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Sample records for grease stain thickness

  1. Film Thickness and Friction Relationship in Grease Lubricated Rough Contacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Gonçalves

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the film generation and the coefficient of friction in grease lubricated contacts was investigated. Ball-on-disc tests were performed under different operating conditions: entrainment speed, lubricant temperature and surface roughness. The tests were performed with fully formulated greases and their base oils. The greases were formulated with different thickener types and also different base oils natures and viscosities. Film thickness measurements were performed in ball-on-glass disc tests, and Stribeck curves were measured in ball-on-steel disc tests with discs of different roughness. The role of the thickener and the base oil nature/viscosity on the film thickness and coefficient of friction was addressed and the greases’ performance was compared based on their formulation.

  2. Preliminary experimental research to detect grease stain of petroleum pipeline by sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs gamma-ray transmission method

    CERN Document Server

    Wang Shi Heng

    2002-01-01

    The experimental study on the detection of grease stain for petroleum pipeline in Karamay oil-field of Xinjiang is carried out by gamma-ray transmission method. Experimental provision consists of sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs gamma radiator and NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. The response of grease stain thickness of petroleum pipeline in Karamay oil-field is ln(N sub 0 /N)=0.00548 d-0.0046, and the response of paraffin thickness is ln(N sub 0 /N)=0.00522d-0.0126. The result of experiment indicates that the response of grease stain thickness is more sensitive than the response of paraffin thickness

  3. Experimental Comparison of the Behavior between Base Oil and Grease Starvation Based on Inlet Film Thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kostal

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the experimental study of an elastohydrodynamic contact under conditions of insufficient lubricant supply. Starvation level of this type of the contact may be experimentally determined based on the position of the meniscus, but this way can't determine all levels of starvation. Consequent development in the field of tribology achieved theoretical model that can determine all levels of starvation by dependency on the thickness of the lubricant film entering the contact, but it is difficult for experimental verification. The main goal of this work is an experimental study and description of the behavior of the elastohydrodynamic contact with controlled thickness of the lubricant film at the contact input. Contact was lubricated by the base oil and the grease and compared. Results were surprising because the only differences between oil and grease were observed for more viscous lubricants at thicker film layer entering to the contact.

  4. Experimental preliminary exploration on determining grease thickness simulated by paraffin in petroleum pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Nongxiao; Arkin, Abulim; Yang Kunjie; Wang Shiheng; Shi Feiyue

    2009-01-01

    1.25 MeV γ-ray of 60 Co Compton scattering coefficient in the simple of paraffin,are measured by γ-ray energy spectrum analysis in two determining means. At the same experimental condition, we have used this scattering coefficient to determining grease thickness simulated by paraffin. The result show the average relative difference is about 1.29% for the best group. (authors)

  5. Preliminary research on measuring grease in petroleum pipeline using fast neutron transmission method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Qingwei; Liu Shengkang; Zhang Zhiping; Ding Xiaoping

    2006-01-01

    The principle, experiment and conclusion on the grease stain measurement using fast neutron are reported. The experiment equipment consist of 241 Am-Be fast neutron source, ZnS detector and BH1224 multichannel spectrometer. Paraffin is used instead of real grease stain. Steel plates are used instead of pipeline. The results of the experiment indicate that there is a good linearship between the logarithm of the reciprocal of the neutron transmissivity and the paraffin thickness. The measuring accuracy of the paraffin thickness is 0.6 mm in this experiment. (authors)

  6. Thick tissue diffusion model with binding to optimize topical staining in fluorescence breast cancer margin imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaochun; Kang, Soyoung; Navarro-Comes, Eric; Wang, Yu; Liu, Jonathan T. C.; Tichauer, Kenneth M.

    2018-03-01

    Intraoperative tumor/surgical margin assessment is required to achieve higher tumor resection rate in breast-conserving surgery. Though current histology provides incomparable accuracy in margin assessment, thin tissue sectioning and the limited field of view of microscopy makes histology too time-consuming for intraoperative applications. If thick tissue, wide-field imaging can provide an acceptable assessment of tumor cells at the surface of resected tissues, an intraoperative protocol can be developed to guide the surgery and provide immediate feedback for surgeons. Topical staining of margins with cancer-targeted molecular imaging agents has the potential to provide the sensitivity needed to see microscopic cancer on a wide-field image; however, diffusion and nonspecific retention of imaging agents in thick tissue can significantly diminish tumor contrast with conventional methods. Here, we present a mathematical model to accurately simulate nonspecific retention, binding, and diffusion of imaging agents in thick tissue topical staining to guide and optimize future thick tissue staining and imaging protocol. In order to verify the accuracy and applicability of the model, diffusion profiles of cancer targeted and untargeted (control) nanoparticles at different staining times in A431 tumor xenografts were acquired for model comparison and tuning. The initial findings suggest the existence of nonspecific retention in the tissue, especially at the tissue surface. The simulator can be used to compare the effect of nonspecific retention, receptor binding and diffusion under various conditions (tissue type, imaging agent) and provides optimal staining and imaging protocols for targeted and control imaging agent.

  7. ROLE OF TRANSCERVICAL AMNIOINFUSION IN LABOUR COMPLICATED WITH THICK MECONIUM STAINED LIQUOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuragamayi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This is to evaluate the effectiveness of amnio infusion in cases of thick and particulate meconium stained liquor to reduce the incidence of fetal distress and meconium aspiration syndrome in neonates and compare neonatal outcome with control group . METHODS: A prospective comparative case control study was conducted in the Department of Obstetrics and gynecology, Government General Hospital, Kakinada. A total of 100 cases of labour complicated with thick meconium stained liquor were studied of which in 50 cases Transcervical Amnioinfusion was given and remaining 50 cases without amnioinfusion were taken as controls. The statistical analysis of neonatal outcome was done by Chi square test analysis of variance and paired t test. Liquor to reduce the incidence of fetal distress and meconium aspiration syndrome in neonates and compare neonatal. RESULTS: Operative interventions for fetal distress were significantly less in infusion group (p7 were observed in more cases of infusion group with significant difference in control group. Use of resuscitative measures for neonates were relatively more in control group with higher incidence of meconium at and below vocal cords (p <0.01. In amnioinfusion group, admissions in NICU were less (p <0.01 CONCLUSION : Transcervical amnioinfusion during labour is a safe, simple, inexpensive and effective procedure in improving the obstetric and perinatal outcome in patients labouring with thick meconium stained liquor

  8. AUTOMATED ASSESSMENT OF EPIDERMAL THICKNESS AND VASCULAR DENSITY OF PORT WINE STAINS OCT IMAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHENGMING WANG

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical coherence tomography (OCT enables in vivo imaging of port wine stains (PWS lesions. The knowledge of vascular structure and epidermal thickness (ET of PWS may aid the objective diagnosis and optimal treatment. To obtain the structural parameters more rapidly and avoid user intervention, an automated algorithm of energy map is introduced based on intensity and edge information to extract the skin surface using dynamic programming method. Subsequently, an averaged A-scan analysis is performed to obtain the mean ET and the relative intensity of dermis indicating the corresponding vascular density. This approach is currently successfully applied in clinical diagnosis and shows promising guidance and assessment of PDT treatment.

  9. NEW RADIATION RESISTANT GREASES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DasGupta, Sharda; Slobodian, J. T.

    1962-11-20

    New radiation resistant greases were prepared from commercially available greases by carrying out radioinduced reactions with styrene. The radiation tolerances of the products were 250-1000 fold more than the starting materials and any product of similar properties now available. The various properties of the new products initially and after exposure to large radiation doses were in no case inferior to the original greases and in some respects improvements were observed. Radiation tolerance of commercial greases could be enhanced by the addition of polystyrene to form a physical mixture rather than copolymers. The reaction mechanisms involved at all stages were studied using infrared spectroscopic techniques. (P.C.H.)

  10. Grease lubrication in rolling bearings

    CERN Document Server

    Lugt, Piet M

    2012-01-01

    The definitive book on the science of grease lubrication for roller and needle bearings in industrial and vehicle engineering. Grease Lubrication in Rolling Bearings provides an overview of the existing knowledge on the various aspects of grease lubrication (including lubrication systems) and the state of the art models that exist today. The book reviews the physical and chemical aspects of grease lubrication, primarily directed towards lubrication of rolling bearings. The first part of the book covers grease composition, properties and rheology, including thermal

  11. Degradation Characterization of Thermal Interface Greases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Major, Joshua [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Narumanchi, Sreekant V [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Paret, Paul P [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Blackman, Gregory [DuPont; Wong, Arnold [DuPont; Meth, Jeffery [DuPont

    2018-02-12

    Thermal interface materials (TIMs) are used in power electronics packaging to minimize thermal resistance between the heat generating component and the heat sink. Thermal greases are one such class. The conformability and thin bond line thickness (BLT) of these TIMs can potentially provide low thermal resistance throughout the operation lifetime of a component. However, their performance degrades over time due to pump-out and dry-out during thermal and power cycling. The reliability performance of greases through operational cycling needs to be quantified to develop new materials with superior properties. NREL, in collaboration with DuPont, has performed thermal and reliability characterization of several commercially available thermal greases. Initial bulk and contact thermal resistance of grease samples were measured, and then the thermal degradation that occurred due to pump-out and dry-out during temperature cycling was monitored. The thermal resistances of five different grease materials were evaluated using NREL's steady-state thermal resistance tester based on the ASTM test method D5470. Greases were then applied, utilizing a 2.5 cm x 2.5 cm stencil, between invar and aluminum plates to compare the thermomechanical performance of the materials in a representative test fixture. Scanning Acoustic microscopy, thermal, and compositional analyses were performed periodically during thermal cycling from -40 degrees C to 125 degrees C. Completion of this characterization has allowed for a comprehensive evaluation of thermal greases both for their initial bulk and contact thermal performance, as well as their degradation mechanisms under accelerated thermal cycling conditions.

  12. Degradation Characterization of Thermal Interface Greases: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVoto, Douglas J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Major, Joshua [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Paret, Paul P [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Blackman, G. S. [DuPont Experimental Station; Wong, A. [DuPont Experimental Station; Meth, J. S. [DuPont Experimental Station

    2017-08-03

    Thermal interface materials (TIMs) are used in power electronics packaging to minimize thermal resistance between the heat generating component and the heat sink. Thermal greases are one such class. The conformability and thin bond line thickness (BLT) of these TIMs can potentially provide low thermal resistance throughout the operation lifetime of a component. However, their performance degrades over time due to pump-out and dry-out during thermal and power cycling. The reliability performance of greases through operational cycling needs to be quantified to develop new materials with superior properties. NREL, in collaboration with DuPont, has performed thermal and reliability characterization of several commercially available thermal greases. Initial bulk and contact thermal resistance of grease samples were measured, and then the thermal degradation that occurred due to pump-out and dry-out during temperature cycling was monitored. The thermal resistances of five different grease materials were evaluated using NREL's steady-state thermal resistance tester based on the ASTM test method D5470. Greases were then applied, utilizing a 2.5 cm x 2.5 cm stencil, between invar and aluminum plates to compare the thermomechanical performance of the materials in a representative test fixture. Scanning Acoustic microscopy, thermal, and compositional analyses were performed periodically during thermal cycling from -40 degrees Celcius to 125 degrees Celcius. Completion of this characterization has allowed for a comprehensive evaluation of thermal greases both for their initial bulk and contact thermal performance, as well as their degradation mechanisms under accelerated thermal cycling conditions.

  13. Urban Waste Grease Resource Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiltsee, G.

    1999-03-17

    This study collected and analyzed data on urban waste grease resources in 30 randomly selected metropolitan areas in the United States. Two major categories (yellow grease feedstock collected from restaurants by rendering companies; and grease trap wastes from restaurants, which can either be pumped into tank trucks for disposal or flow through municipal sewage systems into wastewater treatment plants) were considered in this study.

  14. Canadian company develops better grease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    Development of a new type of grease for hydroelectric applications that offers improved performance characteristics and reduced environmental side-effects was discussed. The new product developed by Utility Services Associates of Toronto and known as Cor-Tek VSG, performs better than most mineral oil-based greases. It is readily bio-degradable and contains none of the environmentally questionable additives used in greases. It is made primarily of canola oil, a renewable resource. It has excellent resistance to water washout, retards rust formation, has an extreme pressure rating, is compatible with most of the current greases, works well in both manual and automatic greasing systems, and is said to be excellent for lignum vitae main bearings on a Kaplan turbine

  15. Formulation of lubricating grease using Beeswax thickener

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhaila, N.; Japar, A.; Aizudin, M.; Aziz, A.; Najib Razali, Mohd

    2018-04-01

    The issues on environmental pollution has brought the industries to seek the alternative green solutions for lubricating grease formulation. The significant challenges in producing modified grease are in which considering the chosen thickener as one of the environmental friendly material. The main purposes of the current research were to formulate lubricant grease using different types of base oils and to study the effect of thickener on the formulated lubricant grease. Used oil and motor oil were used as the base oils for the grease preparation. Beeswax and Damar were used as thickener and additive. The grease is tested based on its consistency, stability and oil bleeding. The prepared greases achieved grease consistency of grade 2 and 3 except for grease with unfiltered used oil. Grease formulated with used oil and synthetic oil tend to harden and loss its lubricating ability under high temperature compared to motor oil’ grease. Grease modification using environmental friendly thickener were successfully formulated but it is considered as a low temperature grease as the beeswax have low melting point of 62°C-65°C.

  16. 3D imaging of hematoxylin and eosin stained thick tissues with a sub-femtoliter resolution by using Cr:forsterite-laser-based nonlinear microscopy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Chien-Ting; Wei, Ming-Liang; Liao, Yi-Hua; Sun, Chi-Kuang

    2017-02-01

    Intraoperative assessment of excision tissues during cancer surgery is clinically important. The assessment is used to be guided by the examination for residual tumor with frozen pathology, while it is time consuming for preparation and is with low accuracy for diagnosis. Recently, reflection confocal microscopy (RCM) and nonlinear microscopy (NLM) were demonstrated to be promising methods for surgical border assessment. Intraoperative RCM imaging may enable detection of residual tumor directly on skin cancers patients during Mohs surgery. The assessment of benign and malignant breast pathologies in fresh surgical specimens was demonstrated by NLM. Without using hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) that are common dyes for histopathological diagnosis, RCM was proposed to image in vivo by using aluminum chloride for nuclear contrast on surgical wounds directly, while NLM was proposed to detect two photon fluorescence nuclear contrast from acrdine orange staining. In this paper, we propose and demonstrate 3D imaging of H and E stained thick tissues with a sub-femtoliter resolution by using Cr:forsterite-laser-based NLM. With a 1260 nm femtosecond Cr:forsterite laser as the excitation source, the hematoxylin will strongly enhance the third-harmonic generation (THG) signals, while eosin will illuminate strong fluorescence under three photon absorption. Compared with previous works, the 1260 nm excitation light provide high penetration and low photodamage to the exercised tissues so that the possibility to perform other follow-up examination will be preserved. The THG and three-photon process provides high nonlinearity so that the super resolution in 3D is now possible. The staining and the contrast of the imaging is also fully compatible with the current clinical standard on frozen pathology thus facilitate the rapid intraoperative assessment of excision tissues. This work is sponsored by National Health Research Institutes and supported by National Taiwan University

  17. Production of heavy greases from lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1921-03-18

    A process is described for the extraction of heavy greases and wagon greases and their equivalents, by separation from bitumins, resins, and waxes contained in lignite, peat, bituminous shale, fossil wax, paraffin, etc., characterized by the fact that for the extraction are used solvents of high boiling point, such as mineral oils, grease oils, tar oils, and other equivalents, which are not eliminated and at the same time constitute a part of the product obtained.

  18. Analysis of thick brain sections by obverse-reverse computer microscopy: application of a new, high clarity Golgi-Nissl stain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, E M; Van der Loos, H

    1981-08-01

    Exceptionally clear Golgi-Nissl sections of 300 micron thickness have been morphometrically studied by light microscopy using oil immersion objectives. The clarity results from a new variation of a staining procedure that combines Golgi and Nissl images in one section. A viewing technique has been developed that permits a histologic preparation to be examined from its obverse (or normally viewed) side and its reverse (or under) side. The technique was designed for use with a computer microscope but can be employed with any light microscope whose stage position can be measured within 100 micron. Sections thicker than 300 micron can be studied dependent on the working distance of the objective lens, provided that the clarity of the material permits it.

  19. Greasing the Wheels of Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Hendrik P. van Dalen; Aico P. van Vuuren

    2003-01-01

    This discussion paper resulted in a publication in 'De Economist' , 2005, 153(2), 139-165. How much does a nation spend on resources to 'grease the wheels of trade'? To examine this question the Dutch economy is used as an exemplary case as the Netherlands are known as a nation of traders. This image was derived in the seventeenth century from successes in long distance trade, shipping and financial innovations. Despite its historical background in trading the potential to 'truck and barter' ...

  20. Effects of Hydrocarbon-Based Grease on Rapid Prototype Material Used for Grease Retention Shrouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrajsek, Andrew J.; Valco, Daniel J.; Street, Kenneth W., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Effects of hydrocarbon-based greases on specific rapid prototype (RP) materials used to fabricate grease retention shrouds (GRS) were explored in this study. Grease retention shrouds are being considered as a way to maintain adequate grease lubrication at the gear mesh in a prototype research transmission system. Due to their design and manufacturing flexibility, rapid prototype materials were chosen for the grease retention shrouds. In order to gain a better understanding of the short and long term effects grease pose on RP materials, research was conducted on the interaction of hydrocarbon-based grease with RP materials. The materials used in this study were durable polyamide (nylon), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), and WaterClear 10120. Testing was conducted using Mobilgrease 28 and Syn-Tech 3913G grease (gear coupling grease). These greases were selected due to their regular use with mechanical components. To investigate the effect that grease has on RP materials, the following methods were used to obtain qualitative and quantitative data: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), interference profilometer measurements, digital camera imaging, physical shape measurement, and visual observations. To record the changes in the RP materials due to contact with the grease, data was taken before and after the grease application. Results showed that the WaterClear 10120 RP material provided the best resistance to grease penetration as compared to nylon and ABS RP materials. The manufacturing process, and thus resulting surface conditions of the RP material, played a key role in the grease penetration properties and resilience of these materials.

  1. Environmentally adjusted oil and grease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Bert; Lindberg, J.

    1992-01-01

    With the intention of maintaining healthy environment in our rivers Vattenfall in 1988 initiated a project called 'Environmentally friendly oils'. The goal was to find oils for bearings and hydraulic systems that would cause less negative environmental effects and still maintain a good technical function. Based on the results of the project it is recommended, for both economical and environmental reasons, to change to synthetic oil in bearings and to hydraulic oil made of white oil in regulating systems. The change may be carried out in connection to other work on the system in question. Special care is recommended when cleaning the system from old oil and dirt. In order to maintain the high quality of the oil, also during manufacturing and assembling, one should follow the recommendations outlined in the report. In bearings where used grease leaks into the river, a grease made of white oil should be used. The quality of the rubber sealings must be adapted to the oil used, in order to secure a good function. In order to bring down the number of products and to create an open market some additional changes is necessary in the specifications of oil. Further research regarding oil and sealing is planned. (3 refs.)

  2. 7 CFR 2902.31 - Greases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... applies are: (i) Food grade greases. Lubricants that are designed for use on food-processing equipment as... parts and equipment in locations in which there is exposure of the lubricated part to food. (ii... are designed for use on railroad tracks or heavy crane tracks. (iv) Truck greases. Lubricants that are...

  3. Study of a magnetorheological grease clutch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavlicoglu, Barkan M; Gordaninejad, Faramarz; Wang, Xiaojie

    2013-01-01

    In high-speed viscous clutch applications that require low drag (viscous) torque, magnetorheological (MR) fluids are problematic due to their plastic viscosity. As the clutch speed increases the drag torque might exceed the allowable drag torque limit, because the viscous torque is proportional to the speed. To eliminate this problem, various MR greases are utilized in a clutch and their performance is examined. In the experimental study, the torque transfer capacity of a double-plate clutch for operating speeds up to 1200 rpm is conducted. Six different MR greases with various particle loadings and particle sizes are evaluated in the clutch. The rheological properties of MR grease with 90% particle loading in weight are compared with a commercially available MR fluid. The torque performance of the MR grease clutch is also compared with that of the clutch using MR fluid. It is demonstrated that the off-state (no applied magnetic field) torque output of the MR grease clutch is constant in the tested range of the operating speed. In contrast, the torque capacity of the clutch with MR fluid shows a strong dependence on the operating speed. Moreover, it is shown that the iron particle size of the MR grease does not affect the torque output. The MR greases demonstrated an up to 75% increase in the torque capacity compared to the commercial MR fluid. (paper)

  4. Field Demonstration for Biodegradable Military Multipurpose Grease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rhee, In-Sik

    2001-01-01

    Soils and ground water at many military facilities throughout the United States have been contaminated with petroleum based products, such as engine oils, greases, hydraulic fluids, and fuels, often...

  5. Estimation of modes frictions and greasing in bearing axial hanging of locomotives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.N. Аstаkhоv

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Dependence is considered between the size of relative diametral gap and descriptions of work of the motor-axial bearing on the different rates of movement of diesel engine: by the type of the mode of greasing, thickness lubricating layer, by the coefficient of friction and intensity of wear.

  6. Gram staining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coico, Richard

    2005-10-01

    Named after Hans Christian Gram who developed the method in 1884, the Gram stain allows one to distinguish between Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria on the basis of differential staining with a crystal violet-iodine complex and a safranin counterstain. The cell walls of Gram-positive organisms retain this complex after treatment with alcohol and appear purple, whereas gram-negative organisms decolorize following such treatment and appear pink. The method described here is useful for assessing bacterial contamination of tissue culture samples or for examining the Gram stain status and morphological features of bacteria isolated from mixed or isolated bacterial cultures.

  7. Lubrication from mixture of boric acid with oils and greases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdemir, Ali

    1995-01-01

    Lubricating compositions including crystalline boric acid and a base lubricant selected from oils, greases and the like. The lubricity of conventional oils and greases can also be improved by adding concentrates of boric acid.

  8. Nanoclays for polymer nanocomposites, paints, inks, greases

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... rheological modifier for paints, inks and greases, drug delivery vehicle for controlled release of therapeutic agents, and nanoclays for industrial waste water as well as potable water treatment to make further step into green environment. A little amount of nanoclay can alter the entire properties of polymers, paints, inks and ...

  9. Probe and Sensors Development for Level Measurement of Fats, Oils and Grease in Grease Boxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Faria

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The wide spread of food outlets has become an environmental and sanitation infrastructure problem, due to Fats, Oils and Grease (FOG. A grease box is used at the industrials facilities to collect the FOG, in a specific time window, while its quality is good for recycling (e.g., biodiesel and it is economically valuable. After this period, it will be disposed at a cost. For the proper management of the grease boxes, it is necessary to know the quantity of FOG inside the boxes, which is a major problem, as the boxes are sealed and permanently filled with water. The lack of homogeneity of the FOG renders it not detectable by current probes for level detection in liquids. In this article, the design, development and testing of a set of probes for FOG level measurement, based on the principles used in sensors for the detection of liquids inside containers, is described. The most suitable probe, based on the capacitance principle, together with the necessary hardware and software modules for data acquisition and transmission, was developed and tested. After the development phase, the probe was integrated on a metropolitan system for FOG collection and grease box management in partnership with a grease box management company.

  10. Fat, oil and grease reduction in commercial kitchen ductwork: A novel biological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudie, S; Vahdati, M

    2017-03-01

    Recent research has characterised emissions upon cooking a variety of foods in a commercial catering environment in terms of volume, particle size and composition. However, there has been limited focus on the deposition of solid grease in commercial kitchen ductwork, the sustainability of these systems and their implications on the heat recovery potential of kitchen ventilation extract air. This paper reviews the literature concerning grease, commonly referred to as Fat, Oils and Grease (FOG) abatement strategies and finds that many of these systems fall short of claimed performances. Furthermore these technologies often add to the energy cost of the operation and reduce the potential application of heat recovery in the ventilation ductwork. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a novel FOG removal system, with a focus on low environmental impact. The novel FOG removal system, utilises the biological activity of Bacillus subtilis and associated enzymes. The biological reagent is delivered via a misting system. The temperature, relative humidity and FOG deposit thickness were measured in the ductwork throughout a 3month trial period. FOG deposit thickness was reduced by 47% within 7weeks. The system was found to be effective at reducing the FOG deposit thickness with minimal energy cost and impact upon the kitchen and external environment. Internal ductwork operating temperature was measured with respect to future heat recovery potential and a reduction of 7°C was observed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Brown Grease to Biodiesel Demonstration Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Francisco Public Utilities Commission; URS Corporation; Biofuels, Blackgold; Carollo Engineers

    2013-01-30

    Municipal wastewater treatment facilities have typically been limited to the role of accepting wastewater, treating it to required levels, and disposing of its treatment residuals. However, a new view is emerging which includes wastewater treatment facilities as regional resource recovery centers. This view is a direct result of increasingly stringent regulations, concerns over energy use, carbon footprint, and worldwide depletion of fossil fuel resources. Resources in wastewater include chemical and thermal energy, as well as nutrients, and water. A waste stream such as residual grease, which concentrates in the drainage from restaurants (referred to as Trap Waste), is a good example of a resource with an energy content that can be recovered for beneficial reuse. If left in wastewater, grease accumulates inside of the wastewater collection system and can lead to increased corrosion and pipe blockages that can cause wastewater overflows. Also, grease in wastewater that arrives at the treatment facility can impair the operation of preliminary treatment equipment and is only partly removed in the primary treatment process. In addition, residual grease increases the demand in treatment materials such as oxygen in the secondary treatment process. When disposed of in landfills, grease is likely to undergo anaerobic decay prior to landfill capping, resulting in the atmospheric release of methane, a greenhouse gas (GHG). This research project was therefore conceptualized and implemented by the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission (SFPUC) to test the feasibility of energy recovery from Trap Waste in the form of Biodiesel or Methane gas. The research goals are given below: To validate technology performance; To determine the costs and benefits [including economic, socioeconomic, and GHG emissions reduction] associated with co-locating this type of operation at a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP); To develop a business case or model for replication of the

  12. Study of physical and tribology properties of soybean oil-based grease formulated with polysoap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean oil-based grease formulated with polysoaps, which was synthesized from polymeric epoxdized soybean oil, was investigated. Greases were prepared using a mixture of lithium soap and triethanolammonium polysoap. Grease properties investigated were: hardness, using cone penetration procedure (AS...

  13. Impact of Water on the Rheology of Lubricating Greases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cyriac, F.; Lugt, Pieter Martin; Bosman, Rob

    2016-01-01

    The operational life of bearings is often determined by the performance of the lubricating grease. The consistency of the grease prevents it from leaking out of the bearing and provides good sealing properties. The possible ingress of water into the bearing will have a considerable impact not only

  14. Eco-Friendly Multipurpose Lubricating Greases from Vegetable Residual Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponnekanti Nagendramma

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Environmentally friendly multipurpose grease formulation has been synthesized by using Jatropha vegetable residual oil with lithium soap and multifunctional additive. The thus obtained formulation was evaluated for its tribological performance on a four-ball tribo-tester. The anti-friction and anti-wear performance characteristics were evaluated using standard test methods. The biodegradability and toxicity of the base oil was assessed. The results indicate that the synthesized residual oil grease formulation shows superior tribological performance when compared to the commercial grease. On the basis of physico-chemical characterization and tribological performance the vegetable residual oil was found to have good potential for use as biodegradable multipurpose lubricating grease. In addition, the base oils are biodegradable and non toxic.

  15. Benzoxazole and Benzothiazole Antirust Greases. Work Unit Directive (WUD) 51

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christian, John

    1980-01-01

    ...) and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) thickeners. Testing has shown that one percent concentrations of the additives in the grease formulations provide inhibition against rusting of ferrous metal components under conditions of high humidity...

  16. Differential staining of bacteria: gram stain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyes, Rita B; Reynolds, Jackie; Breakwell, Donald P

    2009-11-01

    In 1884, Hans Christian Gram, a Danish doctor, developed a differential staining technique that is still the cornerstone of bacterial identification and taxonomic division. This multistep, sequential staining protocol separates bacteria into four groups based on cell morphology and cell wall structure: Gram-positive cocci, Gram-negative cocci, Gram-positive rods, and Gram-negative rods. The Gram stain is useful for assessing bacterial contamination of tissue culture samples or for examining the Gram stain status and morphological features of bacteria isolated from mixed or isolated bacterial cultures. (c) 2009 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  17. Port-Wine Stains

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Port-Wine Stains KidsHealth / For Parents / Port-Wine Stains What's ... Manchas de vino de oporto What Are Port-Wine Stains? A port-wine stain is a type ...

  18. Research on a lubricating grease print process for cylindrical cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liu; Zhang, Xuan; Wang, XianYan; Tan, XiaoYan

    2017-09-01

    In vehicle braking system and clutch system of transmission, there is always a kind of cylindrical component dose reciprocating motion. The main working method is the reciprocating motion between the rubber sealing parts and cylindrical parts, the main factor affects the service life of the product is the lubricating performance of the moving parts. So the lubricating performance between cylinders and rubber sealing rings is particularly important, same as the quality of the grease applies on the surface of the surface of cylinder. Traditional method of manually applying grease has some defects such as applying unevenly, applying tools like brush and cloth easily falls off and affect the cleanness of products, contact skin easily cause allergy, waste grease due to the uncontrollable of grease quantity using in applying, low efficiency of manual operation. An automatic, quantitative and high pressure applying equipment is introduced in this document to replace the traditional manually applying method, which can guarantee the applying quality of the grease which are painted on the surface of cylinder and bring economic benefits to the company.

  19. San Francisco Biofuel Program: Brown Grease to Biodiesel Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolis, Domènec [San Francisco Public Utilities Commission, San Francisco, CA (United States); Martis, Mary [San Francisco Public Utilities Commission, San Francisco, CA (United States); Jones, Bonnie [San Francisco Public Utilities Commission, San Francisco, CA (United States); Miot, Alex [San Francisco Public Utilities Commission, San Francisco, CA (United States); Ving, Karri [San Francisco Public Utilities Commission, San Francisco, CA (United States); Sierra, Natalie [San Francisco Public Utilities Commission, San Francisco, CA (United States); Niobi, Morayo [San Francisco Public Utilities Commission, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Municipal wastewater treatment facilities have typically been limited to the role of accepting wastewater, treating it to required levels, and disposing of its treatment residuals. However, a new view is emerging which includes wastewater treatment facilities as regional resource recovery centers. This view is a direct result of increasingly stringent regulations, concerns over energy use, carbon footprint, and worldwide depletion of fossil fuel resources. Resources in wastewater include chemical and thermal energy, as well as nutrients, and water. A waste stream such as residual grease, which concentrates in the drainage from restaurants (referred to as Trap Waste), is a good example of a resource with an energy content that can be recovered for beneficial reuse. If left in wastewater, grease accumulates inside of the wastewater collection system and can lead to increased corrosion and pipe blockages that can cause wastewater overflows. Also, grease in wastewater that arrives at the treatment facility can impair the operation of preliminary treatment equipment and is only partly removed in the primary treatment process. In addition, residual grease increases the demand in treatment materials such as oxygen in the secondary treatment process. When disposed of in landfills, grease is likely to undergo anaerobic decay prior to landfill capping, resulting in the atmospheric release of methane, a greenhouse gas (GHG). This research project was therefore conceptualized and implemented by the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission (SFPUC) to test the feasibility of energy recovery from Trap Waste in the form of Biodiesel or Methane gas.

  20. A study of the use of bio-based technologies (lubricant and grease) in rail applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    The objective of the project was to study the efficacy of using bio-based lubricant and grease technologies in railroad applications : (locomotives and maintenance of way equipment). Several commercially available rail curve greases were identified a...

  1. The Impact of Water on the Yield Stress and Startup Torque of Lubricating Greases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cyriac, F.; Lugt, Pieter Martin; Bosman, Rob

    2017-01-01

    Water is one of the most common contaminants in grease lubrication. There are numerous applications where bearings are susceptible to water ingresses such as in the steel, food, and pulp and paper industries. A grease can absorb water to different degrees depending upon the type of grease. The

  2. Lubricating grease shear flow and boundary layers in a concentric cylinder configuration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, J.X.; Westerberg, L.G.; Höglund, E.; Lugt, Pieter Martin; Baart, P.

    2014-01-01

    Grease is extensively used to lubricate various machine elements such as rolling bearings, seals, and gears. Understanding the flow dynamics of grease is relevant for the prediction of grease distribution for optimum lubrication and for the migration of wear and contaminant particles. In this study,

  3. Irradiation effect study on dynamic performance of grease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arakawa, Kazuo; Sasuga, Tsuneo; Hagiwara, Miyuki; Yajima, Toshio; Nakanishi, Hiroshi; Soda, Takao; Iwamoto, Takeshi.

    1986-03-01

    The radiation resistance of newly developed grease, MORESCO HIRAD RG-42-0, consisting of polyphenyl ether as base oil and inorganic compound as gelling agent was evaluated by conducting measurements of frictional resistance force on mechanical snubbers. After the irradiation of 60 Co γ-rays up to a predetermined dose [max. 100 MGy (10000 Mrad)], the grease was applied to mechanical snubbers. The rated load of mechanical snubbers used (standard stroke of 125 mm) was set at 0.16 ton and 1.0 ton. The frictional resistance force was measured at a velocity of 0.001, 0.01, 0.1 and 2.0 mm/sec and at temperature of 60 deg C. When the rated load was 0.16 ton, the frictional resistance force of irradiated grease was kept less than a criterion, a greater value of either 5 kgf or 1 % of the rated load, at every tested dose up to 90 MGy. In case of 1.0 ton, the frictional resistance force of the irradiated grease was less than a greater value of either 10 kgf or 1 % of the rated load at doses up to 70 MGy. (author)

  4. Consistency-dependent optical properties of lubricating grease studied by terahertz spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Lu; Zhao Kun; Zhou Qing-Li; Shi Yu-Lei; Zhao Dong-Mei; Zhang Cun-Lin; Zhao Song-Qing; Zhao Hui; Bao Ri-Ma; Zhu Shou-Ming; Miao Qing

    2011-01-01

    The optical properties of four kinds of lubricating greases (urea, lithium, extreme pressure lithium, molybdenum disulfide lithium greases) with different NLGL (National Lubricant Grease Institute of America) numbers were investigated using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. Greases with different NLGL grades have unique spectral features in the terahertz range. Comparison of the experimental data with predictions based on Lorentz—Lorenz theory exhibited that the refractive indices of each kind of lubricating grease were dependent on the their consistency. In addition, molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ) as a libricant additive shows strong absorption from 0.2 to 1.4 THz, leading to higher absorption of MoS 2 -lithium grease than that of lithium grease. (general)

  5. Detection of Elemental Composition of Lubricating Grease Using Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherry Dhiman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The elemental composition of lubricating soft grease used in rail engines are studied using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS technique. LIBS spectra of fresh, partially used and fully used grease samples are recorded using time-gated ICCD spectrometer for verification of compositional degradation of the used grease. LIBS spectra of grease samples are analyzed by comparing with emission spectra of elements published by NIST standard database. Many spectral lines of impurity elements like Fe, Cu, Ba, Mg, Mn, Ni, S, Zn, Si, Pb, Ti, Ca and Al present in the grease in ppm or ppb level in trace level concentrations are observed in excess in the used grease mainly due to wear and tear. On the other hand in fresh grease, spectral lines of Ca, Al and Na are observed predominantly.

  6. Effect of carbonyl iron particles composition on the physical characteristics of MR grease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamad, Norzilawati, E-mail: mnorzilawati@gmail.com; Mazlan, Saiful Amri, E-mail: amri.kl@utm.my [Vehicle System Engineering, Malaysia – Japan International Institute of Technology, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Jalan Sultan Yahya Petra (Jalan Semarak), Kuala Lumpur, 54000 (Malaysia); Ubaidillah, E-mail: ubaidillah@uns.ac.id [Vehicle System Engineering, Malaysia – Japan International Institute of Technology, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Jalan Sultan Yahya Petra (Jalan Semarak), Kuala Lumpur, 54000 (Malaysia); Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36A, Kentingan, Surakarta, 57126, Central Java, Surakarta (Indonesia)

    2016-03-29

    Magnetorheological (MR) grease is an extension of the study of magnetorheological materials. The MR grease can help to reduce the particles sedimentation problem occurred in the MR fluids. Within this study, an effort has been taken to investigate the effect of different weight compositions of carbonyl iron particles on the physical and chemical characteristics of the MR grease under off-state condition (no magnetic field). The MR grease is prepared by mixing carbonyl iron particles having a size range of 1 to 10 µm with commercial NPC Highrex HD-3 grease. Characterizations of MR grease are investigated using Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM), Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM), Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) and rheometer. The dependency of carbonyl iron particles weight towards the magnetic properties of MR grease and other characterizations are investigated.

  7. Study on thermal effects & sulfurized additives, in lubricating greases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ami Atul

    Lithium Base grease constitutes about 50% of market. The greases are developed to be able to work in multiple working conditions and have longer working life. Greases with extreme pressure additives and anti-wear additives have been developed as a solution to many of the applications. These developed greases are tested under ASTM D2266 testing conditions to meet the requirements. The actual working conditions, although, differ than the real testing conditions. The loading, speed and temperature conditions can be more harsh, or fluctuating in nature. The cyclic nature of the parameters cannot be directly related to the test performance. For this purpose studies on the performance under spectrum loading, variable speed and fluctuating temperature must be performed. This study includes tests to understand the effect of thermal variation on some of the most commonly used grease additives that perform well under ASTM D2266 testing conditions. The studied additives include most widely used industrial extreme pressure additive MoS2. Performance of ZDDP which is trying to replace MoS2 in its industrial applications has also been studied. The tests cover study of extreme pressure, anti-wear and friction modifier additives to get a general idea on the effects of thermal variation in three areas. Sulphur is the most common extreme pressure additive. Sulphur based MoS 2 is extensively used grease additive. Study to understand the tribological performance of this additive through wear testing and SEM/EDX studies has been done. This performance is also studied for other metallic sulfides like WS2 and sulphur based organic compound. The aim is to study the importance of the type of bond that sulphur shares in its additive's structure on its performance. The MoS2 film formation is found to be on the basis of the FeS formation on the substrate and protection through sacrificial monolayer deposition of the MoS2 sheared structure. The free Mo then tends to oxidise. An attempt to

  8. leaves extracts as counter stain in gram staining reaction 56

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    is a stain with color contrasting to the principal stain, making the stained ... technology today, the Gram's staining method remains ... was aimed at employing the use of Henna leaves extract as ... fragrant, white or rose flowers in clusters. It is.

  9. Differential staining of bacteria: acid fast stain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Jackie; Moyes, Rita B; Breakwell, Donald P

    2009-11-01

    Acid-fastness is an uncommon characteristic shared by the genera Mycobacterium (Section 10A) and Nocardia. Because of this feature, this stain is extremely helpful in identification of these bacteria. Although Gram positive, acid-fast bacteria do not take the crystal violet into the wall well, appearing very light purple rather than the deep purple of normal Gram-positive bacteria. (c) 2009 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  10. Iron Stain on Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Knaebe

    2013-01-01

    Iron stain, an unsightly blue–black or gray discoloration, can occur on nearly all woods. Oak, redwood, cypress, and cedar are particularly prone to iron stain because these woods contain large amounts of tannin-like extractives. The discoloration is caused by a chemical reaction between extractives in the wood and iron in steel products, such as nails, screws, and...

  11. Friction torque in thrust ball bearings grease lubricated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianuş, G.; Dumitraşcu, A. C.; Cârlescu, V.; Olaru, D. N.

    2016-08-01

    The authors investigated experimentally and theoretically the friction torque in a modified thrust ball bearing having only 3 balls operating at low axial load and lubricated with NGLI-00 and NGLI-2 greases. The experiments were made by using spin-down methodology and the results were compared with the theoretical values based on Biboulet&Houpert's rolling friction equations. Also, the results were compared with the theoretical values obtained with SKF friction model adapted for 3 balls. A very good correlation between experiments and Biboulet_&_Houpert's predicted results was obtained for the two greases. Also was observed that the theoretical values for the friction torque calculated with SKF model adapted for a thrust ball bearing having only 3 balls are smaller that the experimental values.

  12. The potential of restaurant trap grease as biodiesel feedstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parichart Hasuntree

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of using restaurant trap grease as feedstock in the production of biodiesel via acid catalyzed esterificationis explored in this study. Sulfuric acid was used as a catalyst for the esterification reaction of free fatty acid (FFA andmethanol. The FFA levels of restaurant trap greases were reduced from 60.38±2.22 mg KOH/g to 11.60±1.60 mgKOH/g whenconditions for biodiesel production are as follow: methanol-to-FFA ratio of 5:1, 5 wt.% H2SO4, and a reaction temperature at60°C with a reaction time of 60 min. During the acid-catalyzed esterification, the percentage of methyl esters resulting fromconversion of FFA in the obtained product was 83.59±1.51% based on the result of 1H NMR analysis. Data obtained from the23 full factorial designs revealed that methanol-to-FFA ratio term had the most significant effect on the percentage of methylesters, followed by the H2SO4 concentration. Conversely, reaction time between 1 and 3 hours had no significant effect on theesterification of trap greases.

  13. Separation of oil and grease from oil sludge using surfactant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainon Abdul Aziz; Syed Hakimi Sakuma Syed Ahmad; Zalina Laili

    2005-01-01

    The objective of the experiments was to observe the efficiency of the surfactant to remove oil and grease from oil sludges using various surfactant concentration ranging from 10 %, 15 %, 20 % and 30 %. The surfactant solution consists of two mixtures of Aqua 2000 and D Bond. The oil sludge were subjected to heating and surfactant treatment process. Remaining oil and grease concentration were observed on the oil sludges after treatment. Small scale experiments were conducted by heating process, without heating process and heating process with addition of sodium chloride. Surfactant solution was added in each process. Results shows that there is separation of oil and grease from the oil sludges. There were formation of mini emulsions (oil in water). The higher the concentration of surfactant used, the higher the concentrations of mini emulsion formed as observed. Solid remains after the treatment process were found to contain lesser oil concentration with presence of bitumen, sediment, organic and inorganic materials. After a washing process using distilled water, the solid was still black but less oily than before the treatment. There is no separation of oil occurred in aqueous solution for the control experiment. (Author)

  14. Application of a Thermodynamic Concept for the Analysis of Structural Degradation of Soap Thickened Lubricating Greases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Kuhn

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Lubricating greases are special lubricants with a wide range of application. The tribologically stressed grease is used as tribological system and finally modeled as an open thermodynamic system. This study investigated the phenomenon of self-optimization and applied to the process of shearing a grease. The conditions for self-optimization and the consequences of created dissipative structures are investigated according to the interpreted literature.

  15. Case study of the effectiveness of passive grease trap for management on domestic kitchen waste water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nidzamuddin, M. Y.; Juffrizal, K.; Mustapha, F.; Zulfattah, Z. M.; Tan, C. F.; Taha, M. M.; Hidayah, I.; Hilwa, M. Z.

    2015-05-01

    Household waste, generally known as trash or garbage is mostly includes food wastes, product packaging, and other miscellaneous inorganic wastes that are coming from domestic household. Grease waste such as oil and fats can contaminate water and also clot on pipes provoking blockages. Thus, waste water from kitchen sink need a proper way of filtration. Grease trap developed in this paper is viable in trapping the grease residue. The experiments have been conducted in controlled environment and the objectives are to investigate the effectiveness of grease trap by proving the existence of retention time and the expected ratio of collected water and oil during experiment process using a prototype model.

  16. Port-wine stain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About MedlinePlus Show Search Search MedlinePlus GO GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Port-wine stain URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/ ...

  17. Stool Gram stain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stool sample. The Gram stain method is sometimes used to quickly diagnose bacterial infections. How the Test is Performed You will need to collect a stool sample. There are many ways to collect the sample. You can catch the stool on plastic wrap that is loosely placed over the toilet bowl ...

  18. Stained Glass and Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-02-01

    Dr. Robert Webster, an Emeritus member of the Department of Infectious Diseases at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, discusses his cover art story on stained glass and influenza.  Created: 2/1/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/1/2017.

  19. Effect of polysoap on physical and tribology properties of soybean oil-based grease

    Science.gov (United States)

    The overall objective of this work was to evaluate the evolution of soybean oil based grease containing polysoaps made from polymeric epoxdized soybean oil. With this aim, lubricating greases were prepared from a mixed soap comprising lithium soap and triethanol ammonium polysoap synthesized from so...

  20. Removal of oil, grease, and suspended solids from produced water with ceramic crossflow microfiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, A.S.C.; Flynn, J.T.; Cook, R.G.; Casaday, A.L.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper results of studies of two onshore and two offshore pilot plants that use ceramic crossflow microfiltration (CCFM) to separate oil, grease, and suspended solids from produced water are discussed. The method is capable of producing permeate quality with < =5 mg/L (detection limit) of dispersed oil and grease and <1 mg/L of suspended solids

  1. Tribological Performance of Some Pennzane(Registered Trademark) Based Greases for Vacuum Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, Mario; Jones, William R., Jr.; Street, Kenneth W.; Wheeler, Donald; Dixon, Duane; Jansen, Mark J.; Kimura, Hiroshi

    2002-01-01

    Commercial greases for space applications usually fulfill the requirements imposed by the severe conditions of use. The main requirement is their ability to create an EHL film, boundary film, or both under speed, load and temperature conditions that the mechanisms will operate. Three greases, all based on a multiply alkylated cyclopentane (Pennzan(R)) base oil, were studied. The thickeners were an n-octadecylterephthalamate soap, a lithium soap, and a urea derivative. A Four-Ball Tribometer and a Spiral Orbit Tribometer were employed to evaluate the greases under ultrahigh vacuum. Results indicated that all three greases yielded very low wear rates and extended lifetimes. In addition, routine physical property data is reported for each grease.

  2. Accelerated Testing of UH-60 Viscous Bearings for Degraded Grease Fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykas, Brian; Hood, Adrian; Krantz, Timothy; Klemmer, Marko

    2015-01-01

    An accelerated aging investigation of critical aviation bearings lubricated with MIL-PRF- 81322 grease was conducted to derive an understanding of the mechanisms of grease degradation and loss of lubrication over time. The current study focuses on UH-60 Black Hawk viscous damper bearings supporting the tail rotor driveshaft, which were subjected to more than 5800 hours of testing in a heated environment to accelerate the deterioration of the grease. The mechanism of grease degradation is a reduction in the oil/thickener ratio rather than the expected chemical degradation of grease constituents. Over the course of testing, vibration and temperature monitoring of bearings was conducted and trends for failing bearings are presented.

  3. Modified Field's staining--a rapid stain for Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzan, M Yusuf; Sivanandam, S; Kumar, G Suresh

    2010-10-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis, a flagellate protozoan parasite commonly found in the human genitourinary tract, is transmitted primarily by sexual intercourse. Diagnosis is usually by in vitro culture method and staining with Giemsa stain. There are laboratories that use Gram stain as well. We compared the use of modified Field's (MF), Giemsa, and Gram stains on 2 axenic and xenic isolates of T. vaginalis, respectively. Three smears from every sediment of spun cultures of all 4 isolates were stained, respectively, with each of the stains. We showed that MF staining, apart from being a rapid stain (20 s), confers sharper staining contrast, which differentiates the nucleus and the cytoplasm of the organism when compared to Giemsa and Gram staining especially on parasites from spiked urine samples. The alternative staining procedure offers in a diagnostic setting a rapid stain that can easily visualize the parasite with sharp contrasting characteristics between organelles especially the nucleus and cytoplasm. Vacuoles are more clearly visible in parasites stained with MF than when stained with Giemsa. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. BAURAN PEMASARAN PRODUK BARU PELUMAS FOOD GRADE GREASE BERBAHAN DaSAR MINYAK SAWIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Maksum

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Grease with food grade specification is essentially required on food processing production activities.  The purpose of this study is to develop a new product marketing mix for food grade grease, i.e 1 product priority, 2 pricing priority, 3 distribution priority and 4 advertising priority. This Research was conducted in Sub District Purbalingga and Padamara, Purbalingga regency with respondent SMEs food processing. Analysis of the determination of marketing mix that includes product, price, advertising and distribution using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP. Sampling was purposive random sampling method with a population of 64 SMEs so drawn sample of 20 respondents. Result of the study showed the marketing mix priority which were: (1 advertising priority for the new food grade grease product with an ads that could attract the attention of consumers in order to made the consumers interested, tried, and bought the new food grade lubricating grease products. (2 Price priority for the new food grade grease products which was by determining the moderate prices to compete the competitors' prices while still maintained a high quality. (3 Product priority for new food grade grease product which was producing a qualified product which could withstand the wear of the engine, green colour of the product, a 350 g size packs with a rectangular shape packaging labels. (4 Distribution priority for the new food grade grease product which was a short distribution channels through mobile vendors so that the consumers were able to save costs, and got the product fast and easily

  5. Hirschsprung's disease diagnosis: Comparison of immunohistochemical, hematoxilin and eosin staining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memarzadeh, Mehrdad; Talebi, Ardeshir; Edalaty, Masod; Hosseinpour, Mehrdad; Vahidi, Nasrin

    2009-01-01

    Background: The diagnosis of Hirschsprung's disease (HD) is based on the absence of ganglion cells. In hemotoxilin and eosin (H and E) as well as acetylcholine esterase staining there are limitations in the diagnosis of immature ganglion cells in neonates. Methods: In this prospective study, 54 biopsies taken from suspected HD patients (five mucosal specimens and 49 full thickness specimens) were studied. In the laboratory, after preparing sections of paraffin embedded tissues, H and E staining slides were compared with immunohistochemical (IHC) staining including: S100, NSE, CD117, CD56, Cathepsin D, Vimentin, BCL2, GFAP, Synaptophysin and chromogranin. Results: The study revealed 30 negative (absence of ganglion cells) cases (55.5%), 17 positive cases (31.04%) and seven suspected cases (12.9%) of ganglion cells on the H and E staining. On IHC staining with CD56 and Cathepsin D, all of the 17 positive cases detected through H and E, were confirmed for having ganglion cells and out of 30 cases reported negative on H and E staining, 28(93.3%) were reported negative and two (6.7%) positive by IHC staining. Of the seven suspected cases H and E staining), IHC staining detectedganglion cells only in five slides; two remained negative. Conclusions: IHC staining using CD56 and Cathepsin D improved the accuracy of diagnosis in HD when used in addition to H and E staining technique, especially for negative or suspicious slides. PMID:20671847

  6. Some azine and azole derivatives as antioxidant additives for lithium lubricating grease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reda M. Fikry

    2013-06-01

    The structure of these compounds has been confirmed using elemental analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance and infrared spectroscopy. On the other hand, lithium lubricating grease was prepared and evaluated according to the National Lubricating Grease Institute (NLGI and Egyptian Standard (ES. The antioxidant compounds were tested for the prepared grease with concentration 0.1 wt.%. The efficiency of these compounds has been determined using total acid number. It was found that the prepared lithium grease resists oxidation reaction in the presence of these compounds. A correlation between the chemical structure of these compounds and their efficiency as antioxidants additives was discussed. Data showed that the efficiency of these compounds as antioxidants decreases in the order: compound I > compound II > compound III.

  7. The processing of used cooking oil (yellow grease) using combination of adsorption and ultrafiltration membrane processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosnelly, C. M.; Sofyana; Amalia, D.; Sarah, S.

    2018-03-01

    Yellow grease is used cooking oil whose quality has degraded due to the oxidation, polymerization, or hydrolysis process. In previous studies, yellow grease refining had been conducted either by adsorption or by using membrane. In this study, adsorption process using adsorbent from bagasse activated with H3PO4 12.5%, and ultrafiltration using Polyethersulfone (PES) membrane were combined. In adsorption stage, several variation of bagasse mass was fed into 200 ml of yellow grease and stirred for 60 minutes at 60 rpm. Yellow grease produced from adsorption with best condition was then processed using ultrafiltration membran that is PES membran with concentration by 15 wt % with transmembrane pressure variation by 0.5; 1; 1.5; 2; and 2.5 Bar. Analysis of yellow grease characteristics before refined showed its acid number, peroxide number, iodine number, and water content respectively by 2.68 mgKOH/Kg; 5.97 Meq/Kg; 51,48; and 1.29%. Characteristics of yellow grease after adsorption at its best condition on the parameters of acid number, peroxide number, iodine number, and water content are respectively by 2.55 mgKOH/Kg; 4.19 Meq/Kg; 40,02; and 0.27%. Characteristics of yellow grease after ultrafiltration at its best condition on the parameters of acid number, peroxide number, iodine number, and water content are respectively by 1.12 mgKOH/Kg; 1.8 Meq/Kg; 41,36; and 0.02%. Combination of adsorption and ultrafiltration processes for yellow grease processing showed decreasing value on the parameters of acid number, peroxide number, and water content that conforms to the SNI quality standard, but has not been able to increase the iodine number.

  8. Evaluation of different polyolefins as rheology modifier additives in lubricating grease formulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin-Alfonso, J.E.; Valencia, C.; Sanchez, M.C. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Universidad de Huelva, Campus Universitario del Carmen, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Franco, J.M., E-mail: franco@uhu.es [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Universidad de Huelva, Campus Universitario del Carmen, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Gallegos, C. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Universidad de Huelva, Campus Universitario del Carmen, 21071 Huelva (Spain)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} Evaluation of different polyolefins as modifiers of the rheological properties and mechanical stability of lithium lubricating greases. {yields} The type of polymer, molecular weight, cristallinity degree and vinyl acetate content influences the rheological and thermal response of lubricating greases. {yields} The crystallinity degree, mainly dependent on the nature of the polymer, is the most highly influencing parameter on the rheology of lubricating greases. {yields} The rheological modification exerted by EVA copolymers mainly depends on the vinyl acetate content. - Abstract: The purpose of the present work is to evaluate the effect that different polyolefins, used as additives in small proportions, exert on the rheological properties of standard lithium lubricating greases. Grease formulations containing several polyolefins, differing in nature and molecular weight, were manufactured and rheologically characterized. The influence of the type of polymer, molecular weight, crystallinity degree and vinyl acetate content has been analyzed. Small-amplitude oscillatory shear (SAOS) and viscous flow measurements, as well as calorimetric (DSC) and thermogravimetric (TGA) analysis, were carried out. In general, the addition of polymers such as HDPE, LDPE, LLDPE and PP to lithium lubricating greases significantly increases the values of the rheological parameters analyzed, consistency and mechanical stability. However, the use of polyolefins as rheology modifiers does not significantly affect the friction coefficient determined in a tribological contact. The crystallinity degree, mainly dependent on the nature of the polymer, has been found the most highly influencing parameter on the rheology of the lubricating greases studied. However, the rheological modification exerted by EVA copolymers mainly depends on the vinyl acetate content. Thus, a negative effect in both apparent viscosity and linear viscoelastic functions of greases was obtained when

  9. Radioisotope studies on the paradox in dispersion and agglomeration of sewage greases discharged from ocean outfalls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davison, A.; Easy, J.F.; Seatonberry, B.W.

    1981-04-01

    Experiments have been undertaken in the ocean off Sydney, Australia to monitor the movement and the dispersion of sewage solids. These solids were labelled with a radioisotope, gold-198 prior to ocean discharge. The labelled material was followed at sea using submersible scintillation detectors. Lateral and vertical dispersion coefficients were determined. The experiments showed that under some conditions the labelled sewage grease dispersed and under others the grease agglomerated. This variation is explained in terms of non-conservative processes

  10. Fat, oil and grease reduction in commercial kitchen ductwork: a novel biological approach

    OpenAIRE

    Mudie, S.; Vahdati, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Recent research has characterised emissions upon cooking a variety of foods in a commercial catering environment in terms of volume, particle size and composition. However, there has been limited focus on the deposition of solid grease in commercial kitchen ductwork, the sustainability of these systems and their implications on the heat recovery potential of kitchen ventilation extract air.\\ud \\ud This paper reviews the literature concerning grease, commonly referred to as Fat, Oils and Greas...

  11. Fats, oils, and grease : options for plant-level treatment of a national problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles, E.; Scherffius, B. [EcoPlus Inc. Charlotte, NC (United States)

    2007-09-15

    Fats, oils, and grease from restaurants and homes can congeal in sewers and result in damaging runoff into rivers and streams. A growing number of food service establishments are now producing increasing amounts of a specific grease product called brown grease, which is sticky and difficult to remove. Regulations now require haulers to remove the waste and dispose of it. However, many local treatment plants cannot accept or dispose of the amounts of grease currently being produced. A total of volume of 3 to 10 billion gallons per year of contaminated water have been accidentally discharged from sanitary sewers as a result of brown grease accumulations. This paper provided details of the EcoPlus Final Treatment Facility, which can be set up at waste water treatment plants and is able to process brown grease and discharge supernatant water from its process back into city sewers. The EcoPlus process produces 2 waste streams: (1) a low strength aqueous solution that can be disposed of in a sanitary sewer tap; and (2) a granular material that can be disposed of in a landfill for use as a soil conditioner. It was concluded that the granular material can also be used facilitate the incineration of sewage sludge, or burned as an alternative green fuel for power generation. 4 figs.

  12. Design and application on experimental platform for high-speed bearing with grease lubrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Qiang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The experimental platform for high-speed grease is an important tool for research and development of high-speed motorized spindle with grease lubrication. In this article, the experimental platform for high-speed grease is designed and manufactured which consists of the drive system, the test portion, the loading system, the lubrication system, the control system, and so on. In the meantime, the high-speed angular contact ceramic ball bearings B7005C/HQ1P4 as the research object are tested and contrasted in the grease lubrication and oil mist lubrication. The experimental platform performance is validated by contrast experiment, and the high-speed lubricated bearing performance is also studied especially in the relationship among the rotating speed,load and temperature rise. The results show that the experimental platform works steadily, accurate, and reliable in the experimental testing. And the grease lubrication ceramic ball bearings B7005C/HQ1P4 can be used in high-speed motorized spindle in the circular water cooling conditions when the rotating speed is lower than 40,000 r/min or the DN value (the value of the bearing diameter times the rotating speed is lower than the 1.44 × 106 mm r/min. Grease lubrication instead of oil mist lubrication under high-speed rotating will simplify the structure design of the high-speed motorized spindle and reduce the pollution to the environment.

  13. Grease Cowboy Fever; or, the making of Johnny T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, K

    2002-01-01

    Through a mix of theory, memoir and performance narrative, this chapter examines the making of drag persona Johnny T. as part of a king movement where the dominant cultural paradigm of gender is reconsidered and remastered. As seen in Grease, Saturday Night Fever and Urban Cowboy, pop culture icon John Travolta's particular blend of 50s greaser, faggy 70s disco, and 80s country masculinities are shown to be prime drag king conditions, particularly for a dyke who came of age during the 70s Travolta fever. While drawing from personal experience as a king, current trends in the king movement, and gender theory, this essay calls into question the lines between performing masculinity on and off the stage, inviting us to see both the work and play, the parody and realness, the struggle and liberation that make up the transgressive world of drag kinging and gender variance. Drawing upon gender theorists Judith Butler and Judith Halberstam, gender is exposed as a social construction both produced and performed, and as such, drag kinging is framed as an arena where gender is reconfigured.

  14. Quantifying fat, oil, and grease deposit formation kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iasmin, Mahbuba; Dean, Lisa O; Ducoste, Joel J

    2016-01-01

    Fat, oil, and grease (FOG) deposits formed in sanitary sewers are calcium-based saponified solids that are responsible for a significant number of nationwide sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs) across United States. In the current study, the kinetics of lab-based saponified solids were determined to understand the kinetics of FOG deposit formation in sewers for two types of fat (Canola and Beef Tallow) and two types of calcium sources (calcium chloride and calcium sulfate) under three pH (7 ± 0.5, 10 ± 0.5, and ≈14) and two temperature conditions (22 ± 0.5 and 45 ± 0.5 °C). The results of this study displayed quick reactions of a fraction of fats with calcium ions to form calcium based saponified solids. Results further showed that increased palmitic fatty acid content in source fats, the magnitude of the pH, and temperature significantly affect the FOG deposit formation and saponification rates. The experimental data of the kinetics were compared with two empirical models: a) Cotte saponification model and b) Foubert crystallization model and a mass-action based mechanistic model that included alkali driven hydrolysis of triglycerides. Results showed that the mass action based mechanistic model was able to predict changes in the rate of formation of saponified solids under the different experimental conditions compared to both empirical models. The mass-action based saponification model also revealed that the hydrolysis of Beef Tallow was slower compared to liquid Canola fat resulting in smaller quantities of saponified solids. This mechanistic saponification model, with its ability to track the saponified solids chemical precursors, may provide an initial framework to predict the spatial formation of FOG deposits in municipal sewers using system wide sewer collection modeling software. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Say goodbye to coffee stains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eral, Burak; van den Ende, Henricus T.M.; Mugele, Friedrich Gunther

    2012-01-01

    Discussing ideas over a mug of coffee or tea is the lifeblood of science, but have you ever thought about the stains that can be inadvertently left behind? H Burak Eral, Dirk van den Ende and Frieder Mugele explain how these stains, which can be a major annoyance in some biology techniques, can be

  16. Removal of oil and grease from automobile garage wastewater using electrocoagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manilal, A. M.; Harinarayanan Nampoothiri, M. G.; Soloman, P. A.

    2017-06-01

    Wastewater from automobile garages and workshops is an important contributor to the water pollution. Oil and grease is one of the major content of wastewater from vehicle garages. Wastewater from a public transport depot at Thrissur district in Kerala, India was collected for the study. A batch reactor has been devised to assess the efficacy of electrocoagulation in removing oil and grease from the wastewater. Aluminium and iron were tested as the anode material with stainless steel as cathode. Experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of various operating parameters such as current density, pH, time and salt concentration on oil and grease removal. The results shown that aluminium is superior to iron in removing the oil and grease from the wastewater. The reactor with aluminium as anode was able to remove 90.8 % of the oil and grease at a current density of 0.6 A/dm2 in 15 minutes. The calculated specific energy consumption is also less for aluminium in comparison with iron.

  17. An Electrochemical Processing Strategy for Improving Tribological Performance of Aisi 316 Stainless Steel Under Grease Lubrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Jiaojuan; Li, Maolin; Lin, Naiming; Zhang, Xiangyu; Qin, Lin; Tang, Bin

    2014-12-01

    In order to improve the tribological performance of AISI 316 stainless steel (316 SS) under grease lubrication, electrochemical processing was conducted on it to obtain a rough (surface texturing-like) surface by making use of the high sensitivity of austenitic stainless steel to pitting corrosion in Cl--rich environment. Numerous corrosion pits or micro-ditches acted as micro-reservoirs on the obtained surface. While the grease could offer consistent lubrication, and then improve the tribological performance of 316 SS. Tribological behaviors of raw 316 SS and the treated sample were measured using a reciprocating type tribometer sliding against GCr15 steel counterpart under dry and grease lubrication conditions. The results showed that the mass losses of the two samples were in the same order of magnitude, and the raw sample exhibited lower friction coefficient in dry sliding. When the tests were conducted under grease lubrication condition, the friction coefficients and mass losses of the treated sample were far lower than those of the raw 316 SS. The tribological performance of 316 SS under grease lubrication was drastically improved after electrochemical processing.

  18. The Field-Dependent Rheological Properties of Magnetorheological Grease Based on Carbonyl-Iron-Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad, N.; Mazlan, S. A.; Ubaidillah; Choi, Seung-Bok; Nordin, M. F. M.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents dynamic viscoelastic properties of magnetorheological (MR) grease under variation of magnetic fields and magnetic particle fractions. The tests to discern the field-dependent properties are undertaken using both rotational and oscillatory shear rheometers. As a first step, the MR grease is developed by dispersing the carbonyl iron (CI) particles into grease medium with a mechanical stirrer. Experimental data are obtained by changing the magnetic field from 0 to 0.7 T at room temperature of 25 °C. It is found that a strong Payne effect limits the linear viscoelastic region of MR grease at strains above 0.1%. The results exhibit a high dynamic yield stress which is equivalent to Bingham plastic rheological model, and show relatively good MR effect at high shear rate of 2000 s-1. In addition, high dispersion of the magnetic particles and good thermal properties are proven. The results presented in this work directly indicate that MR grease is a smart material candidate that could be widely applicable to various fields including vibration control.

  19. Influence of Base Oil Polarity on the Transient Shear Flow of Biodegradable Lubricating Greases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Fiedler

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this study is to elucidate the physical mechanisms influencing the transient flow behavior of lubricating greases based on biogenic oleochemicals from a polarity point of view. This includes the mutually interacting influence of base oil polarity and thickening agents on the rheologically-measured mechanical structural degradation in transient shear flow. Due to the high temperature dependence of Keesom forces in the background of polar-active bond mechanisms, the analysis of the transient flow response as a function of temperature allows to attribute the observed influences to differences in base oil polarity. In general, clay-thickened greases show a greater tendency to be rheologically influenced by base oil polarities than soap-thickened lubricating greases.

  20. Rheological Behavior of Carbon Nanotubes as an Additive on Lithium Grease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The rheological behaviors of carbon nanotubes (CNTs as an additive on lithium grease at different concentrations were examined under various settings of shear rate, shear stress, and apparent viscosity. The results indicated that the optimum content of the CNTs was 2%. These experimental investigations were evaluated with a Brookfield Programmable Rheometer DV-III ULTRA. The results indicated that the shear, stress and apparent viscosity increase with the increase of CNTs concentration. The microstructure of CNTs and lithium grease was examined by high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM and scanning electron microscope (SEM. The results indicated that the microscopic structure of the lithium grease presents a more regular and homogeneous network structure, with long fibers, which confirms the rheological stability.

  1. Rheological Behavior of Carbon Nano tubes as an Additive on Lithium Grease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, A.; Zaki, M.; Mohamed, A.; Khattab, A.A.; Osman, T.A.

    2013-01-01

    The rheological behaviors of carbon nano tubes (CNTs) as an additive on lithium grease at different concentrations were examined under various settings of shear rate, shear stress, and apparent viscosity. The results indicated that the optimum content of the CNTs was 2%. These experimental investigations were evaluated with a Brookfield Programmable Rheometer DV-III ULTRA. The results indicated that the shear, stress and apparent viscosity increase with the increase of CNTs concentration. The microstructure of CNTs and lithium grease was examined by high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results indicated that the microscopic structure of the lithium grease presents a more regular and homogeneous network structure, with long fibers, which confirms the rheological stability.

  2. Physico-chemical characterization of grease interceptors with and without biological product addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xia; Osborne, Jason; de los Reyes, Francis L

    2012-03-01

    Hardened and insoluble fat, oil, and grease (FOG) deposits are the primary cause of sewer line blockages leading to sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs). However, there have been very few long-term assessments of the physico-chemical characteristics of full-scale grease interceptors (GIs), the first "line of defense" against FOG buildup in sewer lines. In this study, we assessed the physico-chemical characteristics of two full-scale GIs (at a restaurant and a retirement community kitchen) over a one-year period. Statistically significant differences between bioaugmented and untreated cycles were detected for several chemical and physical properties. The treated cycles had lower BOD and COD at the grease interceptor outlet. While the combined data for all treated cycles did not show lower FOG concentrations in the GI outlet compared to the combined data for all untreated cycles, comparison of specific individual treated and untreated cycles show a positive effect due to the addition of product.

  3. Rheological Properties of Extreme Pressure Greases Measured Using a Process Control Rheometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glasscock, Julie; Smith, Robin S.

    2012-01-01

    A new process control rheometer (PCR) designed for use in industrial process flows has been used to measure the rheological properties of three extreme-pressure greases. The rheometer is a robust yet sensitive instrument designed to operate in an industrial processing environment in either in......-line or on-line configurations. The PCR was able to measure the rheological properties including the elastic modulus, viscous modulus, and complex viscosity of the greases which in an industrial flow application could be used as variables in a feedback system to control the process and the quality...

  4. Enhancement of biogas production from sewage sludge by addition of grease trap sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosser, A.; Neczaj, E.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Addition of grease trap sludge is interesting option for sewage sludge digestion. • Co-digestion of grease trap sludge and sewage sludge improved efficiency of process. • The anaerobic digestion can be carried out at short hydraulic retention time. • Long chain fatty acids concentration was below the ranges for inhibition of anaerobic digestion. - Abstract: Despite having many benefits, a low degree of volatile solids removal as well as long retention time are the main factors limiting the performance of the anaerobic digestion. Co-digestion of sewage sludge with other organic waste (for example fat rich materials) is one of the few potential ways to enhance the performance of the anaerobic digestion. In this article, the effects of adding fatty rich materials on the performance and stability of semi-continuous anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge were investigated on a 6 l laboratory-scale reactor (working volume equal to 5.5 l). The reactor was operated in a semi-continuous mode with a hydraulic retention time of 10 days. The data presented in this paper relate to the period in which the grease trap sludge accounted for 10, 12, 14, 16 and 18% of the mixture on the volatile solids basis. The results clearly indicate that the addition of fat rich materials like grease trap sludge can lead to a satisfactory increase in biogas yield in digester treating sewage sludge. The results showed that co-digestion can enhance the biogas yield by 28–82% compared to anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge alone (control sample). Moreover, the addition of grease trap sludge to digesters resulted in increased volatile solids removal from 44.38% (control sample) to 57.77% (feedstock with 14% addition of grease trap sludge). It was found that the increase of grease trap sludge in the feedstock had a direct impact on the biogas production and methane yield. This proposal has also been confirmed by statistical analysis such as Pearson correlation coefficients and

  5. Design of the GLARE tool. A grease lubrication apparatus for research and education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawlings, B.

    2012-01-01

    The GLARE: Grease Lubrication Apparatus for Research and Education was designed as a fourth year thesis project with the University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT). The purpose of the apparatus is to train Ontario Power Generation Nuclear (OPGN) staff to properly lubricate bearings with grease and to help detect early equipment failures. Proper re-lubrication is critical to the nuclear industry as equipment may be inaccessible for long periods of time. A secondary purpose for the tool is for UOIT research and undergraduate laboratories.This abstract provides an overview of the project and its application to the nuclear industry. (author)

  6. 40 CFR 761.375 - Specific requirements for surfaces coated or covered with dust, dirt, grime, grease, or another...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... coated or covered with dust, dirt, grime, grease, or another absorbent material. 761.375 Section 761.375... coated or covered with dust, dirt, grime, grease, or another absorbent material. (a) First wash. Cover..., absorbent pad until the surface appears dry. This cleaning should remove any residual dirt, dust, grime, or...

  7. Use of Bio-Amp, a commercial bio-additive for the treatment of grease trap wastewater containing fat, oil, and grease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hao L; Xie, Yuefeng F; Chen, Yen-Chih

    2012-11-01

    This research investigated the application of Bio-Amp, a commercial bio-additive for the treatment of fat, oil, and grease (FOG) in a grease trap, and evaluated potential impacts of treated effluent on downstream collection system and treatment processes. Results show that after Bio-Amp treatment, FOG deposit formation was reduced by 40%, implicating a potential reduction of sewer line blockages. Chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) and total fatty acids were reduced by 39%, 33%, 56%, and 59%, respectively, which represents an overall loading reduction of 9% COD, 5% TN and 40% TP received by the treatment plant from all the dining halls. On the other hand, readily biodegradable COD fractions significantly increased, which implies a potential improvement on Bio-P removal. Overall, the results showed that application of Bio-Amp in grease trap provides potential reduction of sewer line blockages, and can also alleviate downstream treatment burden. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. 9 CFR 316.15 - Marking outside containers of inedible grease, etc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... grease, etc. 316.15 Section 316.15 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... letters not less than 2 inches high, while on tank cars and tank trucks the letters shall be not less than 4 inches high. (b) Inspected rendered animal fat which is intended not to be used for human food may...

  9. On the normal stress effect in grease-lubricated bearing seals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baart, P.; Lugt, Pieter Martin; Prakash, B.

    2014-01-01

    The film formation in lip seals, due to the non-Newtonian rheology of the lubricant, has been a topic of speculation. Earlier work suggests that normal stresses in grease would be favorable for the film buildup between the seal lip and shaft or bearing ring. In the current article, we evaluate this

  10. Effects of Atomic Oxygen and Grease on Outgassing and Adhesion of Silicone Elastomers for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groh, Henry C.; Puleo, Bernadette J.; Steinetz, Bruce M.

    An investigation of silicone elastomers for seals used in docking and habitat systems for future space exploration vehicles is being conducted at NASA. For certain missions, NASA is considering androgynous docking systems where two vehicles each having a seal would be required to: dock for a period of time, seal effectively, and then separate with minimum push-off forces for undocking. Silicone materials are generally chosen for their wide operating temperatures and low leakage rates. However silicone materials are often sticky and usually exhibit considerable adhesion when mated against metals and silicone surfaces. This paper investigates the adhesion unit pressure for a space rated silicone material (S0383-70) for either seal-on-seal (SoS) or seal-on-aluminum (SoAl) operation modes in the following conditions: as-received, after ground-based atomic-oxygen (AO) pre-treatment, after application of a thin coating of a space-qualified grease (Braycote 601EF), and after a combination of AO pre-treatment and grease coating. In order of descending adhesion reduction, the AO treatment reduced seal adhesion the most, followed by the AO plus grease pre-treatment, followed by the grease treatment. The effects of various treatments on silicone (S0383-70 and ELA-SA-401) outgassing properties were also investigated. The leading adhesion AO pre-treatment reduction led to a slight decrease in outgassing for the S0383-70 material and virtually no change in ELA-SA-401 outgassing.

  11. On a new method to determine the yield stress in lubricating grease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cyriac, F.; Lugt, Pieter Martin; Bosman, Rob

    2015-01-01

    An experimental study using both a controlled stress and a controlled strain rheometer has been undertaken to characterize lubricating grease in shear, creep, stress relaxation, and oscillatory flow, with a main focus on determining the yield stress. The yield stress was examined using a cone–plate

  12. Physical simulation technique on the behaviour of oil spills in grease ice under wave actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Z.; Hollebone, B.; Fingas, M.; Fieldhouse, B.

    2008-01-01

    Light or medium oil spilled on ice tends to rise and remain the surface in unconsolidated frazil or grease ice. This study looked for a new system for studying the oil emulsion in grease ice under experimental conditions. A physical simulation technique was designed to test the effect of wave energy on the spilled oil grease ice emulsion. The newly developed test system has the ability to perform simulation tests in wave, wave-ice, wave-oil and wave-ice-oil. This paper presented the design concept of the developed test system and introduced the experimental certifications of its capability in terms of temperature control, wave-making and grease ice-making. The key feature of the technique is a mini wave flume which derives its wave making power from an oscillator in a chemical laboratory. Video cameras record the wave action in the flume in order to obtain wave parameters. The wave making capability tests in this study were used to determine the relation of wave height, length and frequency with oscillator power transfer, oscillator frequency and the depth of the water flume. 16 refs., 10 figs

  13. Removal of Oil and Grease as Emerging Pollutants of Concern (EPC in Wastewater Stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alade Abass O

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater characteristics, which depend on wastewater source, are increasingly becoming more toxic in recent times. The concentrations of oil and grease in wastewater streams have been observed to increase in wastewater stream with increasing adverse effects on the ecology. This results from the increasing use of oil and grease in high-demanded oil-processed foods, establishment and expansion of oil mills and refineries worldwide, as well as indiscriminate discharge of oil and grease into the water drains, domestically and industrially. This study reports the applications, efficiencies and challenges of the wastewater treatment techniques currently employed in the removal of oil and grease from the industrial wastewater and municipal water stream. The results shows that the concentrations of oil and grease injected into the ecosystem are of higher environmental impact and this needs to be given the desired attention. The desired development for effective removal of oil and grease as emerging pollutants of concern (EPC in wastewater stream are thus proposed. ABSTRAK: Ciri-ciri air sisa, bergantung kepada punca air sisa tersebut, menjadi semakin toksik akhir-akhir ini. Kepekatan minyak dan gris dalam air sisa anak sungai dilihat makin bertambah dalam air sisa anak sungai dengan bertambahnya kesan negatif ke atas ekologi. Ini disebabkan oleh peningkatan penggunaan minyak dan gris dalam makanan berproses yang tinggi permintaannya, penubuhan dan perkembangan kilang pertroleum dan loji penapisan di seluruh dunia. Minyak dan gris juga dibuang sewenang-wenangnya ke dalam parit air, dari kalangan domestik dan industry. Kajian ini membentangkan tentang aplikasi, keberkesanan dan teknik cabaran rawatan air buangan yang kini digunakan dalam pembuangan minyak dan gris dari air sisa industry dan air sungai perbandaran. Keputusan menunjukkan kepekatan minyak dan gris yang wujud dibuang ke dalam ekosistem mempunyai impak yang lebih tinggi terhadap persekitaran

  14. Effect of Melamine Sponge on Tooth Stain Removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Takero; Kawata, Toshitsugu

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the stain removal ability of melamine sponge before aesthetic tooth whitening in extracted teeth. Melamine sponge of thickness 40 mm was compressed and the destruction of the partition wall structure during the compression process was examined under a stereoscopic microscope. An extracted human tooth was cleaned by normal polishing or with melamine sponge for 90 s. To evaluate the stain level, the tooth surfaces were photographed under a stereoscopic microscope at 0, 30, 60 and 90 s. The residual stained region was traced in a high-magnification photograph, and the stain intensity was presented as a change, relative to the intensity before the experiment (0 s). Mechanical cleaning by toothbrushing produced polishing scratches on the tooth surface, whereas use of the melamine sponge resulted in only minimal scratches. As the compression level increased, the stain-removing effect tended to become stronger. Melamine sponge can remove stains from the tooth surface more effectively and less invasively compared to a conventional toothbrush. As no new scratches are made on the tooth surface when using a melamine sponge brush, the risk of re-staining is reduced. Cleaning using a melamine sponge brush can be easily and effectively performed at home and in a dental office.

  15. Nuclear staining with alum hematoxylin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn, B D

    2009-08-01

    The hematoxylin and eosin stain is the most common method used in anatomic pathology, yet it is a method about which technologists ask numerous questions. Hematoxylin is a natural dye obtained from a tree originally found in Central America, and is easily converted into the dye hematein. This dye forms coordination compounds with mordant metals, such as aluminum, and the resulting lake attaches to cell nuclei. Regressive formulations contain a higher concentration of dye than progressive formulations and may also contain a lower concentration of mordant. The presence of an acid increases the life of the solution and in progressive solutions may also affect selectivity of staining. An appendix lists more than 60 hemalum formulations and the ratio of dye to mordant for each.

  16. Etika Berbusana Mahasiswa Stain Samarinda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Suryani Wijaya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Ethics is about behavior of human being, such as which one is right or wrong. The ethics is always affecting the human life. The ethics gives people orientation how he/she do manything every time every day. Islamic ethics consists of the way how someone interact each other; how someone should do or not to do, how to sit, how to walk, how to eat or drink, how to sleep, or how to get dressed. Al-Qur’an uses three terms to define about dressing, they are: libas, tsiyah, and sarahi. Dressing has a function as covering the body, as assessoris, as the way to do Islamic taqwa, and as an identiy. Dressing ethics of the female students of STAIN Samarinda has been regulated by the rector regulation No 19 of the year 2002 about relation and dressing ethics for the students of STAIN Samarinda.

  17. Frictional properties of lubrication greases with the addition of nickel nanoparticles in pneumatic cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ho; Lan, Chou-Wei; Guo, Jia-Bin

    2011-12-01

    This paper studies the influence of addition of 100 nm diameter nickel nano-particles on the friction properties of synthetic grease (Li base, VG100) in pneumatic cylinder. The friction force test of pneumatic cylinder equipment measures the frictional force between seal and cylinder bore in pneumatic cylinders. The lubricants with addition of nickel nano-particles were used for lubricating the contact interface between seal and cylinder bore. The friction force test equipment employ a load cell force sensor to measure the friction force between seals and cylinder bores. Results obtained from experimental tests are compared to determine the friction force between seals and cylinder bore in pneumatic cylinders. The study leads to the conclusion that the addition of nickel nano-particles to synthetic grease results in a decrease in friction force between seals and cylinder bores in pneumatic cylinder. This tribological behavior is closely related to the deposition of nano-particles on the rubbing surfaces

  18. International evolution of fat, oil and grease (FOG) waste management - A review

    OpenAIRE

    Wallace, Thomas; Gibbons, David; O'Dwyer, Michael; Curran, Thomas P.

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, issues relating to fat, oil and grease (FOG) in sewer systems have intensified. In the media, sewer blockages caused by FOG waste deposits, commonly referred to as 'fatbergs', are becoming a reminder of the problems that FOG waste can cause when left untreated. These FOG blockages lead to sanitary sewer overflows, property flooding and contamination of water bodies with sewage. Despite these financial and environmentally detrimental effects, a homogenous FOG waste management ...

  19. Sand or grease? Corruption-institutional trust nexus in post-Soviet countries

    OpenAIRE

    Nazim Habibov; Elvin Afandi; Alex Cheung

    2017-01-01

    This paper empirically tests several hypotheses about the nexus of corruption-institutional trust in Post-Soviet transitional countries of the former Soviet Union and Mongolia. We use two different indices of institutional trust to check the robustness of our analysis and estimate OLS and instrumental variable models with and without interaction terms. All things considered, our findings reject “greases the wheels” and “trust begets an honest political system” hypotheses. Instead, our finding...

  20. Greasing the Wheels of Trade: measuring the Dutch transaction with occupational data

    OpenAIRE

    Dalen, Hendrik; Vuuren, Aico

    2003-01-01

    textabstractHow much does a nation spend on resources to 'grease the wheels of trade'? To examine this question the Dutch economy is used as an exemplary case as the Netherlands are known as a nation of traders. This image was derived in the seventeenth century from successes in long distance trade, shipping and financial innovations. Despite its historical background in trading the potential to 'truck and barter' has never been adequately measured. In this paper we present a first attempt in...

  1. Treatability and kinetics studies of mesophilic aerobic biodegradation of high oil and grease pet food wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Victor Lei; Nakhla, G.; Bassi, A.

    2004-01-01

    In this work, batch activated sludge studies were investigated for the treatment of raw pet food wastewater characterized by oil and grease concentrations of 50,000-66,000 mg/L, COD and BOD concentrations of 100,000 and 80,000 mg/L, respectively, as well as effluent from an existing anaerobic digester treating the aforementioned wastewater. A pre-treatment process, dissolved air flotation (DAF) achieved 97-99% reduction in O and G to about 400-800 mg/L, which is still atypically high for AS. The batch studies were conducted using a 4-L bioreactor at room temperature (21 deg. C) under different conditions. The experimental results showed for the DAF pretreated effluent, 92% COD removal efficiency can be achieved by using conventional activated sludge system at a 5 days contact time and applied initial soluble COD to biomass ratio of 1.17 mg COD/mg VSS. Similarly for the digester effluent at average oil and grease concentrations of 13,500 mg/L, activated sludge affected 63.7-76.2% soluble COD removal at 5 days. The results also showed that all kinetic data best conformed to the zero order biodegradation model with a low biomass specific maximum substrate utilization rate of 0.168 mg COD/mg VSS day reflecting the slow biodegradability of the wastewater even after 99% removal of oil and grease

  2. Thick Toenails

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in individuals with nail fungus (onychomycosis), psoriasis and hypothyroidism. Those who have problems with the thickness of their toenails should consult a foot and ankle surgeon for proper diagnosis and treatment. Find an ACFAS Physician Search Search Tools Find ...

  3. Comparison of acrylic polymer adhesive tapes and silicone optical grease in light sharing detectors for positron emission tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Elburg, Devin J; Noble, Scott D; Hagey, Simone; Goertzen, Andrew L

    2018-02-26

    Optical coupling is an important factor in detector design as it improves optical photon transmission by mitigating internal reflections at light-sharing boundaries. In this work we compare optical coupling materials, namely double-sided acrylic polymer tapes and silicone optical grease (SiG), in the context of positron emission tomography. Four double-sided tapes from 3 M of varying thicknesses (0.229 mm-1.016 mm) and adhesive materials ('100MP', 'A100', and 'GPA') were characterized with spectrophotometer measurements as well as photopeak amplitude and energy resolution measurements using lutetium-yttrium oxy-orthosilicate (LYSO) coupled to photomultiplier tubes (PMT) or silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs). Transmission spectra from the spectrophotometer showed over 80% transmission for all tapes at 420 nm and above, with 89.6% and 88.8% transmission for the 0.508 mm and 1.016 mm thick GPA tapes, respectively, at 420 nm. Measurements with single-pixel LYSO-PMT and 4  ×  4 array (one-to-one coupled) LYSO-SiPM setups determined that SiG had the greatest photopeak amplitude, with tapes showing 2.1%-14.8% reduction in photopeak amplitude with respect to SiG. Energy resolution changed by less than 4% on a relative basis between tapes and SiG with PMT measurements, however for the SiPM array measurements the energy resolution improved from 15.6%  ±  2.7% full-width at half-maximum to 11.4%  ±  1.2% for SiG and 1 mm GPA respectively. Data acquired with dual-layer offset LYSO arrays (light sharing detector designs) demonstrated that a detector coupled with 1 mm thick GPA tape produced equivalent detector flood histograms to those from a design coupled with SiG and a 1 mm thick glass lightguide. No significant degradation in photopeak amplitude and energy resolution was observed over five months of measurements, indicating the tapes maintain their coupling integrity over several months. Though minimal photopeak amplitude degradation

  4. Comparison of acrylic polymer adhesive tapes and silicone optical grease in light sharing detectors for positron emission tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Elburg, Devin J.; Noble, Scott D.; Hagey, Simone; Goertzen, Andrew L.

    2018-03-01

    Optical coupling is an important factor in detector design as it improves optical photon transmission by mitigating internal reflections at light-sharing boundaries. In this work we compare optical coupling materials, namely double-sided acrylic polymer tapes and silicone optical grease (SiG), in the context of positron emission tomography. Four double-sided tapes from 3 M of varying thicknesses (0.229 mm-1.016 mm) and adhesive materials (‘100MP’, ‘A100’, and ‘GPA’) were characterized with spectrophotometer measurements as well as photopeak amplitude and energy resolution measurements using lutetium-yttrium oxy-orthosilicate (LYSO) coupled to photomultiplier tubes (PMT) or silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs). Transmission spectra from the spectrophotometer showed over 80% transmission for all tapes at 420 nm and above, with 89.6% and 88.8% transmission for the 0.508 mm and 1.016 mm thick GPA tapes, respectively, at 420 nm. Measurements with single-pixel LYSO-PMT and 4  ×  4 array (one-to-one coupled) LYSO-SiPM setups determined that SiG had the greatest photopeak amplitude, with tapes showing 2.1%-14.8% reduction in photopeak amplitude with respect to SiG. Energy resolution changed by less than 4% on a relative basis between tapes and SiG with PMT measurements, however for the SiPM array measurements the energy resolution improved from 15.6%  ±  2.7% full-width at half-maximum to 11.4%  ±  1.2% for SiG and 1 mm GPA respectively. Data acquired with dual-layer offset LYSO arrays (light sharing detector designs) demonstrated that a detector coupled with 1 mm thick GPA tape produced equivalent detector flood histograms to those from a design coupled with SiG and a 1 mm thick glass lightguide. No significant degradation in photopeak amplitude and energy resolution was observed over five months of measurements, indicating the tapes maintain their coupling integrity over several months. Though minimal photopeak amplitude

  5. Accelerated staining technique using kitchen microwave oven

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Mukunda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Histopathological diagnosis of specimens is greatly dependent on good sample preparation and staining. Both of these processes is governed by diffusion of fluids and dyes in and out of the tissue, which is the key to staining. Diffusion of fluids can be accelerated by the application of heat that reduces the time of staining from hours to the minute. We modified an inexpensive model of kitchen microwave oven for staining. This study is an attempt to compare the reliability of this modified technique against the tested technique of routine staining so as to establish the kitchen microwave oven as a valuable diagnostic tool. Materials and Methods: Sixty different tissue blocks were used to prepare 20 pairs of slides for 4 different stains namely hematoxylin and eosin, Van Gieson′s, 0.1% toluidine blue and periodic acid-Schiff. From each tissue block, two bits of tissues were mounted on two different slides. One slide was stained routinely, and the other stained inside a microwave. A pathologist evaluated the stained slides and the results so obtained were analyzed statistically. Results: Microwave staining considerably cut down the staining time from hours to seconds. Microwave staining showed no loss of cellular and nuclear details, uniform-staining characteristics and was of excellent quality. Interpretation and Conclusion: The cellular details, nuclear details and staining characteristics of microwave stained tissues were better than or equal to the routine stained tissue. The overall quality of microwave-stained sections was found to be better than the routine stained tissue in majority of cases.

  6. Hirschsprung's disease diagnosis: Comparison of immunohistochemical, hematoxilin and eosin staining

    OpenAIRE

    Memarzadeh, Mehrdad; Talebi, Ardeshir; Edalaty, Masod; Hosseinpour, Mehrdad; Vahidi, Nasrin

    2009-01-01

    Background: The diagnosis of Hirschsprung's disease (HD) is based on the absence of ganglion cells. In hemotoxilin and eosin (H and E) as well as acetylcholine esterase staining there are limitations in the diagnosis of immature ganglion cells in neonates. Methods: In this prospective study, 54 biopsies taken from suspected HD patients (five mucosal specimens and 49 full thickness specimens) were studied. In the laboratory, after preparing sections of paraffin embedded tissues, H and E staini...

  7. Effects of the free fatty acid content in yellow grease on performance, carcass characteristics, and serum lipids in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, H; Gong, L M; Guo, L; Zhang, L Y; Li, J T

    2011-09-01

    This study was conducted to investigate whether the free fatty acid (FFA) content of yellow grease would influence the performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chicks. A total of 432 one-day-old, male Arbor Acres broilers were randomly allotted to 1 of 4 treatments, with each treatment being applied to 6 pens of 18 chicks. The dietary treatments were based on corn and soybean meal and were supplemented with either soybean oil (2.86% FFA) or yellow grease with a low (2.74%), medium (12.59%), or high (19.05%) FFA content. The fat sources were supplemented at 1.5% of the diet during the starter phase (0 to 21 d) and at 3.0% of the diet during the grower phase (22 to 42 d). From d 0 to 42, the BW gains of chicks fed diets containing soybean oil and yellow grease with 2.74% FFA were similar. As the FFA level in the yellow grease increased, the BW gain of chicks decreased (P dressing percentage and the percentage of breast muscle in the carcass were significantly (P < 0.01) lower for broilers fed any yellow grease diet compared with birds fed soybean oil. In contrast, abdominal fat was significantly increased in diets containing yellow grease. These results demonstrate that the performance of birds fed yellow grease with a low content of FFA was essentially equal to that of birds fed soybean oil. However, because yellow grease samples containing FFA levels greater than 2.74% negatively affected bird performance, producers should exercise caution with regard to feeding broilers yellow grease with an elevated FFA content. In 42-d-old broilers, serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were elevated in birds fed yellow grease, regardless of the dietary level. In contrast, serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels were unaffected by dietary treatment. Although dietary FFA may influence triglyceride-rich lipoprotein metabolism in broilers, an explanation for the observed effects remains elusive.

  8. Hirschsprung′s disease diagnosis: Comparison of immunohistochemical, hematoxilin and eosin staining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Memarzadeh Mehrdad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The diagnosis of Hirschsprung′s disease (HD is based on the absence of ganglion cells. In hemotoxilin and eosin (H and E as well as acetylcholine esterase staining there are limitations in the diagnosis of immature ganglion cells in neonates. Methods : In this prospective study, 54 biopsies taken from suspected HD patients (five mucosal specimens and 49 full thickness specimens were studied. In the laboratory, after preparing sections of paraffin embedded tissues, H and E staining slides were compared with immunohistochemical (IHC staining including: S100, NSE, CD117, CD56, Cathepsin D, Vimentin, BCL2, GFAP, Synaptophysin and chromogranin. Results : The study revealed 30 negative (absence of ganglion cells cases (55.5%, 17 positive cases (31.04% and seven suspected cases (12.9% of ganglion cells on the H and E staining. On IHC staining with CD56 and Cathepsin D, all of the 17 positive cases detected through H and E, were confirmed for having ganglion cells and out of 30 cases reported negative on H and E staining, 28(93.3% were reported negative and two (6.7% positive by IHC staining. Of the seven suspected cases H and E staining, IHC staining detectedganglion cells only in five slides; two remained negative. Conclusions : IHC staining using CD56 and Cathepsin D improved the accuracy of diagnosis in HD when used in addition to H and E staining technique, especially for negative or suspicious slides.

  9. Effects of glycerin concentration in steam-flaked corn-based diets with supplemental yellow grease on performance and carcass characteristics of finishing beef steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttrey, E K; Luebbe, M K; McCollum, F T; Cole, N A; MacDonald, J C; Hales, K E

    2015-07-01

    Forty-eight individually fed crossbred steers (initial BW = 381 ± 7.61 kg) were used to determine the effects of glycerin (GLY) concentration in steam-flaked corn (SFC)-based diets with added yellow grease on animal performance and carcass characteristics. Glycerin was included at 0, 2.5, 5, and 10% dietary DM replacing SFC. A completely randomized design was used with steers as the experimental unit, and the model included the fixed effects of diet. Contrast statements were used to determine linear and quadratic effects of GLY inclusion. Final BW and DMI were not affected (P > 0.27) by GLY concentration. Average daily gain and G:F based on live BW did not differ as GLY level increased in the diet from 0 to 10% of DM (P > 0.33). Carcass-adjusted final BW and carcass-adjusted G:F were also not affected by GLY concentration (P > 0.22); however, carcass-adjusted ADG tended to respond quadratically by decreasing from 2.5 to 5% GLY inclusion and increasing thereafter (P = 0.10). Calculated dietary NEm and NEg did not differ as GLY increased in the diet (P > 0.37). Hot carcass weight tended to respond quadratically, decreasing from 2.5 to 5% GLY and increasing thereafter (P = 0.10). Likewise, dressing percentage tended to respond quadratically by decreasing from 2.5 to 5% GLY inclusion and increasing to 10% GLY inclusion (P = 0.09). Fat thickness decreased linearly as GLY inclusion increased in the diet (P 0.21). Calculated yield grade (YG) decreased linearly as GLY increased in the diet from 0 to 10% of DM (P = 0.04). Based on our results, there was no animal performance benefit for replacing SFC with GLY in diets containing yellow grease, and the only change in carcass merit was a slight improvement in YG.

  10. Characterisation of FOGs in grease trap waste from the processing of chickens in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitayapat, Nuttakan; Chitprasert, Pakamon

    2014-06-01

    Industrial firms that kill and process chickens generate wastewater that contains fat, oil, and grease (FOG). The FOGs are located in the fatty waste that is collected by floatation in grease traps. Chemical and physical characterisation of FOGs would provide useful information that would help in the development of methods designed to decrease the extent of pollution caused by disposal of the waste and to utilise commercially some of its lipid constituents. Employing these methods would enhance the profitability and competitive potential of these commercial organisations. Samples of grease trap waste from 14 firms in central Thailand have been examined. Due to the very different schemes of waste management employed by these firms, the physical appearance of their fatty wastes showed considerable variation. The chemical and physical properties of the FOGs present in these wastes showed considerable variation also. Large amounts of free fatty acids (10-70% as oleic acid) were detected in most of the 14 wastes and palmitic, cis-9-oleic, cis,cis-9,12-linoleic, stearic, and palmitoleic acids were the predominant species of free and esterified acids. Most of the FOGs were solid at temperatures below 40 °C. Many of them contained traces of heavy metals (Cu and Pb) and some contained traces of the pesticides dimethoate and cypermethrin. The content of these potentially hazardous substances would have to be considered very carefully before discarding the fatty wastes and during the development of methods designed to isolate their potentially profitable lipid constituents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Solar Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ) Lubrication Interval Test and Evaluation (LITE). Post-Test Grease Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Johnny L.; Martinez, James E.; Devivar, Rodrigo V.

    2015-01-01

    The Solar Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ) is a mechanism of the International Space Station (ISS) that orients the solar power generating arrays toward the sun as the ISS orbits our planet. The orientation with the sun must be maintained to fully charge the ISS batteries and maintain all the other ISS electrical systems operating properly. In 2007, just a few months after full deployment, the starboard SARJ developed anomalies that warranted a full investigation including ISS Extravehicular Activity (EVA). The EVA uncovered unexpected debris that was due to degradation of a nitride layer on the SARJ bearing race. ISS personnel identified the failure root-cause and applied an aerospace grease to lubricate the area associated with the anomaly. The corrective action allowed the starboard SARJ to continue operating within the specified engineering parameters. The SARJ LITE (Lubrication Interval Test and Evaluation) program was initiated by NASA, Lockheed Martin, and Boeing to simulate the operation of the ISS SARJ for an extended time. The hardware was designed to test and evaluate the exact material components used aboard the ISS SARJ, but in a controlled area where engineers could continuously monitor the performance. After running the SARJ LITE test for an equivalent of 36+ years of continuous use, the test was opened to evaluate the metallography and lubrication. We have sampled the SARJ LITE rollers and plate to fully assess the grease used for lubrication. Chemical and thermal analysis of these samples has generated information that has allowed us to assess the location, migration, and current condition of the grease. The collective information will be key toward understanding and circumventing any performance deviations involving the ISS SARJ in the years to come.

  12. Erbium doped stain etched porous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Diaz, B.; Diaz-Herrera, B.; Guerrero-Lemus, R.; Mendez-Ramos, J.; Rodriguez, V.D.; Hernandez-Rodriguez, C.; Martinez-Duart, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    In this work a simple erbium doping process applied to stain etched porous silicon layers (PSLs) is proposed. This doping process has been developed for application in porous silicon solar cells, where conventional erbium doping processes are not affordable because of the high processing cost and technical difficulties. The PSLs were formed by immersion in a HF/HNO 3 solution to properly adjust the porosity and pore thickness to an optimal doping of the porous structure. After the formation of the porous structure, the PSLs were analyzed by means of nitrogen BET (Brunauer, Emmett and Teller) area measurements and scanning electron microscopy. Subsequently, the PSLs were immersed in a saturated erbium nitrate solution in order to cover the porous surface. Then, the samples were subjected to a thermal process to activate the Er 3+ ions. Different temperatures and annealing times were used in this process. The photoluminescence of the PSLs was evaluated before and after the doping processes and the composition was analyzed by Fourier transform IR spectroscopy

  13. Review of inservice inspections of greased tendons in prestressed-concrete containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougan, J.R.; Ashar, H.

    1983-01-01

    Prestressed-concrete containments in the United States using greased prestressing tendons are inspected periodically to ensure structural integrity and to identify and correct problem areas before they become critical. An analysis of the available utility inspection data and an evaluation of the current and proposed guidelines were conducted to provide a measure of the reliability of the inspection process. Comments from utility and industry personnel were factored into the analysis. The results indicated that the majority of the few incidences of problems or abnormalities which occurred were minor in nature and did not threaten the structural integrity of the containment

  14. Gram staining with an automatic machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felek, S; Arslan, A

    1999-01-01

    This study was undertaken to develop a new Gram-staining machine controlled by a micro-controller and to investigate the quality of slides that were stained in the machine. The machine was designed and produced by the authors. It uses standard 220 V AC. Staining, washing, and drying periods are controlled by a timer built in the micro-controller. A software was made that contains a certain algorithm and time intervals for the staining mode. One-hundred and forty smears were prepared from Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Neisseria sp., blood culture, trypticase soy broth, direct pus and sputum smears for comparison studies. Half of the slides in each group were stained with the machine, the other half by hand and then examined by four different microbiologists. Machine-stained slides had a higher clarity and less debris than the hand-stained slides (p stained slides, some Gram-positive organisms showed poor Gram-positive staining features (p Gram staining with the automatic machine increases the staining quality and helps to decrease the work load in a busy diagnostic laboratory.

  15. Efficient production of biodiesel from waste grease: one-pot esterification and transesterification with tandem lipases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jinyong; Li, Aitao; Xu, Yi; Ngo, Thao P N; Phua, Szechao; Li, Zhi

    2012-11-01

    A novel concept and efficient method for producing biodiesel (FAME) from grease (15-40wt% free fatty acid, FFA) were developed by using tandem lipases for one-pot esterification of FFA and transesterification of triglyceride with methanol in a solvent-free system. Combining immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB) (Novozyme 435) favoring the esterification and immobilized Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase (TLL) (Lipozyme TLIM) preferring the transesterification at 2:8 (wt/wt) gave FAME in 80% yield, being better than that with Novozyme 435 or Lipozyme TLIM. Recombinant Escherichia coli (Calb/Tll) co-expressing CALB and TLL was engineered as a more efficient tandem-lipases system. Using wet or dry cells (4wt%) gave FAME in 87% or 95% yield, which is much better than that with E. coli cells expressing either CALB or TLL alone. Cells of E. coli (Calb/Tll) were recycled for five times and retained 75% productivity, thus being practical for producing biodiesel from grease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Development and evaluation of emulsifying systems of the material grease from Brazilian flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Dourado

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Context: Oils and butter of seed from Brazilian biodiversity are extending the range of innovative products for cosmetics development. They have a fat potential similar to skin composition, leading to the improved performance of these product. Aims: Improve the emulsions spreadability through prior screening of grease composition and studying the viscosity, and the emulsions accelerated stability. Methods: Emulsions were formulated using oils from semiarid plants from Bahia: Syagrus coronate, Pachira retusa, and Pachira aquatica, so as to compare them with oils already standard in the production of cosmetics. Spreadability and stability tests were made comparing the results. The same criteria were used with Amazon seed butter: Virola surinamensis, Butyrospermum parkii, Astrocaryum murumuru, Theobroma cacao and Theobroma grandiflorum. For the emulsions screening and performance, a system was developed for oil/ butter, following tests of accelerated stability, viscosity, and spreadability. Results: The combined system of spreadability was optimized using screening. Emollients containing oleic and palmitic acids, and light chain fatty acids obtained good spreadability. The oil emulsion containing Pachira retusa and Virola surinamensis butter had a higher viscosity. Conclusions: With high content of fatty acids such as oleic, palmitic or the light chain fatty acids obtain an appropriated appearance, texture, and spreadability for cosmetic use. Thus, oils with a low fatty acid content may be combined with butter that have a high fatty acid content and vice-versa. Analyzing and strategically combining grease composition, one can optimize the performance of cosmetic formulations.

  17. Color and dichroism of silver-stained glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina, Gloria; Murcia, Sonia; Molera, Judit; Roldan, Clodoaldo; Crespo, Daniel; Pradell, Trinitat

    2013-01-01

    Yellow decorations in glasses have been produced since the beginning of the fourteenth century by incorporating metallic silver nanoparticles into the glass (from a few to some tens of nanometers). The optical response of the glass-particles composite is determined by the surface plasmon resonance absorption and scattering of the nanometric metallic particles. Generally, the same color is perceived in reflection and in transmission although dichroic effects are occasionally observed. As silver-stained glasses were designed to be observed in transmission, tuning the transmission color from yellow to red was of technological interest. The relationship between the color observed both in transmission and reflection and the composition and nanostructure of regular (yellow) and dichroic (yellow and red) silver stains from the Renaissance (late fifteenth and sixteenth century, respectively) is related to the presence of a layer (of about 10–20 μm thick) of metallic silver nanoparticles (from few to 100 nm in size). The correlation between the colors observed and the silver stain nanostructure is studied with particular emphasis on the origin of the dichroic behavior. The optical response is computed and compared to the experimental data. Differences in the synthesis parameters responsible for the colors and for the dichroic behavior of the silver stain glasses are proposed. This is essential for the replication of the glass pieces which are required as replacements in the restoration/conservation of the windows but is also of broader interest

  18. Color and dichroism of silver-stained glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina, Gloria [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Center for Research in NanoEngineering (Spain); Murcia, Sonia [Universidad de Valencia, Instituto de Ciencia de los Materiales (Spain); Molera, Judit [Universitat de Vic, GRTD, Escola Politecnica Superior (Spain); Roldan, Clodoaldo [Universidad de Valencia, Instituto de Ciencia de los Materiales (Spain); Crespo, Daniel; Pradell, Trinitat, E-mail: Trinitat.Pradell@upc.edu [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Center for Research in NanoEngineering (Spain)

    2013-09-15

    Yellow decorations in glasses have been produced since the beginning of the fourteenth century by incorporating metallic silver nanoparticles into the glass (from a few to some tens of nanometers). The optical response of the glass-particles composite is determined by the surface plasmon resonance absorption and scattering of the nanometric metallic particles. Generally, the same color is perceived in reflection and in transmission although dichroic effects are occasionally observed. As silver-stained glasses were designed to be observed in transmission, tuning the transmission color from yellow to red was of technological interest. The relationship between the color observed both in transmission and reflection and the composition and nanostructure of regular (yellow) and dichroic (yellow and red) silver stains from the Renaissance (late fifteenth and sixteenth century, respectively) is related to the presence of a layer (of about 10-20 {mu}m thick) of metallic silver nanoparticles (from few to 100 nm in size). The correlation between the colors observed and the silver stain nanostructure is studied with particular emphasis on the origin of the dichroic behavior. The optical response is computed and compared to the experimental data. Differences in the synthesis parameters responsible for the colors and for the dichroic behavior of the silver stain glasses are proposed. This is essential for the replication of the glass pieces which are required as replacements in the restoration/conservation of the windows but is also of broader interest.

  19. Laser treatment of Port-wine stains

    OpenAIRE

    Boffa, Michael J.

    2001-01-01

    A state-of-the-art pulsed dye laser machine to treat port-wine stains and other vascular lesions has been available in the Malta Health Service since 1999. This article reviews the pathophysiology and clinical features of port- wine stains and describes the principles of laser treatment for this condition.

  20. Wear of Spur Gears Having a Dithering Motion and Lubricated with a Perfluorinated Polyether Grease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krantz, Timothy; Oswald, Fred; Handschuh, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Gear contact surface wear is one of the important failure modes for gear systems. Dedicated experiments are required to enable precise evaluations of gear wear for a particular application. The application of interest for this study required evaluation of wear of gears lubricated with a grade 2 perfluorinated polyether grease and having a dithering (rotation reversal) motion. Experiments were conducted using spur gears made from AISI 9310 steel. Wear was measured using a profilometer at test intervals encompassing 10,000 to 80,000 cycles of dithering motion. The test load level was 1.1 GPa maximum Hertz contact stress at the pitch-line. The trend of total wear as a function of test cycles was linear, and the wear depth rate was approximately 1.2 nm maximum wear depth per gear dithering cycle. The observed wear rate was about 600 times greater than the wear rate for the same gears operated at high speed and lubricated with oil.

  1. Problems, control, and treatment of fat, oil, and grease (FOG): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Iman A F; Alkhatib, Ma'an Fahmi; Jammi, Mohamed Saedi; Mirghani, Mohamed E S; Bin Zainudin, Zaki; Hoda, Asif

    2014-01-01

    Presence of fat, oil, and grease (FOG) in wastewater is an ever-growing concern to municipalities and solid-waste facility operators. FOG enters the sewer system from restaurants, residences, and industrial food facilities. Its release into the sewer system results in a continuous build-up that causes eventual blockage of sewer pipes. Several researchers have investigated FOG deposition based on the local conditions of sewers and lifestyle. This paper attempts to review the physical and chemical characteristics of FOG, sources of FOG, and potential chemical and biological reactions of FOG. The effect of the aforementioned factors on the FOG-deposition mechanism is also discussed. Moreover, insight into the current control and treatment methods and potential reuse of FOG is highlighted. It is expected that this review would provide scientists and the concerned authorities a holistic view of the recent researches on FOG control, treatment, and reuse.

  2. Removal of colour, turbidity, oil and grease for slaughterhouse wastewater using electrocoagulation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, Mohd Suffian; Azwan, Azlyza Mohd; Zamri, Mohd Faiz Muaz Ahmad; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul

    2017-10-01

    In this study electrocoagulation method is used to treat slaughterhouse wastewaters. The aim of this study is to determine the efficiency of electrocoagulation method for the removal of colour, turbidity, oil and grease of slaughterhouse wastewaters. The factors of electrode types, and voltage applied during treatment are the study parameters. The types of electrode used are Aluminium (Al) grade 6082 and Iron (Fe) grade 1050. Meanwhile, the ranges of voltage applied are 2, 4, 6, 8 volts at a time interval of 10, 20 and 30 minutes respectively. The effect of these factors on the removal of fat oil and grease (FOG), colour and turbidity are analyzed. The results show maximum removal of FOG, colour and turbidity are recorded using Fe electrode at 8 V of applied voltage with 30 minutes of treatment time. The increase in treatment time of the cell will also increase the amount of hydrogen bubbles at the cathode which results in a greater upwards flux and a faster removal of FOG,, turbidity and colour. The removal of FOG, colour and turbidity are 98%, 92% and 91 % respectively. Meanwhile, by using Al electrodes in the same condition, the removal of FOG, colour and turbidity are 91%, 85% and 87 % respectively. Whereas by using Fe-Al as electrodes pairs, the removal of FOG, colour and turbidity are found to be at 90%, 87% and 76 % respectively. In this case, the Fe-Fe pair electrodes have been proven to provide better performance for FOG, colour and turbidity removals of slaughterhouse wastewaters. Therefore, it is feasible to be considered as an alternative method for wastewater treatment.

  3. Simultaneous removal of oil and grease, and heavy metals from artificial bilge water using electro-coagulation/flotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincón, Guillermo J; La Motta, Enrique J

    2014-11-01

    US and international regulations pertaining to the control of bilge water discharges from ships have concentrated their attention to the levels of oil and grease rather than to the heavy metal concentrations. The consensus is that any discharge of bilge water (and oily water emulsion within 12 nautical miles from the nearest land cannot exceed 15 parts per million (ppm). Since there is no specific regulation for metal pollutants under the bilge water section, reference standards regulating heavy metal concentrations are taken from the ambient water quality criteria to protect aquatic life. The research herein presented discusses electro-coagulation (EC) as a method to treat bilge water, with a focus on oily emulsions and heavy metals (copper, nickel and zinc) removal efficiency. Experiments were run using a continuous flow reactor, manufactured by Ecolotron, Inc., and a synthetic emulsion as artificial bilge water. The synthetic emulsion contained 5000 mg/L of oil and grease, 5 mg/L of copper, 1.5 mg/L of nickel, and 2.5 mg/l of zinc. The experimental results demonstrate that EC is very efficient in removing oil and grease. For oil and grease removal, the best treatment and cost efficiency was obtained when using a combination of carbon steel and aluminum electrodes, at a detention time less than one minute, a flow rate of 1 L/min and 0.6 A/cm(2) of current density. The final effluent oil and grease concentration, before filtration, was always less than 10 mg/L. For heavy metal removal, the combination of aluminum and carbon steel electrodes, flow rate of 1 L/min, effluent recycling, and 7.5 amps produced 99% zinc removal efficiency. Copper and nickel are harder to remove, and a removal efficiency of 70% was achieved. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Multicenter Assessment of Gram Stain Error Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Linoj P; Balada-Llasat, Joan-Miquel; Harrington, Amanda; Cavagnolo, Robert

    2016-06-01

    Gram stains remain the cornerstone of diagnostic testing in the microbiology laboratory for the guidance of empirical treatment prior to availability of culture results. Incorrectly interpreted Gram stains may adversely impact patient care, and yet there are no comprehensive studies that have evaluated the reliability of the technique and there are no established standards for performance. In this study, clinical microbiology laboratories at four major tertiary medical care centers evaluated Gram stain error rates across all nonblood specimen types by using standardized criteria. The study focused on several factors that primarily contribute to errors in the process, including poor specimen quality, smear preparation, and interpretation of the smears. The number of specimens during the evaluation period ranged from 976 to 1,864 specimens per site, and there were a total of 6,115 specimens. Gram stain results were discrepant from culture for 5% of all specimens. Fifty-eight percent of discrepant results were specimens with no organisms reported on Gram stain but significant growth on culture, while 42% of discrepant results had reported organisms on Gram stain that were not recovered in culture. Upon review of available slides, 24% (63/263) of discrepant results were due to reader error, which varied significantly based on site (9% to 45%). The Gram stain error rate also varied between sites, ranging from 0.4% to 2.7%. The data demonstrate a significant variability between laboratories in Gram stain performance and affirm the need for ongoing quality assessment by laboratories. Standardized monitoring of Gram stains is an essential quality control tool for laboratories and is necessary for the establishment of a quality benchmark across laboratories. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  5. Surface staining of small intestinal biopsies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1977-01-01

    Small intestinal biopsies are most often by routine examined under a stereo-microscope, prior to embedding for histological examination. This is done in order to get a view of the appearance of the mucosal pattern, especially villus configuration. The distinctness of the surface pattern however......, is improved considerably if the biopsies are stained with Alcian Green and/or PAS before they are examined. In the present paper a detailed description is given of staining of small intestinal biopsies as whole mounts. The difference between the unstained and the stained biopsies is illustrated by a few...

  6. Etude du point critique des paliers lisses alimentés à la graisse Study of Critical Point on Plain Bearings Lubricated by Grease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delneuville P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article est essentiellement consacré à l'étude du fonctionnement limite des paliers lisses lubrifiés à la graisse ; son but est de permettre la détermination des conditions nécessaires à l'obtention d'un film lubrifiant d'épaisseur suffisante. L'auteur cherche à cette occasion une loi théorique qui permet de départager les régimes de lubrification, non plus empiriquement, mais sur la base de lois statistiques. La formulation finale doit permettre aux utilisateurs de situer correctement les conditions de fonctionnement d'un palier lisse et d'en estimer la sécurité du régime. This article deals essentially with the boundary behaviour of plain bearings lubricated by grease. Its aim is to determine the conditions required to obtain a sufficiently thick lubricating film. The author proposes a theoretical law for separating lubrication types. This law is not empirical but is based on statistical laws. The final formulation should enable users to correctly situate the operating conditions of a plain bearing and to evaluate the safety factor during running.

  7. Comparison of special stains for keratin with routine hematoxylin and eosin stain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Roopa S; Patil, Shankargouda; Majumdar, Barnali; Oswal, Rakesh G

    2015-03-01

    Keratins are the most abundant proteins and are characteristic findings in many epithelial pathologies, making it a diagnostically important marker, both histopathologically and immunohistochemically. Since, immunohistochemistry is an expensive diagnostic tool, special stains to detect the degree of keratinization could serve as a faster and economic option. The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of special stains for keratin with standard hematoxylin and eosin stain (H and E). Objectives include: (i) To subject the diagnosed cases of keratin disorders to the selected special stains: Ayoub-shklar method, Dane-Herman method, Alcian blue -periodic acid Schiff 's (PAS), rapid papanicolaou (PAP) and Gram's stain. (ii) To compare the staining specificity and staining intensity of special stains with respect to routine hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) stain. (iii) To compare the efficacy of special stains to routine H and E stain in identification of the type of keratin present in the selected cases. A total of 80 cases of known pathology for keratin were retrieved from the department archive, which included 10 each of normal gingiva, hyperkeratosis, squamous papilloma, verrucous hyperplasia, verrucous carcinoma, well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst and keratocystic odontogenic tumors. Six sections of 4 µ each from the paraffin blocks were made, stained with H and E and the special stains and these were evaluated by 2 pathologists based on the modified scoring criteria from Rahma Al-Maaini and Philip Bryant 2008. The results were tabulated using Chi square and kappa statistics. The statistical values for identification of the type of keratinization was insignificant showing that ortho and parakeratinized epithelia could be correctly identified by both H and E as well as all the special stains. Furthermore, all the special stains showed a positive result and statistical significance (P < 0.001) with respect to

  8. Gram staining apparatus for space station applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, T. C.; Brown, H. D.; Irbe, R. M.; Pierson, D. L.

    1990-01-01

    A self-contained, portable Gram staining apparatus (GSA) has been developed for use in the microgravity environment on board the Space Station Freedom. Accuracy and reproducibility of this apparatus compared with the conventional Gram staining method were evaluated by using gram-negative and gram-positive controls and different species of bacteria grown in pure cultures. A subsequent study was designed to assess the performance of the GSA with actual specimens. A set of 60 human and environmental specimens was evaluated with the GSA and the conventional Gram staining procedure. Data obtained from these studies indicated that the GSA will provide the Gram staining capability needed for the microgravity environment of space.

  9. Research on pre-staining gel electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Ruibo; Liu Yushuang; Zhang Ping; Liu Jingran; Zhao Guofen; Zhang Feng

    2014-01-01

    Background: Gel electrophoresis is a powerful biochemical separation technique. Most biological molecules are completely transparent in the visible region of light, so it is necessary to use staining to show the results after gel electrophoresis, and the general steps of conventional staining methods are time-consuming. Purpose: We try to develop a novel approach to simplify the gel electrophoresis: Pre-Staining Gel Electrophoresis (PSGE), which can make the gel electrophoresis results monitored in real time. Methods: Pre-stain the protein samples with Coomassie Brilliant Blue (CBB) for 30 min before loading the sample into the gel well. Results and Conclusion: PSGE can be successfully used to analyze the binding efficiency of Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) and amphiphilic polymer via chemical coupling and physical absorption, and the double PSGE also shows a great potential in bio-analytical chemistry. (authors)

  10. Fabrication of a Transparent Anti-stain Thin Film Using an Atmospheric Pressure Cold Plasma Deposition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzaki Y.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently, outdoor-constructed solar panels have a problem such as power generation efficiency is reduced by the face plate dirt. On the other hand, electronic touch panels have a problem such as deterioration of visibility of the screen by finger grease stain. To solve these problems, we need to fabricate the anti-stain surfaces which have superhydrophobic and oil-repellent abilities without spoiling the transparency of the transparent substrate. In this study, we fabricated lotus leaves like surface on a glass substrate. Firstly, SiO2 particles of ca. 100 nm diameter were arranged on the glass substrates. Secondly, to obtain the fractal-like structure (ultra-micro-rough structure on the surface, ZnO thin film having a columnar structure was fabricated on the SiO2 particles by using an atmospheric pressure cold plasma deposition system. By using these processes, the ZnO columns formed radiantly on the spherical surface of the SiO2 particles. Furthermore, without spoiling the ultra-micro-rough structure, a transparent anti-stain monolayer with low surface energy was prepared by using a chemical adsorption technique onto the surface. Average value of the water droplet contact angles of the samples fabricated was 151.8 deg. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM observation reviled that this sample has a raspberry structure in which columnar structure has grown radially on the SiO2 particles.

  11. New Grocott Stain without Using Chromic Acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiogama, Kazuya; Kitazawa, Kayo; Mizutani, Yasuyoshi; Onouchi, Takanori; Inada, Ken-ichi; Tsutsumi, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    We established a new “ecological” Grocott stain for demonstrating fungi, based upon a 4R principle of refusal, reduction, reuse, and recycle of waste management. Conventional Grocott stain employs environmentally harsh 5% chromic acid for oxidization. Initially, we succeeded in reducing the concentration of chromic acid from 5% to 1% by incubating the solution at 60°C and using five-fold diluted chromic acid solution at which point it was reusable. Eventually, we reached the refusal level where 1% periodic acid oxidization was efficient enough, when combined with preheating of sections in the electric jar, microwave oven, or pressure pan. For convenience sake, we recommend pressure pan heating in tap water for 10 min. Stainability of fungi in candidiasis and aspergillosis was comparable with conventional Grocott stain, while Mucor hyphae showed enhanced staining. The modified sequence was further applicable to detecting a variety of mycotic pathogens in paraffin sections. Our environmentally-friendly Grocott stain also has the advantage of avoiding risk of human exposure to hexavalent chromium solution in the histopathology laboratory. The simple stain sequence is can be easily applied worldwide

  12. The Luna stain, an improved selective stain for detection of microsporidian spores in histologic sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Tracy S.; Spitsbergen, Jan M.; Feist, Stephen W.; Kent, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    Microsporidia in histologic sections are most often diagnosed by observing spores in host tissues. Spores are easy to identify if they occur in large aggregates or xenomas when sections are stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). However, individual spores are not frequently detected in host tissues with conventional H&E staining, particularly if spores are scattered within the tissues, areas of inflammation or small spores in nuclei (i.e., Nucleospora salmonis). Hence, a variety of selective stains that enhance visualization of spores are recommended. We discovered that the Luna stain, used to highlight eosinophils, red blood cells and chitin in arthropods and other invertebrates, also stains spores of Pseudoloma neurophilia. We compared this stain to the Gram, Fite’s acid fast, Giemsa, and H&E stains on eight aquatic microsporidian organisms that were readily available in our two laboratories: Loma salmonae, Glugea anomala, Pseudoloma neurophilia, Pleistophora hyphessobryconis, Pleistophora vermiformis, Glugea sp., Steinhausia mytilovum and an unidentified microsporidian from E. sinensis, UK. Based on tinctorial properties and background staining, the Luna stain performed better for detection of 6 of the 8 microsporidia. Gram stain was superior for the two microsporidia from invertebrates, Steinhausia mytilovum and the unidentified microsporidian from E. sinensis. PMID:21848126

  13. Effect of bacterial lipase on anaerobic co-digestion of slaughterhouse wastewater and grease in batch condition and continuous fixed-bed reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Affes, Maha; Aloui, Fathi; Hadrich, Fatma; Loukil, Slim; Sayadi, Sami

    2017-01-01

    Background This study aimed to investigate the effects of bacterial lipase on biogas production of anaerobic co-digestion of slaughterhouse wastewater (SHWW) and hydrolyzed grease (HG). A neutrophilic Staphylococcus xylosus strain exhibiting lipolytic activity was used to perform microbial hydrolysis pretreatment of poultry slaughterhouse lipid rich waste. Results Optimum proportion of hydrolyzed grease was evaluated by determining biochemical methane potential. A high biogas production was o...

  14. Selection and application of exterior stains for wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Sam. Williams; William C. Feist

    1999-01-01

    Exterior stains for wood protect the wood surface from sunlight and moisture. Because stains are formulated to penetrate the wood surface, they are not prone to crack or peel as can film-forming finishes, such as paints. This publication describes the properties of stains and wood, methods for applying stains, and the expected service life of stains.

  15. WITHDRAWN: Amnioinfusion for meconium-stained liquor in labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeyr, G Justus

    2009-01-21

    Amnioinfusion aims to prevent or relieve umbilical cord compression during labour by infusing a solution into the uterine cavity. It is also thought to dilute meconium when present in the amniotic fluid and so reduce the risk of meconium aspiration. However, it may be that the mechanism of effect is that it corrects oligohydramnios (reduced amniotic fluid), for which thick meconium staining is a marker. The objective of this review was to assess the effects of amnioinfusion for meconium-stained liquor on perinatal outcome. The Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group trials register (October 2001) and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (Issue 3, 2001) were searched. Randomised trials comparing amnioinfusion with no amnioinfusion for women in labour with moderate or thick meconium-staining of the amniotic fluid. Eligibility and trial quality were assessed by one reviewer. Twelve studies, most involving small numbers of participants, were included. Under standard perinatal surveillance, amnioinfusion was associated with a reduction in the following: heavy meconium staining of the liquor (relative risk 0.03, 95% confidence interval 0.01 to 0.15); variable fetal heart rate deceleration (relative risk 0.65, 95% confidence interval 0.49 to 0.88); and reduced caesarean section overall (relative risk 0.82, 95% confidence interval 0.69 to 1.97). No perinatal deaths were reported. Under limited perinatal surveillance, amnioinfusion was associated with a reduction in the following: meconium aspiration syndrome (relative risk 0.24, 95% confidence interval 0.12 to 0.48); neonatal hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy (relative risk 0.07, 95% confidence interval 0.01 to 0.56) and neonatal ventilation or intensive care unit admission (relative risk 0.56, 95% confidence interval 0.39 to 0.79); there was a trend towards reduced perinatal mortality (relative risk 0.34, 95% confidence interval 0.11 to 1.06). Amnioinfusion is associated with improvements in perinatal outcome

  16. Food Grade Grease Berbahan Baku Minyak Sawit Crude Palm Oil (Cpo Off Grade Dengan Variasi Konsentrasi Thickening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martanto Totok

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Food grade grease (FGG is a kind of lubricant made from vegetable oil. Food Grease isconsidered safe for healthy and it does not pollute the environment so that it can be veryimportant for particular industries such as pharmaceutical, animal feeding, cosmetic, andespecially food industry. This study is aiming at obtaining optimum basic formulation ofthickening agent (LiOH that can produce qualified food grade grease. It is a kind of factorialexperimental study by using complete random sampling. Based on Fisher test, the treatmentshows a different result significantly. Then, it is continued by conducting Duncan’s MultipleRange Test (DMRT. 2% of activated charcoal is the best treatment because it results FFAscore, lower water content, and the bright yellow color that is shown by the score of 5.48%,0.0498 %, and 3 % that successively obtained. The treatment on thickening agent (LiOH(P1 and the revious one (L1 are the best treatment which produce qualified food gradegrease, corrosion resistance value 12.0, dropping point 130C, lubricating texture value 1,pH value 9.45, water content 0.19%, and ash content value 0.76%.

  17. Optimization of municipal sludge and grease co-digestion using disintegration technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchy, L; Pérez, A; Camacho, P; Rubio, P; Silvestre, G; Fernández, B; Cano, R; Polanco, M; Díaz, N

    2012-01-01

    Many drivers tend to foster the development of renewable energy production in wastewater treatment plants as many expectations rely upon energy recovery from sewage sludge, for example through biogas use. This paper is focused on the assessment of grease waste (GW) as an adequate substrate for co-digestion with municipal sludge, as it has a methane potential of 479-710 LCH(4)/kg VS, as well as the evaluation of disintegration technologies as a method to optimize the co-digestion process. With this objective three different pre-treatments have been selected for evaluation: thermal hydrolysis, ultrasound and enzymatic treatment. Results have shown that co-digestion processes without pre-treatment had a maximum increment of 128% of the volumetric methane productivity when GW addition was 23% inlet (at 20 days of HRT and with an OLR of 3.0 kg COD/m(3)d), compared with conventional digestion of sewage sludge alone. Concerning the application of the selected disintegration technologies, all pre-treatments showed improvements in terms of methane yield (51.8, 89.5 and 57.6% more for thermal hydrolysis, ultrasound and enzymatic treatment, respectively, compared with non-pretreated wastes), thermal hydrolysis of GW and secondary sludge being the best configuration as it improved the solubilization of the organic matter and the hydrodynamic characteristics of digestates.

  18. Development and implementation of a propeller test capability for GL-10 "Greased Lightning" propeller design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvall, Brian Edward

    Interest in small unmanned aerial vehicles has increased dramatically in recent years. Hybrid vehicles which allow forward flight as a fixed wing aircraft and a true vertical landing capability have always had applications. Management of the available energy and noise associated with electric propeller propulsion systems presents many challenges. NASA Langley has developed the Greased Lightning 10 (GL-10) vertical takeoff, unmanned aerial vehicle with ten individual motors and propellers. All are used for propulsion during takeoff and contribute to acoustic noise pollution which is an identified nuisance to the surrounding users. A propeller test capability was developed to gain an understanding of how the noise can be reduced while meeting minimum thrust requirements. The designed propeller test stand allowed for various commercially available propellers to be tested for potential direct replacement of the current GL-10 propellers and also supported testing of a newly designed propeller provided by the Georgia Institute of Technology. Results from the test program provided insight as to which factors affect the noise as well as performance characteristics. The outcome of the research effort showed that the current GL-10 propeller still represents the best choice of all the candidate propellers tested.

  19. Isolation of Bacterial Strain for Biodegradation of Fats, Oil and Grease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkhatib, M.F.; Mohd Zahangir Alam; Shabana, H.F.M.

    2015-01-01

    Fat, oil and grease (FOG) deposition is one of the major problems that harm the environment and cause dissatisfaction for human. Uncontrolled and un-pre-treated FOG removal from the kitchen could lead to its accumulation in the piping system. Problems include the interference of fat with the aerobic microorganisms that are responsible in treating the wastewater by reducing oxygen transfer rates and for anaerobic microorganisms; their efficiency could also be reduced due to the reduction of the transport of soluble substrates to the bacterial biomass. Biodegradation could be one of the effective means to treat FOG. The main objective of this study is to isolate bacterial strains from the FOG waste and identify the strains that are capable in biodegrading FOG waste. FOG sample was collected from a sewer manhole. Enrichment technique was applied, followed by isolation of bacterial strains to determine which strain is able to degrade the FOG deposition. Some morphology for the bacterial strain was done to determine its characteristics. (author)

  20. Sand or grease? Corruption-institutional trust nexus in post-Soviet countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazim Habibov

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically tests several hypotheses about the nexus of corruption-institutional trust in Post-Soviet transitional countries of the former Soviet Union and Mongolia. We use two different indices of institutional trust to check the robustness of our analysis and estimate OLS and instrumental variable models with and without interaction terms. All things considered, our findings reject “greases the wheels” and “trust begets an honest political system” hypotheses. Instead, our findings support the “sand the wheels” hypothesis. Furthermore, a multiplicative interaction model suggests that the negative marginal effects of experienced corruption are higher in the environments where satisfaction with services is low. In addition, we found that increases in corruption erode trust at all levels of the societal institutions including political parties, government and financial institutions, international investors, non-profit organizations, and trade unions. This finding is important since it highlights the negative consequences of corruption on the development of broader level economic institutions and on civil society.

  1. Analysis of grease contamination influence on the internal radial clearance of ball bearings by thermographic inspection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mišković Žarko Z.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important factors influencing ball bearings service life is its internal radial clearance. However, this parameter is also very complex because it depends on applied radial load and ball bearings dimensions, surface finish and manufacturing materials. Thermal condition of ball bearings also significantly affects internal radial clearance. Despite many researches performed in order to find out relevant facts about different aspects of ball bearings thermal behaviour, only few of them are dealing with the real working conditions, where high concentration of solid contaminant particles is present. That’s why the main goal of research presented in this paper was to establish statistically significant correlation between ball bearings temperatures, their working time and concentration of contaminant particles in their grease. Because of especially difficult working conditions, the typical conveyor idlers bearings were selected as representative test samples and appropriate solid particles from open pit coal mines were used as artificial contaminants. Applied experimental methodology included thermographic inspection, as well as usage of custom designed test rig for ball bearings service life testing. Finally, by obtained experimental data processing in advanced software, statistically significant mathematical correlation between mentioned bearings characteristics was determined and applied in commonly used internal radial clearance equation. That is the most important contribution of performed research - the new equation and methodology for ball bearings internal clearance determination which could be used for eventual improvement of existing bearings service life equations. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR35029 i br. TR14033

  2. Evaluation of physical and chemical properties and their interactions in fat, oil, and grease (FOG) deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Martin A; Jensen, Jeanette L; Gracz, Hanna S; Dancer, Jens; Keener, Kevin M

    2017-10-15

    Fat, oil and grease (FOG) blockages in sewer systems are a substantial problem in the United States. It has been estimated that over 50% of sewer overflows are a result of FOG blockages. In this work, a thorough laboratory study was undertaken to examine key variables that contribute to FOG deposit formation under controlled conditions. Physical and chemical properties and their interactions were evaluated and conditions that generated deposits that mimicked field FOG deposits were identified. It was found that 96 of the of 128 reaction conditions tested in the laboratory formed FOG deposits with similar physical and chemical characteristics as field FOG deposits. It was also found that FOG deposits can be created through fatty acid crystallization and not just saponification. Furthermore FOG deposits were found to be more complex than previously documented and contain free fatty acids, fatty acid metal salts, triacylglycerol's, diacylglycerol's and, monoacylglycerol's. Lastly it was found that FOG deposits that only contained saturated fatty acids were on average 2.1 times higher yield strength than deposits that contained unsaturated fatty acids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Mechanisms of fat, oil and grease (FOG) deposit formation in sewer lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xia; de los Reyes, Francis L; Leming, Michael L; Dean, Lisa O; Lappi, Simon E; Ducoste, Joel J

    2013-09-01

    FOG deposits in sewer systems have recently been shown to be metallic salts of fatty acids. However, the fate and transport of FOG deposit reactant constituents and the complex interactions during the FOG deposit formation process are still largely unknown. In this study, batch tests were performed to elucidate the mechanisms of FOG deposit formation that lead to sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs). We report the first formation of FOG deposits on a concrete surface under laboratory conditions that mimic the formation of deposits in sewer systems. Results showed that calcium, the dominant metal in FOG deposits, can be released from concrete surfaces under low pH conditions and contribute to the formation process. Small amounts of additional oil to grease interceptor effluent substantially facilitated the air/water or pipe surface/water interfacial reaction between free fatty acids and calcium to produce surface FOG deposits. Tests of different fatty acids revealed that more viscous FOG deposit solids were formed on concrete surfaces, and concrete corrosion was accelerated, in the presence of unsaturated FFAs versus saturated FFAs. Based on all the data, a comprehensive model was proposed for the mechanisms of FOG deposit formation in sewer systems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Evidence for fat, oil, and grease (FOG) deposit formation mechanisms in sewer lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xia; Iasmin, Mahbuba; Dean, Lisa O; Lappi, Simon E; Ducoste, Joel J; de los Reyes, Francis L

    2011-05-15

    The presence of hardened and insoluble fats, oil, and grease (FOG) deposits in sewer lines is a major cause of line blockages leading to sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs). Despite the central role that FOG deposits play in SSOs, little is known about the mechanisms of FOG deposit formation in sanitary sewers. In this study, FOG deposits were formed under laboratory conditions from the reaction between free fatty acids and calcium chloride. The calcium and fatty acid profile analysis showed that the laboratory-produced FOG deposit displayed similar characteristics to FOG deposits collected from sanitary sewer lines. Results of FTIR analysis showed that the FOG deposits are metallic salts of fatty acid as revealed by comparisons with FOG deposits collected from sewer lines and pure calcium soaps. Based on the data, we propose that the formation of FOG deposits occurs from the aggregation of excess calcium compressing the double layer of free fatty acid micelles and a saponification reaction between aggregated calcium and free fatty acids.

  5. Statistical modelling of Fat, Oil and Grease (FOG) deposits in wastewater pump sumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuis, Eva; Post, Johan; Duinmeijer, Alex; Langeveld, Jeroen; Clemens, François

    2018-05-15

    The accumulation of FOG (Fat, Oil and Grease) deposits in sewer pumping stations results in an increase in maintenance costs, malfunctioning of pumps and, a potential increase of wastewater spills in receiving open water bodies. It is thought that a variety of parameters (e.g. geometry of the pump sump, pump operation, socioeconomic parameters of the catchment) influences the built-up of FOG. Based on a database containing data of 126 pumping stations located in five Dutch municipalities a statistical model was built. It is shown that 3 parameters are most significant in explaining the occurrence of FOG deposits: mean income of the population in a catchment, the amount of energy (kinetic and potential) per m 3 per day and the density of restaurants, bars and hotels in a catchment. Further it is shown that there are significant differences between municipalities that can be traced back to the local 'design paradigm'. For example, in Amsterdam, the design philosophy of discharging in the pump sump under the water surface (and hence maintaining a low level of turbulence in the pump sump) results in an increase of the probability of the formation of FOG. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparism of Various Staining Techniques in the Diagnosis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SITWALA COMPUTERS

    external intermediate host, usually an animal, in which sporogenesis and oocyst ... the parasite was detected in 111 of the samples stained,. 100(90.0%) of which .... screen stained slide was the auramine fluorochrome stain. The widely used ...

  7. Pleural and Pulmonary Staining at Inferior Phrenic Arteriography Mimicking a Tumor Staining of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Deok Hee; Hwang, Jae Cheol; Lim, Soo Mee; Yoon, Hyun-Ki; Sung, Kyu-Bo; Song, Ho-Young

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the findings of pleural and pulmonary staining of the inferior phrenic artery, which can be confused with tumor staining during transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) of hepatoma.Methods: Fifteen patients who showed pleural and pulmonary staining without relationship to hepatic masses at inferior phrenic arteriography were enrolled. The staining was noted at initial TACE (n = 8), at successive TACE (n = 5), and after hepatic surgery (n = 2). The angiographic pattern, the presence of pleural change on computed tomography (CT), and clinical history were evaluated.Results: Draining pulmonary veins were seen in all cases. The lower margin of the staining corresponded to the lower margin of the pleura in 10 patients. CT showed pleural and/or pulmonary abnormalities in all cases. After embolization of the inferior phrenic artery, the accumulation of iodized oil in the lung was noted.Conclusion: Understanding the CT and angiographic findings of pleural and pulmonary staining during TACE may help differentiate benign staining from tumor staining

  8. Short Nissl staining for incubated cryostat sections of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindroos, O F

    1991-01-01

    Nissl stain often binds poorly to cryostat sections which have been incubated in solutions of radiolabeled ligands. Such incubation is used in receptor autoradiography of the brain when using the in vitro method. We have developed a rapid (16 min) modification of Nissl staining for sections that bind stain poorly, e.g., incubated sections. The method stains well sections which cannot be stained with other rapid Nissl staining methods.

  9. A comparative assessment of commonly employed staining ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Following an increase in the number of reports of Cryptosporidium infections and the problems encountered in detecting these organisms in faecal smears, a comparative assessment of a modification of the Sheather's flotation technique and other commonly employed staining procedures proved the modified Sheather's ...

  10. Photoacoustic imaging of port-wine stains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolkman, Roy G. M.; Mulder, Miranda J.; Glade, Conrad P.; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; van Leeuwen, Ton G.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To optimize laser therapy of port-wine stains (PWSs), information about the vasculature as well as lesion depth is valuable. In this study we investigated the use of photoacoustic imaging (PAI) to obtain this information. STUDY DESIGN/MATERIALS AND METHODS: PAI uses pulsed

  11. Photoacoustic Imaging of Port-Wine Stains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolkman, R.G.M.; Mulder, M.J.; Mulder, Miranda J.; Glade, Conrad P.; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; van Leeuwen, Ton

    2008-01-01

    Background and Objective: To optimize laser therapy of port-wine stains (PWSs), information about the vasculature as well as lesion depth is valuable. In this study we investigated the use of photoacoustic imaging (PAI) to obtain this information. - Study Design/Materials and Methods: PAI uses

  12. A novel, modernized Golgi-Cox stain optimized for CLARITY cleared tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Mustafa S; Fok, Sandra Y Y; Smith, Kristie L; Kuligowski, Michael; Balleine, Bernard W

    2018-01-15

    High resolution neuronal information is extraordinarily useful in understanding the brain's functionality. The development of the Golgi-Cox stain allowed observation of the neuron in its entirety with unrivalled detail. Tissue clearing techniques, e.g., CLARITY and CUBIC, provide the potential to observe entire neuronal circuits intact within tissue and without previous restrictions with regard to section thickness. Here we describe an improved Golgi-Cox stain method, optimised for use with CLARITY and CUBIC that can be used in both fresh and fixed tissue. Using this method, we were able to observe neurons in their entirety within a fraction of the time traditionally taken to clear tissue (48h). We were also able to show for the first-time that Golgi stained tissue is fluorescent when visualized using a multi-photon microscope, allowing us to image synaptic spines with a detail previously unachievable. These novel methods provide cheap and easy to use techniques to investigate the morphology of cellular processes in the brain at a new-found depth, speed, utility and detail, without previous restrictions of time, tissue type and section thickness. This is the first application of a Golgi-Cox stain to cleared brain tissue, it is investigated and discussed in detail, describing different methodologies that may be used, a comparison between the different clearing techniques and lastly the novel interaction of these techniques with this ultra-rapid stain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The effect of corrosion on stained glass windows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laissner, Johanna

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Stained glass windows belong to the most important cultural heritage of Europe. Within the last decades a disastrous deterioration took place. The wonderful stained glass windows and their glass paintings as pieces of art are acutely menaced by environmental corrosive influences. This corrosion process is a very complex reaction which is not only influenced by temperature and humidity changes but also by gaseous pollutants like sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides or ozone, by dust and air, microorganisms as well as synergetic interactions. Strongly affected by these environmental attacks are medieval stained glasses due to their chemical composition. They have a low content in silica and high contents of modifier ions (e.g. potassium and calcium. The corrosion phenomena can range from predominantly pitting on the surface to the formation of thick corrosion crusts which are turning the panel opaque and thus reducing strongly the transparency of the windows. In order to set up a conservation and restoration concept, it is necessary to know about the environmental conditions to which the stained glass windows are exposed. For this purpose very corrosion sensitive model glasses (so called glass sensors were developed which have a similar chemical composition as historic stained glasses. They exhibit the same corrosion reactions but react much faster, and are now widely used to estimate corrosive stresses on stained glass windows to give basic information about the corrosive impacts which work on the historic glasses. In this paper principle corrosion mechanisms of stained glass windows and their enhancing factors are discussed. For the evaluation of the environmental impact, the application of glass sensors is demonstrated.

    Las vidrieras coloreadas pertenecen al legado cultural más importante de Europa. En las últimas décadas se ha producido en ellas un desastroso deterioro. Las maravillosas vidrieras coloreadas y sus policromías est

  14. Fat, oil and grease deposits in sewers: characterisation of deposits and formation mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J B; Clarkson, C; Mant, C; Drinkwater, A; May, E

    2012-12-01

    Fat, oil and grease deposits (FOG) in sewers are a major problem and can cause sewer overflows, resulting in environmental damage and health risks. Often simplistically portrayed as cooling of fats, recent research has suggested that saponification may be involved in FOG formation. However there are still questions about the mechanisms effecting transformations in sewers and the role and source of metal cations involved in saponification. This study characterises FOG deposits from pumping stations, sewers and sewage works from different water hardness zones across the UK. The sites all had previous problems with FOG and most catchments contained catering and food preparation establishments. The FOG deposits were highly variable with moisture content ranging from 15 to 95% and oil content from 0 to 548 mg/g. Generally the pumping stations had lower moisture content and higher fat content, followed by the sewers then the sewage works. The water in contact with the FOG had high levels of oil (mean of about 800 mg/L) and this may indicate poor kitchen FOG management practices. FOG fatty acid profiles showed a transformation from unsaturated to saturated forms compared to typical cooking oils. This seems to relate to ageing in the sewer network or the mechanism of formation, as samples from pumping stations had higher proportions of C18:1 compared to C16. This may be due to microbial transformations by bacteria such as Clostridium sp. in a similar process to adipocere formation. There was an association between water hardness and increased Ca levels in FOG along with harder deposits and higher melting points. A link between FOG properties and water hardness has not been previously reported for field samples. This may also be due to microbial processes, such as biocalcification. By developing the understanding of these mechanisms it may be possible to more effectively control FOG deposits, especially when combined with promotion of behavioural change. Copyright © 2012

  15. Research of influence of mobile cathodic stains of the vacuum arc for reception of the adjustable roughness of metal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anikeev, V. N.; Dokukin, M. Yu

    2017-05-01

    In the modern technics there is a requirement in micro- and macrorough surfaces of products for improvement of their operational characteristics (improvement of adhesive properties of various coverings, decrease in deterioration of rubbing details because of the best deduction of greasing, increase of the heat exchanging coefficient from a surface, stimulation of adhesive processes on sites of contact to a bone fabric of medical implants in stomatology and orthopedy etc.). In the given work the modes of reception regulated micro- and macrorough surfaces on samples from a titanic alloy and stainless steel by electrothermal influence of moving cathodic stains in the vacuum arc discharge are investigated. Chaotically moving stains, possessing high specific power allocation (∼ 107 W/cm2), “scan” the difficult design of a product, including “shadow” sites, doing rough its blanket. The sizes of roughnesses are regulated by a current and time of influence of the discharge, pressure in the vacuum chamber and a number of other parameters. The scheme of experimental device, photo and the characteristic of rough surfaces and technological modes of their reception are resulted.

  16. Laser Treatment of Port Wine Stains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majaron, Boris; Nelson, J. Stuart

    Port wine stain (PWS), also called nevus flammeus, is a congenital, cutaneous vascular malformation involving post-capillary venules which produce a light pink to red to dark-red-violet discoloration of human skin [1]. PWS occurs in an estimated 3 children per 1000 live births, affecting males and females and all racial groups equally [2]. There appears to be no hereditary predilection for PWS within families. There are no known risk factors or ways to prevent PWS.

  17. Stain Deconvolution Using Statistical Analysis of Multi-Resolution Stain Colour Representation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najah Alsubaie

    Full Text Available Stain colour estimation is a prominent factor of the analysis pipeline in most of histology image processing algorithms. Providing a reliable and efficient stain colour deconvolution approach is fundamental for robust algorithm. In this paper, we propose a novel method for stain colour deconvolution of histology images. This approach statistically analyses the multi-resolutional representation of the image to separate the independent observations out of the correlated ones. We then estimate the stain mixing matrix using filtered uncorrelated data. We conducted an extensive set of experiments to compare the proposed method to the recent state of the art methods and demonstrate the robustness of this approach using three different datasets of scanned slides, prepared in different labs using different scanners.

  18. Investigation of black soot staining in houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fugler, D. [Canada Mortgage and Housing Corp., Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    Air quality investigators are frequently called upon to determine the origin of streaking, staining or soot marks in both new and old homes. Those marks display common characteristics: black marks along baseboards at interior or exterior walls, behind furniture and at doorways; black smudges on window frames and plastic cabinets; and even shadowing of studs on exterior wall drywall in a few cases. In most instances, carbon soot from a combustion source is the culprit. The combustion sources include furnaces, water heaters, fireplaces, gas dryers, gas ranges, smoking, vehicle exhaust and candle burning. Scepticism about candle soot is prevalent among callers. As a result, a study was initiated in homes where occupants burn candles regularly to investigate soot problems. Samples were collected from five homes, and included stained carpets, filters, and swab samples of black dust or soot. All the houses selected for the study had been built within a three-year period. Some samples of candles commonly burned in those homes were burnt in a laboratory. Air quality audits had been performed in the homes and had revealed other potential pollutant sources. Best practices for cost-effective clean up and control of soot were researched in industry information. The tests conducted in the laboratory found materials consistent with candle soot or residue during microscopic investigations, but no link was established with the stained material obtained from the homes. A few tips for homeowners were included concerning candle burning, and tips for builders were also offered. 1 tab.

  19. Effect of bacterial lipase on anaerobic co-digestion of slaughterhouse wastewater and grease in batch condition and continuous fixed-bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affes, Maha; Aloui, Fathi; Hadrich, Fatma; Loukil, Slim; Sayadi, Sami

    2017-10-10

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of bacterial lipase on biogas production of anaerobic co-digestion of slaughterhouse wastewater (SHWW) and hydrolyzed grease (HG). A neutrophilic Staphylococcus xylosus strain exhibiting lipolytic activity was used to perform microbial hydrolysis pretreatment of poultry slaughterhouse lipid rich waste. Optimum proportion of hydrolyzed grease was evaluated by determining biochemical methane potential. A high biogas production was observed in batch containing a mixture of slaughterhouse composed of 75% SHWW and 25% hydrolyzed grease leading to a biogas yield of 0.6 L/g COD introduced. Fixed bed reactor (FBR) results confirmed that the proportion of 25% of hydrolyzed grease gives the optimum condition for the digester performance. Biogas production was significantly high until an organic loading rate (OLR) of 2 g COD/L. d. This study indicates that the use of biological pre-treatment and FBR for the co-digestion of SHWW and hydrolyzed grease is feasible and effective.

  20. Oil and grease (O&G) removal from commercial kitchen waste water using carbonised grass as a key media

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmat Siti Nazahiyah; Mohd Ali Ahmad Zurisman; Wan Ibrahim Mohd Haziman; Alias Nur Azrena

    2017-01-01

    Oil and grease (O&G) are usually found in kitchen waste water. O&G are poorly soluble in water and can cause serious problems during the wastewater treatment. Adsorption is a fundamental process in the treatment of kitchen waste water and very economical. Activated carbon is the most effective adsorbent for this application. Therefore, the aim of the current study is to determine the potential of four materials (i.e. sand, gravel, carbonised grass (CG) and clay powder) as filter media for O&G...

  1. The comparison of pyrosequencing molecular Gram stain, culture, and conventional Gram stain for diagnosing orthopaedic infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Naomi; Bauer, Thomas W; Tuohy, Marion J; Lieberman, Isador H; Krebs, Viktor; Togawa, Daisuke; Fujishiro, Takaaki; Procop, Gary W

    2006-08-01

    We have developed a combined real-time PCR and pyrosequencing assay that successfully differentiated the vast majority of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria when bacterial isolates were tested. The purpose of this study was to evaluate this assay on clinical specimens obtained from orthopedic surgeries, and to prospectively compare the results of "molecular Gram stain" with culture and conventional direct Gram stain. Forty-five surgical specimens were obtained from patients who underwent orthopedic surgery procedures. The DNA was extracted and a set of broad-range PCR primers that targeted a part of the 16S rDNA gene was used for pan-bacterial PCR. The amplicons were submitted for pyrosequencing and the resulting molecular Gram stain characteristics were recorded. Culture and direct Gram staining were performed using standard methods for all cases. Surgical specimens were reviewed histologically for all cases that had a discrepancy between culture and molecular results. There was an 86.7% (39/45) agreement between the traditional and molecular methods. In 12/14 (85.7%) culture-proven cases of bacterial infection, molecular Gram stain characteristics were in agreement with the culture results, while the conventional Gram stain result was in agreement only for five cases (35.7%). In the 31 culture negative cases, 27 cases were also PCR negative, whereas 4 were PCR positive. Three of these were characterized as gram negative and one as gram positive by this molecular method. Molecular determination of the Gram stain characteristics of bacteria that cause orthopedic infections may be achieved, in most instances, by this method. Further studies are necessary to understand the clinical importance of PCR-positive/culture-negative results.

  2. Histological Stains: A Literature Review and Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alturkistani, Hani A; Tashkandi, Faris M; Mohammedsaleh, Zuhair M

    2015-06-25

    The history of histology indicates that there have been significant changes in the techniques used for histological staining through chemical, molecular biology assays and immunological techniques, collectively referred to as histochemistry. Early histologists used the readily available chemicals to prepare tissues for microscopic studies; these laboratory chemicals were potassium dichromate, alcohol and the mercuric chloride to harden cellular tissues. Staining techniques used were carmine, silver nitrate, Giemsa, Trichrome Stains, Gram Stain and Hematoxylin among others. The purpose of this research was to assess past and current literature reviews, as well as case studies, with the aim of informing ways in which histological stains have been improved in the modern age. Results from the literature review has indicated that there has been an improvement in histopathology and histotechnology in stains used. There has been a rising need for efficient, accurate and less complex staining procedures. Many stain procedures are still in use today, and many others have been replaced with new immunostaining, molecular, non-culture and other advanced staining techniques. Some staining methods have been abandoned because the chemicals required have been medically proven to be toxic. The case studies indicated that in modern histology a combination of different stain techniques are used to enhance the effectiveness of the staining process. Currently, improved histological stains, have been modified and combined with other stains to improve their effectiveness.

  3. Wastewater transformations and fertilizer value when co-digesting differing ratios of swine manure and used cooking grease in low-cost digesters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lansing, Stephanie [Department of Environmental Science and Technology, University of Maryland, 1445 Animal Sci./Ag. Eng. Bldg., College Park, MD 20742-2315 (United States); Martin, Jay F. [Department of Food, Agricultural, and Biological Engineering, The Ohio State University, 590 Woody Hayes Drive, Columbus, OH 43210-1057 (United States); Botero, Raul Botero; Nogueira da Silva, Tatiana; Dias da Silva, Ederson [EARTH University, Apartado Postal 4442 - 1000, San Jose (Costa Rica)

    2010-12-15

    A nine-month co-digestion investigation was conducted in Costa Rica to optimize animal wastewater treatment, renewable energy production, and fertilizer creation using 12 Taiwanese-model, plug-flow digesters (250 L each) constructed of tubular polyethylene and PVC piping, operating without mechanical or heating components. The experiment tested three replications of four treatment groups: the control (T0), which contained only swine manure, and T2.5, T5, and T10, which contained 2.5%, 5%, and 10% used cooking grease (by volume) combined with swine manure. T2.5 had the greatest methane production (45 L d{sup -1}), a 124% increase from the control. No adverse effects were observed from co-digesting 2.5% grease in terms of organic matter removal, pathogen reduction, grease removal, and pH. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) was reduced 94.7% to 1.96 g L{sup -1}, fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli were reduced 99.2 and 97.1%, respectively, and grease removal was 99.9%. The average effluent pH (7.05) and alkalinity in T2.5 was within the optimal range for methanogens and increased significantly during the nine-month experiment, likely due to adaptation of the methanogenic organisms to the influent grease concentrations. Total nitrogen concentration decreased 34.0%, and NH{sub 4}-N increased 97.1% during digestion in T2.5, with no significant differences between T2.5 and T0. There was less phosphorus reduction with co-digestion, with 181 mg g{sup -1} of total phosphorus (TP) in T2.5 and only 90.6 mg g{sup -1} of TP in T0, resulting in lower N:P ratios in the grease treatment groups due to the greater concentration of phosphorus in the effluent. (author)

  4. Semi-continuous anaerobic co-digestion of thickened waste activated sludge and fat, oil and grease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Caixia; Zhou Quancheng; Fu Guiming; Li Yebo

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Co-digestion of thickened waste activated sludge (TWAS) with fat, oil and grease (FOG). → Co-digestion of TWAS and FOG at 64% VS increased biogas production by 137%. → FOG addition ratio at 74% of total VS caused inhibition of the anaerobic digestion process. → Micronutrients addition did not significantly improve the biogas production and digestion stabilization. - Abstract: Co-digestion of thickened waste activated sludge (TWAS) and fat, oil and grease (FOG) was conducted semi-continuously under mesophilic conditions. The results showed that daily methane yield at the steady state was 598 L/kg VS added when TWAS and FOG (64% of total VS) were co-digested, which was 137% higher than that obtained from digestion of TWAS alone. The biogas composition was stabilized at a CH 4 and CO 2 content of 66.8% and 29.5%, respectively. Micronutrients added to co-digestion did not improve the biogas production and digestion stabilization. With a higher addition of FOG (74% of total VS), the digester initially failed but was slowly self-recovered; however, the methane yield was only about 50% of a healthy reactor with the same organic loading rate.

  5. Green diesel production via catalytic hydrogenation/decarboxylation of triglycerides and fatty acids of vegetable oil and brown grease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Elvan

    Increase in the petroleum prices, projected increases in the world's energy demand and environmental awareness have shifted the research interest to the alternative fuel technologies. In particular, green diesel, vegetable oil/animal fat/waste oil and grease derived hydrocarbons in diesel boiling range, has become an attractive alternative to biodiesel---a mixture of fatty acid methyl esters, particularly due to its superior fuel properties that are similar to petroleum diesel. Hence, green diesel can be used as a drop-in fuel in the current diesel engines. The current technology for production of green diesel-hydrodeoxygenation of triglycerides and fatty acids over conventional hydrotreating catalysts suffers from fast catalyst deactivation in the absence of hydrogen combined with high temperatures and high fatty acid content in the feedstock. Additionally, excess hydrogen requirement for hydrodeoxygenation technique leads to high production costs. This thesis proposes a new technology-selective decarboxylation of brown grease, which is a mixture of fats and oils collected from waste water trap and rich in fatty acids, over a supported noble metal catalyst that overcomes the green diesel production challenges. In contrast to other feedstocks used for liquid biofuel production, brown grease is inexpensive and non-food competing feedstock, therefore the process finds solution to waste management issues, reduces the renewable fuel production cost and does not add to the global food shortage problems. Special catalyst formulations were developed to have a high activity and stability in the absence of hydrogen in the fatty acid decarboxylation process. The study shows how catalyst innovations can lead to a new technology that overcomes the process challenges. First, the effect of reaction parameters on the activity and the selectivity of brown grease decarboxylation with minimum hydrogen consumption over an activated carbon supported palladium catalyst were

  6. Weathering effects on materials from historical stained glass windows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Heras, M.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A selection of materials (stained glasses, lead cames, support elements and putty from historical stained glass windows of different periods (13th-19th centuries have been studied. Optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and X-ray diffraction were used as characterization techniques. Degradation of historical stained glass windows is due to the particular chemical composition oftlie materials used for their production: stained glasses, lead network, metallic support elements and refilling putty. However, the presence of a given chemical composition is not the only factor involved in the degradation process. It is necessary the occurrence of other external factors that contribute to the development and progress of alteration problems in the materials mentioned above. The presence of gaseous pollution in the air produces a negative interaction with the surface of the stained glass windows materials. Firstly, the stained glasses and the grisailles begin a dealkalinisation process and a silica gel layer is formed during the early contact between the glasses and the wet environment. After that, insoluble salt deposits and corrosion crusts are formed as a consequence of a deeper chemical attack which results in a depolymerisation of the glass network. The lead cames and the metallic support elements are also altered by weathering. Such materials are oxidized and both pits and crusts appear on their surfaces. The transport of ions and other substances from the corrosion crusts of the metallic elements gives rise new deposits upon the stained glasses, which could intensify their own degradation processes. The putty experiments a noticeable shrinkage and cracking. Likewise, adverse environmental conditions favour the transport of putty substances towards the other materials of the stained glass window, thereby increasing the crusts thickness and adding elements that contribute to the total alteration of the

  7. Surface discoloration of composite resins: Effects of staining and bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggio, Claudio; Beltrami, Riccardo; Scribante, Andrea; Colombo, Marco; Chiesa, Marco

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate surface discoloration of three microhybrid composite resins (Esthet•X HD, Clearfil AP-X, Gradia Direct) and five nanohybrid composite resins (Ceram•X, GC Kalore, G-aenial, Grandio, GrandioSO), after staining and bleaching procedures. The composite resins were polymerized with a curing light (Celalux II, Voco, Cuxhaven, Germany) into 160 silicon molds (6,4 mm in diameter and 2 mm in thickness) to obtain identical specimens. Twenty samples for each composite resin were prepared. The specimens were polished using an automated polishing machine with the sequence of 600-, 800-, 1000-grit abrasive paper under water irrigation. The specimens were immersed in tea and distilled water: the specimens were dipped for 20 min, once a day (every 24 h), for 14 days into the drinks. The specimens were then bleached with carbamide peroxide at 17% (Perfect Bleach-Voco). The color of specimens was measured with a spectrophotometer according to the CIE L(*)a(*)b(*) system after light-polymerization of composite resin specimens, after 7 days, after 14 days, and after bleaching. The color difference h index (DEab(*)) between each measurement was calculated. Statistical analysis was made using analysis of variance (ANOVA). All specimens showed a significant increase in staining with a similar trend and no significant differences between microhybrid and nanohybrid composite resins. After whitening procedures, materials tested showed both significant and unsignificant differences of the h index. Microhybrid and nanohybrid composite resins had similar in vitro surface discoloration in tea. After bleaching, discoloration was removed from some composite resins tested.

  8. Optimal iodine staining of cardiac tissue for X-ray computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butters, Timothy D; Castro, Simon J; Lowe, Tristan; Zhang, Yanmin; Lei, Ming; Withers, Philip J; Zhang, Henggui

    2014-01-01

    X-ray computed tomography (XCT) has been shown to be an effective imaging technique for a variety of materials. Due to the relatively low differential attenuation of X-rays in biological tissue, a high density contrast agent is often required to obtain optimal contrast. The contrast agent, iodine potassium iodide ([Formula: see text]), has been used in several biological studies to augment the use of XCT scanning. Recently I2KI was used in XCT scans of animal hearts to study cardiac structure and to generate 3D anatomical computer models. However, to date there has been no thorough study into the optimal use of I2KI as a contrast agent in cardiac muscle with respect to the staining times required, which has been shown to impact significantly upon the quality of results. In this study we address this issue by systematically scanning samples at various stages of the staining process. To achieve this, mouse hearts were stained for up to 58 hours and scanned at regular intervals of 6-7 hours throughout this process. Optimal staining was found to depend upon the thickness of the tissue; a simple empirical exponential relationship was derived to allow calculation of the required staining time for cardiac samples of an arbitrary size.

  9. Port wine stain on a child's face (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Port wine stains are always present at birth. In an infant, they are flat, pink, vascular lesions. Common locations ... may be present anywhere on the body. Port wine stains may appear in association with other syndromes.

  10. Modified Genta triple stain for identifying Helicobacter pylori.

    OpenAIRE

    el-Zimaity, H M; Wu, J; Graham, D Y

    1999-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate whether lead nitrate could replace uranyl nitrate in the Genta stain for H pylori without sacrificing the advantages of the triple stain (Steiner silver impregnation combined with Alcian blue and haematoxylin/eosin (H&E)). METHODS: A comparison was made in 16 specimens between the original triple stain and the revised version. One pathologist evaluated all sections. RESULTS: Direct substitution of lead nitrate for uranium nitrate produced well stained organisms without interf...

  11. Utility of Modified Ultrafast Papanicolaou Stain in Cytological Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinkar, Prachi; Arakeri, Surekha Ulhas

    2017-03-01

    Need for minimal turnaround time for assessing Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) has encouraged innovations in staining techniques that require lesser staining time with unequivocal cell morphology. The standard protocol for conventional Papanicolaou (PAP) stain requires about 40 minutes. To overcome this, Ultrafast Papanicolaou (UFP) stain was introduced which reduces staining time to 90 seconds and also enhances the quality. However, reagents required for this were not easily available hence, Modified Ultrafast Papanicolaou (MUFP) stain was introduced subsequently. To assess the efficacy of MUFP staining by comparing the quality of MUFP stain with conventional PAP stain. FNAC procedure was performed by using 10 ml disposable syringe and 22-23 G needle. Total 131 FNAC cases were studied which were lymph node (30), thyroid (38), breast (22), skin and soft tissue (24), salivary gland (11) and visceral organs (6). Two smears were prepared and stained by MUFP and conventional PAP stain. Scores were given on four parameters: background of smears, overall staining pattern, cell morphology and nuclear staining. Quality Index (QI) was calculated from ratio of total score achieved to maximum score possible. Statistical analysis using chi square test was applied to each of the four parameters before obtaining the QI in both stains. Students t-test was applied to evaluate the efficacy of MUFP in comparison with conventional PAP stain. The QI of MUFP for thyroid, breast, lymph node, skin and soft tissue, salivary gland and visceral organs was 0.89, 0.85, 0.89, 0.83, 0.92, and 0.78 respectively. Compared to conventional PAP stain QI of MUFP smears was better in all except visceral organ cases and was statistically significant. MUFP showed clear red blood cell background, transparent cytoplasm and crisp nuclear features. MUFP is fast, reliable and can be done with locally available reagents with unequivocal morphology which is the need of the hour for a cytopathology set-up.

  12. Discriminative staining methods for the nervous system: luxol fast blue--periodic acid-Schiff--hematoxylin triple stain and subsidiary staining methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, N

    1987-09-01

    This paper describes a new series of staining methods which can discriminatively demonstrate every structure of the nervous system, including axons and capillaries, in animal and human materials. Methods described in this paper consist of one primary stain, luxol fast blue-periodic acid Schiff-hematoxylin (LPH) and six different subsidiary staining methods. The LPH triple stain can precisely differentiate the following structures: neurons (Nissl bodies, cytoplasm, nuclear membrane and nucleolus), various kinds of nuclei (glia, ependyma, endothelium, leucocyte, connective tissue, etc.), myelin sheaths, neuronal processes (axons and dendrites), reacted glial cell bodies (protoplasmic astrocytes, foamy cells, etc.), blood vessels (arteries, veins and capillaries), meninges, intervening connective tissue, erythrocytes, lipofuscin granules, amyloid bodies, and others. Subsidiary staining methods are also described briefly. Applications are discussed in the context of staining technology and neuromorphological research.

  13. 7 CFR 28.442 - Middling Yellow Stained Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Middling Yellow Stained Color. 28.442 Section 28.442... Stained Color. Middling Yellow Stained Color is American Upland cotton which in color is deeper than Middling Tinged Color. [57 FR 34498, Aug. 5, 1992] below color grade cotton ...

  14. 7 CFR 28.441 - Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color. 28.441 Section... Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color. Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color is color which is deeper than that of Strict Middling Tinged Color. [57 FR 34498, Aug. 5, 1992] ...

  15. CD3 immunohistochemical staining in diagnosis of lymphocytic colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiehn, Anne-Marie Kanstrup; Engel, Ulla; Holck, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    and eosin (HE) stainings were available. At the second assessment, a supplementary CD3 immunohistochemical staining was also available. The aim was to evaluate whether a supplementary CD3 would increase the diagnostic agreement among pathologists, and whether a CD3 stain would change the diagnosis based...

  16. Contribution to the study of the physical stability of the suspensions of zinc oxide, titanium dioxide and precipitated sulphur employing emulsified solid greases like vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porras Navarro, Martha

    2001-01-01

    This research evaluated the physical stability of the suspensions of zinc oxide, precipitated sulphur and titanium dioxide. By using emulsified vehicles of three solid greases: stearilic alcohol, stearic acid and beeswax. That varies the concentration of solid grease (2%, 4%, 6 %) and the velocity of agitation for the emulsified vehicle's preparation (250, 500, 750 revolutions by minutes). That got 81 suspensions, 27 for every grease employed. The following effects there were evaluated like indicators of the physical stability of the suspensions: volume of sediment, apparent viscosity, facility of resuspension. There was effected an analysis of the varying of two controlled factors to establish the importance since the statistical viewpoint of the variants of the process over the volume of the sediment. This study indicates that the selection of solid grease is an parameter which influence is significant, what supports the got data through the research. By giving as a result that the stearilic alcohol is the most competent vehicle for the preparation of these suspensions. (Author) [es

  17. Thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge with grease waste: Effect of long chain fatty acids in the methane yield and its dewatering properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvestre, G.; Illa, J.; Fernández, B.; Bonmatí, A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermophilic anaerobic codigestion of sewage sludge and grease waste (GW) doubles methane yield. • High GW doses in the influent leads to instability and LCFA accumulation in the effluent. • GW addition promotes acetoclastic activity whilst worsening the hydrogenothrophic activity. • The mesophilic codigestion with GW performs better than the thermophilic one. - Abstract: Thermophilic co-digestion of sewage sludge with three different doses of trapped grease waste (GW) from the pre-treatment of a WWTP has been assessed in a CSTR bench-scale reactor. After adding 12% and 27% of grease waste (on COD basis), the organic loading rate increased from 2.2 to 2.3 and 2.8 kg COD m −3 d −1 respectively, and the methane yield increased 1.2 and 2.2 times. Further GW increase (37% on COD basis) resulted in an unstable methane yield and in long chain fatty acids (LCFA) accumulation. Although this inestability, the presence of volatile fatty acids in the effluent was negligible, showing good adaptation to fats of the thermophilic biomass. Nevertheless, the presence of LCFA in the effluent worsens its dewatering properties. Specific methanogenic activity tests showed that the addition of grease waste ameliorates the acetoclastic activity in detriment of the hydrogenotrophic activity, and suggests that the tolerance to LCFA can be further enhanced by slowly increasing the addition of lipid-rich materials

  18. The indigenisation of Lubriplate 630-2 and development of Servo-Nuclease-2 grease for the fuelling machine of pressurised heavy water power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, S.B.; Thomas, V.G.

    1980-01-01

    A new grease of NLGI-2 consistency was developed for application in nuclear environments. The evaluation consisted of both static tests employing a cobalt-60 γ-ray source and dynamic tests carried out on specially designed rigs in Fuelling Machine Vaults of RAPS. (auth.)

  19. [Determination of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol in grease food by solid phase extraction-derivatization-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Xiaoling; Wang, Liyuan; Shen, Xianghong; Li, Chunsong; Shen, Jianfu; Wu, Pinggu

    2017-09-01

    To establish the method of determination of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol( 3-MCPD) in grease food by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry( GC-MS). 3-MCPD in grease food represented by bean paste was extracted by ultrasound,purified by alkaline earth solid phase extraction column,derivatived using phenylboronic acid( PBA) and detected by GC-MS. The linearity of 3-MCPD ranged from 1-100 ng/mL,with correlation coefficient at 0. 9993.The limits of quantitation( LOQ) in soy sauce,bean paste,pepper oil were 0. 6,0. 5 and7. 0 μg/kg and limits of detection( LOD) were 1. 9,1. 6 and 18. 8 μg/kg,respectively.Average recovery rate and relative standard deviation was 78. 3%-106. 7% and 1. 9%-11. 6%( n = 6), when 3-MCPD was added in grease food at 2. 5-1000 μg/kg. The method has good purification effect and the detection sensitivity and accuracy,and can be used for the determination of 3-MCPD in grease food.

  20. Development of a stained cell nuclei counting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timilsina, Niranjan; Moffatt, Christopher; Okada, Kazunori

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents a novel cell counting system which exploits the Fast Radial Symmetry Transformation (FRST) algorithm [1]. The driving force behind our system is a research on neurogenesis in the intact nervous system of Manduca Sexta or the Tobacco Hornworm, which was being studied to assess the impact of age, food and environment on neurogenesis. The varying thickness of the intact nervous system in this species often yields images with inhomogeneous background and inconsistencies such as varying illumination, variable contrast, and irregular cell size. For automated counting, such inhomogeneity and inconsistencies must be addressed, which no existing work has done successfully. Thus, our goal is to devise a new cell counting algorithm for the images with non-uniform background. Our solution adapts FRST: a computer vision algorithm which is designed to detect points of interest on circular regions such as human eyes. This algorithm enhances the occurrences of the stained-cell nuclei in 2D digital images and negates the problems caused by their inhomogeneity. Besides FRST, our algorithm employs standard image processing methods, such as mathematical morphology and connected component analysis. We have evaluated the developed cell counting system with fourteen digital images of Tobacco Hornworm's nervous system collected for this study with ground-truth cell counts by biology experts. Experimental results show that our system has a minimum error of 1.41% and mean error of 16.68% which is at least forty-four percent better than the algorithm without FRST.

  1. Centrifuge-operated specimen staining method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Mark S. F. (Inventor); Feeback, Daniel L. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A method of staining preselected, mounted specimens of either biological or nonbiological material enclosed within a staining chamber where the liquid staining reagents are applied and removed from the staining chamber using hypergravity as the propelling force. In the preferred embodiment, a spacecraft-operated centrifuge and method of diagnosing biological specimens while in orbit, characterized by hermetically sealing a shell assembly. The assembly contains slide stain apparatus with computer control therefor, the operative effect of which is to overcome microgravity, for example on board an International Space Station.

  2. Lead Thickness Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rucinski, R.

    1998-01-01

    The preshower lead thickness applied to the outside of D-Zero's superconducting solenoid vacuum shell was measured at the time of application. This engineering documents those thickness measurements. The lead was ordered in sheets 0.09375-inch and 0.0625-inch thick. The tolerance on thickness was specified to be +/- 0.003-inch. The sheets all were within that thickness tolerance. The nomenclature for each sheet was designated 1T, 1B, 2T, 2B where the numeral designates it's location in the wrap and 'T' or 'B' is short for 'top' or 'bottom' half of the solenoid. Micrometer measurements were taken at six locations around the perimeter of each sheet. The width,length, and weight of each piece was then measured. Using an assumed pure lead density of 0.40974 lb/in 3 , an average sheet thickness was calculated and compared to the perimeter thickness measurements. In every case, the calculated average thickness was a few mils thinner than the perimeter measurements. The ratio was constant, 0.98. This discrepancy is likely due to the assumed pure lead density. It is not felt that the perimeter is thicker than the center regions. The data suggests that the physical thickness of the sheets is uniform to +/- 0.0015-inch.

  3. Electrostatic control of the coffee stain effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, Alex; Papageorgiou, Demetrios; Sefiane, Khellil; Matar, Omar

    2013-11-01

    The ``coffee stain effect,'' as first explained by Deegan et al. 1997, has received a great deal of attention amongst modellers and experimentalists in recent years, perhaps due in part to its obvious casual familiarity. However, it maintains interest because of its intriguing reliance on an interplay of a trio of effects: contact line pinning, inhomogeneous mass flux, and resulting capillarity-driven flow. What is more, the effect, and especially its suppression or reversal, find applications in fields as diverse as sample recovery, mass spectroscopy and the printing of Organic LEDs. We examine the motion a nanoparticle-laden droplet deposited on a precursor film, incorporating the effects of capillarity, concentration-dependent rheology, together with a heated substrate and resultant mass flux and Marangoni effects. We allow the substrate to act as an electrode and incorporate a second electrode above the droplet. The potential difference together with a disparity in electrical properties between the two regions results in electrical (Maxwell) stresses at the interface. We show via lubrication theory and via direct numerical simulations that the ring effect typically observed may be suppressed or augmented via appropriate use of electric fields. EPSRC DTG

  4. An assessment of the accuracy of visual diagnosis of meconium-stained amniotic fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanlialp, C.; Caglar, G.S.; Tapisiz, O.L.; Avsar, A.F.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The assessment of meconium content in the amniotic fluid depends on visual observation by clinicians at the bedside. The aim of the present study was to compare visual evaluation of meconium-stained amniotic fluid with spectrophotometer evaluation. Study Design: Ten gram of meconium was added to 100 ml of amniotic fluid and mixed. The solution was serially two-fold diluted with amniotic fluid. The serially diluted tubes' absorbance spectrum was measured at 420 nm and thus a standard scale was established. Ninety five samples of meconium- stained amniotic fluid were collected from labouring women and the grade of meconium was deter- mined visually at the bedside. The samples' absorbance spectrum was measured at 420 nm and recorded. Spectrophotometer was considered gold standard and the ranges of optical density in the standard scale was used to test the accuracy of visual categorization of the samples. In the statistical analysis chi-square test was used and significance was p<0.05. Results: The accuracy rate of visual diagnosis of meconium-stained amniotic fluid were found as statistically significant (accuracy rate=54.74%, p<0.001). Visual evaluation was correct in 19.4% of thin, 53.1 % of moderate and 90.6% of thick meconium samples when examined with spectrophotometer. Conclusion: Visually diagnosed thin meconium can be moderate or thick meconium when examined objectively. The visual diagnosis at bedside is not always reliable and should be replaced with an objective method like spectrophotometry. (author)

  5. Education and "Thick" Epistemology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotzee, Ben

    2011-01-01

    In this essay Ben Kotzee addresses the implications of Bernard Williams's distinction between "thick" and "thin" concepts in ethics for epistemology and for education. Kotzee holds that, as in the case of ethics, one may distinguish between "thick" and "thin" concepts of epistemology and, further, that this distinction points to the importance of…

  6. Thick film hydrogen sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffheins, Barbara S.; Lauf, Robert J.

    1995-01-01

    A thick film hydrogen sensor element includes an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having deposited thereon a thick film metallization forming at least two resistors. The metallization is a sintered composition of Pd and a sinterable binder such as glass frit. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors.

  7. Amnioinfusion for meconium-stained liquor in labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeyr, G Justus; Xu, Hairong; Eke, Ahizechukwu C

    2014-01-23

    Amnioinfusion is thought to dilute meconium present in the amniotic fluid and so reduce the risk of meconium aspiration. To assess the effects of amnioinfusion for meconium-stained liquor on perinatal outcome. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (1 December 2013). Randomised trials comparing amnioinfusion with no amnioinfusion for women in labour with moderate or thick meconium staining of the amniotic fluid. Three review authors independently assessed eligibility and trial quality, and extracted data. Fourteen studies of variable quality (4435 women) are included.Subgroup analysis was performed for studies from settings with limited facilities to monitor the baby's condition during labour and intervene effectively, and settings with standard peripartum surveillance.Settings with standard peripartum surveillance: there was considerable heterogeneity for several outcomes. There was no significant reduction in the primary outcomes meconium aspiration syndrome, perinatal death or severe morbidity, and maternal death or severe morbidity. There was a reduction in caesarean sections (CSs) for fetal distress but not overall. Meconium below the vocal cords diagnosed by laryngoscopy was reduced, as was neonatal ventilation or neonatal intensive care unit admission, but there was no significant reduction in perinatal deaths or other morbidity. Planned sensitivity analysis excluding trials with greater risk of bias resulted in an absence of benefits for any of the outcomes studied.Settings with limited peripartum surveillance: three studies were included. In the amnioinfusion group there was a reduction in CS for fetal distress and overall; meconium aspiration syndrome (three studies, 1144 women; risk ratio (RR) 0.17, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.05 to 0.52); perinatal mortality (three studies, 1151 women; RR 0.24, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.53) and neonatal ventilation or neonatal intensive care unit admission. In one of the studies, meconium

  8. Efficacy test of a toothpaste in reducing extrinsic dental stain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustanti, A.; Ramadhani, S. A.; Adiatman, M.; Rahardjo, A.; Callea, M.; Yavuz, I.; Maharani, D. A.

    2017-08-01

    This clinical trial compared the external dental stain reduction achieved by tested toothpaste versus placebo in adult patients. In this double-blind, parallel, randomised clinical trial, 45 female volunteers with a mean age of 20 years old were included. All study subjects front teeth were topically applicated with Silver Diamine Fluoride (SDF) to create external dental stains. Subjects were randomized into test (n=22) and control (n=23) groups. Toothpastes were used for two days to analyse the effects of removing external stains on the labial surfaces of all anterior teeth. VITA Easyshade Advance 4.0 was used to measure dental extrinsic stains changes. The analysis showed statistically significant efficacy of the tested toothpaste in reducing external dental stain caused by SDF, comparing to the placebo toothpaste, after one and two days of usage. The tested toothpaste was effective in reducing dental stain.

  9. Post-staining electroblotting for efficient and reliable peptide blotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Der-Yen; Chang, Geen-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Post-staining electroblotting has been previously described to transfer Coomassie blue-stained proteins from polyacrylamide gel onto polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membranes. Actually, stained peptides can also be efficiently and reliably transferred. Because of selective staining procedures for peptides and increased retention of stained peptides on the membrane, even peptides with molecular masses less than 2 kDa such as bacitracin and granuliberin R are transferred with satisfactory results. For comparison, post-staining electroblotting is about 16-fold more sensitive than the conventional electroblotting for visualization of insulin on the membrane. Therefore, the peptide blots become practicable and more accessible to further applications, e.g., blot overlay detection or immunoblotting analysis. In addition, the efficiency of peptide transfer is favorable for N-terminal sequence analysis. With this method, peptide blotting can be normalized for further analysis such as blot overlay assay, immunoblotting, and N-terminal sequencing for identification of peptide in crude or partially purified samples.

  10. Gram staining in the diagnosis of acute septic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraj, A A; Omonbude, O D; Godwin, P

    2002-10-01

    This study aimed at determining the sensitivity and specificity of Gram staining of synovial fluid as a diagnostic tool in acute septic arthritis. A retrospective study was made of 22 patients who had arthroscopic lavage following a provisional diagnosis of acute septic arthritis of the knee joint. Gram stains and cultures of the knee aspirates were compared with the clinical and laboratory parameters, to evaluate their usefulness in diagnosing acute arthritis. All patients who had septic arthritis had pain, swelling and limitation of movement. CRP was elevated in 90% of patients. The incidence of elevated white blood cell count was higher in the group of patients with a positive Gram stain study (60%) as compared to patients with a negative Gram stain study (33%). Gram staining sensitivity was 45%. Its specificity was however 100%. Gram staining is an unreliable tool in early decision making in patients requiring urgent surgical drainage and washout.

  11. Techniques for controlling variability in gram staining of obligate anaerobes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M J; Thatcher, E; Cox, M E

    1995-01-01

    Identification of anaerobes recovered from clinical samples is complicated by the fact that certain gram-positive anaerobes routinely stain gram negative; Peptostreptococcus asaccharolyticus, Eubacterium plautii, Clostridium ramosum, Clostridium symbiosum, and Clostridium clostridiiforme are among the nonconformists with regard to conventional Gram-staining procedures. Accurate Gram staining of American Type Culture Collection strains of these anaerobic bacteria is possible by implementing fixing and staining techniques within a gloveless anaerobic chamber. Under anaerobic conditions, gram-positive staining occurred in all test organisms with "quick" fixing techniques with both absolute methanol and formalin. The results support the hypothesis that, when anaerobic bacteria are exposed to oxygen, a breakdown of the physical integrity of the cell wall occurs, introducing Gram stain variability in gram-positive anaerobes. PMID:7538512

  12. Factors influencing extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa staining of rat testes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassey, R B; Bakare, A A; Peter, A I; Oremosu, A A; Osinubi, A A

    2012-08-01

    Some plant extracts can be used in biology and medicine to reveal or identify cellular components and tissues. We investigated the effects of time and concentration on staining of histological sections of rat testes by an acidified extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa. An ethanolic extract of H. sabdariffa was diluted using 1% acetic acid in 70% ethanol to stain histological sections of testes at concentrations of 0.2, 0.1 and 0.05 g/ml for 5, 10, 15, 30, 45 and 60 min. The sections of testes were stained deep red. The staining efficiency of H. sabdariffa was greater at a high concentration and required less time to achieve optimal staining. H. sabdariffa is a strongly basic dye that can be used for various diagnostic purposes. Staining time and concentration must be considered to achieve optimal results.

  13. A useful single-solution polychrome stain for plant material...Brook Cyte-Chrome I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley L Krugman; Julia F. Littlefield

    1968-01-01

    Fresh and chemically fixed sectioned plant material can be quickly stained by applying a Brook Cyte Chrome I polychrome stain. Staining time averaged only about 10 minutes. And exact timing of staining and de-staining is not as critical as with most of the commonly used stains. The overall quality is comparable to that of the traditional stains.

  14. Diagnosing periprosthetic infection: false-positive intraoperative Gram stains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oethinger, Margret; Warner, Debra K; Schindler, Susan A; Kobayashi, Hideo; Bauer, Thomas W

    2011-04-01

    Intraoperative Gram stains have a reported low sensitivity but high specificity when used to help diagnose periprosthetic infections. In early 2008, we recognized an unexpectedly high frequency of apparent false-positive Gram stains from revision arthroplasties. The purpose of this report is to describe the cause of these false-positive test results. We calculated the sensitivity and specificity of all intraoperative Gram stains submitted from revision arthroplasty cases during a 3-month interval using microbiologic cultures of the same samples as the gold standard. Methods of specimen harvesting, handling, transport, distribution, specimen processing including tissue grinding/macerating, Gram staining, and interpretation were studied. After a test modification, results of specimens were prospectively collected for a second 3-month interval, and the sensitivity and specificity of intraoperative Gram stains were calculated. The retrospective review of 269 Gram stains submitted from revision arthroplasties indicated historic sensitivity and specificity values of 23% and 92%, respectively. Systematic analysis of all steps of the procedure identified Gram-stained but nonviable bacteria in commercial broth reagents used as diluents for maceration of periprosthetic membranes before Gram staining and culture. Polymerase chain reaction and sequencing showed mixed bacterial DNA. Evaluation of 390 specimens after initiating standardized Millipore filtering of diluent fluid revealed a reduced number of positive Gram stains, yielding 9% sensitivity and 99% specificity. Clusters of false-positive Gram stains have been reported in other clinical conditions. They are apparently rare related to diagnosing periprosthetic infections but have severe consequences if used to guide treatment. Even occasional false-positive Gram stains should prompt review of laboratory methods. Our observations implicate dead bacteria in microbiologic reagents as potential sources of false-positive Gram

  15. Near-UV laser treatment of extrinsic dental enamel stains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenly, J E; Seka, W; Featherstone, J D B; Rechmann, P

    2012-04-01

    The selective ablation of extrinsic dental enamel stains using a 400-nm laser is evaluated at several fluences for completely removing stains with minimal damage to the underlying enamel. A frequency-doubled Ti:sapphire laser (400-nm wavelength, 60-nanosecond pulse duration, 10-Hz repetition rate) was used to treat 10 extracted human teeth with extrinsic enamel staining. Each tooth was irradiated perpendicular to the surface in a back-and-forth motion over a 1-mm length using an ∼300-µm-diam 10th-order super-Gaussian beam with fluences ranging from 0.8 to 6.4 J/cm(2) . Laser triangulation determined stain depth and volume removed by measuring 3D surface images before and after irradiation. Scanning electron microscopy evaluated the surface roughness of enamel following stain removal. Fluorescence spectroscopy measured spectra of unbleached and photobleached stains in the spectral range of 600-800 nm. Extrinsic enamel stains are removed with laser fluences between 0.8 and 6.4 J/cm(2) . Stains removed on sound enamel leave behind a smooth enamel surface. Stain removal in areas with signs of earlier cariogenic acid attacks resulted in isolated and randomly located laser-induced, 50-µm-diam enamel pits. These pits contain 0.5-µm diam, smooth craters indicative of heat transfer from the stain to the enamel and subsequent melting and water droplet ejection. Ablation stalling of enamel stains is typically observed at low fluences (Laser ablation of extrinsic enamel stains at 400 nm is observed to be most efficient above 3 J/cm(2) with minimal damage to the underlying enamel. Unsound underlying enamel is also observed to be selectively removed after irradiation. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. [Histochemical stains for minerals by hematoxylin-lake method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagawa, Makoto

    2013-04-01

    The present study was undertaken to establish the experimental animal model by histological staining methods for minerals. After intraperitoneal injections of minerals, precipitates deposited on the surface of the liver. Liver tissues were fixed in paraformaldehyde, embedded in paraffin and cut into thin sections which were used as minerals containing standard section. Several reagents for histological stains and spectrophotometry for minerals were applied in both test-tube experiments and stainings of tissue sections to test for minerals. Hematoxylin-lake was found of capable of staining minerals in tissue. A simple technique used was described for light microscopic detection of minerals.

  17. Utility of Gram staining for diagnosis of Malassezia folliculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Wei-Ting; Chin, Szu-Ying; Chou, Chia-Lun; Hsu, Che-Yuan; Chen, Yu-Tsung; Liu, Donald; Lee, Woan-Ruoh; Shih, Yi-Hsien

    2018-02-01

    Malassezia folliculitis (MalF) mimics acne vulgaris and bacterial folliculitis in clinical presentations. The role of Gram staining in rapid diagnosis of MalF has not been well studied. In our study, 32 patients were included to investigate the utility of Gram staining for MalF diagnosis. The final diagnoses of MalF were determined according to clinical presentation, pathological result and treatment response to antifungal agents. Our results show that the sensitivity and specificity of Gram staining are 84.6% and 100%, respectively. In conclusion, Gram staining is a rapid, non-invasive, sensitive and specific method for MalF diagnosis. © 2017 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  18. Histopathological evaluation of ocular microsporidiosis by different stains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Savitri

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is limited data on comparing stains in the detection of microsporidia in corneal biopsies. Hence we wanted to evaluate various stains for their ability to detect microsporidia in corneal tissue sections. Methods Four cases diagnosed with microsporidiosis on Hematoxylin and Eosin and Periodic Acid Schiff's stained sections of the corneal button between January 2002 and December 2004, were included. Further sections were prospectively stained with calcofluor white, Gram, Giemsa, Masson's trichrome, acridine orange, Gomori's methenamine silver, Gram's chromotrope and modified acid fast stain. The stained sections were analyzed for the spore characteristics in terms of size, shape, color contrast, cell wall morphology, waist band in cytoplasm and ease of detection. Results All sections showed microsporidial spores as 3 – 5 μm, oval bodies. 1% acid fast, Gram's chromotrope and GMS stains provided a reliable diagnosis of microsporidia as diagnostic waist band could be identified and good contrast helped distinguish the spores from inflammatory debris. Conclusion Considering the ease of performance, cost effectiveness and rapidity of the technique, 1% acid fast stain and Gram's chromotrope stain are ideal for the detection of microsporidia.

  19. Efficacy of in-house fluorescent stain for fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. R. L. Surya Kirani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Mycotic infections are gaining importance in the present day medicine, and definite demonstration of fungus is essential for diagnosis. Small numbers of organisms in the smear can be identified by fluorescence microscopy. Calcofluor white (CFW fluorescent stain is a textile brightener mixed with Evans blue. It is expensive and not easily available. Aims: (1 To assess the efficacy of in-house CFW fluorescent stain for fungus in relation to conventional CFW stain, histopathology, and culture. (2 To determine sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value (NPV, and positive predictive value (PPV with culture as gold standard. Settings and Design: One hundred cases of suspected dermatophytosis and 15 cases of systemic mycosis were included in the study. Subjects and Methods: The local whitener Ranipal is added with Robin blue, another brightener, and was used to stain teased fungal cultures. Skin, hair, and nails require pretreatment with potassium hydroxide (KOH. Biopsy slides require deparaffinization and pretreatment with KOH before staining. Conventional calcofluor stain, histopathology, and culture were done. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was performed using sensitivity, specificity, NPV, and PPV. Results: The results are consistently comparable with conventional stain. The sensitivity was 100%, specificity was 93.3%, NPV was 100%, and PPV was 85.7%. It is also cost effective when compared to commercial stains. Conclusions: In-house stain can be used for screening of fungus in direct samples, biopsies as alternative in resource-constrained laboratories.

  20. Characterization of paint layers and stained glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biagi Maino, D.; Ciancabilla, L.; Gandolfi, G.; Maino, G.; Bruni, S.; Ferriani, S.; Visparelli, D.

    2000-01-01

    been made of the so available instruments, of both the hardware and developed software, to investigate some frescoes and stained glasses of XIV-XV centuries in the Basilica of St.Petronio in Bologna, in order to study the manufacturing techniques as well as to determine whether repairs have been carried out or substitutions made of damaged parts in the past times. (author)

  1. Ocean Sediment Thickness Contours

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ocean sediment thickness contours in 200 meter intervals for water depths ranging from 0 - 18,000 meters. These contours were derived from a global sediment...

  2. Hemangiomas versus arterio-venous malformations: Role of elastic stains and mast cell density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravin Pawane

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Vascular anomalies present diagnostic challenges to histopathologists. Mulliken and Glowacki′s classification categorizes vascular lesions into hemangiomas and vascular malformations. Aim: This study explored diagnostic clues in the histomorphology of hemangiomas and vascular malformations. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 cases of benign vascular lesions were retrieved from 12 years period. A total of 94 cases, where complete clinical details and representative paraffin sections were available, were included in this study. Hematoxylin and eosin (H and E stain and Verhoeff′s stain for elastic tissue were done on all cases and lesions were classified into hemangiomas or arterio-venous malformations (AVM. Mast cell density in all lesions was calculated from toluidine blue stained sections. Results: Ten cases of hemangiomas were reclassified as AVM on the basis of presence and absence of arteriovenous structures. Intra-lesional nerves were seen in significantly higher number of AVMs compared to hemangiomas. Medium and thick sized nerve bundles were seen in 56% of AVMs, while they were not seen in any of the hemangiomas. Mean mast cell density was significantly higher in proliferating hemangiomas (53.12 ± 27.83 cells/mm 2 compared to involuting hemangiomas (11.43 ± 7.9 cells/mm 2 . Conclusions: Use of elastic tissue stains are useful ancillary tools to distinguish between AVMs and hemangiomas. The presence of arteries and arterioles are an integral part of AVMs. The presence of the intra-lesional nerves can be useful to distinguish between AVMs and hemangiomas even on H and E stained sections. The significantly higher mast cell density seen in proliferating hemangiomas compared with involuting ones, seem to suggest that mast cells play an important role in the natural history of these lesions.

  3. Confusion over live/dead stainings for the detection of vital microorganisms in oral biofilms--which stain is suitable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netuschil, Lutz; Auschill, Thorsten M; Sculean, Anton; Arweiler, Nicole B

    2014-01-11

    There is confusion over the definition of the term "viability state(s)" of microorganisms. "Viability staining" or "vital staining techniques" are used to distinguish live from dead bacteria. These stainings, first established on planctonic bacteria, may have serious shortcomings when applied to multispecies biofilms. Results of staining techniques should be compared with appropriate microbiological data. Many terms describe "vitality states" of microorganisms, however, several of them are misleading. Authors define "viable" as "capable to grow". Accordingly, staining methods are substitutes, since no staining can prove viability.The reliability of a commercial "viability" staining assay (Molecular Probes) is discussed based on the corresponding product information sheet: (I) Staining principle; (II) Concentrations of bacteria; (III) Calculation of live/dead proportions in vitro. Results of the "viability" kit are dependent on the stains' concentration and on their relation to the number of bacteria in the test. Generally this staining system is not suitable for multispecies biofilms, thus incorrect statements have been published by users of this technique.To compare the results of the staining with bacterial parameters appropriate techniques should be selected. The assessment of Colony Forming Units is insufficient, rather the calculation of Plating Efficiency is necessary. Vital fluorescence staining with Fluorescein Diacetate and Ethidium Bromide seems to be the best proven and suitable method in biofilm research.Regarding the mutagenicity of staining components users should be aware that not only Ethidium Bromide might be harmful, but also a variety of other substances of which the toxicity and mutagenicity is not reported. - The nomenclature regarding "viability" and "vitality" should be used carefully.- The manual of the commercial "viability" kit itself points out that the kit is not suitable for natural multispecies biofilm research, as supported by an

  4. Alcian blue-stained particles in a eutrophic lake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worm, J.; Søndergaard, Morten

    1998-01-01

    We used a neutral solution of Alcian Blue to stain transparent particles in eutrophic Lake Frederiksborg Slotss0, Denmark. Alcian Blue-stained particles (ABSP) appeared to be similar to the so-called transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) identified with an acidic solution of Alcian Blue. Our...

  5. News from the Biological Stain Commission No. 11

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyon, H O; Horobin, R W

    2012-01-01

    The 11th issue of News from the Biological Stain Commission (BSC) provides our first impressions of the REACH and ECHA programs. We intend to give a more thorough account of what these important programs actually mean in later editions of News from the Biological Stain Commission. Under the heading...

  6. Sperm viability staining in ecology and evolution: potential pitfalls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holman, Luke

    2009-01-01

    The causes and consequences of variation in sperm quality, survival and ageing are active areas of research in ecology and evolution. In order to address these topics, many recent studies have measured sperm viability using fluorescent staining. Although sperm viability staining has produced a nu...

  7. Lasers or light sources for treating port-wine stains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurschou, Annesofie; Olesen, Anne Braae; Leonardi-Bee, Jo

    2011-01-01

    Port-wine stains are birthmarks caused by malformations of blood vessels in the skin. Port-wine stains manifest themselves in infancy as a flat, red mark and do not regress spontaneously but may, if untreated, become darker and thicker in adult life. The profusion of various lasers and light...

  8. 21 CFR 864.1850 - Dye and chemical solution stains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dye and chemical solution stains. 864.1850 Section 864.1850 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Biological Stains § 864.1850 Dye and chemical...

  9. The use of special stains in liver biopsy interpretation: Implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and Methods: The formalin fixed paraffin embedded blocks of liver biopsies reported in two histopathology laboratories between 2008 and 2013 were retrieved. These were stained with H and E and the following standard special stains for liver tissue histology – Perl's Prussian blue, reticulin, Sirius red, Shikata ...

  10. Decreased mortality associated with prompt Gram staining of blood cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barenfanger, Joan; Graham, Donald R; Kolluri, Lavanya; Sangwan, Gaurav; Lawhorn, Jerry; Drake, Cheryl A; Verhulst, Steven J; Peterson, Ryan; Moja, Lauren B; Ertmoed, Matthew M; Moja, Ashley B; Shevlin, Douglas W; Vautrain, Robert; Callahan, Charles D

    2008-12-01

    Gram stains of positive blood cultures are the most important factor influencing appropriate therapy. The sooner appropriate therapy is initiated, the better. Therefore, it is reasonable to expect that the sooner Gram stains are performed, the better. To determine the value of timely Gram stains and whether improvement in Gram stain turnaround time (TAT) is feasible, we compared data for matched pairs of patients with cultures processed promptly ( or =1 hour TAT) and then monitored TAT by control charting.In 99 matched pairs, average difference in time to detection of positive blood cultures within a pair of patients was less than 0.1 hour. For the less than 1 hour TAT group, the average TAT and crude mortality were 0.1 hour and 10.1%, respectively; for the 1 hour or longer TAT group, they were 3.3 hours and 19.2%, respectively (P Gram stains.

  11. Analysis of in-service inspection guides for post-tensioning systems in containment structures with greased tendons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, I. H.; Choi, I. G.; Seo, J. M.

    2000-01-01

    Prestressed concrete containments(PCC) are inspected periodically to ensure structural integrity and to identify and correct problems before they come critical. These inspections are conducted in accordance with the Nuclear Regulatory Committee(NRC) Regulatory Guide. As experience with the surveillance mounts, the guide is revised to keep pace with technological advances in containment design and to reflect the knowledge obtained experience. In the study, an analysis of the available utility surveillance data and an evaluation of the NRC Regulatory Guide and the ASME Code are conducted. The results indicate that the average value of the lower bound defined in Regulatory Guide 1.35.1 can be less than the minimum required force level at 40 years for the existing containment and thus an acceptable alternative has to be presented to meet the allowance of the guide. Tendons in excess of the upper bound or 70% of the ultimate tensile strength of the tendon are observed. Such an occurrence indicates tendon behavior outside the tolerance band that expected, and the cause of such behavior has to be investigated. It is shown that the behavior of the predicted prestressing force with time based on assumed losses does quite different from that of the measured tendon force with time and, therefore, studies for the significant factors, such as shrinkage and creep of concrete, that influence the time-dependent losses in PCC are needed. Additional research on the long-term effects of the impurity levels on the effectiveness of the grease seems justified

  12. A Survey on the Removal Efficiency of Fat, Oil and Grease in Shiraz Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehghani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Fat, oil and grease (FOG in municipal wastewater treatment plant (MWWTP caused many problems. Objectives This study aimed to determine the removal efficiency of FOG in Shiraz MWWTP. Materials and Methods The removal efficiencies of FOG in the MWWTP were studied from June 2011 to September 2011 in Shiraz (Iran. The influent and effluent wastewater samples were collected in a volume of one liter (4 samples per week and analyzed according to the standard methods. Samples are transferred to the laboratory immediately. The concentration of FOG was determined using the solvent extraction and separating funnel and then compared with the effluent standards. To analyze the data, SPSS (version 11.5, Chi-square test and t test were used. Results The results showed that the FOG amount in input raw sewage in the MWWTP from June 2011 to September 2011 was around 25.5 mg/L and the amount in treated wastewater was about 8.1 mg/L. The FOG removal efficiency in this refinery was about 70% and met the environmental standards for the discharge (less than 10 mg/L (P < 0.05. Conclusions The effluent can be discharged to surface waters or used for irrigation. In order to the FOG concentration met the effluent standards, it is very crucial to control the entrance of industrial wastewater to the municipal wastewater collection networks. Otherwise, the MWWTP should be upgraded and the special techniques used to reduce FOG.

  13. Understanding the spatial formation and accumulation of fats, oils and grease deposits in the sewer collection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominic, Christopher Cyril Sandeep; Szakasits, Megan; Dean, Lisa O; Ducoste, Joel J

    2013-01-01

    Sanitary sewer overflows are caused by the accumulation of insoluble calcium salts of fatty acids, which are formed by the reaction between fats, oils and grease (FOG) and calcium found in wastewaters. Different sewer structural configurations (i.e., manholes, pipes, wet wells), which vary spatially, along with other obstructions (roots intrusion) and pipe deformations (pipe sags), may influence the detrimental buildup of FOG deposits. The purpose of this study was to quantify the spatial variation in FOG deposit formation and accumulation in a pilot-scale sewer collection system. The pilot system contained straight pipes, manholes, roots intrusion, and a pipe sag. Calcium and oil were injected into the system and operated at alkaline (pH = 10) and neutral (pH = 7) pH conditions. Results showed that solid accumulations were slightly higher at neutral pH. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis on the solids samples confirmed that the solids were indeed calcium-based fatty acid salts. However, the fatty acid profiles of the solids deviated from the profile found from FOG deposits in sewer systems, which were primarily saturated fatty acids. These results confirm the work done previously by researchers and suggest an alternative fate of unsaturated fatty acids that does not lead to their incorporation in FOG deposits in full-scale sewer systems.

  14. Evaluating and modeling biogas production from municipal fat, oil, and grease and synthetic kitchen waste in anaerobic co-digestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chenxi; Champagne, Pascale; Anderson, Bruce C

    2011-10-01

    The feasibility of using synthetic kitchen waste (KW) and fat, oil, and grease (FOG) as co-substrates in the anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS) was investigated using two series of biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests. Ranges of ideal substrate to inoculum (S/I) ratio were determined for the FOG (0.25-0.75) and KW (0.80-1.26) as single substrates in the first experiment. The second experiment, which estimated the methane production performances of FOG and KW as co-substrates for WAS co-digestion, was conducted based on the optimal parameters selected from the results of the first experiment. Results indicated that co-digestions with FOG and KW enhanced methane production from 117±2.02 mL/gTVS (with only WAS) to 418±13.7 mL/gTVS and 324±4.11 mL/gTVS, respectively. FOG exhibited more biogas production than KW as co-substrate. Non-linear regression results showed that co-substrate addition shortened the lag phases of organic biodegradation from 81.8 (with only WAS) to 28.3 h with FOG and 3.90 h with KW. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Accumulation of oil and grease in soils irrigated with greywater and their potential role in soil water repellency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Micheal J; Weisbrod, Noam; Gross, Amit

    2008-05-01

    The potential impact of oil and grease (O and G) to soils irrigated with greywater (GW) was investigated. Greywater streams were sampled and analyzed for O and G content, along with corresponding GW-irrigated soils. Untreated kitchen GW averaged 200 mg L(-1) O and G, over an order of magnitude more than other GW streams. GW-irrigated soils showed O and G accumulation of up to 200 mg kg(-l) within the first 20-cm of depth. To determine the potential effects of such O and G accumulation on water movement in soil, capillary rise and water drop penetration time (WDPT) experiments were conducted. The results showed up to 60% decrease in capillary rise when sand containing 250 mg kg(-1) O and G was used. Interestingly, no additional reduction in capillary rise was observed at concentrations above 250 mg kg(-1). WDPT was observed to increase linearly with increased O and G content, up to 1000 mg kg(-1). This work demonstrated that O and G in GW used for irrigation can accumulate in soil and may lead to a significant reduction in the soils ability to transmit water.

  16. Mapping stain distribution in pathology slides using whole slide imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-Cheng Yeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Whole slide imaging (WSI offers a novel approach to digitize and review pathology slides, but the voluminous data generated by this technology demand new computational methods for image analysis. Materials and Methods: In this study, we report a method that recognizes stains in WSI data and uses kernel density estimator to calculate the stain density across the digitized pathology slides. The validation study was conducted using a rat model of acute cardiac allograft rejection and another rat model of heart ischemia/reperfusion injury. Immunohistochemistry (IHC was conducted to label ED1 + macrophages in the tissue sections and the stained slides were digitized by a whole slide scanner. The whole slide images were tessellated to enable parallel processing. Pixel-wise stain classification was conducted to classify the IHC stains from those of the background and the density distribution of the identified IHC stains was then calculated by the kernel density estimator. Results: The regression analysis showed a correlation coefficient of 0.8961 between the number of IHC stains counted by our stain recognition algorithm and that by the manual counting, suggesting that our stain recognition algorithm was in good agreement with the manual counting. The density distribution of the IHC stains showed a consistent pattern with those of the cellular magnetic resonance (MR images that detected macrophages labeled by ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron-oxide or micron-sized iron-oxide particles. Conclusions: Our method provides a new imaging modality to facilitate clinical diagnosis. It also provides a way to validate/correlate cellular MRI data used for tracking immune-cell infiltration in cardiac transplant rejection and cardiac ischemic injury.

  17. Demonstration of lipofuscin and Nissl bodies in crystal violet stained sections using a fluorescence technique or pyronin Y stain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terr, L I

    1986-09-01

    This paper presents two simple, reliable methods for identification of lipofuscin and Nissl bodies in the same section. One method shows that lipofuscin stained with crystal violet retains its ability to fluoresce and can be observed under the fluorescence microscope after the stain has faded. Fading is accompanied by a gradual increase in the intensity of the fluorescence and is complete in about 5 min. Exciting illumination from this part of the spectrum also substantially fades staining of other autofluorescing tissue elements, such as lipids. Nonfluorescing structures, such as Nissl bodies, remain stained. By changing from transillumination with tungsten light to epifluorescent illumination and vice versa, both types of structures--Nissl bodies and lipofuscin--can be identified in the same section. The second technique uses pyronin Y for staining Nissl bodies in preparations previously stained with crystal violet. Nissl bodies are stained pink but lipofuscin remains violet. Lipofuscin in these sections also remains autofluorescent after the crystal violet stain has faded under violet or near-UV light.

  18. A silver-stain modification of standard histological slide preparation for use in anthropology analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Deborrah C; Pace, Eric D

    2015-03-01

    The traditional histology method typically employed by forensic anthropologists involves plastic embedding of undecalcified bone. The embedded sample is then cut by a diamond blade saw and ground to the required thickness of ~50-100 microns using a grinder. There are several limitations to this method: Cement lines may be blurred; depth-of-field artifacts may result from viewing thick sections; and medicolegal offices with limited budgets may not be able to invest in additional equipment or training for this method. A silver nitrate stain modification of the standard histology preparation technique of decalcified bone is presented. The benefits of this technique are that: Cement lines are viewed clearly; no depth-of-field artifacts are present; and because this is a modification of the standard technique used by histology laboratories typically employed by medicolegal offices, no additional equipment or training is required. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  19. Monitoring production target thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oothoudt, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    Pion and muon production targets at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility consist of rotating graphite wheels. The previous target thickness monitoring Procedure scanned the target across a reduced intensity beam to determine beam center. The fractional loss in current across the centered target gave a measure of target thickness. This procedure, however, required interruption of beam delivery to experiments and frequently indicated a different fractional loss than at normal beam currents. The new monitoring Procedure compares integrated ups and downs toroid current monitor readings. The current monitors are read once per minute and the integral of readings are logged once per eight-hour shift. Changes in the upstream to downstream fractional difference provide a nonintrusive continuous measurement of target thickness under nominal operational conditions. Target scans are now done only when new targets are installed or when unexplained changes in the current monitor data are observed

  20. Study of polarization colors in the connective tissue wall of odontogenic cysts using picrosirius red stain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anusha Shetty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lesions of odontogenic origin comprise the heterogeneous group ranging from hamartomatous proliferations, cysts to benign and malignant tumors. Interplay between the epithelium and connective tissue can be assumed to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of odontogenic cysts. Aims and Objectives: A study was taken up to show the role of picrosirius red (PSR stain to demonstrate the fibers and also to assess the difference in the nature of the fibers (different color patterns and to find out the role of it, if any in the pathogenesis and biological behavior of the commonly occurring odontogenic cysts. Materials and Methods: Collagen fibers of 30 cases of odontogenic cysts (10 radicular cysts, 10 odontogenic keratocysts (OKC′s, and 10 dentigerous cysts were studied by staining the sections with PSR stain and examining them under bright field and polarizing microscope. Results: Sixty-seven percentage of the thin collagen fibers and 55% of the thick fibers in radicular cyst showed green-yellow birefringence. Fifty-seven percentage of the thin collagen fibers and 15% of the thick fibers in OKC showed green-yellow birefringence. Eighty-two percentage of the thin collagen fibers and 66% of the thick fibers in dentigerous cysts showed green-yellow birefringence. Rest of the fibers showed orange-red birefringence. Statistical analysis with one-way ANOVA was significant with a P < 0.01 only for thick fibers. Moreover, comparison of polarization colors of thick fibers of odontogenic cysts with duration of the lesion gave statistically significant results. Conclusion: The observations in the present study with respect to color profiles of the collagen fibers in the three commonly occurring odontogenic cysts possibly explain the biological behavior of the lesions. The predominant orange-red birefringence in OKC′s in comparison to radicular and dentigerous cysts suggests that OKC′s exhibit well organized and tightly packed fibers. This

  1. Effects of tallow, choice white grease, palm oil, corn oil, or soybean oil on apparent total tract digestibility of minerals in diets fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriman, L A; Walk, C L; Parsons, C M; Stein, H H

    2016-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of supplementing diets fed to growing pigs with fat sources differing in their composition of fatty acids on the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of minerals. A diet based on corn, potato protein isolate, and 7% sucrose was formulated. Five additional diets that were similar to the previous diet with the exception that sucrose was replaced by 7% tallow, choice white grease, palm oil, corn oil, or soybean oil were also formulated. Diets were formulated to contain 0.70% Ca and 0.33% standardized total tract digestible P. Growing barrows ( = 60; 15.99 ± 1.48 kg initial BW) were allotted to a randomized complete block design with 2 blocks of 30 pigs, 6 dietary treatments, and 10 replicate pigs per treatment. Experimental diets were provided for 12 d with the initial 5 d being the adaptation period. Total feces were collected for a 5-d collection period using the marker-to-marker approach, and the ATTD of minerals, ether extract, and acid hydrolyzed ether extract was calculated for all diets. Digestibility of DM was greater ( soybean oil compared with the diet containing choice white grease or the basal diet, with all other diets being intermediate. The ATTD of Ca, S, and P was greater ( soybean oil, corn oil, palm oil, or tallow than for pigs fed the basal diet or the diet containing choice white grease. The ATTD of Mg, Zn, Mn, Na, and K were not different among dietary treatments. The ATTD of ether extract was greater ( oil, corn oil, or soybean oil compared with the diet containing choice white grease, and the ATTD of acid hydrolyzed ether extract in the diet containing soybean oil was also greater ( oil, corn oil, or soybean oil may increase the ATTD of some macrominerals, but that appears not to be the case if choice white grease is used. There was no evidence of negative effects of the fat sources used in this experiment on the ATTD of any minerals.

  2. Western Blot of Stained Proteins from Dried Polyacrylamide Gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Claudia; Stan-Lotter, Helga

    1996-01-01

    Western blotting of proteins is customarily performed following their separation on polyacrylamide gels, either prior to staining (1) or, as recently reported, following staining (2). We describe here Western blotting with stained gels, which had been dried and some of which had been stored for years. This procedure permits immunological analysis of proteins, to which antisera may have become available only later, or where the application of newly developed sensitive detection methods is desired. Once rehydration of the gels is achieved, proteins can be-transferred to blotting membranes by any appropriate protocol. Proteins stained with Coomassie Blue have to be detected with a non-chromogenic method, such as the film-based enhanced chemiluminescence (ECL)2) procedure (3). Silver stained proteins, which transfer in the colorless form, may be visualized by any detection method, although, because of the usually very low amounts of proteins, detection by ECL is preferable. Blotting of stained proteins from rehydrated gels is as rapid and as quantitative as from freshly prepared gels, in contrast to blotting from wet stained gels, which requires extensive washing and results in low transfer efficiency (2). Together with a photographic record of the gel pattern, unambiguous identification of immunoreactive proteins from complex mixtures is possible. Some further applications of this work are discussed.

  3. [Usefulness of sputum Gram staining in community-acquired pneumonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Tadashi; Aoshima, Masahiro; Ohmagari, Norio; Tada, Hiroshi; Chohnabayashi, Naohiko

    2002-07-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of sputum gram staining in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), we reviewed 144 cases requiring hospitalization in the last 4 years. The sensitivity was 75.5%, specificity 68.2%, positive predictive value 74.1%, negative predictive value 69.8%, positive likelihood ratio 2.37, negative likelihood ratio 0.36 and accuracy 72.2% in 97 cases. Both sputum gram staining and culture were performed. Concerning bacterial pneumonia (65 cases), we compared the Gram staining group (n = 33), which received initial antibiotic treatment, based on sputum gram staining with the Empiric group (n = 32) that received antibiotics empirically. The success rates of the initial antibiotic treatment were 87.9% vs. 78.1% (P = 0.473); mean hospitalization periods were 9.67 vs. 11.75 days (P = 0.053); and periods of intravenous therapy were 6.73 vs. 7.91 days (P = 0.044), respectively. As for initial treatment, penicillins were used in the Gram staining group more frequently (P gram staining is useful for the shortening of the treatment period and the appropriate selection of initial antibiotics in bacterial pneumonia. We believe, therefore, that sputum gram staining is indispensable as a diagnostic tool CAP.

  4. Improved method for combination of immunocytochemistry and Nissl staining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kádár, Andrea; Wittmann, Gábor; Liposits, Zsolt; Fekete, Csaba

    2009-10-30

    Nissl staining is a widely used method to study morphology and pathology of neural tissue. After standard immunocytochemistry, the Nissl staining labels only the nucleus of neurons and the characteristic staining of the neuronal perikarya is absent or very weak. We hypothesized that the RNA degradation during the immunocytochemical treatment results in the loss of cytoplasmic staining with Nissl-dyes. To test this hypothesis, we used RNAse-free conditions for all steps of immunostaining. To further prevent the RNA-degradation by RNAse contaminations, the RNAse inhibitor heparin was added to all antibody-containing solutions. The efficiency of Nissl staining after standard and RNAse-free double-labeling immunocytochemistry was compared using antibodies against c-Fos and neuropeptide Y (NPY) on tissues of rats refed after 3 days of fasting. After standard immunocytochemistry, the Nissl-staining labeled the nuclei of neurons and only very faintly the cytoplasm of these cells. The RNAse-free treatment did not alter the distribution of immunoreaction signal, but preserved the staining of neuronal perikarya by the Nissl-dyes. In conclusion, the RNAse-free conditions during immunocytochemistry allow the labeling of neuronal perikarya by Nissl-dyes. The described method facilitates the mapping of immunocytochemical signals and makes possible the light microscopic examination of the innervation of neurons identified by their nuclear protein content.

  5. LANTHANUM STAINING OF THE SURFACE COAT OF CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Stephen M.

    1971-01-01

    Among the techniques which have been reported to stain the surface coat of cells, for electron microscopy, is lanthanum staining en bloc. Similarly, the presence of the cationic dye, Alcian blue 8GX, in a primary glutaraldehyde fixative has been reported to improve the preservation of the surface coat of cells of many types; however, the preserved coat is not very electron opaque unless thin sections are counterstained. The present paper shows that for several rat tissues lanthanum staining en bloc is an effective electron stain for the cell surface, giving excellent contrast, if combined sequentially with prefixation in an aldehyde fixative containing Alcian blue. The cationic substance cetylpyridinium chloride was found to have a similar effect to that of Alcian blue in enhancing the lanthanum staining of the surface coat material of the brush border of intestinal epithelial cells. The patterns of lanthanum staining obtained for the tissues studied strikingly resemble those reported in the literature where tissues are stained by several standard methods for demonstrating mucosubstances at the ultrastructural level. This fact and the reproduction of the effect of Alcian blue by cetylpyridinium chloride constitute a persuasive empirical argument that the material visualized is a mucopolysaccharide or mucopolysaccharide-protein complex. PMID:4108476

  6. Silver and Cyanine Staining of Oligonucleotides in Polyacrylamide Gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Weizhong; Zhou, Huafu; Li, Wei

    2015-01-01

    To explore why some oligonucleotides in denaturing polyacrylamide gel could not be silver-stained, 134 different oligonucleotides were analyzed using denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis stained with silver and asymmetric cyanine. As a result, we found that the sensitivity of oligos (dA), (dC), (dG) and (dT) to silver staining could be ranged as (dA) > (dG) > (dC) > (dT) from high to low. It was unexpected that oligo (dT) was hard to be silver-stained. Moreover, the silver staining of an oligonucleotide containing base T could be partially or completely inhibited by base T. The inhibition of silver staining by base T was a competitive inhibition which could be affected by the amounts of the argyrophil nucleobase and base T, the cis-distance between the argyrophil nucleobase and base T, and the gel concentration. The changes of the intensity of an oligonucleotide band caused by the changes of DNA base composition were diverse and interesting. The intensity of some oligonucleotide bands would significantly change when the changes of DNA base composition accumulated to a certain extent (usually ≥ 4 nt). The sensitivity of cyanine staining of ≤ 11-nt long oligonucleotides could be enhanced about 250-fold by fixing the gels with methanol fixing solution.

  7. A novel washing algorithm for underarm stain removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acikgoz Tufan, H.; Gocek, I.; Sahin, U. K.; Erdem, I.

    2017-10-01

    After contacting with human sweat which comprise around 27% sebum, anti-perspirants comprising aluminium chloride or its compounds form a jel-like structure whose solubility in water is very poor. In daily use, this jel-like structure closes sweat pores and hinders wetting of skin by sweat. However, when in contact with garments, they form yellowish stains at the underarm of the garments. These stains are very hard to remove with regular machine washing. In this study, first of all, we focused on understanding and simulating such stain formation on the garments. Two alternative procedures are offered to form jel-like structures. On both procedures, commercially available spray or deo-stick type anti-perspirants, standard acidic and basic sweat solutions and artificial sebum are used to form jel-like structures, and they are applied on fabric in order to get hard stains. Secondly, after simulation of the stain on the fabric, we put our efforts on developing a washing algorithm specifically designed for removal of underarm stains. Eight alternative washing algorithms are offered with varying washing temperature, amounts of detergent, and pre-stain removal procedures. Better algorithm is selected by comparison of Tristimulus Y values after washing.

  8. Clinical outcomes of double staining and additional ILM peeling during ERM surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Ha Na; Lee, Joo Eun; Kim, Hyun Woong; Yun, Il Han

    2013-08-01

    To assess the clinical outcomes in idiopathic epiretinal membrane (ERM) patients after vitrectomy and ERM removal with or without additional indocyanine green (ICG)-assisted internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling. The medical records of 43 patients with an idiopathic ERM that underwent vitrectomy and ERM removal between July 2007 and April 2010 were reviewed. The patients were divided into two groups: triamcinolone-assisted simple ERM peeling only (group A, n = 23) and triamcinolone-assisted ERM peeling followed by ICG staining and peeling of the remaining internal ILM (group B, n = 20). No difference was found between the two groups in terms of visual acuity, macular thickness, P1 amplitude or implicit time on multifocal-electroretinogram (mfERG) at six and 12 months postoperatively. In group B, ICG staining after ERM peeling demonstrated that the ILM had been removed together with the ERM in 12 eyes (60%), and all 12 eyes showed punctate retinal hemorrhages during ERM peeling. There was no recurrence of an ERM in either group. Additional procedures involving ICG staining and ILM peeling during ERM surgery do not appear to have an additive effect on the clinical outcomes in terms of visual acuity, retinal function based on mfERG, or recurrence rate.

  9. Standardization in biological staining. The influence of dye manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyon, H

    2000-01-01

    not have been subjected to quality assessment either internally by the producer or vendor or externally by independent investigators or organizations such as the Biological Stain Commission. Concerted attempts at standardization in Europe are discussed. The latest results of this work, the European...... standard EN 12376, is presented. This standard is concerned with information supplied by the manufacturer with in vitro diagnostic reagents for biological staining. The standard has been prepared by a Working Group on Staining in Biology under Technical Committee 140, In Vitro Medical Devices...

  10. A new technique for Gram staining paraffin-embedded tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engbaek, K; Johansen, K S; Jensen, M E

    1979-01-01

    Five techniques for Gram staining bacteria in paraffin sections were compared on serial sections of pulmonary tissues from eight bacteriological necropsies. Brown and Hopp's method was the most satisfactory for distinguishing Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. However, this method cannot be recommended as the preparations were frequently overstained, and the Gram-negative bacteria were stained indistinctly. A modification of Brown and Hopps' method was developed which stains larger numbers of Gram-negative bacteria and differentiates well between different cell types and connective tissue, and there is no risk of overstaining. PMID:86548

  11. Coating thickness measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-12-01

    The standard specifies measurements of the coating thickness, which make use of beta backscattering and/or x-ray fluorescence. For commonly used combinations of coating material and base material the appropriate measuring ranges and radionuclides to be used are given for continuous as well as for discontinuous measurements

  12. Kinetics of bacterial fluorescence staining with 3,3'-diethylthiacyanine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Marlon S; Nuñez, Vicente; Upadhyayula, Srigokul; Zielins, Elizabeth R; Bao, Duoduo; Vasquez, Jacob M; Bahmani, Baharak; Vullev, Valentine I

    2010-06-15

    For more than a century, colorimetric and fluorescence staining have been the foundation of a broad range of key bioanalytical techniques. The dynamics of such staining processes, however, still remains largely unexplored. We investigated the kinetics of fluorescence staining of two gram-negative and two gram-positive species with 3,3'-diethylthiacyanine (THIA) iodide. An increase in the THIA fluorescence quantum yield, induced by the bacterial dye uptake, was the principal reason for the observed emission enhancement. The fluorescence quantum yield of THIA depended on the media viscosity and not on the media polarity, which suggested that the microenvironment of the dye molecules taken up by the cells was restrictive. The kinetics of fluorescence staining did not manifest a statistically significant dependence neither on the dye concentration, nor on the cell count. In the presence of surfactant additives, however, the fluorescence-enhancement kinetic patterns manifested species specificity with statistically significant discernibility.

  13. Acetylcholinesterase and Nissl staining in the same histological section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipley, M T; Ennis, M; Behbehani, M M

    1989-12-18

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme histochemistry and Nissl staining are commonly utilized in neural architectonic studies. However, the opaque reaction deposit produced by the most commonly used AChE histochemical methods is not compatible with satisfactory Nissl staining. As a result, precise correlation of AChE and Nissl staining necessitates time-consuming comparisons of adjacent sections which may have differential shrinkage. Here, we have modified the Koelle-Friedenwald histochemical reaction for AChE by omitting the final intensification steps. The modified reaction yields a non-opaque reaction product that is selectively visualized by darkfield illumination. This non-intensified darkfield AChE (NIDA) reaction allows clear visualization of Nissl staining in the same histological section. This combined AChE-Nissl method greatly facilitates detailed correlation of enzyme and cytoarchitectonic organization.

  14. Microscopic analysis of MTT stained boar sperm cells

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tulyasys

    2015-06-08

    2H-tetrazolium bromide is widely used for assessment of cytotoxicity, cell viability, and proliferation studies in cell biology (van Meerloo et al., 2011;. Stockert et al., 2012). The stain is abbreviated as MTT.

  15. Oil and grease (O&G removal from commercial kitchen waste water using carbonised grass as a key media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmat Siti Nazahiyah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil and grease (O&G are usually found in kitchen waste water. O&G are poorly soluble in water and can cause serious problems during the wastewater treatment. Adsorption is a fundamental process in the treatment of kitchen waste water and very economical. Activated carbon is the most effective adsorbent for this application. Therefore, the aim of the current study is to determine the potential of four materials (i.e. sand, gravel, carbonised grass (CG and clay powder as filter media for O&G removal. The CGs were originated from “Elephant Grass” and it is a fast growing plant with significant potential as carbon. The clay acts as a magnet, drawing the oil molecules out of the water and causing them to attach to the surfaces of the clay. In the current study, two filters were developed with different media materials to get the best percentage removal. Filters 1 and 2 were filled with sand, gravel and CG, and sand, gravel, CG and powder clay, respectively. Three samples were taken during peak hour between April and May 2016. The initial O&G concentration varied from 101.37 mg/l to 248.30 mg/l and the final concentration varied from none to 22.57 mg/l for both filters. The percentage removal (% of O&G were between 90.9 and 97.3 (Filter 1 and between 94.3 and 100 (Filter 2. Overall, both filters could efficiently remove O&G in the waste water and the quality of the carbonised grass proved to be as good as carbon produced from other traditional sources.

  16. Enzyme pretreatment of fats, oil and grease from restaurant waste to prolong septic soil treatment system effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Younsuk; Safferman, Steven I; Ostahowski, Jeff; Herold, Tom; Panter, Ronald

    2017-01-02

    When a fast-food restaurant's wastewater containing fats, oil and grease (FOG) is discharged into a collection system, it builds up over time and clogs pipes. Similarly, when such wastewater flows into a septic soil treatment system, it adheres to the surface of inlet pipes, gravel/distribution media and soil, restricting the flow and eventually clogging the septic soil treatment system. In this study, an enzymatic pretreatment system was tested on wastewater from a fast-food restaurant to determine its effectiveness in preventing septic soil treatment system clogging. This system used aeration equipment, baffles and a one-time inoculum that excretes enzymes to reduce the molecular weight and number of double bonds associated with FOG. FOG containing triglycerides having lower molecular weights and fewer double bonds are less sticky. The enzymatic pretreatment system was found to cause these changes as verified by measuring the types of triglycerides (compounds in FOG) using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. A unique bench-scale septic soil treatment system (soil trench) was also used. Each contained six soil moisture sensors to enable the determination of moisture saturation trends among the five tested conditions: sanitary wastewater only, a combination of sanitary and kitchen wastewater, enzymatically pretreated sanitary and kitchen wastewater, kitchen wastewater, and enzymatically pretreated kitchen wastewater. For all influent types, a significant amount of FOG and other pollutants were removed, regardless of the initial concentrations. Moisture sensor readings showed differences among the tested conditions, indicating that septic soil treatment system clogging was delayed. Inspection of the influent pipe and gravel at the end of testing verified these differences as did the measurements of volatile solids.

  17. Biofilm detection in chronic rhinosinusitis by combined application of hematoxylin-eosin and gram staining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, László; Csomor, Péter; Sziklai, István; Karosi, Tamás

    2011-10-01

    The pathomechanism of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis (CRS/NP) seems to be unclear. Bacterial-, fungal- and combined biofilms might play a potential role in the pathogenesis of various inflammatory diseases and recently in CRS/NP. A prospective, blinded observational study was performed to confirm that the combination of conventional hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and Gram staining protocols could be used to detect bacterial and fungal biofilms in patients with CRS/NP. A total of 50 patients with CRS/NP undergoing endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) were analyzed. The negative control group consisted of 12 patients undergoing septoplasty for nasal obstruction without CRS/NP. The nasal polyps and inferior turbinate mucosa specimens applied as negative controls were processed to HE and Gram staining. Biofilm was detected in 44 of 50 patients with CRS/NP and in none of 12 negative controls. In our series, HE method showed an obvious correlation with the results of Gram staining and was allocated to be a good predictor of biofilm existence. It was found that the microscopic structure and thickness of biofilms were strongly associated with the integrity of nasal mucosa and with the characteristics of subepithelial cellular infiltration. This study confirmed the presence of bacterial and fungal biofilms on the surface of NPs obtained from patients with CRS. Since biofilms may affect the severity and recurrence rate of CRS treated by ESS they should be detected histologically. In conclusion, HE staining combined with Gram protocol is a robust and reliable method for the detection of bacterial and fungal biofilms in CRS/NP.

  18. Spectral feature characterization methods for blood stain detection in crime scene backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Mathew, Jobin J.; Dube, Roger R.; Messinger, David W.

    2016-05-01

    Blood stains are one of the most important types of evidence for forensic investigation. They contain valuable DNA information, and the pattern of the stains can suggest specifics about the nature of the violence that transpired at the scene. Blood spectral signatures containing unique reflectance or absorption features are important both for forensic on-site investigation and laboratory testing. They can be used for target detection and identification applied to crime scene hyperspectral imagery, and also be utilized to analyze the spectral variation of blood on various backgrounds. Non-blood stains often mislead the detection and can generate false alarms at a real crime scene, especially for dark and red backgrounds. This paper measured the reflectance of liquid blood and 9 kinds of non-blood samples in the range of 350 nm - 2500 nm in various crime scene backgrounds, such as pure samples contained in petri dish with various thicknesses, mixed samples with different colors and materials of fabrics, and mixed samples with wood, all of which are examined to provide sub-visual evidence for detecting and recognizing blood from non-blood samples in a realistic crime scene. The spectral difference between blood and non-blood samples are examined and spectral features such as "peaks" and "depths" of reflectance are selected. Two blood stain detection methods are proposed in this paper. The first method uses index to denote the ratio of "depth" minus "peak" over"depth" add"peak" within a wavelength range of the reflectance spectrum. The second method uses relative band depth of the selected wavelength ranges of the reflectance spectrum. Results show that the index method is able to discriminate blood from non-blood samples in most tested crime scene backgrounds, but is not able to detect it from black felt. Whereas the relative band depth method is able to discriminate blood from non-blood samples on all of the tested background material types and colors.

  19. Measurement of neuron soma size by fluorescent Nissl stain

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    Authors: James Cronk, Noel Derecki & Jonathan Kipnis ### Abstract This protocol describes how to measure neuron soma size by fluorescent Nissl stain. Mice are sacrificed, and fixed by PFA perfusion. Brains are removed, and further PFA fixed, followed by sucrose cryoprotection. They are then snap frozen, sliced by cryostat, and stained with fluorescent Nissl as floating sections. Confocal microscopy is used to take images of neurons, and a computer graphics tablet is used to calculate ...

  20. Gram staining for the treatment of peritonsillar abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaka, Yukinori; Takeda, Kazuya; Yoshii, Tadashi; Hashimoto, Michiko; Inohara, Hidenori

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To examine whether Gram staining can influence the choice of antibiotic for the treatment of peritonsillar abscess. Methods. Between 2005 and 2009, a total of 57 cases of peritonsillar abscess were analyzed with regard to cultured bacteria and Gram staining. Results. Only aerobes were cultured in 16% of cases, and only anaerobes were cultured in 51% of cases. Mixed growth of aerobes and anaerobes was observed in 21% of cases. The cultured bacteria were mainly aerobic Streptococcus, anaerobic Gram-positive cocci, and anaerobic Gram-negative rods. Phagocytosis of bacteria on Gram staining was observed in 9 cases. The bacteria cultured from these cases were aerobic Streptococcus, anaerobic Gram-positive cocci, and anaerobic Gram-negative rods. The sensitivity of Gram staining for the Gram-positive cocci and Gram-negative rods was 90% and 64%, respectively. The specificity of Gram staining for the Gram-positive cocci and Gram-negative rods was 62% and 76%, respectively. Most of the Gram-positive cocci were sensitive to penicillin, but some of anaerobic Gram-negative rods were resistant to penicillin. Conclusion. When Gram staining shows only Gram-positive cocci, penicillin is the treatment of choice. In other cases, antibiotics effective for the penicillin-resistant organisms should be used.

  1. An improved method for staining cell colonies in clonogenic assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guda, Kishore; Natale, Leanna; Markowitz, Sanford D

    2007-06-01

    Clonogenic assay is a widely used experimental approach to test for the effects of drugs/genes on the growth and proliferative characteristics of cells in vitro. Accurate quantitation of treatment effects in clonogeneic assays depends on the ability to visualize and count cell colonies precisely. We report a novel method (referred as ETeB) for staining cell colonies grown on plastic and specially coated substrates like collagen. Using colon cancer cell lines grown on plastic and collagen, we compared the colony staining efficiencies of the widely used methylene blue, and Ethidium bromide (ETeB) stains. Results show that the ETeB protocol works well on plastic and is extremely effective for staining colonies on collagen when compared to methylene blue. The key features and advantages of ETeB technique are; (a) reduction in background for colonies grown on collagen and possibly other substrates, (b) the whole procedure takes less than a minute, (c) no post-stain washing step is required which eliminates colony losses for cell lines that are loosely adherent, (d) colony visualization and counting can be done immediately following the staining procedure using a standard UV illuminator and software, and (e) the method works across a wide variety of cell lines. The simplicity and robustness of this procedure should warrant its usage in both small and large-scale clonogenic experiments.

  2. MANAJEMEN SARANA DAN PRASARANA PENDIDIKAN DI STAIN PAMEKASAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Muchlis Solichin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Mediums management and pre-mediums represent an absolute done in an higher education institute, because Mediums and premediums in education management represent the absolut condition in the effort to reach the target which is expected. Thereby, Every the education organizer have to pay attention and conscripting the mind and energy to carry out education management that is professional and fulfill Standard National Education ( SNP. This Research copes to comprehend the mediums and pre-mediums management of education in STAIN Pamekasan, because during this time of mediums and basic mediums management are not yet showing its idealitas. This research is focussed at; a How mediums and pre-mediums menegement in STAIN Pamekasan ?,and b what Factors influencing mediums and pre-mediums management in STAIN Pamekasan ?. This research uses the qualitative type by using observation, interview, and documentation method. Based the rearch done, to be expressed that the first of STAIN Pamekasan conduct mediums and pre-mediums manegement still have the centralization character of top down, either in the case of planning, organizational, observation, and assessment of mediums and pre-mediums management owned, second in some cases of STAIN Pamekasan do not yet manage the mediums and pre-mediums management because they are caused by factor is its lack of management professionalism, either when doing the planning, organizational, treatment and observation or evaluation. Based the matter above, hence, suggested that STAIN Pamekasan carry out the mediums and pre-mediums management of education professionally.

  3. Wall thickness of major coronary arteries in Pakistani population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullah, Q.W.; Qamar, K.; Butt, S.A.; Butt, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    To measure the wall thickness of major coronary arteries in Pakistani population, through micrometry. Study design: An observational study. Place and duration of study: Combined Military Hospital Rawalpindi, Khyber Medical College Peshawar and District Headquarter Hospital, Rawalpindi, in collaboration with Departments of Anatomy and Pathology, Army Medical College Rawalpindi. The duration of study was six months with effect from September 2009 to March 2010. Material and methods: After incising pericardium, 1 mm long segments of major coronary arteries i.e. right coronary artery (RCA), left anterior descending artery (LAD) and left circumflex artery (LCX) were taken 1cm distal to their origin, from adult male cadavers of up to 40 years age. After processing for paraffin embedding, 5 mu m thick sections were prepared, mounted on glass slides and subsequently stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin (H and E) for routine histological study. Verhoeff's elastic stain was used to make the elastic lamina more prominent. Wall thickness for each section was measured through micrometry, circumferentially at eight different places along the planes at 45 deg. to each other and then their mean taken as a reading for the respective artery. Results: The total wall thickness of major coronary arteries and of the individual tunicae was less in Pakistani population. The mean thickness of RCA was 0.61 +- 0.05 mm; LAD had mean thickness of 0.55 +- 0.06 mm whereas that of LCX was 0.66 +- 0.13 mm. The mean thickness of tunica intima of RCA was noted to be 0.230 +- 0.044 mm; tunica media measured 0.205 +- 0.031 mm whereas tunica adventitia was 0.172 +- 0.023 mm thick. The mean thickness of tunica intima of LAD measured 0.156 +- 0.032 mm; tunica media was observed to be 0.224 +- 0.026 mm thick whereas the tunica adventitia was 0.170 +- 0.032 mm thick. The mean thickness of tunica intima of LCX was observed to be 0.203 +- 0.059 mm; tunica media to be 0.282 +- 0.097 mm whereas that of tunica

  4. Coating thickness measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joffe, B.B.; Sawyer, B.E.; Spongr, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    A device especially adapted for measuring the thickness of coatings on small, complexly-shaped parts, such as, for example, electronic connectors, electronic contacts, or the like. The device includes a source of beta radiation and a radiation detector whereby backscatter of the radiation from the coated part can be detected and the thickness of the coating ascertained. The radiation source and detector are positioned in overlying relationship to the coated part and a microscope is provided to accurately position the device with respect to the part. Means are provided to control the rate of descent of the radiation source and radiation detector from its suspended position to its operating position and the resulting impact it makes with the coated part to thereby promote uniformity of readings from operator to operator, and also to avoid excessive impact with the part, thereby improving accuracy of measurement and eliminating damage to the parts

  5. Thick melanoma in Tuscany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarugi, Alessandra; Nardini, Paolo; Borgognoni, Lorenzo; Brandani, Paola; Gerlini, Gianni; Rubegni, Pietro; Lamberti, Arianna; Salvini, Camilla; Lo Scocco, Giovanni; Cecchi, Roberto; Sirna, Riccardo; Lorenzi, Stefano; Gattai, Riccardo; Battistini, Silvio; Crocetti, Emanuele

    2017-03-14

    The epidemiologic trends of cutaneous melanoma are similar in several countries with a Western-type life style, where there is a progressive increasing incidence and a low but not decreasing mor- tality, or somewhere an increase too, especially in the older age groups. Also in Tuscany there is a steady rise in incidence with prevalence of in situ and invasive thin melanomas, with also an increase of thick melanomas. It is necessary to reduce the frequency of thick melanomas to reduce specific mortality. The objective of the current survey has been to compare, in the Tuscany population, by a case- case study, thin and thick melanoma cases, trying to find out those personal and tumour characteristics which may help to customize preventive interventions. RESULTS The results confirmed the age and the lower edu- cation level are associated with a later detection. The habit to perform skin self-examination is resulted protec- tive forward thick melanoma and also the diagnosis by a doctor. The elements emerging from the survey allow to hypothesize a group of subjects resulting at higher risk for a late diagnosis, aged over 50 and carrier of a fewer constitutional and environmental risk factors: few total and few atypical nevi, and lower sun exposure and burning. It is assumable that a part of people did not be reached from messages of prevention because does not recognize oneself in the categories of people at risk for skin cancers described in educational cam- paigns. If we want to obtain better results on diagnosis of skin melanoma we have to think a new strategy. At least to think over the educational messages discriminating people more at risk of incidence of melanoma from people more at risk to die from melanoma, and to renewed active involvement of the Gen- eral Practitioners .

  6. Thick brane solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhunushaliev, Vladimir; Minamitsuji, Masato; Folomeev, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives a comprehensive review on thick brane solutions and related topics. Such models have attracted much attention from many aspects since the birth of the brane world scenario. In many works, it has been usually assumed that a brane is an infinitely thin object; however, in more general situations, one can no longer assume this. It is also widely considered that more fundamental theories such as string theory would have a minimal length scale. Many multidimensional field theories coupled to gravitation have exact solutions of gravitating topological defects, which can represent our brane world. The inclusion of brane thickness can realize a variety of possible brane world models. Given our understanding, the known solutions can be classified into topologically non-trivial solutions and trivial ones. The former class contains solutions of a single scalar (domain walls), multi-scalar, gauge-Higgs (vortices), Weyl gravity and so on. As an example of the latter class, we consider solutions of two interacting scalar fields. Approaches to obtain cosmological equations in the thick brane world are reviewed. Solutions with spatially extended branes (S-branes) and those with an extra time-like direction are also discussed.

  7. Microbial community adaptation influences long-chain fatty acid conversion during anaerobic codigestion of fats, oils, and grease with municipal sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziels, Ryan M; Karlsson, Anna; Beck, David A C; Ejlertsson, Jörgen; Yekta, Sepehr Shakeri; Bjorn, Annika; Stensel, H David; Svensson, Bo H

    2016-10-15

    Codigesting fats, oils, and greases with municipal wastewater sludge can greatly improve biomethane recovery at wastewater treatment facilities. Process loading rates of fats, oils, and greases have been previously tested with little knowledge of the digester microbial community structure, and high transient fat loadings have led to long chain fatty acid (LCFA) accumulation and digester upsets. This study utilized recently-developed quantitative PCR assays for syntrophic LCFA-degrading bacteria along with 16S amplicon sequencing to relate changes in microbial community structure to LCFA accumulation during transient loading increases to an anaerobic codigester receiving waste restaurant oil and municipal wastewater sludge. The 16S rRNA gene concentration of the syntrophic β-oxidizing genus Syntrophomonas increased to ∼15% of the Bacteria community in the codigester, but stayed below 3% in the control digester that was fed only wastewater sludge. Methanosaeta and Methanospirillum were the dominant methanogenic genera enriched in the codigester, and together comprised over 80% of the Archaea community by the end of the experimental period. Constrained ordination showed that changes in the codigester Bacteria and Archaea community structures were related to measures of digester performance. Notably, the effluent LCFA concentration in the codigester was positively correlated to the specific loading rate of waste oil normalized to the Syntrophomonas 16S rRNA concentration. Specific loading rates of 0-1.5 × 10(-12) g VS oil/16S gene copies-day resulted in LCFA concentrations below 30 mg/g TS, whereas LCFA accumulated up to 104 mg/g TS at higher transient loading rates. Based on the community-dependent loading limitations found, enhanced biomethane production from high loadings of fats, oils and greases can be achieved by promoting a higher biomass of slow-growing syntrophic consortia, such as with longer digester solids retention times. This work also

  8. Modified Alizarin Red S-Alcian Blue Staining for Reptilian Skeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ja’far Luthfi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal staining is an important method in anatomical study. The aim of the research was to develop staining and clearing method of Reptilian skeleton using Alizarin Red S-Alcian Blue. The specimen were eviscerated, fixed, stained, cleared, and keep in glycerine solution. This modified double-staining has successfully stain bone and cartilage of Reptilian.

  9. Full reflector thickness and isolation thickness on neutron transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Tomohiro; Naito, Yoshitaka; Komuro, Yuichi.

    1988-08-01

    A method to determine ''full reflector thickness'' and ''isolation thickness'', which is utilized for criticality safety evaluation on nuclear fuel facilities, was proposed in this paper. Firstly, a calculation was tryed to obtain the two kinds of thicknesses from the result of criticality calculations for a specific case. Then, two simple equations which calculates the two kinds of thicknesses were made from the relation between reflector (or isolator) thickness and k eff , and one-group diffusion theory. Finally, we proposed a new method to determine the thicknesses. From the method we proposed, ''full reflector thickness'' and ''isolation thickness'' can be obtain using the equations and migration length of the reflector (or isolator) and infinite and effective multiplication factor of the fuel. (author)

  10. Amnioinfusion in thick meconium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Mini; Charulata; Dimple; Aggarwal, Neera; Faridi, M M A

    2004-08-01

    There are conflicting reports regarding the results of amnioinfusion in the management of meconium passage in utero. This study was done to evaluate transcervical amnioinfusion for meconium stained amniotic fluid during labour. 196 women at term in early labour with meconium were randomized to receive either transcervical intrapartum amnioinfusion with saline (96) or routine obstetrical care (100). Transcervical amnioinfusion of one liter saline infused over 30-45 minutes. End points were relief of decelerations, incidence of vaginal delivery, presence of meconium below the neonatal cords, and X-ray evidence of meconium aspiration. Amnioinfusion resulted in relief of decelerations in 75% of cases as compared to 7% in the control group. Eighty-eight percent of patients delivered vaginally as compared to 58% in the control group (pamnioinfusion with positive X-rays for meconium aspiration in only 12.5% versus 26% (p amnioinfusion is a safe, simple and inexpensive technique that reduces operative intervention and improves neonatal outcome, and is of tremendous relevance in developing countries.

  11. [Intrapartum amnioinfusion in patients with meconium-stained amniotic fluid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Karina; Samborska, Monika; Bilar, Marek; Sipak-Szmigiel, Olimpia; Ronin-Walknowska, Elzbieta

    2008-09-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of intrapartum amnioinfusion in the presence of meconium stained amniotic fluid. 93 women with meconium-stained amniotic fluid were assigned to receive amnioinfusion or no amnioinfusion (128 women). The trials were evaluated for fetal distress syndrome, route of delivery, fetal acidemia, Apgar score at 1 and 5 min., meconium aspiration syndrome, postpartum endometritis and maternal hospital stays. Amnioinfusion in cases of meconium-stained fluid did not improve the number of fetal distress symptoms during fetal heart rate monitoring. Amnioinfusion was associated with a significant decrease of neonatal acidemia although it did not improve Apgar score. In our study amnioinfusion was not associated with reduction in the incidence of neonatal outcome and puerperial complications.

  12. Indocyanine green staining facilitates detection of bleb leakage during trabeculectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Teruhiko; Kiuchi, Takahiro; Kawana, Keisuke; Oshika, Tetsuro

    2007-03-01

    To report a new technique to visualize bleb leakage using indocyanine green (ICG) staining during trabeculectomy. The ICG solution was widely applied over the filtering bleb including the conjunctival wound before completion of trabeculectomy. This procedure was performed in 48 eyes of 44 consecutive patients undergoing trabeculectomy between December 2004 and October 2005. Without staining, bleb leakage was not identified by the direct observation under the operating microscope. ICG staining clearly visualized aqueous leakage from the bleb in 5 eyes (10.4%). The bleb leakage in these eyes was easily repaired with 10-0 nylon sutures, and no eyes, including these 5 cases, showed bleb leakage after surgery. There were no intraoperative and postoperative complications related to ICG application. The application of ICG during trabeculectomy is a simple and useful technique to facilitate detection and repair of the bleb leakage.

  13. MEGARA Optics: stain removal in PBM2Y prisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguirre-Aguirre, D; Izazaga-Pérez, R; Carrasco, E; Villalobos-Mendoza, B; De Paz, A Gil; Gallego, J; Iglesias, J

    2017-01-01

    MEGARA is the new integral-field and multi-object optical spectrograph for the GTC. For medium and high resolution, the dispersive elements are volume phase holographic gratings, sandwiched between two flat windows and two prisms of high optical precision. The prisms are made of Ohara PBM2Y optical glass. After the prisms polishing process, some stains appeared on the surfaces. For this, in this work is shown the comparative study of five different products (muriatic acid, paint remover, sodium hydroxide, aqua regia and rare earth liquid polish) used for trying to eliminate the stains of the HR MEGARA prisms. It was found that by polishing with the hands the affected area, and using a towel like a kind of pad, and polish during five minutes using rare earth, the stains disappear completely affecting only a 5% the rms of the surface quality. Not so the use of the other products that did not show any apparent result. (paper)

  14. Chromosome-specific staining to detect genetic rearrangements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, Joe W.; Pinkel, Daniel; Tkachuk, Douglas; Westbrook, Carol

    2013-04-09

    Methods and compositions for staining based upon nucleic acid sequence that employ nucleic acid probes are provided. Said methods produce staining patterns that can be tailored for specific cytogenetic analyzes. Said probes are appropriate for in situ hybridization and stain both interphase and metaphase chromosomal material with reliable signals. The nucleic acid probes are typically of a complexity greater than 50 kb, the complexity depending upon the cytogenetic application. Methods and reagents are provided for the detection of genetic rearrangements. Probes and test kits are provided for use in detecting genetic rearrangements, particularly for use in tumor cytogenetics, in the detection of disease related loci, specifically cancer, such as chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and for biological dosimetry. Methods and reagents are described for cytogenetic research, for the differentiation of cytogenetically similar but genetically different diseases, and for many prognostic and diagnostic applications.

  15. Microscopic analysis and simulation of check-mark stain on the galvanized steel strip

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Hongyun; Yoon, Hyun Gi; Chung, Myung Kyoon

    2010-11-01

    When galvanized steel strip is produced through a continuous hot-dip galvanizing process, the thickness of adhered zinc film is controlled by plane impinging air gas jet referred to as "air-knife system". In such a gas-jet wiping process, stain of check-mark or sag line shape frequently appears. The check-mark defect is caused by non-uniform zinc coating and the oblique patterns such as "W", "V" or "X" on the coated surface. The present paper presents a cause and analysis of the check-mark formation and a numerical simulation of sag lines by using the numerical data produced by Large Eddy Simulation (LES) of the three-dimensional compressible turbulent flow field around the air-knife system. It was found that there is alternating plane-wise vortices near the impinging stagnation region and such alternating vortices move almost periodically to the right and to the left sides on the stagnation line due to the jet flow instability. Meanwhile, in order to simulate the check-mark formation, a novel perturbation model has been developed to predict the variation of coating thickness along the transverse direction. Finally, the three-dimensional zinc coating surface was obtained by the present perturbation model. It was found that the sag line formation is determined by the combination of the instantaneous coating thickness distribution along the transverse direction near the stagnation line and the feed speed of the steel strip.

  16. Improvement of malaria diagnostic system based on acridine orange staining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Masatsugu; Teramoto, Isao; Chan, Chim W; Idris, Zulkarnain Md; Kongere, James; Kagaya, Wataru; Kawamoto, Fumihiko; Asada, Ryoko; Isozumi, Rie; Kaneko, Akira

    2018-02-07

    Rapid diagnosis of malaria using acridine orange (AO) staining and a light microscope with a halogen lamp and interference filter was deployed in some malaria-endemic countries. However, it has not been widely adopted because: (1) the lamp was weak as an excitation light and the set-up did not work well under unstable power supply; and, (2) the staining of samples was frequently inconsistent. The halogen lamp was replaced by a low-cost, blue light-emitting diode (LED) lamp. Using a reformulated AO solution, the staining protocol was revised to make use of a concentration gradient instead of uniform staining. To evaluate this new AO diagnostic system, a pilot field study was conducted in the Lake Victoria basin in Kenya. Without staining failure, malaria infection status of about 100 samples was determined on-site per one microscopist per day, using the improved AO diagnostic system. The improved AO diagnosis had both higher overall sensitivity (46.1 vs 38.9%: p = 0.08) and specificity (99.0 vs 96.3%) than the Giemsa method (N = 1018), using PCR diagnosis as the standard. Consistent AO staining of thin blood films and rapid evaluation of malaria parasitaemia with the revised protocol produced superior results relative to the Giemsa method. This AO diagnostic system can be set up easily at low cost using an ordinary light microscope. It may supplement rapid diagnostic tests currently used in clinical settings in malaria-endemic countries, and may be considered as an inexpensive tool for case surveillance in malaria-eliminating countries.

  17. Just Greasing the Wheels?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    We traditionally see diplomats as mediators.They build bridges between nations and they repair them when they break. During a crisis, diplomats ‘keep it cool’ and try to prevent the crisis from worsening into armed conflict. Diplomats are the men and women who keep the international system runnin...

  18. Wanted: elbow grease

    CERN Document Server

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2013-01-01

    In Divonne-les-Bains, an association founded by former CERN personnel is restoring the oldest hydroelectric plant in France. The adventure started more than ten years ago, and now you’re invited to take part…   View of the benzole-powered thermic engine from 1907. Georges Leskens, a spritely 85-year-old, is president of the Divonnelectro association. Georges, a former electrical engineer at CERN, now has a new goal: to bring the Moulin David hydroelectric plant in Divonne-les-Bains, which he found in a derelict state in 2001, back to life. “When I entered the plant for the first time, I found several remarkable period machines… and the extent of the damage,” recalls Georges. “Among other things, the town used the building for storing salt and grit for the roads... so I don’t need to tell you what state the mechanisms were in!” Aware of the historical value of the site (see box), Georges convinced the D...

  19. TANTANGAN DAN PELUANG JURUSAN TADRIS DI IAIN/STAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Kosim

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A consequence of dualism in education policy, the implementatin of tadris in IAIN often faces many problems. This paper will describe the history and the development of tadris in IAIN/STAIN. The discussion begins with the origin of tadris in IAIN, problems araise in the implementation of tadris in IAIN/STAIN, including the alumni’s problem. In addition, this article also reveals several opportunities for tadris graduation to develop madrasah as purely religious school to public islamic school as the result of the paradigm change.

  20. Fungal Fluorescence in Hematoxylin-Eosin Stained Sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Durdu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A forty-six-year-old male presented to our dermatology clinic with two-year history of itching on his groin. His medical history revealed various topical corticosteroid creams without improvement of the skin lesion. Dermatological examination revealed erythematous nodules and follicular pustules on erythematous background on the inguinal area (Figure 1a. Potassium hydroxide (KOH examination was negative. Tzanck smear revealed abundant neutrophils without bacteria, fungi, or parasite. The histopathological examination showed granuloma formation with multinuclear giant cells and Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS-positive hyphae and spores around the hair follicles (Figure 1b, 1c. Hematoxylin-eosin (H&E-stained slides were examined under an immunofluorescence microscope, and these hyphae and spores showed autofluorescence (Figure 1d. Based on the clinical and histopathological findings, a Majocchi’s granuloma was considered. All lesions disappeared with topical and systemic terbinafine (250 mg/day treatment for six weeks.\tPearls;\tClinical: Not only bacteria, but also fungi, parasites, and viruses may cause folliculitis. Cytology should be initially done to identify the causes of infectious folliculitis. In case of negative cytology, histopathological examination and molecular methods can be used.\tCytological: To cytologically identify all of the causes of folliculitis, four separate samples should be taken: (i the first sample is stained with May-Grünwald-Giemsa for routine cytological examination; (ii the second sample is used for KOH testing; (iii the third sample is stained with an acid-fast stain to detect mycobacteria; and (iv the last specimen is Gram-stained to identify whether it is Gram-positive or Gram-negative (1. Histopathological: In infectious diseases, a definitive diagnosis should be done to identify the etiologic agent. The detection of fungal elements is challenging, when histopathological examination is performed with the H

  1. News from the Biological Stain Commission no. 12

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyon, H O

    2012-01-01

    In this 12(th) issue of News from the Biological Stain Commission (BSC) under the heading of Regulatory affairs, the Biological Stain Commission's International Affairs Committee presents information from the meetings of ISO/TC 212/WG 1 Quality and competence in the medical laboratory and ISO....../TC 212/WG 3 In vitro diagnostic products both held on 2 - 3 June 2010, plus information on the second plenary meeting of ISO/TC 212 Clinical laboratory testing and in vitro diagnostic test systems held on 4 June 2010. All meetings took place in Seoul, Republic of Korea. Finally, information is provided...

  2. Evaluation Method of Accumulated Cooking Oil Stains in Room

    OpenAIRE

    五十嵐, 由利子; 中村, 和吉; 萬羽, 郁子; Igarashi, Yuriko; Nakamura, Kazuyoshi; Banba, Ikuko

    2005-01-01

    The diffusion of the oil mist while cooking affects the entire room, leaving stains on the ceiling and walls. The validity of measuring the color difference of stains was examined by installing teflon plates in the kitchen and the adjacent space with a view to assessing the oil diffusion. Four houses were designated for the examination. In each house, four teflon plates (20×40mm) were installed on the ceiling and walls of the kitchen and the space adjacent to it. Then, one plate was removed a...

  3. Radioactive thickness gauge (1962)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guizerix, J.

    1962-01-01

    The author describes a thickness gauge in which the scintillating crystal detector alternately 'sees' a radioactive source through the material which is to be measured and then a control source of the same material; the radiations are separated in time by an absorbing valve whose sections are alternately full and hollow. The currents corresponding to the two sources are separated beyond the photomultiplier tube by a detector synchronized with the rotation of the valve. The quotient of these two currents is then obtained with a standard recording potentiometer. It is found that the average value of the response which is in the form G = f(I 1 /I 2 ) is not affected by decay of the radioactive sources, and that it is little influenced by variations of high tension, temperature, or properties of the air in the source detector interval. The performance of the gauge is given. (author) [fr

  4. Thick-Big Descriptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lai, Signe Sophus

    The paper discusses the rewards and challenges of employing commercial audience measurements data – gathered by media industries for profitmaking purposes – in ethnographic research on the Internet in everyday life. It questions claims to the objectivity of big data (Anderson 2008), the assumption...... communication systems, language and behavior appear as texts, outputs, and discourses (data to be ‘found’) – big data then documents things that in earlier research required interviews and observations (data to be ‘made’) (Jensen 2014). However, web-measurement enterprises build audiences according...... to a commercial logic (boyd & Crawford 2011) and is as such directed by motives that call for specific types of sellable user data and specific segmentation strategies. In combining big data and ‘thick descriptions’ (Geertz 1973) scholars need to question how ethnographic fieldwork might map the ‘data not seen...

  5. High-purity fatty acid methyl ester production from canola, soybean, palm, and yellow grease lipids by means of a membrane reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Peigang; Dube, Marc A.; Tremblay, Andre Y.

    2008-01-01

    High-purity fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) was produced from different lipids, such as soybean oil, canola oil, a hydrogenated palm oil/palm oil blend, yellow grease, and brown grease, combined with methanol using a continuous membrane reactor. The membrane reactor combines reaction and separation in a single unit, provides continuous mixing of raw materials, and maintains a high molar ratio of methanol to lipid in the reaction loop while maintaining two phases during the reaction. It was demonstrated that the membrane reactor can be operated using a very broad range of feedstocks at highly similar operating conditions to produce FAME. The total glycerine and free glycerine contents of the FAME produced were below the ASTM D6751 standard after a single reaction step. Under essentially the same reaction conditions, a conventional batch reaction was not able to achieve the same degree of FAME purity. The effect of the fatty acid composition of the lipid feedstocks on the FAME purity was also shown. It was demonstrated that, due to the fatty acid composition, FAME from virgin soybean oil and virgin canola oil was produced in the membrane reactor within ASTM specifications even without a water washing step

  6. Disentangling The Thick Concept Argument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg, Olle

    2007-01-01

    Critics argue that non-cognitivism cannot adequately account for the existence and nature of some thick moral concepts. They use the existence of thick concepts as a lever in an argument against non-cognitivism, here called the Thick Concept Argument (TCA). While TCA is frequently invoked...

  7. Evaluation of a fluorescent lectin-based staining technique for some acidophilic mining bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fife, D.J.; Bruhn, D.F.; Miller, K.S.; Stoner, D.L.

    2000-01-01

    A fluorescence-labeled wheat germ agglutinin staining technique was modified and found to be effective for staining gram-positive, acidophilic mining bacteria. Bacteria identified by others as being gram positive through 16S rRNA sequence analyses, yet clustering near the divergence of that group, stained weakly. Gram-negative bacteria did not stain. Background staining of environmental samples was negligible, and pyrite and soil particles in the samples did not interfere with the staining procedure

  8. Quantitative assessment of silver-stained nucleolar organizer region in odontogenic cysts to correlate the growth and malignant potentiality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Sailendra Nath; Paul, R R; Ray, Jay Gopal; Majumdar, Sumit; Uppala, Divya

    2017-01-01

    The most common and important odontogenic cyst involving jaws is the odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) or primordial cyst, the dentigerous cyst and the radicular cyst. These cysts all though do not show similar behavior, they all have the potentiality to recur. Silver nitrate staining of the nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs) of the benign and malignant lesions is becoming very useful as a diagnostic indicator. Thus, the aim of this study is to assess the diagnostic potential of AgNORs in the cystic epithelium of common odontogenic cysts. Archived specimens of odontogenic cysts were stained with hematoxylin and eosin stain and AgNOR stain. The comparative evaluation of the AgNOR counts was done among the three varieties of odontogenic cysts, i.e., radicular cysts, dentigerous cysts and OKC and were observed that the mean for OKC was significantly higher than that of radicular cyst. Therefore, AgNor could be used as an efficient tool for comparative evaluation of microscopic features such as epithelial thickness, surface keratinization and mural proliferation in dentigerous cyst to that of the AgNOR count.

  9. A generally applicable sequential alkaline phosphatase immunohistochemical double staining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Loos, Chris M.; Teeling, Peter

    2008-01-01

    A universal type of sequential double alkaline phosphatase immunohistochemical staining is described that can be used for formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded and cryostat tissue sections from human and mouse origin. It consists of two alkaline phosphatase detection systems including enzymatic

  10. Pre-staining thin layer chromatography method for amino acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2010-12-13

    Dec 13, 2010 ... inexpensive and the results obtained were clean and reproducible. However, it is suitable for the high throughput screening of amino acid-producing strains. Key words: Thin layer chromatography, pre-staining, amino acid detection. INTRODUCTION. Several analytical techniques have been often used for.

  11. Alternate gram staining technique using a fluorescent lectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizemore, R K; Caldwell, J J; Kendrick, A S

    1990-01-01

    Fluorescence-labeled wheat germ agglutinin binds specifically to N-acetylglucosamine in the outer peptidoglycan layer of gram-positive bacteria. The peptidoglycan layer of gram-negative bacteria is covered by a membrane and is not labeled by the lectin. By exploiting this phenomenon, an alternative Gram staining technique has been developed. Images PMID:1697149

  12. Black stain and dental caries in Filipino schoolchildren.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinrich-Weltzien, R.; Monse, B.; Palenstein Helderman, W.H. van

    2009-01-01

    Black stain is defined as dark pigmented exogenous substance in lines or dots parallel to the gingival margin and firmly adherent to the enamel at the cervical third of the tooth crowns in the primary and permanent dentition. OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of black

  13. The use of special stains in liver biopsy interpretation: Implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-12-03

    Dec 3, 2015 ... Key words: Biliary disease, iron overload, liver biopsy, special stains. Date of Acceptance: 03-Dec- .... effect of cutting fresh sections after trimming. This limits ... alcohol as a significant factor in the iron deposition found in these ...

  14. Amalgam stained dentin: a proper substrate for bonding resin composite?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtanus, J.D.

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays the use of dental amalgam is mostly abandoned and substituted by tooth colored resin composites that can be bonded to teeth tissues by adhesive techniques. The aim of this thesis was to find out whether dark stained dentin, as often observed after removal of amalgam restorations and

  15. A comparison study of histochemical staining of various tissues after ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mean =5.28) then Carnoy's (mean = 4.00). For Alcian blue and Perl's Prussian blue, the best staining qualities were obtained by Formalin (mean = 4.76 and 5.64 respectively) followed by Carnoy's (mean = 2.88 and 3.92 respectively).

  16. Christendom's Narratives and the Stained Glass Designs of Yusuf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper attempts a recast of Christendom's narratives in the stained glass designs of Yusuf Cameron Adebayo Grillo as the distinctive overarching mechanism of the evangelisation paradigm of the post Vatican II Church. It, therefore, draws attention to the delimitation of time frames in the history of the art form. Using the ...

  17. Comparison of various staining techniques in the diagnosis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Medical and Biomedical Sciences ... This can be achieved via various diagnostic techniques, commonly microscopy in this environment, hence the need to compare the efficacy of the commonly ... The objective of the study is to identify the most effective of the commonly used stains in identifying these parasites.

  18. Stain-free histopathology by programmable supercontinuum pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tu, Haohua; Liu, Yuan; Turchinovich, Dmitry

    2016-01-01

    The preparation, staining, visualization and interpretation of histological images of tissue is well accepted as the gold standard process for the diagnosis of disease. These methods have a long history of development, and are used ubiquitously in pathology, despite being highly time- and labour-...

  19. Laser beam diameter for port wine stain treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijzer, M.; Pickering, J. W.; van Gemert, M. J.

    1991-01-01

    Optimal port wine stain treatment requires the selective absorption of light by the ectatic blood vessels. We investigated whether deeper blood vessels can be coagulated, without damaging other cutaneous structures, by varying the laser beam diameter. The penetration of the light was simulated with

  20. A comparision of modified and standard papanicolaou staining ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To compare modified and standard Papanicolaou (Pap) staining methods in the assessment of the cervical smears. Design: A descriptive cross sectional study. setting: Kenyatta National Hospital. Subjects: One hundred and sixty two women who were eligible for a pap smear and met the inclusion criteria.

  1. Borax methylene blue: a spectroscopic and staining study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, P T; Russo, A; Reynolds, C; Lillie, R D

    1978-07-01

    Borax methylene blue is quite stable at room temperatures of 22-25 C. At 30 C polychroming is slow; during 50 days in a water bath at this temperature the absorption peak moves from 665 to 656 nm. At 35 C, the absorption peak reaches 660 nm in 7 days, 654 nm in 14. At 60 C polychroming is rapid, the absorption peak reaching 640-620 nm in 3 days. When the pH of the borax methylene blue solutions, normally about 9.0, is adjusted to pH 6.5, the absorption peak remains at 665 nm even when incubated at 60 C for extended periods. When used as a blood stain 0.4 ml borax methylene blue (1% methylene blue in 1% borax), 4 ml acetone, 2 ml borax-acid phosphate buffer to bring the solution to pH 6.5, and distilled water to make 40 ml, with 0.2 ml 1% eosin added just before using, an excellent Nocht-Giemsa type stain is achieved after 30 minutes staining. The material plasmodia P. falciparum, P. vivax, and P. berghei stain moderate blue with dark red chromatin and green to black pigment granules. The study confirms Malachowski's 1891 results and explains Gautier's 1896-98 failure to duplicate it.

  2. a comparison of modified and standard papanicolaou staining ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-07-07

    Jul 7, 2011 ... modified pap method and standard Papanicolaou method respectively. The staining characteristics in .... alcohol was replaced by 0.5 % acetic acid and also, .... was 37.1, standard deviation of 8.0 and a median of. 36.5 years.

  3. Interlaboratory variability of Ki67 staining in breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Focke, Cornelia M.; Bürger, Horst; van Diest, Paul J.; Finsterbusch, Kai; Gläser, Doreen; Korsching, Eberhard; Decker, Thomas; Anders, M.; Bollmann, R.; Eiting, Fr; Friedrich, K.; Habeck, J. O.; Haroske, G.; Hinrichs, B.; Behrens, A.; Krause, Lars Udo; Braun-Lang, U.; Lorenzen, J.; Minew, N.; Mlynek-Kersjes, M.; Nenning, H.; Packeisen, J.; Poche-de Vos, F.; Reyher-Klein, S.; Rothacker, D.; Schultz, M.; Sturm, U.; Tawfik, M.; Berghäuser, K. H.; Böcker, W; Cserni, G.; Habedank, S.; Lax, S.; Moinfar, F.; Regitnig, P.; Reiner-Concin, A.; Rüschoff, J.; Varga, Z.; Woziwodski, J.

    2017-01-01

    Background Postanalytic issues of Ki67 assessment in breast cancers like counting method standardisation and interrater bias have been subject of various studies, but little is known about analytic variability of Ki67 staining between pathology labs. Our aim was to study interlaboratory variability

  4. Randomised trial of amnioinfusion during labour with meconium stained amniotic fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathor, Asmita Muthal; Singh, Ruchira; Ramji, S; Tripathi, Reva

    2002-01-01

    To assess the effect of amnioinfusion during labour with meconium stained amniotic fluid on caesarean section rate and perinatal outcome. Prospective randomised controlled study. A tertiary care teaching hospital in India. Women in labour at term with meconium stained amniotic fluid. Two hundred women in labour with > or = 37 weeks gestation, single cephalic presentation with moderate or thick meconium were randomised to control and amnioinfusion groups at a 1:1 ratio. Amnioinfusion was performed using 500 mL of normal saline over a period of 30 minutes in a study group. The control group received routine care. Both groups had intermittent auscultation of fetal heart rate during labour. The primary outcome measure was caesarean section rate. Secondary outcome measures were meconium aspiration syndrome, 1 minute and 5 minute apgar amnioinfusion group was less than the control group (RR 0.47; 95% CI 0.24-0.93). Amnioinfusion was associated with a significant decrease in the incidence of meconium at the vocal cords (P = 0.001); improvement in 1 minute apgar scores (P Amnioinfusion in an under resourced labour ward decreases caesarean section rates and fetal morbidity.

  5. [Improvement of Phi bodies stain and its clinical significance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xu-Bo; Lu, Xing-Guo; Yan, Li-Juan; Xiao, Xi-Bin; Wu, Dong; Xu, Gen-Bo; Zhang, Xiao-Hong; Zhao, Xiao-Ying

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this study was to improve the dyeing method of hydroperoxidase (HPO), to analyze the morphologic features of Phi bodies and to evaluate the clinical application of this method. 128 bone marrow or peripheral blood smears from patients with myeloid and lymphoid malignancies were stained by improved HPO staining. The Phi bodies were observed with detection rate of Phi bodies in different leukemias. 69 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) specimens were chosen randomly, the positive rate and the number of Phi bodies between the improved HPO and POX stain based on the same substrate of 3, 3'diaminobenzidine were compared. The results showed that the shape of bundle-like Phi bodies was variable, long or short. while the nubbly Phi bodies often presented oval and smooth. Club-like Phi bodies were found in M(3). The detection rates of bundle-like Phi bodies in AML M(1)-M(5) were 42.9% (6/14), 83.3% (15/18), 92.0% (23/25), 52.3% (11/21), 33.3% (5/15) respectively, and those of nubbly Phi bodies were 28.6% (4/14), 66.7% (12/18), 11.1% (3/25), 33.3% (7/21), 20.0% (3/15) respectively. The detection rate of bundle-like Phi bodies in M(3) was significantly higher than that in (M(1) + M(2)) or (M(4) + M(5)) groups. The detection rate of nubbly Phi bodies in (M(1) + M(2)) group was higher than that in M(3) group. In conclusion, after improvement of staining method, the HPO stain becomes simple, the detection rate of Phi bodies is higher than that by the previous method, the positive granules are more obvious, and the results become stable. This improved method plays an important role in differentiating AML from ALL, subtyping AML, and evaluating the therapeutic results.

  6. Development of a preparation and staining method for fetal erythroblasts in maternal blood : Simultaneous immunocytochemical staining and FISH analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterwijk, JC; Mesker, WE; Ouwerkerk-van Velzen, MCM; Knepfle, CFHM; Wiesmeijer, KC; van den Burg, MJM; Beverstock, GC; Bernini, LF; van Ommen, Gert-Jan B; Kanhai, HHH; Tanke, HJ

    1998-01-01

    In order to detect fetal nucleated red blood cells (NRBCs) in maternal blood, a protocol was developed which aimed at producing a reliable staining method for combined immunocytochemical and FISH analysis. The technique had to be suitable for eventual automated screening of slides. Chorionic villi

  7. Lactate: creatinine ratio in babies with thin meconium staining of amniotic fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojha, Rishi Kant; Singh, Saroj K; Batra, Sanjay; Sreenivas, V; Puliyel, Jacob M

    2006-01-01

    Background ACOG states meconium stained amniotic fluid (MSAF) as one of the historical indicators of perinatal asphyxia. Thick meconium along with other indicators is used to identify babies with severe intrapartum asphyxia. Lactate creatinine ratio (L: C ratio) of 0.64 or higher in first passed urine of babies suffering severe intrapartum asphyxia has been shown to predict Hypoxic Ischaemic Encephalopathy (HIE). Literature review shows that meconium is passed in distress and thin meconium results from mixing and dilution over time, which may be hours to days. Thin meconium may thus be used as an indicator of antepartum asphyxia. We tested L: C ratios in a group of babies born through thin and thick meconium, and for comparison, in a group of babies without meconium at birth. Methods 86 consecutive newborns, 36 to 42 weeks of gestation, with meconium staining of liquor, were recruited for the study. 52 voided urine within 6 hours of birth; of these 27 had thick meconium and 25 had thin meconium at birth. 42 others, who did not have meconium or any other signs of asphyxia at birth provided controls. Lactate and creatinine levels in urine were tested by standard enzymatic methods in the three groups. Results Lactate values are highest in the thin MSAF group followed by the thick MSAF and controls. Creatinine was lowest in the thin MSAF, followed by thick MSAF and controls. Normal babies had an average L: C ratio of 0.13 (± 0.09). L: C ratio was more among thin MSAF babies (4.3 ± 11.94) than thick MSAF babies (0.35 ± 0.35). Median L: C ratio was also higher in the thin MSAF group. Variation in the values of these parameters is observed to be high in the thin MSAF group as compared to other groups. L: C ratio was above the cutoff of 0.64 of Huang et al in 40% of those with thin meconium. 2 of these developed signs of HIE with convulsions (HIE Sarnat and Sarnat Stage II) during hospital stay. One had L: C Ratio of 93 and the other of 58.6. A smaller proportion (20

  8. Effect of staining solutions and repolishing on color stability of direct composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Mariano Mundim

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess the color change of three types of composite resins exposed to coffee and cola drink, and the effect of repolishing on the color stability of these composites after staining. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifteen specimens (15 mm diameter and 2 mm thick were fabricated from microhybrid (Esthet-X; Dentsply and Filtek Z-250; 3M ESPE and high-density hybrid (Surefil; Dentsply composites, and were finished and polished with aluminum oxide discs (Sof-Lex; 3M ESPE. Color of the specimens was measured according to the CIE L*a*b* system in a refection spectrophotometer (PCB 6807; BYK Gardner. After baseline color measurements, 5 specimens of each resin were immersed in different staining solutions for 15 days: G1 - distilled water (control, G2 - coffee, G3 - cola soft drink. Afterwards, new color measurement was performed and the specimens were repolished and submitted to new color reading. Color stability was determined by the difference (ΔE between the coordinates L*, a*, and b* obtained from the specimens before and after immersion into the solutions and after repolishing. RESULTS: There was no statistically signifcant difference (ANOVA, Tukey's test; p>0.05 among the ΔE values for the different types of composites after staining or repolishing. For all composite resins, coffee promoted more color change (ΔE>3.3 than distilled water and the cola soft drink. After repolishing, the ΔE values of the specimens immersed in coffee decreased to clinically acceptable values (ΔE<3.3, but remained signifcantly higher than those of the other groups. CONCLUSIONS: No signifcant difference was found among composite resins or between color values before and after repolishing of specimens immersed in distilled water and cola. Immersing specimens in coffee caused greater color change in all types of composite resins tested in this study and repolishing contributed to decrease staining to clinically acceptable

  9. Using Perls Staining to Trace the Iron Uptake Pathway in Leaves of a Prunus Rootstock Treated with Iron Foliar Fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Juan J; Carrasco-Gil, Sandra; Abadía, Anunciación; Abadía, Javier

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to trace the Fe uptake pathway in leaves of Prunus rootstock (GF 677; Prunus dulcis × Prunus persica) plants treated with foliar Fe compounds using the Perls blue method, which detects labile Fe pools. Young expanded leaves of Fe-deficient plants grown in nutrient solution were treated with Fe-compounds using a brush. Iron compounds used were the ferrous salt FeSO4, the ferric salts Fe2(SO4)3 and FeCl3, and the chelate Fe(III)-EDTA, all of them at concentrations of 9 mM Fe. Leaf Fe concentration increases were measured at 30, 60, 90 min, and 24 h, and 70 μm-thick leaf transversal sections were obtained with a vibrating microtome and stained with Perls blue. In vitro results show that the Perls blue method is a good tool to trace the Fe uptake pathway in leaves when using Fe salts, but is not sensitive enough when using synthetic Fe(III)-chelates such as Fe(III)-EDTA and Fe(III)-IDHA. Foliar Fe fertilization increased leaf Fe concentrations with all Fe compounds used, with inorganic Fe salts causing larger leaf Fe concentration increases than Fe(III)-EDTA. Results show that Perls blue stain appeared within 30 min in the stomatal areas, indicating that Fe applied as inorganic salts was taken up rapidly via stomata. In the case of using FeSO4 a progression of the stain was seen with time toward vascular areas in the leaf blade and the central vein, whereas in the case of Fe(III) salts the stain mainly remained in the stomatal areas. Perls stain was never observed in the mesophyll areas, possibly due to the low concentration of labile Fe pools.

  10. Persepsi Pemustaka Terhadap Kualitas Layanan Perpustakaan Pascasarjana STAIN Pamekasan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hairul A Cahyo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Library is one of supporting element from institute, which can fullfill user’s information need for teaching learning process especially in postgraduate STAIN Pamekasan. To create optimal and good service in postgraduate library, it can see from user’s perception in service quality in postgraduate STAIN Pamekasan. This research used data collection technic; observation, interview and documentation. Officer quality in giving servive to user visible in copability and attitude from officer it self. Library service also can see from collection of books in library to fullfill user’s need. Supporting tools in building and rooms. To complete some tools, it also need infrastructure to fullfill library needs in service. Infrastructure needed are utensils, it means to support library actinity which unused up such as; bookshelf, table and chair, computer and internet, air conditioner, room’s light or lamp, catalogue and photocopy machine.

  11. [Standardization of Blastocystis hominis diagnosis using different staining techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eymael, Dayane; Schuh, Graziela Maria; Tavares, Rejane Giacomelli

    2010-01-01

    The present study was carried out from March to May 2008, with the aim of evaluating the effectiveness of different techniques for diagnosing Blastocystis hominis in a sample of the population attended at the Biomedicine Laboratory of Feevale University, Novo Hamburgo, Rio Grande do Sul. On hundred feces samples from children and adults were evaluated. After collection, the samples were subjected to the techniques of spontaneous sedimentation (HPJ), sedimentation in formalin-ether (Ritchie) and staining by means of Gram and May-Grünwald-Giemsa (MGG). The presence of Blastocystis hominis was observed in 40 samples, when staining techniques were used (MGG and Gram), while sedimentation techniques were less efficient (32 positive samples using the Ritchie technique and 20 positive samples using the HPJ technique). Our results demonstrate that HPJ was less efficient than the other methods, thus indicating the need to include laboratory techniques that enable parasite identification on a routine basis.

  12. Lectins stain cells differentially in the coral, Montipora capitata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.; Farah, Yael

    2014-01-01

    A limitation in our understanding of coral disease pathology and cellular pathogenesis is a lack of reagents to characterize coral cells. We evaluated the utility of plant lectins to stain tissues of a dominant coral, Montipora capitata, from Hawaii. Of 22 lectins evaluated, nine of these stained structures in the upper or basal body wall of corals. Specific structures revealed by lectins that were not considered distinct or evident on routine hematoxylin and eosin sections of coral tissues included apical and basal granules in gastrodermis and epidermis, cnidoglandular tract and actinopharynx cell surface membranes, capsules of mature holotrichous isorhizas, and perivitelline and periseminal cells. Plant lectins could prove useful to further our understanding of coral physiology, anatomy, cell biology, and disease pathogenesis.

  13. Removing foxing stains from old paper at 157 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarantopoulou, E.; Samardzija, Z.; Kobe, S.; Kollia, Z.; Cefalas, A.C.

    2003-01-01

    Using a molecular fluorine laser at 157 nm foxing stains were removed successfully from a 16th century old paper. Laser cleaning of stains and foxing from old paper manuscripts is far more effective at 157 nm in comparison to different wavelengths without leaving any yellowish after-effect on the paper. This is because at 157 nm illumination of old paper, complete bond breaking of all the organic molecules of the paper is taking place. Mass spectroscopy at 157 nm and for moderate laser intensities up to 1 mJ/cm 2 of old paper suffering from foxing indicate organic matter disintegration to small photofragments atomic, diatomic or triatomic, which are flying apart with supersonic speed. In addition high spatial resolution energy dispersive X-ray system (EDXS) analysis over the effected areas indicate the presence of iron, suggesting that biological activity is taking place preferentially in paper areas containing iron

  14. Solid-Color Stains on Western Redcedar and Redwood Siding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Knaebe

    2013-01-01

    You have decided to put wood siding on your new house. Several questions are probably going through your mind: “What’s the best type of wood?” “Should I use paint or stain?” “Should I apply the finish before or after I install the siding?”

  15. An improved method for staining cell colonies in clonogenic assays

    OpenAIRE

    Guda, Kishore; Natale, Leanna; Markowitz, Sanford D.

    2007-01-01

    Clonogenic assay is a widely used experimental approach to test for the effects of drugs/genes on the growth and proliferative characteristics of cells in vitro. Accurate quantitation of treatment effects in clonogeneic assays depends on the ability to visualize and count cell colonies precisely. We report a novel method (referred as ETeB) for staining cell colonies grown on plastic and specially coated substrates like collagen. Using colon cancer cell lines grown on plastic and collagen, we ...

  16. PHACE syndrome misdiagnosed as a port-wine stain

    OpenAIRE

    Thomson, Jason; Greig, Aina; Lloyd, Claire; Morrison, Danny; Flohr, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    We present the case of a boy born with a large macular, segmental vascular anomaly over the left face, initially diagnosed as a capillary malformation (port-wine stain) by the postnatal paediatric team. The vascular anomaly in the face then grew rapidly during the first few weeks of life and started to occlude the left eye, causing parental concerns about the infant's vision. A dermatological opinion established that the lesion was a segmental infantile haemangioma (IH). This, in combination ...

  17. USE OF VITAL STAINING IN STORED HUMAN PLATELETS MORPHOFUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Makarov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Apheresis and pooled platelet concentrates, stored at 22°C during 5 days, were studied with morho-functional platelet rate analysis, based on vital cell staining and registration with fluorescent microscope. It was revealed that apheresis and pooled PC had, on the average, normal values of morphological and functional parameters. On the other hand, both PC kept MFPR of cells only for 2 days storage. Longer PC storage caused the significant decay of morphological and functional platelet parameters.

  18. Technique and Feasibility of a Dual Staining Method for Estrogen Receptors and AgNORs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Günther

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A new staining method for dual demonstration of Estrogen receptors (ER and argyrophilc Nucleolus‐Organizer Regions (AgNORs was developed. To rule out possible reciprocal effects, serial slides of 10 invasive ductale breast cancers were stained with either the single staining method or the simultaneous ER/AgNOR‐staining method and investigated comparatively. By measuring the slides with the image analysis system AMBA, reciprocal effects could be excluded. It was proven that dual staining of both markers results in a reproducible and specific staining result. We concluded that it is justified to measure AgNORs in immunohistochemically stained cells.

  19. Study of stained glass window using PIXE-PIGE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, G.; Bemden, Y. Vanden; Pirotte, M.; Gilbert, B.

    2005-01-01

    We had the opportunity to study a large panel (100x80cm) containing more than 40 stained glass pieces. Among them several come from restorations having taken place at different periods. The study of this rather complex arrangement has been processed by stages:- the elemental composition of 16 zones were determined: several differences were identified and among them the Na/K ratio which allowed to set three groups of glass type; - the measurement of the Na concentrations by the two techniques give information in bulk (PIGE) and at the near surface (PIXE); the values defined by the (C PIGE -C PIXE) )/C PIGE plotted in function of the historical estimation of the age of the stained glass pieces (original and restored) indicate a real correlation between the two variables; - the red-colored pieces were specially investigated in order to determine which coloration technique was employed (bulk coloration, superficial staining, multilayered flashing, etc.); - the corrosion was investigated by scanning two different worsened zones with a 0.5mm diameter beam spot. This study shows the possibilities of the PIGE-PIXE association, but also points out some weaknesses, which have to be solved by other techniques; unfortunately, in that case, the non-destructive aspect could be lost

  20. Evaluation of surviving fraction using nonclonogenic staining densitometry method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiguchi, Iku; Ogawa, Koichi; Ito, Hisao; Hashimoto, Shozo

    1994-01-01

    This study was performed to compare our nonclonogenic survival assay (densitometry assay, DM assay) with the widely used clonogenic assay. The established cell lines (HaLa, RMUG, IMR, GOTO) were grown in F 10 medium. The cells were spread in 24-well plates, irradiated with different doses, cultured for about one week and stained with crystal violet after the culture period. Taking the transparent images of the stained well on the light source with the CCD camera, the images were collected with the matrix size 64 x 64, and the integrated optical density of the entire surface of each well was determined by computer with our original program. As the number of cells in the well is reflected by its staining density, the surviving fraction was calculated as the fraction of growth in the irradiated wells relative to controls. The survival curves obtained by the densitometry method showed good correlations with those obtained by clonogenic assay. It is possible to predict intrinsic radiosensitivity with this assay, even if the cells do not form good colonies. However, this method is based on measurements in cultures which depend on the metabolism and growth kinetics of the irradiated cells. Cells should grow exponetially in the same manner in any well to obtain a result similar to that of clonogenic assay, although growth kinetics may be altered by irradiation. This, the endpoint must be strictly standardized. (author)

  1. Static and dynamic through thickness lamina properties of thick laminates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lahuerta, F.; Nijssen, R.P.L.; Van der Meer, F.P.; Sluys, L.J.

    2015-01-01

    Thick laminates are increasingly present in large composites structures such as wind turbine blades. Different factors are suspected to be involved in the decreased static and dynamic performance of thick laminates. These include the effect of self-heating, the scaling effect, and the manufacturing

  2. Calcium hydroxylapatite treatment of human skin: evidence of collagen turnover through picrosirius red staining and circularly polarized microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zerbinati N

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nicola Zerbinati,1 Alberto Calligaro2 1Department of Surgical and Morphological Sciences, University of Insubria (Varese and Polyspecialist Medical Center, Pavia, 2Department of Public Health, Experimental and Forensic Medicine, Unit of Histology and Embryology, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy Background: Calcium hydroxylapatite (CaHA, Radiesse® is a biocompatible, injectable filler for facial soft-tissue augmentation that provides volume to tissues, followed by a process of neocollagenesis for improved skin quality. Objective: To examine the effects of CaHA treatment on the molecular organization of collagen using a combination of picrosirius red staining and circularly polarized light microscopy.Methods: Five subjects received subdermal injection of 0.3 mL of CaHA in tissues scheduled for removal during abdominoplasty 2 months later. Tissue specimens from the CaHA injection site and a control untreated area were obtained from excised skin at the time of surgery. Processed tissue sections were stained with picrosirius red solution 0.1% and visualized under circularly polarized light microscopy for identification of thick mature (type I and thin newly formed (type III collagen fibers. Pixel signals from both the control and CaHA-treated areas were extracted from the images, and morphometric computerized hue analysis was performed to provide a quantitative evaluation of mature and newly formed collagen fibers.Results: Under picrosirius red staining and circularly polarized light microscopy, green/yellow areas (thin newly formed collagen type III were visible among the collagen fibers in tissue sections from the area of CaHA injection. In contrast, the majority of the collagen fibers appeared red (thick mature collagen type I in control tissues. Morphometric analysis confirmed that, following CaHA treatment, the proportion of fibers represented by thin newly formed collagen type III increased significantly (p<0.01 in comparison with the

  3. Brain Slice Staining and Preparation for Three-Dimensional Super-Resolution Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Christopher L.; Gudheti, Manasa V.; Fleckenstein, Annette E.; Jorgensen, Erik M.

    2018-01-01

    Localization microscopy techniques – such as photoactivation localization microscopy (PALM), fluorescent PALM (FPALM), ground state depletion (GSD), and stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM) – provide the highest precision for single molecule localization currently available. However, localization microscopy has been largely limited to cell cultures due to the difficulties that arise in imaging thicker tissue sections. Sample fixation and antibody staining, background fluorescence, fluorophore photoinstability, light scattering in thick sections, and sample movement create significant challenges for imaging intact tissue. We have developed a sample preparation and image acquisition protocol to address these challenges in rat brain slices. The sample preparation combined multiple fixation steps, saponin permeabilization, and tissue clarification. Together, these preserve intracellular structures, promote antibody penetration, reduce background fluorescence and light scattering, and allow acquisition of images deep in a 30 μm thick slice. Image acquisition challenges were resolved by overlaying samples with a permeable agarose pad and custom-built stainless steel imaging adapter, and sealing the imaging chamber. This approach kept slices flat, immobile, bathed in imaging buffer, and prevented buffer oxidation during imaging. Using this protocol, we consistently obtained single molecule localizations of synaptic vesicle and active zone proteins in three-dimensions within individual synaptic terminals of the striatum in rat brain slices. These techniques may be easily adapted to the preparation and imaging of other tissues, substantially broadening the application of super-resolution imaging. PMID:28924666

  4. Determination of thermal and physical properties of port-wine stain lesions using pulsed photothermal radiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, J. Stuart; Jacques, Steven L.; Wright, William H.

    1992-06-01

    A method for quantitative characterization of port wine stain (PWS) is presented. Pulsed photothermal radiometry (PPTR) uses a non-invasive infrared radiometry system to measure changes in surface temperature induced by pulsed radiation. When a pulsed laser is used to irradiate a PWS, an initial temperature jump (T-jump) is seen due to the heating of the epidermis as a result of melanin absorption. Subsequently, heat generated in the subsurface blood vessels due to hemoglobin absorption is detected by PPTR as a delayed thermal wave as the heat diffuses toward the skin surface. The time delay and magnitude of the delayed PPTR signal indicate the depth and thickness of the PWS. In this report, we present an initial clinical study of PPTR measurements on PWS patients. Computer simulations of various classes of PWS illustrate how the PPTR signal depends on the concentration of epidermal melanin, and depth and thickness of the PWS. The goal of this research is to provide a means of characterizing PWS before initiating therapy, guiding laser dosimetry, and advising the patient as to the time course and efficacy of the planned protocol.

  5. Reactor performance and microbial community dynamics during anaerobic co-digestion of municipal wastewater sludge with restaurant grease waste at steady state and overloading stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razaviarani, Vahid; Buchanan, Ian D

    2014-11-01

    Linkage between reactor performance and microbial community dynamics was investigated during mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of restaurant grease waste (GTW) with municipal wastewater sludge (MWS) using 10L completely mixed reactors and a 20day SRT. Test reactors received a mixture of GTW and MWS while control reactors received only MWS. Addition of GTW to the test reactors enhanced the biogas production and methane yield by up to 65% and 120%, respectively. Pyrosequencing revealed that Methanosaeta and Methanomicrobium were the dominant acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogen genera, respectively, during stable reactor operation. The number of Methanosarcina and Methanomicrobium sequences increased and that of Methanosaeta declined when the proportion of GTW in the feed was increased to cause an overload condition. Under this overload condition, the pH, alkalinity and methane production decreased and VFA concentrations increased dramatically. Candidatus cloacamonas, affiliated within phylum Spirochaetes, were the dominant bacterial genus at all reactor loadings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effectiveness of Vascular Markers (Immunohistochemical Stains) in Soft Tissue Sarcomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeem, Namra; Mushtaq, Sajid; Akhter, Noreen; Hussain, Mudassar; Hassan, Usman

    2018-05-01

    To ascertain the effectiveness of IHC markers of vascular origin like CD31, CD34, FLI1 and ERG in vascular soft tissue sarcomas including angiosarcomas, Kaposi sarcomas, epithelioid hemangioendothelioma and a non-vascular soft tissue sarcoma (Epithelioid sarcoma). Descriptive study. Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Lahore, from 2011 to 2017. Diagnosed cases of angiosarcomas (n=48), epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (n=9), Kaposi sarcoma (n=9) and epithelioid sarcoma (n=20) were selected. Immunohistochemical staining as performed on formalin fixed paraffin embedded sections. The sections were stained for the following markers: CD34 (VENTANA clone Q Bend 10), CD31 (Leica clone 1 A 10), FLI1 (CELL MARQUE clone MRQ-1) and ERG (CELL MARQUE clone EP111). A complete panel of CD34, CD31 and ERG was applied on 8/48 cases of angiosarcomas with triple positivity in 6 cases. Eight cases showed positivity for only CD31 and ERG and 2 cases showed positivity for only ERG. A complete panel of CD34, CD31 and ERG was applied on 3/9 cases of epithelioid hemangioendothelioma with positivity for all markers in 2 cases. Combined positivity for ERG and CD34 was seen in 2 cases and on 4 cases only CD31 immunohistochemical was solely applied with 100% positivity. FLI1 was not applied on any case. Among 9 cases of Kaposi sarcoma, ERG, CD34 and CD31 in combination were applied on only 1 case with triple positivity. Remaining cases show positivity for either CD34, CD31 or FLI1. Majority of cases of epithelioid sarcomas were diagnosed on the basis of cytokeratin and CD34 positivity with loss of INI1. The other vascular markers showed negativity in all cases. Among these four markers, ERG immunohistochemical stain is highly effective for endothelial differentiation due to its specific nuclear staining pattern in normal blood vessel endothelial cells (internal control) as well as neoplastic cells of vascular tumors and lack of background staining.

  7. Detection of radioactively labeled proteins is quenched by silver staining methods: quenching is minimal for 14C and partially reversible for 3H with a photochemical stain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Keuren, M.L.; Goldman, D.; Merril, C.R.

    1981-01-01

    Silver staining methods for protein detection in polyacrylamide gels have a quenching effect on autoradiography and fluorography. This effect was quantitated for proteins in two-dimensional gels by microdensitometry using a computer equipped with an image processor and by scintillation counting of proteins solubilized from the gels. The original histologically derived silver stain had a quenching effect that was severe and irreversible for 3 H detection and moderate for 14 C detection. A silver stain based on photochemical methods had minimal quenching of 14 C detection and less of a quenching effect than the histological stain for 3 H detection. The 3 H quenching effect was partially reversible for the photochemical stain

  8. Smoking influences on the thickness of marginal gingival epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villar Cristina Cunha

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Smoking patients show reduction of inflammatory clinical signs that might be associated with local vasoconstriction and an increased gingival epithelial thickness. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the thickness of the marginal gingival oral epithelium in smokers and non-smokers, with clinically healthy gingivae or with gingivitis. Twenty biopsies were obtained from four different groups. Group I: non-smokers with clinically healthy gingivae (n = 5. Group II: non-smokers with gingivitis (n = 5. Group III: smokers with clinically healthy gingivae (n = 5. Group IV: smokers with gingivitis (n = 5. These biopsies were histologically processed, serially sectioned at 5 mm, stained with H. E., and examined by image analysis software (KS400, which was used to perform the morphometric evaluation and the quantification of the major epithelial thickness, the epithelial base thickness and the external and internal epithelial perimeters. Differences between the four groups were analyzed using ANOVA test and Tukey's test. The criteria for statistical significance were accepted at the probability level p < 0.05. A greater epithelial thickness was observed in smokers independent of the gingival health situation.

  9. Optimum target thickness for polarimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitnik, I.M.

    2003-01-01

    Polarimeters with thick targets are a tool to measure the proton polarization. But the question about the optimum target thickness is still the subject of discussion. An attempt to calculate the most common parameters concerning this problem, in a few GeV region, is made

  10. Evaluation of Papanicolaou stain for studying micronuclei in buccal cells under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyad, Sohair B A; Israel, Ebenezer; El-Setouhy, Maged; Nasr, Ghada Radwan; Mohamed, Mostafa K; Loffredo, Christopher A

    2006-01-01

    To compare Papanicolaou (Pap) and May-Grünwald Giemsa (MGG) stain as 2 techniques for staining for buccal mucosal cells to detect micronuclei (MN) infield studies. Eighty cytologic smears (2 per individual) were taken from the buccal mucosa of 40 cigarette smokers recruited at a rural village in Egypt. Forty smears were stained with Pap stain and 40 with MGG stain. All were assessed for cellularity and scored for MN. Pap stain was faster and easier to process and transport in the field study than was MGG stain. Regarding MGG smears, bacteria and cell debris masked the MN as compared to Pap smears, in which the fixative destroyed the bacteria and made the cell boundaries clearly demarcated. Using Pap stain, MN were seen easily in transparent cytoplasm. Pap stain is the preferred method infield studies for scoring and detecting MN in cells of buccal mucosa.

  11. Machine vision system for automated detection of stained pistachio nuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Tom C.

    1995-01-01

    A machine vision system was developed to separate stained pistachio nuts, which comprise of about 5% of the California crop, from unstained nuts. The system may be used to reduce labor involved with manual grading or to remove aflatoxin contaminated product from low grade process streams. The system was tested on two different pistachio process streams: the bi- chromatic color sorter reject stream and the small nut shelling stock stream. The system had a minimum overall error rate of 14% for the bi-chromatic sorter reject stream and 15% for the small shelling stock stream.

  12. Production of tissue microarrays, immunohistochemistry staining and digitalization within the human protein atlas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampf, Caroline; Olsson, Ingmarie; Ryberg, Urban; Sjöstedt, Evelina; Pontén, Fredrik

    2012-05-31

    The tissue microarray (TMA) technology provides the means for high-throughput analysis of multiple tissues and cells. The technique is used within the Human Protein Atlas project for global analysis of protein expression patterns in normal human tissues, cancer and cell lines. Here we present the assembly of 1 mm cores, retrieved from microscopically selected representative tissues, into a single recipient TMA block. The number and size of cores in a TMA block can be varied from approximately forty 2 mm cores to hundreds of 0.6 mm cores. The advantage of using TMA technology is that large amount of data can rapidly be obtained using a single immunostaining protocol to avoid experimental variability. Importantly, only limited amount of scarce tissue is needed, which allows for the analysis of large patient cohorts (1 2). Approximately 250 consecutive sections (4 μm thick) can be cut from a TMA block and used for immunohistochemical staining to determine specific protein expression patterns for 250 different antibodies. In the Human Protein Atlas project, antibodies are generated towards all human proteins and used to acquire corresponding protein profiles in both normal human tissues from 144 individuals and cancer tissues from 216 different patients, representing the 20 most common forms of human cancer. Immunohistochemically stained TMA sections on glass slides are scanned to create high-resolution images from which pathologists can interpret and annotate the outcome of immunohistochemistry. Images together with corresponding pathology-based annotation data are made publically available for the research community through the Human Protein Atlas portal (www.proteinatlas.org) (Figure 1) (3 4). The Human Protein Atlas provides a map showing the distribution and relative abundance of proteins in the human body. The current version contains over 11 million images with protein expression data for 12.238 unique proteins, corresponding to more than 61% of all proteins

  13. Immunogold staining procedure for the localisation of regulatory peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varndell, I M; Tapia, F J; Probert, L; Buchan, A M; Gu, J; De Mey, J; Bloom, S R; Polak, J M

    1982-01-01

    The use of protein A- and IgG-conjugated colloidal gold staining methods for the immuno-localisation of peptide hormones and neurotransmitters at light- and electron microscope level are described and discussed. Bright-field and dark-ground illumination modes have been used to visualise the gold-labelled antigenic sites at the light microscope level. Immunogold staining procedures at the ultrastructural level using region-specific antisera have been adopted to localise specific molecular forms of peptides including gastrin (G17 and G34), glucagon and pro-glucagon, insulin and pro-insulin, in normal tissue and in tumours of the gastroenteropancreatic system. Similar methods have been used to demonstrate the heterogeneity of p-type nerves in the enteric nervous system. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) has been localised to granular sites (mean +/- S.D. granule diameter = 98 +/- 19 nm) in nerve terminals of the enteric plexuses and in tumour cells of diarrhoeogenic VIP-producing neoplasias (mean +/- S.D. granule diameter = 126 +/- 37 nm) using immunogold procedures applied to ultraviolet-cured ultrathin sections. Co-localisation of amines and peptides in carotid body type I cells and in chromaffin cells of normal adrenal medulla and phaeochromocytomas has also been demonstrated. Advantages of the immunogold procedures over alternative immunocytochemical techniques are discussed.

  14. Authenticity screening of stained glass windows using optical spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meulebroeck, Wendy; Wouters, Hilde; Nys, Karin; Thienpont, Hugo

    2016-11-01

    Civilized societies should safeguard their heritage as it plays an important role in community building. Moreover, past technologies often inspire new technology. Authenticity is besides conservation and restoration a key aspect in preserving our past, for example in museums when exposing showpieces. The classification of being authentic relies on an interdisciplinary approach integrating art historical and archaeological research complemented with applied research. In recent decades analytical dating tools are based on determining the raw materials used. However, the traditional applied non-portable, chemical techniques are destructive and time-consuming. Since museums oftentimes only consent to research actions which are completely non-destructive, optical spectroscopy might offer a solution. As a case-study we apply this technique on two stained glass panels for which the 14th century dating is nowadays questioned. With this research we were able to identify how simultaneous mapping of spectral signatures measured with a low cost optical spectrum analyser unveils information regarding the production period. The significance of this research extends beyond the re-dating of these panels to the 19th century as it provides an instant tool enabling immediate answering authenticity questions during the conservation process of stained glass, thereby providing the necessary data for solving deontological questions about heritage preservation.

  15. Color stability and staining of silorane after prolonged chemical challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Jesus, Vivian CBR; Martinelli, Nata Luiz; Poli-Frederico, Regina Célia

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of prolonged chemical challenges on color stability and staining susceptibility of a silorane-based composite material when compared to methacrylate-based composites. Methods: Cylindrical specimens (n=24) were fabricated from...... methacrylate (Filtek Z250, 3M ESPE; Filtek Z350XT, 3M ESPE; Master Fill, Biodinâmica) or silorane-based (Filtek P90, 3M ESPE) composite materials. Initial color was registered in a spectrophotometer. Specimens were divided in four groups and individually stored at 37°C in 0.02N citric acid, 0.02N phosphoric...... acid, 75% ethanol or distilled water (control) for 7, 14, 21, and 180 days, when new measurements were performed. A staining test was performed (n=12) after 21 days of chemical challenge by immersion in coffee during 3 weeks at 37°C. Color changes (¿E) were characterized using the CIEL*a*b* color...

  16. Analysis of surface stains on modern gold coins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corregidor, V., E-mail: vicky.corregidor@itn.pt [Instituto Tecnológico e Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); CFNUL, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Alves, L.C. [Instituto Tecnológico e Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); CFNUL, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Cruz, J. [Instituto Tecnológico e Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); CFNUL, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Dep. Física, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-216 Caparica (Portugal)

    2013-07-01

    It is a mandatory practice in the European Mint Houses to provide a certificate of guarantee of their products specially when issuing commemorative gold or silver coins. This practise should assure satisfaction and trust both for the mint house and for the demanding numismatic collector. For these reasons the Mint Houses follow a strict quality control in all the production steps in order to ensure a no-defect, fully supervised output. In spite of all the undertaken precautions, different surface stains with diverse origin on gold coins recently minted in Europe were observed. Those were compositionally studied by means of IBA techniques at the end-stage nuclear microprobe installed at IST/ITN. From this study it was possible to identify several possible sources for these stains. The presence of defects at the surface of these commemorative coins address the need of improving the quality control system and the results here presented point out where these improvements should occur, in order to reduce/eliminate them and give the customer a product that with time probably will be revalued.

  17. Color stability of ceramic brackets immersed in potentially staining solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guignone, Bruna Coser; Silva, Ludimila Karsbergen; Soares, Rodrigo Villamarim; Akaki, Emilio; Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; Pithon, Matheus Melo; Oliveira, Dauro Douglas

    2015-01-01

    To assess the color stability of five types of ceramic brackets after immersion in potentially staining solutions. Ninety brackets were divided into 5 groups (n = 18) according to brackets commercial brands and the solutions in which they were immersed (coffee, red wine, coke and artificial saliva). The brackets assessed were Transcend (3M/Unitek, Monrovia, CA, USA), Radiance (American Orthodontics, Sheboygan, WI, USA), Mystique (GAC International Inc., Bohemia, NY, USA) and Luxi II (Rocky Mountain Orthodontics, Denver, CO, USA). Chromatic changes were analyzed with the aid of a reflectance spectrophotometer and by visual inspection at five specific time intervals. Assessment periods were as received from the manufacturer (T0), 24 hours (T1), 72 hours (T2), as well as 7 days (T3) and 14 days (T4) of immersion in the aforementioned solutions. Results were submitted to statistical analysis with ANOVA and Bonferroni correction, as well as to a multivariate profile analysis for independent and paired samples with significance level set at 5%. The duration of the immersion period influenced color alteration of all tested brackets, even though these changes could not always be visually observed. Different behaviors were observed for each immersion solution; however, brackets immersed in one solution progressed similarly despite minor variations. Staining became more intense over time and all brackets underwent color alterations when immersed in the aforementioned solutions.

  18. Stained glasses under the nuclear microprobe: A window into history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilarigues, M. [Dep. de Conservacao e Restauro and R and D Unit Vidro e da Ceramica Para as Artes, FCT-UNL, Quinta da Torre, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal)], E-mail: mgv@fct.unl.pt; Fernandes, P. [Dep. de Conservacao e Restauro and R and D Unit Vidro e da Ceramica Para as Artes, FCT-UNL, Quinta da Torre, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Alves, L.C.; Silva, R.C. da [Dep. Fisica, LFI, ITN, E.N.10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal)

    2009-06-15

    Stained glass fragments from the 15th, 16th and 20th centuries, belonging to Mosteiro de Santa Maria da Vitoria, Batalha (Portugal), were characterised non-destructively in a nuclear microprobe. The work aimed at finding the composition of the glasses and glass paintings and relating these with the corresponding production periods. The elemental compositions of the glass fragments were obtained by means of scanning micro-beam Particle Induced X-ray Emission ({mu}-PIXE) spectrometry in selected cross-sections. These were complemented by micro X-Ray fluorescence spectrometry. Characterisation of colour was performed by optical absorption spectroscopy in the UV-vis range, while the corrosion products were identified by optical microscopy and {mu}-FTIR (Fourier Transform Infra Red) spectroscopy in combination with the data generated by {mu}-PIXE. Nuclear microprobe analysis allowed unveiling the compositions and structures, in particular of glass paintings and corrosion products. While it is not surprising that Fe, Cu and Pb were the main elements identified in the grisaille paintings of all studied periods, as well as Ag and Cu found in the glasses decorated with yellow silver painting, their distribution gave important clues on the materials and techniques used to manufacture these stained glasses. Furthermore, it allowed establishing a definite relation between the compositions found and the periods of production, with the added bonus of correctly reassigning the manufacturing period of some samples.

  19. Color stability of ceramic brackets immersed in potentially staining solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Coser Guignone

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the color stability of five types of ceramic brackets after immersion in potentially staining solutions.METHODS: Ninety brackets were divided into 5 groups (n = 18 according to brackets commercial brands and the solutions in which they were immersed (coffee, red wine, coke and artificial saliva. The brackets assessed were Transcend (3M/Unitek, Monrovia, CA, USA, Radiance (American Orthodontics, Sheboygan, WI, USA, Mystique (GAC International Inc., Bohemia, NY, USA and Luxi II (Rocky Mountain Orthodontics, Denver, CO, USA. Chromatic changes were analyzed with the aid of a reflectance spectrophotometer and by visual inspection at five specific time intervals. Assessment periods were as received from the manufacturer (T0, 24 hours (T1, 72 hours (T2, as well as 7 days (T3 and 14 days (T4 of immersion in the aforementioned solutions. Results were submitted to statistical analysis with ANOVA and Bonferroni correction, as well as to a multivariate profile analysis for independent and paired samples with significance level set at 5%.RESULTS: The duration of the immersion period influenced color alteration of all tested brackets, even though these changes could not always be visually observed. Different behaviors were observed for each immersion solution; however, brackets immersed in one solution progressed similarly despite minor variations.CONCLUSIONS: Staining became more intense over time and all brackets underwent color alterations when immersed in the aforementioned solutions.

  20. Coproduction of detergent compatible bacterial enzymes and stain removal evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niyonzima, Francois N; More, Sunil S

    2015-10-01

    Most of the detergents that are presently produced contain the detergent compatible enzymes to improve and accelerate the washing performance by removing tough stains. The process is environment friendly as the use of enzymes in the detergent formulation reduces the utilization of toxic detergent constituents. The current trend is to use the detergent compatible enzymes that are active at low and ambient temperature in order to save energy and maintain fabric quality. As the detergent compatible bacterial enzymes are used together in the detergent formulation, it is important to co-produce the detergent enzymes in a single fermentation medium as the enzyme stability is assured, and production cost gets reduced enormously. The review reports on the production, purification, characterization and application of detergent compatible amylases, lipases, and proteases are available. However, there is no specific review or minireview on the concomitant production of detergent compatible amylases, lipases, and proteases. In this minireview, the coproduction of detergent compatible enzymes by bacterial species, enzyme stability towards detergents and detergent components, and stain release analysis were discussed. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Is hematoxylin-eosin staining in rectal mucosal and submucosal biopsies still useful for the diagnosis of Hirschsprung disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Suellen; Santos, Maria Mercês; Aoun Tannuri, Ana Cristina; Zerbini, Maria Claudia Nogueira; de Mendonça Coelho, Maria Cecília; de Oliveira Gonçalves, Josiane; Tannuri, Uenis

    2017-12-06

    Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining of a full-thickness rectal wall fragment is classically used for the diagnosis of Hirschsprung disease (HD). However, this technique requires large fragments for a better diagnosis. Additionally, the histochemical and immunohistochemical methods of staining small fragments of rectal mucosal and submucosal biopsies are not available in all centers. Therefore, the possibility of diagnosing HD through HE staining in these biopsies could be a valuable alternative for centers that do not have more specific techniques. The objectives of the current investigation were to evaluate the concordance of the results obtained by HE staining and the calretinin method with acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in fragments of mucosa and submucosa in the diagnosis of HD. For this study, 50 cases from our laboratory were selected. The tissue material was embedded in paraffin. Sixty levels of each fragment were utilized for HE, and the other 3 levels were used for calretinin. These slides were analyzed under the microscope, photographed and classified as either positive for HD when no ganglion cells were found with nerve trunks present or as negative when ganglion cells were found. The results from reading the slides were compared with those of AChE. Of the 50 cases evaluated by the HE technique, only 5 contradicted the diagnosis based on AChE, with a Kappa value of 0.800 and an accuracy of 90%. In the comparison between calretinin and AChE, 8 cases were discordant, with a Kappa value of 0.676 and an accuracy of 84%. The concordance of results from AChE and HE methods was satisfactory, allowing for the potential use of the HE method for fragments of mucosa and submucosa as a valid alternative in the diagnosis of HD. The immunohistochemical technique of calretinin did not show good agreement with the AChE activity in our study.

  2. Corneal thickness: measurement and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Niels; Hjortdal, Jesper

    2004-03-01

    The thickness of the cornea was reported in more than 100-year-old textbooks on physiological optics (Helmholtz, Gullstrand). Physiological interest was revived in the 1950s by David Maurice, and over the next 50 years, this 'simple' biological parameter has been studied extensively. Several techniques for its measurement have been described and physiological and clinical significance have been studied. In this review, the different methods and techniques of measurement are briefly presented (optical, ultrasound). While the corneal thickness of many animals are the same over a considerable part of the surface, in the human cornea anterior and posterior curvature are not concentric giving rise to a problem of definition. Based on this the precision and accuracy of determining the central corneal thickness are discussed. Changes in corneal thickness reflects changes in function of the boundary layers, in particular the endothelial barrier. The absolute value of thickness is of importance for the estimation of IOP but also in diagnosis of corneal and systemic disorders. Finally it is discussed to what extent the thickness is a biometric parameter of significance, e.g. in the progression of myopia or in the development of retinal detachment.

  3. Comparison of Gram and Kopeloff stains in the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libman, Michael D; Kramer, Michael; Platt, Robert

    2006-03-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is commonly diagnosed by using the Nugent score, a semiquantitative scoring system to evaluate bacterial morphotypes on Gram stain of vaginal secretions. Some authors have suggested using the Kopeloff modification of the Gram stain. Asymptomatic BV in pregnancy has been associated with adverse outcomes. We performed both stains on simultaneously collected vaginal smears from 2652 women at 24-26 weeks of gestation. Gram staining gave significantly higher (more abnormal) Nugent scores than Kopeloff staining. Compared to the Kopeloff stain, the number of specimens graded as indeterminate or consistent with BV by Gram stain increased by 29% (469 versus 364, Pstaining was significantly better than Gram staining (agreement=74% versus 63%, intraclass correlation coefficient=0.87 versus 0.79, P<.05, 95% confidence intervals 0.85-0.89 and 0.75-0.82, respectively).

  4. Effectiveness of clean-up procedures on stain susceptibility of different orthodontic adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Pundlik Mane

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Chemical-cure adhesive showed higher stain susceptibility than light-cure adhesive in all clean-up procedures. Both adhesives would show less stain susceptibility with polishing step with rubber cup and pumice.

  5. Improved Nissl method to stain formaldehyde or glutaraldehyde-fixed material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böck, P

    1979-05-15

    Nissl staining of paraffin sections from formaldehyde- or glutaraldehyde-fixed specimens is significantly intensified when sections are kept in a 50% (w/v) aqueous solution of potassium metabisulfite before being stained by a conventional Nissl method.

  6. Maternal and fetal characteristics associated with meconium-stained amniotic fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balchin, Imelda; Whittaker, John C; Lamont, Ronald F

    2011-01-01

    To estimate the rates of meconium-stained amniotic fluid (AF) and adverse outcome in relation to gestational age and racial group, and to investigate the predictors of meconium-stained AF.......To estimate the rates of meconium-stained amniotic fluid (AF) and adverse outcome in relation to gestational age and racial group, and to investigate the predictors of meconium-stained AF....

  7. [Automated analysis of bacterial preparations manufactured on automatic heat fixation and staining equipment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Heat fixation of preparations was made in the fixation bath designed by EMKO (Russia). Programmable "Emkosteiner" (EMKO, Russia) was used for trial staining. Reagents set Micko-GRAM-NITsF was applied for Gram's method of staining. It was demostrated that automatic smear fixation equipment and programmable staining ensure high-quality imaging (1% chromaticity variation) good enough for standardization of Gram's staining of microbial preparations.

  8. Indirect immunofluorescence staining of Chlamydia trachomatis inclusions in microculture plates with monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, M; Chernesky, M; Mahony, J

    1984-06-01

    Indirect immunofluorescence (IF) staining, using a monoclonal antibody, detected two- to fourfold more inclusions than did iodine staining. Of 274 clinical specimens, 53 (19.3%) were positive by IF on passage 1 as compared with 33 (12%) by iodine staining (P less than 0.005). IF-stained inclusions in McCoy cells in the bottom of microculture wells were readily viewed with a long-focal-length objective at a magnification of 250 X.

  9. Indirect immunofluorescence staining of Chlamydia trachomatis inclusions in microculture plates with monoclonal antibodies.

    OpenAIRE

    Zapata, M; Chernesky, M; Mahony, J

    1984-01-01

    Indirect immunofluorescence (IF) staining, using a monoclonal antibody, detected two- to fourfold more inclusions than did iodine staining. Of 274 clinical specimens, 53 (19.3%) were positive by IF on passage 1 as compared with 33 (12%) by iodine staining (P less than 0.005). IF-stained inclusions in McCoy cells in the bottom of microculture wells were readily viewed with a long-focal-length objective at a magnification of 250 X.

  10. Conjugates of a Photoactivated Rhodamine with Biopolymers for Cell Staining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitsev, Sergei Yu.; Shaposhnikov, Mikhail N.; Solovyeva, Daria O.; Solovyeva, Valeria V.; Rizvanov, Albert A.

    2014-01-01

    Conjugates of the photoactivated rhodamine dyes with biopolymers (proteins, polysaccharides, and nucleic acids) are important tools for microscopic investigation of biological tissue. In this study, a precursor of the photoactivated fluorescent dye (PFD) has been successfully used for staining of numerous mammalian cells lines and for conjugate formation with chitosan (“Chitosan-PFD”) and histone H1 (“Histone H1.3-PFD”). The intensive fluorescence has been observed after photoactivation of these conjugates inside cells (A431, HaCaT, HEK239, HBL-100, and MDCK). Developed procedures and obtained data are important for further application of novel precursors of fluorescent dyes (“caged” dyes) for microscopic probing of biological objects. Thus, the synthesized “Chitosan-PFD” and “Histone H1-PFD” have been successfully applied in this study for intracellular transport visualization by fluorescent microscopy. PMID:25383365

  11. Role of cytochemical staining in diagnosis of monocytic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Yan; Yan Chenhua; Shi Huilin; Liu Yanrong; Qiu Jingying; Jiang Bing; Wang Debing

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore the role of cytochemical staining in MIC(morphology ,immunology and cytogenetics) typing of acute monocytic leukemia (AML-M5) and acute myelomonocytic leukemia (AML-M4). Methods: The authors analyzed the characteristics of morphology, immunology and cytogenetics in 47 cases of diagnosed AML. Results: Eventually, they were diagnosed with MIC. There were 25 cases with AML-M5, 19 cases with AML-M4(consisted of 5 cases diagnosed AML-M4Eo), 2 cases with acute myeloid leukemia with t(8:21) and 1 case with T-ALL. Conclusions: During MIC typing of AML-M4 and AML-M5, the diagnostic value of morphology remains important, for immunophenotype, cytogenetics and morphology are interdependent. Immunophenotype and cytogenetics are necessary for improvement of the accuracy rate of diagnosis. (authors)

  12. PHACE syndrome misdiagnosed as a port-wine stain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Jason; Greig, Aina; Lloyd, Claire; Morrison, Danny; Flohr, Carsten

    2015-07-15

    We present the case of a boy born with a large macular, segmental vascular anomaly over the left face, initially diagnosed as a capillary malformation (port-wine stain) by the postnatal paediatric team. The vascular anomaly in the face then grew rapidly during the first few weeks of life and started to occlude the left eye, causing parental concerns about the infant's vision. A dermatological opinion established that the lesion was a segmental infantile haemangioma (IH). This, in combination with the posterior fossa malformation previously detected on antenatal scanning and confirmed by an MRI postnatally, satisfied the criteria for Posterior fossa abnormalities, Haemangiomas, Arterial abnormalities, Cardiac abnormalities and Eye abnormalities (PHACE) syndrome: a rare cutaneous neurovascular syndrome. This case highlights the diagnostic challenge posed by early phenotypes of haemangiomas as well as the importance of correctly diagnosing PHACE syndrome. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  13. Digital simulation of staining in histopathology multispectral images: enhancement and linear transformation of spectral transmittance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, Pinky A; Yagi, Yukako

    2012-05-01

    Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain is currently the most popular for routine histopathology staining. Special and/or immuno-histochemical (IHC) staining is often requested to further corroborate the initial diagnosis on H&E stained tissue sections. Digital simulation of staining (or digital staining) can be a very valuable tool to produce the desired stained images from the H&E stained tissue sections instantaneously. We present an approach to digital staining of histopathology multispectral images by combining the effects of spectral enhancement and spectral transformation. Spectral enhancement is accomplished by shifting the N-band original spectrum of the multispectral pixel with the weighted difference between the pixel's original and estimated spectrum; the spectrum is estimated using M transformed to the spectral configuration associated to its reaction to a specific stain by utilizing an N × N transformation matrix, which is derived through application of least mean squares method to the enhanced and target spectral transmittance samples of the different tissue components found in the image. Results of our experiments on the digital conversion of an H&E stained multispectral image to its Masson's trichrome stained equivalent show the viability of the method.

  14. A Comparison of Heat versus Methanol Fixation for Gram Staining Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnerath, Jeanne M.; Roland, Jenna M.; Rossi, Lucas C.; Weishalla, Steven R.; Wolf, Melissa M.

    2009-01-01

    Gram staining bacteria is a fundamental technique introduced in general biology and microbiology laboratory courses. Two common problems students encounter when Gram staining bacteria are (1) having a difficult time locating bacterial cells on the microscope slide and (2) over-decolorizing bacterial cells during the staining procedure such that…

  15. Age estimation of blood stains by hemoglobin derivative determination using reflectance spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremmer, Rolf H.; Nadort, Annemarie; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; van Gemert, Martin J. C.; Aalders, Maurice C. G.

    2011-01-01

    Blood stains can be crucial in reconstructing crime events. However, no reliable methods are currently available to establish the age of a blood stain on the crime scene. We show that determining the fractions of three hemoglobin derivatives in a blood stain at various ages enables relating these

  16. Methyl green-pyronin Y staining of nucleic acids: studies on the effects of staining time, dye composition and diffusion rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prentø, P; Lyon, H O

    2003-01-01

    individually, simultaneously and sequentially. The results are presented as color charts approximating the observed staining patterns using a computerized palette. Our results indicate unequivocally that the differential staining is not time-dependent, but that it is dictated by the relative concentrations...

  17. Are galaxy discs optically thick?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disney, Michael; Davies, Jonathan; Phillipps, Steven

    1989-01-01

    We re-examine the classical optical evidence for the low optical depths traditionally assigned to spiral discs and argue that it is highly model-dependent and unconvincing. In particular, layered models with a physically thin but optically thick dust layer behave like optically thin discs. The opposite hypotheses, that such discs are optically thick is then examined in the light of modern evidence. We find it to be consistent with the near-infrared and IRAS observations, with the surface brightnesses, with the HI and CO column densities and with the Hα measurements. (author)

  18. Clinical utility of an automated instrument for gram staining single slides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Ellen Jo; Mix, Samantha; Moradi, Wais

    2010-06-01

    Gram stains of 87 different clinical samples were prepared by the laboratory's conventional methods (automated or manual) and by a new single-slide-type automated staining instrument, GG&B AGS-1000. Gram stains from either heat- or methanol-fixed slides stained with the new instrument were easy to interpret, and results were essentially the same as those from the methanol-fixed slides prepared as a part of the routine workflow. This instrument is well suited to a rapid-response laboratory where Gram stain requests are commonly received on a stat basis.

  19. Clinical Utility of an Automated Instrument for Gram Staining Single Slides ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Ellen Jo; Mix, Samantha; Moradi, Wais

    2010-01-01

    Gram stains of 87 different clinical samples were prepared by the laboratory's conventional methods (automated or manual) and by a new single-slide-type automated staining instrument, GG&B AGS-1000. Gram stains from either heat- or methanol-fixed slides stained with the new instrument were easy to interpret, and results were essentially the same as those from the methanol-fixed slides prepared as a part of the routine workflow. This instrument is well suited to a rapid-response laboratory where Gram stain requests are commonly received on a stat basis. PMID:20410348

  20. Effects of choice white grease or poultry fat on growth performance, carcass leanness, and meat quality characteristics of growing-finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, J J; Smith, J W; Unruh, J A; Goodband, R D; O'Quinn, P R; Tokach, M D; Nelssen, J L

    2001-06-01

    Eighty-four crossbred gilts were used to evaluate the effects of dietary choice white grease (CWG) or poultry fat (PF) on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and quality characteristics of longissimus muscle (LM), belly, and bacon of growing-finishing pigs. Pigs (initially 60 kg) were fed a control diet with no added fat or diets containing 2, 4, or 6% CWG or PF. Diets were fed from 60 to 110 kg and contained 2.26 g lysine/Mcal ME. Data were analyzed as a 2 x 3 factorial plus a control with main effects of fat source (CWG and PF) and fat level (2, 4, and 6%). Pigs fed the control diet, 2% fat, and 4% fat had greater (P 0.05) were observed for ADG, dressing percentage, leaf fat weight, LM pH, backfat depth, LM area, percentage lean, LM visual evaluation, LM waterholding capacity, Warner-Bratzler shear and sensory evaluation of the LM and bacon, fat color and firmness measurements, or bacon processing characteristics. Adding dietary fat improved G/F and altered the fatty acid profiles of the LM and bacon, but differences in growth rate, carcass characteristics, and quality and sensory characteristics of the LM and bacon were minimal. Dietary additions of up to 6% CWG or PF can be made with little effect on quality of pork LM, belly, or bacon.

  1. A full-scale UASB reactor for treatment of pig and cattle slaughterhouse wastewater with a high oil and grease content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. S. Miranda

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the performance of an 800m³ full-scale UASB reactor in treating meat-packing plant and slaughterhouse effluents containing high concentrations of oil and grease (O&G (413-645 mg/L, resulting in a COD/O&G ratio of 26-32%. Those macromolecules were considered responsible for the unbalance of the system resulting in a total washout of the biomass. The removal of O&G from the influent using a physicochemical system (coagulation-flocculation improved the physical characteristics of the anaerobic sludge, controlling the biomass washout. Reactor performance was significantly improved when the COD/O&G ratio influent was maintained in the 10%. The COD and O&G removal rates obtained after implantation of the physicochemical system were 70-92% and 27-58%, respectively. The specific methanogenic activity (SMA of the biomass shows towards a tendency stabilisation and adaptation to the substrate influent. Pretreatment of the influent allowed the maximum organic load to be increased (1.46 to 2.43 Kg COD/m³.d and improved the quality of the effluent.

  2. Dual-fuel production from restaurant grease trap waste: bio-fuel oil extraction and anaerobic methane production from the post-extracted residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takuro; Kuramochi, Hidetoshi; Maeda, Kouji; Tsuji, Tomoya; Xu, Kaiqin

    2014-10-01

    An effective way for restaurant grease trap waste (GTW) treatment to generate fuel oil and methane by the combination of physiological and biological processes was investigated. The heat-driven extraction could provide a high purity oil equivalent to an A-grade fuel oil of Japanese industrial standard with 81-93 wt% of extraction efficiency. A post-extracted residue was treated as an anaerobic digestion feedstock, and however, an inhibitory effect of long chain fatty acid (LCFA) was still a barrier for high-rate digestion. From the semi-continuous experiment fed with the residual sludge as a single substrate, it can be concluded that the continuous addition of calcium into the reactor contributed to reducing LCFA inhibition, resulting in the long-term stable operation over one year. Furthermore, the anaerobic reactor performed well with 70-80% of COD reduction and methane productivity under an organic loading rate up to 5.3g-COD/L/d. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The evaluaton of prevalence rate of p53 antigen expression in cutaneous malignant melanoma and it′s relation to tumor thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faghihi Gita

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available P53 tumor suppressor gene mutation is one of the most common genetic alteration in human malignancies. This study was done to determine the prevalence of the P53 antigen expression by sex, age, type of melanoma, thickness of the lesion and site of the antigen expression either cytoplasmic or nuclear. Paraffin embeded block of 50 patients (45 primary and metastaticwith documented diagnosis of melanoma deparaffinized and immuno stained with DO-7 monoclonal antibody. The lesions were divided depending on the degree of the staining as follow: 1. no staining, 2. mild (less than 10%, 3. moderate (10%-50% staining, 4. severe (more than 50%. Fifty four percent of evaluated patients were female and 46% were male. Forty percent of lesions were graded as no staining, 36% of lesions showed mild staining, 14% moderate and 10% severe staining site of expression was excusively in the cytoplasm. There was no meaningful statistical deference between severity of staining and the age group, sex, type and thickness of melanoma. (p value was 0.532, 0.488, 0.626, 0.954 respectively.

  4. Nucleic acid stains as indicators of Giardia muris viability following cyst inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghi-Kilani, R; Gyürék, L L; Millard, P J; Finch, G R; Belosevic, M

    1996-06-01

    A reliable viability assay for Giardia is required for the development of disinfection process design criteria and pathogen monitoring by water treatment utilities. Surveys of single-staining nucleic acid dyes (stain dead parasites only), and double-staining vital dye kits from Molecular Probes (stain live and dead parasites) were conducted to assess the viability of untreated, heat-killed, and chemically inactivated Giardia muris cysts. Nucleic acid staining results were compared to those of in vitro excystation and animal infectivity. Nucleic acid stain, designated as SYTO-9, was considered the best among the single-staining dyes for its ability to stain dead cysts brightly and its relatively slow decay rate of visible light emission following DNA binding. SYTO-9 staining was correlated to animal infectivity. A Live/Dead BacLight was found to be the better of 2 double-staining viability kits tested. Logarithmic survival ratios based on SYTO-9 and Live/Dead BacLight were compared to excystation and infectivity results for G. muris cysts exposed to ozone or free chlorine. The results indicate that SYTO-9 and Live/Dead BacLight staining is stable following treatment of cysts with chemical disinfectants.

  5. A Novel Contrast Stain for the Rapid Diagnosis of Pityriasis Versicolor: A Comparison of Chicago Sky Blue 6B Stain, Potassium Hydroxide Mount and Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodha, Nikita; Poojary, Shital Amin

    2015-01-01

    The mycological study of pityriasis versicolor is usually done by potassium hydroxide (KOH) mount and culture. However, KOH mount lacks a color contrast and requires a trained eye to interpret, while culture is difficult to perform, time consuming and has low sensitivity. Chicago Sky Blue 6B (CSB) is a new contrast stain that highlights the fungal hyphae and spores, blue against a purplish background. This study was done to compare the utility of a novel contrast stain (CSB stain) with KOH mount and culture. Skin scrapings from the lesions of 100 clinically diagnosed cases of P. versicolor were subjected to (1) KOH mount and CSB stain for direct microscopic examination and (2) culture using Sabouraud's dextrose agar. The statistical analysis of CSB stain and culture was done using KOH mount as the reference method, as it is the most commonly performed and practical diagnostic test available for P. versicolor. An interrater reliability analysis using the Cohen's Kappa statistic was performed to determine consistency (agreement) among the different modalities. Direct microscopy with CSB stain, KOH mount and mycological culture showed positive results in 98 (98%), 92 (92%) and 56 (56%) patients, respectively. Using KOH mount as the reference method, CSB stain had a sensitivity of 100% which was significantly higher than culture (60.9%). Statistically significant fair agreement was found between CSB stain and KOH mount (94% with κ=0.38, P < 0.001). Negligible agreement was found between CSB stain and culture (66%, κ=0.199, P = 0.001) as well as between KOH mount and culture (64%, κ=0.051, P = 0.107). CSB staining of skin scrapings is the most sensitive method for the diagnosis of pityriasis versicolor. Due to the distinct contrast provided by CSB, it is easy to perform, rapid and qualitatively superior to KOH mount.

  6. A novel contrast stain for the rapid diagnosis of pityriasis versicolor: A comparison of Chicago Sky Blue 6B stain, potassium hydroxide mount and culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita Lodha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The mycological study of pityriasis versicolor is usually done by potassium hydroxide (KOH mount and culture. However, KOH mount lacks a color contrast and requires a trained eye to interpret, while culture is difficult to perform, time consuming and has low sensitivity. Chicago Sky Blue 6B (CSB is a new contrast stain that highlights the fungal hyphae and spores, blue against a purplish background. Aims and Objectives: This study was done to compare the utility of a novel contrast stain (CSB stain with KOH mount and culture. Materials and Methods: Skin scrapings from the lesions of 100 clinically diagnosed cases of P. versicolor were subjected to (1 KOH mount and CSB stain for direct microscopic examination and (2 culture using Sabouraud′s dextrose agar. The statistical analysis of CSB stain and culture was done using KOH mount as the reference method, as it is the most commonly performed and practical diagnostic test available for P. versicolor. An interrater reliability analysis using the Cohen′s Kappa statistic was performed to determine consistency (agreement among the different modalities. Observations and Results: Direct microscopy with CSB stain, KOH mount and mycological culture showed positive results in 98 (98%, 92 (92% and 56 (56% patients, respectively. Using KOH mount as the reference method, CSB stain had a sensitivity of 100% which was significantly higher than culture (60.9%. Statistically significant fair agreement was found between CSB stain and KOH mount (94% with κ=0.38, P < 0.001. Negligible agreement was found between CSB stain and culture (66%, κ=0.199, P = 0.001 as well as between KOH mount and culture (64%, κ=0.051, P = 0.107. Conclusion: CSB staining of skin scrapings is the most sensitive method for the diagnosis of pityriasis versicolor. Due to the distinct contrast provided by CSB, it is easy to perform, rapid and qualitatively superior to KOH mount.

  7. [Endoscopic full-thickness resection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, B; Schmidt, A; Caca, K

    2016-08-01

    Conventional endoscopic resection techniques such as endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) or endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) are powerful tools for the treatment of gastrointestinal (GI) neoplasms. However, those techniques are limited to the superficial layers of the GI wall (mucosa and submucosa). Lesions without lifting sign (usually arising from deeper layers) or lesions in difficult anatomic positions (appendix, diverticulum) are difficult - if not impossible - to resect using conventional techniques, due to the increased risk of complications. For larger lesions (>2 cm), ESD appears to be superior to the conventional techniques because of the en bloc resection, but the procedure is technically challenging, time consuming, and associated with complications even in experienced hands. Since the development of the over-the-scope clips (OTSC), complications like bleeding or perforation can be endoscopically better managed. In recent years, different endoscopic full-thickness resection techniques came to the focus of interventional endoscopy. Since September 2014, the full-thickness resection device (FTRD) has the CE marking in Europe for full-thickness resection in the lower GI tract. Technically the device is based on the OTSC system and combines OTSC application and snare polypectomy in one step. This study shows all full-thickness resection techniques currently available, but clearly focuses on the experience with the FTRD in the lower GI tract.

  8. Gammatography of thick lead vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghunath, V.M.; Bhatnagar, P.K.; Sundaram, V.M.

    1979-01-01

    Radiography, scintillation and GM counting and dose measurements using ionisation chamber equipment are commonly used for detecting flaws/voids in materials. The first method is mostly used for steel vessels and to a lesser extent thin lead vessels also and is essentially qualitative. Dose measuring techniques are used for very thick and large lead vessels for which high strength radioactive sources are required, with its inherent handling problems. For vessels of intermediate thicknesses, it is ideal to use a small strength source and a GM or scintillation counter assembly. At the Reactor Research Centre, Kalpakkam, such a system was used for checking three lead vessels of thicknesses varying from 38mm to 65mm. The tolerances specified were +- 4% variation in lead thickness. The measurements also revealed the non concentricity of one vessel which had a thickness varying from 38mm to 44mm. The second vessel was patently non-concentric and the dimensional variation was truly reproduced in the measurements. A third vessel was fabricated with careful control of dimensions and the measurements exhibited good concentricity. Small deviations were observed, attributable to imperfect bondings between steel and lead. This technique has the following advantages: (a) weaker sources used result in less handling problems reducing the personnel exposures considerably; (b) the sensitivity of the instrument is quite good because of better statistics; (c) the time required for scanning a small vessel is more, but a judicious use of a scintillometer for initial fast scan will help in reducing the total scanning time; (d) this method can take advantage of the dimensional variations themselves to get the calibration and to estimate the deviations from specified tolerances. (auth.)

  9. Thick resist for MEMS processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Joe; Hamel, Clifford

    2001-11-01

    The need for technical innovation is always present in today's economy. Microfabrication methods have evolved in support of the demand for smaller and faster integrated circuits with price performance improvements always in the scope of the manufacturing design engineer. The dispersion of processing technology spans well beyond IC fabrication today with batch fabrication and wafer scale processing lending advantages to MEMES applications from biotechnology to consumer electronics from oil exploration to aerospace. Today the demand for innovative processing techniques that enable technology is apparent where only a few years ago appeared too costly or not reliable. In high volume applications where yield and cost improvements are measured in fractions of a percent it is imperative to have process technologies that produce consistent results. Only a few years ago thick resist coatings were limited to thickness less than 20 microns. Factors such as uniformity, edge bead and multiple coatings made high volume production impossible. New developments in photoresist formulation combined with advanced coating equipment techniques that closely controls process parameters have enable thick photoresist coatings of 70 microns with acceptable uniformity and edge bead in one pass. Packaging of microelectronic and micromechanical devices is often a significant cost factor and a reliability issue for high volume low cost production. Technologies such as flip- chip assembly provide a solution for cost and reliability improvements over wire bond techniques. The processing for such technology demands dimensional control and presents a significant cost savings if it were compatible with mainstream technologies. Thick photoresist layers, with good sidewall control would allow wafer-bumping technologies to penetrate the barriers to yield and production where costs for technology are the overriding issue. Single pass processing is paramount to the manufacturability of packaging

  10. Comparison of staining of mitotic figures by haematoxylin and eosin-and crystal violet stains, in oral epithelial dysplasia and squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankle Madhuri

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitosis of cells gives rise to tissue integrity. Defects during mitosis bring about abnormalities. Excessive proliferation of cells due to increased mitosis is one such outcome, which is the hallmark in precancer and cancer. The localization of proliferating cells or their precursors may not be obvious and easy. Establishing an easy way to distinguish these mitotic cells will help in grading and understanding their biological potential. Although immunohistochemistry is an advanced method in use, the cost and time factor makes it less feasible for many laboratories. Selective histochemical stains like toluidine blue, giemsa and crystal violet have been used in tissues including the developing brain, neural tissue and skin. Aim of the study: 1To compare the staining of mitotic cells in haematoxylin and eosin with that in crystal violet. 2To compare the number of mitotic figures present in normal oral mucosa, epithelial dysplasia and oral squamous cell carcinoma in crystal violet-stained sections with that in H and E-stained sections. Materials and Methods: Ten tissues of normal oral mucosa and 15 tissues each of oral epithelial dysplasia seen in tobacco-associated leukoplakia and squamous cell carcinoma were studied to evaluate the selectivity of 1% crystal violet for mitotic figures. The staining was compared with standard H and E staining. Statistical analysis was done using Man-Whitney U test. Results: A statistically significant increase in the mean mitotic count was observed in crystal violet-stained sections of epithelial dysplasia as compared to the H and E-stained sections ( p = 0.0327. A similar increase in the mitotic counts was noted in crystal violet-stained sections of oral squamous cell carcinoma as compared to the H and E-stained sections.( p = 0.0443. No significant difference was found in the mitotic counts determined in dysplasia or carcinoma by either the crystal violet ( p = 0.4429 or the H and E-staining techniques ( p = 0

  11. Intrapartum transcervical amnioinfusion for meconium-stained amniotic fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, A K; Jana, N; Dasgupta, S; Samanta, B

    2007-06-01

    To assess the rates of cesarean deliveries and perinatal outcome following intrapartum transcervical amnioinfusion in women with meconium-stained amniotic fluid (MSAF) in a setting with no electronic fetal monitoring or specialized neonatal care. In this prospective comparative study with 150 women who were in labor and had MSAF, 50 of the women received a transcervical amnioinfusion and the remaining 100 women received standard care. The inclusion criteria were a pregnancy of at least 37 weeks' duration, a single live fetus in cephalic presentation, no major medical or obstetric complications, and no known fetal malformation. The amnioinfusion was performed with 1000 mL of normal saline solution through a red rubber catheter. Amnioinfusion was associated with a significant decrease in the incidence of low Apgar score (amnioinfusion than in the control group (24% vs. 48%; RR, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.29-0.85). There were no major complications related to amnioinfusion. Intrapartum amnioinfusion for MSAF is a simple, safe, effective, and inexpensive procedure feasible in settings where intrapartum monitoring is limited. It is associated with improved perinatal outcome and could lower cesarean delivery rates in low-resource countries.

  12. The challenges of analysing blood stains with hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuula, J.; Puupponen, H.-H.; Rinta, H.; Pölönen, I.

    2014-06-01

    Hyperspectral imaging is a potential noninvasive technology for detecting, separating and identifying various substances. In the forensic and military medicine and other CBRNE related use it could be a potential method for analyzing blood and for scanning other human based fluids. For example, it would be valuable to easily detect whether some traces of blood are from one or more persons or if there are some irrelevant substances or anomalies in the blood. This article represents an experiment of separating four persons' blood stains on a white cotton fabric with a SWIR hyperspectral camera and FT-NIR spectrometer. Each tested sample includes standardized 75 _l of 100 % blood. The results suggest that on the basis of the amount of erythrocytes in the blood, different people's blood might be separable by hyperspectral analysis. And, referring to the indication given by erythrocytes, there might be a possibility to find some other traces in the blood as well. However, these assumptions need to be verified with wider tests, as the number of samples in the study was small. According to the study there also seems to be several biological, chemical and physical factors which affect alone and together on the hyperspectral analyzing results of blood on fabric textures, and these factors need to be considered before making any further conclusions on the analysis of blood on various materials.

  13. Diffuse reflectance FTIR of stains on grit blasted metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, G.L.; Hallman, R.L. Jr.; Cox, R.L. [Oak Ridge Centers for Manufacturing Technologies, TN (United States)

    1997-08-09

    Diffuse reflectance mid-infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectroscopy has been applied to the detection of oil contamination on grit-blasted metals. The object of this application is to detect and discriminate between silicone and hydrocarbon oil contamination at levels approaching 10 mg/m{sup 2}. A portable FTIR spectrometer with dedicated diffuse reflectance optics was developed for this purpose. Using translation devices positioned by instructions from the spectrometer operating system, images of macroscopic substrates were produced with millimeter spatial resolution. The pixels that comprise an image are each a full mid-infrared spectrum with excellent signal-to-noise, each determined as individual files and uniquely saved to disc. Reduced spectra amplitudes, based on peak height, area, or other chemometric techniques, mapped as a function of the spatial coordinates of the pixel are used to display the image. This paper demonstrates the application of the technique to the analysis of stains on grit-blasted metals, including the calibration of the method, the inspection of substrates, and the migration of oil contamination.

  14. Akreditasi Perpustakaan Perguruan Tinggi: Pengalaman Perpustakaan STAIN Kediri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komarudin Komarudin

    2016-07-01

    Abstract; The importance of quality has been a concern of college library librarian. National Library has compiled standards can be used as a minimum level college library quality. A form of formal recognition of compliance with these standards is by accrediting library. Accreditation aims to improve accredited institution so useful to build a library quality. As stipulated by Law Decree(UU No. 43 of 2007 and Government Regulation (PPNo. 24 of 2014, the National Library has the National Library Accreditation Agency (LAP-N. Accredited certificate can obtain a library based on the number of components weighted values of service, cooperation, collection, organization of library materials, human resources, building / space and infrastructure, budget, library management and maintenance of library collection. The experience of STAIN Kediri library in carrying out the library accreditation including : make a plan of accreditation activities, form preparation team of accreditation, perform self assessments, set up support files, send a letter of application and data file support, assessment accreditation forms, prepare for site assessment and carry out the acreditation. The main thing is the accreditation is a culture of quality. Hope to obtain the best value of accreditation lies in the culture of quality.

  15. THREE-DIMENSIONAL OBSERVATIONS ON THICK BIOLOGICAL SPECIMENS BY HIGH VOLTAGE ELECTRON MICROSCOPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuji Nagata

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Thick biological specimens prepared as whole mount cultured cells or thick sections from embedded tissues were stained with histochemical reactions, such as thiamine pyrophosphatase, glucose-6-phosphatase, cytochrome oxidase, acid phosphatase, DAB reactions and radioautography, to observe 3-D ultrastructures of cell organelles producing stereo-pairs by high voltage electron microscopy at accerelating voltages of 400-1000 kV. The organelles demonstrated were Golgi apparatus, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, lysosomes, peroxisomes, pinocytotic vesicles and incorporations of radioactive compounds. As the results, those cell organelles were observed 3- dimensionally and the relative relationships between these organelles were demonstrated.

  16. Blood culture gram stain, acridine orange stain and direct sensitivity-based antimicrobial therapy of bloodstream infection in patients with trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, B; Mathur, P; Gupta, B

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain if the simple practice of Gram stain, acridine orange stain and direct sensitivity determination of positive blood culture bottles could be used to guide early and appropriate treatment in trauma patients with clinical suspicion of sepsis. The study also aimed to evaluate the error in interpreting antimicrobial sensitivity by direct method when compared to standard method and find out if specific antibiotic-organism combination had more discrepancies. Findings from consecutive episodes of blood stream infection at an Apex Trauma centre over a 12-month period are summarized. A total of 509 consecutive positive blood cultures were subjected to Gram staining. AO staining was done in BacT/ALERT-positive Gram-stain negative blood cultures. Direct sensitivity was performed from 369 blood culture broths, showing single type of growth in Gram and acridine orange staining. Results of direct sensitivity were compared to conventional sensitivity for errors. No 'very major' discrepancy was found in this study. About 5.2 and 1.8% minor error rates were noted in gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, respectively, while comparing the two methods. Most of the discrepancies in gram-negative bacteria were noted in beta lactam - beta lactamase inhibitor combinations. Direct sensitivity testing was not reliable for reporting of methicillin and vancomycin resistance in Staphylococci. Gram stain result together with direct sensitivity testing is required for optimizing initial antimicrobial therapy in trauma patients with clinical suspicion of sepsis. Gram staining and AO staining proved particularly helpful in the early detection of candidaemia.

  17. Is the gram stain useful in the microbiologic diagnosis of VAP? A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Horo, John C; Thompson, Deb; Safdar, Nasia

    2012-08-01

    In a meta-analysis examining respiratory specimen Gram stain for diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia, absence of bacteria on Gram stain had a high negative predictive value, but a positive Gram stain correlated poorly with organisms recovered in culture. Rapid and accurate diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a major challenge and no generally accepted gold standard exists for VAP diagnosis. We conducted a meta-analysis to examine the role of respiratory specimen Gram stain to diagnose VAP, and the correlation with final culture results. In 21 studies, pooled sensitivity of Gram stain for VAP was 0.79 (95% confidence interval [CI], .77-0.81; P Gram stain for a VAP prevalence of 20%-30% was 91%, suggesting that VAP is unlikely with a negative Gram stain but the positive predictive value of Gram stain was only 40%. Pooled kappa was 0.42 for gram-positive organisms and 0.34 for gram-negative organisms, suggesting fair concordance between organisms on Gram stain and recovery by culture. Therefore, a positive Gram stain should not be used to narrow anti-infective therapy until culture results become available.

  18. Discrimination of p53 immunohistochemistry-positive tumors by its staining pattern in gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Koji; Oki, Eiji; Saeki, Hiroshi; Yan, Zhao; Tsuda, Yasuo; Hidaka, Gen; Kasagi, Yuta; Otsu, Hajime; Kawano, Hiroyuki; Kitao, Hiroyuki; Morita, Masaru; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2015-01-01

    Immunohistochemistry staining of p53 is a cheap and simple method to detect aberrant function of p53. However, there are some discrepancies between the result of immunohistochemistry staining and mutation analysis. This study attempted to find a new definition of p53 staining by its staining pattern. Immunohistochemistry staining of p53 and TP53 gene mutation analysis were performed in 148 gastric cancer patients. Also SNP-CGH array analysis was conducted to four cases. Positive staining of p53 was observed in 88 (59.5%) tumors. Tumors with positive p53 staining showed malignant features compared to negative tumors. Mutation of TP53 gene was observed in 29 (19.6%) tumors with higher age and differentiated type. In positive p53 tumors, two types could be distinguished; aberrant type and scattered type. With comparison to TP53 gene mutation analysis, all the scattered type had wild-type TP53 gene (P = 0.0003). SNP-CGH array showed that scattered-type tumors had no change in the structure of chromosome 17. P53-scattered-type staining tumors may reflect a functionally active nonmutated TP53 gene. In interpretation of p53 immunohistochemistry staining, distinguishing p53-positive tumors by their staining pattern may be important in gastric cancer

  19. A robust, efficient and flexible method for staining myelinated axons in blocks of brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlsten, Douglas; Colbourne, Frederick; Pleus, Richard

    2003-03-15

    Previous studies have demonstrated the utility of the gold chloride method for en bloc staining of a bisected brain in mice and rats. The present study explores several variations in the method, assesses its reliability, and extends the limits of its application. We conclude that the method is very efficient, highly robust, sufficiently accurate for most purposes, and adaptable to many morphometric measures. We obtained acceptable staining of commissures in every brain, despite a wide variety of fixation methods. One-half could be stained 24 h after the brain was extracted and the other half could be stained months later. When staining failed because of an exhausted solution, the brain could be stained successfully in fresh solution. Relatively small changes were found in the sizes of commissures several weeks after initial fixation or staining. A half brain stained to reveal the mid-sagittal section could then be sectioned coronally and stained again in either gold chloride for myelin or cresyl violet for Nissl substance. Uncertainty, arising from pixelation of digitized images was far less than errors arising from human judgments about the histological limits of major commissures. Useful data for morphometric analysis were obtained by scanning the surface of a gold chloride stained block of brain with an inexpensive flatbed scanner.

  20. Identification criteria of the rare multi-flagellate Lophomonas blattarum: comparison of different staining techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam-Eldin, Yosra Hussein; Abdulaziz, Amany Mamdouh

    2015-09-01

    Bronchopulmonary lophomoniasis (BPL) is an emerging disease of potential importance. BPL is presented by non-specific clinical picture and is usually accompanied by immunosuppression. Culture of Lophomonas blattarum is difficult and its molecular diagnosis has not yet been developed. Therefore, microscopic examination of respiratory samples, e.g., bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) or sputum, is the mainstay of BPL diagnosis. Creola bodies and ciliocytophthoria are two forms of bronchial cells which occur in chest diseases with non-specific clinical picture like that of BPL. Both forms could be misrecognized as multi-flagellates because of their motile cilia in the wet mounts and due to shape variability of L. blattarum in stained smears. The aim of the study is to compare different staining techniques for visualizing L. blattarum to improve the recognition and diagnosis of BPL, to distinguish respiratory epithelial cells from L. blattarum and to decide which stain is recommended in suspected cases of BPL. BAL samples from patients which contain L. blattarum, creola bodies, and ciliocytophthoria were collected then wet mounts were examined. The BAL samples were also stained by Papanicolaou (PAP), Giemsa, hematoxylin and eosin (H & E), trichrome, Gram, and Diff-Quik (DQ) stains. The different staining techniques were compared regarding the stain quality. In wet mounts, the ciliary movement was coordinate and synchronous while the flagellar movement was wavy and leaded to active swimming of L. blattarum. In stained slides, bronchial cells were characterized by the presence of basal nucleus and the terminal bar from which the cilia arise. Trichrome was the best stain in demonstration of cellular details of L. blattarum. H & E, PAP, and Giemsa stains showed good quality of stains. Gram and DQ stains showed only pale hues of L. blattarum. We recommended adding Wheatley's trichrome staining to the differential diagnosis workup of cases of non-specific chest infections

  1. Tumor Budding Detection by Immunohistochemical Staining is Not Superior to Hematoxylin and Eosin Staining for Predicting Lymph Node Metastasis in pT1 Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, Takuma; Shimada, Yoshifumi; Nogami, Hitoshi; Kameyama, Hitoshi; Kobayashi, Takashi; Kosugi, Shin-ichi; Wakai, Toshifumi; Ajioka, Yoichi

    2016-05-01

    Tumor budding is recognized as an important risk factor for lymph node metastasis in pT1 colorectal cancer. Immunohistochemical staining for cytokeratin has the potential to improve the objective diagnosis of tumor budding over detection based on hematoxylin and eosin staining. However, it remains unclear whether tumor budding detected by immunohistochemical staining is a significant predictor of lymph node metastasis in pT1 colorectal cancer. The purpose of this study was to clarify the clinical significance of tumor budding detected by immunohistochemical staining in comparison with that detected by hematoxylin and eosin staining. This was a retrospective study. The study was conducted at Niigata University Medical & Dental Hospital. We enrolled 265 patients with pT1 colorectal cancer who underwent surgery with lymph node dissection. Tumor budding was evaluated by both hematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemical staining with the use of CAM5.2 antibody. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were conducted to determine the optimal cutoff values for tumor budding detected by hematoxylin and eosin and CAM5.2 staining. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify the significant factors for predicting lymph node metastasis. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses revealed that the cutoff values for tumor budding detected by hematoxylin and eosin and CAM5.2 staining for predicting lymph node metastases were 5 and 8. On multivariate analysis, histopathological differentiation (OR, 6.21; 95% CI, 1.16-33.33; p = 0.03) and tumor budding detected by hematoxylin and eosin staining (OR, 4.91; 95% CI, 1.64-14.66; p = 0.004) were significant predictors for lymph node metastasis; however, tumor budding detected by CAM5.2 staining was not a significant predictor. This study was limited by potential selection bias because surgically resected specimens were collected instead of endoscopically resected specimens. Tumor budding detected by

  2. AUTHENTIC MATERIALS IN EXTENSIVE READING CLASS AT STAIN PONOROGO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhinuk Puspita Kirana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It is widely believed that English Foreign Language (EFL learners need to develop their language proficiency by getting so much input. Moreover, students need to be familiarized with the real English us­age where real forms of communication and cultural knowledge are crucially exposed. Teaching through authentic materials will make the learners feel that they are learning a real language which is used by the real native speakers for real communication. incorporating au­thentic materials helps students acquire an effective communicative competence in the language focus. The research intended to describe the implementation of authentic materials in extensive reading class, the problems arise and the students’ responses toward the authen­tic materials in extensive reading class. The design of the research was Descriptive Qualitative method and the research subject was the lecturer of Extensive Reading class and 33 students in B class of the fourth semester of STAIN Ponorogo who took Extensive Read­ing subject. The instruments used were in the form of observation sheet, interview guideline and questionnaire. The implementation of authentic materials in extensive reading class covered some procedures into three main phases namely (1 Pre­ Activity, (2 Main­ Activity and (3 Post­Activity. The activities in main activity are as follows: (a Pre­ Activity; (b Whilst ­Activity; and (3 The language focus stage. There were problems arose during the implementation in terms of complicated planning, more time allocation and some disinterested students. Finally, the students showed significantly positive attitude toward the implementation of authentic materials in extensive reading class.

  3. Staining Method for Protein Analysis by Capillary Gel Electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shuqing; Lu, Joann J; Wang, Shili; Peck, Kristy L.; Li, Guigen; Liu, Shaorong

    2009-01-01

    A novel staining method and the associated fluorescent dye were developed for protein analysis by capillary SDS-PAGE. The method strategy is to synthesize a pseudo-SDS dye and use it to replace some of the SDS in SDS–protein complexes so that the protein can be fluorescently detected. The pseudo-SDS dye consists of a long, straight alkyl chain connected to a negative charged fluorescent head and binds to proteins just as SDS. The number of dye molecules incorporated with a protein depends on the dye concentration relative to SDS in the sample solution, since SDS and dye bind to proteins competitively. In this work, we synthesized a series of pseudo-SDS dyes, and tested their performances for capillary SDS-PAGE. FT-16 (a fluorescein molecule linked with a hexadodecyl group) seemed to be the best among all the dyes tested. Although the numbers of dye molecules bound to proteins (and the fluorescence signals from these protein complexes) were maximized in the absence of SDS, high-quality separations were obtained when co-complexes of SDS–protein–dye were formed. The migration time correlates well with protein size even after some of the SDS in the SDS–protein complexes was replaced by the pseudo-SDS dye. Under optimized experimental conditions and using a laser-induced fluorescence detector, limits of detection of as low as 0.13 ng/mL (bovine serum albumin) and dynamic ranges over 5 orders of magnitude in which fluorescence response is proportional to the square root of analyte concentration were obtained. The method and dye were also tested for separations of real-world samples from E. coli. PMID:17874848

  4. Accurate thickness measurement of graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shearer, Cameron J; Slattery, Ashley D; Stapleton, Andrew J; Shapter, Joseph G; Gibson, Christopher T

    2016-01-01

    Graphene has emerged as a material with a vast variety of applications. The electronic, optical and mechanical properties of graphene are strongly influenced by the number of layers present in a sample. As a result, the dimensional characterization of graphene films is crucial, especially with the continued development of new synthesis methods and applications. A number of techniques exist to determine the thickness of graphene films including optical contrast, Raman scattering and scanning probe microscopy techniques. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), in particular, is used extensively since it provides three-dimensional images that enable the measurement of the lateral dimensions of graphene films as well as the thickness, and by extension the number of layers present. However, in the literature AFM has proven to be inaccurate with a wide range of measured values for single layer graphene thickness reported (between 0.4 and 1.7 nm). This discrepancy has been attributed to tip-surface interactions, image feedback settings and surface chemistry. In this work, we use standard and carbon nanotube modified AFM probes and a relatively new AFM imaging mode known as PeakForce tapping mode to establish a protocol that will allow users to accurately determine the thickness of graphene films. In particular, the error in measuring the first layer is reduced from 0.1–1.3 nm to 0.1–0.3 nm. Furthermore, in the process we establish that the graphene-substrate adsorbate layer and imaging force, in particular the pressure the tip exerts on the surface, are crucial components in the accurate measurement of graphene using AFM. These findings can be applied to other 2D materials. (paper)

  5. Quantitative stain-free and continuous multimodal monitoring of wound healing in vitro with digital holographic microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Bettenworth

    Full Text Available Impaired epithelial wound healing has significant pathophysiological implications in several conditions including gastrointestinal ulcers, anastomotic leakage and venous or diabetic skin ulcers. Promising drug candidates for accelerating wound closure are commonly evaluated in in vitro wound assays. However, staining procedures and discontinuous monitoring are major drawbacks hampering accurate assessment of wound assays. We therefore investigated digital holographic microscopy (DHM to appropriately monitor wound healing in vitro and secondly, to provide multimodal quantitative information on morphological and functional cell alterations as well as on motility changes upon cytokine stimulation. Wound closure as reflected by proliferation and migration of Caco-2 cells in wound healing assays was studied and assessed in time-lapse series for 40 h in the presence of stimulating epidermal growth factor (EGF and inhibiting mitomycin c. Therefore, digital holograms were recorded continuously every thirty minutes. Morphological changes including cell thickness, dry mass and tissue density were analyzed by data from quantitative digital holographic phase microscopy. Stimulation of Caco-2 cells with EGF or mitomycin c resulted in significant morphological changes during wound healing compared to control cells. In conclusion, DHM allows accurate, stain-free and continuous multimodal quantitative monitoring of wound healing in vitro and could be a promising new technique for assessment of wound healing.

  6. Soliton models for thick branes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peyravi, Marzieh; Riazi, Nematollah; Lobo, Francisco S.N.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we present new soliton solutions for thick branes in 4+1 dimensions. In particular, we consider brane models based on the sine-Gordon (SG), φ 4 and φ 6 scalar fields, which have broken Z 2 symmetry in some cases and are responsible for supporting and stabilizing the thick branes. The origin of the symmetry breaking in these models resides in the fact that the modified scalar field potential may have non-degenerate vacua. These vacua determine the cosmological constant on both sides of the brane. We also study the geodesic equations along the fifth dimension, in order to explore the particle motion in the neighborhood of the brane. Furthermore, we examine the stability of the thick branes, by determining the sign of the w 2 term in the expansion of the potential for the resulting Schroedinger-like equation, where w is the five-dimensional coordinate. It turns out that the φ 4 brane is stable, while there are unstable modes for certain ranges of the model parameters in the SG and φ 6 branes. (orig.)

  7. Soliton models for thick branes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peyravi, Marzieh [Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Department of Physics, School of Sciences, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Riazi, Nematollah [Shahid Beheshti University, Physics Department, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Lobo, Francisco S.N. [Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade de Lisboa, Instituto de Astrofisica e Ciencias do Espaco, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2016-05-15

    In this work, we present new soliton solutions for thick branes in 4+1 dimensions. In particular, we consider brane models based on the sine-Gordon (SG), φ{sup 4} and φ{sup 6} scalar fields, which have broken Z{sub 2} symmetry in some cases and are responsible for supporting and stabilizing the thick branes. The origin of the symmetry breaking in these models resides in the fact that the modified scalar field potential may have non-degenerate vacua. These vacua determine the cosmological constant on both sides of the brane. We also study the geodesic equations along the fifth dimension, in order to explore the particle motion in the neighborhood of the brane. Furthermore, we examine the stability of the thick branes, by determining the sign of the w{sup 2} term in the expansion of the potential for the resulting Schroedinger-like equation, where w is the five-dimensional coordinate. It turns out that the φ{sup 4} brane is stable, while there are unstable modes for certain ranges of the model parameters in the SG and φ{sup 6} branes. (orig.)

  8. Utility of Acridine Orange staining for detection of bacteria from positive blood cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neeraja, M; Lakshmi, V; Padmasri, C; Padmaja, K

    2017-08-01

    The diagnostic performance of AO stain was evaluated for the detection of bacteria and or fungi from positive blood cultures. The sensitivity of Gram stain (GS) was 98.26% while Acridine Orange (AO) stain proved to be more sensitive (100%) with a Positive and Negative Predictive Value of 100% each. The specificity of both the stains was 100%. Overall agreement between the two stains was 98.23% (688/700). The organisms that were missed by GS and positive by AO were Candida species (Sutton, 2006) and Gram negative bacilli (GNB) (Sutton, 2006). Sensitivity of GS was 82.35% and AO was 100% among mixed cultures. Immediate reporting of the results of AO stain would have a significant impact on clinical management of patients with serious blood stream infections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Influences of Restaurant Waste Fats and Oils (RWFO from Grease Trap as Binder on Rheological and Solvent Extraction Behavior in SS316L Metal Injection Molding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Halim Irwan Ibrahim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with rheological and solvent extraction behavior of stainless steel 316L feedstocks using Restaurant Waste Fats and Oils (RWFO from grease traps as binder components along with Polypropylene (PP copolymer as a backbone binder. Optimal binder formulation and effect of solvent extraction variables on green compacts are being analyzed. Four binder formulations based on volumetric ratio/weight fraction between PP and RWFO being mixed with 60% volumetric powder loading of SS316L powder each as feedstock. The rheological analysis are based on viscosity, shear rate, temperature, activation energy, flow behavior index, and moldability index. The optimal feedstock formulation will be injected to form green compact to undergo the solvent extraction process. Solvent extraction variables are based on solvent temperature which are 40 °C, 50 °C, and 60 °C with different organic solvents of n-hexane and n-heptane. Analysis of the weight loss percentage and diffusion coefficient is done on the green compact during the solvent extraction process. Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC is used to confirm the extraction of the RWFO in green compacts. It is found that all binder fractions exhibit pseudoplastic behavior or shear thinning where the viscosity decreases with increasing shear rate. After considering the factors that affect the rheological characteristic of the binder formulation, feedstock with binder formulation of 20/20 volumetric ratio between PP and RWFO rise as the optimal binder. It is found that the n-hexane solvent requires less time for extracting the RWFO at the temperature of 60 °C as proved by its diffusion coefficient.

  10. Performance and emission analysis on blends of diesel, restaurant yellow grease and n-pentanol in direct-injection diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikumar, J; Saravanan, S

    2017-02-01

    Yellow grease from restaurants is typically waste cooking oil (WCO) free from suspended food particles with free fatty acid (FFA) content less than 15%. This study proposes an approach to formulate a renewable, eco-friendly fuel by recycling WCO with diesel (D) and n-pentanol (P) to improve fuel-spray characteristics. Three ternary blends (D50-WCO45-P5, D50-WCO40-P10 and D50-WCO30-P20) were selected based on the stability tests and prepared with an objective to substitute diesel by 50% with up to 45% recycled component (WCO) and up to 20% bio-component (n-pentanol) by volume. The fuel properties of these ternary blends were measured and compared. The emission impacts of these blends on a diesel engine were analysed in comparison with diesel and D50-WCO50 (50% of diesel + 50% of WCO) under naturally articulated and EGR (exhaust gas recirculation) approaches. Doping of n-pentanol showed improved fuel properties when compared to D50-WCO50. Viscosity is reduced up to 45%. Cetane number and density were comparable to that of diesel. Addition of n-pentanol to D50-WCO50 presented improved brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) for all ternary blends. Brake thermal efficiency (BTE) of D50-WCO30-P20 blend is comparable to diesel due to improved atomization. Smoke opacity reduced, HC emissions increased and CO emissions remained unchanged with doping n-pentanol in the WCO. NOx emission increases with increase in n-pentanol and remained lower than diesel and all load conditions. However, NOx can be decreased by up to threefold using EGR. By adopting this approach, WCO can be effectively reused as a clean energy source by negating environmental hazards before and after its use in diesel engines, instead of being dumped into sewers and landfills.

  11. Influence of fat and oil type on the yield, physico-chemical properties, and microstructure of fat, oil, and grease (FOG) deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Mundo, Dann Marie N; Sutheerawattananonda, Manote

    2017-11-01

    Fat, oil, and grease (FOG) deposit, in the form of calcium soap, was found to cause sanitary sewer overflows due to its adhesion on pipe walls. To address this problem, laboratory-prepared calcium soaps have been used to investigate the formation mechanisms of FOG deposits. However, the fats and oils previously utilized were limited and some soap characteristics were not examined. This research attempted to probe through the properties of calcium soaps prepared from calcium chloride and the fats and oils of chicken, pork, palm olein, soybean, olive, and coconut to further understand FOG formation and stability. Results revealed that FOG deposits may occur as smooth, paste-like material or coarse, semi-solid substance depending on their exposure to excess fat/oil and calcium. The smooth soaps with more excess fat/oil demonstrated high apparent viscosity and consistency index, while the coarse soaps with large levels of calcium signified higher melting endset. Moreover, a soap microstructure showing evident networks and lesser void area displayed higher heat and rheological stability, respectively. Overall, fats and oils with higher oleic to palmitic acid ratio such as palm olein oil, olive oil, chicken fat, and pork fat produced soaps with greater yield and degree of saponification. Hence, establishments and authorities should be alert in managing and monitoring these wastes. On the other hand, soybean oil high in linoleic acid and coconut oil high in lauric acid do not pose an immediate threat to the sewer system since they only produced soaps in small quantity. However, their soaps showed high melting endset which could pose a serious effect when accumulated at large amount. On the whole, the fatty acid profile of fats and oils, the presence of excess fat/oil, and calcium content mainly dictate the appearance, melting, rheology, and microstructure of calcium soaps. Their distinct properties can be used as criteria in predicting the condition and stability of FOG

  12. An improved silver staining procedure for schizodeme analysis in polyacrylamide gradient gels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio M. Gonçalves

    1990-03-01

    Full Text Available A simple protocol is described for the silver staining of polyacrylamide gradient gels used for the separation of restriction fragments of kinetoplast DNA [schizodeme analysis of trypanosomatids (Morel et al., 1980]. The method overcomes the problems of non-uniform staining and strong background color which are frequently encountered when conventional protocols for silver staining of linear gels. The method described has proven to be of general applicability for DNA, RNA and protein separations in gradient gels.

  13. Juvenile localized scleroderma with port wine stain: Coincidental or possible common pathogenetic association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seval Dogruk Kacar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Port wine stain and juvenile localized scleroderma are two different dermatoses usually encountered in pediatric age group. Up to now, there are reports of morphea patients initially diagnosed and treated as port wine stain. Coexistence of both diseases is not found yet. We herein present a case of juvenile localized scleroderma on the left side of trunk, with congenital port wine stain located on the ipsilateral face at V1-V2 distribution.

  14. Juvenile localized scleroderma with port wine stain: coincidental or possible common pathogenetic association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacar, Seval Dogruk; Ozuguz, Pinar; Polat, Serap; Kacar, Emre; Polat, Onur; Tokyol, Cigdem

    2015-01-01

    Port wine stain and juvenile localized scleroderma are two different dermatoses usually encountered in pediatric age group. Up to now, there are reports of morphea patients initially diagnosed and treated as port wine stain. Coexistence of both diseases is not found yet. We herein present a case of juvenile localized scleroderma on the left side of trunk, with congenital port wine stain located on the ipsilateral face at V1-V2 distribution.

  15. Microbiology of liver abscesses and the predictive value of abscess gram stain and associated blood cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemaly, Roy F; Hall, Gerri S; Keys, Thomas F; Procop, Gary W

    2003-08-01

    Although rare, pyogenic liver abscesses are potentially fatal. We evaluated the predictive value of Gram stain of liver abscess aspirates and temporally associated blood cultures. Gram stains detected bacteria in 79% of the liver abscesses tested. The sensitivity and specificity of Gram stain of the liver abscesses were 90% and 100% for Gram-positive cocci (GPC) and 52% and 94% for Gram-negative bacilli (GNB). The sensitivities of the blood cultures for any GPC and GNB present in the liver abscess were 30% and 39%, respectively. Although, Gram stains and blood cultures offer incomplete detection of the microbial contents of pyogenic liver abscesses, both tests should always accompany liver abscess cultures.

  16. A combined Bodian-Nissl stain for improved network analysis in neuronal cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hightower, M; Gross, G W

    1985-11-01

    Bodian and Nissl procedures were combined to stain dissociated mouse spinal cord cells cultured on coverslips. The Bodian technique stains fine neuronal processes in great detail as well as an intracellular fibrillar network concentrated around the nucleus and in proximal neurites. The Nissl stain clearly delimits neuronal cytoplasm in somata and in large dendrites. A combination of these techniques allows the simultaneous depiction of neuronal perikarya and all afferent and efferent processes. Costaining with little background staining by either procedure suggests high specificity for neurons. This procedure could be exploited for routine network analysis of cultured neurons.

  17. The crustal thickness of Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clitheroe, G.; Gudmundsson, O.; Kennett, B.L.N.

    2000-01-01

    We investigate the crustal structure of the Australian continent using the temporary broadband stations of the Skippy and Kimba projects and permanent broadband stations. We isolate near-receiver information, in the form of crustal P-to-S conversions, using the receiver function technique. Stacked receiver functions are inverted for S velocity structure using a Genetic Algorithm approach to Receiver Function Inversion (GARFI). From the resulting velocity models we are able to determine the Moho depth and to classify the width of the crust-mantle transition for 65 broadband stations. Using these results and 51 independent estimates of crustal thickness from refraction and reflection profiles, we present a new, improved, map of Moho depth for the Australian continent. The thinnest crust (25 km) occurs in the Archean Yilgarn Craton in Western Australia; the thickest crust (61 km) occurs in Proterozoic central Australia. The average crustal thickness is 38.8 km (standard deviation 6.2 km). Interpolation error estimates are made using kriging and fall into the range 2.5-7.0 km. We find generally good agreement between the depth to the seismologically defined Moho and xenolith-derived estimates of crustal thickness beneath northeastern Australia. However, beneath the Lachlan Fold Belt the estimates are not in agreement, and it is possible that the two techniques are mapping differing parts of a broad Moho transition zone. The Archean cratons of Western Australia appear to have remained largely stable since cratonization, reflected in only slight variation of Moho depth. The largely Proterozoic center of Australia shows relatively thicker crust overall as well as major Moho offsets. We see evidence of the margin of the contact between the Precambrian craton and the Tasman Orogen, referred to as the Tasman Line. Copyright 2000 by the American Geophysical Union.

  18. Comparison of algorithms for blood stain detection applied to forensic hyperspectral imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Messinger, David W.; Mathew, Jobin J.; Dube, Roger R.

    2016-05-01

    Blood stains are among the most important types of evidence for forensic investigation. They contain valuable DNA information, and the pattern of the stains can suggest specifics about the nature of the violence that transpired at the scene. Early detection of blood stains is particularly important since the blood reacts physically and chemically with air and materials over time. Accurate identification of blood remnants, including regions that might have been intentionally cleaned, is an important aspect of forensic investigation. Hyperspectral imaging might be a potential method to detect blood stains because it is non-contact and provides substantial spectral information that can be used to identify regions in a scene with trace amounts of blood. The potential complexity of scenes in which such vast violence occurs can be high when the range of scene material types and conditions containing blood stains at a crime scene are considered. Some stains are hard to detect by the unaided eye, especially if a conscious effort to clean the scene has occurred (we refer to these as "latent" blood stains). In this paper we present the initial results of a study of the use of hyperspectral imaging algorithms for blood detection in complex scenes. We describe a hyperspectral imaging system which generates images covering 400 nm - 700 nm visible range with a spectral resolution of 10 nm. Three image sets of 31 wavelength bands were generated using this camera for a simulated indoor crime scene in which blood stains were placed on a T-shirt and walls. To detect blood stains in the scene, Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Subspace Reed Xiaoli Detection (SRXD), and Topological Anomaly Detection (TAD) algorithms were used. Comparison of the three hyperspectral image analysis techniques shows that TAD is most suitable for detecting blood stains and discovering latent blood stains.

  19. [Comparison of four different staining methods for ear cytology of dogs with otitis externa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouassiba, C; Osthold, W; Mueller, R S

    2013-01-01

    Cytological examination is crucial for the diagnosis and classification of canine otitis externa. Staining should reveal micro-organisms as perpetuating factors of otitis externa. The aim of the study was to compare four different staining methods (Diff-Quik®, Diff-Quik® after dipping in acetone, Gram Quick stain® and a commercial rapid stain for otitis externa) for ear cytology of dogs with otitis externa and to investigate the agreement of cytology and culture. In a study evaluating dogs with otitis externa, five ear swabs (one for culture and four for cytology) were taken from the horizontal part of the external auditory canal of 224 affected ears and compared semi-quantitatively. Diff-Quik® with and without prior dipping in acetone as well as the Gram Quick stain® displayed a high degree of agreement in the detection of micro-organisms (cocci p = 0.2366; rods p = 0.4832; yeasts p = 0.1574), while the commercial otitis rapid stain revealed significantly less micro-organisms (p stains corresponded to the culture results by >  70%; the agreement was lower with the commercial otitis rapid stain. The quickest and easiest method was staining with Diff-Quik®. Diff-Quik® with or without prior dipping in acetone and the Gram Quick stain® had a high agreement in the detection of microorganisms and can thus be considered nearly equivalent for the diagnosis of otitis externa infectiosa. The commercial otitis rapid stain is less reliable. Based on this study Diff-Quik® can be recommended for the routine cytology of ear swabs. Additionally, a culture may be indicated and must be interpreted in the context of the cytology.

  20. Staining of proteins in gels with Coomassie G-250 without organic solvent and acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Ann-Marie; Besir, H Uuml Seyin

    2009-08-14

    In classical protein staining protocols using Coomassie Brilliant Blue (CBB), solutions with high contents of toxic and flammable organic solvents (Methanol, Ethanol or 2-Propanol) and acetic acid are used for fixation, staining and destaining of proteins in a gel after SDS-PAGE. To speed up the procedure, heating the staining solution in the microwave oven for a short time is frequently used. This usually results in evaporation of toxic or hazardous Methanol, Ethanol or 2-Propanol and a strong smell of acetic acid in the lab which should be avoided due to safety considerations. In a protocol originally published in two patent applications by E.M. Wondrak (US2001046709 (A1), US6319720 (B1)), an alternative composition of the staining solution is described in which no organic solvent or acid is used. The CBB is dissolved in bidistilled water (60-80 mg of CBB G-250 per liter) and 35 mM HCl is added as the only other compound in the staining solution. The CBB staining of the gel is done after SDS-PAGE and thorough washing of the gel in bidistilled water. By heating the gel during the washing and staining steps, the process can be finished faster and no toxic or hazardous compounds are evaporating. The staining of proteins occurs already within 1 minute after heating the gel in staining solution and is fully developed after 15-30 min with a slightly blue background that is destained completely by prolonged washing of the stained gel in bidistilled water, without affecting the stained protein bands.

  1. Mechanisms of superficial micropunctate corneal staining with sodium fluorescein: the contribution of pooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandamwar, Kalika L; Garrett, Qian; Papas, Eric B

    2012-04-01

    To establish if sodium fluorescein (SFL) dye accumulation within intercellular spaces on the ocular surface contributes to the appearance of superficial punctate corneal staining. Thirteen subjects bilaterally wore PureVision™ lenses that had been pre-soaked in ReNu MultiPlus® multipurpose solution. After 1h of lens wear, corneal staining with SFL was assessed using a standard slit-lamp technique. Participants who presented with bilateral, corneal staining were selected for further evaluation. A randomly selected eye was rinsed with saline three times. Fellow eyes (control) received no rinsing. After each rinse, the appearance of SFL staining was recorded without any further instillation of the dye. To eliminate any confounding effects of staining due to residual fluorescein in the tear menisci, corneal staining was induced in freshly excised, isolated, rabbit eyes by topical administration of 0.001% PHMB and staining, rinsing and grading were performed as above. Nine out of 13 subjects presented with bilateral diffuse corneal staining (mean grade±SD: 2.4±0.7). The mean staining grades in test and control eyes respectively after each of the three rinses were (1) 2.41±0.41, 2.25±0.69 (p=0.9); (2) 2.34±0.79, 2.1±0.83 (p=0.8); and (3) 1.71±0.65, 1.60±0.79 (p=0.6) there was no significant reduction in staining with rinsing (p>0.05) and no difference was observed between test and control eyes at any sampling-point. Similar observations made in ex vivo rabbit eyes replicated these results. Pooling or accumulation of SFL solution within intercellular spaces does not appear to contribute to the appearance of superficial micropunctate corneal staining. Copyright © 2011 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Marine Red Staining of a Pennsylvanian Carbonate Slope: Environmental and Oceanographic Significance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kooij, B.; Immenhauser, A.M.; Steuber, T; Hagmaier, M.; Bahamonde, J.R.; Samankassou, E.; Merino Tomé, O.

    2007-01-01

    Red-stained platform facies are a common feature of many carbonate settings throughout the geological record. Although the mechanisms involved in red staining of subaerially exposed or argillaceous, peri-platforin limestones are reasonably well understood, the environmental and oceanographic

  3. Identification and age estimation of blood stains on colored backgrounds by near infrared spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edelman, Gerda; Manti, Vicky; van Ruth, Saskia M.; van Leeuwen, Ton; Aalders, Maurice

    2012-01-01

    Non-destructive identification and subsequent age estimation of blood stains are significant steps in forensic casework. The latter can provide important information on the temporal aspects of a crime. As previously shown, visible spectroscopy of blood stains on white backgrounds can successfully be

  4. Touch cytology in diagnosing Helicobacter pylori: comparison of four staining methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, M R; Rahnavardi, M; Bikdeli, B; Dehghani Zahedani, M; Iranmanesh, F

    2008-06-01

    Helicobacter pylori (Hp), a major cause of peptic ulcer disease and an important risk factor for gastric malignancy, can be diagnosed by several methods. Touch cytology (TC) of the gastric mucosa has been noted to give good results and has been found to be very simple, inexpensive and rapid. However, evidence regarding the accuracy of different staining methods of TC is lacking. The present study aims at defining the diagnostic accuracy of four different staining methods of TC. Biopsy specimens were taken from the antral mucosa of one hundred consecutive patients referred for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGIE) for various indications. TC slides were processed by four staining methods: Wright, Giemsa, Papanicolaou and Gram. Rapid urease test (RUT) and histological examination of specimens were also performed. The same experienced pathologist evaluated the coded samples. A patient's Hp status was established by minimum concordance of the three tests, including histology, RUT, and 'Touch mean'. The latter was defined positive when at least three of the four TC staining methods were positive. Forty-six patients (46%) were positive for Hp according to Hp status. TC stained by Wright had excellent agreement with both histology (kappa = 0.80, P stained TC (88.89%) was significantly more specific than both Giemsa- (74.07%; P stained (70.37%; P stained TC can safely substitute for histology. However, when assessment for severity of mucosal damage or cell atypias is meant, histology cannot be neglected.

  5. Red alder kitchen cabinets—How does application of commercial stains influence customer choice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Nicholls; Joseph. Roos

    2007-01-01

    A better understanding of consumer reaction and preferences for red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) secondary products will help Alaska producers in entering new markets. In this study, red alder kitchen cabinets were commercially stained to six different levels and displayed at home shows in Portland, Oregon, and Anchorage, Alaska. The stains simulated...

  6. Complete staining of human spermatozoa and immature germ cells combined with phase contrast microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michael, A Y; Drejer, J O; Bagger, P V

    1987-01-01

    A method combining Janus green B and Thymol blue stains the anterior part of the head, the nuclear membrane, middle piece, and tail of spermatozoa light green and the nucleus deep purple. The method provides excellent stained preparations for the evaluation of sperm morphology by phase contrast...

  7. Supravital dithizone staining in the isolation of human and rat pancreatic islets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, W A; Christie, M R; Kahn, R

    1989-01-01

    Dithizone, a zinc chelating agent, is known to selectively stain the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. In the present study, we have used this stain to aid the identification of islets in material obtained by collagenase digestion of human pancreas. Islets were shown to rapidly and reversibly...... techniques for the large scale isolation of functionally intact human islets....

  8. Combined histochemical staining, RNA amplification, regional, and single cell cDNA analysis within the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Stephen D; Che, Shaoli

    2004-08-01

    The use of five histochemical stains (cresyl violet, thionin, hematoxylin & eosin, silver stain, and acridine orange) was evaluated in combination with an expression profiling paradigm that included regional and single cell analyses within the hippocampus of post-mortem human brains and adult mice. Adjacent serial sections of human and mouse hippocampus were labeled by histochemistry or neurofilament immunocytochemistry. These tissue sections were used as starting material for regional and single cell microdissection followed by a newly developed RNA amplification procedure (terminal continuation (TC) RNA amplification) and subsequent hybridization to custom-designed cDNA arrays. Results indicated equivalent levels of global hybridization signal intensity and relative expression levels for individual genes for hippocampi stained by cresyl violet, thionin, and hematoxylin & eosin, and neurofilament immunocytochemistry. Moreover, no significant differences existed between the Nissl stains and neurofilament immunocytochemistry for individual CA1 neurons obtained via laser capture microdissection. In contrast, a marked decrement was observed in adjacent hippocampal sections stained for silver stain and acridine orange, both at the level of the regional dissection and at the CA1 neuron population level. Observations made on the cDNA array platform were validated by real-time qPCR using primers directed against beta-actin and glyceraldehyde-3 phosphate dehydrogenase. Thus, this report demonstrated the utility of using specific Nissl stains, but not stains that bind RNA species directly, in both human and mouse brain tissues at the regional and cellular level for state-of-the-art molecular fingerprinting studies.

  9. Proposals for best-quality immunohistochemical staining of paraffin-embedded brain tissue slides in forensics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautz, Florian; Dreßler, Jan; Stassart, Ruth; Müller, Wolf; Ondruschka, Benjamin

    2018-01-03

    Immunohistochemistry (IHC) has become an integral part in forensic histopathology over the last decades. However, the underlying methods for IHC vary greatly depending on the institution, creating a lack of comparability. The aim of this study was to assess the optimal approach for different technical aspects of IHC, in order to improve and standardize this procedure. Therefore, qualitative results from manual and automatic IHC staining of brain samples were compared, as well as potential differences in suitability of common IHC glass slides. Further, possibilities of image digitalization and connected issues were investigated. In our study, automatic staining showed more consistent staining results, compared to manual staining procedures. Digitalization and digital post-processing facilitated direct analysis and analysis for reproducibility considerably. No differences were found for different commercially available microscopic glass slides regarding suitability of IHC brain researches, but a certain rate of tissue loss should be expected during the staining process.

  10. Preparation of colloidal gold for staining proteins electrotransferred onto nitrocellulose membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, K; Asakawa, H

    1988-07-01

    This paper describes a simple method of preparing colloidal gold for staining protein blots. Colloidal gold was prepared from 0.005 or 0.01% HAuCl4 by the addition of formalin as a reductant and potassium hydroxide. Staining of small cell carcinoma tissue extract blotted onto nitrocellulose membranes with this colloidal gold solution resulted in the appearance of a large number of clear wine-red bands. The sensitivity of gold staining was 60 times higher than that of Coomassie brilliant blue staining and almost comparable to that of silver staining of proteins in polyacrylamide gel. The sensitivity of this method was also satisfactory in comparison with that of enzyme immunoblotting. The colloidal gold prepared by this method is usable for routine work.

  11. Cell wall staining with Trypan blue enables quantitative analysis of morphological changes in yeast cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liesche, Johannes; Marek, Magdalena; Günther-Pomorski, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    staining with fluorescent dyes is a valuable tool. Furthermore, cell wall staining is used to facilitate sub-cellular localization experiments with fluorescently-labeled proteins and the detection of yeast cells in non-fungal host tissues. Here, we report staining of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall......Yeast cells are protected by a cell wall that plays an important role in the exchange of substances with the environment. The cell wall structure is dynamic and can adapt to different physiological states or environmental conditions. For the investigation of morphological changes, selective...... with Trypan Blue, which emits strong red fluorescence upon binding to chitin and yeast glucan; thereby, it facilitates cell wall analysis by confocal and super-resolution microscopy. The staining pattern of Trypan Blue was similar to that of the widely used UV-excitable, blue fluorescent cell wall stain...

  12. Optimal staining methods for delineation of cortical areas and neuron counts in human brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uylings, H B; Zilles, K; Rajkowska, G

    1999-04-01

    For cytoarchitectonic delineation of cortical areas in human brain, the Gallyas staining for somata with its sharp contrast between cell bodies and neuropil is preferable to the classical Nissl staining, the more so when an image analysis system is used. This Gallyas staining, however, does not appear to be appropriate for counting neuron numbers in pertinent brain areas, due to the lack of distinct cytological features between small neurons and glial cells. For cell counting Nissl is preferable. In an optimal design for cell counting at least both the Gallyas and the Nissl staining must be applied, the former staining for cytoarchitectural delineaton of cortical areas and the latter for counting the number of neurons in the pertinent cortical areas. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  13. Ocular melanoma metastatic to skin: the value of HMB-45 staining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Robert A; Kist, Joseph M; Thomas, Isabelle; Fernández, Geover; Cruz, Manuel A; Koziorynska, Ewa I; Lambert, W Clark

    2004-06-01

    Cutaneous metastatic disease is an important finding that may represent the first sign of systemic cancer, or, if already known, that may change tumor staging and thus dramatically altered therapeutic plans. Although cutaneous metastases are relatively frequent in patients with cutaneous melanoma, they are less so from ocular melanoma. To demonstrate the value of HMB-45, staining in the detection of ocular melanoma metastatic to skin. The immunohistochemical stain HMB-45 a monoclonal antibody directed against intact human melanoma cells, was employed on a skin biopsy specimen from a cutaneous tumor. HMB-45 staining was positive in the atypical hyperchromatic cells of the deep dermis. HMB-45 may be of value in the detection of ocular melanoma metastatic to skin. Cutaneous metastatic disease is a somewhat common and extremely important diagnosis. Although cutaneous metastases from cutaneous melanoma are relatively frequent, those from ocular melanomas are less so. Use of histochemical staining, especially the HMB-45 stain, allows confirmation of the diagnosis.

  14. Thickly Syndetical Sensitivity of Topological Dynamical System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Consider the surjective continuous map f:X→X, where X is a compact metric space. In this paper we give several stronger versions of sensitivity, such as thick sensitivity, syndetic sensitivity, thickly syndetic sensitivity, and strong sensitivity. We establish the following. (1 If (X,f is minimal and sensitive, then (X,f is syndetically sensitive. (2 Weak mixing implies thick sensitivity. (3 If (X,f is minimal and weakly mixing, then it is thickly syndetically sensitive. (4 If (X,f is a nonminimal M-system, then it is thickly syndetically sensitive. Devaney chaos implies thickly periodic sensitivity. (5 We give a syndetically sensitive system which is not thickly sensitive. (6 We give thickly syndetically sensitive examples but not cofinitely sensitive ones.

  15. three dimensional photoelastic investigations on thick rectangular

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    1983-09-01

    Sep 1, 1983 ... Thick rectangular plates are investigated by means of three-dimensional photoelasticity ... a thin plate theory and a higher order thick plate theory. 1. ..... number of fringes lest the accuracy of the results will be considerably.

  16. Non-contact radiation thickness gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujii, T.; Okino, T.

    1983-01-01

    A noncontact thickness gauge system for measuring the thickness of a material comprising a source of radiation, a detector for detecting the amount of radiation transmitted through the material which is a function of the absorptance and thickness of the material, a memory for storing the output signals of the detector and curve-defining parameters for a plurality of quadratic calibration curves which correspond to respective thickness ranges, and a processor for processing the signals and curve defining parameters to determine the thickness of the material. Measurements are made after precalibration to obtain calibration curves and these are stored in the memory, providing signals representative of a nominal thickness and an alloy compensation coefficient for the material. The calibration curve corresponding to a particular thickness range is selected and the curve compensated for drift; the material is inserted into the radiation path and the detector output signal processed with the compensated calibration curve to determine the thickness of the material. (author)

  17. Autonomous Sea-Ice Thickness Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    the conductivity of an infinitely thick slab of sea ice. Ice thickness, Hice, is then obtained by subtracting the height of the ...Thickness Survey of Sea Ice Runway” ERDC/CRREL SR-16-4 ii Abstract We conducted an autonomous survey of sea -ice thickness using the Polar rover Yeti...efficiency relative to manual surveys routinely con- ducted to assess the safety of roads and runways constructed on the sea ice. Yeti executed the

  18. Should gram stains have a role in diagnosing hip arthroplasty infections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Aaron J; Zywiel, Michael G; Stroh, D Alex; Marker, David R; Mont, Michael A

    2010-09-01

    The utility of Gram stains in diagnosing periprosthetic infections following total hip arthroplasty has recently been questioned. Several studies report low sensitivity of the test, and its poor ability to either confirm or rule out infection in patients undergoing revision total hip arthroplasty. Despite this, many institutions including that of the senior author continue to perform Gram stains during revision total hip arthroplasty. We assessed the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and positive and negative predictive values of Gram stains from surgical-site samplings taken from procedures on patients with both infected and aseptic revision total hip arthroplasties. A review was performed on patients who underwent revision total hip arthroplasty between 2000 and 2007. Eighty-two Gram stains were performed on patients who had infected total hip arthroplasties and underwent revision procedures. Additionally, of the 410 revision total hip arthroplasties performed on patients who were confirmed infection-free, 120 Gram stains were performed. Patients were diagnosed as infected using multiple criteria at the time of surgery. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy were calculated from these Gram stain results. The Gram stain demonstrated a sensitivity and specificity of 9.8% and 100%, respectively. In this series, the Gram stain had a negative predictive value of 62%, a positive predictive value of 100%, and an accuracy of 63%. Gram stains obtained from surgical-site samples had poor sensitivity and poor negative predictive value. Based on these findings, as well as those of other authors, we believe that Gram stains should no longer be considered for diagnosing infections in revision total hip arthroplasty. Level III, diagnostic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  19. Porcine intestinal mast cells. Evaluation of different fixatives for histochemical staining techniques considering tissue shrinkage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rieger

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Staining of mast cells (MCs, including porcine ones, is critically dependent upon the fixation and staining technique. In the pig, mucosal and submucosal MCs do not stain or stain only faintly after formalin fixation. Some fixation methods are particularly recommended for MC staining, for example the fixation with Carnoy or lead salts. Zinc salt fixation (ZSF has been reported to work excellently for the preservation of fixation-sensitive antigens. The aim of this study was to establish a reliable histological method for counting of MCs in the porcine intestinum. For this purpose, different tissue fixation and staining methods that also allow potential subsequent immunohistochemical investigations were evaluated in the porcine mucosa, as well as submucosa of small and large intestine. Tissues were fixed in Carnoy, lead acetate, lead nitrate, Zamboni and ZSF and stained subsequently with either polychromatic methylene blue, alcian blue or toluidine blue. For the first time our study reveals that ZSF, a heavy metal fixative, preserves metachromatic staining of porcine MCs. Zamboni fixation was not suitable for histochemical visualization of MCs in the pig intestine. All other tested fixatives were suitable. Alcian blue and toluidine blue co-stained intestinal goblet cells which made a prima facie identification of MCs difficult. The polychromatic methylene blue proved to be the optimal staining. In order to compare MC counting results of the different fixation methods, tissue shrinkage was taken into account. As even the same fixation caused shrinkage-differences between tissue from small and large intestine, different factors for each single fixation and intestinal localization had to be calculated. Tissue shrinkage varied between 19% and 57%, the highest tissue shrinkage was found after fixation with ZSF in the large intestine, the lowest one in the small intestine after lead acetate fixation. Our study emphasizes that MC counting results from

  20. doped ZnO thick film resistors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The characterization and ethanol gas sensing properties of pure and doped ZnO thick films were investigated. Thick films of pure zinc oxide were prepared by the screen printing technique. Pure zinc oxide was almost insensitive to ethanol. Thick films of Al2O3 (1 wt%) doped ZnO were observed to be highly sensitive to ...

  1. Macular thickness and volume in the elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Subhi, Yousif; Forshaw, Thomas; Sørensen, Torben Lykke

    2016-01-01

    manifests in the macula of the elderly focusing on clinical relevant measures that are thicknesses and volumes of different macular areas. Ageing seems to increase center point foveal thickness. Ageing does not seem to change the center subfield thickness significantly. Ageing decreases the inner and outer...

  2. An optimized staining technique for the detection of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria within tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra, Sandra C; Roy, Daniel C; Sanchez, Carlos J; Christy, Robert J; Burmeister, David M

    2016-04-12

    Bacterial infections are a common clinical problem in both acute and chronic wounds. With growing concerns over antibiotic resistance, treatment of bacterial infections should only occur after positive diagnosis. Currently, diagnosis is delayed due to lengthy culturing methods which may also fail to identify the presence of bacteria. While newer costly bacterial identification methods are being explored, a simple and inexpensive diagnostic tool would aid in immediate and accurate treatments for bacterial infections. Histologically, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and Gram stains have been employed, but are far from optimal when analyzing tissue samples due to non-specific staining. The goal of the current study was to develop a modification of the Gram stain that enhances the contrast between bacteria and host tissue. A modified Gram stain was developed and tested as an alternative to Gram stain that improves the contrast between Gram positive bacteria, Gram negative bacteria and host tissue. Initially, clinically relevant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus were visualized in vitro and in biopsies of infected, porcine burns using routine Gram stain, and immunohistochemistry techniques involving bacterial strain-specific fluorescent antibodies as validation tools. H&E and Gram stain of serial biopsy sections were then compared to a modification of the Gram stain incorporating a counterstain that highlights collagen found in tissue. The modified Gram stain clearly identified both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria, and when compared to H&E or Gram stain alone provided excellent contrast between bacteria and non-viable burn eschar. Moreover, when applied to surgical biopsies from patients that underwent burn debridement this technique was able to clearly detect bacterial morphology within host tissue. We describe a modification of the Gram stain that provides improved contrast of Gram positive and Gram negative microorganisms within host

  3. Assessment of corneal epithelial thickness in dry eye patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xinhan; Hong, Jiaxu; Wang, Fei; Deng, Sophie X; Yang, Yujing; Zhu, Xiaoyu; Wu, Dan; Zhao, Yujin; Xu, Jianjiang

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the features of corneal epithelial thickness topography with Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) in dry eye patients. In this cross-sectional study, 100 symptomatic dry eye patients and 35 normal subjects were enrolled. All participants answered the ocular surface disease index questionnaire and were subjected to OCT, corneal fluorescein staining, tear breakup time, Schirmer 1 test without anesthetic (S1t), and meibomian morphology. Several epithelium statistics for each eye, including central, superior, inferior, minimum, maximum, minimum - maximum, and map standard deviation, were averaged. Correlations of epithelial thickness with the symptoms of dry eye were calculated. The mean (±SD) central, superior, and inferior corneal epithelial thickness was 53.57 (±3.31) μm, 52.00 (±3.39) μm, and 53.03 (±3.67) μm in normal eyes and 52.71 (±2.83) μm, 50.58 (±3.44) μm, and 52.53 (±3.36) μm in dry eyes, respectively. The superior corneal epithelium was thinner in dry eye patients compared with normal subjects (p = 0.037), whereas central and inferior epithelium were not statistically different. In the dry eye group, patients with higher severity grades had thinner superior (p = 0.017) and minimum (p dry eye corneal epithelium was thinner than normal eyes in the superior region. In more severe dry eye disease patients, the superior and minimum epithelium was much thinner, with a greater range of map standard deviation.

  4. Improving Gram stain proficiency in hospital and satellite laboratories that do not have microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarner, Jeannette; Street, Cassandra; Matlock, Margaret; Cole, Lisa; Brierre, Francoise

    2017-03-01

    Consolidation of laboratories has left many hospitals and satellite laboratories with minimal microbiologic testing. In many hospitals and satellite laboratories, Gram stains on primary specimens are still performed despite difficultly in maintaining proficiency. To maintain Gram stain proficiency at a community 450-bed hospital with an active emergency room we designed bimonthly challenges that require reporting Gram staining and morphology of different organisms. The challenges consist of five specimens prepared by the reference microbiology laboratory from cultures and primary specimens. Twenty to 23 medical laboratory scientists participate reading the challenges. Results from the challenges are discussed with each medical laboratory scientists. In addition, printed images from the challenges are presented at huddle to add microbiology knowledge. On the first three challenges, Gram staining was read correctly in 71%-77% of the time while morphology 53%-66%. In the last six challenges correct answers for Gram stain were 77%-99% while morphology 73%-96%. We observed statistically significant improvement when reading Gram stains by providing frequent challenges to medical laboratory scientists. The clinical importance of Gram stain results is emphasized during huddle presentations increasing knowledge and motivation to perform the test for patients.

  5. Automated robust registration of grossly misregistered whole-slide images with varying stains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litjens, G.; Safferling, K.; Grabe, N.

    2016-03-01

    Cancer diagnosis and pharmaceutical research increasingly depend on the accurate quantification of cancer biomarkers. Identification of biomarkers is usually performed through immunohistochemical staining of cancer sections on glass slides. However, combination of multiple biomarkers from a wide variety of immunohistochemically stained slides is a tedious process in traditional histopathology due to the switching of glass slides and re-identification of regions of interest by pathologists. Digital pathology now allows us to apply image registration algorithms to digitized whole-slides to align the differing immunohistochemical stains automatically. However, registration algorithms need to be robust to changes in color due to differing stains and severe changes in tissue content between slides. In this work we developed a robust registration methodology to allow for fast coarse alignment of multiple immunohistochemical stains to the base hematyoxylin and eosin stained image. We applied HSD color model conversion to obtain a less stain color dependent representation of the whole-slide images. Subsequently, optical density thresholding and connected component analysis were used to identify the relevant regions for registration. Template matching using normalized mutual information was applied to provide initial translation and rotation parameters, after which a cost function-driven affine registration was performed. The algorithm was validated using 40 slides from 10 prostate cancer patients, with landmark registration error as a metric. Median landmark registration error was around 180 microns, which indicates performance is adequate for practical application. None of the registrations failed, indicating the robustness of the algorithm.

  6. Helicobacter pylori detection in chronic gastritis: a comparison of staining methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, F.; Khan, I.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Helicobacter pylori is an important cause of chronic gastritis, gastric ulceration and gastric malignancies as gastric carcinoma and MALT lymphoma. Its definitive diagnosis is based on histopathology. Routine H and E stain is not very effective in its detection, immune-stains and fluorescent stains are costly. Need for simple cheap and sensitive stain has always been a topic of hot debate and extensive research. Method: paraffin embedded blocks of all adult patients diagnosed as chronic gastritis/gastric ulceration with no accompanying gastric pathology as hypertrophic gastropathys, and neoplasias were taken into study. Three sections of 4 micron were cut and stained with routine H and E, Giemsa, and Cresyl fast violet. Results: Total number of patients was 50. Out of these 37 (74%) were males and 13 (26%) were females. Mean age of the patients was 50.4 years. Thirty-four percent (34%) were positive in normal H and E stain, 68% were positive in Giemsa and 76% were positive in Cresyl fast violet. Conclusion: Cresyl fast violet is a good stain for diagnosis of H. pylori gastritis. (author)

  7. A procedure for Alcian blue staining of mucins on polyvinylidene difluoride membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Weijie; Matsuno, Yu-ki; Kameyama, Akihiko

    2012-10-16

    The isolation and characterization of mucins are critically important for obtaining insight into the molecular pathology of various diseases, including cancers and cystic fibrosis. Recently, we developed a novel membrane electrophoretic method, supported molecular matrix electrophoresis (SMME), which separates mucins on a polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membrane impregnated with a hydrophilic polymer. Alcian blue staining is widely used to visualize mucopolysaccharides and acidic mucins on both blotted membranes and SMME membranes; however, this method cannot be used to stain mucins with a low acidic glycan content. Meanwhile, periodic acid-Schiff staining can selectively visualize glycoproteins, including mucins, but is incompatible with glycan analysis, which is indispensable for mucin characterizations. Here we describe a novel staining method, designated succinylation-Alcian blue staining, for visualizing mucins on a PVDF membrane. This method can visualize mucins regardless of the acidic residue content and shows a sensitivity 2-fold higher than that of Pro-Q Emerald 488, a fluorescent periodate Schiff-base stain. Furthermore, we demonstrate the compatibility of this novel staining procedure with glycan analysis using porcine gastric mucin as a model mucin.

  8. Zebrafish cardiac muscle thick filaments: isolation technique and three-dimensional structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Solá, Maryví; Al-Khayat, Hind A; Behra, Martine; Kensler, Robert W

    2014-04-15

    To understand how mutations in thick filament proteins such as cardiac myosin binding protein-C or titin, cause familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathies, it is important to determine the structure of the cardiac thick filament. Techniques for the genetic manipulation of the zebrafish are well established and it has become a major model for the study of the cardiovascular system. Our goal is to develop zebrafish as an alternative system to the mammalian heart model for the study of the structure of the cardiac thick filaments and the proteins that form it. We have successfully isolated thick filaments from zebrafish cardiac muscle, using a procedure similar to those for mammalian heart, and analyzed their structure by negative-staining and electron microscopy. The isolated filaments appear well ordered with the characteristic 42.9 nm quasi-helical repeat of the myosin heads expected from x-ray diffraction. We have performed single particle image analysis on the collected electron microscopy images for the C-zone region of these filaments and obtained a three-dimensional reconstruction at 3.5 nm resolution. This reconstruction reveals structure similar to the mammalian thick filament, and demonstrates that zebrafish may provide a useful model for the study of the changes in the cardiac thick filament associated with disease processes. Copyright © 2014 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Hydrothermal synthesis of copper zirconium phosphate hydrate [Cu(OH)2Zr(HPO4)2·2H2O] and an investigation of its lubrication properties in grease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaosheng; Xu, Hong; Zuo, Zhijun; Lin, Zhi; Ferdov, Stanislav; Dong, Jinxiang

    2013-08-28

    Copper zirconium phosphate hydrate (Cu(OH)2Zr(HPO4)2·2H2O, hereafter referred to as Cu-α-ZrP) with high crystallinity was directly synthesized in a NaF-CuO-ZrO-P2O5-H2O system under hydrothermal conditions. The copper ion was confirmed to be an exchangeable cation in the Cu-α-ZrP through elemental analysis and a proton ion exchange process. The crystal structure of the Cu-α-ZrP was determined ab initio by using X-ray powder diffraction data. In the structure, the CuO6 octahedron would be located in an exchangeable atom position. Moreover, Cu-α-ZrP was evaluated as an additive in grease in a four ball test. The maximum nonseizure load (PB, representing the load-carrying capacity) of the base grease containing Cu-α-ZrP was increased from 353 to 1235 N. The excellent load-carrying capacity may be explained by the easier adherence of the material to the worn surface forming a tight protective film.

  10. Intelligent processing for thick composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Daniel Dong-Ok

    2000-10-01

    Manufacturing thick composite parts are associated with adverse curing conditions such as large in-plane temperature gradient and exotherms. The condition is further aggravated because the manufacturer's cycle and the existing cure control systems do not adequately counter such affects. In response, the forecast-based thermal control system is developed to have better cure control for thick composites. Accurate cure kinetic model is crucial for correctly identifying the amount of heat generated for composite process simulation. A new technique for identifying cure parameters for Hercules AS4/3502 prepreg is presented by normalizing the DSC data. The cure kinetics is based on an autocatalytic model for the proposed method, which uses dynamic and isothermal DSC data to determine its parameters. Existing models are also used to determine kinetic parameters but rendered inadequate because of the material's temperature dependent final degree of cure. The model predictions determined from the new technique showed good agreement to both isothermal and dynamic DSC data. The final degree of cure was also in good agreement with experimental data. A realistic cure simulation model including bleeder ply analysis and compaction is validated with Hercules AS4/3501-6 based laminates. The nonsymmetrical temperature distribution resulting from the presence of bleeder plies agreed well to the model prediction. Some of the discrepancies in the predicted compaction behavior were attributed to inaccurate viscosity and permeability models. The temperature prediction was quite good for the 3cm laminate. The validated process simulation model along with cure kinetics model for AS4/3502 prepreg were integrated into the thermal control system. The 3cm Hercules AS4/3501-6 and AS4/3502 laminate were fabricated. The resulting cure cycles satisfied all imposed requirements by minimizing exotherms and temperature gradient. Although the duration of the cure cycles increased, such phenomena was

  11. Stain removal and whitening by baking soda dentifrice: A review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiming

    2017-11-01

    Tooth discoloration may be caused by intrinsic or extrinsic stains or a combination of both. There are 2 major approaches to removing the stains, including the chemical mechanism using peroxides for tooth bleaching and the mechanical mechanism using abrasives in prophylactic pastes and dentifrices to remove stains, resulting in a whitening effect. Attempts have also been made to add a low concentration of peroxides to dentifrices to enhance their abrasive cleaning to remove tooth stains. This article provides a review of both in vitro and clinical studies on stain removal and whitening effect of dentifrices containing sodium bicarbonate (baking soda). In recent years, whitening dentifrices have become popular because of little additional effort for use, ease of availability, low cost, and accumulated evidence of clinical efficacy and safety in the literature. Advances in research and technology have led to innovative formulations of dentifrices using baking soda as the sole abrasive or a component of an abrasive system. Baking soda is biologically compatible with acid-buffering capacities, antibacterial at high concentrations, and has a relatively lower abrasivity. The evidence available in the literature indicates that baking soda-based dentifrices are effective and safe for tooth stain removal and consequently whitening. A number of clinical studies have also shown that baking soda-based dentifrices are more effective in stain removal and whitening than some non-baking soda-containing dentifrices with a higher abrasivity. So far, research efforts have mainly focused on stain removal and tooth-whitening efficacy and clinical safety of baking soda dentifrices used with manual toothbrushes, with only a few studies investigating their effects using powered toothbrushes, for which further research is encouraged. As part of a daily oral hygiene practice, baking soda-based dentifrice is a desirable, alternative or additional measure for tooth stain removal and whitening

  12. Lack of clinical utility of urine gram stain for suspected urinary tract infection in pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantey, Joseph B; Gaviria-Agudelo, Claudia; McElvania TeKippe, Erin; Doern, Christopher D

    2015-04-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common infections in children. Urine culture remains the gold standard for diagnosis, but the utility of urine Gram stain relative to urinalysis (UA) is unclear. We reviewed 312 pediatric patients with suspected UTI who had urine culture, UA, and urine Gram stain performed from a single urine specimen. UA was considered positive if ≥10 leukocytes per oil immersion field were seen or if either nitrates or leukocyte esterase testing was positive. Urine Gram stain was considered positive if any organisms were seen. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were calculated using urine culture as the gold standard. Thirty-seven (12%) patients had a culture-proven UTI. Compared to urine Gram stain, UA had equal sensitivity (97.3% versus 97.5%) and higher specificity (85% versus 74%). Empirical therapy was prescribed before the Gram stain result was known in 40 (49%) patients and after in 42 (51%) patients. The antibiotics chosen did not differ between the two groups (P=0.81), nor did they differ for patients with Gram-negative rods on urine Gram stain compared to those with Gram-positive cocci (P=0.67). From these data, we conclude that UA has excellent negative predictive value that is not enhanced by urine Gram stain and that antibiotic selection did not vary based on the urine Gram stain result. In conclusion, the clinical utility of urine Gram stain does not warrant the time or cost it requires. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Gram staining of protected pulmonary specimens in the early diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimoz, O; Karim, A; Mazoit, J X; Edouard, A; Leprince, S; Nordmann, P

    2000-11-01

    We evaluated prospectively the use of Gram staining of protected pulmonary specimens to allow the early diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), compared with the use of 60 bronchoscopic protected specimen brushes (PSB) and 126 blinded plugged telescopic catheters (PTC) obtained from 134 patients. Gram stains were from Cytospin slides; they were studied for the presence of microorganisms in 10 and 50 fields by two independent observers and classified according to their Gram stain morphology. Quantitative cultures were performed after serial dilution and plating on appropriate culture medium. A final diagnosis of VAP, based on a culture of > or = 10(3) c.f.u. ml-1, was established after 81 (44%) samplings. When 10 fields were analysed, a strong relationship was found between the presence of bacteria on Gram staining and the final diagnosis of VAP (for PSB and PTC respectively: sensitivity 74 and 81%, specificity 94 and 100%, positive predictive value 91 and 100%, negative predictive value 82 and 88%). The correlation was less when we compared the morphology of microorganisms observed on Gram staining with those of bacteria obtained from quantitative cultures (for PSB and PTC respectively: sensitivity 54 and 69%, specificity 86 and 89%, positive predictive value 72 and 78%, negative predictive value 74 and 84%). Increasing the number of fields read to 50 was associated with a slight decrease in specificity and positive predictive value of Gram staining, but with a small increase in its sensitivity and negative predictive value. The results obtained by the two observers were similar to each other for both numbers of fields analysed. Gram staining of protected pulmonary specimens performed on 10 fields predicted the presence of VAP and partially identified (using Gram stain morphology) the microorganisms growing at significant concentrations, and could help in the early choice of the treatment of VAP. Increasing the number of fields read or having the Gram

  14. The utility of the hematoxylin and eosin staining in patients with suspected Hirschsprung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiadi, Josephine Amanda; Dwihantoro, Andi; Iskandar, Kristy; Heriyanto, Didik Setyo; Gunadi

    2017-06-19

    While immunohistochemistry (IHC) methods have been widely conducted for the diagnosis of Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) in developed countries, there are very few studies on their use in developing countries where hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining is a key element of the diagnosis of HSCR. We aimed to determine the accuracy of HE staining in the diagnosis of HSCR using S100 IHC as the reference standard in Indonesia. All histopathology performed for the suspicion of HSCR patients from January 2013 to August 2015 in Dr. Sardjito Hospital, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, were retrospectively reviewed. Our study included 23 HSCR patients: 9 males and 14 females. The HE staining revealed 14 negative (absence of ganglion cells) cases (61%) and 9 positive (presence of ganglion cells) cases (39%). In S100 IHC, out of the 9 positive cases by HE staining, 6 (67%) were confirmed for having ganglion cells; and out of the 14 negative cases by HE staining, 12 (86%) were reported negative and 2 (14%) were positive by S100 IHC staining. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy rates of the HE staining were 80% (95% CI: 0.51-0.95), 75% (95% CI: 0.36-0.96), 85.7% (95% CI: 0.56-0.98), 66.7% (95% CI: 0.31-0.91), and 78.3% (95% CI: 0.58-0.90), respectively. Our study showed that HE staining has relatively moderate accuracy for the diagnosis of HSCR. The use of HE staining is still recommended for the diagnosis of HSCR given the limitation of resource allocation for more expensive IHC technologies in developing countries.

  15. Histological staining methods preparatory to laser capture microdissection significantly affect the integrity of the cellular RNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ming-Chung

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene expression profiling by microarray analysis of cells enriched by laser capture microdissection (LCM faces several technical challenges. Frozen sections yield higher quality RNA than paraffin-imbedded sections, but even with frozen sections, the staining methods used for histological identification of cells of interest could still damage the mRNA in the cells. To study the contribution of staining methods to degradation of results from gene expression profiling of LCM samples, we subjected pellets of the mouse plasma cell tumor cell line TEPC 1165 to direct RNA extraction and to parallel frozen sectioning for LCM and subsequent RNA extraction. We used microarray hybridization analysis to compare gene expression profiles of RNA from cell pellets with gene expression profiles of RNA from frozen sections that had been stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E, Nissl Stain (NS, and for immunofluorescence (IF as well as with the plasma cell-revealing methyl green pyronin (MGP stain. All RNAs were amplified with two rounds of T7-based in vitro transcription and analyzed by two-color expression analysis on 10-K cDNA microarrays. Results The MGP-stained samples showed the least introduction of mRNA loss, followed by H&E and immunofluorescence. Nissl staining was significantly more detrimental to gene expression profiles, presumably owing to an aqueous step in which RNA may have been damaged by endogenous or exogenous RNAases. Conclusion RNA damage can occur during the staining steps preparatory to laser capture microdissection, with the consequence of loss of representation of certain genes in microarray hybridization analysis. Inclusion of RNAase inhibitor in aqueous staining solutions appears to be important in protecting RNA from loss of gene transcripts.

  16. Histological staining methods preparatory to laser capture microdissection significantly affect the integrity of the cellular RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongyang; Owens, James D; Shih, Joanna H; Li, Ming-Chung; Bonner, Robert F; Mushinski, J Frederic

    2006-04-27

    Gene expression profiling by microarray analysis of cells enriched by laser capture microdissection (LCM) faces several technical challenges. Frozen sections yield higher quality RNA than paraffin-imbedded sections, but even with frozen sections, the staining methods used for histological identification of cells of interest could still damage the mRNA in the cells. To study the contribution of staining methods to degradation of results from gene expression profiling of LCM samples, we subjected pellets of the mouse plasma cell tumor cell line TEPC 1165 to direct RNA extraction and to parallel frozen sectioning for LCM and subsequent RNA extraction. We used microarray hybridization analysis to compare gene expression profiles of RNA from cell pellets with gene expression profiles of RNA from frozen sections that had been stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), Nissl Stain (NS), and for immunofluorescence (IF) as well as with the plasma cell-revealing methyl green pyronin (MGP) stain. All RNAs were amplified with two rounds of T7-based in vitro transcription and analyzed by two-color expression analysis on 10-K cDNA microarrays. The MGP-stained samples showed the least introduction of mRNA loss, followed by H&E and immunofluorescence. Nissl staining was significantly more detrimental to gene expression profiles, presumably owing to an aqueous step in which RNA may have been damaged by endogenous or exogenous RNAases. RNA damage can occur during the staining steps preparatory to laser capture microdissection, with the consequence of loss of representation of certain genes in microarray hybridization analysis. Inclusion of RNAase inhibitor in aqueous staining solutions appears to be important in protecting RNA from loss of gene transcripts.

  17. Simple and rapid staining for detection of Entamoeba cysts and other protozoans with fluorochromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, F; Mizuno, S; Fujioka, H; Kumada, N; Sugiyama, E; Takeuchi, T; Kobayashi, S; Iseki, M; Yamada, M; Matsumoto, Y

    1987-02-01

    Three fluorochromes were applied to stain various parasitic protozoans. By double staining with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole and propidium iodide, differentiation of the nuclei from the cytoplasm can easily be achieved within several seconds. The chromatoid bodies in Entamoeba cysts were stained bright red. Plasmodium yoelii at all stages except late trophozoites and young gametocytes was easily identified. In the oocysts of Cryptosporidium sp., the nuclei and cytoplasm of the sporozoites fluoresced bluish white and red, respectively, whereas the residual body appeared blue or green. The third fluorochrome, Calcofluor white M2R, was suitable for detecting the cysts of Entamoeba spp. and Chilomastix mesnili.

  18. Double immunohistochemical staining with laminin 5 (γ2 chain) and collagen IV in colorectal neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiehn, Anne-Marie Kanstrup; Bzorek, Michael; Warnecke, Mads

    2016-01-01

    divided according to the primary histopathological diagnoses of tubular adenoma, tubulovillous adenoma, adenoma with pseudoinvasion and glandular adenocarcinoma stages pT1, pT2 or pT3, were included in the study. In normal colonic mucosa, no expression of laminin 5 staining was observed. BM was always...... as a supplement for the diagnosis of pT1 CRC. In adenomas, the double staining highlights the areas for the pathologist to pay extra attention. By itself, the double staining cannot determine whether or not there is invasion. Morphology remains the single most important factor in differentiating adenoma...

  19. Amazonian açai and food dyes for staining arbuscular- micorrhizal fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Lourdes Martins Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Arbuscular mycorrhizae microscopy requires differential staining of typical structures. Dyes employed, such as trypan blue, pose risks to health and environment. Alternative dyes such as pen ink and aniline have variable coloring efficiency. In this work, Brachiaria decumbens roots, discolored with caustic soda (NaOH, were stained with açai, annatto, saffron, trypan blue and pen inks. There were significant differences among dyes regarding stained mycorrhizal structures and pictures quality. Acai was considered the best alternative dye, with similar results to trypan blue.

  20. The Role of Hemiwicking on the Shape of a Blood Drop Stain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiri, Samira; Martin, Kenneth; Bird, James

    2017-11-01

    Blood pattern analysis (BPA) typically assumes that an elliptical stain is due to oblique drop impact. From the eccentricity of the elliptical stain - while also accounting for gravity and drag - the source and trajectory of the blood drops can be estimated. Yet, these models generally neglect any fluid motion following impact that could influence the shape of the stain. Here we demonstrate that under certain conditions on certain materials, a blood drop will undergo anisotropic hemiwicking. Through systemic experiments and modeling, we aim to better understand this phenomenon with the goal of ultimately decreasing the uncertainty in crime scene reconstruction.

  1. INTERNALISASI PENDIDIKAN KARAKTER DI PERGURUAN TINGGI: Studi Kasus di Jurusan Tarbiyah STAIN PONOROGO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kharisul Wathoni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study will examine the internalization of character values at the Tarbiyah Department of STAIN Ponorogo. It has been found out that STAIN Ponorogo, in particular the Tarbiyah Department, has made efforts to undertake character education to the students through three patterns: during the learning process, during process of academic administrative services, and during extracurricular and intraccurricular activities followed by students at STAIN Ponorogo. The characters to be internalized are honesty, discipline, religiousity, creativity, self-reliance, responsibility, tolerance, communication and responsibility. Keywords: character education, morality, internalization

  2. Propiedades fisicoquímicas y tribológicas de una grasa grafitada de Jatropha curcas L y jabón de litio//Physicochemical and tribological properties of graphite grease based on Jatrophacurcas L oil and lithium soap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano‐Chitue de Assunção‐Nascimento

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Las grasas lubricantes son consideradas una dispersión coloidal de un espesante en un fluido lubricante. Los aceites vegetales son ampliamente usados en muchas formulaciones de grasas. En este trabajo se determinaron las propiedades fisicoquímicas y tribológicas de una grasa lubricante fabricada con aceite vegetal de Jatropha curcas L y jabón de litio (JC1G5. Alfa tocoferol acetato y grafito fueron usados como aditivos antioxidante y de extrema presión respectivamente. La grasa JC1G5 mostró un color negro, una temperatura de goteo de 140 oC, apropiadas propiedades de corrosión al cobre y un grado de consistencia NLGI Grado1. El efecto de la lubricación de la grasa JC1G5 fue probado, empleando una máquina de cuatro bolas y un tribómetro timken. Los resultados indican que la grasa JC1G5 posee propiedades tribológicas comparables con una grasa mineral de jabón de litio.Palabras claves: grasa, jatropha curcas L, jabón de litio, propiedades fisicoquímicas, propiedades tribológicas.______________________________________________________________________________AbstractLubricating greases are considered as colloidal dispersions of a thickener in a lubricating fluid. The vegetable oils are widely used in many formulations of greases. In this paper were determined the physicochemical and tribological properties of graphite grease based on Jatropha curcas L vegetableoil and lithium soap (JC1G5. Alpha tocofherol acetate and graphite were used as antioxidant and extreme pressure additives respectively. The grease JC1G5 showed a black color, a dropping point of 140 oC, appropriate magnitude of copper corrosion and consistency NLGI Grade 1. Lubrication performance of the grease JC1G5 was tested using the 4-ball wear tester and timken tribometer tester. Results indicate that the grease JC1G5 has tribological properties comparable to that of mineral oil base lithium grease.Key words: grease, jatrophacurcas L, lithium soap, physicochemical

  3. Three-dimensional primate molar enamel thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olejniczak, Anthony J; Tafforeau, Paul; Feeney, Robin N M; Martin, Lawrence B

    2008-02-01

    Molar enamel thickness has played an important role in the taxonomic, phylogenetic, and dietary assessments of fossil primate teeth for nearly 90 years. Despite the frequency with which enamel thickness is discussed in paleoanthropological discourse, methods used to attain information about enamel thickness are destructive and record information from only a single plane of section. Such semidestructive planar methods limit sample sizes and ignore dimensional data that may be culled from the entire length of a tooth. In light of recently developed techniques to investigate enamel thickness in 3D and the frequent use of enamel thickness in dietary and phylogenetic interpretations of living and fossil primates, the study presented here aims to produce and make available to other researchers a database of 3D enamel thickness measurements of primate molars (n=182 molars). The 3D enamel thickness measurements reported here generally agree with 2D studies. Hominoids show a broad range of relative enamel thicknesses, and cercopithecoids have relatively thicker enamel than ceboids, which in turn have relatively thicker enamel than strepsirrhine primates, on average. Past studies performed using 2D sections appear to have accurately diagnosed the 3D relative enamel thickness condition in great apes and humans: Gorilla has the relatively thinnest enamel, Pan has relatively thinner enamel than Pongo, and Homo has the relatively thickest enamel. Although the data set presented here has some taxonomic gaps, it may serve as a useful reference for researchers investigating enamel thickness in fossil taxa and studies of primate gnathic biology.

  4. Efficacy of baking soda-containing chewing gum in removing natural tooth stain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankodi, S M; Conforti, N; Berkowitz, H

    2001-07-01

    A 14-week, double-blind, randomized clinical trial was conducted with 126 healthy volunteers to compare the efficacy of twice-daily use of 3 baking soda-containing chewing gums in removing natural tooth stain when used in conjunction with a program of regular oral hygiene. All 3 chewing gums significantly reduced extrinsic stain (P Baking Soda Gum (AHDC) reduced dental stain by 70.8%, compared to reductions of 71.9% and 65.3%, after use of 2 experimental gum formulations. Whitened appearance improved by 1.73 shade tabs using AHDC gum, and up to 2.49 shade tabs with the experimental formulations. These results suggest that the use of baking soda-containing gum after meals, in conjunction with good oral hygiene, can improve both extrinsic dental staining and the whitened appearance of teeth.

  5. Utility of gram staining for evaluation of the quality of cystic fibrosis sputum samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Bindu; Stapp, Jenny; Stapp, Lynn; Bugni, Linda; Van Dalfsen, Jill; Burns, Jane L

    2002-08-01

    The microscopic examination of Gram-stained sputum specimens is very helpful in the evaluation of patients with community-acquired pneumonia and has also been recommended for use in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. This study was undertaken to evaluate that recommendation. One hundred one sputum samples from CF patients were cultured for gram-negative bacilli and examined by Gram staining for both sputum adequacy (using the quality [Q] score) and bacterial morphology. Subjective evaluation of adequacy was also performed and categorized. Based on Q score evaluation, 41% of the samples would have been rejected despite a subjective appearance of purulence. Only three of these rejected samples were culture negative for gram-negative CF pathogens. Correlation between culture results and quantitative Gram stain examination was also poor. These data suggest that subjective evaluation combined with comprehensive bacteriology is superior to Gram staining in identifying pathogens in CF sputum.

  6. One Small Step for the Gram Stain, One Giant Leap for Clinical Microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Richard B

    2016-06-01

    The Gram stain is one of the most commonly performed tests in the clinical microbiology laboratory, yet it is poorly controlled and lacks standardization. It was once the best rapid test in microbiology, but it is no longer trusted by many clinicians. The publication by Samuel et al. (J. Clin. Microbiol. 54:1442-1447, 2016, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.03066-15) is a start for those who want to evaluate and improve Gram stain performance. In an age of emerging rapid molecular results, is the Gram stain still relevant? How should clinical microbiologists respond to the call to reduce Gram stain error rates? Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Prophylactic Cefazolin in Amnioinfusions Administered for Meconium-Stained Amniotic Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Edwards

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine if amnioinfusion with an antibiotic solution decreased the rate of clinical chorioamnionitis and puerperal endometritis in patients with meconium-stained amniotic fluid.

  8. Efficacy of evaluation of rooster sperm morphology using different staining methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukaszewicz, E; Jerysz, A; Partyka, A; Siudzińska, A

    2008-12-01

    This work focused on inexpensive methods of evaluation fowl sperm morphology, based on eosin-nigrosin smears, which can determine disorders in spermatogenesis and can be recommended for evaluating the fertilising potency and selecting males in flocks reproduced by artificial insemination. Four fowl breeds (Black Minorca, Italian Partridge, Forwerk and Greenleg Partridge) were used to determine the efficacy of sperm morphology evaluation using four eosin-nigrosin staining methods (according to Blom, Bakst and Cecil, Morisson, Jaśkowski) and three examiners of different experience (high, medium, novice). There were significant (P< or = 0.01) differences in sperm morphology between Blom's staining method and those of Bakst and Cecil, Morisson or Jaśkowski, irrespective of fowl breed and examiners experience. Blom stain caused sperm head swelling and showed a drastic reduction in the proportion of live spermatozoa with normal morphology. The staining method had a greater influence on sperm morphology evaluation than the experience of the examiners.

  9. Staining pattern classification of antinuclear autoantibodies based on block segmentation in indirect immunofluorescence images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaqian Li

    Full Text Available Indirect immunofluorescence based on HEp-2 cell substrate is the most commonly used staining method for antinuclear autoantibodies associated with different types of autoimmune pathologies. The aim of this paper is to design an automatic system to identify the staining patterns based on block segmentation compared to the cell segmentation most used in previous research. Various feature descriptors and classifiers are tested and compared in the classification of the staining pattern of blocks and it is found that the technique of the combination of the local binary pattern and the k-nearest neighbor algorithm achieve the best performance. Relying on the results of block pattern classification, experiments on the whole images show that classifier fusion rules are able to identify the staining patterns of the whole well (specimen image with a total accuracy of about 94.62%.

  10. Application of the Indirect Immunoperoxidase Stain Technique to the Flagella of Azospirillum brasilense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Patrick G.; Krieg, Noel R.

    1984-01-01

    An indirect immunoperoxidase stain was used to demonstrate by electron microscopy that an antigenic difference exists between the polar flagellum and the lateral flagella of Azospirillum brasilense ATCC 29145. Images PMID:16346482

  11. Colour stability, staining and roughness of silorane after prolonged chemical challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Ribeiro de Jesus, Vivian Cristiane Bueno; Martinelli, Natan Luiz

    2013-01-01

    methacrylate or silorane composites. Specimens were individually stored at 37°C in 0.02 N citric acid, 0.02 N phosphoric acid, 75% ethanol or distilled water for 7, 14, 21 and 180 days, when new measurements were performed. A staining test was performed after the chemical challenge by immersion in coffee...... considered acceptable (although significantly different) after immersion in water, citric acid, phosphoric acid or ethanol, but were unacceptable for the silorane composite immersed in ethanol for 180 days. The methacrylate-based resins stored in ethanol were significantly more stained by coffee than those...... stored in other media. The silorane composite demonstrated no staining, but increased roughness, when compared to the methacrylate-based resins. CONCLUSIONS: No effect of the immersion solution was noticed on roughness of the investigated materials. Ethanol influenced colour stability and staining...

  12. Embedding, serial sectioning and staining of zebrafish embryos using JB-4 resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan-Brown, Jessica; Bisher, Margaret E; Burdine, Rebecca D

    2011-01-01

    Histological techniques are critical for observing tissue and cellular morphology. In this paper, we outline our protocol for embedding, serial sectioning, staining and visualizing zebrafish embryos embedded in JB-4 plastic resin-a glycol methacrylate-based medium that results in excellent preservation of tissue morphology. In addition, we describe our procedures for staining plastic sections with toluidine blue or hematoxylin and eosin, and show how to couple these stains with whole-mount RNA in situ hybridization. We also describe how to maintain and visualize immunofluorescence and EGFP signals in JB-4 resin. The protocol we outline-from embryo preparation, embedding, sectioning and staining to visualization-can be accomplished in 3 d. Overall, we reinforce that plastic embedding can provide higher resolution of cellular details and is a valuable tool for cellular and morphological studies in zebrafish.

  13. Method of working thick beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giezynski, A; Bialasik, A; Krawiec, A; Wylenzek, A

    1981-12-30

    The patented method of working thick coal beds in layers consists of creating in the collapsed rocks or from the fill material a bearing rock plate by strengthening these rocks with a hardening composition made of wastes of raw material, resin and water injected into the rock through wells. The difference in the suggestion is that through boreholes drilled in the lower part of the rock roofing on a previously calculated network, a solution is regularly injected which consists of dust wastes obtained in electric filters during production of clinker from mineral raw material in a quantity of 60-70% by volume, wastes of open-hearth production in a quantity of 15-20% and natural sand in a quantity of 15-20%, and water in a quantity of 35-55% of the volume of mineral components. In the second variant, the injected compostion contains: wastes from production of clinker 55-57%, open-hearth wastes 20-23%, natural sand 12-14%, asbestos fine particles 7-8% and water 38-45% of the volume of mineral components. In addition, the difference is that in the boreholes drilled in the coal block directly under the roofing, a composition is injected which consists of natural sand and catalyst in the form of powder and individually supplied liquid synthetic resin in a quantity of 3-5% by weight in relation to the sand. The hardening time with normal temperature is 1-1.5 h, after which strength is reached of 80 kg-f/cm/sup 2/.

  14. [Evaluation of visualization of biological stains with the use of alternative light source (ALS) for the purpose of genetic identification. Part I. Blood and saliva stains analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeremeta, Michał; Pepiński, Witold; Niemcunowicz-Janica, Anna; Skawrońska, Małgorzata; Sackiewicz, Adam; Ptaszyńska-Sarosiek, Iwona; Okłota, Magdalena

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the investigation was evaluation of visualization of human blood and saliva stains with the use of alternative light source for the purpose of genetic identification. Experimental bloodstains on the bright base were the most clearly seen in the natural light and white light, up to blood dilution of 1:600. Complete typeability of AmpFISTR SGM Plus kit profiles was obtained from bloodstains at dilution 1:1500. Partial AmpFISTR SGM Plus kit profiles were typed from bloodstains at dilutions 1:1750 and 1:2000. Experimental saliva stains on the light-colored base were completely invisible in the natural light and white light, while they were visualized at wavelength range 300-415 nm through yellow goggles, and at wavelength range 300-455 nm through orange goggles at saliva dilution 1: 600. Complete typeability of AmpFISTR SGM Plus kit loci was obtained from saliva stains at dilution 1:1750. Partial AmpFISTR SGM Plus kit profiles were typed from saliva stains at dilution 1:2000. The wavelength of 455 nm and orange goggles were the optimal set for visualization of bloodstains on various, noncontrasting materials. Other useful wavelength/combinations of goggles were CSS light/red goggles. In case of saliva, the most useful general condition for visualization of stains on various, non-contrasting materials was with the wavelength set to 300-415 nm, while wearing yellow goggles. Other useful combinations of wavelength/goggles were 300-455 nm/orange or red goggles, and also CSS light/orange or red goggles.

  15. A STUDY OF SILVER STAINING NUCLEOLAR ORGANISING REGIONS AGNOR SCORE AS PROGNOSTIC MARKER IN BREAST LESIONS IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL IN HYDERABAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavani Shankar Nithyananda

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Nucleolar Organising Regions (NORS are segments of DNA closely associated with nucleolus, which code for ribosomal DNA consisting of non-histone proteins, which are argyrophilic. They are demonstrated as black, brown spots on staining with silver colloidal staining technique. Hence, they are called AgNORs. The assessment of AgNORs correlates with rate of proliferation, cell cycle time, since shorter the cell cycle, greater the ribosomal activity and protein synthesis higher AgNOR count. 1 AgNORs have been studied on NHL, GIT neoplasms, skin, gynaecological neoplasms, pulmonary neoplasms, prostate, bladder and breast cancer. In breast cancer, AgNOR can be used for early detection, grading and staging of disease. In this study, we have tried to correlate AgNOR character to morphological prognostic markers. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 159 cases presenting with lump in the breast were included in the study. Specimens were subjected to histopathological examination. Sections cut three micron thickness were stained for AgNOR with silver colloidal AgNOR staining technique. AgNOR count was done on both benign and malignant lesions. RESULTS Benign breast lesions were more common compared to malignant lesions. The age of the patients ranged from 15-79 yrs. The mean age for benign lesions was 31 yrs. and for malignant lesions 43 yrs. The most common benign lesion was fibroadenoma and most common malignant lesion was infiltrating ductal carcinoma. AgNOR spots were seen as black/brown spots. AgNOR score was higher in malignant lesions when compared to benign lesions. Among malignant lesions, AgNOR score was found to be higher in high grade, metastatic tumours. CONCLUSION AgNOR count is a useful technique, which can supplement other prognostic markers like Ki-67, mitotic index. A long follow up study is required to confirm the prognostic utility of AgNOR count done in this study

  16. [Comet assay of DNA fragmentation: modification of silver staining for obtaining permanent preparations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamins'kyĭ, V O; Lutsyk, M D; Stoĭka, R S

    2005-01-01

    Modification of comet analysis is proposed for obtaining permanent preparations by DNA staining with silver compounds. The sensitivity of staining is similar to that observed at the treatment by ethidium bromide and other fluorochromes. The advantages of the method are stability of slides and possibility of their reinvestigation by light microscopy. The method does not need expensive fluorescent microscope and lacks contacting with carcinogenic compounds and UV light irradiation.

  17. PERSEPSI DAN TRANSFORMASI VISI DAN MISI PADA CIVITAS AKADEMIKA STAIN PEKALONGAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Khanafi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini mengukur tingkat persepsi visi dan misi civitas akademika STAIN Pekalongan, dan mengukur juga tingkat implementasi sebagai transformasi visi misi tersebut serta menemukan hubungan antara persepsi dengan implementasinya. Kajian ini memiliki signifikan yang strategis dalam konteks manajemen dan pengembangan Pendidikan di STAIN Pekalongan dan lembaga pendidikan lainnya. Hal ini karena posisi visi dan misi sebagai kerangka acuan (frame of reference yang mengarahkan dan menjelaskan kepada keseluruh unsur civitas akademika dalam setiap program kerjanya.

  18. Interkoneksi Stain, Bsm, Dan Mes Dalam Mengembangkan Ekonomi Islam: Studi Kasus Di Purwokerto

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlan, Ahmad

    2008-01-01

    STAIN, Bank Syariah Mandiri (BSM), and Masyarakat Ekonomi Syariah (MES, Syariah Economic Society) have important rolein the development of Islam economy in Purwokerto. This research result evidenced that these three institutions have an Islamic economydevelopment program according with vision and mission of their institution. STAIN as Islamic higher education is on curriculum design andlecture quality domain, BSM as banking financial institution on enhancing employee/manager quality, and MES ...

  19. INTERKONEKSI STAIN, BSM, DAN MES DALAM MENGEMBANGKAN EKONOMI ISLAM: STUDI KASUS DI PURWOKERTO

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlan, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    STAIN, Bank Syariah Mandiri (BSM), and Masyarakat Ekonomi Syariah (MES, Syariah Economic Society) have important rolein the development of Islam economy in Purwokerto. This research result evidenced that these three institutions have an Islamic economydevelopment program according with vision and mission of their institution. STAIN as Islamic higher education is on curriculum design andlecture quality domain, BSM as banking financial institution on enhancing employee/manager quality, and MES ...

  20. Identification of blue staining vaccine-derived material in inflammatory lesions using cultured canine macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scruggs, Jennifer L; LeBlanc, Casey J

    2015-03-01

    Vaccine reactions are described in cytology textbooks as having eosinophilic to magenta colored globules within and admixed with inflammatory cells. Recently, we have seen increased numbers of inflammatory lesions containing blue to blue-gray globular material, with historical information suggesting an association with rabies vaccination. The purpose of the study was to confirm the blue-gray and the eosinophilic material observed microscopically in some inflammatory lesions as being vaccine-derived. Three different vaccines were cytocentrifuged and Wright stained. Vaccine aliquots were also added to the culture media of canine-derived macrophages for 24 hours and the cells subsequently harvested, cytocentrifuged, and Wright stained. The globular material present in both preparations was compared to that observed in vaccine-induced inflammatory lesions. Morin staining was used to identify metal within vaccine material in both in vitro- and in vivo-derived cytology samples. Vaccine-derived material has a characteristic color and appearance. Appearance of the material was consistent in cytologic samples, in cells incubated with the vaccine, and in cytocentrifuged preparations of the vaccine vial contents. The blue-gray globules stained positively for Morin stain, while the eosinophilic material did not stain. Vaccine-induced inflammatory lesions may contain blue to blue-gray or magenta stained globular material. Blue-gray material was associated with administration of rabies vaccine Imrab 3 TF and the observed material may be metal-containing adjuvant. Magenta material was associated with other vaccines and negative for Morin stain, suggesting a metal-free adjuvant. © 2014 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  1. Teeth re-whitening effect of strawberry juice on coffee stained teeth

    OpenAIRE

    Annisya Pramesti; Tadeus Arufan Jasrin; Opik Taofik Hidayat

    2018-01-01

    Many people favor coffee. However, regarding health and aesthetic dentistry, coffee gives a negative effect. Tanin in coffee causes a brown stain on the tooth surface. Therefore, in aesthetic dental care, teeth whitening has become popular matter. One of the natural ingredients used for teeth whitening treatment is strawberry. The purpose of this study was to obtained data regarding the effect of strawberry juice on the re-whitening process of the coffee-stained tooth enamel surface. This stu...

  2. Histological staining methods preparatory to laser capture microdissection significantly affect the integrity of the cellular RNA

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hongyang; Owens, James D; Shih, Joanna H; Li, Ming-Chung; Bonner, Robert F; Mushinski, J Frederic

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Gene expression profiling by microarray analysis of cells enriched by laser capture microdissection (LCM) faces several technical challenges. Frozen sections yield higher quality RNA than paraffin-imbedded sections, but even with frozen sections, the staining methods used for histological identification of cells of interest could still damage the mRNA in the cells. To study the contribution of staining methods to degradation of results from gene expression profiling of LCM...

  3. Colour stabilities of three types of orthodontic clear aligners exposed to staining agents

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Chen-Lu; Sun, Wen-Tian; Liao, Wen; Lu, Wen-Xin; Li, Qi-Wen; Jeong, Yunho; Liu, Jun; Zhao, Zhi-He

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the colour stabilities of three types of orthodontic clear aligners exposed to staining agents in vitro. Sixty clear orthodontic aligners produced by three manufacturers (Invisalign, Angelalign, and Smartee) were immersed in three staining solutions (coffee, black tea, and red wine) and one control solution (distilled water). After 12-h and 7-day immersions, the aligners were washed in an ultrasonic cleaner and measured with a colourimeter. Th...

  4. The Comparative Study of Art of Manufacturing Orosi and Stained Glass Windows in Iran and Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Sadat Abooei Mehrizi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available For a long time, glass manufacturing art has been globally common. There are certain similarities between Stained Glass and Orosi works. Based on historical texts, peak of Orosi art in Iran occurred during the reign of Safavid dynasty while its fall was after Qajar era. After introduction to churches after 12th century, Stained Glass manufacturing art was officially recognized. In contemporary era, Orosi art has almost faded away since it did not adapt to architecture. Similarly, Stained Glass art did not develop after it was introduced to Iran. The objectives of comparison between these arts are clarification of effects of the two arts on each other as well as better understanding of Orosi glass and Stained Glass arts. From methodological viewpoint, this study is descriptive-analytical in nature. In order to obtain better results, similar and available works of Orosi and Stained Glass arts were studied. The results of comparing these two arts suggested similar manufacturing methods and designs. In addition, a common application of the two arts is communication of greatness of the building to visitors’ minds. Stained Glass was mostly used for representation of Christ’s story while Orosi art was commonly used for depicting geometrical patterns. As a result, Orosi art was not initially influenced by Stained Glass art. In some cases, one could claim that Stained Glass art was influenced by Orosi art. Numerous factors played a role in creating differences between these two arts among which one could point to climatic conditions and patrons of such arts.

  5. Characteristics of the thick, compound refractive lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantell, Richard H.; Feinstein, Joseph; Beguiristain, H. Raul; Piestrup, Melvin A.; Gary, Charles K.; Cremer, Jay T.

    2003-01-01

    A compound refractive lens (CRL), consisting of a series of N closely spaced lens elements each of which contributes a small fraction of the total focusing, can be used to focus x rays or neutrons. The thickness of a CRL can be comparable to its focal length, whereupon a thick-lens analysis must be performed. In contrast with the conventional optical lens, where the ray inside the lens follows a straight line, the ray inside the CRL is continually changing direction because of the multiple refracting surfaces. Thus the matrix representation for the thick CRL is quite different from that for the thick optical lens. Principal planes can be defined such that the thick-lens matrix can be converted to that of a thin lens. For a thick lens the focal length is greater than for a thin lens with the same lens curvature, but this lengthening effect is less for the CRL than for the conventional optical lens

  6. Staining of Platyhelminthes by herbal dyes: An eco-friendly technique for the taxonomist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niranjan Kumar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: An environment compatible technique to stain Platyhelminthes, Fasciola gigantica, Gastrothylax crumenifer, Taenia solium, and Moniezia expansa using aqueous and alcoholic extract of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris, China rose (Hibiscus rosasinensis, and red rose (Rosa hybrida were described to minimized the deleterious effects of the synthetic dyes. Materials and Methods: Aqueous/ethanolic extracts of roses were extracted from the flowers while red beet was extracted from the roots. Results: Stained helminthes acquired a comparable level of pigmentation with the distinction of their internal structure in these natural dyes. The flukes (liver and rumen internal structure, oral and ventral/posterior sucker, cirrus sac, gravid uterus, testes, ovary, and vitallaria were appeared pink color in aqueous and alcoholic extract of either China or red rose and yellow to brown color in sugar beet stain. The interior of the proglottid of T. solium and M. expansa took yellow to brown color with good contrast in sugar beet stain and of pink to pink-red in China and red rose stain. Conclusion: The extract of roses (red rose followed by China rose followed by red beet possess the potential to replace the conventional stains in the taxonomic study of Platyhelminthes parasites.

  7. Diagnostic performance of dual-staining cytology for cervical cancer screening: A systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjalma, Wiebren A A

    2017-03-01

    Cervical cancer screening saves lives. Secondary prevention in cervical cancer screening relies on the results of primary cytology and/or HPV testing. However, primary screening with cytology has a low sensitivity, and HPV screening has a low specificity. This means that either cancers are missed, or women are over-treated. To improve performance outcomes, the concept of dual-stain cytology (CINtec ® PLUS Cytology test) has been introduced. In this approach, additional staining with p16/Ki-67 is performed in cases where cytology results are abnormal (LSIL or ASCUS) and/or HPV-positive. Another way to describe this approach might be "diagnostic" cytology. In order to assess the value of this "diagnostic cytology", a systematic literature review was conducted of dual-stain cytology performance across multiple studies until May 2016. In a Belgian screening population (women age 25-65 years), dual-stain cytology was significantly more sensitive (66%) and slightly less specific (-1.0%) than cytology. In the population referred to colposcopy or with abnormal cytology (ASCUS, LSIL), dual-staining showed a significantly higher increase in specificity, and a slightly lower sensitivity than HPV testing. Specificity gains resulted in fewer false positives and an increase in the number of correct referrals to colposcopy. Dual-staining with p16/Ki-67 cytology is an attractive biomarker approach for triage in cervical cancer screening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison between morphological and staining characteristics of live and dead eggs of Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AK Sarvel

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Schistosoma mansoni eggs are classified, according to morphological characteristics, as follows: viable mature and immature eggs; dead mature and immature eggs, shells and granulomas. The scope of this study was to compare the staining characteristics of different morphological types of eggs in the presence of fluorescent labels and vital dyes, aiming at differentiating live and dead eggs. The eggs were obtained from the intestines of infected mice, and put into saline 0.85%. The fluorescent labels were Hoechst 33258 and Acridine Orange + Ethidium Bromide and vital dyes (Trypan Blue 0.4% and Neutral Red 1%. When labelled with the probe Hoechst 33258, some immature eggs, morphologically considered viable, presented fluorescence (a staining characteristic detected only in dead eggs; mature eggs did not present fluorescence, and the other types of dead eggs, morphologically defined, showed fluorescence. As far as Acridine Orange + Ethidium Bromide are concerned, either the eggs considered to be live, or the dead ones, presented staining with green color, and only the hatched and motionless miracidium was stained with an orange color. Trypan Blue was not able to stain the eggs, considered to be dead but only dead miracidia which had emerged out of the shell. Neutral Red stained both live and dead eggs. Only the fluorescent Hoechst 33258 can be considered a useful tool for differentiation between dead and live eggs.

  9. Cell wall staining with Trypan Blue enables quantitative analysis of morphological changes in yeast cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes eLiesche

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Yeast cells are protected by a cell wall that plays an important role in the exchange of substances with the environment. The cell wall structure is dynamic and can adapt to different physiological states or environmental conditions. For the investigation of morphological changes, selective staining with fluorescent dyes is a valuable tool. Furthermore, cell wall staining is used to facilitate sub-cellular localization experiments with fluorescently-labeled proteins and the detection of yeast cells in non-fungal host tissues. Here, we report staining of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall with Trypan Blue, which emits strong red fluorescence upon binding to chitin and yeast glucan; thereby, it facilitates cell wall analysis by confocal and super-resolution microscopy. The staining pattern of Trypan Blue was similar to that of the widely used UV-excitable, blue fluorescent cell wall stain Calcofluor White. Trypan Blue staining facilitated quantification of cell size and cell wall volume when utilizing the optical sectioning capacity of a confocal microscope. This enabled the quantification of morphological changes during growth under anaerobic conditions and in the presence of chemicals, demonstrating the potential of this approach for morphological investigations or screening assays.

  10. Staining human lymphocytes and onion root cell nuclei with madder root.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cücer, N; Guler, N; Demirtas, H; Imamoğlu, N

    2005-01-01

    We performed staining experiments on cells using natural dyes and different mordants using techniques that are used for wool and silk dyeing. The natural dye sources were madder root, daisy, corn cockle and yellow weed. Ferrous sulfate, copper sulfate, potassium tartrate, urea, potassium aluminum sulfate and potassium dichromate were used as mordants. Distilled water, distilled water plus ethanol, heptane, and distilled water plus methanol were used as solvents. All dye-mordant-solvent combinations were studied at pH 2.4, 3.2 and 4.2. The generic staining procedure was to boil 5-10 onion roots or stimulated human lymphocyte (SHL) preparations in a dye bath on a hot plate. Cells were examined at every half hour. For multicolor staining, madder-dyed lymphocytes were decolorized, then stained with Giemsa. The AgNOR technique was performed following the decolorization of Giemsa stained lymphocytes. Good results were obtained for both onion root cells and lymphocytes that were boiled for 3 h in a dye bath that included 4 g madder root, 4 g ferrous sulfate as mordant in 50 ml of 1:1 (v/v) methanol:distilled water. The pH was adjusted to 4.2 with 6 ml acetic acid. We conclude that madder root has potential as an alternative dye for staining biological materials.

  11. Investigation Of The Color Changing Properties Of Wood Stain Derived From Pinar Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdi Atılgan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to develop an environmentally friendly wood stain derived pinar (Quercus aucheri leaves and determine the color stability of this stain when exposed to UV light irradiation. Wood stains derived from pinar leaves were prepared from aqueous solution with %3 iron (FeSO4.7H2O , % 5 alum ((KAl(SO42.12H2O, and % 10 vinegar mordant mixtures. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L., Turkish oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky and oak (Quercus petraea L. wood specimens were used as staining substrates. After treatment with the stain, the wood panels were exposed to UV light irradiation for periods of 100, 200, and 300 hours and determinated the total color changes was according to ISO 2470 standards. Results showed that wood stain derived from pinar extract provided some color stability after UV irradiation. According to results, Scots pine specimens treated with the pinar extract + iron mixture provided the smallest total color changes. Meanwhile the highest total color change provided on the Scots pine treated with pinar extract+alum mixture.

  12. Cell wall staining with Trypan blue enables quantitative analysis of morphological changes in yeast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liesche, Johannes; Marek, Magdalena; Günther-Pomorski, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Yeast cells are protected by a cell wall that plays an important role in the exchange of substances with the environment. The cell wall structure is dynamic and can adapt to different physiological states or environmental conditions. For the investigation of morphological changes, selective staining with fluorescent dyes is a valuable tool. Furthermore, cell wall staining is used to facilitate sub-cellular localization experiments with fluorescently-labeled proteins and the detection of yeast cells in non-fungal host tissues. Here, we report staining of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall with Trypan Blue, which emits strong red fluorescence upon binding to chitin and yeast glucan; thereby, it facilitates cell wall analysis by confocal and super-resolution microscopy. The staining pattern of Trypan Blue was similar to that of the widely used UV-excitable, blue fluorescent cell wall stain Calcofluor White. Trypan Blue staining facilitated quantification of cell size and cell wall volume when utilizing the optical sectioning capacity of a confocal microscope. This enabled the quantification of morphological changes during growth under anaerobic conditions and in the presence of chemicals, demonstrating the potential of this approach for morphological investigations or screening assays.

  13. Graph Treewidth and Geometric Thickness Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Dujmović, Vida; Wood, David R.

    2005-01-01

    Consider a drawing of a graph $G$ in the plane such that crossing edges are coloured differently. The minimum number of colours, taken over all drawings of $G$, is the classical graph parameter "thickness". By restricting the edges to be straight, we obtain the "geometric thickness". By further restricting the vertices to be in convex position, we obtain the "book thickness". This paper studies the relationship between these parameters and treewidth. Our first main result states that for grap...

  14. Localizing gravity on exotic thick 3-branes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo-Felisola, Oscar; Melfo, Alejandra; Pantoja, Nelson; Ramirez, Alba

    2004-01-01

    We consider localization of gravity on thick branes with a nontrivial structure. Double walls that generalize the thick Randall-Sundrum solution, and asymmetric walls that arise from a Z 2 symmetric scalar potential, are considered. We present a new asymmetric solution: a thick brane interpolating between two AdS 5 spacetimes with different cosmological constants, which can be derived from a 'fake supergravity' superpotential, and show that it is possible to confine gravity on such branes

  15. Does cement mantle thickness really matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Caruana, J.

    2008-01-01

    The thickness of the cement mantle around the femoral component of total hip replacements is a contributing factor to aseptic loosening and revision. Nevertheless, various designs of stems and surgical tooling lead to cement mantles of differing thicknesses. This thesis is concerned with variability in cement thickness around the Stanmore Hip, due to surgical approach, broach size and stem orientation, and its effects on stress and cracking in the cement. The extent to which cement mantle thi...

  16. Radiation transmission pipe thickness measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashi, Yasuhiko

    2010-01-01

    Fuji Electric Systems can be measured from the outer insulation of the transmission Characteristics and radiation detection equipment had been developed that can measure pipe wall thinning in plant and running, the recruitment of another three-beam calculation method by pipe thickness measurement system was developed to measure the thickness of the pipe side. This equipment has been possible to measure the thickness of the circumferential profile of the pipe attachment by adopting automatic rotation. (author)

  17. Dual beam x-ray thickness gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allport, J.J.

    1977-01-01

    The apparatus and method for continuous measurement of thickness of a sheet at a rolling mill or the like without contacting the sheet are described. A system directing radiation through the sheet in two energy bands and providing a measure of change in composition of the material as it passes the thickness gauging station is included. A system providing for changing the absorption coefficient of the material in the thickness measurement as a function of the change in composition so that the measured thickness is substantially independent of variations in composition is described

  18. Card controlled beta backscatter thickness measuring instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlesinger, J.

    1978-01-01

    An improved beta backscatter instrument for the nondestructive measurement of the thickness of thin coatings on a substrate is described. Included therein is the utilization of a bank of memory stored data representative of isotope, substrate, coating material and thickness range characteristics in association with a control card having predetermined indicia thereon selectively representative of a particular isotope, substrate material, coating material and thickness range for conditioning electronic circuit means by memory stored data selected in accord with the predetermined indicia on a control card for converting backscattered beta particle counts into indicia of coating thickness

  19. Uncertainties in thick-target PIXE analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.L.; Cookson, J.A.; Paul, H.

    1983-01-01

    Thick-target PIXE analysis insolves uncertainties arising from the calculation of thick-target X-ray production in addition to the usual PIXE uncertainties. The calculation demands knowledge of ionization cross-sections, stopping powers and photon attenuation coefficients. Information on these is reviewed critically and a computational method is used to estimate the uncertainties transmitted from this data base into results of thick-target PIXE analyses with reference to particular specimen types using beams of 2-3 MeV protons. A detailed assessment of the accuracy of thick-target PIXE is presented. (orig.)

  20. Systematic investigation of drip stains on apparel fabrics: The effects of prior-laundering, fibre content and fabric structure on final stain appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Therese C; Taylor, Michael C; Kieser, Jules A; Carr, Debra J; Duncan, W

    2015-05-01

    Bloodstain pattern analysis is the investigation of blood deposited at crime scenes and the interpretation of that pattern. The surface that the blood gets deposited onto could distort the appearance of the bloodstain. The interaction of blood and apparel fabrics is in its infancy, but the interaction of liquids and apparel fabrics has been well documented and investigated in the field of textile science (e.g. the processes of wetting and wicking of fluids on fibres, yarns and fabrics). A systematic study on the final appearance of drip stains on torso apparel fabrics (100% cotton plain woven, 100% polyester plain woven, blend of polyester and cotton plain woven and 100% cotton single jersey knit) that had been laundered for six, 26 and 52 cycles prior to testing was investigated in the paper. The relationship between drop velocity (1.66±0.50m/s, 4.07±0.03m/s, 5.34±0.18m/s) and the stain characteristics (parent stain area, axes 1 and 2 and number of satellite stains) for each fabric was examined using analysis of variance. The experimental design and effect of storing blood were investigated on a reference sample, which indicated that the day (up to five days) at which the drops were generated did not affect the bloodstain. The effect of prior-laundering (six, 26 and 52 laundering cycles), fibre content (cotton vs. polyester vs. blend) and fabric structure (plain woven vs. single jersey knit) on the final appearance of the bloodstain were investigated. Distortion in the bloodstains produced on non-laundered fabrics indicated the importance of laundering fabrics to remove finishing treatments before conducting bloodstain experiments. For laundered fabrics, both the cotton fabrics and the blend had a circular to oval stain appearance, while the polyester fabric had a circular appearance with evidence of spread along the warp and weft yarns, which resulted in square-like stains at the lowest drop velocity. A significant (pfibre content (pfibres/yarns, while for the

  1. Comparison of modified Chicago sky blue stain and potassium hydroxide mount for the diagnosis of dermatomycoses and onychomycoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhong; Sheng, Ping; Yang, Yan-Ping; Li, Wen; Huang, Wen-Ming; Wang, Jie-Di; Fan, Yi-Ming

    2015-05-01

    The diagnostic value of modified Chicago sky blue (CSB) stain and potassium hydroxide (KOH) mount for superficial mycoses was compared using fungal culture as gold standard. The sensitivity and screening time of the CSB stain were superior to the KOH mount. The CBS stain is simple, quick and reliable for diagnosing superficial mycoses. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Evaluation of immunoperoxidase staining technique in the diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Savitri

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We describe a simple procedure of Immunoperoxidase (IP technique, using indigenously raised antibody, to screen corneal scrapings for Acanthamoeba cysts and trophozoites. This study sought to determine the utility of this test in the diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis. Methods: A high titre polyclonal antibody against a local clinical isolate (axenic of Acanthamoeba species (trophozoite lysate antigen was raised in rabbits and used for standardization of IP technique for corneal scrapings. Twenty two smears of corneal scrapings, collected from patients showing Acanthamoeba cysts in corneal scrapings stained with calcofluorwhite (pool-1 and patients showing no cysts in similar scrapings (pool-2, were coded and stained by IP technique by a masked technician. All 22 patients had also been tested for bacteria, fungus, and Acanthamoeba in their corneal scrapings by smears and cultures. IP stained smears were examined for organisms including cysts and trophozoites of Acanthamoeba and background staining by two observers masked to the results of other smears and cultures. The validity of the IP test in detection of Acanthamoeba cysts and trophozoites was measured by sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value in comparison (McNemar test for paired comparison with calcofluor white staining and culture. Results: Based on the readings of observer 1 and compared to calcofluor white staining, the IP test had a sensitivity of 100%, a specificity of 94%, positive predictive value of 80% and negative predictive value of 100%. When compared to culture, the values were 83%, 100%, 100% and 94% respectively. Trophozoites missed in calcofluor white stained smears, were detected in 2 out of 6 cases of culture-positive Acanthamoeba keratitis. The Kappa coefficient of interobserver agreement was determined as fair (30.4%. Conclusion: The immunoperoxidase technique is a simple and useful test in the diagnosis of

  3. Detection of Wolbachia endobacteria in Culex quinquefasciatus by Gimenez staining and confirmation by PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniaraj, M; Paramasivan, R; Sunish, I P; Arunachalam, N; Mariappan, T; Jerald Leo, S Victor; Dhananjeyan, K J

    2012-12-01

    Wolbachia are common intracellular bacteria that are found in arthropods and nematodes. These endosymbionts are transmitted vertically through host eggs and alter host biology in diverse ways, including the induction of reproductive manipulations, such as feminization, parthenogenesis, male killing and sperm-egg incompatibility. Since they can also move horizontally across species boundaries, Wolbachia is gaining importance in recent days as it could be used as a biological control agent to control vector mosquitoes or for paratransgenic approaches. However, the study of Wolbachia requires sophisticated techniques such as PCR and cell culture facilities which cannot be affordable for many laboratories where the diseases transmitted by arthropod vectors are common. Hence, it would be beneficial to develop a simple method to detect the presence of Wolbachia in arthropods. In this study, we described a method of staining Wolbachia endobacteria, present in the reproductive tissues of mosquitoes. The reliability of this method was compared with Gram staining and PCR based detection. The microscopic observation of the Gimenez stained smear prepared from the teased ovary of wild caught and Wolbachia (+) Cx. quinquefasciatus revealed the presence of pink coloured pleomorphic cells of Wolbachia ranging from cocci, comma shaped cells to bacillus and chain forms. The ovaries of Wolbachia (-) cured mosquito did not show any cell. Although Gram's staining is a reliable differential staining for the other bacteria, the bacterial cells in the smears from the ovaries of wild caught mosquitoes did not take the stain properly and the cells were not clearly visible. The PCR amplified product from the pooled remains of wild caught and Wolbachia (+) Cx. quinquefasciatus showed clear banding, whereas, no banding was observed for the negative control (distilled water) and Wolbachia (-) Cx. quinquefasciatus. The Gimenez staining technique applied, could be used to detect the members of

  4. A flow-cytometric gram-staining technique for milk-associated bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Claus; Jespersen, Lene

    2003-05-01

    A Gram-staining technique combining staining with two fluorescent stains, Oregon Green-conjugated wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) and hexidium iodide (HI) followed by flow-cytometric detection is described. WGA stains gram-positive bacteria while HI binds to the DNA of all bacteria after permeabilization by EDTA and incubation at 50 degrees C for 15 min. For WGA to bind to gram-positive bacteria, a 3 M potassium chloride solution was found to give the highest fluorescence intensity. A total of 12 strains representing some of the predominant bacterial species in bulk tank milk and mixtures of these were stained and analyzed by flow cytometry. Overall, the staining method showed a clear differentiation between gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial populations. For stationary-stage cultures of seven gram-positive bacteria and five gram-negative bacteria, an average of 99% of the cells were correctly interpreted. The method was only slightly influenced by the growth phase of the bacteria or conditions such as freezing at -18 degrees C for 24 h. For any of these conditions, an average of at least 95% of the cells were correctly interpreted. When stationary-stage cultures were stored at 5 degrees C for 14 days, an average of 86% of the cells were correctly interpreted. The Gram-staining technique was applied to the flow cytometry analysis of bulk tank milk inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. These results demonstrate that the technique is suitable for analyzing milk samples without precultivation.

  5. Gram stains: a resource for retrospective analysis of bacterial pathogens in clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Usha; Ponnaluri, Sreelatha; Villareal, Lisa; Gillespie, Brenda; Wen, Ai; Miles, Arianna; Bucholz, Brigette; Marrs, Carl F; Iyer, Ram K; Misra, Dawn; Foxman, Betsy

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate the feasibility of using qPCR on DNA extracted from vaginal Gram stain slides to estimate the presence and relative abundance of specific bacterial pathogens. We first tested Gram stained slides spiked with a mix of 10(8) cfu/ml of Escherichia coli and 10(5) cfu/ml of Lactobacillus acidophilus. Primers were designed for amplification of total and species-specific bacterial DNA based on 16S ribosomal gene regions. Sample DNA was pre-amplified with nearly full length 16S rDNA ribosomal gene fragment, followed by quantitative PCR with genera and species-specific 16S rDNA primers. Pre-amplification PCR increased the bacterial amounts; relative proportions of Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus recovered from spiked slides remained unchanged. We applied this method to forty two archived Gram stained slides available from a clinical trial of cerclage in pregnant women at high risk of preterm birth. We found a high correlation between Nugent scores based on bacterial morphology of Lactobacillus, Gardenerella and Mobiluncus and amounts of quantitative PCR estimated genus specific DNA (rrn copies) from Gram stained slides. Testing of a convenience sample of eight paired vaginal swabs and Gram stains freshly collected from healthy women found similar qPCR generated estimates of Lactobacillus proportions from Gram stained slides and vaginal swabs. Archived Gram stained slides collected from large scale epidemiologic and clinical studies represent a valuable, untapped resource for research on the composition of bacterial communities that colonize human mucosal surfaces.

  6. Gram and acridine orange staining for diagnosis of septic arthritis in different patient populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Gregory; Seghrouchni, Khalid; Ruffieux, Etienne; Vaudaux, Pierre; Gayet-Ageron, Angèle; Cherkaoui, Abdessalam; Godinho, Eduardo; Lew, Daniel; Hoffmeyer, Pierre; Uçkay, Ilker

    2014-06-01

    The sensitivity of Gram staining is known to be suboptimal for the diagnosis of native joint septic arthritis. We lack information about the accuracy of Gram compared to other microscopic staining techniques for predicting infection in different patient populations. This was a cohort study with cost evaluations at the Orthopaedic Service of Geneva University Hospitals (January 1996-October 2012). Among 500 episodes of arthritis (196 with immunosuppression, 227 with underlying arthroplasties and 69 with gout or other crystals in synovial fluid), Gram staining revealed pathogens in 146 episodes (146/500, 29 %) or in 146 of the 400 culture-positive episodes (37 %). Correlation between the Gram and acridine staining of the same sample was good (Spearman 0.85). Overall, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of Gram stain for rapid diagnosis of septic arthritis was 0.37, 0.99, 0.99 and 0.28, respectively, compared to microbiological cultures. Quite similar values were recorded across the different patient subpopulations, in particular for sensitivity values that were 0.33 for patients with prosthetic joint infections, 0.40 for immunosuppressed patients, 0.36 for patients under antibiotic administration and 0.52 for patients with concomitant crystalline disease. The sensitivity of Gram or acridine orange staining for a rapid diagnosis of episodes of septic arthritis is suboptimal compared to microbiological culture, regardless of underlying conditions, immunosuppression or antibiotic therapy. The sensitivity in the presence of synovial fluid crystals is moderate. Acridine orange and Gram stains are equivalent.

  7. Modified Cajal's trichrome stain as a diagnostic aid in the study of epithelial pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karpagaselvi Sanjai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diagnosis of initial epithelial pathology maybe difficult in Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC, Carcinoma In Situ and other atypical epithelial malignancies, under routine Haematoxylin and Eosin (H and E stain. The detection of minor basement membrane alterations in doubtful cases is both time consuming and confusing. Aims: To evaluate efficacy of Modified Cajal's Trichrome Stain (CTS in relation to Haematoxylin and Eosin for study of epithelial dysplasia, carcinoma in situ, micro invasive SCC, frank SCC, and SCC in lymph nodes. Materials and Methods: Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue blocks of mild epithelial dysplasia (n = 2, moderate epithelial dysplasia (n = 2, severe epithelial dysplasia (n = 4, carcinoma in situ (n = 1, micro-invasive SCC (n = 4, verrucous carcinoma (n = 1, and frank OSCC (n = 5 were stained with CTS and H&E. The sections were compared based on set histopathological criteria. Results and Conclusion: In SCC cases stained with CTS, invasion into connective tissue and keratin pearls were strikingly evident. Depth of invasion could be more accurately determined. Tumour cells in lymph node were intensely contrasted and easily discernible. Thus, CTS is a good differential stain, clearly delineating the epithelial elements from the connective tissue elements visually. This helps in tracing the basement membrane very clearly. It is an economic, rapid and easy to use method which cannot replace Haematoxylin and Eosin stain in cancer diagnosis, but can definitely be used adjunctive to it. Prompt diagnosis is crucial to effective treatment, and this stain assists in early and rapid diagnosis of cancer.

  8. A method for reducing the sloughing of thick blood films for malaria diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norgan, Andrew P; Arguello, Heather E; Sloan, Lynne M; Fernholz, Emily C; Pritt, Bobbi S

    2013-07-08

    The gold standard for malaria diagnosis is the examination of thick and thin blood films. Thick films contain 10 to 20 times more blood than thin films, correspondingly providing increased sensitivity for malaria screening. A potential complication of thick film preparations is sloughing of the blood droplet from the slide during staining or rinsing, resulting in the loss of sample. In this work, two methods for improving thick film slide adherence ('scratch' (SCM) and 'acetone dip' (ADM) methods) were compared to the 'standard method' (SM) of thick film preparation. Standardized blood droplets from 26 previously examined EDTA whole blood specimens (22 positive and four negative) were concurrently spread on glass slides using the SM, ADM, and SCM. For the SM and ADM prepared slides, the droplet was gently spread to an approximate 22 millimeters in diameter spot on the slide using the edge of a second glass slide. For the SCM, the droplet was spread by carefully grinding (or scratching) it into the slide with the point of a second glass slide. Slides were dried for one hour in a laminar flow hood. For the ADM, slides were dipped once in an acetone filled Coplin jar and allowed to air dry. All slides were then Giemsa-stained and examined in a blinded manner. Adherence was assessed by blinded reviewers. No significant or severe defects were observed for slides prepared with the SCM. In contrast, 8 slides prepared by the ADM and 3 prepared using the SM displayed significant or severe defects. Thick films prepared by the three methods were microscopically indistinguishable and concordant results (positive or negative) were obtained for the three methods. Estimated parasitaemia of the blood samples ranged from 25 to 429,169 parasites/μL of blood. The SCM is an inexpensive, rapid, and simple method that improves the adherence of thick blood films to standard glass slides without altering general slide preparation, microscopic appearance or interpretability. Using the SCM

  9. Contribution to the study of slab thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraitis, G.A.; Rorris, G.P.

    1978-01-01

    A method is proposed for calculating the time-independent values of the equivalent slab thickness of the ionosphere, defined as the ratio of the total electron content to the corresponding maximum electron density of the F region. Periodic variations of slab thickness are studied and are correlated to relative changes in exospheric temperature, deduced from the OGO-6 model

  10. Eggshell thickness in mourning dove populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreitzer, J.F.

    1971-01-01

    Eggs (n = 452) of the mourning dove (Zenaidura macroura) were collected from 9 states in 1969 and 11 states in 1970, and shell thickness was compared with that of eggs (n = 97) collected from 24 states during the years 1861 to 1935. Mean shell thickness did not differ significantly in the test groups.

  11. Applications of precision ultrasonic thickness gauging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, K.A.; Elfbaum, G.M.; Husarek, V.; Castel, J.G.

    1976-01-01

    Pulse-echo ultrasonic thickness gauging is now recognized as an accurate method of measuring thickness of a product from one side when the velocity of ultrasound in the material is known. The advantages and present limitation of this gauging technique are presented, together with several applications of industrial interest [fr

  12. Skull thickness in patients with clefts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arntsen, T; Kjaer, I; Sonnesen, L

    2010-01-01

    The purpose was to analyze skull thickness in incomplete cleft lip (CL), cleft palate (CP), and combined cleft lip and palate (UCLP).......The purpose was to analyze skull thickness in incomplete cleft lip (CL), cleft palate (CP), and combined cleft lip and palate (UCLP)....

  13. Propidium iodide (PI) stains Nissl bodies and may serve as a quick marker for total neuronal cell count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Junfei; Li, Chunman; Wu, Haihui; Feng, Xianling; Su, Qingning; Li, Shihe; Zhang, Lihong; Yew, David Tai Wai; Cho, Eric Yu Pang; Sha, Ou

    2015-03-01

    Propidium iodide (PI) reacts with both DNA and RNA and is a commonly used fluorescent reagent for nucleic acid staining. The aim of the study was to compare the cellular staining patterns of PI with that of Nissl staining in rat nervous tissues and to report a modified staining method that selectively labels Nissl bodies in neurons. Cryosections and paraffin sections of different tissues of normal Sprague-Dawley rats, including trigeminal ganglia, dorsal root ganglia, spinal cord, liver, and small intestine, were stained by either PI or the hematoxylin and eosin method. Some sections were treated with RNase or DNase before the above staining, and some were double stained with PI and a Nissl stain. The sections were observed by light, fluorescence or confocal microscopy. Results showed strong PI signals detected as patterns of granules in the neuronal cytoplasm of all nervous tissues, whereas the staining of neuronal nuclei was weaker. In contrast, nuclei of neuroglial cells were strongly stained by PI, while the cytoplasm was not obviously stained. Pretreatment of the neural tissue with RNase abolished the PI signals. Furthermore, the PI positive granules in neuronal cytoplasm co-localized with Nissl bodies stained by the fluorescent Nissl stain. When the tissue was pretreated with DNase, PI only stained the cytoplasmic granules of neurons, but not that of glial cells. Our results show that PI stains Nissl bodies and may serve as an economical and convenient neuron marker for neuronal cell counting when specific neural markers such as antibodies are not readily available. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  14. Staining plastic blocks with triiodide to image cells and soft tissues in backscattered electron SEM of skeletal and dental tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Boyde

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Backscattered electron scanning electron microscopy (BSE SEM is an invaluable method for studying the histology of the hard, mineralised components of poly-methyl methacrylate (PMMA or other resin embedded skeletal and dental tissues. Intact tissues are studied in micro-milled or polished block faces with an electron-optical section thickness of the order of a half to one micron and with the area of the section as big as a whole – large or small – bone organ. However, BSE SEM does not give information concerning the distribution of uncalcified, ‘soft’, cellular and extracellular matrix components. This can be obtained by confocal microscopy of the same block and the two sorts of images merged but the blocks have to be studied in two microscope systems. The present work shows a new, simple and economic approach to visualising both components by using the triiodide ion in Lugol's iodine solution to stain the block surface prior to the application of any conductive coating – and the latter can be omitted if charging is suppressed by use of poor vacuum conditions in the SEM sample chamber. The method permits the use of archival tissue, and it will be valuable in studies of both normal growth and development and pathological changes in bones and joints, including osteoporosis and osteoarthritis, and tissue adaptation to implants.

  15. Evaluation of oil and grease removal by adsorptive polymeric resins in semi-industrial scale: influence of temperature; Avaliacao da remocao de oleos e graxas por resinas polimericas adsorventes em escala semi-industrial: influencia da temperatura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Luis F.S. de; Silva, Carla M.F. da; Queiros, Yure G.C.; Lucas, Elizabete F. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Macromoleculas, Laboratorio de Macromoleculas e Coloides na Industria de Petroleo, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: elucas@ima.ufrj.br

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of polymeric resins packed in a fixed bed eluted in semi-industrial scale for oil and greases removal disposed in synthetic oily water in different temperature conditions. For this work, columns packed with vinyl and acryl polymer-base were tested and their efficiency of oil removal was evaluated by fluorimetry technique in two different temperatures: 25 and 60 deg C, in a flow rate condition of 200 mL/min. The experimental results were very good: the removal efficiencies were above 98% in both cases. At 60 deg C, the system keep the efficiency for a longer time: no significant loss in the efficiency was observed after eluting 1,000 times of the column bed volume at 25 deg C and 2,000, at 60 deg C. This result characterizes a great potential of application in the industry. (author)

  16. Early colonic dysplasia: comparison of differential mucin staining and tritiated thymidine labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabot, J.A.; Colacchio, T.A.

    1985-01-01

    Controversy has arisen regarding the interpretation and significance of histochemical changes in the mucin produced by the globlet cells in colonic mucosa. The shift from sulfomucin to sialomucin, which is readily identified utilizing high iron diamine-alcian blue staining techniques, has been alternately interpreted as a specific, early dysplastic and premalignant change or a nonspecific generalized response to trauma and inflammation, among others. An attempt to clarify this issue was made by comparing mucin changes identified by high iron diamine-alcian blue staining techniques with increases in DNA synthetic activity identified utilizing autoradiographic analysis of tritiated thymidine uptake. Male Holtzman rats were treated with 15 weekly subcutaneous injections of dimethylhydrazine (30 mg/kg per week) (10 rats) or placebo (10 rats). The colons were prepared and fixed, sequential sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin or high iron diamine-alcian blue, autoradiography was performed. Analyses of labeling index showed no difference in normal background crypts between the control and treatment groups nor in crypts adjacent to those displaying abnormal mucin staining. Crypts with abnormal mucin production (sialomucin dominant) had significantly higher labeling indexes when compared with those of control animals (p less than 0.005). These findings indicate that the shifts in mucin production identified with high iron diamine-alcian blue staining represent crypts with increased and abnormally distributed mitotic activity that is an early dysplastic response to the carcinogenic stimulus

  17. Effect of fabric mounting method and backing material on bloodstain patterns of drip stains on textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, J Y M; Michielsen, S

    2016-05-01

    Textiles may provide valuable bloodstain evidence to help piece together events or activities at violent crime scenes. However, in spite of over 75 years of research, there are still difficulties encountered in many cases in the interpretation and identification of bloodstains on textiles. In this study, we dripped porcine blood onto three types of fabric (plain woven, single jersey knit, and denim) that are supported in four different ways (hard, taut, loose, and semi-hard, i.e., fabric laid on denim). These four mounting methods represent different ways in which a textile may be present when blood from a violent act lands on it. This study investigates how the fabric mounting method and backing material affect the appearance of drip stains on textiles. We found that bloodstain patterns formed on fabric lying flat on a hard surface were very different from when the same fabric was suspended loosely. We also found that bloodstains formed on the technical back of single jersey knit were vastly different from those on the technical face. Interestingly, some drip stains showed blood passing through the textile and leaving a stain behind it that resembled insect stains. By observing, recording, and describing how a blood stained textile is found or presented at the scene, the analyst may be able to better understand bloodstains and bloodstain patterns on textiles, which could be useful to confirm or refute a witness's account of how blood came to be where it was found after a bloodshed event.

  18. [Comparison of the quick Gram stain method to the B&M modified and favor methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osawa, Kayo; Kataoka, Nobumasa; Maruo, Toshio

    2011-01-01

    The Gram stain is an established method for bacterial identification, but the time needed to carry out this stain is 2-3 min. We attempted to shorten this time and stained a total of 70 clinical specimens isolated from using the Bartholomew & Mittwer (B&M) modified or Favor methods with a 3 s duration for washing and staining steps. Results were plotted and analyzed using a Hue Saturation Intensity (HSI) model. The range based on a plot of the two methods with the HSI model was presented as a reference interval. Our results indicated that 100% (35/35) of strains were Gram positive and 97.1% (34/35) were Gram negative for the quick B&M modified method. In the quick Favor method, 80.0% (28/35) were Gram positive and 68.6% (24/35) of strains were Gram negative. We propose that the quick B&M modified method is equivalent to the standard Gram staining method and is superior to the quick Favor method.

  19. Temporal variation of VOC emission from solvent and water based wood stains

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gennaro, Gianluigi; Loiotile, Annamaria Demarinis; Fracchiolla, Roberta; Palmisani, Jolanda; Saracino, Maria Rosaria; Tutino, Maria

    2015-08-01

    Solvent- and water-based wood stains were monitored using a small test emission chamber in order to characterize their emission profiles in terms of Total and individual VOCs. The study of concentration-time profiles of individual VOCs enabled to identify the compounds emitted at higher concentration for each type of stain, to examine their decay curve and finally to estimate the concentration in a reference room. The solvent-based wood stain was characterized by the highest Total VOCs emission level (5.7 mg/m3) that decreased over time more slowly than those related to water-based ones. The same finding was observed for the main detected compounds: Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, Xylenes, Styrene, alpha-Pinene and Camphene. On the other hand, the highest level of Limonene was emitted by a water-based wood stain. However, the concentration-time profile showed that water-based product was characterized by a remarkable reduction of the time of maximum and minimum emission: Limonene concentration reached the minimum concentration in about half the time compared to the solvent-based product. According to AgBB evaluation scheme, only one of the investigated water-based wood stains can be classified as a low-emitting product whose use may not determine any potential adverse effect on human health.

  20. Characterisation of medieval yellow silver stained glass from Convento de Cristo in Tomar, Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado, J. [Dep. de Conservacao e Restauro, FCT-UNL, Quinta da Torre, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Vilarigues, M. [Dep. de Conservacao e Restauro, FCT-UNL, Quinta da Torre, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); VICARTE, FCT-UNL, Quinta da Torre, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Ruivo, A. [VICARTE, FCT-UNL, Quinta da Torre, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); REQUIMTE, FCT-UNL, Quinta da Torre, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Corregidor, V.; Silva, R.C. da [Unidade de Fisica e Aceleradores, LFI, ITN, E.N.10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); CFNUL, Av., Prof. Gama Pinto n 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Alves, L.C., E-mail: lcalves@itn.pt [Unidade de Fisica e Aceleradores, LFI, ITN, E.N.10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); CFNUL, Av., Prof. Gama Pinto n 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2011-10-15

    Yellow decoration effects in stained glasses using silver staining were first applied in the beginning of the 14th century. The glass piece being decorated was usually painted on its side intended to be facing the exterior environment, and then fired to temperatures between 500 and 650 {sup o}C, resulting in colours ranging from pale lemon to deep orange. Stained glass fragments painted by this process and belonging to the Convento de Cristo, in Tomar, Portugal, were characterised using micro-PIXE, and complemented with other analytical techniques, namely UV-Vis spectroscopy and XRF. Preliminary analysis showed that a mixture of Ag and Cu was used for the production of the yellow staining. In order to understand this staining process and the influence of the firing temperature on the resulting colours, several soda and potash glasses with compositions similar to those of medieval glasses were produced and characterised. The role played by the addition of Cu in the final colours was also investigated.

  1. Matrix Remodeling During Intervertebral Disc Growth and Degeneration Detected by Multichromatic FAST Staining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Victor Y.L.; Chan, Wilson C.W.; Hung, Siu-Chun; Cheung, Kenneth M.C.; Chan, Danny

    2009-01-01

    Various imaging techniques have been used to assess degeneration of the intervertebral disc, including many histological methods, but cartilage-oriented histological stains do not clearly show the comparatively complex structures of the disc. In addition, there is no integrated method to assess efficiently both the compartmental organization and matrix composition in disc samples. In this study, a novel histological method, termed FAST staining, has been developed to investigate disc growth and degeneration by sequential staining with fast green, Alcian blue, Safranin-O, and tartrazine to generate multichromatic histological profiles (FAST profiles). This identifies the major compartments of the vertebra-disc region, including the cartilaginous endplate and multiple zones of the annulus fibrosus, by specific FAST profile patterns. A disc degeneration model in rabbit established using a previously described puncture method showed gradual but profound alteration of the FAST profile during disc degeneration, supporting continual alteration of glycosaminoglycan. Changes of the FAST profile pattern in the nucleus pulposus and annulus fibrosus of the postnatal mouse spine suggested matrix remodeling activity during the growth of intervertebral discs. In summary, we developed an effective staining method capable of defining intervertebral disc compartments in detail and showing matrix remodeling events within the disc. The FAST staining method may be used to develop a histopathological grading system to evaluate disc degeneration or malformation. (J Histochem Cytochem 57:249–256, 2009) PMID:19001641

  2. Gram Stain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Wu, A. (© 2006). Tietz Clinical Guide to Laboratory Tests, 4th Edition: Saunders Elsevier, St. Louis, MO. Pp 1564-1565. Forbes, B. et. al. (© 2007). Bailey & Scott's Diagnostic Microbiology, 12th Edition: Mosby Elsevier Press, St. Louis, MO. ...

  3. The usefulness of changing focus during examination using Gram staining as initial diagnostic clue for infective tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atsukawa, Yoshiko; Kawakami, Sayoko; Asahara, Miwa; Ishigaki, Shinobu; Tanaka, Takashi; Ono, Yasuo; Nishiya, Hajime; Fujisaki, Ryuichi; Koga, Ichiro; Ota, Yasuo; Miyazawa, Yukihisa

    2011-08-01

    Gram staining is a useful technique for detecting bacteria but is highly questionable in detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Its detection generally requires special staining, such as Ziehl-Neelsen staining. We experienced three cases in which tuberculosis was first suggested by Gram staining of sputum or pus, confirmed by Ziehl-Neelsen staining, and diagnosed by polymerase chain reaction or culture. To find colorless tubercle bacilli in clinical samples with various organisms, varying the focus to slightly longer and shorter during study of the slides is indispensable. We present criteria for detecting infective pulmonary tuberculosis in Gram staining. First, in the ordinary focus, weakly stained, thin, gram-positive bacilli are found; second, with a slightly longer focus distance, the thin, cord-like, conspicuous gram-positive bacilli can be observed; and third, with a shorter focus distance, the gram-positive bacilli have changed into the brightened, colorless, or ghost ones. Four laboratory technologists each evaluated 20 Gram-stained samples after being lectured on the criteria, with no prior information about the sample. They accurately evaluated the presence of the bacilli in Gram-stained preparations in more than 90% of samples containing 3+ bacilli on Ziehl-Neelsen staining. Gram staining is available as an easy and rapid initial clue to recognize highly infective tuberculosis.

  4. Differences in staining intensities affect reported occurrences and concentrations of Giardia spp. in surface drinking water sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderisio, K A; Villegas, L F; Ware, M W; McDonald, L A; Xiao, L; Villegas, E N

    2017-12-01

    USEPA Method 1623, or its equivalent, is currently used to monitor for protozoan contamination of surface drinking water sources worldwide. At least three approved staining kits used for detecting Cryptosporidium and Giardia are commercially available. This study focuses on understanding the differences among staining kits used for Method 1623. Merifluor and EasyStain labelling kits were used to monitor Cryptosporidium oocyst and Giardia cyst densities in New York City's raw surface water sources. In the year following a change to the approved staining kits for use with Method 1623, an anomaly was noted in the occurrence of Giardia cysts in New York City's raw surface water. Specifically, Merifluor-stained samples had higher Giardia cyst densities as compared with those stained with EasyStain. Side by side comparison revealed significantly lower fluorescence intensities of Giardia muris as compared with Giardia duodenalis cysts when labelled with EasyStain. This study showed very poor fluorescence intensity signals by EasyStain on G. muris cysts resulting in lower cyst counts, while Merifluor, with its broader Giardia cyst staining specificity, resulted in higher cyst counts, when using Methods 1623. These results suggest that detected Giardia cyst concentrations are dependent on the staining kits used, which can result in a more or less conservative estimation of occurrences and densities of zoonotic Giardia cysts by detecting a broader range of Giardia species/Assemblages. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  5. Study on the ionization chamber for thickness measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Shili; Miao Qiangwen

    1988-01-01

    The principle, construction and performances of ionization chambers for measuring the thickness of metal and nonmetal materials are introduced. With them the thickness of thin materials (thickness ranging from 10 to 6000 g/m 2 ), the surface layer thickness of composed materials and the thickness of steel plate (thickness ranging from 0 to 32 kg/m 2 ) are measured effectively

  6. Digital staining for histopathology multispectral images by the combined application of spectral enhancement and spectral transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, Pinky A; Yagi, Yukako

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we introduced a digital staining method for histopathology images captured with an n-band multispectral camera. The method consisted of two major processes: enhancement of the original spectral transmittance and the transformation of the enhanced transmittance to its target spectral configuration. Enhancement is accomplished by shifting the original transmittance with the scaled difference between the original transmittance and the transmittance estimated with m dominant principal component (PC) vectors;the m-PC vectors were determined from the transmittance samples of the background image. Transformation of the enhanced transmittance to the target spectral configuration was done using an nxn transformation matrix, which was derived by applying a least square method to the enhanced and target spectral training data samples of the different tissue components. Experimental results on the digital conversion of a hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained multispectral image to its Masson's trichrome stained (MT) equivalent shows the viability of the method.

  7. Facile method to stain the bacterial cell surface for super-resolution fluorescence microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunsolus, Ian L.; Hu, Dehong; Mihai, Cosmin; Lohse, Samuel E.; Lee, Chang-Soo; Torelli, Marco; Hamers, Robert J.; Murphy, Catherine; Orr, Galya; Haynes, Christy L.

    2014-01-01

    A method to fluorescently stain the surfaces of both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial cells compatible with super-resolution fluorescence microscopy is presented. This method utilizes a commercially-available fluorescent probe to label primary amines at the surface of the cell. We demonstrate efficient staining of two bacterial strains, the Gram-negative Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 and the Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis 168. Using structured illumination microscopy and stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy, which require high quantum yield or specialized dyes, we show that this staining method may be used to resolve the bacterial cell surface with sub-diffraction-limited resolution. We further use this method to identify localization patterns of nanomaterials, specifically cadmium selenide quantum dots, following interaction with bacterial cells.

  8. Double side multicrystalline silicon passivation by one step stain etching-based porous silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, Seifeddine Belhadj; Ben Rabha, Mohamed; Bessais, Brahim [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique, Centre de Recherches et des Technologies de l' Energie, Technopole de Borj-Cedria, BP 95, 2050 Hammam-Lif (Tunisia)

    2012-10-15

    In this paper, we investigate the effect of stain etching-based porous silicon on the double side multicrystalline silicon. Special attention is given to the use of the stain etched PS as an antireflection coating as well as for surface passivating capabilities. Stain etching of double side multicrystalline silicon leads to the formation of PS nanostructures, that dramatically decrease the surface reflectivity from 30% to about 7% and increase the effective lifetime from 1 {mu}s to 10 {mu}s at a minority carrier density ({Delta}n) of 10{sup 15} cm{sup -3}. These results let us correlate the rise of the lifetime values to the photoluminescence intensity to the hydrogen and oxide passivation as shown by FTIR analysis. This low-cost PS formation process can be applied in the photovoltaic cell technology as a standard procedure (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  9. X-ray induction of micronuclei in human lymphocyte subpopulations differentiated by immunoperoxidase staining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ban, Sadayuki; Nakano, Mimako; Cologne, J.B.

    1992-10-01

    In this report we sought to confirm the radiosensitivity of human peripheral blood lymphocyte subpopulations using a micronucleus assay. Mononucleated cells isolated from peripheral blood were irradiated with X rays. After being cultured for 3 days, cells were fixed and stained using the immunoperoxidase staining technique. Lymphocyte subpopulations were characterized by means of the monoclonal antibodies Leu4 (CD3), Leu2a (CD8), and Leu19 (CD56). Dose-response curves were obtained by scoring the number of micronuclei in binucleated cells that reacted with a specific antibody and were then stained. The dose response of CD8 + (suppressor/cytotoxic) cells was quite similar to that of CD3 + (pan T) cells. In comparison, CD56 + (natural killer) cells were significantly less sensitive, although scorable binucleated CD56 + cells made up less than 4 % of the total number of binucleated cells. (author)

  10. Phase-selective staining of metal salt for scanning electron microscopy imaging of block copolymer film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jing Ze, E-mail: Lijinge@uestc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Microelectronic and Solid-state Electronic, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); State Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials Engineering (Sichuan University), Chengdu 610054 (China); Xinjiang Key Laboratory of Electronic Information Materials and Devices, Urumuqi 830011 (China); Wang, Ying; Hong Wang, Zhi; Mei, Di; Zou, Wei [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Microelectronic and Solid-state Electronic, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Min Chang, Ai [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials Engineering (Sichuan University), Chengdu 610054 (China); Wang, Qi [Xinjiang Key Laboratory of Electronic Information Materials and Devices, Urumuqi 830011 (China); Komura, Motonori; Ito, Kaori [Division of Integrated Molecular Engineering, Chemical Resources Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); Iyoda, Tomokazu, E-mail: Iyoda.t.aa@m.titech.ac.jp [Division of Integrated Molecular Engineering, Chemical Resources Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan)

    2010-09-15

    Three metal salts, i.e., AgNO{sub 3}, HAuCl{sub 4}, and KCl, were proposed as novel staining reagents instead of traditional RuO{sub 4} and OsO{sub 4} labeled with expensive price and extreme toxicity for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging of microphase separated block copolymer film. A simple and costless aqueous solution immersion procedure could ensure selective staining of the metal slat in specific phase of the nanostructured copolymer film, leading to a clear phase contrasted SEM image. The heavy metal salt has better staining effect, demonstrating stable and high signal-to-noise SEM image even at an acceleration voltage as high as 30 kV and magnification up to 250,000 times.

  11. Trace element analysis of blackish staining on the crowns of human archaeological teeth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stermer, E.M. [Univ. of Oslo, Dept. of Oral Radiology, Oslo (Norway); Risnes, S. [Univ. of Oslo, Dept. of Oral Biology, Faculty of Dentistry, Oslo (Norway); Fischer, P.M. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Dept. of Physics, SIMS Lab., Goeteborg (Sweden)

    1996-10-01

    A blackish staining found on the crowns of teeth of 51 skulls from the excavation of the medieval St. Olav`s church in Trondheim was analyzed using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). In four teeth, mass spectra and step scan concentration profiles of SIMS were performed and compared with the grey scale pattern in photographs of the analyzed paths. The manganese curve showed the highest degree of conformity with the grey scale pattern. The AAS analysis confirmed the increased content of manganese in blackish stained enamel. It was concluded that manganese, probably in the form of an oxide deposited from the soil, was the cause of the blackish staining. (au).

  12. Trace element analysis of blackish staining on the crowns of human archaeological teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stermer, E.M.; Risnes, S.; Fischer, P.M.

    1996-01-01

    A blackish staining found on the crowns of teeth of 51 skulls from the excavation of the medieval St. Olav's church in Trondheim was analyzed using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). In four teeth, mass spectra and step scan concentration profiles of SIMS were performed and compared with the grey scale pattern in photographs of the analyzed paths. The manganese curve showed the highest degree of conformity with the grey scale pattern. The AAS analysis confirmed the increased content of manganese in blackish stained enamel. It was concluded that manganese, probably in the form of an oxide deposited from the soil, was the cause of the blackish staining. (au)

  13. Enamel susceptibility to red wine staining after 35% hydrogen peroxide bleaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrine Bittencourt Berger

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Concern has been expressed regarding the staining of enamel surface by different beverages after bleaching. This study investigated the influence of 35% hydrogen peroxide bleaching agents on enamel surface stained with wine after whitening treatments. Flat and polished bovine enamel surfaces were submitted to two commercially available 35% hydrogen peroxide bleaching agents or kept in 100% humidity, as a control group (n = 10. Specimens of all groups were immersed in red wine for 48 h at 37°C, immediately, 24 h or 1 week after treatments. All specimens were ground into powder and prepared for the spectrophotometric analysis. Data were subjected to two-way analysis of variance and Fisher's PLSD test at 5% significance level. The amount of wine pigments uptake by enamel submitted to bleaching treatments was statistically higher than that of control group, independently of the evaluation time. Results suggested that wine staining susceptibility was increased by bleaching treatments.

  14. Stain-etched porous silicon nanostructures for multicrystalline silicon-based solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Rabha, M.; Hajji, M.; Belhadj Mohamed, S.; Hajjaji, A.; Gaidi, M.; Ezzaouia, H.; Bessais, B.

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, we study the optical, optoelectronic and photoluminescence properties of stain-etched porous silicon nanostructures obtained with different etching times. Special attention is given to the use of the stain-etched PS as an antireflection coating as well as for surface passivating capabilities. The surface morphology has been analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. The evolution of the Si-O and Si-H absorption bands was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry before and after PS treatment. Results show that stain etching of the silicon surface drops the total reflectivity to about 7% in the 400-1100 nm wavelength range and the minority carrier lifetime enhances to about 48 μs.

  15. ENAMEL SUSCEPTIBILITY TO RED WINE STAINING AFTER 35% HYDROGEN PEROXIDE BLEACHING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Sandrine Bittencourt; Coelho, Alessandra Sanchez; Oliveira, Valéria Aparecida Pessatti; Cavalli, Vanessa; Giannini, Marcelo

    2008-01-01

    Concern has been expressed regarding the staining of enamel surface by different beverages after bleaching. This study investigated the influence of 35% hydrogen peroxide bleaching agents on enamel surface stained with wine after whitening treatments. Flat and polished bovine enamel surfaces were submitted to two commercially available 35% hydrogen peroxide bleaching agents or kept in 100% humidity, as a control group (n = 10). Specimens of all groups were immersed in red wine for 48 h at 37°C, immediately, 24 h or 1 week after treatments. All specimens were ground into powder and prepared for the spectrophotometric analysis. Data were subjected to two-way analysis of variance and Fisher's PLSD test at 5% significance level. The amount of wine pigments uptake by enamel submitted to bleaching treatments was statistically higher than that of control group, independently of the evaluation time. Results suggested that wine staining susceptibility was increased by bleaching treatments. PMID:19089218

  16. Efficacy of propidium iodide and FUN-1 stains for assessing viability in basidiospores of Rhizopogon roseolus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Miranda, Elena; Majada, Juan; Casares, Abelardo

    2017-01-01

    The use of spores in applications of ectomycorrhizal fungi requires information regarding spore viability and germination, especially in genera such as Rhizopogon with high rates of spore dormancy. The authors developed a protocol to assess spore viability of Rhizopogon roseolus using four vital stains to quantify spore viability and germination and to optimize storage procedures. They showed that propidium iodide is an excellent stain for quantifying nonviable spores. Observing red fluorescent intravacuolar structures following staining with 2-chloro-4-(2,3-dihydro-3-methyl-(benzo-1,3-thiazol-2-yl)-methylidene)-1-phenylquinolinium iodide (FUN-1) can help identify viable spores that are activated. At 6 mo and 1 y, the spores kept in a water suspension survived better than those left within intact, dry gasterocarps. Our work highlights the importance of temperature, nutrients, and vitamins for maturation and germination of spores of R. roseolus during 1 y of storage.

  17. Staining Methods for Normal and Regenerative Myelin in the Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carriel, Víctor; Campos, Antonio; Alaminos, Miguel; Raimondo, Stefania; Geuna, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Histochemical techniques enable the specific identification of myelin by light microscopy. Here we describe three histochemical methods for the staining of myelin suitable for formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded materials. The first method is conventional luxol fast blue (LFB) method which stains myelin in blue and Nissl bodies and mast cells in purple. The second method is a LBF-based method called MCOLL, which specifically stains the myelin as well the collagen fibers and cells, giving an integrated overview of the histology and myelin content of the tissue. Finally, we describe the osmium tetroxide method, which consist in the osmication of previously fixed tissues. Osmication is performed prior the embedding of tissues in paraffin giving a permanent positive reaction for myelin as well as other lipids present in the tissue.

  18. Translucency of dental ceramics with different thicknesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fu; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Iwasaki, Naohiko

    2013-07-01

    The increased use of esthetic restorations requires an improved understanding of the translucent characteristics of ceramic materials. Ceramic translucency has been considered to be dependent on composition and thickness, but less information is available about the translucent characteristics of these materials, especially at different thicknesses. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between translucency and the thickness of different dental ceramics. Six disk-shaped specimens of 8 glass ceramics (IPS e.max Press HO, MO, LT, HT, IPS e.max CAD LT, MO, AvanteZ Dentin, and Trans) and 5 specimens of 5 zirconia ceramics (Cercon Base, Zenotec Zr Bridge, Lava Standard, Lava Standard FS3, and Lava Plus High Translucency) were prepared following the manufacturers' instructions and ground to a predetermined thickness with a grinding machine. A spectrophotometer was used to measure the translucency parameters (TP) of the glass ceramics, which ranged from 2.0 to 0.6 mm, and of the zirconia ceramics, which ranged from 1.0 to 0.4 mm. The relationship between the thickness and TP of each material was evaluated using a regression analysis (α=.05). The TP values of the glass ceramics ranged from 2.2 to 25.3 and the zirconia ceramics from 5.5 to 15.1. There was an increase in the TP with a decrease in thickness, but the amount of change was material dependent. An exponential relationship with statistical significance (Pceramics and zirconia ceramics. The translucency of dental ceramics was significantly influenced by both material and thickness. The translucency of all materials increased exponentially as the thickness decreased. All of the zirconia ceramics evaluated in the present study showed some degree of translucency, which was less sensitive to thickness compared to that of the glass ceramics. Copyright © 2013 The Editorial Council of the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Mechanical Properties of Additively Manufactured Thick Honeycombs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Hedayati

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Honeycombs resemble the structure of a number of natural and biological materials such as cancellous bone, wood, and cork. Thick honeycomb could be also used for energy absorption applications. Moreover, studying the mechanical behavior of honeycombs under in-plane loading could help understanding the mechanical behavior of more complex 3D tessellated structures such as porous biomaterials. In this paper, we study the mechanical behavior of thick honeycombs made using additive manufacturing techniques that allow for fabrication of honeycombs with arbitrary and precisely controlled thickness. Thick honeycombs with different wall thicknesses were produced from polylactic acid (PLA using fused deposition modelling, i.e., an additive manufacturing technique. The samples were mechanically tested in-plane under compression to determine their mechanical properties. We also obtained exact analytical solutions for the stiffness matrix of thick hexagonal honeycombs using both Euler-Bernoulli and Timoshenko beam theories. The stiffness matrix was then used to derive analytical relationships that describe the elastic modulus, yield stress, and Poisson’s ratio of thick honeycombs. Finite element models were also built for computational analysis of the mechanical behavior of thick honeycombs under compression. The mechanical properties obtained using our analytical relationships were compared with experimental observations and computational results as well as with analytical solutions available in the literature. It was found that the analytical solutions presented here are in good agreement with experimental and computational results even for very thick honeycombs, whereas the analytical solutions available in the literature show a large deviation from experimental observation, computational results, and our analytical solutions.

  20. OBSTETRIC AND PERINATAL OUTCOME OF LOW-RISK PREGNANCIES WITH TERM LABOUR AND MECONIUM-STAINED AMNIOTIC FLUID AT ST. PHILOMENA’S HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roopashree D

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Meconium-stained amniotic fluid has been considered as sign of foetal distress in presentations other than breech and is associated with poor foetal outcome, but others consider meconium passage by foetus as physiological phenomenon and procedures of environmental hazards to foetus before birth. MATERIALS AND METHODS 200 women with meconium-stained amniotic fluid in labour, all low-risk pregnancies were included in our study from September 2010 to August 2012 admitted in our department. For uniformity of results, cases with obstetric and medical complications were excluded. The cases were divided into three groups depending upon grades of meconium staining as thin, moderate and thick. Foetal monitoring, uterine contractions and Apgar score, birth weight, resuscitation of baby noted. All babies were followed up to first week of neonatal life. RESULTS Of 200 cases, 147 had caesarean delivery 73.5% and 53 had vaginal delivery 26.5%. The incidence of LSCS was found to be maximum in the thick MSAF group 54.5%, 14% in moderate and 5% in this MSAF group. In moderate MSAF group, 2.17% had <7, 1 minute Apgar. In thick MSAF group, 3.33% had <7 Apgar; in thin MSAF group, 11.76% had <7 Apgar at 1 minute. The p value was 0.094 in all grades of MSAF, the 5 min. Apgar’s were more than 7. The occurrence of complications in the baby did not depend on the mode of delivery. The p value was 0.58, which was insignificant. The ‘p value of association of CTG abnormality and foetal morbidity was significant <0.001. The association of grades of meconium and foetal morbidity, the p value was 0.337, which was insignificant. There was no perinatal mortality in our study. CONCLUSION The incidence of low-risk pregnancies with MSAF in our study was 4.5%. There was increased tendency for LSCS in the MSAF. The foetal morbidity depends on the reactivity to CTG not on grades of MSAF. Therefore, close intrapartum monitoring has to be done in such cases and LSCS done