government proposes a 'forward plan', consisting of support for Ofgem's work on maximising the commercial flexibilities for the GB gas market to handle gases of different specifications, whilst continuing to engage in EU discussions on the gas quality issue. (Author)

  18. Discovering Greatness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    People are confronting the most pressing challenge facing every family, school, and community--raising respectful children in a toxic world. In simpler societies, raising children was a shared task of the whole community, as adults and youth worked in harmony and mutual respect. Today, humans are the only species in creation living out of balance.…

  19. Culture and the environment in Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Riordan, Timothy

    1985-03-01

    The British pride themselves on their long tradition of landscape management rooted in the aristocratic and landowning classes of the 18th and 19th centuries. The British also emphasize that the rise of modern pollution control began in the Victorian industrial era with the emergence of the national Inspectorates and the local Commissioners of Sewers. All these traditions are rooted in British social history, which was heavily influenced by class, power, and the changing shape of industrial and agricultural development. In modern Britain, affected by industrial recession, where concern over jobs and growth appears to dominate public and political attention, as well as public spending cuts that sap the morale and effectiveness of the major regulatory agencies, attitudes toward, and the execution of, environmental protection are undergoing a subtle but profound revolution. It is slowly but agonizingly being recognized that economic growth and social well-being cannot be disconnected from environmental processes and the limits these impose on management and technological intervention. A 21st century Britain will have to integrate conservation with development in order to survive.

  20. Heavy metal contamination in bats in Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, L.A.; Simpson, V.R.; Rockett, L.; Wienburg, C.L.; Shore, R.F.

    2007-01-01

    Toxic metals are bioaccumulated by insectivorous mammals but few studies (none from Britain) have quantified residues in bats. We measured renal mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) concentrations in bats from south-west England to determine how they varied with species, sex, age, and over time, and if they were likely to cause adverse effects. Residues were generally highest in whiskered bats (Myotis mystacinus). Compared with other species, pipistrelle (Pipistrellus spp) and Natterer's bats (Myotis nattereri) had significantly lower kidney Hg and Pb concentrations, respectively. Renal Hg increased over time in pipistrelles but the contributory sources are unknown. Kidney Pb did not decrease over time despite concurrent declines in atmospheric Pb. Overall, median renal metal concentrations were similar to those in bats from mainland Europe and 6- to 10-fold below those associated with clinical effect, although 5% of pipistrelles had kidney Pb residues diagnostic of acute lead poisoning. - Heavy metal contamination has been quantified in bats from Britain for the first time and indicates increased accumulation of Hg and no reduction in Pb

  1. Heavy metal contamination in bats in Britain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, L.A. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE28 2LS (United Kingdom); Simpson, V.R. [Wildlife Veterinary Investigation Centre, Jollys Bottom Farm, Chacewater, Truro, Cornwall TR4 8PB (United Kingdom); Rockett, L. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE28 2LS (United Kingdom); Wienburg, C.L. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE28 2LS (United Kingdom); Shore, R.F. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE28 2LS (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: rfs@ceh.ac.uk

    2007-07-15

    Toxic metals are bioaccumulated by insectivorous mammals but few studies (none from Britain) have quantified residues in bats. We measured renal mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) concentrations in bats from south-west England to determine how they varied with species, sex, age, and over time, and if they were likely to cause adverse effects. Residues were generally highest in whiskered bats (Myotis mystacinus). Compared with other species, pipistrelle (Pipistrellus spp) and Natterer's bats (Myotis nattereri) had significantly lower kidney Hg and Pb concentrations, respectively. Renal Hg increased over time in pipistrelles but the contributory sources are unknown. Kidney Pb did not decrease over time despite concurrent declines in atmospheric Pb. Overall, median renal metal concentrations were similar to those in bats from mainland Europe and 6- to 10-fold below those associated with clinical effect, although 5% of pipistrelles had kidney Pb residues diagnostic of acute lead poisoning. - Heavy metal contamination has been quantified in bats from Britain for the first time and indicates increased accumulation of Hg and no reduction in Pb.

  2. Water resources of the Hartford-New Britain area, Connecticut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushman, Robert Vittum; Tanski, D.; Thomas, M.P.

    1964-01-01

    Connecticut River in the vicinity of Hartford offers an almost unlimited source of water of good chemical quality to the Hartforcd, New Britain area. The Connecticut River and many of its tributaries, however, are polluted to some degree, and the cost of treatment for pollution and of delivery of water to the area presents an economic problem in the further development of these sources. The Hartford-New Britain area in the vicinity of Hartford has been plagued by floods since the time of its settlement. Most of the damage to property and loss of life in the Hartford area has been caused by tloodin: of the Connecticut and Park Rivers. Floods have occurred on the ConIJecticut River and its tributaries in every month of the year, but the most sever floods occur in the spring and fall. The mast devastating :flood on the Conr icut River occurred on March 21, 1986, when the stage at Hartford reached 37.0 feet above mean sea level. The maximum :flood on the Park River occurr on August 19, 1955, when the stage reached 43.5 feet above mean sea levE'1. Floods on the other tributaries have been frequent and some have been larg , but damage has not been as great because the streams :flow mostly through rural areas: Small to moderate supplies of water suitable for domestic use and for small municipalities and industries are available from wells in the Hartford-New Britain area. Moderate supplies are obtainable from five definable sand-and-gravel aquifers and from widespread consolidated sedimentary rocks. Yields to individual wells range from 15 to 400 gpm (gallons per minute) for wells penetrating sand and gravel and from 1 to 578 gpm for wells penetrating consolidated sedimentary rocks. Sand and gravel deposits bordering the Connecticut River downstream from Rocky Hill afford the greatest potential for the development of large supplies of ground water. Small supplies ranging from 1 to 40 gpm are obtainable from glacial till and from consolidated cr

  3. Impact report on ‘A Vision of Britain through Time’ 2004-10: investigating the current use and impact of a popular digital resource for local history research

    OpenAIRE

    Aucott, Paula; Southall, Humphrey; Healey, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The website A Vision of Britain through Time brings together geographical surveys of Britain, including every census from 1801 to 2001 and a large library of historic maps. It was built by the Great Britain Historical GIS Project based at the University of Portsmouth and originally launched with National Lottery funding in 2004. JISC funded major extensions to content and a re-design in 2007-9, but the site was still designed mainly to meet the needs of local historians. This report summarise...

  4. Methods for snowmelt forecasting in upland Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Moore

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Snow, whilst not a dominant feature of Britain's maritime climate, can exert a significant influence on major floods through its contribution as snowmelt. Flood warning systems which fail to take account of melting snow can prove highly misleading. Selected results of a study on methods for improved snowmelt forecasting using trail catchments in upland Britain are presented here. Melt models considered range from a temperature excess formulation, with the option to include wind and rain heating effects, to a full energy budget melt formulation. Storage of melt in the pack is controlled by a store with two outlets, allowing slow release of water followed by rapid release once a critical liquid water content is reached. For shallow snow packs, a partial cover curve determines the proportion of the catchment over which snow extends. The melt, storage and release mechanisms together constitute the PACK snowmelt module which provides inputs to the catchment model. Either a lumped or distributed catchment model can be used, configured to receive snowmelt inputs from elevation zones within the catchment; a PACK snowmelt module operates independently within each zone and its inputs are controlled by appropriate elevation lapse rates. Measurements of snow depth and/or water equivalent, from snow cores or a snow pillow, are assimilated to correct for a lack of direct snowfall measurements needed to maintain a water balance during snowfall. The updating scheme involves operating a PACK module at the measurement site (the 'point model' in parallel to PACK modules in the catchment model, with point model errors being transferred using a proportioning scheme to adjust the snowpack water contents of the catchment model. The results of the assessment of different model variants broadly favour the simpler model formulations. Hourly automatic monitoring of water equivalent using the snow pillow can help in updating the model but preferential melting from the

  5. Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edsall, Thomas A.; Mac, Michael J.; Opler, Paul A.; Puckett Haecker, Catherine E.; Doran, Peter D.

    1998-01-01

    The Great Lakes region, as defined here, includes the Great Lakes and their drainage basins in Minnesota, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New York. The region also includes the portions of Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the 21 northernmost counties of Illinois that lie in the Mississippi River drainage basin, outside the floodplain of the river. The region spans about 9º of latitude and 20º of longitude and lies roughly halfway between the equator and the North Pole in a lowland corridor that extends from the Gulf of Mexico to the Arctic Ocean.The Great Lakes are the most prominent natural feature of the region (Fig. 1). They have a combined surface area of about 245,000 square kilometers and are among the largest, deepest lakes in the world. They are the largest single aggregation of fresh water on the planet (excluding the polar ice caps) and are the only glacial feature on Earth visible from the surface of the moon (The Nature Conservancy 1994a).The Great Lakes moderate the region’s climate, which presently ranges from subarctic in the north to humid continental warm in the south (Fig. 2), reflecting the movement of major weather masses from the north and south (U.S. Department of the Interior 1970; Eichenlaub 1979). The lakes act as heat sinks in summer and heat sources in winter and are major reservoirs that help humidify much of the region. They also create local precipitation belts in areas where air masses are pushed across the lakes by prevailing winds, pick up moisture from the lake surface, and then drop that moisture over land on the other side of the lake. The mean annual frost-free period—a general measure of the growing-season length for plants and some cold-blooded animals—varies from 60 days at higher elevations in the north to 160 days in lakeshore areas in the south. The climate influences the general distribution of wild plants and animals in the region and also influences the activities and distribution of the human

  6. Planning, housing and participation in Britain, 1968-1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapely, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The history of planning and social housing in post-war Britain has been dominated by the role of the state, local government, professionals (planners, architects, civil servants) and developers. This is hardly surprising, given that the partnerships created around these groups dominated the slum clearance and building process. The tenants have been absent from the 'history' because they were missing from the process. However, in the 1960s and 1970s the concept of participation began to emerge. It grew from broader social and cultural changes brought about through the emergence of welfare, consumerism and an ever greater awareness of 'rights'. The idea of participation was to increase participatory democracy by involving people in the planning process, by recognizing their rights to be involved in decisions which impacted on their lives. The state promoted the idea through legislation, but in practice the concept proved difficult to implement. Local authorities saw participation, at best, as a means of smoothing the planning process through the dissemination of ideas, thus limiting any scope for meaningful participation schemes. This article will look at the tension between the ideal and practice. It will also consider the reaction of many tenants who, frustrated at the attitude and policies forced on them by local government, became galvanized into action, creating tenant groups that would give their communities a voice.

  7. Britain stays cool on district heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, G

    1982-04-08

    Britain's wealth of energy sources has kept interest in the energy conservation potential of combined heat and power (CHP) and district heating (DH) at a low level. An active lobby for CHP/DH continues to argue against formidable odds. The Marshall group set up in the early days of the oil crisis reported on several strategies for CHP/DH and proposed technologies already proven in other European countries. The economics of abundant natural gas and coal, however, precludes commercial interest until energy prices reach higher levels. The lobbyists point out that this could occur within a short time, and local governments would do well to examine the lead-city concept for application on a national level. The present government's preference for the private sector pursuing development beyond the feasibility-study stage could make CHP/DH more of a political issue as unemployment increases. (DCK)

  8. Is racial prejudice declining in Britain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Robert

    2008-12-01

    This article employs two previously neglected indicators of racial prejudice from the British Social Attitudes surveys to examine the social distribution of prejudices against black and Asian Britons. Three hypotheses are proposed and tested: that racial prejudice is declining in Britain; that this decline is principally generational in nature; and that greater prejudice is shown towards more culturally distinct Asian minorities than black minorities. Strong evidence is found for the first two hypotheses, with evidence of an overall decline in prejudice and of a sharp decline in prejudices among generations who have grown up since mass black and Asian immigration began in the 1950s. Little evidence is found for the third hypothesis: British reactions towards black and Asian minorities are broadly similar suggesting racial differences may still be the main factor prompting white hostility to British minorities.

  9. The Carnegie Dietary Survey of Interwar Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shave, Samantha A

    2015-01-01

    This research note describes an under-used collection of papers which document interwar income, nutrition and health in Britain which were created in the administration of the Carnegie Dietary Survey by John Boyd-Orr in the Rowett Institute with funding from the Carnegie United Kingdom Trust. The survey was conducted in 16 rural and urban places across England and Scotland between 1937-9, and are now held at the Specialist Collections Centre at the University of Aberdeen. While the importance of the survey in informing knowledge about nutrition and the development of rationing has been acknowledged in the field of social medicine, the survey data has primarily been used by epidemiological scientists and economic historians. After outlining the survey's past influences and uses, this item details the possible ways the data could be used by social, economic and local population historians.

  10. The Growing Dependence of Britain on Trade during the Industrial Revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory Clark; Kevin Hjortshøj O'Rourke; Alan M. Taylor

    2014-01-01

    Many previous studies of the role of trade during the British Industrial Revolution have found little or no role for trade in explaining British living standards or growth rates. We construct a three-region model of the world in which Britain trades with North America and the rest of the world, and calibrate the model to data from the 1760s and 1850s. We find that while trade had only a small impact on British welfare in the 1760s, it had a very large impact in the 1850s. This contrast is rob...

  11. Austrian Lives

    OpenAIRE

    Bischof, Günter; Plasser, Fritz; Maltschnig, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Writing biographies for a long time had been a male hegemonic project. Ever since Plutarch and Sueton composed their vitae of the greats of classical antiquity, to the medieval obsession with the hagiographies of holy men (and a few women) and saints, Vasari's lives of great Renaissance artists, down to the French encyclopedists, Dr. Johnson and Lytton Strachey, as well as Ranke and Droysen the genre of biographical writing has become increasingly more refined. In the twentieth century male p...

  12. National-scale vegetation change across Britain; an analysis of sample-based surveillance data from the Countryside Surveys of 1990 and 1998

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smart, S.M.; Clarke, R.T.; Poll, van de H.M.; Robertson, E.J.; Shield, E.R.; Bunce, R.G.H.; Maskell, L.C.

    2003-01-01

    Patterns of vegetation across Great Britain (GB) between 1990 and 1998 were quantified based on an analysis of plant species data from a total of 9596 fixed plots. Plots were established on a stratified random basis within 501 1 km sample squares located as part of the Countryside Survey of GB.

  13. Textual Transformations in Contemporary Black Writing in Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawhar Ahmed Dhouib

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available While the first wave of Caribbean immigrant writers brilliantly explored race-related issues, black Britons like Andrea Levy, Zadie Smith and Caryl Phillips, among others, have sought to depart from earlier fiction, motivated in their project by the changing white face of Britain. In this article, I would like to argue that cultural change in Britain has deeply influenced literary production and has, consequently, laid the ground for a series of textual transformations. To capture instances of creative excess in contemporary black writing in Britain, I will bring under examination Caryl Phillips’s (2009 novel In the Falling Snow. My intention is to show to what extent Phillips’s work surpasses the ‘noose of race’ and already-familiar representations of multicultural Britain to celebrate a ‘post-racial’ society.

  14. "Britain at CERN" exhibition, from 14 to 17 November 2000

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2000-01-01

    H.E. Mr. Christopher Hulse, Ambassador of United Kingdom in Switzerland, CERN Director General Luciano Maiani, Sir David Wright, Chief Executive of British Trade International and Roger Cashmore, CERN Director of research visit the Britain at CERN exhibition

  15. The Rise of Pan-Islamism in Britain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shepard, Scott

    2006-01-01

    .... This thesis explains what is fueling the rise of pan-Islamism in Britain. For many Muslims, their religious identity is stronger than their British identity because they are alienated from the rest of society...

  16. Why does Britain price itself out of CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, R.

    1985-01-01

    The paper concerns Britains' participation in CERN's contracts for high-technology equipment. British companies supplying CERN; research and development costs; and reasons why British companies fail at CERN; are all discussed. (U.K.)

  17. URBAN AGRICULTURE DIVERSITY IN BRITAIN: BUILDING RESILIENCE THROUGH INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCES

    OpenAIRE

    Gerrard , Ailbhe

    2010-01-01

    N° ISBN - 978-2-7380-1284-5; International audience; Diversity of urban agriculture (UA) in Britain could reduce food security impacts if a crisis occured in industrial food production systems. Industrial agriculture (IA) both causes and suffers from a lack of resilience: environmental, financial and structural. In Britain, the allotment system, previously an important form of UA, now grossly insufficient to replace the output of industrial agriculture, particularly in London. With these poin...

  18. Memorializing colonial genocide in Britain: the case of Tasmania

    OpenAIRE

    Lawson, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Britain is a post-genocidal state, although it (not surprisingly) has no official means for the memorialization of its colonial genocides. Britain cannot however be simply considered amnesiac about its genocidal past, which it has informally memorialized across various cultural genres. This article explores this observation through a case study of the ways in which the genocide of Indigenous Tasmanians has been remembered and indeed memorialized. Accounts of the genocide of Indigenous Tasmani...

  19. Managing plutonium in Britain. Current options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This is the report of a two day meeting to discuss issues arising from the reprocessing of plutonium and production of mixed oxide nuclear fuels in Britain. It was held at Charney Manor, near Oxford, on June 25 and 26, 1998, and was attended by 35 participants, including government officials, scientists, policy analysts, representatives of interested NGO's, journalists, a Member of Parliament, and visiting representatives from the US and Irish governments. The topic of managing plutonium has been a consistent thread within ORG's work, and was the subject of one of our previous reports, CDR 12. This particular seminar arose out of discussions earlier in the year between Dr. Frank Barnaby and the Rt. Hon. Michael Meacher MP, Minister for the Environment. With important decisions about the management of plutonium in Britain pending, ORG undertook to hold a seminar at which all aspects of the subject could be aired. A number of on-going events formed the background to this initiative. The first was British Nuclear Fuels' [BNFL] application to the Environment Agency to commission a mixed oxide fuel [MOX] plant at Sellafield. The second was BNFL's application to vary radioactive discharge limits at Sellafield. Thirdly, a House of Lords Select Committee was in process of taking evidence, on the disposal of radioactive waste. Fourthly, the Royal Society, in a recent report entitled Management of Separated Plutonium, recommended that 'the Government should commission a comprehensive review... of the options for the management of plutonium'. Four formal presentations were made to the meeting, on the subjects of Britain's plutonium policy, commercial prospects for plutonium use, problems of plutonium accountancy, and the danger of nuclear terrorism, by experts from outside the nuclear industry. It was hoped that the industry's viewpoint would also be heard, and BNFL were invited to present a paper, but declined on the grounds that they were 'currently involved in a formal

  20. The British Model in Britain: Failing slowly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Steve

    2006-01-01

    In 1990, Britain reorganised its electricity industry to run on competitive lines. The British reforms are widely regarded as successful and the model used provides the basis for reforms of electricity industries worldwide. The main reason for this perception of success is major reductions in the real price of electricity with no reduction in service quality. This paper examines whether the reputation of the British reforms is justified. It concludes that the reputation is not justified and that serious fundamental problems are beginning to emerge. The central question is: have the British reforms resulted in the creation of efficient wholesale and retail markets? On this criterion, the reforms have failed. The wholesale market is dominated by obscure long-term contracts, privileged access to the market and self-dealing within integrated generator/retailers, leaving the spot markets with minimal liquidity and unreliable prices. The failure to develop an efficient wholesale market places the onus on consumers to impose competitive forces on electricity companies by switching regularly. Small consumers will not do this and they are paying too much for their power. For the future, there is a serious risk that the electricity industry will become a weakly regulated oligopoly with a veneer of competition

  1. Pain, quality of life and activity in aged evacuees living in temporary housing after the Great East Japan earthquake of 11 March 2011: a cross-sectional study in Minamisoma City, Fukushima prefecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabuki, Shoji; Ouchi, Kazuo; Kikuchi, Shin-ichi; Konno, Shin-ichi

    2015-09-10

    The aim of this study was to clarify pain, quality of life and activity in the aged evacuees living in temporary housing after the Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011. The study was a cross-sectional study performed in Minamisoma City, Fukushima Prefecture 1 year and 6 months after the disaster. Inclusion criteria were the ability to walk independently and consent to answer questionnaires. Seventy-one evacuees who met the inclusion criteria were included in this study. There were 16 men and 55 women with a mean age of 75.9 years. Sixty evacuees were surveyed when they gathered at the assembly hall in the temporary housing (Assembled group) and 11 evacuees were surveyed through individual visits to their residences (Individual group). Evacuees in the Individual group agreed to participate in this study, but refused to visit the assembly hall to engage in exercise and recreation. Pain, quality of life (QOL) and level of activity were assessed with the Numeric Rating Scale (NRS), the MOS Short-Form 36 item Health Survey (SF-36) and a pedometer, respectively. Student's t-test, Mann-Whitney U test, and Fisher's exact test were used for statistical analysis. Forty-four (62.0 %) residents had chronic pain with a mean NRS of 2.74. Twenty-one (29.6 %) of these residents had relatively severe pain rated 5 or above on the NRS. QOL was significantly lower for the subscales of "physical functioning," "role physical", "general health", "social functioning", "role emotional" and "mental health", when compared with the national standard values. Values were also visibly lower for "physical component summary" in the summary score. On comparing the Assembled group and the Individual group, "physical function", "role physical", "social functioning" and "physical component summary" were found to be significantly lower in the Individual group. The mean daily number of steps was 1,892 in the Individual group and 4,579 in the Assembled group. The Individual group thus

  2. What makes great boards great.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenfeld, Jeffrey A

    2002-09-01

    In the wake of meltdowns at WorldCom, Tyco, and Enron, enormous attention has been focused on the companies' boards. It seems inconceivable that business disasters of such magnitude could happen without gross or even criminal negligence on the part of board members. And yet a close examination of those boards reveals no broad pattern of incompetence or corruption. In fact, they followed most of the accepted standards for board operations: Members showed up for meetings; they had money invested in the company; audit committees, compensation committees, and codes of ethics were in place; the boards weren't too small or too big, nor were they dominated by insiders. In other words, they passed the tests that would normally be applied to determine whether a board of directors was likely to do a good job. And that's precisely what's so scary, according to corporate governance expert Jeffrey Sonnenfeld, who suggests that it's time for some new thinking about how corporate boards operate and are evaluated. He proposes thinking not only about how to structure the board's work but also about how to manage it as a social system. Good boards are, very simply, high-functioning work groups. They're distinguished by a climate of respect, trust, and candor among board members and between the board and management. Information is shared openly and on time; emergent political factions are quickly eliminated. Members feel free to challenge one another's assumptions and conclusions, and management encourages lively discussion of strategic issues. Directors feel a responsibility to contribute meaningfully to the board's performance. In addition, good boards assess their own performance, both collectively and individually.

  3. Class and eating: Family meals in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarosz, Ewa

    2017-09-01

    This paper examines social differentiation in eating patterns in Britain. It focuses on family meals among individuals with under-age children. Eating with family members has been associated with improvement in wellbeing, nutritional status, and school performance of the children. Modern lifestyles may pose a challenge to commensal eating for all groups, but the scale of the impact varies between social classes, with some groups at higher risk of shortening or skipping family meal time. Eating patterns are differentiated by individual's social class; they have also been associated with educational attainment, work schedules, and household composition. The objective of this study is to disaggregate the effect of these variables. Using data from the 2014/2015 UK Time Use Survey I analyse the net effect of social class, education, income, work and family characteristics on the frequency and duration of family meals. Individuals in the highest occupational class dedicate more time overall to family meals. However, class effect becomes insignificant when other variables, such as education or income, are controlled for. This study finds that higher educated individuals have more frequent family meals, and more affluent individuals spend more time at the table with their household members. Work characteristics are associated with frequency of meals, but not with their duration. Finally, household composition matters for how people eat. Parents of younger children eat with their family members more frequently than parents of teenagers. Single parents, a notoriously time-poor category, spend the least amount of time eating with their families and have fewer commensal meals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. CT Scans in Young People in Great Britain: Temporal and Descriptive Patterns, 1993–2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark S. Pearce

    2012-01-01

    Results. The number of CT examinations doubled over the study period. While increases in numbers of recorded examinations were seen across all age groups, the greatest increases were in the older patients, most notably those aged 15–19 years of age. Sixty percent of CT examinations were of the head, with the percentages varying with calendar year and patient age. Conclusions. In contrast to previous data from the North of England, the doubling of CT use was not accompanied by an increase in numbers of multiple examinations to the same individual.

  5. Hinkley Point C: French technology and know-how are welcome in Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Ngoc, B.

    2016-01-01

    The 2 reactors of the Hinkley Point-C will be the fifth and the sixth EPR units built in the world and will benefit from series production. EDF and its Chinese partner CGN and the British government signed the definitive agreement in september 2016. The project involves an innovative financing: the contract for difference, this contract was negotiated in 2013 and agreed by the European Union in 2014. This contract sets a price for selling electricity: 92.50 pounds (2012) and if the market price is below this price, the British government will have to pay the difference and if the market price is above, EDF/CGN will have to pay the difference to the British Government. The set price includes all the costs from the construction to the management of nuclear waste and via its daily plant operating. The commissioning of the first unit is expected in 2025. The supply chain is today in good working order. The total cost of construction is estimated to be 22 billions euros, 60% of the enterprises working on the construction site will be british and the Hinkley Point C project is expected to generate 7000 new jobs in France. (A.C.)

  6. Gamma-ray dose-rates to human tissues from natural external sources in Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiers, F.W.

    1960-01-01

    The information on environmental gamma radiation given in the last report (Spiers, 1956) was limited by the small amount of experimental data then available. Considerably more information has been accumulated since then and a summary has been published in the Report of the United Nations Scientific Committee on te Effects of Atomic Radiation 1958). The data reported from Austria, France, Sweden and the U.S.A. show that in general dose-rates out-of-doors range from about 0 mrads per year over sedimentary rocks to about 200 mrads per year in granite districts. In houses a similar range of doserates is indicated, the rates in individual houses depending upon the nature of the building materials. In some parts of the world, however, very much higher dose-rates have been observed. On the extensive area of monazite sand in the Kerala State of India dose-rates of up to 4000 mrads per year have been recorded and the mean dose-rate for 10 villages with a total population of 52,000 has been estimated to be 1270 mrads per year. Mean dose-rates of 500 and 1600 mrads per year have also been reported from two localities in Brazil

  7. Transaction costs in milk marketing: a comparison between Canada and Great Britain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Royer, A.

    2011-01-01

    This study measures the magnitude of transaction costs incurred by milk producers in their contractual relations with dairy processors in two different coordination mechanisms: centralized contracting through a marketing board and decentralized bilateral contracting. Interviews and surveys were

  8. The Public Sector Pay Gap in France, Great Britain and Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio Lucifora; Dominique Meurs

    2004-01-01

    We investigate public-private pay determination using French, British and Italian microdata. While traditional methods focus on parametric methods to estimate the public sector pay gap, in this paper, we use both non-parametric (kernel) and quantile regression methods to analyse the distribution of wages across sectors. We show that the public-private (hourly) wage differential is sensitive to the choice of quantile and that the pattern of premia varies with both gender and skill. In all coun...

  9. Law relating to radioactive waste management in Great Britain and France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stucken, B.U.

    1989-01-01

    This publication, with comparisons of laws and empirical-sociological evaluations for solutions, takes into account laws and regulations up to February 1988. Exemplary references to German law are presented, and the interrelationship of certain legislation illustrated by bringing examples of the known legal systems. Every legal norm and every legal institution is investigated with a view to finding out which function it has to fulfil, and whether this is done in an adequate way or whether another norm or another institution could do this better. (HP) [de

  10. Great Britain in the Age of Sail: Scarce Resources, Ruthless Actions and Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    April 2015 DISTRIBUTION A. Approved for public release: distribution unlimited. ii Disclaimer The views expressed in this academic research paper ...hooks, and crutches , thus giving greater support to the fore and aft ends of ships beginning in the early 1800s. Their introduction eliminated the...brown paper 17 before coppering, this prevented the electrolysis that caused the corrosion to the ironwork, thus coppering ships started joining the

  11. 1994 - Starting a new era for nuclear power in Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collier, J.G.

    2004-01-01

    A gap is opening up between what the world would like to consume in terms of energy and what the world's environment can sustain. To bridge this gap a much greater contribution from nuclear and renewables is needed to limit the emission of CO 2 and other harmful gases. Plans already laid in some Pacific Rim countries recognise this need and nuclear energy is expected to grow rapidly in this region over the next 20-30 years. For Pacific Rim countries without plentiful indigenous fossil fuel resources, nuclear power is the most economic form of electricity generation, minimising the need for expensive imports and strengthening security of energy supply. Nuclear power already makes a significant contribution to reducing emissions in other regions, especially Europe. Well over a third of electricity in Europe comes from nuclear power. In the UK the figure is nearer a quarter and rising. If nuclear power is to fulfil its role as a key part of UK energy supply into the 21st century, we need to maintain our existing capacity as our older plant retires by building further, modern PWRs. Central to our future is Sizewell B power station - the UK's first PWR. Construction is complete and commissioning is well under way. The project is nearing completion - ahead of time and under budget. The success of Sizewell B is the foundation for the future of nuclear power in the UK. Stations based on the Sizewell design will become the workhorses of our utility. Already Nuclear Electric has submitted a planning application to construct Sizewell C. This is a technical replica of Sizewell B in twin reactor form with a net output of around 2600MW. And this design also has strong export potential. Westinghouse and Nuclear Electric have submitted a joint-vender to build a PWR here in Taiwan. Our bid is based on the Sizewell design; an innovative, safe and proven nuclear power plant design for supplying reliable low-cost electricity for the Republic of China's growing economy. The Sizewell design is an APWR offering standards of design, construction, operation and of reactor safety unmatched anywhere in the world. The stringent demands of the United Kingdom Nuclear Installations Inspectorate require high levels of redundancy and 'defence in depth'. Furthermore, Sizewell B has undergone the most complete safety review ever conducted for a nuclear plant anywhere in the world. The bid also includes a comprehensive package of training and technology transfer. It is supported by a very large Industrial Co-operation Program. The aim is to promote the development of technology and industrial capability in Taiwan, to improve co-operative relationships and to generate long term mutual benefits between the participating countries. It is now over four years since the UK Government withdrew the nuclear generating business from its programme for privatising the electricity supply industry in the UK and promised a thorough review of the future of nuclear power in my country. That review is about to begin; we have reached a key stage in the development of nuclear power in the UK. The nuclear industry in the UK is confident that this Government Review will consolidate the key role of nuclear power in UK energy supply into the 21st century. We will bring to that Review evidence that the operating and business performance of the nuclear generators, Nuclear Electric and, north of the border, Scottish Nuclear has improved dramatically and continues to improve. Furthermore, satisfactory progress is being made towards long-term disposal of radioactive waste, consistent with Government policy. The continuing delay in the operation of THORP has been a matter of concern for the UK nuclear industry; commissioning is, however, now under way and at last it looks as if we can put that delay behind us. There can be no doubt about the crucial role of nuclear power in the sustainable development of an increasing energy-hungry world. Nuclear Electric and the rest of the UK nuclear industry is continuing to reinforce the strategic and global case for maintaining our strong nuclear capability. We are competing successfully in the most competitive electricity market in the world. We are demonstrating commercial viability. And we have the prospect of exploiting further a world-class PWR design. (author)

  12. Measurement equivalence of the food related lifestyle instrument (FRL) in Ireland and Great Britain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O´Sullivan, C.; Scholderer, Joachim; Cowan, Cathal

    2005-01-01

    The food-related lifestyle instrument (FRL) is tested for cross-cultural validity. Representative consumer samples from the UK 1998 ( N = 1000) and Ireland 2001 (N = 1024) are compared using multi-sample confirmatory factor analysis with structured means. The results suggest that, in all five FRL...... domains, the measurement characteristics of the survey instrument were completely invariant across the two cultures. No indication was found of any bias. Regarding future applications of the FRL, it can be concluded that the instrument has identical measurement characteristics when applied to consumer...

  13. Competing Claims Among Argentina, Chile, and Great Britain in the Antarctic: Economic and Geopolitical Undercurrents

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    diet as well and also could be used as animal fodder or 3 4 Deborah Blum, "Geologists see California ties to Antarctica," San Jose Mercury, 27 March...apparent from the action initiated by the Malaysian delegation to the U.N., that the second and third world nations, not currently involved in the

  14. Football and family violence: Learning from the experience of Great Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zalcmane K.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to analyse the methodological issues of the study of criminologist Dr. Stuart Kirby (Lancaster University on the link between the football game and domestic violence committed by football fans. The mentioned above study at the moment is one of a kind in Europe. The author assumes, the similar research should be held in Latvia and any other European country as well, as understanding the primary reason of a crime can lead to the most appropriate intervention to reduce or remove it. For that reason, the analysis of the prospective advantages and disadvantages of the Dr. Kirby research are presented in this article.

  15. Stabilising system frequency using HVDC between the Continental European, Nordic, and Great Britain systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, J.E.S.; Escudero Concha, C.; Gibescu, M.; van Putten, J.; Doorman, G.L.; Kling, W.L.

    2016-01-01

    For future efficiency improvement of the frequency containment process (primary control) within European power systems, cooperation between (multiple) synchronous areas using their controllable HVDC interconnections is optioned. However, the differences in system size, HVDC interconnection capacity,

  16. Advanced clinical practice for radiographers in Great Britain: professional roles, accountability and the educational provision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogg, P.

    2004-01-01

    A change in British health care has resulted in a broadening of roles and responsibilities beyond 'traditional boundaries' for a range of health care professionals. This has occurred because of staff shortages (particularly within the medical profession) and the recognition that many 'non-doctor' health care staff can make safe, competent and effective contributions outside their 'normal' sphere of responsibilities. In the context of advanced clinical practice, this paper will explain the current arrangements for radiographers' roles and responsibilities, their accountability and the educational provision that underpins the development of competencies at these higher clinical levels. Some advanced roles that British radiographers perform, within their current normal responsibilities, will be identified and some British legislation and professional body guidance that make role advancement possible will be outlined. The article will conclude with an indication of the educational level at which the advanced competencies are learned and assessed. (author)

  17. Brexit: what is at stake for trade and nuclear partnership with Great-Britain?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Ngoc, B.

    2017-01-01

    The exit of the United-Kingdom from the European Union rises a lot of issues but even if the divorce process has been launched, it is nearly impossible to bring clear responses to issues like the belonging to EURATOM. In any case the exit will weaken the political balance of power in favor of nuclear energy inside the European Union. Another consequence would be to have on the British side a legal void that would be harmful for trade and nuclear cooperation. The United-Kingdom will no longer benefit from European financing for upgrading the electricity grid and inter-connection networks that link the country to Europe, which may jeopardize the security of supply on both sides of the Channel. (A.C.)

  18. Species Distribution Models for Crop Pollination: A Modelling Framework Applied to Great Britain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polce, C.; Termansen, M.; Aguirre-Gutiérrez, J.; Boatman, N.D.; Budge, G.E.; Crowe, A.; Garratt, M.P.; Pietravalle, S.; Potts, S.G.; Ramirez, J. A.; Somerwill, K.E.; Biesmeijer, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Insect pollination benefits over three quarters of the world's major crops. There is growing concern that observed declines in pollinators may impact on production and revenues from animal pollinated crops. Knowing the distribution of pollinators is therefore crucial for estimating their

  19. Communication received from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of a letter received by the Director General of the IAEA on 11 September 1998 from the Governor of the United Kingdom concerning the policy of the UK Government related to fissile material transparency, safeguards and irreversibility initiatives

  20. Electrons in Great Britain: Could a Change of Government Affect Security Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    ...) party that has been in power for 18 years. Despite a fairly solid economic performance it is 25 points behind in the polls as of March March 16th. Labor's young and dynamic leader, Mr. Tony Blair, is trying to create a new Labor Party which is not controlled by the unions. But, despite some useful party reforms, some shadow cabinet members, MPs and union backers still express strong socialist views.

  1. THE FUNDAMENTALS OF TEACHING CREATIVITY (BASED ON THE EXAMPLE OF GREAT BRITAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana V. Skvortsova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to find out the fundamentals of creative activity of pupils in a comprehensive school and reveal its main characteristics on the basis of analysis of the British system of education experience considering the original modern official educational documents devoted to optimization of education and its increased focus on the creative development of children and teenagers. Methods. Author uses the methods of theoretical analysis of original foreign materials; systematization and classification of the data from original foreign sources. Results. The main characteristics of creativity are purposefulness, aiming at search of a new idea or creation of worthy product, and also dependence on the environment that means search of sphere of educational activity for disclosing of individual creative potential of the pupil. Character of creative activity depends on personal characteristics of the performer, the high level of motivation and active use of imagination. Scientific novelty. The main characteristics of creative activity as seen by British educators are specified, particularly such feature as dependence on the environment is exposed, and the importance of using traditional teaching methods within the innovative ones is proved; the methods of teaching creativity used by British teachers are picked out and classified according to the levels of creative activity; practical recommendations for successful implementation of teaching creativity are described, such as taking advantage of spontaneous educational situations and the following changes in the work agenda. Practical significance. Analysis and systematization of the foreign researchers’ experience enriches Russian theory of education with understanding the fundamentals of teaching creativity. The singled out peculiarities of teaching creativity give perspectives for the scientific substantiation of adaption of the innovative components into Russian system of education and make it possible to predict the ways of developing the process of teaching creativity in Russia. The classification of creative teaching methods and practical recommendation for their implementation can be adapted to Russian system of education. 

  2. The influence of car registration year on driver casualty rates in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughton, Jeremy

    2012-03-01

    A previous paper analysed data from the British national road accident reporting system to investigate the influence upon car driver casualty rates of the general type of car being driven and its year of first registration. A statistical model was fitted to accident data from 2001 to 2005, and this paper updates the principal results using accident data from 2003 to 2007. Attention focuses upon the role of year of first registration since this allows the influence of developments in car design upon occupant casualty numbers to be evaluated. Three additional topics are also examined with these accident data. Changes over time in frontal and side impacts are compared. Changes in the combined risk for the two drivers involved in a car-car collision are investigated, being the net result of changes in secondary safety and aggressivity. Finally, the results of the new model relating to occupant protection are related to an index that had been developed previously to analyse changes over time in the secondary safety of the car fleet. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Studies on the effects of air pollution on limestone degradation in Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, A. H.; Bawden, R. J.; Busby, A. K.; Hopkins, J. N.

    The CEGB and the Cathedrals Advisory Commission for England formed a Joint Working Party in 1985 to promote a research programme aimed at improving the understanding of the relationships between stone decay, atmospheric pollution and other factors. The programme has included exposure of limestone samples at York Minster and eight other sites in England and Scotland selected to give a mix of urban, marine and rural locations. All of the sites have comprehensive air pollution and meteorological monitoring and measurement of rainfall chemistry. At two sites samples have been fumigated with controlled levels of sulphur dioxide. Over all sites, there was a significant trend to increased weight loss with increase in average sulphur dioxide concentration, but a negative trend with total nitrogen oxides and with nitrogen dioxide. For sample exposures longer than 200 days, the sulphur dioxide dependence at the inland Liphook fumigation site was about half that found near the coast at Littlehampton. There was no significant trend to increase weight loss with total rainfall amount for the complete data set, but the analysis was dominated by the very wet Scottish site, which experienced the lowest average concentrations of air pollutants. A theoretical model for the chemical dissolution of rainwashed limestone has been derived from consideration of the ion and mass balances between the incident rain water and run-off water. The model has been fitted to the measured loss rates from the stonework field trials. With the exception of the very wet Scottish site, the difference between the stone loss rate, calculated from the model, and the mean measured loss rate for any particular exposure was generally smaller than the variation between the triplicate samples. Variation in the dry deposition velocity between sites and exposure periods does not appear to have been a very significant factor, and no residual effect due to the concentrations of nitrogen oxides was found. The natural solubility of limestone in water was the dominant term in describing the stone loss, and neutralization of the rainfall acidity the least significant. The volume of the intercepted rainfall and the variation in the pH of the run-off water with rainfall intensity have been identified as the two most significant terms which require more precise quantification. The data from the inland fumigation site used in the model predict a stone loss due to sulphur dioxide in the air of less than 1 μm yr -1 surface recession per ppb SO 2.

  4. 14-19 Education across Great Britain--Convergence or Divergence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunning, Dennis; Raffe, David

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews recent policies for 14-19 learning in Wales and Scotland, and discusses the extent to which these policies have diverged from England following parliamentary devolution in 1999. It distinguishes different types of divergence and suggests that many policy differences have not been about major issues of educational philosophy or…

  5. Regulating Animal Health, Gender and Quality Control: A Study of Veterinary Surgeons in Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enticott, Gareth

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the validity of performance management regimes for quality assuring animal health regulation by comparing the results of tests for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) between male and female vets. In doing so it hopes to present some practical solutions to the regulation of animal disease and encourage further sociological study of the…

  6. The effects of Air Pollution on Health Status in Great Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanis, Eleftherios; Ozdamar, Oznur

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the effects of air pollution on self-reported health status. Moreover, this study explores the willingness to pay for improving the air quality in UK. The estimates are based on data from the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS). The effects of air pollution on individuals’ health status are estimated and their monetary value is calculated. In particular, two main air pollutants are examined; ground-level ozone (O3) and carbon monoxide (CO). Moreover, various approaches ...

  7. The new electricity market law in Great Britain; Das neue Strommarktgesetz in Grossbritannien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, Markus [nuances public affairs, Berlin (Germany)

    2014-01-15

    Midway through the current legislative period the British government has created a new framework for its energy policy. At the centre of the electricity market reform (EMR) of the Conservative and Liberal Democrat Cabinet under David Cameron is the introduction of a capacity market driven by an auction mechanism. When the law was passed in late December 2013 Liberal Democrat Secretary of State for Energy and Climate Change Edward Davey said the British government hoped the reform would release 130 bn euros of investment, creating more than 250,000 jobs in the energy and energy efficiency sector. While the initial parliamentary consultations on the Energy Act, in 2012, revolved around expert issues, today the new energy policy has reached the whole of society.

  8. The United States and Great Britain: Responses to the 1980 Boycott of the Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, James H.

    There have been several ways in which sport has been used as a mechanism of public diplomacy. First, the sporting arena provides a setting in which a country can define its aspirations for status or prestige among nations. Second, the nature of competition between countries reflects current diplomatic agreements. Third, the most familiar role of…

  9. NATO Enlargement and the National Agendas of America, Great Britain, France, and Germany

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Irving, William

    1997-01-01

    This thesis examines the enlargement of NATO from the collapse of the Warsaw Pact and the Soviet Union, through the formation of the North Atlantic Cooperation Council and the Partnership for Peace...

  10. The Oldest Jurassic Dinosaur: A Basal Neotheropod from the Hettangian of Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martill, David M; Vidovic, Steven U; Howells, Cindy; Nudds, John R

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 40% of a skeleton including cranial and postcranial remains representing a new genus and species of basal neotheropod dinosaur is described. It was collected from fallen blocks from a sea cliff that exposes Late Triassic and Early Jurassic marine and quasi marine strata on the south Wales coast near the city of Cardiff. Matrix comparisons indicate that the specimen is from the lithological Jurassic part of the sequence, below the first occurrence of the index ammonite Psiloceras planorbis and above the last occurrence of the Rhaetian conodont Chirodella verecunda. Associated fauna of echinoderms and bivalves indicate that the specimen had drifted out to sea, presumably from the nearby Welsh Massif and associated islands (St David's Archipelago). Its occurrence close to the base of the Blue Lias Formation (Lower Jurassic, Hettangian) makes it the oldest known Jurassic dinosaur and it represents the first dinosaur skeleton from the Jurassic of Wales. A cladistic analysis indicates basal neotheropodan affinities, but the specimen retains plesiomorphic characters which it shares with Tawa and Daemonosaurus.

  11. Interpreting the marketisation of employment services in Great Britain and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Flemming; Wright, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    Marketization is an important component of international shifts in the governance of employment services. Despite contrasting underlying welfare systems and employment services of different scale and character, both Denmark and the UK were distinct from many other comparable countries in contract......Marketization is an important component of international shifts in the governance of employment services. Despite contrasting underlying welfare systems and employment services of different scale and character, both Denmark and the UK were distinct from many other comparable countries...... in contracting-out employment services in the late 1990s. We compare the starting positions and divergent trajectories of marketization; then assess the extent to which it delivered on its promises. We find that in neither case did contracting-out reduce bureaucracy; save money through innovation; realise user...... choice; prevent poor quality services; or increase efficiency/effectiveness through better job outcomes. In the absence of the intended effects, we question why policymakers in such different socio-political contexts continued to support the marketization strategy. The explanation is found in combination...

  12. Directionality of recent bird distribution shifts and climate change in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillings, Simon; Balmer, Dawn E; Fuller, Robert J

    2015-06-01

    There is good evidence that species' distributions are shifting poleward in response to climate change and wide interest in the magnitude of such responses for scientific and conservation purposes. It has been suggested from the directions of climatic changes that species' distribution shifts may not be simply poleward, but this has been rarely tested with observed data. Here, we apply a novel approach to measuring range shifts on axes ranging through 360°, to recent data on the distributions of 122 species of British breeding birds during 1988-1991 and 2008-2011. Although previously documented poleward range shifts have continued, with an average 13.5 km shift northward, our analysis indicates this is an underestimate because it ignores common and larger shifts that occurred along axes oriented to the north-west and north-east. Trailing edges contracted from a broad range of southerly directions. Importantly, these results are derived from systematically collected data so confounding observer-effort biases can be discounted. Analyses of climate for the same period show that whilst temperature trends should drive species along a north-north-westerly trajectory, directional responses to precipitation will depend on both the time of year that is important for determining a species' distribution, and the location of the range margin. Directions of species' range centroid shift were not correlated with spatial trends in any single climate variable. We conclude that range shifts of British birds are multidirectional, individualistic and probably determined by species-specific interactions of multiple climate factors. Climate change is predicted to lead to changes in community composition through variation in the rates that species' ranges shift; our results suggest communities could change further owing to constituent species shifting along different trajectories. We recommend more studies consider directionality in climate and range dynamics to produce more appropriate measures of observed and expected responses to climate change. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. The “Informal Empire” of Great Britain in Latin America: Fact or fiction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Garner

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a brief summary of the historiography of the British Empire in the second half of the 20th Century. It concentrates on three perspectives. During the second half of the 20th Century, the first two – the concepts of “informal imperialism” and “gentlemanly capitalism” – largely dominated the historiography of the expansion of the British Empire. The third – the British historian John Darwin’s description of the British Empire as an “imperial project” – is more recent. This article is centered on the second half of the 19th Century and goes up to the end of the First World War in 1918. It aims to judge the validity of the concept of an “informal empire” as a key towards understanding Anglo-Latin American relations, specifically Anglo-Mexican relations, during this period.

  14. Gamma-ray dose-rates to human tissues from natural external sources in Great Britain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiers, F W

    1960-12-01

    The information on environmental gamma radiation given in the last report (Spiers, 1956) was limited by the small amount of experimental data then available. Considerably more information has been accumulated since then and a summary has been published in the Report of the United Nations Scientific Committee on te Effects of Atomic Radiation 1958). The data reported from Austria, France, Sweden and the U.S.A. show that in general dose-rates out-of-doors range from about 0 mrads per year over sedimentary rocks to about 200 mrads per year in granite districts. In houses a similar range of doserates is indicated, the rates in individual houses depending upon the nature of the building materials. In some parts of the world, however, very much higher dose-rates have been observed. On the extensive area of monazite sand in the Kerala State of India dose-rates of up to 4000 mrads per year have been recorded and the mean dose-rate for 10 villages with a total population of 52,000 has been estimated to be 1270 mrads per year. Mean dose-rates of 500 and 1600 mrads per year have also been reported from two localities in Brazil.

  15. Individualism, collectivism and ethnic identity: cultural assumptions in accounting for caregiving behaviour in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Rosalind

    2012-09-01

    Britain is experiencing the ageing of a large number of minority ethnic groups for the first time in its history, due to the post-war migration of people from the Caribbean and the Indian subcontinent. Stereotypes about a high level of provision of informal caregiving among minority ethnic groups are common in Britain, as in the US, despite quantitative studies refuting this assumption. This paper reports on a qualitative analysis of in-depth interviews with older people from five different ethnic groups about their conceptualisation of their ethnic identity, and their attributions of motivations of caregiving within their own ethnic group and in other groups. It is argued that ethnic identity becomes salient after migration and becoming a part of an ethnic minority group in the new country. Therefore, White British people who have never migrated do not have a great sense of ethnic identity. Further, a strong sense of ethnic identity is linked with identifying with the collective rather than the individual, which explains why the White British participants gave an individualist account of their motivations for informal care, whereas the minority ethnic participants gave a collectivist account of their motivations of care. Crucially, members of all ethnic groups were providing or receiving informal care, so it was the attribution and not the behaviour which differed.

  16. Risk of adverse birth outcomes in populations living near landfill sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Paul; Briggs, David; Morris, Sara; de Hoogh, Cornelis; Hurt, Christopher; Jensen, Tina Kold; Maitland, Ian; Richardson, Sylvia; Wakefield, Jon; Jarup, Lars

    2001-01-01

    Objective To investigate the risk of adverse birth outcomes associated with residence near landfill sites in Great Britain. Design Geographical study of risks of adverse birth outcomes in populations living within 2 km of 9565 landfill sites operational at some time between 1982 and 1997 (from a total of 19 196 sites) compared with those living further away. Setting Great Britain. Subjects Over 8.2 million live births, 43 471 stillbirths, and 124 597 congenital anomalies (including terminations). Main outcome measures All congenital anomalies combined, some specific anomalies, and prevalence of low and very low birth weight (<2500 g and <1500 g). Results For all anomalies combined, relative risk of residence near landfill sites (all waste types) was 0.92 (99% confidence interval 0.907 to 0.923) unadjusted, and 1.01 (1.005 to 1.023) adjusted for confounders. Adjusted risks were 1.05 (1.01 to 1.10) for neural tube defects, 0.96 (0.93 to 0.99) for cardiovascular defects, 1.07 (1.04 to 1.10) for hypospadias and epispadias (with no excess of surgical correction), 1.08 (1.01 to 1.15) for abdominal wall defects, 1.19 (1.05 to 1.34) for surgical correction of gastroschisis and exomphalos, and 1.05 (1.047 to 1.055) and 1.04 (1.03 to 1.05) for low and very low birth weight respectively. There was no excess risk of stillbirth. Findings for special (hazardous) waste sites did not differ systematically from those for non-special sites. For some specific anomalies, higher risks were found in the period before opening compared with after opening of a landfill site, especially hospital admissions for abdominal wall defects. Conclusions We found small excess risks of congenital anomalies and low and very low birth weight in populations living near landfill sites. No causal mechanisms are available to explain these findings, and alternative explanations include data artefacts and residual confounding. Further studies are needed to help differentiate between the various

  17. KING'S ENGLISH AND THE ARISTOCRATIC CODE OF COMMUNICATION IN MODERN BRITAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana A. Ivushkina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available All inaccuracies and distortions of the language use in modern British media, revealed by Simon Heffer in his book «Strictly English», enable the author of the article to draw a distinct demarcation line between King's English, the English of the press, on the one hand, and the English of the upper classes of Great Britain, on the other. The errors in the press, such as confusion of words similar in a sound form or spelling, the use of foreign words in the wrong meanings, distortions of names, etc. testify to the deterioration of education at some universities of Great Britain. They also point to the lack of a classical education based on the study of foreign languages, Greek and Latin, in the first place, which facilitates learning foreign words and mastering complicated grammar structures and subtleties of modality in the English language. The language of the press is clearly opposed to the language of the upper classes by methods of communication. If the former is characterized by direct and straightforward ways of communication, the latter manifests indirect and hidden ways of interaction. Cultivated by the upper classes and the aristocracy, this code is based on the categories of words which originate ambiguity in speech or texts and raise the eternal question «What is meant by this or that? ». In journalism these categories of words are labeled as «killers» of meaning. They include foreign words which considerably obscure understanding, abstract nouns that serve to create distance and insincerity in communication, adjectives which very often veil the real state of things, serve as a means of linguistic manipulation, especially when used to describe emotions, opinions and feelings. Here, also, belong euphemism and metaphorical meanings of nouns and verbs. The author concludes that, despite stringent prohibition for journalists to use these categories of words in the media, journalists and professional writers would only benefit if

  18. King's English And The Aristocratic Code Of Communication In Modern Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana A. Ivushkina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available All inaccuracies and distortions of the language use in modern British media, revealed by Simon Heffer in his book «Strictly English», enable the author of the article to draw a distinct demarcation line between King's English, the English of the press, on the one hand, and the English of the upper classes of Great Britain, on the other. The errors in the press, such as confusion of words similar in a sound form or spelling, the use of foreign words in the wrong meanings, distortions of names, etc. testify to the deterioration of education at some universities of Great Britain. They also point to the lack of a classical education based on the study of foreign languages, Greek and Latin, in the first place, which facilitates learning foreign words and mastering complicated grammar structures and subtleties of modality in the English language. The language of the press is clearly opposed to the language of the upper classes by methods of communication. If the former is characterized by direct and straightforward ways of communication, the latter manifests indirect and hidden ways of interaction. Cultivated by the upper classes and the aristocracy, this code is based on the categories of words which originate ambiguity in speech or texts and raise the eternal question «What is meant by this or that? ». In journalism these categories of words are labeled as «killers» of meaning. They include foreign words which considerably obscure understanding, abstract nouns that serve to create distance and insincerity in communication, adjectives which very often veil the real state of things, serve as a means of linguistic manipulation, especially when used to describe emotions, opinions and feelings. Here, also, belong euphemism and metaphorical meanings of nouns and verbs. The author concludes that, despite stringent prohibition for journalists to use these categories of words in the media, journalists and professional writers would only benefit if

  19. The transit of Venus enterprise in Victorian Britain

    CERN Document Server

    Ratcliff, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    In nineteenth century, the British Government spent money measuring the distance between the earth and the sun using observations of the transit of Venus. This book presents a narrative of the two Victorian transit programmes. It draws out their cultural significance and explores the nature of 'big science' in late-Victorian Britain.

  20. Diet, social differentiation and cultural change in Roman Britain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheung, Christina; Schroeder, Hannes; Hedges, R. E. M.

    2012-01-01

    This study uses stable isotope analyses (d 13 C and d 15 N) of human bone collagen to reconstruct the diet of three Romano-British (first to early fifth century AD) populations from Gloucestershire in South West England. Gloucestershire was an important part of Roman Britain with two major admini...... sensitive, if settlement-specific, indicator of social differentiation and culture change....

  1. The History of Language Learning and Teaching in Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLelland, Nicola

    2018-01-01

    This article provides an introduction, based on the most recent research available, to the history of language learning and teaching (HoLLT) in Britain. After an overview of the state of research, I consider which languages have been learnt, why and how that has changed; the role of teachers and tests in determining what was taught; changes in how…

  2. The Educational Afterlife of Greater Britain, 1903-1914

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Following its late nineteenth-century emergence as an important element within federalist thinking across the British Empire, the idea of Greater Britain lost much of its political force in the years following the Boer War. The concept however continued to retain considerable residual currency in other fields of Imperial debate, including those…

  3. Tokugawa Japan and Industrial Revolution Britain: Two Misunderstood Societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellington, Lucien

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author presents a truer picture than economic historians have previously had of the economies of Tokugawa Japan, and Britain during the Industrial Revolution. Though substantially different, both societies were prosperous compared to most of the rest of the world. Japan's economic success began in the Tokugawa period…

  4. American Pilots in the Battle of Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-06

    cause by more than just his father’s fortune. His nephew, also named Charles, was a well heeled American sportsman, busi- nessman and socialite living in...reasons which compelled them to join. Politically , the men probably experienced a sense of kinship with England because of historical ties which would... political feelings were probably best described by another American volunteer’s observation, Six or seven of us volunteered together, and out of a sense of

  5. A White Atlantic? The Idea of American Art in Nineteenth-Century Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Barringer

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This article begins with the contention that 'American art' is a powerful retrospective construction, rooted in the institutional practices of art history and museology. Through a focus on the experiences of expatriate American artists (John Singleton Copley and Benjamin West in London at the start of the nineteenth century, and the genre or landscape painting in transatlantic art (including the work of the British artist Thomas Cole, this essay exposes the complex and dynamic cultural interrelationship that existed between the United States and Europe in the period. It extends Paul Gilroy's and Joseph Roach's recent concept of the 'Black Atlantic', in which they argue that a single cultural zone brought together London and New Orleans, Kingston, Jamaica and the ports of the Ivory coast, to analyse the cultural and performative exchanges that were also taking place between America and Europe (particularly Great Britain, and that have hitherto been neglected in dominant art history narratives.

  6. Materiality of Body: The Material Practices of Life and Death in Medieval Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mabast A. Muhammad Amin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the ways people understood their body during the medieval period in Britain. I bring together the multiple different ways in which the body was treated in death, I focus on the role and power of grave goods and evidence found in dead bodies for plasticity in life to embrace the complexity of the medieval body, I examine the cultural practice of nutrition and environment affected the bodily mold. Another point I take into consideration is the practice of dietary through differentiation between male and female body in which we explore how medieval people socially and culturally constructed body based on their notion and understanding of gender identity. In addition, religion had a great influence on people’s understanding to deal with dead bodies and I concentrate on how bodily resurrection impacted on people’s preparation for the Day of Judgment by placing the goods in burials.

  7. The Great Recession was not so Great

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ours, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    The Great Recession is characterized by a GDP-decline that was unprecedented in the past decades. This paper discusses the implications of the Great Recession analyzing labor market data from 20 OECD countries. Comparing the Great Recession with the 1980s recession it is concluded that there is a

  8. Dependence between sea surge, river flow and precipitation in south and west Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Svensson

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Estuaries around Great Britain may be at heightened risk of flooding because of the simultaneous occurrence of extreme sea surge and river flow, both of which may be caused by mid-latitude cyclones. A measure especially suited for extremes was employed to estimate dependence between river flow and sea surge. To assist in the interpretation of why flow-surge dependence occurs in some areas and not in others, the dependence between precipitation and surge and between precipitation and river flow was also studied. Case studies of the meteorological situations leading to high surges and/or river flows were also carried out. The present study concerns catchments draining to the south and west coasts of Great Britain. Statistically significant dependence between river flow and daily maximum sea surge may be found at catchments spread along most of this coastline. However, higher dependence is generally found in catchments in hilly areas with a southerly to westerly aspect. Here, precipitation in south-westerly airflow, which is generally the quadrant of prevailing winds, will be enhanced orographically as the first higher ground is encountered. The sloping catchments may respond quickly to the abundant rainfall and the flow peak may arrive in the estuary on the same day as a large sea surge is produced by the winds and low atmospheric pressure associated with the cyclone. There are three regions where flow-surge dependence is strong: the western part of the English south coast, southern Wales and around the Solway Firth. To reduce the influence of tide-surge interaction on the dependence analysis, the dependence between river flow and daily maximum surge occurring at high tide was estimated. The general pattern of areas with higher dependence is similar to that using the daily maximum surge. The dependence between river flow and daily maximum sea surge is often strongest when surge and flow occur on the same day. The west coast from Wales and

  9. The Power of the Jewel: Discovering Historical Meaning Through the Study of Jewelry Made in Britain During the Reign of Queen Victoria, 1837-1901

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, Mary Gilbert

    2001-01-01

    The thesis: British Victorian jewelry has the power to function as both subject matter and a point of departure for the lively, interdisciplinary study of nineteenth-century Britain. The study begins with an object, a jewel in the hand, understood as an artifact. The beauty, wearability, intrigue, and history of antique jewelry gives it the power to launch historical inquiry and to provide concrete access to the past. Visual, oral, and print resources, along with other period objects from ...

  10. The economic failure of nuclear power in Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henney, A.

    1990-01-01

    Claims made about the economics of nuclear power have been misleading. The history and political framework within which nuclear power has developed in Britain are explained so that those claims can be understood. The main factors affecting the development of nuclear power in Britain have been military requirements, national pride, the hope of cheap electricity and concern about the security of fuel supplies. Variations in the official view of the economics of Magnox reactors are used to illustrate changes in the government attitude to nuclear power economics. Other factors - the 'oil crisis' of the 1970's the miners' strike, the accident at Three Mile Island and methods of accounting are all shown to influence this attitude. At the Hinkley Point C Inquiry the Central Electricity Generating Board conceded that nuclear power was not economic a position recognised by the government in the non-privatisation of nuclear power. (UK)

  11. Parasitoid wasps new to Britain (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae, Eurytomidae, Braconidae & Bethylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. Notton

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available One genus and five species are recorded as new to Britain: Fidiobia, Fidiobia hispanica, Macroteleia bicolora (Platygastridae; Sycophila binotata (Eurytomidae; Schizoprymnus collaris (Braconidae; and Laelius pedatus (Bethylidae. Keys to British Macroteleia and Laelius are provided. Provisional synonymy is proposed between Macroteleia minor and M. brevigaster, and synonymy is proposed between Laelius femoralis, L. microneurus and L. nigricrus. The possible mode of introduction of Sycophila binotata is discussed. A lectotype is designated for Schizoprymnus collaris.

  12. A highly successful model? The rail franchising business in Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Jupe, Robert E.; Funnell, Warwick N.

    2017-01-01

    A crucial feature of rail privatisation in Britain was franchising. Passenger services were franchised in competitive bidding processes to train operators which were meant to function with declining subsidy. The paper adopts the framework of social cost-benefit analysis to examine rail privatisation's impact on three key groups; consumers, producers and the government. It establishes that privatisation did not achieve all the supposed benefits. Further, franchising only appears to be profitab...

  13. Website Design and Localisation: A Comparison of Malaysia and Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Tanveer; Mouratidis, Haralambos; Preston, David

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to explore the local cultural values on Malaysian and British websites selected from different sectors. In recent years, a number of studies have addressed the issue of local culture in website design, but most of the studies have focused on USA representing western cultures, whereas Chinese and Japanese cultures have been the main focal point of Asian cultures. This study intends to fill this gap, focusing on less-debated cultures: Malaysia and Britain. It applies Hofstede’s ...

  14. Business Groups Exist in Developed Markets Also: Britain Since 1850

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Geoffrey G.

    2016-01-01

    Diversified business groups are well-known phenomenon in emerging markets, both today and historically. This is often explained by the prevalence of institutional voids or the nature of government-business relations. It is typically assumed that such groups were much less common in developed economies, and largely disappeared during the twentieth century. This working paper contests this assumption with evidence from Britain between 1850 and the present day. During the nineteenth century merc...

  15. Union Free-Riding in Britain and New Zealand

    OpenAIRE

    Alex Bryson

    2006-01-01

    The percentage of workers who choose not to join the union available to them at their workplace has been rising in Britain and New Zealand. Social custom, union instrumentality, the fixed costs of joining, employee perceptions of management attitudes to unionization and employee problems at work all influence the propensity to free-ride. Ideological convictions regarding the role of unions also play some role, as do private excludable goods. There is little indication of employer-inspired pol...

  16. Union decline in Britain: Is chauvinism also to blame?

    OpenAIRE

    Haile, Getinet Astatike

    2012-01-01

    The paper examines if workplace gender diversity offers some explanation for the decline of unions in Britain. Using the WERS2004 linked employer-employee data and alternative econometric estimators it reports an inverse relationship between workplace union density and gender diversity. Gender and ownership status based sub-group analyses suggest the inverse relationship to be stronger for male union members and those in the private sector. Gender group size based analysis reveals a positive ...

  17. Deja vu all over again? Rail franchising in Britain.

    OpenAIRE

    Preston, John

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews the progress of passenger rail franchising in Britain since the mid-1990s, building on earlier contributions to the Thredbo Conferences and identifies five main phases. A welfare assessment suggests that the reforms were mildly welfare positive up to the middle of the third phase, but some concerning trends have emerged, not least the spiralling transaction costs associated with franchise bids and the apparent prevalence of strategic bidding. The problems that emerged, and ...

  18. Britain at CERN, from 12 to 14 November 2002

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    Twenty-seven companies presented their latest technology at the 'Britain at CERN' exhibition from 12 to 14 November. British industry exhibited products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects were cryogenics and vacuum technologies, gas detection, power supplies, welding, precision machined mechanical components, special metals, electronics, control and communication cables, particle detectors. The exhibition was organised by BEAMA, the Federation of British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturers' Associations.

  19. Great Lakes Science Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Since 1927, Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC) research has provided critical information for the sound management of Great Lakes fish populations and other important...

  20. Ptolemy's Britain and Ireland: A New Digital Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abshire, Corey; Durham, Anthony; Gusev, Dmitri A.; Stafeyev, Sergey K.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we expand application of our mathematical methods for translating ancient coordinates from the classical Geography by Claudius Ptolemy into modern coordinates from India and Arabia to Britain and Ireland, historically important islands on the periphery of the ancient Roman Empire. The methods include triangulation and flocking with subsequent Bayesian correction. The results of our work can be conveniently visualized in modern GIS tools, such as ArcGIS, QGIS, and Google Earth. The enhancements we have made include a novel technique for handling tentatively identified points. We compare the precision of reconstruction achieved for Ptolemy's Britain and Ireland with the precisions that we had computed earlier for his India before the Ganges and three provinces of Arabia. We also provide improved validation and comparison amongst the methods applied. We compare our results with the prior work, while utilizing knowledge from such important ancient sources as the Antonine Itinerary, Tabula Peutingeriana, and the Ravenna Cosmography. The new digital reconstruction of Claudius Ptolemy's Britain and Ireland presented in this paper, along with the accompanying linguistic analysis of ancient toponyms, contributes to improvement of understanding of our cultural cartographic heritage by making it easier to study the ancient world using the popular and accessible GIS programs.

  1. Rethinking Folk Culture in Twentieth-Century Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Laura

    2017-12-01

    Research on folk culture in twentieth-century Britain has focused on elite and transgressive political episodes, but these were not its mainstream manifestations. This article re-evaluates the place of folk culture in twentieth-century Britain in the context of museums. It argues that in the modern heritage landscape folk culture was in an active dialogue with the modern democracy. This story begins with the vexed, and ultimately failed, campaign for a national English folk museum and is traced through the concurrent successes of local, regional, and Celtic 'first wave' folk museums across Britain from the 1920s to the 1960s. The educational activities of these museums are explored as emblematic of a 'conservative modernity', which gave opportunities to women but also restricted their capacity to do intellectual work. By the 1970s, a 'second wave' folk museology is identified, revealing how forms of folk culture successfully accommodated the rapid social change of the later twentieth century, particularly in deindustrializing regions. From this new, museums' perspective, folk culture appears far less marginal to twentieth-century British society. In museums folk culture interacted with mainstream concerns about education, regionalism, and commercialization. © The Author [2017]. Published by Oxford University Press.

  2. Recensie "The Great Reset" : Richard Florida

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roy van Dalm

    2010-01-01

    Like the Great Depression and the Long Depression before it, experts have viewed prolonged economic downturns as crises. In The Great Reset , bestselling author Richard Florida argues that we should instead see the recent recession as an opportunity to create entirely new ways of working and living

  3. A critical reassessment of the reception of early jazz in Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Parsonage, Catherine

    2003-01-01

    The Original Dixieland Jazz Band's visit in 1919–1920 has been well documented as the beginning of jazz in Britain. This article illuminates a more complex evolution of the image and presence of jazz in Britain through consideration of the cultural and musical antecedents of the genre, including minstrel shows and black musical theatre, within the context of musical life in Britain in the late nineteenth to early twentieth centuries. The processes through which this evolution took place are c...

  4. Post-traumatic stress reactions before the advent of post-traumatic stress disorder: potential effects on the lives and legacies of Alexander the Great, Captain James Cook, Emily Dickinson, and Florence Nightingale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackowiak, Philip A; Batten, Sonja V

    2008-12-01

    Evidence is presented that Alexander the Great, Captain James Cook, Emily Dickinson, and Florence Nightingale each developed symptoms consistent with post-traumatic stress disorder in the aftermath of repeated potentially traumatizing events of differing character. Their case histories also varied with respect to background, premorbid personality style, risk factors, clinical presentation, and course of the illness, illustrating the pleomorphic character of the disorder, as well as the special problems in diagnosing it in historical figures.

  5. The Plymouth Laboratory and the institutionalization of experimental zoology in Britain in the 1920s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlingsson, Steindór J

    2009-01-01

    The Plymouth Laboratory of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom (1884) was founded in 1888. In addition to conducting morphological and other biological research, the founders of the laboratory aimed at promoting research in experimental zoology which will be used in this paper as a synonym for e.g. experimental embryology, comparative physiology or general physiology. This dream was not fully realized until 1920. The Great War and its immediate aftermath had a positive impact on the development of the Plymouth Laboratory. The war greatly upset the operation of the Zoological Station in Naples and the ensuing crisis in its operations was closely related to the establishment of the physiological department in Plymouth in 1920. Two other key factors in the Plymouth story were the establishment of the Development Fund in 1909, which began contributing funds to the Plymouth Laboratory in 1912, and the patronage of the Cambridge zoologist George P. Bidder (1863-1954). This paper will focus on the combined influence of the Development Fund and Bidder on the development of the Plymouth Laboratory from around 1902 through the early 1920s, and the important role the laboratory played in promoting experimental zoology in Britain in the 1920s.

  6. Regional GDP in Britain, 1871-1911: some estimates

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas Crafts

    2004-01-01

    The paper builds on a method proposed by Geary and Stark (2002) for estimating regional incomes in Victorian Britain. This is modified by using tax data to allocate non-wage income across regions. The results suggest that the coefficient of variation of regional GDP per head was rising rapidly prior to World War I in similar fashion to the late twentieth century such that its level in 1911 and 2001 was about the same. In both episodes of globalization there were big winners and big losers amo...

  7. The Impact of Criminal Anthropology in Britain (1880-1918

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Davie

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Only one book devoted entirely to the theories of Cesare Lombroso was published in Britain in the period 1880-1918, and that is The Criminal, by Havelock Ellis. In his book, Ellis noted the paradox of the British reaction to criminal anthropology. While researching the book, he had canvassed opinion among criminal justice professionals on the subject, hoping to garner home-grown reactions to the impassioned criminological debates taking place at the time on the Continent. Ellis was familiar w...

  8. Domesday 2000 - a National Land Information System for Britain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabel, C. E.; Ralphs, M. P.

    1992-01-01

    The Domesday 2000 Project aims to ensure that by the year 2000 there will be a National Land Information System for Britain, containing up to date information on land and property ownership, value and use. It is proposed that the system will make use of distributed databases connected over a wide......-area network, to integrate data from a wide variety of sources, using GIS technology to enable interested parties to access the on-line information via locally based terminals. This article explains the background to the project, before moving on to discuss the proposed format and data holdings...

  9. Study on construction of temporary dwellings and problems caused by living long time on Hanshin-Awaji Great Earthquake; Hanshin / Awaji daishinsai ni okeru okyu kasetsu jutaku no secchi to chokikan shiyo suru baai no kadai ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, K.; Nakamura, Y. [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan)] Shimizu, Y. [Kumagai Gumi Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-10-20

    Two years after the above-titled earthquake, an examination was performed on inhabitants in the temporary dwelling houses in Kobe, center of the calamity, and problems caused by a long stay there were clarified together with a grasp of the evolving problems by comparing the result of survey carried out immediately after the disaster. The number of such temporary dwelling houses amounted to 29,128 within Kobe City and 3,168 outside of the city. According to the room arrangement, they were either one f 4 types : 2-rooms with a kitchen, 1 room with a kitchen, dormitory and those specifically for aged persons. There were 59,449 applications at the first offer of 2,702 houses. The priority of their assignments and so on are explained. As for the housing structure, numerous complaints concerned with the room temperature, noise and so forth. As for the living environment, lack of nearby commodity shop, omission of transportation access, ill drainage of the housing sites were pointed out and the matters of demand to the local authorities included the installation of mail post and street lights. As for the health management, insomnia, stiff shoulder, lumbago and other bad physical conditions were revealed. The financial difficulty and the high house rent were obstacles to migrate to other places. The prolonged temporary lives worsened the apprehension of dwellers for the earthquake, typhoon, fire and alike. Some features for the calamity are described in comparison with the result of survey on those who were compelled to live under similar conditions by the eruption of Mr. Fugen. 6 refs., 13 figs., 15 tabs.

  10. The survival of the great financial journalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira CALVO GUTIÉRREZ

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, the economic international journalism has had in the Anglo-Saxon groups Dow Jones (USA and Pearson (Great Britain, publishers of The Wall Street and Financial Times respectively, his big world models. Nevertheless, the new century has brought enormous convulsions to the sector, to the newspapaers of elite and big agencies specialized in economic information as Reuters, Thomson or Bloomberg. To the battle in Internet, there add the expansion of the informative economic power and the changes of mentality of the companies and of the audiences. All this has derived in a fierce war led by the big leaders who, with more than one century of tradition someones, have been object of sales or mergers, financial indispensable operations to be able to adapt to the new times. The aim of this article is to analyze the path of the great economic journalism, with special dedication to two fronts: one, to know how these neswspapers of elite are positioned in the network; other one, the dilemma between continuing being a journalism of quality, rigorous, cosmopolitan and expensive of supporting, or to change towards an ideological, gruesome journalism or amarillista that, since in other specialities, also has spread between the financial journalism

  11. Genomic signals of migration and continuity in Britain before the Anglo-Saxons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martiniano, Rui; Caffell, Anwen; Holst, Malin; Hunter-Mann, Kurt; Montgomery, Janet; Müldner, Gundula; McLaughlin, Russell L; Teasdale, Matthew D; van Rheenen, Wouter; Veldink, Jan H; van den Berg, Leonard H; Hardiman, Orla; Carroll, Maureen; Roskams, Steve; Oxley, John; Morgan, Colleen; Thomas, Mark G; Barnes, Ian; McDonnell, Christine; Collins, Matthew J; Bradley, Daniel G

    2016-01-01

    The purported migrations that have formed the peoples of Britain have been the focus of generations of scholarly controversy. However, this has not benefited from direct analyses of ancient genomes. Here we report nine ancient genomes (∼1 ×) of individuals from northern Britain: seven from a Roman

  12. The development of electric power supply systems in Britain and South Africa - a comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troost, N.

    1990-01-01

    The history and progress of the electricity supply industry in Britain and South Africa display many similarities despite differences in climate, population and geography. The more interesting and outstanding features of the Central Electricity Generating Board in Britain and Eskom in South Africa have been compared, and a particularly close likeness was found. 6 tabs

  13. The politics of fading dreams: Britain and the nuclear export business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boardman, R.; Grieve, M.

    1983-01-01

    The subject is discussed as follows: introduction to a chapter focused on the politics of Britain's foreign nuclear trade; export goals and the nuclear programme (discussion of Magnox, AGR, SGHWR and PWR); the pursuit of exports; nuclear exports and proliferation (reprocessing; fast reactors; plutonium; INFCE); public opinion, nuclear power and exports (interest groups); conclusions (Britain's nuclear exports and non-proliferation). (U.K.)

  14. Sending Children to School "Back Home": Multiple Moralities of Punjabi Sikh Parents in Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Kaveri

    2014-01-01

    This article explores how Punjabi Sikh parents in Britain try to produce "good children" through moral reasoning about their schooling. Parents compare schooling in Britain with India and sometimes wonder about sending their children to school "back home", in the hope of immersing them in Indian culture, traditions and…

  15. Beyond capital? The challenge for sociology in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmwood, John

    2014-12-01

    This article offers a 'local', British, reading of Piketty's landmark book, Capital in the Twenty-First Century, suggesting that the challenge it offers to sociological approaches to inequality is more fundamental than hitherto recognized. The variations in 'national trajectories' exposed by Piketty reveal Britain to be anomalous in terms of standard approaches to the path dependencies embedded in different welfare regimes. Using the recent work of Monica Prasad on 'settler capitalism' in the USA and the tax and debt-finance regime associated with it, the article suggests that colonialism and empire and its postwar unravelling has had deep consequences for British social stratification, albeit largely neglected by British sociologists. Finally, it points to the fact that the form of tax and debt-finance regime that has become reinforced in Britain is at the heart of recent radical reforms to higher education. These are the currently unexplicated conditions of our future practice as sociologists and, therefore, an obstacle to building a critical sociology on the foundations laid out by Piketty. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2014.

  16. The End of Roman Pottery Production in Southern Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm Lyne

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to show that a full or partial monetary economy may have continued to operate in parts of Britain into the 2nd quarter of the 5th century at least; changing our perception of early 5th century material culture in South-East Britain from one leaving very few traces in the archaeological record to one which is an extension of that previously thought to be restricted to the period c.AD 370-410 but which can now be seen to span the period c.AD 370-430/440. Some Romano-British style pottery appears to have continued being made on a much more limited scale into the mid-5th century: a distinctive type of convex-sided dish with solid spaced bosses can be shown to have been made at or near Dorchester-upon-Thames, Portchester and Alice Holt Forest during the 5th century and continued being produced at the first-mentioned place for long enough to be copied by local Anglo-Saxon potters. Adjustments in dating mean that certain peculiarly insular types of military equipment such as the Tortworth strap-end and horse-headed buckle, hitherto dated to the last years of the 4th century, could belong to British soldiers of the early 5th century.

  17. Cities and regions in Britain through hierarchical percolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcaute, Elsa; Molinero, Carlos; Hatna, Erez; Murcio, Roberto; Vargas-Ruiz, Camilo; Masucci, A. Paolo; Batty, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Urban systems present hierarchical structures at many different scales. These are observed as administrative regional delimitations which are the outcome of complex geographical, political and historical processes which leave almost indelible footprints on infrastructure such as the street network. In this work, we uncover a set of hierarchies in Britain at different scales using percolation theory on the street network and on its intersections which are the primary points of interaction and urban agglomeration. At the larger scales, the observed hierarchical structures can be interpreted as regional fractures of Britain, observed in various forms, from natural boundaries, such as National Parks, to regional divisions based on social class and wealth such as the well-known North-South divide. At smaller scales, cities are generated through recursive percolations on each of the emerging regional clusters. We examine the evolution of the morphology of the system as a whole, by measuring the fractal dimension of the clusters at each distance threshold in the percolation. We observe that this reaches a maximum plateau at a specific distance. The clusters defined at this distance threshold are in excellent correspondence with the boundaries of cities recovered from satellite images, and from previous methods using population density.

  18. Between Transnationalism and Localization: The Pan-European TV Miniseries 14 - Diaries of the Great War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tea Sindbæk; Arnold-de Simine, Silke

    2017-01-01

    for a transnational audience. The TV-series aspired to create a new kind of historical documentary, showing history as it was experienced by ordinary people. This article compares how 14 – Diaries of the Great War was realised and received in Great Britain, Germany, Denmark and Sweden. We argue that the TV......14 –Diaries of the Great War is a transmedial project consisting of a documentary TV-series, a website, a radio programme, a photo book and a museum exhibition, produced for the centenary of World War One in 2014. The project was created by a transnational collaboration and aimed...

  19. Reinvention, renewal or repetition? the great western railway and occupational safety on Britain’s railways, c.1900-c.1920

    OpenAIRE

    Esbester, Mike

    2005-01-01

    In 1913, the Great Western Railway introduced an occupational safety education campaign that appeared to be a radical break with all previous methods of promoting safety in the British industrial workplace. In this paper, I assess the extent to which this “new” campaign reinvented occupational safety education in Britain. I argue that the Great Western combined new techniques of communicating safety messages with the relatively traditional content of those messages. Rather than a simple repet...

  20. Great Lakes Literacy Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortner, Rosanne W.; Manzo, Lyndsey

    2011-03-01

    Lakes Superior, Huron, Michigan, Ontario, and Erie together form North America's Great Lakes, a region that contains 20% of the world's fresh surface water and is home to roughly one quarter of the U.S. population (Figure 1). Supporting a $4 billion sport fishing industry, plus $16 billion annually in boating, 1.5 million U.S. jobs, and $62 billion in annual wages directly, the Great Lakes form the backbone of a regional economy that is vital to the United States as a whole (see http://www.miseagrant.umich.edu/downloads/economy/11-708-Great-Lakes-Jobs.pdf). Yet the grandeur and importance of this freshwater resource are little understood, not only by people in the rest of the country but also by many in the region itself. To help address this lack of knowledge, the Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE) Great Lakes, supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, developed literacy principles for the Great Lakes to serve as a guide for education of students and the public. These “Great Lakes Literacy Principles” represent an understanding of the Great Lakes' influences on society and society's influences on the Great Lakes.

  1. The Next Great Generation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownstein, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    Discusses ideas from a new book, "Millennials Rising: The Next Great Generation," (by Neil Howe and William Strauss) suggesting that youth culture is on the cusp of a radical shift with the generation beginning with this year's college freshmen who are typically team oriented, optimistic, and poised for greatness on a global scale. Includes a…

  2. Solly Zuckerman: the making of a primatological career in Britain, 1925-1945.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Jonathan

    2006-06-01

    Solly Zuckerman's work has been largely dismissed or marginalized by both historians of primatology and primatologists. This paper, using archival and published materials, re-examines both his life and his research into primate sexuality and sociology in the 1920s, endocrinology in the 1930s, and the effects of bomb blast in the 1940s. Despite the many flaws in his work, which is now largely outdated, his career reveals a great deal about the audiences for primatological knowledge in pre-war and wartime Britain; the interlocking circles of the scientific community that impinged on primatology; and competing ideas of what constituted a scientifically correct methodology for the observation of primate behaviour. Also noted is the gap between Zuckerman's self-presentation as the scourge of anthropomorphism and the anthropomorphism of his remarks in private notebooks. Although his work well illustrates familiar themes of patriarchy, military and colonialism in the history of primatology, it also suggests another, underexplored dimension of that science: primatology as an example of cross-species social interaction.

  3. Occurrence of depressive tendency and associated social factors among elderly persons forced by the Great East Japan Earthquake and nuclear disaster to live as long-term evacuees: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Yujiro; Iwasa, Hajime; Goto, Aya; Yoshida, Kazuki; Matsuda, Kumiko; Iwamitsu, Yumi; Yasumura, Seiji

    2017-09-03

    This study examined the incidence of depression and associated factors among elderly persons from Iitate village after the March 2011 earthquake. This was a prospective cohort study. As a baseline survey, in May 2010 a self-assessment Basic Checklist (BCL) was distributed to 1611 elderly villagers, of which 1277 responded. Of these respondents, 885 without a tendency to depression (69.3%) were given a follow-up survey in May 2013. The BCL was used to assess depression tendency, instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), physical function, nutritional status, oral function, homeboundness, cognitive function and social activities. Univariate analysis was used to examine differences in risk between those with a presence of depression tendency (PDT) and those without (non-PDT) depending on demographic and BCL variables. Variables found to be significant were analysed by Poisson regression analysis. Of the 438 respondents in the second survey, 163 (37.2%) showed depression tendency. PDT risk was significantly increased by female gender, age, history of diabetes and cognitive disorder. It was significantly reduced by increased IADL. Engagement in social activities decreased PDT risk in rental accommodation. Renters faced a higher risk of PDT than persons evacuated in groups to purpose-built housing. The inclusion of social activities in the multivariate Poisson regression analysis weakened this effect. Female gender, a history of diabetes, reduced IADL and a tendency to cognitive disorder each independently affected PDT risk. These findings may inform future responses to earthquakes and the technical disasters that may accompany them. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. Multiple role occupancy in midlife: balancing work and family life in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evandrou, Maria; Glaser, Karen; Henz, Ursula

    2002-12-01

    This article investigates the extent of multiple-role occupancy among midlife individuals in Britain in cross-section and over the life course, focusing on work and family commitments. The association between demographic and social factors and multiple-role obligations is also investigated. The research is based on secondary analysis of the British Family and Working Lives Survey, which contains retrospective paid work, caregiving, and child coresidence histories. The proportion of individuals in midlife (women aged 45-59 and men aged 45-64) who have multiple roles, in terms of paid work and consistent family care, at any one point in time is low (2%). This is primarily due to the relatively small proportion (7%) of people in this age group who are caring for a dependent. Being older, unmarried, and in poor health significantly reduces the number of roles held among men and women. Although the frequency of multiple role occupancy, and intensive multiple role occupancy, is low on a cross-sectional basis, a much higher proportion of individuals have ever occupied multiple roles over their life course (14%). The findings will inform debate on how policy can best aid those endeavouring to balance paid work, family life, and caring responsibilities.

  5. WEBSITE DESIGN AND LOCALISATION: A COMPARISON OF MALAYSIA AND BRITAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanveer Ahmed

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explore the local cultural values on Malaysian and British websites selected from different sectors. In recent years, a number of studies have addressed the issue of local culture in website design, but most of the studies have focused on USA representing western cultures, whereas Chinese and Japanese cultures have been the main focal point of Asian cultures. This study intends to fill this gap, focusing on less-debated cultures: Malaysia and Britain. It applies Hofstede’s individualism/collectivism, and power distance, and Hall’s high/low-context cultural dimensions, and analyses how these cultural values are reflected in Malaysian and British websites. A content analysis of the websites highlights considerable differences in representing local cultural values on the local websites.

  6. Website Design and Localisation: A Comparison of Malaysia and Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanveer Ahmed

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explore the local cultural values on Malaysian and British websites selected from different sectors. In recent years, a number of studies have addressed the issue of local culture in website design, but most of the studies have focused on USA representing western cultures, whereas Chinese and Japanese cultures have been the main focal point of Asian cultures. This study intends to fill this gap, focusing on less-debated cultures: Malaysia and Britain. It applies Hofstede’s individualism/collectivism, and power distance, and Hall’s high/low-context cultural dimensions, and analyses how these cultural values are reflected in Malaysian and British websites. A content analysis of the websites highlights considerable differences in representing local cultural values on the local websites.

  7. Not Minding the Gap: Intercultural Shakespeare in Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panjwani Varsha

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article takes issue with the perceived space/gap between the multiple identities of mixed-heritage groups, as most of these people often pick and choose elements from all of their identities and amalgamate them into a cross-cultural whole. In recent years, such mixed-heritage groups in the U.K. have increasingly found cultural expression in Shakespeare. Focusing specifically on a number of recent Shakespearean productions, by what I term Brasian (my preferred term for British-Asians as it suggests a more fused identity theatre companies, the article demonstrates how these productions employ hybrid aesthetic styles, stories, and theatre forms to present a layered Braisian identity. It argues that these productions not only provide a nuanced understanding of the intercultural map of Britain but are also a rich breeding ground for innovative Shakespeare productions in the U.K.

  8. Energy - Britain must grasp at the nuclear nettle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, P.

    1976-01-01

    The need for a decision, without delay, by the Government concerning the choice of a reactor for Britain's nuclear industry is stressed. The ten points contained in a statement sent to the Department of Industry, representing the views of the British Nuclear Forum are summarised. Amongst the problems which are discussed are the need for a reorganisation of the industry, with a suggestion of scaling down the role of the UKAEA. Further criticisms of the lack of a positive image on safety and the importance of informing the public of the safety and cost advantages of nuclear power are stressed. Some tables are produced comparing generating costs for nuclear and coal fired stations. (U.K.)

  9. Who intermarries in Britain? Explaining ethnic diversity in intermarriage patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muttarak, Raya; Heath, Anthony

    2010-06-01

    This paper investigates trends, patterns and determinants of intermarriage (and partnership) comparing patterns among men and women and among different ethnic groups in Britain. We distinguish between endogamous (co-ethnic), majority/minority and minority/minority marriages. Hypotheses are derived from the theoretical literatures on assimilation, segmented assimilation and opportunity structures. The empirical analysis is based on the 1988-2006 General Household Surveys (N = 115,494). Consistent with assimilation theory we find that, for all ethnic minority groups, the propensity to intermarry is higher in the second generation than in the first. Consistent with ideas drawn from segmented assimilation theory, we also find that substantial differences in propensity to form majority/minority marriages persist after controls for individual characteristics such as age, educational level, generation and length of residence in Britain, with men and women of Indian, Pakistani or Bangladeshi background having higher propensities to form endogamous partnerships. However, we also find that opportunity structures affect intermarriage propensities for all groups alike, with individuals in more diverse residential areas (as measured by the ratio of majority to minority residents in the area) having higher likelihood to form majority/minority partnerships. We conclude then that, beginning from very different starting points, all groups, both minority and the majority groups exhibit common patterns of generational change and response to opportunity structures. Even the groups that are believed to have the strongest community structures and the strongest norms supporting endogamy appear to be experiencing increasing exogamy in the second generation and in more diverse residential settings. This suggests that a weak rather than a strong version of segmented assimilation provides the best account of British patterns.

  10. Great Indoors Awards 2007

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Hollandis Maastrichtis jagati 17. XI esimest korda rahvusvahelist auhinda The Great Indoors Award. Aasta sisekujundusfirmaks valiti Masamichi Katayama asutatud Wonderwall. Auhinna said veel Zaha Hadid, Heatherwick Studio, Ryui Nakamura Architects ja Item Idem

  11. Great Lakes Bathymetry

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lakes Michigan, Erie, Saint Clair, Ontario and Huron has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and...

  12. Dramatic Change in Jupiter's Great Red Spot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, A. A.; Wong, M. H.; Rogers, J. H.; Orton, G. S.; de Pater, I.; Asay-Davis, X.; Carlson, R. W.; Marcus, P. S.

    2015-01-01

    Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) is one of its most distinct and enduring features, having been continuously observed since the 1800's. It currently spans the smallest latitude and longitude size ever recorded. Here we show analyses of 2014 Hubble spectral imaging data to study the color, structure and internal dynamics of this long-live storm.

  13. Review of Amanda E. Herbert, Female Alliances: Gender, Identity, and Friendship in Early Modern Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Rehbein

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Review of Amanda E. Herbert, Female Alliances: Gender, Identity, and Friendship in Early Modern Britain. New Haven: Yale UP, 2014. xi, 256 pages: illustrations; 24 cm. ISBN 978-0-300-17740-4.

  14. Ideologies, Struggles and Contradictions: An Account of Mothers Raising Their Children Bilingually in Luxembourgish and English in Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Claudine

    2012-01-01

    Researchers have studied family language planning within bilingual family contexts but there is a dearth of studies that examine language planning of multilingual parents who raise their children in one of the world's lesser spoken languages. In this study I explore the ideologies and language planning of Luxembourgish mothers who are raising…

  15. The countdown for the negotiations on the exit of Great Britain from the EU and Euratom has begun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldmann, Ulrike

    2017-01-01

    On 29 March 2017 the official letter from the United Kingdom to the President of the EU Council was presented to inform the European Council of its intention to withdraw from the European Union (EU). The period of 2 years in Article 50 of the EU Treaty provided for the exit negotiations has thus begun to run. In the letter to the President of the Council, the UK Government expressly declares its intention to withdraw from the EU and from the Euratom Treaty (EAV). Thus the controversy about the conjunction of the withdrawal from the EU and Euratom has become obsolete.

  16. OSGM02: A new model for converting GPS-derived heights to local height datums in Great Britain and Ireland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iliffe, J.C.; Ziebart, M.; Cross, P.A.

    2003-01-01

    The background to the recent computation of a new vertical datum model for the British Isles (OSGM02) is described After giving a brief description of the computational techniques and the data sets used for the derivation of the gravimetric geoid, the paper focuses on the fitting of this surface...... to the GPS and levelling networks in the various regions of the British Isles in such a way that it can be used in conjunction with GPS to form a replacement for the existing system of bench marks. The error sources induced in this procedure are discussed, and the theoretical basis given for the fitting...

  17. A Doctrine Reader: The Navies of United States, Great Britain France, Italy, and Spain (Newport Paper, Number 9)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Indeed, professional writings in the United States have noted this parallel between doctrine and religion .29 As in other navies, doctrine was not the...Spanish Navy) , "La clctica," in Espana y el Mar en el siglo de Carlos llI, 1 989, p. 77. 13 . John D. Harnron, Tr.yalgar and the Spanish Navy (Annapolis...organization. Doctrine, therefore, can be either fmnly prescriptive, as in religion or in a political ideology, or basically descriptive. As a complex of

  18. Genomic and phenotypic characterization of myxoma virus from Great Britain reveals multiple evolutionary pathways distinct from those in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Peter J.; Cattadori, Isabella M.; Fitch, Adam; Geber, Adam; Liu, June; Sim, Derek G.; Boag, Brian; Ghedin, Elodie

    2017-01-01

    The co-evolution of myxoma virus (MYXV) and the European rabbit occurred independently in Australia and Europe from different progenitor viruses. Although this is the canonical study of the evolution of virulence, whether the genomic and phenotypic outcomes of MYXV evolution in Europe mirror those observed in Australia is unknown. We addressed this question using viruses isolated in the United Kingdom early in the MYXV epizootic (1954–1955) and between 2008–2013. The later UK viruses fell into three distinct lineages indicative of a long period of separation and independent evolution. Although rates of evolutionary change were almost identical to those previously described for MYXV in Australia and strongly clock-like, genome evolution in the UK and Australia showed little convergence. The phenotypes of eight UK viruses from three lineages were characterized in laboratory rabbits and compared to the progenitor (release) Lausanne strain. Inferred virulence ranged from highly virulent (grade 1) to highly attenuated (grade 5). Two broad disease types were seen: cutaneous nodular myxomatosis characterized by multiple raised secondary cutaneous lesions, or an amyxomatous phenotype with few or no secondary lesions. A novel clinical outcome was acute death with pulmonary oedema and haemorrhage, often associated with bacteria in many tissues but an absence of inflammatory cells. Notably, reading frame disruptions in genes defined as essential for virulence in the progenitor Lausanne strain were compatible with the acquisition of high virulence. Combined, these data support a model of ongoing host-pathogen co-evolution in which multiple genetic pathways can produce successful outcomes in the field that involve both different virulence grades and disease phenotypes, with alterations in tissue tropism and disease mechanisms. PMID:28253375

  19. Analysis of electricity industry liberalization in Great Britain: how did the bidding behavior of electricity producers change?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tashpulatov, Sherzod N.

    -, č. 415 (2010), s. 1-55 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Grant - others:MŠk(CZ) SVV-2010-261801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : liberalization * electricity markets * uniform price auction * market power Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp415.pdf

  20. A Survey of Final-year Undergraduate Laboratory Projects in Biochemistry and Related Degrees in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Caroline A.

    1997-01-01

    Analyzes undergraduate research projects in biochemistry and related subjects at British universities. Discusses the trend toward students doing less research as part of their undergraduate study. Reasons cited for this trend include increased student numbers and costs. (DDR)