WorldWideScience

Sample records for great basin species

  1. Germination phenology of some Great Basin native annual forb species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tara A. Forbis

    2010-01-01

    Great Basin native plant communities are being replaced by the annual invasive cheatgrass Bromus tectorum. Cheatgrass exhibits a germination syndrome that is characteristic of facultative winter annuals. Although perennials dominate these communities, native annuals are present at many sites. Germination timing is often an important predictor of competitive...

  2. Evaluation of thermal, chemical, and mechanical seed scarification methods for 4 Great Basin lupine species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covy D. Jones; Mikel R. Stevens; Von D. Jolley; Bryan G. Hopkins; Scott L. Jensen; Dave Turner; Jason M. Stettler

    2016-01-01

    Seeds of most Great Basin lupine (Lupinus spp. [Fabaceae]) species are physically dormant and thus, difficult to establish in uniform stands in seed production fields. We designed this study to examine 5 seed scarification techniques, each with 11 levels of application (including a non-scarified control), to reduce the physical seed dormancy of longspur lupine...

  3. Monitoring species richness and abundance of shorebirds in the western Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnock, Nils; Haig, Susan M.; Oring, Lewis W.

    1998-01-01

    Broad-scale avian surveys have been attempted within North America with mixed results. Arid regions, such as the Great Basin, are often poorly sampled because of the vastness of the region, inaccessibility of sites, and few ornithologists. In addition, extreme variability in wetland habitat conditions present special problems for conducting censuses of species inhabiting these areas. We examined these issues in assessing multi-scale shorebird (order: Charadriiformes) censuses conducted in the western Great Basin from 1992-1997. On ground surveys, we recorded 31 species of shorebirds, but were unable to accurately estimate population size. Conversely, on aerial surveys we were able to estimate regional abundance of some shorebirds, but were unable to determine species diversity. Aerial surveys of three large alkali lakes in Oregon (Goose, Summer, and Abert Lakes) revealed > 300,000 shorebirds in one year of this study, of which 67% were American Avocets (Recurvirostra americana) and 30% phalaropes (Phalaropus spp.). These lakes clearly meet Western Hemisphere Shorebird Reserve Network guidelines for designation as important shorebird sites. Based upon simulations of our monitoring effort and the magnitude and variation of numbers of American Avocets, detection of S-10% negative declines in populations of these birds would take a minimum of 7-23 years of comparable effort. We conclude that a combination of ground and aerial surveys must be conducted at multiple sites and years and over a large region to obtain an accurate picture of the diversity, abundance, and trends of shorebirds in the western Great Basin.

  4. Alien invasive species and biological pollution of the Great Lakes Basin ecosystem[Great Lakes Water Quality Board : Report to the International Joint Commission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-05-01

    The displacement of important native species in the Great Lakes is a result of an invasion by a succession of non indigenous aquatic species. These invasion also resulted in interference with the proper human water uses and cost billions of dollars. The problem was considered serious enough that the International Joint Commission asked the Great Lakes Water Quality Board in 1999 to review the regulations in place and make recommendations, if necessary, for the implementation of additional measures that could be considered to keep control over the introduction of alien invasive species. Escapes from aquaria, aquaculture, research and educational facilities, canal and diversion water flows, and release of live bait are all sources of this invasion. The effectiveness of alternative technologies to control the invasion was to be examined by the Board. Other efforts taking place to address the situation in the basin are being complemented by the publication of this report. It is considered that the most important source of alien invasive species (AIS) to the Great Lakes is the discharge of ballast water from shipping vessels coming from outside the United States and Canada. A major concern is the role played by vessels reporting no ballast on board (NOBOB) upon entering the basin. A number of recommendations were made concerning: (1) implementation and enforcement of the ballast water discharge standards agreed upon by both countries, (2) the evaluation of the effectiveness of alternative technologies to achieve ballast water discharge standards over the long term, combined with the use of chemical treatment while the evaluation is being performed, (3) the implementation of optimal management practices to control sediments in shipping vessels, (4) modifications to the design of shipping vessels, and (5) the monitoring and contingency plans in the event of a repeat scenario in the future. Composed of an equal number representatives from the United States and Canada, at

  5. Linking nitrogen partitioning and species abundance to invasion resistance in the Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. J. James; K. W. Davies; R. L. Sheley; Z. T. Aanderud

    2008-01-01

    Resource partitioning has been suggested as an important mechanism of invasion resistance. The relative importance of resource partitioning for invasion resistance, however, may depend on how species abundance is distributed in the plant community. This study had two objectives. First, we quantified the degree to which one resource, nitrogen (N), is partitioned by time...

  6. Great Basin Experimental Range: Annotated bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Durant McArthur; Bryce A. Richardson; Stanley G. Kitchen

    2013-01-01

    This annotated bibliography documents the research that has been conducted on the Great Basin Experimental Range (GBER, also known as the Utah Experiment Station, Great Basin Station, the Great Basin Branch Experiment Station, Great Basin Experimental Center, and other similar name variants) over the 102 years of its existence. Entries were drawn from the original...

  7. Great Basin paleoenvironmental studies project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Project goals, project tasks, progress on tasks, and problems encountered are described and discussed for each of the studies that make up the Great Basin Paleoenvironmental Studies Project for Yucca Mountain. These studies are: Paleobotany, Paleofauna, Geomorphology, and Transportation. Budget summaries are also given for each of the studies and for the overall project

  8. Great Basin wildlife disease concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ Mason

    2008-01-01

    In the Great Basin, wildlife diseases have always represented a significant challenge to wildlife managers, agricultural production, and human health and safety. One of the first priorities of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Division of Fish and Wildlife Services was Congressionally directed action to eradicate vectors for zoonotic disease, particularly rabies, in...

  9. Cultivation and characterization of thermophilic Nitrospira species from geothermal springs in the US Great Basin, China, and Armenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Tara A; Calica, Nicole A; Huang, Dolores A; Manoharan, Namritha; Hou, Weiguo; Huang, Liuqin; Panosyan, Hovik; Dong, Hailiang; Hedlund, Brian P

    2013-08-01

    Despite its importance in the nitrogen cycle, little is known about nitrite oxidation at high temperatures. To bridge this gap, enrichment cultures were inoculated with sediment slurries from a variety of geothermal springs. While nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) were successfully enriched from seven hot springs located in US Great Basin, south-western China, and Armenia at ≤ 57.9 °C, all attempts to enrich NOB from > 10 hot springs at ≥ 61 °C failed. The stoichiometric conversion of nitrite to nitrate, chlorate sensitivity, and sensitivity to autoclaving all confirmed biological nitrite oxidation. Regardless of origin, all successful enrichments contained organisms with high 16S rRNA gene sequence identity (≥ 97%) with Nitrospira calida. In addition, Armenian enrichments also contained close relatives of Nitrospira moscoviensis. Physiological properties of all enrichments were similar, with a temperature optimum of 45-50 °C, yielding nitrite oxidation rates of 7.53 ± 1.20 to 23.0 ± 2.73 fmoles cell(-1) h(-1), and an upper temperature limit between 60 and 65 °C. The highest rates of NOB activity occurred with initial NO2 - concentrations of 0.5-0.75 mM; however, lower initial nitrite concentrations resulted in shorter lag times. The results presented here suggest a possible upper temperature limit of 60-65 °C for Nitrospira and demonstrate the wide geographic range of Nitrospira species in geothermal environments. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Macroecology, paleoecology, and ecological integrity of terrestrial species and communities of the interior Columbia basin and northern portions of the Klamath and Great Basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce G. Marcot; L.K. Croft; J.F. Lehmkuhl; R.H. Naney; C.G. Niwa; W.R. Owen; R.E. Sandquist

    1998-01-01

    This report present information on biogeography and broad-scale ecology (macroecology) of selected fungi, lichens, bryophytes, vascular plants, invertebrates, and vertebrates of the interior Columbia River basin and adjacent areas. Rareplants include many endemics associated with local conditions. Potential plant and invertebrate bioindicators are identified. Species...

  11. Leap frog in slow motion: Divergent responses of tree species and life stages to climatic warming in Great Basin subalpine forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithers, Brian V; North, Malcolm P; Millar, Constance I; Latimer, Andrew M

    2018-02-01

    In response to climate warming, subalpine treelines are expected to move up in elevation since treelines are generally controlled by growing season temperature. Where treeline is advancing, dispersal differences and early life stage environmental tolerances are likely to affect how species expand their ranges. Species with an establishment advantage will colonize newly available habitat first, potentially excluding species that have slower establishment rates. Using a network of plots across five mountain ranges, we described patterns of upslope elevational range shift for the two dominant Great Basin subalpine species, limber pine and Great Basin bristlecone pine. We found that the Great Basin treeline for these species is expanding upslope with a mean vertical elevation shift of 19.1 m since 1950, which is lower than what we might expect based on temperature increases alone. The largest advances were on limber pine-dominated granitic soils, on west aspects, and at lower latitudes. Bristlecone pine juveniles establishing above treeline share some environmental associations with bristlecone adults. Limber pine above-treeline juveniles, in contrast, are prevalent across environmental conditions and share few environmental associations with limber pine adults. Strikingly, limber pine is establishing above treeline throughout the region without regard to site characteristic such as soil type, slope, aspect, or soil texture. Although limber pine is often rare at treeline where it coexists with bristlecone pine, limber pine juveniles dominate above treeline even on calcareous soils that are core bristlecone pine habitat. Limber pine is successfully "leap-frogging" over bristlecone pine, probably because of its strong dispersal advantage and broader tolerances for establishment. This early-stage dominance indicates the potential for the species composition of treeline to change in response to climate change. More broadly, it shows how species differences in dispersal

  12. Great Basin Factsheet Series 2016 - Information and tools to restore and conserve Great Basin ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanne C. Chambers

    2016-01-01

    Land managers are responsible for developing effective strategies for conserving and restoring Great Basin ecosystems in the face of invasive species, conifer expansion, and altered fire regimes. A warming climate is magnifying the effects of these threats and adding urgency to implementation of management practices that will maintain or improve ecosystem...

  13. Great Basin geologic framework and uranium favorability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, L.T.; Beal, L.H.

    1978-01-01

    Work on this report has been done by a team of seven investigators assisted over the project span by twenty-three undergraduate and graduate students from May 18, 1976 to August 19, 1977. The report is presented in one volume of text, one volume or Folio of Maps, and two volumes of bibliography. The bibliography contains approximately 5300 references on geologic subjects pertinent to the search for uranium in the Great Basin. Volume I of the bibliography lists articles by author alphabetically and Volume II cross-indexes these articles by location and key word. Chapters I through IV of the Text volume and accompanying Folio Map Sets 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, discuss the relationship of uranium to rock and structural environments which dominate the Great Basin. Chapter 5 and Map Sets 6 and 7 provide a geochemical association/metallogenic grouping of mineral occurrences in the Great Basin along with information on rock types hosting uranium. Chapter VI summarizes the results of a court house claim record search for 'new' claiming areas for uranium, and Chapter VII along with Folio Map Set 8 gives all published geochronological data available through April 1, 1977 on rocks of the Great Basin. Chapter VIII provides an introduction to a computer analysis of characteristics of certain major uranium deposits in crystalline rocks (worldwide) and is offered as a suggestion of what might be done with uranium in all geologic environments. We believe such analysis will assist materially in constructing exploration models. Chapter IX summarizes criteria used and conclusions reached as to the favorability of uranium environments which we believe to exist in the Great Basin and concludes with recommendations for both exploration and future research. A general summary conclusion is that there are several geologic environments within the Great Basin which have considerable potential and that few, if any, have been sufficiently tested

  14. Pacific salmonines in the Great Lakes Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claramunt, Randall M.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Clapp, David; Taylor, William W.; Lynch, Abigail J.; Léonard, Nancy J.

    2012-01-01

    Pacific salmon (genus Oncorhynchus) are a valuable resource, both within their native range in the North Pacific rim and in the Great Lakes basin. Understanding their value from a biological and economic perspective in the Great Lakes, however, requires an understanding of changes in the ecosystem and of management actions that have been taken to promote system stability, integrity, and sustainable fisheries. Pacific salmonine introductions to the Great Lakes are comprised mainly of Chinook salmon, coho salmon, and steelhead and have accounted for 421, 177, and 247 million fish, respectively, stocked during 1966-2007. Stocking of Pacific salmonines has been effective in substantially reducing exotic prey fish abundances in several of the Great Lakes (e.g., lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario). The goal of our evaluation was to highlight differences in management strategies and perspectives across the basin, and to evaluate policies for Pacific salmonine management in the Great Lakes. Currently, a potential conflict exists between Pacific salmonine management and native fish rehabilitation goals because of the desire to sustain recreational fisheries and to develop self-sustaining populations of stocked Pacific salmonines in the Great Lakes. We provide evidence that suggests Pacific salmonines have not only become naturalized to the food webs of the Great Lakes, but that their populations (specifically Chinook salmon) may be fluctuating in concert with specific prey (i.e., alewives) whose populations are changing relative to environmental conditions and ecosystem disturbances. Remaining questions, however, are whether or not “natural” fluctuations in predator and prey provide enough “stability” in the Great Lakes food webs, and even more importantly, would a choice by managers to attempt to reduce the severity of predator-prey oscillations be antagonistic to native fish restoration efforts. We argue that, on each of the Great Lakes, managers are pursuing

  15. Wildlife habitats in managed rangelands—the Great Basin of southeastern Oregon: manmade habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris Maser; Jack Ward Thomas; Ira David Luman; Ralph. Anderson

    1979-01-01

    Manmade structures on rangelands provide specialized habitats for some species. These habitats and how they function as specialized habitat features are examined in this publication. The relationships of the wildlife of the Great Basin to such structures are detailed.

  16. Climate change and water quality in the Great Lakes Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-08-01

    The Great Lakes Basin is subjected to several stresses, such as land use changes, chemical contamination, nutrient over-enrichment, alien invasive species, and acid precipitation. Climate change is now added to this list. The Water Quality Board was asked to provide advice concerning the impacts of climate change on the water quality of the Great Lakes and on how to address the issue. A White Paper was commissioned by the Board to address four key questions: (1) what are the Great Lakes water quality issues associated with climate change, (2) what are potential impacts of climate change on beneficial uses, (3) how might impacts vary across the Great Lakes region, and (4) what are the implications for decision making. The conclusions and findings of the White Paper were then discussed at a workshop held in May 2003. Part 1 of the document provides an executive summary. The advice of the Water Quality Board was based on the findings of the White Paper and presented in Part 2. Part 3 presented the White Paper, while a summary of the workshop was provided in Part 4. A presentation on cross border tools and strategies was also presented by a workshop participant.

  17. Leap frog in slow motion: Divergent responses of tree species and life stages to climatic warming in Great Basin subalpine forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian V. Smithers; Malcolm P. North; Constance I. Millar; Andrew M. Latimer

    2017-01-01

    In response to climate warming, subalpine treelines are expected to move up in elevation since treelines are generally controlled by growing season temperature. Where treeline is advancing, dispersal differences and early life stage environmental tolerances are likely to affect how species expand their ranges. Species with an establishment advantage will...

  18. Highly calcareous lacustrine soils in the Great Konya Basin, Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meester, de T.

    1971-01-01

    The Great Konya Basin is in the south of the Central Anatolian Plateau in Turkey. It is a depression without outlet to the sea. The central part of the Basin is the floor of a former Pleistocene lake, the Ancient Konya Lake. This area, called the Lacustrine
    Plain, has highly calcareous

  19. Geology of photo linear elements, Great Divide Basin, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, D. L., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Ground examination of photo linear elements in the Great Divide Basin, Wyoming indicates little if any tectonic control. Aeolian aspects are more widespread and pervasive than previously considered.

  20. Northern Great Basin Seasonal Lakes: Vulnerability to Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, M.; Eitel, J.

    2017-12-01

    Seasonal alkaline lakes in southeast Oregon, northeast California, and northwest Nevada serve as important habitat for migrating birds utilizing the Pacific Flyway, as well as local plant and animal communities. Despite their ecological importance, and anecdotal suggestions that these lakes are becoming less reliable, little is known about the vulnerability of these lakes to climate change. Our research seeks to understand the vulnerability of Northern Great Basin seasonal lakes to climate change. For this, we will be using historical information from the European Space Agency's Global Surface Water Explorer and the University of Idaho's gridMET climate product, to build a model that allows estimating surface water extent and timing based on climate variables. We will then utilize downscaled future climate projections to model surface water extent and timing in the coming decades. In addition, an unmanned aerial system (UAS) will be utilized at a subset of dried basins to obtain precise 3D bathymetry and calculate water volume hypsographs, a critical factor in understanding the likelihood of water persistence and biogeochemical habitat suitability. These results will be incorporated into decision support tools that land managers can utilize in water conservation, wildlife management, and climate mitigation actions. Future research may pair these forecasts with animal movement data to examine fragmentation of migratory corridors and species-specific impacts.

  1. Soil salinity and alkalinity in the Great Konya Basin, Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, P.M.

    1970-01-01

    In the summers of 1964 to 1968 a study was made of soil salinity and alkalinity in the Great Konya Basin, under the auspices of the Konya Project, a research and training programme of the Department of Tropical Soil Science of the Agricultural University, Wageningen.

    The Great

  2. GEOMORPHIC CONTROLS ON MEADOW ECOSYSTEMS IN THE CENTRAL GREAT BASIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wet meadows, riparian corridor phreatophyte assemblages, and high-altitude spring-fed aspen meadows comprise a very small percentage of the total landscape of the mountain ranges in the central Great Basin however, they represent important ecological environments. We have used s...

  3. Soil fertility in the Great Konya Basin, Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, B.H.

    1970-01-01

    Soil fertility was studied in the Great Konya Basin, as part of the study carried out by the Department of Tropical Soil Science of the Agricultural University at Wageningen.

    The purpose was to find the agricultural value of the soils, to learn about the main factors governing soil fertility,

  4. Genecology and seed zones for tapertip onion in the US Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. C. Johnson; Barbara C. Hellier; Ken W. Vance-Borland

    2013-01-01

    The choice of germplasm is critical for sustainable restoration, yet seed transfer guidelines are lacking for all but a few herbaceous species. Seed transfer zones based on genetic variability and climate were developed using tapertip onion (Allium acuminatum Hook.) collected in the Great Basin and surrounding areas in the United States. Bulbs from 53 locations were...

  5. Environmental drivers of cambial phenology in Great Basin bristlecone pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaco, Emanuele; Biondi, Franco; Rossi, Sergio; Deslauriers, Annie

    2016-07-01

    The timing of wood formation is crucial to determine how environmental factors affect tree growth. The long-lived bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva D. K. Bailey) is a foundation treeline species in the Great Basin of North America reaching stem ages of about 5000 years. We investigated stem cambial phenology and radial size variability to quantify the relative influence of environmental variables on bristlecone pine growth. Repeated cellular measurements and half-hourly dendrometer records were obtained during 2013 and 2014 for two high-elevation stands included in the Nevada Climate-ecohydrological Assessment Network. Daily time series of stem radial variations showed rehydration and expansion starting in late April-early May, prior to the onset of wood formation at breast height. Formation of new xylem started in June and lasted until mid-September. There were no differences in phenological timing between the two stands, or in the air and soil temperature thresholds for the onset of xylogenesis. A multiple logistic regression model highlighted a separate effect of air and soil temperature on xylogenesis, the relevance of which was modulated by the interaction with vapor pressure and soil water content. While air temperature plays a key role in cambial resumption after winter dormancy, soil thermal conditions coupled with snowpack dynamics also influence the onset of wood formation by regulating plant-soil water exchanges. Our results help build a physiological understanding of climate-growth relationships in P. longaeva, the importance of which for dendroclimatic reconstructions can hardly be overstated. In addition, environmental drivers of xylogenesis at the treeline ecotone, by controlling the growth of dominant species, ultimately determine ecosystem responses to climatic change. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Fire rehabilitation effectiveness: a chronosequence approach for the Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyke, David A.; Pilliod, David S.; Chambers, Jeanne C.; Brooks, Matthew L.; Grace, James

    2009-01-01

    Federal land management agencies have invested heavily in seeding vegetation for emergency stabilization and rehabilitation (ES&R) of non-forested lands. ES&R projects are implemented to reduce post-fire dominance of non-native annual grasses, minimize probability of recurrent fire, quickly recover lost habitat for sensitive species, and ultimately result in plant communities with desirable characteristics including resistance to invasive species and resilience or ability to recover following disturbance. Land managers lack scientific evidence to verify whether seeding non-forested lands achieves their desired long-term ES&R objectives. The overall objective of our investigation is to determine if ES&R projects increase perennial plant cover, improve community composition, decrease invasive annual plant cover and result in a more desirable fuel structure relative to no treatment following fires while potentially providing habitat for Greater Sage-Grouse, a species of management concern. In addition, we provide the locations and baseline vegetation data for further studies relating to ES&R project impacts. We examined effects of seeding treatments (drill and broadcast) vs. no seeding on biotic and abiotic (bare ground and litter) variables for the dominant climate regimes and ecological types within the Great Basin. We attempted to determine seeding effectiveness to provide desired plant species cover while restricting non-native annual grass cover relative to post-treatment precipitation, post-treatment grazing level and time-since-seeding. Seedings were randomly sampled from all known post-fire seedings that occurred in the four-state area of Idaho, Nevada, Oregon and Utah. Sampling locations were stratified by major land resource area, precipitation, and loam-dominated soils to ensure an adequate spread of locations to provide inference of our findings to similar lands throughout the Great Basin. Nearly 100 sites were located that contained an ES&R project. Of

  7. Low offspring survival in mountain pine beetle infesting the resistant Great Basin bristlecone pine supports the preference-performance hypothesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika L Eidson

    Full Text Available The preference-performance hypothesis states that ovipositing phytophagous insects will select host plants that are well-suited for their offspring and avoid host plants that do not support offspring performance (survival, development and fitness. The mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae, a native insect herbivore in western North America, can successfully attack and reproduce in most species of Pinus throughout its native range. However, mountain pine beetles avoid attacking Great Basin bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva, despite recent climate-driven increases in mountain pine beetle populations at the high elevations where Great Basin bristlecone pine grows. Low preference for a potential host plant species may not persist if the plant supports favorable insect offspring performance, and Great Basin bristlecone pine suitability for mountain pine beetle offspring performance is unclear. We infested cut bolts of Great Basin bristlecone pine and two susceptible host tree species, limber (P. flexilis and lodgepole (P. contorta pines with adult mountain pine beetles and compared offspring performance. To investigate the potential for variation in offspring performance among mountain pine beetles from different areas, we tested beetles from geographically-separated populations within and outside the current range of Great Basin bristlecone pine. Although mountain pine beetles constructed galleries and laid viable eggs in all three tree species, extremely few offspring emerged from Great Basin bristlecone pine, regardless of the beetle population. Our observed low offspring performance in Great Basin bristlecone pine corresponds with previously documented low mountain pine beetle attack preference. A low preference-low performance relationship suggests that Great Basin bristlecone pine resistance to mountain pine beetle is likely to be retained through climate-driven high-elevation mountain pine beetle outbreaks.

  8. Soil Preferences in Germination and Survival of Limber Pine in the Great Basin White Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian V. Smithers

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In the Great Basin, limber pine is a sub-alpine tree species that is colonizing newly available habitat above treeline in greater numbers than treeline-dominating Great Basin bristlecone pine, especially on dolomite soil, where few plants are able to grow and where limber pine adults are rare. To examine the role of soil type on germination and establishment of limber pine, I sowed limber pine seeds in containers of the three main White Mountains soil types in one location while measuring soil moisture and temperature. I found that dolomite soil retains water longer, and has higher soil water content, than quartzite and granite soils and has the coolest maximum growing season temperatures. Limber pine germination and survival were highest in dolomite soil relative to quartzite and granite where limber pine adults are more common. While adult limber pines are rare on dolomite soils, young limber pines appear to prefer them. This indicates that limber pine either has only recently been able to survive in treeline climate on dolomite or that bristlecone pine has some long-term competitive advantage on dolomite making limber pine, a species with 1500 year old individuals, an early succession species in Great Basin sub-alpine forests.

  9. Structural investigations of Great Basin geothermal fields: Applications and implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faulds, James E [Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology, Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Hinz, Nicholas H. [Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology, Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Coolbaugh, Mark F [Great Basin Center for Geothermal Energy, Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

    2010-11-01

    Because fractures and faults are commonly the primary pathway for deeply circulating hydrothermal fluids, structural studies are critical to assessing geothermal systems and selecting drilling targets for geothermal wells. Important tools for structural analysis include detailed geologic mapping, kinematic analysis of faults, and estimations of stress orientations. Structural assessments are especially useful for evaluating geothermal fields in the Great Basin of the western USA, where regional extension and transtension combine with high heat flow to generate abundant geothermal activity in regions having little recent volcanic activity. The northwestern Great Basin is one of the most geothermally active areas in the USA. The prolific geothermal activity is probably due to enhanced dilation on N- to NNE-striking normal faults induced by a transfer of NW-directed dextral shear from the Walker Lane to NW-directed extension. Analysis of several geothermal fields suggests that most systems occupy discrete steps in normal fault zones or lie in belts of intersecting, overlapping, and/or terminating faults. Most fields are associated with steeply dipping faults and, in many cases, with Quaternary faults. The structural settings favoring geothermal activity are characterized by subvertical conduits of highly fractured rock along fault zones oriented approximately perpendicular to the WNW-trending least principal stress. Features indicative of these settings that may be helpful in guiding exploration for geothermal resources include major steps in normal faults, interbasinal highs, groups of relatively low discontinuous ridges, and lateral jogs or terminations of mountain ranges.

  10. Great Basin Research and Management Project: Restoring and maintaining riparian ecosystem integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanne C. Chambers

    2000-01-01

    The Great Basin Research and Management Project was initiated in 1994 by the USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station’s Ecology, Paleoecology, and Restoration of Great Basin Watersheds Project to address the problems of stream incision and riparian ecosystem degradation in central Nevada. It is a highly interdisciplinary project that is being conducted in...

  11. Native plant development and restoration program for the Great Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    N. L. Shaw; M. Pellant; P. Olweli; S. L. Jensen; E. D. McArthur

    2008-01-01

    The Great Basin Native Plant Selection and Increase Project, organized by the USDA Bureau of Land Management, Great Basin Restoration Initiative and the USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station in 2000 as a multi-agency collaborative program (http://www.fs.fed.us/rm/boise/research/shrub/greatbasin.shtml), has the objective of improving the availability of...

  12. Quantifying phenology metrics from Great Basin plant communities and their relationship to seasonal water availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Question/Methods Sagebrush steppe is critical habitat in the Great Basin for wildlife and provides important ecosystem goods and services. Expansion of pinyon (Pinus spp.) and juniper (Juniperus spp.) in the Great Basin has reduced the extent of sagebrush steppe causing habitat, fire, and...

  13. Geomorphic controls on Great Basin riparian vegetation at the watershed and process zone scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake Meneken Engelhardt

    2009-01-01

    Riparian ecosystems supply valuable resources in all landscapes, but especially in semiarid regions such as the Great Basin of the western United States. Over half of Great Basin streams are thought to be in poor ecological condition and further deterioration is of significant concern to stakeholders. A thorough understanding of how physical processes acting at...

  14. Quantifying cambial activity of high-elevation conifers in the Great Basin, Nevada, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaco, E.; Biondi, F.; Rossi, S.; Deslauriers, A.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the physiological mechanisms that control the formation of tree rings provides the necessary biological basis for developing dendroclimatic reconstructions and dendroecological histories. Studies of wood formation in the Great Basin are now being conducted in connection with the Nevada Climate-ecohydrological Assessment Network (NevCAN), a recently established transect of valley-to-mountaintop instrumented stations in the Snake and Sheep Ranges of the Great Basin. Automated sensors record meteorological, soil, and vegetational variables at these sites, providing unique opportunities for ecosystem science, and are being used to investigate the ecological implications of xylogenesis. We present here an initial study based on microcores collected during summer 2013 from mountain and subalpine conifers (including Great Basin bristlecone pine, Pinus longaeva) growing on the west slope of Mt. Washington. Samples were taken from the mountain west (SM; 2810 m elevation) and the subalpine west (SS, 3355 m elevation) NevCAN sites on June 16th and 27th, 2013. The SS site was further subdivided in a high (SSH) and a low (SSL) group of trees, separated by about 10 m in elevation. Microscopic analyses showed the effect of elevation on cambial activity, as annual ring formation was more advanced at the lower (mountain) site compared to the higher (subalpine) one. At all sites cambium size showed little variations between the two sampling dates. The number of xylem cells in the radial enlargement phase decreased between the two sampling dates at the mountain site but increased at the subalpine site, confirming a delayed formation of wood at the higher elevations. Despite relatively high within-site variability, a general trend of increasing number of cells in the lignification phase was found at all sites. Mature cells were present only at the mountain site on June 27th. Spatial differences in the xylem formation process emerged at the species level and, within

  15. Classification and Accuracy Assessment for Coarse Resolution Mapping within the Great Lakes Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study applied a phenology-based land-cover classification approach across the Laurentian Great Lakes Basin (GLB) using time-series data consisting of 23 Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) composite images (250 ...

  16. Monitoring Agricultural Cropping Patterns in the Great Lakes Basin Using MODIS-NDVI Time Series Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research examined changes in agricultural cropping patterns across the Great Lakes Basin (GLB) using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data. Specific research objectives were to characterize the distribut...

  17. A review of fire effects on vegetation and soils in the Great Basin region: response and ecological site characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Richard F.; Chambers, Jeanne C.; Pyke, David A.; Pierson, Fred B.; Williams, C. Jason

    2013-01-01

    This review synthesizes the state of knowledge on fire effects on vegetation and soils in semi-arid ecosystems in the Great Basin Region, including the central and northern Great Basin and Range, Columbia River Basin, and the Snake River Plain. We summarize available literature related to: (1) the effects of environmental gradients, ecological site, and vegetation characteristics on resilience to disturbance and resistance to invasive species; (2) the effects of fire on individual plant species and communities, biological soil crusts, seed banks, soil nutrients, and hydrology; and (3) the role of fire severity, fire versus fire surrogate treatments, and post-fire grazing in determining ecosystem response. From this, we identify knowledge gaps and present a framework for predicting plant successional trajectories following wild and prescribed fires and fire surrogate treatments. Possibly the three most important ecological site characteristics that influence a site’s resilience (ability of the ecological site to recover from disturbance) and resistance to invasive species are soil temperature/moisture regimes and the composition and structure of vegetation on the ecological site just prior to the disturbance event.

  18. Persistence at distributional edges: Columbia spotted frog habitat in the arid Great Basin, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkle, Robert S; Pilliod, David S

    2015-09-01

    A common challenge in the conservation of broadly distributed, yet imperiled species is understanding which factors facilitate persistence at distributional edges, locations where populations are often vulnerable to extirpation due to changes in climate, land use, or distributions of other species. For Columbia spotted frogs (Rana luteiventris) in the Great Basin (USA), a genetically distinct population segment of conservation concern, we approached this problem by examining (1) landscape-scale habitat availability and distribution, (2) water body-scale habitat associations, and (3) resource management-identified threats to persistence. We found that areas with perennial aquatic habitat and suitable climate are extremely limited in the southern portion of the species' range. Within these suitable areas, native and non-native predators (trout and American bullfrogs [Lithobates catesbeianus]) are widespread and may further limit habitat availability in upper- and lower-elevation areas, respectively. At the water body scale, spotted frog occupancy was associated with deeper sites containing abundant emergent vegetation and nontrout fish species. Streams with American beaver (Castor canadensis) frequently had these structural characteristics and were significantly more likely to be occupied than ponds, lakes, streams without beaver, or streams with inactive beaver ponds, highlighting the importance of active manipulation of stream environments by beaver. Native and non-native trout reduced the likelihood of spotted frog occupancy, especially where emergent vegetation cover was sparse. Intensive livestock grazing, low aquatic connectivity, and ephemeral hydroperiods were also negatively associated with spotted frog occupancy. We conclude that persistence of this species at the arid end of its range has been largely facilitated by habitat stability (i.e., permanent hydroperiod), connectivity, predator-free refugia, and a commensalistic interaction with an ecosystem

  19. Priority setting for invasive species management: risk assessment of Ponto-Caspian invasive species into Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, Belinda; Aldridge, David C

    2013-03-01

    Invasive species drive important ecological and economic losses across wide geographies, with some regions supporting especially large numbers of nonnative species and consequently suffering relatively high impacts. For this reason, integrated risk assessments able to screen a suite of multiple invaders over large geographic areas are needed for prioritizing the allocation of limited resources. A total of 16 Ponto-Caspian aquatic species (10 gammarids, one isopod, two mysids, and three fishes) have been short-listed as recent or potential future invaders of British waters, whose introduction and spread is of high concern. In this study, we use multiple modeling techniques to assess their risk of establishment and spread into Great Britain. Climate suitability maps for these 16 species differed depending on the eastern and western distribution of species in continental Europe, which was related to their respective migration corridor: southern (Danube-Rhine rivers), and northern (Don and Volga rivers and Baltic lakes). Species whose suitability was high across large parts of Great Britain included four gammarids (Cheliorophium robustum, Dikerogammarus bispinosus, D. villosus, and Echinogammarus trichiatus) and a mysid (Hemimysis anomala). A climatic "heat map" combining the results of all 16 species together pointed to the southeast of England as the area most vulnerable to multiple invasions, particularly the Thames, Anglian, Severn, and Humber river basin districts. Regression models further suggested that alkalinity concentration > 120 mg/L in southeast England may favor the establishment of Ponto-Caspian invaders. The production of integrated risk maps for future invaders provides a means for the scientifically informed prioritization of resources toward particular species and geographic regions. Such tools have great utility in helping environmental managers focus efforts on the most effective prevention, management, and monitoring programs.

  20. Collaboration in River Basin Management: The Great Rivers Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, S.; Vridhachalam, M.; Tomala-Reyes, A.; Guerra, A.; Chu, H.; Eckman, B.

    2008-12-01

    The health of the world's freshwater ecosystems is fundamental to the health of people, plants and animals around the world. The sustainable use of the world's freshwater resources is recognized as one of the most urgent challenges facing society today. An estimated 1.3 billion people currently lack access to safe drinking water, an issue the United Nations specifically includes in its recently published Millennium Development Goals. IBM is collaborating with The Nature Conservancy and the Center for Sustainability and the Global Environment (SAGE) at the University of Wisconsin, Madison to build a Modeling Collaboration Framework and Decision Support System (DSS) designed to help policy makers and a variety of stakeholders (farmers, fish and wildlife managers, hydropower operators, et al.) to assess, come to consensus, and act on land use decisions representing effective compromises between human use and ecosystem preservation/restoration efforts. Initially focused on Brazil's Paraguay-Parana, China's Yangtze, and the Mississippi Basin in the US, the DSS integrates data and models from a wide variety of environmental sectors, including water balance, water quality, carbon balance, crop production, hydropower, and biodiversity. In this presentation we focus on the collaboration aspects of the DSS. The DSS is an open environment tool that allows scientists, policy makers, politicians, land owners, and anyone who desires to take ownership of their actions in support of the environment to work together to that end. The DSS supports a range of features that empower such a community to collaboratively work together. Supported collaboration mediums include peer reviews, live chat, static comments, and Web 2.0 functionality such as tagging. In addition, we are building a 3-D virtual world component which will allow users to experience and share system results, first-hand. Models and simulation results may be annotated with free-text comments and tags, whether unique or

  1. Hydrochemical evolution and groundwater flow processes in the Galilee and Eromanga basins, Great Artesian Basin, Australia: a multivariate statistical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, Claudio E; Raiber, Matthias; Taulis, Mauricio; Cox, Malcolm E

    2015-03-01

    The Galilee and Eromanga basins are sub-basins of the Great Artesian Basin (GAB). In this study, a multivariate statistical approach (hierarchical cluster analysis, principal component analysis and factor analysis) is carried out to identify hydrochemical patterns and assess the processes that control hydrochemical evolution within key aquifers of the GAB in these basins. The results of the hydrochemical assessment are integrated into a 3D geological model (previously developed) to support the analysis of spatial patterns of hydrochemistry, and to identify the hydrochemical and hydrological processes that control hydrochemical variability. In this area of the GAB, the hydrochemical evolution of groundwater is dominated by evapotranspiration near the recharge area resulting in a dominance of the Na-Cl water types. This is shown conceptually using two selected cross-sections which represent discrete groundwater flow paths from the recharge areas to the deeper parts of the basins. With increasing distance from the recharge area, a shift towards a dominance of carbonate (e.g. Na-HCO3 water type) has been observed. The assessment of hydrochemical changes along groundwater flow paths highlights how aquifers are separated in some areas, and how mixing between groundwater from different aquifers occurs elsewhere controlled by geological structures, including between GAB aquifers and coal bearing strata of the Galilee Basin. The results of this study suggest that distinct hydrochemical differences can be observed within the previously defined Early Cretaceous-Jurassic aquifer sequence of the GAB. A revision of the two previously recognised hydrochemical sequences is being proposed, resulting in three hydrochemical sequences based on systematic differences in hydrochemistry, salinity and dominant hydrochemical processes. The integrated approach presented in this study which combines different complementary multivariate statistical techniques with a detailed assessment of the

  2. Wildlife habitats in managed rangelands—the Great Basin of southeastern Oregon: introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris Maser; Jack Ward. Thomas

    1983-01-01

    The need for a way by which rangeland managers can account for wildlife in land-use planning, in on-the-ground management actions, and in preparation of environmental impact statements is discussed. Principles of range-land-wildlife interactions and management are described along with management systems. The Great Basin of southeastern Oregon was selected as a well-...

  3. New records of marginal locations for American pika (Ochotona princeps) in the Western Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constance I. Millar; Robert D. Westfall; Diane L. Delany

    2013-01-01

    We describe 46 new site records documenting occupancy by American pika (Ochotona princeps) at 21 locations from 8 mountain regions in the western Great Basin, California, and Nevada. These locations comprise a subset of sites selected from regional surveys to represent marginal, isolated, or otherwise atypical pika locations, and to provide...

  4. Reconsidering the process for bow-stave removal from juniper trees in the Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constance I. Millar; Kevin T. Smith

    2017-01-01

    We question the growth arrestment hypothesis for bow stave removal used by indigenous people in the western Great Basin. Using modern understanding of tree growth and wound response, we suggest that growth would not be arrested by one or two transverse notches along a juniper stem. Rather these would trigger compartmentalization, which limits cambial death to within 10...

  5. The Role of Credit in Native Adaptation to the Great Basin Ranching Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knack, Martha C.

    1987-01-01

    Examines Nevada rancher's account books to explain details of relationship between Great Basin Indian laborers and White employers during the late 19th century. Describes Indians' work, pay rates, purchases, seasonal food availability, and credit arrangements. Examines Indians' social, economic lives and their incorporation into debt/wage system.…

  6. Assessing the Accuracy of MODIS-NDVI Derived Land-Cover Across the Great Lakes Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research describes the accuracy assessment process for a land-cover dataset developed for the Great Lakes Basin (GLB). This land-cover dataset was developed from the 2007 MODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) 16-day composite (MOD13Q) 250 m time-series data. Tr...

  7. Mapping Cropland and Major Crop Types Across the Great Lakes Basin Using MODIS-NDVI Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research evaluated the potential for using the MODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) 16-day composite (MOD13Q) 250-m time-series data to develop a cropland mapping capability throughout the 480 000 km2 Great Lakes Basin (GLB). Cropland mapping was conducted usi...

  8. Monitoring Agricultural Cropping Patterns across the Laurentian Great Lakes Basin Using MODIS-NDVI Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) 16-day composite data product (MOD12Q) was used to develop annual cropland and crop-specific map products (corn, soybeans, and wheat) for the Laurentian Great Lakes Basin (GLB). Th...

  9. Birds of a Great Basin Sagebrush Habitat in East-Central Nevada

    OpenAIRE

    United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service

    1992-01-01

    Breeding bird populations ranged from 3.35 to 3.48 individuals/ha over a 3-year study conducted from 1981 to 1983. Brewer's sparrows, sage sparrows, sage thrashers, and black-throated sparrows were numerically dominant. Horned larks and western meadowlarks were less common. Results are compared with bird populations in Great Basin sagebrush habitats elsewhere in the United States.

  10. Priority research and management issues for the imperiled Great Basin of the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanne C. Chambers; Michael J. Wisdom

    2009-01-01

    Like many arid and semiarid regions, the Great Basin of the western United States is undergoing major ecological, social, and economic changes that are having widespread detrimental effects on the structure, composition, and function of native ecosystems. The causes of change are highly interactive and include urban, suburban, and exurban growth, past and present land...

  11. GEOMORPHIC AND HYDROGEOLOGICAL CONTROLS ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF WET MEADOWS IN THE CENTRAL GREAT BASIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Great Basin is an arid landscape dominated by dryland vegetation such as big sage and xeric grasses. Meadow complexes occur in mountain drainages and consist of discrete parcels of land up to several hectares in area that are characterized by high water tables and that primar...

  12. Biological soil crust response to late season prescribed fire in a Great Basin juniper woodland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven D. Warren; Larry L. St.Clair; Jeffrey R. Johansen; Paul Kugrens; L. Scott Baggett; Benjamin J. Bird

    2015-01-01

    Expansion of juniper on U.S. rangelands is a significant environmental concern. Prescribed fire is often recommended to control juniper. To that end, a prescribed burn was conducted in a Great Basin juniper woodland. Conditions were suboptimal; fire did not encroach into mid- or late-seral stages and was patchy in the early-seral stage. This study evaluated the effects...

  13. Geomorphology, hydrology, and ecology of Great Basin meadow complexes - implications for management and restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanne C. Chambers; Jerry R. Miller

    2011-01-01

    This report contains the results of a 6-year project conducted by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development on stream incision and meadow ecosystem degradation in the central Great Basin. The project included a coarse-scale assessment of 56 different...

  14. A landscape approach for ecologically based management of Great Basin shrublands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael J. Wisdom; Jeanne C. Chambers

    2009-01-01

    Native shrublands dominate the Great Basin of western of North America, and most of these communities are at moderate or high risk of loss from non-native grass invasion and woodland expansion. Landscape-scale management based on differences in ecological resistance and resilience of shrublands can reduce these risks. We demonstrate this approach with an example that...

  15. MANAGING AND RESTORING UPLAND RIPARIAN MEADOWS IN THE CENTRAL GREAT BASIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riparian meadow ecosystems in upland watersheds are of local and regional importance in the Great Basin. Covering only 1-3% of the total land area, these ecosystems contain a disproportionally large percentage of the region's biodiversity. Stream incision, due to natural and anth...

  16. Great Lakes prey fish populations: A cross-basin overview of status and trends in 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Owen T.; Bunnell, David B.

    2009-01-01

    Assessments of prey fishes in the Great Lakes have been conducted annually since the 1970s by the Great Lakes Science Center, sometimes assisted by partner agencies. Prey fish assessments differ among lakes in the proportion of a lake covered, seasonal timing, bottom trawl gear used, sampling design, and the manner in which the trawl is towed (across or along bottom contours). Because each assessment is unique in one or more important aspects, a direct comparison of prey fish catches among lakes is problematic. All of the assessments, however, produce indices of abundance or biomass that can be standardized to facilitate comparisons of trends among lakes and to illustrate present status of the populations. We present indices of abundance for important prey fishes in the Great Lakes standardized to the highest value for a time series within each lake: cisco (Coregonus artedi), bloater (C. hoyi), rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax), and alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus). We also provide indices for round goby (Neogobius melanostomus), an invasive fish presently spreading throughout the basin. Our intent is to provide a short, informal report emphasizing data presentation rather than synthesis; for this reason we intentionally avoid use of tables and cited references.For each lake, standardized relative indices for annual biomass and density estimates of important prey fishes were calculated as the fraction relative to the largest value observed in the times series. To determine whether basin-wide trends were apparent for each species, we first ranked standardized index values within each lake. When comparing ranked index values from three or more lakes, we calculated the Kendall coefficient of concordance (W), which can range from 0 (complete discordance or disagreement among trends) to 1 (complete concordance or agreement among trends). The P-value for W provides the probability of agreement across the lakes. When comparing ranked index values from two lakes, we calculated

  17. Tectonic and Structural Controls of Geothermal Activity in the Great Basin Region, Western USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulds, J. E.; Hinz, N.; Kreemer, C. W.

    2012-12-01

    We are conducting a thorough inventory of structural settings of geothermal systems (>400 total) in the extensional to transtensional Great Basin region of the western USA. Most of the geothermal systems in this region are not related to upper crustal magmatism and thus regional tectonic and local structural controls are the most critical factors controlling the locations of the geothermal activity. A system of NW-striking dextral faults known as the Walker Lane accommodates ~20% of the North American-Pacific plate motion in the western Great Basin and is intimately linked to N- to NNE-striking normal fault systems throughout the region. Overall, geothermal systems are concentrated in areas with the highest strain rates within or proximal to the eastern and western margins of the Great Basin, with the high temperature systems clustering in transtensional areas of highest strain rate in the northwestern Great Basin. Enhanced extension in the northwestern Great Basin probably results from the northwestward termination of the Walker Lane and the concomitant transfer of dextral shear into west-northwest directed extension, thus producing a broad transtensional region. The capacity of geothermal power plants also correlates with strain rates, with the largest (hundreds of megawatts) along the Walker Lane or San Andreas fault system, where strain rates range from 10-100 nanostrain/yr to 1,000 nanostrain/yr, respectively. Lesser systems (tens of megawatts) reside in the Basin and Range (outside the Walker Lane), where local strain rates are typically fracture density, and thus enhanced permeability. Other common settings include a) intersections between normal faults and strike-slip or oblique-slip faults (27%), where multiple minor faults connect major structures and fluids can flow readily through highly fractured, dilational quadrants, and b) normal fault terminations or tip-lines (22%), where horse-tailing generates closely-spaced faults and increased permeability

  18. Long-term effects of seeding after wildfire on vegetation in Great Basin shrubland ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, Kevin C.; Pyke, David A.; Wirth, Troy A.; Arkle, Robert S.; Pilliod, David S.; Brooks, Matthew L.; Chambers, Jeanne C.; Grace, James B.

    2014-01-01

    1. Invasive annual grasses alter fire regimes in shrubland ecosystems of the western USA, threatening ecosystem function and fragmenting habitats necessary for shrub-obligate species such as greater sage-grouse. Post-fire stabilization and rehabilitation treatments have been administered to stabilize soils, reduce invasive species spread and restore or establish sustainable ecosystems in which native species are well represented. Long-term effectiveness of these treatments has rarely been evaluated. 2. We studied vegetation at 88 sites where aerial or drill seeding was implemented following fires between 1990 and 2003 in Great Basin (USA) shrublands. We examined sites on loamy soils that burned only once since 1970 to eliminate confounding effects of recurrent fire and to assess soils most conducive to establishment of seeded species. We evaluated whether seeding provided greater cover of perennial seeded species than burned–unseeded and unburned–unseeded sites, while also accounting for environmental variation. 3. Post-fire seeding of native perennial grasses generally did not increase cover relative to burned–unseeded areas. Native perennial grass cover did, however, increase after drill seeding when competitive non-natives were not included in mixes. Seeding non-native perennial grasses and the shrub Bassia prostrata resulted in more vegetative cover in aerial and drill seeding, with non-native perennial grass cover increasing with annual precipitation. Seeding native shrubs, particularly Artemisia tridentata, did not increase shrub cover or density in burned areas. Cover of undesirable, non-native annual grasses was lower in drill seeded relative to unseeded areas, but only at higher elevations. 4. Synthesis and applications. Management objectives are more likely to be met in high-elevation or precipitation locations where establishment of perennial grasses occurred. On lower and drier sites, management objectives are unlikely to be met with seeding alone

  19. Cheatgrass percent cover change: Comparing recent estimates to climate change − Driven predictions in the Northern Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyte, Stephen P.; Wylie, Bruce K.; Major, Donald J.

    2016-01-01

    Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) is a highly invasive species in the Northern Great Basin that helps decrease fire return intervals. Fire fragments the shrub steppe and reduces its capacity to provide forage for livestock and wildlife and habitat critical to sagebrush obligates. Of particular interest is the greater sage grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), an obligate whose populations have declined so severely due, in part, to increases in cheatgrass and fires that it was considered for inclusion as an endangered species. Remote sensing technologies and satellite archives help scientists monitor terrestrial vegetation globally, including cheatgrass in the Northern Great Basin. Along with geospatial analysis and advanced spatial modeling, these data and technologies can identify areas susceptible to increased cheatgrass cover and compare these with greater sage grouse priority areas for conservation (PAC). Future climate models forecast a warmer and wetter climate for the Northern Great Basin, which likely will force changing cheatgrass dynamics. Therefore, we examine potential climate-caused changes to cheatgrass. Our results indicate that future cheatgrass percent cover will remain stable over more than 80% of the study area when compared with recent estimates, and higher overall cheatgrass cover will occur with slightly more spatial variability. The land area projected to increase or decrease in cheatgrass cover equals 18% and 1%, respectively, making an increase in fire disturbances in greater sage grouse habitat likely. Relative susceptibility measures, created by integrating cheatgrass percent cover and temporal standard deviation datasets, show that potential increases in future cheatgrass cover match future projections. This discovery indicates that some greater sage grouse PACs for conservation could be at heightened risk of fire disturbance. Multiple factors will affect future cheatgrass cover including changes in precipitation timing and totals and

  20. Pluvial lakes in the Great Basin of the western United States: a view from the outcrop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reheis, Marith C.; Adams, Kenneth D.; Oviatt, Charles G.; Bacon, Steven N.

    2014-01-01

    Paleo-lakes in the western United States provide geomorphic and hydrologic records of climate and drainage-basin change at multiple time scales extending back to the Miocene. Recent reviews and studies of paleo-lake records have focused on interpretations of proxies in lake sediment cores from the northern and central parts of the Great Basin. In this review, emphasis is placed on equally important studies of lake history during the past ∼30 years that were derived from outcrop exposures and geomorphology, in some cases combined with cores. Outcrop and core records have different strengths and weaknesses that must be recognized and exploited in the interpretation of paleohydrology and paleoclimate. Outcrops and landforms can yield direct evidence of lake level, facies changes that record details of lake-level fluctuations, and geologic events such as catastrophic floods, drainage-basin changes, and isostatic rebound. Cores can potentially yield continuous records when sampled in stable parts of lake basins and can provide proxies for changes in lake level, water temperature and chemistry, and ecological conditions in the surrounding landscape. However, proxies such as stable isotopes may be influenced by several competing factors the relative effects of which may be difficult to assess, and interpretations may be confounded by geologic events within the drainage basin that were unrecorded or not recognized in a core. The best evidence for documenting absolute lake-level changes lies within the shore, nearshore, and deltaic sediments that were deposited across piedmonts and at the mouths of streams as lake level rose and fell. We review the different shorezone environments and resulting deposits used in such reconstructions and discuss potential estimation errors. Lake-level studies based on deposits and landforms have provided paleohydrologic records ranging from general changes during the past million years to centennial-scale details of fluctuations during the

  1. A synthesis of rates and controls on elemental mercury evasion in the Great Lakes Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denkenberger, Joseph S.; Driscoll, Charles T.; Branfireun, Brian A.; Eckley, Chris S.; Cohen, Mark; Selvendiran, Pranesh

    2012-01-01

    Rates of surface-air elemental mercury (Hg 0 ) fluxes in the literature were synthesized for the Great Lakes Basin (GLB). For the majority of surfaces, fluxes were net positive (evasion). Digital land-cover data were combined with representative evasion rates and used to estimate annual Hg 0 evasion for the GLB (7.7 Mg/yr). This value is less than our estimate of total Hg deposition to the area (15.9 Mg/yr), suggesting the GLB is a net sink for atmospheric Hg. The greatest contributors to annual evasion for the basin are agricultural (∼55%) and forest (∼25%) land cover types, and the open water of the Great Lakes (∼15%). Areal evasion rates were similar across most land cover types (range: 7.0–21.0 μg/m 2 -yr), with higher rates associated with urban (12.6 μg/m 2 -yr) and agricultural (21.0 μg/m 2 -yr) lands. Uncertainty in these estimates could be partially remedied through a unified methodological approach to estimating Hg 0 fluxes. - Highlights: ► Considerable variability exists across spatial/temporal scales in Hg 0 evasion rates. ► Methodological approaches vary for estimating and reporting gaseous Hg 0 fluxes. ► Hg 0 evasion from the Great Lakes Basin is estimated at 7.7 Mg/yr (10.2 μg/m 2 -yr). ► Hg flux estimates suggest region is a net sink for atmospheric Hg. ► 95% of Hg 0 evasion in the region is from agriculture, forest, and the Great Lakes. - A synthesis of Hg evasion was conducted and this information was used to develop an estimate of Hg evasion for the Great Lakes Basin.

  2. Geographic variability in elevation and topographic constraints on the distribution of native and nonnative trout in the Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Dana R.; Dunham, Jason B.; Hockman-Wert, David

    2014-01-01

    Understanding local and geographic factors influencing species distributions is a prerequisite for conservation planning. Our objective in this study was to model local and geographic variability in elevations occupied by native and nonnative trout in the northwestern Great Basin, USA. To this end, we analyzed a large existing data set of trout presence (5,156 observations) to evaluate two fundamental factors influencing occupied elevations: climate-related gradients in geography and local constraints imposed by topography. We applied quantile regression to model upstream and downstream distribution elevation limits for each trout species commonly found in the region (two native and two nonnative species). With these models in hand, we simulated an upstream shift in elevation limits of trout distributions to evaluate potential consequences of habitat loss. Downstream elevation limits were inversely associated with latitude, reflecting regional gradients in temperature. Upstream limits were positively related to maximum stream elevation as expected. Downstream elevation limits were constrained topographically by valley bottom elevations in northern streams but not in southern streams, where limits began well above valley bottoms. Elevation limits were similar among species. Upstream shifts in elevation limits for trout would lead to more habitat loss in the north than in the south, a result attributable to differences in topography. Because downstream distributions of trout in the north extend into valley bottoms with reduced topographic relief, trout in more northerly latitudes are more likely to experience habitat loss associated with an upstream shift in lower elevation limits. By applying quantile regression to relatively simple information (species presence, elevation, geography, topography), we were able to identify elevation limits for trout in the Great Basin and explore the effects of potential shifts in these limits that could occur in response to changing

  3. Implications of climate change for water resources in the Great Lakes basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clamen, M.

    1990-01-01

    Several authors have suggested the following impacts of global warming for the Great Lakes region. The average annual warming is predicted by one model to be ca 4.5 degree C, slightly more in winter and slightly less in summer. Annual precipitation is projected to increase by ca 8% for points in the central and western basin, but to decrease by 3-6% for the eastern basin. Basin snowpack could be reduced by up to 100% and the snow season shortened by 2-4 weeks, resulting in a reduction of more than 50% in available soil moisture. Buoyancy-driven turnovers of the water column on four of the six lakes may not occur at all. Presently the phenomena occurs twice per year on all the lakes. Ice formation would be greatly reduced. Maximum ice cover may decline from 72-0% for Lake Superior, 38-0% for Lake Michigan, 65-0% for Lake Huron, 90-50% for Lake Erie and 33-0% for Lake Ontario. Net basin supplies would be reduced probably in the range 15-25% below the current mean value. Possible responses include integrated studies and research, better and continually updated information, assessment of public policies in the U.S. and Canada, enhanced private planning efforts, and increased global cooperation

  4. Bi-national Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Basin climate change and hydrologic scenarios report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavender, B.; Smith, J.V.; Koshida, G.; Mortsch, L.D. [eds.

    1998-09-01

    Climate experts in government, industry and academic institutions have put together a national assessment of how climate change will affect Canadians and their social, biological and economic environment over the next century. This volume documents the impacts and implications of climate change on the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Basin, and provides an analysis and assessment of various climate and hydrologic scenarios used for the Great Lakes - St. Lawrence Basin Project. As part of the analysis and assessment, results from the Canadian Climate Centre second-generation General Circulation Model and four transposition scenarios for both climate and hydrological resources are reviewed. The objective is to provide an indication of sensitivities and vulnerabilities of the region to climate, with a view to improve adaptation to potential climate changes. 25 tabs., 26 figs. figs.

  5. Flow velocities estimated from chlorine-36 in the South-West Great Artesian Basin, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herczeg, A.L.; Love, A.J.; Sampson, L.; Cresswell, R.G.; Fifield, L.K.

    1999-01-01

    The Great Artesian Basin (GAB) is the largest groundwater basin in the world and is the lifeline for water resources in a large proportion of the arid interior of the Australian continent. Despite its obvious importance, there is a great deal of uncertainty in the estimates of horizontal groundwater flow velocities and recharge rates. We report the first reliable estimates of these sustainability indicators in the south west segment of the GAB. Groundwater was sampled from 23 wells along two transects parallel to the W-E hydraulic gradient for 36 Cl, 14 C, stable isotopes (δ 13 C, δ 18 O, δ 2 H) and major ion chemistry. The groundwater collected was from the undifferentiated Jurassic and Cretaceous (J and K) aquifer. These new data potentially contribute to the resolution of the interpretation of 36 Cl derived ages in a very large slow moving groundwater system and to the overall conceptual understanding of flow systems of the GAB

  6. Gardening guide for high-desert urban landscapes of Great Basin regions in Nevada and Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidi Kratsch; Rick Heflebower

    2013-01-01

    Some Great Basin urban areas in Utah and Nevada exhibit climatic conditions that make it difficult for all but the toughest landscape plants to thrive without providing supplemental water. These areas are found at elevations from 4,000 feet to 6,000 feet in USDA cold-hardiness zones 6 and 7. Soils are often poor and gravelly, containing less than 1 percent organic...

  7. 76 FR 17347 - Revision to the California State Implementation Plan, Great Basin Unified Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-29

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revision to the California State Implementation Plan, Great Basin Unified Air Pollution Control District CFR Correction In Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 52 (Sec. Sec. 52.01 to 52.1018), revised as of July 1, 2010, on page 252, in Sec. 52.220, paragraph (c)(345)(i)(D) is added to...

  8. Digital Soil Mapping Using Landscape Stratification for Arid Rangelands in the Eastern Great Basin, Central Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Fonnesbeck, Brook B.

    2015-01-01

    Digital soil mapping typically involves inputs of digital elevation models, remotely sensed imagery, and other spatially explicit digital data as environmental covariates to predict soil classes and attributes over a landscape using statistical models. Digital imagery from Landsat 5, a digital elevation model, and a digital geology map were used as environmental covariates in a 67,000-ha study area of the Great Basin west of Fillmore, UT. A “pre-map” was created for selecting sampling locatio...

  9. MODELING ECONOMIC AND ECOLOGICAL BENEFITS OF POST-FIRE REVEGETATION IN THE GREAT BASIN

    OpenAIRE

    Niell, Rebecca; Englin, Jeffrey E.; Nalle, Darek

    2004-01-01

    This study employs a Markov chain model of vegetation dynamics to examine the economic and ecological benefits of post-fire revegetation in the Great Basin sagebrush steppe. The analysis is important because synergies between wildland fire and invasive weeds in this ecosystem are likely to result in the loss of native biodiversity, less predictable forage availability for livestock and wildlife, reduced watershed stability and water quality, and increased costs and risk associated with firefi...

  10. An ecosystem approach to the health effects of mercury in the Great Lakes basin ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbertson, Michael; Carpenter, D.O.

    2004-01-01

    New concerns about the global presence and human health significance of mercury have arisen as a result of recent epidemiological data demonstrating subtle neurological effects from consumption of mercury-contaminated fish. In the Great Lakes Basin, the complexity of the diverse sources, pools, and sinks of mercury and of the pathways of distribution, fate, and biotransformation requires an ecosystem approach to the assessment of exposures of Great Lakes' human populations. Further epidemiological research is needed to verify preliminary indications of harmful effects in people living near the Great Lakes. Great Lakes fish are valuable resources for subsistence nutrition, recreation, and commerce, but the benefits of fish consumption must be balanced by concern for the hazards from the contaminants that they may contain. The efficacy of fish consumption advisories in reducing exposures should continue to be evaluated while planning continues for remedial actions on contaminated sediments from historic industrial activities and for regulatory action to control sources

  11. Great Basin land managers provide detailed feedback about usefulness of two climate information web applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad Zanocco

    Full Text Available Land managers in the Great Basin are working to maintain or restore sagebrush ecosystems as climate change exacerbates existing threats. Web applications delivering climate change and climate impacts information have the potential to assist their efforts. Although many web applications containing climate information currently exist, few have been co-produced with land managers or have incorporated information specifically focused on land managers’ needs. Through surveys and interviews, we gathered detailed feedback from federal, state, and tribal sagebrush land managers in the Great Basin on climate information web applications targeting land management. We found that a managers are searching for weather and climate information they can incorporate into their current management strategies and plans; b they are willing to be educated on how to find and understand climate related web applications; c both field and administrative-type managers want data for timescales ranging from seasonal to decadal; d managers want multiple levels of climate information, from simple summaries, to detailed descriptions accessible through the application; and e managers are interested in applications that evaluate uncertainty and provide projected climate impacts. Keywords: Great Basin, Sagebrush, Land management, Climate change, Web application, Co-production

  12. Extensive summer water pulses do not necessarily lead to canopy growth of Great Basin and northern Mojave Desert shrubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, K A; Donovan, L A; James, J J; Tiller, R L; Richards, J H

    2004-10-01

    Plant species and functionally related species groups from arid and semi-arid habitats vary in their capacity to take up summer precipitation, acquire nitrogen quickly after summer precipitation, and subsequently respond with ecophysiological changes (e.g. water and nitrogen relations, gas exchange). For species that respond ecophysiologically, the use of summer precipitation is generally assumed to affect long-term plant growth and thus alter competitive interactions that structure plant communities and determine potential responses to climate change. We assessed ecophysiological and growth responses to large short-term irrigation pulses over one to three growing seasons for several widespread Great Basin and northern Mojave Desert shrub species: Chrysothamnus nauseosus, Sarcobatus vermiculatus, Atriplex confertifolia, and A. parryi. We compared control and watered plants in nine case studies that encompassed adults of all four species, juveniles for three of the species, and two sites for two of the species. In every comparison, plants used summer water pulses to improve plant water status or increase rates of functioning as indicated by other ecophysiological characters. Species and life history stage responses of ecophysiological parameters (leaf N, delta15N, delta13C, gas exchange, sap flow) were consistent with several previous short-term studies. However, use of summer water pulses did not affect canopy growth in eight out of nine comparisons, despite the range of species, growth stages, and site conditions. Summer water pulses affected canopy growth only for C. nauseosus adults. The general lack of growth effects for these species might be due to close proximity of groundwater at these sites, co-limitation by nutrients, or inability to respond due to phenological canalization. An understanding of the connections between short-term ecophysiological responses and growth, for different habitats and species, is critical for determining the significance of

  13. WOOD CELLULAR DENDROCLIMATOLOGY: TESTING NEW PROXIES IN GREAT BASIN BRISTLECONE PINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Ziaco

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Dendroclimatic proxies can be generated from the analysis of wood cellular structures, allowing for a more complete understanding of the physiological mechanisms that control the climatic response of tree species. Century-long (1870-2013 time series of anatomical parameters were developed for Great Basin bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva D.K. Bailey by capturing strongly contrasted microscopic images through a Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope. Environmental information embedded in wood anatomical series was analyzed in comparison with ring-width series using measures of empirical signal strength. Response functions were calculated against monthly climatic variables to evaluate climate sensitivity of cellular features (e.g. lumen area; lumen diameter for the period 1950-2013. Calibration-verification tests were used to determine the potential to generate long climate reconstructions from these anatomical proxies. A total of eight tree-ring parameters (two ring-width and six chronologies of xylem anatomical parameters were analyzed. Synchronous variability among samples varied among tree-ring parameters, usually decreasing from ring width to anatomical features. Cellular parameters linked to plant hydraulic performance (e.g. tracheid lumen area and radial lumen diameter showed empirical signal strength similar to ring-width series, while noise was predominant in chronologies of lumen tangential width and cell-wall thickness. Climatic signals were different between anatomical and ring-width chronologies, revealing a positive and temporally stable correlation of tracheid size (i.e. lumen and cell diameter with monthly (i.e. March and seasonal precipitation. In particular, tracheid lumen diameter emerged as a reliable moisture indicator and was then used to reconstruct total March-August precipitation from 1870 to 2013. Wood anatomy holds great potential to refine and expand dendroclimatic records by allowing estimates of plant physiological

  14. Let's jump in: A phylogenetic study of the great basin springfishes and poolfishes, Crenichthys and Empetrichthys (Cyprinodontiformes: Goodeidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Cooper Campbell

    Full Text Available North America's Great Basin has long been of interest to biologists due to its high level of organismal endemicity throughout its endorheic watersheds. One example of such a group is the subfamily Empetricthyinae. In this paper, we analyzed the relationships of the Empetrichtyinae and assessed the validity of the subspecies designations given by Williams and Wilde within the group using concatenated phylogenetic tree estimation and species tree estimation. Samples from 19 populations were included covering the entire distribution of the three extant species of Empetricthyinae-Crenichthys nevadae, Crenichthys baileyi and Empetricthys latos. Three nuclear introns (S8 intron 4, S7 intron 1, and P0 intron 1 and one mitochondrial gene (Cytb were sequenced for phylogenetic analysis. Using these sequences, we generated two separate hypotheses of the evolutionary relationships of Empetrichtyinae- one based on the mitochondrial data and one based on the nuclear data using Bayesian phylogenetics. Haplotype networks were also generated to look at the relationships of the populations within Empetrichthyinae. After comparing the two phylogenetic hypotheses, species trees were generated using *BEAST with the nuclear data to further test the validity of the subspecies within Empetrichthyinae. The mitochondrial analyses supported four lineages within C. baileyi and 2 within C. nevadae. The concatenated nuclear tree was more conserved, supporting one clade and an unresolved polytomy in both species. The species tree analysis supported the presence of two species within both C. baileyi and C. nevadae. Based on the results of these analyses, the subspecies designations of Williams and Wilde are not valid, rather a conservative approach suggests there are two species within C. nevadae and two species within C. baileyi. No structure was found for E. latos or the populations of Empetricthyinae. This study represents one of many demonstrating the invalidity of

  15. Three-Dimensional Geologic Characterization of a Great Basin Geothermal System: Astor Pass, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayhew, Brett; Siler, Drew L; Faulds, James E

    2013-09-30

    The Great Basin, western USA, exhibits anomalously high heat flow (~75±5 mWm-2) and active faulting and extension, resulting in ~430 known geothermal systems. Recent studies have shown that steeply dipping normal faults in transtensional pull-aparts are a common structural control of these Great Basin geothermal systems. The Astor Pass blind (no surface expression) geothermal system, Nevada, lies along the boundary between the Basin and Range to the east and the Walker Lane to the west. Across this boundary, strain is transferred from dextral shear in the Walker Lane to west-northwest directed extension in the Basin and Range, resulting in a transtensional setting consisting of both northwest-striking, left-stepping dextral faults and northerly striking normal faults. Previous studies indicate that Astor Pass was controlled by the intersection of a northwest-striking dextral normal fault and north-northwest striking normal-dextral fault bounding the western side of the Terraced Hills. Drilling (to ~1200 m) has revealed fluid temperatures of ~94°C, confirming a blind geothermal system. Expanding upon previous work and employing interpretation of 2D seismic reflection data, additional detailed geologic mapping, and well cuttings analysis, a 3-dimensional geologic model of the Astor Pass geothermal system was constructed. The 3D model indicates a complex interaction/intersection area of three discrete fault zones: a northwest-striking dextral-normal fault, a north-northwest-striking normal-dextral fault, and a north-striking west-dipping normal fault. These two discrete, critically-stressed intersection areas plunge moderately to steeply to the NW-NNW and probably act as conduits for upwelling geothermal fluids.

  16. 3D characterization of a Great Basin geothermal system: Astor Pass, NV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siler, D. L.; Mayhew, B.; Faulds, J. E.

    2012-12-01

    The Great Basin exhibits both anomalously high heat flow (~75±5 mWm-2) and active faulting and extension resulting in robust geothermal activity. There are ~430 known geothermal systems in the Great Basin, with evidence suggesting that undiscovered blind geothermal systems may actually represent the majority of geothermal activity. These systems employ discrete fault intersection/interaction areas as conduits for geothermal circulation. Recent studies show that steeply dipping normal faults with step-overs, fault intersections, accommodation zones, horse-tailing fault terminations and transtensional pull-aparts are the most prominent structural controls of Great Basin geothermal systems. These fault geometries produce sub-vertical zones of high fault and fracture density that act as fluid flow conduits. Structurally controlled fluid flow conduits are further enhanced when critically stressed with respect to the ambient stress conditions. The Astor Pass blind geothermal system, northwestern Nevada, lies along the boundary between the Basin and Range to the east and the Walker Lane to the west. Along this boundary, strain is transferred from dextral shear in the Walker Lane to west-northwest directed extension in the Basin and Range. As such, the Astor Pass area lies in a transtensional setting consisting of both northwest-striking, left-stepping dextral faults and more northerly striking normal faults. The Astor Pass tufa tower implies the presence of a blind geothermal system. Previous studies suggest that deposition of the Astor Pass tufa was controlled by the intersection of a northwest-striking dextral normal fault and north-northwest striking normal fault. Subsequent drilling (to ~1200 m) has revealed fluid temperatures of ~94°C, confirming the presence of a blind geothermal system at Astor Pass. Expanding upon previous work and employing additional detailed geologic mapping, interpretation of 2D seismic reflection data and analysis of well cuttings, a 3

  17. Ground Motion Prediction for Great Interplate Earthquakes in Kanto Basin Considering Variation of Source Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiguchi, H.; Yoshimi, M.; Horikawa, H.

    2011-12-01

    Broadband ground motions are estimated in the Kanto sedimentary basin which holds Tokyo metropolitan area inside for anticipated great interplate earthquakes along surrounding plate boundaries. Possible scenarios of great earthquakes along Sagami trough are modeled combining characteristic properties of the source area and adequate variation in source parameters in order to evaluate possible ground motion variation due to next Kanto earthquake. South to the rupture area of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake along the Japan trench, we consider possible M8 earthquake. The ground motions are computed with a four-step hybrid technique. We first calculate low-frequency ground motions at the engineering basement. We then calculate higher-frequency ground motions at the same position, and combine the lower- and higher-frequency motions using a matched filter. We finally calculate ground motions at the surface by computing the response of the alluvium-diluvium layers to the combined motions at the engineering basement.

  18. Decreased runoff response to precipitation, Little Missouri River Basin, northern Great Plains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Eleanor R.; Friedman, Jonathan M.

    2017-01-01

    High variability in precipitation and streamflow in the semiarid northern Great Plains causes large uncertainty in water availability. This uncertainty is compounded by potential effects of future climate change. We examined historical variability in annual and growing season precipitation, temperature, and streamflow within the Little Missouri River Basin and identified differences in the runoff response to precipitation for the period 1976-2012 compared to 1939-1975 (n = 37 years in both cases). Computed mean values for the second half of the record showed little change (precipitation, but average annual runoff at the basin outlet decreased by 22%, with 66% of the reduction in flow occurring during the growing season. Our results show a statistically significant (p runoff response to precipitation (runoff ratio). Surface-water withdrawals for various uses appear to account for 1°C increases in January through March, are the dominant driver of the observed decrease in runoff response to precipitation in the Little Missouri River Basin.

  19. Possible extrinsic controls on the Ordovician radiation: Stratigraphic evidence from the Great Basin, western USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Droser, M.L. (Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States). Dept. of Earth Sciences); Fortey, R.A. (Natural History Museum, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Palaeontology)

    1993-04-01

    The Ordovician radiation has been previously examined by looking at 1/analyses of patterns of diversification within small clades, 2/analyses of large databases to elucidate large-scale paleoecological patterns such as increased tiering and onshore-offshore shifts associated with this radiation. In order to resolve the relationships between these two scales of analysis there is critical need to examine in detail the paleoecology and possible biofacies shifts associated with the Ordovician radiation. The authors have examined the base of the Whiterock Series (Lower-Middle Ordovician) in the Great Basin as it represents one of the most complete records of the Ordovician radiation on the North American continent. Detailed field evidence suggests that the base of the Whiterock does not represent a simple faunal turnover but corresponds with the first occurrences in the region of groups that come to dominate the rest of the Paleozoic. Among the trilobites, this includes the lichides, calymenids, proetides, and phacopides. Similar patterns are found among the dominate Paleozoic bivalve, cephalopod, brachiopod and graptolite clades. Global correlation of this time interval suggests that this pattern of first broad geographic occurrences is not unique to North America. This boundary corresponds with a globally recognized sea level lowstand. In the Great Basin, significant facies shifts are present in shallow and deep water settings. While extrinsic controls are commonly reserved for extinctions, these data suggest that extrinsic factors may have been significant in the timing of the Paleozoic fauna rose to dominance.

  20. Evaluating connection of aquifers to springs and streams, Great Basin National Park and vicinity, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudic, David E.; Sweetkind, Donald S.; Jackson, Tracie R.; Dotson, K. Elaine; Plume, Russell W.; Hatch, Christine E.; Halford, Keith J.

    2015-12-22

    Federal agencies that oversee land management for much of the Snake Range in eastern Nevada, including the management of Great Basin National Park by the National Park Service, need to understand the potential extent of adverse effects to federally managed lands from nearby groundwater development. As a result, this study was developed (1) to attain a better understanding of aquifers controlling groundwater flow on the eastern side of the southern part of the Snake Range and their connection with aquifers in the valleys, (2) to evaluate the relation between surface water and groundwater along the piedmont slopes, (3) to evaluate sources for Big Springs and Rowland Spring, and (4) to assess groundwater flow from southern Spring Valley into northern Hamlin Valley. The study focused on two areas—the first, a northern area along the east side of Great Basin National Park that included Baker, Lehman, and Snake Creeks, and a second southern area that is the potential source area for Big Springs. Data collected specifically for this study included the following: (1) geologic field mapping; (2) drilling, testing, and water quality sampling from 7 test wells; (3) measuring discharge and water chemistry of selected creeks and springs; (4) measuring streambed hydraulic gradients and seepage rates from 18 shallow piezometers installed into the creeks; and (5) monitoring stream temperature along selected reaches to identify places of groundwater inflow.

  1. Conceptual ecological models to guide integrated landscape monitoring of the Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D.M.; Finn, S.P.; Woodward, Andrea; Torregrosa, Alicia; Miller, M.E.; Bedford, D.R.; Brasher, A.M.

    2010-01-01

    The Great Basin Integrated Landscape Monitoring Pilot Project was developed in response to the need for a monitoring and predictive capability that addresses changes in broad landscapes and waterscapes. Human communities and needs are nested within landscapes formed by interactions among the hydrosphere, geosphere, and biosphere. Understanding the complex processes that shape landscapes and deriving ways to manage them sustainably while meeting human needs require sophisticated modeling and monitoring. This document summarizes current understanding of ecosystem structure and function for many of the ecosystems within the Great Basin using conceptual models. The conceptual ecosystem models identify key ecological components and processes, identify external drivers, develop a hierarchical set of models that address both site and landscape attributes, inform regional monitoring strategy, and identify critical gaps in our knowledge of ecosystem function. The report also illustrates an approach for temporal and spatial scaling from site-specific models to landscape models and for understanding cumulative effects. Eventually, conceptual models can provide a structure for designing monitoring programs, interpreting monitoring and other data, and assessing the accuracy of our understanding of ecosystem functions and processes.

  2. Integrative taxonomy detects cryptic and overlooked fish species in a neotropical river basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Laís Carvalho; Pessali, Tiago Casarim; Sales, Naiara Guimarães; Pompeu, Paulo Santos; Carvalho, Daniel Cardoso

    2015-10-01

    The great freshwater fish diversity found in the neotropical region makes management and conservation actions challenging. Due to shortage of taxonomists and insufficient infrastructure to deal with such great biodiversity (i.e. taxonomic impediment), proposed remedies to accelerate species identification and descriptions include techniques that combine DNA-based identification and concise morphological description. The building of a DNA barcode reference database correlating meristic and genetic data was developed for 75 % of the Mucuri River basin's freshwater fish. We obtained a total of 141 DNA barcode sequences from 37 species belonging to 30 genera, 19 families, and 5 orders. Genetic distances within species, genera, and families were 0.74, 9.5, and 18.86 %, respectively. All species could be clearly identified by the DNA barcodes. Divergences between meristic morphological characteristics and DNA barcodes revealed two cryptic species among the Cyphocharax gilbert and Astyanax gr. bimaculatus specimens, and helped to identify two overlooked species within the Gymnotus and Astyanax taxa. Therefore, using a simplified model of neotropical biodiversity, we tested the efficiency of an integrative taxonomy approach for species discovery, identification of cryptic diversity, and accelerating biodiversity descriptions.

  3. 75 FR 26786 - Notice of Public Meeting: Sierra Front-Northwestern Great Basin Resource Advisory Council, NV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... 261A; 10-08807; MO 4500012081; TAS: 14X1109] Notice of Public Meeting: Sierra Front-Northwestern Great..., Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Sierra Front-Northwestern Great Basin Resource Advisory Council (RAC... discussion will include, but are not limited to: District Manager's reports on current program of work, Draft...

  4. Three new sympatric species of Remipedia (Crustacea) from Great Exuma Island, Bahamas Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenemann, Stefan; Iliffe, Thomas M.; Ham, van der Joris

    2003-01-01

    Three new sympatric species of remipede crustaceans, Speleonectes tanumekes, Speleonectes parabenjamini and Speleonectes minnsi, are described from an anchihaline cave on Great Exuma Island in the central Bahamas. Speleonectes tanumekes is a comparatively long and slender species distinguished by

  5. REMOTE DETENTION OF INVASIVE AND OPPORTUNISTIC PLANT SPECIES IN GREAT LAKES COASTAL WETLANDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invasive and opportunistic plant species have been associated with wetland disturbance. Increases in the abundance of plant species such as common reed (Phragmites australis) in coastal Great Lakes wetlands are hypothesized to occur with shifts toward drier hydrologic regimes, fr...

  6. Records of millennial-scale climate change from the Great Basin of the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Larry

    High-resolution (decadal) records of climate change from the Owens, Mono, and Pyramid Lake basins of California and Nevada indicate that millennialscale oscillations in climate of the Great Basin occurred between 52.6 and 9.2 14C ka. Climate records from the Owens and Pyramid Lake basins indicate that most, but not all, glacier advances (stades) between 52.6 and ˜15.0 14C ka occurred during relatively dry times. During the last alpine glacial period (˜60.0 to ˜14.0 14C ka), stadial/interstadial oscillations were recorded in Owens and Pyramid Lake sediments by the negative response of phytoplankton productivity to the influx of glacially derived silicates. During glacier advances, rock flour diluted the TOC fraction of lake sediments and introduction of glacially derived suspended sediment also increased the turbidity of lake water, decreasing light penetration and photosynthetic production of organic carbon. It is not possible to correlate objectively peaks in the Owens and Pyramid Lake TOC records (interstades) with Dansgaard-Oeschger interstades in the GISP2 ice-core δ18O record given uncertainties in age control and difference in the shapes of the OL90, PLC92 and GISP2 records. In the North Atlantic region, some climate records have clearly defined variability/cyclicity with periodicities of 102 to 103 yr; these records are correlatable over several thousand km. In the Great Basin, climate proxies also have clearly defined variability with similar time constants, but the distance over which this variability can be correlated remains unknown. Globally, there may be minimal spatial scales (domains) within which climate varies coherently on centennial and millennial scales, but it is likely that the sizes of these domains vary with geographic setting and time. A more comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms of climate forcing and the physical linkages between climate forcing and system response is needed in order to predict the spatial scale(s) over which

  7. Observing Semi-Arid Ecoclimates across Mountain Gradients in the Great Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strachan, Scotty

    Observation of climate and ecohydrological variables in mountain systems is a necessary (if challenging) endeavor for modern society. Water resources are often intimately tied to mountains, and high elevation environments are frequently home to unique landscapes and biota with limited geographical distributions. This is especially true in the temperate and semi-arid mountains of the western United States, and specifically the Great Basin. Stark contrasts in annual water balance and ecological populations are visible across steep elevational gradients in the region; and yet the bulk of our historical knowledge of climate and related processes comes from lowland observations. Interpolative models that strive to estimate conditions in mountains using existing datasets are often found to be inaccurate, making future projections of mountain climate and ecosystem response suspect. This study details the results of high-resolution topographically-diverse ecohydrological monitoring, and describes the character and seasonality of basic climatic variables such as temperature and precipitation as well as their impact on soil moisture and vegetation during the 2012-2015 drought sequence. Relationships of topography (elevation/aspect) to daily and seasonal temperatures are shown. Tests of the PRISM temperature model are performed at the large watershed scale, revealing magnitudes, modes, and potential sources of bias that could dramatically affect derivative scientific conclusions. A new method of precipitation phase partitioning to detect and quantify frozen precipitation on a sub-daily basis is described. Character of precipitation from sub-daily to annual scales is quantified across all major Great Basin vegetation/elevation zones, and the relationship of elevation to precipitation phase, intensity, and amount is explored. Water-stress responses of Great Basin conifers including Pinus flexilis, Pinus longaeva, and Pinus ponderosa are directly observed, showing potential

  8. Chemicals of emerging concern in the Great Lakes Basin: an analysis of environmental exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klecka, Gary; Persoon, Carolyn; Currie, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    This review and statistical analysis was conducted to better understand the nature and significance of environmental exposures in the Great Lakes Basin and watershed to a variety of environmental contaminants. These contaminants of interest included current-use pesticides, pharmaceuticals, organic wastewater contaminants, alkylphenol ethoxylates, perfluorinated surfactants, flame retardants, and chlorinated paraffins. The available literature was critically reviewed and used to develop a database containing 19,611 residue values for 326 substances. In many papers, sampling locations were characterized as being downstream from municipal wastewater discharges, receiving waters for industrial facilities, areas susceptible to agricultural or urban contamination, or harbors and ports. To develop an initial assessment of their potential ecological significance, the contamination levels found were compared with currently available regulatory standards, guidelines, or criteria. This review was prepared for the IJC multi-board work group, and served as background material for an expert consultation, held in March, 2009, in which the significance of the contaminants found was discussed. Moreover, the consultation attempted to identify and assess opportunities for strengthening future actions that will protect the Great Lakes. Based on the findings and conclusions of the expert consultation, it is apparent that a wide variety of chemicals of emerging concern have been detected in environmental media (air, water, sediment, biota) from the Great Lakes Basin, although many are present at only trace levels. Although the presence of these contaminants raises concerns in the public and among the scientific community, the findings must be placed in context. Significant scientific interpretation is required to understand the extent to which these chemicals may pose a threat to the ecosystem and to human health. The ability to detect chemicals in environmental media greatly surpasses

  9. First evidence of grass carp recruitment in the Great Lakes Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Duane C.; Davis, J. Jeremiah; Jenkins, Jill A.; Kocovsky, Patrick M.; Miner, Jeffrey G.; Farver, John; Jackson, P. Ryan

    2013-01-01

    We use aging techniques, ploidy analysis, and otolith microchemistry to assess whether four grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella captured from the Sandusky River, Ohio were the result of natural reproduction within the Lake Erie Basin. All four fish were of age 1 +. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that these fish were not aquaculture-reared and that they were most likely the result of successful reproduction in the Sandusky River. First, at least two of the fish were diploid; diploid grass carp cannot legally be released in the Great Lakes Basin. Second, strontium:calcium (Sr:Ca) ratios were elevated in all four grass carp from the Sandusky River, with elevated Sr:Ca ratios throughout the otolith transect, compared to grass carp from Missouri and Arkansas ponds. This reflects the high Sr:Ca ratio of the Sandusky River, and indicates that these fish lived in a high-strontium environment throughout their entire lives. Third, Sandusky River fish were higher in Sr:Ca ratio variability than fish from ponds, reflecting the high but spatially and temporally variable strontium concentrations of southwestern Lake Erie tributaries, and not the stable environment of pond aquaculture. Fourth, Sr:Ca ratios in the grass carp from the Sandusky River were lower in their 2011 growth increment (a high water year) than the 2012 growth increment (a low water year), reflecting the observed inverse relationship between discharge and strontium concentration in these rivers. We conclude that these four grass carp captured from the Sandusky River are most likely the result of natural reproduction within the Lake Erie Basin.

  10. Appraisal of the tight sands potential of the Sand Wash and Great Divide Basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    The volume of future tight gas reserve additions is difficult to estimate because of uncertainties in the characterization and extent of the resource and the performance and cost-effectiveness of stimulation and production technologies. Ongoing R ampersand D by industry and government aims to reduce the risks and costs of producing these tight resources, increase the certainty of knowledge of their geologic characteristics and extent, and increase the efficiency of production technologies. Some basins expected to contain large volumes of tight gas are being evaluated as to their potential contribution to domestic gas supplies. This report describes the results of one such appraisal. This analysis addresses the tight portions of the Eastern Greater Green River Basin (Sand Wash and Great Divide Subbasins in Northwestern Colorado and Southwestern Wyoming, respectively), with respect to estimated gas-in-place, technical recovery, and potential reserves. Geological data were compiled from public and proprietary sources. The study estimated gas-in-place in significant (greater than 10 feet net sand thickness) tight sand intervals for six distinct vertical and 21 areal units of analysis. These units of analysis represent tight gas potential outside current areas of development. For each unit of analysis, a ''typical'' well was modeled to represent the costs, recovery and economics of near-term drilling prospects in that unit. Technically recoverable gas was calculated using reservoir properties and assumptions about current formation evaluation and extraction technology performance. Basin-specific capital and operating costs were incorporated along with taxes, royalties and current regulations to estimate the minimum required wellhead gas price required to make the typical well in each of unit of analysis economic

  11. Progressive Seismic Failure, Seismic Gap, and Great Seismic Risk across the Densely Populated North China Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, A.; Yu, X.; Shen, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Although the seismically active North China basin has the most complete written records of pre-instrumentation earthquakes in the world, this information has not been fully utilized for assessing potential earthquake hazards of this densely populated region that hosts ~200 million people. In this study, we use the historical records to document the earthquake migration pattern and the existence of a 180-km seismic gap along the 600-km long right-slip Tangshan-Hejian-Cixian (THC) fault zone that cuts across the North China basin. The newly recognized seismic gap, which is centered at Tianjin with a population of 11 million people and ~120 km from Beijing (22 million people) and Tangshan (7 million people), has not been ruptured in the past 1000 years by M≥6 earthquakes. The seismic migration pattern in the past millennium suggests that the epicenters of major earthquakes have shifted towards this seismic gap along the THC fault, which implies that the 180- km gap could be the site of the next great earthquake with M≈7.6 if it is ruptured by a single event. Alternatively, the seismic gap may be explained by aseismic creeping or seismic strain transfer between active faults.

  12. Anoxia pre-dates Frasnian–Famennian boundary mass extinction horizon in the Great Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratton, John F.; Berry, William B.N.; Morrow, Jared R.

    1999-01-01

    Major and trace metal results from three Great Basin stratigraphic sections with strong conodont biostratigraphy identify a distinct anoxic interval that precedes, but ends approximately 100 kyr before, the Frasnian–Famennian (F–F, mid-Late Devonian) boundary mass extinction horizon. This horizon corresponds to the final and most severe step of a more protracted extinction period. These results are inconsistent with data reported by others from the upper Kellwasser horizon in Europe, which show anoxia persisting up to the F–F boundary in most sections. Conditions returned to fully oxygenated prior to the F–F boundary in the study area. These data indicate that the worst part of the F–F extinction was not related directly to oceanic anoxia in this region and potentially globally.

  13. Climate change impacts on the Lehman-Baker Creek drainage in the Great Basin National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    Global climate models (GCMs) forced by increased CO2 emissions forecast anomalously dry and warm trends over the southwestern U.S. for the 21st century. The effect of warmer conditions may result in decreased surface water resources within the Great Basin physiographic region critical for ecology, irrigation and municipal water supply. Here we use downscaled GCM output from the A2 and B1 greenhouse gas emission scenarios to force a Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) watershed model developed for the Lehman and Baker Creeks Drainage (LBCD) in the Great Basin National Park, NV for a century long time period. The goal is to quantify the effects of rising temperature to the water budget in the LBCD at monthly and annual timescales. Dynamically downscaled GCM projections are attained from the NSF EPSCoR Nevada Infrastructure for Climate Change Science, Education, and Outreach project and statistically downscaled output is retrieved from the "U.S. Bias Corrected and Downscaled WCRP CMIP3 Climate Projections". Historical daily climate and streamflow data have been collected simultaneously for periods extending 20 years or longer. Mann-Kendal trend test results showed a statistically significant (α= 0.05) long-term rising trend from 1895 to 2012 in annual and monthly average temperatures for the study area. A grid-based, PRMS watershed model of the LBCD has been created within ArcGIS 10, and physical parameters have been estimated at a spatial resolution of 100m. Simulation results will be available soon. Snow cover is expected to decrease and peak runoff to occur earlier in the spring, resulting in increased runoff, decreased infiltration/recharge, decreased baseflows, and decreased evapo-transpiration.

  14. The distribution and abundance of archaeal tetraether lipids in U.S. Great Basin hot springs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julienne J. eParaiso

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Isoprenoidal glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (iGDGTs are core membrane lipids of many archaea that enhance the integrity of cytoplasmic membranes in extreme environments. We examined the iGDGT profiles and corresponding aqueous geochemistry in 40 hot spring sediment and microbial mat samples from the U.S. Great Basin with temperatures ranging from 31 to 95°C and pH ranging from 6.8 to 10.7. The absolute abundance of iGDGTs correlated negatively with pH and positively with temperature. High lipid concentrations, distinct lipid profiles, and a strong relationship between polar and core lipids in hot spring samples suggested in situ production of most iGDGTs rather than contamination from local soils. Two-way cluster analysis and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMS of polar iGDGTs indicated that the relative abundance of individual lipids was most strongly related to temperature (r2 = 0.546, with moderate correlations with pH (r2 = 0.359, nitrite (r2 = 0.286, oxygen (r2 = 0.259, and nitrate (r2 = 0.215. Relative abundance profiles of individual polar iGDGTs indicated potential temperature optima for iGDGT-0 (≤70°C, iGDGT-3 (≥55°C, and iGDGT -4 (≥60°C. These relationships likely reflect both physiological adaptations and community-level population shifts in response to temperature differences, such as a shift from cooler samples with more abundant methanogens to higher-temperature samples with more abundant Crenarchaeota. Crenarchaeol was widely distributed across the temperature gradient, which is consistent with other reports of abundant crenarchaeol in Great Basin hot springs and suggests a wide distribution for thermophilic ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA.

  15. Scardinius knezevici Bianco & Kottelat, 2005 and Alburnus scoranza Bonaparte, 1845: New species of ichthyofauna of Serbia and the Danube basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simić V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Research into the ichthyofauna of the Vlasina Lake reservoir in south Serbia, which is part of the Danube basin, was carried out in 1993, 40 years after its formation. The results of the research reveal the presence of several species of fish belonging to the Adriatic and Aegean basin, such as Alburnus albidus, Rutilus basak, Scardinius graecus and Pachychilon macedonicus. These findings are of great importance from the aspect of conservation, because the species Scardinius graecus and Alburnus albidus are on the European list of endangered fish species. In the latest study of the Vlasina Lake reservoir ichthyofauna (70 years after its formation, the above-mentioned species were not found. However, the presence of naturalized populations of two species from the Adriatic basin were confirmed: Scardinius knezevici and Alburnus scoranza. These findings represent the first known areal expansion of these species, which are new to the ichthyofauna of Serbia, from the Adriatic into the Danube (Black Sea basin.[Acknowledgments. The present work was supported by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Serbia (Projects No. 43002 and 173025.

  16. INTEGRATING GEOPHYSICS, GEOLOGY, AND HYDROLOGY TO DETERMINE BEDROCK GEOMETRY CONTROLS ON THE ORIGIN OF ISOLATED MEADOW COMPLEXES WITHIN THE CENTRAL GREAT BASIN, NEVADA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riparian meadow complexes found in mountain ranges of the Central Great Basin physiographic region (western United States) are of interest to researchers as they contain significant biodiversity relative to the surrounding basin areas. These meadow complexes are currently degradi...

  17. Independent colonization and extensive cryptic speciation of freshwater amphipods in the isolated groundwater springs of Australia's Great Artesian Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Nicholas P; Adams, Mark; Austin, Andrew D

    2009-01-01

    The groundwater-dependent springs of the Great Artesian Basin (GAB) in arid inland Australia represent a unique and threatened ecosystem. These incredibly isolated springs support a diverse array of endemic flora and fauna. One of the common faunal groups in the GAB springs is the freshwater amphipods of the family Chiltoniidae. The morphological conservatism and taxonomic uncertainty associated with these amphipods has ensured their true biodiversity, phylogeographical history and evolutionary affinities have remained unknown. We have used mitochondrial DNA and allozyme data to unravel a complicated history of isolation, extinction and dispersal among spring amphipod populations across the GAB. The results provide evidence for multiple independent colonizations in the GAB springs, particularly within the Lake Eyre group of springs. The inclusion of a group of Western Australian (WA) stygobitic amphipods from populations up to 1500 km away found surprising evidence for a shared evolutionary history between stygobitic and GAB spring amphipods. Approximate dating of the diversity found between major clades suggests the majority of lineages originated in the late Miocene, around the time of the aridification of inland Australia. The large number of independent lineages and the close connection between GAB spring and WA stygobitic amphipods suggest that a significantly rich amphipod fauna existed in the much wetter environment that once existed in inland Australia. The results also provide evidence for a gross underestimation of the species diversity within the springs, with 12 putative species identified, a conclusion with significant implications for the ongoing conservation of the GAB springs.

  18. Late holocene climate derived from vegetation history and plant cellulose stable isotope records from the Great Basin of western North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wigand, P.E.; Hemphill, M.L.; Patra, S.M.

    1994-01-01

    Integration of pollen records, and fossil woodrat midden data recovered from multiple strata of fossil woodrat (Neotoma spp.) dens (middens) in both northern and southern Nevada reveal a detailed paleoclimatic proxy record for the Great Basin during the last 45,000 years in growing detail. Clear, late Holocene climate-linked elevational depressions of plant species' distributions have occurred throughout the Great Basin of up to 200 m below today's and by as much as 1000 m below what they were during the middle Holocene. Horizontal plant range extentions during the Holocene reflecting the final northern most adjustments to Holocene climates range up to several hundred kilometers in the Great Basin. Well documented lags evidenced in the late Holocene response of vegetation communities to increased precipitation indicate reduced effectiveness in the ability of plant communities to assimilate excess precipitation. This resulted in significant runoff that was available for recharge. These responses, although indicating both rapid and dramatic fluctuations of climate for the Holocene, fall far short of the scale of such changes during the late Pleistocene. Extension of these results to Pleistocene woodrat den and pollen data evidence spans lasting several hundred to a thousand or more years during which significantly greater amounts of precipitation would have been available for runnoff or recharge

  19. Young (gold deposits and active geothermal systems of the Great Basin: Enigmas, questions, and exploration potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coolbaugh, Mark F.; Vikre, Peter G.; Faulds, James E.

    2011-01-01

    Young gold systems in the Great Basin (£ 7 Ma), though not as well studied as their older counterparts, comprise a rapidly growing and in some ways controversial group. The gold inventory for these systems has more than doubled in the last 5 years from roughly 370 tonnes (12 Moz) to 890 tonnes (29 Moz). Although these deposits are characterized by low grades, tonnages can be high and stripping ratios low, and they have been mined profitably, as exemplified by Florida Canyon and Hycroft. Active geothermal systems in the Great Basin also comprise a rapidly growing group, as evidenced by a number of recent discoveries of geothermal groundwater and a more than 50% increase in electricity production capacity from these systems in the last 5 years. Many young gold deposits are closely associated with active geothermal systems, suggesting that gold deposits may be forming today in the Great Basin. Measured or estimated geothermal reservoir temperatures commonly approach or exceed 200∞C, and other characteristics and processes (advanced argillic caps, hydrothermal eruption breccias) of these young deposits resemble those of nearby Tertiary precious metal deposits. Nonetheless, many young gold systems, especially in Nevada, are not associated with coeval igneous rocks. Similarly, almost all electricity-grade geothermal systems in Nevada are not associated with Quaternary silicic volcanic rocks, and have lower temperature gradients, lower 3He/4He ratios, and lower dissolved trace element concentrations than most magmatic-heated geothermal systems elsewhere in the world. The increasing economic significance of young gold deposits and active geothermal systems justifies more research to better understand their origins, particularly because in some aspects they remain enigmatic and controversial. Are young gold deposits in Nevada truly amagmatic, or have they received metal and fluid contributions from magmas deeper within the crust? Has gold in these deposits been

  20. AN INTEGRATED, SCIENCE-BASED APPROACH TO MANAGING AND RESTORING UPLAND RIPARIAN MEADOWS IN THE GREAT BASIN OF CENTRAL NEVADA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riparian corridor and meadow ecosystems in upland watersheds are of local and regional importance in the Great Basin. Covering only 1-3% of the total land area, these ecosystems contain a disproportionally large percentage of the region's biodiversity. Stream incision is a major ...

  1. Chlorine stable isotope studies of old groundwater, southwestern Great Artesian Basin, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Min; Frape, Shaun K.; Love, Andrew J.; Herczeg, Andrew L.; Lehmann, B.E.; Beyerle, U.; Purtschert, R.

    2007-01-01

    Stable Cl isotope ratios ( 37 Cl/ 35 Cl) were measured in groundwater samples from the southwestern flow system of the Great Artesian Basin, Australia to gain a better understanding of the Cl - sources and transport mechanisms. δ 37 Cl values range from 0 per mille to -2.5 per mille (SMOC), and are inversely correlated with Cl - concentration along the inferred flow direction. The Cl isotopic compositions, in conjunction with other geochemical parameters, suggest that Cl - in groundwaters is not derived from salt dissolution. Mixing of the recharge water with saline groundwater cannot explain the relationship between δ 37 Cl and Cl - concentration measured. Marine aerosols deposited via rainfall and subsequent evapotranspiration appear to be responsible for the Cl - concentrations observed in wells that are close to the recharge area, and in groundwaters sampled along the southern transect. δ 37 Cl values measured in the leachate of the Bulldog shale suggest that the aquitard is the subsurface source of Cl - for the majority of groundwater samples studied. Diffusion is likely the mechanism through which Cl - is transported from the pore water of the Bulldog shale to the aquifer. However, a more detailed study of the aquitard rocks is required to verify this hypothesis

  2. The Great Basin Canada goose in southcentral Washington: A 40-year nesting history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzner, R.E.; Rickard, W.H.; Eberhardt, L.E.; Gray, R.H.

    1991-04-01

    Overall, the nesting population of Great Basin Canada geese (Branta canadensis moffitti) on the Hanford Site in southcentral Washington State is doing well and appears to be increasing. The average annual total nests for the period 1981 through 1990 was 215 nests, which is slightly above the average reported for the period 1950 through 1970. The nesting population has shifted its nucleus from upriver islands (1--10) to the lower river islands (11--20) with over 70% of the present-day nesting occurring on Islands 17, 18, 19, 20. The annual percent-successful nests from 1981 through 1990 was 80%. This is above the 71% reported for 1950 to 1970, but is below the 82% reported for 1971 to 1980. Average annual clutch size for 1981 to 1990 was 6.05, which is above the 1971-to-1980 average of 5.6 and the 1950-to-70 average of 5.5. Next desertions for 1981 to 1990 averaged 8%. This rate is well below the 14% reported for 1950 to 1970. Predators were responsible for an annual predation rate of 9% from 1981 to 1990. This is below the 1950-to-1970 annual average predation rate of 14%. Flooding losses to nests were low during the 1980s, except for 1989 and 1990 when 6% and 9% of the total nests, respectively, were destroyed by flooding. 9 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  3. Analyzing Variability in Landscape Nutrient Loading Using Spatially-Explicit Maps in the Great Lakes Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, Q. F.; Kendall, A. D.; Martin, S. L.; Whitenack, H. D.; Roush, J. A.; Hannah, B. A.; Hyndman, D. W.

    2017-12-01

    Excessive loading of nitrogen and phosphorous to the landscape has caused biologically and economically damaging eutrophication and harmful algal blooms in the Great Lakes Basin (GLB) and across the world. We mapped source-specific loads of nitrogen and phosphorous to the landscape using broadly available data across the GLB. SENSMap (Spatially Explicit Nutrient Source Map) is a 30m resolution snapshot of nutrient loads ca. 2010. We use these maps to study variable nutrient loading and provide this information to watershed managers through NOAA's GLB Tipping Points Planner. SENSMap individually maps nutrient point sources and six non-point sources: 1) atmospheric deposition, 2) septic tanks, 3) non-agricultural chemical fertilizer, 4) agricultural chemical fertilizer, 5) manure, and 6) nitrogen fixation from legumes. To model source-specific loads at high resolution, SENSMap synthesizes a wide range of remotely sensed, surveyed, and tabular data. Using these spatially explicit nutrient loading maps, we can better calibrate local land use-based water quality models and provide insight to watershed managers on how to focus nutrient reduction strategies. Here we examine differences in dominant nutrient sources across the GLB, and how those sources vary by land use. SENSMap's high resolution, source-specific approach offers a different lens to understand nutrient loading than traditional semi-distributed or land use based models.

  4. Advances in Hydrogeochemical Indicators for the Discovery of New Geothermal Resources in the Great Basin, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, Stuart F. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Geology and Geological Engineering; Spycher, Nicolas [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth Sciences Division; Sonnenthal, Eric [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth Sciences Division; Dobson, Patrick [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth Sciences Division

    2013-05-20

    This report summarizes the results of Phase I work for a go/no go decision on Phase II funding. In the first objective, we assessed the extent to which fluid-mineral equilibria controlled deep water compositions in geothermal systems across the Great Basin. Six systems were evaluated: Beowawe; Desert Peak; Dixie Valley; Mammoth; Raft River; Roosevelt. These represent a geographic spread of geothermal resources, in different geological settings and with a wide range of fluid compositions. The results were used for calibration/reformulation of chemical geothermometers that reflect the reservoir temperatures in producing reservoirs. In the second objective, we developed a reactive -transport model of the Desert Peak hydrothermal system to evaluate the processes that affect reservoir fluid geochemistry and its effect on solute geothermometry. This included testing geothermometry on “reacted” thermal water originating from different lithologies and from near-surface locations where the temperature is known from the simulation. The integrated multi-component geothermometer (GeoT, relying on computed mineral saturation indices) was tested against the model results and also on the systems studied in the first objective.

  5. Extraction of uranium low-grade ores from Great Divide Basin, Wyoming. National Uranium Resource Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Judd, J.C.; Nichols, I.L.; Huiatt, J.L.

    1983-04-01

    The US Bureau of Mines is investigating the leachability of carbonaceous uranium ore samples submitted by the DOE under an Interagency Agreement. Studies on eight samples from the Great Divide Basin, Wyoming, are the basis of this report. The uranium content of the eight ore samples ranged from 0.003 to 0.03% U 3 O 8 and contained 0.7 to 45% organic carbon. Experiments were performed to determine the feasibility of extracting uranium using acid leaching, roast-acid leaching and pressure leaching techniques. Acid leaching with 600 lb/ton H 2 SO 4 plus 10 lb/ton NaClO 3 for 18 h at 70 0 C extracted 65 to 83% of the uranium. One sample responded best to a roast-leach treatment. When roasting for 4 h at 500 0 C followed by acid leaching of the calcine using 600 lb/ton H 2 SO 4 , the uranium extraction was 82%. Two of the samples responded best to an oxidative pressure leach for 3 h at 200 0 C under a total pressure of 260 psig; uranium extractions were 78 and 82%

  6. Three-Dimensional Geothermal Fairway Mapping: Examples From the Western Great Basin, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siler, Drew L. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States). Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology; Faulds, James E. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States). Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology

    2013-09-29

    Elevated permeability along fault systems provides pathways for circulation of geothermal fluids. Accurate location of such fluid flow pathways in the subsurface is crucial to future geothermal development in order to both accurately assess resource potential and mitigate drilling costs by increasing drilling success rates. Employing a variety of surface and subsurface data sets, we present detailed 3D geologic analyses of two Great Basin geothermal systems, the actively producing Brady’s geothermal system and a ‘greenfield’ geothermal prospect at Astor Pass, Nevada. 3D modeling provides the framework for quantitative structural analyses. We combine 3D slip and dilation tendency analysis along fault zones and calculations of fault intersection density in the two geothermal systems with the locations of lithologies capable of supporting dense, interconnected fracture networks. The collocation of these permeability promoting characteristics with elevated heat represent geothermal ‘fairways’, areas with ideal conditions for geothermal fluid flow. Location of geothermal fairways at high resolution in 3D space can help to mitigate the costs of geothermal exploration by providing discrete drilling targets and data-based evaluations of reservoir potential.

  7. Aspects of the isotope hydrology of the Great Artesian Basin, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airey, P.L.; Calf, G.E.; Campbell, B.L.; Hartley, P.E.; Roman, D.

    1978-01-01

    A study has been made of the isotope hydrology of the principal Jurassic aquifer of the Queensland portion of the Great Artesian Basin down-gradient of the recharge area. Much of the data have been interpreted in terms of the residence times of the groundwater samples which were up to 350,000 years. It is postulated that the observed systematic variations in the chloride levels reflect variations in the rate of infiltration of recycled salt throughout the late Quaternary. The minimum and maximum in the chloride curve correlate with the last glacial and interglacial period respectively. The bicarbonate ion levels are perturbed by the dissolution of carbonate minerals. About 0.1 per cent of the aquifer materia would have been dissolved since the mid-tertiary when the present hydrodynamic conditions were established if dissolution rates calculated from the geochemical model are representative. The D/H ratios were found to be extremely constant. The 46 wells sited away from the recharge area have a mean of delta D of -41.8 per mille and a standard deviation of 1.1. There was no isotopic evidence for exchange of oxygen between water and the host rock despite the long contact periods, sometimes at elevated temperatures. A 226 Ra, 238 U survey showed that radium is frequently in excess despite extensive leaching since the Tertiary times and the fact that the time scales associated with the transport of water are large compared with the half life of 226 Ra. (orig.) [de

  8. Aspects of the isotope hydrology of the Great Artesian Basin, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airey, P.L.; Calf, G.E.; Campbell, B.L.; Hartley, P.E.; Roman, D.

    1979-01-01

    A study has been made of the isotope hydrology of the principal Jurassic aquifer of the Queensland portion of the Great Artesian Basin down-gradient of the recharge area. Much of the data have been interpreted in terms of the residence times of the groundwater samples which were up to 350,000 years. It is postulated that the observed systematic variations in the chloride levels reflect variations in the rate of infiltration of recycled salt throughout the late Quaternary. The minimum and maximum in the chloride curve correlate with the last glacial and interglacial period respectively. The bicarbonate ion levels are perturbed by the dissolution of carbonate minerals. About 0.1% of the aquifer material would have been dissolved since the mid-Tertiary when the present hydrodynamic conditions were established if dissolution rates calculated from the geochemical model are representative. The D/H ratios were found to be extremely constant. The 46 wells sited away from the recharge area have a mean deltaD of -41.8 per mille and a standard deviation of 1.1. There was no isotopic evidence for exchange of oxygen between water and the host rock despite the long contact periods, sometimes at elevated temperatures. A 226 Ra, 238 U survey showed that radium is frequently in excess despite extensive leaching since the Tertiary times and the fact that the time scales associated with the transport of water are large compared with the half life of 226 Ra. (author)

  9. Ammonia emissions from Swine waste lagoons in the Utah great basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Lowry A; Weaver, Kim H; Dotson, Richard A

    2006-01-01

    In animal production systems (poultry, beef, and swine), current production, storage, and disposal techniques present a challenge to manage wastes to minimize the emissions of trace gases within relatively small geographical areas. Physical and chemical parameters were measured on primary and secondary lagoons on three different swine farming systems, three replicates each, in the Central Great Basin of the United States to determine ammonia (NH3) emissions. Nutrient concentrations, lagoon water temperature, and micrometeorological data from these measurements were used with a published process model to calculate emissions. Annual cycling of emissions was determined in relation to climatic factors and wind speed was found the predominating factor when the lagoon temperatures were above about 3 degrees C. Total NH3 emissions increased in the order of smallest to largest: nursery, sow, and finisher farms. However, emissions on an animal basis increased from nursery animals being lowest to sow animals being highest. When emissions were compared to the amount of nitrogen (N) fed to the animals, NH3 emissions from sows were lowest with emissions from finisher animals highest. Ammonia emissions were compared to similar farm production systems in the humid East of the United States and found to be similar for finisher animals but had much lower emissions than comparable humid East sow production. Published estimates of NH3 emissions from lagoons ranged from 36 to 70% of feed input (no error range) compared to our emissions determined from a process model of 9.8% with an estimated range of +/-4%.

  10. Plastic debris in great skua (Stercorarius skua) pellets corresponds to seabird prey species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, S; Nager, R G; Johnson, P C D; Furness, R W; Provencher, J F

    2016-02-15

    Plastic is a common item in marine environments. Studies assessing seabird ingestion of plastics have focused on species that ingest plastics mistaken for prey items. Few studies have examined a scavenger and predatory species that are likely to ingest plastics indirectly through their prey items, such as the great skua (Stercorarius skua). We examined 1034 regurgitated pellets from a great skua colony in the Faroe Islands for plastics and found approximately 6% contained plastics. Pellets containing remains of Northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) had the highest prevalence of plastic. Our findings support previous work showing that Northern fulmars have higher loads of plastics than other sympatric species. This study demonstrates that marine plastic debris is transferred from surface feeding seabird species to predatory great skuas. Examination of plastic ingestion in species that do not ingest plastics directly can provide insights into how plastic particles transfer vertically within the food web. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Grass-Shrub Associations over a Precipitation Gradient and Their Implications for Restoration in the Great Basin, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maike F Holthuijzen

    Full Text Available As environmental stress increases positive (facilitative plant interactions often predominate. Plant-plant associations (or lack thereof can indicate whether certain plant species favor particular types of microsites (e.g., shrub canopies or plant-free interspaces and can provide valuable insights into whether "nurse plants" will contribute to seeding or planting success during ecological restoration. It can be difficult, however, to anticipate how relationships between nurse plants and plants used for restoration may change over large-ranging, regional stress gradients. We investigated associations between the shrub, Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis, and three common native grasses (Poa secunda, Elymus elymoides, and Pseudoroegneria spicata, representing short-, medium-, and deep-rooted growth forms, respectively, across an annual rainfall gradient (220-350 mm in the Great Basin, USA. We hypothesized that positive shrub-grass relationships would become more frequent at lower rainfall levels, as indicated by greater cover of grasses in shrub canopies than vegetation-free interspaces. We sampled aerial cover, density, height, basal width, grazing status, and reproductive status of perennial grasses in canopies and interspaces of 25-33 sagebrush individuals at 32 sites along a rainfall gradient. We found that aerial cover of the shallow rooted grass, P. secunda, was higher in sagebrush canopy than interspace microsites at lower levels of rainfall. Cover and density of the medium-rooted grass, E. elymoides were higher in sagebrush canopies than interspaces at all but the highest rainfall levels. Neither annual rainfall nor sagebrush canopy microsite significantly affected P. spicata cover. E. elymoides and P. spicata plants were taller, narrower, and less likely to be grazed in shrub canopy microsites than interspaces. Our results suggest that exploring sagebrush canopy microsites for restoration of native perennial

  12. Environmental Setting and Effects on Water Quality in the Great and Little Miami River Basins, Ohio and Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debrewer, Linda M.; Rowe, Gary L.; Reutter, David C.; Moore, Rhett C.; Hambrook, Julie A.; Baker, Nancy T.

    2000-01-01

    The Great and Little Miami River Basins drain approximately 7,354 square miles in southwestern Ohio and southeastern Indiana and are included in the more than 50 major river basins and aquifer systems selected for water-quality assessment as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Principal streams include the Great and Little Miami Rivers in Ohio and the Whitewater River in Indiana. The Great and Little Miami River Basins are almost entirely within the Till Plains section of the Central Lowland physiographic province and have a humid continental climate, characterized by well-defined summer and winter seasons. With the exception of a few areas near the Ohio River, Pleistocene glacial deposits, which are predominantly till, overlie lower Paleozoic limestone, dolomite, and shale bedrock. The principal aquifer is a complex buried-valley system of sand and gravel aquifers capable of supporting sustained well yields exceeding 1,000 gallons per min-ute. Designated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as a sole-source aquifer, the Buried-Valley Aquifer System is the principal source of drinking water for 1.6 million people in the basins and is the dominant source of water for southwestern Ohio. Water use in the Great and Little Miami River Basins averaged 745 million gallons per day in 1995. Of this amount, 48 percent was supplied by surface water (including the Ohio River) and 52 percent was supplied by ground water. Land-use and waste-management practices influence the quality of water found in streams and aquifers in the Great and Little Miami River Basins. Land use is approximately 79 percent agriculture, 13 percent urban (residential, industrial, and commercial), and 7 percent forest. An estimated 2.8 million people live in the Great and Little Miami River Basins; major urban areas include Cincinnati and Dayton, Ohio. Fertilizers and pesticides associated with agricultural activity, discharges from municipal and

  13. Assessing potential impacts of climate change and variability on the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Basin: A binational approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, F.H.; Mortsch, L.D.

    1997-01-01

    The potential impacts of climate change and variability on the Great Lakes environment are serious and complex. The Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Basin is home to 42.5 million US and Canadian citizens and is the industrial and commercial heartland of both nations. The region is rich in human and natural resources, with diverse economic activities and substantial infrastructure which would be affected by major shifts in climate. For example, water level changes could affect wetland distribution and functioning; reductions in streamflow would alter assimilative capacities while warmer water temperatures would influence spring and fall turnover and incidence of anoxia. A binational program has been initiated to conduct interdisciplinary, integrated impact assessments for the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River Basin. The goal of this program is to undertake interdisciplinary, integrated studies to improve the understanding of the complex interactions between climate, the environment, and socioeconomic systems in order to develop informed regional adaptation responses

  14. Characterization of habitat and biological communities at fixed sites in the Great Salt Lake basins, Utah, Idaho, and Wyoming, water years 1999-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albano, Christine M.; Giddings, Elise M.P.

    2007-01-01

    Habitat and biological communities were sampled at 10 sites in the Great Salt Lake Basins as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment program to assess the occurrence and distribution of biological organisms in relation to environmental conditions. Sites were distributed among the Bear River, Weber River, and Utah Lake/Jordan River basins and were selected to represent stream conditions in different land-use settings that are prominent within the basins, including agriculture, rangeland, urban, and forested.High-gradient streams had more diverse habitat conditions with larger substrates and more dynamic flow characteristics and were typically lower in discharge than low-gradient streams, which had a higher degree of siltation and lacked variability in geomorphic channel characteristics, which may account for differences in habitat. Habitat scores were higher at high-gradient sites with high percentages of forested land use within their basins. Sources and causes of stream habitat impairment included effects from channel modifications, siltation, and riparian land use. Effects of hydrologic modifications were evident at many sites.Algal sites where colder temperatures, less nutrient enrichment, and forest and rangeland uses dominated the basins contained communities that were more sensitive to organic pollution, siltation, dissolved oxygen, and salinity than sites that were warmer, had higher degrees of nutrient enrichment, and were affected by agriculture and urban land uses. Sites that had high inputs of solar radiation and generally were associated with agricultural land use supported the greatest number of algal species.Invertebrate samples collected from sites where riffles were the richest-targeted habitat differed in species composition and pollution tolerance from those collected at sites that did not have riffle habitat (nonriffle sites), where samples were collected in depositional areas, woody snags, or macrophyte beds

  15. Traveling Weather Disturbances in Mars Southern Extratropics: Sway of the Great Impact Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Jeffery L.

    2016-01-01

    ' transient barotropic/baroclinic eddies are significantly influenced by the great impact basins of this hemisphere (e.g., Argyre and Hellas). In addition, the occurrence of a southern storm zone in late winter and early spring is keyed particularly to the western hemisphere via orographic influences arising from the Tharsis highlands, and the Argyre and Hellas impact basins. Geographically localized transient-wave activity diagnostics are constructed that illuminate fundamental differences amongst such simulations and these are described.

  16. Deep Microbial Ecosystems in the U.S. Great Basin: A Second Home for Desulforudis audaxviator?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, D. P.

    2012-12-01

    Deep subsurface microbial ecosystems have attracted scientific and public interest in recent years. Of deep habitats so far investigated, continental hard rock environments may be the least understood. Our Census of Deep Life (CoDL) project targets deep microbial ecosystems of three little explored (for microbiology), North American geological provinces: the Basin and Range, Black Hills, and Canadian Shield. Here we focus on the Basin and Range, specifically radioactive fluids from nuclear device test cavities (U12N.10 tunnel and ER-EC-11) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and non-radioactive samples from a deep dolomite aquifer associated with Death Valley, CA (BLM-1 and Nevares Deep Well 2). Six pyrotag sequencing runs were attempted at the Marine Biology Lab (MBL) (bacterial v6v4 amplification for all sites and archaeal v6v4 amplification for BLM-1 and Nevares DW2). Of these, DNA extracts from five samples (all but Nevares DW2 Arch) successfully amplified. Bacterial libraries were generally dominated by Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Nitrospirae (ER-EC-11: Proteobacteria (45%), Deinococcus-Thermus (35%), Firmicutes (15%); U12N.10: Proteobacteria (37%), Firmicutes (32%), Nitrospirae (15%), Bacteroidetes (11%); BLM-1 (Bact): Firmicutes (93%); and Nevares DW2: Firmicutes (51%), Proteobacteria (16%), Nitrospirae (15%)). The BLM-1 (Arch) library contained >99% Euryarchaeota, with 98% of sequences represented by a single uncharacterized species of Methanothermobacter. Alpha diversity was calculated using the MBL VAMPS (Visualization and Analysis of Microbial Population Structures) system; showing the highest richness at both the phylum and genus levels in U12N.10 (Sp = 42; Sg = 341), and the lowest (Sp = 3; Sg = 11) in the BLM-1(Arch) library. Diversity was covered well at this depth of sequencing (~20,000 reads per sample) based on rarefaction analysis. One Firmicute lineage, candidatus D. audaxviator, has been shown to dominate microbial communities from

  17. A new species of Microglanis (Siluriformes: Pseudopimelodidae from upper rio Paraná basin, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Akio Shibatta

    Full Text Available Microglanis garavelloi, new species, collected in tributaries of rio Paranapanema and rio Tietê, is the first species of the genus described from upper rio Paraná basin. The new species can be distinguished from other species of Microglanis on morphometric characters, color pattern, caudal-fin shape, pectoral-spine morphology and lateral line development. Characters used specifically to distinguish M. garavelloi from M. cottoides (laguna dos Patos and rio Uruguay basins and M. parahybae (rio Paraíba do Sul basin include morphometrics, color pattern and pectoral-spine serration.

  18. A population model of the impact of a rodenticide containing strychnine on Great Basin Gophersnakes (Pituophis catenifer deserticola).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Christine A; Williams, Kathleen E; Kirk, David A; Nantel, Patrick; Reed, Eric; Elliott, John E

    2016-09-01

    Strychnine is a neurotoxin and an active ingredient in some rodenticides which are placed in burrows to suppress pocket gopher (Thomomys talpoides) populations in range and crop land in western North America. The population level impact was modelled of the use of strychnine-based rodenticides on a non-target snake species, the Great Basin Gophersnake (Pituophis catenifer deserticola), which is a predator of pocket gopher and a Species at Risk in Canada. Using information on population density, demographics, and movement and habitat suitability for the Gophersnake living in an agricultural valley in BC, Canada, we estimated the impact of the poisoning of adult snakes on the long-term population size. To determine the area where Gophersnakes could be exposed to strychnine, we used vendor records of a rodenticide, and quantified the landcover areas of orchards and vineyards where the compound was most commonly applied. GIS analysis determined the areas of overlap between those agricultural lands and suitable habitats used by Gophersnakes. Stage-based population matrix models revealed that in a low density (0.1/ha) population scenario, a diet of one pocket gopher per year wherein 10 % of them carried enough strychnine to kill an adult snake could cause the loss of 2 females annually from the population and this would reduce the population by 35.3 % in 25 years. Under the same dietary exposure, up to 35 females could die per year in a high density (0.4/ha) population which would result in a loss of 50 % of adults in 25 years.

  19. Long-term effects of wildfire on greater sage-grouse - integrating population and ecosystem concepts for management in the Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Peter S.; Ricca, Mark A.; Prochazka, Brian G.; Doherty, Kevin E.; Brooks, Matthew L.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2015-09-10

    Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus; hereinafter, sage-grouse) are a sagebrush obligate species that has declined concomitantly with the loss and fragmentation of sagebrush ecosystems across most of its geographical range. The species currently is listed as a candidate for federal protection under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). Increasing wildfire frequency and changing climate frequently are identified as two environmental drivers that contribute to the decline of sage-grouse populations, yet few studies have rigorously quantified their effects on sage-grouse populations across broad spatial scales and long time periods. To help inform a threat assessment within the Great Basin for listing sage-grouse in 2015 under the ESA, we conducted an extensive analysis of wildfire and climatic effects on sage-grouse population growth derived from 30 years of lek-count data collected across the hydrographic Great Basin of Western North America. Annual (1984–2013) patterns of wildfire were derived from an extensive dataset of remotely sensed 30-meter imagery and precipitation derived from locally downscaled spatially explicit data. In the sagebrush ecosystem, underlying soil conditions also contribute strongly to variation in resilience to disturbance and resistance to plant community changes (R&R). Thus, we developed predictions from models of post-wildfire recovery and chronic effects of wildfire based on three spatially explicit R&R classes derived from soil moisture and temperature regimes. We found evidence of an interaction between the effects of wildfire (chronically affected burned area within 5 kilometers of a lek) and climatic conditions (spring through fall precipitation) after accounting for a consistent density-dependent effect. Specifically, burned areas near leks nullifies population growth that normally follows years with relatively high precipitation. In models, this effect results in long-term population declines for sage-grouse despite cyclic

  20. Regional evaluation and primary geological structural and metallogenical research of great Kavir basin as view of possibility formation of sedimentary-surficial Uranium mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamali Sadr, S.

    2006-01-01

    Great Kavir basin is the largest inner basin in Iran that extended about 90000 km 2. This basin is situated in the centre of lran , to the south from Alborz mountain range and elongated in the sub- latitudinal trend and its construction is asymmetric. The basin cover consists generally of complicated sequence of continental - marine Oligocene - Miocene molasses. According to drainage systems - conditions, molassoid cycles, alluvial, alluvial - deltaic and lacustrine sediments, climate, morphological conditions and metallogenic and structural features, Great Kavir depression generally is favorable for exigence and surficial uranium deposits (vally - fill, flood plain, deltaic and playa). Uranium occurrences that are Known in the southern and north eastern part of the margent Great Kavir basin, are Arosan, Irekan and Mohammad Abad. Similar geological - structural conditions for uranium mineralization is possible in the margent of Great Kavir basin

  1. Integrated scientific assessment for ecosystem management in the interior Columbia Basin and portions of the Klamath and Great Basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas M. Quigley; Richard W Haynes; Russell T. Graham

    1996-01-01

    The Integrated Scientific Assessment for Ecosystem Management for the Interior Columbia Basin links landscape, aquatic, terrestrial, social, and economic characterizations to describe biophysical and social systems. Integration was achieved through a framework built around six goals for ecosystem management and three different views of the future. These goals are:...

  2. Cyberinfrastructure for remote environmental observatories: a model homogeneous sensor network in the Great Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strachan, Scotty; Slater, David; Fritzinger, Eric; Lyles, Bradley; Kent, Graham; Smith, Kenneth; Dascalu, Sergiu; Harris, Frederick

    2017-04-01

    Sensor-based data collection has changed the potential scale and resolution of in-situ environmental studies by orders of magnitude, increasing expertise and management requirements accordingly. Cost-effective management of these observing systems is possible by leveraging cyberinfrastructure resources. Presented is a case study environmental observation network in the Great Basin region, USA, the Nevada Climate-ecohydrological Assessment Network (NevCAN). NevCAN stretches hundreds of kilometers across several mountain ranges and monitors climate and ecohydrological conditions from low desert (900 m ASL) to high subalpine treeline (3360 m ASL) down to 1-minute timescales. The network has been operating continuously since 2010, collecting billions of sensor data points and millions of camera images that record hourly conditions at each site, despite requiring relatively low annual maintenance expenditure. These data have provided unique insight into fine-scale processes across mountain gradients, which is crucial scientific information for a water-scarce region. The key to maintaining data continuity for these remotely-located study sites has been use of uniform data transport and management systems, coupled with high-reliability power system designs. Enabling non-proprietary digital communication paths to all study sites and sensors allows the research team to acquire data in near-real-time, troubleshoot problems, and diversify sensor hardware. A wide-area network design based on common Internet Protocols (IP) has been extended into each study site, providing production bandwidth of between 2 Mbps and 60 Mbps, depending on local conditions. The network architecture and site-level support systems (such as power generation) have been implemented with the core objectives of capacity, redundancy, and modularity. NevCAN demonstrates that by following simple but uniform "best practices", the next generation of regionally-specific environmental observatories can evolve to

  3. Use of the GREAT-ER model to estimate mass fluxes of chemicals, carried into the Western Scheldt estuary from the Rupel basin

    OpenAIRE

    Schowanek, D.

    2002-01-01

    The poster illustrates the application of the GREAT-ER model to estimate the mass flux of chemicals carried from a river basin into an estuary. GREAT-ER (Geo-referenced Regional Exposure Assessment Tool for European Rivers) is a newly developed model (1999) for management and risk assessment of chemicals in river basins (see www.great-er.org). Recently the Rupel basin has been made available for use within GREAT-ER. This now allows to make a reliable estimation of the contribution of pollu...

  4. Hydrologic variability in the Red River of the North basin at the eastern margin of the northern Great Plains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiche, G.J.

    1991-01-01

    The temporal and spatial variations in streamflow in the Red River of the North basin on the eastern margin of the Great Plains are described and related to the various climatic conditions associated with the flows. The Red River drains about 290,000 square kilometers in parts of Minnesota, South Dakota, North Dakota, Saskatchewan and Manitoba, and a 200 year flood history is available from documents of fur traders, explorers and missionaries, as well as from gauging-station records. The coefficient of variation of mean annual streamflow ranges from ca 110% for streams in the southern and western parts of the Assiniboine River basin to ca 50% for streams along the eastern margin of the Red River of the North basin. Decadal streamflow variability is great in the Red River of the North basin, with mean annual streamflow for the 10 years ending 1940 of 489 cubic hectometers and for the 10 years ending 1975 of 3,670 cubic hectometers. Construction of the Rafferty Reservoir on the Souris River and the Almeda Reservoir on Moose Mountain Creek will cause changes in water quality in the Souris River, with most problems occurring during protracted low flow conditions

  5. Preliminary assessment of the risk of volcanism at a proposed nuclear-waste repository in the southern Great Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowe, B.M.; Carr, W.J.

    1980-01-01

    Volcanic hazard studies of the southern Great Basin are being conducted on behalf of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations program. Current work is chiefly concerned with characterizing the geology, chronology, and tectonic setting of Pliocene and Quaternary volcanism in the Nevada Test Site region, and assessing volcanic risk through consequence and probability studies, particularly with respect to a potential site in the southwestern Nevada Test Site. Young ( - 6 volcanic events per year. Based on this rate, the annual probability of disruption of a 10-km 2 repository located within a 25-km radius circle centered at Yucca Mountain, southwestern Nevada Test Site, is 10 - 8 . A larger area, 50-km radius, yields a disruption probability of 10 - 9 per year. Current tectonic zonation studies of the southern Great Basin will reduce the calculated probabilities of basaltic eruption for certain areas. 21 references, 3 figures

  6. Preliminary evaluation of the radioactive waste isolation potential of the alluvium-filled valleys of the Great Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smyth, J.R.; Crowe, B.M.; Halleck, P.M.; Reed, A.W.

    1979-08-01

    The occurrences, geologic features, hydrology, and thermal, mechanical, and mineralogical properties of the alluvium-filled valleys are compared with those of other media within the Great Basin. Computer modeling of heat conduction indicates that heat generated by the radioactive waste can be dissipated through the alluvium in a manner that will not threaten the integrity of the repository, although waste emplacement densities will be lower than for other media available. This investigation has not revealed any failure mechanism by which one can rule out alluvium as a primary waste isolation medium. However, the alluvium appears to rank behind one or more other possible media in all properties examined except, perhaps, in sorption properties. It is therefore recommended that alluvium be considered as a secondary isolation medium unless primary sites in other rock types in the Great Basin are eliminated from consideration on grounds other than those considered here

  7. Hydrologic Vulnerability and Risk Assessment Associated With the Increased Role of Fire on Western Landscapes, Great Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C. J.; Pierson, F. B.; Robichaud, P. R.; Spaeth, K. E.; Hardegree, S. P.; Clark, P. E.; Moffet, C. A.; Al-Hamdan, O. Z.; Boll, J.

    2010-12-01

    Landscape-scale plant community transitions and altered fire regimes across Great Basin, USA, rangelands have increased the likelihood of post-fire flooding and erosion events. These hazards are particularly concerning for western urban centers along the rangeland urban-wildland interface where natural resources, property, and human life are at risk. Extensive conversion of 4-7 million hectares of Great Basin shrub-steppe to cheatgrass-dominated (Bromus tectorum) grasslands has increased the frequency and size of wildland fires within these ecosystems. Fire frequencies have increased by more than an order of magnitude and occur on 3-10 year intervals across much of the cheatgrass-dominated landscape. Extensive tree (Pinus spp. and Juniperus spp.) encroachment into wooded shrub-steppe has increased heavy fuel loads. Ladder fuels in these ecosystems promote rapidly spreading, high-intensity and severe ground-surface-crown fires. These altered fuel structures across much of the historical Great Basin shrub-steppe have initiated an upsurge in large rangeland wildfires and have increased the spatial and temporal vulnerability of these landscapes to amplified runoff and erosion. Resource and infrastructure damages, and loss of life have been reported due to flooding following recent large-scale burning of western rangelands and dry forests. We present a decade of post-fire rangeland hydrologic research that provides a foundation for conceptual modeling of the hydrologic impacts associated with an increased role of rangeland wildfires. We highlight advancements in predictive tools to address this large-scale phenomenon and discuss vital research voids requiring attention. Our geographic emphasis is the Great Basin Region, however, these concepts likely extend elsewhere given the increased role of fire in many geographic regions and across rangeland-to-forest ecotones in the western United States.

  8. Geochemistry and travertine dating provide new insights into the hydrogeology of the Great Artesian Basin, South Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Love, A.J.; Rousseau-Gueutin, P.; Priestley, S.; Keppel, M.; Shand, P.; Karlstrom, K.; Crossey, L.; Wholing, D.; Fulton, S.

    2013-01-01

    While of great national and societal significance, and importance in its own right, the Great Artesian Basin of Australia is an iconic example of a continental scale artesian groundwater system. New geochemical, hydrological, and neo-tectonic data suggests that existing models that involve recharge in eastern Australia, relatively simple flow paths and discharge in springs in the western margin require modification. New geochemical data indicate a small volume flux of deeply derived (endogenic) fluids mixing into the aquifer system at a continental scale. Neotectonic data indicates active tectonism today that provides a fluid pathway through faults for the deeply sourced endogenic fluids to discharge in GAB travertine depositing springs. (authors)

  9. Modelling the emerging pollutant diclofenac with the GREAT-ER model: Application to the Llobregat River Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldekoa, Joana; Medici, Chiara; Osorio, Victoria; Pérez, Sandra; Marcé, Rafael; Barceló, Damià; Francés, Félix

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Diclofenac levels were measured in 14 sampling sites of the Llobregat River (Spain). • GREAT-ER model was used to simulate diclofenac concentrations in the Llobregat River. • Deterministic and stochastic modelling approaches were contrasted. • Diclofenac discharge into the basin was estimated for the studied period. • Consistent degradation rates were predicted and compared with literature values. -- Abstract: The present research aims at giving an insight into the increasingly important issue of water pollution due to emerging contaminants. In particular, the source and fate of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac have been analyzed at catchment scale for the Llobregat River in Catalonia (Spain). In fact, water from the Llobregat River is used to supply a significant part of the Metropolitan Area of Barcelona. At the same time, 59 wastewater treatment plants discharge into this basin. GREAT-ER model has been implemented in this basin in order to reproduce a static balance for this pollutant for two field campaigns data set. The results highlighted the ability of GREAT-ER to simulate the diclofenac concentrations in the Llobregat Catchment; however, this study also pointed out the urgent need for longer time series of observed data and a better knowledge of wastewater plants outputs and their parameterization in order to obtain more reliable results

  10. Modelling the emerging pollutant diclofenac with the GREAT-ER model: Application to the Llobregat River Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldekoa, Joana, E-mail: joaalma2@cam.upv.es [Universitat Politècnica de València, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Medici, Chiara [Universitat Politècnica de València, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Osorio, Victoria; Pérez, Sandra [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research, Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Marcé, Rafael [Catalan Institute for Water Research, Emili Grahit 101, 17003 Girona (Spain); Barceló, Damià [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research, Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Francés, Félix [Universitat Politècnica de València, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Diclofenac levels were measured in 14 sampling sites of the Llobregat River (Spain). • GREAT-ER model was used to simulate diclofenac concentrations in the Llobregat River. • Deterministic and stochastic modelling approaches were contrasted. • Diclofenac discharge into the basin was estimated for the studied period. • Consistent degradation rates were predicted and compared with literature values. -- Abstract: The present research aims at giving an insight into the increasingly important issue of water pollution due to emerging contaminants. In particular, the source and fate of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac have been analyzed at catchment scale for the Llobregat River in Catalonia (Spain). In fact, water from the Llobregat River is used to supply a significant part of the Metropolitan Area of Barcelona. At the same time, 59 wastewater treatment plants discharge into this basin. GREAT-ER model has been implemented in this basin in order to reproduce a static balance for this pollutant for two field campaigns data set. The results highlighted the ability of GREAT-ER to simulate the diclofenac concentrations in the Llobregat Catchment; however, this study also pointed out the urgent need for longer time series of observed data and a better knowledge of wastewater plants outputs and their parameterization in order to obtain more reliable results.

  11. The use of environmental DNA in invasive species surveillance of the Great Lakes commercial bait trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Lucas R; Jerde, Christopher L; Budny, Michelle L; Mahon, Andrew R

    2015-04-01

    Over 180 non-native species have been introduced in the Laurentian Great Lakes region, many posing threats to native species and ecosystem functioning. One potential pathway for introductions is the commercial bait trade; unknowing or unconcerned anglers commonly release unused bait into aquatic systems. Previous surveillance efforts of this pathway relied on visual inspection of bait stocks in retail shops, which can be time and cost prohibitive and requires a trained individual that can rapidly and accurately identify cryptic species. Environmental DNA (eDNA) surveillance, a molecular tool that has been used for surveillance in aquatic environments, can be used to efficiently detect species at low abundances. We collected and analyzed 576 eDNA samples from 525 retail bait shops throughout the Laurentian Great Lake states. We used eDNA techniques to screen samples for multiple aquatic invasive species (AIS) that could be transported in the bait trade, including bighead (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and silver carp (H. molitrix), round goby (Neogobius melanostomus), tubenose goby (Proterorhinus marmoratus), Eurasian rudd (Scardinius erythrophthalmus), and goldfish (Carassius auratus). Twenty-seven samples were positive for at least one target species (4.7% of samples), and all target species were found at least once, except bighead carp. Despite current regulations, the bait trade remains a potential pathway for invasive species introductions in the Great Lakes region. Alterations to existing management strategies regarding the collection, transportation, and use of live bait are warranted, including new and updated regulations, to prevent future introductions of invasive species in the Great Lakes via the bait trade. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  12. Late quaternary geomorphology of the Great Salt Lake region, Utah, and other hydrographically closed basins in the western United States: A summary of observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currey, Donald R.

    1989-01-01

    Attributes of Quaternary lakes and lake basins which are often important in the environmental prehistory of semideserts are discussed. Basin-floor and basin-closure morphometry have set limits on paleolake sizes; lake morphometry and basin drainage patterns have influenced lacustrine processes; and water and sediment loads have influenced basin neotectonics. Information regarding inundated, runoff-producing, and extra-basin spatial domains is acquired directly from the paleolake record, including the littoral morphostratigraphic record, and indirectly by reconstruction. Increasingly detailed hypotheses regarding Lake Bonneville, the largest late Pleistocene paleolake in the Great Basin, are subjects for further testing and refinement. Oscillating transgression of Lake Bonneville began about 28,000 yr B.P.; the highest stage occurred about 15,000 yr B.P., and termination occurred abruptly about 13,000 yr B.P. A final resurgence of perennial lakes probably occurred in many subbasins of the Great Basin between 11,000 and 10,000 yr B.P., when the highest stage of Great Salt Lake (successor to Lake Bonneville) developed the Gilbert shoreline. The highest post-Gilbert stage of Great Salt Lake, which has been one of the few permanent lakes in the Great Basin during Holocene time, probably occurred between 3,000 and 2,000 yr B.P.

  13. Natural resource mitigation, adaptation and research needs related to climate change in the Great Basin and Mojave Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughson, Debra L.; Busch, David E.; Davis, Scott; Finn, Sean P.; Caicco, Steve; Verburg, Paul S.J.

    2011-01-01

    This report synthesizes the knowledge, opinions, and concerns of many Federal and State land managers, scientists, stakeholders, and partners from a workshop, held at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas, on April 20-22, 2010. Land managers, research scientists, and resource specialists identified common concerns regarding the potential effects of climate change on public lands and natural resources in the Great Basin and Mojave Desert and developed recommendations for mitigation, adaptation, and research needs. Water and, conversely, the effects of drought emerged as a common theme in all breakout sessions on terrestrial and aquatic species at risk, managing across boundaries, monitoring, and ecosystem services. Climate change models for the southwestern deserts predict general warming and drying with increasing precipitation variability year to year. Scientists noted that under these changing conditions the past may no longer be a guide to the future in which managers envision increasing conflicts between human water uses and sustaining ecosystems. Increasing environmental stress also is expected as a consequence of shifting ecosystem boundaries and species distributions, expansion of non-native species, and decoupling of biotic mutualisms, leading to increasingly unstable biologic communities. Managers uniformly expressed a desire to work across management and agency boundaries at a landscape scale but conceded that conflicting agency missions and budgetary constraints often impede collaboration. More and better science is needed to cope with the effects of climate change but, perhaps even more important is the application of science to management issues using the methods of adaptive management based on long-term monitoring to assess the merits of management actions. Access to data is essential for science-based land management. Basic inventories, spatial databases, baseline condition assessments, data quality assurance, and data sharing were identified as top

  14. A high 87Sr 86Sr mantle source for low alkali tholeiite, northern Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, R.K.; Lee, Hu C.; Bowman, H.R.; Asaro, F.; McKee, E.H.; Coats, R.R.

    1975-01-01

    Olivine tholeiites, the youngest Tertiary units (about 8-11 m.y. old) at five widely spaced localities in northeastern Nevada, are geologically related to the basalts of the Snake River Plain, Idaho, to the north and are similar in major element and alkali chemistry to mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) and island arc tholeiites. The measured K (1250-3350 ppm), Rb (1??9-6??2 ppm) and Sr (140-240 ppm) concentrations overlap the range reported for MORB. Three of the five samples have low, unfractionated rare earth element (REE) patterns, the other two show moderate light-REE enrichment. Barium concentration is high and variable (100-780 ppm) and does not correlate with the other LIL elements. The rocks have 87Sr/86Sr = 0??7052-0??7076, considerably higher than MORB (~0??702-0??703). These samples are chemically distinct (i.e. less alkalic) from the olivine tholeiites from the adjacent Snake River Plain, but their Sr isotopic compositions are similar. They contain Sr that is distinctly more radiogenic than the basalts from the adjacent Great Basin. About 10 b.y. would be required for the mean measured Rb/Sr (~ 0??02) of these samples to generate, in a closed system, the radiogenic Sr they contain. The low alkali content of these basalts makes crustal contamination an unlikely mechanism. If the magma is uncontaminated, the time-averaged Rb/Sr of the source material must have been ~0??04. A significant decrease in Rb/Sr of the source material (a factor 2??) thus most probably occurred in the relatively recent (1??09 yr) past. Such a decrease of Rb/Sr in the mantle could accompany alkali depletion produced by an episode of partial melting and magma extraction. In contrast, low 87Sr 86Sr ratios indicate that the source material of the mid-ocean ridge basalts may have been depleted early in the Earth's history. ?? 1975.

  15. Plant-water relationships in the Great Basin Desert of North America derived from Pinus monophylla hourly dendrometer records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondi, Franco; Rossi, Sergio

    2015-08-01

    Water is the main limiting resource for natural and human systems, but the effect of hydroclimatic variability on woody species in water-limited environments at sub-monthly time scales is not fully understood. Plant-water relationships of single-leaf pinyon pine ( Pinus monophylla) were investigated using hourly dendrometer and environmental data from May 2006 to October 2011 in the Great Basin Desert, one of the driest regions of North America. Average radial stem increments showed an annual range of variation below 1.0 mm, with a monotonic steep increase from May to July that yielded a stem enlargement of about 0.5 mm. Stem shrinkage up to 0.2 mm occurred in late summer, followed by an abrupt expansion of up to 0.5 mm in the fall, at the arrival of the new water year precipitation. Subsequent winter shrinkage and enlargement were less than 0.3 mm each. Based on 4 years with continuous data, diel cycles varied in both timing and amplitude between months and years. Phase shifts in circadian stem changes were observed between the growing season and the dormant one, with stem size being linked to precipitation more than to other water-related indices, such as relative humidity or soil moisture. During May-October, the amplitude of the phases of stem contraction, expansion, and increment was positively related to their duration in a nonlinear fashion. Changes in precipitation regime, which affected the diel phases especially when lasting more than 5-6 h, could substantially influence the dynamics of water depletion and replenishment in single-leaf pinyon pine.

  16. A simple prioritization tool to diagnose impairment of stream temperature for coldwater fishes in the Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falke, Jeffrey A.; Dunham, Jason B.; Hockman-Wert, David; Pahl, Randy

    2016-01-01

    We provide a simple framework for diagnosing the impairment of stream water temperature for coldwater fishes across broad spatial extents based on a weight-of-evidence approach that integrates biological criteria, species distribution models, and geostatistical models of stream temperature. As a test case, we applied our approach to identify stream reaches most likely to be thermally impaired for Lahontan Cutthroat Trout Oncorhynchus clarkii henshawi in the upper Reese River, located in the northern Great Basin, Nevada. We first evaluated the capability of stream thermal regime descriptors to explain variation across 170 sites, and we found that the 7-d moving average of daily maximum stream temperatures (7DADM) provided minimal among-descriptor redundancy and, based on an upper threshold of 20°C, was also a good indicator of acute and chronic thermal stress. Next, we quantified the range of Lahontan Cutthroat Trout within our study area using a geographic distribution model. Finally, we used a geostatistical model to assess spatial variation in 7DADM and predict potential thermal impairment at the stream reach scale. We found that whereas 38% of reaches in our study area exceeded a 7DADM of 20°C and 35% were significantly warmer than predicted, only 17% both exceeded the biological criterion and were significantly warmer than predicted. This filtering allowed us to identify locations where physical and biological impairment were most likely within the network and that would represent the highest management priorities. Although our approach lacks the precision of more comprehensive approaches, it provides a broader context for diagnosing impairment and is a useful means of identifying priorities for more detailed evaluations across broad and heterogeneous stream networks.

  17. Evaluating Hydrologic Transience in Watershed Delineation, Numerical Modeling and Solute Transport in the Great Basin. Clayton Valley, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underdown, C. G.; Boutt, D. F.; Hynek, S. A.; Munk, L. A.

    2017-12-01

    Importance of transience in managed groundwater systems is generally determined by timeframe of management decisions. Watersheds with management times shorter than the aquifer (watershed) response time, or the time it takes a watershed to recover from a change in hydrologic state, would not include the new state and are treated as steady-state. However, these watersheds will experience transient response between hydrologic states. Watershed response time is a function of length. Therefore flat, regional watersheds characteristic of the Great Basin have long response times. Defining watershed extents as the area in which the water budget is balanced means inputs equal outputs. Steady-state budgets in the Great Basin have been balanced by extending watershed boundaries to include more area for recharge; however, the length and age of requisite flow paths are poorly constrained and often unrealistic. Inclusion of stored water in hydrologic budget calculations permits water balance within smaller contributing areas. As groundwater flow path lengths, depths, and locations differ between steady-state and transient systems, so do solute transport mechanisms. To observe how transience affects response time and solute transport, a refined (transient) version of the USGS steady-state groundwater flow model of the Great Basin is evaluated. This model is used to assess transient changes in contributing area for Clayton Valley, a lithium-brine producing endorheic basin in southwestern Nevada. Model runs of various recharge, discharge and storage bounds are created from conceptual models based upon historical climate data. Comparing results of the refined model to USGS groundwater observations allows for model validation and comparison against the USGS steady-state model. The transient contributing area to Clayton Valley is 85% smaller than that calculated from the steady-state solution, however several long flow paths important to both water and solute budgets at Clayton Valley

  18. Water Availability and Use Pilot-A multiscale assessment in the U.S. Great Lakes Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Howard W.

    2011-01-01

    Beginning in 2005, water availability and use were assessed for the U.S. part of the Great Lakes Basin through the Great Lakes Basin Pilot of a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) national assessment of water availability and use. The goals of a national assessment of water availability and use are to clarify our understanding of water-availability status and trends and improve our ability to forecast the balance between water supply and demand for future economic and environmental uses. This report outlines possible approaches for full-scale implementation of such an assessment. As such, the focus of this study was on collecting, compiling, and analyzing a wide variety of data to define the storage and dynamics of water resources and quantify the human demands on water in the Great Lakes region. The study focused on multiple spatial and temporal scales to highlight not only the abundant regional availability of water but also the potential for local shortages or conflicts over water. Regional studies provided a framework for understanding water resources in the basin. Subregional studies directed attention to varied aspects of the water-resources system that would have been difficult to assess for the whole region because of either data limitations or time limitations for the project. The study of local issues and concerns was motivated by regional discussions that led to recent legislative action between the Great Lakes States and regional cooperation with the Canadian Great Lakes Provinces. The multiscale nature of the study findings challenges water-resource managers and the public to think about regional water resources in an integrated way and to understand how future changes to the system-driven by human uses, climate variability, or land-use change-may be accommodated by informed water-resources management.

  19. Potential for DNA-based ID of Great Lakes fauna: Species inventories vs. barcode libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    DNA-based identification of mixed-organism samples offers the potential to greatly reduce the need for resource-intensive morphological identification, which would be of value both to biotic condition assessment and non-native species early-detection monitoring. However the abil...

  20. Long-period Ground Motion Simulation in the Osaka Basin during the 2011 Great Tohoku Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, T.; Kubo, H.; Asano, K.; Sato, K.; Aoi, S.

    2014-12-01

    Large amplitude long-period ground motions (1-10s) with long duration were observed in the Osaka sedimentary basin during the 2011 Tohoku earthquake (Mw9.0) and its aftershock (Ibaraki-Oki, Mw7.7), which is about 600 km away from the source regions. Sato et al. (2013) analyzed strong ground motion records from the source region to the Osaka basin and showed the following characteristics. (1) In the period range of 1 to 10s, the amplitude of horizontal components of the ground motion at the site-specific period is amplified in the Osaka basin sites. The predominant period is about 7s in the bay area where the largest pSv were observed. (2) The velocity Fourier amplitude spectra with their predominant period of around 7s are observed at the bedrock sites surrounding the Osaka basin. Those characteristics were observed during both of the mainshock and the largest aftershock. Therefore, large long-period ground motions in the Osaka basin are generated by the combination of propagation-path and basin effects. They simulated ground motions due to the largest aftershock as a simple point source model using three-dimensional FDM (GMS; Aoi and Fujiwara, 1999). They used a three-dimensional velocity structure based on the Japan Integrated Velocity Structure Model (JIVSM, Koketsu et al., 2012), with the minimum effective period of the computation of 3s. Their simulation result reproduced the observation characteristics well and it validates the applicability of the JIVSM for the long period ground motion simulation. In this study, we try to simulate long-period ground motions during the mainshock. The source model we used for the simulation is based on the SMGA model obtained by Asano and Iwata (2012). We succeed to simulate long-period ground motion propagation from Kanto area to the Osaka basin fairly well. The long-period ground motion simulations with the several Osaka basin velocity structure models are done for improving the model applicability. We used strong motion

  1. Instrumenting the Conifers: A Look at Daily Tree Growth and Locally Observed Environmental Conditions Across Four Mountain Sites in the Central Great Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strachan, S.; Biondi, F.; Johnson, B. G.

    2012-12-01

    Tree growth is often used as a proxy for past environmental conditions or as an indicator of developing trends. Reconstructions of drought, precipitation, temperature, and other phenomena derived from tree-growth indices abound in scientific literature aimed at informing policy makers. Observations of tree recruitment or death in treeline populations are frequently tied to climatic fluctuation in cause-effect hypotheses. Very often these hypotheses are based on statistical relationships between annual-to-seasonal tree growth measurements and some environmental parameter measured or modeled off-site. Observation of daily tree growth in conjunction with in-situ environmental measurements at similar timescales takes us one step closer to quantifying the uncertainty in reconstruction or predictive studies. In four separate sites in two different mountain ranges in the central Great Basin, co-located observations of conifer growth activity and local atmospheric and soils conditions have been initiated. Species include Pinus longaeva (Great Basin bristlecone pine), Pinus flexilis (limber pine), Picea engelmannii (Engelmann spruce), Pinus monophylla (singleleaf pinyon pine), Pinus ponderosa (ponderosa pine), Abies concolor (white fir), and Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas-fir). Measurements of sub-hourly tree radial length change and sap flow activity are compared with a suite of in-situ observations including air temperature, precipitation, photosynthetically-active radiation (PAR), relative humidity, soil temperature, and soil moisture/water content. Subalpine study site located at 3360 m elevation in the Snake Range, Nevada

  2. Great lakes prey fish populations: a cross-basin overview of status and trends based on bottom trawl surveys, 1978-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Owen T.

    2012-01-01

    The assessment of prey fish stocks in the Great Lakes have been conducted annually with bottom trawls since the 1970s by the Great Lakes Science Center, sometimes assisted by partner agencies. These stock assessments provide data on the status and trends of prey fish that are consumed by important commercial and recreational fishes. Although all these annual surveys are conducted using bottom trawls, they differ among the lakes in the proportion of the lake covered, seasonal timing, bottom trawl gear used, and the manner in which the trawl is towed (across or along bottom contours). Because each assessment is unique in one or more important aspects, direct comparison of prey fish catches among lakes is not straightforward. However, all of the assessments produce indices of abundance or biomass that can be standardized to facilitate comparisons of status and trends across all the Great Lakes. In this report, population indices were standardized to the highest value for a time series within each lake for the following principal prey species: cisco (Coregonus artedi), bloater (C. hoyi), rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax), and alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus). Indices were also provided for round goby (Neogobius melanostomus), an invasive fish that has proliferated throughout the basin over the past 18 years. These standardized indices represent the best available long-term indices of relative abundance for these fishes across all of the Great Lakes. In this report, standardized indices are presented in graphical form along with synopses to provide a short, informal cross-basin summary of the status and trends of principal prey fishes. In keeping with this intent, tables, references, and a detailed discussion were omitted.

  3. Horizon scanning for invasive alien species with the potential to threaten biodiversity in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Helen E; Peyton, Jodey; Aldridge, David C; Bantock, Tristan; Blackburn, Tim M; Britton, Robert; Clark, Paul; Cook, Elizabeth; Dehnen-Schmutz, Katharina; Dines, Trevor; Dobson, Michael; Edwards, François; Harrower, Colin; Harvey, Martin C; Minchin, Dan; Noble, David G; Parrott, Dave; Pocock, Michael J O; Preston, Chris D; Roy, Sugoto; Salisbury, Andrew; Schönrogge, Karsten; Sewell, Jack; Shaw, Richard H; Stebbing, Paul; Stewart, Alan J A; Walker, Kevin J

    2014-12-01

    Invasive alien species (IAS) are considered one of the greatest threats to biodiversity, particularly through their interactions with other drivers of change. Horizon scanning, the systematic examination of future potential threats and opportunities, leading to prioritization of IAS threats is seen as an essential component of IAS management. Our aim was to consider IAS that were likely to impact on native biodiversity but were not yet established in the wild in Great Britain. To achieve this, we developed an approach which coupled consensus methods (which have previously been used for collaboratively identifying priorities in other contexts) with rapid risk assessment. The process involved two distinct phases: Preliminary consultation with experts within five groups (plants, terrestrial invertebrates, freshwater invertebrates, vertebrates and marine species) to derive ranked lists of potential IAS. Consensus-building across expert groups to compile and rank the entire list of potential IAS. Five hundred and ninety-one species not native to Great Britain were considered. Ninety-three of these species were agreed to constitute at least a medium risk (based on score and consensus) with respect to them arriving, establishing and posing a threat to native biodiversity. The quagga mussel, Dreissena rostriformis bugensis, received maximum scores for risk of arrival, establishment and impact; following discussions the unanimous consensus was to rank it in the top position. A further 29 species were considered to constitute a high risk and were grouped according to their ranked risk. The remaining 63 species were considered as medium risk, and included in an unranked long list. The information collated through this novel extension of the consensus method for horizon scanning provides evidence for underpinning and prioritizing management both for the species and, perhaps more importantly, their pathways of arrival. Although our study focused on Great Britain, we suggest

  4. HYDROGEOMORPHIC SETTING, CHARACTERISTICS, AND RESPONSE TO STREAM INCISION OF MONTANA RIPARIAN MEADOWS IN THE CENTRAL GREAT BASIN--IMPLICATIONS FOR RESTORATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riparian wet meadow complexes in the mountains of the central Great Basin are scarce, ecologically important systems that are threatened by stream incision. An interdisciplinary group has investigated 1) the origin, characteristics, and controls on the evolution of these riparian...

  5. Preliminary seismicity and focal mechanisms for the southern Great Basin of Nevada and California: January 1992 through September 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmsen, S.C.

    1994-01-01

    The telemetered southern Great Basin seismic network (SGBSN) is operated for the Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). The US Geological Survey, Branch of Earthquake and Landslide Hazards, maintained this network until September 30, 1992, at which time all operational and analysis responsibilities were transferred to the University of Nevada at Reno Seismological Laboratory (UNRSL). This report contains preliminary earthquake and chemical explosion hypocenter listings and preliminary earthquake focal mechanism solutions for USGS/SGBSN data for the period January 1, 1992 through September 30, 1992, 15:00 UTC

  6. Species of Juglandaceae at Peter the Great Botanic Garden at Apothecaries Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firsov Gennadii

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The first exotic species of Juglandaceae family at Peter the Great Botanic Garden of the Komarov Botanical Institute RAS in Saint-Petersburg was Juglans regia - mentioned at M. M. Terechovskij ‘s Catalogue in 1796. Twenty five taxa from 4 genera have been tested since then: Carya - 6, Juglans - 14, Platycarya - 1, Pterocarya - 4. There are 14 taxa from 3 genera in modern collection: Carya - 2, Juglans - 9, Pterocarya - 3. All species besides Carya cordiformis and Juglans nigra produce fruits. Four species of Juglans (J. ailanthifolia, J. cinerea, J. cordiformis, J. mandshurica and its hybrids produce self-sowing. There are 2 species, Juglans ailanthifolia and Pterocarya pterocarpa, which are included into the Red Data Book of Russian Federation (2008. They need In situ and Ex situ conservation and may be recommended for Saint-Petersburg’s city planting. There are considerable prospects for both repeated introduction (Carya illinoensis and primary introduction (Juglans sigillata.

  7. Regional Climate Models as a Tool for Assessing Changes in the Laurentian Great Lakes Net Basin Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Music, B.; Mailhot, E.; Nadeau, D.; Irambona, C.; Frigon, A.

    2017-12-01

    Over the last decades, there has been growing concern about the effects of climate change on the Great Lakes water supply. Most of the modelling studies focusing on the Laurentian Great Lakes do not allow two-way exchanges of water and energy between the atmosphere and the underlying surface, and therefore do not account for important feedback mechanisms. Moreover, energy budget constraint at the land surface is not usually taken into account. To address this issue, several recent climate change studies used high resolution Regional Climate Models (RCMs) for evaluating changes in the hydrological regime of the Great Lakes. As RCMs operate on the concept of water and energy conservation, an internal consistency of the simulated energy and water budget components is assured. In this study we explore several recently generated Regional Climate Model (RCM) simulations to investigate the Great Lakes' Net Basin Supply (NBS) in a changing climate. These include simulations of the Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM5) supplemented by simulations from several others RCMs participating to the North American CORDEX project (CORDEX-NA). The analysis focuses on the NBS extreme values under nonstationary conditions. The results are expected to provide useful information to the industries in the Great Lakes that all need to include accurate climate change information in their long-term strategy plans to better anticipate impacts of low and/or high water levels.

  8. Black Mats, Spring-Fed Streams, and Late-Glacial-Age Recharge in the Southern Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quade, Jay; Forester, R.M.; Pratt, W.L.; Carter, C.

    1998-01-01

    Black mats are prominent features of the late Pleistocene and Holocene stratigraphic record in the southern Great Basin. Faunal, geochemical, and sedimentological evidence shows that the black mats formed in several microenvironments related to spring discharge, ranging from wet meadows to shallow ponds. Small land snails such as Gastrocopta tappaniana and Vertigo berryi are the most common mollusk taxa present. Semiaquatic and aquatic taxa are less abundant and include Catinellids, Fossaria parva, Gyraulus parvus, and others living today in and around perennial seeps and ponds. The ostracodes Cypridopsis okeechobi and Scottia tumida, typical of seeps and low-discharge springs today, as well as other taxa typical of springs and wetlands, are common in the black mats. Several new species that lived in the saturated subsurface also are present, but lacustrine ostracodes are absent. The ??13C values of organic matter in the black mats range from -12 to -26???, reflecting contributions of tissue from both C3 (sedges, most shrubs and trees) and C4 (saltbush, saltgrass) plants. Carbon-14 dates on the humate fraction of 55 black mats fall between 11,800 to 6300 and 2300 14C yr B.P. to modern. The total absence of mats in our sample between 6300 and 2300 14C yr B.P. likely reflects increased aridity associated with the mid-Holocene Altithermal. The oldest black mats date to 11,800-11,600 14C yr B.P., and the peak in the 14C black mat distribution falls at ???10,000 14C yr B.P. As the formation of black mats is spring related, their abundance reflects refilling of valley aquifers starting no later than 11,800 and peaking after 11,000 14C yrB.P. Reactivation of spring-fed channels shortly before 11,200 14C yr B.P. is also apparent in the stratigraphic records from the Las Vegas and Pahrump Valleys. This age distribution suggests that black mats and related spring-fed channels in part may have formed in response to Younger Dryas (YD)-age recharge in the region. However, the

  9. Enrichment of Thermophilic Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaea from an Alkaline Hot Spring in the Great Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C.; Huang, Z.; Jiang, H.; Wiegel, J.; Li, W.; Dong, H.

    2010-12-01

    One of the major advances in the nitrogen cycle is the recent discovery of ammonia oxidation by archaea. While culture-independent studies have revealed occurrence of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) in nearly every surface niche on earth, most of these microorganisms have resisted isolation and so far only a few species have been identified. The Great Basin contains numerous hot springs, which are characterized by moderately high temperature (40-65 degree C) and circumneutral or alkaline pH. Unique thermophilic archaea have been identified based on molecular DNA and lipid biomarkers; some of which may be ammonia oxidizers. This study aims to isolate some of these archaea from a California hot spring that has pH around 9.0 and temperature around 42 degree C. Mat material was collected from the spring and transported on ice to the laboratory. A synthetic medium (SCM-5) was inoculated with the mat material and the culture was incubated under varying temperature (35-65 degree C) and pH (7.0-10.0) conditions using antibiotics to suppress bacterial growth. Growth of the culture was monitored by microscopy, decrease in ammonium and increase in nitrite, and increases in Crenarchaeota and AOA abundances over time. Clone libraries were constructed to compare archaeal community structures before and after the enrichment experiment. Temperature and pH profiles indicated that the culture grew optimally at pH 9.0 and temperature 45 degree C, which are consistent with the geochemical conditions of the natural environment. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the final OTU was distantly related to all known hyperthermophilic archaea. Analysis of the amoA genes showed two OTUs in the final culture; one of them was closely related to Candidatus Nitrososphaera gargensis. However, the enrichment culture always contained bacteria and attempts to separate them from archaea have failed. This highlights the difficulty in bringing AOA into pure culture and suggests that some of the AOA may

  10. Regional groundwater-flow model of the Lake Michigan Basin in support of Great Lakes Basin water availability and use studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, D.T.; Hunt, R.J.; Reeves, H.W.

    2010-01-01

    A regional groundwater-flow model of the Lake Michigan Basin and surrounding areas has been developed in support of the Great Lakes Basin Pilot project under the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water Availability and Use Program. The transient 2-million-cell model incorporates multiple aquifers and pumping centers that create water-level drawdown that extends into deep saline waters. The 20-layer model simulates the exchange between a dense surface-water network and heterogeneous glacial deposits overlying stratified bedrock of the Wisconsin/Kankakee Arches and Michigan Basin in the Lower and Upper Peninsulas of Michigan; eastern Wisconsin; northern Indiana; and northeastern Illinois. The model is used to quantify changes in the groundwater system in response to pumping and variations in recharge from 1864 to 2005. Model results quantify the sources of water to major pumping centers, illustrate the dynamics of the groundwater system, and yield measures of water availability useful for water-resources management in the region. This report is a complete description of the methods and datasets used to develop the regional model, the underlying conceptual model, and model inputs, including specified values of material properties and the assignment of external and internal boundary conditions. The report also documents the application of the SEAWAT-2000 program for variable-density flow; it details the approach, advanced methods, and results associated with calibration through nonlinear regression using the PEST program; presents the water-level, drawdown, and groundwater flows for various geographic subregions and aquifer systems; and provides analyses of the effects of pumping from shallow and deep wells on sources of water to wells, the migration of groundwater divides, and direct and indirect groundwater discharge to Lake Michigan. The report considers the role of unconfined conditions at the regional scale as well as the influence of salinity on groundwater flow

  11. Growth and elemental content of two tree species growing on abandoned coal fly ash basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, C.L.; Adriano, D.C.

    1991-01-01

    Differences in aboveground tissue concentrations of trace elements were assessed for sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) and sycamore (Plantanus occidentalis L.) growing on two abandoned coal fly ash basins and a control soil. The wet basin (pH = 5.58) had originally received precipitator ash in an ash-water slurry, while the dry basin (pH = 8.26) had received both precipitator and bottom ash in dry form. In general, trees from the wet basin exhibited elevated trace element concentrations in comparison to the controls, while the dry basin trees exhibited reduced concentrations. On eof the most striking differenced in elemental concentrations among the ash basin and control trees was observed for Mn, with the control trees exhibiting concentrations orders of magnitude greater than the ash basin trees. Differences in foliar trace element concentrations among the sites can generally be explained by differences in substrate trace element concentrations and/or substrate pH. While trees from the wet ash basin generally had the highest trace element concentrations, these trees also attained the greatest height and diameter growth, suggesting that the elevated trace element concentrations in the wet basin substrate are not limiting the establishment of these two species. The greater height and diameter growth of the wet basin trees is presumably a result of the greater water-holding capacity of the substrate on this site. Differences in growth and tissue concentrations between sweetgum and sycamore highlight the importance of using more than one species when assessing metal toxicity or deficiency on a given substrate

  12. Impacts of CO/sub 2/-induced climatic change on water resources in the Great Lakes Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, S J

    1986-01-01

    Scenarios of CO/sub 2/-induced climatic change, based on models produced by the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) and the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Lab (GFDL), were used to estimate future changes in water supply in the Great Lakes Basin. The major components of annual Net Basin Supply, surface runoff and lake evaporation, were estimated using the Thornthwaite water balance model and the mass transfer approach, respectively. Two scenarios were derived from each climatic change model, one based on present normal winds, the other assuming reduced wind speeds. A third scenario was derived from GFDL, using wind speeds generated by the GFDL model. Results varied from a decrease in Net Basin Supply of 28.9% for GISS-normal winds, to a decrease of 11.7% for GFDL-reduced wind speeds. All five scenarios projected decreases. These differences in projection will have to be considered when performing climate impact studies, since economic activities affected by lake levels would probably experience different impacts under these scenarios.

  13. Water towers of the Great Basin: climatic and hydrologic change at watershed scales in a mountainous arid region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, S. B.

    2017-12-01

    Impacts of climate change in the Great Basin will manifest through changes in the hydrologic cycle. Downscaled climate data and projections run through the Basin Characterization Model (BCM) produce time series of hydrologic response - recharge, runoff, actual evapotranspiration (AET), and climatic water deficit (CWD) - that directly affect water resources and vegetation. More than 50 climate projections from CMIP5 were screened using a cluster analysis of end-century (2077-2099) seasonal precipitation and annual temperature to produce a reduced subset of 12 climate futures that cover a wide range of macroclimate response. Importantly, variations among GCMs in summer precipitation produced by the SW monsoon are captured. Data were averaged within 84 HUC8 watersheds with widley varying climate, topography, and geology. Resultant time series allow for multivariate analysis of hydrologic response, especially partitioning between snowpack, recharge, runoff, and actual evapotranspiration. Because the bulk of snowpack accumulation is restricted to small areas of isolated mountain ranges, losses of snowpack can be extreme as snowline moves up the mountains with warming. Loss of snowpack also affects recharge and runoff rates, and importantly, the recharge/runoff ratio - as snowpacks fade, recharge tends to increase relative to runoff. Thresholds for regime shifts can be identified, but the unique topography and geology of each basin must be considered in assessing hydrologic response.

  14. Hydrothermal zebra dolomite in the Great Basin, Nevada--attributes and relation to Paleozoic stratigraphy, tectonics, and ore deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, S.F.; Hofstra, A.H.; Koenig, A.E.; Emsbo, P.; Christiansen, W.; Johnson, Chad

    2010-01-01

    In other parts of the world, previous workers have shown that sparry dolomite in carbonate rocks may be produced by the generation and movement of hot basinal brines in response to arid paleoclimates and tectonism, and that some of these brines served as the transport medium for metals fixed in Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) and sedimentary exhalative (Sedex) deposits of Zn, Pb, Ag, Au, or barite. Numerous occurrences of hydrothermal zebra dolomite (HZD), comprised of alternating layers of dark replacement and light void-filling sparry or saddle dolomite, are present in Paleozoic platform and slope carbonate rocks on the eastern side of the Great Basin physiographic province. Locally, it is associated with mineral deposits of barite, Ag-Pb-Zn, and Au. In this paper the spatial distribution of HZD occurrences, their stratigraphic position, morphological characteristics, textures and zoning, and chemical and stable isotopic compositions were determined to improve understanding of their age, origin, and relation to dolostone, ore deposits, and the tectonic evolution of the Great Basin. In northern and central Nevada, HZD is coeval and cogenetic with Late Devonian and Early Mississippian Sedex Au, Zn, and barite deposits and may be related to Late Ordovician Sedex barite deposits. In southern Nevada and southwest California, it is cogenetic with small MVT Ag-Pb-Zn deposits in rocks as young as Early Mississippian. Over Paleozoic time, the Great Basin was at equatorial paleolatitudes with episodes of arid paleoclimates. Several occurrences of HZD are crosscut by Mesozoic or Cenozoic intrusions, and some host younger pluton-related polymetallic replacement and Carlin-type gold deposits. The distribution of HZD in space (carbonate platform, margin, and slope) and stratigraphy (Late Neoproterozoic Ediacaran-Mississippian) roughly parallels that of dolostone and both are prevalent in Devonian strata. Stratabound HZD is best developed in Ediacaran and Cambrian units, whereas

  15. Geomorphic and land cover identification of dust sources in the eastern Great Basin of Utah, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahnenberger, Maura; Nicoll, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    This study identifies anthropogenically disturbed areas and barren playa surfaces as the two primary dust source types that repeatedly contribute to dust storm events in the eastern Great Basin of western Utah, U.S.A. This semi-arid desert region is an important contributor to dust production in North America, with this study being the first to specifically identify and characterize regional dust sources. From 2004 to 2010, a total of 51 dust event days (DEDs) affected the air quality in Salt Lake City, UT. MODIS satellite imagery during 16 of these DEDs was analyzed to identify dust plumes, and assess the characteristics of dust source areas. A total of 168 plumes were identified, and showed mobilization of dust from Quaternary deposits located within the Bonneville Basin. This analysis identifies 4 major and 5 secondary source areas for dust in this region, which produce dust primarily during the spring and fall months and during moderate or greater drought conditions, with a Palmer Drought Index (PDI) of - 2 or less. The largest number of observed dust plumes (~ 60% of all plumes) originated from playas (ephemeral lakes) and are classified as barren land cover with a silty clay soil sediment surface. Playa surfaces in this region undergo numerous recurrent anthropogenic disturbances, including military operations and anthropogenic water withdrawal. Anthropogenic disturbance is necessary to produce dust from the vegetated landscape in the eastern Great Basin, as evidenced by the new dust source active from 2008 to 2010 in the area burned by the 2007 Milford Flat Fire; this fire was the largest in Utah's history due to extensive cover of invasive cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) along with drought conditions. However, dust mobilization from the Milford Flat Burned Area was limited to regions that had been significantly disturbed by post-fire land management techniques that consisted of seeding, followed by chaining or tilling of the soil. Dust storms in the eastern

  16. Mathematical Modeling of Fate and Transport of Aqueous Species in Stormflow Entering Infiltration Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massoudieh, A.; Sengor, S. S.; Meyer, S.; Ginn, T. R.

    2004-12-01

    The State of California is evaluating the role of passive stormwater detention facilities for the purpose of attenuating potential dissolved and suspended chemical species that may originate in roadway runoff of rainfall. The engineering design of such infiltration basins requires tools to quantify their performance as recipients of stormwater runoff from roadways, and as filters of aqueous chemical species. For this purpose a one-dimensional unsaturated flow and transport model is developed to estimate the efficiency of storm-water infiltration basins in treating roadway generated metallic and organic pollutants. Kinematic wave approximation is used along with van Genuchten water retention model to simulate water percolation thorough the infiltration basin. For metals a Langmuir type nonlinear competitive sorption isotherm is used for transport of chemicals and a kinetic reversible linear sorption model is considered for organics. The model is applied to known roadway born metallic contaminations such as copper, zinc, lead, chromium, nickel and cadmium, as well as organic species such as diazinon, diuron, ghlyphosate and pyrene, for several representative soil and precipitation condition for California within a period of five years. Representative soil parameters and precipitation patterns are extracted from frequency distributions extracted from a recent study. In addition sensitivity analysis has been done to evaluate the effect of soil property values on the performance of infiltration basins. The results can be used to evaluate the performance of infiltration basins in improving the water quality as well as being used in providing guidelines in design and maintenance of infiltration basins.

  17. Integrated monitoring of hydrogeomorphic, vegetative, and edaphic conditions in riparian ecosystems of Great Basin National Park, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beever, Erik A.; Pyke, D.A.

    2004-01-01

    In semiarid regions such as the Great Basin, riparian areas function as oases of cooler and more stable microclimates, greater relative humidity, greater structural complexity, and a steady flow of water and nutrients relative to upland areas. These qualities make riparian areaʼs attractive not only to resident and migratory wildlife, but also to visitors in recreation areas such as Great Basin National Park in the Snake Range, east-central Nevada. To expand upon the system of ten permanent plots sampled in 1992 (Smith et al. 1994) and 2001 (Beever et al. in press), we established a collection of 31 cross-sectional transects of 50-m width across the mainstems of Strawberry, Lehman, Baker, and Snake creeks. Our aims in this research were threefold: a) map riparian vegetative communities in greater detail than had been done by past efforts; b) provide a monitoring baseline of hydrogeomorphology; structure, composition, and function of upland- and riparianassociated vegetation; and edaphic properties potentially sensitive to management; and c) test whether instream conditions or physiographic variables predicted vegetation patterns across the four target streams.

  18. Ecology, genetics, and biological control of invasive annual grasses in the Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several annual grass species native to Eurasia, including cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum), red brome (B. rubens), and medusahead (Taeniatherum caput-medusae) have become invasive in the western USA. These invasive species degrade rangelands by compromising forage, outcompeting native flora, and exacerb...

  19. Great Lakes prey fish populations: a cross-basin overview of status and trends based on bottom trawl surveys, 1978-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Owen T.; Weidel, Brian C.

    2014-01-01

    The assessment of Great Lakes prey fish stocks have been conducted annually with bottom trawls since the 1970s by the Great Lakes Science Center, sometimes assisted by partner agencies. These stock assessments provide data on the status and trends of prey fish that are consumed by important commercial and recreational fishes. Although all these annual surveys are conducted using bottom trawls, they differ among the lakes in the proportion of the lake covered, seasonal timing, trawl gear used, and the manner in which the trawl is towed (across or along bottom contours). Because each assessment is unique, population indices were standardized to the highest value for a time series within each lake for the following prey species: Cisco (Coregonus artedi), Bloater (C. hoyi), Rainbow Smelt (Osmerus mordax), Alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus), and Round Goby (Neogobius melanostomus). In this report, standardized indices are presented in graphical form along with synopses to provide a short, informal cross-basin summary of the status and trends of principal prey fishes. There was basin-wide agreement in the trends of age-1 and older biomass for all prey species, with the highest concordance occurring for coregonids and Rainbow Smelt, and weaker concordance for Alewife. For coregonids, the highest biomass occurred from the mid-1980s to the mid-1990s. Rainbow Smelt biomass declined slowly and erratically during the last quarter century. Alewife biomass was generally higher from the early 1980s through 1990s across the Great Lakes, but since the early 1990s, trends have been divergent across the lakes, though there has been a downward trend in all lakes since 2005. Recently, Lake Huron has shown resurgence in biomass of Bloater, achieving 75% of its maximum record in 2012 due to recruitment of a succession of strong and moderate year classes that appeared in 2005-2011. Also, strong recruitment of the 2010 year class of Alewife has led to a sharp increase in biomass of Alewife in

  20. Heat flow in Railroad Valley, Nevada and implications for geothermal resources in the south-central Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C.F.; Sass, J.H.

    2006-01-01

    The Great Basin is a province of high average heat flow (approximately 90 mW m-2), with higher values characteristic of some areas and relatively low heat flow (characteristic of an area in south-central Nevada known as the Eureka Low. There is hydrologie and thermal evidence that the Eureka Low results from a relatively shallow, hydrologically controlled heat sink associated with interbasin water flow in the Paleozoic carbonate aquifers. Evaluating this hypothesis and investigating the thermal state of the Eureka Low at depth is a high priority for the US Geological Survey as it prepares a new national geothermal resource assessment. Part of this investigation is focused on Railroad Valley, the site of the largest petroleum reservoirs in Nevada and one of the few locations within the Eureka Low with a known geothermal system. Temperature and thermal conductivity data have been acquired from wells in Railroad Valley in order to determine heat flow in the basin. The results reveal a complex interaction of cooling due to shallow ground-water flow, relatively low (49 to 76 mW m-2) conductive heat flow at depth in most of the basin, and high (up to 234 mW m-2) heat flow associated with the 125??C geothermal system that encompasses the Bacon Flat and Grant Canyon oil fields. The presence of the Railroad Valley geothermal resource within the Eureka Low may be reflect the absence of deep ground-water flow sweeping heat out of the basin. If true, this suggests that other areas in the carbonate aquifer province may contain deep geothermal resources that are masked by ground-water flow.

  1. Presence and abundance of non-native plant species associated with recent energy development in the Williston Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Todd M.

    2015-01-01

    The Williston Basin, located in the Northern Great Plains, is experiencing rapid energy development with North Dakota and Montana being the epicenter of current and projected development in the USA. The average single-bore well pad is 5 acres with an estimated 58,485 wells in North Dakota alone. This landscape-level disturbance may provide a pathway for the establishment of non-native plants. To evaluate potential influences of energy development on the presence and abundance of non-native species, vegetation surveys were conducted at 30 oil well sites (14 ten-year-old and 16 five-year-old wells) and 14 control sites in native prairie environments across the Williston Basin. Non-native species richness and cover were recorded in four quadrats, located at equal distances, along four transects for a total of 16 quadrats per site. Non-natives were recorded at all 44 sites and ranged from 5 to 13 species, 7 to 15 species, and 2 to 8 species at the 10-year, 5-year, and control sites, respectively. Respective non-native cover ranged from 1 to 69, 16 to 76, and 2 to 82 %. Total, forb, and graminoid non-native species richness and non-native forb cover were significantly greater at oil well sites compared to control sites. At oil well sites, non-native species richness and forb cover were significantly greater adjacent to the well pads and decreased with distance to values similar to control sites. Finally, non-native species whose presence and/or abundance were significantly greater at oil well sites relative to control sites were identified to aid management efforts.

  2. River basin management and estuarine needs: the Great Brak case study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Huizinga, P

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of the effect of the Wolwedans Dam on the Great Brak Estuary and the development of the management plan to maintain a healthy environment yielded many interesting results. The general conclusion is that developments in a catchment...

  3. Recruitment patterns and growth of high-elevation pines in response to climatic variability (1883–2013), in the western Great Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constance I. Millar; Robert D. Westfall; Diane L. Delany; Alan L. Flint; Lorraine E. Flint

    2015-01-01

    Over the period 1883–2013, recruitment of subalpine limber pine (Pinus flexilis E. James) and Great Basin bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva D.K. Bailey) above the upper tree line, below the lower tree line, and across middle-elevation forest borders occurred at localized sites across four mountain ranges in the western Great...

  4. Accounting for inter-annual and seasonal variability in regionalization of hydrologic response in the Great Lakes basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kult, J. M.; Fry, L. M.; Gronewold, A. D.

    2012-12-01

    Methods for predicting streamflow in areas with limited or nonexistent measures of hydrologic response typically invoke the concept of regionalization, whereby knowledge pertaining to gauged catchments is transferred to ungauged catchments. In this study, we identify watershed physical characteristics acting as primary drivers of hydrologic response throughout the US portion of the Great Lakes basin. Relationships between watershed physical characteristics and hydrologic response are generated from 166 catchments spanning a variety of climate, soil, land cover, and land form regimes through regression tree analysis, leading to a grouping of watersheds exhibiting similar hydrologic response characteristics. These groupings are then used to predict response in ungauged watersheds in an uncertainty framework. Results from this method are assessed alongside one historical regionalization approach which, while simple, has served as a cornerstone of Great Lakes regional hydrologic research for several decades. Our approach expands upon previous research by considering multiple temporal characterizations of hydrologic response. Due to the substantial inter-annual and seasonal variability in hydrologic response observed over the Great Lakes basin, results from the regression tree analysis differ considerably depending on the level of temporal aggregation used to define the response. Specifically, higher levels of temporal aggregation for the response metric (for example, indices derived from long-term means of climate and streamflow observations) lead to improved watershed groupings with lower within-group variance. However, this perceived improvement in model skill occurs at the cost of understated uncertainty when applying the regression to time series simulations or as a basis for model calibration. In such cases, our results indicate that predictions based on long-term characterizations of hydrologic response can produce misleading conclusions when applied at shorter

  5. Contaminants of emerging concern in the Great Lakes Basin: A report on sediment, water, and fish tissue chemistry collected in 2010-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Steven J.; Annis, Mandy L.; Banda, JoAnn; Bowman, Sarah R.; Brigham, Mark E.; Elliott, Sarah M.; Gefell, Daniel J.; Jankowski, Mark D.; Jorgenson, Zachary G.; Lee, Kathy E.; Moore, Jeremy N.; Tucker, William A.

    2017-01-01

    Despite being detected at low levels in surface waters and sediments across the United States, contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) in the Great Lakes Basin are not well characterized in terms of spatial and temporal occurrence. Additionally, although the detrimental effects of exposure to CECs on fish and wildlife have been documented for many CECs in laboratory studies, we do not adequately understand the implications of the presence of CECs in the environment. Based on limited studies using current environmentally relevant concentrations of chemicals, however, risks to fish and wildlife are evident. As a result, there is an increasing urgency to address data gaps that are vital to resource management decisions. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey, is leading a Great Lakes Basin-wide evaluation of CECs (CEC Project) with the objectives to (a) characterize the spatial and temporal distribution of CECs; (b) evaluate risks to fish and wildlife resources; and (c) develop tools to aid resource managers in detecting, averting, or minimizing the ecological consequences to fish and wildlife that are exposed to CECs. This report addresses objective (a) of the CEC Project, summarizing sediment and water chemistry data collected from 2010 to 2012 and fish liver tissue chemistry data collected in 2012; characterizes the sampling locations with respect to potential sources of CECs in the landscape; and provides an initial interpretation of the variation in CEC concentrations relative to the identified sources. Data collected during the first three years of our study, which included 12 sampling locations and analysis of 134 chemicals, indicate that contaminants were more frequently detected in sediment compared to water. Chemicals classified as alkyphenols, flavors/ fragrances, hormones, PAHs, and sterols had higher average detection frequencies in sediment compared to water, while the opposite was observed for pesticides

  6. Deep Learning Methods for Quantifying Invasive Benthic Species in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, G.; Skinner, K.; Johnson-Roberson, M.

    2017-12-01

    In recent decades, invasive species such as the round goby and dreissenid mussels have greatly impacted the Great Lakes ecosystem. It is critical to monitor these species, model their distribution, and quantify the impacts on the native fisheries and surrounding ecosystem in order to develop an effective management response. However, data collection in underwater environments is challenging and expensive. Furthermore, the round goby is typically found in rocky habitats, which are inaccessible to standard survey techniques such as bottom trawling. In this work we propose a robotic system for visual data collection to automatically detect and quantify invasive round gobies and mussels in the Great Lakes. Robotic platforms equipped with cameras can perform efficient, cost-effective, low-bias benthic surveys. This data collection can be further optimized through automatic detection and annotation of the target species. Deep learning methods have shown success in image recognition tasks. However, these methods often rely on a labelled training dataset, with up to millions of labelled images. Hand labeling large numbers of images is expensive and often impracticable. Furthermore, data collected in the field may be sparse when only considering images that contain the objects of interest. It is easier to collect dense, clean data in controlled lab settings, but this data is not a realistic representation of real field environments. In this work, we propose a deep learning approach to generate a large set of labelled training data realistic of underwater environments in the field. To generate these images, first we draw random sample images of individual fish and mussels from a library of images captured in a controlled lab environment. Next, these randomly drawn samples will be automatically merged into natural background images. Finally, we will use a generative adversarial network (GAN) that incorporates constraints of the physical model of underwater light propagation

  7. Small mammals in saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima) - invaded and native riparian habitats of the western Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invasive saltcedar species have replaced native riparian trees on numerous river systems throughout the western US, raising concerns about how this habitat conversion may affect wildlife. For periods ranging from 1-10 years, small mammal populations were monitored at six riparian sites impacted by s...

  8. Variation in sagebrush communities historically seeded with crested wheatgrass in the eastern great basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although crested wheatgrass (CWG; Agropyron cristatum [L.] Gaertn.) has been one of the most commonly seeded exotic species in the western United States, long-term successional trajectories of seeded sites are poorly characterized, especially for big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentana Nutt.) ecosystems...

  9. Historical fire regime and forest variability on two eastern Great Basin fire-sheds (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley G. Kitchen

    2012-01-01

    Proper management of naturally forested landscapes requires knowledge of key disturbance processes and their effects on species composition and structure. Spatially-intensive fire and forest histories provide valuable information about how fire and vegetation may vary and interact on heterogeneous landscapes. I constructed 800-year fire and tree recruitment...

  10. Eocene extension in Idaho generated massive sediment floods into Franciscan trench and into Tyee, Great Valley, and Green River basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitru, Trevor A.; Ernst, W.G.; Wright, James E.; Wooden, Joseph L.; Wells, Ray E.; Farmer, Lucia P.; Kent, Adam J.R.; Graham, Stephan A.

    2013-01-01

    The Franciscan Complex accretionary prism was assembled during an ∼165-m.y.-long period of subduction of Pacific Ocean plates beneath the western margin of the North American plate. In such fossil subduction complexes, it is generally difficult to reconstruct details of the accretion of continent-derived sediments and to evaluate the factors that controlled accretion. New detrital zircon U-Pb ages indicate that much of the major Coastal belt subunit of the Franciscan Complex represents a massive, relatively brief, surge of near-trench deposition and accretion during Eocene time (ca. 53–49 Ma). Sediments were sourced mainly from the distant Idaho Batholith region rather than the nearby Sierra Nevada. Idaho detritus also fed the Great Valley forearc basin of California (ca. 53–37 Ma), the Tyee forearc basin of coastal Oregon (49 to ca. 36 Ma), and the greater Green River lake basin of Wyoming (50–47 Ma). Plutonism in the Idaho Batholith spanned 98–53 Ma in a contractional setting; it was abruptly superseded by major extension in the Bitterroot, Anaconda, Clearwater, and Priest River metamorphic core complexes (53–40 Ma) and by major volcanism in the Challis volcanic field (51–43 Ma). This extensional tectonism apparently deformed and uplifted a broad region, shedding voluminous sediments toward depocenters to the west and southeast. In the Franciscan Coastal belt, the major increase in sediment input apparently triggered a pulse of massive accretion, a pulse ultimately controlled by continental tectonism far within the interior of the North American plate, rather than by some tectonic event along the plate boundary itself.

  11. Environmental DNA (eDNA metabarcoding assays to detect invasive invertebrate species in the Great Lakes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katy E Klymus

    Full Text Available Describing and monitoring biodiversity comprise integral parts of ecosystem management. Recent research coupling metabarcoding and environmental DNA (eDNA demonstrate that these methods can serve as important tools for surveying biodiversity, while significantly decreasing the time, expense and resources spent on traditional survey methods. The literature emphasizes the importance of genetic marker development, as the markers dictate the applicability, sensitivity and resolution ability of an eDNA assay. The present study developed two metabarcoding eDNA assays using the mtDNA 16S RNA gene with Illumina MiSeq platform to detect invertebrate fauna in the Laurentian Great Lakes and surrounding waterways, with a focus for use on invasive bivalve and gastropod species monitoring. We employed careful primer design and in vitro testing with mock communities to assess ability of the markers to amplify and sequence targeted species DNA, while retaining rank abundance information. In our mock communities, read abundances reflected the initial input abundance, with regressions having significant slopes (p<0.05 and high coefficients of determination (R2 for all comparisons. Tests on field environmental samples revealed similar ability of our markers to measure relative abundance. Due to the limited reference sequence data available for these invertebrate species, care must be taken when analyzing results and identifying sequence reads to species level. These markers extend eDNA metabarcoding research for molluscs and appear relevant to other invertebrate taxa, such as rotifers and bryozoans. Furthermore, the sphaeriid mussel assay is group-specific, exclusively amplifying bivalves in the Sphaeridae family and providing species-level identification. Our assays provide useful tools for managers and conservation scientists, facilitating early detection of invasive species as well as improving resolution of mollusc diversity.

  12. ALIEN SPECIES IMPORTANTANCE IN NATIVE VEGETATION ALONG WADEABLE STREAMS, JOHN DAY RIVER BASIN, OREGON, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated the importance of alien species in existing vegetation along wadeable streams of a large, topographically diverse river basin in eastern Oregon, USA; sampling 165 plots (30 × 30 m) across 29 randomly selected 1-km stream reaches. Plots represented eight streamside co...

  13. Risk assessment of alien species found in and around the oyster basins of Yerseke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foekema, E.M.; Cuperus, J.; Weide, van der B.E.

    2014-01-01

    On behalf of the Office of Research and Risk Assessments (BuRO) of the Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safey Authority (NVWA), IMARES conducted a species inventory in the Oyster basins in Yerseke and the surrounding area in the Eastern Scheldt, known to be subject to shellfish related

  14. Binational climate change vulnerability assessment of migratory birds in the Great Lakes Basins: Tools and impediments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert S Rempel

    Full Text Available Climate change is a global concern, requiring international strategies to reduce emissions, however, climate change vulnerability assessments are often local in scope with assessment areas restricted to jurisdictional boundaries. In our study we explored tools and impediments to understanding and responding to the effects of climate change on vulnerability of migratory birds from a binational perspective. We apply and assess the utility of a Climate Change Vulnerability Index on 3 focal species using distribution or niche modeling frameworks. We use the distributional forecasts to explore possible changes to jurisdictional conservation responsibilities resulting from shifting distributions for: eastern meadowlark (Sturnella magna, wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina, and hooded warbler (Setophaga citrina. We found the Climate Change Vulnerability Index to be a well-organized approach to integrating numerous lines of evidence concerning effects of climate change, and provided transparency to the final assessment of vulnerability. Under this framework, we identified that eastern meadowlark and wood thrush are highly vulnerable to climate change, but hooded warbler is less vulnerable. Our study revealed impediments to assessing and modeling vulnerability to climate change from a binational perspective, including gaps in data or modeling for climate exposure parameters. We recommend increased cross-border collaboration to enhance the availability and resources needed to improve vulnerability assessments and development of conservation strategies. We did not find evidence to suggest major shifts in jurisdictional responsibility for the 3 focal species, but results do indicate increasing responsibility for these birds in the Canadian Provinces. These Provinces should consider conservation planning to help ensure a future supply of necessary habitat for these species.

  15. Incorporating biodiversity into rangeland health: Plant species richness and diversity in great plains grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symstad, Amy J.; Jonas, Jayne L.

    2011-01-01

    Indicators of rangeland health generally do not include a measure of biodiversity. Increasing attention to maintaining biodiversity in rangelands suggests that this omission should be reconsidered, and plant species richness and diversity are two metrics that may be useful and appropriate. Ideally, their response to a variety of anthropogenic and natural drivers in the ecosystem of interest would be clearly understood, thereby providing a means to diagnose the cause of decline in an ecosystem. Conceptual ecological models based on ecological principles and hypotheses provide a framework for this understanding, but these models must be supported by empirical evidence if they are to be used for decision making. To that end, we synthesize results from published studies regarding the responses of plant species richness and diversity to drivers that are of management concern in Great Plains grasslands, one of North America's most imperiled ecosystems. In the published literature, moderate grazing generally has a positive effect on these metrics in tallgrass prairie and a neutral to negative effect in shortgrass prairie. The largest published effects on richness and diversity were caused by moderate grazing in tallgrass prairies and nitrogen fertilization in shortgrass prairies. Although weather is often cited as the reason for considerable annual fluctuations in richness and diversity, little information about the responses of these metrics to weather is available. Responses of the two metrics often diverged, reflecting differences in their sensitivity to different types of changes in the plant community. Although sufficient information has not yet been published for these metrics to meet all the criteria of a good indicator in Great Plains Grasslands, augmenting current methods of evaluating rangeland health with a measure of plant species richness would reduce these shortcomings and provide information critical to managing for biodiversity.

  16. Integrating Environmental and Human Health Databases in the Great Lakes Basin: Themes, Challenges and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate L. Bassil

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Many government, academic and research institutions collect environmental data that are relevant to understanding the relationship between environmental exposures and human health. Integrating these data with health outcome data presents new challenges that are important to consider to improve our effective use of environmental health information. Our objective was to identify the common themes related to the integration of environmental and health data, and suggest ways to address the challenges and make progress toward more effective use of data already collected, to further our understanding of environmental health associations in the Great Lakes region. Environmental and human health databases were identified and reviewed using literature searches and a series of one-on-one and group expert consultations. Databases identified were predominantly environmental stressors databases, with fewer found for health outcomes and human exposure. Nine themes or factors that impact integration were identified: data availability, accessibility, harmonization, stakeholder collaboration, policy and strategic alignment, resource adequacy, environmental health indicators, and data exchange networks. The use and cost effectiveness of data currently collected could be improved by strategic changes to data collection and access systems to provide better opportunities to identify and study environmental exposures that may impact human health.

  17. Money, management, and manipulation: Environmental mobilization in the Great Lakes basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gould, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    This document examines variations in the responses of communities to local pollution problems affecting Great Lakes water quality. The study is based on research conducted at six such communities, at sites that have been designated as 'Areas of Concern' by the International Joint Commission. The roles of economic dependency or diversity, access to scientific and political resources, community size, social visibility of pollution, and consciousness- and unconsciousness-making activities are examined as they relate to grass roots political mobilization in response to local, lake-related environmental issues. Of particular interest is the participation of national and regional environmental social movement organizations, Federal, State/Provincial and local governments, and local industry. National and regional environmental social movement organizations appear to have a greater mobilizing impact on communities that are closest to the urban centers in which these organizations are based. State and Provincial environmental agencies play a centrist role in promoting minimal remediation. Local governments typically oppose the definition of local environmental disorganization as a problem

  18. Scytonemin and Photosynthetic Pigment Proxies for Late Pleistocene/Holocene Environmental Change in the Eastern Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, J. M.; Van Mooy, B. A. S.

    2015-12-01

    Sedimentary pigments are biomarkers of photosynthetic organisms, most commonly derived from aquatic bacteria and algae but also with potential terrigenous sources. We detected a diverse pigment assemblage with variable down-core distributions in Great Salt Lake (GSL) sediments deposited since ca. 280 ka (GLAD1-GSL00, core 4). The most abundant pigments included derivatives of chlorophyll a, most likely from algae or cyanobacteria, bacteriochlorophyll c from green sulfur bacteria, okenone from purple sulfur bacteria, and scytonemin from UV-exposed cyanobacteria. Scytonemin is a biomarker for colonial cyanobacteria exposed to UV-radiation. In GSL it has potential sources from bioherms on the shoreline or microbiotic soil crusts from the adjacent Great Basin Desert. Scytonemin concentration was highest in the Upper Salt and Sapropel (USS) unit, deposited between 11.5-10 ka in shallow water (ca. 10 m), following deep pluvial Lake Bonneville (30-18 cal ka), the Provo lake level (ca. 18-15 cal ka), and the Gilbert transgression (11.6 cal ka). Scytonemin concentration was very low in sediments deposited during the deep lake phases, even though bioherms were prominent shoreline features. The USS was deposited under hypersaline waters and contained remarkably low concentrations of photosynthetic pigment derivatives that would be expected in organic-matter-rich sediments deposited under productive surface waters or anoxic bottom waters. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic data point toward a desert soil crust source for scytonemin in the USS, similar to what we previously observed in the Holocene Black Sea sapropel. We propose that increased aridity supported the widespread occurrence and erosion of microbiotic soil crusts during deposition of the USS. This is consistent with interpretations of Great Salt Lake hydrology, pointing toward a broader regional aridity event. Holocene sediments above the USS also contain scytonemin at relatively high concentration, consistent with

  19. A new species of Ituglanis (Siluriformes: Trichomycteridae from the rio Uruguai basin, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Ferrer

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A new species of Ituglanis associated to the grasslands of the Pampa biome is described from the rio Uruguai basin, southern Brazil. The new species is distinguished from its congeners by the low number of ribs and by a unique color pattern composed of an outer layer with scattered round black blotches equivalent in size to the eye circumference over a reddish brown background on the lateral surface of the body. We provide the genetic sequences of the mitochondrial gene Cytochrome c Oxydase subunit I (COI for three of the paratypes and discuss aspects about the recent discovery of the new species.

  20. Ground-water quality in the carbonate-rock aquifer of the Great Basin, Nevada and Utah, 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Donald H.; Thiros, Susan A.; Rosen, Michael R.

    2005-01-01

    The carbonate-rock aquifer of the Great Basin is named for the thick sequence of Paleozoic limestone and dolomite with lesser amounts of shale, sandstone, and quartzite. It lies primarily in the eastern half of the Great Basin and includes areas of eastern Nevada and western Utah as well as the Death Valley area of California and small parts of Arizona and Idaho. The carbonate-rock aquifer is contained within the Basin and Range Principal Aquifer, one of 16 principal aquifers selected for study by the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water- Quality Assessment Program.Water samples from 30 ground-water sites (20 in Nevada and 10 in Utah) were collected in the summer of 2003 and analyzed for major anions and cations, nutrients, trace elements, dissolved organic carbon, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides, radon, and microbiology. Water samples from selected sites also were analyzed for the isotopes oxygen-18, deuterium, and tritium to determine recharge sources and the occurrence of water recharged since the early 1950s.Primary drinking-water standards were exceeded for several inorganic constituents in 30 water samples from the carbonate-rock aquifer. The maximum contaminant level was exceeded for concentrations of dissolved antimony (6 μg/L) in one sample, arsenic (10 μg/L) in eleven samples, and thallium (2 μg/L) in one sample. Secondary drinking-water regulations were exceeded for several inorganic constituents in water samples: chloride (250 mg/L) in five samples, fluoride (2 mg/L) in two samples, iron (0.3 mg/L) in four samples, manganese (0.05 mg/L) in one sample, sulfate (250 mg/L) in three samples, and total dissolved solids (500 mg/L) in seven samples.Six different pesticides or metabolites were detected at very low concentrations in the 30 water samples. The lack of VOC detections in water sampled from most of the sites is evidence thatVOCs are not common in the carbonate-rock aquifer. Arsenic values for water range from 0.7 to 45.7

  1. Evaluation of Weights of Evidence to Predict Epithermal-Gold Deposits in the Great Basin of the Western United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raines, Gary L.

    1999-01-01

    The weights-of-evidence method provides a simple approach to the integration of diverse geologic information. The application addressed is to construct a model that predicts the locations of epithermal-gold mineral deposits in the Great Basin of the western United States. Weights of evidence is a data-driven method requiring known deposits and occurrences that are used as training sites in the evaluated area. Four hundred and fifteen known hot spring gold-silver, Comstock vein, hot spring mercury, epithermal manganese, and volcanogenic uranium deposits and occurrences in Nevada were used to define an area of 327.4 km 2 as training sites to develop the model. The model consists of nine weighted-map patterns that are combined to produce a favorability map predicting the distribution of epithermal-gold deposits. Using a measure of the association of training sites with predictor features (or patterns), the patterns can be ranked from best to worst predictors. Based on proximity analysis, the strongest predictor is the area within 8 km of volcanic rocks younger than 43 Ma. Being close to volcanic rocks is not highly weighted, but being far from volcanic rocks causes a strong negative weight. These weights suggest that proximity to volcanic rocks define where deposits do not occur. The second best pattern is the area within 1 km of hydrothermally altered areas. The next best pattern is the area within 1 km of known placer-gold sites. The proximity analysis for gold placers weights this pattern as useful when close to known placer sites, but unimportant where placers do not exist. The remaining patterns are significantly weaker predictors. In order of decreasing correlation, they are: proximity to volcanic vents, proximity to east-west to northwest faults, elevated airborne radiometric uranium, proximity to northwest to west and north-northwest linear features, elevated aeromagnetics, and anomalous geochemistry. This ordering of the patterns is a function of the quality

  2. Wide distribution of autochthonous branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (bGDGTs) in U.S. Great Basin hot springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedlund, Brian P.; Paraiso, Julienne J.; Williams, Amanda J.; Huang, Qiuyuan; Wei, Yuli; Dijkstra, Paul; Hungate, Bruce A.; Dong, Hailiang; Zhang, Chuanlun L.

    2013-01-01

    Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (bGDGTs) are membrane-spanning lipids that likely stabilize membranes of some bacteria. Although bGDGTs have been reported previously in certain geothermal environments, it has been suggested that they may derive from surrounding soils since bGDGTs are known to be produced by soil bacteria. To test the hypothesis that bGDGTs can be produced by thermophiles in geothermal environments, we examined the distribution and abundance of bGDGTs, along with extensive geochemical data, in 40 sediment and mat samples collected from geothermal systems in the U.S. Great Basin (temperature: 31–95°C; pH: 6.8–10.7). bGDGTs were found in 38 out of 40 samples at concentrations up to 824 ng/g sample dry mass and comprised up to 99.5% of total GDGTs (branched plus isoprenoidal). The wide distribution of bGDGTs in hot springs, strong correlation between core and polar lipid abundances, distinctness of bGDGT profiles compared to nearby soils, and higher concentration of bGDGTs in hot springs compared to nearby soils provided evidence of in situ production, particularly for the minimally methylated bGDGTs I, Ib, and Ic. Polar bGDGTs were found almost exclusively in samples ≤70°C and the absolute abundance of polar bGDGTs correlated negatively with properties of chemically reduced, high temperature spring sources (temperature, H2S/HS−) and positively with properties of oxygenated, low temperature sites (O2, NO−3). Two-way cluster analysis and nonmetric multidimensional scaling based on relative abundance of polar bGDGTs supported these relationships and showed a negative relationship between the degree of methylation and temperature, suggesting a higher abundance for minimally methylated bGDGTs at high temperature. This study presents evidence of the widespread production of bGDGTs in mats and sediments of natural geothermal springs in the U.S. Great Basin, especially in oxygenated, low-temperature sites (≤70°C). PMID:23964271

  3. 8000 yr of vegetation reconstruction from the Great Basin (Nevada, USA): the contribution of Non-Pollen Palynomorphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunno, I.; Mensing, S. A.

    2017-12-01

    Multiproxy records from the Great Basin showed that a severe drought occurred in the area between 3000-1850 BP (Mensing et al., 2013). The pollen analysis on a 7m sediment core from Stonehouse Meadow revealed that during this period arboreal pollen dropped abruptly, reaching the lowest percentage ( 10%) around 2500 BP. At the same time, grass and herbs increased significantly ( 60%) together with the total carbonate percentage (TC%). To better understand this dramatic event, the analysis of Non-Pollen Palynomorphs (NPPs) was conducted. NPPs are microfossils that survive the chemical treatment during pollen extraction and appear in pollen slides. They are valuable indicators of climate- and human-induced changes, and due to their different origin, NPPs can be integrated with pollen analysis to corroborate and improve the information provided by pollen records. To obtain more reliable information, fossil NPPs from the sediment core were compared to modern NPPs and the pollen records. Modern samples, represented by mineral soil and sediment specimens, were collected around the meadow in 2015. Fossil NPPs were counted from the same sediment core subsamples previously analyzed for pollen records. A total of 64 different NPPs were identified from both modern and fossil samples, 33 of which were identified as unknowns and given an identification code. While several of the known NPPs were consistent with the data provided by pollen record, the most crucial information was provided by some of the unknown NPPs, such as PLN-01, PLN-20 and PLN-11. The presence of PLN-01 and PLN-20 on the edge of the meadow in the modern samples and right before and after the driest period in the core, supports the evidence of a drought, when the meadow was likely shrinking during the transition from a wetter to a drier period and expanding once again after the drought. PLN-11 appears to be related to the drought as well, occurring exclusively during the driest period. However, this NPP was not

  4. Wide distribution of autochthonous branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (bGDGTs in U.S. Great Basin hot springs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian P. Hedlund

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (bGDGTs are membrane-spanning lipids that likely stabilize membranes of some bacteria. Although bGDGTs have been reported previously in certain geothermal environments, it has been suggested that they may derive from surrounding soils since bGDGTs are known to be produced by soil bacteria. To test the hypothesis that bGDGTs can be produced by thermophiles in geothermal environments, we examined the distribution and abundance of bGDGTs, along with extensive geochemical data, in 40 sediment and mat samples collected from geothermal systems in the U.S. Great Basin (temperature: 31-95°C; pH: 6.8-10.7. bGDGTs were found in 38 out of 40 samples at concentrations up to 824 ng/g sample dry mass and comprised up to 99.5% of total GDGTs (branched plus isoprenoidal. The wide distribution of bGDGTs in hot springs, strong correlation between core and polar lipid abundances, distinctness of bGDGT profiles compared to nearby soils, and higher concentration of bGDGTs in hot springs compared to nearby soils provided evidence of in situ production, particularly for the minimally methylated bGDGTs I, Ib, and Ic. Polar bGDGTs were found almost exclusively in samples ≤ 70°C and the absolute abundance of polar bGDGTs correlated negatively with properties of chemically reduced, high temperature spring sources (temperature, H2S/HS- and positively with properties of oxygenated, low temperature sites (O2, NO3-. Two-way cluster analysis and nonmetric multidimensional scaling based on relative abundance of polar bGDGTs supported these relationships and showed a negative relationship between the degree of methylation and temperature, suggesting a higher abundance for minimally methylated bGDGTs at high temperature. This study presents evidence of the widespread production of bGDGTs in mats and sediments of natural geothermal springs in the U.S. Great Basin, especially in oxygenated, low-temperature sites (≤ 70°C.

  5. TESTING TREE-CLASSIFIER VARIANTS AND ALTERNATE MODELING METHODOLOGIES IN THE EAST GREAT BASIN MAPPING UNIT OF THE SOUTHWEST REGIONAL GAP ANALYSIS PROJECT (SW REGAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We tested two methods for dataset generation and model construction, and three tree-classifier variants to identify the most parsimonious and thematically accurate mapping methodology for the SW ReGAP project. Competing methodologies were tested in the East Great Basin mapping un...

  6. Influence of domestic livestock grazing on American Pika (Ochotona princeps) forage and haypiling behavior in the Great Basin. Western North American Naturalist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constance I. Millar

    2011-01-01

    In a pilot study, I observed a relationship between domestic livestock grazing and location of American pika (Ochotona princeps) haypiles in the eastern Sierra Nevada and several Great Basin mountain ranges. Where vegetation communities adjacent to talus bases (forefields) were grazed, mean distance from the talus borders to the closest fresh...

  7. Wildlife habitats in managed rangelands—the Great Basin of southeastern Oregon: the relationship of terrestrial vertebrates to plant communities and structural conditions (Part 1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris Maser; Jack Ward Thomas; Ralph G. Anderson

    1984-01-01

    The relationships of terrestrial vertebrates to plant communities, structural conditions, and special habitats in the Great Basin of southeastern Oregon are described. The importance of habitat components to wildlife and the predictability of management activities on wildlife are examined in terms of managed rangelands. The paper does not provide guidelines but rather...

  8. Beginnings of range management: an anthology of the Sampson-Ellison photo plots (1913 to 2003) and a short history of the Great Basin Experiment Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    David A. Prevedel; E. Durant McArthur; Curtis M. Johnson

    2005-01-01

    High-elevation watersheds on the Wasatch Plateau in central Utah were severely overgrazed in the late 1800s, resulting in catastrophic flooding and mudflows through adjacent communities. Affected citizens petitioned the Federal government to establish a Forest Reserve (1902), and the Manti National Forest was established by the Transfer Act of 1905. The Great Basin...

  9. Wildlife habitats in managed rangelands—the Great Basin of southeastern Oregon: the relationship of terrestrial vertebrates to plant communities and structural conditions (Part 2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris Maser; Jack Ward Thomas; Ralph G. Anderson

    1984-01-01

    The relationships of terrestrial vertebrates to plant communities, structural conditions, and special habitats in the Great Basin of southeastern Oregon are described in a series of appendices. The importance of habitat components to wildlife and the predictability of management activities on wildlife are examined in terms of managed rangelands. ...

  10. The impact of land abandonment on species richness and abundance in the Mediterranean Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plieninger, Tobias; Hui, Cang; Gaertner, Mirijam

    2014-01-01

    species richness and abundance in agroforestry, arable land, pastures, and permanent crops of the Mediterranean Basin. In particular, we investigated (1) which taxonomic groups (arthropods, birds, lichen, vascular plants) are more affected by land abandonment; (2) at which spatial and temporal scales.......0001) plant and animal species richness and abundance overall, though results were heterogeneous, with differences in effect size between taxa, spatial-temporal scales, land uses, landforms, and climate. In conclusion, there is no "one-size-fits-all" conservation approach that applies to the diverse contexts......Land abandonment is common in the Mediterranean Basin, a global biodiversity hotspot, but little is known about its impacts on biodiversity. To upscale existing case-study insights to the Pan-Mediterranean level, we conducted a metaanalysis of the effects of land abandonment on plant and animal...

  11. Considering the potential effect of faulting on regional-scale groundwater flow: an illustrative example from Australia's Great Artesian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smerdon, Brian D.; Turnadge, Chris

    2015-08-01

    Hydraulic head measurements in the Great Artesian Basin (GAB), Australia, began in the early 20th century, and despite subsequent decades of data collection, a well-accepted smoothed potentiometric surface has continually assumed a contiguous aquifer system. Numerical modeling was used to produce alternative potentiometric surfaces for the Cadna-owie-Hooray aquifers with and without the effect of major faults. Where a fault created a vertical offset between the aquifers and was juxtaposed with an aquitard, it was assumed to act as a lateral barrier to flow. Results demonstrate notable differences in the central portion of the study area between potentiometric surfaces including faults and those without faults. Explicitly considering faults results in a 25-50 m difference where faults are perpendicular to the regional flow path, compared to disregarding faults. These potential barriers create semi-isolated compartments where lateral groundwater flow may be diminished or absent. Groundwater management in the GAB relies on maintaining certain hydraulic head conditions and, hence, a potentiometric surface. The presence of faulting has two implications for management: (1) a change in the inferred hydraulic heads (and associated fluxes) at the boundaries of regulatory jurisdictions; and (2) assessment of large-scale extractions occurring at different locations within the GAB.

  12. Ecological Observations of Native Geocoris pallens and G. punctipes Populations in the Great Basin Desert of Southwestern Utah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith C. Schuman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Big-eyed bugs (Geocoris spp. Fallén, Hemiptera: Lygaeidae are ubiquitous, omnivorous insect predators whose plant feeding behavior raises the question of whether they benefit or harm plants. However, several studies have investigated both the potential of Geocoris spp. to serve as biological control agents in agriculture and their importance as agents of plant indirect defense in nature. These studies have demonstrated that Geocoris spp. effectively reduce herbivore populations and increase plant yield. Previous work has also indicated that Geocoris spp. respond to visual and olfactory cues when foraging and choosing their prey and that associative learning of prey and plant cues informs their foraging strategies. For these reasons, Geocoris spp. have become models for the study of tritrophic plant-herbivore-predator interactions. Here, we present detailed images and ecological observations of G. pallens Stål and G. punctipes (Say native to the Great Basin Desert of southwestern Utah, including observations of their life histories and color morphs, dynamics of their predatory feeding behavior and prey choice over space and time, and novel aspects of Geocoris spp.’s relationships to their host plants. These observations open up new areas to be explored regarding the behavior of Geocoris spp. and their interactions with plant and herbivore populations.

  13. Linking field-based metabolomics and chemical analyses to prioritize contaminants of emerging concern in the Great Lakes basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, John M.; Ekman, Drew R.; Teng, Quincy; Ankley, Gerald T.; Berninger, Jason P.; Cavallin, Jenna E.; Jensen, Kathleen M.; Kahl, Michael D.; Schroeder, Anthony L.; Villeneuve, Daniel L.; Jorgenson, Zachary G.; Lee, Kathy E.; Collette, Timothy W.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to focus on the most biologically relevant contaminants affecting aquatic ecosystems can be challenging because toxicity-assessment programs have not kept pace with the growing number of contaminants requiring testing. Because it has proven effective at assessing the biological impacts of potentially toxic contaminants, profiling of endogenous metabolites (metabolomics) may help screen out contaminants with a lower likelihood of eliciting biological impacts, thereby prioritizing the most biologically important contaminants. The authors present results from a study that utilized cage-deployed fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) at 18 sites across the Great Lakes basin. They measured water temperature and contaminant concentrations in water samples (132 contaminants targeted, 86 detected) and used 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to measure endogenous metabolites in polar extracts of livers. They used partial least-squares regression to compare relative abundances of endogenous metabolites with contaminant concentrations and temperature. The results indicated that profiles of endogenous polar metabolites covaried with at most 49 contaminants. The authors identified up to 52% of detected contaminants as not significantly covarying with changes in endogenous metabolites, suggesting they likely were not eliciting measurable impacts at these sites. This represents a first step in screening for the biological relevance of detected contaminants by shortening lists of contaminants potentially affecting these sites. Such information may allow risk assessors to prioritize contaminants and focus toxicity testing on the most biologically relevant contaminants. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2493–2502.

  14. Hunter-gatherer adaptations and environmental change in the southern Great Basin: The evidence from Pahute and Rainier mesas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pippin, L.C.

    1998-06-01

    This paper reviews the evidence for fluctuations in past environments in the southern Great Basin and examines how these changes may have affected the strategies followed by past hunter and gatherers in their utilization of the resources available on a highland in this region. The evidence used to reconstruct past environments for the region include botanical remains from packrat middens, pollen spectra from lake and spring deposits, faunal remains recovered from archaeological and geologic contexts, tree-ring indices from trees located in sensitive (tree-line) environments, and eolian, alluvial and fluvial sediments deposited in a variety of contexts. Interpretations of past hunter and gatherer adaptive strategies are based on a sample of 1,311 archaeological sites recorded during preconstruction surveys on Pahute and Rainier mesas in advance of the US Department of Energy`s nuclear weapons testing program. Projectile point chronologies and available tree-ring, radiocarbon, thermoluminescence and obsidian hydration dates were used to assign these archaeological sites to specific periods of use.

  15. Upper Ordovician-Lower Silurian shelf sequences of the Eastern Great Basin: Barn Hills and Lakeside Mountains, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, M.T. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States). Dept. of Geosciences); Sheehan, P.M. (Milwaukee Public Museum, WI (United States). Dept of Geology)

    1993-04-01

    Detailed stratigraphic sections through Upper Ordovician-Lower Silurian shelf strata of the Eastern Great Basin were measured in two Utah localities, Barn Hills (Confusion Range) and Lakeside Mountains. Six major subfacies occur in these strata: mud-cracked and crinkly laminated subfacies, Laminated mudstone subfacies, cross-bedded grainstone subfacies, cross-laminated packstone subfacies, grainy bioturbated subfacies, muddy bioturbated subfacies, and thalassinoides burrowed subfacies. These occur in 1--10 m thick cycles in three facies: muddy cyclic laminite facies (tidal flats), cross-bedded facies (subtidal shoals), and bioturbated facies (moderate to low-energy shelf). The vertical facies succession, stacking patterns of meter-scale cycles, and exposure surfaces define correlatable sequences. The authors recognize four Upper Ordovician sequences (Mayvillian to Richmondian). An uppermost Ordovician (Hirnantian) sequence is missing in these sections but occurs basinward. Lower Silurian sequences are of early Llandoverian (A), middle Llandoverian (B), early late Llandoverian (C1--C3), late late Llandoverian (C4--C5), latest Llandoverian (C6) to early Wenlock age. In general, Upper Ordovician and latest Llandoverian-Wenlockian facies are muddier than intervening Llandoverian facies. The shift to muddier shelf facies in latest Llandoverian probably corresponds to the development of a rimmed shelf. The sequence framework improves correlation of these strata by combining sedimentologic patterns with the biostratigraphic data. For example, in the Lakesides, the Ordovician-Silurian boundary is shifted 37 m downward from recent suggestions. In addition, the sequence approach highlights intervals for which additional biostratigraphic information is needed.

  16. Fusing MODIS with Landsat 8 data to downscale weekly normalized difference vegetation index estimates for central Great Basin rangelands, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyte, Stephen; Wylie, Bruce K.; Rigge, Matthew B.; Dahal, Devendra

    2018-01-01

    Data fused from distinct but complementary satellite sensors mitigate tradeoffs that researchers make when selecting between spatial and temporal resolutions of remotely sensed data. We integrated data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor aboard the Terra satellite and the Operational Land Imager sensor aboard the Landsat 8 satellite into four regression-tree models and applied those data to a mapping application. This application produced downscaled maps that utilize the 30-m spatial resolution of Landsat in conjunction with daily acquisitions of MODIS normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) that are composited and temporally smoothed. We produced four weekly, atmospherically corrected, and nearly cloud-free, downscaled 30-m synthetic MODIS NDVI predictions (maps) built from these models. Model results were strong with R2 values ranging from 0.74 to 0.85. The correlation coefficients (r ≥ 0.89) were strong for all predictions when compared to corresponding original MODIS NDVI data. Downscaled products incorporated into independently developed sagebrush ecosystem models yielded mixed results. The visual quality of the downscaled 30-m synthetic MODIS NDVI predictions were remarkable when compared to the original 250-m MODIS NDVI. These 30-m maps improve knowledge of dynamic rangeland seasonal processes in the central Great Basin, United States, and provide land managers improved resource maps.

  17. Summer watering patterns of mule deer in the Great Basin Desert, USA: implications of differential use by individuals and the sexes for management of water resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Andrew V; Larsen, Randy T; Whiting, Jericho C

    2012-01-01

    Changes in the abundance and distribution of free water can negatively influence wildlife in arid regions. Free water is considered a limiting factor for mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) in the Great Basin Desert. Consequently, a better understanding of differential use of water by individuals and the sexes could influence the conservation and management of mule deer and water resources in their habitats. We deployed remote cameras at all known water sources (13 wildlife water developments and 4 springs) on one mountain range in western Utah, USA, during summer from 2007 to 2011 to document frequency and timing of water use, number of water sources used by males and females, and to estimate population size from individually identified mule deer. Male and female mule deer used different water sources but visited that resource at similar frequencies. Individual mule deer used few water sources and exhibited high fidelity to that resource. Wildlife water developments were frequently used by both sexes. Our results highlight the differing use of water sources by sexes and individual mule deer. This information will help guide managers when siting and reprovisioning wildlife water developments meant to benefit mule deer and will contribute to the conservation and management of this species.

  18. Summer Watering Patterns of Mule Deer in the Great Basin Desert, USA: Implications of Differential Use by Individuals and the Sexes for Management of Water Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew V. Shields

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the abundance and distribution of free water can negatively influence wildlife in arid regions. Free water is considered a limiting factor for mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus in the Great Basin Desert. Consequently, a better understanding of differential use of water by individuals and the sexes could influence the conservation and management of mule deer and water resources in their habitats. We deployed remote cameras at all known water sources (13 wildlife water developments and 4 springs on one mountain range in western Utah, USA, during summer from 2007 to 2011 to document frequency and timing of water use, number of water sources used by males and females, and to estimate population size from individually identified mule deer. Male and female mule deer used different water sources but visited that resource at similar frequencies. Individual mule deer used few water sources and exhibited high fidelity to that resource. Wildlife water developments were frequently used by both sexes. Our results highlight the differing use of water sources by sexes and individual mule deer. This information will help guide managers when siting and reprovisioning wildlife water developments meant to benefit mule deer and will contribute to the conservation and management of this species.

  19. Microbial rRNA sequencing analysis of evaporative cooler indoor environments located in the Great Basin Desert region of the United States†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemons, Angela R.; Hogan, Mary Beth; Gault, Ruth A.; Holland, Kathleen; Sobek, Edward; Olsen-Wilson, Kimberly A.; Park, Yeonmi; Park, Ju-Hyeong; Gu, Ja Kook; Kashon, Michael L.; Green, Brett J.

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies conducted in the Great Basin Desert region of the United States have shown that skin test reactivity to fungal and dust mite allergens are increased in children with asthma or allergy living in homes with evaporative coolers (EC). The objective of this study was to determine if the increased humidity previously reported in EC homes leads to varying microbial populations compared to homes with air conditioners (AC). Children with physician-diagnosed allergic rhinitis living in EC or AC environments were recruited into the study. Air samples were collected from the child's bedroom for genomic DNA extraction and metagenomic analysis of bacteria and fungi using the Illumina MiSeq sequencing platform. The analysis of bacterial populations revealed no major differences between EC and AC sampling environments. The fungal populations observed in EC homes differed from AC homes. The most prevalent species discovered in AC environments belonged to the genera Cryptococcus (20%) and Aspergillus (20%). In contrast, the most common fungi identified in EC homes belonged to the order Pleosporales and included Alternaria alternata (32%) and Phoma spp. (22%). The variations in fungal populations provide preliminary evidence of the microbial burden children may be exposed to within EC environments in this region. PMID:28091681

  20. HYPHESSOBRYCON NATAGAIMA (CHARACIFORMES: CHARACIDAE A NEW SPECIES FROM COLOMBIA, WITH A KEY TO THE MAGDALENA BASIN HYPHESSOBRYCON SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS A. GARCÍA-ALZATE

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species, Hyphessobrycon natagaima, is described from the upper Magdalena River Basin in Colombia. It differs from all other species of Hyphessobrycon with a dark lateral stripe inhabiting the Magdalena River Basin: H. poecilioides, H. proteus and H. ocasoensis, by having eight to twelve pored lateral-line scales (vs. 14-26; four scales between the lateral line and the pelvic-fin insertions (vs. five or six; one tooth on the maxilla (vs. zero in H. poecilioides, and two to five in H. proteus; except H. ocasoensis, with one, a dark, interrupted, lateral stripe that is not in contact with the caudal peduncle spot (vs. absence of caudal spot in H. poecilioides, lateral stripe continued that is in contact with the caudal peduncle spot in H. ocasoensis. It has a rhomboid shaped caudal-peduncle spot that continues on to middle caudal-fin rays (vs. absence of caudal peduncle spot in H. poecilioides and caudal peduncle spot round and not continued on to middle caudal-fin rays in H. ocasoensis; and presence of hooks on all fins in mature males (vs. males with hooks on anal, pelvic and pectoral fins. Hyphessobrycon natagaima differs from H. ocasoensis, in addition to the above characters, by having four scale rows between the lateral line and the anal-fin origin (vs. six; three or four scale rows between the lateral line and the pelvic-fin insertions (vs. six; ten or eleven predorsal scales (vs. nine; i,9,i dorsal-fin rays (vs. ii,8,i; 18-20 branched anal-fin rays (vs. 21-22 and eleven branched pectoral-fin rays (vs. twelve. A key for the identification of Hyphessobrycon species present in the Magdalena River Basin is provided.

  1. Chapter B: Regional Geologic Setting of Late Cenozoic Lacustrine Diatomite Deposits, Great Basin and Surrounding Region: Overview and Plans for Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Alan R.

    2003-01-01

    Freshwater diatomite deposits are present in all of the Western United States, including the Great Basin and surrounding regions. These deposits are important domestic sources of diatomite, and a better understanding of their formation and geologic settings may aid diatomite exploration and land-use management. Diatomite deposits in the Great Basin are the products of two stages: (1) formation in Late Cenozoic lacustrine basins and (2) preservation after formation. Processes that favored long-lived diatom activity and diatomite formation range in decreasing scale from global to local. The most important global process was climate, which became increasingly cool and dry from 15 Ma to the present. Regional processes included tectonic setting and volcanism, which varied considerably both spatially and temporally in the Great Basin region. Local processes included basin formation, sedimentation, hydrology, and rates of processes, including diatom growth and accumulation; basin morphology and nutrient and silica sources were important for robust activity of different diatom genera. Only optimum combinations of these processes led to the formation of large diatomite deposits, and less than optimum combinations resulted in lakebeds that contained little to no diatomite. Postdepositional processes can destroy, conceal, or preserve a diatomite deposit. These processes, which most commonly are local in scale, include uplift, with related erosion and changes in hydrology; burial beneath sedimentary deposits or volcanic flows and tuffs; and alteration during diagenesis and hydrothermal activity. Some sedimentary basins that may have contained diatomite deposits have largely been destroyed or significantly modified, whereas others, such as those in western Nevada, have been sufficiently preserved along with their contained diatomite deposits. Future research on freshwater diatomite deposits in the Western United States and Great Basin region should concentrate on the regional

  2. The use of process models to inform and improve statistical models of nitrate occurrence, Great Miami River Basin, southwestern Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Donald A.; Starn, J. Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    in estimated variables for circular buffers and contributing recharge areas of existing public-supply and network wells in the Great Miami River Basin. Large differences in areaweighted mean environmental variables are observed at the basin scale, determined by using the network of uniformly spaced hypothetical wells; the differences have a spatial pattern that generally is similar to spatial patterns in the underlying STATSGO data. Generally, the largest differences were observed for area-weighted nitrogen-application rate from county and national land-use data; the basin-scale differences ranged from -1,600 (indicating a larger value from within the volume-equivalent contributing recharge area) to 1,900 kilograms per year (kg/yr); the range in the underlying spatial data was from 0 to 2,200 kg/yr. Silt content, alfisol content, and nitrogen-application rate are defined by the underlying spatial data and are external to the groundwater system; however, depth to water is an environmental variable that can be estimated in more detail and, presumably, in a more physically based manner using a groundwater-flow model than using the spatial data. Model-calculated depths to water within circular buffers in the Great Miami River Basin differed substantially from values derived from the spatial data and had a much larger range. Differences in estimates of area-weighted spatial variables result in corresponding differences in predictions of nitrate occurrence in the aquifer. In addition to the factors affecting contributing recharge areas and estimated explanatory variables, differences in predictions also are a function of the specific set of explanatory variables used and the fitted slope coefficients in a given model. For models that predicted the probability of exceeding 1 and 4 milligrams per liter as nitrogen (mg/L as N), predicted probabilities using variables estimated from circular buffers and contributing recharge areas generally were correlated but differed

  3. A new species of great ape from the late Miocene epoch in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwa, Gen; Kono, Reiko T; Katoh, Shigehiro; Asfaw, Berhane; Beyene, Yonas

    2007-08-23

    With the discovery of Ardipithecus, Orrorin and Sahelanthropus, our knowledge of hominid evolution before the emergence of Pliocene species of Australopithecus has significantly increased, extending the hominid fossil record back to at least 6 million years (Myr) ago. However, because of the dearth of fossil hominoid remains in sub-Saharan Africa spanning the period 12-7 Myr ago, nothing is known of the actual timing and mode of divergence of the African ape and hominid lineages. Most genomic-based studies suggest a late divergence date-5-6 Myr ago and 6-8 Myr ago for the human-chimp and human-gorilla splits, respectively-and some palaeontological and molecular analyses hypothesize a Eurasian origin of the African ape and hominid clade. We report here the discovery and recognition of a new species of great ape, Chororapithecus abyssinicus, from the 10-10.5-Myr-old deposits of the Chorora Formation at the southern margin of the Afar rift. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first fossils of a large-bodied Miocene ape from the African continent north of Kenya. They exhibit a gorilla-sized dentition that combines distinct shearing crests with thick enamel on its 'functional' side cusps. Visualization of the enamel-dentine junction by micro-computed tomography reveals shearing crest features that partly resemble the modern gorilla condition. These features represent genetically based structural modifications probably associated with an initial adaptation to a comparatively fibrous diet. The relatively flat cuspal enamel-dentine junction and thick enamel, however, suggest a concurrent adaptation to hard and/or abrasive food items. The combined evidence suggests that Chororapithecus may be a basal member of the gorilla clade, and that the latter exhibited some amount of adaptive and phyletic diversity at around 10-11 Myr ago.

  4. Revision of Gymnotus (Gymnotiformes: Gymnotidae) from the Upper Madeira Basin of Bolivia and Peru, with descriptions of two new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Jack M; Correa-roldÁn, Vanessa; Ortega, HernÁn; Crampton, William G R; Albert, James S

    2018-04-20

    Banded Knifefishes (Gymnotus, Gymnotidae) comprise the most species-rich genus of Neotropical electric fishes, with 41 species currently described from throughout the humid Neotropics, from Mexico to Argentina. Despite substantial alpha-taxonomic work in recent years, the diversity of Gymnotus in some regions remains poorly understood. Here we describe the Gymnotus fauna of the Upper Madeira basin of Bolivia and Peru from examination of more than 240 adult specimens. Species are delimited and described using body proportions (traditional morphometrics), fin-ray, squamation and laterosensory-pore counts (meristics), quantitative shape differences (geometric morphometrics), osteological traits, and color patterns. Comparisons of standardized linear measures as well as multivariate statistical methods validate the presence in the Upper Madeira basin of three previously described species, two with wide-spread geographic distributions throughout Greater Amazonia (G. carapo and G. coropinae), and one (G. chaviro) endemic to southwestern Amazonia. We also diagnose and describe two new species that are endemic to the Upper Madeira basin: G. eyra n. sp., morphologically most similar to G. mamiraua from lowland Amazonia, and G. riberalta n. sp., morphologically most similar to G. pantanal from the Paraguay-Paraná basin. The five Gymnotus species from the Upper Madeira basin are not monophyletic, each species being more closely related to a different species from another region; i.e. the Gymnotus species from the Upper Madeira represents a polyphyletic assemblage. These descriptions to 43 the number of valid Gymnotus species.

  5. Impact of intra- versus inter-annual snow depth variation on water relations and photosynthesis for two Great Basin Desert shrubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loik, Michael E; Griffith, Alden B; Alpert, Holly; Concilio, Amy L; Wade, Catherine E; Martinson, Sharon J

    2015-06-01

    Snowfall provides the majority of soil water in certain ecosystems of North America. We tested the hypothesis that snow depth variation affects soil water content, which in turn drives water potential (Ψ) and photosynthesis, over 10 years for two widespread shrubs of the western USA. Stem Ψ (Ψ stem) and photosynthetic gas exchange [stomatal conductance to water vapor (g s), and CO2 assimilation (A)] were measured in mid-June each year from 2004 to 2013 for Artemisia tridentata var. vaseyana (Asteraceae) and Purshia tridentata (Rosaceae). Snow fences were used to create increased or decreased snow depth plots. Snow depth on +snow plots was about twice that of ambient plots in most years, and 20 % lower on -snow plots, consistent with several down-scaled climate model projections. Maximal soil water content at 40- and 100-cm depths was correlated with February snow depth. For both species, multivariate ANOVA (MANOVA) showed that Ψ stem, g s, and A were significantly affected by intra-annual variation in snow depth. Within years, MANOVA showed that only A was significantly affected by spatial snow depth treatments for A. tridentata, and Ψ stem was significantly affected by snow depth for P. tridentata. Results show that stem water relations and photosynthetic gas exchange for these two cold desert shrub species in mid-June were more affected by inter-annual variation in snow depth by comparison to within-year spatial variation in snow depth. The results highlight the potential importance of changes in inter-annual variation in snowfall for future shrub photosynthesis in the western Great Basin Desert.

  6. Tulare Lake Basin Hydrology and Hydrography: A Summary of the Movement of Water and Aquatic Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summary of the historic and current hydrology of the Tulare Lake Basin (Basin) describing past, present and potential future movement of water out of the Basin, and potential movement of bioiogical organisms and toxicants within and outside of the Basin.

  7. Empirical assessment of effects of urbanization on event flow hydrology in watersheds of Canada's Great Lakes-St Lawrence basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudeau, M. P.; Richardson, Murray

    2016-10-01

    We conducted an empirical hydrological analysis of high-temporal resolution streamflow records for 27 watersheds within 11 river systems in the Greater Toronto Region of the Canadian Great Lakes basin. Our objectives were to model the event-scale flow response of watersheds to urbanization and to test for scale and threshold effects. Watershed areas ranged from 37.5 km2 to 806 km2 and urban percent land cover ranged from less than 0.1-87.6%. Flow records had a resolution of 15-min increments and were available over a 42-year period, allowing for detailed assessment of changes in event-scale flow response with increasing urban land use during the post-freshet period (May 26 to November 15). Empirical statistical models were developed for flow characteristics including total runoff, runoff coefficient, eightieth and ninety-fifth percentile rising limb event runoff and mean rising limb event acceleration. Changes in some of these runoff metrics began at very low urban land use (acceleration increased with increasing urban cover, thus causing 80th percentile runoff depths to be reached sooner. These results indicate the potential for compromised water balance when cumulative changes are considered at the watershed scale. No abrupt or threshold changes in hydrologic characteristics were identified along the urban land use gradient. A positive interaction of urban percent land use and watershed size indicated a scale effect on total runoff. Overall, the results document compromised hydrologic stability attributable to urbanization during a period with no detectable change in rainfall patterns. They also corroborate literature recommendations for spatially distributed low impact urban development techniques; measures would be needed throughout the urbanized area of a watershed to dampen event-scale hydrologic responses to urbanization. Additional research is warranted into event-scale hydrologic trends with urbanization in other regions, in particular rising limb event

  8. Eocene and Miocene extension, meteoric fluid infiltration, and core complex formation in the Great Basin (Raft River Mountains, Utah)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methner, Katharina; Mulch, Andreas; Teyssier, Christian; Wells, Michael L.; Cosca, Michael A.; Gottardi, Raphael; Gebelin, Aude; Chamberlain, C. Page

    2015-01-01

    Metamorphic core complexes (MCCs) in the North American Cordillera reflect the effects of lithospheric extension and contribute to crustal adjustments both during and after a protracted subduction history along the Pacific plate margin. While the Miocene-to-recent history of most MCCs in the Great Basin, including the Raft River-Albion-Grouse Creek MCC, is well documented, early Cenozoic tectonic fabrics are commonly severely overprinted. We present stable isotope, geochronological (40Ar/39Ar), and microstructural data from the Raft River detachment shear zone. Hydrogen isotope ratios of syntectonic white mica (δ2Hms) from mylonitic quartzite within the shear zone are very low (−90‰ to −154‰, Vienna SMOW) and result from multiphase synkinematic interaction with surface-derived fluids. 40Ar/39Ar geochronology reveals Eocene (re)crystallization of white mica with δ2Hms ≥ −154‰ in quartzite mylonite of the western segment of the detachment system. These δ2Hms values are distinctively lower than in localities farther east (δ2Hms ≥ −125‰), where 40Ar/39Ar geochronological data indicate Miocene (18–15 Ma) extensional shearing and mylonitic fabric formation. These data indicate that very low δ2H surface-derived fluids penetrated the brittle-ductile transition as early as the mid-Eocene during a first phase of exhumation along a detachment rooted to the east. In the eastern part of the core complex, prominent top-to-the-east ductile shearing, mid-Miocene 40Ar/39Ar ages, and higher δ2H values of recrystallized white mica, indicate Miocene structural and isotopic overprinting of Eocene fabrics.

  9. A new species of Hisonotus (Siluriformes, Loricariidae from rio São Francisco basin, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Roxo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Hisonotus is described from the rio São Francisco basin. The new species can be distinguished from congeners by having (1 a unique coloration pattern of caudal fin with one black spot extending from its origin to the ventral lobe and two dark spots at the end of the lobe’s rays; (2 odontodes forming longitudinally aligned rows on head and trunk; (3 a functional V-shaped spinelet; (4 a single rostral plate at the tip of the snout; (5 by lacking contrasting dark geometric spots on the anterodorsal region of the body; (6 a lower caudal-peduncle depth; and (7 lower counts of the lateral median plates and (8 higher premaxillary and dentary teeth. The new species is the second described species of the genus Hisonotus in the rio São Francisco basin. It was found inhabiting the marginal vegetation of the rio São Francisco and three of its tributary, rio das Velhas, rio Paraopeba and rio Formoso.

  10. Seasonal variation of assemblage and feeding guild structure of fish species in a boreal tidal basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellnreitner, Florian; Pockberger, Moritz; Asmus, Harald

    2012-08-01

    Species composition, abundance, feeding relationships and guild structure of the fish assemblage in the Sylt-Rømø bight, a tidal basin in the northern Wadden Sea, were investigated to show seasonal differences and the importance of functional groups in this area. The tidal flats and in shallow subtidal areas were sampled using a beach seine and a bottom trawl net was used for deeper subtidal areas and tidal gullies. Species richness of fish was highest in summer where 26 species were caught, while the lowest richness was recorded in winter (17 species). Clear differences in species richness and abundance were found between shallow areas and deeper parts of the bight. Clupea harengus and Ammodytes tobianus were the most abundant species in deeper areas, while Pomatoschistus microps and Pomatoschistus minutus dominated shallower waters. Gut contents of 27 fish species were identified and the guild structure analyzed by UPGMA clustering of niche overlaps. Calanoid copepods (19.9%), Crangon crangon (18.2%) and mysid shrimps (8.4%) were the most abundant prey items of all fish species combined. Seven feeding guilds were present in the fall and winter, and eight and six in spring and summer, respectively. Fish feeding on calanoid copepods and C. crangon were present year round, whereas the occurrence of other guilds varied between seasons. Species composition of prey changed through seasons and, for some fish species, even the feeding mode itself varied with season. Most noticeable, 11 fish species changed guilds between seasons. We found a convergence in summer towards abundant prey items, whereas in winter diet overlap was lower. This is the first investigation of guild structure of almost all fish species present in a Wadden Sea area, and shows that consideration of seasonal differences is essential when determining feeding relationships of fish in temperate areas.

  11. Modeling for Endangered-Species Recovery: Gray Wolves in the Western Great Lakes Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean Fitts Cochrane; Robert G. Haight; Anthony M. Starfield

    2003-01-01

    The Federal Endangered Species Act is intended to conserve endangered and threatened species and their habitats and to improve the species' status so that they no longer need protection under the Act. In the process of planning the recovery of threatened or endangered species, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service increasingly uses demographic models to predict...

  12. The Origin of Carbon-bearing Volatiles in Surprise Valley Hot Springs in the Great Basin: Carbon Isotope and Water Chemistry Characterizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qi; Socki, Richard A.; Niles, Paul B.; Romanek, Christopher; Datta, Saugata; Darnell, Mike; Bissada, Adry K.

    2013-01-01

    There are numerous hydrothermal fields within the Great Basin of North America, some of which have been exploited for geothermal resources. With methane and other carbon-bearing compounds being observed, in some cases with high concentrations, however, their origins and formation conditions remain unknown. Thus, studying hydrothermal springs in this area provides us an opportunity to expand our knowledge of subsurface (bio)chemical processes that generate organic compounds in hydrothermal systems, and aid in future development and exploration of potential energy resources as well. While isotope measurement has long been used for recognition of their origins, there are several secondary processes that may generate variations in isotopic compositions: oxidation, re-equilibration of methane and other alkanes with CO2, mixing with compounds of other sources, etc. Therefore, in addition to isotopic analysis, other evidence, including water chemistry and rock compositions, are necessary to identify volatile compounds of different sources. Surprise Valley Hot Springs (SVHS, 41 deg 32'N, 120 deg 5'W), located in a typical basin and range province valley in northeastern California, is a terrestrial hydrothermal spring system of the Great Basin. Previous geophysical studies indicated the presence of clay-rich volcanic and sedimentary rocks of Tertiary age beneath the lava flows in late Tertiary and Quaternary. Water and gas samples were collected for a variety of chemical and isotope composition analyses, including in-situ pH, alkalinity, conductivity, oxidation reduction potential (ORP), major and trace elements, and C and H isotope measurements. Fluids issuing from SVHS can be classified as Na-(Cl)-SO4 type, with the major cation and anion being Na+ and SO4(2-), respectively. Thermodynamic calculation using ORP and major element data indicated that sulfate is the most dominant sulfur species, which is consistent with anion analysis results. Aquifer temperatures at depth

  13. The Origin of Carbon-bearing Volatiles in Surprise Valley Hot Springs in the Great Basin: Carbon Isotope aud Water Chemistry Characterizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qi; Socki, Richard A.; Niles, Paul B.; Romanek, Christopher; Datta, Saugata; Darnell, Mike; Bissada, Adry K.

    2013-01-01

    There are numerous hydrothermal fields within the Great Basin of North America, some of which have been exploited for geothermal resources. With methane and other carbon-bearing compounds being observed, in some cases with high concentrations, however, their origins and formation conditions remain unknown. Thus, studying hydrothermal springs in this area provides us an opportunity to expand our knowledge of subsurface (bio)chemical processes that generate organic compounds in hydrothermal systems, and aid in future development and exploration of potential energy resources as well. While isotope measurement has long been used for recognition of their origins, there are several secondary processes that may generate variations in isotopic compositions: oxidation, re-equilibration of methane and other alkanes with CO2, mixing with compounds of other sources, etc. Therefore, in addition to isotopic analysis, other evidence, including water chemistry and rock compositions, are necessary to identify volatile compounds of different sources. Surprise Valley Hot Springs (SVHS, 41º32'N, 120º5'W), located in a typical basin and range province valley in northeastern California, is a terrestrial hydrothermal spring system of the Great Basin. Previous geophysical studies indicated the presence of clay-rich volcanic and sedimentary rocks of Tertiary age beneath the lava flows in late Tertiary and Quaternary. Water and gas samples were collected for a variety of chemical and isotope composition analyses, including in-situ pH, alkalinity, conductivity, oxidation reduction potential (ORP), major and trace elements, and C and H isotope measurements. Fluids issuing from SVHS can be classified as Na-(Cl)-SO4 type, with the major cation and anion being Na+ and SO4 2-, respectively. Thermodynamic calculation using ORP and major element data indicated that sulfate is the most dominant sulfur species, which is consistent with anion analysis results. Aquifer temperatures at depth estimated

  14. Analyses of infrequent (quasi-decadal) large groundwater recharge events in the northern Great Basin: Their importance for groundwater availability, use, and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masbruch, Melissa D.; Rumsey, Christine; Gangopadhyay, Subhrendu; Susong, David D.; Pruitt, Tom

    2016-01-01

    There has been a considerable amount of research linking climatic variability to hydrologic responses in the western United States. Although much effort has been spent to assess and predict changes in surface water resources, little has been done to understand how climatic events and changes affect groundwater resources. This study focuses on characterizing and quantifying the effects of large, multiyear, quasi-decadal groundwater recharge events in the northern Utah portion of the Great Basin for the period 1960–2013. Annual groundwater level data were analyzed with climatic data to characterize climatic conditions and frequency of these large recharge events. Using observed water-level changes and multivariate analysis, five large groundwater recharge events were identified with a frequency of about 11–13 years. These events were generally characterized as having above-average annual precipitation and snow water equivalent and below-average seasonal temperatures, especially during the spring (April through June). Existing groundwater flow models for several basins within the study area were used to quantify changes in groundwater storage from these events. Simulated groundwater storage increases per basin from a single recharge event ranged from about 115 to 205 Mm3. Extrapolating these amounts over the entire northern Great Basin indicates that a single large quasi-decadal recharge event could result in billions of cubic meters of groundwater storage. Understanding the role of these large quasi-decadal recharge events in replenishing aquifers and sustaining water supplies is crucial for long-term groundwater management.

  15. Population ecology of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) as an invasive species in the Laurentian Great Lakes and an imperiled species in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Michael J.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Slade, Jeffrey W.; Steeves, Todd B.; Almeida, Pedro R.; Quintella, Bernardo R.

    2016-01-01

    The sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus (Linnaeus) is both an invasive non-native species in the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America and an imperiled species in much of its native range in North America and Europe. To compare and contrast how understanding of population ecology is useful for control programs in the Great Lakes and restoration programs in Europe, we review current understanding of the population ecology of the sea lamprey in its native and introduced range. Some attributes of sea lamprey population ecology are particularly useful for both control programs in the Great Lakes and restoration programs in the native range. First, traps within fish ladders are beneficial for removing sea lampreys in Great Lakes streams and passing sea lampreys in the native range. Second, attractants and repellants are suitable for luring sea lampreys into traps for control in the Great Lakes and guiding sea lamprey passage for conservation in the native range. Third, assessment methods used for targeting sea lamprey control in the Great Lakes are useful for targeting habitat protection in the native range. Last, assessment methods used to quantify numbers of all life stages of sea lampreys would be appropriate for measuring success of control in the Great Lakes and success of conservation in the native range.

  16. [US Geological Survey research in radioactive waste disposal, fiscal year 1980:] Tectonics, seismicity, volcanism, and erosion rates in the southern Great Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, W.J.; Rogers, A.M.

    1982-01-01

    The objective is to assess the potential for faulting, damaging earthquakes, recurrence of volcanism, and local acceleration of erosion in parts of the southern Great Basin. The following approaches are being used: (1) investigating the rate, intensity, and distribution of faulting during approximately the last 25 m.y., with emphasis on the last 10 m.y.; (2) monitoring and interpreting present seismicity; (3) studying the history of volcanism; and (4) evaluating past rates of erosion and deposition. Progress is reported

  17. Encounters with Pinyon-Juniper influence riskier movements in Greater Sage-Grouse across the Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochazka, Brian; Coates, Peter S.; Ricca, Mark; Casazza, Michael L.; Gustafson, K. Ben; Hull, Josh M.

    2016-01-01

    Fine-scale spatiotemporal studies can better identify relationships between individual survival and habitat fragmentation so that mechanistic interpretations can be made at the population level. Recent advances in Global Positioning System (GPS) technology and statistical models capable of deconstructing high-frequency location data have facilitated interpretation of animal movement within a behaviorally mechanistic framework. Habitat fragmentation due to singleleaf pinyon (Pinus monophylla; hereafter pinyon) and Utah juniper (Juniperus osteosperma; hereafter juniper) encroachment into sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) communities is a commonly implicated perturbation that can adversely influence greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus; hereafter sage-grouse) demographic rates. Using an extensive GPS data set (233 birds and 282,954 locations) across 12 study sites within the Great Basin, we conducted a behavioral change point analysis and subsequently constructed Brownian bridge movement models from each behaviorally homogenous section. We found a positive relationship between modeled movement rate and probability of encountering pinyon-juniper with significant variation among age classes. The probability of encountering pinyon-juniper among adults was two and three times greater than that of yearlings and juveniles, respectively. However, the movement rate in response to the probability of encountering pinyon-juniper trees was 1.5 times greater for juveniles. We then assessed the risk of mortality associated with an interaction between movement rate and the probability of encountering pinyon-juniper using shared frailty models. During pinyon-juniper encounters, on average, juvenile, yearling, and adult birds experienced a 10.4%, 0.2%, and 0.3% reduction in annual survival probabilities. Populations that used pinyon-juniper habitats with a frequency ≥ 3.8 times the overall mean experienced decreases in annual survival probabilities of 71.1%, 0.9%, and 0.9%. This

  18. The Cadmium Isotope Record of the Great Oxidation Event from the Turee Creek Group, Hamersley Basin, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouchami, W.; Busigny, V.; Philippot, P.; Galer, S. J. G.; Cheng, C.; Pecoits, E.

    2016-12-01

    The evolution of the ocean, atmosphere and biosphere throughout Earth's history has impacted on the biogeochemistry of some key trace metals that are of particular importance in regulating the exchange between Earth's reservoirs. Several geochemical proxies exhibit isotopic shifts that have been linked to major changes in the oxygenation levels of the ancient oceans during the Great Oxygenation Event (GOE) between 2.45 and 2.2 Ga and the Neoproterozoic Oxygenation Event at ca. 0.6 Ga. Studies of the modern marine biogeochemical cycle of the transition metal Cadmium have shown that stable Cd isotope fractionation is mainly driven by biological uptake of light Cd into marine phytoplankton in surface waters leaving behind the seawater enriched in the heavy Cd isotopes. Here we use of the potential of this novel proxy to trace ancient biological productivity which remains an enigma, particularly during the early stages of Earth history. The Turee Creek Group in the Hamersley Basin, Australia, provides a continuous stratigraphic sedimentary section covering the GOE and at least two glacial events, offering a unique opportunity to examine the changes that took place during these periods and possibly constrain the evolution, timing and onset of oxygenic photosynthesis. Stable Cd isotope data were obtained on samples from the Boolgeeda Iron Fm. (BIFs), the siliciclastic and carbonate successions of Kungara (including the Meteorite Bore Member) and the Kazputt Fm., using a double spike technique by TIMS (ThermoFisher Triton) and Cd concentrations were determined by isotope dilution. The Boolgeeda BIFs have generally low Cd concentrations varying between 8 and 50ppb, with two major excursions marked by an increase in Cd content, reaching similar levels to those in the overlying Kungarra Fm. (≥150 ppb). These variations are associated with a large range in ɛ112/110Cd values (-2 to +2), with the most negative values typically found in the organic and Cd-rich shales and

  19. Cluster analyses of 20th century growth patterns in high elevation Great Basin bristlecone pine in the Snake Mountain Range, Nevada, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, T. J.; Bruening, J. M.; Bunn, A. G.; Salzer, M. W.; Weiss, S. B.

    2015-12-01

    Great Basin bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva) is a useful climate proxy because of the species' long lifespan (up to 5000 years) and the climatic sensitivity of its annually-resolved rings. Past studies have shown that growth of individual trees can be limited by temperature, soil moisture, or a combination of the two depending on biophysical setting at the scale of tens of meters. We extend recent research suggesting that trees vary in their growth response depending on their position on the landscape to analyze how growth patterns vary over time. We used hierarchical cluster analysis to examine the growth of 52 bristlecone pine trees near the treeline of Mount Washington, Nevada, USA. We classified growth of individual trees over the instrumental climate record into one of two possible scenarios: trees belonging to a temperature-sensitive cluster and trees belonging to a precipitation-sensitive cluster. The number of trees in the precipitation-sensitive cluster outnumbered the number of trees in the temperature-sensitive cluster, with trees in colder locations belonging to the temperature-sensitive cluster. When we separated the temporal range into two sections (1895-1949 and 1950-2002) spanning the length of the instrumental climate record, we found that most of the 52 trees remained loyal to their cluster membership (e.g., trees in the temperature-sensitive cluster in 1895-1949 were also in the temperature sensitive cluster in 1950-2002), though not without exception. Of those trees that do not remain consistent in cluster membership, the majority changed from temperature-sensitive to precipitation-sensitive as time progressed. This could signal a switch from temperature limitation to water limitation with warming climate. We speculate that topographic complexity in high mountain environments like Mount Washington might allow for climate refugia where growth response could remain constant over the Holocene.

  20. The fish fauna of Anambra river basin, Nigeria: species abundance and morphometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Ejikeme Odo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The fish yields of most Nigeria inland waters are generally on the decline for causes that may range from inadequate management of the fisheries to degradation of the water bodies. Sustainable exploitation requires knowledge of the ichthyofaunal composition in the water bodies. We did a survey of fish species in Anambra river basin for 22 months. Fish samples were collected using four different gears -hook and line of size 13, caste nets, gill nets, and cages of mesh sizes of 50mm, 75mm, and 100mm each. We recorded 52 fish species belonging to 17 families: 171, 236, and 169 individuals at Ogurugu, Otuocha, and Nsugbe stations respectively. Two families, Characidae, 19.5 %, and Mochokidae, 11.8%, constituted the dominant fish families in the river. The dominant fish species were Citherinus citherius, 9.02%, and Alestes nurse, 7.1%. Other fish species with significant abundance were Synodontis clarias 6.9%, Macrolepidotus curvier 5.7%, Labeo coubie 5.4%, Distichodus rostrtus 4.9%, and Schilbe mystus 4.5%. The meristic features of the two most abundant fish species caught are as follows: Citharinus citharius dorsal fins 20, anal fins 30, caudal fins 21, pectoral fins, 9 and 8 ventral fins, and Alestes nurse 10 dorsal fins, 14 anal fins, 31 caudal fins, 7 pectoral fins and 6 ventral fins. The morphometric features of the two most abundant fish species are Citharinus citharius total length 300mm, standard length 231mm, head length 69mm, body length 101mm, body girth 176 mm, body weight 900mg. Alestes nurse total length 200, standard length 140mm, head length 60mm, body length 80mm, body girth120mm, body weight 400mg. The most abundant animal utilizing the basin was Ardea cinerea(D3 with 22.2% occurrence (D4 and this was followed by Caprini with 13.51%, and Varanus niloticus, 10.04%. The least abundant animals utilizing basin were Chephalophus rufilatus, and Erythrocebus patas, with 0.58% each of occurrence. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (1-2: 177-186. Epub

  1. Germination sensitivity to water stress in four shrubby species across the Mediterranean Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamorro, D; Luna, B; Ourcival, J-M; Kavgacı, A; Sirca, C; Mouillot, F; Arianoutsou, M; Moreno, J M

    2017-01-01

    Mediterranean shrublands are generally water-limited and fire-driven ecosystems. Seed-based post-fire regeneration may be affected by varying rainfall patterns, depending on species sensitivity to germinate under water stress. In our study, we considered the germination response to water stress in four species from several sites across the Mediterranean Basin. Seeds of species with a hard coat (Cistus monspeliensis, C. salviifolius, Cistaceae, Calicotome villosa, Fabaceae) or soft coat (Erica arborea, Ericaceae), which were exposed or not to a heat shock and smoke (fire cues), were made to germinate under water stress. Final germination percentage, germination speed and viability of seeds were recorded. Germination was modelled using hydrotime analysis and correlated to the water balance characteristics of seed provenance. Water stress was found to decrease final germination in the three hard-seeded species, as well as reduce germination speed. Moreover, an interaction between fire cues and water stress was found, whereby fire cues increased sensitivity to water stress. Seed viability after germination under water stress also declined in two hard-seeded species. Conversely, E. arborea showed little sensitivity to water stress, independent of fire cues. Germination responses varied among populations of all species, and hydrotime parameters were not correlated to site water balance, except in E. arborea when not exposed to fire cues. In conclusion, the species studied differed in germination sensitivity to water stress; furthermore, fire cues increased this sensitivity in the three hard-seeded species, but not in E. arborea. Moreover, populations within species consistently differed among themselves, but these differences could only be related to the provenance locality in E. arborea in seeds not exposed to fire cues. © 2016 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  2. Primate social attention: Species differences and effects of individual experience in humans, great apes, and macaques

    OpenAIRE

    Kano, Fumihiro; Shepherd, Stephen V.; Hirata, Satoshi; Call, Josep

    2018-01-01

    When viewing social scenes, humans and nonhuman primates focus on particular features, such as the models’ eyes, mouth, and action targets. Previous studies reported that such viewing patterns vary significantly across individuals in humans, and also across closely-related primate species. However, the nature of these individual and species differences remains unclear, particularly among nonhuman primates. In large samples of human and nonhuman primates, we examined species differences and th...

  3. A new species of Moenkhausia Eigenmann (Characiformes: Characidae from the rio Xingu basin, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoela M. F. Marinho

    Full Text Available A new species of Moenkhausia from the upper rio Xingu basin is described. Moenkhausia eurystaenia is distinguished from all congeners, except M. heikoi and M. phaeonota, by the presence of a dark, broad longitudinal stripe from the opercle to the end of caudal peduncle. The new species is distinguished from M. heikoi mainly by having 18-21 branched anal-fin rays (vs. 24-26 and the absence of a round blotch at the end of the caudal peduncle (vs. present. Moenkhausia eurystaenia can be distinguished from M. phaeonota mainly by the anterior portion of longitudinal band darker at horizontal septum (vs. darker below horizontal septum, the deep dark pigmentation along horizontal septum extending anteriorly up to humeral region (vs. extending up to vertical through pelvic-fin origin, number of vertebrae 34 (vs. 36-37, and others additional measurements.

  4. Indigenous fish species in the modern ichthyofauna of the Balkhash basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadir Shamilevich Mamilov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous fish fauna of the Balkhash basin was mostly formed in the postglacial period and consists of 10 species from Cyprinidae family, 5 from Balitoridae, and 1 from Percidae. More than 20 alien fish species were introduced here during XXth century that led to eradication of indigenous fishes from the Balkhash Lake and the Ili River. Our investigations of the fish fauna during last 25 years revealed permanent shortage of living area of indigenous fishes. Nowadays fish communities from only indigenous fish species exist in some remote and isolated water bodies. Areas of all indigenous fish species are become disconnected. Reduction of habitats goes relatively slow for naked osman Gymnodiptychus dybowskii (Kessler, 1874, spotted thicklip loach Triplophysa strauchii (Kessler, 1874, and gray loach Triplophysa dorsalis (Kessler, 1872. Drastic reductions of areas were revealed for Ili marinka Schizothorax pseudoaksaiensis Herzenstein 1889, Balkhash marinka Schizothorax argentatus Kessler 1874, Severtsov’s loach Triplophysa sewerzowii (G.Nikolskii, 1938, Seven River’s minnow Phoxinus brachyurus Berg 1912, Balkhsh minnow Rhynchocypris poljakowii Kessler 1879, and Balkhash perch Perca schrenkii Kessler 1874. Marinkas, osmans and perch often become victims of overfishing and poaching of local people. In that region water resources usually are used by wasteful way and loaded with pollutants. Many indigenous fish species are able to bear relatively high level of environment pollution. Hence, the main threats for indigenous fishes are introductions of trout and sander, habitats lose and unstable hydrological regimen.

  5. Chrysobrycon yoliae, a new species of stevardiin (Characiformes: Characidae from the Ucayali basin, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Anyelo Vanegas-Ríos

    Full Text Available Chrysobrycon yoliae, new species, is described from a drainage flowing into the río Yucamia basin, río Ucayali basin, Peru. Chrysobrycon yoliaeis readily distinguished from its congeners by the anterior tip of pelvic bone situated anterior to the fifth rib (vs. situated posterior to the fifth rib, the presence of 20-26 dentary teeth (vs. 11-19, and the possession of a terminal lateral-line tube between caudal-fin rays 10 and 11 (vs. the absence of this tube, except in C. eliasi. The new species differs from C. eliasiand C. myersiby the presence of teeth on third pharyngobranchial (vs. the absence of teeth on this bone and also differs from C. eliasiby the dorsal-fin origin situated at vertical through anal-fin rays 5 to 7 (vs. located at vertical through anal-fin rays 8 to 10, the posterior extent of the ventral process of quadrate reaching the vertical through posterior margin of symplectic (vs. not reaching the vertical through posterior margin of symplectic, the dorsal-fin to adipose-fin length 26.8-28.8% SL (vs. 23.9-26.8% SL, and the body depth at dorsal-fin origin 34.4-42.2% SL (vs. 24.1-34.5% SL. A key for the identification of Chrysobryconspecies is provided.

  6. Assessment of the invasive status of newly recorded cactus species in the central Tugela River basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Cheek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Current distribution information on cacti in the Tugela River basin in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, is scant. Accordingly, surveys in this region substantially improve our understanding of regional invasions by this succulent group. The identification of new or extended invasions requires (reassessments of their invasion status and consideration of possible management interventions. Objectives: To identify and collect cacti either not previously recorded or poorly known in the central Tugela River basin, and to assess their invasion status. Method: A 40 km section of tertiary road was travelled through the topocadastral square 2830 CC, from the R74 main road northward across the Bloukrans River towards the Tugela River. Herbarium specimens were collected to vouch for new instances of naturalisation of cacti, the colony sizes of which were estimated and invasion stages determined. An applicable weed risk assessment model was used to determine the threat status of one cactus species not previously evaluated for South Africa. Based on the South African Plant Invaders Atlas database records and field observations, management recommendations were suggested for six cacti species. Results: The first naturalised population of Opuntia microdasys in KwaZulu-Natal was detected, as was the first confirmed South African record of Echinopsis oxygona. Four populations of Peniocereus serpentinus were also found, ranging in size from several square metres to 0.4 ha. Echinopsis oxygona generated a score that falls into the reject category of the risk assessment model used. Conclusion: It is recommended that E. oxygona be added to the Species Under Surveillance for Possible Eradication or Containment Targeting list to investigate whether this species requires formal legal listing and the development of a specific eradication plan. Immediate action from local authorities is recommended for the manual removal of P. serpentinus and O. microdasys

  7. Project plan-Surficial geologic mapping and hydrogeologic framework studies in the Greater Platte River Basins (Central Great Plains) in support of ecosystem and climate change research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Margaret E.; Lundstrom, Scott C.; Slate, Janet L.; Muhs, Daniel R.; Sawyer, David A.; VanSistine, D. Paco

    2011-01-01

    The Greater Platte River Basin area spans a central part of the Midcontinent and Great Plains from the Rocky Mountains on the west to the Missouri River on the east, and is defined to include drainage areas of the Platte, Niobrara, and Republican Rivers, the Rainwater Basin, and other adjoining areas overlying the northern High Plains aquifer. The Greater Platte River Basin contains abundant surficial deposits that were sensitive to, or are reflective of, the climate under which they formed: deposits from multiple glaciations in the mountain headwaters of the North and South Platte Rivers and from continental ice sheets in eastern Nebraska; fluvial terraces (ranging from Tertiary to Holocene in age) along the rivers and streams; vast areas of eolian sand in the Nebraska Sand Hills and other dune fields (recording multiple episodes of dune activity); thick sequences of windblown silt (loess); and sediment deposited in numerous lakes and wetlands. In addition, the Greater Platte River Basin overlies and contributes surface water to the High Plains aquifer, a nationally important groundwater system that underlies parts of eight states and sustains one of the major agricultural areas of the United States. The area also provides critical nesting habitat for birds such as plovers and terns, and roosting habitat for cranes and other migratory birds that travel through the Central Flyway of North America. This broad area, containing fragile ecosystems that could be further threatened by changes in climate and land use, has been identified by the USGS and the University of Nebraska-Lincoln as a region where intensive collaborative research could lead to a better understanding of climate change and what might be done to adapt to or mitigate its adverse effects to ecosystems and to humans. The need for robust data on the geologic framework of ecosystems in the Greater Platte River Basin has been acknowledged in proceedings from the 2008 Climate Change Workshop and in draft

  8. Two new species of Rineloricaria (Siluriformes: Loricariidae from the rio Iguaçu basin, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo F. S. Ingenito

    Full Text Available Rineloricaria langei and R. maacki, new species, are described from upper and middle regions of the rio Iguaçu basin, a left bank tributary of the rio Paraná basin, southern Brazil. Rineloricaria langei has narrow body and is similar to R. quadrensis, which is found in coastal rivers of Rio Grande do Sul State and is distinguishable by several morphometric characters. Rineloricaria maacki is distinguishable from all other congeners by the shape and extension of the naked area of the ventral region of pectoral girdle and other morphological characters. The presence of a naked region on the abdominal surface is shared with other species from the rio Paraná and rio Uruguay basins and coastal drainages from southeastern and southern Brazil. This may indicate a close phylogenetic relationship among these species. Similarities between the two new species and species from the aforementioned drainages also suggest close biogeographic relationship between the Paraná basin and other Brazilian coastal Atlantic drainages throughout the rio Iguaçu basin.

  9. Primate social attention: Species differences and effects of individual experience in humans, great apes, and macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumihiro Kano

    Full Text Available When viewing social scenes, humans and nonhuman primates focus on particular features, such as the models' eyes, mouth, and action targets. Previous studies reported that such viewing patterns vary significantly across individuals in humans, and also across closely-related primate species. However, the nature of these individual and species differences remains unclear, particularly among nonhuman primates. In large samples of human and nonhuman primates, we examined species differences and the effects of experience on patterns of gaze toward social movies. Experiment 1 examined the species differences across rhesus macaques, nonhuman apes (bonobos, chimpanzees, and orangutans, and humans while they viewed movies of various animals' species-typical behaviors. We found that each species had distinct viewing patterns of the models' faces, eyes, mouths, and action targets. Experiment 2 tested the effect of individuals' experience on chimpanzee and human viewing patterns. We presented movies depicting natural behaviors of chimpanzees to three groups of chimpanzees (individuals from a zoo, a sanctuary, and a research institute differing in their early social and physical experiences. We also presented the same movies to human adults and children differing in their expertise with chimpanzees (experts vs. novices or movie-viewing generally (adults vs. preschoolers. Individuals varied within each species in their patterns of gaze toward models' faces, eyes, mouths, and action targets depending on their unique individual experiences. We thus found that the viewing patterns for social stimuli are both individual- and species-specific in these closely-related primates. Such individual/species-specificities are likely related to both individual experience and species-typical temperament, suggesting that primate individuals acquire their unique attentional biases through both ontogeny and evolution. Such unique attentional biases may help them learn

  10. Primate social attention: Species differences and effects of individual experience in humans, great apes, and macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, Fumihiro; Shepherd, Stephen V; Hirata, Satoshi; Call, Josep

    2018-01-01

    When viewing social scenes, humans and nonhuman primates focus on particular features, such as the models' eyes, mouth, and action targets. Previous studies reported that such viewing patterns vary significantly across individuals in humans, and also across closely-related primate species. However, the nature of these individual and species differences remains unclear, particularly among nonhuman primates. In large samples of human and nonhuman primates, we examined species differences and the effects of experience on patterns of gaze toward social movies. Experiment 1 examined the species differences across rhesus macaques, nonhuman apes (bonobos, chimpanzees, and orangutans), and humans while they viewed movies of various animals' species-typical behaviors. We found that each species had distinct viewing patterns of the models' faces, eyes, mouths, and action targets. Experiment 2 tested the effect of individuals' experience on chimpanzee and human viewing patterns. We presented movies depicting natural behaviors of chimpanzees to three groups of chimpanzees (individuals from a zoo, a sanctuary, and a research institute) differing in their early social and physical experiences. We also presented the same movies to human adults and children differing in their expertise with chimpanzees (experts vs. novices) or movie-viewing generally (adults vs. preschoolers). Individuals varied within each species in their patterns of gaze toward models' faces, eyes, mouths, and action targets depending on their unique individual experiences. We thus found that the viewing patterns for social stimuli are both individual- and species-specific in these closely-related primates. Such individual/species-specificities are likely related to both individual experience and species-typical temperament, suggesting that primate individuals acquire their unique attentional biases through both ontogeny and evolution. Such unique attentional biases may help them learn efficiently about their

  11. The late Holocene dry period: multiproxy evidence for an extended drought between 2800 and 1850 cal yr BP across the central Great Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensing, Scott A.; Sharpe, Saxon E.; Tunno, Irene; Sada, Don W.; Thomas, Jim M.; Starratt, Scott W.; Smith, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    Evidence of a multi-centennial scale dry period between ∼2800 and 1850 cal yr BP is documented by pollen, mollusks, diatoms, and sediment in spring sediments from Stonehouse Meadow in Spring Valley, eastern central Nevada, U.S. We refer to this period as the Late Holocene Dry Period. Based on sediment recovered, Stonehouse Meadow was either absent or severely restricted in size at ∼8000 cal yr BP. Beginning ∼7500 cal yr BP, the meadow became established and persisted to ∼3000 cal yr BP when it began to dry. Comparison of the timing of this late Holocene drought record to multiple records extending from the eastern Sierra Nevada across the central Great Basin to the Great Salt Lake support the interpretation that this dry period was regional. The beginning and ending dates vary among sites, but all sites record multiple centuries of dry climate between 2500 and 1900 cal yr BP. This duration makes it the longest persistent dry period within the late Holocene. In contrast, sites in the northern Great Basin record either no clear evidence of drought, or have wetter than average climate during this period, suggesting that the northern boundary between wet and dry climates may have been between about 40° and 42° N latitude. This dry in the southwest and wet in the northwest precipitation pattern across the Great Basin is supported by large-scale spatial climate pattern hypotheses involving ENSO, PDO, AMO, and the position of the Aleutian Low and North Pacific High, particularly during winter.

  12. Ecosystem studies, endangered species survey - Gibson Dome and Elk Ridge study areas, Paradox Basin, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    This report is published as a product of the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program. The objective of this program is the development of terminal waste storage facilities in deep stable geologic formations for high-level nuclear wastes, including spent fuel elements from commercial power reactors and transuranic nuclear waste for which the federal government is responsible. This report is part of the location and site characterization phase and contains threatened and endangered species information for the Gibson Dome and Elk Ridge study areas of the Paradox Region. The threatened and endangered species information was obtained through site surveys designed and implemented by area experts. The site surveys were performed during the period late summer 1981 - spring 1982 in the Gibson Dome and Elk Ridge Study Areas. No threatened or endangered species were identified in either Lavender or Davis canyons. Additional studies at the borehole locations in Beef Basin did identify the nearest occurrence of a species proposed for endangered status (Astragalus monumentalis, a monument milkvetch, member of the legume family). The species was identified approximately 160 to 300 m (500 to 1000 ft) from a hydro testing drill site. Consequently, construction and operation activity should not cause any adverse impacts. This report will be used to satisfy Section 7 requirements of the Endangered Species Act (PL 93-205 as amended) and to allow the United States Fish and Wildlife Service to verify that no protected species are subject to disturbance as the result of project activities occurring in the Gibson Dome and Elk Ridge study areas

  13. Grasshopper responses to fire and postfire grazing in the northern Great Plains vary among species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangeland management practices such as burning and grazing management may affect grasshopper populations by impacting development, survival and reproduction. Experiments are lacking in the northern Great Plains examining the effects of fire and grazing intensity on grasshoppers. As part of a larger ...

  14. A new species of Bryconops (Teleostei: Characidae from the rio Madeira basin, Northern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana M. Wingert

    Full Text Available A new species of Bryconops is described from a tributary to the rio Madeira in the Amazon basin, State of Rondônia, Brazil. Bryconops piracolina belongs to the subgenus Bryconops by having no teeth or rarely one tooth in the maxilla, and a naked area on cheek between the second and third infraorbitals. The new species is distinguished from all species of this subgenus by the presence of a large black blotch on dorsal-fin base. Furthermore, it is distinguished from all congeners, except B. inpai, by possessing the adipose fin entirely black. It differs from B. inpai by the lack of humeral spots. It further differs from all species of the subgenus Bryconops, except B. caudomaculatus, by having the last scales of the longitudinal series of scales that bears the lateral line series not pored beyond the end of the hypural plate, and differs from B. caudomaculatus by the smaller number of pored lateral line scales (31-36, mean 34.6, vs. 37-43, mean = 40.6, respectively.

  15. Species distributions models in wildlife planning: agricultural policy and wildlife management in the great plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Joseph J.; Jorgensen, Christopher; Stuber, Erica F.; Gruber, Lutz F.; Bishop, Andrew A.; Lusk, Jeffrey J.; Zach, Eric S.; Decker, Karie L.

    2017-01-01

    We know economic and social policy has implications for ecosystems at large, but the consequences for a given geographic area or specific wildlife population are more difficult to conceptualize and communicate. Species distribution models, which extrapolate species-habitat relationships across ecological scales, are capable of predicting population changes in distribution and abundance in response to management and policy, and thus, are an ideal means for facilitating proactive management within a larger policy framework. To illustrate the capabilities of species distribution modeling in scenario planning for wildlife populations, we projected an existing distribution model for ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) onto a series of alternative future landscape scenarios for Nebraska, USA. Based on our scenarios, we qualitatively and quantitatively estimated the effects of agricultural policy decisions on pheasant populations across Nebraska, in specific management regions, and at wildlife management areas. 

  16. Catecholamines and in vitro growth of pathogenic bacteria: enhancement of growth varies greatly among bacterial species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belay, Tesfaye; Aviles, Hernan; Vance, Monique; Fountain, Kimberly; Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of catecholamines on in vitro growth of a range of bacterial species, including anaerobes. Bacteria tested included: Porphyromonas gingivalis, Bacteriodes fragilis, Shigella boydii, Shigella sonnie, Enterobacter Sp, and Salmonella choleraesuis. The results of the current study indicated that supplementation of bacterial cultures in minimal medium with norepinephrine or epinephrine did not result in increased growth of bacteria. Positive controls involving treatment of Escherichia coli with catecholamines did result in increased growth of that bacterial species. The results of the present study extend previous observations that showed differential capability of catecholamines to enhance bacterial growth in vitro.

  17. A massive invasion of fish species after eliminating a natural barrier in the upper rio Paraná basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horácio Ferreira Júlio Júnior

    Full Text Available Based on long-term studies in the upper rio Paraná basin, in addition to a broad review of literature and other information, we were able to identify 33 species of native fishes in the lower rio Paraná basin that successfully colonized the upper rio Paraná after Itaipu impoundment, that flooded the natural geographic barrier constituted by the Sete Quedas Falls. These species belong to six Orders, encompassing two of Myliobatiformes, six of Characiformes, 17 of Siluriformes, six of Gymnotiformes, one of Perciformes, and one of Pleuronectiformes. Extensive remarks regarding each species, including their influence upon the native assemblage, in addition to comments on other non-indigenous species, are also provided. We conclude that, in spite of its widespread neglected by environmental impact studies, massive invasion of species is a real possibility when natural barriers are suppressed by reservoirs.

  18. Predicting the aquatic risk of realistic pesticide mixtures to species assemblages in Portuguese river basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Emília; Daam, Michiel A; Cerejeira, Maria José

    2015-05-01

    Although pesticide regulatory tools are mainly based on individual substances, aquatic ecosystems are usually exposed to multiple pesticides from their use on the variety of crops within the catchment of a river. This study estimated the impact of measured pesticide mixtures in surface waters from 2002 and 2008 within three important Portuguese river basins ('Mondego', 'Sado' and 'Tejo') on primary producers, arthropods and fish by toxic pressure calculation. Species sensitivity distributions (SSDs), in combination with mixture toxicity models, were applied. Considering the differences in the responses of the taxonomic groups as well as in the pesticide exposures that these organisms experience, variable acute multi-substance potentially affected fractions (msPAFs) were obtained. The median msPAF for primary producers and arthropods in surface waters of all river basins exceeded 5%, the cut-off value used in the prospective SSD approach for deriving individual environmental quality standards. A ranking procedure identified various photosystem II inhibiting herbicides, with oxadiazon having the relatively largest toxic effects on primary producers, while the organophosphorus insecticides, chlorfenvinphos and chlorpyrifos, and the organochloride endosulfan had the largest effects on arthropods and fish, respectively. These results ensure compliance with European legislation with regard to ecological risk assessment and management of pesticides in surface waters. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Evaluating population connectivity for species of conservation concern in the American Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel A. Cushman; Erin L. Landguth; Curtis H. Flather

    2013-01-01

    Habitat loss and fragmentation are widely recognized as among the most important threats to global biodiversity. New analytical approaches are providing an improved ability to predict the effects of landscape change on population connectivity at vast spatial extents. This paper presents an analysis of population connectivity for three species of conservation concern [...

  20. A new species of Amaralia Fowler (Siluriformes: Aspredinidae) from the Paraná-Paraguay River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friel, John P; Carvalho, Tiago P

    2016-03-11

    A new species of the banjo catfish genus Amaralia is described from the Paraná-Paraguay River Basin in central-western Brazil, Paraguay and northern Argentina. Amaralia oviraptor is distinguished from its single and allopatric congener, Amaralia hypsiura, by the greater number of dorsal-fin rays (3 vs. 2); by the absence of lateral contact between middle and posterior nuchal plates (vs. middle and posterior nuchal plates contacting each other laterally); and by a longer cleithral process (17.4-19.5 % of SL, mean 18.2 % vs. 14.0-17.2 % of SL, mean=15.5 %). Comments on the peculiar oophagic diet of Amaralia and an extended diagnosis of the genus are provided.

  1. Recovery act. Characterizing structural controls of EGS-candidate and conventional geothermal reservoirs in the Great Basin. Developing successful exploration strategies in extended terranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faulds, James [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

    2015-06-25

    We conducted a comprehensive analysis of the structural controls of geothermal systems within the Great Basin and adjacent regions. Our main objectives were to: 1) Produce a catalogue of favorable structural environments and models for geothermal systems. 2) Improve site-specific targeting of geothermal resources through detailed studies of representative sites, which included innovative techniques of slip tendency analysis of faults and 3D modeling. 3) Compare and contrast the structural controls and models in different tectonic settings. 4) Synthesize data and develop methodologies for enhancement of exploration strategies for conventional and EGS systems, reduction in the risk of drilling non-productive wells, and selecting the best EGS sites.

  2. A new species of Hyphessobrycon (Characiformes, Characidae from the upper Guaviare River, Orinoco River Basin, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. García-Alzate

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Hyphessobrycon klausanni sp. n. is described from small drainages of the upper Guaviare River (Orinoco River Basin in Colombia. It differs from all congeners by having a wide, conspicuous, dark lateral stripe extending from the anterior margin of the eye across the body and continued through the middle caudal-fin rays, and that covers (vertically three or four horizontal scale rows. It also differs by having an orange-yellow stripe extending from the anterosuperior margin of the eye to the caudal peduncle above the lateral line in life. It differs from all other species of Hyphessobrycon that have a similar dark lateral stripe: H. cyanotaenia, H. loretoensis, H. melanostichos, H. nigricinctus, H. herbertaxelrodi, H. eschwartzae, H. montogoi, H. psittacus, H. metae, H. margitae, H. vanzolinii, and H. peruvianus in having only three or four pored scales in the lateral line, 21 to 24 lateral scales and six teeth in the inner premaxillary row. Hyphessobrycon klausanni differs from H. loretoensis in having seven to eight maxillary teeth (vs. three to four and in having a longer caudal peduncle (12.4–17.0% SL vs. 4.6–8.0% SL. Additionally Hyphessobrycon klausanni can be distinguished from the other species of Hyphessobrycon with a dark lateral stripe from the Orinoco River Basin (H. metae and H. acaciae in having two teeth in the outer premaxillary row (vs. three to four and 10 branched pectoral–fin rays (vs. 11 to 12. It further differs from H. metae by the length of the snout (17.6–22.8% HL vs. 9.9–15.2% HL and by the length of the caudal peduncle (12.4–17.0% SL vs. 7.3–11.8% SL.

  3. Plant Species Rather Than Climate Greatly Alters the Temporal Pattern of Litter Chemical Composition During Long-Term Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongfu; Chen, Na; Harmon, Mark E.; Li, Yuan; Cao, Xiaoyan; Chappell, Mark A.; Mao, Jingdong

    2015-10-01

    A feedback between decomposition and litter chemical composition occurs with decomposition altering composition that in turn influences the decomposition rate. Elucidating the temporal pattern of chemical composition is vital to understand this feedback, but the effects of plant species and climate on chemical changes remain poorly understood, especially over multiple years. In a 10-year decomposition experiment with litter of four species (Acer saccharum, Drypetes glauca, Pinus resinosa, and Thuja plicata) from four sites that range from the arctic to tropics, we determined the abundance of 11 litter chemical constituents that were grouped into waxes, carbohydrates, lignin/tannins, and proteins/peptides using advanced 13C solid-state NMR techniques. Decomposition generally led to an enrichment of waxes and a depletion of carbohydrates, whereas the changes of other chemical constituents were inconsistent. Inconsistent convergence in chemical compositions during decomposition was observed among different litter species across a range of site conditions, whereas one litter species converged under different climate conditions. Our data clearly demonstrate that plant species rather than climate greatly alters the temporal pattern of litter chemical composition, suggesting the decomposition-chemistry feedback varies among different plant species.

  4. Population Development of Baltic Bird Species: Great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) - Update with results from 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Christof; Bregnballe, Thomas; Larsson, Kjell

    2011-01-01

    pair numbers started to increase during the second half of the 1970s. During the 1980s, the Cormorant started to expand its range towards the northern and eastern parts of the Baltic. Currently, the species is present in the whole Baltic Sea area, including the northern parts of the Gulf of Bothnia....... After a decade of exponential growth, the breeding population of the Cormorant has stabilized in the south-western Baltic (Denmark and the northern Federal States of Germany - Schleswig-Holstein and Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania) in the 1990s, but breeding populations are still growing in the central...

  5. Integrative taxonomy supports new candidate fish species in a poorly studied neotropical region: the Jequitinhonha River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugedo, Marina Lages; de Andrade Neto, Francisco Ricardo; Pessali, Tiago Casarim; Birindelli, José Luís Olivan; Carvalho, Daniel Cardoso

    2016-06-01

    Molecular identification through DNA barcoding has been proposed as a way to standardize a global biodiversity identification system using a partial sequence of the mitochondrial COI gene. We applied an integrative approach using DNA barcoding and traditional morphology-based bioassessment to identify fish from a neotropical region possessing low taxonomic knowledge: the Jequitinhonha River Basin (Southeastern Brazil). The Jequitinhonha River Basin (JRB) has a high rate of endemism and is considered an area of high priority for fish conservation, with estimates indicating the presence of around 110 native and non-indigenous species. DNA barcodes were obtained from 260 individuals belonging to 52 species distributed among 35 genera, 21 families and 6 orders, including threatened and rare species such as Rhamdia jequitinhonha and Steindachneridion amblyurum. The mean Kimura two-parameter genetic distances within species, genera and families were: 0.44, 12.16 and 20.58 %, respectively. Mean intraspecific genetic variation ranged from 0 to 11.43 %, and high values (>2 %) were recovered for five species. Species with a deep intraspecific distance, possibly flagging overlooked taxa, were detected within the genus Pimelodella. Fifteen species, only identified to the genus level, had unique BINs, with a nearest neighbor distance over 2 % and therefore, potential new candidate species supported by DNA barcoding. The integrative taxonomy approach using DNA barcoding and traditional taxonomy may be a remedy to taxonomy impediment, accelerating species identification by flagging potential new candidate species and to adequately conserve the megadiverse neotropical ichthyofauna.

  6. REVISION AND RE-DOCUMENTATION OF M. AIROLDI'S SPECIES OF ARCHAEOLITHOTHAMNIUM FROM THE TERTIARY PIEDMONT BASIN (NW ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GRAZIA VANNUCCI

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Airoldi (1930, 1932 described twenty-three fossil Corallinales (Rhodophyta from the Oligocene of the Tertiary Piedmont Basin (NW Italy, containing thirteen new species. In this paper Archaeolithothamnium praeerithraeum Airoldi 1932 and Archaeolithothamnium statiellense Airoldi 1932 are re-documented and re-described. The features observable in the sporangial compartments allowed to attribute both species to the genus Sporolithon. 

  7. An evaluation of species richness estimators for tardigrades of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Tennessee and North Carolina, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane R. NELSON

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available For the past 5 years we have been conducting a large-scale, multi-habitat inventory of the tardigrades in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park (U.S.A. as part of the All Taxa Biodiversity Inventory (ATBI (see www.dlia.org. In terrestrial habitats, we collected moss, lichen, and soil samples from 19 permanent ATBI plots, representing all major land cover types within the park. Each ATBI plot is 100 × 100 m. In each plot, when available, 16 moss samples, 16 lichen samples, and 4 soil samples were collected in paper bags and air dried in the laboratory. Specimens were isolated with LudoxAM centrifugation, and for each sample up to 50 adults plus eggs were individually mounted on microscope slides in Hoyer's medium and identified using phase contrast and DIC microscopy. Additional collections were made in the limestone caves of the Cades Cove region of the park, bird nests, and 13 different streams. To date (1-Jun-06, 589 samples have been collected, and of these 401 have been analyzed, yielding a total of 8133 identifiable tardigrades or, in some cases, species groups. A total of 73 species have been found in the park, 14 of which we believe are new to science. Seven species richness estimators have been developed to predict total species richness (see EstimateS 7.5 software, viceroy.eeb.uconn.edu/estimates, and these were evaluated by comparing predictions from half of our data to the actual numbers from the total database. The results of this comparison indicate that different estimators work best in different habitats. Using the best estimators in each habitat, EstimateS 7.5 indicates that a total of 96 species are likely to occur throughout the park. Thus, Great Smoky Mountains National Park tardigrade diversity represents 10% of the world's known tardigrade fauna.

  8. High pollution events in the Great Salt Lake Basin and its adjacent valleys. Insights on mechanisms and spatial distribution of the formation of secondary aerosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchin, A.; Middlebrook, A. M.; Baasandorj, M.; Brown, S. S.; Fibiger, D. L.; Goldberger, L.; McDuffie, E. E.; Moravek, A.; Murphy, J. G.; Thornton, J. A.; Womack, C.

    2017-12-01

    High pollution events are common in many locations in the U.S.A. and around the world. They can last several days or up to weeks and they negatively affect human health, deteriorate visibility, and increase premature mortality. The main causes for high pollution events are related to meteorology and sources. They often happen in the winter, when high emissions, stagnation and reduced mixing, due to a shallow boundary layer, cause high concentrations of pollutants to accumulate. In the last decades, the air quality in the U.S. has seen an overall improvement, due to the reductions in particulate and gaseous pollutants. However, some areas remain critical. The Great Salt Lake Basin and its adjacent valleys are currently areas where high pollution events are a serious environmental problem involving more than 2.4 million people. We will present the results of the Utah Wintertime Fine Particulate Study (UWFPS) that took place in winter 2017. During UWFPS, we carried out airborne measurements of aerosol chemical composition and precursor vapor concentrations over the Great Salt Lake Basin and its adjacent valleys. We will give insights into how and under which conditions conversion of precursor vapors into aerosol particles takes place in the area. We will also present a comparison of our measurements with models that will provide an insight of the mechanisms that lead to the formation of secondary aerosol particles. With the results of our work, we aim to inform strategies for pollution control in the future.

  9. Quantifying restoration effectiveness using multi-scale habitat models: Implications for sage-grouse in the Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert S. Arkle; David S. Pilliod; Steven E. Hanser; Matthew L. Brooks; Jeanne C. Chambers; James B. Grace; Kevin C. Knutson; David A. Pyke; Justin L. Welty; Troy A. Wirth

    2014-01-01

    A recurrent challenge in the conservation of wide-ranging, imperiled species is understanding which habitats to protect and whether we are capable of restoring degraded landscapes. For Greater Sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), a species of conservation concern in the western United States, we approached this problem by developing multi-scale empirical models of...

  10. Common garden comparisons of reproductive, forage and weed suppression potential of rangeland rehabilitation grasses of the Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common garden experiments are a means to remove environmental effects. Using 8 species of perennial rangeland grasses, we established a common garden (3 reps x28 plants = 84 plants/species). We found that ‘Hycrest’ crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum) and bluebunch wheatgrass (Pseudoroegneria sp...

  11. Effects of Land-use/Land-cover and Climate Changes on Water Quantity and Quality in Sub-basins near Major US Cities in the Great Lakes Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, L.; Al-Hamdan, M. Z.; Crosson, W. L.; Barik, M.

    2017-12-01

    Land-cover change over time to urbanized, less permeable surfaces, leads to reduced water infiltration at the location of water input while simultaneously transporting sediments, nutrients and contaminants farther downstream. With an abundance of agricultural fields bordering the greater urban areas of Milwaukee, Detroit, and Chicago, water and nutrient transport is vital to the farming industry, wetlands, and communities that rely on water availability. Two USGS stream gages each located within a sub-basin near each of these Great Lakes Region cities were examined, one with primarily urban land-cover between 1992 and 2011, and one with primarily agriculture land-cover. ArcSWAT, a watershed model and soil and water assessment tool used in extension with ArcGIS, was used to develop hydrologic models that vary the land-covers to simulate surface runoff during a model run period from 2004 to 2008. Model inputs that include a digital elevation model (DEM), Landsat-derived land-use/land-cover (LULC) satellite images from 1992, 2001, and 2011, soil classification, and meteorological data were used to determine the effect of different land-covers on the water runoff, nutrients and sediments. The models were then calibrated and validated to USGS stream gage data measurements over time. Additionally, the watershed model was run based on meteorological data from an IPCC CMIP5 high emissions climate change scenario for 2050. Model outputs from the different LCLU scenarios were statistically evaluated and results showed that water runoff, nutrients and sediments were impacted by LULC change in four out of the six sub-basins. In the 2050 climate scenario, only one out of the six sub-basin's water quantity and quality was affected. These results contribute to the importance of developing hydrologic models as the dependence on the Great Lakes as a freshwater resource competes with the expansion of urbanization leading to the movement of runoff, nutrients, and sediments off the

  12. Long-period Ground Motion Characteristics Inside and Outside of the Osaka Basin during the 2011 Great Tohoku Earthquake and Its Largest Aftershock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, K.; Iwata, T.; Asano, K.; Kubo, H.; Aoi, S.

    2013-12-01

    The 2011 great Tohoku earthquake (Mw 9.0) occurred on March 11, 2011, and the largest aftershock (Mw 7.7) at the region adjacent to south boundary of the mainshock's source region. Long-period ground motions (1-10s) of large amplitude were observed in the Osaka sedimentary basin about 550-800km away from the source regions during both events. We studied propagation and site characteristics of these ground motions, and found some common features between these two events in the Osaka basin. (1) The amplitude of horizontal components of the ground motion at the site-specific period is amplified at each sedimentary station. The predominant period is around 7s in the bayside area where the largest pSv were observed. (2) The velocity Fourier spectra have their peak values around 7s at the bedrock sites surrounding the Osaka basin. (3) Two remarkable wave packets separated by 30s propagating from stations around the Nobi plain to the bedrock sites near the Osaka basin were seen in the pasted-up velocity waveforms from the source regions to the Osaka basin for both events (Sato et al., 2012). Therefore, large long-period ground motions in the Osaka basin are generated by the combination of propagation-path and basin effects. Firstly, we simulate ground motions due to the largest aftershock using three-dimensional FDM (GMS; Aoi and Fujiwara, 1999). The reason we focus on the largest aftershock is that this event has a relatively small rupture area and simple rupture process compared to the mainshock. The source model is based on the model estimated by Kubo et al. (2013). The velocity structure model is a three-dimensional velocity structure based on the Japan Integrated Velocity Structure Model (Koketsu et al., 2012) and the layer of Vs 350m/s in this model is replaced with one of Vs 500m/s. The minimum effective period in this computation is 3s. Then, we compare synthetic waveforms with observed ones. At CHBH14, the nearest station to the source and 60km away from the

  13. Climate and human influences on historical fire regimes (AD 1400-1900) in the eastern Great Basin (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley G. Kitchen

    2015-01-01

    High fire activity in western North America is associated with drought. Drought and fire prevail under negative El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) phases in the Southwest and with positive phases in the Northwest. Here, I infer climate effects on historic fire patterns in the geographically intermediate, eastern Great...

  14. Three new species of Hemibrycon (Characiformes: Characidae from the Magdalena River Basin, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Román-Valencia

    2013-09-01

    projects and other threats in the area are included, as well as a key to all species Hemibrycon present in the Magdalena River Basin. The synonymy of H. pautensis with H. polyodon is discussed and H. pautensis is evalidated.

  15. Drought drove forest decline and dune building in eastern upper Michigan, USA, as the upper Great Lakes became closed basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loope, Walter L.; Loope, Henry M.; Goble, Ronald J.; Fisher, Timothy G.; Lytle, David E.; Legg, Robert J.; Wysocki, Douglas A.; Hanson, Paul R.; Young, Aaron R.

    2012-01-01

    Current models of landscape response to Holocene climate change in midcontinent North America largely reconcile Earth orbital and atmospheric climate forcing with pollen-based forest histories on the east and eolian chronologies in Great Plains grasslands on the west. However, thousands of sand dunes spread across 12,000 km2 in eastern upper Michigan (EUM), more than 500 km east of the present forest-prairie ecotone, present a challenge to such models. We use 65 optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages on quartz sand deposited in silt caps (n = 8) and dunes (n = 57) to document eolian activity in EUM. Dune building was widespread ca. 10–8 ka, indicating a sharp, sustained decline in forest cover during that period. This decline was roughly coincident with hydrologic closure of the upper Great Lakes, but temporally inconsistent with most pollen-based models that imply canopy closure throughout the Holocene. Early Holocene forest openings are rarely recognized in pollen sums from EUM because faint signatures of non-arboreal pollen are largely obscured by abundant and highly mobile pine pollen. Early Holocene spikes in nonarboreal pollen are recorded in cores from small ponds, but suggest only a modest extent of forest openings. OSL dating of dune emplacement provides a direct, spatially explicit archive of greatly diminished forest cover during a very dry climate in eastern midcontinent North America ca. 10–8 ka.

  16. Application of the North American Multi-Model Ensemble to seasonal water supply forecasting in the Great Lakes basin through the use of the Great Lakes Seasonal Climate Forecast Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronewold, A.; Apps, D.; Fry, L. M.; Bolinger, R.

    2017-12-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) contribution to the internationally coordinated 6-month forecast of Great Lakes water levels relies on several water supply models, including a regression model relating a coming month's water supply to past water supplies, previous months' precipitation and temperature, and forecasted precipitation and temperature. Probabilistic forecasts of precipitation and temperature depicted in the Climate Prediction Center's seasonal outlook maps are considered to be standard for use in operational forecasting for seasonal time horizons, and have provided the basis for computing a coming month's precipitation and temperature for use in the USACE water supply regression models. The CPC outlook maps are a useful forecast product offering insight into interpretation of climate models through the prognostic discussion and graphical forecasts. However, recent evolution of USACE forecast procedures to accommodate automated data transfer and manipulation offers a new opportunity for direct incorporation of ensemble climate forecast data into probabilistic outlooks of water supply using existing models that have previously been implemented in a deterministic fashion. We will present results from a study investigating the potential for applying data from the North American Multi-Model Ensemble to operational water supply forecasts. The use of NMME forecasts is facilitated by a new, publicly available, Great Lakes Seasonal Climate Forecast Tool that provides operational forecasts of monthly average temperatures and monthly total precipitation summarized for each lake basin.

  17. A new species of Astyanax (Characiformes: Characidae) from Dolina Água Milagrosa, Rio Paraguai basin, Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Graça, W J; Oliveira, C A M; Lima, F C T; da Silva, H P; Fernandes, I M

    2017-10-01

    A new species of Astyanax is described from the upper Rio Paraguai basin, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. The new species can be distinguished from congeners by having the body intensely yellowish in life (v. silvery, reddish or lightly yellow) and by morphometric and meristics traits. Astyanax dolinae n. sp. cannot be assigned to any of the Astyanax species complex currently recognized for the genus. It is only known from the Dolina Água Milagrosa, a karstic sinkhole lake, entirely fed by groundwater, surrounded by Cerrado, the savannah-like vegetation of central South America. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  18. Strong genetic differentiation in the invasive annual grass Bromus tectorum across the Mojave-Great Basin ecological transition zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan E. Meyer; Elizabeth A. Leger; Desiree R. Eldon; Craig E. Coleman

    2016-01-01

    Bromus tectorum, an inbreeding annual grass, is a dominant invader in sagebrush steppe habitat in North America. It is also common in warm and salt deserts, displaying a larger environmental tolerance than most native species. We tested the hypothesis that a suite of habitat-specific B. tectorum lineages dominates warm desert habitats. We sampled 30 B....

  19. Book review: Implementing the Endangered Species Act on the Platte Basin water commons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherfy, Mark H.

    2014-01-01

    The Platte River is a unique midcontinent ecosystem that is world-renowned for its natural resources, particularly the spectacular spring concentrations of migratory birds, such as sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis), ducks, and geese. The Platte River basin also provides habitat for four federally listed endangered or threatened species—interior least tern (Sternula antillarum athalassos), piping plover (Charadrius melodus), whooping crane (G. americana), and pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus)—that require specific hydrological conditions in order for habitat to be suitable. Flows on the Platte River are subject to regulation by a number of dams, and it is heavily relied upon for irrigation in Colorado, Wyoming, and Nebraska. Accordingly, it also has become a political battleground for the simple reason that the demand for water exceeds supply. David Freeman’s book takes a detailed look at water-use issues on the Platte River, focusing on how implementation of the Endangered Species Act influences decision-making about water allocations. 

  20. Adaptation of C4 Bioenergy Crop Species to Various Environments within the Southern Great Plains of USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumin Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As highly productive perennial grasses are evaluated as bioenergy feedstocks, a major consideration is biomass yield stability. Two experiments were conducted to examine some aspects of yield stability for two biofuel species: switchgrass (Panicum vigratum L. and Miscanthus x giganteus (Mxg. Biomass yields of these species were evaluated under various environmental conditions across the Southern Great Plains (SGP, including some sites with low soil fertility. In the first experiment, measured yields of four switchgrass ecotypes and Mxg varied among locations. Overall, plants showed optimal growth performance in study sites close to their geographical origins. Lowland switchgrass ecotypes and Mxg yields simulated by the ALMANAC model showed reasonable agreement with the measured yields across all study locations, while the simulated yields of upland switchgrass ecotypes were overestimated in northern locations. In the second experiment, examination of different N fertilizer rates revealed switchgrass yield increases over the range of 0, 80, or 160 kg N ha−1 year−1, while Mxg only showed yield increases between the low and medium N rates. This provides useful insights to crop management of two biofuel species and to enhance the predictive accuracy of process-based models, which are critical for developing bioenergy market systems in the SGP.

  1. A new subterranean species of Phreatobius Goeldi, 1905 (Siluriformes, Incertae sedis from the Southwestern Amazon basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Akio Shibatta

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A new species of the previously monotypic catfish genus Phreatobius is described from an artificial well in the village of Rio Pardo, located 90 km south of the city of Porto Velho, State of Rondônia, Brazil, in the drainage area of the Rio Branco (Rio Madeira system, Amazon basin. Phreatobius dracunculus n. sp. differs from its only congener, P. cisternarum, by the absence of eyes (vs. present, the lack of dark integumentary pigmentation (vs. faint dark pigment always present, the presence of five pectoral-fin rays (vs. four, ventral procurrent rays 11-13 (vs. 22 to 26, dorsal procurrent rays 29-31 (vs. 42 to 50, fewer vertebrae (52 or 53 vs. 59 to 64 and the larger pseudotympanus. The new species shows all diagnostic characters so far proposed for Phreatobius, including an unusual red coloration in life. The localities of the two species of Phreatobius are approximately 1900 km apart. That, in association with their peculiar and mostly inaccessible habitats, indicates that the genus may be widely distributed in the Amazon basin.Uma nova espécie do gênero previamente monotípico Phreatobius é descrita de um poço artificial no Povoado de Rio Pardo, localizado 90 km ao sul da cidade de Porto Velho, Estado de Rondônia, Brasil, na área de drenagem do rio Branco (sistema do Rio Madeira, bacia Amazônica. Phreatobius dracunculus sp. n. difere da única espécie congênere, P. cisternarum, pela ausência de olhos (vs. presente, ausência de pigmentação na pele (vs. algum pigmento escuro sempre presente, presença de cinco raios na nadadeira peitoral (vs. 4, menor número de raios procorrentes ventrais 11-13 (vs. 22 a 26, e menor número de raios procorrentes dorsais 29-31 (vs. 42 a 50, menor número de vértebras (52 ou 53 vs. 59 a 64 e pseudotímpano maior. A nova espécie apresenta todos os caracteres diagnósticos propostos para Phreatobius, incluindo a conspícua coloração vermelha em vida. As localidades das duas espécies de

  2. Tometes camunani (Characiformes: Serrasalmidae, a new species of phytophagous fish from the Guiana Shield, rio Trombetas basin, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo C. Andrade

    Full Text Available A new species of Serrasalmidae, Tometes camunani, is described from the upper drainages of the rio Trombetas basin, Pará State, Brazil. The new species is distinguished from its congeners by having neurocranium with a slight concavity at the level of the frontal bone (vs. concavity absent, dorsal profile of neurocranium straight. It can be further distinguished from its congeners by having teeth with central cusp taller and acute (vs. central cusp shorter and with rounded edge in T. trilobatus, a terminal mouth (vs. upturned mouth in T. lebaili, and 12-26 prepelvic spines (vs. 0-9 in T. makue. The new species is strictly rheophilic like other species of Tometes, and occurs exclusively in the rapids of shield rivers, complex and fragile biotopes that are threatened by anthropogenic activities. An identification key to the species of the Myleus group is provided

  3. A multiple-tracer approach to understanding regional groundwater flow in the Snake Valley area of the eastern Great Basin, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, Philip M.; Heilweil, Victor M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Age tracers and noble gases constrain intra- and inter-basin groundwater flow. • Tritium indicates modern (<60 yr) recharge occurring in all mountain areas. • Noble-gas data identify an important interbasin hydraulic discontinuity. • Further groundwater development may significantly impact Snake Valley springs. - Abstract: Groundwater in Snake Valley and surrounding basins in the eastern Great Basin province of the western United States is being targeted for large-scale groundwater extraction and export. Concern about declining groundwater levels and spring flows in western Utah as a result of the proposed groundwater withdrawals has led to efforts that have improved the understanding of this regional groundwater flow system. In this study, environmental tracers (δ 2 H, δ 18 O, 3 H, 14 C, 3 He, 4 He, 20 Ne, 40 Ar, 84 Kr, and 129 Xe) and major ions from 142 sites were evaluated to investigate groundwater recharge and flow-path characteristics. With few exceptions, δ 2 H and δ 18 O show that most valley groundwater has similar ratios to mountain springs, indicating recharge is dominated by relatively high-altitude precipitation. The spatial distribution of 3 H, terrigenic helium ( 4 He terr ), and 3 H/ 3 He ages shows that modern groundwater (<60 yr) in valley aquifers is found only in the western third of the study area. Pleistocene and late-Holocene groundwater is found in the eastern parts of the study area. The age of Pleistocene groundwater is supported by minimum adjusted radiocarbon ages of up to 32 ka. Noble gas recharge temperatures (NGTs) are generally 1–11 °C in Snake and southern Spring Valleys and >11 °C to the east of Snake Valley and indicate a hydraulic discontinuity between Snake and Tule Valleys across the northern Confusion Range. The combination of NGTs and 4 He terr shows that the majority of Snake Valley groundwater discharges as springs, evapotranspiration, and well withdrawals within Snake Valley rather than

  4. Prevalence of ticks and tick-borne pathogens: Babesia and Borrelia species in ticks infesting cats of Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Saran; Abdullah, Swaid; Helps, Chris; Tasker, Séverine; Newbury, Hannah; Wall, Richard

    2017-09-15

    In a study of tick and tick-borne pathogen prevalence, between May and October 2016, 278 veterinary practices in Great Britain examined 1855 cats. Six-hundred and one cats were found to have attached ticks. The most frequently recorded tick species was Ixodes ricinus (57.1%), followed by Ixodes hexagonus (41.4%) and Ixodes trianguliceps (1.5%). Male cats, 4-6 years of age living in rural areas were most likely to be carrying a tick; hair length and tick treatment history had no significant association with attachment. For cats that were parasitized by ticks in large urban areas, I. hexagonus was the most frequent species recorded. Molecular analysis was possible for 541 individual tick samples, others were too damaged for analysis; Babesia spp., and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato were identified in 1.1% (n=6) and 1.8% (n=10) of these, respectively. Babesia spp. included Babesia vulpes sp. nov./Babesia microti-like (n=4) in I. hexagonus and Babesia venatorum (n=2) in I. ricinus. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. species included Borrelia garinii (n=6) and Borrelia afzelii (n=4). The majority of B. burgorferi s.l. cases were found in I. ricinus, with B. afzelii in one I. hexagonus nymph. No Borrelia or Babesia spp. were present in I. trianguliceps. To determine a true prevalence for ticks on cats, practices that only submitted questionnaires from cats with ticks and practices that submitted fewer than 5 returns per week were removed; amongst those considered to have adhered strictly to the collection protocol, feline tick prevalence amongst cats that had access to the outdoors was 6.6%. These results show that ticks can be found on cats throughout Great Britain, which harbour a range of species of Babesia and B. burgdorferi s.l. and that cats, particularly in green spaces within urban areas, may form an important host for I. hexagonus, a known vector of pathogens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Fish Lake, Utah - a promising long core site straddling the Great Basin to Colorado Plateau transition zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, D. W.; Abbott, M. B.; Bailey, C.; Wenrich, E.; Stoner, J. S.; Larsen, D. J.; Finkenbinder, M. S.; Anderson, L.; Brunelle, A.; Carter, V.; Power, M. J.; Hatfield, R. G.; Reilly, B.; Harris, M. S.; Grimm, E. C.; Donovan, J.

    2015-12-01

    Fish Lake (~7x1.5 km and 2696 m asl) is located on the Fish Lake Plateau in central Utah. The Lake occupies a NE-striking tectonic graben; one of a suite of grabens on the Plateau that cut 21-26 Ma volcanic rocks. The lake outflows via Lake Creek to the NE where it joins Sevenmile Creek to become the Fremont River, a tributary to the Colorado River. A bathymetric survey reveals a mean depth of 27 m and a max depth of 37.2 m. The lake bottom slopes from NW to SE with the deepest part near the SE wall, matching the topographic expression of the graben. Nearby Fish Lake Hightop (3545 m) was glaciated with an ice field and outlet glaciers. Exposure ages indicate moraine deposition during Pinedale (15-23 ka) and Bull Lake (130-150 ka) times. One outlet glacier at Pelican Canyon deposited moraines and outwash into the lake but the main basin of the lake was never glaciated. Gravity measurements indicate that lake sediments thicken toward the SE side of the lake and the thickest sediment package is modeled to be between 210 and 240 m. In Feb 2014 we collected cores from Fish Lake using a 9-cm diameter UWITECH coring system in 30.5 m of water. A composite 11.2-m-long core was constructed from overlapping 2 m drives that were taken in triplicate to ensure total recovery and good preservation. Twelve 14C ages and 3 tephra layers of known age define the age model. The oldest 14C age of 32.3±4.2 cal ka BP was taken from 10.6 m. Core lithology, CT scans, and magnetic susceptibility (ms) reveal three sediment packages: an organic-rich, low ms Holocene to post-glacial section, a fine-grained, minerogenic glacial section with high ms, and a short section of inferred pre-LGM sediment with intermediate composition. Extrapolating the age model to the maximum estimated sediment thicknesses suggest sediments may be older than 500-700 ka. Thus Fish Lake is an ideal candidate for long core retrieval as it likely contains paleoclimatic records extending over multiple glacial cycles.

  6. DNA barcode of Parodontidae species from the La Plata river basin - applying new data to clarify taxonomic problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisangela Bellafronte

    Full Text Available In the past years, DNA barcoding has emerged as a quick, accurate and efficient tool to identify species. Considering the difficulty in identifying some Parodontidae species from the La Plata basin and the absence of molecular data for the group, we aimed to test the effectiveness of DNA barcoding and discuss the importance of using different approaches to solve taxonomic problems. Eight species were analyzed with partial sequences of Cytochrome c oxidase I. The mean intraspecific K2P genetic distance was 0.04% compared to 4.2% for mean interspecific K2P genetic distance. The analyses of distance showed two pairs of species with K2P genetic divergence lower than 2%, but enough to separate these species. Apareiodon sp. and A. ibitiensis, considered as the same species by some authors, showed 4.2% genetic divergence, reinforcing their are different species. Samples of A. affinis from the Uruguay and Paraguay rivers presented 0.3% genetic divergence, indicating a close relationship between them. However, these samples diverged 6.1% from the samples of the upper Paraná River, indicating that the latter represents a potentially new species. The results showed the effectiveness of the DNA barcoding method in identifying the analyzed species, which, together with the morphological and cytogenetic available data, help species identification.

  7. Quantifying restoration effectiveness using multi-scale habitat models: implications for sage-grouse in the Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkle, Robert S.; Pilliod, David S.; Hanser, Steven E.; Brooks, Matthew L.; Chambers, Jeanne C.; Grace, James B.; Knutson, Kevin C.; Pyke, David A.; Welty, Justin L.

    2014-01-01

    A recurrent challenge in the conservation of wide-ranging, imperiled species is understanding which habitats to protect and whether we are capable of restoring degraded landscapes. For Greater Sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), a species of conservation concern in the western United States, we approached this problem by developing multi-scale empirical models of occupancy in 211 randomly located plots within a 40 million ha portion of the species' range. We then used these models to predict sage-grouse habitat quality at 826 plots associated with 101 post-wildfire seeding projects implemented from 1990 to 2003. We also compared conditions at restoration sites to published habitat guidelines. Sage-grouse occupancy was positively related to plot- and landscape-level dwarf sagebrush (Artemisia arbuscula, A. nova, A. tripartita) and big sagebrush steppe prevalence, and negatively associated with non-native plants and human development. The predicted probability of sage-grouse occupancy at treated plots was low on average (0.09) and not substantially different from burned areas that had not been treated. Restoration sites with quality habitat tended to occur at higher elevation locations with low annual temperatures, high spring precipitation, and high plant diversity. Of 313 plots seeded after fire, none met all sagebrush guidelines for breeding habitats, but approximately 50% met understory guidelines, particularly for perennial grasses. This pattern was similar for summer habitat. Less than 2% of treated plots met winter habitat guidelines. Restoration actions did not increase the probability of burned areas meeting most guideline criteria. The probability of meeting guidelines was influenced by a latitudinal gradient, climate, and topography. Our results suggest that sage-grouse are relatively unlikely to use many burned areas within 20 years of fire, regardless of treatment. Understory habitat conditions are more likely to be adequate than overstory

  8. Assessment of general health of fishes collected at selected sites in the Great Lakes Basin In 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazik, Patricia M.; Braham, Ryan P.; Hahn, Cassidy M.; Blazer, Vicki

    2015-01-01

    During the past decade, there has been a substantive increase in the detection of “emerging contaminants”, defined as a new substance, chemical, or metabolite in the environment; or a legacy substance with a newly expanded distribution, altered release, or a newly recognized effect (such as endocrine disruption). Emerging contaminants include substances such as biogenic hormones (human and animal), brominated flame retardants, pharmaceuticals, personal care products, plasticizers, current use pesticides, detergents, and nanoparticles. These contaminants are frequently not regulated or inadequately regulated by state or Federal water quality programs. Information about the toxicity of these substances to fish and wildlife resources is generally limited, compared to more highly regulated contaminants, and some classes have been shown to cause affects (for example feminization of male fish, immunomodulation) that are not evaluated via traditional toxicity testing protocols. As a result, these compounds may pose a substantial, but currently poorly documented threat to aquatic ecosystems. Failure to identify and understand the impacts of these emerging contaminants on fish and wildlife resources may result in deleterious impacts to Great Lakes resources that can result in adverse ecological, economic and recreational consequences.

  9. Aphanius arakensis, a new species of tooth-carp (Actinopterygii, Cyprinodontidae) from the endorheic Namak Lake basin in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Teimori,Azad; Esmaeili,Hamid; Gholami,Zeinab; Zarei,Neda; Reichenbacher,Bettina

    2012-01-01

    A new species of tooth-carp, Aphanius arakensis sp. n., is described from the Namak Lake basin in Iran. The new species is distinguished by the congeners distributed in Iran by the following combination of characters: 10–12 anal fin rays, 28–32 lateral line scales, 10–13 caudal peduncle scales, 8–10 gill rakers, 12–19, commonly 15–16, clearly defined flank bars in males, a more prominent pigmentation along the flank added by relatively big blotches in the m...

  10. REVISION AND RE-DOCUMENTATION OF M. AIROLDI’S SPECIES OF MESOPHYLLUM FROM THE TERTIARY PIEDMONT BASIN (NW ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELA BASSO

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Airoldi (1930, 1932 described twenty-three fossil Corallinales (Rhodophyta from the Oligocene of the Tertiary Piedmont Basin (NW Italy, including thirteen new species. In this paper Mesophyllum fructiferum Airoldi 1932 and Mesophyllum obsitum Airoldi 1932 are re-documented and re-described. The presence of cell fusions, multiporate conceptacles and a ventral core of cell filaments passing from coaxial to non-coaxial confirm that both species belong to the genus Mesophyllum.   SHORT NOTES  

  11. Impacts of land-use change on the water cycle of urban areas within the Upper Great Lakes drainage basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowling, L. C.; Cherkauer, K. A.; Pijanowski, B. C.; Niyogi, D.

    2006-12-01

    Urbanization is altering the global landscape at an unprecedented rate. This form of land cover/land-use change (LCLUC) can significantly reduce infiltration and runoff response times, and alter heat and water vapor fluxes, which can further alter surface-forced regional circulation patterns and modulate precipitation volume and intensity. Spatial patterns of future LCLUC are projected using the Land Transformation Model (LTM), enhanced to incorporate dynamic landcover, economics and policy using Bayesian Belief Networks (LTM- BBN). Different land use scenarios predicted by the LTM-BBN as well as a pre-development scenario are represented through the Unified Noah Land Surface Model (LSM) with an enhanced urban canopy model, embedded in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The coupled WRF-Noah LSM model will be used to investigate the connections between land-use, hydrometeorology and the atmosphere, through analysis of water and energy balances over several urbanized watersheds within the Upper Great Lakes region. Preliminary results focus on a single watershed, the White River in Indiana, which includes the city of Indianapolis. Coupled WRF-Noah simulations made using pre and post-development land use maps provide a 7 year climatology of convective storm morphology around the urban center. Precipitation and other meteorological variables from the WRF-Noah simulations are used to drive simulations of the White River watershed using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) macroscale hydrologic model. The VIC model has been modified to represent urban areas and has been calibrated for modern flow regimes in the White River watershed. Pre- and post-development VIC simulations are used to assess the impact of Indianapolis area infiltration changes. Finally, VIC model simulations utilizing projected land use change from 2005 through 2040 for the Indianapolis metropolitan area explore the magnitude of future hydrologic change, especially peak flow response

  12. Oligosarcus jacuiensis (Characiformes: Characidae, a new species from the Uruguay and Jacuí River basins, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naércio Aquino Menezes

    Full Text Available The new species herein described, collected in the Jacuí and Uruguay River basins, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, can be distinguished from the already known species of the genus, but Oligosarcus jenynsii, O. perdido, O. acutirostris, O. solitarius and O. hepsetus, by the number of perforated lateral line scales. It shares with the first two species the absence of a premaxillary foramen, present in the last three species and differs from O. jenynsii by having a smaller orbital diameter and the tip of the pectoral fin failing to reach the pelvic-fin origin, and from O. perdido by the presence of more horizontal scale rows around the caudal peduncle.

  13. Two new species of Euptychia Hübner, 1818 from the upper Amazon basin (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neild, Andrew F E; Nakahara, Shinichi; Zacca, Thamara; Fratello, Steven; Lamas, Gerardo; Le Crom, Jean-François; Dolibaina, Diego R; Dias, Fernando M S; Casagrande, Mirna M; Mielke, Olaf H H; Espeland, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Two new species of Euptychia Hübner, 1818 are described from the upper Amazon basin: Euptychia attenboroughi Neild, Nakahara, Fratello & Le Crom, sp. n. (type locality: Amazonas, Venezuela), and Euptychia sophiae Zacca, Nakahara, Dolibaina & Dias, sp. n. (type locality: Acre, Brazil). Their unusual facies prompted molecular and phylogenetic analyses of one of the species resulting in support for their classification in monophyletic Euptychia. Diagnostic characters for the two species are presented based on wing morphology, wing pattern, presence of androconial patches on the hindwing, and genitalia. Our results indicate that the projection of the tegumen above the uncus, previously considered a synapomorphy for Euptychia, is not shared by all species in the genus. The adults and their genitalia are documented, and distribution data and a map are provided.

  14. Development of DNA-based Identification methods to track the species composition of fish larvae within nearshore areas of the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability to track the identity and abundance of larval fish, which are ubiquitous during spawning season, may lead to a greater understanding of fish species distributions in Great Lakes nearshore areas including early-detection of invasive fish species before they become esta...

  15. Magmatism, ash-flow tuffs, and calderas of the ignimbrite flareup in the western Nevada volcanic field, Great Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher D. Henry,; John, David A.

    2013-01-01

    The western Nevada volcanic field is the western third of a belt of calderas through Nevada and western Utah. Twenty-three calderas and their caldera-forming tuffs are reasonably well identified in the western Nevada volcanic field, and the presence of at least another 14 areally extensive, apparently voluminous ash-flow tuffs whose sources are unknown suggests a similar number of undiscovered calderas. Eruption and caldera collapse occurred between at least 34.4 and 23.3 Ma and clustered into five ∼0.5–2.7-Ma-long episodes separated by quiescent periods of ∼1.4 Ma. One eruption and caldera collapse occurred at 19.5 Ma. Intermediate to silicic lavas or shallow intrusions commonly preceded caldera-forming eruptions by 1–6 Ma in any specific area. Caldera-related as well as other magmatism migrated from northeast Nevada to the southwest through time, probably resulting from rollback of the formerly shallow-dipping Farallon slab. Calderas are restricted to the area northeast of what was to become the Walker Lane, although intermediate and effusive magmatism continued to migrate to the southwest across the future Walker Lane.Most ash-flow tuffs in the western Nevada volcanic field are rhyolites, with approximately equal numbers of sparsely porphyritic (≤15% phenocrysts) and abundantly porphyritic (∼20–50% phenocrysts) tuffs. Both sparsely and abundantly porphyritic rhyolites commonly show compositional or petrographic evidence of zoning to trachydacites or dacites. At least four tuffs have volumes greater than 1000 km3, with one possibly as much as ∼3000 km3. However, the volumes of most tuffs are difficult to estimate, because many tuffs primarily filled their source calderas and/or flowed and were deposited in paleovalleys, and thus are irregularly distributed.Channelization and westward flow of most tuffs in paleovalleys allowed them to travel great distances, many as much as ∼250 km (original distance) to what is now the western foothills of the

  16. Monitoring Soil Erosion on a Burned Site in the Mojave-Great Basin Transition Zone: Final Report for the Jacob Fire Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Julianne [DRI; Etyemezian, Vic [DRI; Cablk, Mary E. [DRI; Shillito, Rose [DRI; Shafer, David [DOE Grand Junction, Colorado

    2013-06-01

    A historic return interval of 100 years for large fires in the U.S. southwestern deserts is being replaced by one where fires may reoccur as frequently as every 20 to 30 years. The shortened return interval, which translates to an increase in fires, has implications for management of Soil Corrective Action Units (CAUs) and Corrective Action Sites (CASs) for which the Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office has responsibility. A series of studies was initiated at uncontaminated analog sites to better understand the possible impacts of erosion and transport by wind and water should contaminated soil sites burn. The first of these studies was undertaken at the Jacob Fire site approximately 12 kilometers (7.5 miles) north of Hiko, Nevada. A lightning-caused fire burned approximately 200 hectares during August 6-8, 2008. The site is representative of a transition between Mojave and Great Basin desert ecoregions on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), where the largest number of Soil CAUs/CASs are located. The area that burned at the Jacob Fire site was primarily a Coleogyne ramosissima (blackbrush) and Ephedra nevadensis (Mormon tea) community, also an abundant shrub assemblage in the similar transition zone on the NNSS. This report summarizes three years of measurements after the fire. Seven measurement campaigns at the Jacob Fire site were completed. Measurements were made on burned ridge (upland) and drainage sites, and on burned and unburned sites beneath and between vegetation. A Portable In-Situ Wind Erosion Lab (PI-SWERL) was used to estimate emissions of suspended particles at different wind speeds. Context for these measurements was provided through a meteorological tower that was installed at the Jacob Fire site to obtain local, relevant environmental parameters. Filter samples, collected from the exhaust of the PI-SWERL during measurements, were analyzed for chemical composition. Runoff and water erosion were

  17. Biodiversity and species-environment relationships of the demersal fish assemblage at the Great Meteor Seamount (subtropical NE Atlantic), sampled by different trawls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fock, H.; Uiblein, F.; Köster, Fritz

    2002-01-01

    , respectively, to 583.98 ind. m(-1) h(-1) in 1998. Gear effects and an effect of gear over time accounted for 47.1% and 20% of species variability. Further significant factors were time of day and habitat, while season was not significant. A total of 43 species was collected. Including supplementary species...... information, a grand total of 46 species was found associated with the Great Meteor Seamount. Diversity was higher in 1967 and 1970 (Shannon's diversity: H'=2.5 and 1.6) than in 1998 (H'=0.9). Species-environment relationships are discussed in terms of a sound-scattering layer-interception hypothesis, i...

  18. A new gnathiid (Crustacea: Isopoda) parasitizing two species of requiem sharks from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetzee, Maryke L; Smit, Nico J; Grutter, Alexandra S; Davies, Angela J

    2008-06-01

    Third-stage juveniles (praniza 3) of Gnathia grandilaris n. sp. were collected from the gill filaments and septa of 5 requiem sharks, including a white tip reef shark, Triaenodon obesus, and 4 grey reef sharks, Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos, at Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia, in March 2002. Some juvenile gnathiids were then maintained in fresh sea water until they molted to adults. Adult males appeared 19 days following detachment of juveniles from host fishes, but no juveniles molted successfully into females. The current description is based, therefore, on bright field and scanning electron microscopy observations of adult males and third-stage juveniles. Unique features of the male include the triangular-shaped inferior medio-frontal process, 2 areolae on the dorsal surface of the pylopod, and a slender pleotelson (twice as long as wide) with lateral concavities. The third-stage juvenile has distinctive white pigmentation on the black pereon when alive, while the mandible has 9 triangular backwardly directed teeth. This species has the largest male and third-stage juvenile of any Gnathia spp. from Australia and of any gnathiid isopods associated with elasmobranchs.

  19. A new isolation with migration model along complete genomes infers very different divergence processes among closely related great ape species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Mailund

    Full Text Available We present a hidden Markov model (HMM for inferring gradual isolation between two populations during speciation, modelled as a time interval with restricted gene flow. The HMM describes the history of adjacent nucleotides in two genomic sequences, such that the nucleotides can be separated by recombination, can migrate between populations, or can coalesce at variable time points, all dependent on the parameters of the model, which are the effective population sizes, splitting times, recombination rate, and migration rate. We show by extensive simulations that the HMM can accurately infer all parameters except the recombination rate, which is biased downwards. Inference is robust to variation in the mutation rate and the recombination rate over the sequence and also robust to unknown phase of genomes unless they are very closely related. We provide a test for whether divergence is gradual or instantaneous, and we apply the model to three key divergence processes in great apes: (a the bonobo and common chimpanzee, (b the eastern and western gorilla, and (c the Sumatran and Bornean orang-utan. We find that the bonobo and chimpanzee appear to have undergone a clear split, whereas the divergence processes of the gorilla and orang-utan species occurred over several hundred thousands years with gene flow stopping quite recently. We also apply the model to the Homo/Pan speciation event and find that the most likely scenario involves an extended period of gene flow during speciation.

  20. Description of a new species of Ituglanis (Siluriformes: Trichomycteridae from Serra dos Carajás, rio Tocantins basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolmar B. Wosiacki

    Full Text Available A new species of Ituglanis is described from the rio Tocantins basin, State of Pará, Brazil. Ituglanis ina, new species, is distinguished from its congeners by the presence of a dark vertical bar over the base of the caudal-fin rays (vs. no bars over caudal-fin base; and by the presence of a middle trunk line of tiny neuromasts extending along the flank until the vertical through the dorsal fin, or near the caudal-fin base (vs. no middle trunk line of tiny neuromasts. Ituglanis ina can be further distinguished by a combination of characters related to color pattern and morphology. Comments on the relationship between Ituglanis species are presented.

  1. Two new species of the Hypostomus cochliodon group (Siluriformes: Loricariidae from the rio Negro basin in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Hollanda Carvalho

    Full Text Available Two new species of Hypostomus are described from the middle and upper rio Negro in Brazil. They are assigned to the Hypostomus cochliodon group (sensu Armbruster, 2003 by possessing few spoon-shaped teeth, and dentary angle averaging less than 80º. Hypostomus kopeyaka is described from the rio Tiquié, a tributary of the rio Uaupés, upper rio Negro basin, presents a unique color pattern among the Hypostomus species belonging to the Hypostomus cochliodon group, consisting of conspicuously horizontally elongated, closely-set black spots over the entire dorsal and lateral surfaces of the body. Hypostomus weberi is described from the middle rio Negro and can be distinguished from all remaining Hypostomus species belonging to the Hypostomus cochliodon group by possessing a unique color pattern consisting in large, rounded, widelyspaced black spots over body and fins.

  2. 81Br, 37Cl, and 87Sr studies to assess groundwater flow and solute sources in the southwestern Great Artesian Basin, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gwynne, Rhys; Frape, Shaun; Shouakar-Stash, Orfan; Love, Andy

    2013-01-01

    The Great Artesian Basin (GAB) is a water source for more than 200,000 residents in central Australia. This study investigates the relationship of bromine and chlorine stable isotopes to groundwater chemistry in a confined aquifer in the southwestern GAB to better understand its flow regime and solute sources. δ 81 Br values range from +0.660/00 near the recharge area to +1.04 0/00, 150 km down gradient, while δ 37 Cl ranges from 00/00 to -2.50/00. While δ 37 Cl decreases with distance from the recharge area, δ 81 Br increases slightly. Bromide in the recharge area is possibly enriched from selective atmospheric processes causing fractionation in marine aerosols during transport. When confined and isolated from the atmosphere, increases in bromide and to a lesser extent strontium concentrations may contribute through water-rock interaction to changes in isotopic signatures along the flow system. 87 Sr/ 86 Sr values range from ∼0.717 near the recharge zone to a depleted 0.708 160 km down gradient. (authors)

  3. {sup 81}Br, {sup 37}Cl, and {sup 87}Sr studies to assess groundwater flow and solute sources in the southwestern Great Artesian Basin, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwynne, Rhys; Frape, Shaun; Shouakar-Stash, Orfan [University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo N2L 3G1 (Canada); Love, Andy [Flinders University, Sturt Road, Bedford Park 5042 (Australia)

    2013-07-01

    The Great Artesian Basin (GAB) is a water source for more than 200,000 residents in central Australia. This study investigates the relationship of bromine and chlorine stable isotopes to groundwater chemistry in a confined aquifer in the southwestern GAB to better understand its flow regime and solute sources. δ{sup 81}Br values range from +0.660/00 near the recharge area to +1.04 0/00, 150 km down gradient, while δ{sup 37}Cl ranges from 00/00 to -2.50/00. While δ{sup 37}Cl decreases with distance from the recharge area, δ{sup 81}Br increases slightly. Bromide in the recharge area is possibly enriched from selective atmospheric processes causing fractionation in marine aerosols during transport. When confined and isolated from the atmosphere, increases in bromide and to a lesser extent strontium concentrations may contribute through water-rock interaction to changes in isotopic signatures along the flow system. {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr values range from ∼0.717 near the recharge zone to a depleted 0.708 160 km down gradient. (authors)

  4. Erosion Potential of a Burn Site in the Mojave-Great Basin Transition Zone: Interim Summary of One Year of Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etyemezian, V.; Shafer, D.; Miller, J.; Kavouras, I.; Campbell, S.; DuBois, D.; King, J.; Nikolich, G.; Zitzer, S.

    2010-05-18

    A historic return interval of 100 years for large fires in deserts in the Southwest U.S. is being replaced by one where fires may reoccur as frequently as every 20 to 30 years. This increase in fires has implications for management of Soil Sub-Project Corrective Action Units (CAUs) for which the Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site office (NNSA/NSO) has responsibility. A series of studies has been initiated at uncontaminated analog sites to better understand the possible impacts of erosion and transport by wind and water should contaminated soil sites burn over to understand technical and perceived risk they might pose to site workers and public receptors in communities around the NTS, TTR, and NTTR; and to develop recommendations for stabilization and restoration after a fire. The first of these studies was undertaken at the Jacob fire, a lightning-caused fire approximately 12 kilometers north of Hiko, Nevada, that burned approximately 200 ha between August 6-8, 2008, and is representative of a transition zone on the NTS between the Mojave and Great Basin Deserts, where the largest number of Soil Sub-Project CAUs/CASs are located.

  5. Role of burrowing activities of the Great Basin pocket mouse (Perognathus parvus) in the dispersal of radionuclides on a decommissioned pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landeen, D.S.; Mitchell, R.M.

    1982-08-01

    The intrusion of waste burial sites by animals is a common occurrence at nuclear waste facilities. This study identifies parameters associated with burrowing activities of the Great Basin Pocket Mouse at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington. The objectives of the study were to: (1) document and compare burrow depths on a control site and a decommissioned radioactive waste pond and (2) document 137 Cs concentrations in pocket mice and the soil mounds created by their burrowing activities. Pocket mice burrowed deeper in the backfilled burial site (anti x = 72 cm) than they did in the control site (anti x = 38 cm). The small amounts of 137 Cs found in the mice were an order of magnitude below what was present in the mounds. This indicates that the burrowing habits of these mice and subsequent mound construction may be more important in terms of radionuclide dispersal than the small amounts contained within their bodies. The 137 Cs values reported in the mice and mounds are below Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell) surface soil contamination limits. Information received from test plots will be used in formulating appropriate control mechanisms which may be deployed in the future. In the interim, surface stabilization efforts are being conducted on waste sites to control and deter burrowing animals

  6. Preliminary study of uranium in Pennsylvanian and lower Permian strata in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana, and the Northern Great Plains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunagan, J.F. Jr.; Kadish, K.A.

    1977-11-01

    Persistent and widespread radiometric anomalies occur in Pennsylvanian and Lower Permian strata in the subsurface of the northern Great Plains and the Powder River Basin. The primary host lithology of these anomalies is shale interbedded with sandstone, dolomite, and dolomitic sandstone. Samples from the project area indicate that uranium is responsible for some anomalies. In some samples there seems to be a correlation between high uranium content and high organic-carbon content, which possibly indicates that carbonaceous material acted as a trapping mechanism in some strata. The Pennsylvanian and Permian rocks studied are predominantly marine carbonates and clastics, but there are rocks of fluvial origin in the basal Pennsylvanian of Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota and in the Pennsylvanian and Permian deposits on the east flank of the Laramie Mountains. Fine-grained clastic rocks that flank the Chadron arch in western Nebraska are possibly of continental origin. The trend of the Chadron arch approximately parallels the trend of radiometric anomalies in the subsurface Permian-Pennsylvanian section. Possible source areas for uranium in the sediments studied were pre-Pennsylvanian strata of the Canadian Shield and Precambrian igneous rocks of the Ancestral Rocky Mountains

  7. Identification and characterization of an anaerobic ethanol-producing cellulolytic bacterial consortium from Great Basin hot springs with agricultural residues and energy crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chao; Deng, Yunjin; Wang, Xingna; Li, Qiuzhe; Huang, Yifan; Liu, Bin

    2014-09-01

    In order to obtain the cellulolytic bacterial consortia, sediments from Great Basin hot springs (Nevada, USA) were sampled and enriched with cellulosic biomass as the sole carbon source. The bacterial composition of the resulting anaerobic ethanol-producing celluloytic bacterial consortium, named SV79, was analyzed. With methods of the full-length 16S rRNA librarybased analysis and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, 21 bacteria belonging to eight genera were detected from this consortium. Clones with closest relation to the genera Acetivibrio, Clostridium, Cellulosilyticum, Ruminococcus, and Sporomusa were predominant. The cellulase activities and ethanol productions of consortium SV79 using different agricultural residues (sugarcane bagasse and spent mushroom substrate) and energy crops (Spartina anglica, Miscanthus floridulus, and Pennisetum sinese Roxb) were studied. During cultivation, consortium SV79 produced the maximum filter paper activity (FPase, 9.41 U/ml), carboxymethylcellulase activity (CMCase, 6.35 U/ml), and xylanase activity (4.28 U/ml) with sugarcane bagasse, spent mushroom substrate, and S. anglica, respectively. The ethanol production using M. floridulus as substrate was up to 2.63 mM ethanol/g using gas chromatography analysis. It has high potential to be a new candidate for producing ethanol with cellulosic biomass under anoxic conditions in natural environments.

  8. Aphanius arakensis, a new species of tooth-carp (Actinopterygii, Cyprinodontidae from the endorheic Namak Lake basin in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azad Teimori

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A new species of tooth-carp, Aphanius arakensis sp. n., is described from the Namak Lake basin in Iran. The new species is distinguished by the congeners distributed in Iran by the following combination of characters: 10–12 anal fin rays, 28–32 lateral line scales, 10–13 caudal peduncle scales, 8–10 gill rakers, 12–19, commonly 15–16, clearly defined flank bars in males, a more prominent pigmentation along the flank added by relatively big blotches in the middle and posterior flank segments in females, a short but high antirostrum of the otolith that has a wide excisura, and a ventral rim with some small, drop-like processes, and 19 molecular apomorphies (17 transitions, two transversions in the cytochrome b gene. It was suggested based on the phylogenetic analysis that the new species is sister to A. sophiae from the Kor River and that A. farsicus from the Maharlu Lake basin is sister to A. arakensis plus A. sophiae. A noticeable feature of the Aphanius diversity in Iran is the conservatism of the external morphology as well as morphometric and meristic characters, while distinctive differences are present in genetic characters, otolith morphology, and male color pattern. Transformation of the latter was probably driven by sexual selection.

  9. Aphanius arakensis, a new species of tooth-carp (Actinopterygii, Cyprinodontidae) from the endorheic Namak Lake basin in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teimori, Azad; Esmaeili, Hamid Reza; Gholami, Zeinab; Zarei, Neda; Reichenbacher, Bettina

    2012-01-01

    A new species of tooth-carp, Aphanius arakensissp. n., is described from the Namak Lake basin in Iran. The new species is distinguished by the congeners distributed in Iran by the following combination of characters: 10-12 anal fin rays, 28-32 lateral line scales, 10-13 caudal peduncle scales, 8-10 gill rakers, 12-19, commonly 15-16, clearly defined flank bars in males, a more prominent pigmentation along the flank added by relatively big blotches in the middle and posterior flank segments in females, a short but high antirostrum of the otolith that has a wide excisura, and a ventral rim with some small, drop-like processes, and 19 molecular apomorphies (17 transitions, two transversions) in the cytochrome b gene. It was suggested based on the phylogenetic analysis that the new species is sister to Aphanius sophiae from the Kor River and that Aphanius farsicus from the Maharlu Lake basin is sister to Aphanius arakensis plus Aphanius sophiae. A noticeable feature of the Aphanius diversity in Iran is the conservatism of the external morphology as well as morphometric and meristic characters, while distinctive differences are present in genetic characters, otolith morphology, and male color pattern. Transformation of the latter was probably driven by sexual selection.

  10. Great Apes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeman, Jonathan M.; Cerveny, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    Anesthesia of great apes is often necessary to conduct diagnostic analysis, provide therapeutics, facilitate surgical procedures, and enable transport and translocation for conservation purposes. Due to the stress of remote delivery injection of anesthetic agents, recent studies have focused on oral delivery and/or transmucosal absorption of preanesthetic and anesthetic agents. Maintenance of the airway and provision of oxygen is an important aspect of anesthesia in great ape species. The provision of analgesia is an important aspect of the anesthesia protocol for any procedure involving painful stimuli. Opioids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are often administered alone, or in combination to provide multi-modal analgesia. There is increasing conservation management of in situ great ape populations, which has resulted in the development of field anesthesia techniques for free-living great apes for the purposes of translocation, reintroduction into the wild, and clinical interventions.

  11. Curimata punctata, a new uniquely pigmented species of curimatid from the Marowijne river basin of Surinam and French Guiana (Pisces, Characiformes)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vari, Richard P.; Nijssen, Han

    1986-01-01

    A new species of curimatid characiform, Curimata punctata, from the Marowijne River basin of Surinam and French Guiana is described and illustrated. The distinctive pattern of three to six dark midlateral spots on the body distinguishes the species from all other members of the family.

  12. Two new species of nematodes (Nematoda) from highly mineralized rivers of Lake El'ton basin, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusakov, Vladimir A; Gagarin, Vladimir G

    2016-09-05

    Two new nematode species, Mesodorylaimus rivalis sp. n. and Allodiplogaster media sp. n., from the highly mineralized rivers of the El'ton Lake basin (Russia) are described and illustrated from numerous mature females and males. Mesodorylaimus rivalis sp. n. is similar to M. vulvapapillatus Bagaturia & Eliava, 1966, but differs from it in the longer body, shorter spicules and longer female prerectum. Allodiplogaster media sp. n. resembles A. lupata (Shoshin, 1989) Kanzaki, Ragsdale & Giblin-Davis, 2014 and A. mordax (Shoshin, 1989) Kanzaki, Ragsdale & Giblin-Davis, 2014, but differs from the first species in having a shorter pharynx, shorter outer labial setae, longer spicules and different ratio between anterior and posterior pharynx sections, and from A. mordax in the thinner body, shorter pharynx and longer spicules.

  13. Soil-water flux in the southern Great Basin, United States: temporal and spatial variations over the last 120,000 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyler, S.W.; Chapman, J.B.; Conrad, S.H.; Hammermeister, D.P.; Blout, D.O.; Miller, J.J.; Sully, M.J.; Ginanni, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    The disposal of hazardous and radioactive waste in arid regions requires a thorough understanding of the occurrence of soil-water flux and recharge. Soil-water chemistry and isotopic data are presented from three deep vadose zone boreholes (> 230 m) at the Nevada Test Site, located in the Great Basin geographic province of the southwestern United States, to quantify soil-water flux and its relation to climate. The low water contents found in the soils significantly reduce the mixing of tracers in the subsurface and provide a unique opportunity to examine the role of climate variation on recharge in arid climates. Tracing techniques and core data are examined in this work to reconstruct the paleohydrologic conditions existing in the vadose zone well beyond the timescales typically investigated. Stable chloride and chlorine 36 profiles indicate that the soil waters deep in the vadose zone range in age from approximately 20,000 to 120,000 years. Secondary chloride bulges that are present in two of the three profiles support the concept of recharge occurring at or near the last two glacial maxima, when the climate of the area was considerably wetter and cooler. The stable isotopic composition of the soil water in the profiles is significantly more depleted in heavy isotopes than is modern precipitation, suggesting that recharge under the current climate is not occurring at this arid site. Past and present recharge appears to have been strongly controlled by surface topography, with increased incidence of recharge where runoff from the surrounding mountains may have been concentrated. The data obtained from this detailed drilling and sampling program shed new light on the behavior of water in thick vadose zones and, in particular, show the sensitivity of arid regions to the extreme variations in climate experienced by the region over the last two glacial maxima

  14. Environmental conditions and microbial community structure during the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event; a multi-disciplinary study from the Canning Basin, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaak, Gemma; Edwards, Dianne S.; Foster, Clinton B.; Pagès, Anais; Summons, Roger E.; Sherwood, Neil; Grice, Kliti

    2017-12-01

    The Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event (GOBE) is regarded as one of the most significant evolutionary events in the history of Phanerozoic life. The present study integrates palynological, petrographic, molecular and stable isotopic (δ13C of biomarkers) analyses of cores from four boreholes that intersected the Goldwyer Formation, Canning Basin, Western Australia, to determine depositional environments and microbial diversity within a Middle Ordovician epicontinental, tropical sea. Data from this study indicate lateral and temporal variations in lipid biomarker assemblages extracted from Goldwyer Formation rock samples. These variations likely reflect changing redox conditions between the upper (Unit 4) and lower (Units 1 + 2) Goldwyer, which is largely consistent with existing depositional models for the Goldwyer Formation. Cryptospores were identified in Unit 4 in the Theia-1 well and are most likely derived from bryophyte-like plants, making this is the oldest record of land plants in Australian Middle Ordovician strata. Biomarkers in several samples from Unit 4 that also support derivation from terrestrial organic matter include benzonaphthofurans and δ13C-depleted mid-chain n-alkanes. Typical Ordovician marine organisms including acritarchs, chitinozoans, conodonts and graptolites were present in the lower and upper Goldwyer Formation, whereas the enigmatic organism Gloeocapsomorpha prisca (G. prisca) was only detected in Unit 4. The correlation of a strong G. prisca biosignature with high 3-methylhopane indices and 13C depleted G. prisca-derived chemical fossils (biomarkers) is interpreted to suggest an ecological relationship between methanotrophs and G. prisca. This research contributes to a greater understanding of Ordovician marine environments from a molecular perspective since few biomarker studies have been undertaken on age-equivalent sections. Furthermore, the identification of the oldest cryptospores in Australia and their corresponding

  15. Real-Time Monitoring of Mountain Conifer Growth Response to Seasonal Climate and the Summer Monsoon in the Great Basin of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strachan, S.; Biondi, F.

    2013-12-01

    Tree rings in the American intermountain west are often used for palaeoclimatic purposes, including reconstructions of precipitation, temperature, and drought. Specific seasonal phenomena such as the North American Monsoon (NAM) are also being identified in tree-ring studies as being related to certain growth features in the rings (such as early-onset 'false' latewood). These relationships have historically been developed using statistical relationships between tree-ring chronologies and regional weather observations. In zones near the periphery of the NAM, summertime precipitation may be more sporadic, yet localized vegetation assemblages in the northern Mojave desert and Great Basin regions indicate that these events are still important for some ecosystems which have established in areas where NAM activity is present. Major shifts in NAM behavior in the past may have been recorded by tree rings, and identifying the specific mechanisms/circumstances by which this occurs is critical for efforts seeking to model ecosystem response to climate changes. By establishing in-situ monitoring of climate/weather, soils, and tree-growth variables in Pinus ponderosa scopulorum and Pinus monophylla zones at study sites in eastern/southern Nevada, we are able to address these issues at very fine spatial and temporal scales. Data from two seasons of monitoring precipitation, solar radiation, air temperature, soil temperature, soil water content, tree sap flow, tree radial distance increment, and hourly imagery are presented. Point dendrometers along with sap flow sensors monitor growth in these ponderosa pine around the clock to help researchers understand tree-ring/climate relationships.

  16. REPTILE SPECIES COMPOSITION IN THE MIDDLE GURGUÉIA AND COMPARISON WITH INVENTORIES IN THE EASTERN PARNAÍBA RIVER BASIN, STATE OF PIAUÍ, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLÁUDIA RENATA MADELLA-AURICCHIO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The reptile diversity of the Middle Gurguéia River Basin in southern Piauí, Brazil, is little known. The rapid expansion of agriculture in the region is converting the Cerrado and Caatinga into large farming areas, which threatens biodiversity and hastens its loss. In this study, 68 specimens of reptiles from a university collection were examined, comprising 29 species: ten lizards, one amphisbaenian, 15 snakes, two turtles and one crocodilian. They were collected from five locations in the Middle Gurguéia Basin, a region not previously evaluated for reptiles. The most abundant species is a member of Tropidurus. Comparison with eight other areas in the eastern Parnaíba Basin indicated that the diversity of reptiles in the Middle Gurguéia is similar to that in other Caatinga-Cerrado ecotone areas. The reptile assemblage in the eastern Parnaíba Basin comprises 100 species of reptiles: 39 lizards, five amphisbaenians, 50 snakes, four chelonians and two crocodilians. This study expanded the known distributions of some reptiles and recorded the first occurrence of Helicops leopardinus (Schlegel, 1837 for Piauí. A cluster analysis showed that the reptile composition concords with the habitat where species were found, i.e. Cerrado, Caatinga or ecotone. Studies that associate habitat structure with each species are essential to propose efficient strategies for reptile management and conservation for the entire Parnaíba River Basin, mostly in areas that are not yet protected.

  17. Competitive effects of introduced annual weeds on some native and reclamation species in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, E.B.; Knight, D.H.

    1980-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to examine the competitive effects of introduced annual weeds on certain native and reclamation species. The first experiment was initiated by discing three sites in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, at three distances from introduced weed seed sources. Introduced weed colonization was greatest when a seed source was located nearby. Higher weed cover resulted in reductions of percent cover, density, and richness of the native species. The second experiment was conducted in the greenhouse and was designed to determine if there are changes in response of S. kali and the native grasses Agropyron smithii and Bouteloua gracilis to competition and water regime. Both grass species had lower biomass and higher stomatal resistance when growing in mixed culture with S. kali than in pure culture in the dry regime, but there were no significant differences in the wet regime. In general, the difference in plant response between mixed and pure cultures was more pronounced in the dry than in the wet regime. The third study was a greenhouse experiment on germination and competition of S. kali (a C/sub 4/ species) with native species Lepidium densiflorum (C/sub 3/), Chenopodium pratericola (C/sub 3/), A. smithii (C/sub 3/), and B. gracilis (C/sub 4/) under May, June, and July temperature regimes. Salsola kali germinated equally well in all three regimes, but the other C/sub 4/ species had highest germination in the July regime and the C/sub 3/ species in the May and June regimes. The fourth study was designed to examine the effect of weed colonization on the success of mine reclamation. Little effect was observed, but colonization by introduced annuals was very low. (ERB)

  18. A new pale-spotted species of Hypostomus Lacépède (Siluriformes: Loricariidae from the rio Tocantins and rio Xingu basins in central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio H. Zawadzki

    Full Text Available A new species of the genus Hypostomus Lacépède (Siluriformes, Loricariidae from rio Tocantins and rio Xingu basins in central Brazil, is described. The new species is distinguished from its congeners by a unique combination of pale blotches over a darker background on head, body and fins, and conspicuous keels on head, predorsal region and lateral plates. Comments on the pale-spotted species of Hypostomus are provided.

  19. Chemical Composition of Water Soluble Inorganic Species in Precipitation at Shihwa Basin, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Myung Park

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Weekly rain samples were collected in coastal areas of the Shihwa Basin (Korea from June 2000 to November 2007. The study region includes industrial, rural, and agricultural areas. Wet precipitation was analyzed for conductivity, pH, Cl−, NO3−, SO42−, Na+, K+, Mg2+, NH4+, and Ca2+. The major components of precipitation in the Shihwa Basin were NH4+, volume-weighted mean (VWM of 44.6 µeq∙L−1, representing 43% of all cations, and SO42−, with the highest concentration among the anions (55% at all stations. The pH ranged from 3.4 to 7.7 with a VMM of 4.84. H+ was weakly but positively correlated with SO42− (r = 0.39, p < 0.001 and NO3− (r = 0.38, p < 0.001. About 66% of the acidity was neutralized by NH4+ and Ca2+. The Cl−/Na+ ratio of the precipitation was 37% higher than seawater Cl−/Na+. The high SO42−/NO3− ratio of 2.3 is attributed to the influence of the surrounding industrial sources. Results from positive matrix factorization showed that the precipitation chemistry in Shihwa Basin was influenced by secondary nitrate and sulfate (41% ± 1.1%, followed by sea salt and Asian dust, contributing 23% ± 3.9% and 17% ± 0.2%, respectively. In this study, the annual trends of SO42− and NO3− (p < 0.05 increased, different from the trends in some locations, due to the influence of the expanding power generating facilities located in the upwind area. The increasing trends of SO42− and NO3− in the study region have important implications for reducing air pollution in accordance with national energy policy.

  20. Three new species of the armored catfish genus Loricaria (Siluriformes: Loricariidae from river channels of the Amazon basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R. Thomas

    Full Text Available Three new species of Loricaria are described from large white- and black-water river channels of the Amazon basin of Brazil, the upper rio Negro drainage of southern Venezuela, and clear waters of the lower rio Tocantins. Loricaria spinulifera and L. pumila differ from other species of Loricaria by having unique patterns of abdominal plate development and hypertrophied odontodes forming conspicuous crests on dorsal surfaces of the head and predorsal plates. Both are small species of Loricaria, reaching sexual maturity at less than 120 mm SL, and exhibiting sexually dimorphic characters consistent with members of the L. cataphracta complex. Loricaria spinulifera differs from L. pumila in having a unique arrangement of buccal papillae and large thorn-like odontodes on the dorsum of the head. Loricaria pumila is the smallest known Loricaria, reaching sexual maturity at less than 80 mm SL. Loricaria lundbergi differs from other Loricaria by having a unique abdominal plate pattern, broad head, and small basicaudal plate. Loricaria lundbergi is sympatric with L. spinulifera in the lower rio Negro drainage, but is also known from the rio Baria system of the Casiquiare drainage. Loricaria pumila occurs in the lower rio Amazonas and lower rio Tocantins. All three new species exhibit varying degrees of reduction in eye size and pigmentation seen in other fishes inhabiting deep river channels of South America.

  1. A new species of the Hypostomus cochliodongroup (Siluriformes: Loricariidae from the rio Aripuanã basin in Brazil

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    Cláudio H. Zawadzki

    Full Text Available A new species of Hypostomus, H. dardanelos, is described from the rio Aripuanã basin, a southern tributary to the rio Madeira, in northern Mato Grosso State, Brazil. The new species is assigned to the Hypostomus cochliodon group by the possession of few teeth, spoon-shaped teeth, angle between dentaries usually less than 80°, and by the absence of a notch between hyomandibular and the metapterygoid. The new species can be diagnosed from its congeners by its unique color pattern of yellowish-brown ground color covered by well-defined dark spots of relatively equal size, evenly spaced and moderately set along the dorsal region of the body and fins, except on the ventrolateral region of the caudal peduncle and proximal region of anal and caudal fins, which are devoid of spots. The new species is further diagnosed by having teeth with very small lateral cusp, fused to the mesial one and almost imperceptible; by the absence of medial buccal papillae, and by nuptial odontodes all along the body (odontodes more pronounced in some few larger specimens.

  2. Role of climate and invasive species in structuring trout distributions in the interior Columbia River Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Seth J.; Isaak, Daniel J.; Dunham, Jason B.; Fausch, Kurt D.; Luce, Charles H.; Neville, Helen M.; Rieman, Bruce E.; Young, Michael K.; Nagel, David E.; Horan, Dona L.; Chandler, Gwynne L.

    2011-01-01

    Recent and projected climate warming trends have prompted interest in impacts on coldwater fishes. We examined the role of climate (temperature and flow regime) relative to geomorphology and land use in determining the observed distributions of three trout species in the interior Columbia River Basin, USA. We considered two native species, cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii) and bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), as well as nonnative brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis). We also examined the response of the native species to the presence of brook trout. Analyses were conducted using multilevel logistic regression applied to a geographically broad database of 4165 fish surveys. The results indicated that bull trout distributions were strongly related to climatic factors, and more weakly related to the presence of brook trout and geomorphic variables. Cutthroat trout distributions were weakly related to climate but strongly related to the presence of brook trout. Brook trout distributions were related to both climate and geomorphic variables, including proximity to unconfined valley bottoms. We conclude that brook trout and bull trout are likely to be adversely affected by climate warming, whereas cutthroat trout may be less sensitive. The results illustrate the importance of considering species interactions and flow regime alongside temperature in understanding climate effects on fish.

  3. Two new species of Indigofera L. (Leguminosae) from the Sneeuberg Centre of Floristic Endemism, Great Escarpment (Eastern and Western Cape, South Africa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, V Ralph; Schrire, Brian D; Barker, Nigel P

    2015-01-01

    Two new species of Indigofera L. (Leguminosae) are described from the Sneeuberg Centre of Floristic Endemism on the southern Great Escarpment, Eastern and Western Cape Provinces, South Africa. Both species are localised high-altitude endemics. Indigoferamagnifica Schrire & V.R. Clark is confined to the summit plateau of the Toorberg-Koudeveldberg-Meelberg west of Graaff-Reinet, and complements other western Sneeuberg endemics such as Ericapasserinoides (Bolus) E.G.H. Oliv. and Faurearecondita Rourke & V.R. Clark. Indigoferaasantasanensis Schrire & V.R. Clark is confined to a small area east of Graaff-Reinet, and complements several other eastern Sneeuberg endemics such as Euryopsexsudans B. Nord & V.R. Clark and Euryopsproteoides B. Nord. & V.R. Clark. Based on morphology, both new species belong to the Cape Clade of Indigofera, supporting a biogeographical link between the Cape Floristic Region and the Sneeuberg, as well as with the rest of the eastern Great Escarpment.

  4. Description of a new species of Microglanis (Siluriformes: Pseudopimelodidae from the Amazon basin, Amazonas State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Ribeiro Jarduli

    Full Text Available The first species of Microglanis from the rio Amazonas, Amazonas State, Brazil is described. This species differs from all congeners by the forked caudal fin, and color pattern of the supraoccipital region consisting of two elliptical and juxtaposed pale spots, besides a combination of morphometrics characters.

  5. Trichoderma amazonicum, a new endophytic species on Hevea brasiliensis and H. guianensis from the Amazon basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new species of Trichoderma (teleomorph Hypocrea, Ascomycota, Sordariomycetes, Hypocreales, Hypocreaceae), T. amazonicum, endophytic on the living sapwood and leaves of Hevea spp. trees is described. Trichoderma amazonicum is distinguished from closely related species in the Harzianum clade (e.g. ...

  6. New species from family Gasterosteidae in ichthyofauna of the Caspian Sea basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Shikhshabekov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available There is described a new genus and species - Gasterosteus Aculeatus for the Dagestan part of the Middle Caspian from the genus Gasterosteus species Aculeatus, which differs from other kinds of family Gasterosteidae by presence of three needles on the back part of the body and by some ecological features. This species is well enough described in other southern reservoirs. In comparison of external attributes of the three-needle stickle-back of the Caspian and other southern reservoirs no special differences are revealed.

  7. A new species of Scinax Wagler, 1830 (Anura: Hylidae from the middle Amazon river basin, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo José Sturaro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new species of the hylid genus Scinax is described and illustrated. The new taxon was found in the Amazonian rainforest of northern Brazil, municipalities of Maués and Careiro da Várzea, state of Amazonas. The new species is characterized by its moderate size (male mean snout-vent length 36.3mm; body robust; large, orange, black-bordered axillary and inguinal spots; and bilobate vocal sac. This new species was found in primary and secondary forest on branches of shrubs or trees in, or next to, permanent ponds and flooded areas.

  8. Ammonia oxidation, denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium in two US Great Basin hot springs with abundant ammonia-oxidizing archaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodsworth, Jeremy A; Hungate, Bruce A; Hedlund, Brian P

    2011-08-01

    Many thermophiles catalyse free energy-yielding redox reactions involving nitrogenous compounds; however, little is known about these processes in natural thermal environments. Rates of ammonia oxidation, denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) were measured in source water and sediments of two ≈ 80°C springs in the US Great Basin. Ammonia oxidation and denitrification occurred mainly in sediments. Ammonia oxidation rates measured using (15)N-NO(3)(-) pool dilution ranged from 5.5 ± 0.8 to 8.6 ± 0.9 nmol N g(-1) h(-1) and were unaffected or only mildly stimulated by amendment with NH(4) Cl. Denitrification rates measured using acetylene block ranged from 15.8 ± 0.7 to 51 ± 12 nmol N g(-1) h(-1) and were stimulated by amendment with NO(3)(-) and complex organic compounds. The DNRA rate in one spring sediment measured using an (15)N-NO(3)(-) tracer was 315 ± 48 nmol N g(-1) h(-1). Both springs harboured distinct planktonic and sediment microbial communities. Close relatives of the autotrophic, ammonia-oxidizing archaeon 'Candidatus Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii' represented the most abundant OTU in both spring sediments by 16S rRNA gene pyrotag analysis. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) indicated that 'Ca. N. yellowstonii'amoA and 16S rRNA genes were present at 3.5-3.9 × 10(8) and 6.4-9.0 × 10(8) copies g(-1) sediment. Potential denitrifiers included members of the Aquificales and Thermales. Thermus spp. comprised <1% of 16S rRNA gene pyrotags in both sediments and qPCR for T. thermophilus narG revealed sediment populations of 1.3-1.7 × 10(6) copies g(-1) sediment. These data indicate a highly active nitrogen cycle (N-cycle) in these springs and suggest that ammonia oxidation may be a major source of energy fuelling primary production. © 2011 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Hydrologic models of modern and fossil geothermal systems in the Great Basin: Genetic implications for epithermal Au-Ag and Carlin-type gold deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, M.; Banerjee, A.; Hofstra, A.; Sweetkind, D.; Gao, Y.

    2008-01-01

    The Great Basin region in the western United States contains active geothermal systems, large epithermal Au-Ag deposits, and world-class Carlin-type gold deposits. Temperature profiles, fluid inclusion studies, and isotopic evidence suggest that modern and fossil hydrothermal systems associated with gold mineralization share many common features, including the absence of a clear magmatic fluid source, discharge areas restricted to fault zones, and remarkably high temperatures (>200 ??C) at shallow depths (200-1500 m). While the plumbing of these systems varies, geochemical and isotopic data collected at the Dixie Valley and Beowawe geothermal systems suggest that fluid circulation along fault zones was relatively deep (>5 km) and comprised of relatively unexchanged Pleistocene meteoric water with small (horizons. Those with minimal fluid ?? 18O shifts are restricted to high-permeability fault zones and relatively small-scale (???5 km), single-pass flow systems (e.g., Beowawe). Those with intermediate to large isotopic shifts (e.g., epithermal and Carlin-type Au) had larger-scale (???15 km) loop convection cells with a greater component of flow through marine sedimentary rocks at lower water/rock ratios and greater endowments of gold. Enthalpy calculations constrain the duration of Carlin-type gold systems to probably account for the amount of silica in the sinter deposits. In the Carlin trend, fluid circulation extended down into Paleozoic siliciclastic rocks, which afforded more mixing with isotopically enriched higher enthalpy fluids. Computed fission track ages along the Carlin trend included the convective effects, and ranged between 91.6 and 35.3 Ma. Older fission track ages occurred in zones of groundwater recharge, and the younger ages occurred in discharge areas. This is largely consistent with fission track ages reported in recent studies. We found that either an amagmatic system with more permeable faults (10-11 m2) or a magmatic system with less

  10. Hydrologic Impacts Associated with the Increased Role of Wildland Fire Across the Rangeland-Xeric Forest Continuum of the Great Basin and Intermountain West, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C. J.; Pierson, F. B.; Robichaud, P. R.; Boll, J.; Al-Hamdan, O. Z.

    2011-12-01

    The increased role of wildland fire across the rangeland-xeric forest continuum in the western United States (US) presents landscape-scale consequences relative runoff and erosion. Concomitant climate conditions and altered plant community transitions in recent decades along grassland-shrubland-woodland-xeric forest transitions have promoted frequent and large wildland fires, and the continuance of the trend appears likely if current or warming climate conditions prevail. Much of the Great Basin and Intermountain West in the US now exists in a state in which rangeland and woodland wildfires stimulated by invasive cheatgrass and dense, horizontal and vertical fuel layers have a greater likelihood of progressing upslope into xeric forests. Drier moisture conditions and warmer seasonal air temperatures, along with dense fuel loads, have lengthened fire seasons and facilitated an increase in the frequency, severity and area burned in mid-elevation western US forests. These changes potentially increase the overall hydrologic vulnerability across the rangeland-xeric forest continuum by spatially and temporally increasing soil surface exposure to runoff and erosion processes. Plot-to-hillslope scale studies demonstrate burning may increase event runoff and/or erosion by factors of 2-40 over small-plots scales and more than 100-fold over large-plot to hillslope scales. Anecdotal reports of large-scale flooding and debris-flow events from rangelands and xeric forests following burning document the potential risk to resources (soil loss, water quality, degraded aquatic habitat, etc.), property and infrastructure, and human life. Such risks are particularly concerning for urban centers near the urban-wildland interface. We do not yet know the long-term ramifications of frequent soil loss associated with commonly occurring runoff events on repeatedly burned sites. However, plot to landscape-scale post-fire erosion rate estimates suggest potential losses of biologically

  11. Uranium resources in fine-grained carbonaceous rocks of the Great Divide Basin, south-central Wyoming. National Uranium Resource Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, J.A.; Roe, L.M. II; Hacke, C.M.; Mosher, M.M.

    1982-11-01

    The uranium resources of the fine-grained carbonaceous rocks of the Great Divide Basin in southern Wyoming were assessed. The assessment was based primarily on data from some 600 boreholes. The data included information from geophysical logs, lithologic logs and cores, and drill cuttings. The cores and cuttings were analyzed for chemical U 3 O 8 , radiometric U, Th and trace elements. Selected samples were examined by thin section, sieve analysis, x-ray, SEM, ion probe, and alpha track methods. The uranium is associated with fine-grained carbonaceous shales, siltstones, mudstones, and coals in radioactive zones 5 to 50 ft thick that are continuous over broad areas. These rocks have a limited stratigraphic range between the Red Desert tongue of the Wasatch Formation and the lower part of the Tipton tongue of the Green River Formation. Most of this uranium is syngenetic in origin, in part from the chelation of the uranium by organic material in lake-side swamps and in part as uranium in very fine detrital heavy minerals. The uraniferous fine-grained carbonaceous rocks that exceed a cutoff grade of 100 ppM eU 3 O 8 extend over an area of 542 mi 2 and locally to a depth of approximately 2000 ft. The uraniferous area is roughly ellipical and embraces the zone of change between the piedmont and alluvial-fan facies and the lacustrine facies of the intertonguing Battle Spring, Wasatch, and Green River Formations. About 1.05 x 10 6 tons U 3 O 8 , based on gross-gamma logs not corrected for thorium, are assigned to the area in the first 500 ft; an estimated 3.49 x 10 6 tons are assigned to a depth of 1000 ft. These units also contain a substantial thorium resource that is also associated with fine-grained rocks. The thorium-to-uranium ratio generally ranges between 1 and 4. A thorium resource of 3.43 x 10 6 tons to a depth of 500 ft is estimated for the assessment area. 5 figures, 3 tables

  12. Advancing the science of microbial symbiosis to support invasive species management: a case study on Phragmites in the Great Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Kurt P; Bacon, Charles; Bickford, Wesley; Braun, Heather; Clay, Keith; Leduc-Lapierre, Michèle; Lillard, Elizabeth; McCormick, Melissa K; Nelson, Eric; Torres, Monica; White, James; Wilcox, Douglas A

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of literature supports microbial symbiosis as a foundational principle for the competitive success of invasive plant species. Further exploration of the relationships between invasive species and their associated microbiomes, as well as the interactions with the microbiomes of native species, can lead to key new insights into invasive success and potentially new and effective control approaches. In this manuscript, we review microbial relationships with plants, outline steps necessary to develop invasive species control strategies that are based on those relationships, and use the invasive plant species Phragmites australis (common reed) as an example of how development of microbial-based control strategies can be enhanced using a collective impact approach. The proposed science agenda, developed by the Collaborative for Microbial Symbiosis and Phragmites Management, contains a foundation of sequential steps and mutually-reinforcing tasks to guide the development of microbial-based control strategies for Phragmites and other invasive species. Just as the science of plant-microbial symbiosis can be transferred for use in other invasive species, so too can the model of collective impact be applied to other avenues of research and management.

  13. Advancing the science of microbial symbiosis to support invasive species management: a case study on Phragmites in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Kurt P.; Bacon, Charles R.; Bickford, Wesley A.; Braun, Heather A.; Clay, Keith; Leduc-Lapierre, Michele; Lillard, Elizabeth; McCormick, Melissa K.; Nelson, Eric; Torres, Monica; White, James W. C.; Wilcox, Douglas A.

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of literature supports microbial symbiosis as a foundational principle for the competitive success of invasive plant species. Further exploration of the relationships between invasive species and their associated microbiomes, as well as the interactions with the microbiomes of native species, can lead to key new insights into invasive success and potentially new and effective control approaches. In this manuscript, we review microbial relationships with plants, outline steps necessary to develop invasive species control strategies that are based on those relationships, and use the invasive plant species Phragmites australis (common reed) as an example of how development of microbial-based control strategies can be enhanced using a collective impact approach. The proposed science agenda, developed by the Collaborative for Microbial Symbiosis andPhragmites Management, contains a foundation of sequential steps and mutually-reinforcing tasks to guide the development of microbial-based control strategies for Phragmites and other invasive species. Just as the science of plant-microbial symbiosis can be transferred for use in other invasive species, so too can the model of collective impact be applied to other avenues of research and management.

  14. HYPERSPECTRAL REMOTE SENSING, GPS, AND GIS APPLICATIONS IN OPPORTUNISTIC PLANT SPECIES MONITORING OF GREAT LAKES COASTAL WETLANDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coastal wetlands of the Laurentian Great Lakes (LGL) are among the most fragmented and disturbed ecosystems of the world, with a long history of human-induced disturbance. LGL wetlands have undergone losses in the biological diversity that coincides with an increase in the presen...

  15. Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edsall, Thomas A.; Mac, Michael J.; Opler, Paul A.; Puckett Haecker, Catherine E.; Doran, Peter D.

    1998-01-01

    The Great Lakes region, as defined here, includes the Great Lakes and their drainage basins in Minnesota, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New York. The region also includes the portions of Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the 21 northernmost counties of Illinois that lie in the Mississippi River drainage basin, outside the floodplain of the river. The region spans about 9º of latitude and 20º of longitude and lies roughly halfway between the equator and the North Pole in a lowland corridor that extends from the Gulf of Mexico to the Arctic Ocean.The Great Lakes are the most prominent natural feature of the region (Fig. 1). They have a combined surface area of about 245,000 square kilometers and are among the largest, deepest lakes in the world. They are the largest single aggregation of fresh water on the planet (excluding the polar ice caps) and are the only glacial feature on Earth visible from the surface of the moon (The Nature Conservancy 1994a).The Great Lakes moderate the region’s climate, which presently ranges from subarctic in the north to humid continental warm in the south (Fig. 2), reflecting the movement of major weather masses from the north and south (U.S. Department of the Interior 1970; Eichenlaub 1979). The lakes act as heat sinks in summer and heat sources in winter and are major reservoirs that help humidify much of the region. They also create local precipitation belts in areas where air masses are pushed across the lakes by prevailing winds, pick up moisture from the lake surface, and then drop that moisture over land on the other side of the lake. The mean annual frost-free period—a general measure of the growing-season length for plants and some cold-blooded animals—varies from 60 days at higher elevations in the north to 160 days in lakeshore areas in the south. The climate influences the general distribution of wild plants and animals in the region and also influences the activities and distribution of the human

  16. Attenuation of landscape signals through the coastal zone: A basin-wide analysis for the US Great Lakes shoreline, circa 2002-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    We compare statistical models developed to describe a) the relationship between watershed properties and Great Lakes coastal wetlands with b) the relationship developed between watershed properties and the Great Lakes nearshore. Using landscape metrics from the GLEI project (Dan...

  17. Strains of bacterial species induce a greatly varied acute adaptive immune response: The contribution of the accessory genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uri Sela

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental question in human susceptibility to bacterial infections is to what extent variability is a function of differences in the pathogen species or in individual humans. To focus on the pathogen species, we compared in the same individual the human adaptive T and B cell immune response to multiple strains of two major human pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. We found wide variability in the acute adaptive immune response induced by various strains of a species, with a unique combination of activation within the two arms of the adaptive response. Further, this was also accompanied by a dramatic difference in the intensity of the specific protective T helper (Th response. Importantly, the same immune response differences induced by the individual strains were maintained across multiple healthy human donors. A comparison of isogenic phage KO strains, demonstrated that of the pangenome, prophages were the major contributor to inter-strain immune heterogeneity, as the T cell response to the remaining "core genome" was noticeably blunted. Therefore, these findings extend and modify the notion of an adaptive response to a pathogenic bacterium, by implying that the adaptive immune response signature of a bacterial species should be defined either per strain or alternatively to the species' 'core genome', common to all of its strains. Further, our results demonstrate that the acquired immune response variation is as wide among different strains within a single pathogenic species as it is among different humans, and therefore may explain in part the clinical heterogeneity observed in patients infected with the same species.

  18. Comparative cytogenetics of some marsupial species (Didelphimorphia, Didelphidae from the Amazon basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Faresin e Silva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the karyotype of 18 didelphid species captured at 13 localities in the Brazilian Amazon, after conventional staining, C-banding, Ag-NOR and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH using the 18S rDNA probe. Variations were found in the X chromosome, heterochromatin distribution and the 18S rDNA sequence. The main variation observed was in the position of the centromere in the X chromosome of Caluromys philander Linnaeus, 1758 and Marmosa murina Linnaeus, 1758. For both species, the X chromosome showed a geographical segregation in the pattern of variation between eastern and western Brazil, with a possible contact area in the central Amazon. C-banding on the X chromosome revealed two patterns for the species of Marmosops Matschie, 1916, apparently without geographic or specific relationships. The nucleolus organizer region (NOR of all species was confirmed with the 18S rDNA probe, except on the Y chromosome of Monodelphis touan Shaw, 1800. The distribution of this marker varied only in the genus Marmosa Gray, 1821 [M. murina Thomas, 1905 and M. demerarae Thomas, 1905]. Considering that simple NORs are seen as a plesiomorphic character, we conclude that the species Marmosa spp. and Didelphis marsupialis Linnaeus, 1758 evolved independently to the multiple condition. By increasing the sample, using chromosomal banding, and FISH, we verified that marsupials present intra- and interspecific chromosomal variations, which suggests the occurrence of frequent chromosomal rearrangements in the evolution of this group. This observation contrasts with the chromosomal conservatism expected for didelphids.

  19. Karyotypic similarities between two species of Rhamphichthys (Rhamphichthyidae, Gymnotiformes from the Amazon basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Silva

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The family Rhamphichthyidae includes three genera: Rhamphichthys Müller et Troschel, 1846, Gymnorhamphichthys M. M. Ellis, 1912 and Iracema Triques, 1996. From this family, only the species Rhamphichthys hanni Meinken, 1937 has had its karyotype described. Here, we describe the karyotypes of two additional Rhamphichthys species: R. marmoratus Castelnau, 1855 from the Reserva de Desenvolvimento Sustentável Mamirauá, Amazonas state and R. prope rostratus Linnaeus, 1766 from Pará state, both in Brazil. Our karyotypic analyses demonstrated that the diploid number is conserved for the genus (2n = 50, but the karyotypic formulas (KFs differed between R. marmoratus (44m/sm+6a and R. prope rostratus (42m/sm+8a. In both species, the constitutive heterochromatin (CH was located in the centromeric region of most chromosomes. Large heterochromatic blocks were found on the long arms of pairs 4 and 14 in R. marmoratus and on chromosomes 3, 4 and 19 in R. prope rostratus, which also has a heteromorphism in chromosome pair 1. The CH was DAPI positive, indicating that it is rich in AT base pairs. The Nucleolus Organizer Region (NOR showed staining at a single location in both species: the long arm of pair 1 in R. marmoratus and the long arm of pair 12 in R. prope rostratus, where it showed a size heteromorphism. CMA3 staining coincided with that of Ag-NOR, indicating that the ribosomal genes contain interspaced GC-rich sequences. FISH with an 18S rDNA probe confirmed that there is only one NOR site in each species. These results can be used as potential cytogenetic markers for fish populations, and comparative analysis of the karyotypes of Hypopygus Hoedman, 1962, Rhamphichthys and Steatogenys Boulenger, 1898 suggests that the first two genera diverged later that the third.

  20. Biotic diversity interfaces with urbanization in the Lake Tahoe basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia N. Manley; Dennis D. Murphy; Lori A. Campbell; Kirsten E. Heckmann; Susan Merideth; Sean A. Parks; Monte P. Sanford; Matthew D. Schlesinger

    2006-01-01

    In the Lake Tahoe Basin, the retention of native ecosystems within urban areas may greatly enhance the landscape’s ability to maintain biotic diversity. Our study of plant, invertebrate and vertebrate species showed that many native species were present in remnant forest stands in developed areas; however, their richness and abundance declined in association with...

  1. Cross-scale modelling of alien and native vascular plant species richness in Great Britain: where is geodiversity information most relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Joseph; Field, Richard; Boyd, Doreen

    2016-04-01

    We assess the scale-dependency of the relationship between biodiversity and novel geodiversity information by studying spatial patterns of native and alien (archaeophytes and neophytes) vascular plant species richness at varying spatial scales across Great Britain. Instead of using a compound geodiversity metric, we study individual geodiversity components (GDCs) to advance our understanding of which aspects of 'geodiversity' are most important and at what scale. Terrestrial native (n = 1,490) and alien (n = 1,331) vascular plant species richness was modelled across the island of Great Britain at two grain sizes and several extent radii. Various GDCs (landforms, hydrology, geology) were compiled from existing national datasets and automatically extracted landform coverage information (e.g. hollows, valleys, peaks), the latter using a digital elevation model (DEM) and geomorphometric techniques. More traditional predictors of species richness (climate, widely-used topography metrics, land cover diversity, and human population) were also incorporated. Boosted Regression Tree (BRT) models were produced at all grain sizes and extents for each species group and the dominant predictors were assessed. Models with and without geodiversity data were compared. Overarching patterns indicated a clear dominance of geodiversity information at the smallest study extent (12.5km radius) and finest grain size (1x1km), which substantially decreased for each increase in extent as the contribution of climatic variables increased. The contribution of GDCs to biodiversity models was chiefly driven by landform information from geomorphometry, but hydrology (rivers and lakes), and to a lesser extent materials (soil, superficial deposits, and geology), were important, also. GDCs added significantly to vascular plant biodiversity models in Great Britain, independently of widely-used topographic metrics, particularly for native species. The wider consideration of geodiversity alongside

  2. A new species of Hypostomus Lacépède, 1803 (Siluriformes: Loricariidae from the upper rio Paraná basin, Southern Brazil

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    Fernando C. Jerep

    Full Text Available A new species of Hypostomus with large and spaced light roundish spots is described from the upper rio Paraná basin. Hypostomus multidens new species is distinguished from all remaining congeners with light spots on a darker background by two independent characters: the presence of teeth with two symmetrical cusps, and a high tooth number in each dentary (122267, mean 196.8 and premaxilla (115-260, mean 190.8.

  3. Comparison of the Condition Factor of Five Fish Species of the Araguaia River Basin, Central Brazil

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    Bruno Bastos Gonçalves

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to assess the condition factor (K of five fish species (Serrasalmus rhombeus, Psectrogaster amazonica, Loricaria cataphracta, Panaque nigrolineatus and Squaliforma emarginata. Samplings were conducted during the low-water period of 2007 and 2008 using gillnets and minnow traps. All equipments were placed along a stretch of 1000 m at 5 pm and retrieved at 7 am. Collected fish were taxonomically identified, weighed (g and measured (standard length; mm. The fish fitness was assessed by the condition factor (K=W/L³ and compared among groups of tributaries by a Kruskal-Wallis test. From the five species considered, two (S. emarginata and P. amazonica displayed significant differences of the condition factor among the groups of tributaries. The highest values of K correspond to fish located in the headwaters, while lowest values are observed in tributaries located in the floodplain.

  4. Groundwater model of the Great Basin carbonate and alluvial aquifer system version 3.0: Incorporating revisions in southwestern Utah and east central Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Lynette E.

    2017-12-01

    The groundwater model described in this report is a new version of previously published steady-state numerical groundwater flow models of the Great Basin carbonate and alluvial aquifer system, and was developed in conjunction with U.S. Geological Survey studies in Parowan, Pine, and Wah Wah Valleys, Utah. This version of the model is GBCAAS v. 3.0 and supersedes previous versions. The objectives of the model for Parowan Valley were to simulate revised conceptual estimates of recharge and discharge, to estimate simulated aquifer storage properties and the amount of reduction in storage as a result of historical groundwater withdrawals, and to assess reduction in groundwater withdrawals necessary to mitigate groundwater-level declines in the basin. The objectives of the model for the area near Pine and Wah Wah Valleys were to recalibrate the model using new observations of groundwater levels and evapotranspiration of groundwater; to provide new estimates of simulated recharge, hydraulic conductivity, and interbasin flow; and to simulate the effects of proposed groundwater withdrawals on the regional flow system. Meeting these objectives required the addition of 15 transient calibration stress periods and 14 projection stress periods, aquifer storage properties, historical withdrawals in Parowan Valley, and observations of water-level changes in Parowan Valley. Recharge in Parowan Valley and withdrawal from wells in Parowan Valley and two nearby wells in Cedar City Valley vary for each calibration stress period representing conditions from March 1940 to November 2013. Stresses, including recharge, are the same in each stress period as in the steady-state stress period for all areas outside of Parowan Valley. The model was calibrated to transient conditions only in Parowan Valley. Simulated storage properties outside of Parowan Valley were set the same as the Parowan Valley properties and are not considered calibrated. Model observations in GBCAAS v. 3.0 are

  5. Mapping the Wetland Vegetation Communities of the Australian Great Artesian Basin Springs Using SAM, Mtmf and Spectrally Segmented PCA Hyperspectral Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, D. C.; Lewis, M. M.

    2012-07-01

    The Australian Great Artesian Basin (GAB) supports a unique and diverse range of groundwater dependent wetland ecosystems termed GAB springs. In recent decades the ecological sustainability of the springs has become uncertain as demands on this iconic groundwater resource increase. The impacts of existing water extractions for mining and pastoral activities are unknown. This situation is compounded by the likelihood of future increasing demand for extractions. Hyperspectral remote sensing provides the necessary spectral and spatial detail to discriminate wetland vegetation communities. Therefore the objectives of this paper are to discriminate the spatial extent and distribution of key spring wetland vegetation communities associated with the GAB springs evaluating three hyperspectral techniques: Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM), Mixture Tuned Matched Filtering (MTMF) and Spectrally Segmented PCA. In addition, to determine if the hyperspectral techniques developed can be applied at a number of sites representative of the range of spring formations and geomorphic settings and at two temporal intervals. Two epochs of HyMap airborne hyperspectral imagery were captured for this research in March 2009 and April 2011 at a number of sites representative of the floristic and geomorphic diversity of GAB spring groups/complexes within South Australia. Colour digital aerial photography at 30 cm GSD was acquired concurrently with the HyMap imagery. The image acquisition coincided with a field campaign of spectroradiometry measurements and a botanical survey. To identify key wavebands which have the greatest capability to discriminate vegetation communities of the GAB springs and surrounding area three hyperspectral data reduction techniques were employed: (i) Spectrally Segmented PCA (SSPCA); (ii) the Minimum Noise Transform (MNF); and (iii) the Pixel Purity Index (PPI). SSPCA was applied to NDVI-masked vegetation portions of the HyMap imagery with wavelength regions spectrally

  6. Preliminary geochemical assessment of water in selected streams, springs, and caves in the Upper Baker and Snake Creek drainages in Great Basin National Park, Nevada, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Angela P.; Thodal, Carl E.; Baker, Gretchen M.; Lico, Michael S.; Prudic, David E.

    2014-01-01

    Water in caves, discharging from springs, and flowing in streams in the upper Baker and Snake Creek drainages are important natural resources in Great Basin National Park, Nevada. Water and rock samples were collected from 15 sites during February 2009 as part of a series of investigations evaluating the potential for water resource depletion in the park resulting from the current and proposed groundwater withdrawals. This report summarizes general geochemical characteristics of water samples collected from the upper Baker and Snake Creek drainages for eventual use in evaluating possible hydrologic connections between the streams and selected caves and springs discharging in limestone terrain within each watershed.Generally, water discharging from selected springs in the upper Baker and Snake Creek watersheds is relatively young and, in some cases, has similar chemical characteristics to water collected from associated streams. In the upper Baker Creek drainage, geochemical data suggest possible hydrologic connections between Baker Creek and selected springs and caves along it. The analytical results for water samples collected from Wheelers Deep and Model Caves show characteristics similar to those from Baker Creek, suggesting a hydrologic connection between the creek and caves, a finding previously documented by other researchers. Generally, geochemical evidence does not support a connection between water flowing in Pole Canyon Creek to that in Model Cave, at least not to any appreciable extent. The water sample collected from Rosethorn Spring had relatively high concentrations of many of the constituents sampled as part of this study. This finding was expected as the water from the spring travelled through alluvium prior to being discharged at the surface and, as a result, was provided the opportunity to interact with soil minerals with which it came into contact. Isotopic evidence does not preclude a connection between Baker Creek and the water discharging from

  7. Mineral potential modelling of gold and silver mineralization in the Nevada Great Basin - a GIS-based analysis using weights of evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalasky, Mark J.

    2001-01-01

    The distribution of 2,690 gold-silver-bearing occurrences in the Nevada Great Basin was examined in terms of spatial association with various geological phenomena. Analysis of these relationships, using GIS and weights of evidence modelling techniques, has predicted areas of high mineral potential where little or no mining activity exists. Mineral potential maps for sedimentary (?disseminated?) and volcanic (?epithermal?) rock-hosted gold-silver mineralization revealed two distinct patterns that highlight two sets of crustal-scale geologic features that likely control the regional distribution of these deposit types. The weights of evidence method is a probability-based technique for mapping mineral potential using the spatial distribution of known mineral occurrences. Mineral potential maps predicting the distribution of gold-silver-bearing occurrences were generated from structural, geochemical, geomagnetic, gravimetric, lithologic, and lithotectonic-related deposit-indicator factors. The maps successfully predicted nearly 70% of the total number of known occurrences, including ~83% of sedimentary and ~60% of volcanic rock-hosted types. Sedimentary and volcanic rockhosted mineral potential maps showed high spatial correlation (an area cross-tabulation agreement of 85% and 73%, respectively) with expert-delineated mineral permissive tracts. In blind tests, the sedimentary and volcanic rock-hosted mineral potential maps predicted 10 out of 12 and 5 out of 5 occurrences, respectively. The key mineral predictor factors, in order of importance, were determined to be: geology (including lithology, structure, and lithotectonic terrane), geochemistry (indication of alteration), and geophysics. Areas of elevated sedimentary rock-hosted mineral potential are generally confined to central, north-central, and north-eastern Nevada. These areas form a conspicuous ?V?-shape pattern that is coincident with the Battle Mountain-Eureka (Cortez) and Carlin mineral trends and a

  8. Geochemical evidence for groundwater mixing in the western Great Artesian Basin and recognition of deep inputs in continental-scale flow systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossey, L. J.; Karlstrom, K. E.; Love, A.; Priestley, S.; Shand, P.

    2010-12-01

    Mound springs of the western Great Artesian Basin (GAB), Australia, represent a significant proportion of the discharge of the continental-scale confined aquifers of the region. They also provide unique ecological niches, and they are important historical and cultural sites in an austere landscape. Fed by confined aquifers within the GAB, these spring systems are at risk due to anthropogenic drawdown and increasing demand on scarce hydrologic resources. New water and gas geochemical data indicate that they record hydrologic mixing and complex, fault-influenced flow paths within the western GAB. Elevated 3He/4He gas values, termed “xenowhiffs”, with RA up to 0.09 (Bubbler Spring) provide evidence for mantle-derived fluids introduced through fault conduits into the groundwater system in the last several million years and hence an active mantle-to-groundwater fluid linkage. We apply multiple tracers to understand mixing. Major and trace element data show distinctly different water chemistries for Dalhousie versus southern mound springs suggesting different flow paths and mixing proportions. The source of the C for the CO2 -rich springs is evaluated using water chemistry and C-isotope data. Carbon isotope values range from -9 (Bubbler) to -16 (Strangways). Mixing models allow us to distinguish contributions from dissolution of carbonate in the aquifer (Ccarb=Ca+Mg-SO4 and δ13C= 0), from biological/organic sources (δ13C= -28), and from endogenic sources (deeply derived; δ13C= -3). Results show that all of the springs contain appreciable (many > 50%) endogenic CO2, with Dalhousie showing less endogenic CO2 than the southern mound springs and Paralana hot spring system. CO2/3He values of 4 to 8 x 109 (Bubbler and Jersey Springs) are close to MORB end member values of 2 x 109 whereas other springs have values strongly enriched in CO2 (up to 1013 at Elizabeth Spring). Elevated but highly variable 87Sr/86Sr values up to 0.718 at Dalhousie and up to 0.76 at Paralana

  9. A New Species of Tiger Pleco Panaqolus (Siluriformes: Loricariidae from the Xingu Basin, Brazil.

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    Christian Andreas Cramer

    Full Text Available Panaqolus tankei is described from the Xingu River, Brazil. The new species is diagnosed from P. albomaculatus, P. dentex, P. nix, P. nocturnus, and P. koko by its color pattern consisting of dark and light diagonal bars on the body and bands on the fins (vs. body and fins without bars or bands; from P. albivermis, P. maccus, and P. purusiensis by the width of the dark bars being more or less the same of the light bars (vs. dark bars at least two or three times wider than light bars and from P. changae by the absence of vermiculation on the head (vs. vermiculation present on head. The new species differs from P. gnomus by the orientation of the bars from posterodorsal to anteroventral direction (vs. anterodorsal to posteroventral direction, and from P. claustellifer by the orientation of the bands in the dorsal fin that are not parallel to the margin (vs. parallel to the margin. The barcoding region (COI was sequenced for the new species, sequences were deposited in GenBank and were compared with congeners from other drainages. With regard to the current construction of a hydroelectric power plant (a so-called mega dam in the Xingu River, herewith we increase knowledge of the river Xingu's ichthyofauna and, thus improve the assessment of the impacts of that construction on the river.

  10. Differences in demographic traits of four butterflyfish species between two reefs of the Great Barrier Reef separated by 1,200 km

    KAUST Repository

    Berumen, Michael L.

    2011-11-16

    Many species demonstrate variation in life history attributes in response to gradients in environmental conditions. For fishes, major drivers of life history variation are changes in temperature and food availability. This study examined large-scale variation in the demography of four species of butterflyfishes (Chaetodon citrinellus, Chaetodon lunulatus, Chaetodon melannotus, and Chaetodon trifascialis) between two locations on Australia\\'s Great Barrier Reef (Lizard Island and One Tree Island, separated by approximately 1,200 km). Variation in age-based demographic parameters was assessed using the re-parameterised von Bertalanffy growth function. All species displayed measurable differences in body size between locations, with individuals achieving a larger adult size at the higher latitude site (One Tree Island) for three of the four species examined. Resources and abundances of the study species were also measured, revealing some significant differences between locations. For example, for C. trifascialis, there was no difference in its preferred resource or in abundance between locations, yet it achieved a larger body size at the higher latitude location, suggesting a response to temperature. For some species, resources and abundances did vary between locations, limiting the ability to distinguish between a demographic response to temperature as opposed to a response to food or competition. Future studies of life histories and demographics at large spatial scales will need to consider the potentially confounding roles of temperature, resource usage and availability, and abundance/competition to disentangle the effects of these environmental variables. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  11. An endangered new species of seasonal killifish of the genus Austrolebias (Cyprinodontiformes: Aplocheiloidei) from the Bermejo river basin in the Western Chacoan Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Felipe; Terán, Guillermo Enrique; Calviño, Pablo; García, Ignacio; Cardoso, Yamila; García, Graciela

    2018-01-01

    Austrolebias wichi, new species, is herein described from seasonal ponds of the Bermejo river basin in the Western Chacoan district in northwestern Argentina. This species was found in a single pond, a paleochannel of the Bermejo River, which is seriously disturbed by soybean plantations surrounding it. Despite intensive sampling in the area, this species was only registered in this pond where it was relatively scarce. Therefore, we consider this species as critically endangered. This species is the sister species of A. patriciae in our phylogenetic analyses and is similar, in a general external aspect, to A. varzeae and A. carvalhoi. It can be distinguished among the species of Austrolebias by its unique color pattern in males. Additionally, from A. varzeae by presenting a supraorbital band equal or longer than the infraorbital band (vs. shorter) and from A. patriciae by the convex dorsal profile of head (vs. concave). Further diagnostic characters and additional comments on its ecology and reproduction are provided.

  12. Resource implications of listing Columbia River Basin salmon stocks under the endangered species act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velehradsky, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    The Columbia River and Snake River dams and reservoirs provide substantial benefits in the Northwest through their operation for hydropower, flood control, irrigation, navigation, and fish and wildlife. The listing of certain Snake River salmon stocks as endangered and threatened, under provisions of the Endangered Species Act, has surfaced major public policy issues. Protection and enhancement of these salmon stocks has resulted in proposals to significantly modify the operation of the reservoir projects. Implementation of these proposals could have significant economic, environmental and social impacts in the region

  13. Antibacterial screening of Rumex species native to the Carpathian Basin and bioactivity-guided isolation of compounds from Rumex aquaticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orbán-Gyapai, Orsolya; Liktor-Busa, Erika; Kúsz, Norbert; Stefkó, Dóra; Urbán, Edit; Hohmann, Judit; Vasas, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    Plants belonging to the genus Rumex (family Polygonaceae) are used worldwide in traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases caused by different microorganisms (e.g. bacteria-related dermatologic conditions, dysentery and enteritis). The present study focused on the antibacterial screening of Rumex species native to the Carpathian Basin, and isolation of compounds from one of the most efficient species, Rumex aquaticus. The antibacterial effects of n-hexane, chloroform and aqueous fractions of methanol extracts prepared from different parts of 14 Rumex species (R. acetosella, R. acetosa, R. alpinus, R. aquaticus, R. conglomeratus, R. crispus, R. hydrolapathum, R. obtusifolius subsp. obtusifolius, R. obtusifolius subsp. subalpinus, R. patientia, R. pulcher, R. scutatus, R. stenophyllus and R. thyrsiflorus) were investigated against Staphylococcus epidermidis, S. aureus, MRSA, Bacillus subtilis, Moraxella catarrhalis, Streptococcus pyogenes, S. pneumoniae, S. agalactiae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae using the disc diffusion method. Mainly the n-hexane and chloroform extracts prepared from the roots of the plants displayed high antibacterial activity (inhibition zones>15mm) against one or more bacterial strains. The highly active extracts of the aerial part and root of R. aquaticus were subjected to a multistep separation procedure. 19 Compounds, among them naphthalenes (musizin, and its glucoside, torachrysone-glucoside, 2-methoxystypandrone), anthraquinones (emodin, chrysophanol, physcion, citreorosein, chrysophanol-8-O-glucoside), flavonoids (quercetin, quercetin-3,3'-dimethylether, isokaempferide, quercetin 3-O-arabinoside, quercetin 3-O-galactoside, catechin), stilbenes (resveratrol, piceid), and 1-stearoylglycerol were isolated from the plant. The antibacterial activities of isolated compounds were determined, and it was observed that especially naphthalenes exerted remarkable antibacterial effects against

  14. Bacterial communities of two ubiquitous Great Barrier Reef corals reveals both site- and species-specificity of common bacterial associates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Charlotte E Kvennefors

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Coral-associated bacteria are increasingly considered to be important in coral health, and altered bacterial community structures have been linked to both coral disease and bleaching. Despite this, assessments of bacterial communities on corals rarely apply sufficient replication to adequately describe the natural variability. Replicated data such as these are crucial in determining potential roles of bacteria on coral. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE of the V3 region of the 16S ribosomal DNA was used in a highly replicated approach to analyse bacterial communities on both healthy and diseased corals. Although site-specific variations in the bacterial communities of healthy corals were present, host species-specific bacterial associates within a distinct cluster of gamma-proteobacteria could be identified, which are potentially linked to coral health. Corals affected by "White Syndrome" (WS underwent pronounced changes in their bacterial communities in comparison to healthy colonies. However, the community structure and bacterial ribotypes identified in diseased corals did not support the previously suggested theory of a bacterial pathogen as the causative agent of the syndrome. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first study to employ large numbers of replicated samples to assess the bacterial communities of healthy and diseased corals, and the first culture-independent assessment of bacterial communities on WS affected Acroporid corals on the GBR. Results indicate that a minimum of 6 replicate samples are required in order to draw inferences on species, spatial or health-related changes in community composition, as a set of clearly distinct bacterial community profiles exist in healthy corals. Coral bacterial communities may be both site and species specific. Furthermore, a cluster of gamma-proteobacterial ribotypes may represent a group of specific common coral and marine

  15. New or little-known species of Chaetocladius s. str. Kieffer, 1911 (Diptera: Chironomidae: Orthocladiinae) from the Amur River basin (Russian Far East).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarchenko, Eugenyi A; Makarchenko, Marina A; Semenchenko, Alexander A

    2017-03-27

    Chironomids of the subgenus Chaetocladius s. str. from the Amur River basin are revised using both morphological characters and molecular data. Three new species, C. egorych sp. nov., C. lopatinskiy sp. nov. and C. yavorskayae sp. nov., are described and figured. The pupa of C. fedotkin is described for the first time. Adult males of C. ligni and C. piger, little-known in the Far East, are redescribed and annotated, and key to males of the Chaetocladius s. str. from the Amur River basin is provided. A reference 658 bp barcode sequence from a fragment of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase I (COI) was used as a tool for species delimitation. Comparisons with corresponding regions of COI between 5 species in the subgenus produced K2P genetic distances of 8.3-12.6%, values well associated with interspecific variation. Molecular data were also used for the reconstruction of the phylogenetic relationships within the subgenus Chaetocladius s. str.

  16. Subcellular differences in handling Cu excess in three freshwater fish species contributes greatly to their differences in sensitivity to Cu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyckmans, Marleen; Blust, Ronny; De Boeck, Gudrun

    2012-01-01

    Since changes in metal distribution among tissues and subcellular fractions can provide insights in metal toxicity and tolerance, we investigated this partitioning of Cu in gill and liver tissue of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio). These fish species are known to differ in their sensitivity to Cu exposure with gibel carp being the most tolerant and rainbow trout the most sensitive. After an exposure to 50 μg/l (0.79 μM) Cu for 24 h, 3 days, 1 week and 1 month, gills and liver of control and exposed fish were submitted to a differential centrifugation procedure. Interestingly, there was a difference in accumulated Cu in the three fish species, even in control fishes. Where the liver of rainbow trout showed extremely high Cu concentrations under control conditions, the amount of Cu accumulated in their gills was much less than in common and gibel carp. At the subcellular level, the gills of rainbow trout appeared to distribute the additional Cu exclusively in the biologically active metal pool (BAM; contains heat-denaturable fraction and organelle fraction). A similar response could be seen in gill tissue of common carp, although the percentage of Cu in the BAM of common carp was lower compared to rainbow trout. Gill tissue of gibel carp accumulated more Cu in the biologically inactive metal pool (BIM compared to BAM; contains heat-stable fraction and metal-rich granule fraction). The liver of rainbow trout seemed much more adequate in handling the excess Cu (compared to its gills), since the storage of Cu in the BIM increased. Furthermore, the high % of Cu in the metal-rich granule fraction and heat-stable fraction in the liver of common carp and especially gibel carp together with the better Cu handling in gill tissue, pointed out the ability of the carp species to minimize the disadvantages related to Cu stress. The differences in Cu distribution at the subcellular level of gills and

  17. Subcellular differences in handling Cu excess in three freshwater fish species contributes greatly to their differences in sensitivity to Cu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eyckmans, Marleen, E-mail: marleen.eyckmans@ua.ac.be [Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Blust, Ronny; De Boeck, Gudrun [Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2012-08-15

    Since changes in metal distribution among tissues and subcellular fractions can provide insights in metal toxicity and tolerance, we investigated this partitioning of Cu in gill and liver tissue of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio). These fish species are known to differ in their sensitivity to Cu exposure with gibel carp being the most tolerant and rainbow trout the most sensitive. After an exposure to 50 {mu}g/l (0.79 {mu}M) Cu for 24 h, 3 days, 1 week and 1 month, gills and liver of control and exposed fish were submitted to a differential centrifugation procedure. Interestingly, there was a difference in accumulated Cu in the three fish species, even in control fishes. Where the liver of rainbow trout showed extremely high Cu concentrations under control conditions, the amount of Cu accumulated in their gills was much less than in common and gibel carp. At the subcellular level, the gills of rainbow trout appeared to distribute the additional Cu exclusively in the biologically active metal pool (BAM; contains heat-denaturable fraction and organelle fraction). A similar response could be seen in gill tissue of common carp, although the percentage of Cu in the BAM of common carp was lower compared to rainbow trout. Gill tissue of gibel carp accumulated more Cu in the biologically inactive metal pool (BIM compared to BAM; contains heat-stable fraction and metal-rich granule fraction). The liver of rainbow trout seemed much more adequate in handling the excess Cu (compared to its gills), since the storage of Cu in the BIM increased. Furthermore, the high % of Cu in the metal-rich granule fraction and heat-stable fraction in the liver of common carp and especially gibel carp together with the better Cu handling in gill tissue, pointed out the ability of the carp species to minimize the disadvantages related to Cu stress. The differences in Cu distribution at the subcellular level of gills

  18. Summer Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) species richness and community structure in the lower Illinois River basin of Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWalt, R.E.; Webb, D.W.; Harris, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) species richness is useful for monitoring stream health, but no published studies in Illinois quantitatively document EPT richness or assemblage structure. The objectives of this study were to characterize adult EPT richness and structure and relate these to relative water quality at eight stream sites (160-69,300 km3 area) in the lower Illinois River basin. Adults were ultra-violet light trapped in June, July, and August 1997. Nutrient enrichment by nitrate and nitrite nitrogen was strongly evident, especially in smaller drainages, while critical loss of stable habitat was observed in larger water bodies. Seventy EPT species were identified from 17,889 specimens. Trichoptera were by far the most speciose (41 species), followed by Ephemeroptera (26), and Plecoptera (3). Caddisflies also dominated species richness across sites, contributing 18.0 of the average 28.9 total EPT species collected. Site EPT richness varied significantly (F = 5.51, p = 0.003, df = 7), with smaller drainages supporting greater richness, generally. Differences were also evident for months (F = 21.7, p = 0.0001, df = 2), with June being lower (11.8 average) than either July (20.6) or August (18.1) values. Hilsenhoff biotic index (HBI) scores did not vary significantly across sites (F = 0.7, p = 0.7, df = 7), but were different across months (F = 5.4, p = 0.02, df = 2). June (4.23) and July (4.53) means were not different, but both were lower (of better quality) than August (5.33) scores. The relationship of EPT to HBI scores was not investigated statistically due to problems of sample size and interdependence of monthly samples, but graphical analysis suggested no consistent relationship. This suggested a decoupling of the HBI from the EPT and implied that the gain in taxonomic resolution achieved by using adults outstripped the resolution of the HBI. Use of the HBI to characterize adult aquatic insect communities is discouraged. New state

  19. Geochemical behavior and dissolved species control in acid sand pit lakes, Sepetiba sedimentary basin, Rio de Janeiro, SE - Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Eduardo D.; Sella, Sílvia M.; Bidone, Edison D.; Silva-Filho, Emmanoel V.

    2010-12-01

    This work shows the influence of pluvial waters on dissolved components and mineral equilibrium of four sand pit lakes, located in the Sepetiba sedimentary basin, SE Brazil. The sand mining activities promote sediment oxidation, lowering pH and increasing SO 4 contents. The relatively high acidity of these waters, similar to ore pit lakes environment and associated acid mine drainage, increases weathering rate, especially of silicate minerals, which produces high Al concentrations, the limiting factor for fish aquaculture. During the dry season, basic cations (Ca, Mg, K and Na), SiO 2 and Al show their higher values due to evapoconcentration and pH are buffered. In the beginning of the wet season, the dilution factor by rainwater increases SO 4 and decreases pH values. The aluminum monomeric forms (Al(OH) 2+ and Al(OH) 2+), the most toxic species for aquatic organisms, occur during the dry season, while AlSO 4+ species predominate during the wet season. Gibbsite, allophane, alunite and jurbanite are the reactive mineral phases indicated by PHREEQC modeling. During the dry season, hydroxialuminosilicate allophane is the main phase in equilibrium with the solution, while the sulphate salts alunite and jurbanite predominate in the rainy season due to the increasing of SO 4 values. Gibbsite is also in equilibrium with sand pit lakes waters, pointing out that hydrolysis reaction is a constant process in the system. Comparing to SiO 2, sulphate is the main Al retriever in the pit waters because the most samples (alunite and jurbanite) are in equilibrium with the solution in both seasons. This Al hydrochemical control allied to some precaution, like pH correction and fertilization of these waters, allows the conditions for fishpond culture. Equilibrium of the majority samples with kaolinite (Ca, Mg, Na diagrams) and primary minerals (K diagram) points to moderate weathering rate in sand pit sediments, which cannot be considered for the whole basin due to the anomalous

  20. Larval trematodes (Digenea of the great pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis (L., (Gastropoda, Pulmonata in Central Europe: a survey of species and key to their identification

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    Faltýnková A.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A survey of cercariae and metacercariae (Trematoda, Digenea from the great pond snail (Lymnaea stagnalis in Central Europe (Austria, Czech Republic, South-East Germany, Poland and Slovak Republic is presented, based on a study of 3,628 snails examined from 1998 to 2005. A total of 953 (26.3% L. stagnalis were infected with 24 trematode species comprising 19 species of cercariae and 11 species of metacercariae (six species occurred both as cercarie and metacercarie of eight families. The dominant cercariae were those of Opisthioglyphe ranae (159 hosts infected, Plagiorchis elegans (141 (both family Plagiorchiidae and Echinoparyphium aconiatum (153 (Echinostomatidae; 14 double infections were found. The most frequent metacercariae were those of Neoglyphe locellus (71 (Omphalometridae, E. aconiatum (66, Echinostoma sp. (59 and Moliniella anceps (48 (Echinostomatidae. In the previous studies carried out in Central Europe, a very similar spectrum of nine trematode families of 22 cercariae determined to species level and 43 types of cercariae reported under generic or provisional names, which can be in many cases conspecific with the previous taxa, were found. A simple key to identification of cercariae and metacercariae, together with their illustrations, is provided.

  1. A new spiny species of Hypostomus Lacépède (Loricariidae: Hypostominae from thermal waters, upper rio Paraná basin, central Brazil

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    Fernanda O. Martins

    Full Text Available A new species of Hypostomus is described from the rio Quente, rio Paranaíba drainage, in the upper rio Paraná basin in central Brazil. The rio Quente is a peculiar small and shallow fast water stream with water temperatures around 34ºC. The new species is distinguished from all congeners by having the five lateral series of plates with hypertrophied odontodes not aligned in rows and more conspicuous on flanks of caudal peduncle of the larger specimens. The new species is only known from the rio Quente.

  2. Alpaida (Araneae: Araneidae from the Amazon Basin and Ecuador: new species, new records and complementary descriptions

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    Regiane Saturnino

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of Alpaida, A. levii and A. yanayacu, the male of A. iquitos Levi, 1988 and the female of A. gurupi Levi, 1988 are described and illustrated for the first time. Alpaida levii, described from the states of Pará and Amazonas, is closely related to A. delicata (Keyserling, 1892, but differs in that males have a curved and distally pointed terminal apophysis, and females have the epigynum longer than wide and a drop-shaped median lobe. Alpaida yanayacu is only known from Ecuador and is characterized by long and rounded lateral lobes in ventral view and median lobe wide at base. A brief discussion about the morphological similarity among A. levii, A. delicata and A. truncata (Keyserling, 1865 is presented. Based on the information provided, new diagnoses are proposed for A. delicata and A. truncata. New records of A. antonio Levi, 1988, A. bicornuta (Taczanowski, 1878, A. boa Levi, 1988, A. deborae Levi, 1988, A. delicata, A. erythrothorax (Taczanowski, 1873, A. guimaraes Levi, 1988, A. guto Abrahim & Bonaldo, 2008, A. gurupi, A. iquitos, A. leucogramma (White, 1841, A. murtinho Levi, 1988, A. negro Levi, 1988, A. rossi Levi, 1988, A. septemmammata (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1889, A. simla Levi, 1988, A. tayos Levi, 1988, A. truncata, A. urucuca Levi, 1988, A. utiariti Levi, 1988 and A. veniliae Levi, 1988 are presented.

  3. A study of tectonic activity in the Basin-Range Province and on the San Andreas Fault. No. 3: Kinematics of Great Basin intraplate extension from earthquake, geodetic and geologic information. Final Technical Report, 15 Apr. 1981 - 31 Jan. 1986 M.S. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddington, P. K.

    1986-01-01

    Strain rates assessed from brittle fracture, associated with earthquakes, and total brittle-ductile deformation measured from geodetic data were compared to paleostrain from Quaternary geology for the intraplate Great Basin of the western United States. These data provide an assessment of the kinematics and mode of lithospheric extension that the western U.S. Cordillera has experienced in the last 5 to 10 million years. Strain and deformation rates were determined by the seismic moment tensor method using historic seismicity and fault plane solutions. Contemporary deformation of the Great Basin occurs principally along the active seismic zones. The earthquake related strain shows that the Great Basin is characterized by regional E-W extension at 8.4 mm/a in the north that diminishes to NW-SE extension of 3.5 mm/a in the south. Zones of maximum extension correspond to belts of shallow crust, high heat flow, and Quaternary basaltic volcanism, suggesting that these parameters are related through an effect such as a stress relaxation allowing bouyant uplift and ascension of magmas.

  4. Ophiolitic basement to the Great Valley forearc basin, California, from seismic and gravity data: Implications for crustal growth at the North American continental margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, N.J.; Beaudoin, B.C.; Klemperer, S.L.; Levander, A.; Luetgert, J.; Meltzer, A.; Mooney, W.; Tréhu, A.

    1997-01-01

    The nature of the Great Valley basement, whether oceanic or continental, has long been a source of controversy. A velocity model (derived from a 200-km-long east-west reflection-refraction profile collected south of the Mendocino triple junction, northern California, in 1993), further constrained by density and magnetic models, reveals an ophiolite underlying the Great Valley (Great Valley ophiolite), which in turn is underlain by a westward extension of lower-density continental crust (Sierran affinity material). We used an integrated modeling philosophy, first modeling the seismic-refraction data to obtain a final velocity model, and then modeling the long-wavelength features of the gravity data to obtain a final density model that is constrained in the upper crust by our velocity model. The crustal section of Great Valley ophiolite is 7-8 km thick, and the Great Valley ophiolite relict oceanic Moho is at 11-16 km depth. The Great Valley ophiolite does not extend west beneath the Coast Ranges, but only as far as the western margin of the Great Valley, where the 5-7-km-thick Great Valley ophiolite mantle section dips west into the present-day mantle. There are 16-18 km of lower-density Sierran affinity material beneath the Great Valley ophiolite mantle section, such that a second, deeper, "present-day" continental Moho is at about 34 km depth. At mid-crustal depths, the boundary between the eastern extent of the Great Valley ophiolite and the western extent of Sierran affinity material is a near-vertical velocity and density discontinuity about 80 km east of the western margin of the Great Valley. Our model has important implications for crustal growth at the North American continental margin. We suggest that a thick ophiolite sequence was obducted onto continental material, probably during the Jurassic Nevadan orogeny, so that the Great Valley basement is oceanic crust above oceanic mantle vertically stacked above continental crust and continental mantle.

  5. Estimating cyclopoid copepod species richness and geographical distribution (Crustacea across a large hydrographical basin: comparing between samples from water column (plankton and macrophyte stands

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    Gilmar Perbiche-Neves

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Species richness and geographical distribution of Cyclopoida freshwater copepods were analyzed along the "La Plata" River basin. Ninety-six samples were taken from 24 sampling sites, twelve sites for zooplankton in open waters and twelve sites for zooplankton within macrophyte stands, including reservoirs and lotic stretches. There were, on average, three species per sample in the plankton compared to five per sample in macrophytes. Six species were exclusive to the plankton, 10 to macrophyte stands, and 17 were common to both. Only one species was found in similar proportions in plankton and macrophytes, while five species were widely found in plankton, and thirteen in macrophytes. The distinction between species from open water zooplankton and macrophytes was supported by nonmetric multidimensional analysis. There was no distinct pattern of endemicity within the basin, and double sampling contributes to this result. This lack of sub-regional faunal differentiation is in accordance with other studies that have shown that cyclopoids generally have wide geographical distribution in the Neotropics and that some species there are cosmopolitan. This contrasts with other freshwater copepods such as Calanoida and some Harpacticoida. We conclude that sampling plankton and macrophytes together provided a more accurate estimate of the richness and geographical distribution of these organisms than sampling in either one of those zones alone.

  6. Environmental Status of the Lake Michigan Region Volume 11. Natural Areas of the Lake Michigan Drainage Basin and Endangered or Threatened Plant and Animal Species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stearns, Forest [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Lindsley, Diane [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    1977-09-01

    The accelerating encroachment of human activity on the natural landscape has made many citizens appreciate the need to save representative biotic communities before urbanization and technologically induced change eliminate such communities. Active programs in natural-area preservation a.re now in progress in the four basin states; these programs have strong public support and legislative mandate. Local, state, and federal agencies and private individuals have taken an active interest in protecting select areas as samples of the biotic communities and natural features of the Basin. Most natural areas described in this report have been dedicated or reserved in some fashion. Other areas are being added by the basin states each year. The maintenance of natural communities is closely linked to the preservation of endangered and threatened species of plants and animals which would cease to survive as isolated populations. Under federal regulations, certain plants and animals are listed as endange~ ed or threatened in the Basin. As individual state lists are prepared and investigations proceed, it is probable that many more threatened species will be found.

  7. Mycobacterium bovis infections in domesticated non-bovine mammalian species. Part 1: Review of epidemiology and laboratory submissions in Great Britain 2004-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughan, J M; Downs, S H; Crawshaw, T R; Upton, P A; Brewer, J; Clifton-Hadley, R S

    2013-11-01

    Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (bTB), can infect a broad range of mammalian species in addition to domestic and feral cattle and badgers. Since legislation introduced in 2006 in Great Britain requires animal keepers, meat inspectors and veterinarians to notify the authorities of suspect bTB lesions or the isolation of M. bovis in any mammal excluding humans, the organism has been increasingly identified in domestic species other than cattle. Although in most cases 'spill-over' hosts, these remain a potential source of infection for cattle, wildlife, and possibly humans. In this first part of a two-part review of M. bovis infections in non-bovine domestic species, current knowledge of the epidemiology of such infections is presented along with novel data relating to diagnostic submissions for mycobacterial culture between 2004 and 2010. Over this period M. bovis infection was identified in 116 cats, 7 dogs, 34 llamas, 133 alpacas, 35 goats, 24 sheep and 85 pigs and wild boar. The risk that such infections pose to the control of bTB, and as zoonoses, is discussed. In part two, the options available to diagnose bTB in these species, as well as the challenges posed to disease detection and control will be discussed in depth. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Two new species of Hypostomus Lacépède (Teleostei: Loricariidae from the upper rio Paraná basin, Central Brazil

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    Cláudio H. Zawadzki

    Full Text Available Two new species of Hypostomus Lacépède (Teleostei: Loricariidae from the rio Paranaíba and rio Grande basins, both in the upper rio Paraná basin, central Brazil, are described herein. One of them is distinguished from all congeners, except H. albopunctatus, by having the pectoral-fin spine length equal to or smaller than the pelvic-fin spine. From H. albopunctatus, it is distinguished by having round dark spots (vs. pale on body and fins. The second species is distinguished from all congeners, except H. multidens and H. ternetzi, by having more than 115 teeth (vs. less than 109 per ramus on dentary and premaxilla. It is distinguished most readily from H. ternetzi by having teeth with two symmetrical (vs. asymmetrical cusps. It is distinguished from H. multidens by having round dark spots (vs. pale over body and fins.

  9. All great ape species (Gorilla gorilla, Pan paniscus, Pan troglodytes, Pongo abelii) and two-and-a-half-year-old children (Homo sapiens) discriminate appearance from reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karg, Katja; Schmelz, Martin; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Nonhuman great apes and human children were tested for an understanding that appearance does not always correspond to reality. Subjects were 29 great apes (bonobos [Pan paniscus], chimpanzees [Pan troglodytes], gorillas [Gorilla gorilla], and orangutans [Pongo abelii]) and 24 2½-year-old children. In our task, we occluded portions of 1 large and 1 small food stick such that the size relations seemed reversed. Subjects could then choose which one they wanted. There was 1 control condition and 2 experimental conditions (administered within subjects). In the control condition subjects saw only the apparent stick sizes, whereas in the 2 experimental conditions they saw the true stick sizes as well (the difference between them being what the subjects saw first: the apparent or the real stick sizes). All great ape species and children successfully identified the bigger stick, despite its smaller appearance, in the experimental conditions, but not in the control. We discuss these results in relation to the understanding of object permanence and conservation, and exclude reversed reward contingency learning as an explanation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. The 2012 Mw 8.6 Wharton Basin sequence: A cascade of great earthquakes generated by near-orthogonal, young, oceanic mantle faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Emma M.; Yue, Han; Barbot, Sylvain; Lay, Thorne; Tapponnier, Paul; Hermawan, Iwan; Hubbard, Judith; Banerjee, Paramesh; Feng, Lujia; Natawidjaja, Danny; Sieh, Kerry

    2015-05-01

    We improve constraints on the slip distribution and geometry of faults involved in the complex, multisegment, Mw 8.6 April 2012 Wharton Basin earthquake sequence by joint inversion of high-rate GPS data from the Sumatran GPS Array (SuGAr), teleseismic observations, source time functions from broadband surface waves, and far-field static GPS displacements. This sequence occurred under the Indian Ocean, ˜400 km offshore Sumatra. The events are extraordinary for their unprecedented rupture of multiple cross faults, deep slip, large strike-slip magnitude, and potential role in the formation of a discrete plate boundary between the Indian and Australian plates. The SuGAr recorded static displacements of up to ˜22 cm, along with time-varying arrivals from the complex faulting, which indicate that the majority of moment release was on young, WNW trending, right-lateral faults, counter to initial expectations that an old, lithospheric, NNE trending fracture zone played the primary role. The new faults are optimally oriented to accommodate the present-day stress field. Not only was the greatest moment released on the younger faults, but it was these that sustained very deep slip and high stress drop (>20 MPa). The rupture may have extended to depths of up to 60 km, suggesting that the oceanic lithosphere in the northern Wharton Basin may be cold and strong enough to sustain brittle failure at such depths. Alternatively, the rupture may have occurred with an alternative weakening mechanism, such as thermal runaway.

  11. Species diversity and distribution of freshwater crabs (Decapoda: Pseudothelphusidae inhabiting the basin of the Rio Grande de Térraba, Pacific slope of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Rólier Lara

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades, knowledge on biodiversity of freshwater decapods has increased considerably; however, information about ecology of these crustaceans is scarce. Currently, the freshwater decapod fauna of Costa Rica is comprised by representatives of three families (Caridea: Palaemonidae and Atyidae; Brachyura: Pseudothelphusidae. The present study aims to describe the species diversity and distribution of freshwater crabs inhabiting the basin of the Rio Grande de Térraba, Pacific slope of Costa Rica, where the Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (ICE plans to implement one of the largest damming projects in the region. Samples were collected in 39 locations at an altitude ranging from 20 to 1,225 m. Sampling was carried out during several months in 2007, 2009 and 2010. We collected a total of 661 crabs, comprising eight species of Pseudothelphusidae of three genera, representing 53% of the 15 pseudothelphusid crab species currently recorded from Costa Rica. The most common species was Ptychophallus paraxanthusi followed by P. tristani. Freshwater crabs were more frequently encountered in the middle-low region of the basin (between 311 and 600 m and less frequently in the medium-high basin (between 601 and 1,225 m. Ptychophallus paraxanthusi showed the widest distribution and was collected in altitudes ranging from 20 to 700 m. The Rio Grande de Térraba region can be considered as a relatively small, but highly diverse system. Therefore, any alteration of the basin of Rio Grande de Térraba, and especially the possible construction of a hydroelectric power plant, needs to be carefully analyzed to mitigate the damaging effects of this project on the freshwater crabs. More ecological information about freshwater crabs from Costa Rica and the Central American region are needed to reach a first reasonable overview on the ecological role of these decapods in freshwater systems.

  12. Systematic revision of the Potamotrygon motoro (Müller & Henle, 1841 species complex in the Paraná-Paraguay basin, with description of two new ocellated species (Chondrichthyes: Myliobatiformes: Potamotrygonidae

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    Thiago Silva Loboda

    Full Text Available A systematic revision of the Potamotrygon motoro (Müller & Henle, 1841 species complex in the Paraná-Paraguay basin based on morphological characters was undertaken. Morphological systems analyzed include external morphology, coloration, dermal denticles, and spines, canals of the ventral lateral-line system, and skeletal components. Potamotrygon motoro is widely distributed in the Paraná-Paraguay basin and some of its diagnostic characters are: ocelli present on dorsal disc tricolored, well-defined and evenly distributed, with diameter similar or greater than eye-length; ventral coloration with relatively large whitish central region, with gray or brown area predominant on outer ventral disc margins; dermal denticles well-developed and star-shaped over central disc; labial grooves absent; monognathic heterodonty present in upper and lower jaws of adults. Potamotrygon pauckei Castex, 1963 and Potamotrygon labradori Castex, Maciel & Achenbach, 1963, are synonymized with P. motoro; Potamotrygon alba Castex, 1963, is a nomen dubium in accordance with previous authors. Additionally, two new ocellated species of Potamotrygon from the Paraná-Paraguay basin are described: Potamotrygon pantanensis, sp. nov. and Potamotrygon amandae, sp. nov. These are described and compared with P. motoro and other congeners. Potamotrygon pantanensis, sp. nov. is described from the northern Pantanal region; Potamotrygon amandae, sp. nov. is widespread in the Paraná-Paraguay basin.

  13. The dynamics of the species into collections of the North American and the Himalayan hills in Alpinarium of Peter the Great Botanical Garden

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    Tkachenko Kirill

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Botanical gardens' collections of living plants are valuable not only because of their exhibitions, but also because of the data accumulated during introductions of new plants. Inventory allows to collect valuable material about introduction of different types of plants (species and taxa. Analysis of the available information allows to select and recommend advanced species (genus complex for the needs of urbane floristics; the perennial herbaceous plants of mountain areas come in the first place. A new list of advanced ornamental and household plants is introduced in the article. The recommended plants can be used for urban gardening and various groundscape works, and for creation of seed orchards in the neighboring regions. The study of introduction results helps not only to determine the advanced species (and taxa, but to understand which spices will not be able to survive a long time in the new conditions (mainly because of the climate, for example in the North-West of Russia. Over the past 60 years, around 385 plants of 61 families has been introduced at the North American and Himalayan rock gardens of the Peter the Great Botanical Garden. In the 60s of the 20th century, the exposition of these rock gardens had nearly 130 species from 51 families, 20 years later – 254 plants of 55 families. In the beginning of the 21st century, there were 249 taxa of the 52 families. Since 2010, the Alpinarium had to undergo a major reconstruction following the restoration and addition of the collection. As of 2015, the exposition of the North American and Himalayan rock gardens has 200 species of 54 families.

  14. Demographical history and palaeodistribution modelling show range shift towards Amazon Basin for a Neotropical tree species in the LGM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitorino, Luciana Cristina; Lima-Ribeiro, Matheus S; Terribile, Levi Carina; Collevatti, Rosane G

    2016-10-13

    We studied the phylogeography and demographical history of Tabebuia serratifolia (Bignoniaceae) to understand the disjunct geographical distribution of South American seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTFs). We specifically tested if the multiple and isolated patches of SDTFs are current climatic relicts of a widespread and continuously distributed dry forest during the last glacial maximum (LGM), the so called South American dry forest refugia hypothesis, using ecological niche modelling (ENM) and statistical phylogeography. We sampled 235 individuals of T. serratifolia in 17 populations in Brazil and analysed the polymorphisms at three intergenic chloroplast regions and ITS nuclear ribosomal DNA. Coalescent analyses showed a demographical expansion at the last c. 130 ka (thousand years before present). Simulations and ENM also showed that the current spatial pattern of genetic diversity is most likely due to a scenario of range expansion and range shift towards the Amazon Basin during the colder and arid climatic conditions associated with the LGM, matching the expected for the South American dry forest refugia hypothesis, although contrasting to the Pleistocene Arc hypothesis. Populations in more stable areas or with higher suitability through time showed higher genetic diversity. Postglacial range shift towards the Southeast and Atlantic coast may have led to spatial genome assortment due to leading edge colonization as the species tracks suitable environments, leading to lower genetic diversity in populations at higher distance from the distribution centroid at 21 ka. Haplotype sharing or common ancestry among populations from Caatinga in Northeast Brazil, Atlantic Forest in Southeast and Cerrado biome and ENM evince the past connection among these biomes.

  15. Seven new species of Paleanotus (Annelida: Chrysopetalidae) described from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, and coral reefs of northern Australia and the Indo-Pacific: two cryptic species pairs revealed between western Pacific Ocean and the eastern Indian Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Charlotte

    2015-09-18

    Morphological investigation into the paleate genus Paleanotus Schmarda 1861 of the family Chrysopetalidae from northern Australian coral reefs, primarily Lizard Island and outlying reefs, included a complex of very small, slender individuals (length < 5 mm). This complex resolved into 7 new species, described herein: Paleanotus inornatus n. sp., P. adornatus n. sp., P. chrysos n. sp., P. aquifolia n. sp., P. latifolia n. sp., P. silus n. sp., and P. silopsis n. sp. A key is provided to the new species and Paleanotus distinguished from Treptopale and Hyalopale, two closely related genera. Diagnostic features of the apical structure and shape of the notochaetal main paleae plus median paleae shape and raised rib pattern, differentiates each species from the other. Gametous states are described. Two cryptic species pairs (Paleanotus silopsis n. sp. and P. silus n. sp.; Paleanotus aquifolia n. sp. and P. latifolia n. sp.) were identified. In each case one species is restricted to either the NE or NW Australian coast. In each pair the most eastern point for the NW Australian species range occurs at Darwin, western Arnhemland, Northern Territory. Additional material for each species pair extends their respective ranges northwards: NW Australia to Thailand, Andaman Sea, eastern Indian Ocean or NE Australia, Great Barrier Reef to the Philippines, western Pacific Ocean. Cryptic morphology and potential genetic diversity is discussed in Paleanotus inornatus n. sp. and P. adornatus n. sp. that possess overlapping widespread distribution patterns across northern Australia and Indo-Pacific reefs. The smallest bodied taxon, Paleanotus chrysos n. sp. is the only species with a Coral Sea range encompassing Lizard Island, Heron Island and New Caledonia.

  16. A new species of Microglanis(Siluriformes: Pseudopimelodidae from the upper rio Tocantins basin, Goiás State, Central Brazil

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    Oscar Akio Shibatta

    Full Text Available A new species of Microglanis is described from the upper rio Tocantins basin, Barro Alto, Goiás State, Brazil. This species is distinguished from the others by presenting a unique color pattern, consisting of round spots in the flank between the larger dark brown blotches. Moreover, it can be distinguished by the combination of the following features: caudal fin emarginate, the upper lobe slightly larger than the lower, lateral line relatively long, reaching vertical through posterior margin of the pelvic fin, and light stripe on supra-occipital region absent or very narrow and with irregular shape.

  17. A new species of Tometes Valenciennes 1850 (Characiformes: Serrasalmidae from Tocantins-Araguaia River Basin based on integrative analysis of molecular and morphological data.

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    Marcelo C Andrade

    Full Text Available A new large serrasalmid species of Tometes is described from the Tocantins-Araguaia River Basin. Tometes siderocarajensis sp. nov. is currently found in the rapids of the Itacaiúnas River Basin, and formerly inhabited the lower Tocantins River. The new species can be distinguished from all congeners, except from T. ancylorhynchus, by the presence of lateral space between 1st and 2nd premaxillary teeth, and by the absence of lateral cusps in these two teeth. However, T. siderocarajensis sp. nov. can be differentiated from syntopic congener T. ancylorhynchus by an entirely black with mottled red body in live specimens, densely pigmented pelvic fins with a high concentration of dark chromatophores, and the presence of 39 to 41 rows of circumpeduncular scales (vs. silvery body coloration with slightly reddish overtones on middle flank during breeding period in live specimens, hyaline to slightly pale coloration on distalmost region of pelvic fins, and 30 to 36 rows of circumpeduncular scales. Additionally, molecular sequence shows that T. siderocarajensis sp. nov. is reciprocally monophyletic, and diagnosable from all congeners by having two autapomorphic molecular characters in the mitochondrial gene COI. The phylogenetic reconstruction still show that T. siderocarajensis sp. nov. is closely related to T. trilobatus. This is the first molecular study using an integrative taxonomic approach based on morphological and molecular sequence data for all described species of Tometes. These findings increase the number of formally described species of Tometes to seven. A key to the Tometes species is provided.

  18. A new species of Corydoras Lacépède (Siluriformes: Callichthyidae from the Rio Tapajós basin and its phylogenetic implications

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    Vinicius C. Espíndola

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Corydoras is described from tributaries of the rio Arinos, rio Teles Pires and rio Preto, all in the rio Tapajós basin. The new species is a member of a group that includes 36 species with spots on the body. Within this group, the new species can be readily distinguished by having a smaller dorsal-fin spine than the first three subsequent soft dorsal-fin rays; pectoral, pelvic and anal fins hyaline; dorsal-fin interradial membrane hyaline; rounded spots on trunk restricted to dorsolateral body plates and dorsal portion of ventrolateral body plates, not reaching the base of pelvic and anal fins. The new species can be further distinguished from Corydoras xinguensis by having spots with diffuse edges, and from all other species of spotted Corydoras except C.multimaculatus, by the absence of ventral platelets. A phylogenetic analysis recovered the new species plus Corydoras metae and C.araguaiensis in a clade sharing the presence of a pointed process on the maxilla for insertion of the retractor tentaculi muscle. In addition, the presence in the new species of an elongated anterior portion of the mesethmoid and a triangular uncinate process of the epibranchial 3 suggests a close relationship with Corydoras metae.

  19. Two new species of the Hypostomus cochliodon group (Siluriformes: Loricariidae from the rio Paraguay basin, with a redescription of Hypostomus cochliodonKner, 1854

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    Luiz F. C. Tencatt

    Full Text Available Hypostomus cochliodon group is a monophyletic clade of 20 valid species of Neotropical armored catfishes that is widely distributed throughout South America. Recently, specimens identified as H. cochliodon from the type locality and nearby localities were examined, and found to include representatives of more than one species. A redescription of H. cochliodon is provided, with a description of two new species, one from the Bodoquena Plateau and another from several localities of the rio Paraguay basin. A lectotype for H. cochliodon is designated herein, since the previous designation is invalid. Hypostomus cochliodon is diagnosed from all other species of the H. cochliodon group by having the opercle almost completely covered laterally by thick layer of skin, the absence of buccal papilla, weak to moderately developed keels on the lateral plates of the body and by the color pattern of its body and fins. Hypostomus basilisko, new species, is distinguished from the remaining species of the H. cochliodon group by the absence of spots on the body, highly developed keels and spoon-shaped teeth. Hypostomus khimaera, new species, is distinguished from the other species of the H. cochliodon group by having a dark tan stripe along the midline of the flank, black spots on the body and/or fins and teeth with mesial cusp and not spoon-shaped.

  20. Regional potentiometric-surface map of the Great Basin carbonate and alluvial aquifer system in Snake Valley and surrounding areas, Juab, Millard, and Beaver Counties, Utah, and White Pine and Lincoln Counties, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Philip M.; Masbruch, Melissa D.; Plume, Russell W.; Buto, Susan G.

    2011-01-01

    Water-level measurements from 190 wells were used to develop a potentiometric-surface map of the east-central portion of the regional Great Basin carbonate and alluvial aquifer system in and around Snake Valley, eastern Nevada and western Utah. The map area covers approximately 9,000 square miles in Juab, Millard, and Beaver Counties, Utah, and White Pine and Lincoln Counties, Nevada. Recent (2007-2010) drilling by the Utah Geological Survey and U.S. Geological Survey has provided new data for areas where water-level measurements were previously unavailable. New water-level data were used to refine mapping of the pathways of intrabasin and interbasin groundwater flow. At 20 of these locations, nested observation wells provide vertical hydraulic gradient data and information related to the degree of connection between basin-fill aquifers and consolidated-rock aquifers. Multiple-year water-level hydrographs are also presented for 32 wells to illustrate the aquifer system's response to interannual climate variations and well withdrawals.

  1. A new species of Hypostomus Lacépède, 1803 (Siluriformes: Loricariidae from the rio Tocantins-Araguaia basin, Brazil

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    Cláudio Henrique Zawadzki

    Full Text Available Hypostomus delimaiis described from the rio Tocantins, Tocantins State, and from the rio Araguaia, Pará, and Tocantins States, Brazil. The new species is distinguished from all other Hypostomusspecies, except from H. carinatus, H. hoplonites, and H. watwata, by the presence of five to eight (mode seven predorsal plates limiting posterior border of the supraoccipital bone (vs. one to three plates. It can be distinguished from H. carinatus, H. hoplonites, and H. watwata by having pale spots over darker background on body and fins (vs. dark spots over lighter background. The species was only found in the middle stretches of the rio Tocantins-Araguaia basin. The first collection of specimens assigned to the new species was done in the rio Tocantins before the construction of the Tucuruí dam. Recently additional material was collected in the rio Araguaia, in a habitat that soon will be flooded for the construction of the Santa Isabel hydroelectric power station.

  2. Biological significance of dead biomass retention trait in Mediterranean Basin species: an analysis between different successional niches and regeneration strategies as functional groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeza, M J; Santana, V M

    2015-11-01

    Standing dead biomass retention is considered one of the most relevant fuel structural traits to affect plant flammability. However, very little is known about the biological significance of this trait and its distribution between different functional groups. Our aim was to analyse how the proportion of dead biomass produced in Mediterranean species is related to the successional niche of species (early-, mid- and late-successional stages) and the regeneration strategy of species (seeders and resprouters). We evaluated biomass distribution by size classes and standing dead biomass retention in nine dominant species from the Mediterranean Basin in different development stages (5, 9, 14 and 26 years since the last fire). The results revealed significant differences in the standing dead biomass retention of species that presented a distinct successional niche or regeneration strategy. These differences were restricted to the oldest ages studied (>9 years). Tree and small tree resprouters, typical in late-successional stages, presented slight variations with age and a less marked trend to retain dead biomass, while seeder shrubs and dwarf shrubs, characteristic of early-successional stages, showed high dead biomass loads. Our results suggest that the species that tend to retain more dead branches are colonising species that may promote fire in early-successional stages. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  3. Geologic Map of the Bodie Hills Volcanic Field, California and Nevada: Anatomy of Miocene Cascade Arc Magmatism in the Western Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, D. A.; du Bray, E. A.; Blakely, R. J.; Box, S.; Fleck, R. J.; Vikre, P. G.; Rytuba, J. J.; Moring, B. C.

    2011-12-01

    The Bodie Hills Volcanic Field (BHVF) is a >700 km2, long-lived (~9 Ma) but episodic, Miocene eruptive center in the southern part of the ancestral Cascade magmatic arc. A 1:50,000-scale geologic map based on extensive new mapping, combined with 40Ar/39Ar dates, geochemical data, and detailed gravity and aeromagnetic surveys, defines late Miocene magmatic and hydrothermal evolution of the BHVF and contrasts the subduction-related BHVF with the overlying, post-subduction, bimodal Plio-Pleistocene Aurora Volcanic Field (AVF). Important features of the BHVF include: Eruptions occurred during 3 major eruptive stages: dominantly trachyandesite stratovolcanoes (~14.7 to 12.9 Ma), mixed silicic trachyandesite, dacite, and rhyolite (~11.3 to 9.6 Ma), and dominantly silicic trachyandesite to dacite domes (~9.2 to 8.0 Ma). Small rhyolite domes were emplaced at ~6 Ma. Trachyandesitic stratovolcanoes with extensive debris flow aprons form the outer part of BHVF, whereas silicic trachyandesite to rhyolite domes are more centrally located. Geophysical data suggest that many BHVF volcanoes have shallow plutonic roots that extend to depths ≥1-2 km below the surface, and much of the Bodie Hills may be underlain by low density plutons presumably related to BHVF volcanism. BHVF rocks contain ~50 to 78% SiO2 (though few rocks have Bodie Hills at ~10 Ma, but the composition and eruptive style of volcanism continued unchanged for 2 Ma. However, kinematic data for veins and faults in mining districts suggest a change in the stress field from transtensional to extensional approximately coincident with cessation of subduction. The Bodie Hills are flanked to the east, north, and west by sedimentary basins that began to form in the late Miocene (locally >11 Ma). Fine to coarse sedimentary deposits within the BHVF include stream deposits in channels that cut across the hills and were partly filled by ~9.4 Ma Eureka Valley Tuff erupted 20 km to the northwest. Shallow dips and preservation of

  4. A new species of Hemigrammus Gill, 1858 (Characiformes: Characidae from the rio Madeira and rio Paraguai basins, with a redescription of H. lunatus

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    Rafaela P. Ota

    Full Text Available A new Hemigrammusis described from the rio Paraguai and rio Madeira basins, Mato Grosso and Rondônia States, Brazil. The new species is characterized by possessing a wide dark horizontal stripe across the eye, a vertically elongated humeral blotch, and 4-5 gill-rakers on upper branch and 9-10 on lower. The new species can be easily diagnosed from H. lunatus, the sympatric and morphologically most similar congener, by the shape of humeral blotch and the number of gill rakers. Data of the type material of both Hemigrammus lunatus and H. maxillaris, as well as extensive examination of specimens, allowed us to conclude that H. maxillarisis a junior subjective synonym of H. lunatus. A redescription of H. lunatus, as well as a formal restriction of its type locality, is provided. A putative monophyletic group within Hemigrammus, composed by H. barrigonae, Hemigrammus lunatus, H. machadoi new species, and H. ulreyi, named Hemigrammus lunatus group, is proposed based on overall body morphology and color pattern. Additionally, a discussion on the biogeographical relationships between the rio Paraguai and rio Guaporé basins is provided.

  5. Responses of streamflow and sediment load to climate change and human activity in the Upper Yellow River, China: a case of the Ten Great Gullies Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tong; Huang, He Qing; Shao, Mingan; Yao, Wenyi; Gu, Jing; Yu, Guoan

    2015-01-01

    Soil erosion and land desertification are the most serious environmental problems globally. This study investigated the changes in streamflow and sediment load from 1964 to 2012 in the Ten Great Gullies area of the Upper Yellow River. Tests for gradual trends (Mann-Kendall test) and abrupt changes (Pettitt test) identify that significant declines in streamflow and sediment load occurred in 1997-1998 in two typical gullies. A comparison of climatic variability before and after the change points shows no statistically significant trends in annual precipitation and potential evapotranspiration. Human activities have been very active in the region and during 1990-2010, 146.01 and 197.62 km2 of land were converted, respectively, to forests and grassland, with corresponding increases of 87.56 and 77.05%. In addition, a large number of check dams have been built up in the upper reaches of the ten gullies. These measures were likely responsible for the significant decline in the annual streamflow and sediment load over the last 49 years.

  6. Spatial trends, sources, and air-water exchange of organochlorine pesticides in the Great Lakes basin using low density polyethylene passive samplers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairy, Mohammed; Muir, Derek; Teixeira, Camilla; Lohmann, Rainer

    2014-08-19

    Polyethylene passive samplers were deployed during summer and fall of 2011 in the lower Great Lakes to assess the spatial distribution and sources of gaseous and freely dissolved organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and their air-water exchange. Average gaseous OCP concentrations ranged from nondetect to 133 pg/m(3). Gaseous concentrations of hexachlorobenzene, dieldrin, and chlordanes were significantly greater (Mann-Whitney test, p < 0.05) at Lake Erie than Lake Ontario. A multiple linear regression implied that both cropland and urban areas within 50 and 10 km buffer zones, respectively, were critical parameters to explain the total variability in atmospheric concentrations. Freely dissolved OCP concentrations (nondetect to 114 pg/L) were lower than previously reported. Aqueous half-lives generally ranged from 1.7 to 6.7 years. Nonetheless, concentrations of p,p'-DDE and chlordanes were higher than New York State Ambient Water Quality Standards for the protection of human health from the consumption of fish. Spatial distributions of freely dissolved OCPs in both lakes were influenced by loadings from areas of concern and the water circulation patterns. Flux calculations indicated net deposition of γ-hexachlorocyclohexane, heptachlor-epoxide, and α- and β-endosulfan (-0.02 to -33 ng/m(2)/day) and net volatilization of heptachlor, aldrin, trans-chlordane, and trans-nonachlor (0.0 to 9.0 ng/m(2)/day) in most samples.

  7. Two new species of Hyphessobrycon (Teleostei: Characidae from upper rio Tapajós basin on Chapada dos Parecis, central Brazil

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    Tiago Pinto Carvalho

    Full Text Available Two new species of Hyphessobrycon are described from the upper rio Tapajós basin, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Hyphessobrycon melanostichos is distinguished from its congeners by the combination of a conspicuous longitudinal broad black band beginning on the posterior margin of orbit and reaching the tip of middle caudal fin rays, a distinct vertically elongate humeral spot, and 16 to 18 branched anal-fin rays. Hyphessobrycon notidanos is distinguished from its congeners by the combination of an elongate dorsal fin in mature males, a vertically elongate humeral spot, 2-4 maxillary teeth, iii,8 dorsal-fin rays, and 16 to 21 branched anal-fin rays.

  8. Comment on “The role of interbasin groundwater transfers in geologically complex terranes, demonstrated by the Great Basin in the western United States”: report published in Hydrogeology Journal (2014) 22:807–828, by Stephen T. Nelson and Alan L. Mayo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masbruch, Melissa D.; Brooks, Lynette E.; Heilweil, Victor M.; Sweetkind, Donald S.

    2015-01-01

    The subject article (Nelson and Mayo 2014) presents an overview of previous reports of interbasin flow in the Great Basin of the western United States. This Comment is presented by authors of a cited study (comprising chapters in one large report) on the Great Basin carbonate and alluvial aquifer system (GBCAAS; Heilweil and Brooks 2011; Masbruch et al. 2011; Sweetkind et al. 2011a, b), who agree that water budget imbalances alone are not enough to accurately quantify interbasin flow; however, it is proposed that statements made in the subject article about the GBCAAS report are inaccurate. The Comment authors appreciate the opportunity to clarify some statements made about the work.

  9. Dactylogyrids (Platyhelminthes, Monogenoidea) from the gills of Hoplias malabaricus (Characiformes: Erythrinidae) from coastal rivers of the Oriental Amazon Basin: species of Urocleidoides and Constrictoanchoratus n. gen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, K D C; Rodrigues, A R O; Cunha, J-M; Domingues, M V

    2018-05-01

    Five species of Urocleidoides (one new) and two new species of Constrictoanchoratus n. gen. are described in this study. All were collected from the gills of Hoplias malabaricus (Characiformes: Erythrinidae) captured in six localities of coastal rivers of the north-eastern sector the State of Pará (Oriental Amazon): Urocleidoides brasiliensis Rosim, Mendoza-Franco & Luque, 2011; Urocleidoides bulbophallus n. sp.; Urocleidoides cuiabai Rosim, Mendoza-Franco & Luque, 2011; Urocleidoides eremitus Kritsky, Thatcher & Boeger, 1986; Urocleidoides malabaricusi Rosim, Mendoza-Franco & Luque, 2011; Constrictoanchoratus lemmyi n. gen. n. sp.; and Constrictoanchoratus ptilonophallus n. gen. n. sp. This is the first reported occurrence of the four previously described species of Urocleidoides parasitizing H. malabaricus from streams in the Oriental Amazon Basin. The analysis of voucher specimens of U. eremitus parasitizing the gills of H. malabaricus from the Upper Paraná River floodplain in the limits of States of Paraná and Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, indicates that these specimens are members of a new species of Urocleidoides, described here as Urocleidoides paranae n. sp. Constrictoanchoratus n. gen. is proposed for the species with a male copulatory organ sclerotized, coiled, clockwise; ventral anchor with elongate superficial root, inconspicuous deep root; dorsal anchor with inconspicuous roots, and a constriction at the intersection between the shaft and the point. The host-parasite diversity scenario and host specificity of the species of Constrictoanchoratus n. gen. and Urocleidoides from the gills of H. malabaricus are also discussed in this study.

  10. Chrysobrycon eliasi, new species of stevardiine fish (Characiformes: Characidae from the río Madre de Dios and upper río Manuripe basins, Peru

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    James Anyelo Vanegas-Ríos

    Full Text Available Chrysobrycon eliasi is described from several drainages of río Madre de Dios and upper río Manuripe basins, río Madeira basin, Peru. The new species is distinguished from its congeners by the maxillary teeth, which are tricuspidate, bicuspidate and conical, and the terminal lateral-line tube developed between caudal-fin rays 10-11. Other characters that help to recognize C. eliasi are the possession of maxilla with 6-15 (usually 11 teeth occupying more than 70% of the length of the maxilla in adults, predorsal scales 18-22, dorsal-fin to hypural complex length 36.32-41.17% of standard length (SL, gill-gland length in males 3.57-5.05% SL, maxillary length 33.76-38.75% of head length, and branched anal-fin rays 24-30. The discovery of C. eliasi allows us to extend the geographic distribution of the genus to the southeast, into the río Madeira basin.

  11. Invasive species in southern Nevada [Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew L. Brooks; Steven M. Ostoja; Jeanne C. Chambers

    2013-01-01

    Southern Nevada contains a wide range of topographies, elevations, and climatic zones emblematic of its position at the ecotone between the Mojave Desert, Great Basin, and Colorado Plateau ecoregions. These varied environmental conditions support a high degree of biological diversity (Chapter 1), but they also provide opportunities for a wide range of invasive species...

  12. Przewalski’ s Horse ( Equus ferus przewalskii Re-intr oduction in the Great Gobi B Strictly Protected Area: from Species to Ecosystem Conservation

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    P. Kaczensky

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The Przewalski’s horse ( Equus ferus przewalskii Po ljakov , 1881, or “T akhi” in Mongolian, became extinct in the wild by the mid 1960’ s. The last recorded sightings of Przewalski’s horses occurred in the Dzungarian Gobi desert in SW Mo ngolia, today’s Great Gobi B Strictly Protected Area (SP A. A re - introduction program was initiated in 1992 and the fi rs t group of captive-born Przewalski’s horses was airlifted to the SPA. Given the logistical challenges associated with such a venture, the initial project focus has been on transport logistics and the well-being of the re-introduced horses. Tod ay, conservation efforts are spread over the entire protected area. Present day ef forts include other mammals, vegetation and the local people. Due to its important symbolic value in Mongolian culture, the Przewalski’ s horse became an important fl agship species for the protected area’s conservation and management.

  13. Responses of Plant Community Composition to Long-term Changes in Snow Depth at the Great Basin Desert - Sierra Nevada ecotone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loik, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    Snowfall is the dominant hydrologic input for many high-elevation ecosystems of the western United States. Many climate models envision changes in California's Sierra Nevada snow pack characteristics, which would severely impact the storage and release of water for one of the world's largest economies. Given the importance of snowfall for future carbon cycling in high elevation ecosystems, how will these changes affect seedling recruitment, plant mortality, and community composition? To address this question, experiments utilize snow fences to manipulate snow depth and melt timing at a desert-montane ecotone in eastern California, USA. Long-term April 1 snow pack depth averages 1344 mm (1928-2015) but is highly variable from year to year. Snow fences increased equilibrium drift snow depth by 100%. Long-term changes in snow depth and melt timing are associated with s shift from shurbs to graminoids where snow depth was increased for >50 years. Changes in snow have impacted growth for only three plant species. Moreover, annual growth ring increments of the conifers Pinus jeffreyi and Pi. contorta were not equally sensitive to snow depth. There were over 8000 seedlings of the shrubs Artemisia tridentata and Purshia tridentata found in 6300 m2 in summer 2009, following about 1400 mm of winter snow and spring rain. The frequency of seedlings of A. tridentata and P. tridentata were much lower on increased-depth plots compared to ambient-depth, and reduced-depth plots. Survival of the first year was lowest for A. tridentata. Survival of seedlings from the 2008 cohort was much higher for P. tridentata than A. tridentata during the 2011-2015 drought. Results indicate complex interactions between snow depth and plant community characteristics, and that responses of plants at this ecotone may not respond similarly to increases vs. decreases in snow depth. These changes portend altered carbon uptake in this region under future snowfall scenarios.

  14. A new unicuspid-toothed species of HypostomusLacépède, 1803 (Siluriformes: Loricariidae from the rio Paraguai basin

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    Claudio H. Zawadzki

    Full Text Available A new unicuspid-toothed armored catfish species of Hypostomus is described from the Bodoquena Plateau, rio Paraguai basin, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. The new species is distinguished from its congeners, with exception of H. fonchii, by having unicuspid teeth (vs.bicuspid teeth; from H. fonchii it is distinguished by having median series of lateral plates with 26-27 (vs. 28; by lower number of premaxillary and dentary teeth (7-10 vs. 18-21; 8-13 vs. 18-25, respectively; for possessing more depressed head (head depth 15.8-18.1% SL vs. 19.1-22.0% SL; and by the presence of median buccal papilla (vs. absence.

  15. Lesula: a new species of Cercopithecus monkey endemic to the Democratic Republic of Congo and implications for conservation of Congo's central basin.

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    John A Hart

    Full Text Available In June 2007, a previously undescribed monkey known locally as "lesula" was found in the forests of the middle Lomami Basin in central Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC. We describe this new species as Cercopithecus lomamiensis sp. nov., and provide data on its distribution, morphology, genetics, ecology and behavior. C. lomamiensis is restricted to the lowland rain forests of central DRC between the middle Lomami and the upper Tshuapa Rivers. Morphological and molecular data confirm that C. lomamiensis is distinct from its nearest congener, C. hamlyni, from which it is separated geographically by both the Congo (Lualaba and the Lomami Rivers. C. lomamiensis, like C. hamlyni, is semi-terrestrial with a diet containing terrestrial herbaceous vegetation. The discovery of C. lomamiensis highlights the biogeographic significance and importance for conservation of central Congo's interfluvial TL2 region, defined from the upper Tshuapa River through the Lomami Basin to the Congo (Lualaba River. The TL2 region has been found to contain a high diversity of anthropoid primates including three forms, in addition to C. lomamiensis, that are endemic to the area. We recommend the common name, lesula, for this new species, as it is the vernacular name used over most of its known range.

  16. Invasive Species Guidebook for Department of Defense Installations in the Delaware River Basin: Identification, Control, and Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    affects (NISC 2001). A key management objective on both national and installation levels must be prevention of invasive species introduction and...species (National Research Council 2002): ◘ Long flowering/ fruiting period, which increases seed production and dispersal. ◘ Ability to reach...mycorrhizal fungi that they rely on. NOTE: Garlic mustard may grow with native species that are similar in appearance, such as toothworts (Dentaria

  17. Harttia absaberi, a new species of loricariid catfish (Siluriformes: Loricariidae: Loricariinae from the upper rio Paraná basin, Brazil

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    Osvaldo Takeshi Oyakawa

    Full Text Available A new species of Harttia, tribe Harttiini, is described from tributaries of upper portions of rio Paraná drainage. The new species, the smallest known species of the genus, attaining up to 74.0 mm of standard length, can be distinguished from its congeners by the combination of the following characters: abdomen completely covered by plates, a single preanal plate, plates of the gular area in broad contact with the canal plate. Harttia absaberi is the second species of the genus known from the upper portion of rio Paraná drainage.

  18. Cytogenetic analyses of two endemic fish species from the São Francisco River basin: Conorhynchus conirostris and Lophiosilurus alexandri (Siluriformes

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    Marilza Barbosa de Almeida Marques

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Two Siluriformes species endemic to the São Francisco River basin were characterized by conventional and differential cytogenetic analyses involving C-banding, Ag-nucleolar organizer region (NOR and chromomycin A3 (CMA3 staining, and FISH (fluorescent in situ hybridization with 18S and 5S rDNA probes. Conorhynchus conirostris presents a higher diploid number (2n = 60 than those detected in Pimelodidae representatives, whereas Lophiosilurus alexandri, with a karyotype of 2n = 54 chromosomes, presents a chromosomal constitution similar to that found in the family Pseudopimelodidae. Plesiomorphic characteristics such as single NORs at terminal positions are found in both species, as revealed by CMA3 and silver nitrate staining, and FISH with a 18S rDNA probe. C-banding evidenced centromeric and telomeric heterochromatic blocks distributed over most of the chromosomes with a conspicuous heterochromatin segment in a pair of submetacentric chromosomes in L. alexandri. Such karyotype data, if compared to the cytogenetic pattern of other Siluriformes species, can be partially related to their degree of endemism, favorable to the occurrence and fixation of chromosomal rearrangements. The present study in representatives from these two Siluriformes families from the São Francisco River contributes to a better understanding of the karyotype evolution in species of this important order of Neotropical fishes.

  19. Description of two new species of Hisonotus Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1889 (Ostariophysi, Loricariidae from the rio Paraná-Paraguay basin, Brazil

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    Fábio Roxo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of Hisonotus are described from the rio Paraná-Paraguay basin in Brazil. The most remarkable features of the new species are the odontodes forming longitudinally aligned rows (one odontode after the other, but not necessarily forming parallel series on the head and trunk (vs. odontodes not forming longitudinally aligned rows, a pair of rostral plates at the tip of the snout (vs. a single rostral plate, the functional v-shaped spinelet (vs. spinelet non-functional, square-shaped, or absent. These features suggest close phylogenetic relationships with Hisonotus bockmanni, H. insperatus, H. luteofrenatus and H. piracanjuba. Additionally, both new species are distinguished from their congeners by characters related to head length and depth, orbital diameter, suborbital depth, caudal peduncle depth, pectoral-fin spine length, snout length and counts of teeth. Hisonotus paresi sp. n. further differs from its congeners bycontrasting dark geometric spots on the anterodorsal region of the body, a character lacking in H.oliveirai sp. n. The variation in number and shape of the rostral plate, posterior rostrum plates, infraorbitals and the preopercle in both new species and in H. insperatus are discussed.

  20. Molecular resolution of the family Dreissenidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia) with emphasis on Ponto-Caspian species, including first report of Mytilopsis leucophaeata in the Black Sea basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therriault, Thomas W; Docker, Margaret F; Orlova, Marina I; Heath, Daniel D; MacIsaac, Hugh J

    2004-03-01

    Considerable uncertainty exists in determination of the phylogeny among extant members of the Dreissenidae, especially those inhabiting the Ponto-Caspian basin, as multiple systematic revisions based on morphological characteristics have failed to resolve relationships within this group of bivalves. In this study we use DNA sequence analyses of two mitochondrial gene fragments, 16S rRNA and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), to determine phylogenetic relationships among Dreissena rostriformis, D. bugensis, D. polymorpha, D. stankovici, Congeria kusceri, and Mytilopsis leucophaeata. Dreissena stankovici was determined to represent a sister taxa to D. polymorpha and both are more closely related to other extant Dreissena species than Congeria or Mytilopsis. Sequence divergence between D. rostriformis and D. bugensis was relatively low (0.3-0.4%), suggesting that these two taxa constitute a single species. However, environmental differences suggest two races of D. rostriformis, a brackish water race (rostriformis) and a freshwater race (bugensis). Spread of bugensis-type individuals into habitats in the Caspian Sea that are occupied by rostriformis-type individuals may create novel hybridization opportunities. Species-specific molecular markers also were developed in this study since significant intraspecific variation in morphological features complicates dreissenid identification. Using two gene fragments (nuclear 28S and 16S), we identified restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) that distinguish among D. rostriformis/bugensis, D. polymorpha, and D. stankovici and revealed the presence of a cryptic invader to the Black Sea basin, Mytilopsis leucophaeata. This is the first report of this North American native in southern Europe.

  1. Evidence of late Quaternary wet/dry climate episodes derived from paleoclimatic proxy data recovered from the paleoenvironmental record of the Great Basin of western North America: Paleobotanical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Through the integration of several avenues of paleoclimatic proxy data, the authors intend to arrive a definite conclusions regarding the frequency of periods of wetter climate, and to drive information regarding the magnitudes of these episodes, rates of their onset and demise, and the climatic conditions under which wetter climate can occur. These will in turn lead to rough estimates of: (1) the amounts of rainfall available for recharge during past periods of effectively wetter climate; and (2) the durations and spacing of such events that provide an indication of the amount of time that the area was subjected to these inputs. To accomplish these goals the paleobotanical record over a broad region is being examined to identify periods of greater effective precipitation. Although the project focus is on a region a of about 200 km around Yucca Mountain, they have collected data in other areas of the Great Basin in order to be able to identify large-scale climatic patterns. Once identified and described these climatic patterns can be separated from purely local climatic phenomena that might hinder the understanding of the Pliestocene climates of southern Nevada and the Yucca Mountain area in particular

  2. The Role of Created and Restored Wetlands in Mitigating N and P Pollutants in Agricultural Landscapes: Case Studies in the Florida Everglades, Mississippi-Ohio-Missouri Basin, and Laurentian Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsch, W. J.

    2016-12-01

    On a global scale, we have lost half of our original wetlands to our current extent of 8 to 12 million km2, with most of that loss in the 20th century. In the United States, we lost 50% of our wetlands by the beginning of the 1970s. I am proposing here a sizeable increase in our wetland resources for solving the diminishing wetland habitat problem, but with the strategic purpose of minimizing the excess phosphorus and nitrogen in our aquatic ecosystems, with the added benefit of sometimes sequesting carbon from the atmosphere, in our rural, urban, and coastal landscapes in a sustainable fashion. Examples include attempts to minimize phosphorus inflows to the Florida Everglades with wetlands to quite low concentrations and a proposal to restore parts of the Black Swamp in NW Ohio to minimize eutrophication of Lake Erie in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Nitrogen retention by wetlands and riparian forests in the Mississippi-Ohio-Missouri Basin, especially in Midwestern USA, has been proposed for 15 years as a solution and endorsed by the Federal government to solve the seasonal hypoxia in the northern portion of the Gulf of Mexico, but there has been little if any progress over those 15 years. Solutions to recycle the nutrients retained in the wetlands back to agriculture to decrease fertilizer use will be presented as a solution to the multiple problems of wetland habitat loss, downstream lake, reservoir, river, and coastal nutrient pollution, diminishing supplies of phosphorus fertilizer, and fertilizer costs.

  3. Energy development in the Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nora Devoe

    2008-01-01

    The United States, with less than 5 percent of the world’s population, consumes 40 percent of the oil and 23 percent of natural gas annual global production. Fluctuating and rising energy prices can be expected to continue with political instability in producing countries and intensifying supply competition from expanding Asian economies. The United States seeks to...

  4. Penstemons are for Great Basin gardens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidi Kratsch

    2013-01-01

    Penstemons are flowering perennials much loved by the gardening public. Gardeners appreciate their diversity of flower colors that are at peak bloom in June and July, their many shapes and sizes, and their attractiveness to hummingbirds and other native pollinators. You may even have planted some in your own garden. Most people don't realize there are about 280...

  5. Knodus shinahota (Characiformes: Characidae a new species from the río Shinahota, río Chapare basin (Mamoré system, Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katiane M. Ferreira

    Full Text Available Knodus shinahota, new species, is described from río Shinahota, a tributary of the upper rio Mamoré basin, Província de Tiraque, Cochabamba State, Bolivia. The new species can be distinguished from all congeners except K. chapadae and K. geryi by having six rows of scales between the lateral line and the dorsal-fin origin (vs 4 or 5 rows of scales in the other species. Knodus shinahota differs from K. chapadae by possessing more rows of scales between the lateral line and the pelvic-fin origin (5 vs 3½ or 4, respectively and more lateral line scales (38-41 vs 36-38, respectively. It differs from K. geryi by possessing more rows of scales between the lateral-line and the pelvic-fin origin (5 vs 4, respectively; fewer branched anal-fin rays (17-20 vs 15-17, respectively, and by lacking the two symmetric, large, dark, blotches on the basal portions of the caudal-fin lobes that characterize K. geryi.

  6. Great Expectations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickens, Charles

    2005-01-01

    One of Dickens's most renowned and enjoyable novels, Great Expectations tells the story of Pip, an orphan boy who wishes to transcend his humble origins and finds himself unexpectedly given the opportunity to live a life of wealth and respectability. Over the course of the tale, in which Pip

  7. Seasonal Trends and Inter-Individual Heterogeneity: A multi-species record of Mg, Sr, Ba, & Mn in Planktic Foraminifera from the Modern Cariaco Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, C. V.; Thunell, R.; Astor, Y. M.

    2017-12-01

    The trace element to calcium ratios (TE/Ca) of planktic foraminifera shells are a valuable tool for paleoceanographic reconstructions, and represent a combination of environmental, ecological and biological signals. We present here a three-year record (2010-2013) of TE/Ca (Mg, Sr, Ba, Mn) from four species of foraminifera (Orbulina universa, Globigerina ruber, Globigerinella siphonifera, and Globorotalia menardii) collected by plankton tow in the modern Cariaco basin. Each tow is paired with in situ measurements of water column properties, allowing a direct comparison between shell geochemistry and calcification environment. A combination of Laser Ablation and solution ICP-MS analyses are used to document seasonality, primarily due to the alternating influence of wind-driven coastal upwelling and riverine inputs, in shell TE/Ca. Individual shell data further allows for the quantification of trace element heterogeneity among individual shells within single tows. All TE/Ca ratios vary temporally and show inter-individual variability within single tows. The spread in TE/Ca differs between element and species, with Mg/Ca ratios being the most variable. Despite this, Mg/Ca still tracks temperature changes in G. ruber, O. universa, and G. menardii, with G. ruber most closely reproducing sea surface temperature. Some species show chamber-to-chamber differences in trace element ratios, with G. ruber Mg/Ca and Ba/Ca decreasing in younger chambers (but not other elements) and Mg/Ca, Mn/Ca and Ba/Ca decreasing in younger chambers in G. siphonifera. We find the original Mn/Ca to be variable both temporally and between species, with G. menardii in some samples having extremely high ratios (100 μmol/mol). Assessing seasonal trends and environmental drivers of TE/Ca variability and quantifying the extent of inter-individual heterogeneity in these species will inform the use of their shells as geochemical proxies.

  8. Probing the volcanic-plutonic connection and the genesis of crystal-rich rhyolite in a deeply dissected supervolcano in the Nevada Great Basin: Source of the late Eocene Caetano Tuff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Kathryn E.; John, David A.; Colgan, Joseph P.; Henry, Christopher D.; Bindeman, Ilya N.; Schmitt, Axel K.

    2016-01-01

    Late Cenozoic faulting and large-magnitude extension in the Great Basin of the western USA has created locally deep windows into the upper crust, permitting direct study of volcanic and plutonic rocks within individual calderas. The Caetano caldera in north–central Nevada, formed during the mid-Tertiary ignimbrite flare-up, offers one of the best exposed and most complete records of caldera magmatism. Integrating whole-rock geochemistry, mineral chemistry, isotope geochemistry and geochronology with field studies and geologic mapping, we define the petrologic evolution of the magmatic system that sourced the >1100 km3Caetano Tuff. The intra-caldera Caetano Tuff is up to ∼5 km thick, composed of crystal-rich (30–45 vol. %), high-silica rhyolite, overlain by a smaller volume of comparably crystal-rich, low-silica rhyolite. It defies classification as either a monotonous intermediate or crystal-poor zoned rhyolite, as commonly ascribed to ignimbrite eruptions. Crystallization modeling based on the observed mineralogy and major and trace element geochemistry demonstrates that the compositional zonation can be explained by liquid–cumulate evolution in the Caetano Tuff magma chamber, with the more evolved lower Caetano Tuff consisting of extracted liquids that continued to crystallize and mix in the upper part of the chamber following segregation from a cumulate-rich, and more heterogeneous, source mush. The latter is represented in the caldera stratigraphy by the less evolved upper Caetano Tuff. Whole-rock major, trace and rare earth element geochemistry, modal mineralogy and mineral chemistry, O, Sr, Nd and Pb isotope geochemistry, sanidine Ar–Ar geochronology, and zircon U–Pb geochronology and trace element geochemistry provide robust evidence that the voluminous caldera intrusions (Carico Lake pluton and Redrock Canyon porphyry) are genetically equivalent to the least evolved Caetano Tuff and formed from magma that remained in the lower chamber after

  9. Probing the volcanic-plutonic connection and the genesis of crystal-rich rhyolite in a deeply dissected supervolcano in the Nevada Great Basin: Source of the late Eocene Caetano Tuff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Kathryn E.; John, David A.; Colgan, Joseph P.; Henry, Christopher D.; Bindeman, Ilya N.; Schmitt, Axel K.

    2016-01-01

    Late Cenozoic faulting and large-magnitude extension in the Great Basin of the western USA has created locally deep windows into the upper crust, permitting direct study of volcanic and plutonic rocks within individual calderas. The Caetano caldera in north–central Nevada, formed during the mid-Tertiary ignimbrite flare-up, offers one of the best exposed and most complete records of caldera magmatism. Integrating whole-rock geochemistry, mineral chemistry, isotope geochemistry and geochronology with field studies and geologic mapping, we define the petrologic evolution of the magmatic system that sourced the >1100 km3Caetano Tuff. The intra-caldera Caetano Tuff is up to ∼5 km thick, composed of crystal-rich (30–45 vol. %), high-silica rhyolite, overlain by a smaller volume of comparably crystal-rich, low-silica rhyolite. It defies classification as either a monotonous intermediate or crystal-poor zoned rhyolite, as commonly ascribed to ignimbrite eruptions. Crystallization modeling based on the observed mineralogy and major and trace element geochemistry demonstrates that the compositional zonation can be explained by liquid–cumulate evolution in the Caetano Tuff magma chamber, with the more evolved lower Caetano Tuff consisting of extracted liquids that continued to crystallize and mix in the upper part of the chamber following segregation from a cumulate-rich, and more heterogeneous, source mush. The latter is represented in the caldera stratigraphy by the less evolved upper Caetano Tuff. Whole-rock major, trace and rare earth element geochemistry, modal mineralogy and mineral chemistry, O, Sr, Nd and Pb isotope geochemistry, sanidine Ar–Ar geochronology, and zircon U–Pb geochronology and trace element geochemistry provide robust evidence that the voluminous caldera intrusions (Carico Lake pluton and Redrock Canyon porphyry) are genetically equivalent to the least evolved Caetano Tuff and formed from magma that remained in the lower chamber after

  10. Screening of Luzula species native to the Carpathian Basin for anti-inflammatory activity and bioactivity-guided isolation of compounds from Luzula luzuloides (Lam.) Dandy & Wilmott.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Barbara; Chang, Fang-Rong; Hwang, Tsong-Long; Szappanos, Ádám; Mándi, Attila; Hunyadi, Attila; Kurtán, Tibor; Jakab, Gusztáv; Hohmann, Judit; Vasas, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    The present study focused on the anti-inflammatory screening of Luzula species native to the Carpathian Basin and bioactivity-guided isolation of compounds of Luzula luzuloides (Lam.) Dandy & Wilmott. The anti-inflammatory properties of extracts with different polarity prepared from Luzula species were determined. Among them, the CH 2 Cl 2 -soluble fraction of L. luzuloides possessed strong inhibitory effects on superoxide anion generation (99.39±0.37%) and elastase release (114.22±3.13%) in fMLP/CB-induced human neutrophils at concentration of 10μg/mL. From this fraction, six compounds (1-6) were isolated by the combination of different chromatographic methods. The structures of the compounds were determined by means of MS, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. The results allowed the identification of the new 1,6-dihydroxy-2-keto-1,7-dimethyl-8-vinyl-1,2-dihydrophenanthrene (1) from the plant, named luzulin A. Chiral HPLC and HPLC-ECD analysis revealed that 1 possesses low enantiomeric excess and TDDFT-ECD calculations afforded the configurational assignment of the separated enantiomers. Three known phenanthrenes [juncuenin B (2), dehydrojuncuenin B (3) and juncusol (4)] and two flavonoids [apigenin (5) and luteolin (6)] were also isolated. The anti-inflammatory activity of the isolated compounds was tested and IC 50 values were determined. This was the first time that phenanthrenes were detected in a Luzula species. The oxidative transformation of juncuenin B (3) led to the isolation of its possible biometabolites, namely luzulin A (1), dehydrojuncuenin B (4), and juncuenin D (7). The isolated compounds (1-4) confirm that besides flavonoids, phenanthrenes could also serve as chemotaxonomic markers for Luzula species and prove the close relationship of Juncus and Luzula genus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Exploring relationships among land ownership, agricultural land use, and native fish species richness in the Upper Mississippi River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJager, Nathan R.; Rohweder, Jason J.

    2012-01-01

    The general effects of agriculture on in-stream fish communities in the Upper Midwestern United States have been well studied for nearly three decades (Karr et al. 1985; Nerbonne and Vondracek 1991; Zimmerman et al. 2001; Goldstein and Meador 2005). Specific impacts include: lowered water levels, sediment loading and nutrient enrichment, loss of riparian habitat, changes to channel morphometry and physical habitat, and changes to the forage base. As part of the National Fish Habitat Action Plan (NFHAP), an initiative to protect, restore, and enhance the nation's fish and aquatic communities, the Fishers and Farmers Partnership specifically focuses on working with agricultural producers to help protect and restore aquatic resources in the Upper Mississippi River Basin (UMRB) (Fig. 1). Successful protection and/or restoration will require the partnership and local conservation agencies to effectively communicate and work with local landowners. However, roughly 43% of the agricultural lands in the UMRB are not operated by those who own the land (National Agricultural Statistics Service 2009) and this is expected to increase as heirs of farm estates now reside greater distances from their home farms than ever before (Arbuckle 2010).

  12. Characterization of a new myxozoan species (Myxozoa: Myxobolidae: Myxosporea) in largescale stonerollers (Campostoma oligolepis) from the Mobile River Basin (Alabama).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanowicz, D D; Iwanowicz, L R; Howerth, E W; Schill, W B; Blazer, V S; Johnson, R L

    2013-02-01

    Myxobolus stanlii sp. n. was described from largescale stonerollers ( Campostoma oligolepis ) from the Mobile River Basin in Alabama. The parasite was described using critical identifying morphological features, and the 18S small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene sequence. The spore body was ovoid, 10.03 ± 0.7 (7.5-11.0) μm long and 8.8 ± 1.5 (6.3-11.3) μm wide in frontal view. Spore thickness was 6.3 ± 2.7 (6.2-8.6) μm in sutural view. Polar capsules were pyriform, of equal size, and oriented in plane with the sutural ridge. Polar capsules were 2.45 ± 1.5 (range 2.1-4.3) μm in width and 4.6 ± 2.7 (range 4.5-6.9) μm in length. Based on the SSU rRNA gene sequence of Myxobolus stanlii sp. n. is most closely related to M. pseudodispar.

  13. A molecular approach to the genus Alburnoides using COI sequences data set and the description of a new species, A. damghani, from the Damghan River system (the Dasht-e Kavir Basin, Iran) (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Jouladeh Roudbar,Arash; Eagderi,Soheil; Esmaeili,Hamid Reza; Coad,Brian; Bogutskaya,Nina

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The molecular status of nine species of the genus Alburnoides from different river drainages in Iran and additionally by seven species from Europe was assessed. mtDNA COI gene sequences from freshly collected specimens and available NCBI data revealed four major phylogenetic lineages. Based on the results, a distinct taxon from the Cheshmeh Ali (Ali Spring), a Damghan River tributary in the endorheic Dasht-e Kavir basin, northern Iran, which is the closest sister to Alburnoides namak...

  14. Discovering Greatness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    People are confronting the most pressing challenge facing every family, school, and community--raising respectful children in a toxic world. In simpler societies, raising children was a shared task of the whole community, as adults and youth worked in harmony and mutual respect. Today, humans are the only species in creation living out of balance.…

  15. Climate change, animal species, and habitats: Adaptation and issues (Chapter 5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch; D. Max Smith; Olivia LeDee; Jean-Luc E. Cartron; Mark A. Rumble

    2012-01-01

    Because the rate of anthropogenic climate change exceeds the adaptive capacity of many animal and plant species, the scientific community anticipates negative consequences for ecosystems. Changes in climate have expanded, contracted, or shifted the climate niches of many species, often resulting in shifting geographic ranges. In the Great Basin, for example, projected...

  16. Notes on a collection of Crustacea Decapoda from the Great Bitter Lake, Egypt, with a list of the species of Decapoda known from the Suez Canal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holthuis, L.B.

    1956-01-01

    Between August 18 and September 5, 1950, Dr. C. Beets, geologist Royal Dutch Shell Oil Company, explored the aquatic fauna and flora of the Great Bitter Lake. In the course of this exploration dredge hauls were made at 47 stations, distributed all over the lake. An account of this work and a

  17. AN ECOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF INVASIVE AND AGRESSIVE PLANT SPECIES IN COASTAL WETLANDS OF THE LAURENTIAN GREAT LAKES: A COMBINED FIELD BASED AND REMOTE SENSING APPROACH

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aquatic plant communities within coastal wetlands of the Laurentian Great Lakes are among the most biologically diverse and productive systems of the world. Coastal wetlands have been especially impacted by landscape conversion and have undergone a marked decline in plant com...

  18. Differences in demographic traits of four butterflyfish species between two reefs of the Great Barrier Reef separated by 1,200 km

    KAUST Repository

    Berumen, Michael L.; Laman Trip, Elizabeth; Pratchett, Morgan S.; Choat, John Howard

    2011-01-01

    Many species demonstrate variation in life history attributes in response to gradients in environmental conditions. For fishes, major drivers of life history variation are changes in temperature and food availability. This study examined large

  19. Nitrogen dynamics in subtropical fringe and basin mangrove forests inferred from stable isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Carla Roberta Gonçalves; Nardoto, Gabriela Bielefeld; Rochelle, André Luis Casarin; Vieira, Simone Aparecida; Oliveira, Rafael Silva

    2017-03-01

    Mangroves exhibit low species richness compared to other tropical forests, but great structural and functional diversity. Aiming to contribute to a better understanding of the functioning of mangrove forests, we investigated nitrogen (N) dynamics in two physiographic types of mangroves (fringe and basin forests) in southeastern Brazil. Because fringe forests are under great influence of tidal flushing we hypothesized that these forests would exhibit higher N cycling rates in sediment and higher N losses to the atmosphere compared to basin forests. We quantified net N mineralization and nitrification rates in sediment and natural abundance of N stable isotopes (δ 15 N) in the sediment-plant-litter system. The fringe forest exhibited higher net N mineralization rates and δ 15 N in the sediment-plant-litter system, but net nitrification rates were similar to those of the basin forest. The results of the present study suggest that fringe forests exhibit higher N availability and N cycling in sediment compared to basin forests.

  20. Invasive species in southern Nevada [Chapter 4] (Executive Summary)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew L. Brooks; Steven M. Ostoja; Jeanne C.. Chambers

    2013-01-01

    Southern Nevada contains a wide range of topographies, elevations, and climatic zones that are emblematic of its position at the ecotone between the Mojave Desert, Great Basin, and Colorado Plateau ecoregions. These varied environmental conditions support a high degree of biological diversity, but they also provide opportunities for a wide range of invasive species. In...

  1. Incidental oligotrophication of North American Great Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Mary Anne; Fahnenstiel, Gary; Scavia, Donald

    2011-04-15

    Phytoplankton production is an important factor in determining both ecosystem stability and the provision of ecosystem goods and services. The expansive and economically important North American Great Lakes are subjected to multiple stressors and understanding their responses to those stresses is important for understanding system-wide ecological controls. Here we show gradual increases in spring silica concentration (an indicator of decreasing growth of the dominant diatoms) in all basins of Lakes Michigan and Huron (USA and Canadian waters) between 1983 and 2008. These changes indicate the lakes have undergone gradual oligotrophication coincident with and anticipated by nutrient management implementation. Slow declines in seasonal drawdown of silica (proxy for seasonal phytoplankton production) also occurred, until recent years, when lake-wide responses were punctuated by abrupt decreases, putting them in the range of oligotrophic Lake Superior. The timing of these dramatic production drops is coincident with expansion of populations of invasive dreissenid mussels, particularly quagga mussels, in each basin. The combined effect of nutrient mitigation and invasive species expansion demonstrates the challenges facing large-scale ecosystems and suggest the need for new management regimes for large ecosystems.

  2. Ancyrocephalidae (Monogenea of Lake Tanganyika: I: Four new species of Cichlidogyrus from Ophthalmotilapia ventralis (Teleostei: Cichlidae, the first record of this parasite family in the basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten P. M. Vanhove

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Examination of gill parasites from Ophthalmotilapia ventralis (Boulenger, 1898 in Lake Tanganyika (Africa revealed the presence of four new species of Monogenea, all members of Cichlidogyrus Paperna, 1960 (Ancyrocephalidae. In view of the systematic importance of haptoral structure, the fish host shows a remarkable diversity of morphological groups. Cichlidogyrus vandekerkhovei sp. nov. and C. makasai sp. nov. are especially characterized by the unusual length of the dorsal transverse bar auricles, while C. sturmbaueri sp. nov. is distinguished by the unique shape of the accessory piece of its male copulatory organ. Importantly, C. centesimus sp. nov. displays a number of features new to the genus, namely a spirally coiled thickening at the end of the penis, the absence of an accessory piece in the genital apparatus, and a hitherto unknown uncinuli configuration in the haptor. This is the first record of ancyrocephalid parasites from the Tanganyika basin. Some mechanisms possibly contributing to this yet unknown diversity are discussed, identifying topics deserving further scientific scrutiny.

  3. Increase in distribution records of owl species in Manitoba based on a volunteer nocturnal survey using Boreal Owl (Aegolius funereus) and Great Gray Owl (Strix nebulosa) playback

    Science.gov (United States)

    James R. Duncan; Patricia A. Duncan

    1997-01-01

    From 1991 through 1995, extensive owl surveys were conducted in late March and early April in Manitoba. Prior to these surveys, distribution records of owls covered only 16-71 per cent of their expected range in Manitoba. The degree to which the survey increased the documented range varied from no increase (6 of 12 species) up to an 88 per cent increase for the...

  4. Poor transferability of species distribution models for a pelagic predator, the grey petrel, indicates contrasting habitat preferences across ocean basins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh G Torres

    Full Text Available Species distribution models (SDMs are increasingly applied in conservation management to predict suitable habitat for poorly known populations. High predictive performance of SDMs is evident in validations performed within the model calibration area (interpolation, but few studies have assessed SDM transferability to novel areas (extrapolation, particularly across large spatial scales or pelagic ecosystems. We performed rigorous SDM validation tests on distribution data from three populations of a long-ranging marine predator, the grey petrel Procellaria cinerea, to assess model transferability across the Southern Hemisphere (25-65°S. Oceanographic data were combined with tracks of grey petrels from two remote sub-Antarctic islands (Antipodes and Kerguelen using boosted regression trees to generate three SDMs: one for each island population, and a combined model. The predictive performance of these models was assessed using withheld tracking data from within the model calibration areas (interpolation, and from a third population, Marion Island (extrapolation. Predictive performance was assessed using k-fold cross validation and point biserial correlation. The two population-specific SDMs included the same predictor variables and suggested birds responded to the same broad-scale oceanographic influences. However, all model validation tests, including of the combined model, determined strong interpolation but weak extrapolation capabilities. These results indicate that habitat use reflects both its availability and bird preferences, such that the realized distribution patterns differ for each population. The spatial predictions by the three SDMs were compared with tracking data and fishing effort to demonstrate the conservation pitfalls of extrapolating SDMs outside calibration regions. This exercise revealed that SDM predictions would have led to an underestimate of overlap with fishing effort and potentially misinformed bycatch mitigation

  5. Canada's Response to the Recommendations in the Tenth Biennial Report on Great Lakes Water Quality of the International Joint Commission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The Government of Canada and Ontario are currently renegotiating the Canada-Ontario Agreement Respecting the Great Lakes Basin Ecosystem (COA). They are committed to restoring and maintaining the basin's chemical, physical and biological integrity and ensuring that it has a healthy, sustainable future. The COA has established a strategic framework for coordinated federal-provincial responsibilities regarding the Great Lakes basin ecosystem. This document presents responses to the recommendations of the International Joint Commission's (IJC) Tenth Biennial Report on how to improve the performance and effectiveness of government programs such as the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement. According to the IJC, there are many challenges ahead, including: cleanup of Canadian Areas of Concern; controlling and preventing the further introduction of exotic species; mitigating the impact of rapid urban growth on environmental conditions throughout the basin; and reducing contaminants transported in the atmosphere over long distances to the Great Lakes. This document presented the government's responses to each of the following IJC recommendations regarding remedial action plans, threats to human health with respect to consumption of fish, contaminated sediment, airborne toxic substances, Great Lakes binational toxics strategy, land use, alien invasive species, and information and data management. IJC also recommended that indicators should be reported regarding whether the Great Lakes surface waters are suitable for drinking, swimming and whether fish are edible.

  6. Effects of heavy metal exposure on the condition and health of nestlings of the great tit (Parus major), a small songbird species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssens, Ellen; Dauwe, Tom; Pinxten, Rianne; Bervoets, Lieven; Blust, Ronny; Eens, Marcel

    2003-11-01

    Pollutants reduced nestling body mass and condition and delayed fledging time. - In this study we examined the possible effects of heavy metal exposure on the condition and health of great tit nestlings (Parus major) at four study sites along a pollution gradient near a large non-ferrous smelter in Belgium during three consecutive breeding seasons. Our results showed that nestlings were indeed exposed to large amounts of heavy metals. Excrements contained significantly higher concentrations of several heavy metals (silver, arsenic, cadmium, mercury, lead) near the pollution source than at study sites farther away. When taking into account the number of young in the nest at the time of sampling, nestling body mass and condition were significantly reduced at the most polluted site. Nestlings at the two most polluted sites fledged significantly later than at the least polluted site. We also observed growth abnormalities of the legs near the pollution source. Tarsus length, wing length and haematocrit values did not differ significantly among study sites.

  7. Effects of heavy metal exposure on the condition and health of nestlings of the great tit (Parus major), a small songbird species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssens, Ellen; Dauwe, Tom; Pinxten, Rianne; Bervoets, Lieven; Blust, Ronny; Eens, Marcel

    2003-01-01

    Pollutants reduced nestling body mass and condition and delayed fledging time. - In this study we examined the possible effects of heavy metal exposure on the condition and health of great tit nestlings (Parus major) at four study sites along a pollution gradient near a large non-ferrous smelter in Belgium during three consecutive breeding seasons. Our results showed that nestlings were indeed exposed to large amounts of heavy metals. Excrements contained significantly higher concentrations of several heavy metals (silver, arsenic, cadmium, mercury, lead) near the pollution source than at study sites farther away. When taking into account the number of young in the nest at the time of sampling, nestling body mass and condition were significantly reduced at the most polluted site. Nestlings at the two most polluted sites fledged significantly later than at the least polluted site. We also observed growth abnormalities of the legs near the pollution source. Tarsus length, wing length and haematocrit values did not differ significantly among study sites

  8. Comparative riverscape genetics reveals reservoirs of genetic diversity for conservation and restoration of Great Plains fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Megan J; Perkin, Joshuah S; Gido, Keith B; Turner, Thomas F

    2014-12-01

    We used comparative landscape genetics to examine the relative roles of historical events, intrinsic traits and landscape factors in determining the distribution of genetic diversity of river fishes across the North American Great Plains. Spatial patterns of diversity were overlaid on a patch-based graphical model and then compared within and among three species that co-occurred across five Great Plains watersheds. Species differing in reproductive strategy (benthic vs. pelagic-spawning) were hypothesized to have different patterns of genetic diversity, but the overriding factor shaping contemporary patterns of diversity was the signature of past climates and geological history. Allelic diversity was significantly higher at southern latitudes for Cyprinella lutrensis and Hybognathus placitus, consistent with northward expansion from southern Pleistocene refugia. Within the historical context, all species exhibited lowered occupancy and abundance in heavily fragmented and drier upstream reaches, particularly H. placitus; a pelagic-spawning species, suggesting rates of extirpation have outpaced losses of genetic diversity in this species. Within most tributary basins, genetically diverse populations of each species persisted. Hence, reconnecting genetically diverse populations with those characterized by reduced diversity (regardless of their position within the riverine network) would provide populations with greater genetic and demographic resilience. We discuss cases where cross-basin transfer may be appropriate to enhance genetic diversity and mitigate negative effects of climate change. Overall, striking similarities in genetic patterns and in response to fragmentation and dewatering suggest a common strategy for genetic resource management in this unique riverine fish assemblage. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Western Gas Sands Project. Quarterly Basin Activities Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkinson, C H

    1979-01-31

    This report is a summation of 3 months' drilling and testing activities in the four primary WGSP study areas: Greater Green River Basin, Northern Great Plains Province, Piceance Basin, and Uinta Basin. The monitoring of basin activities is part of resource assessment. (DLC)

  10. An Integrated Approach for Identifying Priority Contaminant in the Great Lakes Basin –Investigations in the Lower Green Bay/Fox River and Milwaukee Estuary Areas of Concern

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Prioritization of chemicals was performed on two Areas of Concerns in the Great Lakes An integrated risk surveillance and monitoring approach was applied Bio-effect...

  11. Wyoming Basin Rapid Ecoregional Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Natasha B.; Melcher, Cynthia P.

    2015-08-28

    The Wyoming Basin Rapid Ecoregional Assessment was conducted in partnership with the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). The overall goals of the BLM Rapid Ecoregional Assessments (REAs) are to identify important ecosystems and wildlife habitats at broad spatial scales; identify where these resources are at risk from Change Agents, including development, wildfire, invasive species, disease and climate change; quantify cumulative effects of anthropogenic stressors; and assess current levels of risk to ecological resources across a range of spatial scales and jurisdictional boundaries by assessing all lands within an ecoregion. There are several components of the REAs. Management Questions, developed by the BLM and stakeholders for the ecoregion, identify the regionally significant information needed for addressing land-management responsibilities. Conservation Elements represent regionally significant species and ecological communities that are of management concern. Change Agents that currently affect or are likely to affect the condition of species and communities in the future are identified and assessed. REAs also identify areas that have high conservation potential that are referred to as “large intact areas.” At the ecoregion level, the ecological value of large intact areas is based on the assumption that because these areas have not been greatly altered by human activities (such as development), they are more likely to contain a variety of plant and animal communities and to be resilient and resistant to changes resulting from natural disturbances such as fire, insect outbreaks, and disease.

  12. A molecular approach to the genus Alburnoides using COI sequences data set and the description of a new species, A. damghani, from the Damghan River system (the Dasht-e Kavir Basin, Iran) (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roudbar, Arash Jouladeh; Eagderi, Soheil; Esmaeili, Hamid Reza; Coad, Brian W; Bogutskaya, Nina

    2016-01-01

    The molecular status of nine species of the genus Alburnoides from different river drainages in Iran and additionally by seven species from Europe was assessed. mtDNA COI gene sequences from freshly collected specimens and available NCBI data revealed four major phylogenetic lineages. Based on the results, a distinct taxon from the Cheshmeh Ali (Ali Spring), a Damghan River tributary in the endorheic Dasht-e Kavir basin, northern Iran, which is the closest sister to Alburnoides namaki (Namak Lake basin) + Alburnoides coadi (Nam River in the endorheic Dasht-e Kavir basin) is considered as a new species, Alburnoides damghani sp. n. It is distinguished from other Alburnoides species in Iran by a combination of character states including: a weakly-developed, variably-scaled, ventral keel from completely scaleless to completely scaled, a short snout with the tip of the mouth cleft on a level with the lower margin of the pupil or slightly lower, a small eye (eye horizontal diameter slightly to markedly less than interorbital width), commonly 8½ branched dorsal-fin rays, commonly 11-12½ branched anal-fin rays, 40-46(47) total lateral-line scales, 2.5-4.2 or 2.5-4.1 pharyngeal teeth, gill rakers short and widely spaced, 6-8 in total, 39-41 (commonly 40), total vertebrae, (19)20(21) abdominal vertebrae, 19-21 (most commonly 20) caudal vertebrae, abdominal vertebral region most commonly equal to or longer than caudal region, and most common vertebral formulae 20+20 and 21+19.

  13. The Great Recession was not so Great

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ours, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    The Great Recession is characterized by a GDP-decline that was unprecedented in the past decades. This paper discusses the implications of the Great Recession analyzing labor market data from 20 OECD countries. Comparing the Great Recession with the 1980s recession it is concluded that there is a

  14. Ecosystem services in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    A comprehensive inventory of ecosystem services across the entire Great Lakes basin is currently lacking and is needed to make informed management decisions. A greater appreciation and understanding of ecosystem services, including both use and non-use services, may have avoided ...

  15. A new species of Algansea (Actinopterygii: Cyprinidae from the Ameca River basin, in Central Mexico Una especie nueva de Algansea (Actinopterygii: Cyprinidae en la cuenca del río Ameca en el centro de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Pérez-Rodríguez

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A morphological comparative analysis was performed among different populations of the cyprinid Algansea tincella Valenciennes, 1844 from the Lerma-Chapala and Ameca River basins in central Mexico. A new species, Algansea amecae n. sp. is described from individuals collected from small tributary in the headwaters of the Ameca basin. The new species differs from Lerma-Chapala populations of A. tincella by having a lower number of transversal scales, a lower number of infraorbital pores, a prominent dark lateral stripe along the body, a black caudal spot extending onto the medial caudal inter-radial membranes, and a pigmented ("dotted" lateral line. This new species increases the high level of endemism in the freshwater ichthyofauna of the Ameca basin. It appears to be most closely related to populations in the Lerma-Chapala-Santiago system, as is the case for several other species in the Ameca basin. This pattern of relationship provides evidence for a historical connection between the 2 basins, and implies that a vicariance event led to the isolation of populations and a subsequent speciation event. Due to the limited distributional range of Algansea amecae n. sp., and the environmental deterioration of the Ameca River, we propose that this new species should be designated as a protected species under Mexican law.Se realizó un análisis morfológico comparando diferentes poblaciones del ciprínido Algansea tincella Valenciennes, 1844 correspondientes a los sistemas hidrológicos Lerma-Chapala y cuenca del río Ameca. Con base en este análisis se describe una nueva especie, Algansea amecae n. sp. a partir de los individuos recolectados en un pequeño afluente del alto Ameca, en el centro de México. La nueva especie difiere de las poblaciones de A. tincella del sistema Lerma-Chapala-Santiago por presentar un menor número de escamas transversales, un menor número de poros infraorbitales, una franja obscura lateral muy marcada a lo largo del

  16. Spar genetic analysis of two invasive species of Cichla (Tucunaré (Perciformes: Cichlidae in the Paraná river basin = Análise genética via spar, de duas espécies de Cichla (Tucunaré (Perciformes: Cichlidae introduzidas na Bacia do rio Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Caputo Almeida-Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of exotic species in lake ecosystems has been greatly highlighted in the literature worldwide. Since introduction may threaten diversity of native fish, the issue turns up to be of paramount importance. Ecological effects may be predation, competition, parasitism or genetic, that is, changes in the genetic pool of populations owing to the occurrence of hybrids. Although the Tucunaré fish (Cichla is native to the Amazon region, it can be foundin other hydrographic basins in which it has been introduced. RAPD molecular marker research showed that there are two species (Cichla kelberi and C. piquiti belonging to the genus Cichla in the rivers of the Paraná basin. Different morphotypes in the region may also be due to hybridization. Current research used SPAR molecular markers to confirm the presence of hybrids and the rupture of isolation mechanisms. Seventy-two specimens collected in several sites of the river Paraná and Amazon basins were analyzed. Since exclusive SPAR molecular markers were obtained for Cichla kelberi and C. piquiti populations, the introduction of the two species in the region has been confirmed. Identification of the markers in specimens of theParaná river basin confirmed hybridization between these exotic species.A introdução de espécies exóticas nos ecossistemas lacustres tem sido muito destacada na literatura mundial, pois ameaça a diversidade de peixes nativos, tornando-se uma questão de extrema importância. Os efeitos observados podem ser ecológicos, como predação, competição e parasitismo ou genéticos, como a ocorrência de híbridos. Apesar do peixe tucunaré (Cichla ser nativo da região amazônica, ele pode ser encontrado em outras bacias hidrográficas nas quais foram introduzidos. Estudos utilizando marcadores moleculares RAPD revelaram que existem duas espécies (Cichla kelberi e C. piquiti do gênero Cichla na bacia do alto rio Paraná e morfotipos diferentes que podem ser devido

  17. Great Lakes Science Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Since 1927, Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC) research has provided critical information for the sound management of Great Lakes fish populations and other important...

  18. Snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) as bioindicators in Canadian Areas of Concern in the Great Lakes Basin. II. Changes in hatching success and hatchling deformities in relation to persistent organic pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solla, S.R. de , [Population Assessment Unit, Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Road, Box 5050, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6 (Canada); Fernie, K J; Ashpole, S [Population Assessment Unit, Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Road, Box 5050, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6 (Canada)

    2008-06-15

    Hatching success and deformities in snapping turtle hatchlings (Chelydra serpentina) were evaluated using eggs collected from 14 sites in the Canadian lower Great Lakes, including Areas of Concern (AOC), between 2001 and 2004. Eggs were analyzed for PCBs, PBDEs, and pesticides. Between 2002 and 2004, hatchling deformity rates were highest in two AOCs (18.3-28.3%) compared to the reference sites (5.3-11.3%). Hatching success was poorest in three AOCs (71.3-73.1%) compared to the reference sites (86.0-92.7%). Hatching success and deformity rates were generally poorer in 2001 compared to 2002-2004, irrespective of the study location and could be due to egg handling stress in 2001. Hatching success and deformities were generally worst from the Wheatley Harbour, St. Lawrence River (Cornwall), Detroit River, and Hamilton Harbour AOCs. Associations between contaminant burdens with embryonic development were sufficiently poor that the biological relevance is questionable. Stressors not measured may have contributed to development abnormalities. - Hatching success and deformities of snapping turtle eggs varied among Great Lake Areas of Concern, but were not attributable to specific chemical exposure.

  19. Snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) as bioindicators in Canadian Areas of Concern in the Great Lakes Basin. II. Changes in hatching success and hatchling deformities in relation to persistent organic pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solla, S.R. de; Fernie, K.J.; Ashpole, S.

    2008-01-01

    Hatching success and deformities in snapping turtle hatchlings (Chelydra serpentina) were evaluated using eggs collected from 14 sites in the Canadian lower Great Lakes, including Areas of Concern (AOC), between 2001 and 2004. Eggs were analyzed for PCBs, PBDEs, and pesticides. Between 2002 and 2004, hatchling deformity rates were highest in two AOCs (18.3-28.3%) compared to the reference sites (5.3-11.3%). Hatching success was poorest in three AOCs (71.3-73.1%) compared to the reference sites (86.0-92.7%). Hatching success and deformity rates were generally poorer in 2001 compared to 2002-2004, irrespective of the study location and could be due to egg handling stress in 2001. Hatching success and deformities were generally worst from the Wheatley Harbour, St. Lawrence River (Cornwall), Detroit River, and Hamilton Harbour AOCs. Associations between contaminant burdens with embryonic development were sufficiently poor that the biological relevance is questionable. Stressors not measured may have contributed to development abnormalities. - Hatching success and deformities of snapping turtle eggs varied among Great Lake Areas of Concern, but were not attributable to specific chemical exposure

  20. Milankovitch Modulation of the Ecosystem Dynamics of Fossil Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside, J. H.; Olsen, P. E.; Eglinton, T. I.; Cornet, B.; Huber, P.; McDonald, N. G.

    2008-12-01

    Triassic and Early Jurassic lacustrine deposits of eastern North American rift basins preserve a spectacular record of precession-related Milankovitch forcing in the Pangean tropics. The abundant and well-preserved fossil fish assemblages from these great lakes demonstrate a sequence of cyclical changes that track the permeating hierarchy of climatic cycles. To detail ecosystem processes correlating with succession of fish communities, we measured bulk δ13Corg through a 100 ky series of Early Jurassic climatic precession-forced lake level cycles in the lower Shuttle Meadow Formation of the Hartford rift basin, CT. The deep-water phase of one of these cycles, the Bluff Head bed, has produced thousands of articulated fish. We observe fluctuations in the bulk δ13Corg of the cyclical strata that reflect differing degrees of lake water stratification, nutrient levels, and relative proportion of algal vs. plant derived organic matter that trace fish community changes. We can exclude extrinsic changes in the global exchangeable reservoirs as an origin of this variability because molecule-level δ13C of n-alkanes of plant leaf waxes from the same strata show no such variability. While at higher taxonomic levels the fish communities responded largely by sorting of taxa by environmental forcing, at the species level the holostean genus Semionotus responded by in situ evolution, and ultimately extinction, of a species flock. Fluctuations at the higher frequency, climatic precessional scale are mirrored at lower frequency, eccentricity modulated, scales, all following the lake-level hierarchical pattern. Thus, lacustrine isotopic ratios amplify the Milankovitch climate signal that was already intensified by sequelae of the end-Triassic extinctions. The degree to which the ecological structure of modern lakes responds to similar environmental cyclicity is largely unknown, but we suspect similar patterns and processes within the Neogene history of the East African great lakes

  1. The Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project: scientific assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This CD-ROM contains digital versions (PDF) of the major scientific documents prepared for the Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project (ICBEMP). "A Framework for Ecosystem Management in the Interior Columbia Basin and Portions of the Klamath and Great Basins" describes a general planning model for ecosystem management. The "Highlighted...

  2. Snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) as bioindicators in Canadian areas of concern in the Great Lakes Basin. II. Changes in hatching success and hatchling deformities in relation to persistent organic pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Solla, S R; Fernie, K J; Ashpole, S

    2008-06-01

    Hatching success and deformities in snapping turtle hatchlings (Chelydra serpentina) were evaluated using eggs collected from 14 sites in the Canadian lower Great Lakes, including Areas of Concern (AOC), between 2001 and 2004. Eggs were analyzed for PCBs, PBDEs, and pesticides. Between 2002 and 2004, hatchling deformity rates were highest in two AOCs (18.3-28.3%) compared to the reference sites (5.3-11.3%). Hatching success was poorest in three AOCs (71.3-73.1%) compared to the reference sites (86.0-92.7%). Hatching success and deformity rates were generally poorer in 2001 compared to 2002-2004, irrespective of the study location and could be due to egg handling stress in 2001. Hatching success and deformities were generally worst from the Wheatley Harbour, St. Lawrence River (Cornwall), Detroit River, and Hamilton Harbour AOCs. Associations between contaminant burdens with embryonic development were sufficiently poor that the biological relevance is questionable. Stressors not measured may have contributed to development abnormalities.

  3. Euglossa williamsi, a new species of orchid bee from the Amazon Basin of Ecuador and Peru, with notes on its taxonomic association and biogeography (Hymenoptera, Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Hinojosa-Díaz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Euglossawilliamsi sp. n. is here described from the lowland Amazonianregion in Ecuador and Peru, and as part of a small species assemblage within Euglossa consisting of E. dodsoni Moure and E. obtusa Dressler. An identification key to the males of the group is provided plus detailed figures of the new species and representative illustrations for the others. A brief discussion of the taxonomic and biogeographical implications of the new species is provided. New records in Honduras and Nicaragua are provided for the related E. dodsoni.

  4. Tree Species Diversity, Richness, and Similarity in Intact and Degraded Forest in the Tropical Rainforest of the Congo Basin: Case of the Forest of Likouala in the Republic of Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suspense Averti Ifo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Trees species diversity, richness, and similarity were studied in fifteen plots of the tropical rainforests in the northeast of the Republic of Congo, based on trees inventories conducted on fifteen 0.25 ha plots installed along different types of forests developed on terra firma, seasonally flooded, and on flooded terra. In all of the plots installed, all trees with diameter at breast height, DBH ≥ 5 cm, were measured. The Shannon diversity index, species richness, equitability, and species dominance were computed to see the variation in tree community among plots but also between primary forest and secondary forest. A total of 1611 trees representing 114 species and 35 families were recorded from a total area of 3.75 ha. Euphorbiaceae was the dominant family in the forest with 12 species, followed by Fabaceae-Mimosoideae (10 species and Phyllanthaceae (6 species and Guttiferae (6 species. The biodiversity did not vary greatly from plot to plot on the whole of the study area (3.75 ha. The low value of Shannon index was obtained in plot 11 (H′=0.75 whereas the highest value was obtained in plot 12 (H′=4.46. The values of this index vary from 0.23 to 0.95 in plots P11 and P15, respectively. Results obtained revealed high biodiversity of trees of the forest of Impfondo-Dongou. The information on tree species structure and function can provide baseline information for conservation of the biodiversity of the tropical forest in this area.

  5. From leaf to basin: evaluating the impacts of introduced plant species on evapotranspiration fluxes from riparian ecosystems in the southwestern U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultine, K. R.; Bush, S.; Nagler, P. L.; Morino, K.; Burtch, K.; Dennison, P. E.; Glenn, E. P.; Ehleringer, J.

    2010-12-01

    Global change processes such as climate change and intensive land use pose significant threats to water resources, particularly in arid regions where potential evapotranspiration far exceeds annual rainfall. Potentially compounding these shortages is the progressive expansion of introduced plant species in riparian areas along streams, canals and rivers in geographically arid regions. The question of whether these invasive species have had or will have impacts on water resources is currently under intense debate. We identify a framework for assessing when and where introduced riparian plant species are likely to have the highest potential impact on hydrologic fluxes of arid and semi-arid river systems. We focus on three introduced plant systems that currently dominate southwestern U.S. riparian forests: tamarisk (Tamarix spp.), Russian olive (Eleagnus angustifolia), and Russian knapweed (Acroptilon repens). Our framework focuses on two main criteria: 1) the ecophysiological traits that promote establishment of invasive species across environmental gradients, and 2) an assessment of how hydrologic fluxes are altered by the establishment of introduced species at varying scales. The framework identifies when and where introduced species should have the highest potential impact on the water cycle. This framework will assist land managers and policy makers with restoration and conservation priorities to preserve water resources and valued riparian habitat given limited economic resources.

  6. Seven new species of Lachesilla (Psocodea: 'Psocoptera': Lachesillidae, in the group forcepeta from the Amazon Basin Sete espécies novas de Lachesilla Westwood (Psocodea:'Psocoptera': Lachesillidae do grupo forcepeta da Bacia Amazônica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso N. García Aldrete

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Seven new species of Lachesilla in the group forcepeta, from the Amazon Basin in Brazil, Colombia and Peru, are here described and illustrated: L. amacayacuensis sp. n. (type locality: Colombia, Amazonas, Leticia, Amacayacú; L.bulbosiforceps sp. n. (type locality: Peru, Cuzco; L. cuzcoensis sp. n. (type locality: Peru, Cuzco; L. marabaensis sp. n. (type locality: Brasil, Pará, Marabá, Serra Norte; L. pilosiforceps sp. n. (type locality: Brasil, Pará, Oriximiná, Rio Trombetas; L. pilosipenna sp. n. (type locality: Peru, Cuzco; L. squamiforceps sp. n. (type locality: Colombia, Amazonas, Leticia. The Amazon Basin is the second most rich world area for species of Lachesilla.São descritas e ilustradas sete espécies de Lachesilla do grupo forcepeta, provenientes da bacia amazônica do Brasil, Colômbia e Peru: L. amacayacuensis sp. n. (localidade-tipo: Colômbia, Amazonas, Leticia, Amacayacú; L. bulbosiforceps sp. n. (localidade-tipo: Peru, Cuzco; L. cuzcoensis sp. n. (localidade-tipo: Peru, Cuzco; L. marabaensis sp. n. (localidade-tipo: Brasil, Pará, Marabá, Serra Norte; L. pilosiforceps sp. n. (localidade-tipo: Brasil, Pará, Oriximiná, Rio Trombetas; L. pilosipenna sp. n. (localidade-tipo: Peru, Cuzco; L. squamiforceps sp. n. (localidade-tipo: Colômbia, Amazonas, Letícia. A região amazônica é a segunda mais rica em número de espécies de Lachesilla.

  7. Can the hemoglobin characteristics of vesicomyid clam species influence their distribution in deep-sea sulfide-rich sediments? A case study in the Angola Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, C.; Zorn, N.; Le Bruchec, J.; Caprais, J. C.; Potier, N.; Leize-Wagner, E.; Lallier, F. H.; Olu, K.; Andersen, A. C.

    2017-08-01

    Vesicomyids live in endosymbiosis with sulfur-oxidizing bacteria and therefore need hydrogen sulfide to survive. They can nevertheless live in a wide range of sulfide and oxygen levels and depths, which may explain the exceptional diversity of this clam family in deep-sea habitats. In the Gulf of Guinea, nine species of vesicomyid clams are known to live in cold-seep areas with pockmarks from 600 to 3200 m deep, as well as in the organic-rich sediments of the Congo deep-sea fan at 5000 m deep. Our previous study showed that two species living in a giant pockmark have different oxygen carriers, suggesting different adaptations to hypoxia. Here, we studied the hemoglobin structure and oxygen affinity in three other species, Calyptogena valdiviae, Elenaconcha guiness and Abyssogena southwardae to determine whether the characteristics of their oxygen carriers contribute to their distribution in sulfide-rich sediments at a regional scale. Documenting pairwise species associations in various proportions, we give a semi-quantitative account of their local distribution and oxygen and sulfide measurements at seven sites. Mass spectrometry showed that each vesicomyid species has four intracellular monomeric hemoglobin molecules of 15-16 kDa, all differing in their molecular mass. As expected, the monomers showed no cooperativity in oxygen binding. Their oxygen affinities were very high (below 1 Torr), but differed significantly. C. valdiviae had the highest affinity and was dominant in the Harp pockmark, the site with the lowest oxygen content (half the value of fully oxygenated water). A. southwardae dominated in the Congo Lobe area, the site with the deepest sulfides. We discuss how hemoglobin may favor an active, vertical distribution of vesicomyids in sulfide-rich sediments.

  8. Fishes of the Taquari-Antas river basin (Patos Lagoon basin, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FG. Becker

    Full Text Available The aquatic habitats of the Taquari-Antas river basin (in the Patos Lagoon basin, southern Brazil are under marked environmental transformation because of river damming for hydropower production. In order to provide an information baseline on the fish fauna of the Taquari-Antas basin, we provide a comprehensive survey of fish species based on primary and secondary data. We found 5,299 valid records of fish species in the basin, representing 119 species and 519 sampling sites. There are 13 non-native species, six of which are native to other Neotropical river basins. About 24% of the total native species are still lacking a taxonomic description at the species level. Three native long-distance migratory species were recorded (Leporinus obtusidens, Prochilodus lineatus, Salminus brasiliensis, as well as two potential mid-distance migrators (Parapimelodus nigribarbis and Pimelodus pintado. Although there is only one officially endangered species in the basin (S. brasiliensis, restricted range species (21.7% of total species should be considered in conservation efforts.

  9. New data on mitochondrial diversity and origin of Hemimysis anomala in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Questel, Jennifer M.; Walsh, Maureen G.; Smith, Randall J.; Welsh, Amy B.

    2012-01-01

    The most recent Ponto-Caspian species to invade the Laurentian Great Lakes is the crustacean Hemimysis anomala, first reported in 2006. A previous study described three haplotype groups (A, B, C) of H. anomala in native and invaded areas within Europe, but only one haplotype (A1) in a sample from Lake Michigan. Our study expands these results to additional populations in the Great Lakes basin, and evaluates relationships among North American and European populations. A 549-bp fragment of themitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene was analyzed from populations of H. anomala in Lakes Ontario, Erie, Huron, and the St. Lawrence River.Two different haplotypes, A1 and B1,were observed in the sampled populations of H. anomala and in a previous analysis from H. anomala in Oneida Lake (New York). Our results, in contrast with a previous study, detect an additional haplotype in North America.

  10. 127I and 129I Species and Transformation in the Baltic Proper, Kattegat, and Skagerrak Basins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yi, P.; Aldahan, A.; Possnert, G.

    2012-01-01

    , high 127I–/127IO3– and 129I–/129IO3– values suggest effective reduction of iodate with a maximum rate of 8 × 10–7 (127IO3–) and 6 × 10–14 (129IO3–) (g/m3.day). The reduction process of iodate seems to be related to decomposition of organic matter and photochemically induced reactions.......Occurrence of anthropogenic 129I in seawater has provided invaluable information about water circulation and exchange rates, but results on 129I species (iodide and iodate) are limited and only available for surface water. We here present the first extensive results on 129I and 127I species...

  11. Taxonomic status of Ligophorus mugilinus (Hargis, 1955) (Monogenea: Ancyrocephalidae), with a description of a new species of Ligophorus from Mugil cephalus (Teleostei: Mugilidae) in the Mediterranean Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarabeev, Volodimir Leonidovich; Balbuena, Juan Antonio; Euzet, Louis

    2005-12-01

    Ligophorus mugilinus was originally described on the flathead mullet Mugil cephalus from the Gulf of Mexico. The species was later recorded in the Mediterranean Sea on the flathead mullet and in the Caribbean Sea on the white mullet Mugil curema. After examination of the type material and additional specimens of Ligophorus from the northwest Atlantic coast, the Caribbean Sea, and the Mediterranean and Black Sea, we observed morphological differences concerning haptoral and male copulatory structures between L. mugilinus from the northwest Atlantic and the forms from the Mediterranean and Black Seas. Accordingly, the latter specimens are described as a new species, Ligophorus mediterraneus n. sp. A redescription of L. mugilinus, including new morphometric data, is also given. The morphometric analysis of the Caribbean specimens suggested that their ascription to L. mugilinus is uncertain, but additional material is needed to clarify their specific identity. The results of this study, together with previous zoogeographical evidence, indicate that flathead mullets from different seas harbor different species complexes of Ligophorus. Given the coastal habits of the host, it is suggested that open oceans could act as geographical barriers favoring speciation within disjointed flathead mullet populations.

  12. Invasive non-native species of fish in upper Paraná river Basin, Brazil: variations of caloric content in Cichla kelberi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alberto Espínola

    Full Text Available The allocation of assimilated energy may be influenced by seasonal changes, growth, and reproductive cycle of fish, food consumption and environmental conditions. The objective of this research was to evaluate the energetic variations of Cichla kelberi in the upper Paraná River floodplain, analyzing the caloric content in muscles, gonadosomatic index (GSI, and the condition factor between assessed systems, sex, and stage of gonadal maturation. The results obtained in the present study permit assuring that this is a species that efficiently converts the resources of the environment into energy. Although presenting higher condition factor in the environment where there is a greater ease in getting food (Paraná subsystem, the energy identified in the muscles was the same in both subsystems. During the process of gonadal maturation there is optimization in energy accumulation in the muscles of females, before and after reproductive period, and somatic growth occurs significantly when the individual is not reproducing. Further detailed studies on ecological mechanisms influencing the success of the species, as the presence of competitors and preference for native preys, are needed to implement effective management measures aimed at preventing that the species proliferation in the environment is even more damaging to local biodiversity.

  13. Fishes of the White River basin, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Charles G.; Lydy, Michael J.; Frey, Jeffrey W.

    1996-01-01

    Since 1875, researchers have reported 158 species of fish belonging to 25 families in the White River Basin. Of these species, 6 have not been reported since 1900 and 10 have not been reported since 1943. Since the 1820's, fish communities in the White River Basin have been affected by the alteration of stream habitat, overfishing, the introduction of non-native species, agriculture, and urbanization. Erosion resulting from conversion of forest land to cropland in the 1800's led to siltation of streambeds and resulted in the loss of some silt-sensitive species. In the early 1900's, the water quality of the White River was seriously degraded for 100 miles by untreated sewage from the City of Indianapolis. During the last 25 years, water quality in the basin has improved because of efforts to control water pollution. Fish communities in the basin have responded favorably to the improved water quality.

  14. Energy and water in the Great Lakes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll

    2011-11-01

    The nexus between thermoelectric power production and water use is not uniform across the U.S., but rather differs according to regional physiography, demography, power plant fleet composition, and the transmission network. That is, in some regions water demand for thermoelectric production is relatively small while in other regions it represents the dominate use. The later is the case for the Great Lakes region, which has important implications for the water resources and aquatic ecology of the Great Lakes watershed. This is today, but what about the future? Projected demographic trends, shifting lifestyles, and economic growth coupled with the threat of global climate change and mounting pressure for greater U.S. energy security could have profound effects on the region's energy future. Planning for such an uncertain future is further complicated by the fact that energy and environmental planning and regulatory decisionmaking is largely bifurcated in the region, with environmental and water resource concerns generally taken into account after new energy facilities and technologies have been proposed, or practices are already in place. Based on these confounding needs, the objective of this effort is to develop Great Lakes-specific methods and tools to integrate energy and water resource planning and thereby support the dual goals of smarter energy planning and development, and protection of Great Lakes water resources. Guiding policies for this planning are the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River Basin Water Resources Compact and the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement. The desired outcome of integrated energy-water-aquatic resource planning is a more sustainable regional energy mix for the Great Lakes basin ecosystem.

  15. Leaf curl diseases of two solanaceous species in Southwest Arabia are caused by a monopartite begomovirus evolutionarily most closely related to a species from the Nile Basin and unique suite of betasatellites

    KAUST Repository

    Idris, Ali

    2012-10-01

    The complete genome of 2780 bases was amplified using rolling circle amplification, and cloned, and sequenced for two distinct strains of the monopartite begomovirus Tomato leaf curl Sudan virus (ToLCSDV). The two strains shared 86-91% identity with the previously described ToLCSDV from the Nile Basin, and 90-91% identity with one another. One strain was cloned from symptomatic tomato plants from Tihamah (ToLCSDV-YE[YE:Tih:05]) while the other was cloned from symptomatic tobacco plants collected from Wadi Hadramaut (ToLCSDV-YE[YE:Had:89]). A distinct full-length betasatellite molecule (1352 bases) was cloned from the respective field-infected tomato and tobacco plants. Agro-inoculation of tomato and Nicotiana benthamiana plants with cloned partial tandem repeats of ToLCSDV-YE[YE:Tih11:05]) and the associated betasatellite, Tomato leaf curl Yemen betasatellite (ToLCYEB-[Tih:tom:137:05]), resulted in the reproduction of leaf curl disease symptoms in test plants like those observed in the field-infected plants. The betasatellite contributed to symptom severity in N. benthamiana test plants when it was co-inoculated with ToLCSDV-YE, compared to the milder symptoms that were observed in tobacco plants infected with the helper virus alone. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  16. Leaf curl diseases of two solanaceous species in Southwest Arabia are caused by a monopartite begomovirus evolutionarily most closely related to a species from the Nile Basin and unique suite of betasatellites

    KAUST Repository

    Idris, Ali; Abdullah, N.; Brown, Judith K.

    2012-01-01

    The complete genome of 2780 bases was amplified using rolling circle amplification, and cloned, and sequenced for two distinct strains of the monopartite begomovirus Tomato leaf curl Sudan virus (ToLCSDV). The two strains shared 86-91% identity with the previously described ToLCSDV from the Nile Basin, and 90-91% identity with one another. One strain was cloned from symptomatic tomato plants from Tihamah (ToLCSDV-YE[YE:Tih:05]) while the other was cloned from symptomatic tobacco plants collected from Wadi Hadramaut (ToLCSDV-YE[YE:Had:89]). A distinct full-length betasatellite molecule (1352 bases) was cloned from the respective field-infected tomato and tobacco plants. Agro-inoculation of tomato and Nicotiana benthamiana plants with cloned partial tandem repeats of ToLCSDV-YE[YE:Tih11:05]) and the associated betasatellite, Tomato leaf curl Yemen betasatellite (ToLCYEB-[Tih:tom:137:05]), resulted in the reproduction of leaf curl disease symptoms in test plants like those observed in the field-infected plants. The betasatellite contributed to symptom severity in N. benthamiana test plants when it was co-inoculated with ToLCSDV-YE, compared to the milder symptoms that were observed in tobacco plants infected with the helper virus alone. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  17. Great Lakes Literacy Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortner, Rosanne W.; Manzo, Lyndsey

    2011-03-01

    Lakes Superior, Huron, Michigan, Ontario, and Erie together form North America's Great Lakes, a region that contains 20% of the world's fresh surface water and is home to roughly one quarter of the U.S. population (Figure 1). Supporting a $4 billion sport fishing industry, plus $16 billion annually in boating, 1.5 million U.S. jobs, and $62 billion in annual wages directly, the Great Lakes form the backbone of a regional economy that is vital to the United States as a whole (see http://www.miseagrant.umich.edu/downloads/economy/11-708-Great-Lakes-Jobs.pdf). Yet the grandeur and importance of this freshwater resource are little understood, not only by people in the rest of the country but also by many in the region itself. To help address this lack of knowledge, the Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE) Great Lakes, supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, developed literacy principles for the Great Lakes to serve as a guide for education of students and the public. These “Great Lakes Literacy Principles” represent an understanding of the Great Lakes' influences on society and society's influences on the Great Lakes.

  18. The Next Great Generation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownstein, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    Discusses ideas from a new book, "Millennials Rising: The Next Great Generation," (by Neil Howe and William Strauss) suggesting that youth culture is on the cusp of a radical shift with the generation beginning with this year's college freshmen who are typically team oriented, optimistic, and poised for greatness on a global scale. Includes a…

  19. Residual basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Elboux, C.V.; Paiva, I.B.

    1980-01-01

    Exploration for uranium carried out over a major portion of the Rio Grande do Sul Shield has revealed a number of small residual basins developed along glacially eroded channels of pre-Permian age. Mineralization of uranium occurs in two distinct sedimentary units. The lower unit consists of rhythmites overlain by a sequence of black shales, siltstones and coal seams, while the upper one is dominated by sandstones of probable fluvial origin. (Author) [pt

  20. Karyotype characterization and ZZ/ZW sex chromosome heteromorphism in two species of the catfish genus Ancistrus Kner, 1854 (Siluriformes: Loricariidae from the Amazon basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renildo R. de Oliveira

    Full Text Available We present karyotypic characteristics and report on the occurrence of ZZ/ZW sex chromosomes in Ancistrus ranunculus (rio Xingu and Ancistrus sp. "Piagaçu" (rio Purus, of the Brazilian Amazon. Ancistrus ranunculus has a modal number of 2n=48 chromosomes, a fundamental number (FN of 82 for both sexes, and the karyotypic formula was 20m+8sm+6st+14a for males and 19m+9sm+6st+14a for females. Ancistrus sp. "Piagaçu" presented 2n=52 chromosomes, FN= 78 for males and FN= 79 for females. The karyotypic formula was 16m+8sm+2st+26a for males and 16m+9sm+2st+25a for females. The high number of acrocentric chromosomes in karyotype of Ancistrus sp. "Piagaçu" differs from the majority of Ancistrini genera studied so far, and may have resulted from pericentric inversions and translocations. The lower number of chromosomes in A. ranunculus indicates that centric fusions also occurred in the evolution of Ancistrus karyotypes. We conclude that karyotypic characteristics and the presence of sex chromosomes can constitute important cytotaxonomic markers to identify cryptic species of Ancistrus. However, sex chromosomes apparently arose independently within the genus and thus do not constitute a reliable character to analyze phylogenetic relations among Ancistrus species.

  1. A new genus and species of characid fish from the Amazon basin: the recognition of a relictual lineage of characid fishes (Ostariophysi: Cheirodontinae: Cheirodontini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina M. Bührnheim

    Full Text Available Amazonspinther dalmata, a new miniature characid from the streams of rio Purus and rio Madeira, right bank tributaries of the rio Amazonas, is described as a new genus and species of the subfamily Cheirodontinae. The unique characters of the new genus and species are the three remarkable black blotches on the base of the dorsal, anal, and caudal fins, the anteriormost proximal radial of the anal fin with an anteriorly extended lamina entering the abdominal cavity, and the extremely elongate caudal peduncle. The reduced number of ventral procurrent caudal-fin rays (7-9, and the hemal spines of only posterior one, two, or sometimes three caudal vertebrae directly articulating with the ventral procurrent caudal-fin rays further diagnoses the new taxon from remaining genera of the tribe Cheirodontini. The results of a phylogenetic analysis strongly support a close relationship between A. dalmata and Spintherobolus in the tribe Cheirodontini on the basis of fifteen unambiguous synapomorphies. Ten of these characters, previously hypothesized as exclusive synapomorphies for Spintherobolus, were now also identified in Amazonspinther, such as the pattern of exposed neuromasts on the head, the presence of a second pseudotympanum anterior to the first pleural rib, and the nearly discoidal coracoid bone. A discussion about the phylogenetic position of the closely related fossil †Megacheirodon to Spintherobolus and Amazonspinther is also provided. Convergent characters shared between Amazonspinther and the characid Priocharax are discussed in relation to miniaturization. Biogeographical implications of the diversification of Amazonspinther, Spintherobolus, and Megacheirodon lineages are discussed.

  2. Klamath River Basin water-quality data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Cassandra D.; Rounds, Stewart A.; Orzol, Leonard L.; Sobieszczyk, Steven

    2018-05-29

    The Klamath River Basin stretches from the mountains and inland basins of south-central Oregon and northern California to the Pacific Ocean, spanning multiple climatic regions and encompassing a variety of ecosystems. Water quantity and water quality are important topics in the basin, because water is a critical resource for farming and municipal use, power generation, and for the support of wildlife, aquatic ecosystems, and endangered species. Upper Klamath Lake is the largest freshwater lake in Oregon (112 square miles) and is known for its seasonal algal blooms. The Klamath River has dams for hydropower and the upper basin requires irrigation water to support agriculture and grazing. Multiple species of endangered fish inhabit the rivers and lakes, and the marshes are key stops on the Pacific flyway for migrating birds. For these and other reasons, the water resources in this basin have been studied and monitored to support their management distribution.

  3. Assessment of chemical and biological significance of arsenical species in the Maurice River drainage basin (N. J. ). Part I. Distribution in water and river and lake sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faust, S.D.; Winka, A.J.; Belton, T.

    1987-01-01

    Levels of arsenic were determined in the bottom sediments and waters of the Maurice River, Blackwater Branch, and Union Lake, (N.J.) that were contaminated by a local chemical industry. This was the only known source of the arsenic. Levels of total arsenic in the sediments and waters were determined quarterly over the course of one year. Sediments were extracted for water soluble and total extractable arsenic fractions and partitioned into four species: monomethylarsonic acid (MMAA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMAA), arsenite (As(III)), and arsenate (As(V)). In Union Lake at a shallow sandy sediment site, As (V) predominates. In organic sediments, As (III) or (V) predominate depending upon the dissolved oxygen content of the overlying waters. The oxidations state of the arsenic was affected also by the seasonal lake cycles of stratifying or mixing.

  4. Entomofauna Associated with Agroforestry Systems of Timber Species and Cacao in the Southern Region of the Maracaibo Lake Basin (Mérida, Venezuela).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazón, Marina; Sánchez-Angarita, Daniel; Díaz, Francisco A; Gutiérrez, Néstor; Jaimez, Ramón

    2018-04-20

    Agroforestry systems are environment-friendly production systems which help to preserve biodiversity while providing people with a way of earning a living. Cacao is a historically important crop in Venezuela that traditionally has been produced in agroforestry systems. However, few studies have evaluated how different trees used in those systems affect the dynamics and abundance of insects. The present study evaluated the entomofauna assemblages associated with different combinations of four timber-yielding trees and four Criollo cacao cultivars established in a lowland tropical ecosystem in Venezuela. A randomized block design with two replicates was used, each block having 16 plots which included all 16 possible combinations of four native timber trees ( Cordia thaisiana , Cedrela odorata , Swietenia macrophylla , and Tabebuia rosea ) and four Criollo cacao cultivars (Porcelana, Guasare, Lobatera and Criollo Merideño). Insects were collected with yellow pan traps and sorted to order. Coleoptera and parasitoid Hymenoptera were determined to the family level. In total, 49,538 individuals of seven orders were collected, with Hymenoptera, Diptera, and Hemiptera being the most abundant, although only Lepidoptera and Coleoptera abundances were significantly influenced by the timber tree species. Twenty-three families of parasitoid Hymenoptera and 26 of Coleoptera were found. Significant differences in insects’ assemblages were found both in parasitoid Hymenoptera and Coleoptera families associated to every shade tree, with the families Eulophidae and Lycidae being indicators for Cordia , and Chalcididae for Swietenia . The entomofauna relationship with the cacao cultivar was barely significant, although Scydmaenidae and Scarabaeidae were indicators for Lobatera and Merideño, respectively. No significant effects were found for interaction with cacao cultivars and native trees. We concluded that the particular insect assemblages found in Cedrela odorata and Cordia

  5. Entomofauna Associated with Agroforestry Systems of Timber Species and Cacao in the Southern Region of the Maracaibo Lake Basin (Mérida, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Mazón

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Agroforestry systems are environment-friendly production systems which help to preserve biodiversity while providing people with a way of earning a living. Cacao is a historically important crop in Venezuela that traditionally has been produced in agroforestry systems. However, few studies have evaluated how different trees used in those systems affect the dynamics and abundance of insects. The present study evaluated the entomofauna assemblages associated with different combinations of four timber-yielding trees and four Criollo cacao cultivars established in a lowland tropical ecosystem in Venezuela. A randomized block design with two replicates was used, each block having 16 plots which included all 16 possible combinations of four native timber trees (Cordia thaisiana, Cedrela odorata, Swietenia macrophylla, and Tabebuia rosea and four Criollo cacao cultivars (Porcelana, Guasare, Lobatera and Criollo Merideño. Insects were collected with yellow pan traps and sorted to order. Coleoptera and parasitoid Hymenoptera were determined to the family level. In total, 49,538 individuals of seven orders were collected, with Hymenoptera, Diptera, and Hemiptera being the most abundant, although only Lepidoptera and Coleoptera abundances were significantly influenced by the timber tree species. Twenty-three families of parasitoid Hymenoptera and 26 of Coleoptera were found. Significant differences in insects’ assemblages were found both in parasitoid Hymenoptera and Coleoptera families associated to every shade tree, with the families Eulophidae and Lycidae being indicators for Cordia, and Chalcididae for Swietenia. The entomofauna relationship with the cacao cultivar was barely significant, although Scydmaenidae and Scarabaeidae were indicators for Lobatera and Merideño, respectively. No significant effects were found for interaction with cacao cultivars and native trees. We concluded that the particular insect assemblages found in Cedrela odorata

  6. Aquatic species and habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danny C. Lee; James R. Sedell; Bruce E. Rieman; Russell F. Thurow; Jack E. Williams

    1998-01-01

    Continuing human activities threaten the highly prized aquatic resources of the interior Columbia basin. Precipitous declines in native species, particularly Pacific salmon, and a large influx of introduced species have radically altered the composition and distribution of native fishes. Fortunately, areas of relatively high aquatic integrity remain, much of it on...

  7. Taxonomic revision of the fossil pulmonate mollusks of Itaboraí Basin (Paleocene, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Brincalepe Salvador

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The limestones of Itaboraí Basin (Middle Paleocene, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, harbor a rich fossil molluscan fauna consisting exclusively of pulmonate snails, both terrestrial and freshwater. An extensive taxonomic revision of this paleofauna is conducted here. A new genus, Cortana, is described as well as two new species, Eoborus fusiforme and Gastrocopta itaboraiensis. The revised classification is as follows: Austrodiscus lopesi (Charopidae; Biomphalaria itaboraiensis (Planorbidae; "Brachypodella" britoi (Urocoptidae; Brasilennea arethusae, Brasilennea guttula, Brasilennea minor (Cerionidae; Bulimulus fazendicus, Bulimulus trindadeae, Cortana carvalhoi, Cyclodontina coelhoi, Itaborahia lamegoi, Leiostracus ferreirai, Plagiodontes aff. dentatus (Orthalicidae; Cecilioides sommeri (Ferussaciidae; Eoborus rotundus, Eoborus sanctijosephi, Eoborus fusiforme (Strophocheilidae; Gastrocopta mezzalirai, Gastrocopta itaboraiensis (Gastrocoptidae; Temesa magalhaesi (Clausiliidae. The species Strobilopsis mauryae was considered a synonym of Brasilennea arethusae; Bulimulus sommeri a synonym of Itaborahia lamegoi; and Vorticifex fluminensis a synonym of Eoborus sanctijosephi. Itaboraí Basin has the most ancient records of the families Orthalicidae, Gastrocoptidae, Ferussaciidae and Strophocheilidae. Moreover, the basin's records of Charopidae, Clausiliidae, Cerionidae, and Urocoptidae are among the most ancient in the world and, among these, those of Cerionidae, Clausiliidae and Urocoptidae deserve special attention since they are greatly removed from these families' current distribution. Additionally, Itaboraí has the most ancient records for the genera Austrodiscus, Brachypodella, Bulimulus, Cecilioides, Cyclodontina, Eoborus, Gastrocopta, Leiostracus, Plagiodontes and Temesa. There are three endemic genera in the basin: Brasilennea, Cortana and Itaborahia. Further discussion on paleobiogeography and evolution of this paleofauna is also provided.

  8. Great Indoors Awards 2007

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Hollandis Maastrichtis jagati 17. XI esimest korda rahvusvahelist auhinda The Great Indoors Award. Aasta sisekujundusfirmaks valiti Masamichi Katayama asutatud Wonderwall. Auhinna said veel Zaha Hadid, Heatherwick Studio, Ryui Nakamura Architects ja Item Idem

  9. Great Lakes Bathymetry

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lakes Michigan, Erie, Saint Clair, Ontario and Huron has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and...

  10. Modeling detection probability to improve marsh bird surveys in southern Canada and the Great Lakes states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas C. Tozer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Marsh birds are notoriously elusive, with variation in detection probability across species, regions, seasons, and different times of day and weather. Therefore, it is important to develop regional field survey protocols that maximize detections, but that also produce data for estimating and analytically adjusting for remaining differences in detections. We aimed to improve regional field survey protocols by estimating detection probability of eight elusive marsh bird species throughout two regions that have ongoing marsh bird monitoring programs: the southern Canadian Prairies (Prairie region and the southern portion of the Great Lakes basin and parts of southern Québec (Great Lakes-St. Lawrence region. We accomplished our goal using generalized binomial N-mixture models and data from ~22,300 marsh bird surveys conducted between 2008 and 2014 by Bird Studies Canada's Prairie, Great Lakes, and Québec Marsh Monitoring Programs. Across all species, on average, detection probability was highest in the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence region from the beginning of May until mid-June, and then fell throughout the remainder of the season until the end of June; was lowest in the Prairie region in mid-May and then increased throughout the remainder of the season until the end of June; was highest during darkness compared with light; and did not vary significantly according to temperature (range: 0-30°C, cloud cover (0%-100%, or wind (0-20 kph, or during morning versus evening. We used our results to formulate improved marsh bird survey protocols for each region. Our analysis and recommendations are useful and contribute to conservation of wetland birds at various scales from local single-species studies to the continental North American Marsh Bird Monitoring Program.

  11. Changes in the dreissenid community in the lower Great Lakes with emphasis on southern Lake Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Edward L.; Chrisman, Jana R.; Baldwin, Brad; Owens, Randall W.; O'Gorman, Robert; Howell, Todd; Roseman, Edward F.; Raths, Melinda K.

    1999-01-01

    A field study was conducted in the lower Great Lakes to assess changes in spatial distribution and population structure of dreissenid mussel populations. More specifically, the westward range expansion of quagga mussel into western Lake Erie and toward Lake Huron was investigated and the shell size, density, and biomass of zebra and quagga mussel with depth in southern Lake Ontario in 1992 and 1995 were compared. In Lake Erie, quagga mussel dominated the dreissenid community in the eastern basin and zebra mussel dominated in the western basin. In southern Lake Ontario, an east to west gradient was observed with the quagga mussel dominant at western sites and zebra mussel dominant at eastern locations. Mean shell size of quagga mussel was generally larger than that of zebra mussel except in western Lake Erie and one site in eastern Lake Erie. Although mean shell size and our index of numbers and biomass of both dreissenid species increased sharply in southern Lake Ontario between 1992 and 1995, the increase in density and biomass was much greater for quagga mussels over the 3-year period. In 1995, zebra mussels were most abundant at 15 to 25 m whereas the highest numbers and biomass of quagga mussel were at 35 to 45 m. The quagga mussel is now the most abundant dreissenid in areas of southern Lake Ontario where the zebra mussel was once the most abundant dreissenid; this trend parallels that observed for dreissenid populations in the Dneiper River basin in the Ukraine.

  12. A new species of Leporinus Agassiz, 1829 from the upper Rio Paraná basin (Characiformes, Anostomidae with redescription of L. elongatus Valenciennes, 1850 and L. obtusidens (Valenciennes, 1837

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heraldo A. Britski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Leporinus obtusidens Valenciennes, 1837 and L. elongatus Valenciennes, 1850 are redescribed based on the type specimens, including those of their junior synonyms, and recently collected specimens. Leporinus obtusidens is considered to be widespread, occuring in the river drainages of La Plata, São Francisco, and Parnaíba. Leporinus aguapeiensis Campos, 1945, described from the upper Rio Paraná, and L. silvestrii Boulenger, 1902, described from the Rio Paraguay, are considered junior synonyms of L. obtusidens. Leporinus elongatus is endemic to the Rio Jequitinhonha and Rio Pardo, two eastern Brazilian river basins, and the locality cited for the lectotype, Rio São Fransico, likely to be erroneous. Leporinus crassilabris Borodin, 1929, and L. crassilabris breviceps Borodin, 1929, both described from the Rio Jequitinhonha, are considered junior synynoms of L. elongatus. A new species of Leporinus, endemic to the upper Rio Paraná, very similar and sometimes mistaken with L. obtusidens, is formally described. In addition, comments on Leporinus pachyurus Valenciennes, 1850 and on L. bimaculatus Castelnau, 1855 are provided, and a lectotype for L. bimaculatus is selected.

  13. Saline systems of the Great Plains of western Canada: an overview of the limnogeology and paleolimnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Last, William M; Ginn, Fawn M

    2005-01-01

    spatial trends and regional variations controlled by groundwater input, climate, and geomorphology. Short-term temporal variations in the brine composition, which can have significant effects on the composition of the modern sediments, have also been well documented in several individual basins. From a sedimentological and mineralogical perspective, the wide range of water chemistries exhibited by the lakes leads to an unusually large diversity of modern sediment composition. Over 40 species of endogenic precipitates and authigenic minerals have been identified in the lacustrine sediments. The most common non-detrital components of the modern sediments include: calcium and calcium-magnesium carbonates (magnesian calcite, aragonite, dolomite), and sodium, magnesium, and sodium-magnesium sulfates (mirabilite, thenardite, bloedite, epsomite). Many of the basins whose brines have very high Mg/Ca ratios also have hydromagnesite, magnesite, and nesquehonite. Unlike salt lakes in many other areas of the world, halite, gypsum, and calcite are relatively rare endogenic precipitates in the Great Plains lakes. The detrital fraction of the lacustrine sediments is normally dominated by clay minerals, carbonate minerals, quartz, and feldspars. Sediment accumulation in these salt lakes is controlled and modified by a wide variety of physical, chemical, and biological processes. Although the details of these modern sedimentary processes can be exceedingly complex and difficult to discuss in isolation, in broad terms, the processes operating in the salt lakes of the Great Plains are ultimately controlled by three basic factors or conditions of the basin: (a) basin morphology; (b) basin hydrology; and (c) water salinity and composition. Combinations of these parameters interact to control nearly all aspects of modern sedimentation in these salt lakes and give rise to four 'end member' types of modern saline lacustrine settings in the Great Plains: (a) clastics-dominated playas; (b) salt

  14. New records of Cotylea (Polycladida, Platyhelminthes) from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia, with remarks on the distribution of the Pseudoceros Lang, 1884 and Pseudobiceros Faubel, 1984 species of the Indo-Pacific Marine Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquina, Daniel; Aguado, M Teresa; Noreña, Carolina

    2015-09-18

    In the present work eleven polyclad species of Lizard Island are studied. Seven of them are new records for this locality of the Australian coral reef and one is new to science, Lurymare clavocapitata n. sp. (Family Prosthiostomidae). The remaining recorded species belong to the genera Pseudoceros (P. bimarginatus, P. jebborum, P. stimpsoni, P. zebra, P. paralaticlavus and P. prudhoei) and Pseudobiceros (Pb. hancockanus, Pb. hymanae, Pb. flowersi and Pb. uniarborensis). Regardless of the different distribution patterns, all pseudocerotid species show brilliant colours, but similar internal morphology. Furthermore, differences in the form and size of the stylet are characteristic, because it is a sclerotic structure that is not affected during fixation. In Pseudoceros, the distance between the sucker and the female pore also differs among species. These features do not vary enough to be considered as diagnostic, but they provide information that can help to disentangle similarly coloured species complexes. A key of the genera Pseudoceros and Pseudobiceros of the Indo-Pacific region is provided, in order to facilitate the identification of species from this area.

  15. The GREAT3 challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyatake, H; Mandelbaum, R; Rowe, B

    2014-01-01

    The GRavitational lEnsing Accuracy Testing 3 (GREAT3) challenge is an image analysis competition that aims to test algorithms to measure weak gravitational lensing from astronomical images. The challenge started in October 2013 and ends 30 April 2014. The challenge focuses on testing the impact on weak lensing measurements of realistically complex galaxy morphologies, realistic point spread function, and combination of multiple different exposures. It includes simulated ground- and space-based data. The details of the challenge are described in [1], and the challenge website and its leader board can be found at http://great3challenge.info and http://great3.projects.phys.ucl.ac.uk/leaderboard/, respectively

  16. Nothing Great Is Easy

    OpenAIRE

    Stansbie, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    A solo exhibition of 13 pieces of art work.\\ud \\ud Nothing Great is Easy is an exhibition of sculpture, film, drawing and photography that proposes reconstructed narratives using the sport of swimming and in particular the collective interaction and identity of the channel swimmer. The work utilises the processes, rituals/rules, language and the apparatus of sport.\\ud \\ud “Nothing great is easy” are the words on the memorial to Captain Matthew Webb who was the first man to swim the English ch...

  17. Découverte de deux nouvelles espèces du genre Myocricetodon dans le Miocène supérieur du bassin d'Aït Kandoula (Maroc)Discovery of two new species of Myocricetodon genus in the Upper Miocene of Aït Kandoula basin (Morocco)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benammi, Mouloud

    2001-08-01

    The Aı̈t Kandoula basin is known for its abundance of micromammal fauna. The systematic study of the fauna of two layers of the Afoud section (AF6 and AF5), highlights the presence of two new species: Myocricetodon afoudensis nov. sp. and Myocricetodon jaegeri nov. sp. These two layers are respectively dated at 10.1 and 6.3 Ma by magnetostratigraphic correlation.

  18. The Great Mathematician Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Sabrina R.

    2013-01-01

    The Great Mathematician Project (GMP) introduces both mathematically sophisticated and struggling students to the history of mathematics. The rationale for the GMP is twofold: first, mathematics is a uniquely people-centered discipline that is used to make sense of the world; and second, students often express curiosity about the history of…

  19. What great managers do.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham, Marcus

    2005-03-01

    Much has been written about the qualities that make a great manager, but most of the literature overlooks a fundamental question: What does a great manager actually do? While there are countless management styles, one thing underpins the behavior of all great managers. Above all, an exceptional manager comes to know and value the particular quirks and abilities of her employees. She figures out how to capitalize on her staffers' strengths and tweaks her environment to meet her larger goals. Such a specialized approach may seem like a lot of work. But in fact, capitalizing on each person's uniqueness can save time. Rather than encourage employees to conform to strict job descriptions that may include tasks they don't enjoy and aren't good at, a manager who develops positions for his staff members based on their unique abilities will be rewarded with behaviors that are far more efficient and effective than they would be otherwise. This focus on individuals also makes employees more accountable. Because staffers are evaluated on their particular strengths and weaknesses, they are challenged to take responsibility for their abilities and to hone them. Capitalizing on a person's uniqueness also builds a stronger sense of team. By taking the time to understand what makes each employee tick, a great manager shows that he sees his people for who they are. This personal investment not only motivates individuals but also galvanizes the entire team. Finally, this approach shakes up existing hierarchies, which leads to more creative thinking. To take great managing from theory to practice, the author says, you must know three things about a person: her strengths, the triggers that activate those strengths, and how she learns. By asking the right questions, squeezing the right triggers, and becoming aware of your employees' learning styles, you will discover what motivates each person to excel.

  20. Electrofishing survey of the Great Miami River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stocker, L.E.; Miller, M.C.; Engman, J.; Evans, R.L.; Koch, R.W.; Brence, W.A.

    1994-01-01

    Fish sampling by electroshocking in the Great Miami River above and below the Fernald sit was designed to determine changes in the health of the fish community compared to the previous nine years and to collect samples for uranium analysis in fish filets. This document contains information describing the findings of this program. Topics discussed include: physical and chemical parameters, species richness, species diversity, and water analysis

  1. Geology, selected geophysics, and hydrogeology of the White River and parts of the Great Salt Lake Desert regional groundwater flow systems, Utah and Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Peter D.; Dixon, Gary L.; Watrus , James M.; Burns, Andrews G.; Mankinen, Edward A.; McKee, Edwin H.; Pari, Keith T.; Ekren, E. Bartlett; Patrick , William G.; Comer, John B.; Inkenbrandt, Paul C.; Krahulec, K.A.; Pinnell, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    The east-central Great Basin near the Utah-Nevada border contains two great groundwater flow systems. The first, the White River regional groundwater flow system, consists of a string of hydraulically connected hydrographic basins in Nevada spanning about 270 miles from north to south. The northernmost basin is Long Valley and the southernmost basin is the Black Mountain area, a valley bordering the Colorado River. The general regional groundwater flow direction is north to south. The second flow system, the Great Salt Lake Desert regional groundwater flow system, consists of hydrographic basins that straddle

  2. Great magnetic storms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsurutani, B.T.; Yen Te Lee; Tang, F.; Gonzalez, W.D.

    1992-01-01

    The five largest magnetic storms that occurred between 1971 and 1986 are studied to determine their solar and interplanetary causes. All of the events are found to be associated with high speed solar wind streams led by collisionless shocks. The high speed streams are clearly related to identifiable solar flares. It is found that (1) it is the extreme values of the southward interplanetary magnetic fields rather than solar wind speeds that are the primary causes of great magnetic storms, (2) shocked and draped sheath fields preceding the driver gas (magnetic cloud) are at least as effective in causing the onset of great magnetic storms (3 of 5 events ) as the strong fields within the driver gas itself, and (3) precursor southward fields ahead of the high speed streams allow the shock compression mechanism (item 2) to be particularly geoeffective

  3. The great intimidators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Roderick M

    2006-02-01

    After Disney's Michael Eisner, Miramax's Harvey Weinstein, and Hewlett-Packard's Carly Fiorina fell from their heights of power, the business media quickly proclaimed thatthe reign of abrasive, intimidating leaders was over. However, it's premature to proclaim their extinction. Many great intimidators have done fine for a long time and continue to thrive. Their modus operandi runs counter to a lot of preconceptions about what it takes to be a good leader. They're rough, loud, and in your face. Their tactics include invading others' personal space, staging tantrums, keeping people guessing, and possessing an indisputable command of facts. But make no mistake--great intimidators are not your typical bullies. They're driven by vision, not by sheer ego or malice. Beneath their tough exteriors and sharp edges are some genuine, deep insights into human motivation and organizational behavior. Indeed, these leaders possess political intelligence, which can make the difference between paralysis and successful--if sometimes wrenching--organizational change. Like socially intelligent leaders, politically intelligent leaders are adept at sizing up others, but they notice different things. Those with social intelligence assess people's strengths and figure out how to leverage them; those with political intelligence exploit people's weaknesses and insecurities. Despite all the obvious drawbacks of working under them, great intimidators often attract the best and brightest. And their appeal goes beyond their ability to inspire high performance. Many accomplished professionals who gravitate toward these leaders want to cultivate a little "inner intimidator" of their own. In the author's research, quite a few individuals reported having positive relationships with intimidating leaders. In fact, some described these relationships as profoundly educational and even transformational. So before we throw out all the great intimidators, the author argues, we should stop to consider what

  4. Great Lakes Energy Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, J. Iwan [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2012-11-18

    The vision of the Great Lakes Energy Institute is to enable the transition to advanced, sustainable energy generation, storage, distribution and utilization through coordinated research, development, and education. The Institute will place emphasis on translating leading edge research into next generation energy technology. The Institute’s research thrusts focus on coordinated research in decentralized power generation devices (e.g. fuel cells, wind turbines, solar photovoltaic devices), management of electrical power transmission and distribution, energy storage, and energy efficiency.

  5. Plant species effects on soil nutrients and chemistry in arid ecological zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Brittany G; Verburg, Paul S J; Arnone, John A

    2016-09-01

    The presence of vegetation strongly influences ecosystem function by controlling the distribution and transformation of nutrients across the landscape. The magnitude of vegetation effects on soil chemistry is largely dependent on the plant species and the background soil chemical properties of the site, but has not been well quantified along vegetation transects in the Great Basin. We studied the effects of plant canopy cover on soil chemistry within five different ecological zones, subalpine, montane, pinyon-juniper, sage/Mojave transition, and desert shrub, in the Great Basin of Nevada all with similar underlying geology. Although plant species differed in their effects on soil chemistry, the desert shrubs Sarcobatus vermiculatus, Atriplex spp., Coleogyne ramosissima, and Larrea tridentata typically exerted the most influence on soil chemistry, especially amounts of K(+) and total nitrogen, beneath their canopies. However, the extent to which vegetation affected soil nutrient status in any given location was not only highly dependent on the species present, and presumably the nutrient requirements and cycling patterns of the plant species, but also on the background soil characteristics (e.g., parent material, weathering rates, leaching) where plant species occurred. The results of this study indicate that the presence or absence of a plant species, especially desert shrubs, could significantly alter soil chemistry and subsequently ecosystem biogeochemistry and function.

  6. Congener Patterns of Persistent Organic Pollutants Establish the Extent of Contaminant Biotransport by Pacific Salmon in the Great Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerig, Brandon S; Chaloner, Dominic T; Janetski, David J; Rediske, Richard R; O'Keefe, James P; Moerke, Ashley H; Lamberti, Gary A

    2016-01-19

    In the Great Lakes, introduced Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) can transport persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), to new environments during their spawning migrations. To explore the nature and extent of POP biotransport by salmon, we compared 58 PCB and 6 PBDE congeners found in spawning salmon directly to those in resident stream fish. We hypothesized that stream fish exposed to salmon spawners would have congener patterns similar to those of salmon, the presumed contaminant source. Using permutational multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA) and nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS), we found that POP congener patterns of Pacific salmon varied among regions in the Great Lakes basin (i.e., Lake Huron, Lake Michigan, or Lake Superior), tissue type (whole fish or eggs), and contaminant type (PCB or PBDE). For stream-resident fish, POP congener pattern was influenced by the presence of salmon, location (i.e., Great Lakes Basin), and species identity (i.e., brook trout [Salvelinus fontinalis] or mottled sculpin [Cottus bairdii]). Similarity in congener patterns indicated that salmon are a source of POPs to brook trout in stream reaches receiving salmon spawners from Lake Michigan and Lake Huron but not from Lake Superior. Congener patterns of mottled sculpin differed from those of brook trout and salmon, suggesting that brook trout and mottled sculpin either use salmon tissue to differing degrees, acquire POPs from different dietary sources, or bioaccumulate or metabolize POPs differently. Overall, our analyses identified the important role of salmon in contaminant biotransport but also demonstrated that the extent of salmon-mediated POP transfer and uptake in Great Lakes tributaries is location- and species-specific.

  7. Ecohydrological Index, Native Fish, and Climate Trends and Relationships in the Kansas River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnathamby, Sumathy; Douglas-Mankin, Kyle R; Muche, Muluken E; Hutchinson, Stacy L; Anandhi, Aavudai

    2018-01-01

    This study quantified climatological and hydrological trends and relationships to presence and distribution of two native aquatic species in the Kansas River Basin over the past half-century. Trend analyses were applied to indicators of hydrologic alteration (IHAs) at 34 streamgages over a 50-year period (1962-2012). Results showed a significant negative trend in annual streamflow for 10 of 12 western streamgages (up to -7.65 mm/50 yr) and smaller negative trends for most other streamgages. Significant negative trends in western Basin streamflow were more widespread in summer (12 stations) than winter or spring (6 stations). The negative-trend magnitude and significance decreased from west to east for maximum-flow IHAs. Minimum- flow IHAs, however, significantly decreased at High Plains streamgages but significantly increased at Central Great Plains streamgages. Number of zero-flow days showed positive trends in the High Plains. Most streamgages showed negative trends in low- and high-flow pulse frequency and high-flow pulse duration, and positive trends in low-flow pulse duration. These results were consistent with increasing occurrence of drought. Shift in occurrence from present (1860-1950) to absent (2000-2012) was significantly related (pBasin sites and had different responses to hydrological index trends at eastern Basin sites. These results demonstrate ecohydrological index changes impact distributions of native fish and suggest target factors for assessment or restoration activities.

  8. Quaternary ostracodes and molluscs from the Rukwa Basin (Tanzania) and their evolutionary and paleobiogeographic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Andrew S.; Van Bocxlaer, Bert; Todd, Jonathan A.; McGlue, Michael; Michel, Ellinor; Nkotagu, Hudson H.; Grove, A.T.; Delvaux, Damien

    2013-01-01

    Much of the spectacular biodiversity of the African Great Lakes is endemic to single lake basins so that the margins of these basins or their lakes coincide with biogeographic boundaries. Longstanding debate surrounds the evolution of these endemic species, the stability of bioprovinces, and the exchange of faunas between them over geologic time as the rift developed. Because these debates are currently unsettled, we are uncertain of how much existing distribution patterns are determined by modern hydrological barriers versus reflecting past history. This study reports on late Quaternary fossils from the Rukwa Basin and integrates geological and paleoecological data to explore faunal exchange between freshwater bioprovinces, in particular with Lake Tanganyika. Lake Rukwa's water level showed large fluctuations over the last 25 ky, and for most of this period the lake contained large habitat diversity, with different species assemblages and taphonomic controls along its northern and southern shores. Comparison of fossil and modern invertebrate assemblages suggests faunal persistence through the Last Glacial Maximum, but with an extirpation event that occurred in the last 5 ky. Some of the molluscs and ostracodes studied here are closely related to taxa (or part of clades) that are currently endemic to Lake Tanganyika, but others testify to wider and perhaps older faunal exchanges between the Rukwa bioprovince and those of Lake Malawi and the Upper Congo (in particular Lake Mweru). The Rukwa Basin has a long history of rifting and lacustrine conditions and, at least temporarily, its ecosystems appear to have functioned as satellites to Lake Tanganyika in which intralacustrine speciation occurred. Paleontological studies of the Rukwa faunas are particularly relevant because of the basin's important role in the late Cenozoic biogeography of tropical Africa, and because many of the molecular traces potentially revealing this history would have been erased in the late

  9. Idiopathic great saphenous phlebosclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadreza Jodati

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Arterial sclerosis has been extensively described but reports on venous sclerosis are very sparse. Phlebosclerosis refers to the thickening and hardening of the venous wall. Despite its morphological similarities with arteriosclerosis and potential morbid consequences, phlebosclerosis has gained only little attention. We report a 72 year old male with paralysis and atrophy of the right leg due to childhood poliomyelitis who was referred for coronary artery bypass surgery. The great saphenous vein, harvested from the left leg, showed a hardened cord-like obliterated vein. Surprisingly, harvested veins from the atrophic limb were normal and successfully used for grafting.

  10. Great software debates

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, A

    2004-01-01

    The industry’s most outspoken and insightful critic explains how the software industry REALLY works. In Great Software Debates, Al Davis, shares what he has learned about the difference between the theory and the realities of business and encourages you to question and think about software engineering in ways that will help you succeed where others fail. In short, provocative essays, Davis fearlessly reveals the truth about process improvement, productivity, software quality, metrics, agile development, requirements documentation, modeling, software marketing and sales, empiricism, start-up financing, software research, requirements triage, software estimation, and entrepreneurship.

  11. Making Psychotherapy Great Again?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakun, Eric M

    2017-05-01

    Psychotherapy never stopped being as "great" as other treatments. This column explores the evidence base for both psychotherapy and medications, using depression as a specific example. The limitations are comparable for psychotherapy and medication, with much of the evidence based on small degrees of "statistically significant" rather than "clinically meaningful" change. Our field's biomedical emphasis leads to a false assumption that most patients present with single disorders, when comorbidity is the rule rather than the exception. This false assumption contributes to limitations in the evidence base and in our ability to treat patients optimally.

  12. Water resources data, Idaho, 2002; Volume 1. Great Basin and Snake River basin above King Hill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, T.S.; Lehmann, A.K.; Campbell, A.M.; O'Dell, I.; Beattie, S.E.

    2003-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2002 water year for Idaho consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; discharge of irrigation diversions; and water levels and water quality of groundwater. The two volumes of this report contain discharge records for 196 stream-gaging stations and 15 irrigation diversions; stage only records for 5 stream-gaging stations; stage only for 6 lakes and reservoirs; contents only for 13 lakes and reservoirs; water-quality for 78 stream-gaging stations and partial record sites, 3 lakes sites, and 383 groundwater wells; and water levels for 425 observation network wells and 900 special project wells. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Idaho, adjacent States, and Canada.

  13. Thirty years of great ape gestures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasello, Michael; Call, Josep

    2018-02-21

    We and our colleagues have been doing studies of great ape gestural communication for more than 30 years. Here we attempt to spell out what we have learned. Some aspects of the process have been reliably established by multiple researchers, for example, its intentional structure and its sensitivity to the attentional state of the recipient. Other aspects are more controversial. We argue here that it is a mistake to assimilate great ape gestures to the species-typical displays of other mammals by claiming that they are fixed action patterns, as there are many differences, including the use of attention-getters. It is also a mistake, we argue, to assimilate great ape gestures to human gestures by claiming that they are used referentially and declaratively in a human-like manner, as apes' "pointing" gesture has many limitations and they do not gesture iconically. Great ape gestures constitute a unique form of primate communication with their own unique qualities.

  14. Rating impacts in a multi-stressor world: a quantitative assessment of 50 stressors affecting the Great Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sigrid D P; Mcintyre, Peter B; Halpern, Benjamin S; Cooke, Roger M; Marino, Adrienne L; Boyer, Gregory L; Buchsbaum, Andy; Burton, G A; Campbell, Linda M; Ciborowski, Jan J H; Doran, Patrick J; Infante, Dana M; Johnson, Lucinda B; Read, Jennifer G; Rose, Joan B; Rutherford, Edward S; Steinman, Alan D; Allan, J David

    2015-04-01

    Ecosystems often experience multiple environmental stressors simultaneously that can differ widely in their pathways and strengths of impact. Differences in the relative impact of environmental stressors can guide restoration and management prioritization, but few studies have empirically assessed a comprehensive suite of stressors acting on a given ecosystem. To fill this gap in the Laurentian Great Lakes, where considerable restoration investments are currently underway, we used expert elicitation via a detailed online survey to develop ratings of the relative impacts of 50 potential stressors. Highlighting the multiplicity of stressors in this system, experts assessed all 50 stressors as having some impact on ecosystem condition, but ratings differed greatly among stressors. Individual stressors related to invasive and nuisance species (e.g., dreissenid mussels and ballast invasion risk) and climate change were assessed as having the greatest potential impacts. These results mark a shift away from the longstanding emphasis on nonpoint phosphorus and persistent bioaccumulative toxic substances in the Great Lakes. Differences in impact ratings among lakes and ecosystem zones were weak, and experts exhibited surprisingly high levels of agreement on the relative impacts of most stressors. Our results provide a basin-wide, quantitative summary of expert opinion on the present-day influence of all major Great Lakes stressors. The resulting ratings can facilitate prioritizing stressors to achieve management objectives in a given location, as well as providing a baseline for future stressor impact assessments in the Great Lakes and elsewhere.

  15. Area environmental characterization report of the Dalhart and Palo Duro basins in the Texas Panhandle. Volume I. Dalhart Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    This area report describes the environmental characteristics of the Dalhart and Palo Duro basins of the Texas Panhandle portion of the Permian basin. Both basins are rather sparsely populated, and the overall population is decreasing. The economic base is centered on agribusiness and manufacturing. Most of the potentially conflicting land uses in both basins (i.e., parks, historic sites) occupy small land areas, with the exception of a national grassland in the Dalhart and military air training routes in both basins. Ground transportation in the Dalhart basin is adequate, and it is well developed in the Palo Duro basin. In both basins irrigation constitutes the principal water use, and groundwater is the principal source. However, the dominant aquifer, the Ogallala, is being depleted. Both basins consist primarily of grasslands, rangelands, and agricultural areas. No critical terrestrial or aquatic habitats have been identified in the basins, though several endangered, threatened, or rare terrestrial species occur in or near the basins. Aquatic resources in both basins are limited because of the intermittent availability of water and the high salt content of some water bodies. Playa lakes are common, though usually seasonal or rain dependent. The climate of the area is semiarid, with low humidity, relatively high wind speeds, and highly variable prcipitation. Restrictive dispersion conditions are infrequent. National ambient secondary air quality standards for particulates are being exceeded in the area, largely because of fugitive dust, although there are some particulate point sources

  16. Area environmental characterization report of the Dalhart and Palo Duro basins in the Texas Panhandle. Volume II. Palo Duro basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    This area report describes the environmental characteristics of the Dalhart and Palo Duro basins of the Texas Panhandle portion of the Permian basin. Both basins are rather sparsely populated, and the overall population is decreasing. The economic base is centered on agribusiness and manufacturing. Most of the potentially conflicting land uses in both basins (i.e., parks, historic sites) occupy small land areas, with the exception of a national grassland in the Dalhart and military air training routes in both basins. Ground transportation in the Dalhart basin is adequate, and it is well developed in the Palo Duro basin. In both basins irrigation constitutes the principal water use, and groundwater is the principal source. However, the dominant aquifer, the Ogallala, is being depleted. Both basins consist primarily of grasslands, rangelands, and agricultural areas. No critical terrestrial or aquatic habitats have been identified in the basins, though several endangered, threatened, or rare terrestrial species occur in or near the basins. Aquatic resources in both basins are limited because of the intermittent availability of water and the high salt content of some water bodies. Playa lakes are common, though usually seasonal or rain dependent. The climate of the area is semiarid, with low humidity, relatively high wind speeds, and high variable precipitation. Restrictive dispersion conditions are infrequent. National ambient secondary air quality standards for particulates are being exceeded in the area, largely because of fugitive dust, although there are some particulate point sources

  17. Great Britain at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    From 14 to 16 November 2006 Administration Building, Bldg. 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 - 17.30 Fifteen companies will present their latest technologies at the 'Great Britain at CERN' exhibition. British industry will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The main fields represented will be computing technologies, electrical engineering, electronics, mechanical engineering, vacuum & low temperature technologies and particle detectors. The exhibition is organised by BEAMA Exhibitions (the British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturers Association). Below you will find: a list of the exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course: from your Departmental secretariat, from the Reception information desk, Building 33, at the exhibition itself. A detailed list of the companies is available at the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS 3D Metrics Almat...

  18. Great Britain at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    From 14 to 16 November 2006 Administration Building, Bldg. 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 - 17.30 Fifteen companies will present their latest technologies at the 'Great Britain at CERN' exhibition. British industry will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The main fields represented will be computing technologies, electrical engineering, electronics, mechanical engineering, vacuum & low temperature technologies and particle detectors. The exhibition is organised by BEAMA Exhibitions (the British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturers Association). Below you will find: a list of the exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course: from your Departmental secretariat, from the Reception information desk, Building 33, at the exhibition itself. A detailed list of the companies is available at the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS 3D Metrics Alma...

  19. Salt disposal: Paradox Basin, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    This report presents the findings of a study conducted for the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program. Permanent disposal options are examined for salt resulting from the excavation of a waste repository in the bedded salt deposits of the Paradox Basin of southeastern Utah. The study is based on a repository salt backfill compaction of 60% of the original density which leaves a total of 8 million tons of 95% pure salt to be disposed of over a 30-year period. The feasibility, impacts, and mitigation methods are examined for five options: commercial disposal, permanent onsite surface disposal, permanent offsite disposal, deepwell injection, and ocean and Great Salt Lake disposal. The study concludes the following: Commercial marketing of all repository salt would require a subsidy for transportation to major salt markets. Permanent onsite surface storage is both economically and technically feasible. Permanent offsite disposal is technically feasible but would incur additional transportation costs. Selection of an offsite location would provide a means of mitigating impacts associated with surface storage at the repository site. Deepwell injection is an attractive disposal method; however, the large water requirement, high cost of development, and poor performance of similar operating brine disposal wells eliminates this option from consideration as the primary means of disposal for the Paradox Basin. Ocean disposal is expensive because of high transportation cost. Also, regulatory approval is unlikely. Ocean disposal should be eliminated from further consideration in the Paradox Basin. Great Salt Lake disposal appears to be technically feasible. Great Salt Lake disposal would require state approval and would incur substantial costs for salt transportation. Permanent onsite disposal is the least expensive method for disposal of all repository salt

  20. FishVis, A regional decision support tool for identifying vulnerabilities