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Sample records for grd gre whis

  1. GRE 4000

    CERN Document Server

    Kolby, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    The 4000 Words Essential for the GRE. The verbal section of the GRE is essentially a vocabulary test. With a few exceptions, if you know the word, you will probably be able to answer the question correctly. Thus, it is crucial that you improve your vocabulary. Even if you have a strong vocabulary, you will still encounter unfamiliar words on the GRE. Many students write off questions, which contain words, they don't recognize. This is a mistake. This book introduces numerous techniques that decode unfamiliar words and prod your memory of words you only half-remember. With these techniques, you

  2. GRE math tests

    CERN Document Server

    Kolby, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-three GRE Math Tests! The GRE math section is not easy. There is no quick fix that will allow you to ""beat"" the section. But GRE math is very learnable. If you study hard and master the techniques in this book, your math score will improve--significantly! The GRE cannot be ""beaten."" But it can be mastered--through hard work, analytical thought, and by training yourself to think like a test writer. Many of the problems in this book are designed to prompt you to think like a test writer. For example, you will find ""Duals."" These are pairs of similar problems in which only one prop

  3. GRE physics test

    CERN Document Server

    Fakhrudin, Hasan

    2010-01-01

    Designed for students and professionals looking to advance their careers, our test prep gives you everything you need to succeed. Focused chapter reviews cover all the information tested on the GRE Physics exam. Each review chapter contains examples to reinforce key concepts. The book includes four full-length practice tests based on the most recent GRE Physics exam. Each test contains every type of question that can be expected on the GRE so you can “practice for real” and boost your confidence before taking the exam.

  4. Conquering the Physics GRE

    CERN Document Server

    Kahn, Yoni

    2018-01-01

    The Physics GRE plays a significant role in deciding admissions to nearly all US physics Ph.D. programs, yet few exam prep books focus on the test's actual content and unique structure. Recognised as one of the best student resources available, this tailored guide has been thoroughly updated for the current Physics GRE. It contains more than 300 pages of review material carefully matched to all of the topics covered, as well as tips and tricks to help you solve problems under time pressure. It features three full-length practice exams, revised to accurately reflect the difficulty of the current test, with fully-worked solutions so that you can simulate taking the test, review your preparedness, and identify areas in which further study is needed. Written by working physicists who took the Physics GRE for their own graduate admissions to MIT, this self-contained reference guide will help you achieve your best score.

  5. Conquering the Physics GRE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Yoni; Anderson, Adam

    2018-03-01

    Preface; How to use this book; Resources; 1. Classical mechanics; 2. Electricity and magnetism; 3. Optics and waves; 4. Thermodynamics and statistical mechanics; 5. Quantum mechanics and atomic physics; 6. Special relativity; 7. Laboratory methods; 8. Specialized topics; 9. Special tips and tricks for the Physics GRE; Sample exams and solutions; References; Equation index; Subject index; Problems index.

  6. GRE math workbook

    CERN Document Server

    Madore, Blair

    2015-01-01

    Reflective of the current GRE, this third edition includes a description of the General Math Exam explaining structure, questions types, and scoring, strategies for problem solving, two full-length math sample sections structured to reflect the actual exam, answers thoroughly explained, and more.

  7. GRE Enzymes for Vector Analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Microbial enzyme data that were collected during the 2004-2006 EMAP-GRE program. These data were then used by Moorhead et al (2016) in their ecoenzyme vector...

  8. Advances on LuGre friction model

    OpenAIRE

    Fuad, Mohammad; Ikhouane, Fayçal

    2013-01-01

    LuGre friction model is an ordinary differential equation that is widely used in describing the friction phenomenon for mechanical systems. The importance of this model comes from the fact that it captures most of the friction behavior that has been observed including hysteresis. In this paper, we study some aspects related to the hysteresis behavior induced by the LuGre friction model.

  9. Transcription elongation factor GreA has functional chaperone activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun; Jiang, Tianyi; Yu, Bo; Wang, Limin; Gao, Chao; Ma, Cuiqing; Xu, Ping; Ma, Yanhe

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial GreA is an indispensable factor in the RNA polymerase elongation complex. It plays multiple roles in transcriptional elongation, and may be implicated in resistance to various stresses. In this study, we show that Escherichia coli GreA inhibits aggregation of several substrate proteins under heat shock condition. GreA can also effectively promote the refolding of denatured proteins. These facts reveal that GreA has chaperone activity. Distinct from many molecular chaperones, GreA does not form stable complexes with unfolded substrates. GreA overexpression confers the host cells with enhanced resistance to heat shock and oxidative stress. Moreover, GreA expression in the greA/greB double mutant could suppress the temperature-sensitive phenotype, and dramatically alleviate the in vivo protein aggregation. The results suggest that bacterial GreA may act as chaperone in vivo. These results suggest that GreA, in addition to its function as a transcription factor, is involved in protection of cellular proteins against aggregation.

  10. Recombination Phenotypes of Escherichia coli greA Mutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poteete Anthony R

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The elongation factor GreA binds to RNA polymerase and modulates transcriptional pausing. Some recent research suggests that the primary role of GreA may not be to regulate gene expression, but rather, to promote the progression of replication forks which collide with RNA polymerase, and which might otherwise collapse. Replication fork collapse is known to generate dsDNA breaks, which can be recombinogenic. It follows that GreA malfunction could have consequences affecting homologous recombination. Results Escherichia coli mutants bearing substitutions of the active site acidic residues of the transcription elongation factor GreA, D41N and E44K, were isolated as suppressors of growth inhibition by a toxic variant of the bacteriophage lambda Red-beta recombination protein. These mutants, as well as a D41A greA mutant and a greA deletion, were tested for proficiency in recombination events. The mutations were found to increase the efficiency of RecA-RecBCD-mediated and RecA-Red-mediated recombination, which are replication-independent, and to decrease the efficiency of replication-dependent Red-mediated recombination. Conclusion These observations provide new evidence for a role of GreA in resolving conflicts between replication and transcription.

  11. GRD: An SPSS extension command for generating random data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley Harding

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available To master statistics and data analysis tools, it is necessary to understand a number of concepts, manyof which are quite abstract. For example, sampling from a theoretical distribution can help individuals explore andunderstand randomness. Sampling can also be used to build exercises aimed to help students master statistics. Here, we present GRD (Generator of Random Data, an extension command for SPSS (version 17 and above. With GRD, it is possible to get random data from a given distribution. In its simplest use, GRD will return a set of simulated data from a normal distribution.With subcommands to GRD, it is possible to get data from multiple groups, over multiple repeated measures, and with desired effectsizes. Group sizes can be equal or unequal. With further subcommands, it is possible to sample from any theoretical population, (not simply the normal distribution, introduce non-homogeneous variances,fix or randomize subject effects, etc. Finally, GRD’s generated data are in a format ready to be analyzed.

  12. Using Minimum Acceptable GRE Scores for Graduate Admissions Suppresses Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Casey

    2014-01-01

    I will present data showing that significant performance disparities on the GRE general test exist based on the test taker's race and gender [1]. Because of the belief that high GRE scores qualify one for graduate studies, the diversity issues faced by STEM fields may originate, at least in part, in misuse of the GRE scores by graduate admissions committees. I will quantitatively demonstrate this by showing that the combination of a hard cut-off and the different score distributions leads to the systematic underrepresentation of certain groups. I will present data from USF’s PhD program that shows a lack of correlation between GRE scores and research ability; similar null results are emerging from numerous other programs. I will then discuss how assessing non-cognitive competencies in the selection process may lead to a more enlightened search for the next generation of scientists. [1] C. W. Miller, "Admissions Criteria and Diversity in Graduate School", APS News Vol 22, Issue 2, The Back Page (2013) http://www.aps.org/publications/apsnews/201302/backpage.cfm

  13. IMPORTANCIA DEL SISTEMA GRD PARA ALCANZAR LA EFICIENCIA HOSPITALARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EU. Mackarena Zapata M., MID

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: La clasificación de pacientes a través del sistema GRD, logra resolver la problemática que existe en las instituciones de salud, cuyo producto final es único. Cada paciente atendido tiene características particulares como: edad, sexo, diagnóstico principal, comorbilidades, tratamientos y procedimientos realizados, todos ellos hacen que la variabilidad sea inmanejable. Cada uno de estos datos descritos puede generar miles de combinaciones. Por esta razón, en la necesidad de resolver esta problemática surge un sistema que logra agrupar, considerando aquellas similitudes y transformando un gran número de casos en grupos relacionados.Al agrupar es posible estandarizar procesos para tratar determinadas patologías. Disminuyendo la variabilidad clínica y conociendo cuales son los casos que no se asemejan al estándar, es posible realizar las mejoras que traerán ahorro de recursos y mayor eficiencia.El clínico dirá que sus pacientes son más complejos y el gestor que debe contener gasto, GRD es el punto de encuentro para medir una mayor complejidad asociada a mayor consumo de recursos. SUMMARY: The classification of patients through the DRG system manages to solve the problems that exist in health institutions, whose final product is unique. Each patient attended has particular characteristics such as age, sex, main diagnosis, comorbidities, treatments and procedures performed, all of which make the variability unmanageable. Each of these described data can generate thousands of combinations. For this reason, in the need to solve this problem arises a system that manages to group, considering those similarities and transforming a large number of cases into related groups. By grouping it is possible to standardize processes to treat certain pathologies. By decreasing the clinical variability and knowing which are the cases that do not resemble the standard, it is possible to make the improvements that will bring saving of resources

  14. Morphology and Properties of Geopolymer Coatings on Glass Fibre-Reinforced Epoxy (GRE pipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahedan Noor Fifinatasha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Geopolymer coatings were coated on glass fibre-reinforced epoxy (GRE pipe by using kaolin, white clay and silica sand as source materials and sodium hydroxide (NaOH and sodium silicate (Na2SiO3 as alkaline solution. The microstructure and mechanical property of geopolymer coating on GRE pipe were methodically investigated through morphology analysis, and flexural strength test. The result indicates the microstructure and interfacial layer between geopolymer coating and GRE pipe significantly influence the mechanical property of geopolymer coating. However, different source materials gave different microstructure and property in geopolymer coating.

  15. Validity of GRE General Test scores and TOEFL scores for graduate admission to a technical university in Western Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Judith; von Davier, Alina A.; Buhmann, Joachim M.; Heinimann, Hans R.

    2018-01-01

    Graduate admission has become a critical process in tertiary education, whereby selecting valid admissions instruments is key. This study assessed the validity of Graduate Record Examination (GRE) General Test scores for admission to Master's programmes at a technical university in Europe. We investigated the indicative value of GRE scores for the Master's programme grade point average (GGPA) with and without the addition of the undergraduate GPA (UGPA) and the TOEFL score, and of GRE scores for study completion and Master's thesis performance. GRE scores explained 20% of the variation in the GGPA, while additional 7% were explained by the TOEFL score and 3% by the UGPA. Contrary to common belief, the GRE quantitative reasoning score showed only little explanatory power. GRE scores were also weakly related to study progress but not to thesis performance. Nevertheless, GRE and TOEFL scores were found to be sensible admissions instruments. Rigorous methodology was used to obtain highly reliable results.

  16. GROWTH RATE DISPERSION (GRD OF THE (010 FACE OF BORAX CRYSTALS IN FLOWING SOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suharso Suharso

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The growth rates of borax crystals from aqueous solutions in the (010 direction at various flow rates were measured. The observed variations of the growth rate can be represented by a normal distribution.  It was found that there is no correlation between growth rate distribution and solution flow under these experimental conditions.   Keywords: Growth rate dispersion (GRD, borax, flow rate

  17. Dehydrogenase GRD1 Represents a Novel Component of the Cellulase Regulon in Trichoderma reesei (Hypocrea jecorina) ▿ † §

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, André; Kubicek, Christian P.; Schmoll, Monika

    2011-01-01

    Trichoderma reesei (Hypocrea jecorina) is nowadays the most important industrial producer of cellulase and hemicellulase enzymes, which are used for pretreatment of cellulosic biomass for biofuel production. In this study, we introduce a novel component, GRD1 (glucose-ribitol dehydrogenase 1), which shows enzymatic activity on cellobiose and positively influences cellulase gene transcription, expression, and extracellular endo-1,4-β-d-glucanase activity. grd1 is differentially transcribed upon growth on cellulose and the induction of cellulase gene expression by sophorose. The transcription of grd1 is coregulated with that of cel7a (cbh1) under inducing conditions. GRD1 is further involved in carbon source utilization on several carbon sources, such as those involved in lactose and d-galactose catabolism, in several cases in a light-dependent manner. We conclude that GRD1 represents a novel enhancer of cellulase gene expression, which by coregulation with the major cellulase may act via optimization of inducing mechanisms. PMID:21602376

  18. Examining the Predictive Validity of GRE Scores on Doctoral Education: Students' Success and Methodology Choices in the Dissertation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockinson-Szapkiw, Amanda J.; Bray, Oliver R., Jr.; Spaulding, Lucinda S.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines how GRE scores can be used to better understand Education doctoral candidates' methodology choices for the dissertation as well as their persistence behaviors. Candidates' of one online doctoral education program were examined. Results of a MANOVA suggested that there is no difference in GRE scores based on doctoral candidates'…

  19. Validity of GRE General Test Scores and TOEFL Scores for Graduate Admission to a Technical University in Western Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Judith; von Davier, Alina A.; Buhmann, Joachim M.; Heinimann, Hans R.

    2018-01-01

    Graduate admission has become a critical process in tertiary education, whereby selecting valid admissions instruments is key. This study assessed the validity of Graduate Record Examination (GRE) General Test scores for admission to Master's programmes at a technical university in Europe. We investigated the indicative value of GRE scores for the…

  20. Friction induced hunting limit cycles : a comparison between the LuGre and switch friction model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hensen, R.H.A.; Molengraft, van de M.J.G.; Steinbuch, M.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, friction induced limit cycles are predicted for a simple motion system consisting of a motor-driven inertia subjected to friction and a PID-controlled regulator task. The two friction models used, i.e., (i) the dynamic LuGre friction model and (ii) the static switch friction model,

  1. Thermal shock effect on Mechanical and Physical properties of pre-moisture treated GRE composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraverty, A. P.; Panda, A. B.; Mohanty, U. K.; Mishra, S. C.; Biswal, B. B.

    2018-03-01

    Many practical situations may be encountered under which a GFRP (Glass fibre reinforced polymer) composite, during its service life, is exposed to the severities of sudden temperature fluctuations. Moisture absorption of GRE (Glass fibre reinforced epoxy) composites followed by various gradients of temperature fluctuations may cause thermo- mechanical degradation. It is on this context, the hand layed GRE composite samples are exposed to up-thermal shock (-40°C to +50°C) and down-thermal shock (+50°C to -40°C) for various time interval after several periods of moisture (hydrothermal/hygrothermal) conditioning. The thermally shocked GRE specimens are put to 3-point bend test to divulge inter laminar shear strength (ILSS). Least ILSS values are recorded for the samples with maximum period of moisture treatments under with both up-thermal and down-thermal shock conditions. Lower glass transition temperature (Tg) values, as revealed through the low temperature DSC test, are exhibited at maximum durations of both up-thermal and down-thermal shock for the samples with higher periods of hygrothermal/hydrothermal treatments. SEM fractographs of representative GRE specimens after optimum period of moisture treatments and thermal shock show the various modes of failures.

  2. The transcription fidelity factor GreA impedes DNA break repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaramakrishnan, Priya; Sepúlveda, Leonardo A; Halliday, Jennifer A; Liu, Jingjing; Núñez, María Angélica Bravo; Golding, Ido; Rosenberg, Susan M; Herman, Christophe

    2017-10-12

    Homologous recombination repairs DNA double-strand breaks and must function even on actively transcribed DNA. Because break repair prevents chromosome loss, the completion of repair is expected to outweigh the transcription of broken templates. However, the interplay between DNA break repair and transcription processivity is unclear. Here we show that the transcription factor GreA inhibits break repair in Escherichia coli. GreA restarts backtracked RNA polymerase and hence promotes transcription fidelity. We report that removal of GreA results in markedly enhanced break repair via the classic RecBCD-RecA pathway. Using a deep-sequencing method to measure chromosomal exonucleolytic degradation, we demonstrate that the absence of GreA limits RecBCD-mediated resection. Our findings suggest that increased RNA polymerase backtracking promotes break repair by instigating RecA loading by RecBCD, without the influence of canonical Chi signals. The idea that backtracked RNA polymerase can stimulate recombination presents a DNA transaction conundrum: a transcription fidelity factor that compromises genomic integrity.

  3. Adaptive control of servo system based on LuGre model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Wang; Niancong, Liu; Jianlong, Chen; Weitao, Geng

    2018-03-01

    This paper established a mechanical model of feed system based on LuGre model. In order to solve the influence of nonlinear factors on the system running stability, a nonlinear single observer is designed to estimate the parameter z in the LuGre model and an adaptive friction compensation controller is designed. Simulink simulation results show that the control method can effectively suppress the adverse effects of friction and external disturbances. The simulation show that the adaptive parameter kz is between 0.11-0.13, and the value of gamma1 is between 1.9-2.1. Position tracking error reaches level 10-3 and is stabilized near 0 values within 0.3 seconds, the compensation method has better tracking accuracy and robustness.

  4. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of Gre2p, an NADP+-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breicha, Klaus; Müller, Marion; Hummel, Werner; Niefind, Karsten

    2010-01-01

    The alcohol dehydrogenase Gre2p from S. cerevisiae catalyses the stereospecific reduction of a variety of different keto compounds and can therefore be applied as a valuable biocatalyst. The crystallization of the complex of Gre2p with NADP + and its preliminary X-ray analysis are described. Gre2p [Genes de respuesta a estres (stress-response gene)] from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a monomeric enzyme of 342 amino acids with a molecular weight of 38.1 kDa. The enzyme catalyses both the stereospecific reduction of keto compounds and the oxidation of various hydroxy compounds and alcohols by the simultaneous consumption of the cofactor NADPH and formation of NADP + . Crystals of a Gre2p complex with NADP + were grown using PEG 8000 as a precipitant. They belong to the monoclinic space group P2 1 . The current diffraction resolution is 3.2 Å. In spite of the monomeric nature of Gre2p in solution, packing and self-rotation calculations revealed the existence of two Gre2p protomers per asymmetric unit related by a twofold noncrystallographic axis

  5. Dynamic Friction Parameter Identification Method with LuGre Model for Direct-Drive Rotary Torque Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingjian Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Attainment of high-performance motion/velocity control objectives for the Direct-Drive Rotary (DDR torque motor should fully consider practical nonlinearities in controller design, such as dynamic friction. The LuGre model has been widely utilized to describe nonlinear friction behavior; however, parameter identification for the LuGre model remains a challenge. A new dynamic friction parameter identification method for LuGre model is proposed in this study. Static parameters are identified through a series of constant velocity experiments, while dynamic parameters are obtained through a presliding process. Novel evolutionary algorithm (NEA is utilized to increase identification accuracy. Experimental results gathered from the identification experiments conducted in the study for a practical DDR torque motor control system validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  6. Advancing Control for Shield Tunneling Machine by Backstepping Design with LuGre Friction Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibo Xie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Shield tunneling machine is widely applied for underground tunnel construction. The shield machine is a complex machine with large momentum and ultralow advancing speed. The working condition underground is rather complicated and unpredictable, and brings big trouble in controlling the advancing speed. This paper focused on the advancing motion control on desired tunnel axis. A three-state dynamic model was established with considering unknown front face earth pressure force and unknown friction force. LuGre friction model was introduced to describe the friction force. Backstepping design was then proposed to make tracking error converge to zero. To have a comparison study, controller without LuGre model was designed. Tracking simulations of speed regulations and simulations when front face earth pressure changed were carried out to show the transient performances of the proposed controller. The results indicated that the controller had good tracking performance even under changing geological conditions. Experiments of speed regulations were carried out to have validations of the controllers.

  7. TEPE/GReAT (General Relativity Accuracy Test in an Einstein Elevator): ready to start

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iafolla, V.; Fiorenza, E.; Lefevre, C.

    2008-01-01

    TEPEE/GReAT is an experiment aimed at testing the principle of equivalence at a level of accuracy equal to 5 parts in 10 15 by means of a differential acceleration detector free falling inside a co-moving, endogenic, evacuated capsule, released from a stratospheric balloon. The detector is spun about a horizontal axis during the fall in order to modulate the equivalence principle violation signal at the spin frequency. Thanks to the recent funding of the Italian side, the project is ready- to enter its second phase. The main activities related to detector prototype (both non-cryogenic and cryogenic versions) development and testing, free-fall tests, signal extraction from noise (in particular related to the common-mode rejection factor) and flight model requirements are discussed.

  8. Adaptive integral backstepping sliding mode control for opto-electronic tracking system based on modified LuGre friction model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Fengfa; Li, Xingfei; Chen, Cheng; Tan, Wenbin

    2017-12-01

    In order to improve the control accuracy and stability of opto-electronic tracking system fixed on reef or airport under friction and external disturbance conditions, adaptive integral backstepping sliding mode control approach with friction compensation is developed to achieve accurate and stable tracking for fast moving target. The nonlinear observer and slide mode controller based on modified LuGre model with friction compensation can effectively reduce the influence of nonlinear friction and disturbance of this servo system. The stability of the closed-loop system is guaranteed by Lyapunov theory. The steady-state error of the system is eliminated by integral action. The adaptive integral backstepping sliding mode controller and its performance are validated by a nonlinear modified LuGre dynamic model of the opto-electronic tracking system in simulation and practical experiments. The experiment results demonstrate that the proposed controller can effectively realise the accuracy and stability control of opto-electronic tracking system.

  9. Utility of the 3D GRE method in the female pelvic area with 3T MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsushita, Hiroki; Terada, Masaki; Oosugi, Masanori; Inoue, Kazuyasu; Anma, Takeshi

    2008-01-01

    A high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) can be obtained in three-Tesla (3T) MRI, and it is possible to use it to shorten imaging time and improve spatial resolution. However, reports of its disadvantages have been increasing. We attempted to describe a high-resolution evaluation image that made the best use of a decrease in specific absorption rate (SAR) and high SNR by using the LAVA (liver acquisition with volume acceleration) method, a kind of three-dimensional GRE (3D gradient echo) method that did not show the above-mentioned disadvantage in obtaining a shadow inspection of the female pelvic area with 3T MRI. A 0.8 mm isovoxel image of excellent SNR could be obtained within about one and one-half minutes by using the LAVA method as a result of the examination. Moreover, a SAR that was problematic with the 3T MR device was able to be decreased, and was useful. (author)

  10. The nature of the GRE influences the screening for GR-activity enhancing modulators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Dendoncker

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoid resistance (GCR, i.e. unresponsiveness to the beneficial anti-inflammatory activities of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR, poses a serious problem in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. One possible solution to try and overcome GCR, is to identify molecules that prevent or revert GCR by hyper-stimulating the biological activity of the GR. To this purpose, we screened for compounds that potentiate the dexamethasone (Dex-induced transcriptional activity of GR. To monitor GR transcriptional activity, the screen was performed using the lung epithelial cell line A549 in which a glucocorticoid responsive element (GRE coupled to a luciferase reporter gene construct was stably integrated. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi such as Vorinostat and Belinostat are two broad-spectrum HDACi that strongly increased the Dex-induced luciferase expression in our screening system. In sharp contrast herewith, results from a genome-wide transcriptome analysis of Dex-induced transcripts using RNAseq, revealed that Belinostat impairs the ability of GR to transactivate target genes. The stimulatory effect of Belinostat in the luciferase screen further depends on the nature of the reporter construct. In conclusion, a profound discrepancy was observed between HDACi effects on two different synthetic promoter-luciferase reporter systems. The favorable effect of HDACi on gene expression should be evaluated with care, when considering them as potential therapeutic agents. GEO accession number GSE96649.

  11. Structural insights into the cofactor-assisted substrate recognition of yeast methylglyoxal/isovaleraldehyde reductase Gre2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Peng-Chao; Bao, Zhang-Zhi; Ma, Xiao-Xiao; Xia, Qingyou; Li, Wei-Fang

    2014-09-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae Gre2 (EC1.1.1.283) serves as a versatile enzyme that catalyzes the stereoselective reduction of a broad range of substrates including aliphatic and aromatic ketones, diketones, as well as aldehydes, using NADPH as the cofactor. Here we present the crystal structures of Gre2 from S. cerevisiae in an apo-form at 2.00Å and NADPH-complexed form at 2.40Å resolution. Gre2 forms a homodimer, each subunit of which contains an N-terminal Rossmann-fold domain and a variable C-terminal domain, which participates in substrate recognition. The induced fit upon binding to the cofactor NADPH makes the two domains shift toward each other, producing an interdomain cleft that better fits the substrate. Computational simulation combined with site-directed mutagenesis and enzymatic activity analysis enabled us to define a potential substrate-binding pocket that determines the stringent substrate stereoselectivity for catalysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. High-resolution 3D-GRE imaging of the abdomen using controlled aliasing acceleration technique - a feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlObaidy, Mamdoh; Ramalho, Miguel; Busireddy, Kiran K.R.; Liu, Baodong; Burke, Lauren M.; Altun, Ersan; Semelka, Richard C.; Dale, Brian M.

    2015-01-01

    To assess the feasibility of high-resolution 3D-gradient-recalled echo (GRE) fat-suppressed T1-weighted images using controlled aliasing acceleration technique (CAIPIRINHA-VIBE), and compare image quality and lesion detection to standard-resolution 3D-GRE images using conventional acceleration technique (GRAPPA-VIBE). Eighty-four patients (41 males, 43 females; age range: 14-90 years, 58.8 ± 15.6 years) underwent abdominal MRI at 1.5 T with CAIPIRINHA-VIBE [spatial resolution, 0.76 ± 0.04 mm] and GRAPPA-VIBE [spatial resolution, 1.17 ± 0.14 mm]. Two readers independently reviewed image quality, presence of artefacts, lesion conspicuity, and lesion detection. Kappa statistic was used to assess interobserver agreement. Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used for image qualitative pairwise comparisons. Logistic regression with post-hoc testing was used to evaluate statistical significance of lesions evaluation. Interobserver agreement ranged between 0.45-0.93. Pre-contrast CAIPIRINHA-VIBE showed significantly (p < 0.001) sharper images and lesion conspicuity with decreased residual aliasing, but more noise enhancement and inferior image quality. Post-contrast CAIPIRINHA-VIBE showed significantly (p < 0.001) sharper images and higher lesion conspicuity, with less respiratory motion and residual aliasing artefacts. Inferior fat-suppression was noticeable on CAIPIRINHA-VIBE sequences (p < 0.001). High in-plane resolution abdominal 3D-GRE fat-suppressed T1-weighted imaging using controlled-aliasing acceleration technique is feasible and yields sharper images compared to standard-resolution images using standard acceleration, with higher post-contrast image quality and trend for improved hepatic lesions detection. (orig.)

  13. High-resolution 3D-GRE imaging of the abdomen using controlled aliasing acceleration technique - a feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AlObaidy, Mamdoh; Ramalho, Miguel; Busireddy, Kiran K.R.; Liu, Baodong; Burke, Lauren M.; Altun, Ersan; Semelka, Richard C. [University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Department of Radiology, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Dale, Brian M. [Siemens Medical Solutions, MR Research and Development, Morrisville, NC (United States)

    2015-12-15

    To assess the feasibility of high-resolution 3D-gradient-recalled echo (GRE) fat-suppressed T1-weighted images using controlled aliasing acceleration technique (CAIPIRINHA-VIBE), and compare image quality and lesion detection to standard-resolution 3D-GRE images using conventional acceleration technique (GRAPPA-VIBE). Eighty-four patients (41 males, 43 females; age range: 14-90 years, 58.8 ± 15.6 years) underwent abdominal MRI at 1.5 T with CAIPIRINHA-VIBE [spatial resolution, 0.76 ± 0.04 mm] and GRAPPA-VIBE [spatial resolution, 1.17 ± 0.14 mm]. Two readers independently reviewed image quality, presence of artefacts, lesion conspicuity, and lesion detection. Kappa statistic was used to assess interobserver agreement. Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used for image qualitative pairwise comparisons. Logistic regression with post-hoc testing was used to evaluate statistical significance of lesions evaluation. Interobserver agreement ranged between 0.45-0.93. Pre-contrast CAIPIRINHA-VIBE showed significantly (p < 0.001) sharper images and lesion conspicuity with decreased residual aliasing, but more noise enhancement and inferior image quality. Post-contrast CAIPIRINHA-VIBE showed significantly (p < 0.001) sharper images and higher lesion conspicuity, with less respiratory motion and residual aliasing artefacts. Inferior fat-suppression was noticeable on CAIPIRINHA-VIBE sequences (p < 0.001). High in-plane resolution abdominal 3D-GRE fat-suppressed T1-weighted imaging using controlled-aliasing acceleration technique is feasible and yields sharper images compared to standard-resolution images using standard acceleration, with higher post-contrast image quality and trend for improved hepatic lesions detection. (orig.)

  14. Alcohol dysregulates corticotropin-releasing-hormone (CRH promoter activity by interfering with the negative glucocorticoid response element (nGRE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena M Przybycien-Szymanska

    Full Text Available EtOH exposure in male rats increases corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH mRNA in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN, a brain region responsible for coordinating stress and anxiety responses. In this study we identified the molecular mechanisms involved in mediating these effects by examining the direct effects of EtOH on CRH promoter activity in a neuronal cell line derived from the PVN (IVB. In addition, we investigated the potential interactions of EtOH and glucocorticoids on the CRH promoter by concomitantly treating cells with EtOH and the glucocorticoid receptor (GR antagonist RU486, and by sequentially deleting GR binding sites within glucocorticoid response element (GRE on the CRH promoter. Cells were transiently transfected with a firefly luciferase reporter construct containing 2.5 kb of the rat wild type (WT or mutated CRH promoter. Our results showed that EtOH treatment induced a biphasic response in CRH promoter activity. EtOH exposure for 0.5 h significantly decreased promoter activity compared to vehicle treated controls, whereas promoter activity was significantly increased after 2.0 h of EtOH exposure. Treatment with RU486, or deletion of the GR binding sites 1 and 2 within the GRE, abolished the EtOH-induced increase in the promoter activity, however did not affect EtOH-induced decrease in CRH promoter activity at an earlier time point. Overall, our data suggest that alcohol exposure directly regulates CRH promoter activity by interfering with the normal feedback mechanisms of glucocorticoids mediated by GR signaling at the GRE site of the CRH promoter.

  15. Adaptive back-stepping control of the harmonic drive system with LuGre model-based friction compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sen; Gang, Tieqiang

    2018-03-01

    Harmonic drives are widely used in aerospace and industrial robots. Flexibility, friction and parameter uncertainty will result in transmission performance degradation. In this paper, an adaptive back-stepping method with friction compensation is proposed to improve the tracking performance of the harmonic drive system. The nonlinear friction is described by LuGre model and compensated with a friction observer, and the uncertainty of model parameters is resolved by adaptive parameter estimation method. By using Lyapunov stability theory, it is proved that all the errors of the closed-loop system are uniformly ultimately bounded. Simulations illustrate the effectiveness of our friction compensation method.

  16. Analysis of a comprehensive dataset of diversity generating retroelements generated by the program DiGReF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schillinger Thomas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diversity Generating Retroelements (DGRs are genetic cassettes that can introduce tremendous diversity into a short, defined region of the genome. They achieve hypermutation through replacement of the variable region with a strongly mutated cDNA copy generated by the element-encoded reverse transcriptase. In contrast to “selfish” retroelements such as group II introns and retrotransposons, DGRs impart an advantage to their host by increasing its adaptive potential. DGRs were discovered in a bacteriophage, but since then additional examples have been identified in some bacterial genomes. Results Here we present the program DiGReF that allowed us to comprehensively screen available databases for DGRs. We identified 155 DGRs which are found in all major classes of bacteria, though exhibiting sporadic distribution across species. Phylogenetic analysis and sequence comparison showed that DGRs move between genomes by associating with various mobile elements such as phages, transposons and plasmids. The DGR cassettes exhibit high flexibility in the arrangement of their components and easily acquire additional paralogous target genes. Surprisingly, the genomic data alone provide new insights into the molecular mechanism of DGRs. Most notably, our data suggest that the template RNA is transcribed separately from the rest of the element. Conclusions DiGReF is a valuable tool to detect DGRs in genome data. Its output allows comprehensive analysis of various aspects of DGR biology, thus deepening our understanding of the role DGRs play in prokaryotic genome plasticity, from the global down to the molecular level.

  17. A Study of the Use of the "e-rater"® Scoring Engine for the Analytical Writing Measure of the "GRE"® revised General Test. Research Report. ETS RR-14-24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breyer, F. Jay; Attali, Yigal; Williamson, David M.; Ridolfi-McCulla, Laura; Ramineni, Chaitanya; Duchnowski, Matthew; Harris, April

    2014-01-01

    In this research, we investigated the feasibility of implementing the "e-rater"® scoring engine as a check score in place of all-human scoring for the "Graduate Record Examinations"® ("GRE"®) revised General Test (rGRE) Analytical Writing measure. This report provides the scientific basis for the use of e-rater as a…

  18. Distribucijske greške u procesu procjene performansi zaposlenih/Distribution errors in the employee performance evaluation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesko M. Lukovac

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Racionalno angažovanje, usmjeravanje i razvoj, motivisanje i nagrađivanje, unapređenje organizacijske efikasnosti i poslovanja teško se može ostvariti ukoliko se ne vrši ocjenjivanje kvaliteta rada zaposlenih. U literaturi o manadžmentu ova tehnika je poznata pod nazivom 'procjena performansi zaposlenih'. Performansa ili učinak može biti bilo neki mjerljiv rezultat koji je ostvaren, bilo ponašanje ili lične karakteristike neophodne za obavljanje određene aktivnosti u definisanom periodu. U poslednje vrijeme razvija se poseban menadžerski pristup - 'upravljanje uspješnošću' (Performance Management sa ciljem da se procjena performansi i upotreba rezultata procjene u rukovođenju, čiji je cilj unapređenje performansi - uspješnosti zaposlenih, integrišu. S obzirom na to da je procjena performansi zaposlenog najčešće rezultat subjektivnog suda procjenjivača o kvalitetu njegovog rada, mora se voditi računa o mogućim greškama koje karakterišu takav način prosuđivanja. Postoji više tipova grešaka koje procjenjivači mogu počiniti prilikom procesa procjene performansi zaposlenih, a u ovom radu prikazan je pristup identifikaciji i umanjenju distribucijskih grešaka procjenjivača, kao najrasprostranjenijih u organizacijama sa većim brojem zaposlenih. / It is difficult to achieve rational engagement, directing and developing, motivating, rewarding, and improving organizational efficiency, without the evaluation of the quality of job performance of employees. In management literature, this technique is known as 'employee performance evaluation'. Performance or productivity may be either a measurable result that has been achieved, or behaviour or personal characteristics necessary for performing certain activities in a defined period of time. Recently, a special management approach 'performance management' has been developed, in order to integrate the performance evaluation and the use of assessment results in management

  19. Investigation of adsorption and inhibitive effect of acid red GRE (183 dye on the corrosion of carbon steel in hydrochloric acid media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abd El-raouf

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption and corrosion inhibitive effect of acid red GRE (183 dye on carbon steel alloy in 1 M HCl solutions was studied using various techniques. Results of weight loss, Tafel polarization measurements and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS techniques show that this compound has fairly good inhibiting properties for steel corrosion in acidic bath; with efficiency around 96% at a concentration of 50 ppm. The inhibition is of a mixed anodic–cathodic nature. Factors affecting the corrosion process have been calculated and discussed. Acid red GRE (183 dye was shown to be an inhibitor in the acidic corrosion. Inhibition efficiency increased with acid red GRE (183 dye concentration but decreased with rise in temperature, corrosion inhibition is attributed to the adsorption of acid red GRE (183 dye on the carbon steel surface via a physical adsorption mechanism. Langmuir isotherm is found to provide an accurate description of the adsorption behavior of the investigated azo compound. The nature of the protective film was investigated using SEM and EDX techniques.

  20. Adaptive robust motion trajectory tracking control of pneumatic cylinders with LuGre model-based friction compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Deyuan; Tao, Guoliang; Liu, Hao; Zhu, Xiaocong

    2014-07-01

    Friction compensation is particularly important for motion trajectory tracking control of pneumatic cylinders at low speed movement. However, most of the existing model-based friction compensation schemes use simple classical models, which are not enough to address applications with high-accuracy position requirements. Furthermore, the friction force in the cylinder is time-varying, and there exist rather severe unmodelled dynamics and unknown disturbances in the pneumatic system. To deal with these problems effectively, an adaptive robust controller with LuGre model-based dynamic friction compensation is constructed. The proposed controller employs on-line recursive least squares estimation (RLSE) to reduce the extent of parametric uncertainties, and utilizes the sliding mode control method to attenuate the effects of parameter estimation errors, unmodelled dynamics and disturbances. In addition, in order to realize LuGre model-based friction compensation, the modified dual-observer structure for estimating immeasurable friction internal state is developed. Therefore, a prescribed motion tracking transient performance and final tracking accuracy can be guaranteed. Since the system model uncertainties are unmatched, the recursive backstepping design technology is applied. In order to solve the conflicts between the sliding mode control design and the adaptive control design, the projection mapping is used to condition the RLSE algorithm so that the parameter estimates are kept within a known bounded convex set. Finally, the proposed controller is tested for tracking sinusoidal trajectories and smooth square trajectory under different loads and sudden disturbance. The testing results demonstrate that the achievable performance of the proposed controller is excellent and is much better than most other studies in literature. Especially when a 0.5 Hz sinusoidal trajectory is tracked, the maximum tracking error is 0.96 mm and the average tracking error is 0.45 mm. This

  1. Excitation functions and yields for cyclotron production of radiorhenium via deuteron irradiation. {sup nat}W(d,xn){sup 181,182,(A+B),183,184(m+g),186g}Re nuclear reactions and tests on the production of {sup 186g}Re using enriched {sup 186}W

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manenti, Simone; Persico, Elisa; Bonardi, Mauro L.; Gini, Luigi; Groppi, Flavia [LASA, Univ. degli Studi di Milano, Segrate (Italy); INFN Milano (Italy); Abbas, Kamel; Holzwarth, Uwe; Simonelli, Federica [Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, IHCP, JRC-Ispra, Ispra (Italy)

    2014-10-01

    Excitation functions, thin- and thick-target yields for the {sup 181-186g}Re and {sup 187}W radionuclides were measured by the activation stacked-foil technique on natural tungsten foils for deuteron energies up to 18.0 MeV. These cross sections were validated by comparing the experimental results for thick-target yields with those calculated by integration of the thin-target yields. It was found that the maximum {sup 186g}Re content by irradiation of natural tungsten is about 55%, a higher value compared with the one found for proton beam, but not sufficient to use natural tungsten for medical purposes yet. Thus, in order to have a higher specific activity A{sub S} of {sup 186g}Re, the use of enriched {sup 186}W target is necessary. Therefore the irradiation of a thick target of enriched {sup 186}W by accelerated deuterons was studied and the results for the production of {sup 186g}Re were compared with those obtained from the irradiation of the same target by accelerated protons. It was found that the deuteron irradiation is preferable for three reasons: larger yield, less contamination by tantalum radioisotopes and smaller required amount of the target, which simplify the separation of the {sup 186g}Re from the target itself.

  2. Effective Geothermal Utilisation close to the surface by the TT-Geothermal Radial Drilling (GRD-Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Joachim Bayer

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the late 1970-Years, Tracto-Technik developped a very effective radial-shaped percussion system for a geothermal heating, the ECOtherm-System, which was very well accepted by customers. Nowadays, a radial-shaped drilling system, operating some decameters below the surface, was developped by Tracto-Technik, which offers the chance of a very effective drilling for the use of geothermal energy. The main advantage of this development is the reduction of drilling costs by new constructions and new handling possibilities. Drilling processes like the rod connecting or the drill-hole enlargement were solved in other ways as usual, by very time-shortening and effective ways, which are presented in the paper. The new TT-Geothermal radial drilling methods need only a very small but highly effective drilling unit, which reduces the operational drilling cost in a enormous way. All operational drilling steps are reduced to less than a half time as usual. By these GRD-methods, the use of surface-close geothermal energy is simplified and less expansive.

  3. Proton irradiation parameters and chemical separation procedure for the bulk production of high-specific-activity {sup 186g}Re using WO{sub 3} targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fassbender, M.E.; Ballard, B.; Birnbaum, E.R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States). Chemistry Div.] [and others

    2013-08-01

    Rhenium-186g (T{sub 1/2} = 89.2 h) is a {beta}{sup -} emitter suitable for therapeutic applications. Current production methods rely on reactor production via {sup 185}Re(n,{gamma}) which results in low specific activities, thereby limiting its use. Production by p,d activation of enriched {sup 186}W results in a {sup 186g}Re product with a higher specific activity, allowing it to be used for targeted therapy with limited receptors. A test target consisting of pressed, sintered {sup nat}WO{sub 3} was proton irradiated at Los Alamos (LANL-IPF) to evaluate product yield and impurities, irradiation parameters and wet chemical Re recovery for proof-of-concept for bulk production of {sup 186g}Re. We demonstrated isolation of {sup 186g}Re in 97% yield from irradiated {sup nat}WO{sub 3} targets within 12 h of end of bombardment (EOB) via an alkaline dissolution followed by anion exchange. The recovery process has potential for automation, and WO{sub 3} can be easily recycled for recurrent irradiations. A {sup 186g}Re batch yield of 42.7 {+-} 2.2 {mu}Ci/{mu}Ah or 439 {+-} 23 MBq/C was obtained after 24 h in an 18.5 {mu}A proton beam. The target entrance energy was determined to be 15.6 MeV. The specific activity of {sup 186g}Re at EOB was measured to be 1.9 kCi (70.3 TBq) mmol{sup -1}, which agrees well with the result of a previous {sup 185,186m}Re co-production EMPIRE and TALYS modeling study assuming similar conditions. Utilizing enriched {sup 186}WO{sub 3}, we anticipate that a proton beam of 250 {mu}A for 24 h will provide batch yields of 256 mCi (9.5 GBq) of {sup 186g}Re at EOB with specific activities even higher than 1.9 kCi (70.3 TBq) mmol{sup -1}, suitable for therapy applications. (orig.)

  4. Beyond the GRE: using a composite score to predict 
the success of Puerto Rican students in a biomedical 
PhD program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Wendy I; Noel, Richard J; Porter, James T; Appleyard, Caroline B

    2015-01-01

    The use and validity of the Graduate Record Examination General Test (GRE) to predict the success of graduate school applicants is heavily debated, especially for its possible impact on the selection of underrepresented minorities into science, technology, engineering, and math fields. To better identify candidates who would succeed in our program with less reliance on the GRE and grade point average (GPA), we developed and tested a composite score (CS) that incorporates additional measurable predictors of success to evaluate incoming applicants. Uniform numerical values were assigned to GPA, GRE, research experience, advanced course work or degrees, presentations, and publications. We compared the CS of our students with their achievement of program goals and graduate school outcomes. The average CS was significantly higher in those students completing the graduate program versus dropouts (p thesis defense. In contrast, these outcomes were not predicted by GPA, science GPA, or GRE. Recent implementation of an impromptu writing assessment during the interview suggests the CS can be improved further. We conclude that the CS provides a broader quantitative measure that better predicts success of students in our program and allows improved evaluation and selection of the most promising candidates. © 2015 W. I. Pacheco et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2015 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  5. Turbo-Proton Echo Planar Spectroscopic Imaging (t-PEPSI) MR technique in the detection of diffuse axonal damage in brain injury. Comparison with Gradient-Recalled Echo (GRE) sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giugni, E; Sabatini, U; Hagberg, G E; Formisano, R; Castriota-Scanderbeg, A

    2005-01-01

    Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is a common type of primary neuronal injury in patients with severe traumatic brain injury, and is frequently accompanied by tissue tear haemorrhage. The T2*-weighted gradient-recalled echo (GRE) sequences are more sensitive than T2-weighted spin-echo images for detection of haemorrhage. This study was undertaken to determine whether turbo-PEPSI, an extremely fast multi-echo-planar-imaging sequence, can be used as an alternative to the GRE sequence for detection of DAI. Nineteen patients (mean age 24,5 year) with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), occurred at least 3 months earlier, underwent a brain MRI study on a 1.5-Tesla scanner. A qualitative evaluation of the turbo-PEPSI sequences was performed by identifying the optimal echo time and in-plane resolution. The number and size of DAI lesions, as well as the signal intensity contrast ratio (SI CR), were computed for each set of GRE and turbo-PEPSI images, and divided according to their anatomic location into lobar and/or deep brain. There was no significant difference between GRE and turbo-PEPSI sequences in the total number of DAI lesions detected (283 vs 225 lesions, respectively). The GRE sequence identified a greater number of hypointense lesions in the temporal lobe compared to the t-PEPSI sequence (72 vs 35, pPEPSI than for the GRE sequence (pPEPSI sequence can be used as an alternative to the GRE to assess brain DAI in severe TBI patients, especially if uncooperative and medically unstable.

  6. puerto_rico.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  7. biloxi_ms.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  8. central_or.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  9. montauk_ny.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  10. dutch_harbor.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  11. portland_me.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  12. daytona_beach.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  13. sand_point.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  14. panama_city.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  15. arecibo.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  16. ngc.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  17. savannah.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  18. monterey_ca.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  19. cape_hatteras.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  20. sanjuan.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  1. galveston_tx.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  2. virg_beach.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  3. lahaina.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  4. tmp.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  5. arena_cove.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  6. mayaguez.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  7. garibaldi_or.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  8. ponce.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  9. corpus_christi.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  10. pb_mhw.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  11. kawaihae_dem.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  12. fajardo.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  13. myrtle_beach.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  14. guayama.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  15. nantucket_ma.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  16. santa_barbara.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  17. kingcove_ak.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  18. New Perspectives on the Validity of the "GRE"® General Test for Predicting Graduate School Grades. ETS GRE® Board Research Report. ETS GRE®-14-03. ETS Research Report. RR-14-26

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klieger, David M.; Cline, Frederick A.; Holtzman, Steven L.; Minsky, Jennifer L.; Lorenz, Florian

    2014-01-01

    Given the serious consequences of making ill-fated admissions and funding decisions for applicants to graduate and professional school, it is important to rely on sound evidence to optimize such judgments. Previous meta-analytic research has demonstrated the generalizable validity of the "GRE"® General Test for predicting academic…

  19. Dimensionality Analyses of the "GRE"® revised General Test Verbal and Quantitative Measures. ETS GRE® Board Research Report. ETS GRE®-16-02. ETS Research Report. RR-16-20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, Frédéric; Bejar, Isaac; Liang, Longjuan; Rijmen, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of domestic data from the" GRE"® revised General Test, introduced in 2011, were conducted separately for the verbal (VBL) and quantitative (QNT) reasoning measures to evaluate the unidimensionality and local independence assumptions required by item response theory (IRT). Results based on data…

  20. Evidence of the Generalization and Construct Representation Inferences for the "GRE"® Revised General Test Sentence Equivalence Item Type. ETS GRE® Board Research Report. ETS GRE®-17-02. ETS Research Report. RR-17-05

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejar, Isaac I.; Deane, Paul D.; Flor, Michael; Chen, Jing

    2017-01-01

    The report is the first systematic evaluation of the sentence equivalence item type introduced by the "GRE"® revised General Test. We adopt a validity framework to guide our investigation based on Kane's approach to validation whereby a hierarchy of inferences that should be documented to support score meaning and interpretation is…

  1. Gross Mal distribution Identification and Effect of Inlet Distributor on the Phase Holdup in a Trickle Bed Reactor Using Gamma-Ray Densitometry (GRD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Fitri Abdul Rahman; Alexander, V.; Al-Dahhan, M.

    2016-01-01

    Local liquid and gas mal distribution and their holdups in a packed column are difficult to identify due to multiphase properties and other design factors. Good liquid and gas flow distribution important to determine to get high performance of Trickle Bed Reactor (TBR). Gross mal distribution indicates some faulty or bad flow distribution of liquid and gas. In this work, gross mal distribution of phases has been identified using Gamma Ray Densitometry (GRD) technique with three types of inlet distributors (single inlet towards the wall, single inlet at the center, and proper shower) by measuring line average diameter profile of phases (Liquid, Gas, and Solids) holdups. Gamma-ray densitometry is a non-invasive technique which can be implemented at the laboratory, pilot plant, and industrial scales reactors. Experiments were performed on 0.14 m diameter reactor made of Plexiglas filled with 0.003 m glass bead which acts as the solid. The superficial velocities for both gas and liquid were in the range 0.03 m/s to 0.27 m/s and 0.004 m/s to 0.014 m/s respectively. Proper shower distributor showed early liquid spreading than compared with other distributors. The effect of superficial gas velocity on liquid spread was seen to be non-significant, and liquid distribution is found to be almost uniform at the center region of the catalyst bed. (author)

  2. Scale-up of high specific activity {sup 186g}Re production using graphite-encased thick {sup 186}W targets and demonstration of an efficient target recycling process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balkin, Ethan R.; Gagnon, Katherine; Dorman, Eric [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; and others

    2017-07-01

    Production of high specific activity {sup 186g}Re is of interest for development of theranostic radiopharmaceuticals. Previous studies have shown that high specific activity {sup 186g}Re can be obtained by cyclotron irradiation of enriched {sup 186}W via the {sup 186}W(d,2n){sup 186g}Re reaction, but most irradiations were conducted at low beam currents and for short durations. In this investigation, enriched {sup 186}W metal targets were irradiated at high incident deuteron beam currents to demonstrate production rates and contaminants produced when using thick targets. Full-stopping thick targets, as determined using SRIM, were prepared by uniaxial pressing of powdered natural abundance W metal or 96.86% enriched {sup 186}W metal encased between two layers of graphite flakes for target material stabilization. An assessment of structural integrity was made on each target preparation. To assess the performance of graphite-encased thick {sup 186}W metal targets, along with the impact of encasing on the separation chemistry, targets were first irradiated using a 22 MeV deuteron beam for 10 min at 10, 20, and 27 μA, with an estimated nominal deuteron energy of 18.7 MeV on the {sup 186}W target material (after energy degradation correction from top graphite layer). Gamma-ray spectrometry was performed post EOB on all targets to assess production yields and radionuclidic byproducts. The investigation also evaluated a method to recover and recycle enriched target material from a column isolation procedure. Material composition analyses of target materials, pass-through/wash solutions and recycling process isolates were conducted with SEM, FTIR, XRD, EDS and ICP-MS spectrometry. To demonstrate scaled-up production, a graphite-encased {sup 186}W target made from recycled {sup 186}W was irradiated for ∝2 h with 18.7 MeV deuterons at a beam current of 27 μA to provide 0.90 GBq (24.3 mCi) of {sup 186g}Re, decay-corrected to the end of bombardment. ICP-MS analysis of the

  3. Assessment of relevant hepatic steatosis in obese adolescents by rapid fat-selective GRE imaging with spatial-spectral excitation: a quantitative comparison with spectroscopic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Springer, Fabian; Schick, Fritz; Ehehalt, Stefan; Binder, Gerhard; Sommer, Julia; Ballweg, Verena; Machann, Juergen; Claussen, Claus D.

    2011-01-01

    To test the feasibility of fat-selective GRE imaging using a spectral-spatial excitation technique for determination of intrahepatic lipid content (IHL) in obese adolescents. Fat-selective MR imaging (1.5 T) was applied to record a single axial slice through a representative liver region within a single breath-hold. The sequence uses six equidistant slice-selective excitation pulses with binomial amplitude ratios to achieve high selectivity for lipid signals after appropriate shimming. IHL MRI content was quantified using signal intensity of adjacent subcutaneous adipose tissue. As the gold standard for IHL quantification, single-voxel stimulated echo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was applied. IHL MRS was quantified using the water peak as a reference. Forty-five MR examinations could be performed, and IHL MRS content ranged from 0.7% to 19.1%. Results from MRS and fat-selective imaging correlated well with Spearman coefficients between r = 0.78 and r = 0.86. There were no relevant regional differences in IHL within the liver parenchyma (p > 0.6359). Fat-selective imaging was able to reliably identify patients with IHL content above 5% with positive/negative likelihood ratio of 11.8 and 0.05, respectively. Fat-selective MR imaging provides both a reliable and a convenient method of rapidly quantifying IHL content in obese adolescents. (orig.)

  4. Assessment of relevant hepatic steatosis in obese adolescents by rapid fat-selective GRE imaging with spatial-spectral excitation: a quantitative comparison with spectroscopic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, Fabian; Schick, Fritz [University Hospital Tuebingen, Section on Experimental Radiology, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); University Hospital Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Ehehalt, Stefan; Binder, Gerhard [University Children' s Hospital Tuebingen, Paediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes, Tuebingen (Germany); Sommer, Julia; Ballweg, Verena; Machann, Juergen [University Hospital Tuebingen, Section on Experimental Radiology, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Claussen, Claus D. [University Hospital Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    To test the feasibility of fat-selective GRE imaging using a spectral-spatial excitation technique for determination of intrahepatic lipid content (IHL) in obese adolescents. Fat-selective MR imaging (1.5 T) was applied to record a single axial slice through a representative liver region within a single breath-hold. The sequence uses six equidistant slice-selective excitation pulses with binomial amplitude ratios to achieve high selectivity for lipid signals after appropriate shimming. IHL{sub MRI} content was quantified using signal intensity of adjacent subcutaneous adipose tissue. As the gold standard for IHL quantification, single-voxel stimulated echo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was applied. IHL{sub MRS} was quantified using the water peak as a reference. Forty-five MR examinations could be performed, and IHL{sub MRS} content ranged from 0.7% to 19.1%. Results from MRS and fat-selective imaging correlated well with Spearman coefficients between r = 0.78 and r = 0.86. There were no relevant regional differences in IHL within the liver parenchyma (p > 0.6359). Fat-selective imaging was able to reliably identify patients with IHL content above 5% with positive/negative likelihood ratio of 11.8 and 0.05, respectively. Fat-selective MR imaging provides both a reliable and a convenient method of rapidly quantifying IHL content in obese adolescents. (orig.)

  5. The use of a phased-array surface coil and breath-holding in MRI of the liver. Comparison of conventional SE, fat-suppressed GRE, and TSE sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helmberger, T.; Holzknecht, N.; Lackerbauer, C.A.; Mueller-Lisse, U.; Schnarkowski, P.; Gauger, J.; Reiser, M.

    1995-01-01

    To determine the efficacy of fast MRI techniques using a taylored imaging design (breathhold and array-surface coil), conventional T1-, T2-weighted spin-echo (SE) sequences and breathhold gradient-echo (GRE) T1- and breathhold fast SE T2-weighted images were compared. 20 patients with proven focal liver lesions were studied on a 1.5 Tesla system. Conventional SE T1- und T2-weighted imaging, as well as GRE T1- and fast SE T2-weighted imaging was performed. Fast imaging was done during breathhold using an array-surface coil. For all sequences signal-to-noise ratios (S/N) and liver-to-lesion-contrast ratios (L/L) were measured and statistically compared. Regarding image quality parameters, S/N and L/L, there was no significant difference between the conventional and fast imaging techniques. However, GRE imaging was superior (84.8%) to conventional imaging for breathing and pulsation artifacts, while fast SE T2 imaging was equal regarding breathing artifacts, but superior (51.5%) regarding pulsation artifacts. The number of detected hepatic lesions was identical in all sequences. The fast MRI techniques demonstrated a superiority to conventional imaging regarding image quality and presence of artifacts. (orig.) [de

  6. Evaluation of TSE- and T1-3D-GRE-sequences for focal cartilage lesions in vitro in comparison to ultrahigh resolution multi-slice CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stork, A.; Schulze, D.; Koops, A.; Kemper, J.; Adam, G.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: Evaluation of TSE- and T 1 -3D-GRE-sequences for focal cartilage lesions in vitro in comparison to ultrahigh resolution multi-slice CT. Materials and methods: Forty artificial cartilage lesions in ten bovine patellae were immersed in a solution of iodinated contrast medium and assessed with ultrahigh resolution multi-slice CT. Fat-suppressed TSE images with intermediate- and T 2 -weighting at a slice thickness of 2, 3 and 4 mm as well as fat-suppressed T 1 -weighted 3D-FLASH images with an effective slice thickness of 1, 2 and 3 mm were acquired at 1.5 T. After adding Gd-DTPA to the saline solution containing the patellae, the T 1 -weighted 3D-FLASH imaging was repeated. Results: All cartilage lesions were visualised and graded with ultrahigh resolution multi-slice CT. The TSE images had a higher sensitivity and a higher inter- and intraobserver kappa compared to the FLASH-sequences (TSE: 70-95%; 0.82-0.83; 0.85-0.9; FLASH: 57.5-85%; 0.53-0.72; 0.73-0.82, respectively). An increase in slice thickness decreased the sensitivity, whereby deep lesions were even reliably depicted on TSE images at a slice thickness of 3 and 4 mm. Adding Gd-DTPA to the saline solution increased the sensitivity by 10% with no detectable advantage over the T 2 -weighted TSE images. Conclusion: TSE sequences and application of Gd-DTPA seemed to be superior to T 1 -weighted 3D-FLASH sequences without Gd-DTPA in the detection of focal cartilage lesions. The ultrahigh resolution multi-slice CT can serve as in vitro reference standard for focal cartilage lesions. (orig.) [de

  7. Određivanje daljine cilja pomoću video senzora i analiza uticaja grešaka i šuma merenja / Target range evaluation using video sensor and analysis of the influence of measurement noise and errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoslav Ugarak

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available U radu je opisan matematički model određivanja daljine cilja obradom video snimaka u toku praćenja. Analizirani su doprinosi parametara koji utiču na veličinu grešaka i određene su vrednosti standardnog odstupanja. / This paper presents mathematical model of determining target range by analyzing video frame during the tracking. The contribution of effective parameters to accuracy are analyzed and values of standard deviation are determined.

  8. Ora ession adapte an Gre

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny

    subject of several studies highlighting their benefits and responses to cultivation ... salt condition and were competent to improve the quality and quantity of ... MATERIALS AND METHODS ..... polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic analysis of seed polypeptide ... globulins from legumes seeds to produce Cocoa Specific aroma.

  9. Uticaj mesta ugradnje inercijalnog mernog bloka i akcelerometara na grešku u određivanju pozicije aviona / Size effect of the inertial measurement unit and inside IMU accelerometers on aircraft position error

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodan Janićijević

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available U ovom članku analiziran je uticaj mesta ugradnje inercijalnog mernog bloka (IMB u avionu i mesta ugradnje akcelerometara u IMB na tačnost određivanja pozicije pomoću bes-platformskog inercijalnog navigacijskog sistema (BINS. Pokazano je da se ovi uticaji ne mogu uvek zanemariti. Izračunata je ukupna greška u određivanju pozicije aviona ako se IMB ugrađuje van centra rotacije aviona, a akcelerometri van centra IMB. Predložena je optimalna orijentacija akcelerometara u IMB-u, kako bi se minimizirao uticaj ugradnje akcelerometara van centra IMB na tačnost određivanja pozicije aviona. Predložen je i način kompenzacije greške. / This paper analyzes the mounting offset size effect of the inertial measurement unit (IMU in aircraft and accelerometers mounting offset size effect in the IMU on the accuracy of strap down inertial navigation system (SDINS. It is also shown that these effects cannot be always neglected. The total size effect error for the IMU has been the computed. An accelerometers optimum orientation inside the IMU has been proposed to minimize size effects on the accuracy of navigation parameters. A manner to compensate these size effects has been proposed as well.

  10. eureka_ca_mhw.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  11. pr_1s.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  12. crm_v3.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's 3 arc-second U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides the first comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone, integrating offshore bathymetry with land...

  13. crm_v4.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's 3 arc-second U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides the first comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone, integrating offshore bathymetry with land...

  14. crm_v8.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's 3 arc-second U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides the first comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone, integrating offshore bathymetry with land...

  15. crm_v9.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's 3 arc-second U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides the first comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone, integrating offshore bathymetry with land...

  16. crm_v10.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's 3 arc-second U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides the first comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone, integrating offshore bathymetry with land...

  17. crm_v5.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's 3 arc-second U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides the first comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone, integrating offshore bathymetry with land...

  18. crm_v7.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's 3 arc-second U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides the first comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone, integrating offshore bathymetry with land...

  19. crm_v2.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's 3 arc-second U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides the first comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone, integrating offshore bathymetry with land...

  20. crm_v1.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's 3 arc-second U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides the first comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone, integrating offshore bathymetry with land...

  1. crm_v6.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's 3 arc-second U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides the first comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone, integrating offshore bathymetry with land...

  2. humboldt1sec.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  3. oahu_1s_20060613.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  4. port_orford_or.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  5. new_orleans_mllw.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  6. cresc1sec.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  7. la_push_wa.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  8. mb_30m.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  9. hawaii_6s_20070806.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  10. keauhou_hi_pub.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  11. atlantic_city_nj.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  12. hawaii_36s.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  13. port_san_luis.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  14. pb_navd88.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  15. sp_3sec.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  16. kachemak_bay_ak.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  17. atka_ak.new.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  18. chignik_bay_ak.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  19. mobile_al_mhw.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  20. nawiliwili_1s.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  1. central_ca_mhw.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  2. new_orleans_mhw.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  3. ocean_city_md.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  4. Optimization of sedimentation of tungsten on copper substrate for production of {sup 186g}Re via {sup 186}W(p,n) nuclear reaction: Feasibility of using high current, long irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakavand, T., E-mail: Tayeb@znu.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mirzaii, M.; Khaleghi, M. [Agricultural, Medical and Industrial Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, AEOI, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Eslami, M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Zanjan, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Optimization of tungsten sedimentation for bulk production of {sup 186}Re. • Influence of targetry parameters on stress-bearing of the target during proton irradiation. • Activity measurement for {sup 186}Re produced via {sup nat}W(p,xn) reaction. - Abstract: Tungsten is recognized as one of the important metals used in cyclotron targets for production of several vital radioisotopes. Adequate adhesion of the prepared targets to its substrate is a significant parameter that makes them optimized for high current beam collisions. The target morphology should be paid special attention as another important parameter. In this work, a rather thick layer of tungsten is deposited on a copper substrate by sedimentation technique to produce {sup 186g}Re radionuclide via {sup 186}W(p,n) reaction. Consecutive sedimentation experiments are carried out to determine the best suspension solution. The prepared targets are evaluated in morphology by scanning electron microscope. A mixture of 1 g tungsten powder, 250 mg ethyl cellulose and 5 mL acetone is concluded for desirable target adhesion. Irradiation of the targets by 20 μA proton current (15 MeV energy) for 5 h shows that they can withstand the proton beam.

  5. GreCo : Green code of ethics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moraga, Ma Ángeles; García-Rodríguez de Guzmán, Ignacio; Calero, Coral; Johann, Timo; Me, Gianantonio; Münzel, Harald; Kindelsberger, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Background: Codes of ethics (CoE) are widely adopted in several professional areas, including that of Software Engineering. However, contemporary CoE do not pay sufficient attention to one of the most important trends to have appeared in the last years environmental issues. Aim: The aim of this

  6. sitka_ak_1sec.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  7. morehead_city_nc_mhw.new.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  8. chignik_ak_1s.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  9. cordova_3s_mhw.new.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  10. ca_north36sec_113005.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  11. homer_ak_3sec.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  12. new_orleans_navd_88.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  13. guam_1_3s_20081014.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  14. yakutat_ak_1sec.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  15. seward_ak_8sec.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  16. southeast_ak_8s.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  17. sitka_ak_9s.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  18. craig_ak_1s.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  19. kodiak_ak_1sec.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  20. chenega_ak_8_15.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  1. homer_ak_1sec.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  2. kona_1_3s_20061121.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  3. sitka_ak_3sec.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  4. kodiak_ak_8sec.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  5. port_san_luis_public_mhw.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  6. yakutat_ak_3sec.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  7. 20050622sfbay1sec.new.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  8. ak_sc_24sec.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  9. santa_monica_ca_navd_88.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  10. or_north6sec.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  11. yakutat_ak_9sec.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  12. key_west_fl_navd88.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  13. 20050622cacentral3sec.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  14. nawiliwili_1_3s_01122006.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  15. lakewashington_1_3s_20100105.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  16. mobile_al_navd88.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  17. or_central6sec.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  18. seldovia_ak_1sec.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  19. seldovia_ak_3sec.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  20. homer_ak_8sec.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  1. central_ca_navd88.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  2. key_west_fl_mhw.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  3. ca_north6sec_113005.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  4. seward_ak_1sec.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  5. pago_pago_3s.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  6. santa_monica_ca_mhw.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  7. eureka_ca_navd88.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  8. san_francisco_bay_ca_mhw.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  9. kodiak_ak_3sec.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  10. hilo_1_3s_20051220.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  11. nikolski_ak_1s.new.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  12. wake_island_3sec.new.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  13. pago_pago_1-3s.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  14. southeast_ak_8_3s.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  15. port_san_luis_public_navd88.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  16. juneau_ak_8_15s.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  17. seward_ak_1_3sec.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  18. cordova_1_3s_mhw.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  19. tatitlek_ak_8_15s.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  20. hanalei_hi_1-3sec_pub.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  1. cordova_ak_8_15s.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  2. akutan_ak_8_15s.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  3. kawaihae_hi_v2p.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  4. morehead_city_nc_navd_88.new.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  5. wake_island_1_3sec.new.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  6. sd_1_3_110805.new.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  7. or_newport1_3navd.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  8. seward_ak_3sec.new.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  9. oahu_pearlhbr_1_3s_20060629.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  10. ak_sc_2min.new.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  11. sitka_ak_3sec_mhw.new.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  12. adak_ak_1sec.new.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  13. or_seaside1_3sec.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  14. craig_ak_1_3s.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  15. Protein Engineering of GRE2 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae for Enhanced Detoxification of 5-Hydroxymethyl Furfural

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) are representative inhibitors generated by lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment such as dilute acid hydrolysis that inhibit microbial growth and subsequent fermentation. It is possible to in situ detoxify these inhibitory compounds using tolerant Saccharomy...

  16. sitka_ak_1-3sec_mhw.new.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  17. elfin_cove_ak_1-3_mhw.new.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  18. crescent_city_1-3_arc-second_mhw.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  19. port_townsend_wa_1-3_arc-second_mhw.new.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  20. port_alexander_ak_1-3_mhw.new.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  1. port_townsend_wa_1-3_arc-second_navd88.new.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  2. crescent_city_1-3_arc-second_navd_88.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  3. us_virgin_islands_vi_1s_mhw.new.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  4. st_thomas_john_vi_1_3s_mhw.new.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  5. st_croix_vi_1_3s_mhw.new.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  6. panama_city_fl_1-3_arc-second_mhw_netcdf.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  7. Effect on mechanical properties of glass reinforced epoxy (GRE) pipe filled with different geopolymer filler molarity for piping application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, M. F. Abu; Abdullah, M. M. A.; Ghazali, C. M. R.; Hussin, K.; Binhussain, M.

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated the use of a novel white clay geopolymer as a filler to produce high strength glass reinforced epoxy pipe. It was found that using white clay geopolymer as filler gives better compressive strength to the glass reinforced epoxy pipe. The disadvantages of current glass reinforced epoxy pipes such low compressive strength which can be replaced by the composite pipes. Geopolymerization is an innovative technology that can transform several aluminosilicate materials into useful products called geopolymers or inorganic polymers. A series of glass reinforced epoxy pipe and glass reinforced epoxy pipe filled with 10 - 40 weight percentages white clay geopolymer filler with 4 Molarity and 8 Molarity were prepared. Morphology of white clay geopolymer filler surface was indicates using scanning electron microscopy. The additions of white clay geopolymer filler for both 4 Molarity and 8 Molarity show higher compressive strength than glass reinforced epoxy pipe without any geopolymer filler. The compressive test of these epoxy geopolymer pipe samples was determined using Instron Universal Testing under compression mode. Nonetheless, the compressive strength of glass reinforced epoxy pipe with white clay geopolymer filler continues to drop when added to 40 wt% of the geopolymer filler loading for both 4 Molarity and 8 Molarity. These outcomes showed that the mixing of geopolymer materials in epoxy system can be attained in this research.

  8. Diversity and stability of Plasmids from glycopeptide-resistant Enterococcus faecium (GRE) isolated from pigs in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasman, Henrik; Villadsen, A.G.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2005-01-01

    was seen at the end of the 7-year period, coinciding with the ban in 1998 of the macrolide tylosin as growth promoter for pig production. The stability of the plasmid in its original host was compared with stability of the same plasmid in BM4105RF, when both strains were maintained in liquid cultures...

  9. L'auteur et son nègre Figures de l'écrivain chez Delphine de Vigan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Kreyder

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available An author of best-sellers, the most successful of which is an autobiography focused on her mother who committed suicide, Delphine de Vigan has only partially obtained recognition for her work, even if her latest novel, D'après une histoire vraie (2015, has been awarded by the Renaudot, one of the literary prizes that are authentic cultural institutions in France (v. Bourdieu, Ducas. The article analyzes the novel, whose plot, explicitly inspired by Stephen King, staged a writer and her doppelgänger, who is a ghost writer by profession. Through the examination of the way the characters have been shaped, the article investigates how the writer, behind the subterfuge of a fake autobiography and an unreliable narrator, ponders about the author's identity and suggests, in a hidden strategy, how to be positioned in the French literary field and establishment.

  10. Spillover Effects of Drug Safety Warnings on Preventive Health Care Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daysal, N. Meltem; Orsini, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    We examine how new medical information on drug safety impacts preventive health care use. We exploit the release of the findings of the Women’s Health Initiative Study (WHIS) – the largest randomized controlled trial of women’s health – which demonstrated in 2002 the health risks associated...... with the long-term use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT). We first show that, after the release of the WHIS findings, HRT use dropped sharply among post-menopausal women. We then estimate the spillover effects of the WHIS findings on preventive care by means of a difference-in-differences methodology...... comparing changes in preventive care use among 60 to 69 year-old women (who have high rates of HRT use) with the change among women aged 75 and above (who have much lower rates of HRT use). Using data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System for the period 1998–2007, we find that women aged 60...

  11. “Beyhude Ömrüm” Adlı Hikâyenin Greımas’ın Eyleyenler Modeline Göre İncelenmesi Analysıs Of Story “Beyhude Ömrüm” Accordıng To Greımas’ Actants Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice ALTUNKAYA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The art of story is a form of narrative that is not independent from its creator, namely the narrator, and created within the theme fictionalized by its narrator. When the work is created, it is the reader’s turn to interpret and give meaning to it. The reader’s duty is to reinterpret, transform the structures in the text and themes as well as unveiling the meaning connections between those. Semiology derivedfrom Ancient Greek word semeion meaning sign and logos meaningscience is known as science of signs in Turkish.Two people should be mentioned as founders of Semiology. Theseare Charles Sanders Peirce and Swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure.Saying “Although the universe is not entirely made up of signs, itoverflows with signs”, Peirce expresses that all objects can be subject ofSemiology.The goal of this study is to analyze Mustafa Kutlu’s story titled“Beyhude Ömrüm” according to the Greimas’ analysis method ofactants model. A.J. Greimas argues that an incident starting the storyand an element transforming the initial status are required for creatingthe narrative. The study divided the story into five sections byconsidering that the said incident and transforming elements areavailable. The sections confirmed that six actants of the actants modelare available; manipulation, competence and performance of narrativeroutine as well as stages of sanction routine are available and thesubjects of actants model realized competence, conclusive andhonorable experiences. Besides, it is seen that using the expression “Idied” is not an appropriate form of narrative used by the author tellingthe story as a narrator using pronoun I. Hikâye sanatı, onu meydana getiren anlatıcısından bağımsız olmayan, anlatıcısının kurguladığı izlencede meydana gelen bir anlatı türüdür. Eser meydana geldikten sonra eseri yorumlama, anlamlandırma sırası okura gelir. Metnin içerdiği yapıları, izlekleri yeniden yorumlamak, dönüştürmek, anlamsal bağlarını keşfetmek okurun işidir. Eski Yunancada gösterge anlamına gelen semeion ile bilim anlamına gelen logos sözcüğünün birleşmesiyle meydana gelen semology Türkçede gösterge bilimi terimiyle karşılanmaktadır.Göstergebilimin öncüleri olarak iki isimden söz etmek mümkündür. Bunlar Charles Sanders Peirce ve İsviçreli dilbilimci Ferdinand de Saussure’dür. Peirce, “Tüm evren, yalnızca göstergelerden oluşmamış olsa bile, göstergelerle dolup taşar” sözü ile bütün bilgi nesnelerinin göstergebilimin konusu olabileceğini ifade etmiştir.Bu çalışmada Mustafa Kutlu’nun “Beyhude Ömrüm” adlı hikâyesi göstergebilimsel bir çözümleme modeli olan Greimas’ın eyleyenler modeline göre incelenmeye çalışılmıştır. A.J. Greimas’a göre anlatının oluşabilmesi için öyküyü başlatacak bir olay ve bu başlangıç durumunu bozacak dönüştürücü ögeye ihtiyaç vardır. Çalışmada söz konusu olay ve dönüştürücü ögenin var olduğundan hareketle hikâye beş kesite ayrılmıştır. Bu kesitlerde eyleyenler modelinde bulunan altı eyleyenin bulunduğu, anlatı izlencesinden eyletim, edinç, edim ve yaptırım izlence evrelerinin yer aldığı tespit edilmiş ve eyleyenler modelindeki öznelerin yetilendirici, sonuçlandırıcı ve onurlandırıcı deneyimleri gerçekleştirdikleri görülmüştür. Ayrıca eserde ben anlatıcı olan yazarın “öldüm” ifadesini kullanmasının ben anlatıcının anlatımına uygun düşen bir anlatım olmadığı görülmüştür.

  12. Feasibility study of radiophotoluminescent glass rod dosimeter postal dose intercomparison for high energy photon beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rah, Jeong-Eun; Kim, Siyong; Cheong, Kwang-Ho; Lee, Jeong-Woo; Chung, Jin-Beom; Shin, Dong-Oh; Suh, Tae-Suk

    2009-01-01

    A radiophotoluminescent glass rod dosimeter (GRD) system has recently become commercially available. In this study we evaluated whether the GRD would be suitable for external dosimetric audit program in radiotherapy. For this purpose, we introduced a methodology of the absorbed dose determination with the GRD by establishing calibration coefficient and various correction factors (non-linearity dose response, fading, energy dependence and angular dependence). A feasibility test of the GRD postal dose intercomparison was also performed for eight high photon beams by considering four radiotherapy centers in Korea. In the accuracy evaluation of the GRD dosimetry established in this study, we obtained within 1.5% agreements with the ionization chamber dosimetry for the 60 Co beam. It was also observed that, in the feasibility study, all the relative deviations were smaller than 3%. Based on these results, we believe that the new GRD system has considerable potential to be used for a postal dose audit program

  13. AcEST: BP912927 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available t : TrEMBL tr_hit_id A6GRE8 Definition tr|A6GRE8|A6GRE8_9BURK Probable methyltransferase OS=Limnobacter...bacter... 33 9.4 >tr|A6GRE8|A6GRE8_9BURK Probable methyltransferase OS=Limnobacter ........done Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value tr|A6GRE8|A6GRE8_9BURK Probable methyltransferase OS=Limno

  14. Implementation of a physician-staffed helicopter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesselfeldt, Rasmus; Pedersen, Frants; Steinmetz, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to compare air (AIR) and ground transport (GRD) of STEMI patients bound for primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI).......This study aimed to compare air (AIR) and ground transport (GRD) of STEMI patients bound for primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI)....

  15. Olika förklaringar till lägre straffnivåer i de nordiska länderna jämfört med övriga europeiska

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondeson, Ulla V.

    2007-01-01

    ). Both of us emphasize economic variables such as GDP and welfare expenditures, as well social inequality. I juxtapose political factors, referred to by Lappi-Seppälä as "consensual democracies" and "neo-corporativism", with the theory of " functional democracy". In regard to increasing rates......, though I stress that different formulations of the question produce different results. I argue against the common postulate of penal populism starting in the 1980s and point to the constancy of penal and other social attitudes over the decades, as demonstrated in my book, Nordic Moral Climates (2003...

  16. Le spectre culturel et métaphorique dans Le vieux nègre et la médaille de Ferdinand Oyono : étude de quelques implicites sur un génocide culturel africain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Ndibnu-Messina Ethé

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Cet article met en relief les turpitudes d’un élu dénommé Meka, afin d’identifier l’impact du colonialisme non seulement sur les comportements des Africains avant et après les indépendances mais également les agissements des occidentaux. L’usage abondant des métaphores et de l’ironie fait ressortir les implicites sur la situation burlesque du personnage principal qui devient progressivement conscient de son exploitation. Au final, Meka, quasiment phagocyté culturellement, participant inconscient de l’éradication de l’identité culturelle camerounaise et serviteur soumis, met en avant son occidentalisation, symbole de la destruction idéologique croissante des valeurs culturelles traditionnelles chez les Camerounais.

  17. Study on dosimetric properties of radiophotoluminescent glass rod detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rah, Jeong Eun; Hong, Ju Young; Suh, Tea Suk [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Dong Oh [Kyunghee Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hee Sun [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Chun Il; Jeong, Hee Gyo [Korea Food and Drug Administration, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-12-15

    A radiophotoluminescent Glass Rod Detector (GRD) system has recently become commercially available. We investigate the dosimetric properties of the GRD regarding the reproducibility of signal, dose linearity and energy dependence. The reproducibility of five measurements for 50 GRDs is presented by an average of one standard deviation of each GRD and it is {+-}1.2%. It is found to be linear in response to doses of {sup 60}Co beam in the range 0.5 to 50 Gy with a coefficient of linearity of 0.9998. The energy dependence of the GRD is determined by comparing the dose obtained using cylindrical chamber to that by using the GRD. The GRD response for each beam is normalized to the response for a {sup 60}Co beam. The responses for 6 and 15 MV x-ray beams are within {+-}1.5% (1SD). The energy response of GRD for high-energy photon is almost the same as the energy dependence of LiF:Mg:Ti (TLD-100) and shows little energy dependence unlike p-type silicon diode detector. The GRDs have advantages over other detectors such diode detector, and TLD: linearity, reproducibility and energy dependency. It has been verified to be an effective device for small field dosimetry for stereotactic radiosurgery.

  18. Comparative Test of the Effectiveness of Large Bombs against Reinforced Concrete Structures (Anglo-American Bomb Tests-Project RUBY).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1946-10-31

    reiiforced concrete structure at FMd ,, full details eof whis are given in Appudix "*C. 7. The Target for the uI= Z0OSIII Filled Bomb Trials# is to . be the...MODIFIED MIll FUZE) & ) CONDENSER rOR IGNITING SQUIBS INITIATING PR•OPELL ING & 7TAIL CHARGES ASSEMBLED DETAILS OF 4500 LB C•/ FtA DISNEY IBOMB, II "’m

  19. Comparative studies of saponins in 1-3-year-old main roots, fibrous roots, and rhizomes of Panax notoginseng, and identification of different parts and growth-year samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiu-Hong; Wang, Chao-Qun; Liu, Jin-Huai; Li, Xiao-Wei; Wang, Xuan; Shang, Ming-Ying; Cai, Shao-Qing; Zhu, Shu; Komatsu, Katsuko

    2013-04-01

    Notoginsenosides R1, R4, Fa, and K (N-R1, N-R4, N-Fa, and N-K), as well as ginsenosides Rg1, Rb1, Rd, Re, Rf, Rg2 and Rh1 (G-Rg1, G-Rb1, G-Rd, G-Re, G-Rf, G-Rg2 and G-Rh1) in 47 Notoginseng samples including 1-, 2- and 3-year-old main roots, rhizomes and fibrous roots of Panax notoginseng were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection method. Total contents (%) of the 11 saponins were 9.82-14.57 for 2-year old and 14.20-16.00 for 3-year-old rhizomes; 2.72-4.50 for 2-year-old and 1.98-4.92 for 3-year-old fibrous roots; 1.75-3.05 for 1-year-old whole roots; and 3.71-8.98 for 2-year-old and 7.03-11.23 for 3-year-old main roots. Contents of most saponins and total content of 11 saponins were in the order 3- >2- >1-year-old main root samples. G-Rf content, sum of G-Rf and G-Rh1 were, respectively, 0.08-0.18 and 0.14-0.32 for 2- or 3-year-old rhizomes, and 0.01-0.07 and 0.03-0.10 for 2- or 3-year-old main roots. Combined contents of N-R1, G-Rg1 and G-Rb1 were 5.78-9.37 in 3-year-old main roots, and 2.99-7.13 in 2-year-old main roots, of which nearly one-third of samples were lower than the limit (5 %) in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Those of 2- or 3-year-old fibrous roots (1.47-3.83) and 1-year-old whole roots (1.41-2.44) were much lower than the limit, and were considered not suitable for use as Notoginseng. Two-year-old main roots are not appropriate for collection as Notoginseng. Different parts and growth years of P. notoginseng can be identified from each another according to differences in saponin content.

  20. 75 FR 57759 - Great River Energy; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ... (GRE) filed its proposed updated Reactive Power revenue requirement and supporting cost data for GRE's... Reference Room in Washington, DC. There is an ``eSubscription'' link on the Web site that enables...

  1. Expanding the Repertoire of Carbapenem-Hydrolyzing Metallo-ß-Lactamases by Functional Metagenomic Analysis of Soil Microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudeta, Dereje D.; Bortolaia, Valeria; Pollini, Simona

    2016-01-01

    as metallo-beta-lactamases (MBLs), were identified in six soil samples, including two subclass B1 (GRD23-1 and SPN79-1) and seven subclass B3 (CRD3-1, PEDO-1, GRD33-1, ESP-2, ALG6-1, ALG11-1, and DHT2-1). Except PEDO-1 and ESP-2, these enzymes were distantly related to any previously described MBLs (33 to 59......% identity). RAIphy analysis indicated that six enzymes (CRD3-1, GRD23-1, DHT2-1, SPN79-1, ALG6-1, and ALG11-1) originated from Proteobacteria, two (PEDO-1 and ESP-2) from Bacteroidetes and one (GRD33-1) from Gemmatimonadetes. All MBLs detected in soil microbiota were functional when expressed in E. coli...

  2. An extended SPSS extension command for generating random data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harding, Bradley

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The GRD extension command for SPSS (Harding & Cousineau, 2014 has been used in a variety of applications since its inception. Ranging from a teaching tool to demonstrate statistical analyses, to an inferential tool used to find critical values instead of looking into a z-table, GRD has been very well received. However, some users have requested other data generation components that would make GRD a more complete extension command: the possibility to add contaminants to the generated dataset as well as the ability to generate correlated variables. Another component we added is a graphical user interface (or GUI that makes GRD accessible through the drop-down menus in the SPSS Data Editor window. This GUI allows users to generate a simple dataset by entering parameters in dedicated fields rather than writing out the full script. Finally, we devised a small series of exercises to help users get acquainted with the new subcommands and GUI.

  3. A novel selection method of seismic attributes based on gray relational degree and support vector machine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaping Huang

    Full Text Available The selection of seismic attributes is a key process in reservoir prediction because the prediction accuracy relies on the reliability and credibility of the seismic attributes. However, effective selection method for useful seismic attributes is still a challenge. This paper presents a novel selection method of seismic attributes for reservoir prediction based on the gray relational degree (GRD and support vector machine (SVM. The proposed method has a two-hierarchical structure. In the first hierarchy, the primary selection of seismic attributes is achieved by calculating the GRD between seismic attributes and reservoir parameters, and the GRD between the seismic attributes. The principle of the primary selection is that these seismic attributes with higher GRD to the reservoir parameters will have smaller GRD between themselves as compared to those with lower GRD to the reservoir parameters. Then the SVM is employed in the second hierarchy to perform an interactive error verification using training samples for the purpose of determining the final seismic attributes. A real-world case study was conducted to evaluate the proposed GRD-SVM method. Reliable seismic attributes were selected to predict the coalbed methane (CBM content in southern Qinshui basin, China. In the analysis, the instantaneous amplitude, instantaneous bandwidth, instantaneous frequency, and minimum negative curvature were selected, and the predicted CBM content was fundamentally consistent with the measured CBM content. This real-world case study demonstrates that the proposed method is able to effectively select seismic attributes, and improve the prediction accuracy. Thus, the proposed GRD-SVM method can be used for the selection of seismic attributes in practice.

  4. Reconstitution of the NF1 GAP-related domain in NF1-deficient human Schwann cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Stacey L.; Deadwyler, Gail D.; Tang, Jun; Stubbs, Evan B.; Muir, David; Hiatt, Kelly K.; Clapp, D. Wade; De Vries, George H.

    2006-01-01

    Schwann cells derived from peripheral nerve sheath tumors from individuals with Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) are deficient for the protein neurofibromin, which contains a GAP-related domain (NF1-GRD). Neurofibromin-deficient Schwann cells have increased Ras activation, increased proliferation in response to certain growth stimuli, increased angiogenic potential, and altered cell morphology. This study examined whether expression of functional NF1-GRD can reverse the transformed phenotype of neurofibromin-deficient Schwann cells from both benign and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors. We reconstituted the NF1-GRD using retroviral transduction and examined the effects on cell morphology, growth potential, and angiogenic potential. NF1-GRD reconstitution resulted in morphologic changes, a 16-33% reduction in Ras activation, and a 53% decrease in proliferation in neurofibromin-deficient Schwann cells. However, NF1-GRD reconstitution was not sufficient to decrease the in vitro angiogenic potential of the cells. This study demonstrates that reconstitution of the NF1-GRD can at least partially reverse the transformation of human NF1 tumor-derived Schwann cells

  5. Detection and quantification of ginsenoside Re in ginseng samples by a chromatographic immunostaining method using monoclonal antibody against ginsenoside Re.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morinaga, Osamu; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Shoyama, Yukihiro

    2006-01-02

    A chromatographic immunostaining method has been developed for the determination of ginsenoside Re (G-Re) in ginseng samples on a polyethersulphone (PES) membrane. G-Re standard and the extracts of ginseng roots were applied to a PES membrane and developed by methanol-water-acetic acid (45:55:1, by volume). G-Re was clearly detected by an immunostaining method using a monoclonal antibody against G-Re. The coloring spots of G-Re were analyzed quantitatively using NIH Image software indicating at least 0.125 microg of G-Re was detectable. G-Re can be analyzed quantitatively between 0.25 and 4.0 microg.

  6. A transcript cleavage factor of Mycobacterium tuberculosis important for its survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnab China

    Full Text Available After initiation of transcription, a number of proteins participate during elongation and termination modifying the properties of the RNA polymerase (RNAP. Gre factors are one such group conserved across bacteria. They regulate transcription by projecting their N-terminal coiled-coil domain into the active center of RNAP through the secondary channel and stimulating hydrolysis of the newly synthesized RNA in backtracked elongation complexes. Rv1080c is a putative gre factor (MtbGre in the genome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The protein enhanced the efficiency of promoter clearance by lowering abortive transcription and also rescued arrested and paused elongation complexes on the GC rich mycobacterial template. Although MtbGre is similar in domain organization and shares key residues for catalysis and RNAP interaction with the Gre factors of Escherichia coli, it could not complement an E. coli gre deficient strain. Moreover, MtbGre failed to rescue E. coli RNAP stalled elongation complexes, indicating the importance of specific protein-protein interactions for transcript cleavage. Decrease in the level of MtbGre reduced the bacterial survival by several fold indicating its essential role in mycobacteria. Another Gre homolog, Rv3788 was not functional in transcript cleavage activity indicating that a single Gre is sufficient for efficient transcription of the M. tuberculosis genome.

  7. The preparation of Carbocyclic DDIU (2',3'-DiDeoxy IodoUridine) via electrophilic iodination and biological study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Gwang Gil; Choi, Tae Hyun; Lee, Myung Jin; Ahn, Hyun Seok; Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, Sang Moo; Chun, Kwon Soo [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Rhee, Hak June [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Interest in the synthesis of carbocyclic nucleosides and carbocyclic analogues of normal nucleosides has grown exclusively since the potential antiviral and antitumor therapeutic agents. The replacement of the furanose oxygen by a carbon gives the nucleoside increased in vivo stability. Radioiodinated carobcyclic DDIU was evaluated for monitoring of HSV1-TK (herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase) gene transduced MCA hepatoma cells and wild-type MCA cells. In this study, we whis to report here an efficient synthetic route for carbocyclic radiopharmaceuticals starting from cyclopentadiene.

  8. A Brief Assessment of LC2IEDM, MIST and Web Services for use in Naval Tactical Data Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-07-01

    server software, messaging between the client and server, and a database. The MIST database is implemented in an open source DBMS named PostGreSQL ... PostGreSQL had its beginnings at the University of California, Berkley, in 1986 [11]. The development of PostGreSQL has since evolved into a...contact history from the database. DRDC Atlantic TM 2004-148 9 Request Software Request Software Server Side Response from service

  9. Models for recurrent gas release event behavior in hazardous waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.N.; Arnold, B.C.

    1994-08-01

    Certain radioactive waste storage tanks at the United States Department of Energy Hanford facilities continuously generate gases as a result of radiolysis and chemical reactions. The congealed sludge in these tanks traps the gases and causes the level of the waste within the tanks to rise. The waste level continues to rise until the sludge becomes buoyant and ''rolls over'', changing places with heavier fluid on top. During a rollover, the trapped gases are released, resulting, in a sudden drop in the waste level. This is known as a gas release event (GRE). After a GRE, the wastes leading to another GRE. We present nonlinear time waste re-congeals and gas again accumulates leading to another GRE. We present nonlinear time series models that produce simulated sample paths that closely resemble the temporal history of waste levels in these tanks. The models also imitate the random GRE, behavior observed in the temporal waste level history of a storage tank. We are interested in using the structure of these models to understand the probabilistic behavior of the random variable ''time between consecutive GRE's''. Understanding the stochastic nature of this random variable is important because the hydrogen and nitrous oxide gases released from a GRE, are flammable and the ammonia that is released is a health risk. From a safety perspective, activity around such waste tanks should be halted when a GRE is imminent. With credible GRE models, we can establish time windows in which waste tank research and maintenance activities can be safely performed

  10. Value of non-contrast sequences in magnetic resonance angiography of hepatic arterial vasculature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalra, Vivek B., E-mail: vivek.kalra@yale.edu [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Yale School of Medicine, Box 208042, Tompkins East 2, 333 Cedar Street, New Haven, CT 06520-8042, United States of America (United States); Gilbert, John W., E-mail: jwgilbert@partners.org [Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Francis Street, Boston, MA 02115, United States of America (United States); Krishnamoorthy, Saravanan, E-mail: sk3552@columbia.edu [Department of Radiology, Columbia University Medical Center, Milstein 3rd Fl, New York NY 10032 United States (United States); Cornfeld, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.cornfeld@yale.edu [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Yale School of Medicine, Box 208042, Tompkins East 2, 333 Cedar St, New Haven, CT 06520-8042, United States of America (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Objective: To evaluate value of adding non-contrast MR angiographic sequence (In-Flow Inversion Recovery [IFIR]) to standard fat-suppressed T1-weighted postcontrast sequence (3D spoiled gradient echo [3D-GRE]) for evaluating hepatic arterial anatomy. Methods: Retrospective evaluation of 30 consecutive patients undergoing multiphase liver MRI. Individual vessels for IFIR/3D-GRE sequences were evaluated by two blinded readers using a four-point scale. Statistical analysis was performed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test for vessel conspicuity between IFIR/3D-GRE sequences. Results: IFIR alone diagnostically imaged 8.1% of vessels, 3D-GRE alone 25.8%, 55.8% by both 3D-GRE/IFIR, and 10.3% of vessels by neither. Two patients with variant vascular anatomy were visualized with both sequences. Addition of IFIR to 3D-GRE resulted in statistically significant increase in arterial visualization (p < 0.001), 10% relative increase in identified vessels, and 3–5 mi increase in acquisition time for total scan time of 30–35 min. Conclusions: IFIR may be a useful adjunct to 3D-GRE in hepatic angiography without adding considerably to scan time. 10% more hepatic arteries were seen when combining information from IFIR/3D-GRE vs. 3D-GRE alone.

  11. Diuretic-enhanced gadolinium excretory MR urography: comparison of conventional gradient-echo sequences and echo-planar imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nolte-Ernsting, C.C.A.; Tacke, J.; Adam, G.B.; Haage, P.; Guenther, R.W. [Univ. of Technology, Aachen (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology; Jung, P.; Jakse, G. [Univ. of Technology, Aachen (Germany). Dept. of Urology

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the utility of different gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted gradient-echo techniques in excretory MR urography. In 74 urologic patients, excretory MR urography was performed using various T1-weighted gradient-echo (GRE) sequences after injection of gadolinium-DTPA and low-dose furosemide. The examinations included conventional GRE sequences and echo-planar imaging (GRE EPI), both obtained with 3D data sets and 2D projection images. Breath-hold acquisition was used primarily. In 20 of 74 examinations, we compared breath-hold imaging with respiratory gating. Breath-hold imaging was significantly superior to respiratory gating for the visualization of pelvicaliceal systems, but not for the ureters. Complete MR urograms were obtained within 14-20 s using 3D GRE EPI sequences and in 20-30 s with conventional 3D GRE sequences. Ghost artefacts caused by ureteral peristalsis often occurred with conventional 3D GRE imaging and were almost completely suppressed in EPI sequences (p < 0.0001). Susceptibility effects were more pronounced on GRE EPI MR urograms and calculi measured 0.8-21.7% greater in diameter compared with conventional GRE sequences. Increased spatial resolution degraded the image quality only in GRE-EPI urograms. (orig.)

  12. QUALITY ASSURANCE/QUALITY CONTROL OF A PROJECT INVOLVING COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS, INTRA-AGENCY AGREEMENTS, AGENCY STAFF AND CONTRACTS TO CONDUCT RESEARCH: ECOLOGICAL MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT OF THE GREAT RIVERS ECOSYSTEMS IN THE CENTRAL BASIN OF THE UNITED STATES (EMAP-GRE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    While condition reports are useful to managers, demonstrating how to implement a monitoring and assessment program in the future is also an important project goal. Better monitoring methods will make more information more widely available to better manage the nation's great rive...

  13. Characterization of the artisanal fishing communities in Nepal and potential implications for the conservation and management of Ganges River Dolphin (Platanista gangetica gangetica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shambhu Paudel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ganges River dolphin (Platanista gangetica gangetica (GRD is classified as one of the most endangered of all cetaceans in the world and the second scarcest freshwater cetacean. The population is estimated to be less than 2,000 individuals. In Nepal’s Narayani, Sapta Koshi, and Karnali river systems, survival of GRD continues to be threatened by various anthropogenic activities, such as dam construction and interactions with artisanal fisheries. A basic description of the geographic scope, economics, and types of gear used in these fisheries would help managers understand the fishery-dolphin interaction conflict and assist with developing potential solutions. The main goal was to provide new information on the artisanal fishing communities in Nepal. The specific objectives were to identify, compile, and investigate the demographics, economics, fishing characteristics, and perception of fishermen about GRD conservation in the Narayani, Sapta Koshi, and Karnali rivers so conservation managers can develop and implement a potential solution to the GRD-fishery interaction problem in Nepal. Based on 169 interviews, 79% of Nepalese fishermen indicated fishing was their primary form of income. Fishermen reported fishing effort was greater in summer than winter; greatest in the afternoon (14:30 hrs ± 0:27 and during low water level conditions; and gear was set 4.8 ± 0.2 days/week. Fishermen reported using eight different types of monofilament nets (gillnets and cast nets. Sixty percent used gillnets less than 10 m long, and nearly 30% preferred gillnets between 10 and 100 m long; a few used gillnets longer than 100 m. Most fishermen reported they believed education, awareness, and changing occupations were important for GRD conservation, but they indicated that alternative occupational options were currently limited in Nepal. Nepalese fishermen acknowledged that fisheries posed a risk to GRD, but they believed water pollution, and dam

  14. Characterization of the artisanal fishing communities in Nepal and potential implications for the conservation and management of Ganges River Dolphin (Platanista gangetica gangetica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Shambhu; Levesque, Juan C; Saavedra, Camilo; Pita, Cristina; Pal, Prabhat

    2016-01-01

    The Ganges River dolphin (Platanista gangetica gangetica) (GRD) is classified as one of the most endangered of all cetaceans in the world and the second scarcest freshwater cetacean. The population is estimated to be less than 2,000 individuals. In Nepal's Narayani, Sapta Koshi, and Karnali river systems, survival of GRD continues to be threatened by various anthropogenic activities, such as dam construction and interactions with artisanal fisheries. A basic description of the geographic scope, economics, and types of gear used in these fisheries would help managers understand the fishery-dolphin interaction conflict and assist with developing potential solutions. The main goal was to provide new information on the artisanal fishing communities in Nepal. The specific objectives were to identify, compile, and investigate the demographics, economics, fishing characteristics, and perception of fishermen about GRD conservation in the Narayani, Sapta Koshi, and Karnali rivers so conservation managers can develop and implement a potential solution to the GRD-fishery interaction problem in Nepal. Based on 169 interviews, 79% of Nepalese fishermen indicated fishing was their primary form of income. Fishermen reported fishing effort was greater in summer than winter; greatest in the afternoon (14:30 hrs ± 0:27) and during low water level conditions; and gear was set 4.8 ± 0.2 days/week. Fishermen reported using eight different types of monofilament nets (gillnets and cast nets). Sixty percent used gillnets less than 10 m long, and nearly 30% preferred gillnets between 10 and 100 m long; a few used gillnets longer than 100 m. Most fishermen reported they believed education, awareness, and changing occupations were important for GRD conservation, but they indicated that alternative occupational options were currently limited in Nepal. Nepalese fishermen acknowledged that fisheries posed a risk to GRD, but they believed water pollution, and dam/irrigation developments were

  15. Unraveling the molecular mechanism of interactions of the Rho GTPases Cdc42 and Rac1 with the scaffolding protein IQGAP2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, E Sila; Jang, Hyunbum; Gursoy, Attila; Keskin, Ozlem; Li, Zhigang; Sacks, David B; Nussinov, Ruth

    2018-03-09

    IQ motif-containing GTPase-activating proteins (IQGAPs) are scaffolding proteins playing central roles in cell-cell adhesion, polarity, and motility. The Rho GTPases Cdc42 and Rac1, in their GTP-bound active forms, interact with all three human IQGAPs. The IQGAP-Cdc42 interaction promotes metastasis by enhancing actin polymerization. However, despite their high sequence identity, Cdc42 and Rac1 differ in their interactions with IQGAP. Two Cdc42 molecules can bind to the Ex-domain and the RasGAP site of the GTPase-activating protein (GAP)-related domain (GRD) of IQGAP and promote IQGAP dimerization. Only one Rac1 molecule might bind to the RasGAP site of GRD and may not facilitate the dimerization, and the exact mechanism of Cdc42 and Rac1 binding to IQGAP is unclear. Using all-atom molecular dynamics simulations, site-directed mutagenesis, and Western blotting, we unraveled the detailed mechanisms of Cdc42 and Rac1 interactions with IQGAP2. We observed that Cdc42 binding to the Ex-domain of GRD of IQGAP2 (GRD2) releases the Ex-domain at the C-terminal region of GRD2, facilitating IQGAP2 dimerization. Cdc42 binding to the Ex-domain promoted allosteric changes in the RasGAP site, providing a binding site for the second Cdc42 in the RasGAP site. Of note, the Cdc42 "insert loop" was important for the interaction of the first Cdc42 with the Ex-domain. By contrast, differences in Rac1 insert-loop sequence and structure precluded its interaction with the Ex-domain. Rac1 could bind only to the RasGAP site of apo-GRD2 and could not facilitate IQGAP2 dimerization. Our detailed mechanistic insights help decipher how Cdc42 can stimulate actin polymerization in metastasis.

  16. GROWTH RATE DISTRIBUTION OF BORAX SINGLE CRYSTALS ON THE (001 FACE UNDER VARIOUS FLOW RATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suharso Suharso

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The growth rates of borax single crystals from aqueous solutions at various flow rates in the (001 direction were measured using in situ cell method. From the growth rate data obtained, the growth rate distribution of borax crystals was investigated using Minitab Software and SPSS Software at relative supersaturation of 0807 and temperature of 25 °C. The result shows that normal, gamma, and log-normal distribution give a reasonably good fit to GRD. However, there is no correlation between growth rate distribution and flow rate of solution.   Keywords: growth rate dispersion (GRD, borax, flow rate

  17. Comparison of spin-echo and gradient recalled echo T1 weighted MR images for quantitative voxel-based clinical brain research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnden, L.R.; Crouch, B.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: New methods to normalise inter-subject global variations in T 1 -weighted MR (T I w) signal levels have permitted their use in voxel based population studies of brain dysfunction. Here we address the question of whether a spin-echo (SE) or a gradient recalled echo (GRE) T I w sequence is better for this purpose. GRE images are commonly referred to as 3D MRL SE has superior signal/noise properties to GRE but is slower to acquire so that typical slice thicknesses are 3-5 mm compared to 1-2 mm for GRE. GRE has better grey/white matter contrast which should permit better spatial normalization. However, unlike SE, GRE is affected by subject-specific magnetic field inhomogeneities that distort the images. We acquired T I brain images for 25 chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) patients and 25 normal controls (NC) with TRITE/flip-angle of 600 ms/l5 ms/90 deg for SE and 5.76 ms/1.9 ms/9 deg for GRE. For GRE, the magnetic field inhomogeneity related signal level distortions could be corrected, but not the spatial distortions. After spatial normalization we subjected them to voxel-based statistical analysis with adjustment for global signal level using the SPM5 package. Initially, the same spatial normalization deformations were applied to both SE and GRE after coregistering them. Although the SPM regressions of SE and GRE yielded similar spatial distributions of significance, the SE regressions were consistently statistically stronger. For example, in one strong regression, the corrected cluster P value was twenty times stronger (I.Oe-5 versus I.Oe-3). T I w SE have proved better than T I GRE images in quantitative analysis in a clinical research study. (author)

  18. Pre-admission factors and utilization of tutoring services in health professions educational programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares-Urueta, Mayra; Williamson, Jon W

    2013-01-01

    Pre-admission factors tend to serve as indicators of student success in health professions educational programs, but less is known about the effects that academic assistance programs have on student success. This study sought to determine whether specific pre-admission factors could help to identify students who may require academic support during their health professions education. This retrospective analysis aimed to identify differences in pre-admission variables between those students requiring tutoring and a matched sample of students who did not require tutoring. One-way ANOVA was used to assess differences for dependent variables-age, cumulative GPA (cGPA), science GPA (sGPA), verbal graduate record examination (GRE) score, quantitative GRE score, analytical GRE score and combined GRE score, community college hours, average credit hours per semester, and highest semester credit hour load-across three groups of students who received no tutoring (NT 0 hrs), some tutoring (ST tutoring (MT >8 hrs). Total GRE and average semester hours differentiated NT from ST from MT (ptutoring: quantitative GRE, sGPA, cGPA and average semester hours taken. The combination of lower GRE scores and lighter average semester course load were most predictive of the need for academic assistance as defined by hours of tutoring. While the value of the GRE in admissions processes is generally accepted, the average semester hour load in college can also provide important information regarding academic preparation and the need for tutoring services.

  19. Do Standardized Tests Penalize Deep-Thinking, Creative, or Conscientious Students?: Some Personality Correlates of Graduate Record Examinations Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Donald E.; Kaufman, James C.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of the study reported here was to explore the relationship of Graduate Record Examinations (GRE) General Test scores to selected personality traits--conscientiousness, rationality, ingenuity, quickness, creativity, and depth. A sample of 342 GRE test takers completed short personality inventory scales for each trait. Analyses…

  20. Center for Advanced Sensors, Year One Funding (FY2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-30

    retrieve data which is stored in a PostGRE database. Each base station executes custom software developed by C. Goodwin that generates OntoSensor...update using PostGRE ODBC drivers and retrieves updated tuples corresponding to raw sensor percepts. The retrieved tuples are then post-processed

  1. Writing in Cameroon, the first hundred years

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-03-28

    Mar 28, 2016 ... in Bulu territory, the American pastor Adolphus Good, it won the London African .... same year, Le Vieux Nègre et la médaille is a critique of the vieux nègre (old black man), .... Cameroon, cautious editorial choices and writers' self-censorship, a limited range of ... many also used film and other media.

  2. Undergraduate grade point average and graduate record examination scores: the experience of one graduate nursing program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Sarah E; Moore, Gary

    2007-01-01

    Graduate nursing programs frequently use undergraduate grade point average (UGPA) and Graduate Record Examination (GRE) scores for admission decisions. The literature indicates that both UGPA and GRE scores are predictive of graduate school success, but that UGPA may be the better predictor. If that is so, one must ask if both are necessary for graduate nursing admission decisions. This article presents research on one graduate nursing program's experience with UGPA and GRE scores and offers a perspective regarding their continued usefulness for graduate admission decisions. Data from 120 graduate students were examined, and regression analysis indicated that UGPA significantly predicted GRE verbal and quantitative scores (p < .05). Regression analysis also determined a UGPA score above which the GRE provided little additional useful data for graduate nursing admission decisions.

  3. In vitro studies of PEG thin films with different molecular weights deposited by MAPLE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paun, Irina Alexandra; Ion, Valentin; Luculescu, Catalin-Romeo

    2012-01-01

    and their behavior in vitro. Thus, immersion in PBS induced swelling of the PEG films, which was more pronounced for PEG polymers of higher molecular weight. Prior to immersion in PBS, the PEG films of higher molecular weight were more hydrophilic, the water contact angles decreasing from ∼66 grd for PEG400 to ∼41...

  4. Numerical and Physical Aspects of Aerodynamic Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-15

    extension to three- implies a trade -off between accuracy and cost which dimensional arrangements is likely to provide a tends to limit the validity of...individually, density and pressure in the 4" direction only is shown in Figure 7e. can improve some grd propertieswhile damagingothers. Forex - Ttal numberof

  5. Masculine Discrepancy Stress and Psychosocial Maladjustment: Implications for Behavioral and Mental Health of Adolescent Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidy, Dennis E; Smith-Darden, Joanne P; Vivolo-Kantor, Alana M; Malone, Carolyn A; Kernsmith, Poco D

    2017-01-01

    Gender role discrepancy (GRD), or nonconformity to socially prescribed gender roles, has been linked to a multitude of adverse mental and behavioral health outcomes. Masculine discrepancy stress (MDS), stress about being perceived not to conform to one's gender role, may explain the relationship between GRD and deleterious health outcomes. However, research on MDS has primarily been restricted to adult males. This leaves a critical gap pertaining to the potential effect of MDS on adolescent boys, who may be more malleable and susceptible to the influence and pressures of gender socialization. In the current study, data are drawn from a sample of adolescent male students ( N = 592) who completed self-report questionnaires. We employed structural equation modeling to test the effects of GRD and MDS on psychosocial maladjustment measured via sexual behavior, substance use, violence, mood disorder symptoms, and hopelessness. In addition, we controlled for critical risk factors including sociodemographic characteristics, adverse childhood experiences, trauma symptoms, and neighborhood disorganization. Findings indicate significant potentiating effects of MDS on maladjustment while there were direct protective effects of GRD. These data suggest that developing prevention strategies that incorporate social norms pertaining to gender socialization may have an impact on multiple behavioral and mental health problems.

  6. Variabilité de la composition chimique de l'huile essentielle des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 avr. 2015 ... elles sont séchées à l'abri de la lumière à température ... moyen des techniques de Chromatographie en phase ..... Figure 2: ACP - Carte des variables suivant les composantes PC1 et .... Guide pratique / GRD PAGE-PACA,.

  7. Alternative methods for determination of composition and porosity in abradable materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějíček, Jiří; Kolman, Blahoslav Jan; Dubský, Jiří; Neufuss, Karel; Hopkins, N.; Zwick, J.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 2 (2006), s. 17-29 ISSN 1044-5803 Grant - others:Evropská unie GRD1-2001-40124 “SEALCOAT” (EU) Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : abradable coatings * plasma spraying * structure * porosity * composition Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials Impact factor: 0.741, year: 2006

  8. Hybrid Coatings as Transducer in Optical Biosensors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rose, K.; Dzyadevych, S.; Fernandez-Lafuente, R.; Jaffrezic, N.; Kuncová, Gabriela; Matějec, Vlastimil; Scully, P.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 4 (2008), s. 491-496 ISSN 1547-0091 Grant - others:GRD1(XE) 2001-C40477 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504; CEZ:AV0Z20670512 Keywords : optical sensor * fluorescence * hybrid coating Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 1.059, year: 2008

  9. Relative deprivation and intergroup prejudice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pettigrew, T.F.; Christ, O.; Wagner, U.; Meertens, R.W.; van Dick, R.; Zick, A.

    2008-01-01

    Using three diverse European surveys, we test the relationship between relative deprivation (RD) and anti-immigrant prejudice. We find that both group relative deprivation (GRD) and individual relative deprivation (IRD) are found primarily among working-class respondents who are politically

  10. An fMRI Study of Nonverbally Gifted Reading Disabled Adults: Has Deficit Compensation Effected Gifted Potential?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey W Gilger

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Neuroscience has advanced our understanding of the neurological basis of reading disability. Yet, no functional imaging work has been reported on the twice-exceptional dyslexic: individuals exhibiting both nonverbal-giftedness and reading disability (RD. We compared groups of reading-disabled (RD, nonverbally-gifted (G, nonverbally-gifted-RD (GRD, and control (C adults on validated word-rhyming and spatial visualization fMRI tasks, and standardized psychometric tests, to ascertain if the neurological functioning of GRD subjects was similar to that of typical RD or G subjects, or perhaps some unique RD subtype. Results demonstrate that GRD adults resemble non-gifted reading disabled (RD adults in performance on paper-and-pencil reading, math and spatial tests, and in patterns of functional activation during rhyming and spatial processing. Data are consistent with what may be a shared etiology of reading disability and giftedness in GRD individuals that yields a lifespan interaction with reading compensation effects, modifying how their adult brain processes text and spatial stimuli.

  11. Zircon U-Pb Ages Chronicle 3 Myr of Episodic Crystallization in the Composite Miocene Tatoosh Pluton, Mount Rainier National Park, Washington Cascades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, C. R.; Du Bray, E. A.; Wooden, J. L.; Mazdab, F. K.

    2007-12-01

    Zircon geochronology of upper crustal plutons can constrain longevities of intermediate to silicic magmatic systems. As part of a larger study of the geochemistry and metallogeny of Tertiary Cascades magmatic arc rocks, we used the USGS-Stanford SHRIMP RG to determine 20 to 28 238U-206Pb ages for zircons from each of 6 quartz monzodiorite (qmd), quartz monzonite (qm), or granodiorite (grd) samples representative of the Tatoosh pluton, and one grd from the nearby Carbon River stock. The 7x12 km composite Tatoosh pluton, discontinuously exposed on the south flank of Mount Rainier, consists of at least 4 petrographic/compositional phases, here termed Pyramid Peak, Nisqually, Reflection Lake, and Tatoosh. These collectively intrude gently folded and weakly metamorphosed basaltic andesite flows and volcaniclastic rocks of the Eocene Ohanapecosh Formation, silicic ignimbrites and sedimentary rocks of the Oligocene Stevens Ridge Formation, and basaltic to intermediate volcanic rocks of the Miocene Fifes Peak Formation. Histograms and relative probability plots of U- Pb ages indicate 2 to 4 age populations within each sample. The weighted mean age of each of the youngest populations (all ±2σ) is interpreted as the time of final solidification: Pyramid Peak qmd (58.5% SiO2) 17.4±0.2 Ma, Nisqually grd (in Paradise Valley; 65.4% SiO2) 16.7±0.2 Ma, Nisqually grd (at Christine Falls; 66.4% SiO2) 17.3±0.2 Ma, Reflection Lake qm (along Pinnacle Peak trail; 66.6% SiO2) 17.1±0.2 Ma, Tatoosh grd (in Stevens Canyon; 67.8% SiO2) 18.2±0.2 Ma, Tatoosh grd (south of Louise Lake; 69.3% SiO2) 19.3±0.1 Ma, and Carbon River grd (68.0% SiO2) 17.4±0.3 Ma. The older Nisqually grd age is indistinguishable from a TIMS zircon age of 17.5±0.1 Ma reported by Mattinson (GSA Bulletin 88:1509-1514, 1977) for grd from a nearby locality. None of the 164 SHRIMP-RG U-Pb ages, including cores, is older than 21 Ma. The relatively small, high-level pluton likely was emplaced and solidified in pulses

  12. Comparison between gadolinium-enhanced 2D T1-weighted gradient-echo and spin-echo sequences in the detection of active multiple sclerosis lesions on 3.0T MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aymerich, F.X. [Hospital Universitari Vall d' Hebron, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, MR Unit. Department of Radiology (IDI), Barcelona (Spain); Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya - Barcelona Tech (UPC), Department of Automatic Control (ESAII), Barcelona (Spain); Auger, C.; Alcaide-Leon, P.; Pareto, D.; Huerga, E.; Corral, J.F.; Mitjana, R.; Rovira, A. [Hospital Universitari Vall d' Hebron, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, MR Unit. Department of Radiology (IDI), Barcelona (Spain); Sastre-Garriga, J.; Montalban, X. [Hospital Universitari Vall d' Hebron, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Centre d' Esclerosi Multiple de Catalunya (Cemcat), Department of Neurology/Neuroimmunology, Barcelona (Spain)

    2017-04-15

    To compare the sensitivity of enhancing multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions in gadolinium-enhanced 2D T1-weighted gradient-echo (GRE) and spin-echo (SE) sequences, and to assess the influence of visual conspicuity and laterality on detection of these lesions. One hundred MS patients underwent 3.0T brain MRI including gadolinium-enhanced 2D T1-weighted GRE and SE sequences. The two sets of contrast-enhanced scans were evaluated in random fashion by three experienced readers. Lesion conspicuity was assessed by the image contrast ratio (CR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). The intracranial region was divided into four quadrants and the impact of lesion location on detection was assessed in each slice. Six hundred and seven gadolinium-enhancing MS lesions were identified. GRE images were more sensitive for lesion detection (0.828) than SE images (0.767). Lesions showed a higher CR in SE than in GRE images, whereas the CNR was higher in GRE than SE. Most misclassifications occurred in the right posterior quadrant. The gadolinium-enhanced 2D T1-weighted GRE sequence at 3.0T MRI enables detection of enhancing MS lesions with higher sensitivity and better lesion conspicuity than 2D T1-weighted SE. Hence, we propose the use of gadolinium-enhanced GRE sequences rather than SE sequences for routine scanning of MS patients at 3.0T. (orig.)

  13. Cytoprotective effects of Glycyrrhizae radix extract and its active component liquiritigenin against cadmium-induced toxicity (effects on bad translocation and cytochrome c-mediated PARP cleavage)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Chan; Byun, Sung Hui; Yang, Chae Ha; Kim, Chul Young; Kim, Jin Woong; Kim, Sang Geon

    2004-01-01

    Glycyrrhizae radix has been popularly used as one of the oldest and most frequently employed botanicals in herbal medicine in Asian countries, and currently occupies an important place in food products. Cadmium (Cd) induces both apoptotic and non-apoptotic cell death, in which alterations in cellular sulfhydryls participate. In the present study, we determined the effects of G. radix extract (GRE) and its representative active components on cell death induced by Cd and explored the mechanistic basis of cytoprotective effects of G. radix. Incubation of H4IIE cells with GRE inhibited cell death induced by 10 μM Cd. Also, GRE effectively blocked Cd (1 μM)-induced cell death potentiated by buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) without restoration of cellular GSH. GRE prevented both apoptotic and non-apoptotic cell injury induced by Cd (10 μM) or Cd (0.3-1 μM) + BSO. Inhibition of Cd-induced cell injury by pretreatment of cells with GRE suggested that the cytoprotective effect result from alterations in the levels of the protein(s) responsible for cell viability. GRE inhibited mitochondrial Bad translocation by Cd or Cd+BSO, and caused restoration of mitochondrial Bcl xL and cytochrome c levels. Cd-induced poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase cleavage in control cells or in cells deprived of sulfhydryls was prevented by GRE treatment. Among the major components present in GRE, liquiritigenin, but not liquiritin, isoliquiritigenin or glycyrrhizin, exerted cytoprotective effect. These results demonstrated that GRE blocked Cd-induced cell death by inhibiting the apoptotic processes involving translocation of Bad into mitochondria, decreases in mitochondrial Bcl xL and cytochrome c, and poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase cleavage

  14. Post-contrast T1-weighted sequences in pediatric abdominal imaging: comparative analysis of three different sequences and imaging approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roque, Andreia; Ramalho, Miguel; AlObaidy, Mamdoh; Heredia, Vasco; Burke, Lauren M.; De Campos, Rafael O.P.; Semelka, Richard C. [University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Department of Radiology, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Post-contrast T1-weighted imaging is an essential component of a comprehensive pediatric abdominopelvic MR examination. However, consistent good image quality is challenging, as respiratory motion in sedated children can substantially degrade the image quality. To compare the image quality of three different post-contrast T1-weighted imaging techniques - standard three-dimensional gradient-echo (3-D-GRE), magnetization-prepared gradient-recall echo (MP-GRE) and 3-D-GRE with radial data sampling (radial 3-D-GRE) - acquired in pediatric patients younger than 5 years of age. Sixty consecutive exams performed in 51 patients (23 females, 28 males; mean age 2.5 ± 1.4 years) constituted the final study population. Thirty-nine scans were performed at 3 T and 21 scans were performed at 1.5 T. Two different reviewers independently and blindly qualitatively evaluated all sequences to determine image quality and extent of artifacts. MP-GRE and radial 3-D-GRE sequences had the least respiratory motion (P < 0.0001). Standard 3-D-GRE sequences displayed the lowest average score ratings in hepatic and pancreatic edge definition, hepatic vessel clarity and overall image quality. Radial 3-D-GRE sequences showed the highest scores ratings in overall image quality. Our preliminary results support the preference of fat-suppressed radial 3-D-GRE as the best post-contrast T1-weighted imaging approach for patients under the age of 5 years, when dynamic imaging is not essential. (orig.)

  15. A munkaerő-piaci politika hatása a nemek közötti egyenlőségre a gazdasági átalakulás és az EU-csatlakozás időszakában: Csehország, Magyarország és Szlovénia összehasonlítása

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nagy, B.; Křížková, Alena; Kanjuo-Mrčela, A.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 1 (2012), s. 30-60 ISSN 1216-2051 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP404/10/0021 Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : female employment * gender equality * child care institutions Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography

  16. Position Control of Servo Systems Using Feed-Forward Friction Compensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Min Gyu; Kim, Han Me; Shin, Jong Min; Kim, Jong Shik

    2009-01-01

    Friction is an important factor for precise position tracking control of servo systems. Servo systems with highly nonlinear friction are sensitive to the variation of operating condition. To overcome this problem, we use the LuGre friction model which can consider dynamic characteristics of friction. The LuGre friction model is used as a feed-forward compensator to improve tracking performance of servo systems. The parameters of the LuGre friction model are identified through experiments. The experimental result shows that the tracking performance of servo systems with higherly nonlinear friction can be improved by using feed-forward friction compensation

  17. Use of Admission Criteria to Predict Performance of Students in an Entry-Level Master's Program on Fieldwork Placements and in Academic Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, G L; Stone, R G; Holm, M B

    2001-01-01

    The relationships among clinical outcomes, academic success, and predictors used to screen applicants for entrance into a Master in Occupational Therapy Program (MOT) were examined. The dependent variables were grade point average in occupational therapy courses (OT-GPA), client therapy outcomes at the clinic, and ratings of MOT students by Level II Fieldwork supervisors. Predictor variables included undergraduate GPA, scores on the Graduate Record Examination (GRE), and an essay. Both undergraduate GPA and scores on the GRE were found to predict OT-GPA. The analytical section of the GRE was also positively correlated with fieldwork supervisors' ratings of students.

  18. Estimation of patient radiation doses during radiologic examinations in the Republic of Haiti

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massillon, J.G.; Borras, C.

    2001-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection and the international organizations that co-sponsored the International Basic Safety Standards for the Protection against Ionization Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS) - among them PAHO and WHO - recommended the use of investigation levels to provide guidance for medical exposures. In this work, entrance surface doses for several common diagnostic radiology procedure have been determined from exposure rate measurements and patient technique factors in seven 'World Health Imaging System - Radiography' (WHIS-RAD) units, installed in public health services facilities of the Republic of Haiti. The results show the entrance surface doses below the guidance levels published in the BSS. Concomitant image quality measurements performed, however, indicate serious artifacts in the film processing, calling for the need of additional training of the technologists. (author)

  19. Crosslinking in the diglycidyl ether oligoepichlorhydrin-piperazine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantyn E. Varlan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of acquiring film material from a mixture of oligoepichlorhydrin diglycidylether and piperazyne discussed. The process involves elongation of the chain by means of reaction of the oligomer terminal oxyran cycles with piperazine aminogrups, and the subsequent formation of crosslinked by tertiary amine alongthe chainsalkylation whis chlorometyl dand groups of macromolecules. With this purpose, the model system investigated: epichlorohydrin−piperidine, epichlorohydrin−piperazine, oligoetylenglikol glicidyl ether−piperazine. The possibility of regulating the contributions of reactions of epoxy group and alkylation on crosslinking primary stage is disclosed, as well as material properties. Taking into account the found regularities receive elastic film structured materials with quaternary nitrogen atoms in the nodes. The ratio of tertiary and quaternary structure of nitrogen depends on the process conditions. Films swell in polar solvents and has ion-exchange properties.

  20. KODE DAN ALIH KODE SEBAGAI STRATEGI PENGAJARAN BAHASA INGGRIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umum B. Karyanto

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed to describe the form of code and code switching of certain code, whis is found in teaching and learning activities in class and the dominant factors that influence the form of code and code switching event. This research form is descriptive quatitative, with the case study taking location in MTs N (Model Pemalang (State Junior High School for Islamic Studies of Model Pemalang. The significance of the research is to enable readers to know language use about a set of rules and characteristic of language variation in teaching and learning activities in classroom, in a multilingual society, especially at MTs N (Model pemalang. Furthermore, the result of this research can be used as input to develop and contribute to teachers in developping skill of oral communication and teaching learning strategy effectiveness in MTs N (Model environment

  1. Burnout and demographic characteristics of workers experiencing different types of work-home interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Merecz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore configurations of positive versus negative interactions between work and home (WHI and their relation to burnout and demographic characteristics. Material and Methods: Sample of 533 Polish workers were interviewed by means of self-administered questionnaires (SWING and MBI-GS. Demographic and work characteristics were also controlled. Results: Cluster analysis distinguished 5 types of WHIs: positive WHI (18%, negative WHI (15.9%, no interaction (29.3%, mutual positive interactions (15.4% and positive HWI (21.4%. The quality of WHI was associated with number of work hours and tenure at main place of employment. The effect of gender on the quality of work-home interaction was not significant. Configuration of WHIs affected the level of burnout. Again, there was no significant difference between men and women in terms of burnout and its sub-dimensions. The least burned-out were people from positive WHI, positive HWI and mutual positive interaction groups. The most burned-out were people who experienced negative WHI the most often. In this group, predominance of men working more than 10 h per day was observed. The majority of study group (71% experienced rather integration than segmentation of both spheres. Conclusions: Our results suggest that segmentation is not an universal and effective strategy of coping with work and home demands – it may prevent the positive home-work spillover, which can be buffer or remedy against stress or burnout. We consider cluster analysis the appropriate method in research on relation to work-family balance issue, which may be useful in unraveling relationships between this phenomenon and attitudes and behaviors.

  2. Burnout and demographic characteristics of workers experiencing different types of work-home interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merecz, Dorota; Andysz, Aleksandra

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore configurations of positive versus negative interactions between work and home (WHI) and their relation to burnout and demographic characteristics. Sample of 533 Polish workers were interviewed by means of self-administered questionnaires (SWING and MBI-GS). Demographic and work characteristics were also controlled. Cluster analysis distinguished 5 types of WHIs: positive WHI (18%), negative WHI (15.9%), no interaction (29.3%), mutual positive interactions (15.4%) and positive HWI (21.4%). The quality of WHI was associated with number of work hours and tenure at main place of employment. The effect of gender on the quality of work-home interaction was not significant. Configuration of WHIs affected the level of burnout. Again, there was no significant difference between men and women in terms of burnout and its sub-dimensions. The least burned-out were people from positive WHI, positive HWI and mutual positive interaction groups. The most burned-out were people who experienced negative WHI the most often. In this group, predominance of men working more than 10 h per day was observed. The majority of study group (71%) experienced rather integration than segmentation of both spheres. Our results suggest that segmentation is not an universal and effective strategy of coping with work and home demands - it may prevent the positive home-work spillover, which can be buffer or remedy against stress or burnout. We consider cluster analysis the appropriate method in research on relation to work-family balance issue, which may be useful in unraveling relationships between this phenomenon and attitudes and behaviors.

  3. Leaving against medical advice of addicted to drugs in a Department of Infectious Diseases: Economical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia González

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Giving up health recommendations and care against medical advice is a setback that may happen in daily health work. In a pilot study made at the Department of Infectious Diseases in Hospital Gregorio Marañón (Madrid, Spain, during the first five months in 1998, the incidence of leaving against medical advice was 12,3 times higher than the mean in that hospital (7,03% vs 0,57%. Patients involved in this kind of event were drug abusers with acute infectious problems in a HIV primary infection or a multiple drug dependency. 42% of this patients returned to the hospital in the next 15 days. The research group thought out to study this problem under this hypothesis: Leaving against medical advice, besides having harmful consequences for the patient and the public health, produces an increase in the cost and the stay of the patient in hospital.The main objective of the research was to set up the economic the deviation in the cost/stay of a group of patients that had left against medical advice or in a regular process. It is a prospective and observational study. We studied 284 drug abusers staying in the Department of Infectious Diseases between Oct, 1st, 1999 and Sept, 30th, 2000. The research variables were: 1. Sociodemographic: Initials, , age, sex, and history number. 2. Clinical: Leaving medical diagnosis, returning medical diagnosis. 3. Administrative: Group of Related Diagnosis (GRD, admission date, leaving date, returning date and estimated cost of the episode. All episodes were grouped by kind of leaving and GRD. The cost/stay was calculated adjusted to GRD, and the deviations inside GRD were analyzed in the regular leaving group and the leaving against medical advice group.Results: Around 90% admission episodes were grouped in 6 GRD: 714 (47.92%, 541 (8.85%, 709 (8.85%, 710 (7,81%, 101 (7,29% y 715 (7,29%. The Pneumonia in HIV (GRD 714 caused the majority of the admissions. Global deviation adjusted to cost/stay was 29,44% (more expensive

  4. Bioproducts fro biorefineries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biorefineries of the future may convert biomass to fuels, chemicals, and materials that are provided today by petroleum refineries. Bioproducts are attractive because they could offer benefits of renewability, environmental and personal safety, and biodegradability or recyclability. However, a gre...

  5. Evaluation of a new eastern blotting technique for the analysis of ginsenoside Re in American ginseng berry pulp extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morinaga, Osamu; Uto, Takuhiro; Yuan, Chun-Su; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Shoyama, Yukihiro

    2010-06-01

    A new eastern blotting technique has been established for ginsenoside Re (G-Re) contained in American ginseng berry pulp extracts. G-Re in American ginseng berry pulp was extracted using 100% methanol, 100% ethanol, 50% aqueous methanol, and 50% aqueous ethanol. The combined crude extracts were applied onto a polyethersulfone membrane and developed using the methanol-water-acetic acid solvent system (45:55:1 v/v). Separated components were immunostained using anti-G-Re monoclonal antibody. G-Re was first specifically detected and then quantitatively analyzed using NIH Imaging software. We also confirmed that the most suitable solvent was 50% aqueous methanol for extracting G-Re from American ginseng berry pulp. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. MR contrast of ferritin and hemosiderin in the brain: comparison among gradient-echo, conventional spin-echo and fast spin-echo sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haque, Tabassum Laz; Miki, Yukio; Kanagaki, Mitsunori; Takahashi, Takahiro; Yamamoto, Akira; Konishi, Junya; Nozaki, Kazuhiko; Hashimoto, Nobuo; Konishi, Junji

    2003-12-01

    Objective: To compare the magnetic resonance image contrasts due to ferritin and hemosiderin in the brain tissue among different pulse sequences. Materials and methods: Fourteen patients with cavernous hemangioma in the brain prospectively underwent MR imaging with T2*-weighted gradient-echo (GRE), T2-weighted conventional spin-echo (SE) and fast spin-echo (FSE) sequences. The relative contrast ratios (CRs) of the hypointense part of cavernous hemangioma, globus pallidus and putamen to the deep frontal white matter were measured on each pulse sequence and statistically analyzed using analysis of variance followed by paired t-test. Results: In the hypointense part of cavernous hemangioma, relative CRs were significantly lower on T2*-weighted GRE than on T2-weighted SE images (P=0.0001), and on T2-weighted SE than on T2-weighted FSE images (P=0.0001). In the globus pallidus, relative CRs were significantly lower on T2-weighted SE than on T2*-weighted GRE images (P=0.002), and on T2*-weighted GRE than on T2-weighted FSE images (P=0.0002). In the putamen, relative CRs were significantly lower on T2-weighted SE than on T2*-weighted GRE images (P=0.001), and there was no significant difference between CRs on T2-weighted FSE and T2*-weighted GRE images (P=0.90). Conclusion: Hemosiderin showed best image contrast on T2*-weighted GRE images but ferritin showed more prominent image contrast on T2-weighted SE than on T2*-weighted GRE images, which may help to determine an appropriate pulse sequence in neurological diseases associated with excessive ferritin accumulation.

  7. MR contrast of ferritin and hemosiderin in the brain: comparison among gradient-echo, conventional spin-echo and fast spin-echo sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haque, Tabassum Laz; Miki, Yukio; Kanagaki, Mitsunori; Takahashi, Takahiro; Yamamoto, Akira; Konishi, Junya; Nozaki, Kazuhiko; Hashimoto, Nobuo; Konishi, Junji

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To compare the magnetic resonance image contrasts due to ferritin and hemosiderin in the brain tissue among different pulse sequences. Materials and methods: Fourteen patients with cavernous hemangioma in the brain prospectively underwent MR imaging with T2*-weighted gradient-echo (GRE), T2-weighted conventional spin-echo (SE) and fast spin-echo (FSE) sequences. The relative contrast ratios (CRs) of the hypointense part of cavernous hemangioma, globus pallidus and putamen to the deep frontal white matter were measured on each pulse sequence and statistically analyzed using analysis of variance followed by paired t-test. Results: In the hypointense part of cavernous hemangioma, relative CRs were significantly lower on T2*-weighted GRE than on T2-weighted SE images (P=0.0001), and on T2-weighted SE than on T2-weighted FSE images (P=0.0001). In the globus pallidus, relative CRs were significantly lower on T2-weighted SE than on T2*-weighted GRE images (P=0.002), and on T2*-weighted GRE than on T2-weighted FSE images (P=0.0002). In the putamen, relative CRs were significantly lower on T2-weighted SE than on T2*-weighted GRE images (P=0.001), and there was no significant difference between CRs on T2-weighted FSE and T2*-weighted GRE images (P=0.90). Conclusion: Hemosiderin showed best image contrast on T2*-weighted GRE images but ferritin showed more prominent image contrast on T2-weighted SE than on T2*-weighted GRE images, which may help to determine an appropriate pulse sequence in neurological diseases associated with excessive ferritin accumulation

  8. Free-breathing contrast-enhanced T1-weighted gradient-echo imaging with radial k-space sampling for paediatric abdominopelvic MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandarana, Hersh; Block, Kai T.; Winfeld, Matthew J.; Lala, Shailee V.; Mazori, Daniel; Giuffrida, Emalyn; Babb, James S.; Milla, Sarah S. [New York University Langone Medical Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-02-15

    To compare the image quality of contrast-enhanced abdominopelvic 3D fat-suppressed T1-weighted gradient-echo imaging with radial and conventional Cartesian k-space acquisition schemes in paediatric patients. Seventy-three consecutive paediatric patients were imaged at 1.5 T with sequential contrast-enhanced T1-weighted Cartesian (VIBE) and radial gradient echo (GRE) acquisition schemes with matching parameters when possible. Cartesian VIBE was acquired as a breath-hold or as free breathing in patients who could not suspend respiration, followed by free-breathing radial GRE in all patients. Two paediatric radiologists blinded to the acquisition schemes evaluated multiple parameters of image quality on a five-point scale, with higher score indicating a more optimal examination. Lesion presence or absence, conspicuity and edge sharpness were also evaluated. Mixed-model analysis of variance was performed to compare radial GRE and Cartesian VIBE. Radial GRE had significantly (all P < 0.001) higher scores for overall image quality, hepatic edge sharpness, hepatic vessel clarity and respiratory motion robustness than Cartesian VIBE. More lesions were detected on radial GRE by both readers than on Cartesian VIBE, with significantly higher scores for lesion conspicuity and edge sharpness (all P < 0.001). Radial GRE has better image quality and lesion conspicuity than conventional Cartesian VIBE in paediatric patients undergoing contrast-enhanced abdominopelvic MRI. (orig.)

  9. Gradient-recalled echo sequences in direct shoulder MR arthrography for evaluating the labrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Marc J.; Motamedi, Kambiz; Chow, Kira; Seeger, Leanne L.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the utility of fat-suppressed gradient-recalled echo (GRE) compared with conventional spin echo T1-weighted (T1W) sequences in direct shoulder MR arthrography for evaluating labral tears. Three musculoskeletal radiologists retrospectively reviewed MR arthrograms performed over a 12-month period for which surgical correlation was available. Of 180 serial arthrograms, 31 patients had surgery with a mean of 48 days following imaging. Paired coronal oblique and axial T1W or GRE sequences were analyzed by consensus for labral tear (coronal oblique two-dimensional multi-echo data image combination, 2D MEDIC; and axial three-dimensional double-echo steady-state, 3D DESS; Siemens MAGNETOM Sonata 1.5-T MR system). Interpretations were correlated with operative reports. Of 31 shoulders, 25 had labral tears at surgery. The GRE sequences depicted labral tears in 22, while T1W images depicted tears in 16 (sensitivity 88% versus 64%; p 0.7). Specificities were somewhat lower for GRE. Thin section GRE sequences are more sensitive than T1W for the detection of anterior and posterior labral tears. As the specificity of GRE was lower, it should be considered as an adjunctive imaging sequence that may improve depiction of labral tears, particularly smaller tears, in routine MR arthrography protocols. (orig.)

  10. La codificación como instrumento en la gestión clínica de las unidades del dolor

    OpenAIRE

    Acedo Gutiérrez, M.S.; Rodríguez Sánchez, S.; González García, E.; Sanz Ayán, M.P.; Martínez Salio, A.; Vicente Fatela, L.

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: los principales instrumentos de información para la gestión clínica se basan en la recogida sistemática de datos clínicos, que se materializa en el CMBD, y en la utilización de sistemas de clasificación de pacientes, siendo los AP-GRD los adoptados en nuestro país por la administración sanitaria. Los datos necesarios para realizar la agrupación en GRD están contenidos en el CMBD y entre ellos están: diagnóstico principal, intervenciones o procedimientos y diagnósticos secundario...

  11. Expanding the Repertoire of Carbapenem-Hydrolyzing Metallo-ß-Lactamases by Functional Metagenomic Analysis of Soil Microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudeta, Dereje D.; Bortolaia, Valeria; Pollini, Simona

    2016-01-01

    , diversity and functionality of carbapenemase-encoding genes in soil microbiota by functional metagenomics. Ten plasmid libraries were generated by cloning metagenomic DNA from agricultural (n = 6) and grassland (n = 4) soil into Escherichia coli. The libraries were cultured on amoxicillin-containing agar......% identity). RAIphy analysis indicated that six enzymes (CRD3-1, GRD23-1, DHT2-1, SPN79-1, ALG6-1, and ALG11-1) originated from Proteobacteria, two (PEDO-1 and ESP-2) from Bacteroidetes and one (GRD33-1) from Gemmatimonadetes. All MBLs detected in soil microbiota were functional when expressed in E. coli...... approaches targeted different subpopulations in soil microbiota....

  12. Increased salivary oxidative stress parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes: Relation with periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arana, Carlos; Moreno-Fernández, Ana María; Gómez-Moreno, Gerardo; Morales-Portillo, Cristóbal; Serrano-Olmedo, Isabel; de la Cuesta Mayor, M Carmen; Martín Hernández, Tomás

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether there are differences in salivary oxidative stress between patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) and healthy non-diabetic patients, and whether this oxidative stress is associated with the presence of periodontal disease in diabetic patients. This observational study included 70 patients divided into three groups according to metabolic control levels: 19 non-diabetic patients (control group); 24 patients with good metabolic control (HbA1c7%). The following oxidative stress parameters were measured in all subjects: glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GRd), reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG). Periodontal health was determined by means of the community periodontal index (CPI) recommended by the WHO. The diabetic group with good metabolic control showed a significant increase in GPx and GRd activity in comparison with the control group (Pperiodontal health. Copyright © 2017 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Reduced GABAA receptor density contralateral to a potentially epileptogenic MRI abnormality in a patient with complex partial seizures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwert, T.; Stodieck, S.R.G.; Puskas, C.; Diehl, B.; Puskas, Z.; Schuierer, G.; Vollet, B.; Schober, O.

    1996-01-01

    Imaging cerebral GABA A receptor density (GRD) with single-photon emission tomography (SPET) and iodine-123 iomazenil is highly accurate in lateralizing epileptogenic foci in patients with complex partial seizures of temporal origin. Limited knowledge exists on how iomazenil SPET compares with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in this regard. We present a patient with complex partial seizures in whom MRI had identified an arachnoid cyst anterior to the tip of the left temporal lobe. Contralaterally to this structural abnormality, interictal electroencephalography (EEG) performed after sleep deprivation disclosed an intermittent frontotemporal dysrhythmic focus with slow and sharp waves. On iomazenil SPET images GRD was significantly reduced in the right temporal lobe and thus contralaterally to the MRI abnormality, but ipsilaterally to the pathological EEG findings. These data suggest that iomazenil SPET may significantly contribute to the presurgical evaluation of epileptic patients even when MRI identifies potentialy epileptogenic structural lesions. (orig.)

  14. Reduced GABA{sub A} receptor density contralateral to a potentially epileptogenic MRI abnormality in a patient with complex partial seizures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuwert, T. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Muenster Univ. (Germany); Stodieck, S.R.G. [Dept. of Neurology, Muenster Univ. (Germany); Puskas, C. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Muenster Univ. (Germany); Diehl, B. [Dept. of Neurology, Muenster Univ. (Germany); Puskas, Z. [Inst. of Clinical Radiology, Muenster Univ. (Germany); Schuierer, G. [Inst. of Clinical Radiology, Muenster Univ. (Germany); Vollet, B. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Muenster Univ. (Germany); Schober, O. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Muenster Univ. (Germany)

    1996-01-01

    Imaging cerebral GABA{sub A} receptor density (GRD) with single-photon emission tomography (SPET) and iodine-123 iomazenil is highly accurate in lateralizing epileptogenic foci in patients with complex partial seizures of temporal origin. Limited knowledge exists on how iomazenil SPET compares with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in this regard. We present a patient with complex partial seizures in whom MRI had identified an arachnoid cyst anterior to the tip of the left temporal lobe. Contralaterally to this structural abnormality, interictal electroencephalography (EEG) performed after sleep deprivation disclosed an intermittent frontotemporal dysrhythmic focus with slow and sharp waves. On iomazenil SPET images GRD was significantly reduced in the right temporal lobe and thus contralaterally to the MRI abnormality, but ipsilaterally to the pathological EEG findings. These data suggest that iomazenil SPET may significantly contribute to the presurgical evaluation of epileptic patients even when MRI identifies potentialy epileptogenic structural lesions. (orig.)

  15. Pemberian Kombinasi Pupuk Hijau Azolla Pinnata Dengan Pupuk Guano Terhadap Pertumbuhan Dan Produksi Tanaman Pakchoy (Brassica Chinensis L.)

    OpenAIRE

    OS, Ozi Nurhasanah; Yetti, Husna; Ariani, Erlida

    2015-01-01

    This research aimed to look the influence of the combination of green fertilizer Azolla pinnata with guano toward the growth and production of pakchoy and to obtain the best treatment from Azolla pinnata with guano toward pakchoy. This research was conducted at the experimental farm of Farming Faculty of Riau University. This research was accomplished during 3 months that was from June to August 2014. It was carried out experimentally with Group Random Design (GRD), the treatment given which ...

  16. Optical Fibre Biosensors Using Enzymatic Transducers to Monitor Glucose

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Scully, P. J.; Betancor, L.; Bolyó, Juraj; Dzyadevych, S.; Guisan, J.M.; Fernández-Lafuente, R.; Jaffrezic-Renault, N.; Kuncová, Gabriela; Matějec, Vlastimil; O´Kennedy, B.; Podrazký, Ondřej; Rose, K.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 10 (2007), s. 3177-3186 ISSN 0957-0233 Grant - others:MATINOES(XE) GRD1/2001/40477 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504; CEZ:AV0Z20670512 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : optical fibre biosensor * quenching Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.297, year: 2007

  17. Expanding the Repertoire of Carbapenem-Hydrolyzing Metallo-ß-Lactamases by Functional Metagenomic Analysis of Soil Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudeta, Dereje D; Bortolaia, Valeria; Pollini, Simona; Docquier, Jean-Denis; Rossolini, Gian M; Amos, Gregory C A; Wellington, Elizabeth M H; Guardabassi, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Carbapenemases are bacterial enzymes that hydrolyze carbapenems, a group of last-resort β-lactam antibiotics used for treatment of severe bacterial infections. They belong to three β-lactamase classes based amino acid sequence (A, B, and D). The aim of this study was to elucidate occurrence, diversity and functionality of carbapenemase-encoding genes in soil microbiota by functional metagenomics. Ten plasmid libraries were generated by cloning metagenomic DNA from agricultural ( n = 6) and grassland ( n = 4) soil into Escherichia coli . The libraries were cultured on amoxicillin-containing agar and up to 100 colonies per library were screened for carbapenemase production by CarbaNP test. Presumptive carbapenemases were characterized with regard to DNA sequence, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of β-lactams, and imipenem hydrolysis. Nine distinct class B carbapenemases, also known as metallo-beta-lactamases (MBLs), were identified in six soil samples, including two subclass B1 (GRD23-1 and SPN79-1) and seven subclass B3 (CRD3-1, PEDO-1, GRD33-1, ESP-2, ALG6-1, ALG11-1, and DHT2-1). Except PEDO-1 and ESP-2, these enzymes were distantly related to any previously described MBLs (33 to 59% identity). RAIphy analysis indicated that six enzymes (CRD3-1, GRD23-1, DHT2-1, SPN79-1, ALG6-1, and ALG11-1) originated from Proteobacteria , two (PEDO-1 and ESP-2) from Bacteroidetes and one (GRD33-1) from Gemmatimonadetes . All MBLs detected in soil microbiota were functional when expressed in E. coli , resulting in detectable imipenem-hydrolyzing activity and significantly increased MICs of clinically relevant ß-lactams. Interestingly, the MBLs yielded by functional metagenomics generally differed from those detected in the same soil samples by antibiotic selective culture, showing that the two approaches targeted different subpopulations in soil microbiota.

  18. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of N-(3-Florophenylethylcaffeamide in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueh-Hsiung Kuo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of one synthetic product, N-(3-Florophenylethylcaffeamide (abbrev. FECA, by using animal model of λ-carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice. The anti-inflammatory mechanism of FECA was determined by measuring the levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, nitric oxide (NO, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β, and malondialdehyde (MDA in the edema paw tissue, and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, and glutathione reductase (GRd in the liver. The results showed that FECA reduced the paw edema at three, four and five hours after λ-carrageenan administration. The levels of COX-2, NO, TNF-α, and MDA in the λ-carrageenan-induced edema paws were reduced and the activities of SOD, GPx, and GRd in liver tissues were raised by FECA. These results suggested that FECA possessed anti-inflammatory activities and the anti-inflammatory mechanisms might be related to the decrease of the levels of COX-2, NO, and TNF-α in inflamed tissues and the increase in the MDA level by increasing the activities of SOD, GPx, and GRd.

  19. Radial Ultrashort TE Imaging Removes the Need for Breath-Holding in Hepatic Iron Overload Quantification by R2* MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipirneni-Sajja, Aaryani; Krafft, Axel J; McCarville, M Beth; Loeffler, Ralf B; Song, Ruitian; Hankins, Jane S; Hillenbrand, Claudia M

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate radial free-breathing (FB) multiecho ultrashort TE (UTE) imaging as an alternative to Cartesian FB multiecho gradient-recalled echo (GRE) imaging for quantitative assessment of hepatic iron content (HIC) in sedated patients and subjects unable to perform breath-hold (BH) maneuvers. FB multiecho GRE imaging and FB multiecho UTE imaging were conducted for 46 test group patients with iron overload who could not complete BH maneuvers (38 patients were sedated, and eight were not sedated) and 16 control patients who could complete BH maneuvers. Control patients also underwent standard BH multiecho GRE imaging. Quantitative R2* maps were calculated, and mean liver R2* values and coefficients of variation (CVs) for different acquisitions and patient groups were compared using statistical analysis. FB multiecho GRE images displayed motion artifacts and significantly lower R2* values, compared with standard BH multiecho GRE images and FB multiecho UTE images in the control cohort and FB multiecho UTE images in the test cohort. In contrast, FB multiecho UTE images produced artifact-free R2* maps, and mean R2* values were not significantly different from those measured by BH multiecho GRE imaging. Motion artifacts on FB multiecho GRE images resulted in an R2* CV that was approximately twofold higher than the R2* CV from BH multiecho GRE imaging and FB multiecho UTE imaging. The R2* CV was relatively constant over the range of R2* values for FB multiecho UTE, but it increased with increases in R2* for FB multiecho GRE imaging, reflecting that motion artifacts had a stronger impact on R2* estimation with increasing iron burden. FB multiecho UTE imaging was less motion sensitive because of radial sampling, produced excellent image quality, and yielded accurate R2* estimates within the same acquisition time used for multiaveraged FB multiecho GRE imaging. Thus, FB multiecho UTE imaging is a viable alternative for accurate HIC assessment

  20. In-phase and out-of-phase gradient-echo imaging in abdominal studies: intra-individual comparison of three different techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramalho, Miguel; Heredia, Vasco; Campos, Rafael O. P. de; Azevedo, Rafael M.; Semelka, Richard C.; Dale, Brian M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: T1-weighted gradient-echo in-phase and out-of-phase imaging is an essential component of comprehensive abdominal MR exams. It is useful for the study of fat-containing lesions and to identify various disease states related to the presence of fat in the liver. Purpose: To compare three T1-weighted in-phase and out-of-phase (IP/OP) gradient-echo imaging sequences in an intra-individual fashion, and to determine whether advantages exist for each of these sequences for various patient types. Material and Methods: One hundred and eighteen consecutive subjects (74 men, 44 women; mean age 53.9 ± 13.8 years) who had MRI examinations containing all three different IP/OP sequences (two-dimensional spoiled gradient-echo [2D-GRE], three-dimensional gradient-echo [3D-GRE], and magnetization-prepared gradient-recall echo [MP-GRE]) were included. Two different reviewers independently and blindly qualitatively evaluated IP/OP sequences to determine image quality, extent of artifacts, lesion detectability and conspicuity, and subjective grading of liver steatosis for the various sequences. Quantitative analysis was also performed. Qualitative and quantitative data were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: Respiratory ghosting, parallel imaging, and truncation artifacts as well as shading and blurring were more pronounced with 3D-GRE IP/OP imaging. Overall image quality was higher with 2D-GRE (P < 0.05). Detectability of low-fluid content lesions was lower with IP/OP MP-GRE sequences. MP-GRE sequences had the lowest SNRs (P < 0.001). Liver-to-spleen and liver-to-lesion CNRs were significantly lower with 3D-GRE and MP-GR, respectively (P < 0.001). Fat liver indexes showed strongly positive correlation between all sequences. Conclusion: Currently, 2D-GRE remains the best approach for clinical IP/OP imaging. The good image quality of MP-GRE sequences acquired in a free-breathing manner should recommend its use in patients unable to suspend breathing

  1. In-phase and out-of-phase gradient-echo imaging in abdominal studies: intra-individual comparison of three different techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramalho, Miguel; Heredia, Vasco; Campos, Rafael O. P. de; Azevedo, Rafael M.; Semelka, Richard C. (Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (United States)); Dale, Brian M. (Siemens Medical Systems, Morrisville (United States)), email: richsem@med.unc.edu

    2012-05-15

    Background: T1-weighted gradient-echo in-phase and out-of-phase imaging is an essential component of comprehensive abdominal MR exams. It is useful for the study of fat-containing lesions and to identify various disease states related to the presence of fat in the liver. Purpose: To compare three T1-weighted in-phase and out-of-phase (IP/OP) gradient-echo imaging sequences in an intra-individual fashion, and to determine whether advantages exist for each of these sequences for various patient types. Material and Methods: One hundred and eighteen consecutive subjects (74 men, 44 women; mean age 53.9 +- 13.8 years) who had MRI examinations containing all three different IP/OP sequences (two-dimensional spoiled gradient-echo [2D-GRE], three-dimensional gradient-echo [3D-GRE], and magnetization-prepared gradient-recall echo [MP-GRE]) were included. Two different reviewers independently and blindly qualitatively evaluated IP/OP sequences to determine image quality, extent of artifacts, lesion detectability and conspicuity, and subjective grading of liver steatosis for the various sequences. Quantitative analysis was also performed. Qualitative and quantitative data were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: Respiratory ghosting, parallel imaging, and truncation artifacts as well as shading and blurring were more pronounced with 3D-GRE IP/OP imaging. Overall image quality was higher with 2D-GRE (P < 0.05). Detectability of low-fluid content lesions was lower with IP/OP MP-GRE sequences. MP-GRE sequences had the lowest SNRs (P < 0.001). Liver-to-spleen and liver-to-lesion CNRs were significantly lower with 3D-GRE and MP-GR, respectively (P < 0.001). Fat liver indexes showed strongly positive correlation between all sequences. Conclusion: Currently, 2D-GRE remains the best approach for clinical IP/OP imaging. The good image quality of MP-GRE sequences acquired in a free-breathing manner should recommend its use in patients unable to suspend breathing

  2. Study of optimal flip angle for inversion-recovery gradient echo method in delayed contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Masashi; Matsumura, Yoshio; Tsuchihashi, Toshio

    2013-01-01

    Delayed contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a valuable tool for detecting myocardial infarction and assessing myocardial viability. The standard viability MRI technique is the inversion-recovery gradient echo (IR-GRE) method. Several previous studies have demonstrated that this imaging technique provides superior image quality at high magnetic field strengths, e.g., 3.0 T. However, there are numerous possible flip angles. We investigated the optimal flip angle of IR-GRE in delayed contrast-enhanced cardiac MRI. Phantoms were made that modeled infarcted myocardium and normal myocardium after administration of contrast agent. To determine optimal flip angle, we compared the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) among these phantoms and evaluated the degree of artifacts induced by increased flip angle. The flip angle that showed the highest CNR for 2D IR-GRE and 3D IR-GRE was 30deg/15deg at 1.5 T and 25deg/15deg at 3.0 T. The flip angle that showed the highest CNR was independent of R-R interval. Streak artifacts induced by increased flip angle tended to occur more readily at 3.0 T than 1.5 T. The optimal flip angle for 2D IR-GRE and 3D IR-GRE at 1.5 T was 30deg and 15deg, respectively. At 3.0 T, taking into account the results for both CNR and streak artifacts, we concluded the optimal flip angle of 2D IR-GRE to be 15-20deg. (author)

  3. Cerebral staging of lung cancer: is one single contrast-enhanced T1-weighted three-dimensional gradient-echo sequence sufficient?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohana, Mickael; Jeung, Mi-Young; Roy, Catherine [Nouvel Hopital Civil-Hopitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, Service de Radiologie B/Radiology Department, Strasbourg (France); Bazille, Gauthier [Clinique Saint Anne-Groupe Radiologique MIM, Strasbourg (France)

    2014-08-15

    Gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the gold standard for cerebral staging in thoracic oncology. We hypothesize that a minimalist examination, consisting of a single contrast-enhanced T1-weighted three-dimensional gradient-echo sequence (CE 3D-GRE), would be sufficient for the cerebral staging of nonsymptomatic lung cancer patients. Seventy nonsymptomatic patients (50 % men; 62 years ± 10.2) referred for cerebral staging of a lung cancer were retrospectively included. All underwent a standard 3 T MRI examination with T1, FLAIR, T2* GRE, diffusion, and CE 3D-GRE sequences, for a total examination time of 20 min. The sole CE 3D-GRE (acquisition time: 6 min) was extracted and blindly interpreted by two radiologists in search of brain metastases. Hemorrhagic features of potential lesions and relevant incidental findings were also noted. Discrepant cases were reviewed by a third reader. The full MRI examination and follow-up studies were used as a reference to calculate sensitivity and specificity of the sole CE 3D-GRE. Thirty-eight point six percent (27 out of 70) of the patients had brain metastases. Performances and reader's agreement with the sole CE 3D-GRE sequence were excellent for the diagnosis of brain metastases (sensitivity = 96.3 %, specificity = 100 %, κ = 0.91) and incidental findings (sensitivity = 85.7 %, specificity = 100 %, κ = 0.62) but insufficient for the identification of hemorrhages within the metastases (sensitivity = 33.3 %, specificity = 85.7 %, κ = 0.47). In the specific case of lung cancer, cerebral staging in nonsymptomatic patients can be efficiently achieved with a minimalistic protocol consisting of a single CE 3D-GRE sequence, completed if positive with a T2* sequence for hemorrhagic assessment, thus halving appointment delays. (orig.)

  4. Gradient-recalled echo sequences in direct shoulder MR arthrography for evaluating the labrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Marc J.; Motamedi, Kambiz; Chow, Kira; Seeger, Leanne L. [David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Department of Radiology, 200 UCLA Medical Plaza, Suite 165-59, Box 956952, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2008-01-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine the utility of fat-suppressed gradient-recalled echo (GRE) compared with conventional spin echo T1-weighted (T1W) sequences in direct shoulder MR arthrography for evaluating labral tears. Three musculoskeletal radiologists retrospectively reviewed MR arthrograms performed over a 12-month period for which surgical correlation was available. Of 180 serial arthrograms, 31 patients had surgery with a mean of 48 days following imaging. Paired coronal oblique and axial T1W or GRE sequences were analyzed by consensus for labral tear (coronal oblique two-dimensional multi-echo data image combination, 2D MEDIC; and axial three-dimensional double-echo steady-state, 3D DESS; Siemens MAGNETOM Sonata 1.5-T MR system). Interpretations were correlated with operative reports. Of 31 shoulders, 25 had labral tears at surgery. The GRE sequences depicted labral tears in 22, while T1W images depicted tears in 16 (sensitivity 88% versus 64%; p < 0.05). Subdividing the labrum, GRE was significantly more sensitive for the posterior labrum (75% versus 25%; p < 0.05) with a trend toward greater sensitivity at the anterior labrum (78% versus 56%; p = 0.157) but not significantly different for the superior labrum (50% versus 57%; p > 0.7). Specificities were somewhat lower for GRE. Thin section GRE sequences are more sensitive than T1W for the detection of anterior and posterior labral tears. As the specificity of GRE was lower, it should be considered as an adjunctive imaging sequence that may improve depiction of labral tears, particularly smaller tears, in routine MR arthrography protocols. (orig.)

  5. Three-dimensional susceptibility-weighted imaging and two-dimensional T2*-weighted gradient-echo imaging of intratumoral hemorrhages in pediatric diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loebel, Ulrike; Sedlacik, Jan; Sabin, Noah D.; Hillenbrand, Claudia M.; Patay, Zoltan; Kocak, Mehmet; Broniscer, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    We compared the sensitivity and specificity of T2*-weighted gradient-echo imaging (T2*-GRE) and susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) in determining prevalence and cumulative incidence of intratumoral hemorrhages in children with diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) undergoing antiangiogenic and radiation therapy. Patients were recruited from an institutional review board-approved prospective phase I trial of vandetanib administered in combination with radiation therapy. Patient consent was obtained before enrollment. Consecutive T2*-GRE and SWI exams of 17 patients (F/M: 9/8; age 3-17 years) were evaluated. Two reviewers (R1 and R2) determined the number and size of hemorrhages at baseline and multiple follow-ups (92 scans, mean 5.4/patient). Statistical analyses were performed using descriptive statistics, graphical tools, and mixed-effects Poisson regression models. Prevalence of hemorrhages at diagnosis was 41% and 47%; the cumulative incidences of hemorrhages at 6 months by T2*-GRE and SWI were 82% and 88%, respectively. Hemorrhages were mostly petechial; 9.7% of lesions on T2*-GRE and 5.2% on SWI were hematomas (>5 mm). SWI identified significantly more hemorrhages than T2*-GRE did. Lesions were missed or misinterpreted in 36/39 (R1/R2) scans by T2*-GRE and 9/3 scans (R1/R2) by SWI. Hemorrhages had no clinically significant neurological correlates in patients. SWI is more sensitive than T2*-GRE in detecting hemorrhages and differentiating them from calcification, necrosis, and artifacts. Also, petechial hemorrhages are more common in DIPG at diagnosis than previously believed and their number increases during the course of treatment; hematomas are rare. (orig.)

  6. Three-dimensional gradient echo versus spin echo sequence in contrast-enhanced imaging of the pituitary gland at 3 T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakite, Suguru, E-mail: sugkaki@med.tottori-u.ac.jp [Division of Radiology, Department of Pathophysiological and Therapeutic Science, Faculty of Medicine, Tottori University, 36-1, Nishicho, Yonago 683-8503 (Japan); Fujii, Shinya [Division of Radiology, Department of Pathophysiological and Therapeutic Science, Faculty of Medicine, Tottori University, 36-1, Nishicho, Yonago 683-8503 (Japan); Kurosaki, Masamichi [Department of Neurosurgery, Faculty of Medicine, Tottori University, 36-1, Nishicho, Yonago 683-8503 (Japan); Kanasaki, Yoshiko; Matsusue, Eiji; Kaminou, Toshio; Ogawa, Toshihide [Division of Radiology, Department of Pathophysiological and Therapeutic Science, Faculty of Medicine, Tottori University, 36-1, Nishicho, Yonago 683-8503 (Japan)

    2011-07-15

    Introduction: To clarify whether a three-dimensional-gradient echo (3D-GRE) or spin echo (SE) sequence is more useful for evaluating sellar lesions on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MR imaging at 3.0 Tesla (T). Methods: We retrospectively assessed contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images using 3D-GRE and SE sequences at 3.0 T obtained from 33 consecutive patients with clinically suspected sellar lesions. Two experienced neuroradiologists evaluated the images qualitatively in terms of the following criteria: boundary edge of the cavernous sinus and pituitary gland, border of sellar lesions, delineation of the optic nerve and cranial nerves within the cavernous sinus, susceptibility and flow artifacts, and overall image quality. Results: At 3.0 T, 3D-GRE provided significantly better images than the SE sequence in terms of the border of sellar lesions, delineation of cranial nerves, and overall image quality; there was no significant difference regarding the boundary edge of the cavernous sinus and pituitary gland. In addition, the 3D-GRE sequence showed fewer pulsation artifacts but more susceptibility artifacts. Conclusion: Our results indicate that 3D-GRE is the more suitable sequence for evaluating sellar lesions on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted imaging at 3.0 T.

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging of the sacroiliac joints in patients with suspected spondyloarthritis. Comparison of turbo spin-echo and gradient-echo sequences for the detection of structural alterations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dornia, C.; Hoffstetter, P.; Asklepios Klinikum, Bad Abbach; Fleck, M.; Asklepios Klinikum, Bad Abbach; Hartung, W.; Niessen, C.; Stroszczynski, C.

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the method of choice for the evaluation of spondyloarthritis (SpA). According to the guidelines of the Assessment of Spondyloarthritis International Society (ASAS) and Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT), MRI findings in SpA of the spine and the sacroiliac joints (SIJ) are classified as inflammatory and structural alterations. Modern gradient-echo sequences (GRE) are recommended for optimized detection of structural alterations of the SIJ. We assess the benefit of GRE in the detection of structural alterations of the SIJ in comparison to conventional turbo spin-echo sequences (TSE). Retrospective study of 114 patients who received MRI of the SIJ for the evaluation of SpA. Structural alterations of the SIJ were assessed by two blinded readers separately for T1 TSE and T2 * GRE. The findings were classified according to a previously published chronicity score separately for both sides and sequences. Interobserver reliability was calculated with Cohen's Kappa, and the significance of findings was assessed with the Wilcoxon test. P-values * GRE showed a high interobserver reliability in the detection of structural alterations in patients with SpA. However, T2 * GRE detected significantly more structural alterations than T1 TSE and should be an integral part of a modern MRI protocol for the diagnostic workup of patients with suspected SpA.

  8. MR findings in traumatic cerebrospinal fluid fistulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortuny, M.E.; Molina Ferrer, L.; Ferreyra, M.; D'Agustini, M.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: CSF fistulae represent the 4%-8% of complications after a serious encephalocranial trauma in the infant population. The experience in 3 patients using MRI with Spin-Eco T2 and Cine-GRE sequences is presented. Material and method: Three male patients 6, 11 and 13 years old were studied, who presented encephalocranial trauma and the common complication was Diplococcus Pneumoniae meningitis. They were studied in a 0.5 T equipment with FSE T2 multiplanar sequences with 3 mm slice thickness and Cine-GRE also 3 mm in four phases of 16 images each. Results: Multiple fistulas were found in the temporomastoidic region in two patients. In one case MRI showed only one fistula though the cribiform plate of the ethmoid bone. Conclusions: MRI is a highly reliable method for CSF fistula detection in patients with encephalocranial trauma. FSE-T2-weighted images and Cine-GRE are sensitive sequences. (author)

  9. How size evaluation of lymph node is protocol dependent in MRI when using ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gharehaghaji, Nahideh; Oghabian, Mohammad Ali; Sarkar, Saeed; Darki, Fahimeh; Beitollahi, Ali

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the volume of susceptibility artifact was evaluated in T1 and T2-weighted spin echo (SE) and gradient echo (GRE) images at various parameters using registration and subtraction methods. In order to state an important misinterpretation problem in lymphography, it was demonstrated that a lymph node size may be enlarged approximately 10 times when a T2*-weighted GRE protocol is used. To overcome this problem a technical consideration using multisequence (GRE and SE) paradigm was suggested to ensure both lymph node detection and metastasis identification in lymphatic system. The paradigm was also extended by post-processing manipulation of the SE images using a registration and subtraction approach for detection of lymphatic lesions.

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging of the sacroiliac joints in patients with suspected spondyloarthritis. Comparison of turbo spin-echo and gradient-echo sequences for the detection of structural alterations; MRT-Bildgebung der Sakroiliakalgelenke bei Verdacht auf Spondyloarthritis. Vergleich von Turbospinecho- und Gradientenechosequenzen zum Nachweis struktureller Veraenderungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dornia, C.; Hoffstetter, P. [Universitaetsklinikum Regensburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Roentgendiagnostik; Asklepios Klinikum, Bad Abbach (Germany). Inst. fuer Roentgendiagnostik; Fleck, M. [Universitaetsklinikum Regensburg (Germany). Klinik fuer Innere Medizin I; Asklepios Klinikum, Bad Abbach (Germany). Klinik fuer Rheumatologie und Klinische Immunologie; Hartung, W. [Asklepios Klinikum, Bad Abbach (Germany). Klinik fuer Rheumatologie und Klinische Immunologie; Niessen, C.; Stroszczynski, C. [Universitaetsklinikum Regensburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Roentgendiagnostik

    2015-02-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the method of choice for the evaluation of spondyloarthritis (SpA). According to the guidelines of the Assessment of Spondyloarthritis International Society (ASAS) and Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT), MRI findings in SpA of the spine and the sacroiliac joints (SIJ) are classified as inflammatory and structural alterations. Modern gradient-echo sequences (GRE) are recommended for optimized detection of structural alterations of the SIJ. We assess the benefit of GRE in the detection of structural alterations of the SIJ in comparison to conventional turbo spin-echo sequences (TSE). Retrospective study of 114 patients who received MRI of the SIJ for the evaluation of SpA. Structural alterations of the SIJ were assessed by two blinded readers separately for T1 TSE and T2{sup *} GRE. The findings were classified according to a previously published chronicity score separately for both sides and sequences. Interobserver reliability was calculated with Cohen's Kappa, and the significance of findings was assessed with the Wilcoxon test. P-values < 0.05 were required for statistical significance. 68 of 114 (60%) patients showed SpA-typical findings of the SIJ. The average chronicity score for GRE (score 3.3) was significantly higher than for TSE (score 2.6), p=0.001. The Kappa-values for the interobserver reliability were 0.86-0.90 without any statistically significant differences between both sides and sequences. Both T1 TSE and T2{sup *} GRE showed a high interobserver reliability in the detection of structural alterations in patients with SpA. However, T2{sup *} GRE detected significantly more structural alterations than T1 TSE and should be an integral part of a modern MRI protocol for the diagnostic workup of patients with suspected SpA.

  11. Agreement between manual relaxometry and semi-automated scanner-based multi-echo Dixon technique for measuring liver T2* in a pediatric and young adult population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serai, Suraj D.; Trout, Andrew T.; Dillman, Jonathan R.; Smith, Ethan A.

    2018-01-01

    Commercially available 3D multi-echo Dixon (mDixon) sequences provide parametric maps of liver T2*, obviating manual curve fitting that is often required with conventional gradient recalled echo (GRE)-based multi-echo relaxometry, potentially simplifying clinical work flow. The purpose of our study was to compare T2* values generated by a 3D mDixon sequence to values generated by GRE-based T2* relaxometry with manual curve fitting in a pediatric and young adult population. We reviewed clinical MRI exams performed at 1.5T for liver iron content estimation between February 2015 and June 2016 that included both mDixon and multi-echo GRE pulse sequences. We obtained mean T2* measurements based on each sequence by drawing regions of interest on each of four axial slices through the mid-liver. We compared mDixon-based and GRE-based T2* measurements using paired t-tests and assessed agreement using single-measure intra-class correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman difference plots. One hundred nine patients met inclusion criteria (site 1=82; site 2=27). Mean age was 12.4±5.8 years, and 42 subjects (39%) were female. There was no statistically significant difference in mean T2* values for the two sequences (pooled means: 11.7±11.0 [GRE] vs. 11.7±10.9 ms [mDixon]; P=0.93). There was excellent absolute agreement between sequences (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC]=0.98 for patients at both sites, confidence interval [CI]: 0.97-0.98 with mean bias of 0.0 ms [-4.2 ms to +4.2 ms]). 3D mDixon is accurate for measuring liver T2* and can likely replace 2D GRE-based relaxometry. (orig.)

  12. Comparison of spin-echo echoplanar imaging and gradient recalled echo-based MR elastography at 3 Tesla with and without gadoxetic acid administration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Seek [Chonbuk National University Medical School and Hospital, Department of Radiology, Jeonju, Chonbuk (Korea, Republic of); Song, Ji Soo [Chonbuk National University Medical School and Hospital, Department of Radiology, Jeonju, Chonbuk (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Clinical Medicine of Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Chonbuk (Korea, Republic of); Biomedical Research Institute of Chonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju, Chonbuk (Korea, Republic of); Kannengiesser, Stephan [Siemens Healthcare, MR Applications Development, Erlangen (Germany); Seo, Seung Young [Research Institute of Clinical Medicine of Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Chonbuk (Korea, Republic of); Biomedical Research Institute of Chonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju, Chonbuk (Korea, Republic of); Chonbuk National University Medical School and Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-10-15

    To compare spin-echo echoplanar imaging (SE-EPI) and gradient recalled echo (GRE) MR elastography (MRE) at 3 T with and without gadoxetic acid administration. We included 84 patients who underwent MRE before and after gadoxetic acid administration, each time using SE-EPI and GRE sequences. Diagnostic performance for predicting clinical liver cirrhosis and high-risk oesophageal varices was assessed using the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC). The relationships between T2* and success of MRE, and correlations of liver stiffness (LS) values between the two sequences or before and after gadoxetic acid administration, were investigated. SE-EPI-MRE resulted in a significantly lower failure rate than GRE-MRE (1.19% vs. 10.71%, P = 0.018). Increased T2* was related to higher probability of successful LS measurement (odds ratio, 1.426; P = 0.004). The AUC of SE-EPI-MRE was comparable to that of GRE-MRE for the detection of clinical liver cirrhosis (0.938 vs. 0.948, P = 0.235) and high-risk oesophageal varices (0.839 vs. 0.752, P = 0.354). LS values were not significantly different before and after gadoxetic acid administration. SE-EPI-MRE can substitute for GRE-MRE for the detection of clinical liver cirrhosis and high-risk oesophageal varices. SE-EPI-MRE is particularly useful in patients with iron deposition, with lower failure rates than GRE-MRE. (orig.)

  13. Diagnostic accuracy of dual-echo (in- and opposed-phase) T1-weighted gradient recalled echo for detection and grading of hepatic iron using quantitative and visual assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schieda, Nicola; Ramanathan, Subramaniyan; Ryan, John; Khanna, Maneesh; Virmani, Vivek; Avruch, Leonard [The University of Ottawa, The Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-07-15

    Detection and quantification of hepatic iron with dual-echo gradient recalled echo (GRE) has been proposed as a rapid alternative to other magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques. Co-existing steatosis and T1 weighting are limitations. This study assesses the accuracy of routine dual-echo GRE. Between 2010 and 2013, 109 consecutive patients underwent multi-echo (ME) MRI and dual-echo GRE for quantification of hepatic iron. Liver iron concentration (LIC) was calculated from ME-MRI. Relative signal intensity (RSI) and fat signal fraction (FSF) were calculated from dual-echo GRE. Four radiologists subjectively evaluated dual-echo GRE (±subtraction). Diagnostic accuracy was compared between techniques and correlated with biopsy using Fisher's exact test, Spearman correlation and regression. The sensitivity of visual detection of iron ranged from 48 to 55 %. Subtraction did not increase sensitivity (p < 0.001). Inter-observer variability was substantial (κ = 0.72). The specificity of visual detection of iron approached 100 % with false-positive diagnoses observed using subtraction. LIC showed a higher correlation with histopathological iron grade (r = 0.94, p < 0.001) compared with RSI (r = 0.65, p = 0.02). Univariate regression showed an association between RSI and LIC (B = 0.98, p < 0.001, CI 0.73-1.23); however, the association was not significant with multi-variate regression including FSF (p = 0.28). Dual-echo GRE has low sensitivity for hepatic iron. Subtraction imaging can result in false-positive diagnoses. (orig.)

  14. Agreement between manual relaxometry and semi-automated scanner-based multi-echo Dixon technique for measuring liver T2* in a pediatric and young adult population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serai, Suraj D.; Trout, Andrew T.; Dillman, Jonathan R. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, MLC 5031, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Smith, Ethan A. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, MLC 5031, Cincinnati, OH (United States); University of Michigan Health System, Section of Pediatric Radiology, C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2018-01-15

    Commercially available 3D multi-echo Dixon (mDixon) sequences provide parametric maps of liver T2*, obviating manual curve fitting that is often required with conventional gradient recalled echo (GRE)-based multi-echo relaxometry, potentially simplifying clinical work flow. The purpose of our study was to compare T2* values generated by a 3D mDixon sequence to values generated by GRE-based T2* relaxometry with manual curve fitting in a pediatric and young adult population. We reviewed clinical MRI exams performed at 1.5T for liver iron content estimation between February 2015 and June 2016 that included both mDixon and multi-echo GRE pulse sequences. We obtained mean T2* measurements based on each sequence by drawing regions of interest on each of four axial slices through the mid-liver. We compared mDixon-based and GRE-based T2* measurements using paired t-tests and assessed agreement using single-measure intra-class correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman difference plots. One hundred nine patients met inclusion criteria (site 1=82; site 2=27). Mean age was 12.4±5.8 years, and 42 subjects (39%) were female. There was no statistically significant difference in mean T2* values for the two sequences (pooled means: 11.7±11.0 [GRE] vs. 11.7±10.9 ms [mDixon]; P=0.93). There was excellent absolute agreement between sequences (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC]=0.98 for patients at both sites, confidence interval [CI]: 0.97-0.98 with mean bias of 0.0 ms [-4.2 ms to +4.2 ms]). 3D mDixon is accurate for measuring liver T2* and can likely replace 2D GRE-based relaxometry. (orig.)

  15. Importance of T2*-weighted gradient-echo MRI for diagnosis of cortical vein thrombosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellner, Franz A. [Institut fuer Radiologie, Landes-Nervenklinik Wagner Jauregg, Linz (Austria) and Zentrales Radiologie Institut, Allgemeines Krankenhaus der Stadt Linz, Krankenhausstr. 9, 4020 Linz (Austria)]. E-mail: franz.fellner@akh.linz.at; Fellner, Claudia [Institut fuer Radiologie, Landes-Nervenklinik Wagner Jauregg, Linz (Austria); Aichner, Franz T. [Abteilung fuer Neurologie, Landes-Nervenklinik Wagner-Jauregg, Linz (Austria); Moelzer, Guenther [Institut fuer Radiologie, Landes-Nervenklinik Wagner Jauregg, Linz (Austria)

    2005-11-01

    We examined six patients with isolated venous thrombosis (n = 2), or venous thrombosis combined with sinus thrombosis (n = 4) (CVT). The clinical symptoms were non-specific (acute cephalea, paresis, epileptic seizure, progressive speech disorder). All examinations were performed on a 1.5 T system (Magnetom Symphony, Siemens, Erlangen, Germany), maximum gradient field strength 30 mT/m, minimal gradient rise time 450 {mu}s, according to the following protocol: Transverse T2-weighted turbo spin-echo (TSE), fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), T1-weighted spin-echo (SE), before and after administration of contrast medium, T2*-weighted conventional gradient-echo (GRE), T2*-weighted spin-echo echo planar imaging (SE EPI), both without and with diffusion weighting as well as two-dimensional (2D) venous time-of-flight (TOF) MRA. The venous thromboses were best detectable in the T2*-weighted conventional GRE sequence in all patients. In two patients, the CVT was discernible only in this sequence. The sinus thrombosis was well discernible only in the T2*-weighted GRE sequence in only one case; in the remaining cases it was detectable only with difficulty. For these cases, other sequences such as SE, diffusion-weighted, or 2D-TOF-MRA sequence were superior. The T2*-weighted conventional GRE sequence was superior to the T2*-weighted SE EPI sequence in all patients. To sum up, it can be concluded, that T2*-weighted conventional GRE sequences are possibly the best method of detection of acute cortical vein thromboses. Therefore, it seems to be of benefit to integrate a T2*-weighted conventional GRE sequence into the MR-protocol for the diagnosis of isolated cortical vein thrombosis.

  16. Importance of T2*-weighted gradient-echo MRI for diagnosis of cortical vein thrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fellner, Franz A.; Fellner, Claudia; Aichner, Franz T.; Moelzer, Guenther

    2005-01-01

    We examined six patients with isolated venous thrombosis (n = 2), or venous thrombosis combined with sinus thrombosis (n = 4) (CVT). The clinical symptoms were non-specific (acute cephalea, paresis, epileptic seizure, progressive speech disorder). All examinations were performed on a 1.5 T system (Magnetom Symphony, Siemens, Erlangen, Germany), maximum gradient field strength 30 mT/m, minimal gradient rise time 450 μs, according to the following protocol: Transverse T2-weighted turbo spin-echo (TSE), fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), T1-weighted spin-echo (SE), before and after administration of contrast medium, T2*-weighted conventional gradient-echo (GRE), T2*-weighted spin-echo echo planar imaging (SE EPI), both without and with diffusion weighting as well as two-dimensional (2D) venous time-of-flight (TOF) MRA. The venous thromboses were best detectable in the T2*-weighted conventional GRE sequence in all patients. In two patients, the CVT was discernible only in this sequence. The sinus thrombosis was well discernible only in the T2*-weighted GRE sequence in only one case; in the remaining cases it was detectable only with difficulty. For these cases, other sequences such as SE, diffusion-weighted, or 2D-TOF-MRA sequence were superior. The T2*-weighted conventional GRE sequence was superior to the T2*-weighted SE EPI sequence in all patients. To sum up, it can be concluded, that T2*-weighted conventional GRE sequences are possibly the best method of detection of acute cortical vein thromboses. Therefore, it seems to be of benefit to integrate a T2*-weighted conventional GRE sequence into the MR-protocol for the diagnosis of isolated cortical vein thrombosis

  17. Analysis of artefacts and detail resolution of lung MRI with breath-hold T1-weighted gradient-echo and T2-weighted fast spin-echo sequences with respiratory triggering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biederer, J.; Reuter, M.; Both, M.; Grimm, J.; Heller, M.; Muhle, C.; Graessner, J.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate feasibility and limitations of two MR sequences for imaging of the lung using a semi-quantitative rating scale. Ten healthy volunteers were assessed with a breath-hold T1-weighted gradient-recalled-echo (TR/TE=129/2.2 ms, matrix 173 x 256) and a T2-weighted turbo spin-echo (TSE) sequence with respiratory triggering (TR/TE=3000-5000/120 ms, matrix 270 x 512) in axial 6-mm slices. The T1-weighted GRE protocol included a pre-saturation pulse over the mediastinal structures. Artefacts and resolution of vessel/airway structures in each lung segment were evaluated by two observers (10 volunteers, 180 segments). Cardiac and vessel pulsation artefacts predominated on T1-weighted GRE, respiration artefacts on T2-weighted TSE (lingula and middle lobe). Pre-saturation of the mediastinum reduced pulsation artefacts on T1-weighted GRE. T1-weighted GRE images were improved by bright flow signal of vessels, whereas image quality of T2-weighted TSE was reduced by black-blood effects in central parts of the lung. Delineation of lung periphery and the mediastinum was superior with T2-weighted TSE. Segmental/sub-segmental vessels (up to fourth/fifth order) and bronchi (up to third order) were identified. All 180 lung segments were imaged in diagnostic quality with at least one of the two sequences (T1-weighted GRE not diagnostic in 9 of 180, T2-weighted TSE in 4 of 180). Both sequences were found to be complementary: superior identification of gross lung anatomy with T1-weighted GRE and higher detail resolution in the periphery and the mediastinum with T2-weighted TSE. (orig.)

  18. Spin-echo Echo-planar Imaging MR Elastography versus Gradient-echo MR Elastography for Assessment of Liver Stiffness in Children and Young Adults Suspected of Having Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serai, Suraj D; Dillman, Jonathan R; Trout, Andrew T

    2017-03-01

    Purpose To compare two-dimensional (2D) gradient-recalled echo (GRE) and 2D spin-echo (SE) echo-planar imaging (EPI) magnetic resonance (MR) elastography for measurement of hepatic stiffness in pediatric and young adult patients suspected of having liver disease. Materials and Methods In this institutional review board-approved, HIPAA-compliant study, 58 patients underwent both 2D GRE and 2D SE-EPI MR elastography at 1.5 T during separate breath holds. Liver stiffness (mean of means; in kilopascals) was measured by five blinded reviewers. Pooled mean liver stiffness and region-of-interest (ROI) size were compared by using paired t tests. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were used to assess agreement between techniques. Respiratory motion artifacts were compared across sequences by using the Fisher exact test. Results Mean patient age was 14.7 years ± 5.2 (standard deviation; age range, 0.7-20.5 years), and 55.2% (32 of 58) of patients were male. Mean liver stiffness was 2.92 kPa ± 1.29 measured at GRE MR elastography and 2.76 kPa ± 1.39 at SE-EPI MR elastography (n = 290; P = .15). Mean ROI sizes were 8495 mm 2 ± 4482 for 2D GRE MR elastography and 15 176 mm 2 ± 7609 for 2D SE-EPI MR elastography (n = 290; P range, 0.91-0.95). Moderate or severe breathing artifacts were observed on 27.5% (16 of 58) of 2D GRE images versus 0% 2D SE-EPI images (P < .001). Conclusion There is excellent agreement on measured hepatic stiffness between 2D GRE and 2D SE-EPI MR elastography across multiple reviewers. SE-EPI MR elastography allowed for stiffness measurement across larger areas of the liver and can be performed in a single breath hold. © RSNA, 2016.

  19. Intraindividual comparison of image quality in MR urography at 1.5 and 3 Tesla in an animal model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regier, M.; Adam, G.; Kemper, J. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany); Nolte-Ernsting, C. [Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany)

    2008-10-15

    Purpose: experimental evaluation of image quality of the upper urinary tract in MR urography (MRU) at 1.5 and 3 Tesla in a porcine model. Materials and methods: in this study four healthy domestic pigs, weighing between 71 and 80 kg (mean 73.6 kg), were examined with a standard T 1w 3D-GRE and a high-resolution (HR) T 1w 3D-GRE sequence at 1.5 and 3 Tesla. Additionally, at 3 Tesla both sequences were performed with parallel imaging (SENSE factor 2). The MR urographic scans were performed after intravenous injection of gadolinium-DTPA (0.1 mmol/kg body weight (bw)) and low-dose furosemide (0.1 mg/kg bw). Image evaluation was performed by two independent radiologists blinded to sequence parameters and field strength. Image analysis included grading of image quality of the segmented collecting system based on a five-point grading scale regarding anatomical depiction and artifacts observed (1: the majority of the segment (> 50%) was not depicted or was obscured by major artifacts; 5: the segment was visualized without artifacts and had sharply defined borders). Signal-to-noise (SNR) and contrast-to-noise (CNR) ratios were determined. Statistical analysis included {kappa}-statistics, Wilcoxon and paired student t-test. Results: the mean scores for MR urographies at 1.5 Tesla were 2.83 for the 3D-GRE and 3.48 for the HR 3D-GRE sequence. Significantly higher values were determined using the corresponding sequences at 3 Tesla, averaging 3.19 for the 3D-GRE (p = 0.047) and 3.92 for the HR 3D-GRE (p = 0.023) sequence. Delineation of the pelvicaliceal system was rated significantly higher at 3 Tesla compared to 1.5 Tesla (3D-GRE: p = 0.015; HR 3D-GRE: p = 0.006). At 3 Tesla the mean SNR and CNR were significantly higher (p < 0.05). A {kappa} of 0.67 indicated good interobserver agreement. (orig.)

  20. POSLOVNO POGAJANJE V GLOBALNEM OKOLJU

    OpenAIRE

    Nedeljković, Ana

    2012-01-01

    Beseda pogajanje opisuje postopek razgovorov med dvema ali več strankami z namenom priti do dogovora, ki je sprejemljiv za obe strani. Ta proces je dovolj kompliciran tudi, ko gre za ljudi iz enakega kulturnega okolja, če pa gre za mednarodna pogajanja, postanejo pogovori še bolj kompleksni zaradi razlik v življenjskih slogih, pričakovanjih, jeziku, kulturnih vrednotah, formalnih procedurah itn. Cilj diplomskega dela je skozi konkreten primer Hörmann podružnice s sedežem v Dubaju prikaza...

  1. Hälsofrämjande fysisk aktivitet hos personer under adjuvant cancerbehandling relaterad till fatigue, livskvalitet samt self-efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Zetterlund, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    Bakgrund Cancerdrabbade lider ofta av cancerrelaterad fatigue (CRF) och försämrad livskvalitet under och efter behandling. Hälsofrämjande fysisk aktivitet (HFA) kan minska risken för dessa negativa konsekvenser. HFA påverkas bl.a. av träningsrelaterad self-efficacy, dvs tilltron till egen förmåga att vara fysisk aktiv. Syfte Att undersöka HFA hos personer under adjuvant cancerbehandling vid diagnos och efter sex månader samt att undersöka om de med en stabil HFA hade lägre CRF, högre livskval...

  2. Institutionalising a GSDI at the CSIR

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Deventer, Heidi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available regularly as per user request. Initially an Oracle database on a Linux machine was used to facilitate the ArcGIS Server software, though after thorough testing and securing PostGreSQL support, the plan is to migrate fully to PostGreSQL from 1 April... for researchers in the CSIR. The GIS unit in Environmentek, who employed most of the champions of former GSDIs in the CSIR, took on the responsibility of managing servers, back-ups, archives, geoportals, metadata catalogues and software licences shared...

  3. Intraindividual comparison of image quality in MR urography at 1.5 and 3 Tesla in an animal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regier, M.; Adam, G.; Kemper, J.; Nolte-Ernsting, C.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: experimental evaluation of image quality of the upper urinary tract in MR urography (MRU) at 1.5 and 3 Tesla in a porcine model. Materials and methods: in this study four healthy domestic pigs, weighing between 71 and 80 kg (mean 73.6 kg), were examined with a standard T 1w 3D-GRE and a high-resolution (HR) T 1w 3D-GRE sequence at 1.5 and 3 Tesla. Additionally, at 3 Tesla both sequences were performed with parallel imaging (SENSE factor 2). The MR urographic scans were performed after intravenous injection of gadolinium-DTPA (0.1 mmol/kg body weight (bw)) and low-dose furosemide (0.1 mg/kg bw). Image evaluation was performed by two independent radiologists blinded to sequence parameters and field strength. Image analysis included grading of image quality of the segmented collecting system based on a five-point grading scale regarding anatomical depiction and artifacts observed (1: the majority of the segment (> 50%) was not depicted or was obscured by major artifacts; 5: the segment was visualized without artifacts and had sharply defined borders). Signal-to-noise (SNR) and contrast-to-noise (CNR) ratios were determined. Statistical analysis included κ-statistics, Wilcoxon and paired student t-test. Results: the mean scores for MR urographies at 1.5 Tesla were 2.83 for the 3D-GRE and 3.48 for the HR 3D-GRE sequence. Significantly higher values were determined using the corresponding sequences at 3 Tesla, averaging 3.19 for the 3D-GRE (p 0.047) and 3.92 for the HR 3D-GRE (p = 0.023) sequence. Delineation of the pelvicaliceal system was rated significantly higher at 3 Tesla compared to 1.5 Tesla (3D-GRE: p = 0.015; HR 3D-GRE: p = 0.006). At 3 Tesla the mean SNR and CNR were significantly higher (p < 0.05). A κ of 0.67 indicated good interobserver agreement. (orig.)

  4. Presymptomatic cerebral blood flow changes in CHMP2B mutation carriers of familial frontotemporal dementia (FTD-3), measured with MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunau, Line Andersen; Mouridsen, Kim; Rodell, Anders

    2012-01-01

    1 images. Perfusion data were then extracted from seven regions-of-interest, normalised to white matter and statistically compared between carriers and non-carriers. RESULTS: For SE, contrasts between carriers and non-carriers showed significant differences in temporal, occipital and parietal lobes...... and in hippocampus. There was no evidence of changes from baseline to follow-up. For GRE, there were no significant differences between carriers and non-carriers. CONCLUSIONS: Significantly decreased CBF was found in presymptomatic CHMP2B mutation carriers in occipital-and parietal lobes. Comparing SE with GRE, data...

  5. Comparison of multi-echo and single-echo gradient-recalled echo sequences for SPIO-enhanced Liver MRI at 3 T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, J.S.; Kim, M.-J.; Kim, J.H.; Choi, J.-Y.; Chung, Y.E.; Park, M.-S.; Kim, K.W.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To assess the utility of a T2*-weighted, multi-echo data imaging combination sequenced on superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO)-enhanced liver magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using a 3 T system. Materials and methods: Fifty patients underwent SPIO-enhanced MRI at 3 T using T2*-weighted, single-echo, gradient-recalled echo (GRE) sequences [fast imaging with steady precession; repetition time (TR)/echo time (TE), 126 ms/9 ms; flip angle, 30 o ] and multi-echo GRE (multi-echo data image combination) sequences (TR/TE, 186 ms/9 ms; flip angle, 30 o ). Three radiologists independently reviewed the images in a random order. The sensitivity and accuracy for the detection of focal hepatic lesions (a total of 76 lesions in 33 patients; 48 solid lesions, 28 non-solid lesions) were compared by analysing the area under the receiver operating characteristic curves. Image artefacts (flow artefacts, susceptibility artefacts, dielectric artefacts, and motion artefacts), lesion conspicuity, and overall image quality were evaluated according to a four-point scale: 1, poor; 2, fair; 3, good; 4, excellent. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the lesions were compared. Results: Image artefacts were more frequent with single-echo GRE (p < 0.05). The mean scale of image quality assessment for flow, susceptibility, dielectric, and motion artefacts were 2.76, 3.13, 3.42, and 2.89 with singe-echo, respectively, compared with 3.47, 3.43, 3.47, and 3.39, respectively, with multi-echo GRE. There was no significant difference in lesion conspicuity between single-echo (3.15) and multi-echo (3.30) GRE sequences. The overall image quality was significantly (p < 0.05) better with multi-echo (3.37) than with single-echo GRE (2.89). The mean SNR and CNR of the lesions were significantly (p < 0.05) higher on multi-echo (79 ± 23 and 128 ± 59, respectively) images than on single-echo (38 ± 11 and 102 ± 44, respectively) images. Lesion detection accuracy and

  6. The value of 3D T1-weighted gradient-echo MR imaging for evaluation of the appendix during pregnancy: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Kyung Mi; Kim, Seong Hyun; Choi, Dongil; Lee, Soon Jin; Rhim, Hyunchul; Park, Min Jung (Depts. of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan Univ. School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)), email: kshyun@skku.edu

    2011-10-15

    Background The use of oral contrast has been essential for the identification of a normal appendix on MR imaging during pregnancy. However, stool could be used as a positive oral contrast as it is characterized by a relatively high signal on T1-weighted imaging, and 3D T1-weighted gradient-echo (T1W-GRE) MR imaging has been used to evaluate 3 mm diameter intestines in fetuses. Purpose To evaluate the added value of 3D T1W-GRE MR imaging in combination with T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) compared to T2WI alone for evaluating the appendix during pregnancy. Material and Methods Eighteen consecutive pregnant patients who were clinically suspected of having acute appendicitis underwent appendix MR imaging which included T2WI with or without spectral presaturation attenuated inversion-recovery (SPAIR) fat suppression, and 3D T1W-GRE with SPAIR fat suppression. Two radiologists reviewed the two image sets (the T2WI set and the combined set of T2WI and 3D T1W-GRE images). Pathologic and clinical results served as the reference standard. The differences in the degree of visibility of the appendix and confidence scale for diagnosing acute appendicitis between two image sets were compared by using the paired Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results For both reviewers, the degree of visibility of the appendix using the combined T2WI and 3D T1W-GRE images was significantly higher than using T2WI alone (P < 0.01), and the confidence levels for acute appendicitis using combined T2WI and 3D T1W-GRE images were significantly different from those using T2WI alone (P < 0.01). In the 13 patients with a normal appendix, both reviewers showed improved confidence levels for appendicitis using combined T2WI and 3D T1W-GRE images than T2WI alone. Conclusion Adding 3D T1W-GRE images to T2WI is helpful for identification of the appendix, as compared to T2WI alone in pregnant women without ingestion of oral contrast material. This may improve diagnostic confidence for acute appendicitis in pregnant

  7. Anti-inflammatory effects of Scoparia dulcis L. and betulinic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jen-Chieh; Peng, Wen-Huang; Chiu, Tai-Hui; Lai, Shang-Chih; Lee, Chao-Ying

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study intended to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of the 70% ethanol extract from Scoparia dulcis (SDE) and betulinic acid on λ-carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice. The anti-inflammatory mechanism of SDE and betulinic acid was examined by detecting the levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the edema paw tissue and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GRd) in the liver. The betulinic acid content in SDE was detected by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In the anti-inflammatory model, the results showed that SDE (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg) and betulinic acid (20 and 40 mg/kg) reduced the paw edema at 3, 4 and 5 h after λ-carrageenan administration. Moreover, SDE and betulinic acid affected the levels of COX-2, NO, TNF-α and IL1-β in the λ-carrageenan-induced edema paws. The activities of SOD, GPx and GRd in the liver tissue were increased and the MDA levels in the edema paws were decreased. It is suggested that SDE and betulinic acid possessed anti-inflammatory activities and the anti-inflammatory mechanisms appear to be related to the reduction of the levels of COX-2, NO, TNF-α and IL1-β in inflamed tissues, as well as the inhibition of MDA level via increasing the activities of SOD, GPx and GRd. The analytical result showed that the content of betulinic acid in SDE was 6.25 mg/g extract.

  8. Pemanfaatan Instagram Oleh Komunitas Wisata Grobogan Dalam Mempromosikan Potensi Pariwisata Daerah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenday Dwi Novi Kurniawati

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The existence of online community in the field of tourism through social media constructs the new form of developing and operating tourism sector. Social media is used for means of spreading information, communication and promotion. Promoting tourism potential can be carried out easily by these online community. one example of online community in the field of tourism is wisata grobogan community. the objective of this research is to describe the use of instagram done by wisata grobogan community in promoting potential of areas tourism.This research applies qualitative descriptive method. The object of the research is the account of @wisatagrobogan whis is used to promote the potential of areas tourism. Data is collected using semi-structured interview technique.Data analysis method used in this research uses triangulation. The results showed that in the promotion of the tourism potential of the area may go well and smoothly through the four stages, namely the presence of communicators, messaging, media and communicant. And the use of social media Instagram provides many benefits and advantages for Grobogan travel community in promoting the tourism potential of the area. Some of these benefits, among others, can easily disseminate travel information, and can attract the attention of other users more widely supported also by the use of features that are owned Instagram.

  9. Virus de rabia en cultivos de neuronas sensoriales de ratón adulto

    OpenAIRE

    H. Hurtado; Jaime E. Castellanos; R. Pérez

    2000-01-01

    Introducción: Las neuronas sensoriales de los ganglios de la raíz dorsal (GRD) del ratón adulto, son un modelo interesante en el estudio de la infección in vitro por virus de rabia. Su importancia radica puesto que es una de las vías que tiene el virus para llegar a sistema nervioso central. El virus de la rabia usualmente entra por la mordedura de un animal infectado, inicialmente llega al músculo, replicándose localmente, pasa a terminales nerviosas adyacentes, sube a través del sistema ner...

  10. Particular study relative to the energy suppliers action in the fight against fuel poverty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherel, Didier; Gelot, Didier; Poutrel, Severin; Aulagnier, Simon; Leroy, Nicolas; Buresi, Sandrine; Vignon, Jerome

    2014-02-01

    This report, jointly prepared by the French national observatory of fuel poverty (ONPE) and by the French national observatory of poverty and social exclusion (ONPES), aims at providing a first overview of the actions implemented by energy suppliers to aid households in financial difficulties: the existing measures, the targeted population and how it is defined, and the role of the government and other actors in the implementation of these measures. The methodology used is based on a series of interviews with energy suppliers, energy syndicates, the Regulatory Commission of Energy (CRE), the national energy ombudsman (MNE), and the gas network manager (GRdF)

  11. Development of Water Resources in Appalachia. Main Report. Part 2. Volume 5a. Sub-Regional Plans. Chapters 13 thru 16

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-11-01

    lRie Gossoway Ansed r Smm ~iviie ~eBig Otei Run Oakesvll Hill Mt ~ o Hop Yak Nes AnstedRCr RichdJEC7T Oank Crl aksNtGasyC* -- JECT H0to Gre enbrier River...on tourism and recreational potential, Is planning vigorously for major supplementation of this basic system; upgrading of the secondary road system

  12. The reliability of magnetic resonance imaging in traumatic brain injury lesion detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, B.H.J.; Andriessen, T.M.J.C.; Goraj, B.M.; Vos, P.E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study compares inter-rater-reliability, lesion detection and clinical relevance of T2-weighted imaging (T2WI), Fluid Attenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR), T2*-gradient recalled echo (T2*-GRE) and Susceptibility Weighted Imaging (SWI) in Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). Methods: Three

  13. Sonodynamic therapy combined with novel anti-cancer agents, sanguinarine and ginger root extract: Synergistic increase in toxicity in the presence of PANC-1 cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Matthew; Mitchell, James; Totti, Stella; Lee, Judy; Velliou, Eirini; Bussemaker, Madeleine

    2018-01-01

    The presence of ultrasound-induced cavitation in sonodynamic therapy (SDT) treatments has previously enhanced the activity and delivery of certain sonosensitisers in biological systems. The purpose of this work was to investigate the potential for two novel anti-cancer agents from natural derivatives, sanguinarine and ginger root extract (GRE), as sonosensitisers in an SDT treatment with in vitro PANC-1 cells. Both anti-cancer compounds had a dose-dependent cytotoxicity in the presence of PANC-1 cells. A range of six discreet ultrasound power-frequency configurations were tested and it was found that the cell death caused directly by ultrasound was likely due to the sonomechanical effects of cavitation. Combined treatment used dosages of 100μM sanguinarine or 1mM of GRE with 15s sonication at 500kHz and 10W. The sanguinarine-SDT and GRE-SDT treatments showed a 6% and 17% synergistic increase in observed cell death, respectively. Therefore both sanguinarine and GRE were found to be effective sonosensitisers and warrant further development for SDT, with a view to maximising the magnitude of synergistic increase in toxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Particle Flux in the Western Black Sea in the Present and over the Last 5,000 Years: Temporal Variability, Sources, Transport Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    unit i in the deep basil o,’res is 263 rm. Thus, based on this calculation the annua! deposition at the suGre sites is on average 4.7 times higher than...AAS) y espectrografia de emision (OES): Anales de Quimica, v. 81, p. 48-55. % %. -131- Baumgartner, T., V. Ferreira-Bartrina, H. Schrader, and A

  15. Genetic diversification of an emerging pathogen: A decade of mutation by the fish Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia (VHS) virus in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia virus (VHSv) is an RNA rhabdovirus, which causes one of the world's most serious fish diseases, infecting >80 freshwater and marine species across the Northern Hemisphere. A new, novel, and especially virulent substrain - VHSv-IVb - first appeared in the Laurentian Gre...

  16. Writing in Cameroon, the first hundred years

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-03-28

    Mar 28, 2016 ... writers' attention to the status of women anticipated some of the ... In the process, Cameroonian writers made the French language theirs, adapting it to reflect the world .... Temps de chien won both the Marguerite Yourcenar Prize (2002) ... same year, Le Vieux Nègre et la médaille is a critique of the vieux ...

  17. Myocardial tagging with steady state free precession techniques and semi-automatic postprocessing--impact on diagnostic value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Thorsten R C; Bayrhof, Nicole; Huber, Armin

    2007-01-01

    Our aim was to determine the diagnostic value of myocardial tagging sequences with regard to the evaluable share of the cardiac cycle. Thirty-three patients were examined at 1.5 T using tagging sequences with gradient-echo (GRE) readout, 18 patients at 1.5 T with steady-state free precession (SSF...

  18. Comparison of gradient-recalled echo and spin-echo echo-planar imaging MR elastography in staging liver fibrosis. A meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong Seek; Jang, Yu Na; Song, Ji Soo

    2018-01-01

    To compare the diagnostic performance of gradient-recalled echo-based magnetic resonance elastography (GRE-MRE) and spin-echo echo-planar imaging-based MRE (SE-EPI-MRE) in liver fibrosis staging. A systematic literature search was performed to identify studies involving the performance of MRE for the diagnosis of liver fibrosis. Pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios, the diagnostic odds ratio, and a summary receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve were estimated by using a bivariate random effects model. Subgroup analyses were performed between different study characteristics. Twenty-six studies with a total of 3,200 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Pooled sensitivity and specificity of GRE-MRE and SE-EPI-MRE did not differ significantly. The area under the summary ROC curve for stage diagnosis of any (F ≥ 1), significant (F ≥ 2), advanced (F ≥ 3), and cirrhosis (F = 4) on GRE-MRE and SE-EPI-MRE were 0.93 versus 0.94, 0.95 versus 0.94, 0.94 versus 0.95, and 0.92 versus 0.93, respectively. Substantial heterogeneity was detected for both sequences. Both GRE and SE-EPI-MRE show high sensitivity and specificity for detection of each stage of liver fibrosis, without significant differences. Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) may be useful for noninvasive evaluation of liver fibrosis in chronic liver disease. (orig.)

  19. Gatekeeping: Why Shouldn't We Be Ambivalent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowbel, Lynda R.

    2012-01-01

    An increase of 88% in programs from 1990 through 2004, low GRE scores, low entry- level wages, declining pass rates in licensing tests, and an increase in ethical violations reported all support the contention that there are higher enrollment rates and decreased gatekeeping selectivity in today's graduate MSW programs. This article discusses four…

  20. Root exudate-induced alterations in Bacillus cereus cell wall contribute to root colonization and plant growth promotion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swarnalee Dutta

    Full Text Available The outcome of an interaction between plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and plants may depend on the chemical composition of root exudates (REs. We report the colonization of tobacco, and not groundnut, roots by a non-rhizospheric Bacillus cereus (MTCC 430. There was a differential alteration in the cell wall components of B. cereus in response to the REs from tobacco and groundnut. Attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy revealed a split in amide I region of B. cereus cells exposed to tobacco-root exudates (TRE, compared to those exposed to groundnut-root exudates (GRE. In addition, changes in exopolysaccharides and lipid-packing were observed in B. cereus grown in TRE-amended minimal media that were not detectable in GRE-amended media. Cell-wall proteome analyses revealed upregulation of oxidative stress-related alkyl hydroperoxide reductase, and DNA-protecting protein chain (Dlp-2, in response to GRE and TRE, respectively. Metabolism-related enzymes like 2-amino-3-ketobutyrate coenzyme A ligase and 2-methylcitrate dehydratase and a 60 kDa chaperonin were up-regulated in response to TRE and GRE. In response to B. cereus, the plant roots altered their exudate-chemodiversity with respect to carbohydrates, organic acids, alkanes, and polyols. TRE-induced changes in surface components of B. cereus may contribute to successful root colonization and subsequent plant growth promotion.

  1. Detection and Elimination of Oncogenic Signaling Networks in Premalignant and Malignant Cells with Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    proton resonance frequency TR- relaxation time GRE- gradient echo MT- magnetization transfer 6 FSE- fast spin echo 7 3. Overall Progress Summary...support project. – SBA certified 8(a)/Small Disadvantaged Business, HUBZone, and 8(m)/Economically Disadvantaged Woman owned, technology services

  2. Detection and Elimination of Oncogenic Signalling Networks in Premalignant and Malignant Cells with Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    proton resonance frequency TR- relaxation time GRE- gradient echo MT- magnetization transfer 6 FSE- fast spin echo 7 3. Overall Progress Summary...support project. – SBA certified 8(a)/Small Disadvantaged Business, HUBZone, and 8(m)/Economically Disadvantaged Woman owned, technology services

  3. Nuclear engineering, health physics, and radioactive waste management fellowship program: Summary of program activities: Nuclear engineering and health physics fellowship, 1985-1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Progress is reported in the nuclear engineering and health physics elements of the fellowship program. Statistics are given on numbers of student applications and new appointments, the degree areas of applicants, GPA and GRE score averages of the fellows, and employment of completed fellows

  4. A Nation "Truly" at Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Daniel

    1993-01-01

    Many America 2000 proposals should be challenged by educators, in view of powerful and readily available evidence sources, including the Sandia Report suppressed by the Bush Administration. Findings showed that aggregate SAT, NAEP, and GRE scores are rising; dropout rates are declining (except for Hispanics); and beginning teachers' salaries (in…

  5. The role of kopjes in bird species' conservation within an agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Just west of the Greater Serengeti Ecosystem (GSE), an area defined by movements ... assumed that similar natural savanna habitat found inside the present GRE previously ..... the kopjes attracted Speckled Pigeon Columba guinea and White-fronted Barbet Lybius .... Birds of Africa South of the Sahara: Second Edition.

  6. Synthesis of Cassava Waste Pulp-Acrylamide Super Absorbent: Effect of Initiator and Cross-Linker Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainal Alim Mas’ud

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Cassava waste pulp (CWP contains high carbohydrates that can be modified into super absorbent polymer (SAP through grafting and cross-linking copolymerization. Acrylamide (AM was grafted onto CWP with ammonium persulfate (APS as the initiator and N,N'-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA as the cross-linker under atmospheric nitrogen. The effect of APS and MBA concentrations on water absorption capacity of saponified SAP was studied, while the evaluation of grafting ratio (GR and grafting efficiency (GRE was conducted on unsaponified SAP. The grafting success was indicated by the occurrence of IR peaks at wave numbers of 573, 765, 858, and 1667 cm-1. In the saponified SAP, the very intense characteristic band at 1562 cm-1 is due to C=O asymmetric stretching in the carboxylate anion. Saponification increases significantly water absorption capacity compared to that of unsaponified SAP (from 39.79 g/g to 578.23 g/g. The highest water absorption capacity is reached at 0.74% APS and 0.09% MBA. The percentage of GRE and GR tends to increase with increasing APS concentration until reaching the highest value and then decreases. Effect of MBA concentration on water absorption capacity, GR, and on GRE is similar to the effect of initiator concentration on GR and GRE.

  7. Investigating Robustness of Item Response Theory Proficiency Estimators to Atypical Response Behaviors under Two-Stage Multistage Testing. ETS GRE® Board Research Report. ETS GRE®-16-03. ETS Research Report No. RR-16-22

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sooyeon; Moses, Tim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the extent to which item response theory (IRT) proficiency estimation methods are robust to the presence of aberrant responses under the "GRE"® General Test multistage adaptive testing (MST) design. To that end, a wide range of atypical response behaviors affecting as much as 10% of the test items…

  8. Anteroinferior tears of the glenoid labrum: fat-suppressed fast spin-echo T2 versus gradient-recalled echo MR images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuite, M J [Department of Radiology, University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics, 600 Highland Avenue, Madison, WI 53792 (United States); De Smet, A A [Department of Radiology, University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics, 600 Highland Avenue, Madison, WI 53792 (United States); Norris, M A [Department of Radiology, University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics, 600 Highland Avenue, Madison, WI 53792 (United States); Orwin, J F [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics, 600 Highland Avenue, Madison, WI 53792 (United States)

    1997-05-01

    Objective. To compare fat-suppressed fast spin-echo (FSE) T2-weighted images with gradient-recalled echo (GRE) T2*-weighted images in the evaluation of anteroinferior labral tears. Design. MR images were retrospectively reviewed by two radiologists masked to the history and arthroscopic findings. They separately interpreted the anteroinferior labrum as torn or intact, first on one pulse sequence and then, 4 weeks later, on the other sequence. The MR interpretations were correlated with the arthroscopic findings. Patients. Nine patients with anteroinferior labral tears, and nine similarly-aged patients with normal, labra were studied. Results and conclusions. Observer 1 had a sensitivity of 0.56 on the GRE images and 0.67 on the FSE images (P>0.5), with a specificity of 1.0 for both sequences. Observer 2 had a sensitivity of 0.78 and a specificity of 0.89 for both sequences. In this small study there is no significant difference between GRE and fat-suppressed FSE images in their ability to diagnose anteroinferior labral tears. When evaluating the labrum with conventional MRI, axial fat-suppressed FSE T2-weighted images can be used in place of GRE images without a loss of accuracy. (orig.). With 3 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Exposure to synthetic greywater inhibits amoebae encystation and alters expression of Legionella pneumophila virulence genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water conservation efforts have focused on greywater (GW) usage, especially for applications that do not require potable water quality. However, there is a need to better understand environmental pathogens and their free-living amoebae (FLA) hosts within GW. Using synthetic gre...

  10. Admitting At-Risk Students into a Principal Preparation Program: Predicting Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Bobby G.; Nelson, Jacquelyn S.; Nelson, C. Van

    2001-01-01

    Study of graduation rates of at-risk students admitted to a master's degree program at a doctoral-degree-granting university found that the best predictor of degree completion was the product of the undergraduate GPA multiplied by the GRE Verbal score. (Contains 41 references.)

  11. Simulation and Modeling of a Novel Medium Access Control Scheme for Multi-Beam Directional Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-03

    formation of multiple simultaneous beams in both transmit and receive. These multiple beams allows for the re- moval of burdensome coordination...experiments. Rather than hard code all of the underlying pieces for EMANE (such as the over-the-air (OTA) channel, generic routing encapsulation (GRE

  12. Detection of hepatic metastases by superparamagnetic iron oxide-enhanced MR imaging: prospective comparison between 1.5-T and 3.0-T images in the same patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofue, Keitaro; Miyake, Mototaka; Sakurada, Aine; Arai, Yasuaki; Tsurusaki, Masakatsu; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2010-01-01

    To prospectively compare the diagnostic performance of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO)-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging at 3.0 T and 1.5 T for detection of hepatic metastases. A total of 28 patients (18 men, 10 women; mean age, 61 years) with 80 hepatic metastases were prospectively examined by SPIO-enhanced MR imaging at 3.0 T and 1.5 T. T1-weighted gradient-recalled-echo (GRE) images, T2*-weighted GRE images and T2-weighted fast spin-echo (SE) images were acquired. The tumour-to-liver contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the lesions was calculated. Three observers independently reviewed each image. Image artefacts and overall image quality were analysed, sensitivity and positive predictive value for the detection of hepatic metastases were calculated, and diagnostic accuracy using the receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) method was evaluated. The tumour-to-liver CNRs were significantly higher at 3.0 T. Chemical shift and motion artefact were more severe, and overall image quality was worse on T2-weighted fast SE images at 3.0 T. Overall image quality of the two systems was similar on T1-weighted GRE images and T2*-weighted GRE images. Sensitivity and area under the ROC curve for the 3.0-T image sets were significantly higher. SPIO-enhanced MR imaging at 3.0 T provided better diagnostic performance for detection of hepatic metastases than 1.5 T. (orig.)

  13. Conspicuity of diffuse axonal injury lesions on diffusion-weighted MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Toshibumi; Moritani, Toshio; Hiwatashi, Akio; Wang, Henry Z.; Shrier, David A.; Numaguchi, Yuji; Westesson, Per-Lennart A.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: (1) To detect diffuse axonal injury (DAI) lesions by diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), as compared with fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) imaging and (2) to evaluate hemorrhagic DAI lesions by b 0 images obtained from DWI, as compared with gradient-echo (GRE) imaging. Methods: We reviewed MR images of 36 patients with a diagnosis of DAI. MR imaging was performed 20 h to 14 days (mean, 3.7 days) after traumatic brain injury. We evaluated: (1) conspicuity of lesions on DWI and FLAIR and (2) conspicuity of hemorrhage in DAI lesions on b 0 images and GRE imaging. Results: DWI clearly depicted high-signal DAI lesions. The sensitivity of DWI to lesional conspicuity in DAI lesions was almost equal to that of FLAIR. The sensitivity of b 0 images to identification of hemorrhagic DAI lesions was inferior to that of GRE. Conclusion: DWI is as useful as FLAIR in detecting DAI lesions. GRE imaging is still the superior tool for the evaluation of hemorrhagic DAI

  14. Conspicuity of diffuse axonal injury lesions on diffusion-weighted MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, Toshibumi [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology, University of Rochester Medical Center, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Box 648, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States)]. E-mail: kino@grape.med.tottori-u.ac.jp; Moritani, Toshio [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology, University of Rochester Medical Center, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Box 648, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States); Hiwatashi, Akio [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology, University of Rochester Medical Center, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Box 648, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States); Wang, Henry Z. [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology, University of Rochester Medical Center, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Box 648, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States); Shrier, David A. [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology, University of Rochester Medical Center, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Box 648, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States); Numaguchi, Yuji [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology, University of Rochester Medical Center, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Box 648, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States); Westesson, Per-Lennart A. [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology, University of Rochester Medical Center, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Box 648, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States)

    2005-10-01

    Objective: (1) To detect diffuse axonal injury (DAI) lesions by diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), as compared with fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) imaging and (2) to evaluate hemorrhagic DAI lesions by b{sub 0} images obtained from DWI, as compared with gradient-echo (GRE) imaging. Methods: We reviewed MR images of 36 patients with a diagnosis of DAI. MR imaging was performed 20 h to 14 days (mean, 3.7 days) after traumatic brain injury. We evaluated: (1) conspicuity of lesions on DWI and FLAIR and (2) conspicuity of hemorrhage in DAI lesions on b{sub 0} images and GRE imaging. Results: DWI clearly depicted high-signal DAI lesions. The sensitivity of DWI to lesional conspicuity in DAI lesions was almost equal to that of FLAIR. The sensitivity of b{sub 0} images to identification of hemorrhagic DAI lesions was inferior to that of GRE. Conclusion: DWI is as useful as FLAIR in detecting DAI lesions. GRE imaging is still the superior tool for the evaluation of hemorrhagic DAI.

  15. T2*-based MR imaging (gradient echo or susceptibility-weighted imaging) in midline and off-midline intracranial germ cell tumors. A pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morana, Giovanni; Tortora, Domenico; Severino, Mariasavina; Rossi, Andrea; Alves, Cesar Augusto; Finlay, Jonathan L.; Nozza, Paolo; Ravegnani, Marcello; Pavanello, Marco; Milanaccio, Claudia; Garre, Maria Luisa; Maghnie, Mohamad

    2018-01-01

    The role of T2*-based MR imaging in intracranial germ cell tumors (GCTs) has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) or T2* gradient echo (GRE) features of germinomas and non-germinomatous germ cell tumors (NGGCTs) in midline and off-midline locations. We retrospectively evaluated all consecutive pediatric patients referred to our institution between 2005 and 2016, for newly diagnosed, treatment-naive intracranial GCT, who underwent MRI, including T2*-based MR imaging (T2* GRE sequences or SWI). Standard pre- and post-contrast T1- and T2-weighted imaging characteristics along with T2*-based MR imaging features of all lesions were evaluated. Diagnosis was performed in accordance with the SIOP CNS GCT protocol criteria. Twenty-four subjects met the inclusion criteria (17 males and 7 females). There were 17 patients with germinomas, including 5 basal ganglia primaries, and 7 patients with secreting NGGCT. All off-midline germinomas presented with SWI or GRE hypointensity; among midline GCT, all NGGCTs showed SWI or GRE hypointensity whereas all but one pure germinoma were isointense or hyperintense to normal parenchyma. A significant difference emerged on T2*-based MR imaging among midline germinomas, NGGCTs, and off-midline germinomas (p < 0.001). Assessment of the SWI or GRE characteristics of intracranial GCT may potentially assist in differentiating pure germinomas from NGGCT and in the characterization of basal ganglia involvement. T2*-based MR imaging is recommended in case of suspected intracranial GCT. (orig.)

  16. Cerebral Metabolic Rate of Oxygen (CMRO2 ) Mapping by Combining Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping (QSM) and Quantitative Blood Oxygenation Level-Dependent Imaging (qBOLD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Junghun; Kee, Youngwook; Spincemaille, Pascal; Nguyen, Thanh D; Zhang, Jingwei; Gupta, Ajay; Zhang, Shun; Wang, Yi

    2018-03-07

    To map the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO 2 ) by estimating the oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) from gradient echo imaging (GRE) using phase and magnitude of the GRE data. 3D multi-echo gradient echo imaging and perfusion imaging with arterial spin labeling were performed in 11 healthy subjects. CMRO 2 and OEF maps were reconstructed by joint quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) to process GRE phases and quantitative blood oxygen level-dependent (qBOLD) modeling to process GRE magnitudes. Comparisons with QSM and qBOLD alone were performed using ROI analysis, paired t-tests, and Bland-Altman plot. The average CMRO 2 value in cortical gray matter across subjects were 140.4 ± 14.9, 134.1 ± 12.5, and 184.6 ± 17.9 μmol/100 g/min, with corresponding OEFs of 30.9 ± 3.4%, 30.0 ± 1.8%, and 40.9 ± 2.4% for methods based on QSM, qBOLD, and QSM+qBOLD, respectively. QSM+qBOLD provided the highest CMRO 2 contrast between gray and white matter, more uniform OEF than QSM, and less noisy OEF than qBOLD. Quantitative CMRO 2 mapping that fits the entire complex GRE data is feasible by combining QSM analysis of phase and qBOLD analysis of magnitude. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  17. Rapid MRI evaluation of acute intracranial hemorrhage in pediatric head trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, Maura E.; Jaju, Alok [Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Chicago, IL (United States); Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Medical Imaging, Chicago, IL (United States); Ciolino, Jody D. [Northwestern University, Biostatistics Collaboration Center, Department of Preventive Medicine Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Alden, Tord [Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Neurological Surgery, Chicago, IL (United States); Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Neurosurgery, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2016-08-15

    Rapid MRI with ultrafast T2 sequences can be performed without sedation and is often used in place of computed tomography (CT) to evaluate pediatric patients for indications such as hydrocephalus. This study investigated the sensitivity of rapid magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for detection and follow-up of acute intracranial hemorrhage in comparison to CT, which is commonly the first-line imaging. Patients presenting to a pediatric hospital with acute intracranial hemorrhage on CT and follow-up rapid MRI within 48 h were included. Rapid MRI studies consisted of three plane ultrafast T2 sequences either with or without axial gradient echo (GRE) sequences. Identification of hemorrhage on rapid MRI was assessed by readers both blinded and unblinded to prior CT results. One hundred two acute hemorrhages in 61 patients were identified by CT. Rapid MRI detection of subdural and epidural hemorrhages was modest in the absence of prior CT for comparison (sensitivity 61-74 %), but increased with review of the prior CT (sensitivity 80-86 %). Hemorrhage size was a significant predictor of detection (p < 0.0001). Three plane fast T2 images alone without GRE sequences were poor at detecting subarachnoid hemorrhage (sensitivity 10-25 %); rapid MRI with GRE sequences identified the majority of subarachnoid hemorrhage (sensitivity 71-93 %). GRE modestly increased detection of other extra-axial hemorrhages. Rapid MRI with GRE sequences is sensitive for most acute intracranial hemorrhages only when a prior CT is available for review. Rapid MRI is not adequate to replace CT in initial evaluation of intracranial hemorrhages but may be helpful in follow-up of known hemorrhages. (orig.)

  18. Nonlinear Dynamic Characteristics of the Railway Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyulan, Çağlar; Gokasan, Metin

    2017-06-01

    The nonlinear dynamic characteristics of a railway vehicle are checked into thoroughly by applying two different wheel-rail contact model: a heuristic nonlinear friction creepage model derived by using Kalker 's theory and Polach model including dead-zone clearance. This two models are matched with the quasi-static form of the LuGre model to obtain more realistic wheel-rail contact model. LuGre model parameters are determined using nonlinear optimization method, which it's objective is to minimize the error between the output of the Polach and Kalker model and quasi-static LuGre model for specific operating conditions. The symmetric/asymmetric bifurcation attitude and stable/unstable motion of the railway vehicle in the presence of nonlinearities which are yaw damping forces in the longitudinal suspension system are analyzed in great detail by changing the vehicle speed. Phase portraits of the lateral displacement of the leading wheelset of the railway vehicle are drawn below and on the critical speeds, where sub-critical Hopf bifurcation take place, for two wheel-rail contact model. Asymmetric periodic motions have been observed during the simulation in the lateral displacement of the wheelset under different vehicle speed range. The coexistence of multiple steady states cause bounces in the amplitude of vibrations, resulting instability problems of the railway vehicle. By using Lyapunov's indirect method, the critical hunting speeds are calculated with respect to the radius of the curved track parameter changes. Hunting, which is defined as the oscillation of the lateral displacement of wheelset with a large domain, is described by a limit cycle-type oscillation nature. The evaluated accuracy of the LuGre model adopted from Kalker's model results for prediction of critical speed is higher than the results of the LuGre model adopted from Polach's model. From the results of the analysis, the critical hunting speed must be resolved by investigating the track tests

  19. Fast susceptibility-weighted imaging with three-dimensional short-axis propeller (SAP)-echo-planar imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdsworth, Samantha J; Yeom, Kristen W; Moseley, Michael E; Skare, S

    2015-05-01

    Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) in neuroimaging can be challenging due to long scan times of three-dimensional (3D) gradient recalled echo (GRE), while faster techniques such as 3D interleaved echo-planar imaging (iEPI) are prone to motion artifacts. Here we outline and implement a 3D short-axis propeller echo-planar imaging (SAP-EPI) trajectory as a faster, motion-correctable approach for SWI. Experiments were conducted on a 3T MRI system. The 3D SAP-EPI, 3D iEPI, and 3D GRE SWI scans were acquired on two volunteers. Controlled motion experiments were conducted to test the motion-correction capability of 3D SAP-EPI. The 3D SAP-EPI SWI data were acquired on two pediatric patients as a potential alternative to 2D GRE used clinically. The 3D GRE images had a better target resolution (0.47 × 0.94 × 2 mm, scan time = 5 min), iEPI and SAP-EPI images (resolution = 0.94 × 0.94 × 2 mm) were acquired in a faster scan time (1:52 min) with twice the brain coverage. SAP-EPI showed motion-correction capability and some immunity to undersampling from rejected data. While 3D SAP-EPI suffers from some geometric distortion, its short scan time and motion-correction capability suggest that SAP-EPI may be a useful alternative to GRE and iEPI for use in SWI, particularly in uncooperative patients. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Detection of small pulmonary nodules in high-field MR at 3 T: evaluation of different pulse sequences using porcine lung explants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regier, M.; Kaul, M.G.; Ittrich, H.; Bansmann, P.M.; Kemper, J.; Nolte-Ernsting, C.; Adam, G.; Kandel, S.; Hoffmann, B.; Heller, M.; Biederer, J.

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate two MR imaging sequences for the detection of artificial pulmonary nodules inside porcine lung explants. 67 agarose nodules ranging 3-20 mm were injected into ten porcine lungs within a dedicated chest phantom. The signal on T1-weighted images and radiopacity were adjusted by adding 0.125 mmol/l Gd-DTPA and 1.5 g/l of iodine. A T1-weighted three-dimensional gradient-echo (T1-3D-GRE; TR/TE:3.3/1.1 ms, slice:8 mm, flip-angle:10 ) and a T2-weighted half-Fourier fast-spin echo sequence (T2-HF-FSE; TR/TE:2000/66 ms, slice:7 mm, flip-angle:90 ) were applied in axial orientation using a 3-T system (Intera, Philips Medical Systems, Best, The Netherlands), followed by CT (16 x 0.5 mm) as reference. Nodule sizes and locations were assessed by three blinded observers. In nodules of >10 mm, sensitivity was 100% using 3D-GRE-MRI and 94% using the HF-FSE sequence. For nodules 6-10 mm, the sensitivity of MRI was lower than with CT (3D-GRE:92%; T2-HF-FSE:83%). In lesions smaller than 5 mm, the sensitivity declined to 80% (3D-GRE) and 53% (HF-FSE). Small lesion diameters were overestimated with both sequences, particularly with HF-FSE. This study confirms the feasibility of 3 T-MRI for lung nodule detection. In lesions greater than 5 mm, the sensitivity of the 3D-GRE sequence approximated CT (>90%), while sensitivity and PPV with the HF-FSE sequence were slightly inferior. (orig.)

  1. Pulse sequence optimization for superparamagnetic iron oxide-enhaced MR imaging in the detection of hepatic VX2 tumors in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Hyun Jung; Han, Joon Koo; Lee, Kyoung Ho; Kim, Se Hyung; Choi, Byung Ihn; Kim, Tae Kyoung

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this experimental study was to determine the optimal pulse sequences for SPIO-enhanced MR imaging in the evaluation of multiple hepatic tumors. Twelve rabbits with multiple VX2 liver tumors underwent SPOI-enhanced MRI using the following nine pulse sequences: TSE T2-weighted imaging (T2W1), TSE proton density-weighted imaging(PDWI), and GRE T2*-weighted imaging (T2*W1) with seven different echo times (TE). Liver-lesion contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) were calculated, and images were also assessed qualitatively by two radiologists, who reached a consensus as to lesion conspicuity and imaging artifacts using a four-level scale. By means of pathologic correlation, the sensitivity and positive predictive value of each sequence was calculated. TSE T2W1 and long-TE (35 msec) FLASH T2*W1 showed the highest liver-lesion CNR. The best lesion conspicuity was seen at TSE T2W1 and medium-TE (12 msec) GRE T2*W1. Short TE GRE T2*W1 showed the least imaging artifacts. The four sequences which demonstrated the best sensitivity were medium-TE (12 msec), GRE T2*W1 (FLASH, 84%; FISP, 82%), TSE W2T1 (79%), and TSE PDWI (76%). All nine sequences showed overall high positive predictive value (86-97%), with no statistically significant difference (p>0.05). In terms of image quality and the detection of sensitivity, TSE T2W1 and medium TE (12 msec) GRE T2*W1 were the top two pulse sequences among the various sequences used for no SPIO-enhanced MRI. They are thus considered to be optimal sequences for evaluating multiple malignant hepatic tumors

  2. T2*-based MR imaging (gradient echo or susceptibility-weighted imaging) in midline and off-midline intracranial germ cell tumors. A pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morana, Giovanni; Tortora, Domenico; Severino, Mariasavina; Rossi, Andrea [Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Neuroradiology Unit, Genoa (Italy); Alves, Cesar Augusto [Hospital Das Clinicas, Radiology Department, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Finlay, Jonathan L. [Nationwide Children' s Hospital and The Ohio State University, Division of Hematology, Oncology and BMT, Columbus, OH (United States); Nozza, Paolo [Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Pathology Unit, Genoa (Italy); Ravegnani, Marcello; Pavanello, Marco [Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Neurosurgery Unit, Genoa (Italy); Milanaccio, Claudia; Garre, Maria Luisa [Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Neuro-oncology Unit, Genoa (Italy); Maghnie, Mohamad [Istituto Giannina Gaslini, University of Genova, Pediatric Endocrine Unit, Genoa (Italy)

    2018-01-15

    The role of T2*-based MR imaging in intracranial germ cell tumors (GCTs) has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) or T2* gradient echo (GRE) features of germinomas and non-germinomatous germ cell tumors (NGGCTs) in midline and off-midline locations. We retrospectively evaluated all consecutive pediatric patients referred to our institution between 2005 and 2016, for newly diagnosed, treatment-naive intracranial GCT, who underwent MRI, including T2*-based MR imaging (T2* GRE sequences or SWI). Standard pre- and post-contrast T1- and T2-weighted imaging characteristics along with T2*-based MR imaging features of all lesions were evaluated. Diagnosis was performed in accordance with the SIOP CNS GCT protocol criteria. Twenty-four subjects met the inclusion criteria (17 males and 7 females). There were 17 patients with germinomas, including 5 basal ganglia primaries, and 7 patients with secreting NGGCT. All off-midline germinomas presented with SWI or GRE hypointensity; among midline GCT, all NGGCTs showed SWI or GRE hypointensity whereas all but one pure germinoma were isointense or hyperintense to normal parenchyma. A significant difference emerged on T2*-based MR imaging among midline germinomas, NGGCTs, and off-midline germinomas (p < 0.001). Assessment of the SWI or GRE characteristics of intracranial GCT may potentially assist in differentiating pure germinomas from NGGCT and in the characterization of basal ganglia involvement. T2*-based MR imaging is recommended in case of suspected intracranial GCT. (orig.)

  3. Protective effects of ginger root extract on Alzheimer disease-induced behavioral dysfunction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Gao-Feng; Zhang, Zhi-Yong; Lu, Li; Xiao, De-Qiang; Zong, Shao-Hui; He, Jian-Ming

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the ability of a traditional Chinese medicinal ginger root extract (GRE) to prevent behavioral dysfunction in the Alzheimer disease (AD) rat model. Rat AD models were established by an operation (OP) in which rats were treated with a one-time intra-cerebroventricuIar injection of amyloid β-protein (Aβ) and continuous gavage of aluminum chloride every day for 4 weeks. GRE was administered intra-gastrically to rats. After 35 days, learning and memory were assessed in all of the rats. Brain sections were processed for immunohistochemistry and Hematoxylin & Eosin (H&E) and Nissl staining. The latency to show significant memory deficits was shorter in the group that received OP with a high dose of GRE (HG)(OP+HG) than in the groups that received OP with a low or moderate dose of GRE (LG, MG)(OP+LG, OP+MG) (p<0.05). The expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in the OP+MG and OP+LG groups was up-regulated compared to the OP+HG groups (p<0.05). The rats in the OP+HG groups had lower levels of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and malondialdehyde (MDA) expression than the rats in the OP+MG and OP+LG groups (p<0.05). This experiment demonstrates that the administration of GRE reverses behavioral dysfunction and prevents AD-like symptoms in our rat model.

  4. Rapid MRI evaluation of acute intracranial hemorrhage in pediatric head trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, Maura E.; Jaju, Alok; Ciolino, Jody D.; Alden, Tord

    2016-01-01

    Rapid MRI with ultrafast T2 sequences can be performed without sedation and is often used in place of computed tomography (CT) to evaluate pediatric patients for indications such as hydrocephalus. This study investigated the sensitivity of rapid magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for detection and follow-up of acute intracranial hemorrhage in comparison to CT, which is commonly the first-line imaging. Patients presenting to a pediatric hospital with acute intracranial hemorrhage on CT and follow-up rapid MRI within 48 h were included. Rapid MRI studies consisted of three plane ultrafast T2 sequences either with or without axial gradient echo (GRE) sequences. Identification of hemorrhage on rapid MRI was assessed by readers both blinded and unblinded to prior CT results. One hundred two acute hemorrhages in 61 patients were identified by CT. Rapid MRI detection of subdural and epidural hemorrhages was modest in the absence of prior CT for comparison (sensitivity 61-74 %), but increased with review of the prior CT (sensitivity 80-86 %). Hemorrhage size was a significant predictor of detection (p < 0.0001). Three plane fast T2 images alone without GRE sequences were poor at detecting subarachnoid hemorrhage (sensitivity 10-25 %); rapid MRI with GRE sequences identified the majority of subarachnoid hemorrhage (sensitivity 71-93 %). GRE modestly increased detection of other extra-axial hemorrhages. Rapid MRI with GRE sequences is sensitive for most acute intracranial hemorrhages only when a prior CT is available for review. Rapid MRI is not adequate to replace CT in initial evaluation of intracranial hemorrhages but may be helpful in follow-up of known hemorrhages. (orig.)

  5. Screening applicants for risk of poor academic performance: a novel scoring system using preadmission grade point averages and graduate record examination scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luce, David

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an effective screening tool for identifying physician assistant (PA) program applicants at highest risk for poor academic performance. Prior to reviewing applications for the class of 2009, a retrospective analysis of preadmission data took place for the classes of 2006, 2007, and 2008. A single composite score was calculated for each student who matriculated (number of subjects, N=228) incorporating the total undergraduate grade point average (UGPA), the science GPA (SGPA), and the three component Graduate Record Examination (GRE) scores: verbal (GRE-V), quantitative (GRE-Q), analytical (GRE-A). Individual applicant scores for each of the five parameters were ranked in descending quintiles. Each applicant's five quintile scores were then added, yielding a total quintile score ranging from 25, which indicated an excellent performance, to 5, which indicated poorer performance. Thirteen of the 228 students had academic difficulty (dismissal, suspension, or one-quarter on academic warning or probation). Twelve of the 13 students having academic difficulty had a preadmission total quintile score 12 (range, 6-14). In response to this descriptive analysis, when selecting applicants for the class of 2009, the admissions committee used the total quintile score for screening applicants for interviews. Analysis of correlations in preadmission, graduate, and postgraduate performance data for the classes of 2009-2013 will continue and may help identify those applicants at risk for academic difficulty. Establishing a threshold total quintile score of applicant GPA and GRE scores may significantly decrease the number of entering PA students at risk for poor academic performance.

  6. Hepatoprotective Effect of Cuscuta campestris Yunck. Whole Plant on Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Chronic Liver Injury in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wen-Huang; Chen, Yi-Wen; Lee, Meng-Shiou; Chang, Wen-Te; Tsai, Jen-Chieh; Lin, Ying-Chih; Lin, Ming-Kuem

    2016-12-07

    Cuscuta seeds and whole plant have been used to nourish the liver and kidney. This study was aimed to investigate the hepatoprotective activity of the ethanol extract of Cuscuta campestris Yunck. whole plant (CC EtOH ). The hepatoprotective effect of CC EtOH (20, 100 and 500 mg/kg) was evaluated on carbon tetrachloride (CCl₄)-induced chronic liver injury. Serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, triglyceride and cholesterol were measured and the fibrosis was histologically examined. CC EtOH exhibited a significant inhibition of the increase of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, triglyceride and cholesterol. Histological analyses showed that fibrosis of liver induced by CCl₄ were significantly reduced by CC EtOH . In addition, 20, 100 and 500 mg/kg of the extract decreased the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) and enhanced the activities of anti-oxidative enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GRd) in the liver. We demonstrate that the hepatoprotective mechanisms of CC EtOH were likely to be associated to the decrease in MDA level by increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, GPx and GRd. In addition, our findings provide evidence that C. campestris Yunck. whole plant possesses a hepatoprotective activity to ameliorate chronic liver injury.

  7. Hepatoprotective Effect of Cuscuta campestris Yunck. Whole Plant on Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Chronic Liver Injury in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Huang Peng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cuscuta seeds and whole plant have been used to nourish the liver and kidney. This study was aimed to investigate the hepatoprotective activity of the ethanol extract of Cuscuta campestris Yunck. whole plant (CCEtOH. The hepatoprotective effect of CCEtOH (20, 100 and 500 mg/kg was evaluated on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced chronic liver injury. Serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, triglyceride and cholesterol were measured and the fibrosis was histologically examined. CCEtOH exhibited a significant inhibition of the increase of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, triglyceride and cholesterol. Histological analyses showed that fibrosis of liver induced by CCl4 were significantly reduced by CCEtOH. In addition, 20, 100 and 500 mg/kg of the extract decreased the level of malondialdehyde (MDA and enhanced the activities of anti-oxidative enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx and glutathione reductase (GRd in the liver. We demonstrate that the hepatoprotective mechanisms of CCEtOH were likely to be associated to the decrease in MDA level by increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, GPx and GRd. In addition, our findings provide evidence that C. campestris Yunck. whole plant possesses a hepatoprotective activity to ameliorate chronic liver injury.

  8. The benefit of a supplement with the antioxidant melatonin on redox status and muscle damage in resistance-trained athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardo-Mendonça, Roberto C; Ocaña-Wilhelmi, Javier; de Haro, Tomás; de Teresa-Galván, Carlos; Guerra-Hernández, Eduardo; Rusanova, Iryna; Fernández-Ortiz, Marisol; Sayed, Ramy K A; Escames, Germaine; Acuña-Castroviejo, Darío

    2017-07-01

    Previous data showed that the administration of high doses of melatonin improved the circadian system in athletes. Here, we investigated in the same experimental paradigm whether the antioxidant properties of melatonin has also beneficial effects against exercise-induced oxidative stress and muscle damage in athletes. Twenty-four athletes were treated with 100 mg·day -1 of melatonin or placebo 30 min before bedtime during 4 weeks in a randomized double-blind scheme. Exercise intensity was higher during the study that before starting it. Blood samples were collected before and after treatment, and plasma was used for oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC), lipid peroxidation (LPO), nitrite plus nitrate (NOx), and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) determinations. Glutathione (GSH), glutathione disulphide (GSSG) levels, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and reductase (GRd) activities, were measured in erythrocytes. Melatonin intake increased ORAC, reduced LPO and NOx levels, and prevented the increase of AOPP, compared to placebo group. Melatonin was also more efficient than placebo in reducing GSSG·GSH -1 and GPx·GRd -1 ratios. Melatonin, but not placebo, reduced creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine, and total cholesterol levels. Overall, the data reflect a beneficial effect of melatonin treatment in resistance-training athletes, preventing extra- and intracellular oxidative stress induced by exercise, and yielding further skeletal muscle protection against exercise-induced oxidative damage.

  9. Evolutionary time-scale of the begomoviruses: evidence from integrated sequences in the Nicotiana genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Lefeuvre

    Full Text Available Despite having single stranded DNA genomes that are replicated by host DNA polymerases, viruses in the family Geminiviridae are apparently evolving as rapidly as some RNA viruses. The observed substitution rates of geminiviruses in the genera Begomovirus and Mastrevirus are so high that the entire family could conceivably have originated less than a million years ago (MYA. However, the existence of geminivirus related DNA (GRD integrated within the genomes of various Nicotiana species suggests that the geminiviruses probably originated >10 MYA. Some have even suggested that a distinct New-World (NW lineage of begomoviruses may have arisen following the separation by continental drift of African and American proto-begomoviruses ∼110 MYA. We evaluate these various geminivirus origin hypotheses using Bayesian coalescent-based approaches to date firstly the Nicotiana GRD integration events, and then the divergence of the NW and Old-World (OW begomoviruses. Besides rejecting the possibility of a<2 MYA OW-NW begomovirus split, we could also discount that it may have occurred concomitantly with the breakup of Gondwanaland 110 MYA. Although we could only confidently narrow the date of the split down to between 2 and 80 MYA, the most plausible (and best supported date for the split is between 20 and 30 MYA--a time when global cooling ended the dispersal of temperate species between Asia and North America via the Beringian land bridge.

  10. Investigation of growth rate dispersion in lactose crystallisation by AFM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dincer, T. D.; Ogden, M. I.; Parkinson, G. M.

    2014-09-01

    α-Lactose monohydrate crystals have been reported to exhibit growth rate dispersion (GRD). Variation in surface dislocations has been suggested as the cause of GRD, but this has not been further investigated to date. In this study, growth rate dispersion and the change in morphology were investigated in situ and via bottle roller experiments. The surfaces of the (0 1 0) faces of crystals were examined with Atomic Force Microscopy. Smaller, slow growing crystals tend to have smaller (0 1 0) faces with narrow bases and displayed a single double spiral in the centre of the crystal with 2 nm high steps. Additional double spirals in other crystals resulted in faster growth rates. Large, fast growing crystals were observed to have larger (0 1 0) faces with fast growth in both the a and b directions (giving a broader crystal base) with macro steps parallel to the (c direction). The number and location of spirals or existence of macro steps appears to influence the crystal morphology, growth rates and growth rate dispersion in lactose crystals.

  11. Physiological noise in murine solid tumours using T2*-weighted gradient-echo imaging: a marker of tumour acute hypoxia?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudelet, Christine; Ansiaux, Reginald; Jordan, Benedicte F; Havaux, Xavier; Macq, Benoit; Gallez, Bernard

    2004-01-01

    T2*-weighted gradient-echo magnetic resonance imaging (T2*-weighted GRE MRI) was used to investigate spontaneous fluctuations in tumour vasculature non-invasively. FSa fibrosarcomas, implanted intramuscularly (i.m.) in the legs of mice, were imaged at 4.7 T, over a 30 min or 1 h sampling period. On a voxel-by-voxel basis, time courses of signal intensity were analysed using a power spectrum density (PSD) analysis to isolate voxels for which signal changes did not originate from Gaussian white noise or linear drift. Under baseline conditions, the tumours exhibited spontaneous signal fluctuations showing spatial and temporal heterogeneity over the tumour. Statistically significant fluctuations occurred at frequencies ranging from 1 cycle/3 min to 1 cycle/h. The fluctuations were independent of the scanner instabilities. Two categories of signal fluctuations were reported: (i) true fluctuations (TFV), i.e., sequential signal increase and decrease, and (ii) profound drop in signal intensity with no apparent signal recovery (SDV). No temporal correlation between tumour and contralateral muscle fluctuations was observed. Furthermore, treatments aimed at decreasing perfusion-limited hypoxia, such as carbogen combined with nicotinamide and flunarizine, decreased the incidence of tumour T2*-weighted GRE fluctuations. We also tracked dynamic changes in T2* using multiple GRE imaging. Fluctuations of T2* were observed; however, fluctuation maps using PSD analysis could not be generated reliably. An echo-time dependency of the signal fluctuations was observed, which is typical to physiological noise. Finally, at the end of T2*-weighted GRE MRI acquisition, a dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI was performed to characterize the microenvironment in which tumour signal fluctuations occurred in terms of vessel functionality, vascularity and microvascular permeability. Our data showed that TFV were predominantly located in regions with functional vessels, whereas SDV occurred in regions

  12. Initial study of stability and repeatability of measuring R2' and oxygen extraction fraction values in the healthy brain with gradient-echo sampling of spin-echo sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hui Lihong; Zhang Xiaodong; He Chao; Xie Sheng; Xiao Jiangxi; Zhang jue; Wang Xiaoying; Jiang Xuexiang

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the stability and repeatability of gradient-echo sampling of spin- echo (GESSE) sequence in measuring the R 2 ' value in volunteers, by comparison with traditional GRE sequence (T 2 * ]nap and T 2 map). Methods: Eight normal healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study and written informed consents were obtained from all subjects. MR scanning including sequences of GESSE, T 2 map and T 2 * map were performed in these subjects at resting status. The same protocol was repeated one day later. Raw data from GESSE sequence were transferred to PC to conduct postprocessing with the software built in house. R 2 ' map and OEF map were got consequently. To obtain quantitative R 2 ' and OEF values in the brain parenchyma, six ROIs were equally placed in the anterior, middle and posterior part of bilateral hemispheres. Both mean and standard deviation of R 2 ' and OEF were recorded. All images from T 2 * map and T 2 map were transferred to the Workstation for postprocessing. The ROIs were put at the same areas as those for GESSE sequence. R 2 ' is defined as R 2 ' = R 2 * - R 2 , R 2 * = 1/T 2 * . The R 2 ' value of GESSE sequence were compared with that of GRE sequence. Results: The mean R 2 ' values of GESSE at the first and second scan and those of the GRE were (4.21±0.92), (4.45±0.94) Hz and (7.37±1.47), (6.42±2.33) Hz respectively. The mean OEF values of GESSE at the first and second scan is 0.327±0.036 and 0.336± 0.035 respectively. The R 2 ' value and OEF value obtained from GESSE were not significantly different between the first and second scan (t=-0.83, -1.48, P>0.05). The R 2 ' value of first GRE imaging had significantly statistical difference from that of second GRE imaging (t=1.80, P 2 ' value of GESSE sequence was less than that of GRE sequence, and there was significantly statistical difference between them (t=1.71, P<0.05). Conclusion: The GESSE sequence has good stability and repeatability with promising clinical practicability

  13. SU-E-J-168: Automated Pancreas Segmentation Based On Dynamic MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gou, S; Rapacchi, S; Hu, P; Sheng, K

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: MRI guided radiotherapy is particularly attractive for abdominal targets with low CT contrast. To fully utilize this modality for pancreas tracking, automated segmentation tools are needed. A hybrid gradient, region growth and shape constraint (hGReS) method to segment 2D upper abdominal dynamic MRI is developed for this purpose. Methods: 2D coronal dynamic MR images of 2 healthy volunteers were acquired with a frame rate of 5 f/second. The regions of interest (ROIs) included the liver, pancreas and stomach. The first frame was used as the source where the centers of the ROIs were annotated. These center locations were propagated to the next dynamic MRI frame. 4-neighborhood region transfer growth was performed from these initial seeds for rough segmentation. To improve the results, gradient, edge and shape constraints were applied to the ROIs before final refinement using morphological operations. Results from hGReS and 3 other automated segmentation methods using edge detection, region growth and level set were compared to manual contouring. Results: For the first patient, hGReS resulted in the organ segmentation accuracy as measure by the Dices index (0.77) for the pancreas. The accuracy was slightly superior to the level set method (0.72), and both are significantly more accurate than the edge detection (0.53) and region growth methods (0.42). For the second healthy volunteer, hGReS reliably segmented the pancreatic region, achieving a Dices index of 0.82, 0.92 and 0.93 for the pancreas, stomach and liver, respectively, comparing to manual segmentation. Motion trajectories derived from the hGReS, level set and manual segmentation methods showed high correlation to respiratory motion calculated using a lung blood vessel as the reference while the other two methods showed substantial motion tracking errors. hGReS was 10 times faster than level set. Conclusion: We have shown the feasibility of automated segmentation of the pancreas anatomy based on

  14. Pedagogy of multiliteracies in integral education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Moura Domingues

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This presente article originated by the Programa de Educação Tutorial (PET – Pedagogia and is link by the Universidade Federal do Pampa – Campus Jaguarão/RS. The principal research of the PET is the educational failure/success on the basic school, on the publics schools from Jaguarão/RS, taking by base the avaliation dates from the scholar performance released by the IDEB. To research the cause off this failure and this success on this city, has started the observation on thas schools. Simultaneously, when started the observation, whas happening in the school one program know how Programa Mais Educação (PME, who was implanted whith the objective to start a politic by integral education. This research will be limited by the macrocamp pedagogical monitoring, in literacy. To contribute with the school and the program, was used from bibliografic research, from qualitative nature, who has applied one quis whis 08 (eight involved subjects, to investigate if they know the PME. After this diagnostics, born the interest in research the literacy, more specifically the multiliteracy, whit the objective to verify if have specific activities to work the multiliteracy on the 6º and 9º year, on the perspectiv of the Integral Education, on the public schools of Jaguarao/RS. If whe don’t find the activities, will be propose one to be worked with the multiliteracy on the PME. The results of the quiz pointed by the mosto f the sujects unknow the PME. With relation on the multiliteracy activities, this was circulating, like in Rojo and Moura (2012, but we don’t find activities directed by the PME> By this, was proposed the prototype genre biografy/facebook.

  15. Robust sliding mode control for uncertain servo system using friction observer and recurrent fuzzy neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Seong Ik; Jeong, Chan Se; Yang, Soon Yong

    2012-01-01

    A robust positioning control scheme has been developed using friction parameter observer and recurrent fuzzy neural networks based on the sliding mode control. As a dynamic friction model, the LuGre model is adopted for handling friction compensation because it has been known to capture sufficiently the properties of a nonlinear dynamic friction. A developed friction parameter observer has a simple structure and also well estimates friction parameters of the LuGre friction model. In addition, an approximation method for the system uncertainty is developed using recurrent fuzzy neural networks technology to improve the precision positioning degree. Some simulation and experiment provide the verification on the performance of a proposed robust control scheme

  16. Condromalácia de patela: comparação entre os achados em aparelhos de RM de alto e baixo campo magnético Chondromalacia patellae: comparison of high-field strength versus low-field strength magnetic resonance imaging findings

    OpenAIRE

    Maxime Figueiredo de Oliveira Freire; Artur da Rocha Corrêa Fernandes; Yara Juliano; Neil Ferreira Novo; Mario Carneiro Filho; Edison de Oliveira Freire Filho; Alex Franco de Carvalho; Débora da Costa Silva

    2006-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Comparar os aparelhos de ressonância magnética de baixo campo e de alto campo para estudo da cartilagem articular da patela. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foi realizado estudo usando as seqüências GRE 2D, GRE 3D, FSE T2 e STIR (baixo campo) e TSE T2 SPIR. Cada seqüência foi analisada separadamente para o estudo da cartilagem, sem o conhecimento dos dados do paciente e do resultado das outras seqüências, sendo atribuído grau de lesão de 0 a 3 e descrita a sua localização. Os resultados de con...

  17. Cascade Controller Including Back-stepping for Hydraulic-Mechanical Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choux, Martin; Hovland, Geir; Blanke, Mogens

    2012-01-01

    Development of a cascade controller structure including adaptive backstepping for a nonlinear hydraulic-mechanical system is considered in this paper where a dynamic friction (LuGre) model is included to obtain the necessary accuracy. The paper compares the performance of two variants of an adapt......Development of a cascade controller structure including adaptive backstepping for a nonlinear hydraulic-mechanical system is considered in this paper where a dynamic friction (LuGre) model is included to obtain the necessary accuracy. The paper compares the performance of two variants...... of an adaptive backstepping tracking controller with earlier results. The new control architecture is analysed and enhanced tracking performance is demonstrated when including the extended friction model. The complexity of the backstepping procedure is significantly reduced due to the cascade structure. Hence...

  18. Assessment of alternative mitigation concepts for Hanford flammable gas tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, C.W.; Schienbein, L.A.; Hudson, J.D.; Eschbach, E.J.; Lessor, D.L.

    1994-09-01

    This report provides a review and assessment of four selected mitigation concepts: pump jet mixing, sonic vibration, dilution, and heating. Though the relative levels of development of these concepts are quite different, some definite conclusions are made on their comparative feasibility. Key findings of this report are as follows. A mixer pump has proven to be a safe and effective active mitigation method in Tank 241-SY-101, and the authors are confident that mixer pumps will effectively mitigate other tanks with comparable waste configurations and properties. Low-frequency sonic vibration is also predicted to be effective for mitigation. Existing data cannot prove that dilution can mitigate gas release event (GRE) behavior. However, dilution is the only concept of the four that potentially offers passive mitigation. Like dilution, heating the waste cannot be proven with available information to mitigate GRE behavior. The designs, analyses, and data from which these conclusions are derived are presented along with recommendations.

  19. Assessment of alternative mitigation concepts for Hanford flammable gas tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, C.W.; Schienbein, L.A.; Hudson, J.D.; Eschbach, E.J.; Lessor, D.L.

    1994-09-01

    This report provides a review and assessment of four selected mitigation concepts: pump jet mixing, sonic vibration, dilution, and heating. Though the relative levels of development of these concepts are quite different, some definite conclusions are made on their comparative feasibility. Key findings of this report are as follows. A mixer pump has proven to be a safe and effective active mitigation method in Tank 241-SY-101, and the authors are confident that mixer pumps will effectively mitigate other tanks with comparable waste configurations and properties. Low-frequency sonic vibration is also predicted to be effective for mitigation. Existing data cannot prove that dilution can mitigate gas release event (GRE) behavior. However, dilution is the only concept of the four that potentially offers passive mitigation. Like dilution, heating the waste cannot be proven with available information to mitigate GRE behavior. The designs, analyses, and data from which these conclusions are derived are presented along with recommendations

  20. Cortical T2 signal shortening in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is not due to iron deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hecht, M.J.; Neundoerfer, B. [University of Erlangen-Nurenberg, Department of Neurology, Erlangen (Germany); Fellner, C.; Fellner, F.A. [University of Erlangen-Nurenberg, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Erlangen (Germany); Landes-Nervenklinik Wagner-Jauregg, Institute of Radiology, Linz (Austria); Schmid, A. [University of Erlangen-Nurenberg, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Erlangen (Germany)

    2005-11-01

    Signal shortening of the motor cortex in T2-weighted MR images is a frequent finding in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The cause of signal shortening in ALS is unknown, although iron deposits have been suggested. To test this hypothesis, we acquired T2*-weighted gradient-echo (GRE) MR images in addition to T2-weighted turbo spin-echo in 69 patients with ALS. Signal shortening in T2-weighted images was found in 31 patients. In T2*-weighted GRE images, only three patients had signal shortening. One patient with additional bifrontal haemorrhage had frontal but no motor cortex signal shortening. Iron deposits do not cause cortical signal shortening in patients with ALS predominantly. Other factors are presumably more important in the generation of cortical T2 shortening in ALS. (orig.)

  1. Cortical T2 signal shortening in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is not due to iron deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecht, M.J.; Neundoerfer, B.; Fellner, C.; Fellner, F.A.; Schmid, A.

    2005-01-01

    Signal shortening of the motor cortex in T2-weighted MR images is a frequent finding in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The cause of signal shortening in ALS is unknown, although iron deposits have been suggested. To test this hypothesis, we acquired T2*-weighted gradient-echo (GRE) MR images in addition to T2-weighted turbo spin-echo in 69 patients with ALS. Signal shortening in T2-weighted images was found in 31 patients. In T2*-weighted GRE images, only three patients had signal shortening. One patient with additional bifrontal haemorrhage had frontal but no motor cortex signal shortening. Iron deposits do not cause cortical signal shortening in patients with ALS predominantly. Other factors are presumably more important in the generation of cortical T2 shortening in ALS. (orig.)

  2. Tumoural portal vein thrombosis. Enhancement with MnDPDP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marti-Bonmati, L.; Lonjedo, E.; Mathieu, D.; Coffin, C.; Poyatos, C.; Anglade, M.C.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Intrahepatic thrombus is usually associated with either cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Most HCCs enhance after the administration of MnDPDP (Teslascan). Our objective was to analyze the enhancement characteristics of tumour portal vein thrombi. Material and Methods: Thrombi affecting the main or segmental portal veins (17 cases) and the suprahepatic inferior vena cava (1 case) were retrospectively selected from a series of 128 patients studied with MR imaging before and after the administration of MnDPDP. Enhancement was assessed qualitatively and quantitatively. Results: All tumour thrombi enhanced after MnDPDP administration. The enhancement was more conspicuous in the GRE images. On the quantitative evaluation, the portal thrombus enhancement was greater for GRE images than SE images. Portal thrombi enhanced more than the liver and the HCCs. There was a significant difference between the enhancement of the HCCs and the thrombi with both MR imaging techniques. (orig./AJ)

  3. Robust sliding mode control for uncertain servo system using friction observer and recurrent fuzzy neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Seong Ik [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Chan Se; Yang, Soon Yong [University of Ulsan, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-04-15

    A robust positioning control scheme has been developed using friction parameter observer and recurrent fuzzy neural networks based on the sliding mode control. As a dynamic friction model, the LuGre model is adopted for handling friction compensation because it has been known to capture sufficiently the properties of a nonlinear dynamic friction. A developed friction parameter observer has a simple structure and also well estimates friction parameters of the LuGre friction model. In addition, an approximation method for the system uncertainty is developed using recurrent fuzzy neural networks technology to improve the precision positioning degree. Some simulation and experiment provide the verification on the performance of a proposed robust control scheme.

  4. Short-Term and Sub-Chronic Dietary Exposure to Aspalathin-Enriched Green Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) Extract Affects Rat Liver Function and Antioxidant Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Merwe, Johanna Debora; de Beer, Dalene; Joubert, Elizabeth; Gelderblom, Wentzel C A

    2015-12-18

    An aspalathin-enriched green rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) extract (GRE) was fed to male Fischer rats in two independent studies for 28 and 90 days. The average dietary total polyphenol (TP) intake was 756 and 627 mg Gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/kg body weight (bw)/day over 28 and 90 days, respectively, equaling human equivalent doses (HEDs) of 123 and 102 GAE mg/kg bw/day. Aspalathin intake of 295 mg/kg bw/day represents a HED of 48 mg/kg bw/day (90 day study). Consumption of GRE increased feed intake significantly (p stress related genes, indicative, among others, of an underlying oxidative stress related to changes in the GSH redox pathway and possible biliary dysfunction.

  5. Foderstater för ökad konsumtion av vallfoder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hetta, M.; Lund, Peter; Tahir, M.N.

    2011-01-01

    nedbrytningen från våmmen till tunntarmen. Nedbrytning av stärkelse i tunntarmen leder till högre energieffektivitet i ämnesomsättningen. Stärkelse hos korn (Hordeum Vulgare, L) anses i litteraturen ha en snabb omsättning i våmmen och stärkelse hos majs (Zea Mays, L) anses ha en långsam nedbrytning (Mills et al...

  6. Command History. United States Military Assistance Command, Vietnam 1968. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-01-01

    11914111m gre 2. Rehabilitation Center - This center was authorized 80 spaces and was established at Cong Hoae General Hospital to provide prosthetic ...Pallets of four drums each separated after release and the drums fractured on impact. On the first mission, ignition was provided by fighter-delivered...increased traffic to Honolulu and Sydney. 810 Tokyo was considered as an alternative or relief valve capable of receiving traffic that might be diverted

  7. Solar power's rise and promise

    OpenAIRE

    Pernia, Ernesto M.; Generoso, Maria Janela M.

    2015-01-01

    Time was when solar energy was facilely dismissed as impractical, inefficient, and pricey. In recent years, however, innovations in technology, regulation, and financing have resulted in remarkable efficiency improvements and price reductions, thereby reversing the skepticism about this renewable energy (RE) source. In this paper, we explore how this has happened, to what extent photovoltaic solar technology has been accepted around the world, and what might be its potential for inclusive gre...

  8. Rheo-optical Raman study of microscopic deformation in high-density polyethylene under hot drawing

    OpenAIRE

    Kida, Takumitsu; Hiejima, Yusuke; Nitta, Koh-hei

    2015-01-01

    In situ observation of the microscopic structural changes in high-density polyethylene during hot drawing was performed by incorporating a temperature-controlled tensile machine into a Raman spectroscopy apparatus. It was found that the load sharing and molecular orientation during elongation drastically changed at 50°C. The microscopic stress of the crystalline chains decreased with increasing temperature and diminished around 50°C. Moreover, the orientation of the crystalline chains was gre...

  9. Assessment of gas accumulation and retention -- Tank 241-SY-101

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alleman, R.T.; Burke, T.M.; Reynolds, D.A.; Simpson, D.E.

    1993-03-01

    An approximate analysis has been carried out to assess and estimate the maximum quantity of gas that is likely to be accumulated within waste tank 241-SY-101, and the maximum quantity which is likely to be retained after gas release events (GRE). According to the phenomenological models used for this assessment, based on interpretation of current and recent operational data, the estimated gas generation rate in the tank is approximately 4 m 3 /day (147 ft 3 /day). About half of this gas is released as it is generated, which is (essentially) continuously. The remainder is accumulated within the slurry layer of settled solids at the bottom of the tank, and released episodically in GREs, known as ''burps,'' that are induced by unstable buoyant conditions which develop when sufficient gas accumulates in the slurry. Calculations based on gas volumes to cause neutral buoyancy in the slurry predict the following: the maximum gas accumulation (at 1 atm pressure) that can occur without triggering a GRE is in the range of 606 to 1,039 m 3 (21,400 to 36,700 ft 3 ); and the maximum gas retention immediately after a GRE is equal to the maximum accumulation minus the gas released in the GRE. GREs do not necessarily involve all of the slurry. In the largest GREs, which are assumed to involve all of the slurry, the minimum gas release (at 1 atm pressure) is calculated to be in the range of 193 to 328 m 3 (6,800 to 11,600 ft 3 ). The corresponding maximum gas retention would be 413 to 711 m 3 (14,600 to 25,100 ft 3 )

  10. 1917-IJBCS-Article-Bathélemy Yelemou

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    De cette étude, il se dégage la nécessité d'avoir un modèle de gestion des parcours qui intègre la végétation ... global est d'aboutir à l'élaboration d'un système .... un (01) bovin sahélien équivaut à 0,85 ..... Africa: Potential effects of climate.

  11. Measurements of RF Heating during 3.0T MRI of a Pig Implanted with Deep Brain Stimulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorny, Krzysztof R; Presti, Michael F; Goerss, Stephan J; Hwang, Sun C; Jang, Dong-Pyo; Kim, Inyong; Shu, Yunhong; Favazza, Christopher P; Lee, Kendall H; Bernstein, Matt A

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To present preliminary, in vivo temperature measurements during MRI of a pig implanted with a deep brain stimulation (DBS) system. Materials and Methods DBS system (Medtronic Inc., Minneapolis, MN) was implanted in the brain of an anesthetized pig. 3.0T MRI was performed with a T/R head coil using the low-SAR GRE EPI and IR-prepped GRE sequences (SAR: 0.42 W/kg and 0.39 W/kg, respectively), and the high-SAR 4-echo RF spin echo (SAR: 2.9 W/kg). Fluoroptic thermometry was used to directly measure RF-related heating at the DBS electrodes, and at the implantable pulse generator (IPG). For reference the measurements were repeated in the same pig at 1.5T and, at both field strengths, in a phantom. Results At 3.0T, the maximal temperature elevations at DBS electrodes were 0.46 °C and 2.3 °C, for the low- and high-SAR sequences, respectively. No heating was observed on the implanted IPG during any of the measurements. Measurements of in-vivo heating differed from those obtained in the phantom. Conclusion The 3.0T MRI using GRE EPI and IR-prepped GRE sequences resulted in local temperature elevations at DBS electrodes of no more than 0.46°C. Although no extrapolation should be made to human exams and much further study will be needed, these preliminary data are encouraging for the future use 3.0T MRI in patients with DBS. PMID:23228310

  12. Cue-Elicited Craving in Heroin Addicts at Different Abstinent Time: An fMRI Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Lou, Mingwu; Wang, Erlei; Shen, Yunxia; Wang, Jiping

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We evaluated the effect of short-term and long-term heroin abstinence on brain responses to heroin-related cues using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Methods: Eighteen male heroin addicts following short-term abstinence and 19 male heroin addicts following long-term abstinence underwent fMRI scanning while viewing heroin-related and neutral images. Cue-elicited craving and withdrawal symptoms in the subjects were measured. Results: Following short-term abstinence, gre...

  13. Mathematical Frameworks for Diagnostics, Prognostics and Condition Based Maintenance Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-15

    frequency than its less constrained counterpart. This phenomenon is similar to the effect seen when tightening a guitar string. A tighter string vibrates...English speaking countries are required to have a minimum score of 500 on the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL). Unconditional Admission...have passed the National Council of Examiners for Engineering and Surveying (NCEES) Fundamentals of Engineering Examination, and • Minimum GRE scores

  14. Are two systemic fish assemblage sampling programmes on the upper Mississippi River telling us the same thing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukerschein, J.T.; Bartels, A.D.; Ickes, B.S.; Pearson, M.S.

    2013-01-01

    We applied an Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) used on Wisconsin/Minnesota waters of the upper Mississippi River (UMR) to compare data from two systemic sampling programmes. Ability to use data from multiple sampling programmes could extend spatial and temporal coverage of river assessment and monitoring efforts. We normalized for effort and tested fish community data collected by the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program-Great Rivers Ecosystems (EMAP-GRE) 2004–2006 and the Long Term Resource Monitoring Program (LTRMP) 1993–2006. Each programme used daytime electrofishing along main channel borders but with some methodological and design differences. EMAP-GRE, designed for baseline and, eventually, compliance monitoring, used a probabilistic, continuous design. LTRMP, designed primarily for baseline and trend monitoring, used a stratified random design in five discrete study reaches. Analysis of similarity indicated no significant difference between EMAP-GRE and LTRMP IBI scores (n=238; Global R= 0.052; significance level=0.972). Both datasets distinguished clear differences only between 'Fair' and 'Poor' condition categories, potentially supporting a 'pass–fail' assessment strategy. Thirteen years of LTRMP data demonstrated stable IBI scores through time in four of five reaches sampled. LTRMP and EMAPGRE IBI scores correlated along the UMR's upstream to downstream gradient (df [3, 25]; F=1.61; p=0.22). A decline in IBI scores from upstream to downstream was consistent with UMR fish community studies and a previous, empirically modelled human disturbance gradient. Comparability between EMAP-GRE (best upstream to downstream coverage) and LTRMP data (best coverage over time and across the floodplain) supports a next step of developing and testing a systemic, multi-metric fish index on the UMR that both approaches could inform.

  15. The use of high-throughput sequencing to investigate an outbreak of glycopeptide-resistant Enterococcus faecium with a novel quinupristin-dalfopristin resistance mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Timothy D; Fairley, D J; Schneiders, T; Pathiraja, M; Hill, R L R; Werner, G; Elborn, J S; McMullan, R

    2018-02-24

    High-throughput sequencing (HTS) has successfully identified novel resistance genes in enterococci and determined clonal relatedness in outbreak analysis. We report the use of HTS to investigate two concurrent outbreaks of glycopeptide-resistant Enterococcus faecium (GRE) with an uncharacterised resistance mechanism to quinupristin-dalfopristin (QD). Seven QD-resistant and five QD-susceptible GRE isolates from a two-centre outbreak were studied. HTS was performed to identify genes or predicted proteins that were associated with the QD-resistant phenotype. MLST and SNP typing on HTS data was used to determine clonal relatedness. Comparative genomic analysis confirmed this GRE outbreak involved two distinct clones (ST80 and ST192). HTS confirmed the absence of known QD resistance genes, suggesting a novel mechanism was conferring resistance. Genomic analysis identified two significant genetic determinants with explanatory power for the high level of QD resistance in the ST80 QD-resistant clone: an additional 56aa leader sequence at the N-terminus of the lsaE gene and a transposon containing seven genes encoding proteins with possible drug or drug-target modification activities. However, HTS was unable to conclusively determine the QD resistance mechanism and did not reveal any genetic basis for QD resistance in the ST192 clone. This study highlights the usefulness of HTS in deciphering the degree of relatedness in two concurrent GRE outbreaks. Although HTS was able to reveal some genetic candidates for uncharacterised QD resistance, this study demonstrates the limitations of HTS as a tool for identifying putative determinants of resistance to QD.

  16. Distribution et incidence de la mosaïque du concombre (CMV) dans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    génome de type AAA) sont ... bananes dessert sur le marché de l'Union. Européenne. Les variétés commercialisées sont la 'Grande .... La technique culturale du bananier pratiquée dans ces secteurs de production, intègre une jachère d'un an ou ...

  17. IZBOLJŠAVA STATISTIČNEGA NADZORA PROCESA V PODJETJU VIP - VIRANT D.O.O.

    OpenAIRE

    Dolžan, Tomaž

    2014-01-01

    Tema diplomske naloge so kabelski snopi oziroma povezave, ki se uporabljajo v namen avtomobilske industrije. Pri obravnavanih kabelskih snopih gre za problematiko statističnega nadzora proizvodnega procesa. V nalogi smo se ukvarjali z izboljšavo dosedanjega statističnega nadzora proizvodnega procesa in pri tem dobili tudi konkretne podatke za dva parametra, katera smo merili. Meritve smo opravljali na podlagi jemanja vzorcev iz proizvodnega procesa. Opisali smo preteklo stanje statističnega n...

  18. Innovations issues de la base en Chine et en Inde | CRDI - Centre ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les innovations issues de la base sont celles qui émergent des systèmes de connaissances traditionnels et officieux d'un lieu, qu'on intègre ou non un savoir officiel. En Chine et en Inde, on n'a pas encore pleinement compris et mis à profit ce type d'innovation. Cette subvention financera une étude approfondie de ce type ...

  19. Proceedings of the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) Tool Fair Held January 26-27, 1987 in Alexandria, Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-04

    gilvenl gre phl. I1. Decscribhe how your system siipports real 1111W design. (!I~t(e lnjttglactors behinld the SII, : ielt l11. iwee I( pralle : 4:1’ o...82171111I1t:101(m IV Ielt y is the problem. \\Vhen the requtiremnuts. represent - -I ch Il I-i Inls. a1re moclifled to Iminprove the syst cmi’s, peform

  20. Carbon fibre and nitinol needles for MRI-guided interventions: First in vitro and in vivo application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Christoph, E-mail: Christoph.thomas@med.uni-tuebingen.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Tuebingen, Hoppe-Seyler-Strasse 3, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Wojtczyk, Hanne [Section of Experimental Radiology, University of Tuebingen, Hoppe-Seyler-Strasse 3, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Rempp, Hansjoerg; Clasen, Stephan; Horger, Marius [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Tuebingen, Hoppe-Seyler-Strasse 3, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Lassberg, Christoph von [Department of Sports Medicine, University of Tuebingen, Silcherstrasse 5, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Fritz, Jan [Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 600 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States); Claussen, Claus D. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Tuebingen, Hoppe-Seyler-Strasse 3, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Pereira, Philippe L. [Department of Radiology, Minimally Invasive Therapies and Nuclearmedicine, SLK-Kliniken Heilbronn GmbH, Am Gesundbrunnen 20-26, 74078 Heilbronn (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    Objective: To assess the artefact properties of a MR-compatible carbon fibre needle with a nitinol mandrin in vitro and to report first clinical experiences. Materials and methods: In vitro, the carbon fibre/nitinol needle was imaged at different angles against the main magnetic field (1.5 T open bore magnet). A gradient echo MR fluoroscopy sequence (GRE: TR 9.3 ms, TE 3.12 ms, bandwidth 200 Hz/pixel, flip-angle 12{sup o}) and a fast turbo spin echo sequence (FSE: TR 412 ms, TE 9.7 ms, bandwidth 200 Hz/pixel, flip-angle 150{sup o}) were used. Artefact width, needle intensity contrast and needle tip location errors were assessed. In vivo, lumbar periradicular corticosteroid injections and one sclerotherapy were performed with carbon fibre needles (10 procedures) and with titanium alloy needles (2 procedures). The artefact sizes and contrasts were measured. Results: In vitro, artefact diameters of the carbon fibre needle ranged from 3.3 to 4.6 mm, contrasts from 0.11 to 0.52, with larger artefact contrasts and widths with the GRE sequence. Needle tip location errors of -2.1 to -2.8 mm were observed. Decreasing angles to the main field lead to smaller artefacts. In vivo, the carbon fibre/nitinol needle produced smaller artefacts (mean width FSE/GRE: 2.8 mm/4.6 mm) with lower contrast (0.30-0.42) than the titanium alloy needle (mean width FSE/GRE: 4.1 mm/7.5 mm, contrast 0.60-0.73). Conclusions: The carbon fibre/nitinol needle is useful for performing MR-guided interventions at 1.5 T, producing more subtle artefacts than a titanium alloy needle, but with an incomplete depiction and thus inaccurate localization of the needle tip.

  1. Incidence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in U.S. coastal waters and oysters.

    OpenAIRE

    DePaola, A; Hopkins, L H; Peeler, J T; Wentz, B; McPhearson, R M

    1990-01-01

    Oyster and seawater samples were collected seasonally from May 1984 through April 1985 from shellfish-growing areas in Washington, California, Texas, Louisiana, Alabama, Florida, South Carolina, Virginia, and Rhode Island which had been designated as approved or prohibited by the National Shellfish Sanitation Program. Fecal coliforms counts, aerobic plate counts, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus densities were determined for the samples. Mean V. parahaemolyticus density was more than 100 times gre...

  2. Chondrocalcinosis of the hyaline cartilage of the knee: MRI manifestations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltran, J.; Marty-Delfaut, E.; Bencardino, J.; Rosenberg, Z.S.; Steiner, G.; Aparisi, F.; Padron, M.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the ability of MRI to detect the presence of crystals of calcium pyrophosphate in the articular cartilage of the knee. Design and patients. The MR studies of 12 knees (11 cases) were reviewed retrospectively and correlated with r[iographs (12 cases) and the findings at arthroscopy (2 cases) and surgery (1 case). A total of 72 articular surfaces were evaluated. R[iographic, surgical or arthroscopic demonstration of chondrocalcinosis was used as the gold standard. [ditionally, two fragments of the knee of a patient who underwent total knee replacement and demonstrated extensive chondrocalcinosis were studied with r[iography and MRI using spin-echo T1-, T2- and proton-density-weighted images as well as two- and three-dimensional fat saturation (2D and 3D Fat Sat) gr[ient recalled echo (GRE) and STIR sequences. Results. MRI revealed multiple hypointense foci within the articular cartilage in 34 articular surfaces, better shown on 2D and 3D GRE sequences. R[iographs showed 12 articular surfaces with chondrocalcinosis. In three cases with arthroscopic or surgical correlation, MRI demonstrated more diffuse involvement of the articular cartilage than did the r[iographs. The 3D Fat Sat GRE sequences were the best for demonstrating articular calcification in vitro. In no case was meniscal calcification identified with MRI. Hyperintense halos around some of the calcifications were seen on the MR images. Conclusion. MRI can depict articular cartilage calcification as hypointense foci using GRE techniques. Differential diagnosis includes loose bodies, post-surgical changes, marginal osteophytes and hemosiderin deposition. (orig.)

  3. Flammable Gas Safety Program: analysis of gas sampling probe locations in the SX-farm flammable gas watchlist tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaren, J.M.; Claybrook, S.W.

    1995-09-01

    An analysis was performed to determine the optimum ventilation line up for the AN Tank Farm. The analysis used the postulated maximum historical GRE in tanks AN-103, -104, and -105. Tank AN-104 was found to be limiting. The results of the analysis show that an airflow of 250 cfm through tanks 241-AN-103, -104, and -105 with an airflow of 100 cfm through tanks 241-AN-101, -102, -106, and -107 would be the optimum ventilation lineup

  4. VLOGA OPERATIVNEGA MANAGEMENTA PRI RAZVOJU UNICREDIT BANKE SLOVENIJE D.D.

    OpenAIRE

    Horvat, Metod

    2010-01-01

    Diplomsko delo predstavlja vlogo operativnega managementa pri razvoju Unicredit Banka Slovenije d.d. Operativni management predstavlja ključen kader, ki s svojim znanjem, sposobnostjo in pripravljenostjo lahko pripelje do realizacije ciljev in razvoja banke. V teoretičnem delu gre za pregled strokovne literature na področju organizacije, managerja, managementa, operativnega managementa, operativnega managementa v Unicredit Banki Slovenije d.d. V empiričnem delu je predstavljena raziskav...

  5. Myofibroblast Numbers are Elevated in Human Elbow Capsules After Trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Hildebrand, Kevin A.; Zhang, Mei; van Snellenberg, Wistara; King, Graham J. W.; Hart, David A.

    2004-01-01

    Elbow contractures, a frequent problem after injury, can be treated by excision of the joint capsule. However, the underlying changes in the joint capsule are poorly understood. Based on skin healing work, we examined the hypotheses that myofibroblast numbers and expression of a myofibroblast marker α-smooth muscle actin, are elevated in patients with posttraumatic joint contractures. Anterior capsules were obtained from six patients who had operative release of posttraumatic contractures gre...

  6. De l'innovation pédagogique dans les universités de la périphérie ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... effet de la mondialisation dans l'enseignement supérieur africain ont servi de référence empirique pour souligner que l'innovation continue des offres pédagogiques, dans les nations périphériques, ne peut être efficace et efficiente que si elle intègre la dynamique d'évolution économique, politique, sociale… culturelle.

  7. Biological Effects of Laser Radiation. Volume III. Effects of Carbon Dioxide Laser Radiation on the Rabbit Eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-10-17

    and anterior chamber temperatures of unirradiated rabbit eyes at room temperature, com- pared with data from Schwartz and Feller 195 Table 11-4...an~d Eu:E. 2.9)3 ), ?T,~ .<aecbediJre desAu2" A ~; Gre:’’~ rm. -fi.,132: 15,-d 229 Hostein, P, and Ernster, L. (2969), in Celular irury, A. V. S

  8. The feasibility of magnetic resonance imaging of the dynamic swallowing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jingquan; Gao Mingyong; Luo Suling; Lu Ruiliang; He Xiaohong

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To offer some visual and valuable clinical bases for the pharynx disease diagnosis and treatment by comparing the influence of different scanning sequences on the image quality and scanning time, and studying the application to the dynamic swallowing MRI scanning. Methods: The dynamic swallowing scanning of pharyngeal was performed on 20 nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients without deglutition disorders through GE 3.0 MRI system with fast imaging employing steady state acquisition (FIESTA) and fast gradient recalled echo (Fast GRE) sequences, and combined with the array spatial sensitivity encoding technique (ASSET), which accelerating factors was 2.0 ph, and sixty dynamic images were acquired sequentially. The image quality was graded into three classes:excellent, favorable and poor,which were visually assessed by three senior MRI physician using double-blinded method. The quantitative data were analyzed statistically with the SPSS13.0 software. Results: Under the same parameters,the scanning time with FIESTA, FIESTA+ASSET, Fast GRE and Fast GREA+ASSET sequences were 54 s, 28 s, 49 s and 25 s respectively. The number of excellent images with the four sequences were 44, 52, 52 and 56 respectively. The scanning time was the shortest and the image quality was the best with Fast GRE+ASSET sequence. Conclusions: The dynamic imaging of swallowing in sagittal view was achieved with Fast GRE+ASSET sequence on GE 3.0T MRI system. It could present status of the pharynx well, and the soft tissue of swallowing was showed clearly in the dynamic images. These will provide visual and effective evidence for clinical diagnosis and treatment. (authors)

  9. Chondrocalcinosis of the hyaline cartilage of the knee: MRI manifestations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltran, J.; Marty-Delfaut, E.; Bencardino, J.; Rosenberg, Z.S. [Department of Radiology, Hospital for Joint Diseases, New York, NY (United States); Steiner, G. [Department of Pathology, Hospital for Joint Diseases, New York, NY (United States); Aparisi, F. [Department of Radiology, Residencia Sanitaria ``La Fe``, Valencia (Spain); Padron, M. [Clinica San Camilo, Madrid (Spain)

    1998-07-01

    Purpose. To determine the ability of MRI to detect the presence of crystals of calcium pyrophosphate in the articular cartilage of the knee. Design and patients. The MR studies of 12 knees (11 cases) were reviewed retrospectively and correlated with radiographs (12 cases) and the findings at arthroscopy (2 cases) and surgery (1 case). A total of 72 articular surfaces were evaluated. Radiographic, surgical or arthroscopic demonstration of chondrocalcinosis was used as the gold standard. Additionally, two fragments of the knee of a patient who underwent total knee replacement and demonstrated extensive chondrocalcinosis were studied with radiography and MRI using spin-echo T1-, T2- and proton-density-weighted images as well as two- and three-dimensional fat saturation (2D and 3D Fat Sat) gradient recalled echo (GRE) and STIR sequences. Results. MRI revealed multiple hypointense foci within the articular cartilage in 34 articular surfaces, better shown on 2D and 3D GRE sequences. Radiographs showed 12 articular surfaces with chondrocalcinosis. In three cases with arthroscopic or surgical correlation, MRI demonstrated more diffuse involvement of the articular cartilage than did the radiographs. The 3D Fat Sat GRE sequences were the best for demonstrating articular calcification in vitro. In no case was meniscal calcification identified with MRI. Hyperintense halos around some of the calcifications were seen on the MR images. Conclusion. MRI can depict articular cartilage calcification as hypointense foci using GRE techniques. Differential diagnosis includes loose bodies, post-surgical changes, marginal osteophytes and hemosiderin deposition. (orig.) With 4 figs., 14 refs.

  10. Using Social Media Tools to Enhance Tacit Knowledge Sharing Within the USMC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Organizational KM Success According to Davenport, De Long, and Beers, “If the cultural soil isn’t fertile for a knowledge project, no amount of...1998). The USMC is always ready to provide forcible entry or ship-to- objective maneuver (STOM) on foreign soil for a wide range of operations from... enviro nment has called f o r gre ater attention o n how the Marine Corps captures, shares, and transfers info rmation and knowledge assets within

  11. Radiochemical study of Re/W adsorption behavior on a strongly basic anion exchange resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gott, Matthew D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States). Chemistry Div.; Missouri Univ., Columbia, MO (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Ballard, Beau D.; Redman, Lindsay N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States). Chemistry Div.; and others

    2014-07-01

    Rhenium-186g is a radionuclide with a high potential for therapeutic applications. It emits therapeutic β{sup -} particles accompanied by low energy γ-rays, which allows for in-vivo tracking of the radiolabeled compound and dosimetry estimates. The current reactor production pathway {sup 185}Re(n,γ){sup 186g}Re produces low specific activity {sup 186g}Re, thereby limiting its therapeutic application. Work is underway to develop an accelerator-based, charged particle induced production method for high specific activity {sup 186g}Re from targets of enriched {sup 186}W. To optimize the chemical {sup 186g}Re recovery method, batch studies have been performed to characterize the adsorption behavior of Re and W on a strongly basic anion exchange resin. An in-depth physicochemical profile was developed for the interaction of Re with resin material, which showed the reaction to be endothermic and spontaneous. Basic (NaOH) and acidic (HNO{sub 3}) matrices were used to determine the equilibrium distribution coefficients for Re and W. The resin exhibits the best affinity for Re at slightly basic conditions and little affinity above moderately acidic concentrations. Tungsten has low affinity for the resin above moderately basic concentrations. A study was performed to examine the effect of W concentration on Re adsorption, which showed that even a high ionic WO{sub 4}{sup 2-} strength of up to 1.9 mol kg{sup -1} does not significantly compromise ReO{sub 4}{sup -} retention on the resin. (orig.)

  12. Les changements climatiques brouillent les prédictions des faiseurs ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    8 oct. 2010 ... Les faiseurs de pluie fondent leurs prédictions sur l'observation attentive des phénomènes naturels, notamment le bourgeonnement et la floraison des ... intègre le savoir autochtone, désormais mieux compris, à son programme sur la gestion des risques liés aux catastrophes, en cours d'élaboration.

  13. Protocol for evaluating Epigenetic modulation of the renal β-adrenergic-WNK4 pathway in salt-sensitive hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    Authors: ShengYu Mu, Tatsuo Shimosawa & Toshiro Fujita ### Abstract In the current study, we found that β2 adrenergic receptor (β2AR) stimulation induced histone acetylation through HDAC8 inhibition, and then decreased transcription of the WNK4 gene by enhancing the binding of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and negative-GR-responsive-element (nGRE) in WNK4 promoter region. Infusion of isoproterenol decreased WNK4 expression and activated the Na+-Cl- co-transporter in mice, which develop...

  14. Effects of different rehabilitation models on erythrocyte deformability and nitrite plus nitrate as end-products of nitric oxide levels in elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filar-Mierzwa, Katarzyna; Wójcik, Barbara; Marchewka, Anna; Dąbrowski, Zbigniew; Superata, Jerzy; Wiśniowski, Zdzisław

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the effects of two rehabilitation protocols, dance movement therapy exercises (DMT) and general rehabilitation exercises (GRE), on erythrocyte deformability and plasma levels of nitrite plus nitrate as end products of nitric oxide (NOx) in elderly women. The study included 39 women aged 61-82 years, subjected to either GRE (n = 20) or DMT (n = 19). Women were subjected to 5-months programs of GRE and DMT, with each session lasting no longer than 45-50 min, and the intensity of exercising corresponding to no more than 40-60% of heart rate reserve. Plasma levels of NOx were determined spectrophotometrically before and at the end of the intervention. A significant increase in the total nitrate/nitrite concentration from 1.341 μmol/L to 1.590 μmol/L (7.3%) was observed in women subjected to the DMT rehabilitation program. Furthermore, an increase in erythrocyte deformability was observed in this group at shear stress 0.30. No significant difference was found between the pre- and post-rehabilitation NOx levels of women participating in the GRE program. Participation in DMT rehabilitation program might be reflected by an increase in plasma NOx levels and an improvement of erythrocyte deformability at lesser shear stress, and thus could potentially result in better vascular function. DMT should be offered to older adults, especially to persons who do not find conventional forms of rehabilitation as attractive, as they might refrain from physical activity and suffer from a faster decline in nitric oxide production. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 2479-2484. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  15. Modeling and simulation of viscoelastic biological particles' 3D manipulation using atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korayem, M. H.; Habibi Sooha, Y.; Rastegar, Z.

    2018-05-01

    Manipulation of the biological particles by atomic force microscopy is used to transfer these particles inside body's cells, diagnosis and destruction of the cancer cells and drug delivery to damaged cells. According to the impossibility of simultaneous observation of this process, the importance of modeling and simulation can be realized. The contact of the tip with biological particle is important during manipulation, therefore, the first step of the modeling is choosing appropriate contact model. Most of the studies about contact between atomic force microscopy and biological particles, consider the biological particle as an elastic material. This is not an appropriate assumption because biological cells are basically soft and this assumption ignores loading history. In this paper, elastic and viscoelastic JKR theories were used in modeling and simulation of the 3D manipulation for three modes of tip-particle sliding, particle-substrate sliding and particle-substrate rolling. Results showed that critical force and time in motion modes (sliding and rolling) for two elastic and viscoelastic states are very close but these magnitudes were lower in the viscoelastic state. Then, three friction models, Coulomb, LuGre and HK, were used for tip-particle sliding mode in the first phase of manipulation to make results closer to reality. In both Coulomb and LuGre models, critical force and time are very close for elastic and viscoelastic states but in general critical force and time prediction of HK model was higher than LuGre and the LuGre model itself had higher prediction than Coulomb.

  16. Measurements of RF heating during 3.0-T MRI of a pig implanted with deep brain stimulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorny, Krzysztof R; Presti, Michael F; Goerss, Stephan J; Hwang, Sun C; Jang, Dong-Pyo; Kim, Inyong; Min, Hoon-Ki; Shu, Yunhong; Favazza, Christopher P; Lee, Kendall H; Bernstein, Matt A

    2013-06-01

    To present preliminary, in vivo temperature measurements during MRI of a pig implanted with a deep brain stimulation (DBS) system. DBS system (Medtronic Inc., Minneapolis, MN) was implanted in the brain of an anesthetized pig. 3.0-T MRI was performed with a T/R head coil using the low-SAR GRE EPI and IR-prepped GRE sequences (SAR: 0.42 and 0.39 W/kg, respectively), and the high-SAR 4-echo RF spin echo (SAR: 2.9 W/kg). Fluoroptic thermometry was used to directly measure RF-related heating at the DBS electrodes, and at the implantable pulse generator (IPG). For reference the measurements were repeated in the same pig at 1.5 T and, at both field strengths, in a phantom. At 3.0T, the maximal temperature elevations at DBS electrodes were 0.46 °C and 2.3 °C, for the low- and high-SAR sequences, respectively. No heating was observed on the implanted IPG during any of the measurements. Measurements of in vivo heating differed from those obtained in the phantom. The 3.0-T MRI using GRE EPI and IR-prepped GRE sequences resulted in local temperature elevations at DBS electrodes of no more than 0.46 °C. Although no extrapolation should be made to human exams and much further study will be needed, these preliminary data are encouraging for the future use 3.0-T MRI in patients with DBS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Fundamental math and physics for scientists and engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Yevick, David

    2014-01-01

    This text summarizes the core undergraduate physics curriculum together with the mathematics frequently encountered in engineering and physics calculations, focusing on content relevant to practical applications.Covers  major undergraduate physics topics including the complete Physics GRE subject examination syllabusOverview of key results in undergraduate applied mathematics and introduces scientific programmingPresents simple, coherent derivations and illustrations of fundamental concepts

  18. Application of the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) technique as an efficient diagnostic tool for ciliate communities in soil

    OpenAIRE

    Jousset, Alexandre; Lara, Enrique; Nikolausz, Marcell; Harms, Hauke; Chatzinotasa, Antonis

    2010-01-01

    Ciliates (or Ciliophora) are ubiquitous organisms which can be widely used as bioindicators in ecosystems exposed to anthropogenic and industrial influences. The evaluation of the environmental impact on soil ciliate communities with methods relying on morphology-based identification may be hampered by the large number of samples usually required for a statistically supported, reliable conclusion. Cultivation-independent molecular-biological diagnostic tools are a promising alternative to gre...

  19. Spectral Assessment of Soil Properties: Standoff Quantification of Soil Organic Matter Content in Surface Mineral Soils and Alaskan Peat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Soil Properties Standoff Quantification of Soil Organic Matter Content in Surface Mineral Soils and Alaskan Peat En gi ne er R es ea rc h an d D...ERDC 6.2 GRE ARTEMIS STO-R DRTSPORE ERDC TR-17-9 August 2017 Spectral Assessment of Soil Properties Standoff Quantification of Soil Organic...Matter Content in Surface Mineral Soils and Alaskan Peat Stacey L. Jarvis, Karen L. Foley, Robert M. Jones, Stephen D. Newman, and Robyn A. Barbato

  20. Innovations issues de la base en Chine et en Inde | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les innovations issues de la base sont celles qui émergent des systèmes de connaissances traditionnels et officieux d'un lieu, qu'on intègre ou non un savoir officiel. En Chine et en Inde, on n'a pas encore pleinement compris et mis à profit ce type d'innovation. Cette subvention financera une étude approfondie de ce type ...

  1. Calcium Carbonate Phosphate Binding Ion Exchange Filtration and Accelerated Denitrification Improve Public Health Standards and Combat Eutrophication in Aquatic Ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Yanamadala, Vijay

    2005-01-01

    Cultural eutrophication, the process by which a lake becomes rich in dissolved nutrients as a result of point and nonpoint pollutant sources, is a major cause of the loss of natural lake ecosystems throughout the world. The process occurs naturally in all lakes, but phosphate-rich nutrient runoff from sources such as storm drains and agricultural runoff is a major cause of excess phosphate-induced eutrophication. Especially in Madrona Marsh, one of the last remaining vernal marshes in the gre...

  2. Greater Efficiency Observed 12 Months Post-Implementation of an Automatic Tube Sorting and Registration System in a Core Laboratory/ Veća Efikasnost Uočena 12 Meseci Posle Implementacije Sistema za Automatsko Sortiranje i Registrovanje Uzoraka u Centralnoj Laboratoriji

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ucar Fatma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Uvod: Klasifikacija i registracija uzoraka u laboratorijama prepoznate su kao važni i dugotrajni procesi. Laboratorije su pod sve većim pritiskom da automatizuju postupke zbog velikog obima posla i smanje manuelne procedure i greške. Cilj ove studije bio je da se procene pozitivni efekti jednog sistema za automatsko registrovanje i sortiranje uzoraka na njihovu obradu.

  3. Factors Associated with Student Stress in the U.S. Army - Baylor University Graduate Program in Health Care Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-01

    highly-competitive military system. Academic probation is imposed on any now student who did not have an undergraduate grade point average (GPA) of...DF), and depersonalization intensity (DI). This suggests that students with higher GRE scores exhibited a lower degree of feelings related to these...characteristics, and the levels of stress during the US Army - Baylor University Graduate Program in Health Care Administration. The students were administered

  4. Sinusoidal obstructive syndrome diagnosed with superparamagnetic iron oxide-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in patients with chemotherapy-treated colorectal liver metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Janice; Guthrie, James A; Sheridan, Maria B; Boyes, Sheila; Smith, Jonathan T; Wilson, Daniel; Wyatt, Judy I; Treanor, Darren; Robinson, Philip J

    2008-09-10

    To assess the predictive value of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) -enhanced T2-weighted gradient echo (GRE) imaging to determine the presence and severity of sinusoidal obstructive syndrome (SOS). Sixty hepatic resection patients with colorectal metastases treated with chemotherapy underwent unenhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) followed by T2-weighted GRE sequences obtained after SPIO. The images were reviewed in consensus by two experienced observers who determined the presence and severity of linear and reticular hyperintensities, indicating SOS-type liver injury, using a 4-point ordinal scale. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) with 95% CIs for the detection of SOS were calculated. Twenty-four of 60 patients had moderate to severe SOS on MRI. MRI achieved a sensitivity of 87% (95% CI, 66% to 97%), specificity of 89% (95% CI, 75% to 97%), PPV of 83% (95% CI, 63% to 95%), and NPV of 92% (95% CI, 77% to 98%). SOS was never found at surgery or histology in patients whose background liver parenchyma was normal on SPIO-enhanced MRI. SOS is present in a significant proportion of patients with treated colorectal metastases and is effectively detected on SPIO-enhanced T2-weighted GRE images.

  5. Optimization of the sequence parameter of multishot-EPI in 0.5T MRI to visualize cerebral microbleeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiya, Naoki; Ito, Yoichi

    2007-01-01

    By using the gradient type multi-shot EPI method (MSEPI) which reflects the magnetic susceptibility effect more also with 0.5T MRI, it thought that improvement in detection ability of minute cerebral hemorrhage could be aimed at, and the optimal condition was examined. The phantom which put small air bubbles into the gel-like liquid was created, and a flip angle, echo time (TE), the number of shots, and the bandwidth were changed, it picked up, and the image pick-up conditions considered to be the optimal were determined. The vision evaluation in receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used for the determination of photography conditions. Photography conditions made flip angle=90 degree, TE=51 ms(the shortest value acquirable with a full echo),number of shots=8, and bandwidth=62.5 kHz. Next, phantom photography was carried out by the gradient echo method (GRE) which was being used conventionally and the MSEPI method, and vision evaluation in ROC analysis was performed. The MSEPI method (Az=0.978) and the GRE method (Az=0.950). Moreover, in Student's t test (p<0.05), the detection ability of the MSEPI method was high. By picking up by the MSEPI method also with 0.5T MRI, the detection ability of minute cerebral hemorrhage improved rather than the GRE method. (author)

  6. Gremlin-1 induces BMP-independent tumor cell proliferation, migration, and invasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minsoo Kim

    Full Text Available Gremlin-1, a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP antagonist, is overexpressed in various cancerous tissues but its role in carcinogenesis has not been established. Here, we report that gremlin-1 binds various cancer cell lines and this interaction is inhibited by our newly developed gremlin-1 antibody, GRE1. Gremlin-1 binding to cancer cells was unaffected by the presence of BMP-2, BMP-4, and BMP-7. In addition, the binding was independent of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR2 expression on the cell surface. Addition of gremlin-1 to A549 cells induced a fibroblast-like morphology and decreased E-cadherin expression. In a scratch wound healing assay, A549 cells incubated with gremlin-1 or transfected with gremlin-1 showed increased migration, which was inhibited in the presence of the GRE1 antibody. Gremlin-1 transfected A549 cells also exhibited increased invasiveness as well as an increased growth rate. These effects were also inhibited by the addition of the GRE1 antibody. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that gremlin-1 directly interacts with cancer cells in a BMP- and VEGFR2-independent manner and can induce cell migration, invasion, and proliferation.

  7. Interactions between the nuclear matrix and an enhancer of the tryptophan oxygenase gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneoka, Hidenori [Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Miyake, Katsuhide, E-mail: miyake@nubio.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Iijima, Shinji [Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan)

    2009-10-02

    The gene for tryptophan oxygenase (TO) is expressed in adult hepatocytes in a tissue- and differentiation-specific manner. The TO promoter has two glucocorticoid-responsive elements (GREs), and its expression is regulated by glucocorticoid hormone in the liver. We found a novel GRE in close proximity to a scaffold/matrix attachment region (S/MAR) that was located around -8.5 kb from the transcriptional start site of the TO gene by electrophoretic mobility shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays. A combination of nuclear fractionation and quantitative PCR analysis showed that the S/MAR was tethered to the nuclear matrix in both fetal and adult hepatocytes. ChIP assay showed that, in adult hepatocytes, the S/MAR-GRE and the promoter proximal regions interacted with lamin and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U in a dexamethasone dependent manner, but this was not the case in fetal cells, suggesting that developmental stage-specific expression of the TO gene might rely on the binding of the enhancer (the -8.5 kb S/MAR-GRE) and the promoter to the inner nuclear matrix.

  8. Interactions between the nuclear matrix and an enhancer of the tryptophan oxygenase gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneoka, Hidenori; Miyake, Katsuhide; Iijima, Shinji

    2009-01-01

    The gene for tryptophan oxygenase (TO) is expressed in adult hepatocytes in a tissue- and differentiation-specific manner. The TO promoter has two glucocorticoid-responsive elements (GREs), and its expression is regulated by glucocorticoid hormone in the liver. We found a novel GRE in close proximity to a scaffold/matrix attachment region (S/MAR) that was located around -8.5 kb from the transcriptional start site of the TO gene by electrophoretic mobility shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays. A combination of nuclear fractionation and quantitative PCR analysis showed that the S/MAR was tethered to the nuclear matrix in both fetal and adult hepatocytes. ChIP assay showed that, in adult hepatocytes, the S/MAR-GRE and the promoter proximal regions interacted with lamin and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U in a dexamethasone dependent manner, but this was not the case in fetal cells, suggesting that developmental stage-specific expression of the TO gene might rely on the binding of the enhancer (the -8.5 kb S/MAR-GRE) and the promoter to the inner nuclear matrix.

  9. Clinical application of three dimensional ultrafast MR imaging to intracerebral traumatic lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enomoto, Kyoko; Amanuma, Makoto; Hasegawa, Makoto; Watabe, Tsuneya; Heshiki, Atsuko

    1994-01-01

    We applied a T1-weighted three-dimensional (3D) magnetization-prepared rapid gradient-echo sequence (MPRAGE) for the detection of intracerebral lesions associated with closed head injuries. Thirty-four patients underwent brain MR imaging on a 1.5 Tesla superconducting MR unit. We applied an MPRAGE sequence, together with spin echo (SE) and gradient echo (GRE) sequences, and evaluated the detectability of lesions with each sequence. A total of 100 intracerebral traumatic lesions (33 cortical contusion, 56 diffuse axonal injury, 11 subcortical gray matter injury) were found. Ninety-seven percent of all lesions were detected on MPRAGE images, and 67% on SE and GRE images. The detectability of lesions in each category was 91%, 98%, and 100% on MPRAGE images, and 88%, 54%, and 73% on either SE or GRE images. 3D MPRAGE is a promising method to detect intracerebral traumatic lesions, particularly those associated with diffuse axonal injury, because of its high quality of contrast and spatial resolution and the capability of image reconstruction in any plane. (author)

  10. Molecular Characterization of Glycopeptide-Resistant Enterococci from Hospitals of the Picardy Region (France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Biendo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied 138 glycopeptide-resistant enterococci (GRE strains, consisting of 131 glycopeptide-resistant Enterococcus faecium (GREfm and 7 glycopeptide-resistant Enterococcus faecalis (GREfs. The GREfm strains were resistant to penicillin, ampicillin, vancomycin, and teicoplanin, while the GREfs strains were only resistant to vancomycin and teicoplanin. The van A gene was the only glycopeptide determinant present in all GRE isolates investigated. Genes coding for Hyl and Hyl+ Esp were detected in 39 (29.8% and 92 (70.2% of the 131 GREfm isolates, respectively. Three of the 7 GREfs were positive for gelE+asa 1 genes, 3 for gel E gene, and 1 for asa 1 gene. The genetic relationship between the 138 GRE was analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE and multilocus sequence typing (MLST. GREfm isolates were clustered in a single genogroup (pulsotype A, and GREfs were clustered in six genogroups (pulsotypes B-G. Among the isolates investigated by MLST, only 18 PCR products were sequenced (12 E. faecium and 6 E. faecalis, and 9 sequence types (STs were identified.

  11. Microbleed detection using automated segmentation (MIDAS): a new method applicable to standard clinical MR images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seghier, Mohamed L; Kolanko, Magdalena A; Leff, Alexander P; Jäger, Hans R; Gregoire, Simone M; Werring, David J

    2011-03-23

    Cerebral microbleeds, visible on gradient-recalled echo (GRE) T2* MRI, have generated increasing interest as an imaging marker of small vessel diseases, with relevance for intracerebral bleeding risk or brain dysfunction. Manual rating methods have limited reliability and are time-consuming. We developed a new method for microbleed detection using automated segmentation (MIDAS) and compared it with a validated visual rating system. In thirty consecutive stroke service patients, standard GRE T2* images were acquired and manually rated for microbleeds by a trained observer. After spatially normalizing each patient's GRE T2* images into a standard stereotaxic space, the automated microbleed detection algorithm (MIDAS) identified cerebral microbleeds by explicitly incorporating an "extra" tissue class for abnormal voxels within a unified segmentation-normalization model. The agreement between manual and automated methods was assessed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Kappa statistic. We found that MIDAS had generally moderate to good agreement with the manual reference method for the presence of lobar microbleeds (Kappa = 0.43, improved to 0.65 after manual exclusion of obvious artefacts). Agreement for the number of microbleeds was very good for lobar regions: (ICC = 0.71, improved to ICC = 0.87). MIDAS successfully detected all patients with multiple (≥2) lobar microbleeds. MIDAS can identify microbleeds on standard MR datasets, and with an additional rapid editing step shows good agreement with a validated visual rating system. MIDAS may be useful in screening for multiple lobar microbleeds.

  12. Liver iron content determined by MRI. Spin-echo vs. gradient-echo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juchems, M.S.; Wunderlich, A.P. [Universitaetskliniken Ulm (Germany). Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Cario, H. [Universitaetskliniken Ulm (Germany). Klinik fuer Kinder- und Jugendmedizin; Schmid, M. [Stadtspital Triemli, Zuerich (Switzerland). Medizinische Onkologie und Haematologie

    2012-05-15

    Purpose: Liver iron content (LIC) measurement plays a central role in the management of patients with transfusional iron overload. Calculating the LIC with data obtained from standardized MRI sequences represents an attractive alternative diagnostic possibility. The purpose of this study was to compare the LIC measurement obtained with gradient-echo (GRE) sequences to the mean liver proton transverse relaxation (R2) acquired with SE sequences. Materials and Methods: 68 patients with iron overload (median age: 24, range: 3 - 88) underwent 1.5 T MRI for liver iron content measurement. All patients received spin-echo (SE) and gradient-echo (GRE) sequences. Results: The two MRI methods revealed different liver iron content results although a significant correlation was found (r = 0.85, p < 0.001). Values evaluated using GRE sequences (median: 260 {mu}mol/g dry weight [d.w.], range: 6 - 732) were generally higher than those obtained by SE examinations (median: 161 {mu}mol /g d.w., range: 5 - 830). Conclusion: In conclusion, our study revealed different results for both MRI measurements, which could lead to different decisions concerning the management of chelation therapy in individual patients. (orig.)

  13. Designing molecular structure to achieve ductile fracture behavior in a stiff and strong 2D polymer, "graphylene".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoz-Rosado, E; Beaudet, T D; Balu, R; Wetzel, E D

    2016-06-07

    As the simplest two-dimensional (2D) polymer, graphene has immensely high intrinsic strength and elastic stiffness but has limited toughness due to brittle fracture. We use atomistic simulations to explore a new class of graphene/polyethylene hybrid 2D polymer, "graphylene", that exhibits ductile fracture mechanisms and has a higher fracture toughness and flaw tolerance than graphene. A specific configuration of this 2D polymer hybrid, denoted "GrE-2" for the two-carbon-long ethylene chains connecting benzene rings in the inherent framework, is prioritized for study. MD simulations of crack propagation show that the energy release rate to propagate a crack in GrE-2 is twice that of graphene. We also demonstrate that GrE-2 exhibits delocalized failure and other energy-dissipating fracture mechanisms such as crack branching and bridging. These results demonstrate that 2D polymers can be uniquely tailored to achieve a balance of fracture toughness with mechanical stiffness and strength.

  14. Hyaline articular cartilage: relaxation times, pulse-sequence parameters and MR appearance at 1.5 T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalkias, S.M. [Dept. of Radiology, A.H.E.P.A. General Hospital of the Aristotelian Univ., Thessaloniki (Greece); Pozzi-Mucelli, R.S. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Trieste (Italy); Pozzi-Mucelli, M. [Orthopaedic Clinic, Univ. of Trieste (Italy); Frezza, F. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Trieste (Italy); Longo, R. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Trieste (Italy)

    1994-08-01

    In order to optimize the parameters for the best visualization of the internal architecture of the hyaline articular cartilage a study both ex vivo and in vivo was performed. Accurate T1 and T2 relaxation times of articular cartilage were obtained with a particular mixed sequence and then used for the creation of isocontrast intensity graphs. These graphs subsequently allowed in all pulse sequences (spin echo, SE and gradient echo, GRE) the best combination of repetition time (TR), echo time (TE) and flip angle (FA) for optimization of signal differences between MR cartilage zones. For SE sequences maximum contrast between cartilage zones can be obtained by using a long TR (> 1,500 ms) with a short TE (< 30 ms), whereas for GRE sequences maximum contrast is obtained with the shortest TE (< 15 ms) combined with a relatively long TR (> 400 ms) and an FA greater than 40 . A trilaminar appearance was demonstrated with a superficial and deep hypointense zone in all sequences and an intermediate zone that was moderately hyperintense on SE T1-weighted images, slightly more hyperintense on proton density Rho and SE T2-weighted images and even more hyperintense on GRE images. (orig.)

  15. High-resolution MRI of cranial nerves in posterior fossa at 3.0 T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zi-Yi; Chen, Jing; Liang, Qi-Zhou; Liao, Hai-Yan; Cheng, Qiong-Yue; Fu, Shui-Xi; Chen, Cai-Xiang; Yu, Dan

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate the influence of high-resolution imaging obtainable with the higher field strength of 3.0 T on the visualization of the brain nerves in the posterior fossa. In total, 20 nerves were investigated on MRI of 12 volunteers each and selected for comparison, respectively, with the FSE sequences with 5 mm and 2 mm section thicknesses and gradient recalled echo (GRE) sequences acquired with a 3.0-T scanner. The MR images were evaluated by three independent readers who rated image quality according to depiction of anatomic detail and contrast with use of a rating scale. In general, decrease of the slice thickness showed a significant increase in the detection of nerves as well as in the image quality characteristics. Comparing FSE and GRE imaging, the course of brain nerves and brainstem vessels was visualized best with use of the three-dimensional (3D) pulse sequence. The comparison revealed the clear advantage of a thin section. The increased resolution enabled immediate identification of all brainstem nerves. GRE sequence most distinctly and confidently depicted pertinent structures and enables 3D reconstruction to illustrate complex relations of the brainstem. Copyright © 2013 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. [Contrastive analysis of artifacts produced by metal dental crowns in 3.0 T magnetic resonance imaging with six sequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Gao; Yunmin, Lian; Pu, Wang; Haili, Huai

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to observe and evaluate six 3.0 T sequences of metallic artifacts produced by metal dental crowns. Dental crowns fabricated with four different materials (Co-Gr, Ni-Gr, Ti alloy and pure Ti) were evaluated. A mature crossbreed dog was used as the experimental animal, and crowns were fabricated for its upper right second premolar. Each crown was examined through head MRI (3.0 T) with six sequences, namely, T₁ weighted-imaging of spin echo (T₁W/SE), T₂ weighted-imaging of inversion recovery (T₂W/IR), T₂ star gradient echo (T₂*/GRE), T2 weighted-imaging of fast spin echo (T₂W/FSE), T₁ weighted-imaging of fluid attenuate inversion recovery (T₂W/FLAIR), and T₂ weighted-imaging of propeller (T₂W/PROP). The largest area and layers of artifacts were assessed and compared. The artifact in the T₂*/GRE sequence was significantly wider than those in the other sequences (P 0.05). T₂*/GRE exhibit the strongest influence on the artifact, whereas the five other sequences contribute equally to artifact generation.

  17. The Effects of Thermophysical Properties and Environmental Conditions on Fire Performance of Intumescent Coatings on Glass Fibre-Reinforced Epoxy Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandola, Baljinder K; Luangtriratana, Piyanuch; Duquesne, Sophie; Bourbigot, Serge

    2015-08-11

    Intumescent coatings are commonly used as passive fire protection systems for steel structures. The purpose of this work is to explore whether these can also be used effectively on glass fibre-reinforced epoxy (GRE) composites, considering the flammability of the composites compared to non-flammable steel substrate. The thermal barrier and reaction-to-fire properties of three commercial intumescent coatings on GRE composites have been studied using a cone calorimeter. Their thermophysical properties in terms of heating rate and/or temperature dependent char expansion ratios and thermal conductivities have been measured and correlated. It has been suggested that these two parameters can be used to design coatings to protect composite laminates of defined thicknesses for specified periods of time. The durability of the coatings to water absorption, peeling, impact, and flexural loading were also studied. A strong adhesion between all types of coatings and the substrate was observed. Water soaking had a little effect on the fire performance of epoxy based coatings. All types of 1 mm thick coatings on GRE helped in retaining ~90% of the flexural property after 2 min exposure to 50 kW/m² heat flux whereas the uncoated laminate underwent severe delamination and loss in structural integrity after 1 min.

  18. Screening for skeletal metastases of the spine and pelvis: gradient echo opposed-phase MRI compared with bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumann, K.; Hosten, N.; Venz, S.

    1995-01-01

    Opposed-phase gradient echo (GRE) MRI at 0.5 T was compared with T1-weighted GRE MRI and bone scintigraphy regarding the detection of malignant bone marrow infiltrates of the spine and pelvis. Seventeen control patients and 41 patients with suspected skeletal metastases were studied with plain and gadolinium-enhanced MRI. In the control group only a vertebral haemangioma showed contrast enhancement, while all metastases (confirmed histologically or by follow-up) were enhancing. Opposed-phase surface coil MRI showed a significantly higher contrast-to-noise ratio of 56 metastases than T1-weighted images. In 28 patients body coil opposed-phase MRI detected more metastatic foci of the spine and pelvis than did bone scintigraphy (84 vs 56). No scintigraphically visualised lesion was missed by MRI. In conclusion, body coil gadolinium-enhanced opposed-phase GRE MRI may be applied as a screening method for skeletal metastases of the spine and pelvis at intermediate field strengths. (orig.)

  19. Screening for skeletal metastases of the spine and pelvis: gradient echo opposed-phase MRI compared with bone scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, K. [Zentralinstitut fuer Roentgendiagnostik, Universitaetsklinikum Essen, Gesamthochschule Essen (Germany); Hosten, N. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Universitaetsklinikum Rudolf Virchow, Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany); Venz, S. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Universitaetsklinikum Rudolf Virchow, Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany)

    1995-11-01

    Opposed-phase gradient echo (GRE) MRI at 0.5 T was compared with T1-weighted GRE MRI and bone scintigraphy regarding the detection of malignant bone marrow infiltrates of the spine and pelvis. Seventeen control patients and 41 patients with suspected skeletal metastases were studied with plain and gadolinium-enhanced MRI. In the control group only a vertebral haemangioma showed contrast enhancement, while all metastases (confirmed histologically or by follow-up) were enhancing. Opposed-phase surface coil MRI showed a significantly higher contrast-to-noise ratio of 56 metastases than T1-weighted images. In 28 patients body coil opposed-phase MRI detected more metastatic foci of the spine and pelvis than did bone scintigraphy (84 vs 56). No scintigraphically visualised lesion was missed by MRI. In conclusion, body coil gadolinium-enhanced opposed-phase GRE MRI may be applied as a screening method for skeletal metastases of the spine and pelvis at intermediate field strengths. (orig.)

  20. The Effects of Thermophysical Properties and Environmental Conditions on Fire Performance of Intumescent Coatings on Glass Fibre-Reinforced Epoxy Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baljinder K. Kandola

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Intumescent coatings are commonly used as passive fire protection systems for steel structures. The purpose of this work is to explore whether these can also be used effectively on glass fibre-reinforced epoxy (GRE composites, considering the flammability of the composites compared to non-flammable steel substrate. The thermal barrier and reaction-to-fire properties of three commercial intumescent coatings on GRE composites have been studied using a cone calorimeter. Their thermophysical properties in terms of heating rate and/or temperature dependent char expansion ratios and thermal conductivities have been measured and correlated. It has been suggested that these two parameters can be used to design coatings to protect composite laminates of defined thicknesses for specified periods of time. The durability of the coatings to water absorption, peeling, impact, and flexural loading were also studied. A strong adhesion between all types of coatings and the substrate was observed. Water soaking had a little effect on the fire performance of epoxy based coatings. All types of 1 mm thick coatings on GRE helped in retaining ~90% of the flexural property after 2 min exposure to 50 kW/m2 heat flux whereas the uncoated laminate underwent severe delamination and loss in structural integrity after 1 min.

  1. High-resolution MRI of cranial nerves in posterior fossa at 3.0 T

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zi-Yi Guo; Jing Chen; Qi-Zhou Liang; Hai-Yan Liao; Qiong-Yue Cheng; Shui-Xi Fu; Cai-Xiang Chen; Dan Yu

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the influence of high-resolution imaging obtainable with the higher field strength of3.0T on the visualization of the brain nerves in the posterior fossa.Methods:In total,20 nerves were investigated onMRI of12 volunteers each and selected for comparison, respectively, with theFSE sequences with5 mm and2 mm section thicknesses and gradient recalled echo(GRE) sequences acquired with a3.0-T scanner.TheMR images were evaluated by three independent readers who rated image quality according to depiction of anatomic detail and contrast with use of a rating scale.Results:In general, decrease of the slice thickness showed a significant increase in the detection of nerves as well as in the image quality characteristics. ComparingFSE andGRE imaging, the course of brain nerves and brainstem vessels was visualized best with use of the three-dimensional(3D) pulse sequence.Conclusions:The comparison revealed the clear advantage of a thin section.The increased resolution enabled immediate identification of all brainstem nerves.GRE sequence most distinctly and confidently depicted pertinent structures and enables3D reconstruction to illustrate complex relations of the brainstem.

  2. Sequence comparison for non-enhanced MRA of the lower extremity arteries at 7 Tesla.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sören Johst

    Full Text Available In this study three sequences for non-contrast-enhanced MRA of the lower extremity arteries at 7T were compared. Cardiac triggering was used with the aim to reduce signal variations in the arteries. Two fast single-shot 2D sequences, a modified Ultrafast Spoiled Gradient Echo (UGRE sequence and a variant of the Quiescent-Interval Single-Shot (QISS sequence were triggered via phonocardiogram and compared in volunteer examinations to a non-triggered 2D gradient echo (GRE sequence. For image acquisition, a 16-channel transmit/receive coil and a manually positionable AngioSURF table were used. To tackle B1 inhomogeneities at 7T, Time-Interleaved Acquisition of Modes (TIAMO was integrated in GRE and UGRE. To compare the three sequences quantitatively, a vessel-to-background ratio (VBR was measured in all volunteers and stations. In conclusion, cardiac triggering was able to suppress flow artifacts satisfactorily. The modified UGRE showed only moderate image artifacts. Averaged over all volunteers and stations, GRE reached a VBR of 4.18±0.05, UGRE 5.20±0.06, and QISS 2.72±0.03. Using cardiac triggering and TIAMO imaging technique was essential to perform non-enhanced MRA of the lower extremities vessels at 7T. The modified UGRE performed best, as observed artifacts were only moderate and the highest average VBR was reached.

  3. Positive Contrast MRI Techniques for Visualization of Iron-Loaded Hernia Mesh Implants in Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Ciritsis

    Full Text Available In MRI, implants and devices can be delineated via susceptibility artefacts. To discriminate susceptibility voids from proton-free structures, different positive contrast techniques were implemented. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a pulse sequence-based positive contrast technique (PCSI and a post-processing susceptibility gradient mapping algorithm (SGM for visualization of iron loaded mesh implants in patients.Five patients with iron-loaded MR-visible inguinal hernia mesh implants were examined at 1.5 Tesla. A gradient echo sequence (GRE; parameters: TR: 8.3ms; TE: 4.3ms; NSA:2; FA:20°; FOV:350mm² and a PCSI sequence (parameters: TR: 25ms; TE: 4.6ms; NSA:4; FA:20°; FOV:350mm² with on-resonant proton suppression were performed. SGM maps were calculated using two algorithms. Image quality and mesh delineation were independently evaluated by three radiologists.On GRE, the iron-loaded meshes generated distinct susceptibility-induced signal voids. PCSI exhibited susceptibility differences including the meshes as hyperintense signals. SGM exhibited susceptibility differences with positive contrast. Visually, the different algorithms presented no significant differences. Overall, the diagnostic value was rated best in GRE whereas PCSI and SGM were barely "sufficient".Both "positive contrast" techniques depicted implanted meshes with hyperintense signal. SGM comes without additional acquisition time and can therefore be utilized in every patient.

  4. Enhancement effects and relaxivities of gadolinium-DTPA at 1.5 versus 3 tesla. A phantom study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Makoto; Shibata, Eri; Kanbara, Yoshiyuki; Ehara, Shigeru

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the difference in enhancement effects and relaxivities of the gadolinium chelate at 1.5 and 3 Tesla (T) and to elucidate the contribution of the high magnetic field to contrast enhancement in spin-echo (SE) and gradient-echo (GRE) images. Phantoms containing water with or without gadopentetate dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA) at different concentrations were scanned using 1.5T and 3T MRI scanners of the same manufacturer and under the same temperature conditions and scanning parameters. Relaxivities of gadolinium, R 1 and R 2 , were estimated from serial T 1 and T 2 values of the phantoms using linear regression. Contrast enhancement ratios in SE and GRE T 1 -weighted images were compared at 1.5 and 3T. The R 1 and R 2 of Gd-DTPA at 1.5 and 3T were 4.79 and 5.14, and 4.50 and 5.09, respectively. Although the relaxivities at 3T were slightly lower than those at 1.5T, the contrast enhancement ratio improved in both SE and GRE images as a result of T 1 prolongation of the water at 3T. The decrease in relaxivities of the Gd-DTPA at 3T appears to be so small that T 1 prolongation of the water improves contrast enhancement, suggesting a potential clinical advantage in administration of Gd-DTPA at high field strength. (author)

  5. Kako razumeti mentorsko razmerje in njegove posledice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušana Findeisen

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Avtorica po uvodnem razmišljanju o tem, kako težko je konceptualizirati mentoriranje, proces, ki ima številne razsežno-sti (poučevanje, svetovanje, spremljanje, navduševanje, prijateljevanje ipd., obravnava mentorsko razmerje (izobra- ževanje in komunikacijski odnos, kakršnega srečamo v diadah mentorja in mentoriranca. V mentorskem razmerju sta dva akterja, mentor in mentoriranec, razen njiju pa je navzoč tudi »izključeni tretji partner«, denimo tovarna, podjetje, izobraževalna organizacija ipd., ki razmerju prispeva svoj organizacijski princip. Avtorica preučuje transformiranje mentorja, mentoriranca in družbenega okolja ter proces prenašanja znanja, pri tem pa poudari, da gre v mentorskem razmerju predvsem za skupno ustvarjanje novega znanja in delovanje, ki je gonilna sila učenja. V mentorskem razmerju dveh gre za komunikacijo in recipročnost v učenju, za prenos znanja, najpogosteje z neformalnim izobraževalnim programom. Gre pa seveda tudi za mentorski odnos. Mentorsko razmerje ima več faz, opozarja avtorica. Nekatere med njimi so bolj interaktivne in takrat je več recipročnosti, imamo pa tudi več kognitivne disonance in večje bogastvo čustev.

  6. IMPACTO DE LA EVOLUCIÓN DEMOGRÁFICA EN LA PRODUCCIÓN Y EN LOS COSTES: EVIDENCIA EMPÍRICA DE LAS ÁREAS HOSPITALARIAS VIRGEN MACARENA Y VIRGEN DEL ROCÍO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Mercedes Lobo López

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Increasing existing relation between aging and sanitary costs, as well as the importance of the hospitable costs inside the total costs that support the sanitary systems, especially in the 65-year-old major patients. The aims of the present study are: a. To know the distribution in 2013 of the demand of hospitalization for range of age, type of episode, welfare unit and Group Related to the Diagnosis (GRD.b. To know the cost of the welfare production for welfare unit and range of age.c. To analyze the impact of the evolution of the pyramid of population of the province of Seville in the hospitalization of the Hospitable Virgin Area Macarena (AHVR and Hospitable Virgin Area Rocío (AHVR with projection to 2018 and 2023, both of activity (discharges and of cost disintegrated by welfare unit. This study contributes a reflection generalized on the sustainability of the Health Public.

  7. Development of Single Optical Sensor Method for the Measurement Droplet Parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Ho; Ahn, Tae Hwan; Yun, Byong Jo [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Byoung Uhn; Kim, Kyoung Doo [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In this study, we tried to develop single optical fiber probe(S-TOP) sensor method to measure droplet parameters such as diameter, droplet fraction, and droplet velocity and so on. To calibrate and confirm the optical fiber sensor for those parameters, we conducted visualization experiments by using a high speed camera with the optical sensor. To evaluate the performance of the S-TOP accurately, we repeated calibration experiments at a given droplet flow condition. Figure. 3 shows the result of the calibration. In this graph, the x axis is the droplet velocity measured by visualization and the y axis is grd, D which is obtained from S-TOP. In this study, we have developed the single tip optical probe sensor to measure the droplet parameters. From the calibration experiments with high speed camera, we get the calibration curve for the droplet velocity. Additionally, the chord length distribution of droplets is measured by the optical probe.

  8. Development of Single Optical Sensor Method for the Measurement Droplet Parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Ho; Ahn, Tae Hwan; Yun, Byong Jo; Bae, Byoung Uhn; Kim, Kyoung Doo

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we tried to develop single optical fiber probe(S-TOP) sensor method to measure droplet parameters such as diameter, droplet fraction, and droplet velocity and so on. To calibrate and confirm the optical fiber sensor for those parameters, we conducted visualization experiments by using a high speed camera with the optical sensor. To evaluate the performance of the S-TOP accurately, we repeated calibration experiments at a given droplet flow condition. Figure. 3 shows the result of the calibration. In this graph, the x axis is the droplet velocity measured by visualization and the y axis is grd, D which is obtained from S-TOP. In this study, we have developed the single tip optical probe sensor to measure the droplet parameters. From the calibration experiments with high speed camera, we get the calibration curve for the droplet velocity. Additionally, the chord length distribution of droplets is measured by the optical probe.

  9. Land Cover Monitoring for Water Resources Management in Angola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Irina; Navarro, Ana; Rolim, Joao; Catalao, Joao; Silva, Joel; Painho, Marco; Vekerdy, Zoltan

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess the impact of improved temporal resolution and multi-source satellite data (SAR and optical) on land cover mapping and monitoring for efficient water resources management. For that purpose, we developed an integrated approach based on image classification and on NDVI and SAR backscattering (VV and VH) time series for land cover mapping and crop's irrigation requirements computation. We analysed 28 SPOT-5 Take-5 images with high temporal revisiting time (5 days), 9 Sentinel-1 dual polarization GRD images and in-situ data acquired during the crop growing season. Results show that the combination of images from different sources provides the best information to map agricultural areas. The increase of the images temporal resolution allows the improvement of the estimation of the crop parameters, and then, to calculate of the crop's irrigation requirements. However, this aspect was not fully exploited due to the lack of EO data for the complete growing season.

  10. Neurotoxic Effects of Linalool and β-Pinene on Tribolium castaneum Herbst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerlis Pajaro-Castro

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Effective, ethical pest control requires the use of chemicals that are highly specific, safe, and ecofriendly. Linalool and β-pinene occur naturally as major constituents of the essential oils of many plant species distributed throughout the world, and thus meet these requirements. These monoterpenes were tested as repellents against Tribolium castaneum, using the area preference method, after four hours of exposure and the effect transcriptional of genes associated with neurotransmission. Changes in gene expression of acetylcholinesterase (Ace1, GABA-gated anion channel splice variant 3a6a (Rdl, GABA-gated ion channel (Grd, glutamate-gated chloride channel (Glucl, and histamine-gated chloride channel 2 (Hiscl2 were assessed and the interaction with proteins important for the insect using in silico methods was also studied. For linalool and β-pinene, the repellent concentration 50 (RC50 values were 0.11 µL/cm2 and 0.03 µL/cm2, respectively. Both compounds induced overexpression of Hiscl2 gen in adult insects, and β-pinene also promoted the overexpression of Grd and the Ace1 gene. However, β-pinene and linalool had little potential to dock on computer-generated models for GABA-gated ion channel LCCH3, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits alpha1 and alpha2, and putative octopamine/tyramine receptor proteins from T. castaneum as their respective binding affinities were marginal, and therefore the repellent action probably involved mechanisms other than direct interaction with these targets. Results indicated that β-pinene was more potent than linalool in inducing insect repellency, and also had a greater capacity to generate changes in the expression of genes involved in neuronal transmission.

  11. ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECTS OF IMAGE QUALITY ON DIGITAL MAP GENERATION FROM SATELLITE IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kim

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available High resolution satellite images are widely used to produce and update a digital map since they became widely available. It is well known that the accuracy of digital map produced from satellite images is decided largely by the accuracy of geometric modelling. However digital maps are made by a series of photogrammetric workflow. Therefore the accuracy of digital maps are also affected by the quality of satellite images, such as image interpretability. For satellite images, parameters such as Modulation Transfer Function(MTF, Signal to Noise Ratio(SNR and Ground Sampling Distance(GSD are used to present images quality. Our previous research stressed that such quality parameters may not represent the quality of image products such as digital maps and that parameters for image interpretability such as Ground Resolved Distance(GRD and National Imagery Interpretability Rating Scale(NIIRS need to be considered. In this study, we analyzed the effects of the image quality on accuracy of digital maps produced by satellite images. QuickBird, IKONOS and KOMPSAT-2 imagery were used to analyze as they have similar GSDs. We measured various image quality parameters mentioned above from these images. Then we produced digital maps from the images using a digital photogrammetric workstation. We analyzed the accuracy of the digital maps in terms of their location accuracy and their level of details. Then we compared the correlation between various image quality parameters and the accuracy of digital maps. The results of this study showed that GRD and NIIRS were more critical for map production then GSD, MTF or SNR.

  12. Hepatoprotective effect of Scoparia dulcis on carbon tetrachloride induced acute liver injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jen-Chieh; Peng, Wen-Huang; Chiu, Tai-Hui; Huang, Shun-Chieh; Huang, Tai-Hung; Lai, Shang-Chih; Lai, Zhen-Rung; Lee, Chao-Ying

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the hepatoprotective activity and active constituents of the ethanol extract of Scoparia dulcis (SDE). The hepatoprotective effect of SDE (0.1, 0.5 and 1 g/kg) was evaluated on the carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced acute liver injury. The active constituents were detected by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Mice pretreated orally with SDE (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg) and silymarin (200 mg/kg) for five consecutive days before the administering of a single dose of 0.2% CCl(4) (10 ml/kg of bw, ip) showed a significant inhibition of the increase of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Histological analyses also showed that SDE (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg) and silymarin reduced the extent of liver lesions induced by CCl(4), including vacuole formation, neutrophil infiltration and necrosis. Moreover, SDE decreased the malondialdehyde (MDA) level and elevated the content of reduced glutathione (GSH) in the liver as compared to those in the CCl(4) group. Furthermore, SDE (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg) enhanced the activities of anti-oxidative enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GRd) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST). The quantities of active constituents in SDE were about 3.1 mg luteolin/g extract and 1.1 mg apigenin/g extract. The hepatoprotective mechanisms of SDE were likely associated to the decrease in MDA level and increase in GSH level by increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, GPx, GRd and GST. These results demonstrated that SDE could alleviate CCl(4)-induced acute liver injury in mice.

  13. Subpoblaciones neuronales presentes en el ganglio de la raíz dorsal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlén Martínez

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available La función principal de las neuronas del ganglio de la raiz dorsal (GRD es transmitir la información sensorial desde la periferia hasta el sistema nervioso central. Dos clases de células están presentes en el ganglio: las células no neuronales y las neuronales. La heterogeneidad morfológica, fisiológica y bioquimica de la población neuronal permite diferenciarla en subpoblaciones. Morfológicarnente, se distinguen tres tipos neuronales (A, B y C segun el tamaño y las caracteristicas ultraestructurales. Fisiológicamente, hay una relación directa entre el tamaño, el diámetro de las fibras nerviosas y la velocidad con que conducen el impulso nervioso. Finalmente, el uso de marcadores (neuropéptidos, enzimas, receptores, etc. permite realizar una clasificación bioquímica, que es la más utilizada para estudiar la función neuronal. Este articulo revisa la evidencia experimental sobre el tema de la heterogeneidad neuronal del GRD v wresenta una correlación desde el punto de vista bioauimico v fisioló-o ico en los casos en dondé'hay información disponible. El esiudio de subpoblaciones en este ganglio resulta de bastante interés para investigaciones en neurociencias, principalmente en infecciones por virus neurotrópicos, traurnatismos del nervio periférico y el estudio de factores neurotróficos, entre otros.

  14. Oxidative stress in elite athletes training at moderate altitude and at sea level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-López, Josefa; Calderón-Soto, Carmen; Pérez-Sánchez, Matías; Feriche, Belén; Iglesias, Xavier; Chaverri, Diego; Rodréguez, Ferran A

    2018-03-24

    Using a controlled parallel group longitudinal trial design, we investigated the effects of different training interventions on the prooxidant/antioxidant status of elite athletes: living and training at moderate altitude for 3 (Hi-Hi3) and 4 weeks (Hi-Hi), and for 4 weeks too, living high and training high and low (Hi-HiLo) and living and training at sea level (Lo-Lo). From 61 swimmers, 54 completed the study. Nitrites, carbonyls, and lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels were assessed in plasma. Enzymatic antioxidants glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GRd), and non-enzymatic antioxidants total glutathione (GST), reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) were analysed in the erythrocyte fraction. At the end of the intervention, nitrites levels were similar in all altitude groups but higher than in the Lo-Lo controls (P = .02). Hi-HiLo had greater GPx activity than Hi-Hi and Hi-Hi3 during most of the intervention (P ≤ .001). GRd activity was higher in Lo-Lo than in Hi-Hi at the end of the training camp (P ≤ .001). All groups showed increased levels of LPO, except Lo-Lo, and carbonyls at the end of the study (P ≤ .001). Training at altitude for 3 or 4 weeks drives oxidative stress leading to cellular damage mainly by worsening the antioxidant capacities. The GSSG/GSH ratio appears to be related to perceived exertion and fatigue. The stronger antioxidant defence showed by the Hi-HiLo group suggests an inverse relationship between redox alterations and performance. Further studies are required to investigate the role of oxidative stress in acclimatization, performance, and health.

  15. Melatonin Treatment Reduces Oxidative Damage and Normalizes Plasma Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines in Patients Suffering from Charcot-Marie-Tooth Neuropathy: A Pilot Study in Three Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahbouni, Mariam; López, María Del Señor; Molina-Carballo, Antonio; de Haro, Tomás; Muñoz-Hoyos, Antonio; Fernández-Ortiz, Marisol; Guerra-Librero, Ana; Acuña-Castroviejo, Darío

    2017-10-14

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy (CMT) is a motor and sensory neuropathy comprising a heterogeneous group of inherited diseases. The CMT1A phenotype is predominant in the 70% of CMT patients, with nerve conduction velocity reduction and hypertrophic demyelination. These patients have elevated oxidative stress and chronic inflammation. Currently, there is no effective cure for CMT; herein, we investigated whether melatonin treatment may reduce the inflammatory and oxidative damage in CMT1A patients. Three patients, aged 8-10 years, were treated with melatonin (60 mg at 21:00 h plus 10 mg at 09:00 h), and plasma levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO), nitrites (NOx), IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, TNF-α, INF-γ, oxidized to reduced glutathione (GSSG/GSH) ratio, and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and reductase (GRd), were determined in erythrocytes at 3 and 6 months of treatment. Healthy age- and sex-matched subjects were used as controls. The results showed increased activities of SOD, GST, GPx, and GRd in CMT1A patients, which were reduced at 3 and 6 months of treatment. The GSSG/GSH ratio significantly increased in the patients, returning to control values after melatonin treatment. The inflammatory process was confirmed by the elevation of all proinflammatory cytokines measured, which were also normalized by melatonin. LPO and NOx, which also were elevated in the patients, were normalized by melatonin. The results document beneficial effects of the use of melatonin in CMT1A patients to reduce the hyperoxidative and inflammatory condition, which may correlate with a reduction of the degenerative process.

  16. Modelo experimental para o estudo da hérnia do disco intervertebral Experimental model to study intervertebral disc herniation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz de Souza Grava

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Apresentar um modelo experimental de hérnia de disco e sua validação para estudo da hiperalgesia mecânica e térmica produzidas pelo contato do núcleo pulposo (NP com as estruturas nervosas envolvidas nessa afecção. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados ratos Wistar, sendo o NP autólogo retirado da região sacrococcígea e depositado sobre a dura-máter, raiz nervosa ou gânglios das raízes dorsais L4, L5 ou L6. Os experimentos foram divididos em quatro etapas: 1ª determinação da estrutura nervosa mais sensível ao contato com o NP; 2ª identificação do melhor nível lombar para a indução da hiperalgesia; 3ª determinação da ausência de lesão motora; e 4ª determinação da influência do procedimento cirúrgico no desenvolvimento do processo inflamatório. A hiperalgesia foi avaliada nos testes de von Frey eletrônico e de Hargreaves e a função motora, pelo teste de rota-rod. RESULTADOS: O NP induziu hiperalgesia de maior intensidade na pata quando em contato com o gânglio da raiz dorsal (GRD do que em contato com a dura-máter ou a raiz nervosa. Quando em contato com o GRD-L5, o NP induziu hiperalgesia ainda maior que a induzida pelo contato com os GRDs L4 e L6. Não foram observadas lesão motora e influência do processo inflamatório cirúrgico sobre a hiperalgesia. CONCLUSÃO: O GRD é a estrutura mais sensível aos componentes do NP para a produção da hiperalgesia, sendo o quinto nível lombar o que apresentou maior alteração nas sensibilidades mecânica e térmica avaliadas na pata dos animais, de acordo com os métodos utilizados.OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study is to present an experimental model of disc herniation and to validate such model to study mechanic and thermal hyperalgesia produced by the contact of the nucleus pulposus (NP with nerve structures involved in this condition. METHODS: The authors used Wistar rats, the autologous NP being removed from the sacrococcygeal region and deposited on the

  17. Cytokine-induced loss of glucocorticoid function: effect of kinase inhibitors, long-acting β(2-adrenoceptor [corrected] agonist and glucocorticoid receptor ligands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher F Rider

    Full Text Available Acting on the glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1, glucocorticoids are widely used to treat inflammatory diseases. However, glucocorticoid resistance often leads to suboptimal asthma control. Since glucocorticoid-induced gene expression contributes to glucocorticoid activity, the aim of this study was to use a 2 × glucocorticoid response element (GRE reporter and glucocorticoid-induced gene expression to investigate approaches to combat cytokine-induced glucocorticoid resistance. Pre-treatment with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF or interleukin-1β inhibited dexamethasone-induced mRNA expression of the putative anti-inflammatory genes RGS2 and TSC22D3, or just TSC22D3, in primary human airway epithelial and smooth muscle cells, respectively. Dexamethasone-induced DUSP1 mRNA was unaffected. In human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells, dexamethasone-induced TSC22D3 and CDKN1C expression (at 6 h was reduced by TNF pre-treatment, whereas DUSP1 and RGS2 mRNAs were unaffected. TNF pre-treatment also reduced dexamethasone-dependent 2×GRE reporter activation. This was partially reversed by PS-1145 and c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK inhibitor VIII, inhibitors of IKK2 and JNK, respectively. However, neither inhibitor affected TNF-dependent loss of dexamethasone-induced CDKN1C or TSC22D3 mRNA. Similarly, inhibitors of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase, p38, phosphoinositide 3-kinase or protein kinase C pathways failed to attenuate TNF-dependent repression of the 2×GRE reporter. Fluticasone furoate, fluticasone propionate and budesonide were full agonists relative to dexamethasone, while GSK9027, RU24858, des-ciclesonide and GW870086X were partial agonists on the 2×GRE reporter. TNF reduced reporter activity in proportion with agonist efficacy. Full and partial agonists showed various degrees of agonism on RGS2 and TSC22D3 expression, but were equally effective at inducing CDKN1C and DUSP1, and did not affect the repression of CDKN1C or TSC22D3

  18. Free-breathing dynamic liver examination using a radial 3D T1-weighted gradient echo sequence with moderate undersampling for patients with limited breath-holding capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaltenbach, Benjamin, E-mail: benjamin.kaltenbach@kgu.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Roman, Andrei; Polkowski, Christoph; Gruber-Rouh, Tatjana [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Bauer, Ralf W. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Divison of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Kantonsspital, St. Gallen (Switzerland); Hammerstingl, Renate; Vogl, Thomas J.; Zangos, Stephan [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Respiratory artifacts are a frequent problem in abdominal MR imaging. • Non-diagnostic examinations could be reduced using free-breathing us-radial-VIBE for dynamic liver examination in challenging patients. • Streak artifacts are characteristic for an undersampled radial acquisition but do not affect diagnostic validity. - Abstract: Purpose: To compare free-breathing radial VIBE with moderate undersampling (us-radial-VIBE) with a standard breathhold T1-weighted volumetric interpolated sequence (3D GRE VIBE) in patients unable to suspend respiration during dynamic liver examination. Material and methods: 23 consecutive patients underwent dynamic liver MR examination using the free-breathing us-radial-VIBE sequence as part of their oncologic follow-up. All patients were eligible for the free-breathing protocol due to severe respiratory artifacts at the planning or precontrast sequences. The us-radial-VIBE acquisitions were compared to the patientś last staging liver MRI including a standard breathhold 3D GRE VIBE. For an objective image evaluation, signal intensity (SI), image noise (IN), signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-enhancement ratio (CER) were compared. Representative image quality parameters, including typical artifacts were independently, retrospectively and blindly scored by four readers. Results: Us-radial-VIBE had significant lower SNR (p < 0.0001) and higher IN (p < 0.0001), whereas SI did not differ (p = 0.62). Temporal resolution assessed with CER in the arterial phase showed higher values for us-radial-VIBE (p = 0.028). Subjective image quality parameters received generally slightly higher scores for 3D GRE VIBE. In a smaller subgroup comprising patients with severe respiratory artifacts also at reference breathhold 3D GRE VIBE examination, us-radial-VIBE showed significantly higher image quality scores. Furthermore, there were generally more severe respiratory artifacts in 3D GRE VIBE, whereas streaking was characteristic

  19. Estimation of geometrically undistorted B0 inhomogeneity maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matakos, A; Balter, J; Cao, Y

    2014-01-01

    Geometric accuracy of MRI is one of the main concerns for its use as a sole image modality in precision radiation therapy (RT) planning. In a state-of-the-art scanner, system level geometric distortions are within acceptable levels for precision RT. However, subject-induced B 0 inhomogeneity may vary substantially, especially in air-tissue interfaces. Recent studies have shown distortion levels of more than 2 mm near the sinus and ear canal are possible due to subject-induced field inhomogeneity. These distortions can be corrected with the use of accurate B 0 inhomogeneity field maps. Most existing methods estimate these field maps from dual gradient-echo (GRE) images acquired at two different echo-times under the assumption that the GRE images are practically undistorted. However distortion that may exist in the GRE images can result in estimated field maps that are distorted in both geometry and intensity, leading to inaccurate correction of clinical images. This work proposes a method for estimating undistorted field maps from GRE acquisitions using an iterative joint estimation technique. The proposed method yields geometrically corrected GRE images and undistorted field maps that can also be used for the correction of images acquired by other sequences. The proposed method is validated through simulation, phantom experiments and applied to patient data. Our simulation results show that our method reduces the root-mean-squared error of the estimated field map from the ground truth by ten-fold compared to the distorted field map. Both the geometric distortion and the intensity corruption (artifact) in the images caused by the B 0 field inhomogeneity are corrected almost completely. Our phantom experiment showed improvement in the geometric correction of approximately 1 mm at an air-water interface using the undistorted field map compared to using a distorted field map. The proposed method for undistorted field map estimation can lead to improved geometric

  20. Estimation of geometrically undistorted B0 inhomogeneity maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matakos, A.; Balter, J.; Cao, Y.

    2014-09-01

    Geometric accuracy of MRI is one of the main concerns for its use as a sole image modality in precision radiation therapy (RT) planning. In a state-of-the-art scanner, system level geometric distortions are within acceptable levels for precision RT. However, subject-induced B0 inhomogeneity may vary substantially, especially in air-tissue interfaces. Recent studies have shown distortion levels of more than 2 mm near the sinus and ear canal are possible due to subject-induced field inhomogeneity. These distortions can be corrected with the use of accurate B0 inhomogeneity field maps. Most existing methods estimate these field maps from dual gradient-echo (GRE) images acquired at two different echo-times under the assumption that the GRE images are practically undistorted. However distortion that may exist in the GRE images can result in estimated field maps that are distorted in both geometry and intensity, leading to inaccurate correction of clinical images. This work proposes a method for estimating undistorted field maps from GRE acquisitions using an iterative joint estimation technique. The proposed method yields geometrically corrected GRE images and undistorted field maps that can also be used for the correction of images acquired by other sequences. The proposed method is validated through simulation, phantom experiments and applied to patient data. Our simulation results show that our method reduces the root-mean-squared error of the estimated field map from the ground truth by ten-fold compared to the distorted field map. Both the geometric distortion and the intensity corruption (artifact) in the images caused by the B0 field inhomogeneity are corrected almost completely. Our phantom experiment showed improvement in the geometric correction of approximately 1 mm at an air-water interface using the undistorted field map compared to using a distorted field map. The proposed method for undistorted field map estimation can lead to improved geometric

  1. S100ß and fibroblast growth factor-2 are present in cultured Schwann cells and may exert paracrine actions on the peripheral nerve injury S100ß e fator de crescimento de fibroblasto-2 estão presentes nas células de Schwann cultivadas e exercem ações parácrinas na lesão do nervo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Duobles

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The neurotrophic factor fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2, bFGF and Ca++ binding protein S100ß are expressed by the Schwann cells of the peripheral nerves and by the satellite cells of the dorsal root ganglia (DRG. Recent studies have pointed out the importance of the molecules in the paracrine mechanisms related to neuronal maintenance and plasticity of lesioned motor and sensory peripheral neurons. Moreover, cultured Schwann cells have been employed experimentally in the treatment of central nervous system lesions, in special the spinal cord injury, a procedure that triggers an enhanced sensorymotor function. Those cells have been proposed to repair long gap nerve injury. METHODS: Here we used double labeling immunohistochemistry and Western blot to better characterize in vitro and in vivo the presence of the proteins in the Schwann cells and in the satellite cells of the DRG as well as their regulation in those cells after a crush of the rat sciatic nerve. RESULTS: FGF-2 and S100ß are present in the Schwann cells of the sciatic nerve and in the satellite cells of the DRG. S100ß positive satellite cells showed increased size of the axotomized DRG and possessed elevated amount of FGF-2 immunoreactivity. Reactive satellite cells with increased FGF-2 labeling formed a ring-like structure surrounding DRG neuronal cell bodies.Reactive S100ß positive Schwann cells of proximal stump of axotomized sciatic nerve also expressed higher amounts of FGF-2. CONCLUSION: Reactive peripheral glial cells synthesizing FGF-2 and S100ß may be important in wound repair and restorative events in the lesioned peripheral nerves.OBJETIVO: O fator neurotrófico fator de crescimento de fibroblastos-2 (FGF-2, bFGF e a proteína ligante de Ca++ S100ß são expressos pelas células de Schwann dos nervos e por células satélites do gânglio da raiz dorsal (GRD. Estudos recentes indicam a importância das moléculas nos mecanismos parácrinos relacionados

  2. Lignite Fuel Enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles Bullinger; Nenad Sarunac

    2010-03-31

    Pulverized coal power plants which fire lignites and other low-rank high-moisture coals generally operate with reduced efficiencies and increased stack emissions due to the impacts of high fuel moisture on stack heat loss and pulverizer and fan power. A process that uses plant waste heat sources to evaporate a portion of the fuel moisture from the lignite feedstock in a moving bed fluidized bed dryer (FBD) was developed in the U.S. by a team led by Great River Energy (GRE). The demonstration was conducted with Department of Energy (DOE) funding under DOE Award Number DE-FC26-04NT41763. The objectives of GRE's Lignite Fuel Enhancement project were to demonstrate reduction in lignite moisture content by using heat rejected from the power plant, apply technology at full scale at Coal Creek Station (CCS), and commercialize it. The Coal Creek Project has involved several stages, beginning with lignite drying tests in a laboratory-scale FBD at the Energy Research Center (ERC) and development of theoretical models for predicting dryer performance. Using results from these early stage research efforts, GRE built a 2 ton/hour pilot-scale dryer, and a 75 ton/hour prototype drying system at Coal Creek Station. Operated over a range of drying conditions, the results from the pilot-scale and prototype-scale dryers confirmed the performance of the basic dryer design concept and provided the knowledge base needed to scale the process up to commercial size. Phase 2 of the GRE's Lignite Fuel Enhancement project included design, construction and integration of a full-scale commercial coal drying system (four FBDs per unit) with Coal Creek Units 1 and 2 heat sources and coal handling system. Two series of controlled tests were conducted at Coal Creek Unit 1 with wet and dried lignite to determine effect of dried lignite on unit performance and emissions. Wet lignite was fired during the first, wet baseline, test series conducted in September 2009. The second test series was

  3. MRI-based liver iron content determination at 3 T in regularly transfused patients by signal intensity ratio using an alternative analysis approach based on R{sub 2}* theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wunderlich, A.P. [Universitaetsklinikum Ulm (Germany). Section for Experimental Radiology; Cario, H. [Universitaetsklinik Ulm (Germany). Children' s Hospital; Bommer, M. [Alb-Fils-Clinics, Goeppingen (Germany). Hematology and Oncology Dept.; Beer, M.; Schmidt, S.A. [Universitaetsklinikum Ulm (Germany). Dept. for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Juchems, M.S. [Klinikum Konstanz (Germany). Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology

    2016-09-15

    To evaluate the feasibility of addressing liver iron content (LIC) in regularly transfused patients by MR imaging at 3 T based on the signal intensity ratio (SIR). An innovative data analysis approach was developed for this purpose. 47 consecutive examinations of regularly transfused patients were included. In all cases, we expected high LIC levels. Patients were scanned with MRI at 3 T with multi-echo gradient echo sequences (GRE) at four different flip angles between 20 and 90 with echo times (TE) ranging from 0.9 to 9.8 ms. Spin-echo protocols were acquired to determine the LIC with a reference MRI method working at 1.5 T. 3 T GRE data were analyzed using the liver-to-muscle SIR. Since the method known for 1.5 T was not expected to be applicable for analyzing 3 T data, theoretic dependence of the SIR on the LIC was derived from the equation describing R{sub 2}* signal decay. Obtained SIR values were correlated to reference LIC to get a relation for calculating LIC from SIR quantities. LIC values and their uncertainties were determined from GRE data and correlated to LIC reference values. For two LIC thresholds, the diagnostic accuracy was determined. LIC was reliably determined from SIR in our patient cohort even for large LIC values. Median of LIC uncertainties was 10%, and the diagnostic accuracy was 0.92 and 0.91, respectively. Determination of even high LIC, resulting in small SIR values, is feasible at 3 T using appropriate SIR analysis.

  4. White Papers Emerging from Women in Astronomy IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Nancy D.; Women in Astronomy IV Organizing Committee and conference attendees

    2018-06-01

    During the Women in Astronomy IV meeting in Austin, TX, in June, 2017, planning workshops were held for several white papers. This talk will present those papers' main points and/or introduce the papers' lead authors to make those presentations. Each paper's lead authors, its title, and a brief summary follow.Nancy Morrison and Van Dixon, "Graduate Admissions in a Post-GRE World": Research has shown that the use of a hard cutoff in GRE scores results in lack of ethnic and gender diversity in admitted cohorts. In addition, GRE scores are not well correlated with various measures of success in graduate school and beyond. Alternative admission metrics, including non-cognitive assessments, are explored. This talk will complement the related presentation to be given by A. Rudolph.Lia Corrales, "Inclusion and Access in Teaching and Training": equitable administration of university teaching, including hiring and evaluation of instruction; best practices for ensuring that all students are included in classroom learning; improvements in training of teachers and group leaders; and inclusivity in research groups and institutions.Sarah Tuttle and Aparna Venkatesan, "'Benefits & Rights' Policy": best practices for institutions to support people with disabilities in terms of universal design and to support families in terms of family and dependent care leave policies and health insurance. Venkatesan will speak about "Building an Inclusive Workplace."Dara Norman, "Demographics": Demographic surveys need to include intersectionality among not only personal demographics, (such as race, gender, sexual orientation, etc.) but also workforce demographics (such as area of research and career status). This information is essential for an understanding of specific processes affecting underrepresented groups in astronomy. Norman will address this and related topics separately.

  5. Nuclear medicine and MRI in differential diagnosis of doubtful spinal disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szilvasi, J.; Mester, A.R.; Kaposi, P.N.; Gyorke, T.; Karlinger, K.; Mako, E.K.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Purpose of presentation is a retrospective analysis and pictorial assay of MRI in differential diagnosis of spinal diseases with increased Tc-99m-MDP uptake on the whole body bone scan. A retrospective analysis of 200 spine cases was carried out in respect of metastatic, osteoporotic and degenerative bony lesions with similar appearance of bone scan. Referring diagnoses were either spinal pain syndromes or tumour staging. Double headed gamma camera (ADAC) and a low field whole body (0.3 T, Hitachi) scanner were used. Bone scan, SPECT and routine SE T1 and SE T2 sequences were completed with STIR and Gd contrast administration in selected complicated cases. Recently additional opposed phase GRE sequences were used as well. In doubtful whole body scintigraphic cases, SPECT study was performed. Cases with uncertain diagnosis were sent for MRI study. Increased T2 signal and decreased T1 signal, if diffusely distributed in the vertebral body, is characteristic to recent osteoporotic compressions. In cases of non-compressed (metastatic) vertebral bodies with diffuse increased T2 signal increase this appearance had predictive value of imminent compression fracture. Increased T2 signal with decreased T1 signal in adjacent vertebral bodies accompanied by irregularity of contours and of signal intensity involving the inter-vertebral disc, and Gd enhancement were symptoms of infection, in particularly spondylodiscitis. Opposed phase GRE sequences seems to be optimal in differentiation of metastatic lesions versus porotic lesions. We conclude that routine bone scan, and MRI in selected patients suffering from back pain syndrome can help differentiation of osteoporotic versus metastatic and degenerative vertebral lesions. Additional STIR sequence, Gd administration and opposed phase GRE imaging make the diagnosis more specific. (author)

  6. Utility of fractional anisotropy imaging analyzed by statistical parametric mapping for detecting minute brain lesions in chronic-stage patients who had mild or moderate traumatic brain injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, Yoshitaka; Shinoda, Jun; Okumura, Ayumi; Aki, Tatsuki; Takenaka, Shunsuke; Miwa, Kazuhiro; Yamada, Mikito; Ito, Takeshi; Yokohama, Kazutoshi

    2012-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has recently evolved as valuable technique to investigate diffuse axonal injury (DAI). This study examined whether fractional anisotropy (FA) images analyzed by statistical parametric mapping (FA-SPM images) are superior to T 2 *-weighted gradient recalled echo (T2*GRE) images or fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images for detecting minute lesions in traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients. DTI was performed in 25 patients with cognitive impairments in the chronic stage after mild or moderate TBI. The FA maps obtained from the DTI were individually compared with those from age-matched healthy control subjects using voxel-based analysis and FA-SPM images (p<0.001). Abnormal low-intensity areas on T2*GRE images (T2* lesions) were found in 10 patients (40.0%), abnormal high-intensity areas on FLAIR images in 4 patients (16.0%), and areas with significantly decreased FA on FA-SPM image in 16 patients (64.0%). Nine of 10 patients with T2* lesions had FA-SPM lesions. FA-SPM lesions topographically included most T2* lesions in the white matter and the deep brain structures, but did not include T2* lesions in the cortex/near-cortex or lesions containing substantial hemosiderin regardless of location. All 4 patients with abnormal areas on FLAIR images had FA-SPM lesions. FA-SPM imaging is useful for detecting minute lesions because of DAI in the white matter and the deep brain structures, which may not be visualized on T2*GRE or FLAIR images, and may allow the detection of minute brain lesions in patients with post-traumatic cognitive impairment. (author)

  7. Optimized protocols for cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in patients with thoracic metallic implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivieri, Laura J; Cross, Russell R; O'Brien, Kendall E; Ratnayaka, Kanishka; Hansen, Michael S

    2015-09-01

    Cardiac magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is a valuable tool in congenital heart disease; however patients frequently have metal devices in the chest from the treatment of their disease that complicate imaging. Methods are needed to improve imaging around metal implants near the heart. Basic sequence parameter manipulations have the potential to minimize artifact while limiting effects on image resolution and quality. Our objective was to design cine and static cardiac imaging sequences to minimize metal artifact while maintaining image quality. Using systematic variation of standard imaging parameters on a fluid-filled phantom containing commonly used metal cardiac devices, we developed optimized sequences for steady-state free precession (SSFP), gradient recalled echo (GRE) cine imaging, and turbo spin-echo (TSE) black-blood imaging. We imaged 17 consecutive patients undergoing routine cardiac MR with 25 metal implants of various origins using both standard and optimized imaging protocols for a given slice position. We rated images for quality and metal artifact size by measuring metal artifact in two orthogonal planes within the image. All metal artifacts were reduced with optimized imaging. The average metal artifact reduction for the optimized SSFP cine was 1.5+/-1.8 mm, and for the optimized GRE cine the reduction was 4.6+/-4.5 mm (P metal artifact reduction for the optimized TSE images was 1.6+/-1.7 mm (P metal artifact are easily created by modifying basic sequence parameters, and images are superior to standard imaging sequences in both quality and artifact size. Specifically, for optimized cine imaging a GRE sequence should be used with settings that favor short echo time, i.e. flow compensation off, weak asymmetrical echo and a relatively high receiver bandwidth. For static black-blood imaging, a TSE sequence should be used with fat saturation turned off and high receiver bandwidth.

  8. A comparative analysis of Serbian phonemes: Linear and non-linear models/Uporedna analiza fonema srpskog jezika: linearni i nelinearni modeli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijela D. Protić

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a comparative analysis of Serbian phonemes. The characteristics of vowels are quasi-periodicity and clearly visible formants. Non-vowels are short-term quasi-periodical signals having a low power excitation signal. For the purpose of this work, speech production systems were modelled with linear AR models and the corresponding non-linear models, based feed-forward neural networks with one hidden-layer. Sum squared error minimization as well as the back-propagation algorithm were used to train models. The selection of the optimal model was based on two stopping criteria: the normalized mean squares test error and the final prediction error. The Levenberg-Marquart method was used for the Hessian matrix calculation. The Optimal Brain Surgeon method was used for pruning. The generalization properties, based on the time-domain and signal spectra of outputs at hidden-layer neurons, are presented. / U radu je prikazana analiza karakteristika vokala i nevokala srpskog jezika. Vokale karakteriše kvaziperiodičnost i spektar snage signala sa dobro uočljivim formantima. Nevokale karakteriše kratkotrajna kvaziperiodičnost i mala snaga pobudnog signala. Vokali i nevokali modelovani su linearnim AR modelima i odgovarajućim nelinearnim modelima koji su generisani kao feed-forward neuronska mreža sa jednim skrivenim slojem. U procesu modelovanja korišćena je minimizacija srednje kvadratne greške sa propagacijom unazad, a kriterijum izbora optimalnog modela jeste zaustavljanje obučavanja, kada normalizovana srednja kvadratna test greška ili finalna greška predikcije dostignu minimalnu vrednost. LM metod korišćen je za proračun inverzne Hessianove matrice, a za pruning je upotrebljen Optimal Brain Surgeon. Prikazana su generalizaciona svojstva signala u vremenskom i frekvencijskom domenu, a kroskorelacionom analizom utvrđen je odnos signala na izlazima neurona skrivenog sloja.

  9. Cardiac cine imaging at 3 Tesla: initial experience with a 32-element body-array coil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenchel, Michael; Deshpande, Vibhas S; Nael, Kambiz; Finn, J Paul; Miller, Stephan; Ruehm, Stefan; Laub, Gerhard

    2006-08-01

    We sought to assess the feasibility of cardiac cine imaging and evaluate image quality at 3 T using a body-array coil with 32 coil elements. Eight healthy volunteers (3 men; median age 29 years) were examined on a 3-T magnetic resonance scanner (Magnetom Trio, Siemens Medical Solutions) using a 32-element phased-array coil (prototype from In vivo Corp.). Gradient-recalled-echo (GRE) cine (GRAPPAx3), GRE cine with tagging lines, steady-state-free-precession (SSFP) cine (GRAPPAx3 and x4), and SSFP cine(TSENSEx4 andx6) images were acquired in short-axis and 4-chamber view. Reference images with identical scan parameters were acquired using the total-imaging-matrix (Tim) coil system with a total of 12 coil elements. Images were assessed by 2 observers in a consensus reading with regard to image quality, noise and presence of artifacts. Furthermore, signal-to-noise values were determined in phantom measurements. In phantom measurements signal-to-noise values were increased by 115-155% for the various cine sequences using the 32-element coil. Scoring of image quality yielded statistically significant increased image quality with the SSFP-GRAPPAx4, SSFP-TSENSEx4, and SSFP-TSENSEx6 sequence using the 32-element coil (P < 0.05). Similarly, scoring of image noise yielded a statistically significant lower noise rating with the SSFP-GRAPPAx4, GRE-GRAPPAx3, SSFP-TSENSEx4, and SSFP-TSENSEx6 sequence using the 32-element coil (P < 0.05). This study shows that cardiac cine imaging at 3 T using a 32-element body-array coil is feasible in healthy volunteers. Using a large number of coil elements with a favorable sensitivity profile supports faster image acquisition, with high diagnostic image quality even for high parallel imaging factors.

  10. Dual contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of the liver with superparamagnetic iron oxide followed by gadolinium for lesion detection and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubaska, Samantha; Sahani, Dushyant V.; Saini, Sanjay; Hahn, Peter F.; Halpern, Elkan

    2001-01-01

    AIM: Iron oxide contrast agents are useful for lesion detection, and extracellular gadolinium chelates are advocated for lesion characterization. We undertook a study to determine if dual contrast enhanced liver imaging with sequential use of ferumoxides particles and gadolinium (Gd)-DTPA can be performed in the same imaging protocol. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixteen patients underwent dual contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the liver for evaluation of known/suspected focal lesions which included, metastases (n = 5), hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC;n = 3), cholangiocharcinoma(n = 1) and focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH;n = 3). Pre- and post-iron oxide T1-weighted gradient recalled echo (GRE) and T2-weighted fast spin echo (FSE) sequences were obtained, followed by post-Gd-DTPA (0.1 mmol/kg) multi-phase dynamic T1-weighted out-of-phase GRE imaging. Images were analysed in a blinded fashion by three experts using a three-point scoring system for lesion conspicuity on pre- and post-iron oxide T1 images as well as for reader's confidence in characterizing liver lesions on post Gd-DTPA T1 images. RESULTS: No statistically significant difference in lesion conspicuity was observed on pre- and post-iron oxide T1-GRE images in this small study cohort. The presence of iron oxide did not appreciably diminish image quality of post-gadolinium sequences and did not prevent characterization of liver lesions. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that characterization of focal liver lesion with Gd-enhanced liver MRI is still possible following iron oxide enhanced imaging. Kubaska, S. et al. (2001)

  11. The role of MR imaging in detection of hepatic iron overload in patients with cirrhosis of different origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szurowska, Edyta; Sikorska, Katarzyna; Izycka-Swieszewska, E; Nowicki, Tomasz; Romanowski, Tomasz; Bielawski, Krzysztof P; Studniarek, Michał

    2010-01-27

    There are many pathological conditions with hepatic iron overload. Classical definite diagnostic methods of these disorders are invasive and based on a direct tissue biopsy material. For the last years the role of MR imaging in liver diagnostics has been increasing. MRI shows changes of liver intensity in patients with hepatic iron overload. Changes in MR signal are an indirect consequence of change of relaxation times T2 and T2*, that can be directly measured. The purpose of the study was to evaluate usefulness of MR imaging in the detection of hepatic iron overload in patients with cirrhosis of different origins. MR imaging at 1.5T was prospectively performed in 44 patients with liver cirrhosis who had undergone liver biopsy with histopathological assessment of hepatic iron deposits. In all patients the following sequences were used: SE, Express, GRE in T2 and T1-weighted images. Signal intensity (SI) was measured on images obtained with each T2 weighted sequence by means of regions of interest, placed in the liver and paraspinal muscles. The correlation between iron overload, histopathological score, serum ferritin and SI ratio was analyzed. In 20 patients with iron overload confirmed by the biopsy, the liver parenchyma demonstrated lower signal intensity than that of paraspinal muscles. This effect was visible only in 8 patients with hepatic iron overload in Express T2-weighted images. Higher signal intensity of liver than that of skeletal muscles on GRE - T2 weighted images was noted in 24 patients with cirrhosis and without elevated hepatic iron concentration. We observed a correlation between low and high iron concentration and liver to muscle SI ratio. MR imaging is a useful and fast noninvasive diagnostic tool for the detection of liver iron overload in patients with cirrhosis of different origins.Liver to muscle SI ratio in GRE-T2-weighted sequence facilitates to differentiate patients with low and high degree of hepatic iron overload, which correlates

  12. Agronomic performance of new open pollinated experimental lines of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) evaluated under organic farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahamishirazi, Samira; Moehring, Jens; Zikeli, Sabine; Fleck, Michael; Claupein, Wilhelm; Graeff-Hoenninger, Simone

    2018-01-01

    In order to develop new open pollinating cultivars of broccoli for organic farming, two experiments were conducted during fall 2015 and spring 2016. This study was aimed at comparing the agronomic performance of eleven new open pollinating breeding lines of broccoli to introduce new lines and to test their seasonal suitability for organic farming. Field experiments were carried out at the organic research station Kleinhohenheim of the University of Hohenheim (Stuttgart-Germany). Different agronomic traits total biomass fresh weight, head fresh weight, head diameter, hollow-stem, fresh weight harvest index and marketable yield were assessed together with commercial control cultivars. The data from both experiments were analyzed using a two-stage mixed model approach. In our study, genotype, growing season and their interaction had significant effects on most traits. Plants belonging to the fall growing season had bigger sizes in comparison to spring with significantly (pbroccoli heads. The low average minimum temperatures during the spring growing season lead to low biomass fresh weight but high fresh weight harvest index. Testing the seasonal suitability of all open pollinating lines showed that the considered fall season was better for broccoli production. However, the change in yield between the fall and the spring growing season was not significant for "Line 701" and "CHE-MIC". Considering the expression of different agronomic traits, "CHE-GRE-G", "Calinaro" and "CAN-SPB" performed the best in the fall growing season, and "CHE-GRE-G", "CHE-GRE-A", "CHE-BAL-A" and "CHE-MIC" and "Line 701" were best in the spring growing season, specifically due to the highest marketable yield and proportion of marketable heads.

  13. Agronomic performance of new open pollinated experimental lines of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica evaluated under organic farming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Sahamishirazi

    Full Text Available In order to develop new open pollinating cultivars of broccoli for organic farming, two experiments were conducted during fall 2015 and spring 2016. This study was aimed at comparing the agronomic performance of eleven new open pollinating breeding lines of broccoli to introduce new lines and to test their seasonal suitability for organic farming. Field experiments were carried out at the organic research station Kleinhohenheim of the University of Hohenheim (Stuttgart-Germany. Different agronomic traits total biomass fresh weight, head fresh weight, head diameter, hollow-stem, fresh weight harvest index and marketable yield were assessed together with commercial control cultivars. The data from both experiments were analyzed using a two-stage mixed model approach. In our study, genotype, growing season and their interaction had significant effects on most traits. Plants belonging to the fall growing season had bigger sizes in comparison to spring with significantly (p< 0.0001 higher biomass fresh weight. Some experimental lines had significant lower head fresh weight in spring in comparison to the fall season. The high temperature during the harvest period for the spring season affected the yield negatively through decreasing the firmness of broccoli heads. The low average minimum temperatures during the spring growing season lead to low biomass fresh weight but high fresh weight harvest index. Testing the seasonal suitability of all open pollinating lines showed that the considered fall season was better for broccoli production. However, the change in yield between the fall and the spring growing season was not significant for "Line 701" and "CHE-MIC". Considering the expression of different agronomic traits, "CHE-GRE-G", "Calinaro" and "CAN-SPB" performed the best in the fall growing season, and "CHE-GRE-G", "CHE-GRE-A", "CHE-BAL-A" and "CHE-MIC" and "Line 701" were best in the spring growing season, specifically due to the highest marketable

  14. Kaiware Daikon (Raphanus sativus L.) extract: a naturally multipotent chemopreventive agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barillari, Jessica; Iori, Renato; Papi, Alessio; Orlandi, Marina; Bartolini, Giovanna; Gabbanini, Simone; Pedulli, Gian Franco; Valgimigli, Luca

    2008-09-10

    Brassica vegetables are attracting major attention as healthy foods because of their content of glucosinolates (GLs) that release the corresponding isothiocyanates (ITCs) upon myrosinase hydrolysis. A number of studies have so far documented the chemopreventive properties of some ITCs. On the other hand, single nutrients detached from the food itself risk being somewhat "reductive", since plants contain several classes of compounds endowed with a polyhedral mechanism of action. Our recent finding that 4-methylthio-3-butenyl isothiocyanate (GRH-ITC) and 4-methylsulfinyl-3-butenyl isothiocyanate (GRE-ITC), released by the GLs purified from Japanese (Kaiware) Daikon (Raphanus sativus L.) seeds and sprouts, had selective cytotoxic/apoptotic activity on three human colon carcinoma cell lines prompted further research on the potential chemopreventive role of a standardized Kaiware Daikon extract (KDE), containing 10.5% w/w GRH and 3.8% w/w GRE, compared to its isolated components. KDE administered in combination with myrosinase at doses corresponding to 50 microM GRH-ITC plus 15 microM GRE-ITC (50 microM KDE-ITC) to three human cancer cell lines (LoVo, HCT-116 and HT-29) significantly reduced cell growth by 94-96% of control in six days (p oxygen consumption rate), as monitored by Clark-type microelectrode oxygen-uptake kinetics, and induced very fast quenching of DPPH. radical in methanol with t(1/2) (s) = (1.47 +/- 0.25) x 10(-2)/[KDE; (g/L)], measured by stopped-flow UV-vis kinetics at 298 K. The potential chemopreventive role of KDE is discussed.

  15. MRI monitoring of autologous hyaline cartilage grafts in the knee joint: a follow-up study over 12 months; MRT-Monitoring autologer Chondrozytentransplantate im Kniegelenk: Eine Verlaufsstudie ueber 12 Monate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller-Horvat, C.; Schick, F.; Claussen, C.D.; Groenewaeller, E. [Abt. fuer Radiologische Diagnostik, Eberhard-Karls-Univ. Tuebingen (Germany)

    2004-12-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the suitability of different MR sequences for monitoring the stage of maturation of hyaline cartilage grafts in the knee joint and the early detection of complications like hypertrophy. In addition, it was analyzed whether indirect MR arthrography can indicate debonding of the graft. Materials and Methods: MRI examinations were performed in 19 patients, aged 17-43 years, with autologous transplantation of a hyaline cartilage tissue graft after knee trauma. Examination dates were prior to transplantation to localize the defect, and 6 weeks, 3, 6 and 12 months after transplantation to control morphology and maturation of the autologous graft. Standard T2- and protondensity-weighted turbo spin echo (TSE) sequences and T1-weighted spin echo (SE) sequences were used, as well as gradient echo (GRE) sequences with and without magnetization transfer (MT) prepulses. In some cases, indirect MR arthrography was performed. Results: Cartilage defect and the hyaline cartilage graft could be detected in all 19 patients. Hypertrophy of the graft could be found early in 3 patients and debonding in 1 patient. For depicting the graft a short time after surgery. T2-weighted TSE-sequences showed the best results. Six and 12 months after transplantation, spoiled 3D-GRE-sequences like FLASH3D (fast low angle shot) showed reduced artifacts due to magnetic residues from the surgery. Difference images from GRE-sequences with and without MT pulse provided high contrast between cartilage and surrounding tissue. The quantification of the MT effect showed an assimilation of the graft to the original cartilage within 12 months. Indirect MR arthrography showed subchondral contrast medium even 12 months after transplantation in 3 patients. (orig.)

  16. L'évolution des valeurs de soin humain : une analyse dialectique de la proposition d'humanisation de Watson à la lumière d'une perspective nietzschéenne

    OpenAIRE

    Krol, Pawel

    2014-01-01

    La pratique du soin infirmier d’aujourd’hui hérite d’une longue et complexe évolution de valeurs. Outre les valeurs traditionnellement humaines de soigner, la pratique infirmière d’aujourd’hui intègre aussi des valeurs qui façonnent notre monde moderne. Ainsi, nous retraçons d’abord l’évolution de quelques-unes des valeurs traditionnelles rattachées au soin humain conservées dans les pratiques infirmières. Puis, nous montrons que certaines valeurs traditionnelles de soin humain sont progressi...

  17. Spin One Hawking Radiation from Dirty Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Petarpa Boonserm; Tritos Ngampitipan; Matt Visser

    2013-01-01

    A “clean” black hole is a black hole in vacuum such as the Schwarzschild black hole. However in real physical systems, there are matter fields around a black hole. Such a black hole is called a “dirty black hole”. In this paper, the effect of matter fields on the black hole and the greybody factor is investigated. The results show that matter fields make a black hole smaller. They can increase the potential energy to a black hole to obstruct Hawking radiation to propagate. This causes the gre...

  18. Analiza in uporaba vsebnikov Docker v arhitekturi mikrostoritev

    OpenAIRE

    BENEDIK, DEJAN

    2016-01-01

    Za namene izvajanja spletnih aplikacij in storitev so vedno bolj priljubljene vsebniške tehnologije [9]. V tem diplomskem delu analiziramo najbolj razširjeno vsebniško tehnologijo Docker ter jo primerjamo z ostalimi vsebniškimi tehnologijami, ki delujejo na sistemih z jedrom Linux. Zaradi hitrega zagona in manjših obratovalnih stroškov so vsebniške tehnologije omogočile nov način zasnove zmogljivih spletnih aplikacij. Gre za arhitekturo mikrostoritev. Primerjamo jo z alternativami, pregledamo...

  19. Radiologic Diagnosis of Spondylodiscitis, Role of Magnetic Resonance

    OpenAIRE

    Ramadani, Naser; Dedushi, Kreshnike; Kabashi, Serbeze; Mucaj, Sefedin

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Study aim is to report the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) features of acute and chronic spontaneous spondylodiscitis. Case report: 57 year old female, complaining of a fever and longstanding cervical pain worsened during physical therapy. Methods: MR images were acquired using superconductive magnet 1.5 T, with the following sequences: sagittal PD and T2 TSE, sagittal T1 SE, axial PD and T2 TSE (lumbar spine), axial T2 GRE (cervical spine). Axial and sagittal T1 SE after admin...

  20. Interventional MR-Mammography: manipulator-assisted large core biopsy and interstitial laser therapy of tumors of the female breast; Interventionelle MR-Mammographie: Manipulatorgestuetzte Biopsie und interstitielle Lasertherapie von Tumoren der weiblichen Brust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfleiderer, S.O.R.; Reichenbach, J.R.; Wurdinger, S.; Marx, C.; Freesmeyer, M.G.; Kaiser, W.A. [Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Friedrich-Schiller-Univ. Jena (Germany); Vagner, J.; Fischer, H. [Inst. fuer Medizintechnik und Biophysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany); Schneider, A. [Klinik fuer Frauenheilkunde, Friedrich-Schiller-Univ. Jena (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    The present study investigated the clinical application of magnetic resonance (MR)-guided breast interventions, such as manipulator-assisted large core breast biopsy (LCBB) inside a 1.5 T whole-body magnet and MR-guided interstitial laser therapy (ILT). Sixteen patients underwent LCBB and 1 additional patient underwent 4 sessions of ILT of a recurrent undifferentiated lymph node metastasis in the axilla using a Nd-YAG laser (1064 nm). Temperature changes of the tumor tissue during ILT were monitored using phase images of a gradient echo sequence (GRE) (TR/TE/FA = 25/12/30). In 5 patients the biopsy findings were histopathologically confirmed after open surgery. In 3 patients, the biopsy missed one tubular and one ductal carcinoma; one invasive carcinoma was underestimated. Eight patients with benign findings are still in the follow-up period. The heating zone during ILT was well delineated on subtracted phase images. No severe adverse events were observed with LCBB or ILT. MR-guided breast biopsies are feasible with the manipulator system inside a whole-body 1.5 Tesla MR scanner. GRE information is suitable for therapy monitoring during ILT within the tumor. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the accuracy of the manipulator system and the efficacy of ILT in the treatment of breast lesions. (orig.) [German] Die klinische Anwendung MR-gestuetzter Interventionen an der Mamma wie die roboterassistierte Brustbiopsie innerhalb eines Ganzkoerpertomographen oder die kernspintomographisch kontrollierte interstitielle Lasertherapie (ILT) wurden untersucht. 16 Patientinnen unterzogen sich einer Brustbiopsie. Eine weitere Patientin wurde in insgesamt 4 Sitzungen mit einem Nd-YAG-Laser (1064 nm) an einem undifferenzierten axillaeren Lymphknotenrezidiv eines Mammakarzinoms behandelt. Temperaturaenderungen im Tumor waehrend der ILT wurden mit Hilfe von Phasenbildern einer Gradientenechosequenz (GRE) (TR/TE/FA = 25/12/30) visualisiert. Bei 5 Patientinnen wurde der

  1. Bottle-Neck Feature Extraction Structures for Multilingual Training and Porting (Pub Version, Open Access)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-03

    set Language HA LA ZU LLP hours 7.9 8.1 8.4 LM sentences 9861 11577 10644 LM words 93131 93328 60832 dictionary 5333 3856 14962 # tied states 1257 1453... monolingual NNs, and having a (large) hidden layer between Bottle-Neck and output layers – we need to change the 149 František Grézl and Martin...In both cases the monolingual SBN hierarchy with desired DNN topology is obtained. Lower WER was achieved by the first variant which uses the tied

  2. Managing change : Socratic wisdom and 30 years in the trenches

    OpenAIRE

    Hannaford, William E.

    2001-01-01

    I came to see that, though a great many persons, and most of all he himself, thought that he was wise, yet he was not wise, so when I went away, thought to myself, "I am wiser than this man: neither of us knows anything that is really worth knowing, but he thinks that he has knowledge when he has not, while I, having no knowledge, do not think that I have. I seem, at any rate, to be a little wiser than he is on this point: I do not think that I know what 1 do not know." I tell you that no gre...

  3. Främja medarbetarnas engagemang : Ett ledarskapsverktyg för att öka engagemang och undvika utbrändhet

    OpenAIRE

    Järnström, Ida

    2016-01-01

    De senaste åren har engagemang varit ett mycket omtalat ämne, då forskning har visat att engagemang har en positiv inverkan på organisationens framgång. Dagens turbulenta värld tvingar dock organisationerna att kräva högre prestationer av sina medarbetare trots färre resurser, vilket kan resultera i oengagemang och utbrändhet. Detta bekräftas utgående från gallupundersökningar, vilka visar att en endast en liten del av medarbetarna verkligen är engagerade på sina arbetsplatser. Syftet med...

  4. TU-AB-BRA-03: Atlas-Based Algorithms with Local Registration-Goodness Weighting for MRI-Driven Electron Density Mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farjam, R; Tyagi, N [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Veeraraghavan, H; Apte, A; Zakian, K; Deasy, J [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Hunt, M [Mem Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To develop image-analysis algorithms to synthesize CT with accurate electron densities for MR-only radiotherapy of head & neck (H&N) and pelvis anatomies. Methods: CT and 3T-MRI (Philips, mDixon sequence) scans were randomly selected from a pool of H&N (n=11) and pelvis (n=12) anatomies to form an atlas. All MRIs were pre-processed to eliminate scanner and patient-induced intensity inhomogeneities and standardize their intensity histograms. CT and MRI for each patient were then co-registered to construct CT-MRI atlases. For more accurate CT-MR fusion, bone intensities in CT were suppressed to improve the similarity between CT and MRI. For a new patient, all CT-MRI atlases are deformed onto the new patients’ MRI initially. A newly-developed generalized registration error (GRE) metric was then calculated as a measure of local registration accuracy. The synthetic CT value at each point is a 1/GRE-weighted average of CTs from all CT-MR atlases. For evaluation, the mean absolute error (MAE) between the original and synthetic CT (generated in a leave-one-out scheme) was computed. The planning dose from the original and synthetic CT was also compared. Results: For H&N patients, MAE was 67±9, 114±22, and 116±9 HU over the entire-CT, air and bone regions, respectively. For pelvis anatomy, MAE was 47±5 and 146±14 for the entire and bone regions. In comparison with MIRADA medical, an FDA-approved registration tool, we found that our proposed registration strategy reduces MAE by ∼30% and ∼50% over the entire and bone regions, respectively. GRE-weighted strategy further lowers MAE by ∼15% to ∼40%. Our primary dose calculation also showed highly consistent results between the original and synthetic CT. Conclusion: We’ve developed a novel image-analysis technique to synthesize CT for H&N and pelvis anatomies. Our proposed image fusion strategy and GRE metric help generate more accurate synthetic CT using locally more similar atlases (Support: Philips

  5. Forum 1 méthode de français

    CERN Document Server

    Baylon, Christian; Mestreit, Claude; Murillo, Julio; Tost, Manuel

    2000-01-01

    La méthode Forum : met en application de façon active les recommandations du "cadre européen de référence", développe savoir, savoir-faire, savoir-être et savoir-apprendre, intègre de façon innovante les avancées de la recherche en didactique du FLE : communication globale, dimension affective de l'apprentissage, autonomie, interculturel, propose de nombreux outils d'évaluation, permet une progression grammaticale structurée et solide, prépare au Nouveau DELF 1er degré.

  6. Forum 2 méthode de français

    CERN Document Server

    Campa, Angels; Murillo, Julio; Tost, Manuel

    2001-01-01

    La méthode Forum : met en application de façon active les recommandations du "cadre européen de référence", développe savoir, savoir-faire, savoir-être et savoir-apprendre, intègre de façon innovante les avancées de la recherche en didactique du FLE : communication globale, dimension affective de l'apprentissage, autonomie, interculturel, propose de nombreux outils d'évaluation, permet une progression grammaticale structurée et solide.

  7. Proračun produktivnosti zaposlenika na osnovi podataka praćenja proizvodnje

    OpenAIRE

    Dolenc, Filip

    2017-01-01

    U ovom radu analizirala se važnost upravljanja bazama podataka u teorijskom smislu te se na primjeru stvarne tvrtke analizirao proces upravljanja bazama podataka od strane asistenta voditelja odjela. Da bi poduzeće bilo produktivno, odnosno da bi ostvarivalo pozitivne poslovne rezultate, asistent voditelja odjela mora prije konačnog obračuna i analize produktivnosti provjeriti i editirati eventualne greške te pratiti i ažurirati niz drugih datoteka i aktivnosti koje su prikazane u ovom ra...

  8. ETIČNE DILEME SPLETNEGA PIRATSTVA

    OpenAIRE

    Šalamun, Tina

    2016-01-01

    V magistrski nalogi obravnavamo spletno piratstvo iz etičnega ter ekonomskega vidika. Piratstvo je dejavnost, kjer se kršijo avtorske pravice določene osebe. O spletnem piratstvu pa govorimo takrat, kadar gre za nelegalno kopiranje in prenašanje avtorsko zaščitenih vsebin z interneta. Internet je okolje, ki uporabnikom daje vtis, da so njihova dejanja brez posledic, kar botruje večji naklonjenosti spletnemu piratstvu. Slednja oblika je dandanes najbolj razširjena in predstavlja veliko grožnjo...

  9. TU-AB-BRA-03: Atlas-Based Algorithms with Local Registration-Goodness Weighting for MRI-Driven Electron Density Mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farjam, R; Tyagi, N; Veeraraghavan, H; Apte, A; Zakian, K; Deasy, J; Hunt, M

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To develop image-analysis algorithms to synthesize CT with accurate electron densities for MR-only radiotherapy of head & neck (H&N) and pelvis anatomies. Methods: CT and 3T-MRI (Philips, mDixon sequence) scans were randomly selected from a pool of H&N (n=11) and pelvis (n=12) anatomies to form an atlas. All MRIs were pre-processed to eliminate scanner and patient-induced intensity inhomogeneities and standardize their intensity histograms. CT and MRI for each patient were then co-registered to construct CT-MRI atlases. For more accurate CT-MR fusion, bone intensities in CT were suppressed to improve the similarity between CT and MRI. For a new patient, all CT-MRI atlases are deformed onto the new patients’ MRI initially. A newly-developed generalized registration error (GRE) metric was then calculated as a measure of local registration accuracy. The synthetic CT value at each point is a 1/GRE-weighted average of CTs from all CT-MR atlases. For evaluation, the mean absolute error (MAE) between the original and synthetic CT (generated in a leave-one-out scheme) was computed. The planning dose from the original and synthetic CT was also compared. Results: For H&N patients, MAE was 67±9, 114±22, and 116±9 HU over the entire-CT, air and bone regions, respectively. For pelvis anatomy, MAE was 47±5 and 146±14 for the entire and bone regions. In comparison with MIRADA medical, an FDA-approved registration tool, we found that our proposed registration strategy reduces MAE by ∼30% and ∼50% over the entire and bone regions, respectively. GRE-weighted strategy further lowers MAE by ∼15% to ∼40%. Our primary dose calculation also showed highly consistent results between the original and synthetic CT. Conclusion: We’ve developed a novel image-analysis technique to synthesize CT for H&N and pelvis anatomies. Our proposed image fusion strategy and GRE metric help generate more accurate synthetic CT using locally more similar atlases (Support: Philips

  10. Jazz v sloveniji

    OpenAIRE

    Petek, Lara

    2017-01-01

    Jazz je glasba z dolgo in bogato zgodovino. Njegove korenine prihajajo iz Afrike, ki so se pozneje združile z vplivi iz Evrope. V osnovi gre za združitev afriških črnskih ritmov z evropskimi harmonijami. Za predhodnike jazza označujemo duhovno pesem, blues in ragtime. Skozi zgodovino pa so se izoblikovali različni stili jazza, kot so new orleans, dixieland, chicago, swing, bebop, cool jazz, free jazz, electric jazz. Za to so bili odgovorni različni najvidnejši izvajalci jazzovske glasbe, ki s...

  11. Soil Temperature and Moisture Effects on Soil Respiration and Microbial Community Abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-13

    Bárcenas-Moreno, G., M. Gómez-Brandón, J. Rousk, and E. Bååth. 2009. Adaptation of soil microbial communities to temperature: Comparison of fungi and...ER D C/ CR RE L TR -1 5- 6 ERDC 6.2 Geospatial Research and Engineering (GRE) ARTEMIS TSP-SA Soil Temperature and Moisture Effects on... Soil Respiration and Microbial Community Abundance Co ld R eg io ns R es ea rc h an d En gi ne er in g La bo ra to ry Robyn A. Barbato

  12. Kaznivo dejanje prikazovanja, izdelave, posesti in posredovanja pornografskega gradiva (176. člen KZ-1)

    OpenAIRE

    Jeran, Ana

    2017-01-01

    Analiza 176. člena slovenskega kazenskega zakonika je pokazala, kako zapleteno je vprašanje prepovedi soočenja otrok s pornografskim gradivom in kako nujno potrebna je primerna inkriminacija otroške pornografije zaradi vse bolj razširjenega in dostopnega interneta. Gre za najhitreje rastoči internetni trg, zato je za boj proti tovrstnemu kriminalu potrebno sodelovanje na mednarodni ravni, ki se odraža v številnih mednarodnopravno sprejetih aktih, ki obravnavajo to materijo. Glavni cilj inkrim...

  13. SPODBUJANJE OTROKOVEGA SAMOSPOŠTOVANJA V VRTCU

    OpenAIRE

    Kobal Soršak, Nevena

    2012-01-01

    Samospoštovanje, ki je zelo pomembno za razvoj osebnosti posameznika oz. otroka, pomeni, kakšno lastno vrednost si posameznik priznava. Pri tem gre za občutek, ki ga ima posameznik o sebi. V osrednjem delu diplomske naloge, ki je teoretična, je največji poudarek na pojmu samospoštovanje, kako se to razvija, oblikuje in kakšno samospoštovanje lahko ima posameznik. Ljudje pa pojem samospoštovanje marsikdaj enačimo s pojmoma samopodoba in samozavest, zato diplomsko delo podaja tudi definiciji om...

  14. Spolno nadlegovanje v slovenski policiji

    OpenAIRE

    Kmetič, Andreja

    2017-01-01

    V magistrski nalogi, ki je pred nami, obravnavamo spolno nadlegovanje v slovenski policiji. Ker se tematika magistrske naloge osredotoča predvsem na delovanje policije, smo velik del posvetili teoretični razlagi. Pomembno vprašanje nam je predstavljal zgodovinski začetek samega spolnega nadlegovanja, saj nas je zanimalo, kdaj se je o tem sploh začelo govoriti oziroma pisati. S pomočjo različnih avtorjev smo definirali pomen spolnega nadlegovanja in ugotovili, da gre v večini primerov za o...

  15. Model-based corridor performance analysis – An application to a European case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagakos, George; Psaraftis, Harilaos N.

    2017-01-01

    to a number of Key Performance Indicators (KPIs). It consists of decomposing the corridor into transport chains, selecting a sample of typical chains, assessing these chains through a set of KPIs, and then aggregating the chain-level KPIs to corridor-level ones using proper weights. A critical feature...... refinement and verification. The sample construction part of the methodology was tested on GreCOR, a green corridor project in the North Sea Region, using the Danish National Traffic Model as the principal source of information for both sample construction and KPI estimation. The results show that...

  16. Izboljšanje organiziranosti logistike v podjetju Stilles d.o.o.

    OpenAIRE

    Kostevc, Žiga

    2015-01-01

    V diplomski nalogi je predstavljena analiza izboljšanja organiziranosti logistike v podjetju Stilles d.o.o. Namen diplomske naloge je podati predloge za izboljšanje organiziranosti logistike v oddelku odpreme in izhodne logistike. Osredotočili smo se tudi na izboljšanje sodelovanja med obratom končne montaže in skladiščenjem blaga, kjer gre za prejem izdelkov iz proizvodnje v skladišče. V okviru diplomske naloge smo predstavili teoretične osnove za razumevanje logistike in skladiščnega po...

  17. Programs of monitoring of the steam generators of EdF nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This decision from the French authority of nuclear safety (ASN) modifies the decision DSIN/GRE-BCCN no 000632 from October 31, 2000 concerning the preventive maintenance programs of the steam generators of Electricite de France (EdF) reactors. The main themes of the previous decision are not changed, i.e. the improvement of circumferential crack detection means, the reinforcement of the external skin control of tubes and the correction of vibrational instabilities for a given family of tubes. The modification concerns only the paragraph 2.b relative to the internal crack control of the 600 MA alloy tubes in the rolling transition zone. This paragraph is abrogated. (J.S.)

  18. Prevajanje športne terminologije v priročniku Osnove košarke NBA

    OpenAIRE

    Kajič, Matic

    2016-01-01

    Pri prevajanju strokovnih besedil ne gre le za vestno opravljanje veščin, ampak za visoko intelektualno delovanje: reševanje vedno novih problemov. To velja tudi za košarkarsko terminologijo, saj obstaja veliko ameriških košarkarskih izrazov, za katere nimamo ustreznic v slovenskem jeziku. Posebnost priročnika Osnove košarke NBA avtorja Marka Vancila se kaže v velikem številu strokovnega košarkarskega izrazja, ki od prevajalca zahteva veliko mero strokovnega poznavanja področja. V diplomskem ...

  19. Charged particle cross-section data and their systematization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassif, S.

    1982-07-01

    The reaction cross-sections and the thick target yields of (α,αxn) and (α,xn), induced by the alpha particles from the Buenos Aires 60 inch synchrocyclotron for Cu, Y, Zr, Rh, Te, Ta, Au and Pb were obtained. The ''stocked foil'' method was applied. The ''nuclear spin density'' parameter was determined using a phenomenological approximation from the cross section data for 181 Ta(α,n) reaction producing isomeric pairs of sup(184m)Re and sup(184g)Re. The systematic behaviour of the present result and the results of other authors were demonstrated

  20. Digitalni otisak u fiksnoprotetskoj terapiji

    OpenAIRE

    Cvitković, Alen

    2016-01-01

    Otisak u fiksnoprotetskoj terapiji najvažnije je sredstvo komunikacije između kliničara i laboratorijskog tehničara. Budući da se otisak nalazi na početku "proizvodnog lanca", eventualne greške odrazit će se na sve naredne korake u izradi protetskog rada i na njegovu konačnu preciznost. Zbog toga se nastavlja potraga za boljim materijalima i tehnologijama koji će pogreške svesti na najmanju moguću mjeru. Suvremene digitalne metode razvijene su kako bi ubrzale i pojedno...

  1. Influence given to psychological stress of marketing and green tea beverage

    OpenAIRE

    桑原,早希; 古川,真一

    2011-01-01

    As for the polyphenol of a noteworthy tea leaf, the expectation for the effect of the stress relaxation is great, and the research is actively done recently. In the present study, the effect of the stress relaxation of marketing and green the tea beverage was pursued by using the saliva amylase enzyme weighing device and the peripheral-blood tube monitor device paying attention to the catechin kind of one of the tea leaf polyphenol. When a total anti oxidative potency of marketing and gre...

  2. ALTERNATIVNO REŠEVANJE SPOROV, S POUDARKOM NA MEDIACIJI V MIKRO IN MALIH PODJETJIH V SLOVENIJI

    OpenAIRE

    Gregorec, Beno

    2016-01-01

    Postopki alternativnega reševanja sporov postajajo vse bolj prepoznavni tudi na področju razreševanja sporov v gospodarstvu. Alternativno reševanje sporov predstavlja alternativo sodnim postopkom, saj gre za način mirnega reševanja sporov brez zavezujoče odločitve sodišča. Podjetja lahko nastale spore učinkovito rešujejo s postopkom mediacije, ki velja za najbolj razširjen postopek alternativnega reševanja sporov. Gospodarske družbe in podjetja se za postopek mediacije v splošnem odločajo pre...

  3. A espirulina: um novo modismo brasileiro

    OpenAIRE

    Terãn, Elizabeth

    1989-01-01

    A autora apresenta uma série de dados referentes a morfologia, cultura, processamemto, composicao química e usos da espirulina (Spirutina maxima, Spirulina platensis), microalga verde-azulada cujo consumo está muito em evidência em diversos países da Eutopa, Ásia e América do Norte e que começa também a ser miuto utilizada por brasileiros. The author presents a series of figures referents to morphology, culture, process of manufacture, chemical composition and uses of spiruline, a blue-gre...

  4. Ocena prostorske razsežnosti žledoloma februarja 2014 v bukovih in smrekovih sestojih v občinah Tolmin in Dobrova - Polhov Gradec s pomočjo tehnologije daljinskega zaznavanja

    OpenAIRE

    Šafran, Aljoša

    2018-01-01

    V magistrskem delu obravnavamo žledolom, ki je ob koncu januarja in začetku februarja 2014 povzročil gmotno škodo ne le na vegetaciji, temveč tudi na energetski in železniški infrastrukturi. Po dosedanjih ocenah gre za enega izmed najobsežnejših žledolomov na območju Slovenije v zadnjih desetletjih. V raziskavi nas je zanimala prostorska razporeditev sprememb v biomasi bukovih in smrekovih sestojev na z žledom prizadetih območjih, zaznanih s pomočjo satelita Landsat. V raziskavo sta bili zaje...

  5. TRGOVINA Z LJUDMI SKOZI VIDIK ČLOVEKOVIH PRAVIC

    OpenAIRE

    Skutnik, Saša

    2011-01-01

    Vse premalo se zavedamo obstoja trgovine z ljudmi, njenih pasti in nevarnosti. To je globalno zakoreninjen pojav, prisoten v različnih oblikah že od nastanka civilizacij, danes pa pereč problem v skoraj vseh državah sveta. Je oblika organiziranega kriminala , ki prinaša enormne dobičke na račun grobih, neopravičljivih kršitev več temeljnih človekovih pravic. Dejansko gre za nelegalno gospodarsko dejavnost kupo-prodajnega procesa, kjer blago predstavljajo ljudje. Ocenjujejo jo na tretjo na...

  6. PRIMERJALNA ANALIZA STROŠKOV DELA V SLOVENIJI GLEDE NA VRSTE ZAPOSLITEV

    OpenAIRE

    Krošel, Marina

    2015-01-01

    V času, ko gospodarstvu posel ne gre najbolje, ko se trgi spreminjajo mesečno, ko se letnih planov ne da z gotovostjo napovedovati, ko ne le, da se dobički manjšajo, ampak jih več sploh ni, je trg dela pomembna komponenta varčevanja v gospodarstvu. V tem času na trg dela vstopam tudi sama. Kakšno obliko zaposlitve naj pričakujem? Katera je za delodajalca najbolj sprejemljiva? Kakšna je zakonodaja na tem področju? Ali me varuje Zakon o delovnih razmerjih? Kolektivna pogodba? Sindikati? Kaj ...

  7. PRAVNA UREDITEV ŠTUDENTSKEGA DELA

    OpenAIRE

    Špoljar, Luka

    2014-01-01

    Študentsko delo je občasno ali začasno delo, ki ga študent, dijak ali druga upravičena oseba opravlja preko pooblaščene organizacije (študentski servis, Zavod Republike Slovenije za zaposlovanje, agencije za delo) na podlagi napotnice. Gre za poseben sistem dela preko napotnic, ki ga ne pozna nobena evropska država. Mladim omogoča pridobivanje denarnih sredstev in nabiranje dragocenih neformalnih izkušenj, ki jim pomagajo pri kasnejšem vstopu na trg dela. Študentsko delo pa ima tudi nekaj neg...

  8. VODENJE PROJEKTOV VIRTUALNIH SKUPIN V VIRTUALNIH SKUPNOSTIH ZA ODPRTOKODNI RAZVOJ PROGRAMSKIH REŠITEV

    OpenAIRE

    Harej Pulko, Katja

    2009-01-01

    S prihodom interneta, se je spremenil način povezovanja in komunikacije med ljudmi. Pred tem smo lahko s sogovornikom komunicirali le preko stacionarnega telefona, pisem ali, če smo se z osebo srečali »v živo«. Nato so postale aktualne video konference, mobilni telefoni in internet. Danes se zdi, da gre čas hitreje. A vendarle hitrost časa ostaja enaka. Le komunikacija je lahko bolj dinamična, več možnosti imamo za sodelovanje in povezovanje, tudi z ljudmi na drugi strani sveta. Za komunikaci...

  9. Hepatocellular carcinoma. Comparison between gadolinium and ironoxide enhanced MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castoldi, M.C.; Fauda, V.; Scaramuzza, D.; Vergnaghi, D.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose of this work is to compare prospectively dynamic gadolinium (Gd)-enhanced with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO)-enhanced MRI for the detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Twenty-five patients with histologically proven HCC and liver cirrhosis (28% of them in B or C Child class) underwent dynamic Gd-enhanced MRI and, a few days later, (mean interval: three days) SPIO-enhanced MRI. Only patients with availability of clinical and imaging follow-up for at least seven months were enrolled in this prospective study. MR images were reviewed by two independent radiologists. The readers scored each lesion for the presence of HCC and assigned confidence levels based on a five-grade scale: 1, definitely or almost definitely absent; 2, possibly present; 3, probably present; 4, definitely present; 5, definitely present with optimal liver/lesion contrast or good liver/lesion contrast and morphological signs (intact capsule, intranodular septa, extracapsular infiltration), useful for locoregional treatment planning. A positive diagnostic value was assessed for scores of 3 or higher. Gd-enhanced and SPIO-enhanced MRI found 44 lesions. Eight of twelve lesions visible with a single contrast agent measured less than 1 cm in diameter. HCC detectability was 75% with Gd-enhanced MRI and 97.7% with SPIO-enhanced MRI. SPIO-enhanced T2-weighted TSE images showed significantly higher diagnostic value than SPIO-enhanced T1-T2*GRE images only in three cases, while nodule morphological characteristics (capsule, septa, different cell differentiation components) were better depicted by TSE images. In thi study the combined use of SPIO-enhanced T2-weighted TSE and T1-T2*-weighted GRE sequences showed higher sensitivity than gadolinium-enhanced GRE dynamic imaging (97.7% versus 75%). These results are at least partly related to our study conditions, that is: 1)MRI was performed with a 1T system, 2) both axial and sagittal SPIO-enhanced imaging were performed with respiratory

  10. ZAVZETOST ZAPOSLENIH V ORGANIZACIJI PLASTIKA SKAZA D.O.O.

    OpenAIRE

    Mithans, Doris

    2016-01-01

    Če so zaposleni zadovoljni, to še ne pomeni, da so tudi zavzeti, vendar le z zavzetostjo lahko zaposleni omogoča in zagotavlja večjo delovno ter s tem tudi poslovno uspešnost svoje organizacije. Pri zavzetosti zaposlenih gre za čustveno navezanost posameznikov na svoje delovno okolje. Vedno več zaposlenih v Sloveniji delovne razmere v organizacijah zadnje čase zaznava kot slabe. Dnevno se srečujejo z negativizmom, upiranjem, utrujenostjo in občutki brezizhodnosti, zato je ravno v tem času pov...

  11. Management interculturel, altérité, et identités

    CERN Document Server

    Mutabazi, Evalde; Overveck Ottino, Saskia von; Pierre, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Le management interculturel se fonde sur un effort permanent de remise en question de repères culturels acquis et ressentis comme universels. Ce livre s appuie sur des travaux de recherche et sur des témoignages d expériences pratiques, défend l urgence d un management interculturel au lieu d une gestion de la diversité risquant d assigner des individus à résidence identitaire, et intègre les apports de l ethnopsychanalyse.

  12. Ekonomska obveščevalna dejavnost : diplomsko delo univerzitetnega študija

    OpenAIRE

    Vute, Nal

    2013-01-01

    Naloga predstavlja ekonomsko obveščevalno dejavnost (economic intelligence), ki je ena izmed tradicionalnih poslanstev zunanjih obveščevalnih služb. Gre za obveščevalno dejavnost, ki se odvija na ekonomskem področju. Ta dejavnost postaja v sodobni družbi vedno bolj pomembna. Obveščevalni ciklus oz. krog je sestavljen iz petih delov in sicer: načrtovanje in usmerjanje, zbiranje, obdelava, analiziranje in posredovanje podatkov. Službe, ki obveščevalno dejavnost uporabljajo, imenujemo obveščeval...

  13. Approche pour la recommandation de ressources pédagogiques basée sur les liens sociaux

    OpenAIRE

    Tadlaoui , Mohammed; George , Sébastien; Sehaba , Karim

    2015-01-01

    Conférence EIAH 2015; Les systèmes de recommandation ont pour objectif de proposer des ressources pertinentes à une personne en utilisant certaines informations sur les utilisateurs et les ressources du système. Notre travail s’intègre dans le contexte des systèmes de recommandation de ressources pédagogiques et plus particulièrement des systèmes qui utilisent des informations sociales. En se basant sur les résultats de recherche dans le domaine des systèmes de recommandation, des réseaux soc...

  14. Optimized protocols for cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in patients with thoracic metallic implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivieri, Laura J.; Ratnayaka, Kanishka [Children' s National Health System, Division of Cardiology, Washington, DC (United States); National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States); Cross, Russell R.; O' Brien, Kendall E. [Children' s National Health System, Division of Cardiology, Washington, DC (United States); Hansen, Michael S. [National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Cardiac magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is a valuable tool in congenital heart disease; however patients frequently have metal devices in the chest from the treatment of their disease that complicate imaging. Methods are needed to improve imaging around metal implants near the heart. Basic sequence parameter manipulations have the potential to minimize artifact while limiting effects on image resolution and quality. Our objective was to design cine and static cardiac imaging sequences to minimize metal artifact while maintaining image quality. Using systematic variation of standard imaging parameters on a fluid-filled phantom containing commonly used metal cardiac devices, we developed optimized sequences for steady-state free precession (SSFP), gradient recalled echo (GRE) cine imaging, and turbo spin-echo (TSE) black-blood imaging. We imaged 17 consecutive patients undergoing routine cardiac MR with 25 metal implants of various origins using both standard and optimized imaging protocols for a given slice position. We rated images for quality and metal artifact size by measuring metal artifact in two orthogonal planes within the image. All metal artifacts were reduced with optimized imaging. The average metal artifact reduction for the optimized SSFP cine was 1.5+/-1.8 mm, and for the optimized GRE cine the reduction was 4.6+/-4.5 mm (P < 0.05). Quality ratings favored the optimized GRE cine. Similarly, the average metal artifact reduction for the optimized TSE images was 1.6+/-1.7 mm (P < 0.05), and quality ratings favored the optimized TSE imaging. Imaging sequences tailored to minimize metal artifact are easily created by modifying basic sequence parameters, and images are superior to standard imaging sequences in both quality and artifact size. Specifically, for optimized cine imaging a GRE sequence should be used with settings that favor short echo time, i.e. flow compensation off, weak asymmetrical echo and a relatively high receiver bandwidth. For static

  15. Virus de rabia en cultivos de neuronas sensoriales de ratón adulto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hurtado

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Las neuronas sensoriales de los ganglios de la raíz dorsal (GRD del ratón adulto, son un modelo interesante en el estudio de la infección in vitro por virus de rabia. Su importancia radica puesto que es una de las vías que tiene el virus para llegar a sistema nervioso central. El virus de la rabia usualmente entra por la mordedura de un animal infectado, inicialmente llega al músculo, replicándose localmente, pasa a terminales nerviosas adyacentes, sube a través del sistema nervioso periférico y llega a los ganglio de la raíz dorsal. Durante el transporte del virus no hay síntomas y la enfermedad sólo se inicia con la llegada del virus al sistema nervioso central, donde la replicación del virus es seguida por su transporte en sentido centrífugo, teniendo un particular e inexplicable tropismo por las glándulas salivares y lacrimales. Objetivo: Describir el proceso de infección del virus de la rabia en neuronas GRD. Metodología: Cultivos de neuronas de GRD de ratón adulto fueron inoculados con virus de rabia cepa CVS, siendo observada la ultraestructura en tiempos progresivos de infección desde 5 minutos hasta 60 horas. Los resultados obtenidos en los que no se observaron viriones, nos llevaron a hacer un marcaje con inmunoperoxidasas para evidenciar este proceso. Para corroborar los resultados obtenidos fue necesario comparar ultraestructuralmente y con la técnica de inmunoperoxidasas la infección en tejido cerebral de ratones adultos inoculados experimentalmente. Resultados: Este estudio nos permite afirmar que la producción de partículas virales en neuronas de ganglio de raíz dorsal de ratón adulto, cultivadas in vitro, e inoculadas con virus de rabia es escasa, comparada con la gran cantidad de antígeno viral observada en vesículas de 0,5 mm localizadas en el citoplasma de estas mismas células. Los resultados más importantes del estudio revelan que las neuronas sensoriales de ratón adulto son

  16. Treatment of locally advanced adenoid cystic carcinoma of the head and neck with neutron radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, James G.; Laramore, George E.; Austin-Seymour, Mary; Koh Wuijin; Stelzer, Keith; Griffin, Thomas W.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the efficacy of fast neutron radiotherapy for the treatment of locally advanced and/or recurrent adenoid cystic carcinoma of the head and neck and to identify prognostic variables associated with local-regional control and survival. Methods and Materials: One hundred fifty-nine patients with nonmetastatic, previously unirradiated, locally advanced, and/or recurrent adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of the head and neck region were treated with fast neutron radiotherapy during the years 1985-1997. One hundred fifty-one patients had either unresectable disease, or gross residual disease (GRD) after an attempted surgical extirpation. Eight patients had microscopic residual disease and were analyzed separately. Sixty-two percent of patients had tumors arising in minor salivary glands, 29% in major salivary glands, and 9% in other sites such as the lacrimal glands, tracheal-bronchial tree, etc. Fifty-five percent of patients were treated for postsurgical recurrent disease and 13% of patients had lymph node involvement at the time of treatment. The median duration of follow-up was 32 months (range 3-142 months). Actuarial curves for survival, cause-specific survival, local-regional control, and the development of distant metastases are presented for times out to 11 years. Results: The 5-year actuarial local-regional tumor control rate for the 151 patients with GRD was 57%; the 5-year actuarial overall survival rate was 72%; and the 5-year actuarial cause-specific survival rate was 77%. Variables associated with decreased local-regional control in the patients with GRD as determined by multivariate analysis included base of skull involvement (p < 0.01) and biopsy only versus an attempted surgical resection prior to treatment (p = 0.03). Patients without these negative factors had an actuarial local-regional control rate of 80% at 5 years. Patients with microscopic residual disease (n = 8) had a 5-year actuarial local-regional control rate of 100%. Base of

  17. Ginger effects on control of chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Meisam Ebrahimi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background : Chemotherapy-induced nausea (CIN in the anticipatory and acute phase is the most common side effect in cancer therapy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of ginger capsules on the alleviation of this problem. Methods : This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed on 80 women with breast cancer between August till December 2009 in Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran, Iran. These patients underwent one-day chemotherapy regime and suffering from chemotherapy-induced nausea. After obtaining written consent, samples were randomly assigned into intervention and control groups. Two groups were matched based on the age and emetic effects of chemotherapy drugs used. The intervention group received ginger capsules (250 mg, orally four times a day (1 gr/d and the same samples from the placebo group received starch capsules (250 mg, orally for three days before to three days after chemotherapy. To measure the effect of capsules a three-part questionnaire was used, so the samples filled every night out these tools. After collecting the information, the gathered data were analyzed by statistical tests like Fisher’s exact, Kruskal-Wallis and Chi-square using version 8 of STATA software. Results : The mean ± SD of age in the intervention and placebo groups were 41.8 ± 8.4 and 45.1 ± 10 years, respectively. Results indicated that the severity and number of nausea in the anticipatory phase were significantly lower in the ginger group compared with placebo group (P=0.0008, P=0.0007, respectively. Also, the intensity (P=0.0001 and number (P=0.0001 of nausea in the acute phase were significantly lower in the ginger group. On the other hand, taking ginger capsules compared with placebo did not result in any major complications. Conclusion: Consuming ginger root powder capsules (1 gr/d from three days before chemotherapy till three days after it in combination with the standard anti-emetic regimen can

  18. Genitourinary MR: Kidneys and adrenal glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krestin, G.P.

    1999-01-01

    Due to its high tissue contrast and multiplanar imaging capabilites, MRI provides a detailed display of renal and adrenal anatomy. Recent technical developments overcoming the problem of respiration induced motion artifacts and the use of paramagnetic contrast agents have further improved the performance of MRI which has now evolved as an alternative or complementary imaging modality to ultrasound, excretory urography and computed tomography. Dynamic contrast-enhanced studies will usually allow to detect even small enhancing solid areas within the cyst wall. Use of a fast (turbo) spoiled gradient echo sequence allows for assessment of contrast enhancement dynamics in renal and adrenal masses. For tumor staging, the multiplanar imaging capabilities of MRI are advantageous. Perinephric extent is best detected using opposed-phase GRE images resulting in an artifical accentuation of renal contours. Extension into venous structures is best diagnosed by using a GRE sequence allowing for distinction between flowing blood and tumor thrombus. Noninvasive differentiation of adrenal lesions can be performed with an unprecedented accuracy using chemical-shift imaging. (orig.)

  19. Atlas-based analysis of cardiac shape and function: correction of regional shape bias due to imaging protocol for population studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medrano-Gracia, Pau; Cowan, Brett R; Bluemke, David A; Finn, J Paul; Kadish, Alan H; Lee, Daniel C; Lima, Joao A C; Suinesiaputra, Avan; Young, Alistair A

    2013-09-13

    Cardiovascular imaging studies generate a wealth of data which is typically used only for individual study endpoints. By pooling data from multiple sources, quantitative comparisons can be made of regional wall motion abnormalities between different cohorts, enabling reuse of valuable data. Atlas-based analysis provides precise quantification of shape and motion differences between disease groups and normal subjects. However, subtle shape differences may arise due to differences in imaging protocol between studies. A mathematical model describing regional wall motion and shape was used to establish a coordinate system registered to the cardiac anatomy. The atlas was applied to data contributed to the Cardiac Atlas Project from two independent studies which used different imaging protocols: steady state free precession (SSFP) and gradient recalled echo (GRE) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). Shape bias due to imaging protocol was corrected using an atlas-based transformation which was generated from a set of 46 volunteers who were imaged with both protocols. Shape bias between GRE and SSFP was regionally variable, and was effectively removed using the atlas-based transformation. Global mass and volume bias was also corrected by this method. Regional shape differences between cohorts were more statistically significant after removing regional artifacts due to imaging protocol bias. Bias arising from imaging protocol can be both global and regional in nature, and is effectively corrected using an atlas-based transformation, enabling direct comparison of regional wall motion abnormalities between cohorts acquired in separate studies.

  20. Detection and characteristics of microvascular obstruction in reperfused acute myocardial infarction using an optimized protocol for contrast-enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekkers, Sebastiaan C.A.M.; Gorgels, Anton P.M.; Passos, Valeria Lima; Waltenberger, Johannes; Crijns, Harry J.G.M.; Schalla, Simon [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, P. Debyelaan 25, PO Box 5800, Maastricht (Netherlands); Backes, Walter H.; Snoep, Gabriel [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, P. Debyelaan 25, PO Box 5800, Maastricht (Netherlands); Kim, Raymond J. [Duke University Medical Center, Duke Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Center, PO Box 3934, Durham, NC (United States)

    2009-12-15

    Several cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) techniques are used to detect microvascular obstruction (MVO) after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). To determine the prevalence of MVO and gain more insight into the dynamic changes in appearance of MVO, we studied 84 consecutive patients with a reperfused AMI on average 5 and 104 days after admission, using an optimised single breath-hold 3D inversion recovery gradient echo pulse sequence (IR-GRE) protocol. Early MVO (2 min post-contrast) was detected in 53 patients (63%) and late MVO (10 min post-contrast) in 45 patients (54%; p = 0.008). The extent of MVO decreased from early to late imaging (4.3 {+-} 3.2% vs. 1.8 {+-} 1.8%, p < 0.001) and showed a heterogeneous pattern. At baseline, patients without MVO (early and late) had a higher left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) than patients with persistent late MVO (56 {+-} 7% vs. 48 {+-} 7%, p < 0.001) and LVEF was intermediate in patients with early MVO but late MVO disappearance (54 {+-} 6%). During follow-up, LVEF improved in all three subgroups but remained intermediate in patients with late MVO disappearance. This optimised single breath-hold 3D IR-GRE technique for imaging MVO early and late after contrast administration is fast, accurate and allows detection of patients with intermediate remodelling at follow-up. (orig.)