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Sample records for great american school

  1. Book review: Diane Ravitch "The death and life of the great American school system". New York: Basic Books , 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beals K.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The current paper is a translation of Katharine Beals' review of the book "The death and life of the great American school system" by Diane Ravich. The article analyses the views on the causes of the inefficiency of the American school system expressed by Ravich, as well as the ways of its improvement suggested by her. A change of stance compared to her previous works is also noted. Translator: Vinogradova K.N.

  2. Great Excavations: Tales of Early Southwestern Archaeology, 1888-1939, School of American Research Press, 1995

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    Stephen E. Nash

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available Great Excavations: Tales of Early Southwestern Archaeology, 1 888-1939, is an "intentionally selective" account of eight major archaeological expeditions to the Southwest in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. It succeeds in achieving the goals set forth in the prologue. The reader is taken on an "armchair tour"  of early Southwestern excavations in the hope that the resulting "basic understanding of what the early archae­ologists did" will stimulate a desire to "learn more about the intriguing prehistory of the Southwest" (pp. xiii. As a student of the history of North American archaeology, I would be amiss to speak for Elion's "layperson" audience, but my suspicion is that her presentation will indeed stimulate those readers. As an archaeologist, I thoroughly enjoyed this book, and it may well be that Elliott's journalistic approach makes this book more enjoyable because she is able to remain above the level of detail that often burden archaeolo­gists' accounts of these expeditions. I must temper this statement by noting that Elliott's journalistic hyper­ bole and tendency to oversimplify complex research and analysis are at times discomforting.

  3. The Last Great American Picture Show

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, Thomas; King, Noel; Horwath, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    The Last Great American Picture Show brings together essays by scholars and writers who chart the changing evaluations of the American cinema of the 1970s, sometimes referred to as the decade of the lost generation, but now more and more recognized as the first New Hollywood, without which the

  4. GreatSchools.org Finds Its Niche

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2012-01-01

    GreatSchools.org neatly ranks more than 136,000 traditional public, private, and charter schools nationwide on a scale of 1 to 10, based on state test scores. But what often draws readers are the gossipy insider comments posted by parents, students, and teachers, and the star ratings those commenters contribute. The growth of online school rating…

  5. Incidental oligotrophication of North American Great Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Mary Anne; Fahnenstiel, Gary; Scavia, Donald

    2011-04-15

    Phytoplankton production is an important factor in determining both ecosystem stability and the provision of ecosystem goods and services. The expansive and economically important North American Great Lakes are subjected to multiple stressors and understanding their responses to those stresses is important for understanding system-wide ecological controls. Here we show gradual increases in spring silica concentration (an indicator of decreasing growth of the dominant diatoms) in all basins of Lakes Michigan and Huron (USA and Canadian waters) between 1983 and 2008. These changes indicate the lakes have undergone gradual oligotrophication coincident with and anticipated by nutrient management implementation. Slow declines in seasonal drawdown of silica (proxy for seasonal phytoplankton production) also occurred, until recent years, when lake-wide responses were punctuated by abrupt decreases, putting them in the range of oligotrophic Lake Superior. The timing of these dramatic production drops is coincident with expansion of populations of invasive dreissenid mussels, particularly quagga mussels, in each basin. The combined effect of nutrient mitigation and invasive species expansion demonstrates the challenges facing large-scale ecosystems and suggest the need for new management regimes for large ecosystems.

  6. Great Expectations for Middle School Counselors

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    Wright, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    During the Great Recession, 2008 to 2010, school systems scrambled to balance budgets, and the ratio of counselors to students became even larger. To make matters worse, the Great Recession had a major impact on cuts in educational funding. Budget cutbacks tend to occur where the public will be least likely to notice. The loss of teachers and the…

  7. Great Gatsby-the Disillusionment of American Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵玮

    2005-01-01

    American Dream is a mystery. It makes a lot of Americans prosperous, but also ruins some of them. In The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald, Gatsby is just such a character created to describe the disillusionment of the American Dream. Yet, his doom of failure results from his illusion actually. In this essay, we shall see how the American dream of Gatsby comes from illusion to disillusionment step by step. Besides, what kind of person Gatsby is and what kind of love Gatsby and his ideal love "Daisy" has are depicted in this essay to reveal the doom of Gatsby's dream. And a general understanding of the Jazz Age, the specific era Gatsby is set in, of the original sense of American Dream and also of the conflicts between two extreme classes in the face of the challenge of American Dream will make us clearer of how Gatsby - the tragic hero - met his fate.

  8. The Great Migration and African-American Genomic Diversity.

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    Soheil Baharian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a comprehensive assessment of genomic diversity in the African-American population by studying three genotyped cohorts comprising 3,726 African-Americans from across the United States that provide a representative description of the population across all US states and socioeconomic status. An estimated 82.1% of ancestors to African-Americans lived in Africa prior to the advent of transatlantic travel, 16.7% in Europe, and 1.2% in the Americas, with increased African ancestry in the southern United States compared to the North and West. Combining demographic models of ancestry and those of relatedness suggests that admixture occurred predominantly in the South prior to the Civil War and that ancestry-biased migration is responsible for regional differences in ancestry. We find that recent migrations also caused a strong increase in genetic relatedness among geographically distant African-Americans. Long-range relatedness among African-Americans and between African-Americans and European-Americans thus track north- and west-bound migration routes followed during the Great Migration of the twentieth century. By contrast, short-range relatedness patterns suggest comparable mobility of ∼15-16km per generation for African-Americans and European-Americans, as estimated using a novel analytical model of isolation-by-distance.

  9. American undergraduate students' value development during the Great Recession.

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    Park, Heejung; Twenge, Jean M; Greenfield, Patricia M

    2017-02-01

    The Great Recession's influence on American undergraduate students' values was examined, testing Greenfield's and Kasser's theories concerning value development during economic downturns. Study 1 utilised aggregate-level data to investigate (a) population-level value changes between the pre-recession (2004-2006: n = 824,603) and recession freshman cohort (2008-2010: n = 662,262) and (b) overall associations of population-level values with national economic climates over long-term periods by correlating unemployment rates and concurrent aggregate-level values across 1966-2015 (n = 10 million). Study 2 examined individual-level longitudinal value development from freshman to senior year, and whether the developmental trajectories differed between those who completed undergraduate education before the Great Recession (freshmen in 2002, n = 12,792) versus those who encountered the Great Recession during undergraduate years (freshmen in 2006, n = 13,358). Results suggest American undergraduate students' increased communitarianism (supporting Greenfield) and materialism (supporting Kasser) during the Great Recession. The recession also appears to have slowed university students' development of positive self-views. Results contribute to the limited literature on the Great Recession's influence on young people's values. They also offer theoretical and practical implications, as values of this privileged group of young adults are important shapers of societal values, decisions, and policies. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  10. Using Stellarium to cyber-observe the Great American Eclipse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prim, Ellie R.; Sitar, David J.

    2017-09-01

    The Great American Eclipse is over. Somewhat sad, is it not? Individuals who were unable to experience the event on August 21, 2017, can now cyber-observe the eclipse with Stellarium (http://www.stellarium.org). In the authors' opinion, it is fun and has many great applications in the classroom. In addition it is open source and available for Android, iOS, and Linux users. We here at Appalachian use it in our introductory astronomy labs for specific activities such as investigating coordinate systems, discovering differences between solar and sidereal days, as well as determining why your "astrological sign" is most often not your "astronomical sign."

  11. The Great Recession and health risks in African American youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Edith; Miller, Gregory E; Yu, Tianyi; Brody, Gene H

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, we investigated associations of macro-economic conditions - the Great Recession - with cellular epigenetic aging, allostatic load, and self-reported health, in a group that experiences significant health disparities, African Americans. A sample of 330 African American adolescents in Georgia was followed from pre-recession (2007, M age=16.6) to post-recession (2010, M age=19.3). Economic data were collected in both 2007 and 2010. Three groups were formed to represent economic trajectories across the period of the Great Recession (stable low economic hardship, downward mobility, and stable high economic hardship). At age 19, measures of cellular epigenetic aging (derived from leukocyte DNA methylation profiles, reflecting the disparity between a person's biological and chronological age), allostatic load (composite of blood pressure, C reactive protein, cortisol, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and body mass index), and adolescent self-report of health were obtained. Linear trend analyses documented significant differences across all outcomes. The more time adolescents spent under economic hardship, the higher their epigenetic aging [estimate=1.421, SE=0.466, p=.002] and allostatic load [estimate=1.151, SE=0.375, p=.002] scores, and the worse their self-report of health [estimate=4.957, SE=1.800, p=.006]. Specific group comparisons revealed that adolescents in the downward mobility group had higher levels of allostatic load than adolescents in the stable low hardship group [p<.05]. Overall, these findings suggest that the health profiles of African American youth may in part be shaped by environmental macro-economic societal conditions, and that effects on biological markers can be detected relatively early in life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Bringing the Great American Solar Eclipse to West Virginia

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    Keesee, A. M.; Williamson, K.; Robertson-Honecker, J.

    2017-12-01

    West Virginia experienced up to 90% coverage during the Great American Solar Eclipse on August 21st. To reach the greatest number of West Virginians, we targeted educators and the 4-H program to provide those community leaders with the tools to help students learn about and safely view the eclipse. We developed a website that consolodated relevant eclipse activities, fact sheets, and outreach videos to train educators and others in the public about the science of the eclipse and how to view a partial eclipse safely. The 4-H Summer Experiement used at all 4-H summer camps and events was designed to focus on the eclipse. We distributed over 20,000 custom designed eclipse glasses. These were distributed to teachers through an online request system and to 4-H members involved in summer activities. We hosted a pre-eclipse event on the campus of West Virginia University for the public to learn about the science of the eclipse, relevant research being conducted at the university, and provide tips for safe viewing. Student volunteers were available on campus during the day of the eclipse to hand out glasses and answer questions. We will present the results of our outreach and events as well as lessons learned for the 2024 eclipse. Support for this project was provided by the WVU Department of Physics and Astronomy, WVU Extension, the WV Space Grant Consortium, a WVU internal grant, the Green Bank Observatory, and individual supporters of a crowdfunding campaign.

  13. Great aspirations: the postwar American college counseling center.

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    McCarthy, Tom

    2014-02-01

    In the decade after World War II, psychologists, eager to bring the benefits of counseling to larger numbers, convinced hundreds of American colleges and universities to establish counseling centers. Inspired by the educational-vocational counseling center founded by psychologists at the University of Minnesota in 1932, Carl R. Rogers's "client-centered" methods of personal adjustment counseling, and the 400-plus college counseling centers created by the Veterans Administration to provide the educational-vocational counseling benefit promised to returning World War II servicemen under the 1944 GI Bill, these counseling psychologists created a new place to practice where important currents in psychology, higher education, and federal policy converged and where they attempted to integrate educational-vocational counseling with personal adjustment counseling based on techniques from psychotherapy. By the mid-1960s, half of America's colleges and universities had established counseling centers, and more than 90% offered students educational, vocational, and psychological counseling services, a great achievement of the first generation of counseling psychologists.

  14. The Great Gatsby and the Collapse of American Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    逄红

    2014-01-01

    Gatsby's dream is a typical American Dream. His failure signified the decay of the American post-war spirit. His death belled the alarm for the other disillusioned people from fantasy dreams and set them to reconsider the social reality.This thesis would discuss the collapse of the Gatsby's dream and that of American dream based on the book plot and the background of 1920s.

  15. The Great American Eclipse Glasses Debacle of 2017

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    Tresch Fienberg, Richard; AAS Solar Eclipse Task Force

    2018-01-01

    In 2014, looking ahead to the “Great American” solar eclipse of 21 August 2017, the American Astronomical Society established the AAS Solar Eclipse Task Force to help prepare the public for a safe and enjoyable experience. We worked with NASA and several associations of eye-care professionals to come up a safety message that we could all stand behind. The gist of it was that it is perfectly safe to view totality without protection, but when any part of the Sun’s bright face is exposed, you must view through eclipse glasses or handheld viewers that meet the ISO 12312-2 international safety standard for filters for direct viewing of the Sun. We compiled a list of manufacturers whose products we knew to meet the standard (because we examined their test data) and posted it on our website. These manufacturers were all based in the US or Europe. A few weeks before the eclipse, reports surfaced of viewers purchased on Amazon.com labeled “Made in China” or that were obvious knock-offs of US manufacturers’ products. Amazon responded by suspending virtually all sales of eclipse viewers and recalling many of units already sold and shipped. Millions of people who’d bought eclipse glasses online, whether from legitimate sources or from bad actors, were unsure whether they could trust their purchases. We had to change our safety messaging: it was no longer sufficient to tell people to look for the ISO 12312-2 label, because that was being printed on Chinese-made glasses that hadn’t actually been shown to meet the standard. Instead, the only way to know that you had safe viewers was to know that you got them from a legitimate source — which meant we had to expand the list on our website to include every legitimate seller we could identify. Doing so required a monumental effort under intense time pressure. Thankfully there were few reports of eye injuries following the eclipse, but apparently many people who otherwise would have viewed the eclipse chose to skip

  16. The Great American Eclipse: Lessons Learned from Public Education

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    Edson, Shauna Elizabeth; Phoebe Waterman Haas Public Observatory

    2018-01-01

    The total solar eclipse of 2017 was a high-profile opportunity for nationwide public education. Astronomy experts suddenly became vital sources of information for a lay population whose interest in the eclipse greatly surpassed expectations. At the National Air and Space Museum, we leveraged our relatively accessible location and particularly diverse audience to help thousands of people, from novices to enthusiasts, prepare to view the eclipse safely. The goal was to empower all people so they could experience this unique astronomical event, understand what was happening, and observe the Sun safely. Over the course of two years spent talking with the public about the eclipse, we encountered common misconceptions, worries about safety or liability, and people experiencing confusion or information overload. We developed guidelines for handling these challenges, from correcting misinformation to managing the sudden spike in demand for glasses just before August 21.In particular, we helped people understand the following essential points:- The total phase of the eclipse is only visible from a limited path.- The partial eclipse is visible from a large area outside the path of totality.- The eclipse takes up to three hours from start to finish, providing ample time for viewing.- The Sun can be observed safely using several methods, including but not limited to eclipse glasses.- The eclipse happens because the Moon’s orbit is taking it directly between the Sun and the Earth.- Eclipses do not happen every month because the Moon’s orbit is tilted with respect to the Earth's orbital plane.- Students in schools can safely view the eclipse, with proper protection and supervision, to prevent eye damage and minimize liability.Public education about the eclipse appears to have been successful, as evidenced by the large number of people who saw their first total solar eclipse and the absence of reported eye damage cases. Amidst the excitement, photographs, and stories that

  17. The Effects of the Great Recession on Educational Attainment: Evidence from a Large Urban High School District

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    Mordechay, Kfir

    2017-01-01

    Economic crises are a recurrent phenomenon in American society, yet there is little knowledge of the impacts on educational opportunity. Using data from a large high school district as a case study, this research explores the impact of the Great Recession (2007-2009) on high school senior graduation rates in an area at the epicenter of the…

  18. Hegemony of the "Great Equalizer" and the Fragmentation of Common Sense: A Gramscian Model of Inflated Ambitions for Schooling

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    Isseks, Jerald

    2017-01-01

    Increasingly over the past 50 years, the mission statement of schooling in dominant US-American discourse has coalesced around a "Great Equalizer" narrative of education; that is, it has identified schools as the primary means through which individuals can achieve social mobility. In this article, I employ a Gramscian framework to…

  19. Overburndened and Underfunded: California Public Schools Amidst the Great Recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhoda Freelon

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Since 2008, many nations, including the United States, have struggled with the effects of a global recession. The state of California has been particularly impacted by the Great Recession. Unemployment rates in California are among the highest in the United States, and a weak fiscal environment has forced deep cutbacks to a variety of state services. This study uses California as a case to explore the effects of economic crisis on public schools and the students they serve. The study draws on two years of survey and interview data with a representative sample of public school principals across California. The data show that, during the Great Recession, students have experienced growing social welfare needs that often shape their well-being and their performance in schools. We also find that the capacity of public schools to meet these needs and provide quality education has been eroded by budget cuts. This study finds that schools primarily serving low-income families have been hardest hit during the recession, in part because they cannot raise private dollars to fill the gap left by public sector cuts. The Great Recession thus has undermined educational quality while producing widening educational inequality in California.

  20. The Great American Divide: The Military-Civilian Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    Steven A. Bank, Kirk J. Stark, and Joseph J. Thorndike provide a historical account of America’s war-time fiscal policies for the major American wars...accessed January 16, 2012). 63 Steven A. Bank, Kirk J. Stark, Joseph J. Thorndike , War and Taxes (Washington, DC: The Urban Institute Press, 2008

  1. Toward a New Generation of American Schools.

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    Kearns, David T.

    1993-01-01

    U.S. business and industry must follow Xerox's training, staff development, and research and development example to leapfrog ahead of foreign competitors. The business community launched the New American Schools Development Corporation to carry out the America 2000 plan to transform U.S. schooling. So far, America 2000 communities are focusing on…

  2. Hidden Disadvantage: Asian American Unemployment and the Great Recession. EPI Issue Brief #277

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    Austin, Algernon

    2010-01-01

    Nationally, Asian Americans have the lowest unemployment rate of the major racial groups. But a closer look at unemployment by educational attainment shows a more complicated picture. Asian Americans with bachelor's degrees have a higher unemployment rate than whites with comparable education, but Asian American high school dropouts are more…

  3. Ideas That Shaped American Schools.

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    Parker, Franklin

    1981-01-01

    Briefly discusses 10 books, or series of books, that represent major turning points in American education in the last 75 years. The authors include William H. McGuffey, Abraham Flexner, Lewis M. Terman, John Dewey, George S. Counts, Jerome S. Bruner, James S. Coleman, Michael B. Katz, and B. F. Skinner. (IRT)

  4. Earthquakes Threaten Many American Schools

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    Bailey, Nancy E.

    2010-01-01

    Millions of U.S. children attend schools that are not safe from earthquakes, even though they are in earthquake-prone zones. Several cities and states have worked to identify and repair unsafe buildings, but many others have done little or nothing to fix the problem. The reasons for ignoring the problem include political and financial ones, but…

  5. 8th Latin American School of Mathematics

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    Figueiredo, Djairo; Iório, Rafael; Lopes, Orlando

    1988-01-01

    The Latin American School of Mathematics (ELAM) is one of the most important mathematical events in Latin America. It has been held every other year since 1968 in a different country of the region, and its theme varies according to the areas of interest of local research groups. The subject of the 1986 school was Partial Differential Equations with emphasis on Microlocal Analysis, Scattering Theory and the applications of Nonlinear Analysis to Elliptic Equations and Hamiltonian Systems.

  6. An Analysis of Disillusionment of American Dream in The Great Gatsby

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李成烨

    2015-01-01

    American dream has always been a hot topic in the study and research of the American literature.And this topic has been researched deeply by many scholars and those who are interested in the field of literature.But the study or analysis of the disillusionment of American dream keeps updating from different angles by people from different fields,for the success of American dream isn’t easy to achieve by people.While this paper is going to illustrate the disillusionment of American dream of Gatsby and explain the reason that Gatsby failed but made him Great.

  7. Will Jazz Survive? Thoughts on the State of the Great American Art.

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    Benjamin, Playthell

    1983-01-01

    Jazz is undoubtedly the great North American contribution to art, yet this art form is undermined by the White music elite which chooses instead to support institutions that perpetuate European music. When jazz is given attention in the mass media, both its Black origins and the great Black jazz artists are largely ignored. (GC)

  8. The Disillusion of American Dream-Essay On“The Great Gatsby”

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    赵洁

    2013-01-01

    “The Great Gatsby”, a fiction by Fitzgerald, is about the failure of the American dream. For the protagonist Gatsby, He is the true heir to American dream. He devotes his whole life to pursues his dream of romantic success without ever understand-ing that it has escaped him. Finally, he dies in his pursuit. His failure symbolizes the disillusion of American dream.

  9. Pain education in North American medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezei, Lina; Murinson, Beth B

    2011-12-01

    Knowledgeable and compassionate care regarding pain is a core responsibility of health professionals associated with better medical outcomes, improved quality of life, and lower healthcare costs. Education is an essential part of training healthcare providers to deliver conscientious pain care but little is known about whether medical school curricula meet educational needs. Using a novel systematic approach to assess educational content, we examined the curricula of Liaison Committee on Medical Education-accredited medical schools between August 2009 and February 2010. Our intent was to establish important benchmark values regarding pain education of future physicians during primary professional training. External validation was performed. Inclusion criteria required evidence of substantive participation in the curriculum management database of the Association of American Medical Colleges. A total of 117 U.S. and Canadian medical schools were included in the study. Approximately 80% of U.S. medical schools require 1 or more pain sessions. Among Canadian medical schools, 92% require pain sessions. Pain sessions are typically presented as part of general required courses. Median hours of instruction on pain topics for Canadian schools was twice the U.S. median. Many topics included in the International Association for the Study of Pain core curriculum received little or no coverage. There were no correlations between the types of pain education offered and school characteristics (eg, private versus public). We conclude that pain education for North American medical students is limited, variable, and often fragmentary. There is a need for innovative approaches and better integration of pain topics into medical school curricula. This study assessed the scope and scale of pain education programs in U.S. and Canadian medical schools. Significant gaps between recommended pain curricula and documented educational content were identified. In short, pain education was

  10. American School & University. Volume 77, Number 12

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    Agron, Joe, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    Each month, "American School & University" provides a mix of thought-provoking features, how-to-articles, industry reports, exclusive surveys, new sections, insightful columns, new product introductions and case histories to assist education officials in better performing their jobs. This July 2005 issue includes the following: "Sweat Shop"…

  11. Neoliberalism inside Two American High Schools

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    Cleary, Joseph, Jr.

    2017-01-01

    This article examines "neoliberalism" inside two American public high schools. The work of one leading critical theorist, Mark Olssen, is explained and examined. Particular attention is paid to Olssen's concepts of "homo economicus" and "manipulatable man." It is concluded that Olssen's theories on neoliberalism…

  12. Why Have Americans Never Admired Their Own Schools?

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    Hodgkinson, Harold

    1996-01-01

    The American public has never admired its schools and those who work in them. Things may have looked better when only 30% of Americans graduated from high school and the rest dug ditches. Charter schools cannot dispel increasing child poverty. The public should admit that schools are performing well and concentrate on helping them educate kids for…

  13. New records of marginal locations for American pika (Ochotona princeps) in the Western Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constance I. Millar; Robert D. Westfall; Diane L. Delany

    2013-01-01

    We describe 46 new site records documenting occupancy by American pika (Ochotona princeps) at 21 locations from 8 mountain regions in the western Great Basin, California, and Nevada. These locations comprise a subset of sites selected from regional surveys to represent marginal, isolated, or otherwise atypical pika locations, and to provide...

  14. The Last Great American Picture Show : New Hollywood Cinema in the 1970s

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2004-01-01

    In The Last Great American Picture Show wordt de veranderende herwaardering in kaart gebracht voor de Amerikaanse film in de jaren zeventig. Deze periode, vroeger aangeduid als het decennium van de 'lost generation', wordt meer en meer erkend als het eerste 'Nieuwe Hollywood'. In deze periode werd

  15. School Counseling for African American Adolescents: The Alfred Adler Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapp, Marty

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses how Adlerian counseling can be used as a form of school counseling for African American adolescents. Moreover, school counseling for African American adolescents is discussed within the context of African American culture. Due to the strength-based nature of Adlerian approach, it can capitalize on African American…

  16. American Cooperative Schools in Bolivia. The Ball State Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunworth, John

    Four American Cooperative Schools in Bolivia are surveyed in this document in connection with a project to provide inservice development in the form of graduate courses, workshops, and consultantships. The four schools were 1) the American Cooperative School in La Paz, serving children of all nationalities from prekindergarten through grade 12…

  17. The school-family alliance within schooling borders in great Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Mercedes López

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper has been written within the framework of a project called "Analysis of alternative experiences to tackle massive school failure in the surrounding urban areas of Buenos Aires". Two categories were considered relevant as a means to analyzing the complexity that characterises present-day state school institutions in the Great Buenos Aires area. The paper intends to reflect on the concept and meanings of border in social sciences, emphasizing its potential to better understand the practices that take place in state schools. The other category analysed is that of "school-family alliance", in order to understand its development during the last decades in view of the extreme poverty that permeates the area studied.

  18. The Great American Recession and forgone healthcare: Do widened disparities between African-Americans and Whites remain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travers, Jasmine L; Cohen, Catherine C; Dick, Andrew W; Stone, Patricia W

    2017-01-01

    During the Great Recession in America, African-Americans opted to forgo healthcare more than other racial/ethnic groups. It is not understood whether disparities in forgone care returned to pre-recession levels. Understanding healthcare utilization patterns is important for informing subsequent efforts to decrease healthcare disparities. Therefore, we examined changes in racial disparities in forgone care before, during, and after the Great Recession. Data were pooled from the 2006-2013 National Health Interview Survey. Forgone medical, mental, and prescription care due to affordability were assessed among African-Americans and Whites. Time periods were classified as: pre-recession (May 2006-November 2007), early recession (December 2007-November 2008), late recession (December 2008-May 2010) and post-recession (June 2010-December 2013). Multivariable logistic regressions of race, interacted with time periods, were used to identify disparities in forgone care controlling for other demographics, health insurance coverage, and having a usual place for medical care across time periods. Adjusted Wald tests were performed to identify significant changes in disparities across time periods. The sample consisted of 110,746 adults. African-Americans were more likely to forgo medical care during the post- recession compared to Whites (OR = 1.16, CI = 1.06, 1.26); changes in foregone medical care disparities were significant in that they increased in the post-recession period compared to the pre-recession (OR = 1.17, CI = 1.08, 1.28 and OR = 0.89, CI = 0.77, 1.04, respectively, adjusted Wald Test p-value Great Recession and may be a result of outstanding issues related to healthcare access, cost, and quality. While health insurance is an important component of access to care, it alone should not be expected to remove these disparities due to other financial constraints. Additional strategies are necessary to close remaining gaps in care widened by the Great Recession.

  19. The Great Asian International School Gold Rush: An Economic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machin, Denry

    2017-01-01

    The number of international schools is growing, especially in Asia. This presents competitive challenges; most obviously for student recruitment and retention. However, demand for places at these schools is also growing. As a result, while international schooling may feel competitive, aggregate economic data show that growing numbers do not…

  20. The Great Diseases Project: a partnership between Tufts Medical School and the Boston public schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacque, Berri; Malanson, Katherine; Bateman, Kathleen; Akeson, Bob; Cail, Amanda; Doss, Chris; Dugan, Matt; Finegold, Brandon; Gauthier, Aimee; Galego, Mike; Roundtree, Eugene; Spezzano, Lawrence; Meiri, Karina F

    2013-05-01

    Medical schools, although the gatekeepers of much biomedical education and research, rarely engage formally with K-12 educators to influence curriculum content or professional development. This segregation of content experts from teachers creates a knowledge gap that limits inclusion of current biomedical science into high school curricula, affecting both public health literacy and the biomedical pipeline. The authors describe how, in 2009, scientists from Tufts Medical School and Boston public school teachers established a partnership of formal scholarly dialogue to create 11th- to 12th-grade high school curricula about critical health-related concepts, with the goal of increasing scientific literacy and influencing health-related decisions. The curricula are based on the great diseases (infectious diseases, neurological disorders, metabolic disease, and cancer). Unlike most health science curricular interventions that provide circumscribed activities, the curricula are comprehensive, each filling one full term of in-class learning and providing extensive real-time support for the teacher. In this article, the authors describe how they developed and implemented the infectious disease curriculum, and its impacts. The high school teachers and students showed robust gains in content knowledge and critical thinking skills, whereas the Tufts scientists increased their pedagogical knowledge and appreciation for health-related science communication. The results show how formal interactions between medical schools and K-12 educators can be mutually beneficial.

  1. Bringing the Great American Eclipse of 2017 to Audiences across the Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, C. A.; Mayo, L.; Cline, T. D.; Ng, C.; Stephenson, B. E.

    2015-12-01

    The August 21, 2017 eclipse across America will be seen by an estimated 500 million people from northern Canada to South America as well as parts of western Europe and Africa. Through This "Great American Eclipse" NASA in partnership with Google, the American Parks Network, American Astronomical Society, the Astronomical League, and numerous other science, education, outreach, and public communications groups and organizations will develop the approaches, resources, partnerships, and technology applications necessary to bring the excitement and the science of the August 21st, 2017 total solar eclipse across America to formal and informal audiences in the US and around the world. This effort will be supported by the highly visible and successful Sun Earth Days program and will be the main theme for Sun-Earth Days 2017.This presentation will discuss NASA's education and communication plans for the eclipse and will detail a number of specific programs and partnerships being leveraged to enhance our reach and impact.

  2. "It's Like Spiderman … with Great Power Comes Great Responsibility": School Autonomy, School Context and the Audit Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keddie, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores issues of school autonomy within the context of the performative demands of the audit culture. The focus is on a case study of Clementine Academy, a large and highly diverse English secondary school. Specific situated, professional, material and external factors at the school were significant in shaping Clementine's response to…

  3. The Great American Recession and forgone healthcare: Do widened disparities between African-Americans and Whites remain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine L Travers

    Full Text Available During the Great Recession in America, African-Americans opted to forgo healthcare more than other racial/ethnic groups. It is not understood whether disparities in forgone care returned to pre-recession levels. Understanding healthcare utilization patterns is important for informing subsequent efforts to decrease healthcare disparities. Therefore, we examined changes in racial disparities in forgone care before, during, and after the Great Recession.Data were pooled from the 2006-2013 National Health Interview Survey. Forgone medical, mental, and prescription care due to affordability were assessed among African-Americans and Whites. Time periods were classified as: pre-recession (May 2006-November 2007, early recession (December 2007-November 2008, late recession (December 2008-May 2010 and post-recession (June 2010-December 2013. Multivariable logistic regressions of race, interacted with time periods, were used to identify disparities in forgone care controlling for other demographics, health insurance coverage, and having a usual place for medical care across time periods. Adjusted Wald tests were performed to identify significant changes in disparities across time periods.The sample consisted of 110,746 adults. African-Americans were more likely to forgo medical care during the post- recession compared to Whites (OR = 1.16, CI = 1.06, 1.26; changes in foregone medical care disparities were significant in that they increased in the post-recession period compared to the pre-recession (OR = 1.17, CI = 1.08, 1.28 and OR = 0.89, CI = 0.77, 1.04, respectively, adjusted Wald Test p-value < 0.01. No changes in disparities were seen in prescription and mental forgone care.A persistent increase in forgone medical care disparities existed among African-Americans compared to Whites post-Great Recession and may be a result of outstanding issues related to healthcare access, cost, and quality. While health insurance is an important component of access

  4. Do singing-ground surveys reflect american woodcock abundance in the western Great Lakes region?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew R. Nelson,; Andersen, David E.

    2013-01-01

    The Singing-ground Survey (SGS) is the primary monitoring tool used to assess population status and trends of American woodcock (Scolopax minor). Like most broad-scale surveys, the SGS cannot be directly validated because there are no independent estimates of abundance of displaying male American woodcock at an appropriate spatial scale. Furthermore, because locations of individual SGS routes have generally remained stationary since the SGS was standardized in 1968, it is not known whether routes adequately represent the landscapes they were intended to represent. To indirectly validate the SGS, we evaluated whether 1) counts of displaying male American woodcock on SGS routes related to land-cover types known to be related to American woodcock abundance, 2) changes in counts of displaying male American woodcock through time were related to changes in land cover along SGS routes, and 3) land-cover type composition along SGS routes was similar to land-cover type composition of the surrounding landscape. In Wisconsin and Minnesota, USA, counts along SGS routes reflected known American woodcock-habitat relations. Increases in the number of woodcock heard along SGS routes over a 13-year period in Wisconsin were related to increasing amounts of early successional forest, decreasing amounts of mature forest, and increasing dispersion and interspersion of cover types. Finally, the cover types most strongly associated with American woodcock abundance were represented along SGS routes in proportion to their composition of the broader landscape. Taken together, these results suggest that in the western Great Lakes region, the SGS likely provides a reliable tool for monitoring relative abundance and population trends of breeding, male American woodcock.

  5. Precarious Slopes? The Great Recession, Federal Stimulus, and New Jersey Schools. Working Paper #02-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Rajashri; Sutherland, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    While sparse literature exists investigating the impact of the Great Recession on various sectors of the economy, there is virtually no research that studies the effect of the Great Recession, or past recessions, on schools. This paper starts to fill the void. Studying school funding during the recession is of paramount importance because schools…

  6. The Great Divide between Business School Research and Business Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dostaler, Isabelle; Tomberlin, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    In their 2005 "Harvard Business Review" article, Bennis and O'Toole described business schools as being "on the wrong track" as a result of their focus on so-called scientific research. Some commentators argue that business schools have slowly lost their relevance since the end of the 1950s when they undertook a major overhaul in response to the…

  7. Private Schools in American Education: A Small Sector Still Lagging in Diversity. Working Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ee, Jongyeon; Orfield, Gary; Teitell, Jennifer

    2018-01-01

    Private schools have a long and important tradition in U.S. education and have been the focus of a great deal of political controversy in recent years. There is deep division among Americans over the desirability of using public funds to finance vouchers for private education--an issue that has become the leading educational goal of the Trump…

  8. Applying Multiculturalism to a High School American Literature Course: Changing Lenses and Crossing Borders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noskin, David; Marshalek, Angela

    1995-01-01

    Describes a nine-week, secondary-school, language arts unit on the American dream with an emphasis on multicultural issues, particularly as they concern those students who are apathetic about or resistant to the multicultural program. Reviews specific lesson approaches to "The Great Gatsby,""Baseball in April,""Justin and…

  9. American Sammys and French Poilus in the Great War: sport, masculinities and vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terret, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    The violence and duration of fighting throughout the Great War created an intense feeling of vulnerability among the men engaged in battle, which challenged their perception of manliness. When the Americans joined the war in 1917, the balance between the two opposing armies was modified and the psychological crises of French soldiers brought to an end. The confidence shown by the American soldiers and their first successes on the battlefield changed the way the French Poilus perceived their new allies. From scepticism to admiration, Frenchmen's feelings extended beyond the fighting. Indeed, by living with American soldiers in the trenches and camps behind the front, French soldiers discovered a new culture where games and sport played a major role and contributed to building manliness. The Foyers Franco-Americains du Soldat (Franco-American hostels for soldiers) provided an ideal place for the cultural transfer of a model of masculinity from Sammys to Poilus. The foyers were managed by the American YMCA and eventually reached the number of 1,500 in France during the war. These hostels afforded soldiers numerous opportunities to develop cultural and sports practices, by bringing together Americans and Frenchmen. Mainly based on the archives of the American Expeditionary Forces, the YMCA and the French Army, the paper argues that the Foyers du Soldat brought to light a new model of masculinity based on sport, which challenged the Frenchmen's vision. It aims to show the rapid transformation of masculine identity within a context of extreme vulnerability and confirms the changes in representations of men in French society at this time.

  10. From Ivy League to NBA: A Great Urban High School Falls through the Hoop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Tucker

    1993-01-01

    Describes the history of education at Dunbar High School in Washington, D.C., the country's first African-American high school founded by ex-slaves in 1870. Argues that today the school emphasizes athletics over academics and that the source of decline has been holding students to lower standards. (JB)

  11. Enterprise Risk Management in the Great City Schools, Spring 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Scott B.; DeCato, Kristen Devan; George, Dave; Henderson, Dana; Henry, Aston A., Jr.; Hoch, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Public schools have a mandate to educate children in a way that is safe, effective, and cost efficient. The risks involved in achieving that mandate have become increasingly complex, and the need to manage those risks has never been greater. The emergence of widespread, interconnected risks, such as cyber risks and data management, infrastructure…

  12. The voice of American botanists: the founding and establishment of the American Journal of Botany, "American botany," and the Great War (1906-1935).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smocovitis, Vassiliki Betty

    2014-03-01

    This paper examines the crucial early history of the American Journal of Botany from the years following the founding of the Botanical Society of America in 1906 to the termination of the agreement for publication with the Brooklyn Botanic Garden in 1935. It examines the efforts of individuals like F. C. Newcombe, who did the most to raise support for the journal and became the first Editor-in-Chief, in the context of the growing numbers of professional botanists and plant scientists who were actively engaged in research requiring appropriate publication venues and in the process of forming an independent identity as "American botanists." It also examines the launching of the journal in the context of the Great War in Europe and the transition from German botany to American botany in the second decade of the 20th century.

  13. "Great aspirations: The postwar American college counseling center": Correction to McCarthy (2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-05-01

    Reports an error in "Great aspirations: The postwar American college counseling center" by Tom McCarthy ( History of Psychology , 2014[Feb], Vol 17[1], 1-18). In the article, the copyright attribution was incorrect. The copyright is "In the public domain". The online version of this article has been corrected. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2014-04967-001.) In the decade after World War II, psychologists, eager to bring the benefits of counseling to larger numbers, convinced hundreds of American colleges and universities to establish counseling centers. Inspired by the educational-vocational counseling center founded by psychologists at the University of Minnesota in 1932, Carl R. Rogers's "client-centered" methods of personal adjustment counseling, and the 400-plus college counseling centers created by the Veterans Administration to provide the educational-vocational counseling benefit promised to returning World War II servicemen under the 1944 GI Bill, these counseling psychologists created a new place to practice where important currents in psychology, higher education, and federal policy converged and where they attempted to integrate educational-vocational counseling with personal adjustment counseling based on techniques from psychotherapy. By the mid-1960s, half of America's colleges and universities had established counseling centers, and more than 90% offered students educational, vocational, and psychological counseling services, a great achievement of the first generation of counseling psychologists. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Racialization, Schooling, and Becoming American: Asian American Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stacey J.; Park, Eujin; Wong, Jia-Hui Stefanie

    2017-01-01

    Racial categories, inequalities, and hierarchies have shaped life in the United States since the formation of the country. For children and youth in the immigrant and second generations, schools are central sites of racialization. In this article, we focus on what the educational research suggests about the role of schooling in the racialization…

  15. An Examination of School Attitude and Self-Esteem among African-American Elementary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Esau, II

    2009-01-01

    The focus of this research investigation was to examine school attitudes and self-esteem among 48 African-American elementary school children. Based on achievement data on standardized testing, administered by a school district located within the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, African-American children were stratified in order to…

  16. Practicing for 2023 and 2024: What the AAS Solar Eclipse Task Force Learned from the "Great American Eclipse" of 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fienberg, R. T.; Speck, A. K.; Habbal, S. R.

    2017-12-01

    More than three years ahead of the "Great American Eclipse" of August 2017, the American Astronomical Society formed the AAS Solar Eclipse Task Force to function as a think tank, coordinating body, and communication gateway to the vast resources available about the 2017 eclipse and solar eclipses more generally. The task force included professional and amateur astronomers, formal and informal educators, and science journalists; many had experienced total solar eclipses before, and others would experience their first totality in August 2017. The AAS task force secured funding from the AAS Council, the National Science Foundation, and NASA. These resources were used mainly for three purposes: (1) to build a website that contains basic information about solar eclipses, safe viewing practices, and eclipse imaging and video, along with resources for educators and the media and a searchable map of eclipse-related events and activities, with links to other authoritative websites with more detailed information; (2) to solicit, receive, evaluate, and fund proposals for mini-grants to support eclipse-related education and public outreach to underrepresented groups both inside and outside the path of totality; and (3) to organize a series of multidisciplinary workshops across the country to prepare communities for the eclipse and to facilitate collaborations between astronomers, meteorologists, school administrators, and transporation and emergency-management professionals. Most importantly, the AAS Solar Eclipse Task Force focused on developing and disseminating appropriate eclipse safety information. The AAS and NASA jointly developed safety messaging that won the endorsement of the American Academies of Opthalmology and Optometry. In the weeks immediately preceding the eclipse, it became clear that the marketplace was being flooded by counterfeit eclipse glasses and solar viewers, leading to a last minute change in our communication strategy. In this talk, we'll review the

  17. 77 FR 65886 - Century Metal Recycling PVT. LTD v. Dacon Logistics, LLC dba CODA Forwarding, Great American...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ... FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION [Docket No. 12-09] Century Metal Recycling PVT. LTD v. Dacon Logistics, LLC dba CODA Forwarding, Great American Alliance Insurance Company, Avalon Risk Management, HAPAG... Recycling Pvt. Ltd d/ b/a/CMR American, LLC (Century Metal), hereinafter ``Complainant,'' against Dacon...

  18. The Great Depression and Elementary School Teachers as Reported in "Grade Teacher" Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Sherry L.; Bellows, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on elementary school teachers during the Great Depression and the role that they played to sustain everyday school activity. The authors draw evidence primarily from the pages of "Grade Teacher" magazine, through teachers' letters written to its editor, Florence Hale, and her responses to them. Opportunities to study…

  19. Bridging the Great Homework Divide: A Solutions Guide for Parents of Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Education Association Research Department, 2006

    2006-01-01

    In a recent survey, parents and middle school students reported that they are challenged by the demands of homework. Responses to the survey, titled "The Great Homework Divide," indicate that students and their parents are struggling to adjust to the middle school workload, which can be both heavier and more varied than previously experienced by…

  20. Proceedings of the Latin American School of Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The main subjects covered by the Latin American School of Physics are nuclear physics and elementary particle physics. Some areas such as solid state physics, statistical mechanics and gravitation are also included. (M.C.K.)

  1. What Caused the Great Depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Jean; O'Driscoll, Timothy G.

    2007-01-01

    Economists and historians have struggled for almost 80 years to account for the American Great Depression, which began in 1929 and lasted until the early years of World War II. In this article, the authors discuss three major schools of thought on the causes of the Great Depression and the long failure of the American economy to return to full…

  2. Pittsburgh American Community Survey 2015, School Enrollment

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — School enrollment data are used to assess the socioeconomic condition of school-age children. Government agencies also require these data for funding allocations...

  3. Parasites of freshwater fishes and the Great American Biotic Interchange: a bridge too far?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, A; García-Varela, M; Pérez-Ponce de León, G

    2017-03-01

    We examine the extent to which adult helminths of freshwater fishes have been part of the Great American Biotic Interchange (GABI), by integrating information in published studies and new data from Panama with fish biogeography and Earth history of Middle America. The review illustrates the following: (1) the helminth fauna south of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, and especially south of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, shows strong Neotropical affinities; (2) host-parasite associations follow principles of the 'biogeographic core fauna' in which host-lineage specificity is pronounced; (3) phylogenetic analysis of the widespread freshwater trematode family Allocreadiidae reveals a complex history of host-shifting and co-diversification involving mainly cyprinodontiforms and characids; (4) allocreadiids, monogeneans and spiruridan nematodes of Middle American cyprinodontiforms may provide clues to the evolutionary history of their hosts; and (5) phylogenetic analyses of cryptogonimid trematodes may reveal whether or how cichlids interacted with marine or brackish-water environments during their colonization history. The review shows that 'interchange' is limited and asymmetrical, but simple narratives of northward isthmian dispersal will likely prove inadequate to explain the historical biogeography of many host-parasite associations in tropical Middle America, particularly those involving poeciliids. Finally, our study highlights the urgent need for targeted survey work across Middle America, focused sampling in river drainages of Colombia and Venezuela, and deeper strategic sampling in other parts of South America, in order to develop and test robust hypotheses about fish-parasite associations in Middle America.

  4. Amazonian magnetostratigraphy: Dating the first pulse of the Great American Faunal Interchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Kenneth E., Jr.; Prothero, Donald R.; Romero-Pittman, Lidia; Hertel, Fritz; Rivera, Nadia

    2010-04-01

    The chronostratigraphy of the youngest Neogene deposits of the Amazon Basin, which comprise the Madre de Dios Formation in eastern Peru, remains unresolved. Although 40Ar/ 39Ar dates on two volcanic ashes from this formation in Peru provide critical baseline data points, stratigraphic correlations among scattered riverine outcrops in adjacent drainage basins remain problematic. To refine the chronostratigraphy of the Madre de Dios Formation, we report here the magnetostratigraphy of an outcrop on the Madre de Dios River in southeastern Peru. A total of 18 polarity zones was obtained in the ˜65-m-thick Cerro Colorado section, which we correlate to magnetozones Chrons C4Ar to C2An (9.5-3.0 Ma) based on the prior 40Ar/ 39Ar dates. These results confirm the late Miocene age of a gomphothere recovered from the Ipururo Formation, which underlies the late Miocene Ucayali Unconformity at the base of the Cerro Colorado outcrop. The results also support earlier interpretations of a late Miocene age for other fossils of North American mammals recovered from basal conglomeratic deposits of the Madre de Dios Formation immediately above the Ucayali Unconformity. These mammals include other gomphotheres, peccaries, and tapirs, and their presence in South America in the late Miocene is recognized as part of the first pulse of the Great American Faunal Interchange.

  5. Predicting Parental Home and School Involvement in High School African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, DeMarquis

    2011-01-01

    Predictors of parental home and school involvement for high school adolescents were examined within two groups of urban African American parents from various socioeconomic levels. Home involvement was defined as parent-adolescent communication about school and learning, while school involvement was defined in terms of parent attendance and…

  6. A Phenomenological Examination of Middle School African American Adolescent Men's Experiences with Professional School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Ahmad Rashad

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study was conducted with a sample of five (5) middle school African American adolescent men from two different schools in the same school district to explore their perceptions of and experiences with their professional school counselors. Phenomenological qualitative methodology was used to complete this study. To gather research…

  7. School Climate, Discrimination, and Depressive Symptoms among Asian American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cixin; Atwal, Kavita

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined a multidimensional, developmental, and transactional model for depressive symptoms among Asian American adolescents using longitudinal data from 1,664 Asian American adolescents in the Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study (CILS). Specifically, the relationships among school climate, acculturation, perceived…

  8. The American School in the Political Socialization Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehman, Lee H.

    1980-01-01

    Studies on the effects of schooling on the political socialization of American youth are reviewed. School-level and classroom-level attributes are related to four political socialization outcomes: political knowledge; political attitudes and values; attitudes toward political participation; and participation in political or quasi-political…

  9. Gun Violence and the Meaning of American Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnick, Bryan R.; Kim, Sang Hyun; Robinson, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, targeted school shootings have become a distinct genre of violence. In this essay, Bryan Warnick, Sang Hyun Kim, and Shannon Robinson examine the social meanings that exist in American society that might contribute to this phenomenon, focusing on the question: "Why are schools conceptualized as appropriate places to…

  10. Continuums of Precarity: Refugee Youth Transitions in American High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, Julia Ann; Bonet, Sally Wesley

    2016-01-01

    This article examines how the pre-migratory experiences of 90 Bhutanese, Burmese, and Iraqi refugee youth shape their aspirations, needs and capabilities as they transition to postsecondary education and work in the American urban context. It further explores how their schooling experiences in precarious urban school districts influence their…

  11. Help-Seeking in the School Context: Understanding Chinese American Adolescents' Underutilization of School Health Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyon, Yolanda; Whitaker, Kelly; Shields, John P.; Franks, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Background: This article examines whether school contextual factors, such as referral practices and peer dynamics, contribute to Chinese American students' underrepresentation in school health programs. Methods: Data from the 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (N?=?1,744) as well as interviews and focus groups (N?=?51) with Chinese American users and…

  12. Accountability and Control in American Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, Richard M.; Collins, Gregory J.

    2017-01-01

    One of the most controversial and significant of contemporary education reforms has been the teacher accountability movement. From this perspective, low-quality teachers and teaching are a major factor behind inadequate school performance, and a lack of accountability and control in schools is a major factor behind the problem of low-quality…

  13. School of Optometry at Inter American University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, Henry W.

    1981-01-01

    The optometry program at the Inter American University in Puerto Rico is profiled, with highlights of admission criteria, temporary and permanent facilities, faculty, governance structure, curriculum, research opportunities, and relationship with the university as a whole. (MSE)

  14. Assessing the Progress of New American Schools

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berends, Mark

    1999-01-01

    .... The purpose of this report is to describe the baseline characteristics, such as school demographics and performance, of a large number of NAS sites in the early implementation stages of NAS's scale-up phase...

  15. Making America's Schools Great Now: Reclaiming Democracy and Activist Leadership under Trump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsford, Sonya Douglass

    2018-01-01

    Trump's vow to "make America great again" seeks to usher in a policy agenda reminiscent of an era that served as a boon to the rich while devastating poor, working-class, Americans, particularly people of color. His education policy and budget blueprint prove no exception, signalling troubling priorities for those who value strong public…

  16. Providence-St. Mel School: How a School That Works for African American Students Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressley, Michael; Raphael, Lisa; Gallagher, J. David; DiBella, Jeanette

    2004-01-01

    A portrait, using grounded theory qualitative methodologies, was constructed of a K-12 school serving urban, African American students, one producing high achievement. The primary data were observations complemented by questionnaire responses and document analyses. Consistent with conclusions in the effective schooling literature, this school has…

  17. The Effects of Home-School Dissonance on African American Male High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Wright, Lynda; Tyler, Kenneth Maurice

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined associations between home-school dissonance and several academic and psychological variables among 80 African American male high school students. Regression analyses revealed that home-school dissonance significantly predicted multiple academic and psychological variables, including amotivation, academic cheating,…

  18. Multicultural Leadership in School Counseling: An Autophenomenography of an African American School Counselor's Successes and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wines, Lisa A.

    2013-01-01

    This autophenomenography describes multicultural leadership in school counseling from the perspective of a female African American school counselor; who served as a lead counselor, researcher, and participant of a research study, while employed in a predominantly White-culture school district. The theoretical framework grounding this study was…

  19. School Reform Unplugged: The Bensenville New American School Project, 1991-93.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirel, Jeffrey

    1994-01-01

    This examination of the New American Schools Development Corporation initiative in Bensenville (Illinois) details the controversy over the reform effort and argues that factors such as school governance, local control, and school finance played major roles in determining program outcomes. The importance of political influences in reform efforts is…

  20. The Educationally Challenged American School District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinchy, Evans

    1998-01-01

    Two national reform movements--one focused on creating small, autonomous schools, the other fixated on a standardization agenda--are basically in conflict. The standards movement is touting the traditional, top-down, centralized, bureaucratic system modeled after Frederick Taylor and his efficiency experts. Progressive, decentralized initiatives…

  1. Making American Literatures in High School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Peter

    1999-01-01

    Describes how a Martin Luther King Program Series developed from a school-wide effort to "cherish differences and honor common humanity." Provides a brief description of three events from that series: (1) a coffee house poetry night; (2) a Martin Luther King day program; and (3) a Harlem Dance Company program, "Dancing Through…

  2. The "Business" of Reforming American Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelberg, Denise

    This book's central thesis is that the relationship between school managers and teachers predicts the type of education offered children. That is, education can be seen as a handing down of information, or it can be viewed as a cooperative affair. The text is divided into two parts: 1895-1925 and 1961-1995. Chapter 1, which discusses America's…

  3. Elementary Schools, Teaching, and Social Studies in Texas: Facing the Great Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellows, M. Elizabeth; Baumi, Michelle; Field, Sherry L.

    2013-01-01

    Across the United States, the Great Depression was a period of tremendous upheaval. Economic, family, political, and educational institutions shook mightily as the tremors of widespread financial downturn were felt. Public schools faced increasing hardships, which included financial problems such as a weakened tax base due to the non-payment of…

  4. "On the Verge of a Renaissance": Arkansas Schools, Curricula, and Teachers during the Great Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Sherry L.; Bauml, Michelle; Bellows, M. Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    This article is the third in a larger study of schooling during the Great Depression that seeks to elucidate specific examples of elementary social studies teaching and learning in the South during this time, particularly in Arkansas. Responding to Christine Woyshner's (2009) concern that histories of social studies should look beyond national…

  5. Keeping "Every Catholic Child in a Catholic School" during the Great Depression, 1933-1939

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Ann Marie

    2007-01-01

    The quest for state and federal aid for Catholic schools is not new. Concerns regarding excessive entanglement, mission dilution, and external control have been voiced for decades. A particularly instructive historical period on this issue is the era of the Great Depression. Because of widespread economic hardship across sectors, Catholic leaders…

  6. Modernity in Two Great American Writers' Vision: Ernest Miller Hemingway and Scott Fitzgerald

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshmiri, Fahimeh; Darzikola, Shahla Sorkhabi

    2016-01-01

    Scott Fitzgerald and Ernest Hemingway, American memorable novelists have had philosophic ideas about modernity. In fact their idea about existential interests of American, and the effects of American system on society, is mirrored in their creative works. All through his early works, Fitzgerald echoes the existential center of his era. Obviously,…

  7. Leveraging Big Data to Improve Health Awareness Campaigns: A Novel Evaluation of the Great American Smokeout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, John W; Westmaas, J Lee; Leas, Eric C; Benton, Adrian; Chen, Yunqi; Dredze, Mark; Althouse, Benjamin M

    2016-01-01

    Awareness campaigns are ubiquitous, but little is known about their potential effectiveness because traditional evaluations are often unfeasible. For 40 years, the "Great American Smokeout" (GASO) has encouraged media coverage and popular engagement with smoking cessation on the third Thursday of November as the nation's longest running awareness campaign. We proposed a novel evaluation framework for assessing awareness campaigns using the GASO as a case study by observing cessation-related news reports and Twitter postings, and cessation-related help seeking via Google, Wikipedia, and government-sponsored quitlines. Time trends (2009-2014) were analyzed using a quasi-experimental design to isolate spikes during the GASO by comparing observed outcomes on the GASO day with the simulated counterfactual had the GASO not occurred. Cessation-related news typically increased by 61% (95% CI 35-87) and tweets by 13% (95% CI -21 to 48) during the GASO compared with what was expected had the GASO not occurred. Cessation-related Google searches increased by 25% (95% CI 10-40), Wikipedia page visits by 22% (95% CI -26 to 67), and quitline calls by 42% (95% CI 19-64). Cessation-related news media positively coincided with cessation tweets, Internet searches, and Wikipedia visits; for example, a 50% increase in news for any year predicted a 28% (95% CI -2 to 59) increase in tweets for the same year. Increases on the day of the GASO rivaled about two-thirds of a typical New Year's Day-the day that is assumed to see the greatest increases in cessation-related activity. In practical terms, there were about 61,000 more instances of help seeking on Google, Wikipedia, or quitlines on GASO each year than would normally be expected. These findings provide actionable intelligence to improve the GASO and model how to rapidly, cost-effectively, and efficiently evaluate hundreds of awareness campaigns, nearly all for the first time.

  8. Influence of domestic livestock grazing on American Pika (Ochotona princeps) forage and haypiling behavior in the Great Basin. Western North American Naturalist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constance I. Millar

    2011-01-01

    In a pilot study, I observed a relationship between domestic livestock grazing and location of American pika (Ochotona princeps) haypiles in the eastern Sierra Nevada and several Great Basin mountain ranges. Where vegetation communities adjacent to talus bases (forefields) were grazed, mean distance from the talus borders to the closest fresh...

  9. Critics horizons of school management: Latin American perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz RAMÍREZ ARISTIZÁBAL

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Modernity has defined a way to be school as a stage in which the State devises certain ways of behaviour, citizen education and institution conception specific for a determined social order. Consequently, the direction of the school becomes a key strategy of the hegemonic project. This article aims to outline some signs that demonstrate an alternative school management in order to contribute to the school of thought on Latin-American perspectives in education. It aims to offer other keys on the perception of the Colombian reality on school management from a critical position that allows the creation of scenarios full of learning possibilities in the inside and outside of the school.

  10. GENETIC ANALYSIS OF THE CHINESE MITTEN CRAB (ERIOCHEIR SINENSIS) INTRODUCED TO THE NORTH AMERICAN GREAT LAKES AND ST. LAWRENCE SEAWAY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) is a globally invasive organism, with established non-native populations in Europe and California, USA. Since 1965, there have been sixteen confirmed catches of E. sinensis in the North American Great Lakes and their associated waterw...

  11. The State of Disability Awareness in American Medical Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Erica; Crowe, Scott

    2017-09-01

    This study was designed to: (1) determine how many American medical schools include disability awareness in their curriculum, (2) explore the format of disability awareness programs in existence, and (3) understand why some schools do not include disability awareness in their curriculum. An online survey was sent to deans of medical education (or equivalent positions) at accredited allopathic and osteopathic American medical schools (N = 167) in 2015. Seventy-five schools (45%) completed surveys. Fifty-two percent (39/75) reported having a disability awareness program. The most common format was people with disabilities or caregivers speaking in a large group setting. Programs were most likely to focus on adults with physical disabilities. Among schools without a program, the top barriers were no one advocating for inclusion in the curriculum and time constraints. Nearly half of schools without a program expressed interest in adopting an awareness curriculum if one was made available. Such results indicate that efforts should be made to increase the number of schools that provide disability awareness education through increased advocacy and providing additional resources to schools without a curriculum.

  12. The spread of gossip in American schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, P. G.; da Silva, L. R.; Andrade, J. S., Jr.; Herrmann, H. J.

    2007-06-01

    Gossip is defined as a rumor which specifically targets one individual and essentially only propagates within its friendship connections. How fast and how far a gossip can spread is for the first time assessed quantitatively in this study. For that purpose we introduce the "spread factor" and study it on empirical networks of school friendships as well as on various models for social connections. We discover that there exists an ideal number of friendship connections an individual should have to minimize the danger of gossip propagation.

  13. American Association of Dental Schools Curricular Guidelines for Oral Radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Dental Education, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Oral radiology curricular guidelines developed by the American Association of Dental Schools are provided. The guidelines describe minimal conditions under which a satisfactory educational experience can be offered. Principles of x-radiation, radiobiological concepts, radiological health, radiographic technique, radiographic quality, and darkroom…

  14. American Association of Dental Schools Curricular Guidelines for Orthodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Dental Education, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Guidelines reviewed and approved by the American Association of Dental Schools and sent to the Council on Dental Education in June 1979 are outlined. Educational goals and objectives and sequence of instruction (including growth and development, preclinical orthodontics, and clinical experience) are discussed. (MLW)

  15. The American Public School Teacher: Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Darrel; Baer, Justin

    2011-01-01

    At its heart are the National Education Association's "Status of the American Public School Teacher" surveys, which are conducted every five years and offer unprecedented insights into the professional lives and experiences of teachers nationwide. This volume analyzes and summarizes the survey's findings, while also offering commentaries…

  16. Educational technology infrastructure and services in North American medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamin, Carol; Souza, Kevin H; Heestand, Diane; Moses, Anna; O'Sullivan, Patricia

    2006-07-01

    To describe the current educational technology infrastructure and services provided by North American allopathic medical schools that are members of the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC), to present information needed for institutional benchmarking. A Web-based survey instrument was developed and administered in the fall of 2004 by the authors, sent to representatives of 137 medical schools and completed by representatives of 88, a response rate of 64%. Schools were given scores for infrastructure and services provided. Data were analyzed with one-way analyses of variance, chi-square, and correlation coefficients. There was no difference in the number of infrastructure features or services offered based on region of the country, public versus private schools, or size of graduating class. Schools implemented 3.0 (SD = 1.5) of 6 infrastructure items and offered 11.6 (SD = 4.1) of 22 services. Over 90% of schools had wireless access (97%), used online course materials for undergraduate medical education (97%), course management system for graduate medical education (95%) and online teaching evaluations (90%). Use of services differed across the undergraduate, graduate, and continuing medical education continuum. Outside of e-portfolios for undergraduates, the least-offered services were for services to graduate and continuing medical education. The results of this survey provide a benchmark for the level of services and infrastructure currently supporting educational technology by AAMC-member allopathic medical schools.

  17. Moistening of the northern North American Great Plains enhances land-atmosphere coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerken, T.; Bromley, G. T.; Stoy, P. C.

    2017-12-01

    Land use change impacts planetary boundary layer processes and regional climate by altering the magnitude and timing of water and energy flux into the atmosphere. In the North American Great Plains (NGP), a decline in the practice of summer fallow on the order of 20 Mha from the 1970s until the present has coincided with a decrease in summertime radiative forcing, on the order of 6 W m-2. MERRA 2 (Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications) for the area near Fort Peck, Montana, (a FLUXNET site established in 2000) shows a decrease of summertime (June-August) sensible heat fluxes ranging from -3.6 to -8.5 W m-2 decade-1, associated with an increase of latent heat fluxes (5.2-9.1 W m-2 decade-1) since the 1980s. Net radiation changed little. The result was a strong decrease of summer Bowen ratios from 1.5-2 in 1980 to approximately 1 in 2015. Findings are consistent with the effects on increased summertime evapotranspiration due to reduction in summer fallow that should lead to smaller Bowen ratios and a larger build-up of moist static energy. We use a mixed-layer (ML) atmospheric modeling framework to further investigate the impact of the surface energy balance on convective development and local land-atmosphere coupling in the NGP. Using summertime eddy covariance data from Fort Peck and atmospheric soundings from the nearby Glasgow airport, we compare the development of modeled ML and lifted condensation level (LCL) to find times of ML exceeding LCL, a necessary but not sufficient condition for the occurrence of convective precipitation. We establish that the ML model adequately captures ML heights and timing of locally triggered convection at the site and that there is a c. 10% increase in modeled convection permitting conditions today compared to 1975-85 in response to ML-moistening and decreasing Bo. We find that growing season land-atmosphere coupling develops from wet preference in May to dry coupling in July and atmospheric suppression

  18. Recommendations for Working with African American Parents of Primary School Children in Low-Resourced Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Sejal; West-Olatunji, Cirecie; Sanders, Tiffany; Goodman, Rachael

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a strength-based discussion of the relationship between parenting values of low-income African Americans and the academic performance of their school-aged children. Using resilience theory as a framework (Seccombe, 2002), the authors suggest that African American parents in low-resourced communities have…

  19. What American Schools Can Learn from Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Margaret Zoller; Booth, Grace Marie

    2003-01-01

    A mother and daughter share their insights on what American schools can learn about cooperative, student-centered, problem-solving approaches to instruction from the Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry in the Harry Potter books. (Contains 11 references.) (PKP)

  20. 76 FR 3120 - Native American and Alaska Native Children in School Program; Office of English Language...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Native American and Alaska Native Children in School Program; Office of English Language Acquisition, Language Enhancement, and Academic Achievement for Limited English Proficient Students; Overview Information; Native American and Alaska Native Children in School Program...

  1. Creating developmentally auspicious school environments for African American boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbarin, Oscar A; Chinn, Lisa; Wright, Yamanda F

    2014-01-01

    African American (AA) boys face serious barriers to academic success, many of which are uncommon--or absent--in the lives of AA girls, other children of color, and European American children. In this chapter, we identify nine critical challenges to the successful education of AA boys and review possible solutions. In addition, we evaluate one particular reform, public single-sex schooling, as a possible solution to the challenges facing AA boys. Considering the evidence, we argue that recent efforts to expand the existence of public single-sex schools are rarely grounded in empirical findings. Given the lack of compelling evidence and the high stakes for AA boys, we call for more rigorous evaluations of the outcomes of sex-segregated programs that specifically target AA boys.

  2. American high school students shine a spotlight on CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Between 2 and 7 April eighteen American high school students were let loose at CERN armed with video cameras. Their mission? To take on the role of broadcast journalists and inspire their peers across the US with short documentaries and blogs illuminating the work happening at the world’s most powerful particle accelerator. Members of the teams of budding physicists and broadcast journalists pose in front of the ATLAS detector.Following in the footsteps of professional journalists around the world, six teams of American high school students recently travelled to CERN to experience the increasing excitement in the run-up to the switch-on of the LHC. The six teams are from five states across the US and were the winners of a competition sponsored and funded by the US Department of Energy’s Office of Science and the National Science Foundation. Each team consists of three students plus a teacher, who combine their knowledge of ph...

  3. The Great Depression: A Textbook Case of Problems with American History Textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Steven L.; Rose, Stephen A.

    1983-01-01

    The 16 US history textbooks reviewed failed to incorporate economists' research on the causes of the Great Depression and consistently presented information that the economics profession has rejected. Strategies that social studies educators might adopt to improve the quality of economic analysis in textbooks is suggested. (Author/RM)

  4. Disease prevalence among nursery school children after the Great East Japan earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikuro, Mami; Matsubara, Hiroko; Kikuya, Masahiro; Obara, Taku; Sato, Yuki; Metoki, Hirohito; Isojima, Tsuyoshi; Yokoya, Susumu; Kato, Noriko; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Chida, Shoichi; Ono, Atsushi; Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Yokomichi, Hiroshi; Yamagata, Zentaro; Tanaka, Soichiro; Kure, Shigeo; Kuriyama, Shinichi

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between personal experience of the Great East Japan Earthquake and various disease types among nursery school children. We conducted a nationwide survey of nursery school children born between 2 April 2006 and 1 April 2007. Nursery school teachers completed questionnaires if they agreed to join the study. Questionnaire items for children consisted of their birth year and month, sex, any history of moving into or out of the current nursery school, presence of diseases diagnosed by a physician at the age of 66-78 months and type of disaster experience. The survey was conducted from September 2012 to December 2012. Japan, nationwide. A total of 60 270 nursery school children were included in the analysis, 840 of whom experienced the disaster on 11 March 2011. The health status of children 1.5 years after the disaster based on nursery school records. Experiencing the disaster significantly affected the prevalence of overall and individual diseases. Furthermore, there was a difference in disease prevalence between boys and girls. In boys, experiencing the tsunami (OR 2.53, 95% CI 1.22 to 5.24) and living in an evacuation centre (OR 2.92, 95% CI 1.46 to 5.83) were remarkably associated with a higher prevalence of atopic dermatitis, but these trends were not observed among girls. Instead, the home being destroyed (OR 3.50, 95% CI 2.02 to 6.07) and moving house (OR 4.19, 95% CI 2.01 to 8.71) were positively associated with a higher prevalence of asthma among girls. Our study indicates that experiencing the disaster may have affected the health status of nursery school children at least up to 1.5 years after the disaster. Continuous monitoring of the health status of children is necessary to develop strategic plans for child health.

  5. Robert Beuka. American Icon: Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby in Critical and Cultural Context.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodora Tsimpouki

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available What new can another critical study on F. Scott Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby contribute to the already existing abundance of books concerning this national classic?  Yet, in this slim and elegant volume, Robert Beuka has managed to encompass not only the formal scholarship on Gatsby but also a complete and thorough survey of the impact of the novel into the world of popular culture. This parallel attempt throws light on the changing modes of interpretation that have affected our understandin...

  6. Energy Profiles of an Agricultural Frontier: The American Great Plains, 1860-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunfer, Geoff; Watson, Andrew; MacFadyen, Joshua

    2018-04-01

    Agro-ecosystem energy profiles reveal energy flows into, within, and out of U.S. Great Plains farm communities across 140 years. This study evaluates external energy inputs such as human labor, machinery, fuel, and fertilizers. It tracks the energy content of land produce, including crops, grazed pasture, and firewood, and also accounts unharvested energy that remains available for wildlife. It estimates energy redirected through livestock feed into draft power, meat, and milk, and estimates the energy content of final produce available for local consumption or market sale. The article presents energy profiles for three case studies in Kansas in 1880, 1930, 1954, and 1997. Two energy transformations occurred during that time. The first, agricultural colonization , saw farm communities remake the landscape, turning native grassland into a mosaic of cropland and pasture, a process that reduced overall landscape energy productivity. A second energy transition occurred in the mid-twentieth century, characterized by fossil fuel energy imports. That outside energy raised harvested and unharvested energy flows, reused biomass energy, and also final produce. This socio-ecological transition increased landscape energy productivity by 33 to 45 percent above pre-settlement conditions in grain-growing regions. These energy developments were not uniform across the plains. Variations in rainfall and soil quality constrained or favored energy productivity in different places. The case studies reveal the spatial variation of energy profiles in Great Plains agro-ecosystems, while the longitudinal approach tracks temporal change.

  7. Playing doctor, seriously: graduation follies at an American medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, D

    1984-01-01

    In American medical schools, the period of time between the announcement of internships and graduation is known as FYBIGMI, for "Fuck You Brother I Got My Internship." At University Medical School (pseudonym), as at most American medical schools, this period culminates in an elaborate musical comedy (attended by faculty and relatives) in which faculty are abused, patients are represented in terms of stigmatized stereotypes, and the students demonstrate a profane familiarity with cultural taboos. Using the analytic methods of cultural anthropology, this examination of the FYBIGMI performance at U.M.S. focuses primarily on the seniors' presentation of their newly acquired professional identity, which is constituted in the skits by recurring oppositions to socially stigmatized, medically self-destructive patients. In this oppositional logic, racial stereotypes play a particularly large role. In addition, the seniors establish their new social status by inverting their relationship to their (former) supervisors on a personal basis, and by confronting the audience with their professional ability to treat cultural taboos with profane familiarity. The FYBIGMI theatrical, and its representation of professional identity, is analyzed in relation to a proposed model of the underlying structure of the process of medical education, that is, an escalating dialectic of intimidation and self-congratulation.

  8. Literature of a Crisis: The Great War in Anglo-American Modernism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadi Neimneh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at the representation of war in fiction as a catastrophic social event. In studying or teaching the Great War as represented in modernist literature, we have to acknowledge that fiction, and despite its overlap with history or historical value, is not mere history. War literature retains a powerful sociological orientation. The novels discussed in this paper push real war action to the background and highlight, instead, the impact of war on the subjective lives of individuals and their social interaction. Modernism is not primarily concerned with accurately reproducing the war, but rather with impressionistic details, i.e. the impact of war on introverted lives. Therefore, the real value of such novels is not documentary or historical but social and psychological.

  9. African American Educators' Ideas and Practices for Increasing High School Graduation Rates, 1920-1940

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juergensen, Miyoshi B.

    2015-01-01

    This study explores African American educators' ideas about school completion in the 1920s and 1930s as a way to begin to understand their contributions to the historical discourse on school completion. Using publications from African American professional teaching organizations, the author elevates and examines how African American educators both…

  10. The Impact of the Great Recession on School District Finances: Evidence from New York. Working Paper #03-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Rajashri; Setren, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    There is a slowly emerging literature that seeks to understand how the Great Recession affected other parts of the economy; however, there is no research that examines the effect of Great Recession (or any other recession) on schools. Given the fundamental role of education in human capital formation and growth, it is essential to understand the…

  11. The Impact of High School on the Leadership Development of African American Male Scholar-Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Rhema; Harrison, C. Keith; Bukstein, Scott; Martin, Brandon E.; Lawerence, Malia; Parks, Cliff

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine how the high school setting assisted the leadership development of African American males. Additionally, we explored how the leadership developed in high school was applied in the post-high school setting. We utilized purposeful sampling to identify and recruit African American male scholar-athletes (N =…

  12. An Empty Donut Hole: the Great Collapse of a North American Fishery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin M. Bailey

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma is North America's most abundant and lucrative natural fishery, and is the world's largest fishery for human food. The little-known demise of the "Donut Hole" stock of pollock in the Aleutian Basin of the central Bering Sea during the 1980s is the most spectacular fishery collapse in North American history, dwarfing the famous crashes of the northern cod and Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax. This collapse has received scant recognition and became evident only in 1993 when fishing was banned by an international moratorium; nearly 20 years later it has not recovered. The history of fishing in the North Pacific Ocean after World War II offers some insights into how the Donut Hole pollock fishery developed, and the societal and economic pressures behind it that so influenced the stock's fate. Overfishing was, without a doubt, the greatest contributor to the collapse of the Aleutian Basin pollock fishery, but a lack of knowledge about population biocomplexity added to the confusion of how to best manage the harvest. Unfortunately, the big scientific questions regarding the relationship of Donut Hole fish to other stocks are still unanswered.

  13. Post-Clovis survival of American Mastodon in the southern Great Lakes Region of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, N.; Beavan, Athfield N.

    2009-01-01

    The end of the Pleistocene in North America was marked by a wave of extinctions of large mammals, with the last known appearances of many species falling between ca. 11,000-10,000??14C yr BP. Temporally, this period overlaps with the Clovis Paleoindian cultural complex (11,190-10,530??14C yr BP) and with sudden climatic changes that define the beginning of the Younger Dryas chronozone (ca. 11,000-10,000??14C yr BP), both of which have been considered as potential proximal causes of this extinction event. Radiocarbon dating of enamel and filtered bone collagen from an extinct American Mastodon (Mammut americanum) from northern Indiana, USA, by accelerator mass spectrometer yielded direct dates of 10,055 ?? 40??14C yr BP and 10,032 ?? 40??14C yr BP, indicating that the animal survived beyond the Clovis time period and into the late Younger Dryas. Although the late survival of this species in mid-continental North America does not remove either humans or climatic change as contributing causes for the late Pleistocene extinctions, neither Clovis hunters nor the climatic perturbations initiating the Younger Dryas chronozone were immediately responsible for driving mastodons to extinction. ?? 2009 University of Washington.

  14. Post-Clovis survival of American Mastodon in the southern Great Lakes Region of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, Neal; Beavan Athfield, Nancy

    2009-11-01

    The end of the Pleistocene in North America was marked by a wave of extinctions of large mammals, with the last known appearances of many species falling between ca. 11,000-10,000 14C yr BP. Temporally, this period overlaps with the Clovis Paleoindian cultural complex (11,190-10,530 14C yr BP) and with sudden climatic changes that define the beginning of the Younger Dryas chronozone (ca. 11,000-10,000 14C yr BP), both of which have been considered as potential proximal causes of this extinction event. Radiocarbon dating of enamel and filtered bone collagen from an extinct American Mastodon ( Mammut americanum) from northern Indiana, USA, by accelerator mass spectrometer yielded direct dates of 10,055 ± 40 14C yr BP and 10,032 ± 40 14C yr BP, indicating that the animal survived beyond the Clovis time period and into the late Younger Dryas. Although the late survival of this species in mid-continental North America does not remove either humans or climatic change as contributing causes for the late Pleistocene extinctions, neither Clovis hunters nor the climatic perturbations initiating the Younger Dryas chronozone were immediately responsible for driving mastodons to extinction.

  15. Job Loss at Home: Children's School Performance during the Great Recession in Spain. CEP Discussion Paper No. 1364

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Valenzuela, Jenifer

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of parental job loss on children's school performance during the Great Recession in Spain, using an original panel dataset for students observed since the beginning of the crisis in a school in the province of Barcelona. By using fixed effects, this paper is more likely to deal with the problem of selection into…

  16. Managing for Results in America's Great City Schools. A Report of the Performance Measurement and Benchmarking Project, Spring 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council of the Great City Schools, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This report describes statistical indicators developed by the Council of the Great City Schools and its member districts to measure big-city school performance on a range of operational functions in business, finance, human resources and technology. The report also presents data city-by-city on those indicators. This is the second time that…

  17. Managing for Results in America's Great City Schools. A Report of the Performance Measurement and Benchmarking Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council of the Great City Schools, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This report describes statistical indicators developed by the Council of the Great City Schools and its member districts to measure big-city school performance on a range of operational functions in business, finance, human resources and technology. The report also presents data city-by-city on those indicators. This is the second time that…

  18. Selling the Great American Eclipse: An Education and Public Outreach Retrospective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordgren, T.

    2017-12-01

    The August 21, 2017 total solar eclipse was the single largest public scientific outreach event of the last several decades. The astronomical community, from organizations like to the American Astronomical Society, to government agencies such as NASA, to the nation-wide amateur astronomy community all worked to raise awareness of this unique event that would be visible to every single inhabitant of the United States. This outreach, like the event itself, was unique in requiring education on not just the science of the event, but the societal nature as well. This included such variety of subjects as: 1) eye safety for millions of individuals, 2) the importance of traveling to totality, 3) transportation issues over mass travel to regions in totality, 3) lodging, food, and logistics information for communities in totality, 4) governmental emergency response, and much more. I interview a number of communities, city managers, event planners, and national park rangers after the eclipse to identify what were the most important education and outreach information they received leading up to the event to assess what we in the astronomical community did that was most effective and what could have been done better in retrospect. In particular, I look at the use of the solar eclipse "travel poster" campaign I designed for event organizers, chambers of commerce, universities, and national and state parks in the four years leading up to the eclipse. How were they used and were they effective in raising the public's awareness of community events across the country? The lessons learned will be important for planning for the next eclipse that touches the U.S. in less than seven years from now on April 8, 2024.

  19. Cinema and the Great War - Andrew Kelly, 1997. History by Hollywood. The use and abuse of the American past - Robert Brant Toplin, 1996

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kester, Bernadette

    1998-01-01

    textabstractReview of: Cinema and the Great War. Andrew Kelly, Londen, New York (Routledge), 1997, 219 p.History by Hollywood. The use and abuse of the American past. Robert Brant Toplin, Chicago (Urbana), 1996, 267 p.

  20. The Great Recession worsened blood pressure and blood glucose levels in American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeman, Teresa; Thomas, Duncan; Merkin, Sharon Stein; Moore, Kari; Watson, Karol; Karlamangla, Arun

    2018-03-27

    Longitudinal, individual-specific data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) provide support for the hypothesis that the 2008 to 2010 Great Recession (GR) negatively impacted the health of US adults. Results further advance understanding of the relationship by ( i ) illuminating hypothesized greater negative impacts in population subgroups exposed to more severe impacts of the GR and ( ii ) explicitly controlling for confounding by individual differences in age-related changes in health over time. Analyses overcome limitations of prior work by ( i ) employing individual-level data that avoid concerns about ecological fallacy associated with prior reliance on group-level data, ( ii ) using four waves of data before the GR to estimate and control for underlying individual-level age-related trends, ( iii ) focusing on objective, temporally appropriate health outcomes rather than mortality, and ( iv ) leveraging a diverse cohort to investigate subgroup differences in the GR's impact. Innovative individual fixed-effects modeling controlling for individual-level age-related trajectories yielded substantively important insights: ( i ) significant elevations post-GR for blood pressure and fasting glucose, especially among those on medication pre-GR, and ( ii ) reductions in prevalence and intensity of medication use post-GR. Important differences in the effects of the GR are seen across subgroups, with larger effects among younger adults (who are likely still in the labor force) and older homeowners (whose declining home wealth likely reduced financial security, with less scope for recouping losses during their lifetime); least affected were older adults without a college degree (whose greater reliance on Medicare and Social Security likely provided more protection from the recession).

  1. Planetary Science from NASA's WB-57 Canberra High Altitude Research Aircraft During the Great American Eclipse of 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, C.; Caspi, A.; DeForest, C. E.; Durda, D. D.; Steffl, A.; Lewis, J.; Wiseman, J.; Collier, J.; Mallini, C.; Propp, T.; Warner, J.

    2017-12-01

    The Great American Eclipse of 2017 provided an excellent opportunity for heliophysics research on the solar corona and dynamics that encompassed a large number of research groups and projects, including projects flown in the air and in space. Two NASA WB-57F Canberra high altitude research aircraft were launched from NASA's Johnson Space Center, Ellington Field into the eclipse path. At an altitude of 50,000ft, and outfitted with visible and near-infrared cameras, these aircraft provided increased duration of observations during eclipse totality, and much sharper images than possible on the ground. Although the primary mission goal was to study heliophysics, planetary science was also conducted to observe the planet Mercury and to search for Vulcanoids. Mercury is extremely challenging to study from Earth. The 2017 eclipse provided a rare opportunity to observe Mercury under ideal astronomical conditions. Only a handful of near-IR thermal images of Mercury exist, but IR images provide critical surface property (composition, albedo, porosity) information, essential to interpreting lower resolution IR spectra. Critically, no thermal image of Mercury currently exists. By observing the nightside surface during the 2017 Great American Eclipse, we aimed to measure the diurnal temperature as a function of local time (longitude) and attempted to deduce the surface thermal inertia integrated down to a few-cm depth below the surface. Vulcanoids are a hypothesized family of asteroids left over from the formation of the solar system, in the dynamically stable orbits between the Sun and Mercury at 15-45 Rs (4-12° solar elongation). Close proximity to the Sun, plus their small theoretical sizes, make Vulcanoid searches rare and difficult. The 2017 eclipse was a rare opportunity to search for Vulcanoids. If discovered these unique, highly refractory and primordial bodies would have a significant impact on our understanding of solar system formation. Only a handful of deep

  2. Variation in obesity among American secondary school students by school and school characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Patrick M; Johnston, Lloyd D; Delva, Jorge; Bachman, Jerald G; Schulenberg, John E

    2007-10-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is known to vary by individual characteristics, but little is known about whether BMI varies by school and by school characteristics. Nationally representative samples of United States schools and students are used to determine the extent to which BMI and percent of students at or above the 85th percentile of BMI vary by school and by school characteristics. Data from the 1991-2004 Monitoring the Future (MTF) study were analyzed in 2006 and 2007. A relatively small proportion of variance in BMI lies between schools; intraclass correlations are on the order of 3%. Still, this is sufficient variation to provide very different environments for students attending schools that are low versus high in average BMI. There is some modest variation by school type (public, Catholic private, non-Catholic private); school size (number of students in the sampled grade); region of the country; and population density. There is more variation as a function of school socioeconomic status (SES) and racial/ethnic composition of the school. School SES in particular was negatively associated with BMI levels, even after controlling individual-level SES and racial/ethnic status. The residual differences in BMI by school suggest that some characteristic of the school and/or community environment--perhaps cultural factors or peer role modeling or differences in school food, beverage, or physical education policies--facilitate obesity in schools with a high concentration of lower socioeconomic students, beyond individual-level factors.

  3. Obesity in elementary school children after the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, Hidenori; Fuchimukai, Toru; Kondo, Naoki; Takayama, John I

    2018-03-01

    Rikuzentakata was one of the cities most devastated by the Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011. Many buildings were swept away or destroyed and affected families were placed into temporary housing. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of long-term temporary housing on the body mass index (BMI) of elementary school children living in Rikuzentakata City. A retrospective cohort study of was carried out of students attending 1st-3rd grade in 2010, and 4th-6th grade in 2013, in eight elementary schools in Rikuzentakata City. Height and weight were measured annually. We compared changes in BMI between children in temporary housing and those in permanent housing. Separately, parents of students attending one of the elementary schools were surveyed in 2013. Of 526 children in the present study, 32% were living in temporary housing. The prevalence of obesity climbed from 5.3% in 2010 to 7.8% in 2013 in the temporary housing group, and from 7.6% to 7.8% in the permanent housing group. BMI z-score in the temporary housing group increased by 0.102 points between 2010 and 2013 (P comic books and their walking commute time had decreased by 2 min compared with before the disaster. Obesity prevalence and BMI z-score increased in children in temporary housing compared with permanent housing. A more sedentary lifestyle may explain this trend. It is important for policy makers and health-care providers to recognize potential consequences of long-term residence in temporary housing. © 2017 Japan Pediatric Society.

  4. A Research on the Impact of Internet Use in American Elementary School Libraries

    OpenAIRE

    Feng-Hsiung Hou

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore the impact of Internet use in American elementary school libraries operations and to find the best way for use Internet tools in elementary school libraries operations. This study may offer important information about the impact of Internet usage for elementary school library s operations. The research question was: Is the Internet usage having significant impact for organizational operations in the American elementary school libraries? This study e...

  5. The Role and Impact of Nurses in American Elementary Schools: A Systematic Review of the Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lineberry, Michelle J.; Ickes, Melinda J.

    2015-01-01

    School nurses are tasked with the critical job of keeping students safe and well. Due to competing demands for resources in schools, the impact of school nurses must be demonstrated to secure their jobs. A systematic review of the literature from 1937 to 2013 was conducted to show the efficacy of school nursing activities in American elementary…

  6. Predominantly Black Institutions and Public Montessori Schools: Reclaiming the "Genius" in African American Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jor'dan, Jamilah R.

    2018-01-01

    There are more than 22,000 Montessori schools in over 100 countries worldwide. Beginning in the 1950s the American Montessori movement was primarily a private pre-school movement. There are more than 5,000 schools in the United States; over 500 of these are public. Montessori schools are an increasingly popular choice in the U.S. for public school…

  7. Can the American High School become an Avenue of Advancement for All?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balfanz, Robert

    2009-01-01

    As the twenty-first century opens, says Robert Balfanz, the United States is developing a deep social consensus that American high schools should ensure that all adolescents graduate from high school prepared for postsecondary schooling and training. Balfanz asks how well high schools are succeeding in this mission and whether they can ultimately…

  8. At Home in the Great Northern Wilderness: African Americans and Freedom’s Ecology in the Adirondacks, 1846-1859

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daegan Miller

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the fall of 1846, the first of 3,000 African American settlers set foot on their 40-acre plots in the Great Northern Wilderness of New York State, a place we now call the “forever wild” wilderness of the Adirondack State Park. These black settlers were the initial wave of a social experiment meant to destroy both slavery and, more generally, racism throughout the entire United States through the redemptive practice of a utopian agrarianism. The settlers understood that nature and culture, wilderness and society, were thickly, dialectically intertwined. And they weren’t alone: their efforts were seeded by the white abolitionist, Gerrit Smith; fertilized by the utopian socialist communes that covered the Northeast in the 1840s; and nurtured by abolitionists, both black and white. To United States environmental history, I add two threads less frequently seen: African American history and an intellectual history of radical politics. Following these threads has led me beyond the disciplinary confines of history and into larger debates about the cultural politics of wilderness. In this article I argue that the critical wilderness paradigm currently reigning both in and beyond historical scholarship has obscured nuanced, sometimes radical visions of the natural world. Instead of an ironic, deconstructed notion of a troubling wilderness, I suggest another heuristic, the ecology of freedom, which highlights past contingency and hope, and can furthermore help guide our present efforts, both scholastic and activist, to find an honorable, just way of living on the earth.

  9. Bilingual Language Assessment: Contemporary Versus Recommended Practice in American Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Graciela; Friberg, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify current practices of school-based speech-language pathologists (SLPs) in the United States for bilingual language assessment and compare them to American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) best practice guidelines and mandates of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA, 2004). The study was modeled to replicate portions of Caesar and Kohler's (2007) study and expanded to include a nationally representative sample. A total of 166 respondents completed an electronic survey. Results indicated that the majority of respondents have performed bilingual language assessments. Furthermore, the most frequently used informal and standardized assessments were identified. SLPs identified supports, and barriers to assessment, as well as their perceptions of graduate preparation. The findings of this study demonstrated that although SLPs have become more compliant to ASHA and IDEA guidelines, there is room for improvement in terms of adequate training in bilingual language assessment.

  10. Cultural and School-Grade Differences in Korean and White American Children's Narrative Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Meesook

    2003-03-01

    A great deal of ethnographic research describes different communicative styles in Asian and Western countries. Asian cultures emphasise the listener's role in assuring successful communication, whereas Western cultures place the responsibility primarily on the speaker. This pattern suggests that Asian children may develop higher-level receptive skills and Western children may develop higher-level expressive skills. However, the language of children in formal education may develop in certain ways regardless of cultural influences. The present study quantifies the cultural and school-grade differences in language abilities reflected in middle-class Korean and white American children's story-telling and story-listening activities. Thirty-two Korean first- and fourth-grade children and their American counterparts were individually asked to perform two tasks: one producing a story from a series of pictures, and one involving listening to and then retelling a story. The individual interview was transcribed in their native languages and analysed in terms of ambiguity of reference, the number of causal connectors, the amount of information, and the number of central and peripheral idea units that were included in the story retelling. The data provided some empirical evidence for the effects of culture and school education in children's language acquisition.

  11. A Study of African American Male Students' Academic Achievement and School Attitude in an Urban Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Roslyn J. F. Billy

    2013-01-01

    With the signing of the No Child Left Behind Act in 2001, much emphasis has been placed on the accountability of schools and school districts to ensure higher academic achievement of all students. The achievement gap remains among African American male students in urban school districts. This purposed quantitative study explored the relationship…

  12. Position of the American Dietetic Association, School Nutrition Association, and Society for Nutrition Education: Comprehensive School Nutrition Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Marilyn; Mueller, Constance G.; Fleischhacker, Sheila

    2010-01-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association (ADA), School Nutrition Association (SNA), and Society for Nutrition Education (SNE) that comprehensive, integrated nutrition services in schools, kindergarten through grade 12, are an essential component of coordinated school health programs and will improve the nutritional status, health,…

  13. Reward School Leadership: Building a Good-to-Great Cycle of Excellence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadravec, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    For years, schools across the country have carried the label, and in many cases the reality, of being "schools in need of improvement." School improvement plans, deficit analyses, and theories for school organizational improvement have saturated the landscape of school communities. While much of this work has been focused on strategies…

  14. Great American Work Songs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Elva S.

    1983-01-01

    A teaching unit uses the songs of sailors, loggers, coal miners, and other workers to illustrate how the United States was built in the nineteenth century. Words and music for seven songs are given, along with classroom activities to help children understand occupations and industries during that time. (PP)

  15. School Climate in American Secondary Schools: A Psychometric Examination of PISA 2009 School Climate Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Letao; Royal, Kenneth

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the quality of the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2009 school climate survey instrument and evaluate perceptions of secondary school principals' located in the United States about school climate using an Item Response Theory (IRT) methodological approach. In particular, this study…

  16. "I Am More than What I Look Alike": Asian American Women in Public School Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jia; Peters-Hawkins, April L.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Little research exists that examines the leadership experiences of Asian American women in public schools. This study sought to understand the meanings Asian American women school administrators have constructed out of their professional lives given the intersection of gender, race-ethnicity, and leadership. Research Method/Approach: Data…

  17. Leadership and Spirituality: The Indivisible Leadership of African American School Administrators as Pastors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Anthony D., Sr.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to understand the role that spirituality plays in the leadership of African American men who are both a pastor and a public school administrator. Very little has been written about the role of African American spirituality in educational leadership or about school administrators who are also pastors.…

  18. Fighting through Resistance: Challenges Faced by African American Women Principals in Predominately White School Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Alicia D.

    2013-01-01

    African American women represented a growing proportion within the field of education in attaining leadership roles as school principals. As the numbers continued to rise slowly, African American women principals found themselves leading in diverse or even predominately White school settings. Leading in such settings encouraged African American…

  19. Digital History: Using the Internet to Enhance African American Studies in the Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuerell, Scott; Jaeger, Matt

    2015-01-01

    The authors discuss how high school students participated in a unit in which they learned about African American history in a 1:1 computer classroom--in particular, how they were able to use digital history to learn about a variety of African American leaders who are not frequently covered in the traditional American History textbook. In addition,…

  20. School-Based Considerations for Supporting Arab American Youths' Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goforth, Anisa N.; Nichols, Lindsey M.; Stanick, Cameo F.; Shindorf, Zachary R.; Holter, Olivia

    2017-01-01

    Arab Americans are a culturally, linguistically, and religiously diverse group. Although there are an estimated 3.6 million Arab Americans in the USA, there is little discussion about how to best provide culturally responsive school-based mental health supports to Arab American youths. The purpose of this article is to (1) briefly describe the…

  1. Missing Voices: African American School Psychologists' Perspectives on Increasing Professional Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Sherrie L.; Truscott, Stephen D.

    2013-01-01

    Since the mid 1960s, there has been a noticeable decrease in the percentage of African American educators. Although a sizeable literature is dedicated to understanding how to recruit African American teachers, fewer studies focus on recruiting and retaining African American school psychologists. Therefore, this exploratory qualitative study…

  2. Methodology of Comparative Analysis of Public School Teachers' Continuing Professional Development in Great Britain, Canada and the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukan, Nataliya; Kravets, Svitlana

    2015-01-01

    In the article the methodology of comparative analysis of public school teachers' continuing professional development (CPD) in Great Britain, Canada and the USA has been presented. The main objectives are defined as theoretical analysis of scientific and pedagogical literature, which highlights different aspects of the problem under research;…

  3. Constructivist Approach in a Paradigm of Public School Teachers' Professional Development in Great Britain, Canada, the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukan, Nataliya; Fuchyla, Olena; Ihnatiuk, Halyna

    2017-01-01

    The article dwells on professional development of public school teachers as an inevitable constituent of education systems in the 21st century. In such economically developed countries as Great Britain, Canada and the USA, the problem of preparing teachers to a difficult and responsible task of upbringing and educating future citizens always…

  4. Neotropical mammal diversity and the Great American Biotic Interchange: spatial and temporal variation in South America's fossil record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Juan D.; Forasiepi, Analía; Jaramillo, Carlos; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R.

    2015-01-01

    The vast mammal diversity of the Neotropics is the result of a long evolutionary history. During most of the Cenozoic, South America was an island continent with an endemic mammalian fauna. This isolation ceased during the late Neogene after the formation of the Isthmus of Panama, resulting in an event known as the Great American Biotic Interchange (GABI). In this study, we investigate biogeographic patterns in South America, just before or when the first immigrants are recorded and we review the temporal and geographical distribution of fossil mammals during the GABI. We performed a dissimilarity analysis which grouped the faunal assemblages according to their age and their geographic distribution. Our data support the differentiation between tropical and temperate assemblages in South America during the middle and late Miocene. The GABI begins during the late Miocene (~10–7 Ma) and the putative oldest migrations are recorded in the temperate region, where the number of GABI participants rapidly increases after ~5 Ma and this trend continues during the Pleistocene. A sampling bias toward higher latitudes and younger records challenges the study of the temporal and geographic patterns of the GABI. PMID:25601879

  5. Evaluation of the North American Land Data Assimilation System over the southern Great Plains during the warm season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robock, Alan; Luo, Lifeng; Wood, Eric F.; Wen, Fenghua; Mitchell, Kenneth E.; Houser, Paul R.; Schaake, John C.; Lohmann, Dag; Cosgrove, Brian; Sheffield, Justin; Duan, Qingyun; Higgins, R. Wayne; Pinker, Rachel T.; Tarpley, J. Dan; Basara, Jeffery B.; Crawford, Kenneth C.

    2003-11-01

    North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) land surface models have been run for a retrospective period forced by atmospheric observations from the Eta analysis and actual precipitation and downward solar radiation to calculate land hydrology. We evaluated these simulations using in situ observations over the southern Great Plains for the periods of May-September of 1998 and 1999 by comparing the model outputs with surface latent, sensible, and ground heat fluxes at 24 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement/Cloud and Radiation Testbed stations and with soil temperature and soil moisture observations at 72 Oklahoma Mesonet stations. The standard NLDAS models do a fairly good job but with differences in the surface energy partition and in soil moisture between models and observations and among models during the summer, while they agree quite well on the soil temperature simulations. To investigate why, we performed a series of experiments accounting for differences between model-specified soil types and vegetation and those observed at the stations, and differences in model treatment of different soil types, vegetation properties, canopy resistance, soil column depth, rooting depth, root density, snow-free albedo, infiltration, aerodynamic resistance, and soil thermal diffusivity. The diagnosis and model enhancements demonstrate how the models can be improved so that they can be used in actual data assimilation mode.

  6. African American Educational Leadership in the School Superintendency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Eva C.

    2013-01-01

    African American educational leadership has long been part of American education and African American activism to resist oppression. However, the field of educational leadership has rarely included the contributions of African American leaders, particularly women leaders, into mainstream leadership theory and practices. This omission is difficult…

  7. "Are You Only an Applauder?" American Music Correspondence Schools in the Early Twentieth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Dorothy

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine correspondence schools of music in the early twentieth century. Advertisements in widely circulated household and music periodicals and archival copies of courses from Siegel-Myers Correspondence School of Music, United States School of Music, American College of Music, and others were examined. Research…

  8. The Study and Improvement of American High Schools: A Portrait of Work in Progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newmann, Fred M.; Behar, Steven L.

    This is an integrated report on 28 ongoing projects that were set up to study and improve American high schools on a large scale. The activities include establishment of a national data base on high school students; a study of new standards for college admission; administrators' reports on what works in urban schools; intensive studies of single…

  9. Burnout Factories: The Challenge of Retaining Great Teachers in Charter Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, Mark

    2017-01-01

    In its well-intentioned effort to create alternatives to public school dropout factories, the charter school sector has created teacher burnout factories. But it does not have to be this way. Charter schools can continue to maintain high standards while creating a more sustainable work environment for teachers. This article examines the teacher…

  10. Great Expectations, Mixed Results: Standards and Performance in Denver's New Public Schools, 2007-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooms, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    In conjunction with the Denver Plan instituted in 2005, Denver Public Schools (DPS) has embarked upon a consistent strategy of opening new schools in an effort to improve overall academic performance. DPS has pursued this strategy under several different paths: an annual request for proposals from charter school applicants; allowing current…

  11. Intricacies of School Relationships and the Well-Being of Arab American Youth: Implications for School Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabbah, Rhonda; Miranda, Antoinette Halsell; Wheaton, Joe E.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the symbolic interaction theory in a sample of Arab American adolescents. Four areas of self-concept were investigated in relation to school environment, including perceived discrimination and social supports. Sixty-one Arab American adolescents (28 males and 33 females) between the ages of 12 and 18 years…

  12. 2015 Latin American School of High-Energy Physics | Ibarra, Ecuador | 4 - 17 March 2015

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    We would like to draw your attention to the 2015 Latin-American School of High-Energy Physics, to be held in Ibarra, Ecuador from 4 to 17 March 2015.   PLEASE NOTE THAT THE DEADLINE FOR APPLICATIONS IS 21 NOVEMBER 2014. The lectures will cover a broad range of HEP topics at a level suitable for students working towards a PhD in experimental particle physics. Note that financial support may be available for Latin American students attending the School. Although the School is targeted particularly at students from Latin American countries, it is open to self-funding students from other regions. More details can be found here.

  13. Social Anxiety and Mental Health Service Use Among Asian American High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brice, Chad; Masia Warner, Carrie; Okazaki, Sumie; Ma, Pei-Wen Winnie; Sanchez, Amanda; Esseling, Petra; Lynch, Chelsea

    2015-10-01

    Asian American adults endorse more symptoms of social anxiety (SA) on self-report measures than European Americans, but demonstrate lower prevalence rates of SA disorder in epidemiological studies. These divergent results create ambiguity concerning the mental health needs of Asian Americans. The present study is the first to investigate this issue in adolescents through assessment of self-reported SA in Asian American high school students. Parent and self-ratings of impairment related to SA and self-reported mental health service use for SA were also measured. Asian American students endorsed a greater number of SA symptoms and scored in the clinical range more frequently than other ethnic groups. Also, Asian American and Latino students endorsed more school impairment related to SA than other ethnic groups. No differences in parent-reported impairment or service utilization were identified. Implications for future research and treatment for SA among Asian American adolescents are discussed.

  14. School Public Relations and the Principalship: An Interview with Mark Bielang, President of American Association of School Administrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Paul

    2011-01-01

    From returning phone calls to traversing the political landscape to building trust, American Association of School Administrators (AASA) president Mark Bielang covers a lot of territory as he describes the public relations challenges confronting today's school administrators. Having just concluded his term as AASA president, Mr. Bielang has served…

  15. The role of the pediatrician in abolishing corporal punishment in schools. Committee on School Health, American Academy of Pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, S R; Ushkow, M C; Nader, P R; Bradford, B J; Asbury, J R; Worthington, D C; Sanabria, K E; Carruth, T

    1991-07-01

    Corporal punishment in school is allowed in 30 states in the United States. The American Academy of Pediatrics, together with numerous other child-advocacy groups, has reaffirmed its position that corporal punishment in schools should be prohibited by state statute in all states. This article provides background information and recommendations regarding the potential role for pediatricians in attaining this goal.

  16. A "Great Roads" Approach to Teaching Modern World History and Latin American Regional Survey Courses: A Veracruz to Mexico City Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James Seay, Jr.; Sullivan-Gonzalez, Douglass

    2002-01-01

    Outlines an innovative way of teaching "World History Since 1500" at Samford University (Birmingham, Alabama) called the "great roads" approach, centered upon important roads in a country's history. Presents the "Veracruz to Mexico City corridor" case study used to teach a Latin American modern history course. (CMK)

  17. Achievement Emotions as Predictors of High School Science Success Among African-American and European American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowe, Marilyn Louise Simmons

    The literature includes few studies of the interrelations of achievement goals and achievement emotions with respect to minority students and science achievement. The objective of this study was to test the control-value theory (CVT) of achievement emotions to determine if the eight discrete achievement emotions would be predictive of test scores on the High School Graduation Test (GHSGT)-Science for African-American compared to European-American science students. Convenience cluster sampling was employed to select 160 students who were all juniors in the same public high school at the time that they took the GHSGT-Science. The central research question for this study aimed to uncover whether any of the eight achievement emotions identified in CVT would contribute significantly to the predictability of science achievement as measured by GHSGT-Science scores. Data were collected using a nonexperimental, cross sectional design survey. Data were analyzed using a hierarchal, forced entry, multiple regression analysis. Key results indicated that the eight achievement emotions were predictive of GHSGT-Science score outcomes. Positive social change at the individual level could reflect a boost in confidence for African American science students and help decrease the achievement gap in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) endeavors between European Americans and African-American students. Educators may consider the importance of achievement emotions in science outcomes by including social emotional learning (SEL) as a part of the regular science curriculum. Future researchers should repeat the study in a school district where the population is available to support the desired cluster sample of equal parts European Americans to African Americans and male to female students.

  18. Left out. Forgotten? Recent High School Graduates and the Great Recession. Work Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Horn, Carl; Zukin, Cliff; Szeltner, Mark; Stone, Charley

    2012-01-01

    This report describes the findings of a nationally representative sample of 544 recent high school graduates from the classes of 2006 through 2011. The purpose of this study is to understand how recent high school graduates who are not attending college full time are faring in the workforce, specifically looking at those individuals who graduated…

  19. Gay Youth in American Public High Schools: Invisible Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Donald B.

    Gay youth enter high school with the knowledge that they are different and with the belief that heterosexuality is normal and that homosexuality is not normal. Also, gay youth enter high school with the belief that honesty and integrity are important personal values. Additionally, the gay youth enter high school without family knowledge of their…

  20. Chasing the Great American 2017 Total Solar Eclipse: Coronal Results from NASA's WB-57F High-Altitude Research Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi, A.; Tsang, C.; DeForest, C. E.; Seaton, D. B.; Bryans, P.; Burkepile, J.; Casey, T. A.; Collier, J.; Darrow, D.; DeLuca, E.; Durda, D. D.; Gallagher, P.; Golub, L.; Judge, P. G.; Laurent, G. T.; Lewis, J.; Mallini, C.; Parent, T.; Propp, T.; Steffl, A.; Tomczyk, S.; Warner, J.; West, M. J.; Wiseman, J.; Zhukov, A.

    2017-12-01

    Total solar eclipses present rare opportunities to study the complex solar corona, down to altitudes of just a few percent of a solar radius above the surface, using ground-based and airborne observatories that would otherwise be dominated by the intense solar disk and high sky brightness. Studying the corona is critical to gaining a better understanding of physical processes that occur on other stars and astrophysical objects, as well as understanding the dominant driver of space weather that affects human assets at Earth and elsewhere. For example, it is still poorly understood how the corona is heated to temperatures of 1-2 MK globally and up to 5-10 MK above active regions, while the underlying chromosphere is 100 times cooler; numerous theories abound, but are difficult to constrain due to the limited sensitivities and cadences of prior measurements. The origins and stability of coronal fans, and the extent of their reach to the middle and outer corona, are also not well known, limited in large part by sensitivities and fields of view of existing observations. Airborne observations during the eclipse provide unique advantages; by flying in the stratosphere at altitudes of 50 kft or higher, they avoid all weather, the seeing quality is enormously improved, and additional wavelengths such as near- IR also become available due to significantly reduced water absorption. For an eclipse, an airborne observatory can also follow the shadow, increasing the total observing time by 50% or more. We present results of solar coronal measurements from airborne observations of the 2017 Great American Total Solar Eclipse using two of NASA's WB-57 high-altitude research aircraft, each equipped with two 8.7" telescopes feeding high-sensitivity visible (green-line) and medium-wave IR (3-5 μm) cameras operating at high cadence (30 Hz) with 3 arcsec/pixel platescale and ±3 R_sun fields of view. The aircraft flew along the eclipse path, separated by 110 km, to observe a summed 7

  1. The Policing of Native Bodies and Minds: Perspectives on Schooling from American Indian Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quijada Cerecer, Patricia D.

    2013-01-01

    Research indicates that high school campus climates are contentious for students of color, particularly as they negotiate institutional and personal racism. Unfortunately, minimal research centers on the experiences of American Indian youth. In response, this qualitative study explores American Indian responses to hostile campus climates. Using a…

  2. The Mythology of Schooling: The Historiography of American and European Education in Comparative Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Matthew Gardner

    2014-01-01

    This essay explores the historiography of American and European education, considering how educational historians communicate powerful messages about the purposes and promises of schooling through their writing. I divide the historiography of American education into four interpretive traditions: traditionalism, radical revisionism, progressive…

  3. How To Succeed in School without Really Learning: The Credentials Race in American Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labaree, David F.

    Getting ahead and getting an education are inseparable in the minds of most Americans. Social mobility lies at the core of the American dream, and educational opportunity is the primary avenue by which to realize this dream. This book suggests that it is time to consider whether the connection between schooling and social mobility is doing more…

  4. School Administrators' Perceptions of the Achievement Gap between African American Students and White Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royle, Jonathan; Brown, Casey Graham

    2014-01-01

    This study included an analysis of principal perceptions of the achievement gap between African American and White students. School administrators from campuses with a substantial number of African American students within the subgroup were interviewed to explore their perceptions of the achievement gap. The study revealed factors within the…

  5. African American Fathers' Involvement in Their Children's School-Based Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Yolanda

    2012-01-01

    This research investigated African American fathers' involvement in the school-based lives of their elementary-aged children using the Hoover-Dempsey and Sandler model of parent involvement and Epstein's framework of involvement. Questionnaires were administered to 101 African American males in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States.…

  6. Stereotype Threat Effects on African American Children in an Urban Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserberg, Martin J.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated whether a diagnostic testing condition leads to stereotype threat effects for African American children (n = 198) at an urban elementary school. Results indicated that presenting a reading test as diagnostic of abilities hindered the performance of African American children aware of racial stereotypes but not of those…

  7. Parental Influence, School Readiness and Early Academic Achievement of African American Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe, Emanique M.; Davis, James Earl

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between parental influence and the school readiness of African American boys, using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study: ECLS-K, Parents' influence, via their academic beliefs and behaviors, was associated with the cognitive performance of African American boys during kindergarten. While previous…

  8. Chinese and European American Mothers' Beliefs about the Role of Parenting in Children's School Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Ruth K.

    1996-01-01

    Compared 48 immigrant Chinese and 50 European American mothers of preschool-age children on their perspectives on the role of parenting in their children's school success. Findings reveal Chinese immigrants have a high regard for education and a belief in a strong parental role, while European Americans regard social skills and self-esteem of…

  9. Asian American High School Students' Self-Concepts and Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to explore Asian American students' identities and their perceptions about who they are within the Midwestern American high school setting. Design/methodology/approach: A naturalistic inquiry (Lincoln and Guba, 1985) is employed in this qualitative study. Naturalistic inquiry assumes that reality is constructed by…

  10. Bullying Prevention as a Social Justice Issue: Implications with Asian American Elementary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cixin; Wang, Weimeng; Zheng, Lianzhe; Atwal, Kavita

    2016-01-01

    This study examined Asian American elementary students' experience with victimization. Data were collected from 313 fourth and fifth graders from an ethnically diverse elementary school in southern California. Most participants self-identified as Asian/Asian American and spoke an Asian language at home. Results indicated that Asian American…

  11. College and Career Readiness for Gifted African American Girls: A Call to School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Renae D.; Hines, Erik M.

    2014-01-01

    Current literature on college and career readiness highlights the role of educators in promoting the success of all students. However, few studies have focused on the specific needs of gifted African American girls. This article discusses the school experiences and career development of gifted African American girls and it provides a culturally…

  12. Une Exception Francaise: Les Grandes Ecoles (A French Exception: The Great Schools).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmel, Alain

    1996-01-01

    Examines the role of exceptional schools in France that have produced famous personages such as Charles de Gaulle and Jean-Paul Sartre. The schools reviewed include L'Ecole Nationale d'Administration, L'Ecole Polytechnique, L'Ecole Normale Superieure, L'Ecole des Hautes Etudes Commerciales, Saint-Cyr, and L'Institut d'Etudes Politiques de Paris.…

  13. Considerations for School Psychologists Working with Arab American Children and Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goforth, Anisa N.

    2011-01-01

    There are an estimated three million Arab Americans in the United States, with 25% of the population under the age of 18. Given this significant population, it is likely that some school psychologists come across children from Arab backgrounds during their career. Many school psychologists, however, may not be aware of the unique cultural…

  14. The Freedom Schools, the Civil Rights Movement, and Refocusing the Goals of American Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Jon N.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the history of the 1964 Mississippi Freedom Schools to illustrate how integrating the Civil Rights Movement into the social studies curriculum refocuses the aims of American education on participatory democracy. Teaching the Civil Rights Movement and employing the teaching strategies used in the Freedom Schools leads to the…

  15. Strong Teens: A School-Based Small Group Experience for African American Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Nathan J.; Rayle, Andrea Dixon

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the school-based, small group adaptation of the existing Strong Teens Curriculum (STC) for African American male adolescents in high schools. The STC was created to equip adolescents with skills that promote more effective social interaction and enhance personal emotional and psychological wellness. The authors present a…

  16. High School Leaders' Perceptions of Practices That Increase Graduation Rates of African American Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Linda D.

    2015-01-01

    Research indicates there are significant differences in the academic performance of minorities and whites, particularly at the high school level. On average, Latino and African American high school students read and perform math on the same level as 13-year-old white students and trail their white peers by an average of 20 test points on math and…

  17. School Psychologists Working with Native American Youth: Training, Competence, and Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson-Zanartu, Carol; Butler-Byrd, Nola; Cook-Morales, Valerie; Dauphinais, Paul; Charley, Elvina; Bonner, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Despite growing emphases on multicultural competence, Native American youth remain tremendously underserved by schools: low achievement, high dropout rates, and over-identification for special education persist. The authors analyzed responses of 403 school psychologists to a national survey regarding their competence gained in training, in current…

  18. Influence of Mentoring on African American and Hispanic Males in High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jacqueline A.

    2016-01-01

    The mixed method research study was designed to evaluate the effects on a mentoring initiative on 40 African American and Hispanic males in an urban high school. The study took place over a three-month period in a traditional public school with 2,000 students. Data collection methods used included individual interview with student mentees, surveys…

  19. Forging Appealing Identities in Complex Environments: A Case Study of American Law Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro Milian, Roger

    2017-01-01

    Competition has intensified substantially within the American law school sector in recent decades. Scholars note that this has augmented pressures to engage in institutional self-promotion, as law schools attempt to distinguish themselves within a severely over-crowded marketplace. To date, however, few have ventured to empirically examine the…

  20. National Estimates of Male and Female Enrolment in American High School Choirs, Bands and Orchestras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elpus, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate, at a national level and over time, the participation rates of males and females among those students who formally enrol in American high school music ensembles. Ten cohorts of nationally representative samples of students from 1982 and 2009 were analysed using data from High School Transcript Studies…

  1. Time Perspective and School Membership as Correlates to Academic Achievement among African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelabu, Detris Honora

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of academic achievement to time perspective (future, present) and school membership (belonging, acceptance, rejection) among 232 low-income, urban African American adolescents. Findings indicated positive, significant relationships among academic achievement, future time perspective, school belonging, and…

  2. Between Hosts and Guests: Conditional Hospitality and Citizenship in an American Suburban School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi, Roozbeh

    2018-01-01

    This article utilizes the idea of hospitality to explore how educative practices contribute to the making of citizens at Light Falls High School (LHS), a suburban American secondary school that professes a strong commitment to racial equity and global awareness. The data are derived from an ethnographic case study which took place in 2013-2014. I…

  3. School-Based Management: The Changing Locus of Control in American Public Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Darrel; Levin, Douglas

    School-based management is a reinvention and countermovement to a broader historical trend to centralize and standardize American education. The present study represents one component of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development's project to investigate how schools in 12 member nations can most effectively respond to recent…

  4. American Association for Dental Schools Curricular Guidelines for Microscopic Anatomy (General and Oral).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susi, Frank; Mundell, Robert

    1980-01-01

    Guidelines developed by the Section on Anatomical Sciences of the American Association for Dental Schools are presented. These guidelines were drawn up as an effort to provide a general criterion-referenced standard against which a school can measure its course content in histology. (MLW)

  5. Strategy and Resistance: How Native American Students Engage in Accommodation in Mainstream Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masta, Stephanie

    2018-01-01

    This article explores the experiences of a group of Native American 8th graders who attend a mainstream school and how they engage in accommodation as an act of agency and resistance to protect and maintain their identities in their school environment. By using tribal critical race theory to examine these experiences, this study raises important…

  6. "Not at the Expense of Their Culture": Graduating Native American Youth from High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Kristen Campbell

    2015-01-01

    What kinds of challenges do educators face in increasing Native American high school graduation rates, and what kinds of adaptations to a traditional high school are understood as necessary to achieve this outcome? This case study explored these questions as part of a larger multiple case study that investigated practices and processes related to…

  7. Position of the American Dietetic Association: local support for nutrition integrity in schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Ethan A; Gordon, Ruth W

    2010-08-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association (ADA) that schools and communities have a shared responsibility to provide students with access to high-quality, affordable, nutritious foods and beverages. School-based nutrition services, including the provision of meals through the National School Lunch Program and the School Breakfast Program, are an integral part of the total education program. Strong wellness policies promote environments that enhance nutrition integrity and help students to develop lifelong healthy behaviors. ADA actively supported the 2004 and proposed 2010 Child Nutrition reauthorization which determines school nutrition policy. ADA believes that the Dietary Guidelines for Americans should serve as the foundation for all food and nutrition assistance programs and should apply to all foods and beverages sold or served to students during the school day. Local wellness policies are mandated by federal legislation for all school districts participating in the National School Lunch Program. These policies support nutrition integrity,including a healthy school environment. Nutrition integrity also requires coordinating nutrition education and promotion and funding research on program outcomes. Registered dietitians and dietetic technicians, registered, and other credentialed staff, are essential for nutrition integrity in schools to perform in policy-making, management, education, and community building roles. A healthy school environment can be achieved through adequate funding of school meals programs and through implementation and evaluation of strong local wellness policies.

  8. J.M. Gratale on Tore T. Petersen’s Richard Nixon, Great Britain and the Anglo-American Alignment in the Persian Gulf and Arabian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Tore T. Petersen. Richard Nixon, Great Britain and the Anglo-American Alignment in the Persian Gulf and Arabian Peninsula: Making Allies out of Clients. Sussex Academic Press, 2009.  172pp.  978-1-84519-277-8.Since the events of 9-11 there has been a sizeable quantity of books published on American foreign policy in broad terms, as well as more focused studies on contemporary developments in southwest Asia, more commonly referred to as the Middle East. Many of these volumes are highly politic...

  9. Using the Native American Flute in a Beginning Instrumental Classroom: The Native American Flute Can Be a Great Tool for Helping Students Learn to Improvise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winslow, Michael; Winslow, Hayley

    2006-01-01

    Although the National Standards include achievement standards for improvisation for elementary school students, music teachers sometimes are reluctant to pursue improvisation study with young students. First- and second-year instrumental students, often older elementary or middle school students, may have difficulty studying improvisation because…

  10. The Psychosocial Factors Contributing to the Underrepresentation of African American Males in Advanced High School Mathematics Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlett, Joel Everett

    2013-01-01

    This case study examined the beliefs of African American males on the psychosocial and pedagogical factors contributing to the underrepresentation of African American males in advanced high school math courses. Six 11th grade African American male juniors from a large, comprehensive, Southeastern high school served as individual cases. Within- and…

  11. A Research on the Impact of Internet Use in American Elementary School Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Hsiung Hou

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to explore the impact of Internet use in American elementary school libraries operations and to find the best way for use Internet tools in elementary school libraries operations. This study may offer important information about the impact of Internet usage for elementary school library s operations. The research question was: Is the Internet usage having significant impact for organizational operations in the American elementary school libraries? This study employed survey research to conduct the research process. Research participants were 50 administrators in 50 elementary school libraries; Texas, U.S.A. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze the impact of Internet applied in the elementary school libraries. Results indicated that there was a significant impact of the Internet usage in American elementary school libraries operations. The author suggests that elementary school libraries organizational leaders need pay attention to the impact of Internet usage in their business and they also need plan how to utilize the Internet into their elementary school libraries in the future.

  12. Cyberbullying in South African and American schools: A legal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hennie

    stressed (Burton & Mutongwizo, 2009); the educational institution should ... especially in South Africa, where this has claimed the lives of both learners and ... Studies on violence in the workplace and on bullying in ... tives, and to balance the rights of the various parties in a school environment. ...... School social workers'.

  13. James Madison High School. A Curriculum for American Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, William J.

    This document presents the Secretary of Education's personal concept of a sound secondary school core curriculum. It is called "James Madison High School" in honor of President James Madison and his strong views that the people, in order to govern properly, must arm themselves with knowledge. The theoretical curriculum consists of four…

  14. African American Physical Education Folklore Surrounding School Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Elizabeth A.; Curtner-Smith, Matthew D.

    2015-01-01

    Transferring from elementary to secondary school can be difficult for many children, and students making this transition often suffer from anxiety and stress. One source of stress can be found in the scary stories transitioning pupils hear about their new schools, particularly those about physical education and sport. The purpose of this study was…

  15. Decision Making about Computer Acquisition and Use in American Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Henry Jay

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the centralization and decentralization of decision making about computer use in elementary and secondary schools based on results of a 1989 national survey. Results unexpectedly indicate that more successful programs are the result of districtwide planning than individual teacher or school-level decision making. (LRW)

  16. Making Research Delicious: An Evaluation of Nurses' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practice Using the Great American Cookie Experiment With Mobile Device Gaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes Lane, Susan; Serafica, Reimund; Huffman, Carolyn; Cuddy, Alyssa

    2016-01-01

    In the current healthcare environment, nurses must have a basic understanding of research to lead change and implement evidence-based practice. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an educational intervention formulated on the framework of the Great American Cookie Experiment measuring nurses' research knowledge, attitudes, and practice using mobile device gaming. This multisite quantitative study provides insight into promotion of research and information about best practices on innovative teaching strategies for nurses.

  17. The Nature of Teacher-Community Contact in Schools Serving Southwest Indian Children. American Indian Education Papers, No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Margaret E.

    Previous school-community research in American Indian communities has demonstrated that "isolation" or lack of communication between school staff and community parents has contributed to the failure of educating American Indian children. To validate this research in the Southwest, a diary indicating the out-of-school activities was…

  18. Financing the Public Schools in the Great Lake States: Declining Revenues in the 1980s?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geske, Terry G.

    1984-01-01

    Analyzes data on the economic prospects of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin--including demographic and economic trends, trends in taxation systems, school revenue and expenditure trends, and future revenue prospects--and offers prognoses for individual states. Generally, short-range revenue prospects are bleak, and long-range…

  19. Great Expectations: A Guide to Alabama's High School Graduation Exam. Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabama Department of Education, 2003

    2003-01-01

    State leaders, parents, and business people want to be sure that students truly learn what they are being taught in school. Today, basic skills are not sufficient to guarantee that children will find good jobs and become productive citizens. As a result, the Alabama State Legislature passed its Education Accountability Law in 1995. The new…

  20. Building Peace Poles: Inexpensive Woodworking Project Great for Middle and High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roccanova, John

    2013-01-01

    The World Peace Prayer Society (WPPS) has at its core the message: "May peace prevail on Earth." This axiom appears on the roughly 200,000 Peace Poles that are planted at private residences, schools, in parks, and at other public places worldwide including at the Pentagon, the Pyramids in Egypt, and on Mt. Kilimanjaro, the highest free-standing…

  1. The Indirect Effect of Ethnic Identity on Marijuana Use Through School Engagement: An African American High School Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenault, Chelsea E; Fisher, Sycarah; Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Barnes-Najor, Jessica

    2018-01-16

    African American marijuana use is associated with many negative social, emotional, and health-related consequences. Of significance, over recent years this population has shown an increase in use. In the literature, ethnic identity and school engagement are prominent protective factors against substance use. This study will examine how these protective factors are related, specifically whether ethnic identity mitigates risk through school engagement to reduce marijuana use. A path analysis was conducted with 437 African American high school students (41% male) from Midwestern schools to examine the role of school engagement in the relationship between ethnic identity and marijuana use. The results revealed that students high in ethnic identity have higher school engagement, which lessens their frequency of marijuana use. Therefore, ethnic identity reduces marijuana use by increasing student's school engagement. Conclusions/Importance: The results offer a clearer picture of how ethnic identity and school engagement protect against marijuana use. The results also present insight into how to protect students who are low in ethnic identity.

  2. Cyberbullying in South African and American schools: A legal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hennie

    constitutional right to free speech and expression, and the protection of ... One of the most important social spheres in which children operate is the school ..... the prosecution of children under the Films and ..... Industrial Law Journal, 32:2331-.

  3. The american high school graduation rate : trends and levels

    OpenAIRE

    Heckman, James J.; LaFontaine, Paul A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses multiple data sources and a unified methodology to estimate the trends and levels of the U.S. high school graduation rate. Correcting for important biases that plague previous calculations, we establish that (a) the true high school graduation rate is substantially lower than the official rate issued by the National Center for Educational Statistics; (b) it has been declining over the past 40 years; (c) majority/minority graduation rate differentials are substantial and have n...

  4. Should we establish a North American school of global health sciences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotez, Peter J

    2004-08-01

    Since 1997, an unprecedented amount of American philanthropy from both private and federal sources has been directed toward research and control programs for the major tropical infectious diseases of developing countries. The US and Canadian capacity to respond to these new initiatives might prove inadequate, however, as tropical disease research and training infrastructures have deteriorated at most North American academic health centers over the last three decades. Training opportunities in clinical tropical medicine, parasitology laboratory diagnostics, vector control, and public health practice are especially depleted and portend a lost generation of experts in these areas. In addition, unlike some of the European schools of tropical medicine, no North American medical or public health school currently boasts a comprehensive faculty in the global health sciences, with expertise that spans laboratory investigation, clinical and translational research, health policy, and international development. To meet the challenge presented by the new philanthropy targeting the global diseases of poverty, a North American school of global health sciences should be established. The North American school, possibly in association with one of the existing schools of medicine or public health, would provide interdisciplinary training to produce a new generation of global health scientists.

  5. Teachers' Perception of African American Middle School Girls' Interest in Mathematics and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Bonnie M.

    Research into African American female underrepresentation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields has become an area of interest due to the fact that a majority of African American middle school females do not possess the high levels of mathematics and science knowledge because of social and cultural barriers both inside and outside school that challenge their academic success. The purpose of this qualitative interpretative phenomenological study was to explore teachers' shared, lived experiences of teaching mathematics and science to African American middle school girls. Delgado and Stefancic's critical race theory, Pratt-Clarke's critical race feminism, and Baker-Miller's relational-cultural theory were used to guide this study. Research questions focused on the perceptions and experiences of teachers' lived experiences teaching mathematics and science to African American middle school females. Criterion, purposive, and maximum variation sampling techniques were used to recruit 10 teachers who have 3 or more years' experience teaching African American middle school girls. Semistructured face-to-face interviews were the primary data collection source. First cycle and second cycle coding methods were used to support the analysis of this study. Findings suggest that there is a connection between a positive student-teacher relationship and academic success. The results of this study contribute to positive social change by providing empirical evidence policymakers and teachers can use to improve the mathematics and science instruction and practices that are needed to meet the needs of African American middle school females and reduce the underrepresentation and underachievement of African American females in mathematics and science.

  6. Ophiolitic basement to the Great Valley forearc basin, California, from seismic and gravity data: Implications for crustal growth at the North American continental margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, N.J.; Beaudoin, B.C.; Klemperer, S.L.; Levander, A.; Luetgert, J.; Meltzer, A.; Mooney, W.; Tréhu, A.

    1997-01-01

    The nature of the Great Valley basement, whether oceanic or continental, has long been a source of controversy. A velocity model (derived from a 200-km-long east-west reflection-refraction profile collected south of the Mendocino triple junction, northern California, in 1993), further constrained by density and magnetic models, reveals an ophiolite underlying the Great Valley (Great Valley ophiolite), which in turn is underlain by a westward extension of lower-density continental crust (Sierran affinity material). We used an integrated modeling philosophy, first modeling the seismic-refraction data to obtain a final velocity model, and then modeling the long-wavelength features of the gravity data to obtain a final density model that is constrained in the upper crust by our velocity model. The crustal section of Great Valley ophiolite is 7-8 km thick, and the Great Valley ophiolite relict oceanic Moho is at 11-16 km depth. The Great Valley ophiolite does not extend west beneath the Coast Ranges, but only as far as the western margin of the Great Valley, where the 5-7-km-thick Great Valley ophiolite mantle section dips west into the present-day mantle. There are 16-18 km of lower-density Sierran affinity material beneath the Great Valley ophiolite mantle section, such that a second, deeper, "present-day" continental Moho is at about 34 km depth. At mid-crustal depths, the boundary between the eastern extent of the Great Valley ophiolite and the western extent of Sierran affinity material is a near-vertical velocity and density discontinuity about 80 km east of the western margin of the Great Valley. Our model has important implications for crustal growth at the North American continental margin. We suggest that a thick ophiolite sequence was obducted onto continental material, probably during the Jurassic Nevadan orogeny, so that the Great Valley basement is oceanic crust above oceanic mantle vertically stacked above continental crust and continental mantle.

  7. Academic attainment and the high school science experiences among high-achieving African American males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trice, Rodney Nathaniel

    This study examines the educational experiences of high achieving African American males. More specifically, it analyzes the influences on their successful navigation through high school science. Through a series of interviews, observations, questionnaires, science portfolios, and review of existing data the researcher attempted to obtain a deeper understanding of high achieving African American males and their limitations to academic attainment and high school science experiences. The investigation is limited to ten high achieving African American male science students at Woodcrest High School. Woodcrest is situated at the cross section of a suburban and rural community located in the southeastern section of the United States. Although this investigation involves African American males, all of whom are successful in school, its findings should not be generalized to this nor any other group of students. The research question that guided this study is: What are the limitations to academic attainment and the high school science experiences of high achieving African American males? The student participants expose how suspension and expulsion, special education placement, academic tracking, science instruction, and teacher expectation influence academic achievement. The role parents play, student self-concept, peer relationships, and student learning styles are also analyzed. The anthology of data rendered three overarching themes: (1) unequal access to education, (2) maintenance of unfair educational structures, and (3) authentic characterizations of African American males. Often the policies and practices set in place by school officials aid in creating hurdles to academic achievement. These policies and practices are often formed without meaningful consideration of the unintended consequences that may affect different student populations, particularly the most vulnerable. The findings from this study expose that high achieving African American males face major

  8. Research Universities and the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act: Competition, Resource Concentration, and the "Great Recession" in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Barrett J.; Cantwell, Brendan

    2016-01-01

    This paper conceptualizes the U.S. federal government's response to the "Great Recession" as a "natural experiment" whose broad emphasis on counter-cyclical spending contrasts with the tendency towards stratification within the quasi-market for academic research support. Regression results indicate that resources tended to flow…

  9. Primers As Socializing Agents in American and Finnish Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyona, Jukka; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Content analysis of 12 Finnish and 18 American primers for grades 3 through 6 published primarily during the 1980s examined story type, plot setting, protagonist's characteristics, dramatic tasks, portrayals of family structure and parental responsibility, and extrafamilial peer and adult relationships. Results suggest that a nation's cultural…

  10. Afro-American Cognitive Style: A Variable in School Success?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shade, Barbara S.

    A review of the literature indicates that black Americans have attempted to adapt to social situations by developing unique cultural patterns and a specific method of organizing and processing information. The latter is manifested in the way they pay attention to social cues, attach subjective meanings to words, show preference for social…

  11. Editorial: Multicultural Education--Solution or Problem for American Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran-Smith, Marilyn

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the role of multicultural education in American education, examining Geneva Gay's book on culturally responsive teaching (which argues for culturally responsive teaching, with teaching having the moral courage to help make education more multiculturally responsive) and Sandra Stotsky's book (which argues that multicultural education is a…

  12. Successful African American Women School Leaders in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron-Asuncion, Alma

    2016-01-01

    The focus of this basic qualitative study was to explore the lived experiences of Floridian African American women in secondary educational leadership positions. Using critical race theory and Black feminist standpoint theory as a theoretical framework, this narrative analysis serves to increase the understanding of leadership styles among a…

  13. Recruitment and retention of Native American graduate students in school psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goforth, Anisa N; Brown, Jacqueline A; Machek, Greg R; Swaney, Gyda

    2016-09-01

    There is a clear underrepresentation of Native Americans in the field of school psychology. There are a number of factors that have led to this underrepresentation, including cultural and historical variables, barriers to accessing higher educational opportunities, and lack of financial support. Given the importance of having diverse perspectives in the field, as well as the need for mental health services and academic supports for Native American children and their families, school psychology trainers should consider actively recruiting and retaining Native American graduate students to doctoral and specialist programs. This article provides specific research-based recommendations for recruiting Native American students and strategies for supporting their success and matriculation in the program. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. The Contribution of Student Perceptions of School Climate to Understanding the Disproportionate Punishment of African American Students in a Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, Erica L. M.; Cornell, Dewey G.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the contribution of student perceptions of school climate to racial differences in school discipline. Four hundred middle school students completed a school climate survey. Compared to Caucasian students, African-American students were referred to the office for discipline three times as frequently and received five times…

  15. Economic Education in Japanese and American Secondary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellington, J. Lucien; Tadahisa, Uozumi

    1988-01-01

    Reports a study that compared and contrasted economic education in U.S. and Japanese secondary schools. Examines economics in the curricula; textbooks; characteristics of teachers responsible for economics instruction; and the level of emphasis teachers assign to economic concepts. (Author/BSR)

  16. Radiation Safety and Quality Assurance in North American Dental Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farman, Allan G.; Hines, Vickie G.

    1986-01-01

    A survey of dental schools that revealed processing quality control and routine maintenance checks on x-ray generators are being carried out in a timely manner is discussed. However, methods for reducing patient exposure to radiation are not being fully implemented, and some dental students are being exposed to x-rays. (Author/MLW)

  17. Reflections on the Law and Curricular Values in American Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Charles J.; Thro, William E.

    2012-01-01

    The Supreme Court's 1925 ruling in "Pierce v. Society of the Sisters of the Holy Names of Jesus and Mary" ("Pierce"), striking down a law from Oregon that would have required all children, other than those needing special education, between the ages of 8 and 16 to attend public schools, essentially upheld the right of nonpublic…

  18. Part-Time Work and Physical Activity in American High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Domelen, Dane R

    2015-08-01

    To compare physical activity (PA) in American high school students who work part-time with those who do not work. Data were obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003 to 2006 (n = 791). Work status was self-reported and PA was measured using accelerometers. In males, adjusted for age, race, and poverty-income ratio, workers averaged greater counts per minute, less sedentary time, and greater moderate-to-vigorous PA compared with nonworkers. In females, workers and nonworkers had similar counts per minute, whereas nonworkers had somewhat greater moderate-to-vigorous PA. There was a work-by-school status interaction on sedentary time (P = 0.021), whereby work was associated with less sedentary time among students not on break from school. In American high school students, work is associated with greater PA in males and a different composition of PA in females.

  19. Medical Humanities Teaching in North American Allopathic and Osteopathic Medical Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klugman, Craig M

    2017-11-07

    Although the AAMC requires annual reporting of medical humanities teaching, most literature is based on single-school case reports and studies using information reported on schools' websites. This study sought to discover what medical humanities is offered in North American allopathic and osteopathic undergraduate medical schools. An 18-question, semi-structured survey was distributed to all 146 (as of June 2016) member schools of the American Association of Medical Colleges and the American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine. The survey sought information on required and elective humanities content, hours of humanities instruction, types of disciplines, participation rates, and humanities administrative structure. The survey was completed by 134 schools (145 AAMC; 31 AACOM). 70.8% of schools offered required and 80.6% offered electives in humanities. Global health and writing were the most common disciplines. Schools required 43.9 mean (MD 45.4; DO 37.1) and 30 (MD 29; DO 37.5) median hours in humanities. In the first two years, most humanities are integrated into other course work; most electives are offered as stand-alone classes. 50.0% of schools report only 0-25% of students participating in humanities electives. Presence of a certificate, concentration or arts journal increased likelihood of humanities content but decreased mean hours. Schools with a medical humanities MA had a higher number of required humanities hours. Medical humanities content in undergraduate curriculum is lower than is indicated in the AAMC annual report. Schools with a formal structure have a greater humanities presence in the curriculum and are taken by more students.

  20. Virtual School Startups: Founder Processes in American K-12 Public Virtual Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Brett D.; McNair, Delores E.

    2018-01-01

    Traditional school districts do not have a lot of experience with virtual schools and have lost students to state and charter virtual schools. To retain students and offer alternative learning opportunities, more public districts are starting their own virtual schools. This study was an examination of foundational processes at three California…

  1. The American Dream in the Great Depression. By Charles R. Hearn. Connecticut and London: Greenwood Press, 1977. The American Dream in the Great Depression. By Charles R. Hearn. Connecticut and London: Greenwood Press, 1977.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall Huff

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Mr. Hearn examines 1 inspirational articles on success; 2 magazine biographies and other articles relating to the myth of success; 3 popular magazine (formula fiction; and 4 the "serious" fiction of the 1920s and 30s to determine the ways in which the depression changed the American myth of the self-made man's social mobility as portrayed in literature. The inspirational success articles in the 1920s presented America as a prosperous utopia with unfettered economic growth within everyone's reach. Many articles of this type continued to be published during the depression, but articles on the cult of personality (as opposed to character and success in non-commercial areas became more numerous. The new genre of how-to-succeed guidebooks provided evidence of a new "outer-directed" personality rather than the inner-directedness of the powerful business magnate. Mr. Hearn examines 1 inspirational articles on success; 2 magazine biographies and other articles relating to the myth of success; 3 popular magazine (formula fiction; and 4 the "serious" fiction of the 1920s and 30s to determine the ways in which the depression changed the American myth of the self-made man's social mobility as portrayed in literature. The inspirational success articles in the 1920s presented America as a prosperous utopia with unfettered economic growth within everyone's reach. Many articles of this type continued to be published during the depression, but articles on the cult of personality (as opposed to character and success in non-commercial areas became more numerous. The new genre of how-to-succeed guidebooks provided evidence of a new "outer-directed" personality rather than the inner-directedness of the powerful business magnate.

  2. Good-to-Great Superintendents: An Examination of Jim Collins' Good-to-Great Level Five Leadership Attributes as Demonstrated by the Leadership Behaviors of Superintendents of High-Performing California Public Single-School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James D.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine Collins' good-to-great Level Five leadership attributes, as demonstrated by the leadership behaviors of superintendents of high-performing California public single-school districts. Methodology: The researcher used a case study design to conduct this study. Personal interviews were conducted in…

  3. Emergence of Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus in the North American Great Lakes region is associated with low viral genetic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Tarin M; Batts, William N; Faisal, Mohamed; Bowser, Paul; Casey, James W; Phillips, Kenneth; Garver, Kyle A; Winton, James; Kurath, Gael

    2011-08-29

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is a fish rhabdovirus that causes disease in a broad range of marine and freshwater hosts. The known geographic range includes the Northern Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, and recently it has invaded the Great Lakes region of North America. The goal of this work was to characterize genetic diversity of Great Lakes VHSV isolates at the early stage of this viral emergence by comparing a partial glycoprotein (G) gene sequence (669 nt) of 108 isolates collected from 2003 to 2009 from 31 species and at 37 sites. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all isolates fell into sub-lineage IVb within the major VHSV genetic group IV. Among these 108 isolates, genetic diversity was low, with a maximum of 1.05% within the 669 nt region. There were 11 unique sequences, designated vcG001 to vcG011. Two dominant sequence types, vcG001 and vcG002, accounted for 90% (97 of 108) of the isolates. The vcG001 isolates were most widespread. We saw no apparent association of sequence type with host or year of isolation, but we did note a spatial pattern, in which vcG002 isolates were more prevalent in the easternmost sub-regions, including inland New York state and the St. Lawrence Seaway. Different sequence types were found among isolates from single disease outbreaks, and mixtures of types were evident within 2 isolates from individual fish. Overall, the genetic diversity of VHSV in the Great Lakes region was found to be extremely low, consistent with an introduction of a new virus into a geographic region with previously naive host populations.

  4. Emergence of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus in the North American Great Lakes region is associated with low viral genetic diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, T.M.; Batts, W.N.; Faisal, M.; Bowser, P.; Casey, J.W.; Phillips, K.; Garver, K.A.; Winton, J.; Kurath, G.

    2011-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is a fish rhabdovirus that causes disease in a broad range of marine and freshwater hosts. The known geographic range includes the Northern Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, and recently it has invaded the Great Lakes region of North Ame­rica. The goal of this work was to characterize genetic diversity of Great Lakes VHSV isolates at the early stage of this viral emergence by comparing a partial glycoprotein (G) gene sequence (669 nt) of 108 isolates collected from 2003 to 2009 from 31 species and at 37 sites. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all isolates fell into sub-lineage IVb within the major VHSV genetic group IV. Among these 108 isolates, genetic diversity was low, with a maximum of 1.05% within the 669 nt region. There were 11 unique sequences, designated vcG001 to vcG011. Two dominant sequence types, vcG001 and vcG002, accounted for 90% (97 of 108) of the isolates. The vcG001 isolates were most widespread. We saw no apparent association of sequence type with host or year of isolation, but we did note a spatial pattern, in which vcG002 isolates were more prevalent in the easternmost sub-regions, including inland New York state and the St. Lawrence Seaway. Different sequence types were found among isolates from single disease outbreaks, and mixtures of types were evident within 2 isolates from ­individual fish. Overall, the genetic diversity of VHSV in the Great Lakes region was found to be extremely low, consistent with an introduction of a new virus into a geographic region with ­previously naïve host populations.

  5. A sensor-based energy balance method for the distributed estimation of evaporation over the North American Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, K. J.; Kerkez, B.; Gronewold, A.; Lenters, J. D.

    2014-12-01

    We introduce a novel energy balance method to estimate evaporation across large lakes using real-time data from moored buoys and mobile, satellite-tracked drifters. Our work is motivated by the need to improve our understanding of the water balance of the Laurentian Great Lakes basin, a complex hydrologic system that comprises 90% of the United States' and 20% of the world's fresh surface water. Recently, the lakes experienced record-setting water level drops despite above-average precipitation, and given that lake surface area comprises nearly one third of the entire basin, evaporation is suspected to be the primary driver behind the decrease in water levels. There has historically been a need to measure evaporation over the Great Lakes, and recent hydrological phenomena (including not only record low levels, but also extreme changes in ice cover and surface water temperatures) underscore the urgency of addressing that need. Our method tracks the energy fluxes of the lake system - namely net radiation, heat storage and advection, and Bowen ratio. By measuring each of these energy budget terms and combining the results with mass-transfer based estimates, we can calculate real-time evaporation rates on sub-hourly timescales. To mitigate the cost prohibitive nature of large-scale, distributed energy flux measurements, we present a novel approach in which we leverage existing investments in seasonal buoys (which, while providing intensive, high quality data, are costly and sparsely distributed across the surface of the Great Lakes) and then integrate data from less costly satellite-tracked drifter data. The result is an unprecedented, hierarchical sensor and modeling architecture that can be used to derive estimates of evaporation in real-time through cloud-based computing. We discuss recent deployments of sensor-equipped buoys and drifters, which are beginning to provide us with some of the first in situ measurements of overlake evaporation from Earth's largest lake

  6. Perceptions of selected science careers by African American high school males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijames, Erika Denise

    Research indicates that internal and external factors such as role models, stereotypes, and pressures placed on African American males by their family and friends influence their perceptions of science careers (Assibey-Mensah, 1997; Hess & Leal, 1997; Jacobowitz, 1983; Maple & Stage, 1991; Thomas, 1989; Ware & Lee, 1988). The purpose of this research was to investigate the perceptions of African American high school males about selected science careers based on apparent internal and external factors. Two questions guided this research: (1) What are high school African American males' perceptions of science careers? (2) What influences high school African American males' perceptions of science careers? This research was based on a pilot study in which African American college males perceived a selection of science careers along racial and gender lines. The follow-up investigation was conducted at Rockriver High School in Acorn County, and the participants were three college-bound African American males. The decision to choose males was based on the concept of occupational niching along gender lines. In biology, niching is defined as the role of a particular species regarding space and reproduction, and its interactions with other factors. During the seven-week period of the students' senior year, they met with the researcher to discuss their perceptions of science careers. An ethnographic approach was used to allow a richer and thicker narrative to occur. Critical theory was used to describe and interpret the voices of the participants from a social perspective. The data collected were analyzed using a constant comparative analysis technique. The participants revealed role models, negative stereotypes, peer pressure, social pressures, and misconceptions as some of the factors that influenced their perceptions of science careers. Results of this research suggest that by dispelling the misconceptions, educators can positively influence the attitudes and perceptions of

  7. The status of evolutionary medicine education in North American medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidaka, Brandon H; Asghar, Anila; Aktipis, C Athena; Nesse, Randolph M; Wolpaw, Terry M; Skursky, Nicole K; Bennett, Katelyn J; Beyrouty, Matthew W; Schwartz, Mark D

    2015-03-08

    Medical and public health scientists are using evolution to devise new strategies to solve major health problems. But based on a 2003 survey, medical curricula may not adequately prepare physicians to evaluate and extend these advances. This study assessed the change in coverage of evolution in North American medical schools since 2003 and identified opportunities for enriching medical education. In 2013, curriculum deans for all North American medical schools were invited to rate curricular coverage and perceived importance of 12 core principles, the extent of anticipated controversy from adding evolution, and the usefulness of 13 teaching resources. Differences between schools were assessed by Pearson's chi-square test, Student's t-test, and Spearman's correlation. Open-ended questions sought insight into perceived barriers and benefits. Despite repeated follow-up, 60 schools (39%) responded to the survey. There was no evidence of sample bias. The three evolutionary principles rated most important were antibiotic resistance, environmental mismatch, and somatic selection in cancer. While importance and coverage of principles were correlated (r = 0.76, P evolutionary principles were covered by 4 to 74% more schools. Nearly half (48%) of responders anticipated igniting controversy at their medical school if they added evolution to their curriculum. The teaching resources ranked most useful were model test questions and answers, case studies, and model curricula for existing courses/rotations. Limited resources (faculty expertise) were cited as the major barrier to adding more evolution, but benefits included a deeper understanding and improved patient care. North American medical schools have increased the evolution content in their curricula over the past decade. However, coverage is not commensurate with importance. At a few medical schools, anticipated controversy impedes teaching more evolution. Efforts to improve evolution education in medical schools

  8. Impacts of control strategies, the Great Recession and weekday variations on NO2 columns above North American cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Foy, Benjamin; Lu, Zifeng; Streets, David G.

    2016-08-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) has been estimating NO2 columns from space for over 10 years, and these have been used to estimate emissions and emission trends for point and area sources all over the world. In this study we evaluate the trends in NO2 columns over 54 cities in the USA and Canada to identify the long term trends due to air quality policies, the impact of the Great Recession, and the weekday-weekend effect. A multiple linear regression model is used to fit annual, seasonal and weekly factors for individual swath retrievals along with the impact of temperature, wind speed and pixel size. For most cities, the correlation coefficients of the model fit ranges from 0.47 to 0.76. There have been strong reductions in NO2 columns, with annual decreases of up to 7% per year in most cities. During the years of the Great Recession, NO2 columns were as much as 30% lower than they would have been had they followed the linear annual trend. The analysis yielded insights into the timing of the reductions, with some cities in the northwest and in the east experiencing reductions in 2008 already, and most areas back to where they would have been based on the uniform trend by 2011. The analysis also finds that reductions in columns during the weekend vary significantly from city to city, with a range in reductions of 10%-30% on Saturdays, and 20%-50% on Sundays.

  9. Impacts of control strategies, the Great Recession and weekday variations on NO 2 columns above North American cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Foy, Benjamin; Lu, Zifeng; Streets, David G.

    2016-08-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) has been estimating NO2 columns from space for over 10 years, and these have been used to estimate emissions and emission trends for point and area sources all over the world. In this study we evaluate the trends in NO2 columns over 54 cities in the USA and Canada to identify the long term trends due to air quality policies, the impact of the Great Recession, and the weekday-weekend effect. A multiple linear regression model is used to fit annual, seasonal and weekly factors for individual swath retrievals along with the impact of temperature, wind speed and pixel size. For most cities, the correlation coefficients of the model fit ranges from 0.47 to 0.76. There have been strong reductions in NO2 columns, with annual decreases of up to 7% per year in most cities. During the years of the Great Recession, NO2 columns were as much as 30% lower than they would have been had they followed the linear annual trend. The analysis yielded insights into the timing of the reductions, with some cities in the northwest and in the east experiencing reductions in 2008 already, and most areas back to where they would have been based on the uniform trend by 2011. The analysis also finds that reductions in columns during the weekend vary significantly from city to city, with a range in reductions of 10%-30% on Saturdays, and 20%-50% on Sundays.

  10. Albert Einstein and Wernher von Braun - the two great German-American physicists seen in a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterberg, Friedwardt

    2008-04-01

    It was Albert Einstein who for the first time changed our view of the universe to be a non-euclidean curved space-time. And it was Wernher von Braun who blazed the trail to take us into this universe, leaving for the first time the gravitational field of our planet earth, with the landing a man on the moon the greatest event in human history. Both these great physicists did this on the shoulders of giants. Albert Einstein on the shoulders of his landsman, the mathematician Bernhard Riemann, and Wernher von Braun on the shoulders of Goddard and Oberth. Both Einstein and von Braun made a Faustian pact with the devil, von Braun by accepting research funds from Hitler, and Einstein by urging Roosvelt to build the atom bomb (against Hitler). Both of these great men later regretted the use of their work for the killing of innocent bystanders, even though in the end the invention of nuclear energy and space flight is for the benefit of man. Their example serves as a warning for all of us. It can be formulated as follows: ``Can I in good conscience accept research funds from the military to advance scientific knowledge, for weapons developed against an abstract enemy I never have met in person?'' Weapons if used do not differentiate between the scientist, who invented these weapons, and the non-scientist.

  11. A comparison of mercury levels in feathers and eggs of osprey (Pandion haliaetus) in the North American Great Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, K D; Ewins, P J; Clark, K E

    1997-11-01

    Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) eggs and chick feathers were collected for mercury analysis from nests at four Great Lakes study areas in Ontario (three "naturally formed" lakes in southern Ontario and one reservoir in northern Ontario) and two New Jersey study areas in 1991-1994. Adult osprey feathers were sampled from three Great Lakes study areas in 1991. Feathers sampled from chicks (approximately 28-35 days old) appear to be better indicators of local contaminant conditions since spatial patterns of mercury in known prey, yellow perch (Perca flavescens), also collected in these areas, were more similar to chick feathers than to eggs. Mercury levels were less variable in chick feathers than in eggs. Estimates of biomagnification factors using prey of known size at these areas were also less variable in feathers than in eggs. At naturally formed lakes, no significant correlation in mercury levels between eggs and chick feathers from the same nest was apparent, suggesting that the source of mercury contamination was not the same in these two tissues: mercury levels in eggs reflect mercury acquired on the breeding grounds, wintering grounds, and migratory route; mercury levels in chick feathers reflect local dietary conditions on the breeding grounds. Mercury levels in both osprey eggs and chick feathers were higher at the Ogoki Reservoir than at naturally formed lakes. Adult osprey feathers had higher mercury concentrations than chick feathers. Mercury levels in osprey eggs, chick feathers, and adult feathers did not approach levels associated with toxic reproductive effects.

  12. Application of the North American Multi-Model Ensemble to seasonal water supply forecasting in the Great Lakes basin through the use of the Great Lakes Seasonal Climate Forecast Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronewold, A.; Apps, D.; Fry, L. M.; Bolinger, R.

    2017-12-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) contribution to the internationally coordinated 6-month forecast of Great Lakes water levels relies on several water supply models, including a regression model relating a coming month's water supply to past water supplies, previous months' precipitation and temperature, and forecasted precipitation and temperature. Probabilistic forecasts of precipitation and temperature depicted in the Climate Prediction Center's seasonal outlook maps are considered to be standard for use in operational forecasting for seasonal time horizons, and have provided the basis for computing a coming month's precipitation and temperature for use in the USACE water supply regression models. The CPC outlook maps are a useful forecast product offering insight into interpretation of climate models through the prognostic discussion and graphical forecasts. However, recent evolution of USACE forecast procedures to accommodate automated data transfer and manipulation offers a new opportunity for direct incorporation of ensemble climate forecast data into probabilistic outlooks of water supply using existing models that have previously been implemented in a deterministic fashion. We will present results from a study investigating the potential for applying data from the North American Multi-Model Ensemble to operational water supply forecasts. The use of NMME forecasts is facilitated by a new, publicly available, Great Lakes Seasonal Climate Forecast Tool that provides operational forecasts of monthly average temperatures and monthly total precipitation summarized for each lake basin.

  13. THE AMERICAN HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION RATE: TRENDS AND LEVELS*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, James J.; LaFontaine, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper applies a unified methodology to multiple data sets to estimate both the levels and trends in U.S. high school graduation rates. We establish that (a) the true rate is substantially lower than widely used measures; (b) it peaked in the early 1970s; (c) majority/minority differentials are substantial and have not converged for 35 years; (d) lower post-1970 rates are not solely due to increasing immigrant and minority populations; (e) our findings explain part of the slowdown in college attendance and rising college wage premiums; and (f) widening graduation differentials by gender help explain increasing male-female college attendance gaps. PMID:20625528

  14. THE AMERICAN HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION RATE: TRENDS AND LEVELS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, James J; Lafontaine, Paul A

    2010-05-01

    This paper applies a unified methodology to multiple data sets to estimate both the levels and trends in U.S. high school graduation rates. We establish that (a) the true rate is substantially lower than widely used measures; (b) it peaked in the early 1970s; (c) majority/minority differentials are substantial and have not converged for 35 years; (d) lower post-1970 rates are not solely due to increasing immigrant and minority populations; (e) our findings explain part of the slowdown in college attendance and rising college wage premiums; and (f) widening graduation differentials by gender help explain increasing male-female college attendance gaps.

  15. A Model of Successful Adaptation to Online Learning for College-Bound Native American High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaler, Collier Butler

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the conditions for Native American high school students that result in successful adaptation to an online learning environment. Design/methodology/approach: In total, eight Native American students attending high schools located on Montana Indian reservations, and one urban city, were interviewed.…

  16. The Impact of Oakland Freedom School's Summer Youth Program on the Psychosocial Development of African American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethea, Sharon L.

    2012-01-01

    The present investigation considers the program outcomes of one community youth project, Leadership Excellence Inc., Oakland Freedom Schools. Oakland Freedom Schools are culturally relevant 6-week summer Language Arts enrichment programs for primarily inner-city African American youth aged 5 to 14 years. In this study, 79 African American youth…

  17. Serving LGBT Students: Examining the Spiritual, Religious, and Social Justice Implications for an African American School Administrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Latish; Johnson, Les T.

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative case study probes one African American school leader with a conservative religious upbringing as she works in a high school with a self-identified population of African American lesbian, guy, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students. The findings demonstrate that the participant's leadership practices were guided by her spiritual…

  18. Parental Warmth, Control, and Involvement in Schooling: Predicting Academic Achievement among Korean American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoungho; Rohner, Ronald P.

    2002-01-01

    Explored the relationship between parenting style and academic achievement of Korean American adolescents, investigating the influence of perceived parental warmth and control and improvement in schooling. Survey data indicated that authoritative paternal parenting related to optimal academic achievement. Differences in maternal parenting styles…

  19. African American Students and U.S. High Schools. Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This fact sheet highlights the statistics of the status of the African American students living in the continental United States in terms of: population; graduation, dropouts, and preparedness; schools, segregation, and teacher quality; and special, gifted, and college preparatory education. According to the National Center for Education…

  20. Polar Bears, Hot Coffee, Wireless Schools, and Much More: Teaching American Studies in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Lee Ann

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author shares her experience and her observations as a Roving Scholar of American Studies in Norway through the Norway Fulbright Foundation grant. The author visited upper secondary schools all over Norway, teaching lessons to both students and teachers on topics related to U.S. history, government, culture, and geography. She…

  1. Color in the Classroom: How American Schools Taught Race, 1900-1954

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkholder, Zoe

    2011-01-01

    Between the turn of the twentieth century and the "Brown v. Board of Education" decision in 1954, the way that American schools taught about "race" changed dramatically. This transformation was engineered by the nation's most prominent anthropologists, including Franz Boas, Ruth Benedict, and Margaret Mead, during World War II.…

  2. Emotion Regulation Strategies in European American and Hong Kong Chinese Middle School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Kayan Phoebe; Savina, Elena

    2016-01-01

    This study explored emotion regulation strategies in middle school European American (N = 54) and Hong Kong Chinese (N = 89) children. Children were presented with scenarios describing a fictitious girl/boy who encountered situations eliciting sadness, anger, and fear. Based on Gross' theory (1998), the survey of emotion regulation strategies was…

  3. Ugandan Immigrant Students' Perceptions of Barriers to Academic Achievement in American High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ssekannyo, Denis

    2010-01-01

    In a world that is now a global village, enterprising individuals, especially from Third World countries, who make it to greener pastures do not leave their children behind. But with a long list of barriers to academic achievement associated with immigrant and minority students in American high schools, an understanding of the experiences and…

  4. African American Faculty in Social Work Schools: A Citation Analysis of Scholarship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins-Hoyt, Kimberly Y.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: This study assessed the research productivity of African American faculty in the top 25 ranked schools of social work cited in the 2012 U.S. News and World Report. Method: Four citation metrics ("h"-index, "g"-index, age-weighted citation rate, and per author age-weighted citation rate) were examined. Results: Scholar…

  5. The First Year Out: Understanding American Teens after High School. Morality and Society Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clydesdale, Tim

    2007-01-01

    Wild parties, late nights, and lots of sex, drugs, and alcohol. Many assume these are the things that define an American teenager's first year after high school. But the reality is really quite different. As Tim Clydesdale reports in "The First Year Out", teenagers generally manage the increased responsibilities of everyday life immediately after…

  6. Highlights from Drug Use Among American High School Students 1975-1977.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; And Others

    The current prevalence of drug use among American high school seniors and the trends in use since 1975 are the two major topics treated. Also reported are prevailing attitudes and beliefs among seniors concerning various types of drug use. Eleven separate classes of drugs are distinguished: marihuana (including hashish), inhalants, hallucinogens,…

  7. The Role of an African American Principal in an Urban Information Technology High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooden, Mark A.

    2005-01-01

    The research reported here is the result of an exploration of the challenges and triumphs of an African American secondary principal who used a culture-specific leadership style in his quest to raise the standards at an information technology high school. This case study of the principal explores his combining of the elements of traditional…

  8. CERN–Latin-American School of High-Energy Physics in Peru

    CERN Multimedia

    Nick Ellis, Organising Committee

    2013-01-01

    The 7th CERN–Latin-American School of High-Energy Physics was held in Arequipa, Peru, from 6 to 19 March 2013. The School is held every other year in a Latin-American country. This was the first time it had been hosted in Peru – a choice that reflects the increasing development of high-energy physics in the country, including collaboration in ALICE and experimental neutrino physics.   Participants in the 7th CERN–Latin-American School of High-Energy Physics in the grounds of the El Lago Estelar hotel in Arequipa, Peru. The 2013 School was attended by a total of 69 students, including 19 from Peru, selected from more than 130 applicants. About 80% of the students came from Latin-American countries, with most of the others coming from Europe. All in all, 18 different nationalities were represented. The lecturers and discussion group leaders were also from a variety of different countries including Argentina, Belgium, Brazil, Chile, Israel, Mexico, Peru, Spain, Switz...

  9. Korean American High School Students' Perspectives on U.S. History

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Sohyun

    2012-01-01

    Along with the ever-increasing racial/ethnic diversity in U.S. schools, researchers began to investigate the impact of racial/ethnic identity on young people's understanding of the nation's history. Compared to other racial minorities, Asian American students have received little academic and educational attention. This article seeks to address…

  10. The Teaching of Reference in American Library Schools. Historical Paper 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheney, Frances Neel

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the author proposes to present a superficial view of what is being taught in the 32 American Library Association accredited graduate library schools. She briefly discusses and answers the following three questions: (1) Who is teaching reference?; (2) What is being taught?; and (3) How is it being taught? [For the commentary on…

  11. American Government. Nevada Competency-Based Adult High School Diploma Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevada Univ., Las Vegas. Coll. of Education.

    This document is one of ten curriculum guides developed by the Nevada Competency-Based Adult High School Diploma (CBAHSD) Project. This curriculum guide on American government is divided into fourteen topics. The topics included are: definition of "State"; left to right political spectrum; Dictatorship vs. Democracy; Capitalism,…

  12. Negotiating the "White Male Math Myth": African American Male Students and Success in School Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, David W.

    2013-01-01

    This article shows how equity research in mathematics education can be decentered by reporting the "voices" of mathematically successful African American male students as they recount their experiences with school mathematics, illustrating, in essence, how they negotiated the White male math myth. Using post-structural theory, the…

  13. Examining the Underrepresentation of Asian Americans in Special Education: New Trends from California School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooc, North

    2018-01-01

    Despite decades of research on racial disproportionality in special education, the underrepresentation of Asian Americans in services tends to be overlooked in policy and practice. Underrepresentation, however, raises the possibility of similar concerns about misidentification, bias, and racial inequality within schools as overrepresentation. Yet,…

  14. The MetLife Survey of the American Teacher: Challenges for School Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    MetLife, Inc., 2013

    2013-01-01

    "The MetLife Survey of the American Teacher: Challenges for School Leadership" (2012) was conducted by Harris Interactive and is the twenty-ninth in a series sponsored annually by MetLife since 1984 to give voice to those closest to the classroom. This report examines the views of teachers and principals on the responsibilities and challenges…

  15. Substance Use and Sexual Risk Behaviors among American Indian and Alaska Native High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ravello, Lori; Everett Jones, Sherry; Tulloch, Scott; Taylor, Melanie; Doshi, Sonal

    2014-01-01

    Background: We describe the prevalence of behaviors that put American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) high school students at risk for teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and the relationships among race/ethnicity and these behaviors. Methods: We analyzed merged 2007 and 2009 data from the national Youth Risk Behavior…

  16. An Exploratory Study of the Implementation of Computer Technology in an American Islamic Private School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Mohammed M.

    2009-01-01

    This exploratory study of the implementation of computer technology in an American Islamic private school leveraged the case study methodology and ethnographic methods informed by symbolic interactionism and the framework of the Muslim Diaspora. The study focused on describing the implementation of computer technology and identifying the…

  17. The Neglected Genius of American Christianity As a Way Out of the School Mess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatto, John Taylor

    1997-01-01

    Modern compulsory schooling ignores the spiritual component of human existence, to the detriment of individual and society. In American Protestant spirituality, everyone counts; a good life's requisites are spelled out: work as salvation, pain as path to self-knowledge, duty, compassion, acceptance of loss, preparation for death. But no teacher…

  18. Giving Education a Bad Name: Bookish Boys in Contemporary American School Stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitchison, David

    2018-01-01

    This article discusses contemporary American school stories that appear to advocate learning and literacy as a democratic good, but actually undermine democratic possibilities by teaching young readers to think of academic inquiry as a means to selfish, petty ends. Since "learning" and "literacy" are catchwords for educators…

  19. Self-Concept in Arab American Adolescents: Implications of Social Support and Experiences in the Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabbah, Rhonda; Miranda, Antoinette Halsell; Wheaton, Joe E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate three domains (Scholastic Competence, Social Acceptance, and Global Self-Worth) of self-concept in Arab American adolescents in relation to their school experiences, including discrimination, self-perceived teacher social support, and self-perceived classmate social support. Half of the sample either…

  20. Dissemination of an effective weight management program for Mexican American children in schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rates of child obesity are epidemic in the United States, and Mexican American children are at particular risk. We have found an intensive, multi-component, school-based, weight management intervention to be efficacious at reducing standardized body mass index (zBMI) in overweight children. Our ...

  1. Academic Success of Urban African American Elementary Students in Title I Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    The researcher investigated the achievement of third- and fifth-grade urban African American students who attended science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM), Non-STEM, and Theme Title I schools in science and mathematics on the 2015 Georgia Milestones Assessment. The researcher used data from 29 Non-STEM, 14 STEM, and 10 Theme…

  2. Impact of Science Tutoring on African Americans' Science Scores on the High School Students' Graduation Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Edward

    This study investigated the relationship between an after-school tutorial program for African American high school students at a Title I school and scores on the science portion of the High School Graduation Examination (HSGE). Passing the examination was required for graduation. The target high school is 99% African American and the passing rate of the target high school was 42%---lower than the state average of 76%. The purpose of the study was to identify (a) the relationship between a science tutorial program and scores on the science portion of the HSGE, (b) the predictors of tutoring need by analyzing the relationship between biology grades and scores on the science portion of the HSGE, and (c) the findings between biology grades and scores on the science portion of the HSGE by analyzing the relationship between tutorial attendance and HSGE scores. The study was based on Piaget's cognitive constructivism, which implied the potential benefits of tutorials on high-stakes testing. This study used a 1-group pretest-posttest, quantitative methodology. Results showed a significant relationship between tutoring and scores on the biology portion of the HSGE. Results found no significant relationship between the tutorial attendance and the scores on the biology portion of the HSGE or between the biology grades and scores on the biology portion of the HSGE before tutoring. It has implications for positive social change by providing educational stakeholders with empirically-based guidance in determining the potential benefit of tutorial intervention strategies on high school graduation examination scores.

  3. Relation of peer effects and school climate to substance use among Asian American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryabov, Igor

    2015-07-01

    Using a nationally representative, longitudinal sample of Asian American late adolescents/young adults (ages 18-26), this article investigates the link between peer effects, school climate, on the one hand, and substance use, which includes tobacco, alcohol, and other illicit mood altering substance. The sample (N = 1585) is drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Waves I and III). The study is set to empirically test premises of generational, social capital and stage-environment fit theories. The exploratory variables include individual-level (immigrant generation status, ethnic origin, co-ethnic and co-generational peers - peers from the same immigrant generation) as well as school-level measures (average school socio-economic status and school climate). Multilevel modeling (logistic and negative binomial regression) was used to estimate substance use. Results indicate that preference for co-generational friends is inversely associated with frequency of cannabis and other illicit drug use and preference for co-ethnic peers is inversely associated with other illicit drug use. We also find that school climate is a strong and negative predictor of frequency of cannabis and other illicit drug use as well as of heavy episodic drinking. In terms of policy, these findings suggest that Asian American students should benefit from co-ethnic and co-generational peer networks in schools and, above all, from improving school climate. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Parental Attachment, Self-Esteem, and Antisocial Behaviors among African American, European American, and Mexican American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbona, Consuelo; Power, Thomas G.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the relation of mother and father attachment to self-esteem and self-reported involvement in antisocial behaviors among African American, European American, and Mexican American high school students. Findings indicated that adolescents from the 3 ethnic/racial groups did not differ greatly in their reported attachment. (Contains 70…

  5. Promoting School Engagement: Attitudes toward School among American and Japanese Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Douglas C.; Ito, Ayako; Gruenewald, John; Yeh, Hsiu-Ling

    2010-01-01

    Students from the United States and Japan were surveyed with regard to their levels of satisfaction with school and factors that might facilitate or impede school satisfaction. Results indicated that females and younger students from both countries expressed greater satisfaction with school, with overall satisfaction declining in a linear fashion…

  6. European and North American Schools of Public Health – Establishment, growth, differences and similarities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadranka Bozikov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Unlike European Schools of Public Health, whose development was primarily influenced by the medical profession and was linked to the healthcare system, North American Schools of Public Health operate as independent academic institutions engaged in research and education of Public Health specialists. While Public Health has been recognised as a distinctive profession in USA and Canada for almost a century, in many European countries it is not recognized as such and, accordingly, there are no well-defined job positions for graduates. Similarities and differences between the European and American Schools of Public Health are reviewed and the importance of classification of core competences, responsibilities and scope of knowledge required for Public Health practice was pointed out as a prerequisite for accreditation of study curricula. For the professionalization of Public Health in Europe further efforts are needed.

  7. Asian-American Communications: In-School Staff Workshops, 1991-92. Final Evaluation Report. OREA Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zenin

    The In-School Staff Workshops project run by Asian-American Communications was evaluated in its fourth year. The project provided various workshops for staff on Asian American and Asian cultures, intercultural communications, and strategies for helping Asian American students adjust to their new social and educational environments. The project…

  8. The Struggle against Separate and Unequal Schools: Middle Class Mexican Americans and the Desegregation Campaign in Texas, 1929-1957.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Miguel, Guadalupe, Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Despite the efforts of Mexican American groups, such as the League of United Latin American Citizens and the G.I. Forum, and court orders to end segregation, schools in Texas continued to segregate Mexican American children. The political liberalism of these groups kept them from developing effective strategies against segregation. (IS)

  9. PENCITRAAN AMERICAN NIGHTMARE MELALUI PENGGUNAAN ARCHETYPEDAN LOOSE SENTENCE STRUCTUREDALAM “THE GREAT GATSBY” KARYA F. SCOTT. FIZGERALD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tintin Susilowati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini adalah penelitian stilistika yang mengkaji tentang penggunaan archetype dan loose sentence structure dalam membangun kesan mental pembaca tentang American Nightmare. Melalui penelitian ini, peneliti peneliti menggali pola-pola penggunaan archetype, loose sentence structure, serta konsep mental pembaca dalam memahami bacaan.Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui efektifitas gaya penulisan Fizgerald dengan menggunakan ornamen berupa archetype, loose sentence structure guna membangun kesan mental pembaca tentang America Nightmare. Pendekatan penelitian ini adalah deskriptive kualitatif sedangkan desainnya adalah library research. Data yang digunakan adalah data primer berupa kutipankutipan yang dicari dari novel, selain itu juga data sekunder berupa referensireferensi pendukung. Peneliti juga menggunakan coding dalam proses koleksi data. Teknik ini digunakan untuk membantu peneliti dalam mengklasifikasikan data. Lebih lanjut, penelitian ini merupakan penelitian dokumentasi maka dalam analisis peneliti menggunakan pendekatan content analysis selain itu interactive analysis juga digunakan peneliti dalam tahap analisis data. Dalam penelitian ini diperoleh data sebagai berikut, 1.ditemukan data tentang penggunaan archetype sejumlah 851 data/ 70.79%; 2. ditemukan data tentang penggunaan loose sentence structure sejumlah 351 data/ 29.20 %; 3. ditemukan data tentang penggunaan archetype dan loose sentence structure secara bersamaan sejumlah 1202 data/ 100%. Sedangkan kesimpulan dari penelitian ini adalah:penggunaan kedua ornamen khususnya berupa archetype didukung juga oleh penggunaan loose sentence structure membuat kontek dari sebuah teks mudah dipahami, Kedua ornamen tersebut meminimalis kesulitan pembaca dalam berinteraksi dengan teks.

  10. Premenstrual symptoms and posttraumatic stress disorder in Japanese high school students 9 months after the great East-Japan earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Takashi; Tadakawa, Mari; Koga, Shoko; Nagase, Satoru; Yaegashi, Nobuo

    2013-07-01

    On March 11, 2011, the Great East-Japan Earthquake occurred and a massive tsunami hit the northeastern coast of Japan. Catastrophic disasters such as earthquakes and war cause tremendous damage, not only physically but also mentally. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder that occurs in the aftermath of a traumatic event. Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a cluster of psychological and somatic symptoms that are limited to the late luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is considered a severe form of PMS. To determine the relationship between premenstrual symptoms and natural disaster-induced PTSD among Japanese adolescent girls, we conducted a cross-sectional study. Overall, 1489 high school students who belong to two high schools in Sendai, the largest city in northeastern Japan, were assessed 9 months after the earthquake. These schools are located inland, far from the seashore, and were not damaged by the tsunami. Premenstrual symptoms were assessed using the Premenstrual Symptoms Questionnaire, and PTSD symptoms were assessed using the Japanese-language version of Impact of Event Scale-Revised, which is a widely used self-assessment questionnaire about PTSD symptoms. We analyzed the data of 1,180 girls who completed the questionnaires and 118 girls (10.0%) were classified as having PTSD. The prevalence rates of PMDD and moderate to severe PMS increased according to the comorbidity of PTSD (p PMS/PMDD and natural disaster-induced PTSD. The comorbidity of PMS/PMDD and PTSD may complicate the follow-up of both conditions.

  11. Spatial patterns and temporal trends in mercury concentrations, precipitation depths, and mercury wet deposition in the North American Great Lakes region, 2002–2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risch, Martin R.; Gay, David A.; Fowler, Kathleen K.; Keeler, Gerard J.; Backus, Sean M.; Blanchard, Pierrette; Barres, James A.; Dvonch, J. Timothy

    2012-01-01

    Annual and weekly mercury (Hg) concentrations, precipitation depths, and Hg wet deposition in the Great Lakes region were analyzed by using data from 5 monitoring networks in the USA and Canada for a 2002–2008 study period. High-resolution maps of calculated annual data, 7-year mean data, and net interannual change for the study period were prepared to assess spatial patterns. Areas with 7-year mean annual Hg concentrations higher than the 12 ng per liter water-quality criterion were mapped in 4 states. Temporal trends in measured weekly data were determined statistically. Monitoring sites with significant 7-year trends in weekly Hg wet deposition were spatially separated and were not sites with trends in weekly Hg concentration. During 2002–2008, Hg wet deposition was found to be unchanged in the Great Lakes region and its subregions. Any small decreases in Hg concentration apparently were offset by increases in precipitation. - Highlights: ► Data from 5 Hg and precipitation networks in the USA and Canada were combined for the first time. ► High-resolution maps and statistical trends tests were used for spatial and temporal data analysis. ► Some 7-year mean annual Hg concentrations exceeded a 12 ng per liter water-quality criterion. ► Small, localized decreases in Hg concentration were offset by increases in precipitation. ► Hg wet deposition was unchanged in the Great Lakes region and its subregions during 2002–2008. - Analysis of monitoring data from 5 networks in the USA and Canada determined that mercury wet deposition was unchanged in the North American Great Lakes region during 2002–2008.

  12. Out of School and Off Track: The Overuse of Suspensions in American Middle and High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losen, Daniel J.; Martinez, Tia Elena

    2013-01-01

    In this first of a kind breakdown of data from over 26,000 U.S. middle and high schools, the authors estimate that well over two million students were suspended during the 2009-2010 academic year. This means that one out of every nine secondary school students was suspended at least once during that year. As other studies demonstrate, the vast…

  13. Delaying Middle School and High School Start Times Promotes Student Health and Performance: An American Academy of Sleep Medicine Position Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Nathaniel F; Martin, Jennifer L; Wise, Merrill S; Carden, Kelly A; Kirsch, Douglas B; Kristo, David A; Malhotra, Raman K; Olson, Eric J; Ramar, Kannan; Rosen, Ilene M; Rowley, James A; Weaver, Terri E; Chervin, Ronald D

    2017-04-15

    During adolescence, internal circadian rhythms and biological sleep drive change to result in later sleep and wake times. As a result of these changes, early middle school and high school start times curtail sleep, hamper a student's preparedness to learn, negatively impact physical and mental health, and impair driving safety. Furthermore, a growing body of evidence shows that delaying school start times positively impacts student achievement, health, and safety. Public awareness of the hazards of early school start times and the benefits of later start times are largely unappreciated. As a result, the American Academy of Sleep Medicine is calling on communities, school boards, and educational institutions to implement start times of 8:30 AM or later for middle schools and high schools to ensure that every student arrives at school healthy, awake, alert, and ready to learn. © 2017 American Academy of Sleep Medicine

  14. Sequential development of platform to off-platform facies of the great American carbonate bank in the central Appalachians: chapter 15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezinski, David K.; Taylor, John F.; Repetski, John E.

    2012-01-01

    In the central Appalachians, carbonate deposition of the great American carbonate bank began during the Early Cambrian with the creation of initial ramp facies of the Vintage Formation and lower members of the Tomstown Formation. Vertical stacking of bioturbated subtidal ramp deposits (Bolivar Heights Member) and dolomitized microbial boundtsone (Fort Duncan Member) preceded the initiation of platform sedimentation and creation of sand shoal facies (Benevola Member) that was followed by the development of peritidal cyclicity (Daragan Member). Initiation of peritidal deposition coincided with the development of a rimmed platform that would persist throughout much of the Cambrian and Early Odrovician. At the end of deposition of the Waynesboro Formation, the platform became subaerially exposed because of the Hawke Bay regression, bringing the Sauk I supersequence to and end. In the Conestoga Valley of eastern Pennsylvania, Early Cambrian ramp deposition was succeeded by deposition of platform-margin and periplatfrom facies of the Kinzers Formation.

  15. Providing Retraining and Advancement Training for Primary/Elementary School Teachers at the State Level in Great Britain and the USA

    OpenAIRE

    Chychuk Antonina

    2017-01-01

    In Great Britain and the USA the normative basis of primary/elementary school teachers’ qualification advancement is being actively developed, i. e. this issue is considered at the state level. For a long time the development of retraining and advancement training system for primary/elementary school teachers has been grounded on conceptual foundations of pedagogy that ensures the functionality of the mentioned system. The research results on conceptual foundations for forming an education sy...

  16. 7th CERN - Latin-American School of High-Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Mulders, M; CLASHEP 2013; CLASHEP2013

    2015-01-01

    The CERN–Latin-American School of High-Energy Physics is intended to give young physicists an introduction to the theoretical aspects of recent advances in elementary particle physics. These proceedings contain lecture notes on the Standard Model of electroweak interactions, quantum chromodynamics, flavour physics, quantum chromodynamics under extreme conditions, cosmic-ray physics, cosmology, recent highlights of LHC results, practical statistics for particle physicists and a short introduction to the principles of particle physics instrumentation.

  17. 5th CERN - Latin-American School of High-Energy Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Grojean, C; Spiropulu, M

    2010-01-01

    The CERN-Latin-American School of High-Energy Physics is intended to give young physicists an introduction to the theoretical aspects of recent advances in elementary particle physics. These proceedings contain lectures on quantum field theory, quantum chromodynamics, physics beyond the Standard Model, neutrino physics, flavour physics and CP violation, particle cosmology, high-energy astro-particle physics, and heavy-ion physics, as well as trigger and data acquisition, and commissioning and...

  18. RAND Research Brief: A Decade of Whole-School Reform. The New American Schools Experience

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    .... NAS's core premise was that all high-quality schools possess, de facto, a unifying design that enables all staff members to function to the best of their abilities and that integrates research-based...

  19. Sexuality education in North American medical schools: current status and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindel, Alan W; Parish, Sharon J

    2013-01-01

    Both the general public and individual patients expect healthcare providers to be knowledgeable and approachable regarding sexual health. Despite this expectation there are no universal standards or expectations regarding the sexuality education of medical students. To review the current state of the art in sexuality education for North American medical students and to articulate future directions for improvement. Evaluation of: (i) peer-reviewed literature on sexuality education (focusing on undergraduate medical students); and (ii) recommendations for sexuality education from national and international public health organizations. Current status and future innovations for sexual health education in North American medical schools. Although the importance of sexuality to patients is recognized, there is wide variation in both the quantity and quality of education on this topic in North American medical schools. Many sexual health education programs in medical schools are focused on prevention of unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection. Educational material on sexual function and dysfunction, female sexuality, abortion, and sexual minority groups is generally scant or absent. A number of novel interventions, many student initiated, have been implemented at various medical schools to improve the student's training in sexual health matters. There is a tremendous opportunity to mold the next generation of healthcare providers to view healthy sexuality as a relevant patient concern. A comprehensive and uniform curriculum on human sexuality at the medical school level may substantially enhance the capacity of tomorrow's physicians to provide optimal care for their patients irrespective of gender, sexual orientation, and individual sexual mores/beliefs. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  20. Evaluation of American Indian Science and Engineering Society Intertribal Middle School Science and Math Bowl Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AISES, None

    2013-09-25

    The American Indian Science and Engineering Society (AISES) has been funded under a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) grant (Grant Award No. DE-SC0004058) to host an Intertribal Middle-School Science and Math Bowl (IMSSMB) comprised of teams made up of a majority of American Indian students from Bureau of Indian Education-funded schools and public schools. The intent of the AISES middle school science and math bowl is to increase participation of American Indian students at the DOE-sponsored National Science Bowl. Although national in its recruitment scope, the AISES Intertribal Science and Math Bowl is considered a “regional” science bowl, equivalent to the other 50 regional science bowls which are geographically limited to states. Most regional bowls do not have American Indian student teams competing, hence the AISES bowl is meant to encourage American Indian student teams to increase their science knowledge in order to participate at the national level. The AISES competition brings together teams from various American Indian communities across the nation. Each team is provided with funds for travel to and from the event, as well as for lodging and meals. In 2011 and 2012, there were 10 teams participating; in 2013, the number of teams participating doubled to 20. Each Science and Math Bowl team is comprised of four middle school — grades 6 through 8 — students, one alternate, and a teacher who serves as advisor and coach — although in at least two cases, the coach was not a teacher, but was the Indian Education Coordinator. Each team member must have at least a 3.0 GPA. Furthermore, the majority of students in each team must be comprised of American Indian, Alaska Native or Native Hawaiian students. Under the current DOE grant, AISES sponsored three annual middle school science bowl competitions over the years 2011, 2012 and 2013. The science and math bowls have been held in late March concurrently with the National American Indian Science and

  1. Psychiatry in American Medical Education: The Case of Harvard's Medical School, 1900-1945.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Tara H

    2018-01-01

    As American psychiatrists moved from the asylum to the private clinic during the early twentieth century, psychiatry acquired a growing presence within medical school curricula. This shift in disciplinary status took place at a time when medical education itself was experiencing a period of reform. By examining medical school registers at Harvard University, records from the Dean's office of Harvard's medical school, and oral histories, this paper examines the rise in prominence of psychiatry in medical education. Three builders of Harvard psychiatry - Elmer E. Southard, C. Macfie Campbell, and Harry C. Solomon - simultaneously sought to mark territory for psychiatry and its relevance. In doing so, they capitalized on three related elements: the fluidity that existed between psychiatry and neurology, the new venues whereby medical students gained training in psychiatry, and the broader role of patrons, professional associations, and certification boards, which sought to expand psychiatry's influence in the social and cultural life of twentieth-century America.

  2. The Model of Unification and the Model of Diversification of Public School Teachers' Continuing Professional Development in Great Britain, Canada and the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukan, Nataliya; Myskiv, Iryna; Kravets, Svitlana

    2016-01-01

    In the article the theoretical framework of public school teachers' continuing professional development (CPD) in Great Britain, Canada and the USA has been presented. The main objectives have been defined as theoretical analysis of scientific and pedagogical literature, which highlights different aspects of the problem under research; presentation…

  3. Entanglement and Transnational Transfer in the History of Infant Schools in Great Britain and "Salles D'asile" in France, 1816-1881

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Kaspar

    2014-01-01

    The historical developments of infant schools in Great Britain and "salles d'asile" in France--both precursors of present-day preschools--were interconnected. However, historians have not yet analysed specifically how transnational exchange influenced the growth and nature of these institutions. Drawing on archival data and secondary…

  4. The Analysis of Content and Operational Components of Public School Teachers' Continuing Professional Development in Great Britain, Canada and the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukan, Nataliya; Kravets, Svitlana; Khamulyak, Nataliya

    2016-01-01

    In the article the content and operational components of continuing professional development of public school teachers in Great Britain, Canada, the USA have been characterized. The main objectives are defined as the theoretical analysis of scientific-pedagogical literature, which highlights different aspects of the problem under research;…

  5. Text Messaging in the School Lives of American High School Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhart, Margaret; Allaman, Erin

    2018-01-01

    Digital technologies open new windows for ethnographic explorations of cultural experiences. In this paper, we examine text messaging among academically talented teenage girls of colour at three US urban high schools. Texting introduced a new communication modality into the girls' lives and created a space for new discourses mediating their…

  6. The Impact of Cyberbullying on the Self-Esteem and Academic Functioning of Arab American Middle and High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousef, Wael Shaher Mohammed; Bellamy, Al

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Cyberbullying has received a considerable amount of attention within the academic and public literature. However, very little if any cyberbullying research has been conducted among Arab American students. This current study explored the impact of cyberbullying among middle and high school Arab American students on their self-esteem…

  7. Asian American Female School Administrators' Self-Concept and Expectations for Students' Educational Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jia G.; Liou, Daniel D.

    2018-01-01

    Historically, Asian American school administrators' experiences leading the K-12 educational system have been under-researched and under-theorized. Today, as the fastest growing population in the United States, Asian American educators' experiences and contributions can no longer be ignored in educational policy and research. Drawing on the…

  8. White and African American Elementary Aged Student Perspectives of School Climate and the Relationship to Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoor, Jeremy

    2017-01-01

    The achievement gap between White and African American students on the Missouri Assessment Program (MAP) is an educational phenomenon that has been around for generations and yet to be fully understood or eliminated. This study investigated the difference in school climate perceptions between African American and Caucasian (sic) elementary school…

  9. How African-American Elementary Students in High-Poverty Schools Experience Creative Expression: A Case Study Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Belinda F.

    2016-01-01

    Literature that addresses how the arts enhance student learning through creative expression is minimal. This is especially true for African-American elementary students from high-poverty backgrounds. The purpose of this study was to employ a case study design to explore how African-American elementary students in high-poverty schools experience…

  10. The nature of culturally responsive pedagogy in two urban African American middle school science classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondima, Michelle Harris

    This ethnographic in nature study explores how two middle school science teachers who have classes populated by urban African Americans teach their students and how their students perceive their teaching. Since urban African American students continue to perform lower than desired on measures of science achievement, there is an urgent need to understand what pedagogical methodologies assist and hinder urban African American students in achieving higher levels of success in science. A pedagogical methodology that theorists posit assists subordinated school populations is culturally responsive pedagogy. Culturally responsive pedagogy is defined as a teaching methodology concerned with preparing students to question inequality, racism, and injustice. Teachers who use culturally responsive pedagogy respect the culture students bring to the class, and require that the teachers willingly do whatever is necessary to educate students (Nieto, 2000). The teacher participants were two female African Americans who were identified by their school supervisors as being highly effective with urban African American students. The researcher presented the teachers in separate case studies conducted over a data collection period of nine months. Data were collected by participant observation, interviews, and artifact collection. Data were analyzed by application of grounded theory techniques. Findings of the teachers' (and the students') beliefs about pedagogy that both assisted and hindered the students' performance in science were reported in a rich and nuanced storytelling manner based on multiple perspectives (teachers', students', and the researcher's). Pedagogical methodologies that the teachers used that assisted their students were the use of cultural metaphors and images in science and applications of motivational techniques that encouraged a nurturing relationship between the teacher and her students. Pedagogical methodologies that hindered students varied by teacher

  11. The dynamics of the species into collections of the North American and the Himalayan hills in Alpinarium of Peter the Great Botanical Garden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkachenko Kirill

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Botanical gardens' collections of living plants are valuable not only because of their exhibitions, but also because of the data accumulated during introductions of new plants. Inventory allows to collect valuable material about introduction of different types of plants (species and taxa. Analysis of the available information allows to select and recommend advanced species (genus complex for the needs of urbane floristics; the perennial herbaceous plants of mountain areas come in the first place. A new list of advanced ornamental and household plants is introduced in the article. The recommended plants can be used for urban gardening and various groundscape works, and for creation of seed orchards in the neighboring regions. The study of introduction results helps not only to determine the advanced species (and taxa, but to understand which spices will not be able to survive a long time in the new conditions (mainly because of the climate, for example in the North-West of Russia. Over the past 60 years, around 385 plants of 61 families has been introduced at the North American and Himalayan rock gardens of the Peter the Great Botanical Garden. In the 60s of the 20th century, the exposition of these rock gardens had nearly 130 species from 51 families, 20 years later – 254 plants of 55 families. In the beginning of the 21st century, there were 249 taxa of the 52 families. Since 2010, the Alpinarium had to undergo a major reconstruction following the restoration and addition of the collection. As of 2015, the exposition of the North American and Himalayan rock gardens has 200 species of 54 families.

  12. Domestic violence shelter partnerships and veterinary student attitudes at North American veterinary schools and colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creevy, Kate E; Shaver, Stephanie L; Cornell, Karen K

    2013-01-01

    Animal abuse and domestic violence are linked issues, and pet ownership is reported to play a crucial role in the choice to leave an abusive situation. Although veterinarians witness the effects of abuse and violence over the course of their careers, they have limited training regarding these issues. One mechanism for educating veterinary students while providing a service for victims of domestic violence is the creation of partnerships between domestic violence shelters and veterinary schools. These extracurricular programs can provide both care for pets belonging to victims of domestic violence and an educational platform for student participants. The goals of this study were to determine the prevalence and characteristics of domestic violence shelter partnerships (DVSPs) at North American veterinary teaching hospitals and to determine whether the presence of a DVSP was associated with increased awareness among veterinary students regarding animal abuse and domestic violence. Nine of 33 veterinary schools surveyed described a DVSP program. Students at schools with DVSPs associated with their veterinary teaching hospitals were significantly more likely to indicate that their awareness of the link between animal abuse and domestic violence had increased during veterinary school. Most veterinary students reported that they felt poorly prepared to handle domestic violence and animal abuse issues in the workplace. This study indicates that extracurricular DVSPs are a viable means of educating veterinary students regarding domestic violence and animal abuse. A need for improved education on these topics in veterinary schools across North America is identified.

  13. STEM after School: How to Design and Run Great Programs and Activities. A Guidebook for Program Leaders, Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ExpandED Schools, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This guidebook was prepared by TASC (The After-School Corporation) and their Frontiers in Urban Science Education (FUSE) programs. FUSE is TASC's initiative to help more out-of-school-time programs and expanded learning time schools offer kids engaging, exciting and inspiring activities that promote science inquiry. The guidebook offers a a…

  14. Epidemiology of Knee Sprains in Youth, High School, and Collegiate American Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, Daniel R; Onate, James A; Schussler, Eric; Djoko, Aristarque; Dompier, Thomas P; Kerr, Zachary Y

    2017-05-01

      Variations in knee-sprain incidence among competition levels are unclear but may help inform prevention strategies in American football players.   To describe the epidemiology of knee sprains in youth, high school, and collegiate football players.   Descriptive epidemiology study.   Injury and athlete-exposure (AE) data were collected from 3 injury-surveillance programs at the youth, high school, and collegiate competition levels.   Data from 310 youth, 184 high school, and 71 collegiate football team-seasons were collected during the 2012 through 2014 seasons.   Knee-sprain rates and risks were calculated for each competition level. Injury rate ratios (IRRs) and risk ratios (RRs) compared knee-sprain rates by competition level. Injury proportion ratios (IPRs) compared differences in surgery needs, recurrence, injury mechanism, and injury activity by competition level.   Knee-sprain rates in youth, high school, and collegiate football were 0.16/1000 AEs, 0.25/1000 AEs, and 0.69/1000 AEs, respectively. Knee-sprain rates increased as the competition level increased (high school versus youth: IRR = 1.60; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.12, 2.30; collegiate versus high school: IRR = 2.73; 95% CI = 2.38, 3.96). Knee-sprain risk was highest in collegiate (4.3%), followed by high school (2.0%) and youth (0.5%) athletes. Knee-sprain risk increased as the competition level increased (high school versus youth: RR = 3.73; 95% CI = 2.60, 5.34; collegiate versus high school: RR = 2.14; 95% CI = 1.83, 2.51). Collegiate football had the lowest proportion of knee sprains that were noncontact injuries (collegiate versus youth: IPR = 0.54; 95% CI = 0.31, 0.95; collegiate versus high school: IPR = 0.59; 95% CI = 0.44, 0.79) and the lowest proportion that occurred while being tackled (collegiate versus youth: IPR = 0.44; 95% CI = 0.26, 0.76; collegiate versus high school: IPR = 0.71; 95% CI = 0.51, 0.98).   Knee-sprain incidence was highest in collegiate football

  15. Physiology education in North American dental schools: the basic science survey series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Medha; Shaw, David H; Pate, Ted D; Lambert, H Wayne

    2014-06-01

    As part of the Basic Science Survey Series for Dentistry, members of the American Dental Education Association (ADEA) Physiology, Pharmacology, and Therapeutics Section surveyed directors of physiology courses in North American dental schools. The survey was designed to assess, among other things, faculty affiliation and experience of course directors, teaching methods, general course content and emphasis, extent of interdisciplinary (shared) instruction, and impact of recent curricular changes. Responses were received from forty-four of sixty-seven (65.7 percent) U.S. and Canadian dental schools. The findings suggest the following: substantial variation exists in instructional hours, faculty affiliation, class size, and interdisciplinary nature of physiology courses; physiology course content emphasis is similar between schools; student contact hours in physiology, which have remained relatively stable in the past fifteen years, are starting to be reduced; recent curricular changes have often been directed towards enhancing the integrative and clinically relevant aspects of physiology instruction; and a trend toward innovative content delivery, such as use of computer-assisted instruction, is evident. Data from this study may be useful to physiology course directors, curriculum committees, and other dental educators with an interest in integrative and interprofessional education.

  16. Pharmacology education in North American dental schools: the basic science survey series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Medha; Shaw, David H; Pate, Ted D; Lambert, H Wayne

    2013-08-01

    As part of the Basic Science Survey Series (BSSS) for Dentistry, members of the American Dental Education Association (ADEA) Physiology, Pharmacology, and Therapeutics Section surveyed course directors of basic pharmacology courses in North American dental schools. The survey was designed to assess, among other things, faculty affiliation and experience of course directors, teaching methods, general course content and emphasis, extent of interdisciplinary (shared) instruction, and impact of recent curricular changes. Responses were received from forty-nine of sixty-seven (73.1 percent) U.S. and Canadian dental schools. The findings suggest the following: 1) substantial variation exists in instructional hours, faculty affiliation, placement within curriculum, class size, and interdisciplinary nature of pharmacology courses; 2) pharmacology course content emphasis is similar among schools; 3) the number of contact hours in pharmacology has remained stable over the past three decades; 4) recent curricular changes were often directed towards enhancing the integrative and clinically relevant aspects of pharmacology instruction; and 5) a trend toward innovative content delivery, such as use of computer-assisted instruction applications, is evident. Data, derived from this study, may be useful to pharmacology course directors, curriculum committees, and other dental educators with an interest in integrative and interprofessional education.

  17. The Presence of Spanish and Hispanic American Literature in Slovenian secondary Schools since 1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjana Šifrar Kalan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally Slovene secondary schools teach national and international literature as part of the study of Slovene. The article examines the presence and the selection of Spanish and Hispanic American literature in Slovene secondary schools between 1945 and 2017, taking into account sociopolitical, cultural and didactic factors. The analysis is based on all syllabuses for Slovene during this period and all text books for literature used and edited since the end of the second world war in Slovenia. Therefore the role of literature written in Spanish is analysed for two different sociopolitical contexts: Yugoslavia and the independent Republic of Slovenia. The aim of the article is to find out whether the presence and the role of Spanish language literature in Spanish has increased or decreased during this period and which are the authors and literary works which 19-year-old Slovenes who complete grammar school and continue their studies at the university are/were acquainted with. The article enumerates all writers and texts in Spanish from the analysed documents and textbooks, identifies drawbacks in the selection of the literature and concludes that experts from different fields, teachers of Slovene, Spanish, experts in literature and didactics should work on a well-balanced selection of Spanish and Hispanic American literature within the teaching of world literature.

  18. Mathematical Contributions of the Mayas, Aztecs & Incas: A Native American Curriculum Unit for Middle and High School. NATAM XIX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stodola, Janet

    Written to fulfill the requirements for a University of Minnesota College of Education off-campus Indian education course for public school teachers, this Native American curriculum unit for middle and high school reflects the mathematical achievements of the Maya, Aztec, and Inca Indians. The number systems, notation, and calendar techniques of…

  19. The Influence of Acculturation and Enculturation on Mexican American High School Students' Decision to Apply to College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Linda G.; Lopez-Arenas, Araceli; Saldivar, Isaac M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the influence of acculturation, enculturation, parental education level, financial concerns, and gender on 106 Mexican American high school students' decisions to apply to college. Results indicated that acculturation and female gender were significant predictors. Implications for interventions with Latino high school students…

  20. The Rise of Women: The Growing Gender Gap in Education and What It Means for American Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPrete, Thomas A.; Buchmann, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    While powerful gender inequalities remain in American society, women have made substantial gains and now largely surpass men in one crucial arena: education. Women now outperform men academically at all levels of school, and are more likely to obtain college degrees and enroll in graduate school. What accounts for this enormous reversal in the…

  1. Practitioners' Perceptions of Culturally Responsive School-Based Mental Health Services for Low-Income African American Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Erin; Kruger, Ann Cale; Hamilton, Chela; Meyers, Joel; Truscott, Stephen D.; Varjas, Kris

    2016-01-01

    School-based mental health practitioners are positioned to address low-income urban African American girls' mental health needs through culturally responsive services. Despite the importance of culturally reflective practice, it is understudied. We asked school-based mental health practitioners (N = 7) to reflect on barriers and facilitators to…

  2. Heterogeneity in High Math Achievement across Schools: Evidence from the American Mathematics Competitions. NBER Working Paper No. 18277

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Glenn; Swanson, Ashley

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores differences in the frequency with which students from different schools reach high levels of math achievement. Data from the American Mathematics Competitions is used to produce counts of high-scoring students from more than two thousand public, coeducational, non-magnet, non-charter U.S. high schools. High-achieving students…

  3. Health issues in the Arab American community. Tobacco use patterns among high school students: do Arab American youth differ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weglicki, Linda S; Templin, Thomas; Hammad, Adnan; Jamil, Hikmet; Abou-Mediene, Sharifa; Farroukh, Mona; Rice, Virginia Hill

    2007-01-01

    To determine tobacco use rates (cigarette, water pipe smoking [WPS] or narghile) in Arab American compared to non-Arab youth. A convenience sample of 2,782 14- to 18-year-old high school students from a midwest community completed a 21-item tobacco use history survey. Seventy-one percent of the participants were ArA. Grades 9 through 12 were equally represented. Results included 'ever tried cigarettes [narghile]' (20%, 39%); 'smoked cigarettes [narghile] in the past 30 days' (7%, 22%); and 'regular smoking [narghile]' (3%, 15%) for ArA and non-Arab youths, respectively. Each was significantly related to grade and ethnicity. WPS for ArA and non-Arab youths was (38%, 21%); (17%, 11%); and (7%, 5%) for 'ever used,' 'used in the past 30 days,' and 'regular use,' respectively. Grade, ethnicity, and sex were significantly related to WPS. Cigarette smoking rates for non-Arab youth were lower than current national youth smoking rates but significantly higher than ArA youth. Rates for ArA youth were much lower than current national reported data. Rates of WPS for US youth, regardless of race or ethnicity, are not known. Findings from this study indicate that both ArA and non-Arab youth are experimenting and using WPS regularly. These results underscore the importance of assessing novel forms of tobacco use, particularly WPS, a growing phenomenon among US youth.

  4. Parenting and feeding behaviors associated with school-aged African American and White children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polfuss, Michele Lynn; Frenn, Marilyn

    2012-08-01

    Pediatric obesity is multifactorial and difficult to treat. Parenting and feeding behaviors have been shown to influence a child's weight status. Most prior studies have focused on preschool-aged White children. Additional complicating factors include parents' inability to accurately identify their child's abnormal weight status. Parenting and feeding behaviors used by 176 African American and White parents of school-age children were examined. Assessment included (a) identifying what behaviors were reported when parent expressed concern with child's weight and (b) the relationship of these behaviors on child's body mass index percentile (BMI%), considering ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), and parent's body mass index (BMI). Findings included African American parents and parents concerned about their child's weight exhibited increased controlling/authoritarian parenting and feeding behaviors. Parents were able to accurately identify their child's weight status. Parenting and feeding behaviors played a significant role in the children's BMI% even when controlling for ethnicity, SES, and parent's BMI.

  5. A Phenomenological Case Study of the Experiences of African American High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Theresa West

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In a progression of scholarly research on the achievement gap, the results remain the same. The data show that there is a statistically significant difference in the achievement of African American and Hispanic students compared with their Caucasian and Asian academic counterparts. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to describe the implications of the gap in achievement for young urban adults. The participants were five African American students who had dropped out of traditional school. These students described their academic decline through interviews and focus group sessions at two alternative educational sites. The data were collected and the results indicated that the students felt disconnected from their teachers and the process of education. As a result of this disconnection, they became adrift in the educational system and were eventually swallowed by the undertow.

  6. Overrepresentation of African American Males in Exclusionary Discipline: The Role of School-Based Mental Health Professionals in Dismantling the School to Prison Pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamilia J. Blake

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available African American males are at increased risk for experiencing disciplinary practices that exclude them from the school environment. It is believed that African American males’ overrepresentation in the receipt of these practices contributes to their involvement in the criminal justice system as they approach adolescence and enter adulthood. The connection of exclusionary discipline with incarceration rates is termed the School to Prison Pipeline. Although some scholars have identified school-wide initiatives as having potential in curtailing African American males’ overrepresentation in these punitive discipline practices, less discussion has focused on the role of school-based mental health professionals to address this issue. School-based mental health professionals possess a unique set of skills that may assist schools in decreasing African American males’ exposure to exclusionary discipline practices and consequently reducing their risk for adverse outcomes. The purpose of this review is to provide school-based mental health professionals with specific recommendations for reducing this negative educational experience.

  7. 9th CERN - Latin-American School of High-Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    The CERN – Latin-American School of High-Energy Physics is targeted particularly at students in experimental HEP who are in the final years of work towards their PhDs. However, it is anticipated that some post-doctoral students in experimental HEP, and some students in phenomenology, including some masters students, will also be accepted. It should be noted that some pre-knowledge of the subjects is necessary in order to be able to profit fully from the lecture courses.

  8. Proceedings of the 2011 CERN - Latin American School of High-Energy Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grojean, C.; Mulders, M.; Spiropulu

    2011-01-01

    The CERN-Latin-American School of High-Energy Physics is intended to give young physicists an introduction to the theoretical aspects of recent advances in elementary particle physics. These proceedings contain lectures on quantum field theory, quantum chromodynamics, flavour physics and CP-violation, physics beyond the Standard Model, neutrino physics, particle cosmology, ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays and heavy-ion physics, as well as a presentation of recent results form the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and short introduction to the principles of particle physics instrumentation

  9. 6th CERN - Latin-American School of High-Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Mulders, M; Spiropulu, M; CLASHEP 2011; CLASHEP2011

    2013-01-01

    The CERN–Latin-American School of High-Energy Physics is intended to give young physicists an introduction to the theoretical aspects of recent advances in elementary particle physics. These proceedings contain lectures on quantum field theory, quantum chromodynamics, flavour physics and CP-violation, physics beyond the Standard Model, neutrino physics, particle cosmology, ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays and heavy-ion physics, as well as a presentation of recent results from the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and a short introduction to the principles of particle physics instrumentation.

  10. Proceedings of the 2011 CERN - Latin American School of High-Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grojean, C.; Mulders, M.; Spiropulu, [eds.

    2011-07-01

    The CERN-Latin-American School of High-Energy Physics is intended to give young physicists an introduction to the theoretical aspects of recent advances in elementary particle physics. These proceedings contain lectures on quantum field theory, quantum chromodynamics, flavour physics and CP-violation, physics beyond the Standard Model, neutrino physics, particle cosmology, ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays and heavy-ion physics, as well as a presentation of recent results form the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and short introduction to the principles of particle physics instrumentation.

  11. Examining science achievement of African American females in suburban middle schools: A mixed methods study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topping, Kecia C.

    This dissertation examined factors that affected the science achievement of African American females in suburban middle schools. The research literature informed that African American females are facing the barriers of race, gender, socioeconomic status, and cultural learning style preferences. Nationally used measurements of science achievement such as the Standardized Achievement Test, Tenth edition (SAT-10), National Assessment for Educational Progress, and National Center for Educational Statistics showed that African American females are continuing to falter in the areas of science when compared to other ethnic groups. This study used a transformative sequential explanatory mixed methods design. In the first, quantitative, phase, the relationships among the dependent variables, science subscale SAT-10 NCE scores, yearly averages, and the independent variables, attitude toward science scores obtained from the Modified Fennema-Sherman Attitudes toward Science Scale, socioeconomics, and caregiver status were tested. The participants were 150 African American females in grades 6 through 8 in four suburban middle schools located in the Southeastern United States. The results showed a positive, significant linear relationship between the females' attitude and their science subscale SAT-10 NCE scores and a positive, significant linear relationship between the females' attitudes and their yearly averages in science. The results also confirmed that attitude was a significant predictor of science subscale SAT-10 NCE scores for these females and that attitude and socioeconomics were significant predictors of the females' yearly averages in science. In the second, qualitative, phase, nine females purposefully selected from those who had high and low attitude towards science scores on the scale in the quantitative phase were interviewed. The themes that emerged revealed seven additional factors that impacted the females' science achievement. They were usefulness of science

  12. Native American adolescents' views of fetal alcohol syndrome prevention in schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, G X; Toubbeh, J; Cline, J; Chisholm, A

    1998-04-01

    Alcohol is the most commonly abused substance among adolescents in the United States. Adolescent females are recognized as one group at risk for giving birth to babies with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). Sixth through eighth grade Native Americans were surveyed about their attitudes toward and knowledge of FAS risk factors and prevention strategies. Data revealed that 52% of students drank alcohol prior to the survey. Though sexually active, students lacked knowledge about the relationship between alcohol and FAS. The study revealed 1) limited prevention programs in middle schools and 2) the most influential factor in determining attitudes and decisions about alcohol use was the immediate family. Students felt FAS prevention is an important topic in school health education, noting the important role peers play in teaching and role modeling. Various strategies incorporating music and communication technology such as videotape and computer-assisted interactive tools into prevention materials are discussed.

  13. Trends of overweight and obesity among white and American Indian school children in South Dakota, 1998-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearst, Mary O; Biskeborn, Kristin; Christensen, Mathew; Cushing, Carrie

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of overweight and obesity among white and American Indian children in a predominantly rural state. Using a repeated, cross-sectional design of school children's height and weight, the study sample included 361,352 measures of children who were 5.0-19.9 years, attending school across 13 academic calendar years. Trained staff measured height, weight, and recorded gender, age, and race. Data were voluntarily reported to the State Department of Health. American Indian children consistently had higher rates of overweight and obesity compared to white children. Across the years, 16.3% of white students were overweight, whereas 19.3% of American Indian students were overweight. In addition, 14.5% of white children were obese and 25.9% of American Indian children were obese. Examining by rural versus urban schools, prevalence of overweight had been increasing among white male and female students and American Indian female students living in rural areas. Obesity is also increasing among rural white females and male and female American Indian children. The findings here suggest that although American Indian children are at higher risk, in general, compared to white children, rural populations in general are experiencing increases in childhood overweight and obesity. Targeted rural interventions beginning at an early age are necessary to improve the health of rural children, especially in American Indian communities. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  14. A Descriptive Qualitative Study Exploring Teacher and Parental Perceptions of African-American Middle School Male Students Related to Mathematics Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Crystal Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative descriptive case study explored the perceptions of parents and teachers of the academic achievement gap in mathematics between African-American middle school males and their White counterparts. Ten parents, both African-American and White, with students attending middle school in the Cherokee County School District and 5 teachers…

  15. Pedagogic Knowledge and the Victorian Era Anglo-American Teacher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Marianne A.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the expected knowledge base of British Victorian elementary teachers in the rational and scientific study of pedagogy and didactics. Concludes comparative research has revealed prevalence of similar pedagogic discourse in Great Britain and North American schools. (KDR)

  16. Friend affiliations and school adjustment among Mexican-American adolescents: the moderating role of peer and parent support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Guadalupe; Gillen-O'Neel, Cari; Gonzales, Nancy A; Fuligni, Andrew J

    2014-12-01

    Studies examining friendships among Mexican-American adolescents have largely focused on their potentially negative influence. The current study examined the extent to which deviant and achievement-oriented friend affiliations are associated with Mexican-American adolescents' school adjustment and also tested whether support from friends and parents moderates these associations. High school students (N = 412; 49 % male) completed questionnaires and daily diaries; primary caregivers also completed a questionnaire. Although results revealed few direct associations between friend affiliations and school adjustment, several moderations emerged. In general, the influence of friends' affiliation was strongest when support from friends was high and parental support was low. The findings suggest that only examining links between friend affiliations and school outcomes does not fully capture how friends promote or hinder school adjustment.

  17. From Great to Good: Principals' Sensemaking of Student Performance Decline in Formerly High Achieving High Poverty Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbonne, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    School level leadership is second only to effective instruction as essential to high student achievement (Leithwood, Louis, Anderson & Wahlstrom, 2004). Although factors such as socioeconomic levels and parental involvement contribute to the academic success of students, school leadership outweighs the impact of those factors. In the era of…

  18. Embryology and histology education in North American dental schools: the Basic Science Survey Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burk, Dorothy T; Lee, Lisa M J; Lambert, H Wayne

    2013-06-01

    As part of the Basic Science Survey Series (BSSS) for Dentistry, members of the American Dental Education Association (ADEA) Anatomical Sciences Section surveyed faculty members teaching embryology and histology courses at North American dental schools. The survey was designed to assess, among other things, curriculum content, utilization of laboratories, use of computer-assisted instruction (CAI), and recent curricular changes. Responses were received from fifty-nine (88.1 percent) of the sixty-seven U.S. and Canadian dental schools. Findings suggest the following: 1) a trend toward combining courses is evident, though the integration was predominantly discipline-based; 2) embryology is rarely taught as a stand-alone course, as content is often covered in gross anatomy, oral histology, and/or in an integrated curriculum; 3) the number of contact hours in histology is decreasing; 4) a trend toward reduction in formal laboratory sessions, particularly in embryology, is ongoing; and 5) use of CAI tools, including virtual microscopy, in both embryology and histology has increased. Additionally, embryology and histology content topic emphasis is identified within this study. Data, derived from this study, may be useful to new instructors, curriculum and test construction committees, and colleagues in the anatomical sciences, especially when determining a foundational knowledge base.

  19. Integrating geoscience and Native American experiences through a multi-state geoscience field trip for high school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelso, P. R.; Brown, L. M.; Spencer, M.; Sabatine, S.; Goetz, E. R.

    2012-12-01

    Lake Superior State University (LSSU) developed the GRANITE (Geological Reasoning And Natives Investigating The Earth) to engage high school students in the geosciences. The GRANITE program's target audience is Native American high school students and other populations underrepresented in the geosciences. Through the GRANITE program students undertake a variety of field and laboratory geosciences activities that culminates in a two week summer geoscience field experience during which they travel from Michigan to Wyoming. The sites students visit were selected because of their interesting and diverse geologic features and because in many cases they have special significance to Native American communities. Examples of the processes and localities studied by GRANITE students include igneous processes at Bear Butte, SD (Mato Paha) and Devil's Tower, WY (Mato Tipila); sedimentary processes in the Badlands, SD (Mako Sica) and Black Hills, SD (Paha Sapa); karst processes at Wind Cave, SD (Wasun Niye) and Vore Buffalo Jump; structural processes at Van Hise rock, WI and Dillon normal fault Badlands, SD; hydrologic and laucustrine processes along the Great Lakes and at the Fond du Lac Reservation, MN; fluvial processes along the Mississippi and Missouri rivers; geologic resources at the Homestake Mine, SD and Champion Mine, MI; and metamorphic processes at Pipestone, MN and Baraboo, WI. Through the GRANITE experience students develop an understanding of how geoscience is an important part of their lives, their communities and the world around them. The GRANITE program also promotes each student's growth and confidence to attend college and stresses the importance of taking challenging math and science courses in high school. Geoscience career opportunities are discussed at specific geologic localities and through general discussions. GRANITE students learn geosciences concepts and their application to Native communities and society in general through activities and

  20. Narrative performance of gifted African American school-aged children from low-income backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Monique T

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated classroom differences in the narrative performance of school-age African American English (AAE)-speaking children in gifted and general education classrooms. Forty-three children, Grades 2-5, each generated fictional narratives in response to the book Frog, Where Are You? (Mayer, 1969). Differences in performance on traditional narrative measures (total number of communication units [C-units], number of different words, and mean length of utterance in words) and on AAE production (dialect density measure) between children in gifted and general education classrooms were examined. There were no classroom-based differences in total number of C-units, number of different words, and mean length of utterance in words. Children in gifted education classrooms produced narratives with lower dialect density than did children in general educated classrooms. Direct logistic regression assessed whether narrative dialect density measure scores offered additional information about giftedness beyond scores on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Fourth Edition (Dunn & Dunn, 2007), a standard measure of language ability. Results indicated that a model with only Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Fourth Edition scores best discriminated children in the 2 classrooms. African American children across gifted and general education classrooms produce fictional narratives of similar length, lexical diversity, and syntax complexity. However, African American children in gifted education classrooms may produce lower rates of AAE and perform better on standard measures of vocabulary than those in general education classrooms.

  1. Narrative Performance of Gifted African American School-Aged Children From Low-Income Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated classroom differences in the narrative performance of school-age African American English (AAE)-speaking children in gifted and general education classrooms. Method Forty-three children, Grades 2–5, each generated fictional narratives in response to the book Frog, Where Are You? (Mayer, 1969). Differences in performance on traditional narrative measures (total number of communication units [C-units], number of different words, and mean length of utterance in words) and on AAE production (dialect density measure) between children in gifted and general education classrooms were examined. Results There were no classroom-based differences in total number of C-units, number of different words, and mean length of utterance in words. Children in gifted education classrooms produced narratives with lower dialect density than did children in general educated classrooms. Direct logistic regression assessed whether narrative dialect density measure scores offered additional information about giftedness beyond scores on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test–Fourth Edition (Dunn & Dunn, 2007), a standard measure of language ability. Results indicated that a model with only Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test–Fourth Edition scores best discriminated children in the 2 classrooms. Conclusion African American children across gifted and general education classrooms produce fictional narratives of similar length, lexical diversity, and syntax complexity. However, African American children in gifted education classrooms may produce lower rates of AAE and perform better on standard measures of vocabulary than those in general education classrooms. PMID:25409770

  2. Building a Mien-American house: A case study in school-community relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Lorie A.

    2000-10-01

    Researchers and policymakers agree that schools and parents must work together if they are to provide the sustenance, services, and support which children need to be successful in our increasingly complex society. (Clark, 1983; Comer, 1980, 1996; Clinton, 1995; Epstein, 1995, 1996). Unfortunately, the social and academic success of language minority students is often adversely affected by the alienation of parents from school culture and by the "deficit" view which teachers hold of language minority parents' academic and parenting skills (Boggs, 1985; Delgado-Gaitan, 1990; Heath, 1983; Lareau, 1987, 1989; Philips, 1983). This case study describes the attempts of one school site to build academic and social bridges between immigrant families from a Southeast Asian Hill Tribe, the Iu Mien, and a mainstream elementary school. This effort is facilitated by a constructivist approach to curriculum in which parents, teachers, and children create an intercultural space---a school community garden---as a context in which academic dialogue can occur. Various strategies which enable inter-cultural learning are described, including the use of students as ethnographers, of parents as expert teachers, and of teachers as cultural brokers. The study also considers the cultural conflicts and understandings which occurred when American teachers and Mien parents built a Mien field-house together: a structure which became symbolic of their blended lives. Through both a descriptive narration and interviews with various participants, the study analyzes (a) community-based curriculum development, led by practitioner reformers, as a way to enable language minority students to be academically successful within their own life worlds, as well as (b) the political and bureaucratic forces which make community-based reforms difficult to sustain. This study employs qualitative research strategies within an action-research context in which the author plays the dual role of practitioner reformer

  3. Oral Hygiene and Handwashing Practices among Middle School Students in 15 Latin American and Caribbean Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKittrick, T R; Jacobsen, K H

    2015-06-01

    To examine the relationship between infrequent toothbrushing and infrequent handwashing among middle school students from 15 Latin American and Caribbean countries (Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Costa Rica, Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Peru, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and Grenadines, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, and Uruguay). A secondary analysis was done of nationally-representative data from 33 174 middle school students who participated in the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) between 2006 and 2011. In all 15 countries, the association between rarely brushing or cleaning teeth and rarely handwashing after using the toilet was significant for both boys and girls. The pooled odds ratio for this association was 6.7 (5.8, 7.7). Healthcare providers who notice signs of poor dental hygiene or infrequent bathing in adolescents should consider providing comprehensive hygiene education to their patients, since infrequent oral and body hygiene behaviours tend to co-exist and both are threats to health.

  4. Prevalence of sleep duration on an average school night among 4 nationally representative successive samples of American high school students, 2007-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Charles E; Basch, Corey H; Ruggles, Kelly V; Rajan, Sonali

    2014-12-11

    Consistency, quality, and duration of sleep are important determinants of health. We describe sleep patterns among demographically defined subgroups from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System reported in 4 successive biennial representative samples of American high school students (2007 to 2013). Across the 4 waves of data collection, 6.2% to 7.7% of females and 8.0% to 9.4% of males reported obtaining 9 or more hours of sleep. Insufficient duration of sleep is pervasive among American high school students. Despite substantive public health implications, intervention research on this topic has received little attention.

  5. A Study of the Curriculum and Contents in American Progressive Education : Focusing on Castle Kindergarten and Nursery School in Hawaii

    OpenAIRE

    塩路, 晶子

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to show the features of American progressive kindergarten in the early 20th century, through analyzing the curriculum and contents of Henry and Dorothy Castle Memorial Kindergarten and Nursery School in Hawaii. This kindergarten was established by Mary Castle at Honolulu in 1899 and influenced from John Dewey. And in 1927, the nursery school was established because educating younger children was important. Children could select the subject matter based on their own interest. A...

  6. Incidence of Concussion During Practice and Games in Youth, High School, and Collegiate American Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dompier, Thomas P; Kerr, Zachary Y; Marshall, Stephen W; Hainline, Brian; Snook, Erin M; Hayden, Ross; Simon, Janet E

    2015-07-01

    A report by the Institute of Medicine called for comprehensive nationwide concussion incidence data across the spectrum of athletes aged 5 to 23 years. To describe the incidence of concussion in athletes participating in youth, high school, and collegiate American football. Data were collected by athletic trainers at youth, high school, and collegiate football practices and games to create multiple prospective observational cohorts during the 2012 and 2013 football seasons. Data were collected from July 1, 2012, through January 31, 2013, for the 2012 season and from July 1, 2013, through January 31, 2014, for the 2013 season. The Youth Football Surveillance System included 118 youth football teams, providing 4092 athlete-seasons. The National Athletic Treatment, Injury and Outcomes Network program included 96 secondary school football programs, providing 11 957 athlete-seasons. The National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance Program included 24 member institutions, providing 4305 athlete-seasons. All injuries regardless of severity, including concussions, and athlete exposure information were documented by athletic trainers during practices and games. Injury rates, injury rate ratios, risks, risk ratios, and 95% CIs were calculated. Concussions comprised 9.6%, 4.0%, and 8.0% of all injuries reported in the Youth Football Surveillance System; National Athletic Treatment, Injury and Outcomes Network; and National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance Program, respectively. The game concussion rate was higher than the practice concussion rate across all 3 competitive levels. The game concussion rate for college athletes (3.74 per 1000 athlete exposures) was higher than those for high school athletes (injury rate ratio, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.50-2.31) and youth athletes (injury rate ratio, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.17-2.10). The practice concussion rate in college (0.53 per 1000 athlete exposures) was lower than that in high school (injury rate ratio, 0

  7. Violence in American Schools: The Impact of the Newtown School Shooting on School Practices and Programs, School Security Staff, Staff Training, and Security Budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Robert William

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine changes implemented by public school district personnel in response to the Newtown school shooting that occurred on December 14, 2012. The researcher used the U.S. Department of Education's National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES) School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS) to gather quantitative…

  8. Cultural competency education in American nursing programs and the approach of one school of nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloand, Elizabeth; Groves, Sara; Brager, Rosemarie

    2004-01-01

    The importance of cultural competency in all areas of American society is well accepted. Indeed, the evolving demographics of the country make it imperative. A wide range of educational and work settings has addressed the concept, from business and government to education and health. Cultural competency is particularly critical in the realm of healthcare, as the potential impact on quality of health and life is at stake. Nursing is a leader in this field, with a long theoretical and practice history of attention to, and respect for, individual differences. This article reviews cultural competency education in nursing and its respective educational settings. Common threads and different models are discussed. The program components of cultural competency education in one School of Nursing are highlighted. Future directions towards refining cultural competency education are presented.

  9. Declining loneliness over time: evidence from american colleges and high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D Matthew T; Loxton, Natalie J; Tobin, Stephanie J

    2015-01-01

    We examined changes in loneliness over time. Study 1 was a cross-temporal meta-analysis of 48 samples of American college students who completed the Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale (total N = 13,041). In Study 1, loneliness declined from 1978 to 2009 (d = -0.26). Study 2 used a representative sample of high school students from the Monitoring the Future project (total N = 385,153). In Study 2, loneliness declined from 1991 to 2012. Declines were similar among White students (d = -0.14), Black students (d = -0.17), male students (d = -0.11), and female students (d = -0.11). Different loneliness factors showed diverging trends. Subjective isolation declined (d = -0.20), whereas social network isolation increased (d = 0.06). We discuss the declines in loneliness within the context of other cultural changes, including changes to group membership and personality. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  10. Differences in gambling problem severity and gambling and health/functioning characteristics among Asian-American and Caucasian high-school students

    OpenAIRE

    Kong, Grace; Tsai, Jack; Pilver, Corey E.; Tan, Hwee Sim; Hoff, Rani A.; Cavallo, Dana; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Rugle, Loreen; Potenza, Marc N.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of Asian-American adults have found high estimates of problematic gambling. However, little is known about gambling behaviors and associated measures among Asian-American adolescents. This study examined gambling perceptions and behaviors and health/functioning characteristics stratified by problem-gambling severity and Asian-American and Caucasian race using cross-sectional survey data of 121 Asian-American and 1,659 Caucasian high-school students. Asian-American and Caucasian adoles...

  11. Listening to their voices: Exploring mathematics-science identity development of African American males in an urban school community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kimi Leemar

    National data continues to show an underrepresentation of African American males pursuing science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) majors, careers and professions in the United States. Whites and Asian Americans are continuously positioned as the face of STEM education and participation. And while research has provided ways to support mathematics and science learning for African American males, there still remains a gap in understanding how their formed mathematics-science identities in K-12 public schooling influences STEM participation. The research undertaken in this study explores this gap, and uses an integrative identity framework to understand mathematics-science identity development which goes beyond personal identity, and explores the relational, collective and material components of identity. Specifically, this research seeks to answer the following research questions: What are the shared lived experiences that exist between a group of African American male students developing a mathematics-science identity, and how these shared lived experiences shape their mathematics-science identity development? Therefore, by analyzing African American males lived experiences employing an integrative identity framework fosters a greater understanding of how mathematics-science identity is formed in K-12 public schools, which impacts STEM education and participation. The high school aged youth featured in this study consist of four African American males, who live in a moderate size city in California. Data for this study consists of observations, phenomenological interviews, and policy document analysis that took place over six months. Data has been analyzed to describe and interpret the young men's mathematics and science experiences, as revealed in their K-12 public school education. This inquiry sought to make meaning of how African American males experience mathematics and science teaching and learning within K-12 public schooling and how these

  12. Sport-Related Structural Brain Injury: 3 Cases of Subdural Hemorrhage in American High School Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yengo-Kahn, Aaron M; Gardner, Ryan M; Kuhn, Andrew W; Solomon, Gary S; Bonfield, Christopher M; Zuckerman, Scott L

    2017-10-01

    The risk of sport-related concussion (SRC) has emerged as a major public health concern. In rare instances, sport-related head injuries can be even more severe, such as subdural hemorrhage, epidural hemorrhage, or malignant cerebral edema. Unlike SRCs, sport-related structural brain injury (SRSBI) is rare, may require neurosurgical intervention, and can lead to permanent neurologic deficit or death. Data characterizing SRSBI are limited, and many have recognized the need to better understand these catastrophic brain injuries. The goal of the current series is to describe, in detail, the presentation, management, and outcomes of examples of these rare injuries. During the fall of 2015, three high school football players presented with acute subdural hemorrhages following in-game collisions and were treated at our institution within a span of 2 months. For the 2 athletes who required surgical intervention, a previous SRC was sustained within 4 weeks before the catastrophic event. One year after injury, 2 players have returned to school, though with persistent deficits. One patient remains nonverbal and wheelchair bound. None of the athletes has returned to sports. Acute subdural hemorrhage resultant from an in-game football collision is rare. The temporal proximity of the reported SRSBIs to recent SRCs emphasizes the importance of return-to-play protocols and raises questions regarding the possibility of second impact syndrome. Although epidemiologic conclusions cannot be drawn from this small sample, these cases provide a unique opportunity to demonstrate the presentation, management, and long-term outcomes of SRSBI in American high school football. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Exploring How African American Males from an Urban Community Navigate the Interracial and Intra-Racial Dimensions of Their Experiences at an Urban Jesuit High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Robert W., III

    2012-01-01

    African American males from urban communities have been attending Jesuit high schools in urban spaces for many years, yet little to no literature exists that explores their experiences while attending these elite private schools. This qualitative study of 10 African American males from an urban community attending a similarly positioned Jesuit…

  14. High Standards for All: The Struggle for Equality in the American High School Curriculum, 1890-1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirel, Jeffrey; Angus, David

    1994-01-01

    Close investigation of trends in high school student course taking indicates that curriculum differentiation has had a negative effect on the education of many young people, particularly working-class and black students. It is argued that national goals and standards, wisely developed and applied, can benefit American education. (SLD)

  15. Building Bridges in a Third Space: A Phenomenological Study of the Lived Experiences of Teaching Chinese in American Chinese Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Xuan; Lin, Jing

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the lived experiences of Chinese teachers in American Chinese Schools. Max van Manen's methodology for hermeneutic phenomenological research provides a framework for the study, and the philosophical writings of Heidegger, Gadamer, and Derrida guide the textual interpretations. Pedagogical voices of Aoki, Pinar, and Greene,…

  16. Learning Style Preferences of Korean-, Mexican-, Armenian-American, and Anglo Students in Secondary Schools. Research Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Clara C.

    1997-01-01

    Investigated the four basic learning style preferences (visual, auditory, kinesthetic, and tactile) of Korean-, Armenian-, and Mexican-American students attending 10 Los Angeles schools and compared them with those of Anglo students. All four ethnic groups, regardless of sex and academic achievement level, indicate a major preference for…

  17. School-based sports participation and its effects on weight maintenance in Mexican American adolescents: A two-year analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Participation in sports has been shown to decrease standardized body mass index (zBMI), especially in school settings. Few studies have examined the impact of sports participation in a Mexican American sample. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effect of sports participation on wei...

  18. Socialization into a Civilization: The Dewey-Kaplan Synthesis in American Jewish Schooling in the Early 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Benjamin M.

    2009-01-01

    This historical study focuses on how John Dewey's theory of education as socialization and Mordecai Kaplan's theory of Judaism as a civilization together served as an ideological base and pedagogical framework for the creation of "progressive," "reconstructed" American Jewish school programs in the early 20th century…

  19. Strategies to Improve Teacher Retention in American Overseas Schools in the Near East South Asia Region: A Qualitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, Steven V.; Roberts, Laura; White, George P.; Yoshida, Roland K.; Weston, David

    2011-01-01

    Using a qualitative analysis and drawing from sociological theory, this study examined reasons for teacher turnover and retention from a representative sample of 248 teachers in American overseas schools in the Near East South Asia region. Results suggested that the most important reasons to stay or move pertained to supportive leadership,…

  20. Dating-Partner Preferences among a Group of Inner-City African-American High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sherry P.

    1996-01-01

    Examines a set of characteristics that African American inner-city high school students may or may not value in a dating partner. A total of 80 students indicated how important they perceived certain qualities to be in a person they would like to date. The results are in contrast to the previous literature regarding dating-partner preferences…

  1. The Rural Special Education Project: A School-Based Program That Prepares Special Educators to Teach Native American Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prater, Greg; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A Northern Arizona University program prepares preservice special education teachers to work with Native American children and families. University students live on the Navajo reservation and receive practical classroom experience at Kayenta Unified School District (Arizona). Anglo students are paired with Navajo students who act as "cultural…

  2. Evaluation of the Life Satisfaction and Subjective Happiness Scales with Mexican American High School and College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, Javier C.; Lerma, Eunice; Ikonomopoulos, James

    2017-01-01

    In the current study, we investigated the psychometric properties of two meaningful measures of subjective well-being among Mexican American high school and college students. Participants completed the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) or Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS) as measures of subjective well-being. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA)…

  3. Korean American Social Studies Teachers' Perceptions and Experiences of Teaching Profession in Multicultural Urban High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yoonjung

    2018-01-01

    This study explores two Korean American social studies teachers' perceptions and experiences of the teaching profession in multicultural, urban public high schools. Drawing upon critical race theory (CRT) and its interconnection to the model minority myth, the most dominant form of racism against Asians as theoretical underpinnings, this study…

  4. College Access and Success among High School Graduates Taking the SAT®: Asian American Students. Research Note 2013-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKillip, Mary E. M.; Mackey, Philip E.

    2013-01-01

    This report shows college enrollment and graduation trends among Asian American SAT® takers who finished high school in 2004 and 2010 by student characteristics, including aspirations, self-perceived ability, and academic achievements. In every case, students in the top categories (high aspirations, high-perceived ability, high-assessed ability)…

  5. A Comparative Study of the Use of Collocation in Iranian High School Textbooks and American English File Books

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Shahrokhi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the extent to which lexical and grammatical collocations are used in Iranian high school English textbooks, compared with the American English File books. To achieve the purposes of this study, this study had to be carried out in two phases. In the first phase, the content of the instructional textbooks, that is, American English File book series, Book 2 and Iranian high school English Book 3, were analyzed to find the frequencies and proportions of the collocations used in the textbooks. Since the instructional textbooks used in the two teaching environments (i.e., Iranian high schools and language institutes were not equal with regard to the density of texts, from each textbook just the first 6000 words, content words as well as function words, were considered. Then, the frequencies of the collocations among the first 6000 words in high school English Book 3 and American English File Book 2 were determined.The results of the statistical analyses revealed that the two text book series differ marginally in terms of frequency and type of collocations. Major difference existed between them when it came to lexical collocations in American English File book 2.

  6. Relations between Perceived Competence, Importance Ratings, and Self-Worth among African American School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grier, Leslie K.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate how domain-specific importance ratings affect relations between perceived competence and self-worth among African American school-age children. Importance ratings have been found to affect the strength of the relationship between perceived competence and self-worth and have implications for…

  7. Problematizing Diversity Initiatives: Japanese American Youth Identities and the Politics of Representation with/in School Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on a case study that investigated how six Japanese American youth interpreted the effectiveness and relevance of extra-curricular diversity initiatives at their Midwestern middle and secondary public schools. These initiatives were intended to raise cultural awareness, but ultimately promoted cultural fetishism and racially…

  8. Racism, Schooling, and the Streets: A Critical Analysis of Vietnamese American Youth Gang Formation in Southern California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin D. Lam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an analysis of the relationship between educational experiences, street life, and gang formation for Vietnamese American youth gang members in Southern California. I use critical narrative methodology to center the life and experiences of a Los Angeles area gang member. His narrative substantiates how racism in schools and on the streets works together to impact and inform gang formation. Schools were sites of inter-ethnic conflict and racialized tension, and streets were spaces for contentious interactions with the police. In addition, I place the Vietnamese American youth gang phenomenon in larger historical and political contexts such as California’s anti-youth legislation, representations of Asian American youth, and U.S. geo-politics and imperialism—factors that have serious material and ideological implications and consequences.

  9. The state of radiologic teaching practice in preclinical medical education: survey of American medical, osteopathic, and podiatric schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Zachary; Blackham, Kristine

    2015-04-01

    This study describes the state of preclinical radiology curricula in North American allopathic, osteopathic, and podiatric medical schools. An online survey of teaching methods, radiology topics, and future plans was developed. The Associations of American Medical Colleges, Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine, and Colleges of Podiatric Medicine listing for all US, Canadian, and Puerto Rican schools was used for contact information for directors of anatomy and/or radiology courses. Letters were sent via e-mail to 198 schools, with a link to the anonymous survey. Of 198 schools, 98 completed the survey (48%). Radiology curricula were integrated with other topics (91%), and taught by anatomists (42%) and radiologists (43%). The majority of time was spent on the topic of anatomy correlation (35%). Time spent teaching general radiology topics in the curriculum, such as physics (3%), modality differences (6%), radiation safety (2%), and contrast use (2%) was limited. Most schools had plans to implement an innovative teaching method in the near future (62%). The major challenges included limits on: time in the curriculum (73%); resources (32%); and radiology faculty participation (30%). A total of 82% reported that their curriculum did not model the suggestions made by the Alliance of Medical Student Educators in Radiology. This survey describes the current state of preclinical radiology teaching: curricula were nonstandard, integrated into other courses, and predominantly used for anatomy correlation. Other important contextual principles of the practice of radiology were seldom taught. Copyright © 2015 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Racial and Ethnic Socialization as Moderators of Racial Discrimination and School Adjustment of Adopted and Non-adopted Korean American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seol, Kyoung Ok; Yoo, Hyung Chol; Lee, Richard M.; Park, Ji Eun; Kyeong, Yena

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated roles of racial and ethnic socialization in the link between racial discrimination and school adjustment among a sample of 233 adopted Korean American adolescents from White adoptive families and 155 non-adopted Korean American adolescents from immigrant Korean families. Adopted Korean American adolescents reported lower levels of racial discrimination, racial socialization, and ethnic socialization than non-adopted Korean American adolescents. However, racial discrimination was negatively related to school belonging and school engagement, and ethnic socialization was positively related to school engagement for both groups. Racial socialization also had a curvilinear relationship with school engagement for both groups. Moderate level of racial socialization predicted positive school engagement, whereas low and high levels of racial socialization predicted negative school engagement. Finally, ethnic socialization moderated the link between racial discrimination and school belonging, which differed between groups. In particular, ethnic socialization exacerbated the relations between racial discrimination and school belonging for adopted Korean American adolescents, whereas, ethnic socialization buffered this link for non-adopted Korean American adolescents. Findings illustrate the complex relationship between racial and ethnic socialization, racial discrimination, and school adjustment. PMID:26479418

  11. Great Apes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeman, Jonathan M.; Cerveny, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    Anesthesia of great apes is often necessary to conduct diagnostic analysis, provide therapeutics, facilitate surgical procedures, and enable transport and translocation for conservation purposes. Due to the stress of remote delivery injection of anesthetic agents, recent studies have focused on oral delivery and/or transmucosal absorption of preanesthetic and anesthetic agents. Maintenance of the airway and provision of oxygen is an important aspect of anesthesia in great ape species. The provision of analgesia is an important aspect of the anesthesia protocol for any procedure involving painful stimuli. Opioids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are often administered alone, or in combination to provide multi-modal analgesia. There is increasing conservation management of in situ great ape populations, which has resulted in the development of field anesthesia techniques for free-living great apes for the purposes of translocation, reintroduction into the wild, and clinical interventions.

  12. Making Americans: UNO Charter Schools and Civic Education. Policy Brief 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feith, David

    2013-01-01

    This policy brief is the third in a series of in-depth case studies exploring how top-performing charter schools have incorporated civic learning in their school curriculum and school culture. The UNO Charter School Network includes 13 schools serving some 6,500 students across Chicago. Located in predominantly Hispanic neighborhoods, the…

  13. Stepping Up: How Are American Cities Delivering on the Promise of Public School Choice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Christine; Heyward, Georgia; Gross, Betheny

    2017-01-01

    In America today, families in almost every urban community have some kind of public school choice. This report focuses on "public school choice," under which families are able to choose from both an array of traditional public schools and public charter schools. Public school choice has grown rapidly in the past 20 years; new charter…

  14. Prevalence of high astigmatism, eyeglass wear, and poor visual acuity among Native American grade school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Erin M; Dobson, Velma; Miller, Joseph M

    2006-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of astigmatism and poor visual acuity and rate of eyeglass wear in grade school children who are members of a Native American tribe reported to have a high prevalence of large amounts of astigmatism. Vision screening was conducted on 1,327 first through eighth grade children attending school on the Tohono O'odham Reservation. Noncycloplegic autorefraction was conducted on the right and left eye of each child using the Nikon Retinomax K+ autorefractor, and monocular recognition acuity was tested using ETDRS logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) letter charts. Tohono O'odham children had a high prevalence of high astigmatism (42% had > or = 1.00 D in the right or left eye) and the axis of astigmatism was uniformly with-the-rule. However, only a small percentage of children arrived at the vision screening wearing glasses, and the prevalence of poor visual acuity (20/40 or worse in either eye) was high (35%). There was a significant relation between amount of astigmatism and uncorrected visual acuity with each additional diopter of astigmatism resulting in an additional 1 logMAR line reduction in visual acuity. Uncorrected astigmatism and poor visual acuity are prevalent among Tohono O'odham children. The results highlight the importance of improving glasses-wearing compliance, determining barriers to receiving eye care, and initiating public education programs regarding the importance of early identification and correction of astigmatism in Tohono O'odham children.

  15. Development and Validation of the Coping with Acculturative Stress in American Schools (Casas-A) Scale on a Latino Adolescent Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Olivo, Sara M.; Palardy, Gregory J.; Albeg, Loren; Williamson, Ariel A.

    2014-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the Coping With Acculturative Stress in American Schools (CASAS-A) scale were examined using a sample of 148 Latino middle school students. CASAS-A is a self-report scale designed to identify students in need of culturally responsive social-emotional interventions due to having high levels of school-related…

  16. One Step Forward--Half a Step Back: A Status Report on Bias-Based Bullying of Asian American Students in New York City Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asian American Legal Defense and Education Fund, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In September 2008, Mayor Michael Bloomberg and former Schools Chancellor, Joel Klein announced Chancellor's Regulation A-832, which established policies and procedures on how New York City schools should respond to bias-based harassment, intimidation, and bullying in schools. The Asian American Legal Defense and Education Fund (AALDEF), the Sikh…

  17. A Comparative Study of Parental Involvement and Its Effect on African-American Male and Overall Student Achievement at Single Gender and Coeducational Middle Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nellums, Michael W.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if Parental Involvement influenced academic performance at single gender and co-educational schools. This study also compared African American male academic achievement with all students enrolled in two single gender, and one coeducational, middle school programs. Although all three schools reflected a…

  18. Indian boarding school experience, substance use, and mental health among urban two-spirit American Indian/Alaska natives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans-Campbell, Teresa; Walters, Karina L; Pearson, Cynthia R; Campbell, Christopher D

    2012-09-01

    Systematic efforts of assimilation removed many Native children from their tribal communities and placed in non-Indian-run residential schools. To explore substance use and mental health concerns among a community-based sample of 447 urban two-spirit American Indian/Alaska Native adults who had attended boarding school as children and/or who were raised by someone who attended boarding school. Eighty-two respondents who had attended Indian boarding school as children were compared to respondents with no history of boarding school with respect to mental health and substance use. Former boarding school attendees reported higher rates of current illicit drug use and living with alcohol use disorder, and were significantly more likely to have attempted suicide and experienced suicidal thoughts in their lifetime compared to non-attendees. About 39% of the sample had been raised by someone who attended boarding school. People raised by boarding school attendees were significantly more likely to have a general anxiety disorder, experience posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, and have suicidal thoughts in their lifetime compared to others.

  19. Interracial and intraracial contact, school-level diversity, and change in racial identity status among African American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Tiffany; Seaton, Eleanor K; Sellers, Robert M

    2010-01-01

    Among 224 African American adolescents (mean age=14), the associations between interracial and intraracial contact and school-level diversity on changes in racial identity over a 3-year period were examined. Youths were determined to be diffused, foreclosed, moratorium, or achieved, and change or stability in identity status was examined. Contact with Black students, Black friends, and White friends predicted change in identity status. Furthermore, in racially diverse schools, having more Black friends was associated with identity stability. Students reporting low contact with Black students in racially diverse schools were more likely to report identity change if they had few Black friends. In students reporting high contact with Blacks in predominantly White schools, their identity was less likely to change for students with fewer White friends. © 2010 The Authors. Child Development © 2010 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  20. Expecting the Unexpected: a Comparative Study of African-American Women's Experiences in Science during the High School Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Sandra L.; Johnson, Elizabeth Palmer

    Data from the National Educational Longitudinal Study (NELS) for the years 1988 to 1992 are used to explore the science experiences of young African-American women during the high school years. The comparison groups we use in trying to understand these experiences involve White women (for a race contrast) and African-American men (for a gender contrast). Within the context of a critical feminist perspective, it is argued that gender is constructed in a different way in White and African-American communities. Instead of expecting a disadvantage for young African-American women because of their gender and minority statuses, it is suggested that unique gender ideologies and work-family arrangements in the African-American community give these young women the resources and agency that allow them to compete with their White female counterparts and their African-American male counterparts in the science domain. Results from our analyses of the NELS data confirm these expectations. We find that on a majority of science measures, African-American women do as well as - and sometimes better than - White women and African-American men. For example, there are no differences between African-American women and men on attitudes toward science. And when compared with White women, African-American women tend to have more positive attitudes. When disadvantages appear for these young African-American women, they are more likely to be race effects then gender effects. The minimal gender effects in the science experiences of young African-Americans is in contrast to the more frequent male advantage in the White sample. A careful examination of family and individual resources shows that African-American families compensate for disadvantages on some resources (e.g., family socioeconomic status) by providing young women with an excess of other resources (e.g., unique gender ideologies, work expectations, and maternal expectations and involvement). And, unlike White parents, they sometimes

  1. Great Expectations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickens, Charles

    2005-01-01

    One of Dickens's most renowned and enjoyable novels, Great Expectations tells the story of Pip, an orphan boy who wishes to transcend his humble origins and finds himself unexpectedly given the opportunity to live a life of wealth and respectability. Over the course of the tale, in which Pip

  2. Medical relief activities conducted by Nippon Medical School in the acute phase of the Great East Japan Earthquake 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuse, Akira; Shuto, Yuki; Ando, Fumihiko; Shibata, Masafumi; Watanabe, Akihiro; Onda, Hidetaka; Masuno, Tomohiko; Yokota, Hiroyuki

    2011-01-01

    At 14:46 on March 11, 2011, the Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami occurred off the coast of Honshu, Japan. In the acute phase of this catastrophe, one of our teams was deployed as a Tokyo Disaster Medical Assistance Team (DMAT) to Kudan Kaikan in Tokyo, where the ceiling of a large hall had partially collapsed as the result of the earthquake, to conduct triage at the scene: 6 casualties were assigned to the red category (immediate), which included 1 case of cardiopulmonary arrest and 1 of flail chest; 8 casualties in the yellow category (delayed); and 22 casualties in the green category (minor). One severely injured person was transported to our hospital. Separately, our medical team was deployed to Miyagi 2 hours after the earthquake in our multipurpose medical vehicle as part of Japan DMAT (J-DMAT). We were the first DMAT from the metropolitan area to arrive, but we were unable to start medical relief activities because the information infrastructure had been destroyed and no specific information had yet reached the local headquarters. Early next morning, J-DMAT decided to support Sendai Medical Center and search and rescue efforts in the affected area and to establish a staging care unit at Camp Kasuminome of the Japan Self-Defense Force. Our team joined others to establish the staging care unit. Because information was still confused until day 3 of the disaster and we could not adequately grasp onsite medical needs, our J-DMAT decided to provide onsite support at Ishinomaki Red Cross Hospital, a disaster base hospital, and relay information about its needs to the local J-DMAT headquarters. Although our medical relief teams were deployed as quickly as possible, we could not begin medical relief activities immediately owing to the severely damaged information infrastructure. Only satellite mobile phones could be operated, and information on the number of casualties and the severity of shortages of lifeline services could be obtained only through a "go and

  3. Impact of the great east Japan earthquake on the body mass index of preschool children: a nationwide nursery school survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokomichi, Hiroshi; Zheng, Wei; Matsubara, Hiroko; Ishikuro, Mami; Kikuya, Masahiro; Isojima, Tsuyoshi; Yokoya, Susumu; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Kato, Noriko; Chida, Shoichi; Ono, Atsushi; Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Tanaka, Soichiro; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Kure, Shigeo; Yamagata, Zentaro

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the impact of the 2011 great east Japan earthquake on body mass index (BMI) of preschool children. Design Retrospective cohort study and ecological study. Setting Affected prefectures (Fukushima, Miyagi and Iwate) and unaffected prefectures in northeast Japan. Participants The cohort study assessed 2033 and 1707 boys and 1909 and 1658 girls in 3 affected prefectures and unaffected prefectures, respectively, all aged 3–4 years at the time of the earthquake. The ecological study examined random samples of schoolchildren from the affected prefectures. Primary and secondary outcome measures The cohort study compared postdisaster changes in BMIs and the prevalence of overweight and obese children. The ecological study evaluated postdisaster changes in the prevalence of overweight children. Results 1 month after the earthquake, significantly increased BMIs were observed among girls (+0.087 kg/m2 vs unaffected prefectures) in Fukushima and among boys and girls (+0.165 and +0.124 kg/m2, respectively vs unaffected prefectures) in Iwate. 19 months after the earthquake, significantly increased BMIs were detected among boys and girls (+0.137 and +0.200 kg/m2, respectively vs unaffected prefectures) in Fukushima, whereas significantly decreased BMIs were observed among boys and girls (−0.218 and −0.082 kg/m2, respectively vs unaffected prefectures) in Miyagi. 1 month after the earthquake, Fukushima, Miyagi and Iwate had a slightly increased prevalence of overweight boys, whereas Fukushima had a slightly decreased prevalence of overweight girls, compared with the unaffected prefectures. The ecological study detected increases in the prevalence of overweight boys and girls in Fukushima who were 6–11 and 6–10 years of age, respectively. Conclusions These results suggest that in the affected prefectures, preschool children gained weight immediately after the earthquake. The long-term impact of the earthquake on early childhood

  4. Impact of the great east Japan earthquake on the body mass index of preschool children: a nationwide nursery school survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokomichi, Hiroshi; Zheng, Wei; Matsubara, Hiroko; Ishikuro, Mami; Kikuya, Masahiro; Isojima, Tsuyoshi; Yokoya, Susumu; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Kato, Noriko; Chida, Shoichi; Ono, Atsushi; Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Tanaka, Soichiro; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Kure, Shigeo; Yamagata, Zentaro

    2016-04-07

    To evaluate the impact of the 2011 great east Japan earthquake on body mass index (BMI) of preschool children. Retrospective cohort study and ecological study. Affected prefectures (Fukushima, Miyagi and Iwate) and unaffected prefectures in northeast Japan. The cohort study assessed 2033 and 1707 boys and 1909 and 1658 girls in 3 affected prefectures and unaffected prefectures, respectively, all aged 3-4 years at the time of the earthquake. The ecological study examined random samples of schoolchildren from the affected prefectures. The cohort study compared postdisaster changes in BMIs and the prevalence of overweight and obese children. The ecological study evaluated postdisaster changes in the prevalence of overweight children. 1 month after the earthquake, significantly increased BMIs were observed among girls (+0.087 kg/m(2) vs unaffected prefectures) in Fukushima and among boys and girls (+0.165 and +0.124 kg/m(2), respectively vs unaffected prefectures) in Iwate. 19 months after the earthquake, significantly increased BMIs were detected among boys and girls (+0.137 and +0.200 kg/m(2), respectively vs unaffected prefectures) in Fukushima, whereas significantly decreased BMIs were observed among boys and girls (-0.218 and -0.082 kg/m(2), respectively vs unaffected prefectures) in Miyagi. 1 month after the earthquake, Fukushima, Miyagi and Iwate had a slightly increased prevalence of overweight boys, whereas Fukushima had a slightly decreased prevalence of overweight girls, compared with the unaffected prefectures. The ecological study detected increases in the prevalence of overweight boys and girls in Fukushima who were 6-11 and 6-10 years of age, respectively. These results suggest that in the affected prefectures, preschool children gained weight immediately after the earthquake. The long-term impact of the earthquake on early childhood growth was more variable among the affected prefectures, possibly as a result of different speeds of

  5. Reframing School Readiness: Case Studies of African-American and Latina Head Start Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Nicole Colette

    2017-01-01

    The "school readiness gap" has been attributed to differences in family life, home-school connections, and social inequalities. The current school-parent partnership model fails to acknowledge the ways in which parent roles in education, and the home-school relations in which they are embedded, reflect broader social inequalities that…

  6. American Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. O. Pechatnov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The "Founding fathers" of American Studies at MGIMO are considered to be A.V. Efimov and L.I. Clove. Alexey Efimov - Corresponding Member of the USSR Academy of Sciences since 1938, Head of the Department of Modern and Contemporary History and Dean of the Historical School at the Moscow State University - one of the first professors of the Faculty of International Relations MGIMO. Efimov distinguished himself by a broad vision and scope of scientific interests. Back in 1934 he published a monograph "On the history of capitalism in the United States," which initiated a series of research culminating in the fundamental work "The United States. The path of capitalist development (pre-imperialist era". Alexey was not only a great scientist but also a great teacher, whose lectures was popular throughout Moscow. His lecture courses, given at the end of the 1940s at MGIMO, became the basis for the first post-war history textbooks USA - "Essays on the history of the United States." At least as colorful a figure was Professor Leo Izrailevich Zubok - a man of unusual destiny. As a teenager he emigrated to the United States with his parents, where he soon joined the American revolutionary movement in the 1920s and was forced to leave the country. He came to MGIMO being already an experienced scientists. His research interests were very wide: from the study of American foreign policy expansion to the history of the labor movement in the United States. Zubok's fundamental works still have not lost its scientific significance. He has successfully combined scientific work with teaching. Tutorials that are based on his lectures were very popular not only among students of MGIMO.

  7. CERN – Latin-American School of High-Energy Physics | Arequipa, Peru | 6-19 March 2013

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    The CERN – Latin-American School of High-Energy Physics targets particularly at students in experimental HEP who are in the final years of work towards their PhDs.   However, it is anticipated that some post-doctoral students in experimental HEP, and some students in phenomenology, including some Masters students, will also be accepted. It should be noted that some pre-knowledge of the subjects is necessary in order to be able to profit fully from the lecture courses. Demand for admission to the CERN – Latin-American Schools of High-Energy Physics exceeds the number of available places, so a competitive selection is made based on information provided on the application form and the letter of recommendation from the candidate's professor or supervisor. The application deadline is 16 November 2012 More information here.

  8. Promoting physical activity through the shared use of school recreational spaces: a policy statement from the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Deborah R; Spengler, John O; Frost, Natasha; Evenson, Kelly R; Vincent, Jeffrey M; Whitsel, Laurie

    2014-09-01

    Most Americans are not sufficiently physically active, even though regular physical activity improves health and reduces the risk of many chronic diseases. Those living in rural, non-White, and lower-income communities often have insufficient access to places to be active, which can contribute to their lower level of physical activity. The shared use of school recreational facilities can provide safe and affordable places for communities. Studies suggest that challenges to shared use include additional cost, liability protection, communication among constituencies interested in sharing space, and decision-making about scheduling and space allocation. This American Heart Association policy statement has provided recommendations for federal, state, and local decision-makers to support and expand opportunities for physical activity in communities through the shared use of school spaces.

  9. School-Based Racial and Gender Discrimination among African American Adolescents: Exploring Gender Variation in Frequency and Implications for Adjustment

    OpenAIRE

    Cogburn, Courtney D.; Chavous, Tabbye M.; Griffin, Tiffany M.

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined school-based racial and gender discrimination experiences among African American adolescents in Grade 8 (n = 204 girls; n = 209 boys). A primary goal was exploring gender variation in frequency of both types of discrimination and associations of discrimination with academic and psychological functioning among girls and boys. Girls and boys did not vary in reported racial discrimination frequency, but boys reported more gender discrimination experiences. Multiple reg...

  10. Factors that Influence College Choice and Pathways among Vietnamese American High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Huy

    2012-01-01

    Asian Americans are often depicted as a highly successful group, attaining advanced levels of education and upward mobility. However, research indicates Southeast Asian Americans are underrepresented in higher education and earn less bachelor degrees than East Asian Americans. To explore the phenomenon of unequal representation between Southeast…

  11. Native American Women Perceptions in Pk-12 Administrative Positions in North Dakota Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCoteau, Lanelia Irene

    2012-01-01

    Historically Native American women have experienced barriers in their rise to Pk-12 educational leadership positions. There is limited research available on Native American women in educational leadership. Therefore, the purpose for this survey study was to discover what inspired current Pk-12 Native American women educational leaders to choose…

  12. Discovering Greatness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    People are confronting the most pressing challenge facing every family, school, and community--raising respectful children in a toxic world. In simpler societies, raising children was a shared task of the whole community, as adults and youth worked in harmony and mutual respect. Today, humans are the only species in creation living out of balance.…

  13. The Perceptions of STEM from Eighth-Grade African-American Girls in a High-Minority Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, LaChanda N.

    Even with the existence of STEM curriculum and STEM programs that target women and minorities, African-American females still lag behind other ethnic groups in STEM fields. Reasons for the underrepresentation of females in STEM fields can be traced back to the early years of schooling. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that impact African-American females' perspectives of STEM subjects and STEM careers. An explanatory sequential mixed-methods approach was used for data collection with a survey, focus group, and interview. Forty male (N=12) and female (N=28) students from different ethnic groups were surveyed. The focus group and interview sessions consisted of 21 African-American females from two distinct groups: those enrolled in the school's STEM program (STEM) and those who were not enrolled in the STEM program (Non-STEM). The self-efficacy theory and social cognitive career theory served as the theoretical constructs guiding the data analysis. Multiple regression results showed that outcome expectation and personal disposition had the greatest influence on the females' interest in STEM content and STEM careers. Results from the qualitative portion of the study revealed that the learning environment and STEM self-efficacy had a significant impact on African-American females' interest in STEM.

  14. Childhood school segregation and later life sense of control and physical performance in the African American Health cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolinsky, Fredric D; Andresen, Elena M; Malmstrom, Theodore K; Miller, J Philip; Schootman, Mario; Miller, Douglas K

    2012-09-27

    The association between childhood school desegregation and later life sense of control and physical performance among African Americans is not clear. We hypothesized that childhood school desegregation adversely affected the sense of control of in later life, and that this reduced sense of control accounts in part for reduced physical performance. In-home follow-up assessments were completed in 2010 with 582 of the 58-74 year old men and women participating in the on-going African American Health cohort. We used these data to examine the relationship between (a) retrospective self-reports of attending segregated schools during one's 1st-to-12th grade education and one's current sense of control, as well as (b) the association between current sense of control and physical performance. Multiple linear regression analysis with propensity score re-weighting was used. Attending segregated schools for at least half of one's 1st-to-12th grade education was significantly associated with higher scores on the sense of control. Adjusting for all covariates and potential confounders, those receiving half or more of their 1st-to-12th grade education in segregated schools had sense of control scores that were .886 points higher (p ≤ .01; standardized effect size = .22). Sense of control scores were independently (all p school segregation and physical performance. Childhood school desegregation was adversely associated with the sense of control of African Americans in later life, and this reduced sense of control appears, in part, to account for their poorer physical performance. The etiologic mechanism through which childhood school segregation at the time that this cohort experienced it improved the sense of control in later life, which subsequently led to better physical performance, has not been identified. We suspect, however, that the pathway involves greater exposure to racial solidarity, same-race students as peer role models and same-race teachers and

  15. Did the Great Recession Downsize Immigrants and Native-Born Americans Differently? Unemployment Differentials by Nativity, Race and Gender from 2007 to 2013 in the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharron Xuanren Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We use data from the Current Population Survey from 2007 and 2013 to investigate demographic differentials in unemployment during the Great Recession in the U.S. Although our analysis is primarily exploratory and descriptive, our major research objective is to illuminate the unemployment differential between the foreign born and the native born. The findings indicate that during the height of the Great Recession, the foreign born had higher unemployment rates than the native born. However, this differential is statistically explained by their observed characteristics, such as race/ethnicity, gender, age and education. With the net of those variables and a few other demographic covariates, foreign born workers as an overall group actually had somewhat lower chances of being unemployed than native born workers. This finding is discussed in terms of the selectivity of immigrant workers and the possibility that they are somewhat more immediately dependent on having a job. After breaking down the foreign born into major racial/ethnic groups, the results suggest that foreign-born blacks and foreign-born Hispanics are particularly selective with the net of their observed characteristics. The possible sources of such differentials by race/ethnicity and by gender are discussed.

  16. Out of School and Off Track: The Overuse of Suspensions in American Middle and High Schools. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losen, Daniel J.; Martinez, Tia Elena

    2013-01-01

    In this first of a kind breakdown of data from over 26,000 U.S. middle and high schools, the authors estimate that well over two million students were suspended during the 2009-2010 academic year. This means that one out of every nine secondary school students was suspended at least once during that year. As other studies demonstrate, the vast…

  17. Great Quotes for Great Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Todd; Lumpa, Dale

    2005-01-01

    Over 600 insightful, witty nuggets to motivate and inspire you... and everyone else at your school. Teachers--display these quotes in your classrooms! Administrators--insert them into your faculty memos and share them at staff meetings! Why is this book unique? (1) it includes over 100 original quotes from internationally acclaimed speaker and…

  18. Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edsall, Thomas A.; Mac, Michael J.; Opler, Paul A.; Puckett Haecker, Catherine E.; Doran, Peter D.

    1998-01-01

    The Great Lakes region, as defined here, includes the Great Lakes and their drainage basins in Minnesota, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New York. The region also includes the portions of Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the 21 northernmost counties of Illinois that lie in the Mississippi River drainage basin, outside the floodplain of the river. The region spans about 9º of latitude and 20º of longitude and lies roughly halfway between the equator and the North Pole in a lowland corridor that extends from the Gulf of Mexico to the Arctic Ocean.The Great Lakes are the most prominent natural feature of the region (Fig. 1). They have a combined surface area of about 245,000 square kilometers and are among the largest, deepest lakes in the world. They are the largest single aggregation of fresh water on the planet (excluding the polar ice caps) and are the only glacial feature on Earth visible from the surface of the moon (The Nature Conservancy 1994a).The Great Lakes moderate the region’s climate, which presently ranges from subarctic in the north to humid continental warm in the south (Fig. 2), reflecting the movement of major weather masses from the north and south (U.S. Department of the Interior 1970; Eichenlaub 1979). The lakes act as heat sinks in summer and heat sources in winter and are major reservoirs that help humidify much of the region. They also create local precipitation belts in areas where air masses are pushed across the lakes by prevailing winds, pick up moisture from the lake surface, and then drop that moisture over land on the other side of the lake. The mean annual frost-free period—a general measure of the growing-season length for plants and some cold-blooded animals—varies from 60 days at higher elevations in the north to 160 days in lakeshore areas in the south. The climate influences the general distribution of wild plants and animals in the region and also influences the activities and distribution of the human

  19. Preparing for Beslan: Anti-Terrorism Recommendations for an American School

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-13

    confronting school -shooter situations. Columbine , Jonesboro, and Virginia Tech are not just places of profound sorrow but rallying cries for those advocating...installed physical security mechanisms to protect students during a school shooting incident. However, to secure students from a concerted terrorist...Strategy Forum 2004, 6). Some Manhattan schools were forced to evacuate to sites miles away. Two high schools ’ evacuation plans called for students to

  20. Building a School Leadership Programme: An American Paradox of Autonomy and Accountability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Guerra, Daniel; Russo, Marianne R.; Bogotch, Ira E.; Vásquez-Colina, Maria D.

    2014-01-01

    School districts within the USA face ever-decreasing autonomy in rendering decisions regarding instruction, curriculum and the leading and managing of schools at the local level due to the ever-increasing accountability measures implemented by district, state and federal governments. This study investigates a joint university-school district…

  1. Domestic Practices in Foreign Lands: Lessons on Leadership for Diversity in American International Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami-Ramalho, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    One of the prevalent concerns in educational leadership practices in urban schools in the United States relates to diversity issues, especially the disengagement among students of certain ethnic groups with regard to succeeding in school. In this ethnographic study, educators who once served in U.S. public schools were invited to reflect on this…

  2. A Leadership Behavior Study of African American Middle School Principals in South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Mark D.

    2009-01-01

    An era of high stakes accountability has expanded the necessity for school districts to secure principals with leadership behaviors that encourage successful academic performance. School leaders are sought to deliver practices that guide and empower entire school communities through unprecedented times of educational change. Research studies…

  3. Sports and Physical Education in American High Schools: Some Historical Reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hanlon, Timothy P.

    Public schooling was restructured and reoriented in fundamental ways during the decades immediately preceding the First World War. Schools were engaged in the process of preparing people for specialized work roles, but reformers were also concerned that the schools inculcate common social values. A wide range of extracurricular activities was…

  4. Hopes, Fears, & Reality: A Balanced Look at American Charter Schools in 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Robin J., Ed.; Gross, Betheny, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Charter schools are public schools. Historically, however, the relationship between school districts and charters has been nonexistent at best, antagonistic at worst. As the charter sector continues to grow steadily, an analysis of the national landscape explores how that relationship needs to start changing--and where it already has. This year's…

  5. Anthropometric and Athletic Performance Combine Test Results Among Positions Within Grade Levels of High School-Aged American Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leutzinger, Todd J; Gillen, Zachary M; Miramonti, Amelia M; McKay, Brianna D; Mendez, Alegra I; Cramer, Joel T

    2018-05-01

    Leutzinger, TJ, Gillen, ZM, Miramonti, AM, McKay, BD, Mendez, AI, and Cramer, JT. Anthropometric and athletic performance combine test results among positions within grade levels of high school-aged American football players. J Strength Cond Res 32(5): 1288-1296, 2018-The purpose of this study was to investigate differences among player positions at 3 grade levels in elite, collegiate-prospective American football players. Participants' data (n = 7,160) were analyzed for this study (mean height [Ht] ± SD = 178 ± 7 cm, mass [Bm] = 86 ± 19 kg). Data were obtained from 12 different high school American football recruiting combines hosted by Zybek Sports (Boulder, Colorado). Eight 2-way (9 × 3) mixed factorial analysis of variances {position (defensive back [DB], defensive end, defensive lineman, linebacker, offensive lineman [OL], quarterback, running back, tight end, and wide receiver [WR]) × grade (freshmen, sophomores, and juniors)} were used to test for differences among the mean test scores for each combine measure (Ht, Bm, 40-yard [40 yd] dash, proagility [PA] drill, L-cone [LC] drill, vertical jump [VJ], and broad jump [BJ]). There were position-related differences (p ≤ 0.05) for Ht, 40 yd dash, and BJ, within each grade level and for Bm, PA, LC, and VJ independent of grade level. Generally, the results showed that OL were the tallest, weighed the most, and exhibited the lowest performance scores among positions. Running backs were the shortest, whereas DBs and WRs weighed the least and exhibited the highest performance scores among positions. These results demonstrate the value of classifying high school-aged American football players according to their specific position rather than categorical groupings such as "line" vs. "skill" vs. "big skill" when evaluating anthropometric and athletic performance combine test results.

  6. School factors associated with socio-emotional development in Latin American Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murillo, F.Javier

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of an international research that intends to identify key factors associated with school and classroom socio-emotional achievement of Primary Education Students in Latin America countries. This Multilevel Study has been conducted with 4 analysis levels; we studied 5,603 students from 248 classrooms from 98 schools in 9 countries. We worked with 4 product socio-affective variables (self-concept, academic behaviour, social interaction and satisfaction with the school. The results showed a series of classroom and school factors that explain the socio-emotional development, consistent with those found in research on school effectiveness to cognitive factors.

  7. Media influence on pre-middle school African Americans' perceptions toward science, mathematics, and technology courses and careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Sharon Campbell

    2005-07-01

    A variety of previous studies have suggested that inaccurate, stereotypical or missing media depictions of science, engineering, and technology (SET) workers and fields have contributed to a growing shortage of youth interested in pursuing careers within the scientific endeavor. However, studies on the perceptions of African American youth have not usually been the focus of such research. In this exploratory study, in-depth interviews were conducted with 34 fifth grade African American students to determine the relative influence television and film portrayals of SET workers had on these children's perceptions of roles in SET fields and careers and school coursework related to them. Framed within the theoretical perspectives of cultivation analysis and the construction of social reality, results indicated the majority of participants perceived scientists as ambiguous, possessing either mythic characteristics of the fantastic persona or they saw them as altruistically inclined figures that saved the world from disease, destruction, and decay. Television and film portrayals of SET workers were found in varying degrees and ways to shape these African American children's perceptions toward SET careers. While children exhibited self-concepts about SET workers that were sometimes idealistic, distorted, or unrealistic, most had favorable perceptions toward math and science courses in school. However, it was the absence of television and film portrayals of African Americans in SET roles that was problematic for the majority of students. Recommendations for media producers, educators, scientific research foundations, and parents were suggested to dispel some of these commonly found media stereotypes of SET workers and African Americans in these roles and their effects.

  8. The Great Recession and confidence in homeownership

    OpenAIRE

    Anat Bracha; Julian Jamison

    2013-01-01

    Confidence in homeownership shifts for those who personally experienced real estate loss during the Great Recession. Older Americans are confident in the value of homeownership. Younger Americans are less confident.

  9. Gender matters, too: the influences of school racial discrimination and racial identity on academic engagement outcomes among African American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavous, Tabbye M; Rivas-Drake, Deborah; Smalls, Ciara; Griffin, Tiffany; Cogburn, Courtney

    2008-05-01

    The authors examined relationships among racial identity, school-based racial discrimination experiences, and academic engagement outcomes for adolescent boys and girls in Grades 8 and 11 (n = 204 boys and n = 206 girls). The authors found gender differences in peer and classroom discrimination and in the impact of earlier and later discrimination experiences on academic outcomes. Racial centrality related positively to school performance and school importance attitudes for boys. Also, centrality moderated the relationship between discrimination and academic outcomes in ways that differed across gender. For boys, higher racial centrality related to diminished risk for lower school importance attitudes and grades from experiencing classroom discrimination relative to boys lower in centrality, and girls with higher centrality were protected against the negative impact of peer discrimination on school importance and academic self-concept. However, among lower race-central girls, peer discrimination related positively to academic self-concept. Finally, socioeconomic background moderated the relationship of discrimination with academic outcomes differently for girls and boys. The authors discuss the need to consider interactions of individual- and contextual-level factors in better understanding African American youths' academic and social development. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Child-Centered Group Play Therapy with African American Boys at the Elementary School Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggerly, Jennifer; Parker, Max

    2005-01-01

    African American boys face numerous challenges in society within the United States, including prejudice, discrimination, racism, economic hardship, limited access to support services, educational biases, and community violence. According to Pierce (1988), the psychic assault of subtle racism against African American boys erode their…

  11. Native American High School Seniors' Perceptions of Higher Education: Motivating and Demotivating Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogman, Calvin

    2013-01-01

    For many Native American students, particularly those from reservations, the pursuit of higher education is a formidable concept to grasp. Poverty, rural isolation, and a myriad of social ills all take a role as demotivational factors that act as barriers between Native American students and a college education. On the other hand, family,…

  12. Five African American Male Superintendents and Their Leadership in Diverse School Districts in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smothers, Aneil Chrisfor

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this research is in the area of African American male superintendents and their leadership in diverse settings. The research approach adopted in this dissertation used semi-structured interviews with five African American male superintendents that consisted of three main issues: (1) personal; (2) leadership quality/effectiveness and…

  13. Panjabi Language Instruction at the American Sikh Temple School: A Site for Hybrid Cultural Socialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwana, Ravneet Kaur

    2007-01-01

    It has been claimed that there is only one language, the English language in the United States, because America is not a "polyglot boardinghouse ..." (Portes and Rumbaut 196). The fact is that America has always been a multilingual society, even though this mythical notion of a monolingual American identity reflecting American loyalty…

  14. Should Discipline Hurt? Shifting American Spanking Beliefs and Implications for School Corporal Punishment Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard, Lauren A.

    2012-01-01

    American opinion on spanking has shifted. Most Americans agreed with the necessity of sometimes spanking children, but proportions disagreeing increased 15 percentage point (94% overall) between 1986 (16%) and 2010 (31%). Growing proportions disagreed with spanking in each consecutive decade for all significant generational cohorts, with the…

  15. Japanese Families' Educational Challenges in the US: Strategies and Attitudes for Language and Cultural Maintenance While in American and Hosuko Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Hideki

    2008-01-01

    Many Japanese families come to the US because the fathers are dispatched to work at Japanese companies in the US, and they return to Japan after a 3-4 year stay. Many children attend an American local school as well as a supplementary Saturday school, hoshuko, in order to keep up academically after they return to Japan. However, balancing an…

  16. Vocabulary Instruction and Mexican-American Bilingual Students: How Two High School Teachers Integrate Multiple Strategies to Build Word Consciousness in English Language Arts Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, Lasisi

    2015-01-01

    Despite the significance of vocabulary knowledge to student learning, limited studies have examined English language arts (ELA) teachers' skills and practices that may be effective for building word consciousness in high school Mexican-American bilingual students. The research objective of the present study is to examine how two high school ELA…

  17. Sexual orientation and education politics: gay and lesbian representation in American schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, Kenneth D; Rienzo, Barbara A; Button, James W

    2002-01-01

    In what has sometimes provoked a "culture war" over America's schools, gays and lesbians have sought an expanded voice in the making of education policy. This paper explores the factors that promote gay representation on school boards, how this variable in turn influences gay representation in both administrative and teaching positions, and how all three forms of gay representation relate to school board policies regarding sexual orientation education. Three of the four models drawn from the social movement literature help to explain gay school board representation. In a manner similar to other minority groups, gay representation on school boards directly or indirectly promotes the appointment of gays to administrative and teaching positions and the adoption of policies that address the problems faced by gay and lesbian students in the public schools.

  18. Intensive use of an intertidal mudflat by foraging adult American horseshoe crabs Limulus polyphemus in the Great Bay estuary, New Hampshire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Jean LEE

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Although concerns about harvesting levels of the American Horseshoe Crab, Limulus polyphemus have prompted increased research into its ecology, current understanding of the species’ foraging ecology is mostly limited to mid-Atlantic populations. This study elucidates the spatial and temporal pattern of Limulus foraging on an intertidal mudflat of a northern New England estuary. A novel survey method was used to monitor Limulus foraging activity without disturbing the sediment. A fixed 50 m´2 m transect was monitored with monthly surveys of the number of Limulus feeding pits from June to October 2009, May and June 2010. Snorkelling surveys were also carried out to observe individual behavior and examine the spatial scale of activity of individual animals. Results showed frequent and intensive use of the mudflat by foraging Limulus. Limulus were actively foraging within the survey area during all months surveyed. Foraging patterns exhibited a seasonal pattern with activity levels peaking in August 2009 and increased significantly towards the end of the study in June 2010. It was also shown that Limulus intertidal foraging persisted and peaked after the spring breeding season. Observations of foraging Limulus revealed that individual predators dig multiple pits within a single high tide, with little disturbance to the sediment in between. In addition to altering the perception of Limulus as a subtidal predator outside of the breeding season, findings from this study suggests a segregation of spawning and feeding habitats, thus underscoring the need to consider a wider range of critical habitats in the management of Limulus populations [Current Zoology 56 (5: 611–617, 2010].

  19. Intervention effects on kindergarten and 1st grade teachers’ classroom food practices and food-related beliefs in American Indian reservation schools

    OpenAIRE

    Arcan, Chrisa; Hannan, Peter J.; Himes, John H.; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Rock, Bonnie Holy; Smyth, Mary; Story, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Prevalence of obesity among American Indian (AI) children is higher than the general US population. The school environment and teachers play important roles in helping students develop healthy eating habits. The aim of this prospective study was to examine teachers’ classroom and school food practices and beliefs and the effect of teacher training on these practices and beliefs. Data were used from the Bright Start study, a group-randomized, school-based trial on the Pine Ri...

  20. Preparing for the Great American Eclipse of Aug. 21: for Yourself, and for Holding an Event for the Public and Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, D. K.

    2016-12-01

    On Aug. 21, 2017 a Total Eclipse of the Sun will cross the US. For the first time in 40 years every state will have at least 80% of the sun covered by the moon, and lucky people from Oregon to South Carolina will see the beauty of the total eclipse and remember it all their lives. It is as difficult to convey the impression of a total eclilpse as it is to convey what the Grand Canyon is like. Words cannot do it justice. It looks like the end of the world as the flames of solar prominances rise from the edge of the "black hole" of the eclipsed sun, and silver streamers of the sun's corona stretch across the sky. People scream, applaud, or cry. Animals do strange things. At a total eclipse in the Galapagos dozens of whales and dolphins surfaced at the time of the total elcipse, surrounded our boat, and after the eclipse swam away. At a partial eclipse, even a 99% eclipse, those spectacular aspects are not seen, so it is a good idea to make plans to go to where the eclipse is total. This session will use examples from 10 total eclipses the author has viewed and made available to the public, since March 7, 1970, to suggest practical preparations for the evnt. Advice will be given on how and where to see the eclipse yourself, and how to help the public, teachers, and students where you live enjoy the spectacle and raise their interest in science. It is hoped that by the time of the AGU meeting "Kits" of educational materials and safe eclipse-watching glasses will be available to AGU members. This will be discussed. A Public Service Announcement suitable for use on television, the Internet, or in schools should also be available.

  1. School Reform in the United States: Frames and Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    This essay reviews six competing positions on U.S. school reform: a speech from Secretary of Education, Arne Duncan; Diane Ravitch's "The Death and Life of the Great American School System"; Frederick Hess's "The Same Thing Over and Over"; Charles Payne's "So Much Reform, So Little Change"; Anthony Byrk and others' "Organizing School for…

  2. School Breakfast Receipt and Obesity among American Fifth- and Eighth-Graders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudharsanan, Nikkil; Romano, Sebastian; Cunningham, Solveig A

    2016-04-01

    School breakfast consumption can improve children's nutrition, but the implications of breakfast at school for children's weight remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine whether receiving breakfast at school is related to changes in children's weight between the fifth and eighth grades, and whether the relationship between school breakfasts and obesity varies for children of different socioeconomic backgrounds. This was a longitudinal study of children observed in the fifth and eighth grades. Data are from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-99, a nationally representative prospective cohort of children in the United States. The analytic sample consisted of 6,495 children interviewed in the fifth and eighth grades. Standard thresholds from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were used to classify children as not obese or obese based on direct-measured height and weight. Difference-in-difference propensity score matching and fixed-effect logistic regression models were used to estimate the relationship between receipt of school breakfast and change in obesity between the fifth and eighth grades, adjusting for child, household, and school characteristics. School breakfast receipt was not associated with a change in obesity status between the fifth and eighth grades for children overall (odds ratio=1.31; P=0.129). In the propensity score model, receiving school breakfasts more than doubled the odds of becoming obese (odds ratio=2.31; P=0.0108) for children from families below the federal poverty line compared with children of similar socioeconomic backgrounds who did not regularly receive school breakfasts. School breakfast receipt was not independently related to obesity for most children. Receiving school breakfasts in the fifth grade may be associated with weight gain between the fifth and eighth grades for children from families below the federal poverty line compared with children of similar socioeconomic

  3. Predicting the admission into medical school of African American college students who have participated in summer academic enrichment programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesser, A; Cregler, L L; Lewis, L

    1998-02-01

    To identify cognitive and noncognitive variables as predictors of the admission into medical school of African American college students who have participated in summer academic enrichment programs (SAEPs). The study sample comprised 309 African American college students who participated in SAEPs at the Medical College of Georgia School of Medicine from 1980 to 1989 and whose educational and occupational statuses were determined by follow-up tracking. A three-step logistic regression was used to analyze the data (with alpha = .05); the criterion variable was admission to medical school. The 17 predictor variables studied were one of two types, cognitive and noncognitive. The cognitive variables were (1) Scholastic Aptitude Test mathematics (SAT-M) score, (2) SAT verbal score, (3) college grade-point average (GPA), (4) college science GPA, (5) SAEP GPA, and (6) SAEP basic science GPA (BSGPA). The noncognitive variables were (1) gender, (2) highest college level at the time of the last SAEP application, (3) type of college attended (historically African American or predominately white), (4) number of SAEPs attended, (5) career aspiration (physician or another health science option) (6) parents who were professionals, (7) parents who were health care role models, (8) evidence of leadership, (9) evidence of community service, (10) evidence of special motivation, and (11) strength of letter of recommendation in the SAEP application. For each student the rating scores for the last four noncognitive variables were determined by averaging the ratings of two judges who reviewed relevant information in each student's file. In step 1, which explained 20% of the admission decision variance, SAT-M score, SAEP BSGPA, and college GPA were the three significant cognitive predictors identified. In step 2, which explained 31% of the variance, the three cognitive predictors identified in step 1 were joined by three noncognitive predictors: career aspiration, type of college, and

  4. The Department of Energy/American Chemical Society Summer School in Nuclear and Radiochemistry at San Jose State University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinard, W.F.; Silber, H.B.

    2005-01-01

    A Summer School in Nuclear Chemistry sponsored by the U. S. Department of Energy and the American Chemical Society has been held at San Jose State University for the past 20 years. The intent of the program is to introduce outstanding college students to the field of nuclear and radiochemistry with the goal that some of these students will consider careers on nuclear science. The program features radiochemistry experiments along with radiation safety training, guest lectures by well known nuclear scientists and field trips to nuclear chemistry facilities in the San Francisco area. (author)

  5. Tracking Myself: African American High School Students Talk about the Effects of Curricular Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Darrius; Chambers, Terah T. Venzant

    2018-01-01

    Research on the merit of school tracking policies has long been at the center of heated educational debate. Unfortunately, while the trend in studies looking at tracking in schools has continued, the student perspective has been underutilized in much of this previous research. Recently, however, there has been a surge in research that focuses on…

  6. The School Uniform Movement and What It Tells Us about American Education: A Symbolic Crusade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunsma, David L.

    2004-01-01

    This book represents the most thorough exposition on the present understanding of the impetuses, debates, legalities, and effectiveness of school uniform policies that have rapidly entered the discourse of school reform in the United States. In it, David Brunsma provides an antidote to the ungrounded, anecdotal components that define the…

  7. When Globalization Causes Cultural Conflict: Leadership in the Context of an Egyptian/ American School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakat, Maysaa; Brooks, Jeffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    There is ongoing debate about the benefits and dangers of globalization in education, yet it is not always clear how these dynamics manifest at the school level. Moreover, it is often unclear how leaders shape or respond to these dynamics in their day-to-day practice. This case highlights issues related to school culture and globalization as a…

  8. BETWEEN THE GRIMMS AND "THE GROUP"--LITERATURE IN AMERICAN HIGH SCHOOLS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ANDERSON, SCARVIA B.

    IN 1963, THE COOPERATIVE TEST DIVISION OF THE EDUCATIONAL TESTING SERVICE SOUGHT TO ESTABLISH A LIST OF THE MAJOR WORKS OF LITERATURE TAUGHT TO ALL STUDENTS IN ANY ENGLISH CLASS IN UNITED STATES SECONDARY SCHOOLS. QUESTIONNAIRES ASKING FOR SUCH A LIST OF EACH GRADE WERE SENT TO RANDOM SAMPLES OF SCHOOLS, AND 222 PUBLIC, 223 CATHOLIC, 192…

  9. The 2002 Revision of the American Psychological Association's Ethics Code: Implications for School Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Rosemary; Miller, Jeffrey A.; Jacob, Susan

    2005-01-01

    The Ethical Principles for Psychologists and Code of Conduct has been recently revised. The organization of the code changed, and the language was made more specific. A number of points relevant to school psychology are explicitly stated in the code. A clear advantage of including these items in the code is the assistance to school psychologists…

  10. The Hope for American School Reform: The Cold War Pursuit of Inquiry Learning in Social Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Ronald W.

    2010-01-01

    As the issue of school reform grows ever more intense, it is imperative that we learn what we can from previous efforts. The new social studies was a 1960's attempt to transform the teaching of history and the social sciences in schools. With origins in the Cold War, the movement sought to develop critical thinkers through "inquiry" and…

  11. Equity Traps Redux: Inequitable Access to Foreign Language Courses for African American High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoener, Herbert Joseph, III; McKenzie, Kathryn Bell

    2016-01-01

    Although much of the current educational research literature on achievement gaps has focused on core curricular areas in public schools, few have focused on racially identifiable gaps in non-core areas such as high school foreign languages. These achievement, and thus advancement, gaps often result in the under-representation of students of color…

  12. American Philanthropic Studies: The Chicago School of Civics and Philanthropy (1903-1920)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seely, Dagmar

    2014-01-01

    Graham Taylor was a leader in the movement for schools of civics and philanthropy. As founder of the Chicago School of Civics and Philanthropy, Taylor served as President and Professor. The study focuses on the development of the study of philanthropy through following the pedagogy of Graham Taylor beginning with his early efforts during the late…

  13. Corporal Punishment in American Public Schools and the Rights of the Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Lynn

    2001-01-01

    After reviewing the history of corporal punishment in schools, author discusses "Ingraham v. Wright," wherein the U.S. Supreme Court found that the use of corporal punishment in schools was not unconstitutional. Calls for the federal courts to ensure that a student's 14th Amendment liberty interest is protected when subjected to…

  14. The History of "Zero Tolerance" in American Public Schooling. Palgrave Studies in Urban Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafka, Judith

    2011-01-01

    Through a case study of the Los Angeles city school district from the 1950s through the 1970s, Judith Kafka explores the intersection of race, politics, and the bureaucratic organization of schooling. Kafka argues that control over discipline became increasingly centralized in the second half of the twentieth century in response to pressures…

  15. The Historical Context of the Single-Sex Schooling Debate among African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluskey, Audrey T.

    1993-01-01

    Argues that similarities in the socioeconomic and racial climate and the attempt to refute negative gender and race-inspired images were circumstances that were present in the emergence of single-sex schools for blacks. It examines the worth of such schools in affecting positive social change. (GLR)

  16. Hopes, Fears, & Reality: A Balanced Look at American Charter Schools in 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Robin J., Ed.

    2008-01-01

    Over the last three years, "Hopes, Fears, & Reality" has provided new evidence and analysis about what is going on in charter schools, how well they are doing, where they need to improve, and what can be learned from the research on these types of public schools. Past volumes have outlined how achievement studies should be conducted and…

  17. Hopes, Fears, & Reality: A Balanced Look at American Charter Schools in 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Robin J., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "Hopes, Fears, & Reality" was conceived as an annual exercise in providing objective evidence about what was going on in charter schools, how well they were doing, where they needed to improve, and what could be learned from the research on these new kinds of public schools. This is the third of these reports. Essays in the 2005 volume pointed to…

  18. Hopes, Fears, & Reality: A Balanced Look at American Charter Schools in 2009. 5th Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Robin J., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    There are a number of critical tests ahead for the charter school sector. This volume of "Hopes, Fears, & Reality" explores these issues. In chapter 1, Jon Christensen, Jacqueline Meijer-Irons, and Robin J. Lake lay out the basic data on charter school growth in the last several years. They examine the growth and character of the…

  19. Hopes, Fears, & Reality: A Balanced Look at American Charter Schools in 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Robin J., Ed.; Hill, Paul T., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This is the second annual report from the National Charter School Research Project (NCSRP) at the University of Washington's Center on Reinventing Public Education. Like last year's debut edition of Hopes, Fears, & Reality, the 2006 volume explores some of the most current and controversial issues facing the charter school movement. This…

  20. Effect of Middle School Interventions on Alcohol Misuse and Abuse in Mexican American High School Adolescents: Five-Year Follow-up of a Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Nancy A; Jensen, Michaeline; Tein, Jenn Yun; Wong, Jessie J; Dumka, Larry E; Mauricio, Anne Marie

    2018-03-21

    Substance abuse preventive interventions frequently target middle school students and demonstrate efficacy to prevent early onset and use of alcohol and illicit drugs. However, evidence of sustained results to prevent later patterns of alcohol misuse and more serious alcohol abuse disorders has been lacking, particularly for US Latino populations. To test whether a universal middle school prevention program can reduce the frequency of alcohol misuse and rates of alcohol use disorder 5 years after implementation with a Mexican American sample. A previous randomized clinical trial was conducted with 516 Mexican American 7th graders and at least 1 parent who identified as having Mexican origin. Three annual cohorts of families were recruited from rosters of 4 middle schools and randomized to the 9-session Bridges/Puentes family-focused group intervention or a workshop control condition. Recruitment, screening, pretest, and randomization occurred in the same academic year for each cohort: 2003-2004, 2004-2005, and 2005-2006. Data acquisition for the follow-up assessments of late-adolescent alcohol misuse and abuse, which were not included in the initial randomized clinical trial, was conducted from September 2009 to September 2014; analysis was conducted between August 2016 and July 2017. In this assessment, 420 children (81.4%) of the sample were included, when the majority were in their final year of high school. The 9-session Bridges/Puentes intervention integrated youth, parent, and family intervention sessions that were delivered in the spring semester at each school, with separate groups for English-dominant vs Spanish-dominant families. The control workshop was offered during the same semester at each school, also in English and Spanish. Primary outcomes were diagnostic assessment of lifetime alcohol use disorder in the 12th grade, 5 years after the intervention, based on the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children and past-year frequency of alcohol use

  1. Creating a virtual community of practice to investigate legitimate peripheral participation by African American middle school girls in science activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Leslie D.

    How do teenage girls develop an interest in science? What kinds of opportunities can science teachers present to female students that support their engagement with learning science? I studied one aspect of this issue by focusing on ways students could use science to enhance or gain identities that they (probably) already valued. To do that I created technology-rich activities and experiences for an after school class in science and technology for middle school girls who lived in a low socio-economic urban neighborhood. These activities and experiences were designed to create a virtual community of practice whose members used science in diverse ways. Student interest was made evident in their responses to the activities. Four conclusions emerged. (1) Opportunities to learn about the lives and work of admired African American business women interested students in learning by linking it to their middle-class aspirations and their interest in things that money and status can buy. (2) Opportunities to learn about the lives and work of African American women experts in science in a classroom context where students then practiced similar kinds of actual scientific tasks engaged students in relations of legitimate peripheral participation in a virtual and diverse community of practice focused on science which was created in the after-school classes. (3) Opportunities where students used science to show off for family, friends, and supporters of the after-school program, identities they valued, interested them enough that they engaged in long-term science and technology projects that required lots of revisions. (4) In response to the opportunities presented, new and enhanced identities developed around becoming a better student or becoming some kind of scientist.

  2. Intervention effects on kindergarten and first-grade teachers' classroom food practices and food-related beliefs in American Indian reservation schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcan, Chrisa; Hannan, Peter J; Himes, John H; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Rock, Bonnie Holy; Smyth, Mary; Story, Mary

    2013-08-01

    Prevalence of obesity among American Indian children is higher than the general US population. The school environment and teachers play important roles in helping students develop healthy eating habits. The aim of this prospective study was to examine teachers' classroom and school food practices and beliefs and the effect of teacher training on these practices and beliefs. Data were used from the Bright Start study, a group-randomized, school-based trial that took place on the Pine Ridge American Indian reservation (fall 2005 to spring 2008). Kindergarten and first-grade teachers (n=75) from 14 schools completed a survey at the beginning and end of the school year. Thirty-seven survey items were evaluated using mixed-model analysis of variance to examine the intervention effect for each teacher-practice and belief item (adjusting for teacher type and school as random effect). At baseline, some teachers reported classroom and school food practices and beliefs that supported health and some that did not. The intervention was significantly associated with lower classroom use of candy as a treat (P=0.0005) and fast-food rewards (P=0.008); more intervention teachers disagreed that fast food should be offered as school lunch alternatives (P=0.019), that it would be acceptable to sell unhealthy foods as part of school fundraising (P=0.006), and that it would not make sense to limit students' food choices in school (P=0.035). School-based interventions involving teacher training can result in positive changes in teachers' classroom food practices and beliefs about the influence of the school food environment in schools serving American Indian children on reservations. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. School Improvement Grants: Selected States Generally Awarded Funds Only to Eligible Schools. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. Final Audit Report. ED-OIG/A05L0002

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This final audit report covers the results of the review of five State educational agencies' monitoring plans and awarding processes for American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 and regular School Improvement Grants funds that the State educational agencies awarded for fiscal year 2009 (for use during school year 2010-2011). The objectives…

  4. Repertoire, Authenticity, and Instruction: The Presentation of American Indian Music in Oklahoma's Elementary Schools. Native Americans: Interdisciplinary Perspectives--A Garland Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damm, Robert J.

    This book examines the presentation of American Indian music by elementary music educators in Oklahoma, which has the largest American Indian population of any state. A literature review covers an historical profile of multicultural music education, ethnomusicological studies of American Indian music, dissertations pertaining to American Indian…

  5. School-Based Racial and Gender Discrimination among African American Adolescents: Exploring Gender Variation in Frequency and Implications for Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavous, Tabbye M.; Griffin, Tiffany M.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined school-based racial and gender discrimination experiences among African American adolescents in Grade 8 (n = 204 girls; n = 209 boys). A primary goal was exploring gender variation in frequency of both types of discrimination and associations of discrimination with academic and psychological functioning among girls and boys. Girls and boys did not vary in reported racial discrimination frequency, but boys reported more gender discrimination experiences. Multiple regression analyses within gender groups indicated that among girls and boys, racial discrimination and gender discrimination predicted higher depressive symptoms and school importance and racial discrimination predicted self-esteem. Racial and gender discrimination were also negatively associated with grade point average among boys but were not significantly associated in girls’ analyses. Significant gender discrimination X racial discrimination interactions resulted in the girls’ models predicting psychological outcomes and in boys’ models predicting academic achievement. Taken together, findings suggest the importance of considering gender- and race-related experiences in understanding academic and psychological adjustment among African American adolescents. PMID:22837794

  6. Structural and Dialectal Characteristics of the Fictional and Personal Narratives of School-age African American Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Monique T.; Watkins, Ruth V.; Washington, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To report preliminary comparisons of developing structural characteristics associated with fictional and personal narratives in school-age African American children. Method Forty-three children, grades two through five, generated a fictional and a personal narrative in response to a wordless-book elicitation task and a story-prompt task, respectively. Narratives produced in these two contexts were characterized for macrostructure, microstructure, and dialect density. Differences across narrative type and grade level were examined. Results Statistically significant differences between the two types of narratives were found for both macrostructure and microstructure but not for dialect density. There were no grade-related differences in macrostructure, microstructure, or dialect density. Conclusion The results demonstrate the complementary role of fictional and personal narratives for describing young children's narrative skills. Use of both types of narrative tasks and descriptions of both macrostructure and macrostructure may be particularly useful for characterizing the narrative abilities of young school-age African American children, for whom culture-fair methods are scarce. Further study of additional dialect groups is warranted. PMID:23633645

  7. School-Based Racial and Gender Discrimination among African American Adolescents: Exploring Gender Variation in Frequency and Implications for Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogburn, Courtney D; Chavous, Tabbye M; Griffin, Tiffany M

    2011-01-03

    The present study examined school-based racial and gender discrimination experiences among African American adolescents in Grade 8 (n = 204 girls; n = 209 boys). A primary goal was exploring gender variation in frequency of both types of discrimination and associations of discrimination with academic and psychological functioning among girls and boys. Girls and boys did not vary in reported racial discrimination frequency, but boys reported more gender discrimination experiences. Multiple regression analyses within gender groups indicated that among girls and boys, racial discrimination and gender discrimination predicted higher depressive symptoms and school importance and racial discrimination predicted self-esteem. Racial and gender discrimination were also negatively associated with grade point average among boys but were not significantly associated in girls' analyses. Significant gender discrimination X racial discrimination interactions resulted in the girls' models predicting psychological outcomes and in boys' models predicting academic achievement. Taken together, findings suggest the importance of considering gender- and race-related experiences in understanding academic and psychological adjustment among African American adolescents.

  8. Comparison of asthma prevalence among African American teenage youth attending public high schools in rural Georgia and urban Detroit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ownby, Dennis R; Tingen, Martha S; Havstad, Suzanne; Waller, Jennifer L; Johnson, Christine C; Joseph, Christine L M

    2015-09-01

    The high prevalence of asthma among urban African American (AA) populations has attracted research attention, whereas the prevalence among rural AA populations is poorly documented. We sought to compare the prevalence of asthma among AA youth in rural Georgia and urban Detroit, Michigan. The prevalence of asthma was compared in population-based samples of 7297 youth attending Detroit public high schools and in 2523 youth attending public high schools in rural Georgia. Current asthma was defined as a physician diagnosis and symptoms in the previous 12 months. Undiagnosed asthma was defined as multiple respiratory symptoms in the previous 12 months without a physician diagnosis. In Detroit, 6994 (95.8%) youth were AA compared with 1514 (60.0%) in Georgia. Average population density in high school postal codes was 5628 people/mile(2) in Detroit and 45.1 people/mile(2) in Georgia. The percentages of poverty and of students qualifying for free or reduced lunches were similar in both areas. The prevalence of current diagnosed asthma among AA youth in Detroit and Georgia was similar: 15.0% (95% CI, 14.1-15.8) and 13.7% (95% CI, 12.0-17.1) (P = .22), respectively. The prevalence of undiagnosed asthma in AA youth was 8.0% in Detroit and 7.5% in Georgia (P = .56). Asthma symptoms were reported more frequently among those with diagnosed asthma in Detroit, whereas those with undiagnosed asthma in Georgia reported more symptoms. Among AA youth living in similar socioeconomic circumstances, asthma prevalence is as high in rural Georgia as it is in urban Detroit, suggesting that urban residence is not an asthma risk factor. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Learning Style Preferences of Asian American (Chinese, Filipino, Korean, and Vietnamese) Students in Secondary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Clara C.

    1997-01-01

    Investigates for perceptual learning style preferences (auditory, visual, kinesthetic, and tactile) and preferences for group and individual leaning of Chinese, Filipino, Korean, and Vietnamese secondary education students. Comparison analysis reveals diverse learning style preferences between Anglo and Asian American students and also between…

  10. Comparison of Hope and Life Satisfaction Levels of Turkish and American Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin Baltaci, Hulya

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: In the literature, it has been stated that hope and life satisfaction in childhood and adolescence are associated with cultural and social factors. This study aimed to discover whether Turkish and American adolescents differ in their life satisfaction and hope levels, by examining hope and life satisfaction in Turkish and American…

  11. The MetLife Survey of the American Teacher: Listening to Teachers in Rural Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    MetLife, Inc., 2013

    2013-01-01

    MetLife has sponsored and Harris Interactive has conducted the annual MetLife Survey of the American Teacher series since 1984 to share the voices of teachers with educators, policymakers and the public. The series examines significant changes and trends over time, highlights important current issues, and explores topics relevant to the future of…

  12. Reaching American Indian Special/Elementary Educators through a Partnership with a Navajo Nation School District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimbecker, Connie; Medina, Catherine; Peterson, Patricia; Redsteer, Denise; Prater, Greg

    2002-01-01

    This article describes the Reaching American Indian Special/Elementary Educators (RAISE) program, a community-based native teacher education program located on the Navajo reservation in Kayenta, Arizona. The preservice teacher preparation partnership program is designed for uncertified Navajo special and elementary education preservice students…

  13. High School English IV: Social Consciousness in the American Novel, 1900-1950.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, James A.

    This university independent course of study on the contemporary American novel is presented to bring to light a source of social significance in America. Four novels are studied: Upton Sinclair's "The Jungle," John Steinbeck's "The Grapes of Wrath" and "Of Mice and Men," and Harper Lee's "To Kill a Mockingbird." Nine assignments are included. (CK)

  14. Addressing the Spiritual Needs of African American Students: Implications for School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Jennifer R.

    2010-01-01

    The historical tendency for educational institutions to symptomize behavior of African American children as dysfunctional or representative of mental disorder is well documented. However, recent scholarship illuminates the connection between oppression social injustice, racial trauma, and racial microaggressions as the core of stress, depression,…

  15. How Well Do Americans Know Geography? "National Geographic" Editor Discusses Meaning for Schools (Interview).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerner, Thomas

    1987-01-01

    Gilbert Grosvenor, editor of "National Geographic," is interviewed about the importance of geography for Americans. He claims our lack of geographic knowledge impedes our ability to act and compete in the world market as a world power and points out that geographic ignorance extends to people employed at high levels of government. (MD)

  16. Project-Based Learning about Nutrition with Technology in an African-American Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Sibyl

    2010-01-01

    In the last few years, there has been a growing problem with the prevalence of being overweight. This is becoming an accepted lifestyle in the African American community, and has begun to impact not just adults, but also adolescents and young children. There are problems associated with being overweight or obese that could have lifetime…

  17. Low and High Mathematics Achievement in Japanese, Chinese, and American Elementary-School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uttal, David H.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    First and fifth grade students who scored high or low on a mathematics test were tested for intellectual ability and reading achievement. Students and their mothers were interviewed. Results indicated that factors associated with levels of achievement in mathematics operate in a similar fashion across three cultures that differ greatly in their…

  18. Prevalence of health-risk behaviors among Asian American and Pacific Islander high school students in the U.S., 2001-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, Richard; Eaton, Danice K; Brener, Nancy D; Kann, Laura

    2011-01-01

    We provided national prevalence estimates for selected health-risk behaviors for Asian American and Pacific Islander high school students separately, and compared those prevalence estimates with those of white, black, and Hispanic students. We analyzed data from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System. To generate a sufficient sample of Asian American and Pacific Islander students, we combined data from four nationally representative surveys of U.S. high school students conducted in 2001, 2003, 2005, and 2007 (total n = 56,773). Asian American students were significantly less likely than Pacific Islander, white, black, or Hispanic students to have drunk alcohol or used marijuana. Asian American students also were the least likely to have carried a weapon, to have been in a physical fight, to have ever had sexual intercourse, or to be currently sexually active. Once sexually active, Asian American students were as likely as most other racial/ethnic groups to have used alcohol or drugs at last sexual intercourse or to have used a condom at last sexual intercourse. Pacific Islander students were significantly more likely than Asian American, white, black, or Hispanic students to have seriously considered or attempted suicide. The prevalence estimates of health-risk behaviors exhibited by Asian American students and Pacific Islander students are very different and should be reported separately whenever feasible. To address the different health-risk behaviors exhibited by Asian American and Pacific Islander students, prevention programs should use culturally sensitive strategies and materials.

  19. Great nuclear debate: German--American disagreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, K.

    1978-01-01

    The post-war international consensus on nuclear nonproliferation has been eroding because of the debate over actions taken by some countries and because of the U.S. response with a unilateral change in nuclear policy. The chronology of developments is traced, noting that the 1973--74 oil crisis, India's nuclear explosion in 1974, and the exchange of Brazilian uranium for German technology all had a major role in the policy controversy. New nonproliferation proposals by the Carter administration, by precipitating debate between those wanting tighter export controls and those with nuclear commercial interests, also introduced several foreign-relations problems because of the emphasis on international agreements and a technological approach. The U.S. is credited with taking a constructive step to correct the inadequacies of the present policies and exerting pressure for global involvement in reassessing the rules on armaments and proliferation. Significant U.S. leadership could also take the form of lower energy consumption

  20. American Women and the Great War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumenil, Lynn

    2002-01-01

    Provides information on the idealized images of women during World War I. Features the use of posters and propaganda during the war. Focuses on voluntary activities in which women participated, the fight for women's suffrage during the war, and the effect of the war on women working. Includes poster reproductions. (CMK)

  1. Where Do We Go from Here?: Post-High School Choices of American Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Timothy J.

    1992-01-01

    Presents a post-high school context choice schema that attempts to identify the factors that lead young U.S. males to enter the work force, the military, or college. Data are from the Youth in Transition Study, a longitudinal study beginning in 1966. Twenty-five potentially important predictors are identified. (SLD)

  2. Soliciting Support for the American Public School: A Guide To Inform Administration and Educate Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jeannette; Karr-Kidwell, PJ

    While teachers, administrators, and their schools are constantly being bombarded with demands for excellence, little attention has been paid to the role of parents to achieve high levels of learning with their children. An area of concern is the modeling parents can provide by placing high value on learning. Parents must become knowledgeable about…

  3. Journalism and Urban School Reform: Versions of Democratic Decision Making in Two American Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipps, Dorothy; Fowlkes, Elizabeth; Peltzman, Alissa

    2006-01-01

    School reform involves the public: its expectation of participation and its support for a reform agenda. In theory, the press influences both. To explore this link, we compare education coverage in four press outlets, two each in Chicago and Cleveland. Articles and editors are interrogated for (1) style of journalism and (2) assumptions about the…

  4. Inadequate Helmet Fit Increases Concussion Severity in American High School Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhill, Dustin A; Navo, Paul; Zhao, Huaqing; Torg, Joseph; Comstock, R Dawn; Boden, Barry P

    2016-05-01

    There is limited information on the relationship between football helmet fit and concussion severity. Poor helmet fit may predispose football players to a more severe concussion. Descriptive epidemiology study. Level 3. Data from concussion injury reports were obtained from the National High School Sports-Related Injury Surveillance System over a 9-year period. Symptoms, duration, and helmet parameters (fit, interior padding) were analyzed for all first-time concussions. Data from 4580 concussions were analyzed. Patients who suffered concussions with a helmet that did not fit properly (3.22%), as determined by an athletic trainer, had higher rates of drowsiness (RR, 1.46; P = 0.005), hyperexcitability (RR, 2.38; P = 0.047), and sensitivity to noise (RR, 1.88; P football helmet is a risk factor for a concussion with more symptoms and of longer duration. Concussions of longer duration are also more common in players with an air bladder-lined helmet. Current high school football rules should mandate supervision and maintenance of helmet fit throughout the season, prior to impact. Team physicians, athletic trainers, coaches, and high school officials should ensure proper oversight of helmet fit in high school athletes to decrease concussion severity and duration. © 2016 The Author(s).

  5. Around the Fishing Net: Leadership Dynamics for Change in an American International School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami-Ramalho, Elizabeth; Benham, Maenette

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the active involvement of school and community members investing in leadership dynamics for change, especially considering the increasingly globalized world and the importance of preparing globally minded citizens. To explore how educators and leaders work to foster dynamic learning experiences in a highly mobile global…

  6. African-American/Afro-Canadian Schooling: From the Colonial Period to the Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Charles L.

    2011-01-01

    Tracing the history of black schooling in North America, this book emphasizes factors in society at large--and sometimes within black communities--which led to black children being separate from the white majority. This separation was continued and reinforced as efforts by European immigrants to provide separate Catholic, Lutheran, and Calvinist…

  7. Asian Student Depression in American High Schools: Differences in Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Suzan J.; Ziegler, Robert; Arsenault, Lisa; Fried, Lise E.; Hacker, Karen

    2011-01-01

    There are inconsistent findings about depression in Asians. This study examined risk factors for depression in Asian and Caucasian adolescents. Stratified bivariate secondary analyses of risk indicators and depressed mood were performed in this cross-sectional study of high school survey data (9th to 12th grades) from 2,542 students (198 Asian).…

  8. Whose "Jihad"? Oral History of an American Muslim Educational Leader and U.S. Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzani, Miriam D.; King, Kelley M.

    2018-01-01

    While case studies have documented how teachers can either ameliorate or exacerbate situations of ignorance or hate in the classroom toward Muslim students, the role of educational leaders in U.S. public schools remains negligible. In response, this paper aims to develop the knowledge base of educational leadership as it pertains to the jihad or…

  9. Family and Cultural Predictors of Depression among Samoan American Middle and High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Christine J.; Borrero, Noah E.; Tito, Patsy

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated family intergenerational conflict and collective self-esteem as predictors of depression in a sample of 128 Samoan middle and high school students. Simultaneous regression analyses revealed that each independent variable significantly contributed to an overall model that accounted for 13% of the variance in depression.…

  10. Sexual Harassment in American Secondary Schools: A Legal Guide for Administrators, Teachers and Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layman, Nancy S.

    The purpose of this book is to familiarize middle and high school administrators, teachers, and students with the laws concerning sexual harassment and strategies for dealing with it. The book can also help educators avoid liability for sexual harassment. Part 1 defines sexual harassment and emphasizes that men and women may perceive the same…

  11. The Influence of the Cold War on the Racial Desegregation of American Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watras, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    With the rise of the Cold War, federal officials in the United States sought to end the racial segregation that the U.S. Supreme Court had accepted in the 1896 decision of "Plessy v. Ferguson." Although the reforms began with changes in the armed services, they moved to reduce racial segregation in schools. Many forces brought about the…

  12. Fear and Trembling in the American High School: Educational Reform and Teacher Alienation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Jeffrey S.; Hughes, Roxanne M.; Brooks, Melanie C.

    2008-01-01

    This article reports findings from a two-year case study of teachers in a single public high school. Data were gathered and analyzed using a conceptual framework that conceived of alienation as a set of five sub-constructs: powerlessness, meaninglessness, normlessness, isolation, and estrangement. Findings suggested that teachers experienced each…

  13. The Prospects for Collaboration between Schools and Universities To Improve American Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Willis D.

    Collaboration between schools and institutions of higher education (IHE) is usually effective only when values are shared and mutual dependencies are recognized. These conditions are uncommon. The foundation upon which such collaboration could be developed requires several building blocks: (1) developing shared goals regarding teacher learning;…

  14. The Landau school and the American Institute of Physics translation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambegaokar, Vinay

    2008-01-01

    In the late 1950s and early 1960s several American scientists recognized the importance of results appearing in Russian language journals. Their efforts, aided by 'Cold War' considerations, culminated in the launch of the AIP program of translations into English of the then Soviet Union's leading physics journals. The present brief review gives a personal perspective on the history of that development. (from the history of physics)

  15. A Comparison of African American Students' Self-Perceptions of School Competence with Their Performance on State-Mandated Achievement Tests and Normed Tests of Oral and Written Language and Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon Pershey, Monica

    2011-01-01

    This study measured self-perceptions of school competence among 263 4th- and 6th-grade African American students who attended an academically challenged school district. Self-perceptions of school competence are defined as self-perceptions of ability, confidence, and school satisfaction. Results indicated that 4th-grade students had lesser…

  16. CONFLICT RESOLUTION STRATEGIES IN TURKISH AND AMERICAN SPEECH COMMUNITIES: A SCHOOL SETTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuray Alagozlu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Conflicts in communication are very common in every culture. However, resolving them varies from one culture to another. Conflict management strategies in communication revolve around five solutions collaboration, compromise, avoidance, competition, and accomodation as stated by Kilman (1977. This study attempts to explore ways of terminating verbal conflicts in academic settings. In the study, first, we aim to evaluate the ways of solving conflicts in two settings: a Turkish and an American University. Secondly, taking a pragmatic perspective, a classification of speech acts used to end conflicts is targeted according to both Killman’s strategies and a facework analysis. specifically, it is aimed to investigate:  generally how Turkish and American speakers end conflicts in discourse and which strategies they use in order to resolve conflicts  how “face” is reflected in those speech acts as categorized by Ting Toomey (1988, 1992.  any differences between Turkish and American speakers styles  any changes in conflict resolution due to power status in both cultures. Results are valuable in that they add up to the knowledge about intercultural pragmatic language use and cultural cognitions. Moreover, as the research aims to reveal basic verbal and behavioural differences between two communities, it is likely to contribute to intercultural understanding.

  17. Onsite medical rounds and fact-finding activities conducted by Nippon Medical School in Miyagi prefecture after the Great East Japan Earthquake 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuse, Akira; Igarashi, Yutaka; Tanaka, Toshihiko; Kim, Shiei; Tsujii, Atsuko; Kawai, Makoto; Yokota, Hiroyuki

    2011-01-01

    This report describes our onsite medical rounds and fact-finding activities conducted in the acute phase and medical relief work conducted in the subacute phase in Miyagi prefecture following the Great East Japan Earthquake and subsequent tsunami that occurred off northeastern Honshu on March 11, 2011. As part of the All-Japan Hospital Association medical team deployed to the disaster area, a Nippon Medical School team conducted fact-finding and onsite medical rounds and evaluated basic life and medical needs in the affected areas of Shiogama and Tagajo. We performed triage for more than 2,000 casualties, but in our medical rounds of hospitals, clinics, and nursing homes, we found no severely injured person but did find 1 case of hyperglycemia. We conducted medical rounds at evacuation shelters in Kesennuma City during the subacute phase of the disaster, from March 17 through June 1, as part of the Tokyo Medical Association medical teams deployed. Sixty-seven staff members (17 teams), including 46 physicians, 11 nurses, 3 pharmacists, and 1 clinical psychotherapist, joined this mission. Most patients complained of a worsening of symptoms of preexisting conditions, such as hypertension, respiratory problems, and diabetes, rather than of medical problems specifically related to the tsunami. In the acute phase of the disaster, the information infrastructure was decimated and we could not obtain enough information about conditions in the affected areas, such as how many persons were severely injured, how severely lifeline services had been damaged, and what was lacking. To start obtaining this information, we conducted medical rounds. This proved to be a good decision, as we found many injured persons in evacuation shelters without medication, communication devices, or transportation. Also, basic necessities for life, such as water and food, were lacking. We were able to evaluate these basic needs and inform local disaster headquarters of them. In Kesennuma City, we

  18. Necessary but Not Sufficient: The Continuing Inequality between Men and Women in Educational Leadership, Findings from the American Association of School Administrators Mid-Decade Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Kerry; Shakeshaft, Charol; Grogan, Margaret; Newcomb, Whitney Sherman

    2017-01-01

    The gender of school leaders makes a difference in career paths, personal life, and characteristics of workplace. There is additional evidence that men and women are appointed or elected to lead different kinds of educational jurisdictions. Even if those differences did not exist, equitable access to leadership positions for people of different backgrounds would make this an important issue. This article reports gender-related findings from the American Association of School Administrators 20...

  19. Perceptions of Parenting Practices as Predictors of Aggression in a Low-Income, Urban, Predominately African American Middle School Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Kantahyanee W; Haynie, Denise L; Howard, Donna E; Cheng, Tina L; Simons-Morton, Bruce

    This research examined the relation between early adolescent aggression and parenting practices in an urban, predominately African American sample. Sixth graders (N = 209) completed questionnaires about their overt and relational aggressive behaviors and perceptions of caregivers' parenting practices. Findings indicated that moderate levels of parental expectations for peaceful solutions at Time 1 were associated with a lower likelihood of overt aggression at Time 2. Furthermore, findings suggest that when caregivers' support and knowledge of adolescents' whereabouts were relatively low or when caregivers' exerted high psychological control, moderate levels of parental expectations for peaceful solutions protected early adolescents against engagement in both overt and relational aggression. The implications of the findings for schools and other youth violence prevention settings are discussed.

  20. The American Chemical Society's Division of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology's summer schools in nuclear and radiochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    This successful educational program in nuclear and radiochemistry for advanced undergraduate students is described. Funding from the U.S. Department of Energy supports 24 fellowships for participants in the intensive six-week programs at San Jose State University (CA) and Brookhaven National Laboratory (NY). Students are provided transportation to and from the school site, room and board, books, lab supplies, and six units of college credit. The instructional program consists of lectures and laboratory exercises that cover the fundamentals of nuclear theory, radiochemistry, nuclear instrumentation, radiological safety, and applications in research, medicine, and industry. Guest lectures and field trips broaden the students' exposure to nuclear science. Assistance is provided in the following year to those students who wish to join a research project at a university or national laboratory, and thereafter, in their applications to graduate or professional school. (author)

  1. Support for the American Chemical Society's Summer Schools in Nuclear and Radiochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantica, Paul F. [Michigan State University

    2013-06-20

    The ACS Summer Schools in Nuclear and Radiochemistry were held at San Jose State University (SJSU) and Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The Summer Schools offer undergraduate students with U.S. citizenship an opportunity to complete coursework through ACS accredited chemistry degree programs at SJSU or the State University of New York at Stony Brook (SBU). The courses include lecture and laboratory work on the fundamentals and applications of nuclear and radiochemistry. The number of students participating at each site is limited to 12, and the low student-to-instructor ratio is needed due to the intense nature of the six-week program. To broaden the students’ perspectives on nuclear science, prominent research scientists active in nuclear and/or radiochemical research participate in a Guest Lecture Series. Symposia emphasizing environmental chemistry, nuclear medicine, and career opportunities are conducted as a part of the program.

  2. Inadequate Helmet Fit Increases Concussion Severity in American High School Football Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhill, Dustin A.; Navo, Paul; Zhao, Huaqing; Torg, Joseph; Comstock, R. Dawn; Boden, Barry P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is limited information on the relationship between football helmet fit and concussion severity. Hypothesis: Poor helmet fit may predispose football players to a more severe concussion. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Level of Evidence: Level 3. Methods: Data from concussion injury reports were obtained from the National High School Sports-Related Injury Surveillance System over a 9-year period. Symptoms, duration, and helmet parameters (fit, interior padding) were analyzed for all first-time concussions. Results: Data from 4580 concussions were analyzed. Patients who suffered concussions with a helmet that did not fit properly (3.22%), as determined by an athletic trainer, had higher rates of drowsiness (RR, 1.46; P = 0.005), hyperexcitability (RR, 2.38; P = 0.047), and sensitivity to noise (RR, 1.88; P < 0.001); had more symptoms (5.34 vs 4.54, P = 0.004); and had longer symptom duration (P = 0.04). Athletes with helmets lined with an air bladder had greater rates of sensitivity to light (RR, 1.13; P = 0.02), sensitivity to noise (RR, 1.25; P = 0.009), and longer symptom duration (P = 0.004) compared with foam or gel liners. Conclusion: An improperly fitted football helmet is a risk factor for a concussion with more symptoms and of longer duration. Concussions of longer duration are also more common in players with an air bladder–lined helmet. Current high school football rules should mandate supervision and maintenance of helmet fit throughout the season, prior to impact. Clinical Relevance: Team physicians, athletic trainers, coaches, and high school officials should ensure proper oversight of helmet fit in high school athletes to decrease concussion severity and duration. PMID:27005467

  3. Cyberbullying in South African and American schools: A legal comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DM Smit

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Bullying conjures up visions of the traditional schoolyard bully and the subordinate victim. However, bullying is no longer limited to in-person encounter, having come to include cyberbullying, which takes place indirectly over electronic media. In this electronic age, cyber platforms proliferate at an astonishing rate, all attracting the youth in large number, and posing the risk that they may become subject to cyberbullying. Far from being limited to those individual learners being cyberbullied, the effects of this phenomenon extend to the learner collective, the school climate, and also the entire school system, management and education, thus requiring an urgent response. This article first provides a general overview of cyberbullying and its impact on learners, schools and education. This is done through a comparative lens, studying the extent of the phenomenon in both the United States and South Africa. The focus then shifts to the existing legislative frameworks within which the phenomenon is tackled in these respective jurisdictions, particularly the tricky balancing act required between learners' constitutional right to free speech and expression, and the protection of vulnerable learners' right to equality, dignity and privacy. The article concludes by proposing certain possible solutions to the problem.

  4. The relationship between racial identity and self-esteem in African American college and high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, S J; Sellers, R M; Chavous, T M; Smith, M A

    1998-03-01

    The Multidimensional Model of Racial Identity was used to examine the relationship between racial identity and personal self-esteem (PSE) in a sample of African American college students (n = 173) and a sample of African American high school students (n = 72). Racial identity was assessed using the Centrality and Regard scales of the Multidimensional Inventory of Black Identity, whereas the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale was used to assess PSE. Four predictions were tested: (a) racial centrality is weakly but positively related to PSE; (b) private regard is moderately related to PSE; (c) public regard is unrelated to PSE; and (d) racial centrality moderates the relationship between private regard and PSE. Multiple regression analysis found that racial centrality and public racial regard were unrelated to PSE in both samples. Private regard was positively related to PSE in the college sample. Racial centrality moderated the relationship between private regard and PSE in both samples, such that the relationship was significant for those with high levels of centrality but nonsignificant for those with low levels.

  5. Concussion Symptoms and Return to Play Time in Youth, High School, and College American Football Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Zachary Y; Zuckerman, Scott L; Wasserman, Erin B; Covassin, Tracey; Djoko, Aristarque; Dompier, Thomas P

    2016-07-01

    To our knowledge, little research has examined concussion across the youth/adolescent spectrum and even less has examined concussion-related outcomes (ie, symptoms and return to play). To examine and compare sport-related concussion outcomes (symptoms and return to play) in youth, high school, and collegiate football athletes. Athletic trainers attended each practice and game during the 2012 to 2014 seasons and reported injuries. For this descriptive, epidemiological study, data were collected from youth, high school, and collegiate football teams, and the analysis of the data was conducted between July 2015 and September 2015. The Youth Football Surveillance System included more than 3000 youth football athletes aged 5 to 14 years from 118 teams, providing 310 team seasons (ie, 1 team providing 1 season of data). The National Athletic Treatment, Injury, and Outcomes Network Program included 96 secondary school football programs, providing 184 team seasons. The National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance Program included 34 college football programs, providing 71 team seasons. We calculated the mean number of symptoms, prevalence of each symptom, and the proportion of patients with concussions that had long return-to-play time (ie, required participation restriction of at least 30 days). Generalized linear models were used to assess differences among competition levels in the mean number of reported symptoms. Logistic regression models estimated the odds of return to play at less than 24 hours and at least 30 days. Overall, 1429 sports-related concussions were reported among youth, high school, and college-level football athletes with a mean (SD) of 5.48 (3.06) symptoms. Across all levels, 15.3% resulted return to play at least 30 days after the concussion and 3.1% resulted in return to play less than 24 hours after the concussion. Compared with youth, a higher number of concussion symptoms were reported in high school athletes (β = 1.39; 95

  6. Changes in Body Mass Index During a 3-Year Elementary School-Based Obesity Prevention Program for American Indian and White Rural Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogeltanz-Holm, Nancy; Holm, Jeffrey

    2018-04-01

    Childhood obesity is a significant but largely modifiable health risk, disproportionately affecting socioeconomically disadvantaged, racial/ethnic minority, and rural children. Elementary school-aged children typically experience the greatest increases in excess weight gain and therefore are important targets for reducing adolescent and adult obesity while improving children's health. Our study evaluated outcomes of a 3-year elementary school-based program for reducing obesity in American Indian and White students attending eight rural schools in the U.S. upper Midwest. Researchers measured body mass indexes (BMI) and other health indicators and behaviors of 308 beginning third-grade students and then again at the end of students' third, fourth, and fifth grades. The primary focus of this study is a mixed multilevel longitudinal model testing changes in age- and gender-adjusted BMI z scores ( zBMI). There was a significant decrease in zBMI across the 3-year study period. Ethnicity analyses showed that White students had overall decreases in zBMI whereas American Indian students' zBMIs remained stable across the program. Comparisons with children from an age- and cohort-matched national sample provided support for the effectiveness of the school program in reducing BMI and obesity during the study period. An elementary school-based health program that addresses a range of students' obesity-related health behaviors, the school health environment, and that involves educators and parents is an effective intervention for reducing or stabilizing BMI in rural White and American Indian students. School health programs for students living in rural communities may be especially effective due to greater school and community cohesiveness, and valuing of the school's primary role in improving community health.

  7. Impact of parental weight status on a school-based weight management programme designed for Mexican-American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, J P; Johnston, C A; Hernandez, D C; LeNoble, J; Papaioannou, M A; Foreyt, J P

    2016-10-01

    While overweight and obese children are more likely to have overweight or obese parents, less is known about the effect of parental weight status on children's success in weight management programmes. This study was a secondary data analysis of a randomized controlled trial and investigated the impact of having zero, one or two obese parents on children's success in a school-based weight management programme. Sixty-one Mexican-American children participated in a 24-week school-based weight management intervention which took place in 2005-2006. Children's heights and weights were measured at baseline, 3, 6 and 12 months. Parental weight status was assessed at baseline. Repeated measures anova and ancova were conducted to compare changes in children's weight within and between groups, respectively. Within-group comparisons revealed that the intervention led to significant decreases in standardized body mass index (zBMI) for children with zero (F = 23.16, P weight management programme appears to be most efficacious for children with one or no obese parents compared to children with two obese parents. These results demonstrate the need to consider parental weight status when engaging in childhood weight management efforts. © 2015 World Obesity.

  8. Association of Demanding Kin Relations With Psychological Distress and School Achievement Among Low-Income, African American Mothers and Adolescents: Moderating Effects of Family Routine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ronald D

    2016-12-01

    Association of demanding kin relations and family routine with adolescents' psychological distress and school achievement was assessed among 200 low-income, African American mothers and adolescents. Demanding kin relations were significantly associated with adolescents' psychological distress. Family routine was significantly related to adolescents' school achievement. Demanding kin relations were negatively associated with school achievement for adolescents from families low in routine, but unrelated to achievement for adolescents in families high in routine. Additional research is needed on poor families and their social networks. © 2015 The Author. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2015 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  9. Cultural Diversity: Is It Present In American Law Schools And The Legal Profession?

    OpenAIRE

    Randall L. Robbins; Thomas J. Matthews

    2014-01-01

    The issue of diversity is certainly not a new concept.  This topic has been the focus of many corporate retreats and board room discussions.  However, one of the most reputable and esteemed professions is falling short of the bar in maintaining a diverse profile.  Research indicates that minority groups experience significant underrepresentation in law schools and the legal profession in general.  To address this issue, this research will focus on examining the value of diversity to the legal...

  10. American Association of Dental Schools Annual Session and Exposition. Poster Presentation Abstracts (78th, Chicago, IL, March 3-8, 2001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Dental Education, 2001

    2001-01-01

    This issue introduces the poster presentations for the American Association of Dental Schools annual conference. The issue contains a list of poster presentations, poster abstracts for each of four time blocks, a list of poster session authors, and a keyword index. (EV)

  11. The Relationship of Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy, Vocational Identity, and Career Exploration Behavior in African American High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gushue, George V.; Scanlan, Kolone R. L.; Pantzer, Karen M.; Clarke, Christine P.

    2006-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between the social cognitive construct of career decision-making self-efficacy and the outcome variables of vocational identity and career exploration behaviors in a sample of 72 urban African American high school students. The results indicate that higher levels of career decision-making self-efficacy are…

  12. Bringing Psychological Science to the Forefront of Educational Policy: Collaborative Efforts of the American Psychological Association's Coalition for Psychology in the Schools and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollin, Stephen A.; Subotnik, Rena F.; Bassford, Maya; Smulson, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    The following article details the work of the American Psychological Association's (APA's) Coalition for Psychology in the Schools and Education (CPSE). First, a brief history of the background and creation of the coalition is described. The article then details the projects, completed and ongoing, of the CPSE. Those projects include a Teacher…

  13. From Higher Aims to Hired Hands: The Social Transformation of American Business Schools and the Unfulfilled Promise of Management as a Profession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, Rakesh

    2010-01-01

    Is management a profession? Should it be? Can it be? This major work of social and intellectual history reveals how such questions have driven business education and shaped American management and society for more than a century. The book is also a call for reform. Rakesh Khurana shows that university-based business schools were founded to train a…

  14. From Civic Conservation to the Age of Ecology: The Rise and Synthesis of Ecological Ideas in the American High School Science Curriculum, 1900-1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laubach, Stephen A.

    2013-01-01

    Ecological ideas have been manifested in diverse ways in American high schools since the early twentieth century. Core scientific concepts in ecology--the study of the relationship between organisms and their environment--include adaptations, plant succession, ecosystem ecology, and population ecology. This dissertation argues, however, that there…

  15. Resisting Official Knowledge: The Incorporation and Abjection of Race and Poverty in High School American History Textbooks, 1960s-2000s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearl, Benjamin Kelsey

    2014-01-01

    Through an interpretive analysis of how high school American history textbooks depict the urban-riots of the late-1960s, in this article the author discusses how textbooks incorporate and abject official knowledge related to the intersections of race and poverty. Incorporation is related with Raymond Williams' theory of the selective tradition and…

  16. Hispanic-American Students' Attitudes toward Enrolling in High School Chemistry: A Study of Planned Behavior and Belief-Based Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawley, Frank E.; Koballa, Thomas R., Jr.

    The study sought to: (1) identify the determinants that motivate Hispanic-American students to enroll in high school chemistry; and (2) determine if providing belief-based information to students and their parents/guardians increases chemistry registration. The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) guided the…

  17. A Case Study: The Impact of an Immersion Experience on the Vocation of Lay Teacher-Leaders in American Jesuit High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Martin J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this case study explores the impact of an immersion experience to a least developed country on the vocation of lay teacher leaders in American Jesuit High Schools. Nine lay teacher leaders engaged in a four stage process of immersion from November 2009 to August 2010. The study employed the conceptual framework of Edward…

  18. Population education in the school curriculum: a comparative analysis of the American and Asian models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okobiah, O S

    1981-02-01

    The content, strategies, and objectives of population education curriculum materials developed for use in school systems in a developed country (US) and in a developing country (Thailand) were compared. It was assumed that the objectives and strategies of population education developed in a specific country would reflect the way in which population matters were viewed by that country's policy makers and planners. In developed countries, population education is primarily an outgrowth of environmental concerns. In less developed countries population education is pursued mainly because of concerns about rapid population growth. The specific curriculum materials which were analyzed were the Population, Environmental-Ecological Education Project developed by the Missouri State Department of Education and the Population and Family Education Project developed in Bangkok. A conceptual framework for analyzing the content of the materials was developed. The framework included 5 major parameters. These parameters were 1) a description of the human population, 2) basic population concepts and processes, 3) population dynamics, 4) the causes and consequences of population change, and 5) population issues. Content analysis of the materials revealed that the content focus was similar for both of the curriculum materials. 74% of the Asian curricula and 73% of the US curricula focused on population issues and on the causes and consequences of population growth; however, the US materials emphasized environmental consequences and policies while the Asian materials emphasized family planning policies and the effects of population growth on family, community, sociocultural, and personal factors. Marked differences were revealed when the instructional strategies and course objectives of the materials were judged in reference to established educational standards of objectivity. All of the sampled instructional strategies in the US materials were judged as suitable for use in the formal

  19. News Quantum physics: German Physical Society spring meeting Journal access: American Physical Society's online journals will be available for free in all US high schools Award: High-school physics teacher receives American award for excellence Teacher training: Fobinet offers coordination of teacher-training activities Astronomy: Astronomy fans see stars at Astrofest Conference: Delegates enjoy the workshops and activities at CPD conference Forthcoming events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Quantum physics: German Physical Society spring meeting Journal access: American Physical Society's online journals will be available for free in all US high schools Award: High-school physics teacher receives American award for excellence Teacher training: Fobinet offers coordination of teacher-training activities Astronomy: Astronomy fans see stars at Astrofest Conference: Delegates enjoy the workshops and activities at CPD conference Forthcoming events

  20. Intervention effects on kindergarten and 1st grade teachers’ classroom food practices and food-related beliefs in American Indian reservation schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcan, Chrisa; Hannan, Peter J.; Himes, John H.; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Rock, Bonnie Holy; Smyth, Mary; Story, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Prevalence of obesity among American Indian (AI) children is higher than the general US population. The school environment and teachers play important roles in helping students develop healthy eating habits. The aim of this prospective study was to examine teachers’ classroom and school food practices and beliefs and the effect of teacher training on these practices and beliefs. Data were used from the Bright Start study, a group-randomized, school-based trial on the Pine Ridge AI reservation (Fall 2005 to Spring 2008). Kindergarten and first grade teachers (n=75) from 14 schools completed a survey at the beginning and end of the school year. Thirty-seven survey items were evaluated using mixed-model analysis of variance to examine the intervention effect for each teacher-practice and belief item (adjusting for teacher type and school as random effect). At baseline, some teachers reported classroom and school food practices and beliefs that supported health and some that did not. The intervention was significantly associated with lower classroom use of candy as a treat (p=0.0005) and fast food rewards (p=0.008); more intervention teachers disagreed that fast food should be offered as school lunch alternatives (p=0.019), that it would be acceptable to sell unhealthy foods as part of school fund-raising (p=0.006), and that it would not make sense to limit students’ food choices in school (p=0.035). School-based interventions involving teacher training can result in positive changes in teachers’ classroom food practices and beliefs about the influence of the school food environment in schools serving AI children on reservations. PMID:23885704

  1. Exploring the Changing Meaning of Work for American High School Seniors from 1976 to 20051, 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray-Lake, Laura; Syvertsen, Amy K.; Briddell, Laine; Osgood, D. Wayne; Flanagan, Constance A.

    2009-01-01

    Using data from the Monitoring the Future study, this paper presents historical trends in U.S. high school seniors’ work values across 30 years (1976 to 2005. Adolescents across three decades highly valued most aspects of work examined. Recent cohorts showed declines in the importance of work, values for job security, and various potential intrinsic rewards of work. After increasing until 1990, adolescents remained stable in their values for extrinsic and materialistic aspects of work until 2005. The value of work that allows for leisure time has steadily increased. Stable level differences in work values emerged for adolescents by gender, race, parents’ education, and college aspirations. Findings have implications for understanding the changing meaning of work for the future workforce. PMID:22034546

  2. Exploring the Changing Meaning of Work for American High School Seniors from 1976 to 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray-Lake, Laura; Syvertsen, Amy K; Briddell, Laine; Osgood, D Wayne; Flanagan, Constance A

    2011-09-01

    Using data from the Monitoring the Future study, this paper presents historical trends in U.S. high school seniors' work values across 30 years (1976 to 2005. Adolescents across three decades highly valued most aspects of work examined. Recent cohorts showed declines in the importance of work, values for job security, and various potential intrinsic rewards of work. After increasing until 1990, adolescents remained stable in their values for extrinsic and materialistic aspects of work until 2005. The value of work that allows for leisure time has steadily increased. Stable level differences in work values emerged for adolescents by gender, race, parents' education, and college aspirations. Findings have implications for understanding the changing meaning of work for the future workforce.

  3. TOWARDS DEVELOPING A SUSTAINABLE FACULTY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM: An Initiative of an American Medical School in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahal, Boushra; Mansour, Nabil; Zaatari, Ghazi

    2015-01-01

    The American University of Beirut Faculty of Medicine (AUB-FM) strategy is to develop faculty members (fm) skills by sponsoring local and international scientific activities has been in place for over three decades, and remains dependent on individuals' efforts. In 2011-2012, Faculty Development Program (FDP) was introduced to develop faculty leadership, business skills in medicine, fulfill personal and professional goals, followed by a five-year plan to cover five themes: Management/Leadership, Marketing, Finance, Strategic Planning and Communications with the purpose of integrating these themes in medical practice. A survey was sent to all departments at AUB-FM in 2011 to assess needs and determine themes. Nine workshops were conducted, followed by post-workshop evaluation. 117 fm responded to needs assessment surveys. Respondents had on average 15 years in clinical practice, 50% with extensive to moderate administrative experience; 71% assumed administrative responsibilities at least once, 56% in leadership positions. Faculty attendance dropped midway from 69 to 19, although workshops were rated very good to excellent. Although faculty were interested in FDP, the drop in attendance might be attributed to: challenges to achieve personal and professional goals while struggling to fulfill their roles, satisfy promotion requirements and generate their income. FDP has to be aligned with FM strategic goals and faculty objectives, be complimentary to a faculty mentoring program, provide rewards, and be supported by a faculty progression tool.

  4. The Great Recession was not so Great

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ours, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    The Great Recession is characterized by a GDP-decline that was unprecedented in the past decades. This paper discusses the implications of the Great Recession analyzing labor market data from 20 OECD countries. Comparing the Great Recession with the 1980s recession it is concluded that there is a

  5. Differences in gambling problem severity and gambling and health/functioning characteristics among Asian-American and Caucasian high-school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Grace; Tsai, Jack; Pilver, Corey E.; Tan, Hwee Sim; Hoff, Rani A.; Cavallo, Dana; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Rugle, Loreen; Potenza, Marc N.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of Asian-American adults have found high estimates of problematic gambling. However, little is known about gambling behaviors and associated measures among Asian-American adolescents. This study examined gambling perceptions and behaviors and health/functioning characteristics stratified by problem-gambling severity and Asian-American and Caucasian race using cross-sectional survey data of 121 Asian-American and 1,659 Caucasian high-school students. Asian-American and Caucasian adolescents significantly differed on problem-gambling severity, with Asian-American adolescents more often reporting not gambling (24.8% vs. 16.4%), but when they did report gambling, they showed higher levels of at-risk/problem gambling (30.6% vs. 26.4%). Parental approval or disapproval of adolescent gambling also significantly differed between races, with Asian-American adolescents more likely to perceive both parental disapproval (50.0% vs. 38.2%) and approval (19.3% vs. 9.6%) of gambling. Asian-American adolescents were also more likely to express concern about gambling among close family members (25.2% vs. 11.6%). Among Asian-American adolescents, stronger associations were observed between at-risk/problem gambling and smoking cigarettes (interaction odds ratio=12.6). In summary, differences in problem-gambling severity and gambling perceptions indicate possible cultural differences in familial attitudes towards gambling. Stronger links between cigarette smoking and risky/problematic gambling amongst Asian-American adolescents suggest that prevention and treatment efforts targeting youth addictions consider cultural differences. PMID:24183532

  6. Differences in gambling problem severity and gambling and health/functioning characteristics among Asian-American and Caucasian high-school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Grace; Tsai, Jack; Pilver, Corey E; Tan, Hwee Sim; Hoff, Rani A; Cavallo, Dana A; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Steinberg, Marvin A; Rugle, Loreen; Potenza, Marc N

    2013-12-30

    Studies of Asian-American adults have found high estimates of problematic gambling. However, little is known about gambling behaviors and associated measures among Asian-American adolescents. This study examined gambling perceptions and behaviors and health/functioning characteristics stratified by problem-gambling severity and Asian-American and Caucasian race using cross-sectional survey data of 121 Asian-American and 1659 Caucasian high-school students. Asian-American and Caucasian adolescents significantly differed on problem-gambling severity, with Asian-American adolescents more often reporting not gambling (24.8% vs. 16.4%), but when they did report gambling, they showed higher levels of at-risk/problem gambling (30.6% vs. 26.4%). Parental approval or disapproval of adolescent gambling also significantly differed between races, with Asian-American adolescents more likely to perceive both parental disapproval (50.0% vs. 38.2%) and approval (19.3% vs. 9.6%) of gambling. Asian-American adolescents were also more likely to express concern about gambling among close family members (25.2% vs. 11.6%). Among Asian-American adolescents, stronger associations were observed between at-risk/problem gambling and smoking cigarettes (interaction odds ratio=12.6). In summary, differences in problem-gambling severity and gambling perceptions indicate possible cultural differences in familial attitudes towards gambling. Stronger links between cigarette smoking and risky/problematic gambling amongst Asian-American adolescents suggest that prevention and treatment efforts targeting youth addictions consider cultural differences. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  7. Psychiatric disorder symptoms, substance use, and sexual risk behavior among African-American out of school youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Alezandria K; Latkin, Carl; Sonenstein, Freya; Tandon, S Darius

    2011-05-01

    To examine the association between symptoms of psychiatric disorder (i.e. depression, anxiety, and substance use) and sexual risk behavior in a sample of African-American adolescents and young adults in an employment training program. Baseline data were used from a pilot study of an intervention to reduce depressive symptoms among youth disconnected from school and the workforce. Participants were recruited from two employment training programs in East and West Baltimore (N=617; age 16-23 years). Data were collected through audio computer-assisted self-interview (ACASI). Mental health indicators were measured using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale and Beck Anxiety Inventory. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the odds of sexual risk behavior for each mental health condition and combinations of conditions. Lack of condom use at last sex was significantly associated with elevated anxiety symptoms. Number of sexual partners was associated with elevated depression symptoms and substance use. Early sexual debut was associated with substance use in the past 30 days. Also, there were differences in the likelihood of engaging in sexual risk behavior comparing groups with different combinations of mental health problems to those with no symptoms of disorder or substance use. The results demonstrate the need for HIV prevention programs that target out-of-school youth, as they are likely to engage in risky sexual behavior. Our findings highlight the need to develop behavioral interventions that address disorder symptoms, substance use, and risky sexual behavior among youth in employment training programs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A case study of the effects of social experiences on the science identity formation of Mexican American females in high school chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeton, Renee P.

    Mexican Americans are a rapidly growing ethnic group in the United States. However, they are noticeably absent from physical science fields. Little research has explored the experiences of Mexican American girls in high school chemistry. The theories of identity based on communities of practice and multicultural feminism framed this year-long case study of nine Mexican American girls in a high school chemistry course. This study explored the social encounters and experiences that shaped the participants' identities and how their views of themselves affected their attitudes towards high school chemistry and future science careers. Data collection included a focus group and in-depth interviews with the participants, classroom observations, and teacher interviews. Five main identities influenced the participants' potential to become a scientist: ethnic, gender, science, student, and college. Mexican ethnic identity was the overarching identity; however gender also influenced the participants' other identities. The participants were aware of ethnic gender stereotypes that might hinder them from being successful in science. Also, ethnic factors, such as citizenship and abilities to receive financial aid limited their views of themselves as chemists. Participatory science, student, and school identities were all needed in order for the participants to be potential scientists. Family expectations, authentic relationships with teachers, and personal connections were important factors in the development of these participatory identities.

  9. Statement of Dr. Marilyn L. Miller, Immediate Past President, American Association of School Librarians, a Division of the American Library Association, before the Subcommittee on Education, Arts, and Humanities, Senate Labor and Human Resources Committee on Reauthorization of Chapter 2, Education Consolidation and Improvement Act, July 16, 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Marilyn L.

    1988-01-01

    This statement in support of Education Consolidation Improvement Act reauthorization discusses six topics related to school libraries: (1) purpose of school libraries; (2) research supporting need for school libraries; (3) current status; (4) funding realities; (5) deteriorating book collections; and (6) impact of federal aid. An American Library…

  10. A Case of Fragmented High School Earth and Space Science Education in the Great Plains: Tracing Teacher Certification Policy to Students' Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Elizabeth; Lu, Jia

    2017-01-01

    Although U.S. high school students' access to Earth and space science (ESS) varies widely from state to state, nationally, ESS content is the most neglected area of science education and scientific literacy. States have been considering whether they will formally adopt, or less formally adapt, the new national science education standards, the Next…

  11. Beyond the Classroom: Religious Stressors and Adjustment among Indonesian Muslim Graduate Students in an American Graduate School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirul Mukminin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper was to report some of findings from a larger phenomenological study on the lived experience of Indonesian graduate students in a US higher education. Particularly, this paper was to discuss the Indonesian Muslim graduate students’ religious life experiences attending an American graduate school. The primary data sources were a demographic survey and in-depth interviews. The demographic data were analyzed descriptively. The interviews were analyzed by using within-case and cross-case displays and analyses. The theoretical framework of acculturation stress model was used to guide this study. Utilizing the acculturation stress model to describe Indonesian Muslim graduate students’ cross-culture experiences, we organized our analysis and discussion around their perspectives and the contexts in which challenges they encountered emerge. An analysis of the text revealed that major themes related to religious beliefs and life experiences were unanticipated praying difficulties, longer fasting days, no holiday for Ramadan (the holy month of Muslims celebration, no taraweeh (Muslim prayer peculiar to the holy month of Ramadan prayers in mosque during Ramadan, and rare halal food, and decreasing religious stressors. Future higher education research and policy implications are also discussed

  12. Identical, Fraternal, or Separated at Birth: A Case Study of Educator Teams within American-Israeli School Twinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chertok, Fern; Mittelberg, David; Laron, Dinah; Koren, Annette

    2013-01-01

    School-to-school collaboration has emerged as a key paradigm for fostering personal and institutional connections between Israeli and Diaspora youth, educators, and schools. Using the findings of a multi-year case study of a high school level twinning initiative, this article describes the challenges to this form of transnational collaboration and…

  13. Great Lakes Science Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Since 1927, Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC) research has provided critical information for the sound management of Great Lakes fish populations and other important...

  14. Proceedings, 8th CERN–Latin-American School of High-Energy Physics (CLASHEP2015) Ibarra, Ecuador, March 05-17, 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Mulders, M.; CLASHEP 2015; CLASHEP2015

    2016-01-01

    The CERN–Latin-American School of High-Energy Physics is intended to give young physicists an introduction to the theoretical aspects of recent advances in elementary particle physics. These proceedings contain lecture notes on the Standard Model of electroweak interactions, flavour physics, neutrino physics, Higgs physics, new physics beyond the standard model, quantum chromodynamics under extreme conditions, cosmology, an introduction to experimental facilities at the high-energy frontier, and practical statistics for particle physicists.

  15. Unpacking Racial Identities: The Salience of Ethnicity in Southeast Asian-American Youth's Schooling Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uy, Phitsamay Sychitkokhong

    2018-01-01

    This article reconceptualizes white teachers' notion of their Asian-American students' racial identity. Forty urban Southeast Asian-American (SEAA) students and seven of their white European-American teachers were examined to determine how the students responded to the white teachers' assumptions about their identity. This study provides an…

  16. POLITICAL SOCIALIZATION OF AMERICAN YOUTH--A REVIEW OF RESEARCH WITH IMPLICATIONS FOR SECONDARY SCHOOL SOCIAL STUDIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PATRICK, JOHN J.

    A REVIEW OF EXISTING RESEARCH WAS MADE ON THE TOPIC OF POLITICAL SOCIALIZATION OF AMERICAN YOUTH. THE AUTHOR POSED THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS AS SUBTOPICS TO THE OVERALL RESEARCH REVIEW--(1) WHAT IS POLITICAL SOCIALIZATION, (2) WHAT DO YOUNG AMERICANS BELIEVE ABOUT POLITICS, (3) HOW DO YOUNG AMERICANS ACQUIRE POLITICAL BELIEFS, AND (4) HOW IMPORTANT…

  17. The Effect of Social Problem Solving Skills in the Relationship between Traumatic Stress and Moral Disengagement among Inner-City African American High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Kendell L.; Ikpe, Uduakobong N.; Brooks, Jeannie S.; Page, Brian; Sobell, Mark B.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between traumatic stress, social problem solving, and moral disengagement among African American inner-city high school students. Participants consisted of 45 (25 males and 20 females) African American students enrolled in grades 10 through 12. Mediation was assessed by testing for the indirect effect using the confidence interval derived from 10,000 bootstrapped resamples. The results revealed that social problem-solving skills have an indirect effect on the relationship between traumatic stress and moral disengagement. The findings suggest that African American youth that are negatively impacted by trauma evidence deficits in their social problem solving skills and are likely to be at an increased risk to morally disengage. Implications for culturally sensitive and trauma-based intervention programs are also provided. PMID:25071874

  18. The Effect of Social Problem Solving Skills in the Relationship between Traumatic Stress and Moral Disengagement among Inner-City African American High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Kendell L; Ikpe, Uduakobong N; Brooks, Jeannie S; Page, Brian; Sobell, Mark B

    2014-06-01

    This study examined the relationship between traumatic stress, social problem solving, and moral disengagement among African American inner-city high school students. Participants consisted of 45 (25 males and 20 females) African American students enrolled in grades 10 through 12. Mediation was assessed by testing for the indirect effect using the confidence interval derived from 10,000 bootstrapped resamples. The results revealed that social problem-solving skills have an indirect effect on the relationship between traumatic stress and moral disengagement. The findings suggest that African American youth that are negatively impacted by trauma evidence deficits in their social problem solving skills and are likely to be at an increased risk to morally disengage. Implications for culturally sensitive and trauma-based intervention programs are also provided.

  19. Assessing the Mental Health Impact of the 2011 Great Japan Earthquake, Tsunami, and Radiation Disaster on Elementary and Middle School Children in the Fukushima Prefecture of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieber, Mark

    2017-01-01

    On March 11, 2011, a magnitude 9.0 earthquake occurred off of Japan's Pacific coast, which was followed by huge tsunamis that destroyed many coastal cities in the area. Due to the earthquake and subsequent tsunami, malfunctions occurred at the Fukushima Daiichi (Fukushima I) nuclear power plant, resulting in the release of radioactive material in the region. While recent studies have investigated the effects of these events on the mental health of adults in the region, no studies have yet been performed investigating similar effects among children. This study aims to fill that gap by: 1) assessing the mental health of elementary and middle school children living within the Fukushima prefecture of Japan, and 2) identifying risk and protective factors that are associated with the children's mental health scores. These factors were quantified using an original demographics survey, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), the latter two of which have been previously validated in a Japanese setting. The surveys were distributed to approximately 3,650 elementary and middle school students during the months of February and March, 2012. The data suggests that those children who had been relocated to the city of Koriyama had significantly higher SDQ scores than those children who were native to Koriyama (p children affected by natural disasters, younger children and those with parents suffering from trauma-related distress are particularly vulnerable to the onset of pediatric mental disturbances.

  20. Great Books. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2011

    2011-01-01

    "Great Books" is a program that aims to improve the reading, writing, and critical thinking skills of students in kindergarten through high school. The program is implemented as a core or complementary curriculum and is based on the Shared Inquiry[TM] method of learning. The purpose of "Great Books" is to engage students in…