WorldWideScience

Sample records for grc optical technology

  1. Stirling technology development at NASA GRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieme, Lanny G.; Schreiber, Jeffrey G.; Mason, Lee S.

    2002-01-01

    The Department of Energy, Stirling Technology Company (STC), and NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) are developing a free-piston Stirling convertor for a high-efficiency Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG) for NASA Space Science missions. The SRG is being developed for multimission use, including providing electric power for unmanned Mars rovers and deep space missions. NASA GRC is conducting an in-house technology project to assist in developing the convertor for space qualification and mission implementation. Recent testing of 55-We Technology Demonstration Convertors (TDC's) built by STC includes mapping of a second pair of TDC's, single TDC testing, and TDC electromagnetic interference and electromagnetic compatibility characterization on a non-magnetic test stand. Launch environment tests of a single TDC without its pressure vessel to better understand the convertor internal structural dynamics and of dual-opposed TDC's with several engineering mounting structures with different natural frequencies have recently been completed. A preliminary life assessment has been completed for the TDC heater head, and creep testing of the IN718 material to be used for the flight convertors is underway. Long-term magnet aging tests are continuing to characterize any potential aging in the strength or demagnetization resistance of the magnets used in the linear alternator (LA). Evaluations are now beginning on key organic materials used in the LA and piston/rod surface coatings. GRC is also conducting finite element analyses for the LA, in part to look at the demagnetization margin on the permanent magnets. The world's first known integrated test of a dynamic power system with electric propulsion was achieved at GRC when a Hall-effect thruster was successfully operated with a free-piston Stirling power source. Cleveland State University is developing a multi-dimensional Stirling computational fluid dynamics code to significantly improve Stirling loss predictions and assist in

  2. Update on the NASA GRC Stirling Technology development project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieme, Lanny G.; Schreiber, Jeffrey G.

    2001-02-01

    The Department of Energy, NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), and Stirling Technology Company (STC) are developing a free-piston Stirling convertor for a Stirling radioisotope power system (SRPS) to provide spacecraft on-board electric power for NASA deep space missions. The SRPS has recently been identified for potential use on the Europa Orbiter and Solar Probe Space Science missions. Stirling is also now being considered for unmanned Mars rovers. NASA GRC is conducting an in-house project to assist in developing the Stirling convertor for readiness for space qualification and mission implementation. As part of this continuing effort, the Stirling convertor will be further characterized under launch environment random vibration testing, methods to reduce convertor electromagnetic interference (EMI) will be developed, and an independent performance verification will be completed. Convertor life assessment and permanent magnet aging characterization tasks are also underway. Substitute organic materials for the linear alternator and piston bearing coatings for use in a high radiation environment have been identified and have now been incorporated in Stirling convertors built by STC for GRC. Electromagnetic and thermal finite element analyses for the alternator are also being conducted. This paper discusses the recent results and status for this NASA GRC in-house project. .

  3. Stirling Technology Development at NASA GRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieme, Lanny G.; Schreiber, Jeffrey G.; Mason, Lee S.

    2001-01-01

    The Department of Energy, Stirling Technology Company (STC), and NASA Glenn Research Center (NASA Glenn) are developing a free-piston Stirling convertor for a high efficiency Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG) for NASA Space Science missions. The SRG is being developed for multimission use, including providing electric power for unmanned Mars rovers and deep space missions. NASA Glenn is conducting an in-house technology project to assist in developing the convertor for space qualification and mission implementation. Recent testing of 55-We Technology Demonstration Convertors (TDCs) built by STC includes mapping of a second pair of TDCs, single TDC testing, and TDC electromagnetic interference and electromagnetic compatibility characterization on a nonmagnetic test stand. Launch environment tests of a single TDC without its pressure vessel to better understand the convertor internal structural dynamics and of dual-opposed TDCs with several engineering mounting structures with different natural frequencies have recently been completed. A preliminary life assessment has been completed for the TDC heater head, and creep testing of the IN718 material to be used for the flight convertors is underway. Long-term magnet aging tests are continuing to characterize any potential aging in the strength or demagnetization resistance of the magnets used in the linear alternator (LA). Evaluations are now beginning on key organic materials used in the LA and piston/rod surface coatings. NASA Glenn is also conducting finite element analyses for the LA, in part to look at the demagnetization margin on the permanent magnets. The world's first known integrated test of a dynamic power system with electric propulsion was achieved at NASA Glenn when a Hall-effect thruster was successfully operated with a free-piston Stirling power source. Cleveland State University is developing a multidimensional Stirling computational fluid dynamics code to significantly improve Stirling loss

  4. Stirling Technology Development at NASA GRC. Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieme, Lanny G.; Schreiber, Jeffrey G.; Mason, Lee S.

    2002-01-01

    The Department of Energy, Stirling Technology Company (STC), and NASA Glenn Research Center (NASA Glenn) are developing a free-piston Stirling convertor for a high-efficiency Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG) for NASA Space Science missions. The SRG is being developed for multimission use, including providing electric power for unmanned Mars rovers and deep space missions. NASA Glenn is conducting an in-house technology project to assist in developing the convertor for space qualification and mission implementation. Recent testing, of 55-We Technology Demonstration Convertors (TDC's) built by STC includes mapping, of a second pair of TDC's, single TDC testing, and TDC electromagnetic interference and electromagnetic compatibility characterization on a nonmagnetic test stand. Launch environment tests of a single TDC without its pressure vessel to better understand the convertor internal structural dynamics and of dual-opposed TDC's with several engineering mounting structures with different natural frequencies have recently been completed. A preliminary life assessment has been completed for the TDC heater head, and creep testing of the IN718 material to be used for the flight convertors is underway. Long-term magnet aging tests are continuing to characterize any potential aging in the strength or demagnetization resistance of the magnets used in the linear alternator (LA). Evaluations are now beginning on key organic materials used in the LA and piston/rod surface coatings. NASA Glenn is also conducting finite element analyses for the LA, in part to look at the demagnetization margin on the permanent magnets. The world's first known integrated test of a dynamic power system with electric propulsion was achieved at NASA Glenn when a Hall-effect thruster was successfully operated with a free-piston Stirling power source. Cleveland State University is developing a multidimensional Stirling computational fluid dynamics code to significantly improve Stirling loss

  5. Using information technology governance, risk management and compliance (GRC as a creator of business values – a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Lubbe

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between Information Technology (IT Governance, Risk Management and Compliance (GRC and organisation business values continues to interest academics and practitioners (IT Governance Institute, 2003. Like governance, risk management and compliance generally, IT GRC is about the decision rights and accountabilities that encourage desirable behaviour in the use of IT (IT Governance Institute, 2003. A case study approach was used in an organisation with many business units. The organisation selected is a mining company, RioZim, situated in Zimbabwe. Data was collected from business units on IT issues and business values. The interviews centred on the IT GRC practices based on responsibility and authority for IT decision making. The results suggest that IT GRC does not adequately support business values. The study revealed that business values should drive IT GRC and IT GRC should be the responsibility of executives and all business units.

  6. Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT): Additive Manufactured Hot Fire Planning and Testing in GRC Cell 32

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this project is to hot fire test an additively manufactured thrust chamber assembly TCA (injector and thrust chamber). GRC will install the...

  7. 2014 Overview of NASA GRC Electrochemical Power and Energy Storage Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Concha M.

    2014-01-01

    Overview presentation to the IAPG Chemical Working Group meeting, discussing current electrochemical power and energy storage R and D at NASA GRC including missions, demonstrations, and reserch projects. Activities such as ISS Lithium-Ion Battery Replacements, the Advanced Exploration Systems Modular Power Systems project, Enabling Electric Aviation with Ultra-High Energy Litium Metal Batteries, Advanced Space Power Systems project, and SBIR STTR work, will be discussed.

  8. Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT): Additive Manufactured Hot Fire Planning and Testing in GRC Cell 32 Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikes, John C.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this project is to hot fire test an additively manufactured thrust chamber assembly TCA (injector and thrust chamber). GRC will install the additively manufactured Inconel 625 injector, two additively manufactured (SLM) water cooled Cu-Cr thrust chamber barrels and one additively manufactured (SLM) water cooled Cu-Cr thrust chamber nozzle on the test stand in Cell 32 and perform hot fire testing of the integrated TCA.

  9. Fiber Optics Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, William E.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses various applications of fiber optics technology: information systems, industrial robots, medicine, television, transportation, and training. Types of jobs that will be available with fiber optics training (such as electricians and telephone cable installers and splicers) are examined. (CT)

  10. Advanced optical instruments technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Mike; Chrisp, Michael; Cheng, Li-Jen; Eng, Sverre; Glavich, Thomas; Goad, Larry; Jones, Bill; Kaarat, Philip; Nein, Max; Robinson, William

    1992-08-01

    The science objectives for proposed NASA missions for the next decades push the state of the art in sensitivity and spatial resolution over a wide range of wavelengths, including the x-ray to the submillimeter. While some of the proposed missions are larger and more sensitive versions of familiar concepts, such as the next generation space telescope, others use concepts, common on the Earth, but new to space, such as optical interferometry, in order to provide spatial resolutions impossible with other concepts. However, despite their architecture, the performance of all of the proposed missions depends critically on the back-end instruments that process the collected energy to produce scientifically interesting outputs. The Advanced Optical Instruments Technology panel was chartered with defining technology development plans that would best improve optical instrument performance for future astrophysics missions. At this workshop the optical instrument was defined as the set of optical components that reimage the light from the telescope onto the detectors to provide information about the spatial, spectral, and polarization properties of the light. This definition was used to distinguish the optical instrument technology issues from those associated with the telescope, which were covered by a separate panel. The panel identified several areas for optical component technology development: diffraction gratings; tunable filters; interferometric beam combiners; optical materials; and fiber optics. The panel also determined that stray light suppression instruments, such as coronagraphs and nulling interferometers, were in need of general development to support future astrophysics needs.

  11. Optical Computers and Space Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdeldayem, Hossin A.; Frazier, Donald O.; Penn, Benjamin; Paley, Mark S.; Witherow, William K.; Banks, Curtis; Hicks, Rosilen; Shields, Angela

    1995-01-01

    The rapidly increasing demand for greater speed and efficiency on the information superhighway requires significant improvements over conventional electronic logic circuits. Optical interconnections and optical integrated circuits are strong candidates to provide the way out of the extreme limitations imposed on the growth of speed and complexity of nowadays computations by the conventional electronic logic circuits. The new optical technology has increased the demand for high quality optical materials. NASA's recent involvement in processing optical materials in space has demonstrated that a new and unique class of high quality optical materials are processible in a microgravity environment. Microgravity processing can induce improved orders in these materials and could have a significant impact on the development of optical computers. We will discuss NASA's role in processing these materials and report on some of the associated nonlinear optical properties which are quite useful for optical computers technology.

  12. Progress In Optical Memory Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunoda, Yoshito

    1987-01-01

    More than 20 years have passed since the concept of optical memory was first proposed in 1966. Since then considerable progress has been made in this area together with the creation of completely new markets of optical memory in consumer and computer application areas. The first generation of optical memory was mainly developed with holographic recording technology in late 1960s and early 1970s. Considerable number of developments have been done in both analog and digital memory applications. Unfortunately, these technologies did not meet a chance to be a commercial product. The second generation of optical memory started at the beginning of 1970s with bit by bit recording technology. Read-only type optical memories such as video disks and compact audio disks have extensively investigated. Since laser diodes were first applied to optical video disk read out in 1976, there have been extensive developments of laser diode pick-ups for optical disk memory systems. The third generation of optical memory started in 1978 with bit by bit read/write technology using laser diodes. Developments of recording materials including both write-once and erasable have been actively pursued at several research institutes. These technologies are mainly focused on the optical memory systems for computer application. Such practical applications of optical memory technology has resulted in the creation of such new products as compact audio disks and computer file memories.

  13. Fiber Optics and Library Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Michael

    1984-01-01

    This article examines fiber optic technology, explains some of the key terminology, and speculates about the way fiber optics will change our world. Applications of fiber optics to library systems in three major areas--linkage of a number of mainframe computers, local area networks, and main trunk communications--are highlighted. (EJS)

  14. Accomplishments in free-piston stirling tests at NASA GRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Jeffrey G.; Skupinski, Robert C.

    2002-01-01

    A power system based on the Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG) has been identified for potential use on deep space missions, as well as for Mars rovers that may benefit from extended operation. The Department of Energy (DOE) has responsibility for developing the generator and the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is supporting DOE in this effort. The generator is based on a free-piston Stirling power convertor that has been developed by the Stirling Technology Company (STC) under contract to DOE. The generator would be used as a high-efficiency alternative to the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) that have been used on many previous missions. The increased efficiency leads to a factor of 3 to 4 reduction in the inventory of plutonium required to heat the generator. GRC has been involved in the development of Stirling power conversion technology for over 25 years. The support provided to this project by GRC has many facets and draws upon the lab's scientists and engineers that have gained experience in applying their skills to the previous Stirling projects. This has created a staff with an understanding of the subtleties involved in applying their expertise to Stirling systems. Areas include materials, structures, tribology, controls, electromagnetic interference, permanent magnets, alternator analysis, structural dynamics, and cycle performance. One of the key areas of support to the project is in the performance testing of the free-piston Stirling convertors. Since these power convertors are the smallest, lowest power Stirling machines that have been tested at GRC, a new laboratory was equipped for this project. Procedures and test plans have been created, instrumentation and data systems developed, and Stirling convertors have been tested. This paper will describe the GRC test facility, the test procedures that are used, present some of the test results and outline plans for the future. .

  15. Nonlinear Optical Terahertz Technology

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We develop a new approach to generation of THz radiation. Our method relies on mixing two optical frequency beams in a nonlinear crystalline Whispering Gallery Mode...

  16. Auditing and GRC automation in SAP

    CERN Document Server

    Chuprunov, Maxim

    2013-01-01

    Going beyond current literature, this book extends internal controls to efficiency and profitability. Offers an audit guide for an SAP ERP system, covers risks and control descriptions, and shows how to automate compliance management based on SAP GRC.

  17. Grazing Incidence Optics Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Brian; Smith, W. Scott; Gubarev, Mikhail; McCracken, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    This project is to demonstrate the capability to directly fabricate lightweight, high-resolution, grazing-incidence x-ray optics using a commercially available robotic polishing machine. Typical x-ray optics production at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) uses a replication process in which metal mirrors are electroformed on to figured and polished mandrels from which they are later removed. The attraction of this process is that multiple copies can be made from a single master. The drawback is that the replication process limits the angular resolution that can be attained. By directly fabricating each shell, errors inherent in the replication process are removed. The principal challenge now becomes how to support the mirror shell during all aspects of fabrication, including the necessary metrology to converge on the required mirror performance specifications. This program makes use of a Zeeko seven-axis computer-controlled polishing machine (see fig. 1) and supporting fabrication, metrology, and test equipment at MSFC. The overall development plan calls for proof-of-concept demonstration with relatively thick mirror shells (5-6 mm, fig. 2) which are straightforward to support and then a transition to much thinner shells (2-3 mm), which are an order of magnitude thinner than those used for Chandra. Both glass and metal substrates are being investigated. Currently, a thick glass shell is being figured. This has enabled experience to be gained with programming and operating the polishing machine without worrying about shell distortions or breakage. It has also allowed time for more complex support mechanisms for figuring/ polishing and metrology to be designed for the more challenging thinner shells. These are now in fabrication. Figure 1: Zeeko polishing machine.

  18. Advanced Stirling Convertor Testing at GRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schifer, Nick; Oriti, Salvatore M.

    2013-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has been supporting development of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) since 2006. A key element of the ASRG project is providing life, reliability, and performance testing of the Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC). The latest version of the ASC, deemed ASC-E3, is of a design identical to the forthcoming flight convertors. The first pair of ASC-E3 units was delivered in December 2012. GRC has begun the process of adding these units to the catalog of ongoing Stirling convertor operation. This process includes performance verification, which examines the data from various tests to validate the convertors performance to the product specification.

  19. Fiber optic fire detection technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hering, D.W.

    1990-01-01

    Electrostatic application of paint was, and still is, the most technically feasible method of reducing VOC (volatile organic compounds) emissions, while reducing the cost to apply the coatings. Prior to the use of electrostatics, only two sides of the traditional fire triangle were normally present in the booth, fuel (solvent), and oxygen (air). Now the third leg (the ignition source) was present at virtually all times during the production operation in the form of the electrostatic charge and the resulting energy in the system. The introduction of fiber optics into the field of fire detection was for specific application to the electrostatic painting industry, but specifically, robots used in the application of electrostatic painting in the automotive industry. The use of fiber optics in this hazard provided detection for locations that have been previously prohibited or inaccessible with the traditional fire detection systems. The fiber optic technology that has been adapted to the field of fire detection operates on the principle of transmission of photons through a light guide (optic fiber). When the light guide is subjected to heat, the cladding on the light guide melts away from the core and allows the light (photons) to escape. The controller, which contains the emitter and receiver is set-up to distinguish between partial loss of light and a total loss of light. Glass optical fibers carrying light offer distinct advantages over wires or coaxial cables carrying electricity as a transmission media. The uses of fiber optic detection will be expanded in the near future into such areas as aircraft, cable trays and long conveyor runs because fiber optics can carry more information and deliver it with greater clarity over longer distances with total immunity to all kinds of electrical interference

  20. Fiber-optic technology review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, P.B.

    1980-01-01

    A history of fiber technology is presented. The advantages of fiber optics are discussed (bandwidth, cost, weight and size, nonmetallic construction and isolation). Some aspects of the disadvantages of fiber systems briefly discussed are fiber and cable availability, fiber components, radiation effects, receivers and transmitters, and material dispersion. Particular emphasis over the next several years will involve development of fibers and systems optimized for use at wavelengths near 1.3 μm and development of wavelengths multiplexers for simultaneous system operation at several wavelengths

  1. Fiber optics physics and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Mitschke, Fedor

    2016-01-01

    This book tells you all you want to know about optical fibers: Their structure, their light-guiding mechanism, their material and manufacture, their use. It began with telephone, then came telefax and email. Today we use search engines, music downloads and internet videos, all of which require shuffling of bits and bytes by the zillions. The key to all this is the conduit: the line which is designed to carry massive amounts of data at breakneck speed. In their data carrying capacity optical fiber lines beat all other technologies (copper cable, microwave beacons, satellite links) hands down, at least in the long haul; wireless devices rely on fibers, too. Several effects tend to degrade the signal as it travels down the fiber: they are spelled out in detail. Nonlinear processes are given due consideration for a twofold reason: On the one hand they are fundamentally different from the more familiar processes in electrical cable. On the other hand, they form the basis of particularly interesting and innovative ...

  2. Fiber Optics Physics and Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Mitschke, Fedor

    2010-01-01

    Telephone, telefax, email and internet -- the key ingredient of the inner workings is the conduit: the line which is designed to carry massive amounts of data at breakneck speed. In their data-carrying capacity optical fiber lines beat other technologies (copper cable, microwave beacons, satellite links) hands down, at least in the long haul. This book tells you all you want to know about optical fibers: Their structure, their light-guiding mechanism, their material and manufacture, their use. Several effects tend to degrade the signal as it travels down the fiber: they are spelled out in detail. Nonlinear processes are given due consideration for a twofold reason: On the one hand they are fundamentally different from the more familiar processes in electrical cable. On the other hand, they form the basis of particularly interesting and innovative applications, provided they are understood well enough. A case in point is the use of so-called solitons, i.e. special pulses of light which have the wonderful prope...

  3. Optical Communication over Plastic Optical Fibers Integrated Optical Receiver Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Atef, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    This book presents high-performance data transmission over plastic optical fibers (POF) using integrated optical receivers having good properties with multilevel modulation, i.e. a higher sensitivity and higher data rate transmission over a longer plastic optical fiber length. Integrated optical receivers and transmitters with high linearity are introduced for multilevel communication. For binary high-data rate transmission over plastic optical fibers, an innovative receiver containing an equalizer is described leading also to a high performance of a plastic optical fiber link. The cheap standard PMMA SI-POF (step-index plastic optical fiber) has the lowest bandwidth and the highest attenuation among multimode fibers. This small bandwidth limits the maximum data rate which can be transmitted through plastic optical fibers. To overcome the problem of the plastic optical fibers high transmission loss, very sensitive receivers must be used to increase the transmitted length over POF. The plastic optical fiber li...

  4. Emerging technology for astronomical optics metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumper, Isaac; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Kim, Dae Wook

    2018-05-01

    Next generation astronomical optics will enable science discoveries across all fields and impact the way we perceive the Universe in which we live. To build these systems, optical metrology tools have been developed that push the boundary of what is possible. We present a summary of a few key metrology technologies that we believe are critical for the coming generation of optical surfaces.

  5. Renewable Energy: Solar Fuels GRC and GRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Nathan [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Gray, Nancy Ryan [Gordon Research Conferences, West Kingston, RI (United States)

    2010-02-26

    sources from a carbon-neutral source. Sunlight is by far the most abundant global carbon-neutral energy resource. More solar energy strikes the surface of the earth in one hour than is obtained from all of the fossil fuels consumed globally in a year. Sunlight may be used to power the planet. However, it is intermittent, and therefore it must be converted to electricity or stored chemical fuel to be used on a large scale. The 'grand challenge' of using the sun as a future energy source faces daunting challenges - large expanses of fundamental science and technology await discovery. A viable solar energy conversion scheme must result in a 10-50 fold decrease in the cost-to-efficiency ratio for the production of stored fuels, and must be stable and robust for a 20-30 year period. To reduce the cost of installed solar energy conversion systems to $0.20/peak watt of solar radiation, a cost level that would make them economically attractive in today's energy market, will require revolutionary technologies. This GRC seeks to present a forum for the underlying science needed to permit future generations to use the sun as a renewable and sustainable primary energy source. Speakers will discuss recent advances in homoogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis of multi-electron transfer processes of importance to solar fuel production, such as water oxidation and reduction, and carbon dioxide reduction. Speakers will also discuss advances in scaleably manufacturable systems for the capture and conversion of sunlight into electrical charges that can be readily coupled into, and utilized for, fuel production in an integrated system.

  6. 2017 Laser Diagnostics in Combustion GRC/GRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-06

    scientists and engineers . The goal of GRC was to bring together scientists and engineers with a strong interest in laser-based combustion diagnostics to...processes. The GRS, held the weekend before the GRC, was organized to bring together emerging leaders in the field at an early stage in their careers ...coupled multi-scale combustion processes. The GRC on Laser Diagnostics in Combustion was designed to bring together scientists and engineers working at

  7. Optics and photonics: essential technologies for our nation (technology & engineering)

    CERN Document Server

    Research, Committee on Harnessing Light: Capitalizing on Optical Science Trends and Challenges for Future; Sciences, Division on Engineering and Physical; Council, National Research

    2013-01-01

    Optics and photonics technologies are ubiquitous: they are responsible for the displays on smart phones and computing devices, optical fiber that carries the information in the internet, advanced precision manufacturing, enhanced defense capabilities, and a plethora of medical diagnostics tools. The opportunities arising from optics and photonics offer the potential for even greater societal impact in the next few decades, including solar power generation and new efficient lighting that could transform the nation's energy landscape and new optical capabilities that will be essential to support the continued exponential growth of the Internet. As described in the National Research Council report Optics and Photonics: Essential Technologies for our Nation, it is critical for the United States to take advantage of these emerging optical technologies for creating new industries and generating job growth. The report assesses the current state of optical science and engineering in the United States and abroad--incl...

  8. Turbine Seal Research at NASA GRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Margaret P.; Steinetz, Bruce M.; Delgado, Irebert R.; Hendricks, Robert C.

    2011-01-01

    Low-leakage, long-life turbomachinery seals are important to both Space and Aeronautics Missions. (1) Increased payload capability (2) Decreased specific fuel consumption and emissions (3) Decreased direct operating costs. NASA GRC has a history of significant accomplishments and collaboration with industry and academia in seals research. NASA's unique, state-of-the-art High Temperature, High Speed Turbine Seal Test Facility is an asset to the U.S. Engine / Seal Community. Current focus is on developing experimentally validated compliant, non-contacting, high temperature seal designs, analysis, and design methodologies to enable commercialization.

  9. Biomedical Optical Imaging Technologies Design and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to design of biomedical optical imaging technologies and their applications. The main topics include: fluorescence imaging, confocal imaging, micro-endoscope, polarization imaging, hyperspectral imaging, OCT imaging, multimodal imaging and spectroscopic systems. Each chapter is written by the world leaders of the respective fields, and will cover: principles and limitations of optical imaging technology, system design and practical implementation for one or two specific applications, including design guidelines, system configuration, optical design, component requirements and selection, system optimization and design examples, recent advances and applications in biomedical researches and clinical imaging. This book serves as a reference for students and researchers in optics and biomedical engineering.

  10. Korea-China Optical Technology Research Centre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Cha, H. K.; Rhee, Y. J. (and others)

    2007-04-15

    The main objectives of this project are to develop cooperative channel by personnel exchanges between industrial, educational and research partners of Korea and China on the fields of optical technologies which are the basis of optical industry and being spot-lighted as new industry of 21th century, and to raise the class of Korean optical technology up to world class by utilization of Chinese large facilities through the cooperative research between the optical technology institutions of both sides. To attain the goals mentioned above, we carried out the cooperative researches between the Korean and Chinese optical technology institutions in the following 7 fields; ? research cooperation between KAERI-SITP for the quantum structured far-IR sensor technology - research cooperation for the generation of femtosecond nuclear fusion induced neutrons - research cooperation between KAERI-AIOFM for laser environment analysis and remote sensing technology - research cooperation between KAERI-SIOM for advanced diode-pumped laser technology - cooperative research related on linear and nonlinear magneto-optical properties of advanced magnetic quantum structures - design of pico-second PW high power laser system and its simulation and - cooperative research related on the femto-second laser-plasma interaction physics.

  11. Korea-China Optical Technology Research Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Cha, H. K.; Rhee, Y. J.

    2007-04-01

    The main objectives of this project are to develop cooperative channel by personnel exchanges between industrial, educational and research partners of Korea and China on the fields of optical technologies which are the basis of optical industry and being spot-lighted as new industry of 21th century, and to raise the class of Korean optical technology up to world class by utilization of Chinese large facilities through the cooperative research between the optical technology institutions of both sides. To attain the goals mentioned above, we carried out the cooperative researches between the Korean and Chinese optical technology institutions in the following 7 fields; ? research cooperation between KAERI-SITP for the quantum structured far-IR sensor technology - research cooperation for the generation of femtosecond nuclear fusion induced neutrons - research cooperation between KAERI-AIOFM for laser environment analysis and remote sensing technology - research cooperation between KAERI-SIOM for advanced diode-pumped laser technology - cooperative research related on linear and nonlinear magneto-optical properties of advanced magnetic quantum structures - design of pico-second PW high power laser system and its simulation and - cooperative research related on the femto-second laser-plasma interaction physics

  12. Enabling technologies for fiber optic sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Selwan K.; Farnan, Martin; Karabacak, Devrez M.; Singer, Johannes M.

    2016-04-01

    In order for fiber optic sensors to compete with electrical sensors, several critical parameters need to be addressed such as performance, cost, size, reliability, etc. Relying on technologies developed in different industrial sectors helps to achieve this goal in a more efficient and cost effective way. FAZ Technology has developed a tunable laser based optical interrogator based on technologies developed in the telecommunication sector and optical transducer/sensors based on components sourced from the automotive market. Combining Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensing technology with the above, high speed, high precision, reliable quasi distributed optical sensing systems for temperature, pressure, acoustics, acceleration, etc. has been developed. Careful design needs to be considered to filter out any sources of measurement drifts/errors due to different effects e.g. polarization and birefringence, coating imperfections, sensor packaging etc. Also to achieve high speed and high performance optical sensing systems, combining and synchronizing multiple optical interrogators similar to what has been used with computer/processors to deliver super computing power is an attractive solution. This path can be achieved by using photonic integrated circuit (PIC) technology which opens the doors to scaling up and delivering powerful optical sensing systems in an efficient and cost effective way.

  13. 2009 Archaea: Ecology, Metabolism & Molecular Biology GRC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furlow, Julie Maupin- [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2009-07-26

    Archaea, one of three major evolutionary lineages of life, are a fascinating and diverse group of microbes with deep roots overlapping those of eukaryotes. The focus of the 'Archaea: Ecology Metabolism & Molecular Biology' GRC conference expands on a number of emerging topics highlighting new paradigms in archaeal metabolism, genome function and systems biology; information processing; evolution and the tree of life; the ecology and diversity of archaea and their viruses; and industrial applications. The strength of this conference lies in its ability to couple a field with a rich history in high quality research with new scientific findings in an atmosphere of stimulating exchange. This conference remains an excellent opportunity for younger scientists to interact with world experts in this field.

  14. High Spectral Density Optical Communication Technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Nakazawa, Masataka; Miyazaki, Tetsuya

    2010-01-01

    The latest hot topics of high-spectral density optical communication systems using digital coherent optical fibre communication technologies are covered by this book. History and meaning of a "renaissance" of the technology, requirements to the Peta-bit/s class "new generation network" are also covered in the first part of this book. The main topics treated are electronic and optical devices, digital signal processing including forward error correction, modulation formats as well as transmission and application systems. The book serves as a reference to researchers and engineers.

  15. Integrated optics theory and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hunsperger, Robert G

    1984-01-01

    Our intent in producing this book was to provide a text that would be comprehensive enough for an introductory course in integrated optics, yet concise enough in its mathematical derivations to be easily readable by a practicing engineer who desires an overview of the field. The response to the first edition has indeed been gratifying; unusually strong demand has caused it to be sold out during the initial year of publication, thus providing us with an early opportunity to produce this updated and improved second edition. This development is fortunate, because integrated optics is a very rapidly progressing field, with significant new research being regularly reported. Hence, a new chapter (Chap. 17) has been added to review recent progress and to provide numerous additional references to the relevant technical literature. Also, thirty-five new problems for practice have been included to supplement those at the ends of chapters in the first edition. Chapters I through 16 are essentially unchanged, except for ...

  16. CCD technology beyond fibre optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuffen, J.

    1988-01-01

    For the past 25 years the accepted method of viewing inside industrial components, or indeed the human body, has been by the use of either flexible or rigid fibre optics. In the last five years however, many developments have enabled television cameras to reduce to a size small enough to allow internal viewing of an object, without prior dismantling. This concept was achieved five years ago, with the Welch Allyn Videoprobe 2000, a charge coupled device. (author)

  17. Application of Chemistry in Materials Research at NASA GRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavandi, Janet L.

    2016-01-01

    Overview of NASA GRC Materials Development. New materials enabled by new chemistries offering unique properties and chemical processing techniques. Durability of materials in harsh environments requires understanding and modeling of chemical interaction of materials with the environment.

  18. Saying goodbye to optical storage technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLendon, Kelly; Babbitt, Cliff

    2002-08-01

    The days of using optical disk based mass storage devices for high volume applications like health care document imaging are coming to an end. The price/performance curve for redundant magnetic disks, known as RAID, is now more positive than for optical disks. All types of application systems, across many sectors of the marketplace are using these newer magnetic technologies, including insurance, banking, aerospace, as well as health care. The main components of these new storage technologies are RAID and SAN. SAN refers to storage area network, which is a complex mechanism of switches and connections that allow multiple systems to store huge amounts of data securely and safely.

  19. Innovative technology for optical and infrared astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Colin R.; Evans, Christopher J.; Molster, Frank; Kendrew, Sarah; Kenworthy, Matthew A.; Snik, Frans

    2012-09-01

    Advances in astronomy are often enabled by adoption of new technology. In some instances this is where the technology has been invented specifically for astronomy, but more usually it is adopted from another scientific or industrial area of application. The adoption of new technology typically occurs via one of two processes. The more usual is incremental progress by a series of small improvements, but occasionally this process is disruptive, where a new technology completely replaces an older one. One of the activities of the OPTICON Key Technology Network over the past few years has been a technology forecasting exercise. Here we report on a recent event which focused on the more radical, potentially disruptive technologies for ground-based, optical and infrared astronomy.

  20. Fabricating binary optics: An overview of binary optics process technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Margaret B.

    1993-01-01

    A review of binary optics processing technology is presented. Pattern replication techniques have been optimized to generate high-quality efficient microoptics in visible and infrared materials. High resolution optical photolithography and precision alignment is used to fabricate maximally efficient fused silica diffractive microlenses at lambda = 633 nm. The degradation in optical efficiency of four-phase-level fused silica microlenses resulting from an intentional 0.35 micron translational error has been systematically measured as a function of lens speed (F/2 - F/60). Novel processes necessary for high sag refractive IR microoptics arrays, including deep anisotropic Si-etching, planarization of deep topography and multilayer resist techniques, are described. Initial results are presented for monolithic integration of photonic and microoptic systems.

  1. Optical coherence tomography technology and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Fujimoto, James

    2015-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is the optical analog of ultrasound imaging and is a powerful imaging technique that enables non-invasive, in vivo, high resolution, cross-sectional imaging in biological tissue.  Between 30 to 40 Million OCT imaging procedures are performed per year in ophthalmology.  The overall market is estimated at more than 0.5 Billion USD.  A new generation OCT technology was developed, dramatically increasing resolution and speed, achieving in vivo optical biopsy, i.e. the visualization of tissue architectural morphology in situ and in real time.  Functional extensions of OCT technology enable non-invasive, depth resolved functional assessment and imaging of tissue.  The book introduces OCT technology and applications not only from an optical and technological viewpoint, but also from the biomedical and clinical perspective. This second edition is widely extended and covers significantly more topics then the first edition of this book. The chapters are written leading intern...

  2. Fiber Optic Communications Technology. A Status Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Joseph A.

    Fiber optic communications (communications over very pure glass transmission channels of diameter comparable to a human hair) is an emerging technology which promises most improvements in communications capacity at reasonable cost. The fiber transmission system offers many desirable characteristics representing improvements over conventional…

  3. MAVEN Information Security Governance, Risk Management, and Compliance (GRC): Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamura, Eduardo; Gomez-Rosa, Carlos A.; Mangum, Kevin; Wasiak, Fran

    2014-01-01

    As the first interplanetary mission managed by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) had three IT security goals for its ground system: COMPLIANCE, (IT) RISK REDUCTION, and COST REDUCTION. In a multiorganizational environment in which government, industry and academia work together in support of the ground system and mission operations, information security governance, risk management, and compliance (GRC) becomes a challenge as each component of the ground system has and follows its own set of IT security requirements. These requirements are not necessarily the same or even similar to each other's, making the auditing of the ground system security a challenging feat. A combination of standards-based information security management based on the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Risk Management Framework (RMF), due diligence by the Mission's leadership, and effective collaboration among all elements of the ground system enabled MAVEN to successfully meet NASA's requirements for IT security, and therefore meet Federal Information Security Management Act (FISMA) mandate on the Agency. Throughout the implementation of GRC on MAVEN during the early stages of the mission development, the Project faced many challenges some of which have been identified in this paper. The purpose of this paper is to document these challenges, and provide a brief analysis of the lessons MAVEN learned. The historical information documented herein, derived from an internal pre-launch lessons learned analysis, can be used by current and future missions and organizations implementing and auditing GRC.

  4. Optical nano and micro actuator technology

    CERN Document Server

    Knopf, George K

    2012-01-01

    In Optical Nano and Micro Actuator Technology, leading engineers, material scientists, chemists, physicists, laser scientists, and manufacturing specialists offer an in-depth, wide-ranging look at the fundamental and unique characteristics of light-driven optical actuators. They discuss how light can initiate physical movement and control a variety of mechanisms that perform mechanical work at the micro- and nanoscale. The book begins with the scientific background necessary for understanding light-driven systems, discussing the nature of light and the interaction between light and NEMS/MEMS d

  5. Optical Tracking Technology in Stereotactic Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, Thomas H.; Meeks, Sanford L.; Bova, Frank J.; Friedman, William A.; Willoughby, Twyla R.; Kupelian, Patrick A.; Tome, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    The last decade has seen the introduction of advanced technologies that have enabled much more precise application of therapeutic radiation. These relatively new technologies include multileaf collimators, 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy planning, and intensity modulated radiotherapy in radiotherapy. Therapeutic dose distributions have become more conformal to volumes of disease, sometimes utilizing sharp dose gradients to deliver high doses to target volumes while sparing nearby radiosensitive structures. Thus, accurate patient positioning has become even more important, so that the treatment delivered to the patient matches the virtual treatment plan in the computer treatment planning system. Optical and image-guided radiation therapy systems offer the potential to improve the precision of patient treatment by providing a more robust fiducial system than is typically used in conventional radiotherapy. The ability to accurately position internal targets relative to the linac isocenter and to provide real-time patient tracking theoretically enables significant reductions in the amount of normal tissue irradiated. This report reviews the concepts, technology, and clinical applications of optical tracking systems currently in use for stereotactic radiation therapy. Applications of radiotherapy optical tracking technology to respiratory gating and the monitoring of implanted fiducial markers are also discussed

  6. Optical wireless communications an emerging technology

    CERN Document Server

    Capsoni, Carlo; Ghassemlooy, Zabih; Boucouvalas, Anthony; Udvary, Eszter

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on optical wireless communications (OWC), an emerging technology with huge potential for the provision of pervasive and reliable next-generation communications networks. It shows how the development of novel and efficient wireless technologies can contribute to a range of transmission links essential for the heterogeneous networks of the future to support various communications services and traffic patterns with ever-increasing demands for higher data-transfer rates. The book starts with a chapter reviewing the OWC field, which explains different sub-technologies (visible-light, ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) communications) and introduces the spectrum of application areas (indoor, vehicular, terrestrial, underwater, intersatellite, deep space, etc.). This provides readers with the necessary background information to understand the specialist material in the main body of the book, which is in four parts. The first of these deals with propagation modelling and channel characterization of ...

  7. A brief examination of optical tagging technologies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, Mark R.; Cahill, Paul A. (Aspecular Optics, Dayton, OH); Drummond, Timothy J.; Wilcoxon, Jess Patrick

    2003-07-01

    Presented within this report are the results of a brief examination of optical tagging technologies funded by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program at Sandia National Laboratories. The work was performed during the summer months of 2002 with total funding of $65k. The intent of the project was to briefly examine a broad range of approaches to optical tagging concentrating on the wavelength range between ultraviolet (UV) and the short wavelength infrared (SWIR, {lambda} < 2{micro}m). Tagging approaches considered include such things as simple combinations of reflective and absorptive materials closely spaced in wavelength to give a high contrast over a short range of wavelengths, rare-earth oxides in transparent binders to produce a narrow absorption line hyperspectral tag, and fluorescing materials such as phosphors, dies and chemically precipitated particles. One technical approach examined in slightly greater detail was the use of fluorescing nano particles of metals and semiconductor materials. The idea was to embed such nano particles in an oily film or transparent paint binder. When pumped with a SWIR laser such as that produced by laser diodes at {lambda}=1.54{micro}m, the particles would fluoresce at slightly longer wavelengths, thereby giving a unique signal. While it is believed that optical tags are important for military, intelligence and even law enforcement applications, as a business area, tags do not appear to represent a high on return investment. Other government agencies frequently shop for existing or mature tag technologies but rarely are interested enough to pay for development of an untried technical approach. It was hoped that through a relatively small investment of laboratory R&D funds, enough technologies could be identified that a potential customers requirements could be met with a minimum of additional development work. Only time will tell if this proves to be correct.

  8. Reconfiguration of NASA GRC's Vacuum Facility 6 for Testing of Advanced Electric Propulsion System (AEPS) Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Peter Y.; Kamhawi, Hani; Huang, Wensheng; Yim, John T.; Haag, Thomas W.; Mackey, Jonathan A.; McVetta, Michael S.; Sorrelle, Luke T.; Tomsik, Thomas M.; Gilligan, Ryan P.; hide

    2018-01-01

    The NASA Hall Effect Rocket with Magnetic Shielding (HERMeS) 12.5 kW Hall thruster has been the subject of extensive technology maturation in preparation for development into a flight propulsion system. The HERMeS thruster is being developed and tested at NASA GRC and NASA JPL through support of the Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) and is intended to be used as the electric propulsion system on the Power and Propulsion Element (PPE) of the recently announced Deep Space Gateway (DSG). The Advanced Electric Propulsion System (AEPS) contract was awarded to Aerojet-Rocketdyne to develop the HERMeS system into a flight system for use by NASA. To address the hardware test needs of the AEPS project, NASA GRC launched an effort to reconfigure Vacuum Facility 6 (VF-6) for high-power electric propulsion testing including upgrades and reconfigurations necessary to conduct performance, plasma plume, and system level integration testing. Results of the verification and validation testing with HERMeS Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU)-1 and TDU-3 Hall thrusters are also included.

  9. Aplicaciones del GRC en España y Argelia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Santiago, Jesús

    1986-09-01

    Full Text Available Not Available.Este artículo resume la experiencia obtenida en la utilización del mortero de cemento reforzado con fibra de vidrio (GRC en el campo de la construcción. Se describen en primer lugar las características del material y el proceso de fabricación en factoría de paneles de GRC. Se exponen a continuación algunas realizaciones llevadas a cabo con este material destacando, por su volumen y rapidez de ejecución, el conjunto de fachadas para edificios de viviendas, hospitales y centros escolares construidos en Argelia. También se comentan otras aplicaciones del GRC para la rehabilitación y decoración interior de edificios y para la construcción de elementos singulares. Finalmente, en el apartado de las conclusiones se menciona la necesidad de seguir investigando en el comportamiento a largo plazo de este material para poder aumentar su utilización en la construcción.

  10. Label-controlled optical packet routing technologies and applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koonen, A.M.J.; Yan, N.; Vegas Olmos, Juan José

    2007-01-01

    An overview is given of various optical packet labeling techniques. The architecture and technologies are discussed for optical packet routing nodes using orthogonal labeling with optoelectronic label processing, and for nodes using time-serial labeling with all-optical time-serial label processing...

  11. Advanced Optical Technologies for Defense Trauma and Critical Care

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berns, Michael W

    2008-01-01

    ...: High Resolution F-OCT and MPM/SHG Imaging of the Oral-Nasal Cavity Diffuse Optical Spectroscopy in Critical Patient Medicine, Optical Therapeutics in Cartilage for the Treatment of Traumatic Injuries and Degenerative Disease, Advanced Optical Technologies for Orthopedic Applications.

  12. Bridge SHM system based on fiber optical sensing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sheng; Fan, Dian; Fu, Jiang-hua; Huang, Xing; Jiang, De-sheng

    2015-09-01

    The latest progress of our lab in recent 10 years on the area of bridge structural health monitoring (SHM) based on optical fiber sensing technology is introduced. Firstly, in the part of sensing technology, optical fiber force test-ring, optical fiber vibration sensor, optical fiber smart cable, optical fiber prestressing loss monitoring method and optical fiber continuous curve mode inspection system are developed, which not only rich the sensor types, but also provides new monitoring means that are needed for the bridge health monitoring system. Secondly, in the optical fiber sensing network and computer system platform, the monitoring system architecture model is designed to effectively meet the integration scale and effect requirement of engineering application, especially the bridge expert system proposed integration of sensing information and informatization manual inspection to realize the mode of multi index intelligence and practical monitoring, diagnosis and evaluation. Finally, the Jingyue bridge monitoring system as the representative, the research on the technology of engineering applications are given.

  13. Precision Spectroscopy, Diode Lasers, and Optical Frequency Measurement Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollberg, Leo (Editor); Fox, Richard (Editor); Waltman, Steve (Editor); Robinson, Hugh

    1998-01-01

    This compilation is a selected set of reprints from the Optical Frequency Measurement Group of the Time and Frequency Division of the National Institute of Standards and Technology, and consists of work published between 1987 and 1997. The two main programs represented here are (1) development of tunable diode-laser technology for scientific applications and precision measurements, and (2) research toward the goal of realizing optical-frequency measurements and synthesis. The papers are organized chronologically in five, somewhat arbitrarily chosen categories: Diode Laser Technology, Tunable Laser Systems, Laser Spectroscopy, Optical Synthesis and Extended Wavelength Coverage, and Multi-Photon Interactions and Optical Coherences.

  14. Preparing the optics technology to observe the hot universe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bavdaz, M.; Wille, Eric; Wallace, Kotska

    2014-01-01

    is the Silicon Pore Optics (SPO) [1 to 23], a modular X-ray optics technology, which utilises processes and equipment developed for the semiconductor industry. The paper provides an overview of the programmatic background, the status of SPO technology and gives an outline of the development roadmap...

  15. Optics vs copper: from the perspective of "Thunderbolt" interconnect technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hengju; Krause, Christine; Ko, Jamyuen; Gao, Miaobin; Liu, Guobin; Wu, Huichin; Qi, Mike; Lam, Chun-Chit

    2013-02-01

    Interconnect technology has been progressed at a very fast pace for the past decade. The signaling rates have steadily increased from 100:Mb/s to 25Gb/s. In every generation of interconnect technology evolution, optics always seems to take over at first, however, at the end, the cost advantage of copper wins over. Because of this, optical interconnects are limited to longer distance links where the attenuation in copper cable is too large for the integrated circuits to compensate. Optical interconnect has long been viewed as the premier solution in compared with copper interconnect. With the release of Thunderbolt technology, we are entering a new era in consumer electronics that runs at 10Gb/s line rate (20Gb/s throughput per connector interface). Thunderbolt interconnect technology includes both active copper cables and active optical cables as the transmission media which have very different physical characteristics. In order for optics to succeed in consumer electronics, several technology hurdles need to be cleared. For example, the optical cable needs to handle the consumer abuses such as pinch and bend. Also, the optical engine used in the active optical cable needs to be physically very small so that we don't change the looks and feels of the cable/connector. Most importantly, the cost of optics needs to come down significantly to effectively compete with the copper solution. Two interconnect technologies are compared and discussed on the relative cost, power consumption, form factor, density, and future scalability.

  16. Shipboard Smoke Detection with Optical Fiber Technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Whitesel, Henry

    1994-01-01

    ...) and scattering across an air gap. Utilizing spectrographic techniques and dual detector designs potentially compensates for optical power changes, ambient light changes, dirt coatings, and water coatings...

  17. Optic Fiber Sensing IOT Technology and Application Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjuan Zeng

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The growth of the Internet of Things (IOT industry has become a new mark of the communication domain. As the development of the technology of the IOT and the fiber-optical sensor, the combination of the both is a big question to be discussed, and the fiber-optical IOT also has a good development prospect. This article first introduces IOT’s current status, the key technology, the theoretical frame and the applications. Then, it discusses the classification of the optical fiber sensor as well as the development and its application’s situation. Lastly, it puts the optical fiber sensing technology into the IOT, and introduces a specific application which is used in the mine safety based on the fiber-optical IOT.

  18. Night vision and electro-optics technology transfer, 1972 - 1981

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, R. W.; Mason, G. F.

    1981-09-01

    The purpose of this special report, 'Night Vision and Electro-Optics Technology Transfer 1972-1981,' is threefold: To illustrate, through actual case histories, the potential for exploiting a highly developed and available military technology for solving non-military problems. To provide, in a layman's language, the principles behind night vision and electro-optical devices in order that an awareness may be developed relative to the potential for adopting this technology for non-military applications. To obtain maximum dollar return from research and development investments by applying this technology to secondary applications. This includes, but is not limited to, applications by other Government agencies, state and local governments, colleges and universities, and medical organizations. It is desired that this summary of Technology Transfer activities within Night Vision and Electro-Optics Laboratory (NV/EOL) will benefit those who desire to explore one of the vast technological resources available within the Defense Department and the Federal Government.

  19. Optical technologies for measurement and inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mader, D.L.

    1997-01-01

    Ontario Hydro has benefited from specialized optical measurement techniques such as FRILS (fret replica inspection laser system), which permits in-house inspections of pressure tube replicas and has been estimated to save $2M per year. This paper presents a brief overview of (1) FRILS, (2) OPIT (in-reactor Optical Profilometry Inspection Tool), (3) miniature optical probe for steam generator tubes, (4) laser vibrometer used for end-fitting vibration, and (5) computer vision to recognize the ends of fuel bundles and automatically measure their lengths. (author)

  20. Cognitive Heterogeneous Reconfigurable Optical Networks (CHRON): Enabling Technologies and Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso; Zibar, Darko; Guerrero Gonzalez, Neil

    2011-01-01

    We present the approach of cognition applied to heterogeneous optical networks developed in the framework of the EU project CHRON: Cognitive Heterogeneous Reconfigurable Optical Network. We introduce and discuss in particular the technologies and techniques that will enable a cognitive optical...... network to observe, act, learn and optimizes its performance, taking into account its high degree of heterogeneity with respect to quality of service, transmission and switching techniques....

  1. The Impact Of Optical Storage Technology On Image Processing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garges, Daniel T.; Durbin, Gerald T.

    1984-09-01

    The recent announcement of commercially available high density optical storage devices will have a profound impact on the information processing industry. Just as the initial introduction of random access storage created entirely new processing strategies, optical technology will allow dramatic changes in the storage, retrieval, and dissemination of engineering drawings and other pictorial or text-based documents. Storage Technology Corporation has assumed a leading role in this arena with the introduction of the 7600 Optical Storage Subsystem, and the formation of StorageTek Integrated Systems, a subsidiary chartered to incorporate this new technology into deliverable total systems. This paper explores the impact of optical storage technology from the perspective of a leading-edge manufacturer and integrator.

  2. Electro-Optical Laser Technology. Curriculum Utilization. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawn, John H.

    This report describes a program to prepare students for employment as laser technicians and laser operators and to ensure that they have the necessary skills required by the industry. The objectives are to prepare a curriculum and syllabus for an associate degree program in Electro-Optical Laser Technology. The 2-year Electro-Optical Laser program…

  3. Enabling Technologies for Cognitive Optical Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borkowski, Robert

    Cognition is a new paradigm for optical networking, in which the network has capabilities to observe, plan, decide, and act autonomously in order to optimize the end-to-end performance and minimize the need for human supervision. This PhD thesis expands the state of the art on cognitive optical......, and machine learning algorithms that make cognition possible. Secondly, advanced optical performance monitoring (OPM) capabilities performed via digital signal processing (DSP) that provide CONs with necessary feedback information allowing for autonomous network optimization. The research results presented...... in this thesis were carried out in the framework of the EU project Cognitive Heterogeneous Reconfigurable Optical Network (CHRON), whose aim was to develop an architecture and implement a testbed of a cognitive network able to self-configure and self-optimize to efficiently use available resources. In order...

  4. Modification of General Research Corporation (GRC) Dynatup 8200 Drop Tower Rebounding Brake System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Rebounding Brake System by David Gray, Robert Kaste, and Bradley Lawrence Approved for public release; distribution is...Research Laboratory Modification of General Research Corporation (GRC) Dynatup 8200 Drop Tower Rebounding Brake System by David Gray and...Research Corporation (GRC) Dynatup 8200 Drop Tower Rebounding Brake System 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  5. Research on the Application of GRC Material in Exhibition Decoration Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yan

    2018-03-01

    Glass fiber reinforced cement (GRC) is a kind of new building material which is based on cement and take the alkali resistant glass fiber as reinforcing material. It is mainly used in building decoration project and it has many advantages like environmental protection, economical, practical modeling and others. This paper mainly studies the concrete application of GRC material in exhibition building decoration project.

  6. Optical Measurement Technology For Aluminium Extrusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moe, Per Thomas; Willa-Hansen, Arnfinn; Stoeren, Sigurd

    2007-01-01

    Optical measurement techniques such as laser scanning, structured light scanning and photogrammetry can be used for accurate shape control for aluminum extrusion and downstream processes. The paper presents the fundamentals of optical shape measurement. Furthermore, it focuses on how full-field in- and off-line shape measurement during pure-bending of aluminum extrusions has been performed with stripe projection (structured light) using white light. Full field shape measurement is difficult to implement industrially, but is very useful as a laboratory tool. For example, it has been clearly shown how moderate internal air pressure (less than 5 bars) can significantly reduce undesirable cross-sectional shape distortions during pure bending, and how buckling of the compressive flange occurs at an early stage. Finally, a stretch-bending set-up with adaptive shape control using internal gas pressure and optical techniques is presented

  7. Optical technologies for the Internet of Things era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Philip N.

    2017-08-01

    Internet of Things (IoT) is a network of interrelated physical objects that can collect and exchange data with one another through embedded electronics, software, sensors, over the Internet. It extends Internet connectivity beyond traditional networking devices to a diverse range of physical devices and everyday things that utilize embedded technologies to communicate and interact with the external environment. The IoT brings automation and efficiency improvement to everyday life, business, and society. Therefore IoT applications and market are growing rapidly. Contrary to common belief that IoT is only related to wireless technology, optical technologies actually play important roles in the growth of IoT and contribute to its advancement. Firstly, fiber optics provides the backbone for transporting large amount of data generated by IoT network in the core , metro and access networks, and in building or in the physical object. Secondly, optical switching technologies, including all-optical switching and hybrid optical-electrical switching, enable fast and high bandwidth routing in IoT data processing center. Thirdly, optical sensing and imaging delivers comprehensive information of multiple physical phenomena through monitoring various optical properties such as intensity, phase, wavelength, frequency, polarization, and spectral distribution. In particular, fiber optic sensor has the advantages of high sensitivity, low latency, and long distributed sensing range. It is also immune to electromagnetic interference, and can be implemented in harsh environment. In this paper, the architecture of IoT is described, and the optical technologies and their applications in the IoT networks are discussed with practical examples.

  8. Optical interconnect technologies for high-bandwidth ICT systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chujo, Norio; Takai, Toshiaki; Mizushima, Akiko; Arimoto, Hideo; Matsuoka, Yasunobu; Yamashita, Hiroki; Matsushima, Naoki

    2016-03-01

    The bandwidth of information and communication technology (ICT) systems is increasing and is predicted to reach more than 10 Tb/s. However, an electrical interconnect cannot achieve such bandwidth because of its density limits. To solve this problem, we propose two types of high-density optical fiber wiring for backplanes and circuit boards such as interface boards and switch boards. One type uses routed ribbon fiber in a circuit board because it has the ability to be formed into complex shapes to avoid interfering with the LSI and electrical components on the board. The backplane is required to exhibit high density and flexibility, so the second type uses loose fiber. We developed a 9.6-Tb/s optical interconnect demonstration system using embedded optical modules, optical backplane, and optical connector in a network apparatus chassis. We achieved 25-Gb/s transmission between FPGAs via the optical backplane.

  9. Application technology for optical fiber in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Min; Kim, Chul Jung; Lee, Yong Bum; Kim, Woong Ki; Yoon, Tae Seob; Sohn, Surg Won; Kim, Chang Hoi; Hwang, Suk Yong; Baik, Sung Hum; Kwon, Seong Ouk

    1987-12-01

    Lately, the optical fiber increasingly used in such adverse environments as nuclear power plant, radiation facilities because of their endurant properties against heat, radiation, corrosion, etc. Moreover, the transmission of signal through optical fiber does not induce interference from the electromagnetic wave. Basic theory about the optical fiber technology was studied and the developed techniques for nuclear facilities were reviewed. Since the radiations change the characteristics of the optical fiber, the effects of γ-ray irradiation on single mode and multimode optical fiber were examined. The image transmission system through optical fiber bundle was designed, constructed, and tested. Its software system was also updated. It can be used for remote internal inspection in adverse environment. (Author)

  10. Extremely Lightweight Segmented Membrane Optical Shell Fabrication Technology for Future IR to Optical Telescope, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose that the Membrane Optical Shell Technology (MOST) substrate fabrication approach be extended with a specific focus on advanced off-axis very light weight,...

  11. Aplicaciones del cemento reforzado con fibra de vidrio (GRC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barros Llerena, Ángel

    1981-12-01

    Full Text Available Not available.

    El presente artículo tiene como objeto dar a conocer la utilización de fibras de vidrio como refuerzo de los cementos. Se da una breve reseña histórica, se mencionan sus características y comportamiento. Además se presenta un caso práctico y reciente de utilización en la fabricación de elementos de fachada del Estadio «Santiago Bernabéu» del Real Madrid C. de F., y se completa con una relación de los actuales y futuros usos del G.R.C. (glass reinforced cement, denominación inglesa del material más comúnmente utilizado.

  12. Korea-China Optical Technology Research Centre Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Rhee, Y. J.; Jung, D. Y. and others

    2004-06-01

    The main objectives of this project are to establish the international collaboration basis of optical technologies between Korea and China. The combination of the Chinese advanced fundamental technologies with the Korean industrialization and commercialization infrastructures is realized, by ways of exchanging scientists and informations, holding joint seminars, cooperative utilization of research resources. On the ground of this establishment, the optical technologies of Korea are supposed to be leveled up to those of the world-most advanced. At the same time, for the improvement of mutual benefit and financial profit of both countries, providing technical advice and suggestions to the optical industries in the two countries is an another goal of this project. The state-of-the-arts of the Chinese technologies such as aerospace engineering, military defence technology, medical technology, laser fusion research, and so on, are known to be far above those of Korean and up to one of the most advanced in the world. Thus it is thought to be necessary that the acquisition of these technologies, implementation of joint research projects for technology development as well as the balanced opportunities for commercial product/sales and cooperation should be actively pursued in order to enhance the levels of Korean technologies in these fields

  13. Korea-China Optical Technology Research Centre Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Rhee, Y. J.; Jung, D. Y. and others

    2004-06-15

    The main objectives of this project are to establish the international collaboration basis of optical technologies between Korea and China. The combination of the Chinese advanced fundamental technologies with the Korean industrialization and commercialization infrastructures is realized, by ways of exchanging scientists and informations, holding joint seminars, cooperative utilization of research resources. On the ground of this establishment, the optical technologies of Korea are supposed to be leveled up to those of the world-most advanced. At the same time, for the improvement of mutual benefit and financial profit of both countries, providing technical advice and suggestions to the optical industries in the two countries is an another goal of this project. The state-of-the-arts of the Chinese technologies such as aerospace engineering, military defence technology, medical technology, laser fusion research, and so on, are known to be far above those of Korean and up to one of the most advanced in the world. Thus it is thought to be necessary that the acquisition of these technologies, implementation of joint research projects for technology development as well as the balanced opportunities for commercial product/sales and cooperation should be actively pursued in order to enhance the levels of Korean technologies in these fields.

  14. Adaptive Optics Technology for High-Resolution Retinal Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Marco; Serrao, Sebastiano; Devaney, Nicholas; Parravano, Mariacristina; Lombardo, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive optics (AO) is a technology used to improve the performance of optical systems by reducing the effects of optical aberrations. The direct visualization of the photoreceptor cells, capillaries and nerve fiber bundles represents the major benefit of adding AO to retinal imaging. Adaptive optics is opening a new frontier for clinical research in ophthalmology, providing new information on the early pathological changes of the retinal microstructures in various retinal diseases. We have reviewed AO technology for retinal imaging, providing information on the core components of an AO retinal camera. The most commonly used wavefront sensing and correcting elements are discussed. Furthermore, we discuss current applications of AO imaging to a population of healthy adults and to the most frequent causes of blindness, including diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration and glaucoma. We conclude our work with a discussion on future clinical prospects for AO retinal imaging. PMID:23271600

  15. Femtosecond Optical Frequency Comb Technology Principle, Operation and Application

    CERN Document Server

    Ye, Jun

    2005-01-01

    Over the last few years, there has been a remarkable convergence among the fields of ultrafast optics, optical frequency metrology, and precision laser spectroscopy. This convergence has enabled unprecedented advances in control of the electric field of the pulses produced by femtosecond mode-locked lasers. The resulting spectrum consists of a comb of sharp spectral lines with well-defined frequencies. These new techniques and capabilities are generally known as "femtosecond comb technology." They have had dramatic impact on the diverse fields of precision measurement and extreme nonlinear optical physics. This book provides an introductory description of mode-locked lasers, the connection between time and frequency descriptions of their output and the physical origins of the electric field dynamics, together with an overview of applications of femtosecond comb technology. Individual chapters go into more detail on mode-locked laser development, spectral broadening in microstructure fiber, optical parametric ...

  16. US long distance fiber optic networks: Technology, evolution and advanced concepts. Volume 2: Fiber optic technology and long distance networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-10-01

    The study projects until 2000 the evolution of long distance fiber optic networks in the U.S. Volume 1 is the Executive Summary. Volume 2 focuses on fiber optic components and systems that are directly related to the operation of long-haul networks. Optimistic, pessimistic and most likely scenarios of technology development are presented. The activities of national and regional companies implementing fiber long haul networks are also highlighted, along with an analysis of the market and regulatory forces affecting network evolution. Volume 3 presents advanced fiber optic network concept definitions. Inter-LATA traffic is quantified and forms the basis for the construction of 11-, 15-, 17-, and 23-node networks. Using the technology projections from Volume 2, a financial model identifies cost drivers and determines circuit mile costs between any two LATAs. A comparison of fiber optics with alternative transmission concludes the report.

  17. Korea-China optical technology research centre project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Lee, J M; Rhee, Y J. and others

    2001-09-01

    The main objectives of this project are to establish the internatinal collaboration basis of optical technolgies between Korean and China through the combination of the Chinese advanced fundamental technologies with the Korea industrialization and commercialization infrastructures, by ways of exchanging scientist and informations, holding joint seminars, cooperative utilization of research resources. On the ground of this establishment, the optical technologies of Korea are supposed to be leveled up to that of the world-most advanced. At the same time, for the improvement of mutual benefit and financial profit of both of the countries, technical support for the investment on the optical industries in the two countries and establishment of foundation for the venture capitals are also the purpose of this project. Because the state-of-the-arts of the Chinese technologies such as aerospace engineering, military defense technology, applications to medical treatments, laser fusion research, and so on, are known to be far above those of Korean and upto one of the most advanced in the world, it is necessary that the acquisition of these technologies, resulting in the enhancement of the levels of domestic technologies in these fields, implementation of joint research projects for technology development as well as the balanced opportunities for commercial product/sales and cooperation should be actively pursued.

  18. Korea-China optical technology research centre project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Lee, J. M.; Rhee, Y. J. and others

    2001-09-01

    The main objectives of this project are to establish the internatinal collaboration basis of optical technolgies between Korean and China through the combination of the Chinese advanced fundamental technologies with the Korea industrialization and commercialization infrastructures, by ways of exchanging scientist and informations, holding joint seminars, cooperative utilization of research resources. On the ground of this establishment, the optical technologies of Korea are supposed to be leveled up to that of the world-most advanced. At the same time, for the improvement of mutual benefit and financial profit of both of the countries, technical support for the investment on the optical industries in the two countries and establishment of foundation for the venture capitals are also the purpose of this project. Because the state-of-the-arts of the Chinese technologies such as aerospace engineering, military defense technology, applications to medical treatments, laser fusion research, and so on, are known to be far above those of Korean and upto one of the most advanced in the world, it is necessary that the acquisition of these technologies, resulting in the enhancement of the levels of domestic technologies in these fields, implementation of joint research projects for technology development as well as the balanced opportunities for commercial product/sales and cooperation should be actively pursued

  19. Technological Aspects of Creating Large-size Optical Telescopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Sychev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A concept of the telescope creation, first of all, depends both on a choice of the optical scheme to form optical radiation and images with minimum losses of energy and information and on a choice of design to meet requirements for strength, stiffness, and stabilization characteristics in real telescope operation conditions. Thus, the concept of creating large-size telescopes, certainly, involves the use of adaptive optics methods and means.The level of technological capabilities to realize scientific and engineering ideas define a successful development of large-size optical telescopes in many respects. All developers pursue the same aim that is to raise an amount of information by increasing a main mirror diameter of the telescope.The article analyses the adaptive telescope designs developed in our country. Using a domestic ACT-25 telescope as an example, it considers creation of large-size optical telescopes in terms of technological aspects. It also describes the telescope creation concept features, which allow reaching marginally possible characteristics to ensure maximum amount of information.The article compares a wide range of large-size telescopes projects. It shows that a domestic project to create the adaptive ACT-25 super-telescope surpasses its foreign counterparts, and there is no sense to implement Euro50 (50m and OWL (100m projects.The considered material gives clear understanding on a role of technological aspects in development of such complicated optic-electronic complexes as a large-size optical telescope. The technological criteria of an assessment offered in the article, namely specific informational content of the telescope, its specific mass, and specific cost allow us to reveal weaknesses in the project development and define a reserve regarding further improvement of the telescope.The analysis of results and their judgment have shown that improvement of optical largesize telescopes in terms of their maximum

  20. 'GRC1.5': Uptower Gearbox Testing to Investigate Bearing Axial Cracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Jonathan; Vaes, David; McNiff, Brian

    2016-02-16

    This presentation focuses on the investigation of bearing axial cracking using the GRC1.5 uptower gearbox. Topics covered include the testing options considered, the project goal, and current and near-term activities.

  1. Elastic optical networks architectures, technologies, and control

    CERN Document Server

    Velasco, Luis

    2016-01-01

    This book addresses challenges and potential solutions surrounding the dramatic yearly increases in bandwidth demand. The editors discuss the predicament surrounding current growth, which is predicted to continue because of the proliferation of disruptive, high bandwidth applications like video and cloud applications. They also discuss that in addition to growth, traffic will become much more dynamic, both in time and direction. The contributors show how large changes in traffic magnitude during a 24-hour period can be observed, as day-time business users have very different demands to evening-time residential customers, and how this plays into addressing future challenges. In addition, they discuss potential solutions for the issues surrounding situations where multiple content and cloud service providers offer competing services, causing the traffic direction to become more dynamic. The contributors discuss that although the WDM transponder technology can be upgraded to 100Gb/s in the short to medium term, ...

  2. New Cryogenic Optical Test Capability at Marshall Space Flight Center's Space Optics Manufacturing Technology Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegley, Jeff; Burdine, Robert V. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A new cryogenic optical testing capability exists at Marshall Space Flight Center's Space Optics Manufacturing Technology Center (SOMTC). SOMTC has been performing optical wavefront testing at cryogenic temperatures since 1999 in the X-ray Cryogenic Test Facility's (XRCF's) large vacuum chamber. Recently the cryogenic optical testing capability has been extended to a smaller vacuum chamber. This smaller horizontal cylindrical vacuum chamber has been outfitted with a helium-cooled liner that can be connected to the facility's helium refrigeration system bringing the existing kilowatt of refrigeration capacity to bear on a 1 meter diameter x 2 meter long test envelope. Cryogenic environments to less than 20 Kelvin are now possible in only a few hours. SOMTC's existing instruments (the Instantaneous Phase-shifting Interferometer (IPI) from ADE Phase-Shift Technologies and the PhaseCam from 4D Vision Technologies) view the optic under test through a 150 mm clear aperture BK-7 window. Since activation and chamber characterization tests in September 2001, the new chamber has been used to perform a cryogenic (less than 30 Kelvin) optical test of a 22.5 cm diameter x 127 cm radius of curvature Si02 mirror, a cryogenic survival (less than 30 Kelvin) test of an adhesive, and a cryogenic cycle (less than 20 Kelvin) test of a ULE mirror. A vibration survey has also been performed on the test chamber. Chamber specifications and performance data, vibration environment data, and limited test results will be presented.

  3. The OPTICON technology roadmap for optical and infrared astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Colin; Melotte, David; Molster, Frank

    2010-07-01

    The Key Technology Network (KTN) within the OPTICON programme has been developing a roadmap for the technology needed to meet the challenges of optical and infrared astronomy over the next few years, with particular emphasis on the requirements of Extremely Large Telescopes. The process and methodology so far will be described, along with the most recent roadmap. The roadmap shows the expected progression of ground-based astronomy facilities and the technological developments which will be required to realise these new facilities. The roadmap highlights the key stages in the development of these technologies. In some areas, such as conventional optics, gradual developments in areas such as light-weighting of optics will slowly be adopted into future instruments. In other areas, such as large area IR detectors, more rapid progress can be expected as new processing techniques allow larger and faster arrays. Finally, other areas such as integrated photonics have the potential to revolutionise astronomical instrumentation. Future plans are outlined, in particular our intention to look at longer term development and disruptive technologies.

  4. Optics and communication technology major of physics undergraduate degree at King Mongkut's Institute of Technology Ladkrabang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buranasiri, Prathan

    2014-09-01

    A physics undergraduate degree major in optics and communication technology has been offered at King Mongkut's Institute of Technology Ladkrabang (KMITL), Bangkok, Thailand. There are nine required three credit hour courses including two laboratory courses plus a number of selections in optics and communication based technology courses. For independent thinking and industrial working skills, nine credit hours of research project, practical training or overseas studies are included for selection in the final semester. Students are encouraged to participate in international conferences and professional organizations. Recently the program, with support from SPIE and OSA, has organized its first international conference on photonic solutions 2013 (ICPS 2013).

  5. Advancement of Miniature Optic Gas Sensor (MOGS) Probe Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chullen, Cinda

    2015-01-01

    Advancement of Miniature Optic Gas Sensor (MOGS) Probe Technology" project will investigate newly developed optic gas sensors delivered from a Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) Phase II effort. A ventilation test rig will be designed and fabricated to test the sensors while integrated with a Suited Manikin Test Apparatus (SMTA). Once the sensors are integrated, a series of test points will be completed to verify that the sensors can withstand Advanced Suit Portable Life Support System (PLSS) environments and associated human metabolic profiles for changes in pressure and levels of Oxygen (ppO2), carbon dioxide (ppCO2), and humidity (ppH2O).

  6. 2009 Cellulosomes, Cellulases & Other Carbohydrate Modifying Enzymes GRC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, Harry [Univ. of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW (Australia)

    2009-07-26

    your application/abstract to the GRC web site as soon as possible.

  7. 2nd Topical Workshop on Laser Technology and Optics Design

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Lasers have a variety of applications in particle accelerator operation and will play a key role in the development of future particle accelerators by improving the generation of high brightness electron and exotic ion beams and through increasing the acceleration gradient. Lasers will also make an increasingly important contribution to the characterization of many complex particle beams by means of laser-based beam diagnostics methods. The second LANET topical workshop will address the key aspects of laser technology and optics design relevant to laser application to accelerators. The workshop will cover general optics design, provide an overview of different laser sources and discuss methods to characterize beams in details. Participants will be able to choose from a range of topical areas that go deeper in more specific aspects including tuneable lasers, design of transfer lines, noise sources and their elimination and non-linear optics effects. The format of the workshop will be mainly training-based wit...

  8. DESIGNING FEATURES OF POWER OPTICAL UNITS FOR TECHNOLOGICAL EQUIPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Y. Afanasiev

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the question of an optical unit designing for transmitting power laser radiation through an optical fiber. The aim of this work is designing a simple construction unit with minimized reflection losses. The source of radiation in the optical unit described below is an ultraviolet laser with diode pumping. We present the general functioning scheme and designing features for the three main parts: laser beam deflecting system, laser beam dump and optical unit control system. The described laser beam deflection system is composed of a moving flat mirror and a spherical scattering mirror. Comparative analysis of the production technology for such mirrors was carried out, and, as a result, the decision was made to produce both mirrors of 99.99 % pure molybdenum without coating. A moving mirror deflects laser emission from a source through a fiber or deflects it on a spherical mirror and into the laser beam dump, moreover, switching from one position to another occurs almost immediately. It is shown that a scattering mirror is necessary, otherwise, the absorbing surface of the beam dump is being worn out irregularly. The laser beam dump is an open conical cavity, in which the conical element with its spire turned to the emission source is placed. Special microgeometry of the internal surface of the beam dump is suggested for the better absorption effect. An optical unit control system consists of a laser beam deflection system, laser temperature sensor, deflection system solenoid temperature sensor, and deflection mirror position sensor. The signal processing algorithm for signals coming from the sensors to the controller is described. The optical unit will be used in special technological equipment.

  9. 2nd International Conference on Photonics, Optics and Laser Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Raposo, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This collection of the selected papers presented to the Second International Conference on Photonics, Optics and laser technology PHOTOPTICS 2014 covers the three main conference scientific areas of “Optics”, “Photonics” and “Lasers”. The selected papers, in two classes full and short, result from a double blind review carried out by conference Program Committee members who are highly qualified experts in the conference topic areas.

  10. 3rd International Conference on Photonics, Optics and Laser Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Raposo, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The book provides a collection of selected papers presented to the third International Conference on Photonics, Optics and Laser Technology PHOTOPTICS 2015, covering the three main conference scientific areas of “Optics”, “Photonics” and “Lasers”. The selected papers, in two classes full and short, result from a double blind review carried out by the conference program committee members which are highly qualified experts in conference topic areas.

  11. NASA funding opportunities for optical fabrication and testing technology development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2013-09-01

    NASA requires technologies to fabricate and test optical components to accomplish its highest priority science missions. The NRC ASTRO2010 Decadal Survey states that an advanced large-aperture UVOIR telescope is required to enable the next generation of compelling astrophysics and exo-planet science; and, that present technology is not mature enough to affordably build and launch any potential UVOIR mission concept. The NRC 2012 NASA Space Technology Roadmaps and Priorities Report states that the highest priority technology in which NASA should invest to `Expand our understanding of Earth and the universe' is next generation X-ray and UVOIR telescopes. Each of the Astrophysics division Program Office Annual Technology Reports (PATR) identifies specific technology needs. NASA has a variety of programs to fund enabling technology development: SBIR (Small Business Innovative Research); the ROSES APRA and SAT programs (Research Opportunities in Space and Earth Science; Astrophysics Research and Analysis program; Strategic Astrophysics Technology program); and several Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT) programs.

  12. 78 FR 17187 - Notice of Intent To Grant Exclusive Patent License; Fiber Optic Sensor Systems Technology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ...; Fiber Optic Sensor Systems Technology Corporation AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD. ACTION: Notice..., 2012, announcing an intent to grant to Fiber Optic Sensor Systems Technology Corporation, a revocable... the Navy hereby gives notice of its intent to grant to Fiber Optic Sensor Systems Technology...

  13. Overview of deformable mirror technologies for adaptive optics and astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madec, P.-Y.

    2012-07-01

    From the ardent bucklers used during the Syracuse battle to set fire to Romans’ ships to more contemporary piezoelectric deformable mirrors widely used in astronomy, from very large voice coil deformable mirrors considered in future Extremely Large Telescopes to very small and compact ones embedded in Multi Object Adaptive Optics systems, this paper aims at giving an overview of Deformable Mirror technology for Adaptive Optics and Astronomy. First the main drivers for the design of Deformable Mirrors are recalled, not only related to atmospheric aberration compensation but also to environmental conditions or mechanical constraints. Then the different technologies available today for the manufacturing of Deformable Mirrors will be described, pros and cons analyzed. A review of the Companies and Institutes with capabilities in delivering Deformable Mirrors to astronomers will be presented, as well as lessons learned from the past 25 years of technological development and operation on sky. In conclusion, perspective will be tentatively drawn for what regards the future of Deformable Mirror technology for Astronomy.

  14. Optical Measuring Technologies for Industrial and Scientific Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chugui, Yu V; Plotnikov, S V; Potashnikov, A K; Verkhogliad, A G

    2006-01-01

    The novel results of the R and D activity of TDI SIE SB RAS in the field of the optical measuring technologies, as well as laser technologies for solving safety problems are presented. For permanent noncontact bearing position inspection of oil-drilling platforms on Sakhalin coast (Russia) we have developed optical-electronic method and system SAKHALIN with cumulative traveled distance (3 km) measurement error less than 0.03%. To measure the rocks stress and to prevent the mountain impact, as well as for basic investigations, a set of optical-electronic deformers and systems was developed and produced. Multifunctional laser technological system LSP-2000 equipped by two Nd-YAG lasers was developed for cutting, welding and surface micro profiling with ablation process (working range of 3 x 2 x 0.6 m 3 , positioning error less than 10 mkm). Safety of Russian nuclear reactors takes 100% noncontact 3D dimensional inspection of all parts of fuel assemblies, including grid spacers. Results of development and testing the specialized high productive laser measuring machine, based on structured illumination, for 3D inspection of grid spacers with micron resolution are presented. Ensuring the safety of running trains is the actual task for railways. Using high-speed laser noncontact method on the base of triangulation position sensors, TDI SIE has developed and produced automatic laser diagnostic system COMPLEX for inspection of geometric parameters of wheel pairs (train speed up to 60 km/hr.), which is used successfully on Russian railways. Experimental results on measuring and laser technological systems testing are presented

  15. OPTICAL FIBER SENSOR TECHNOLOGIES FOR EFFICIENT AND ECONOMICAL OIL RECOVERY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anbo Wang; Kristie L. Cooper; Gary R. Pickrell

    2003-06-01

    Efficient recovery of petroleum reserves from existing oil wells has been proven to be difficult due to the lack of robust instrumentation that can accurately and reliably monitor processes in the downhole environment. Commercially available sensors for measurement of pressure, temperature, and fluid flow exhibit shortened lifetimes in the harsh downhole conditions, which are characterized by high pressures (up to 20 kpsi), temperatures up to 250 C, and exposure to chemically reactive fluids. Development of robust sensors that deliver continuous, real-time data on reservoir performance and petroleum flow pathways will facilitate application of advanced recovery technologies, including horizontal and multilateral wells. This is the final report for the four-year program ''Optical Fiber Sensor Technologies for Efficient and Economical Oil Recovery'', funded by the National Petroleum Technology Office of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech from October 1, 1999 to March 31, 2003. The main objective of this research program was to develop cost-effective, reliable optical fiber sensor instrumentation for real-time monitoring of various key parameters crucial to efficient and economical oil production. During the program, optical fiber sensors were demonstrated for the measurement of temperature, pressure, flow, and acoustic waves, including three successful field tests in the Chevron/Texaco oil fields in Coalinga, California, and at the world-class oil flow simulation facilities in Tulsa, Oklahoma. Research efforts included the design and fabrication of sensor probes, development of signal processing algorithms, construction of test systems, development and testing of strategies for the protection of optical fibers and sensors in the downhole environment, development of remote monitoring capabilities allowing real

  16. 3D optical measuring technologies for dimensional inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chugui, Yu V

    2005-01-01

    The results of the R and D activity of TDI SIE SB RAS in the field of the 3D optical measuring technologies and systems for noncontact 3D optical dimensional inspection applied to atomic and railway industry safety problems are presented. This activity includes investigations of diffraction phenomena on some 3D objects, using the original constructive calculation method, development of hole inspection method on the base of diffractive optical elements. Ensuring the safety of nuclear reactors and running trains as well as their high exploitation reliability takes a noncontact inspection of geometrical parameters of their components. For this tasks we have developed methods and produced the technical vision measuring systems LMM, CONTROL, PROFILE, and technologies for non-contact 3D dimensional inspection of grid spacers and fuel elements for the nuclear reactor VVER-1000 and VVER-440, as well as automatic laser diagnostic system COMPLEX for noncontact inspection of geometrical parameters of running freight car wheel pairs. The performances of these systems and the results of the industrial testing at atomic and railway companies are presented

  17. EDITORIAL: Special issue on optical neural engineering: advances in optical stimulation technology Special issue on optical neural engineering: advances in optical stimulation technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoham, Shy; Deisseroth, Karl

    2010-08-01

    Neural engineering, itself an 'emerging interdisciplinary research area' [1] has undergone a sea change over the past few years with the emergence of exciting new optical technologies for monitoring, stimulating, inhibiting and, more generally, modulating neural activity. To a large extent, this change is driven by the realization of the promise and complementary strengths that emerging photo-stimulation tools offer to add to the neural engineer's toolbox, which has been almost exclusively based on electrical stimulation technologies. Notably, photo-stimulation is non-contact, can in some cases be genetically targeted to specific cell populations, can achieve high spatial specificity (cellular or even sub-cellular) in two or three dimensions, and opens up the possibility of large-scale spatial-temporal patterned stimulation. It also offers a seamless solution to the problem of cross-talk generated by simultaneous electrical stimulation and recording. As in other biomedical optics phenomena [2], photo-stimulation includes multiple possible modes of interaction between light and the target neurons, including a variety of photo-physical and photo-bio-chemical effects with various intrinsic components or exogenous 'sensitizers' which can be loaded into the tissue or genetically expressed. Early isolated reports of neural excitation with light date back to the late 19th century [3] and to Arvanitaki and Chalazonitis' work five decades ago [4]; however, the mechanism by which these and other direct photo-stimulation, inhibition and modulation events [5-7] took place is yet unclear, as is their short- and long-term safety profile. Photo-chemical photolysis of covalently 'caged' neurotransmitters [8, 9] has been widely used in cellular neuroscience research for three decades, including for exciting or inhibiting neural activity, and for mapping neural circuits. Technological developments now allow neurotransmitters to be uncaged with exquisite spatial specificity (down to

  18. Optical Fiber Sensors Based on Fiber Ring Laser Demodulation Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wen-Ge; Zhang, Ya-Nan; Wang, Peng-Zhao; Wang, Jian-Zhang

    2018-02-08

    A review for optical fiber sensors based on fiber ring laser (FRL) demodulation technology is presented. The review focuses on the principles, main structures, and the sensing performances of different kinds of optical fiber sensors based on FRLs. First of all, the theory background of the sensors has been discussed. Secondly, four different types of sensors are described and compared, which includes Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) typed sensors, Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) typed sensors, Sagnac typed sensors, and fiber Bragg grating (FBG) typed sensors. Typical studies and main properties of each type of sensors are presented. Thirdly, a comparison of different types of sensors are made. Finally, the existing problems and future research directions are pointed out and analyzed.

  19. The effect of silica fume and metakaolin on glass-fibre reinforced concrete (GRC ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enfedaque Díaz, A.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The deterioration of the mechanical properties of glassfibre reinforced concrete (GRC over time rules out the use of this material in load-bearing structures. While one possible solution to this problem is the addition of pozzolans or metakaolin to the cement mortar, the amounts needed to ensure GRC integrity raise its price to non-competitive levels. Experimental research has been conducted to analyze whether the addition of small amounts of silica fume or metakaolin can prevent or mitigate the ageing issue. Unfortunately, the findings indicate that the addition of small proportions of metakaolin or silica fume to GRC are ineffective in improving its long-term performance.

    Para el uso del mortero de cemento reforzado con fibras de vidrio (GRC en estructuras portantes se han de solucionar los problemas de reducción de las propiedades mecánicas que aparecen con el paso del tiempo. Estos problemas pueden ser solucionados mediante la adición de puzolanas o de metacaolín, a la pasta de mortero de cemento. Sin embargo, la cantidad de metacaolín que ha de ser añadida es elevada y el precio del GRC fabricado está fuera del mercado. Se ha realizado una campaña experimental que analiza si la adición de humo de sílice o de metacaolín en proporciones reducidas consigue evitar o paliar el problema del envejecimiento, que supone un freno al uso del GRC en elementos estructurales. Desgraciadamente, los resultados experimentales muestran que proporciones bajas de metacaolín o de humo de sílice no son efectivas para reducir el problema de pérdida de propiedades mecánicas.

  20. Optical technologies for data communication in large parallel systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, M B; Vlasov, Y; Kash, J A; Benner, A

    2011-01-01

    Large, parallel systems have greatly aided scientific computation and data collection, but performance scaling now relies on chip and system-level parallelism. This has happened because power density limits have caused processor frequency growth to stagnate, driving the new multi-core architecture paradigm, which would seem to provide generations of performance increases as transistors scale. However, this paradigm will be constrained by electrical I/O bandwidth limits; first off the processor card, then off the processor module itself. We will present best-estimates of these limits, then show how optical technologies can help provide more bandwidth to allow continued system scaling. We will describe the current status of optical transceiver technology which is already being used to exceed off-board electrical bandwidth limits, then present work on silicon nanophotonic transceivers and 3D integration technologies which, taken together, promise to allow further increases in off-module and off-card bandwidth. Finally, we will show estimated limits of nanophotonic links and discuss breakthroughs that are needed for further progress, and will speculate on whether we will reach Exascale-class machine performance at affordable powers.

  1. Signature Optical Cues: Emerging Technologies for Monitoring Plant Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand K. Asundi

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Optical technologies can be developed as practical tools for monitoring plant health by providing unique spectral signatures that can be related to specific plant stresses. Signatures from thermal and fluorescence imaging have been used successfully to track pathogen invasion before visual symptoms are observed. Another approach for noninvasive plant health monitoring involves elucidating the manner with which light interacts with the plant leaf and being able to identify changes in spectral characteristics in response to specific stresses. To achieve this, an important step is to understand the biochemical and anatomical features governing leaf reflectance, transmission and absorption. Many studies have opened up possibilities that subtle changes in leaf reflectance spectra can be analyzed in a plethora of ways for discriminating nutrient and water stress, but with limited success. There has also been interest in developing transgenic phytosensors to elucidate plant status in relation to environmental conditions. This approach involves unambiguous signal creation whereby genetic modification to generate reporter plants has resulted in distinct optical signals emitted in response to specific stressors. Most of these studies are limited to laboratory or controlled greenhouse environments at leaf level. The practical translation of spectral cues for application under field conditions at canopy and regional levels by remote aerial sensing remains a challenge. The movement towards technology development is well exemplified by the Controlled Ecological Life Support System under development by NASA which brings together technologies for monitoring plant status concomitantly with instrumentation for environmental monitoring and feedback control.

  2. Optical technologies for data communication in large parallel systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritter, M B; Vlasov, Y; Kash, J A [IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY (United States); Benner, A, E-mail: mritter@us.ibm.com [IBM Poughkeepsie, Poughkeepsie, NY (United States)

    2011-01-15

    Large, parallel systems have greatly aided scientific computation and data collection, but performance scaling now relies on chip and system-level parallelism. This has happened because power density limits have caused processor frequency growth to stagnate, driving the new multi-core architecture paradigm, which would seem to provide generations of performance increases as transistors scale. However, this paradigm will be constrained by electrical I/O bandwidth limits; first off the processor card, then off the processor module itself. We will present best-estimates of these limits, then show how optical technologies can help provide more bandwidth to allow continued system scaling. We will describe the current status of optical transceiver technology which is already being used to exceed off-board electrical bandwidth limits, then present work on silicon nanophotonic transceivers and 3D integration technologies which, taken together, promise to allow further increases in off-module and off-card bandwidth. Finally, we will show estimated limits of nanophotonic links and discuss breakthroughs that are needed for further progress, and will speculate on whether we will reach Exascale-class machine performance at affordable powers.

  3. Health information management using optical storage technology: case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, D

    1992-05-01

    All the health care facilities examined in the case studies addressed several important organizational issues before and during the installation of their systems. All the facilities examined employee commitment. The prudent managers considered how easily their employees adapt to changes in their jobs and work environment. They considered how enthusiastic cooperation can be fostered in the creation of a liberated and reengineered office. This was determined not only by each individual's reaction to change, but also by the health care facility's track record with other system installations. For example, document image, diagnostic image, and coded data processing systems allow the integration of divergent health care information systems within complex institutions. Unfortunately, many institutions are currently struggling with how to create an information management architecture that will integrate their mature systems, such as their patient care and financial systems. Information managers must realize that if optical storage technology-based systems are used in a strategic and planned fashion, these systems can act as focal points for systems integration, not as promises to further confuse the issue. Another issue that needed attention in all the examples was the work environment. The managers considered how the work environment was going to affect the ability to integrate optical image and data systems into the institution. For example, many of these medical centers have created alliances with clinics, HMOs, and large corporate users of medical services. This created a demand for all or part of the health information outside the confines of the original institution. Since the work environment is composed of a handful of factors such as merged medical services, as many work environment factors as possible were addressed before application of the optical storage technology solution in the institutions. And finally, the third critical issue was the organization of work

  4. Thin film technologies for optoelectronic components in fiber optic communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perinati, Agostino

    1998-02-01

    'The Asian Routes Towards the Global Information Society' and 'Towards a Strategic Planning for the Global Information Society' will be the forum themes of 'Asia Telecom 97' and 'Telecom Interactice 97' events respectively, to be held by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) in order to further telecommunication development around the world. International telecommunications network affects our life by keeping us in touch, bringing us world news and underpinning the global economy. Global tele-economy, global information infrastructure, global information society terms are more and more used to indicate the evolution towards an information- driven world where the access to information, communication and technologies is essential to the economic and social development in every country. Telecommunication industry can strongly contribute to this evolution together with broadcasting and computer industry, and fiber optic communications are expected to continue to grow up and share a relevant part of the total telecom market. In 1995 telecom market shown a 3.8 percent worldwide investment growth reaching a 545 billion value. According to 'Kessler Marketing Intelligence (KMI) Corp.' analysis of fiberoptics and multimedia market the amount of cabled fiber installed in U.S. will be around 11 million fiber-km in 1997 and 15 million fiber-km are predicted in the year 2000. Between 1995 and 1998 the undersea industry is estimated to deal with 13.9 billion as additional undersea cable systems investment in the global telecom network. In China beside satellite telecom stations and digital microwave systems 22 fiber optic backbones have been realized and another 23 systems are expected to be built in the Ninth Five-Year National Plan (1996 to approximately 2000) with a total length of nearly 30,000 sheat-km. The study, Fiber and Fiberoptic Cable Markets in China, recently released by KMI Corp. shows that fiber optic cable installation by MPT and other network operators

  5. Area detectors technology and optics-Relations to nature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PeIka, Jerzy B.

    2005-01-01

    Relations between natural vision and the artificial 2D imaging systems are discussed. A variety of animal vision as well as its main functional parts are briefly reviewed and compared with the artificial vision equivalents. An increasing advancement observed in human constructions of imaging devices due to recent rapid progress in science and technology is shown to resemble some sophisticated natural solutions formed by evolution in biological systems. The issues of the similarities and differences between the two kinds of vision are discussed. Main focus is put on optical systems forming the image, with special examples of the imaging systems designed to work in the region of the X-ray radiation. Examples of bio-inspired technological vision devices are presented

  6. 77 FR 73456 - Notice of Intent To Grant Exclusive Patent License; Fiber Optic Sensor Systems Technology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ...; Fiber Optic Sensor Systems Technology Corporation AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of the Navy hereby gives notice of its intent to grant to Fiber Optic Sensor... Modulated Fiber Optic Pressure Sensor, Navy Case No. 83,816.//U.S. Patent No. 7,149,374: Fiber Optic...

  7. Fiber-optic perimeter security system based on WDM technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakov, Alexandre V.

    2017-10-01

    Intelligent underground fiber optic perimeter security system is presented. Their structure, operation, software and hardware with neural networks elements are described. System allows not only to establish the fact of violation of the perimeter, but also to locate violations. This is achieved through the use of WDM-technology division spectral information channels. As used quasi-distributed optoelectronic recirculation system as a discrete sensor. The principle of operation is based on registration of the recirculation period change in the closed optoelectronic circuit at different wavelengths under microstrain exposed optical fiber. As a result microstrain fiber having additional power loss in a fiber optical propagating pulse, which causes a time delay as a result of switching moments of the threshold device. To separate the signals generated by intruder noise and interference, the signal analyzer is used, based on the principle of a neural network. The system detects walking, running or crawling intruder, as well as undermining attempts to register under the perimeter line. These alarm systems can be used to protect the perimeters of facilities such as airports, nuclear reactors, power plants, warehouses, and other extended territory.

  8. Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope imaging: technology update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merino D

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available David Merino, Pablo Loza-Alvarez The Institute of Photonic Sciences (ICFO, The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology, Castelldefels, Barcelona, Spain Abstract: Adaptive optics (AO retinal imaging has become very popular in the past few years, especially within the ophthalmic research community. Several different retinal techniques, such as fundus imaging cameras or optical coherence tomography systems, have been coupled with AO in order to produce impressive images showing individual cell mosaics over different layers of the in vivo human retina. The combination of AO with scanning laser ophthalmoscopy has been extensively used to generate impressive images of the human retina with unprecedented resolution, showing individual photoreceptor cells, retinal pigment epithelium cells, as well as microscopic capillary vessels, or the nerve fiber layer. Over the past few years, the technique has evolved to develop several different applications not only in the clinic but also in different animal models, thanks to technological developments in the field. These developments have specific applications to different fields of investigation, which are not limited to the study of retinal diseases but also to the understanding of the retinal function and vision science. This review is an attempt to summarize these developments in an understandable and brief manner in order to guide the reader into the possibilities that AO scanning laser ophthalmoscopy offers, as well as its limitations, which should be taken into account when planning on using it. Keywords: high-resolution, in vivo retinal imaging, AOSLO

  9. Active fiber optic technologies used as tamper-indicating devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, P.R.V.; Waddoups, I.G.

    1995-11-01

    The Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Safeguards and Seals Evaluation Program is evaluating new fiber optic active seal technologies for use at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The goal of the program is to investigate active seal technologies that can monitor secured containers storing special nuclear materials (SNM) within DOE vaults. Specifically investigated were active seal technologies that can be used as tamper-indicating devices to monitor secured containers within vaults while personnel remain outside the vault area. Such a system would allow minimal access into vaults while ensuring container content accountability. The purpose of this report is to discuss tamper-indicating devices that were evaluated for possible DOE use. While previous seal evaluations (Phase I and II) considered overall facility applications, this discussion focuses specifically on their use in vault storage situations. The report will highlight general background information, specifications and requirements, and test procedures. Also discussed are the systems available from four manufacturers: Interactive Technologies, Inc., Fiber SenSys, Inc., Inovonics, Inc., and Valve Security Systems

  10. Precision Membrane Optical Shell (PMOS) Technology for RF/Microwave to Lightweight LIDAR Apertures, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Membrane Optical Shell Technology (MOST) is an innovative combination of 1) very low areal density (40 to 200g/m2) optically smooth (<20 nm rms), metallic coated...

  11. Precision Membrane Optical Shell (PMOS) Technology for Lightweight LIDAR Apertures, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Precision membrane optical shell (PMOS) technology is an innovative combination of 1) ultra lightweight optically smooth membrane thin films, 2) advanced mold based...

  12. Wind Turbine Drivetrain Condition Monitoring During GRC Phase 1 and Phase 2 Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, S.; Link, H.; LaCava, W.; van Dam, J.; McNiff, B.; Veers, P.; Keller, J.; Butterfield, S.; Oyague, F.

    2011-10-01

    This report will present the wind turbine drivetrain condition monitoring (CM) research conducted under the phase 1 and phase 2 Gearbox Reliability Collaborative (GRC) tests. The rationale and approach for this drivetrain CM research, investigated CM systems, test configuration and results, and a discussion on challenges in wind turbine drivetrain CM and future research and development areas, will be presented.

  13. Workability of glass reinforced concrete (GRC) with granite and silica sand aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moceikis, R.; Kičaitė, A.; Keturakis, E.

    2017-10-01

    Glass fiber reinforced concrete (GRC) opens the door for lightweight and complex shaped innovative construction, adding architectural value to buildings. With panel thickness down to 15 mm, considerable amount of total loads and materials per square meter of facade can be saved, if compared to conventionally used 80 mm thickness outer layer in insulated precast concrete wall elements. Even though GRC is used for over 50 years in such countries as Great Britain, USA and Japan, there are very few examples and little research done in Eastern Europe with this building material. European Commission propagates sustainable design as commitment to energy efficiency, environmental stewardship and conservation. For this reason, GRC plays important role in mowing toward these goals. In this paper, GRC premix recipes including fine granite and silica sands, reinforced with 13mm length alkali resistant glass fibers are investigated. Two CEM I 52,5R cements with different particle sizes were used and severe water dissociation noticed in one of concrete mixes. Cement particle size distribution determined with laser diffraction particle analyser Cilas 1090LD. To determine modulus of rupture (M.O.R.) and limit of proportionality (L.O.P), plates thickness 15 and 20 mm were produced and tested for flexural resistance according to 4-point bending scheme. Concrete workability tests were made according EN 1170-1.

  14. Progress in Nano-Electro-Optics VII Chemical, Biological, and Nanophotonic Technologies for Nano-Optical Devices and Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ohtsu, Motoichi

    2010-01-01

    This book focuses on chemical and nanophotonic technology to be used to develop novel nano-optical devices and systems. It begins with temperature- and photo-induced phase transition of ferromagnetic materials. Further topics include: energy transfer in artificial photosynthesis, homoepitaxial multiple quantum wells in ZnO, near-field photochemical etching and nanophotonic devices based on a nonadiabatic process and optical near-field energy transfer, respectively and polarization control in the optical near-field for optical information security. Taken as a whole, this overview will be a valuable resource for engineers and scientists working in the field of nano-electro-optics.

  15. Fluoride contamination sensor based on optical fiber grating technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, Mangesh S.; Laxmeshwar, Lata S.; Akki, Jyoti F.; Raikar, P. U.; Kumar, Jitendra; Prakash, Om; Raikar, U. S.

    2017-11-01

    A number of distinct advantages of the optical fiber technology in the field of sensors and communications which leads to enormous applications. Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) developed from the fabrication of photosensitive fiber through phase mask technique is used in the present report. The designed fiber sensor used for the detection and determination of contaminants in drinking water at ppm & ppb level and it is considered as a special type of concentration sensor. The test samples of drinking water have been collected from different regions. In this paper we have calibrated the FBG sensor to detect Flouride concentration in drinking water in the range of 0.05-8 ppm. According to WHO, the normal range of fluoride content in drinking water is about 0.7 ppm to 1.5 ppm. The results for resultant spectral shifts for test samples are closely agree with standard values.

  16. Optical fiber cabling technologies for flexible access network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanji, Hisashi

    2008-07-01

    Fiber-to-the-home (FTTH) outside plant infrastructure should be so designed and constructed as to flexibly deal with increasing subscribers and system evolution to be expected in the future, taking minimization of total cost (CAPEX and OPEX) into consideration. With this in mind, fiber access architectures are reviewed and key technologies on optical fiber and cable for supporting flexible access network are presented. Low loss over wide wavelength (low water peak) and bend-insensitive single mode fiber is a future proof solution. Enhanced separable ribbon facilitates mid-span access to individual fibers in a cable installed, improving fiber utilizing efficiency and flexibility of distribution design. It also contributes to an excellent low PMD characteristic which could be required for video RF overlay system or high capacity long reach metro-access convergence network in the future. Bend-insensitive fiber based cabling technique including field installable connector greatly improves fiber/cable handling in installation and maintenance work.

  17. Optical system for UV-laser technological equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedosov, Yuri V.; Romanova, Galina E.; Afanasev, Maxim Ya.

    2017-09-01

    Recently there has been an intensive development of intelligent industrial equipment that is highly automated and can be rapidly adjusted for certain details. This equipment can be robotics systems, automatic wrappers and markers, CNC machines and 3D printers. The work equipment considered is the system for selective curing of photopolymers using a UV-laser and UV-radiation in such equipment that leads to additional technical difficulties. In many cases for transporting the radiation from the laser to the point processed, a multi-mirror system is used: however, such systems are usually difficult to adjust. Additionally, such multi-mirror systems are usually used as a part of the equipment for laser cutting of metals using high-power IR-lasers. For the UV-lasers, using many mirrors leads to crucial radiation losses because of many reflections. Therefore, during the development of the optical system for technological equipment using UV-laser we need to solve two main problems: to transfer the radiation for the working point with minimum losses and to include the system for controlling/handling the radiation spot position. We introduce a system for working with UV-lasers with 450mW of power and a wavelength of 0.45 μm based on a fiber system. In our modelling and design, we achieve spot sizes of about 300 μm, and the designed optical and mechanical systems (prototypes) were manufactured and assembled. In this paper, we present the layout of the technological unit, the results of the theoretical modelling of some parts of the system and some experimental results.

  18. 75 FR 34988 - Notice of Intent To Grant Exclusive Patent License; Fiber Optic Sensor Systems Technology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ...; Fiber Optic Sensor Systems Technology Corporation AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of the Navy hereby gives notice of its intent to grant to Fiber Optic Sensor... inventions described in U.S. Patent No. 7,149,374: Fiber Optic Pressure Sensor, Navy Case No. 84,557.//U.S...

  19. Properties of thin optical Ge films related to their technology dependent structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schirmer, G; Duparre, A; Heerdegen, W; Kuehn, H J; Lehmann, A; Richter, W; Schroeter, B [Dept. of Physics, Friedrich-Schiller Univ., Jena (Germany, F.R.); Hacker, E; Meyer, J [Jenaoptik GmbH Carl Zeiss, Jena (Germany, F.R.)

    1991-03-16

    Sputtered and evaporated optical Ge films are investigated using electron microscopy and diffraction, total integrated scattering, infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy. Auger electron spectroscopy, and optical transmission measurements to observe differences of the chemical composition, atomic structure, morphology, optical constants, and degradation in relation to the parameters of technology during preparation. (orig.).

  20. Optical memory system technology. Citations from the International Aerospace Abstracts data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zollars, G. F.

    1980-01-01

    Approximately 213 citations from the international literature which concern the development of the optical data storage system technology are presented. Topics covered include holographic computer storage devices, crystal, magneto, and electro-optics, imaging techniques, in addition to optical data processing and storage.

  1. Deployment of a Testbed in a Brazilian Research Network using IPv6 and Optical Access Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Luciano; Ferramola Pozzuto, João; Olimpio Tognolli, João; Chaves, Niudomar Siqueira De A.; Reggiani, Atilio Eduardo; Hortêncio, Claudio Antonio

    2012-04-01

    This article presents the implementation of a testbed and the experimental results obtained with it on the Brazilian Experimental Network of the government-sponsored "GIGA Project." The use of IPv6 integrated to current and emerging optical architectures and technologies, such as dense wavelength division multiplexing and 10-gigabit Ethernet on the core and gigabit capable passive optical network and optical distribution network on access, were tested. These protocols, architectures, and optical technologies are promising and part of a brand new worldwide technological scenario that has being fairly adopted in the networks of enterprises and providers of the world.

  2. Kodak Optical Disk and Microfilm Technologies Carve Niches in Specific Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallenberger, John; Batterton, John

    1989-01-01

    Describes the Eastman Kodak Company's microfilm and optical disk technologies and their applications. Topics discussed include WORM technology; retrieval needs and cost effective archival storage needs; engineering applications; jukeboxes; optical storage options; systems for use with mainframes and microcomputers; and possible future…

  3. Design of integrated optics all-optical label swappers for spectral amplitude code label swapping optical packet networks on active/passive InP technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habib, C.; Munoz, P.; Leijtens, X.J.M.; Chen, Lawrence; Smit, M.K.; Capmany, J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper the designs of optical label swapper devices, for spectral amplitude coded labels, monolithically integrated on InP active/passive technology are pre sented. The devices are based on cross-gain modulation in a semiconductor optical amplifier. Multi-wavelength operation is enabled by

  4. Ultrasonic characterization of GRC with high percentage of fly ash substitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovés, V; Gosálbez, J; Miralles, R; Bonilla, M; Payá, J

    2015-07-01

    New applications of non-destructive techniques (NDT) with ultrasonic tests (attenuation and velocity by means of ultrasonic frequency sweeps) have been developed for the characterization of fibre-reinforced cementitious composites. According to new lines of research on glass-fibre reinforced cement (GRC) matrix modification, two similar GRC composites with high percentages of fly ash and different water/binder ratios will be studied. Conventional techniques have been used to confirm their low Ca(OH)(2) content (thermogravimetry), fibre integrity (Scanning Electron Microscopy), low porosity (Mercury Intrusion Porosimetry) and good mechanical properties (compression and four points bending test). Ultrasound frequency sweeps allowed the estimation of the attenuation and pulse velocity as functions of frequency. This ultrasonic characterization was correlated successfully with conventional techniques. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. GRC: Composite material from an inorganic matrix reinforced with AR glass fibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Comino Almenara, P. I.

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the historical background of Cem-FIL. Alkali Resistant Glass Fibre, as well as the composite characteristics of the element they generate: GRC. The most important advantages and properties of this type of Composite Material are also detailed.

    En este artículo se detallan cuáles son las bases históricas de las Fibras de Vidrio Álcali-Resistentes Cem-FIL así como las características del elemento compuesto que ellas generan: GRC. En este documento también se pueden encontrar indicaciones sobre las principales ventajas y propiedades de este tipo de Material Compuesto.

  6. Optical coherence tomography: technology and applications (biological and medical physics, biomedical engineering)

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is the optical analog of ultrasound imaging and is emerging as a powerful imaging technique that enables non-invasive, in vivo, high resolution, cross-sectional imaging in biological tissue. This book introduces OCT technology and applications not only from an optical and technological viewpoint, but also from biomedical and clinical perspectives. The chapters are written by leading research groups, in a style comprehensible to a broad audience.

  7. Research on optical access network remote management technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wayne; Zou, Chen; Luo, Wenyi

    2008-11-01

    This paper goal is to provide a framework for the remote configuration and management of services for PON (Passive Optical Network) access and fiber access. Also it defines how Auto-Configuration Servers (ACS) in the network can remotely configure, troubleshoot and manage a Passive Optical Network (PON) optical network termination (ONT) with layer 3 capabilities using the CPE WAN management protocol, TR-069.

  8. Application of Autonomous Spacecraft Power Control Technology to Terrestrial Microgrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dever, Timothy P.; Trase, Larry M.; Soeder, James F.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the potential of the power campus located at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio for microgrid development. First, the benefits provided by microgrids to the terrestrial power grid are described, and an overview of Technology Needs for microgrid development is presented. Next, GRC's work on development of autonomous control for manned deep space vehicles, which are essentially islanded microgrids, is covered, and contribution of each of these developments to the microgrid Technology Needs is detailed. Finally, a description is provided of GRC's existing physical assets which can be applied to microgrid technology development, and a phased plan for development of a microgrid test facility is presented.

  9. Next-generation fabrication technologies for optical pickup devices in high-density optical disk storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoe, Shigeru

    1999-05-01

    This paper shows a direction of friction technologies to make aspherical plastic objective lens with higher optical performance for high density optical disk storage systems. Specifically, a low birefringence and low water absorption (less than 0.1%) optical resin, low tool abrasion mold material, high circularity diamond tool which nose circularity is less than 30 nm, and 1 nm axis resolution precision lathe which tool position is stabilized against drift by environmental change are referred. Cut optical surface of a mold sample was constantly attained in less than 5 nmRtm surface roughness. Using these new technologies, aspherical plastic objective lens (NA0.6) for DVD which wave aberration is less than 35 m (lambda) rms was realized.

  10. Flexible Graphene Transistor Architecture for Optical Sensor Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordonez, Richard Christopher

    investigation demonstrated PN junction operation and the successful integration of the proposed architecture into an optoelectronic application with the use of semiconductor quantum dots in contact with the graphene material that acted as optical absorbers to increase detector gain. Applications that can benefit from such technology advancement include Nano-satellites (Nanosat), Underwater autonomous vehicles (UAV), and airborne platforms in which flexibility and sensitivity are critical parameters that must be optimized to increase mission duration and range.

  11. New Electronic Technology Applied in Flexible Organic Optical System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre F. S. Guedes

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis and application of new organic materials, nanostructured, for developing technology based on organic devices, have been the main focus of the scientific community. In recent years, the first polymeric electronics products have entered the market (organic semiconductor materials and there are some electrochromic devices among them that have been called smart windows, once they control the passage of light or heat through a closed environment as an ordinary window. The main functional aspect of electrochromic devices, when being used in architectural and automotive industry, is to control the passage of light and temperature with thermal and visual comfort. These devices can be flexible and very thin, not containing heavy metals, and formed by layers of organic material deposited in several architectures. In this study, the electro-deposition of organic materials in the Polyaniline, PANI case, which provide stability in optical and electrical parameters, was utilized with the means of developing prototypes of organic electrochromic devices. These materials were characterized by: ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy absorption (UV-Vis, measurement of thickness (MT and electrical measurements (EM. This study aims to establish the relationship between the thickness of the active layer and the value of the electrical resistivity of the layer deposited through an electro-deposition technique. The experimental results enabled the equating of the electrical resistivity related to the thickness of the deposited layer. The linear fit of these results has expressed the thickness of the conducting layer, α, and the lowest value of the electrical resistivity, β, associated with the gap between the valence band and the conduction band. Thus, the results have demonstrated that, when the layer of organic material is completely conductive, we may obtain the thickness of the organic material deposited on the substrate.

  12. Large core plastic planar optical splitter fabricated by 3D printing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajzler, Václav; Kulha, Pavel; Knietel, Marian; Enser, Herbert

    2017-10-01

    We report on the design, fabrication and optical properties of large core multimode optical polymer splitter fabricated using fill up core polymer in substrate that was made by 3D printing technology. The splitter was designed by the beam propagation method intended for assembling large core waveguide fibers with 735 μm diameter. Waveguide core layers were made of optically clear liquid adhesive, and Veroclear polymer was used as substrate and cover layers. Measurement of optical losses proved that the insertion optical loss was lower than 6.8 dB in the visible spectrum.

  13. Optical technology for microwave applications IV; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Mar. 28, 29, 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Shi-Kay

    Among the topics discussed at the meeting are high-speed laser and electrooptical technologies, detectors and detector arrays, microwave delay lines, and photon-microwave interactions. In addition, optical link applications are discussed, along with electronic warfare receivers and acoustooptical signal processing. Emphasis is placed on laser diode technology, direct modulation of laser diodes, external electrooptical laser modulation techniques, and microwave fiber-optic delay lines. Attention is given to such optical link applications as multigigahertz links as well as to signal processing for phased-array antennas and channelized microwave receiver technologies.

  14. Research of the self-healing technologies in the optical communication network of distribution automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Zhong, Guoxin

    2018-03-01

    Optical communication network is the mainstream technique of the communication networks for distribution automation, and self-healing technologies can improve the in reliability of the optical communication networks significantly. This paper discussed the technical characteristics and application scenarios of several network self-healing technologies in the access layer, the backbone layer and the core layer of the optical communication networks for distribution automation. On the base of the contrastive analysis, this paper gives an application suggestion of these self-healing technologies.

  15. Advanced Optical Technologies for Defense Trauma and Critical Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-04

    Imaging and quantifying Brownian motion of micro- and nanoparticles using phase resolved Doppler variance optical coherence tomography,” J. of...Optical traps can stop movements of Mesostoma spermatocyte kinetochores. Am. Soc. Cell Biol. Mtg., Denver, CO, December 3-7, 2011. 22 8. Gioux, S

  16. Technologies for all-optical wavelength conversion in DWDM networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolfson, David; Fjelde, Tina; Kloch, Allan

    2001-01-01

    Different techniques for all-optical wavelength conversion are reviewed and the advantages and disadvantages seen from a system perspective are highlighted. All-optical wavelength conversion will play a major role in making cost-effective network nodes in future high-speed WDM networks, where...

  17. Optics and optics-based technologies education with the benefit of LabVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yuhong; Man, Tianlong; Tao, Shiquan

    2015-10-01

    The details of design and implementation of incoherent digital holographic experiments based on LabVIEW are demonstrated in this work in order to offer a teaching modal by making full use of LabVIEW as an educational tool. Digital incoherent holography enables holograms to be recorded from incoherent light with just a digital camera and spatial light modulator and three-dimensional properties of the specimen are revealed after the hologram is reconstructed in the computer. The experiment of phase shifting incoherent digital holography is designed and implemented based on the principle of Fresnel incoherent correlation holography. An automatic control application is developed based on LabVIEW, which combines the functions of major experimental hardware control and digital reconstruction of the holograms. The basic functions of the system are completed and a user-friendly interface is provided for easy operation. The students are encouraged and stimulated to learn and practice the basic principle of incoherent digital holography and other related optics-based technologies during the programming of the application and implementation of the system.

  18. Broadband Optical Access Technologies to Converge towards a Broadband Society in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coudreuse, Jean-Pierre; Pautonnier, Sophie; Lavillonnière, Eric; Didierjean, Sylvain; Hilt, Benoît; Kida, Toshimichi; Oshima, Kazuyoshi

    This paper provides insights on the status of broadband optical access market and technologies in Europe and on the expected trends for the next generation optical access networks. The final target for most operators, cities or any other player is of course FTTH (Fibre To The Home) deployment although we can expect intermediate steps with copper or wireless technologies. Among the two candidate architectures for FTTH, PON (Passive Optical Network) is by far the most attractive and cost effective solution. We also demonstrate that Ethernet based optical access network is very adequate to all-IP networks without any incidence on the level of quality of service. Finally, we provide feedback from a FTTH pilot network in Colmar (France) based on Gigabit Ethernet PON technology. The interest of this pilot lies on the level of functionality required for broadband optical access networks but also on the development of new home network configurations.

  19. Fabrication Technology for X-Ray Optics and Mandrels, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA has a cross-project need for large format aspheric x-ray optics, which, demonstrate exceptionally low periodic surface errors. Available technologies to both...

  20. Optical home network based on an N×N multimode fiber architecture and CWDM technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richard, F.; Guignard, P.; Pizzinat, A.; Guillo, L.; Guillory, J.; Charbonnier, B; Koonen, A.M.J.; Martinez, E.O.; Tanguy, E.; Li, H.W.

    2011-01-01

    With this optical home network solution associating an N×N multimode architecture and CWDM technology, various applications and network topologies are supported by a unique multiformat infrastructure. Issues related to the use of MMF are discussed.

  1. Resilient backhaul network design using hybrid radio/free-space optical technology

    KAUST Repository

    Douik, Ahmed; Dahrouj, Hayssam; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2016-01-01

    The radio-frequency (RF) technology is a scalable solution for the backhaul planning. However, its performance is limited in terms of data rate and latency. Free Space Optical (FSO) backhaul, on the other hand, offers a higher data rate

  2. Laser Communications and Fiber Optics Lab Manual. High-Technology Training Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddick, Robert

    This laboratory training manual on laser communications and fiber optics may be used in a general technology-communications course for ninth graders. Upon completion of this exercise, students achieve the following goals: match concepts with laser communication system parts; explain advantages of fiber optic cable over conventional copper wire;…

  3. A new generation of optical diagnostics for bladder cancer: technology, diagnostic accuracy, and future applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cauberg, Evelyne C. C.; de Bruin, Daniël M.; Faber, Dirk J.; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; de La Rosette, Jean J. M. C. H.; de Reijke, Theo M.

    2009-01-01

    CONTEXT: New developments in optical diagnostics have a potential for less invasive and improved detection of bladder cancer. OBJECTIVE: To provide an overview of the technology and diagnostic yield of recently developed optical diagnostics for bladder cancer and to outline their potential future

  4. Research on the adaptive optical control technology based on DSP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaolu; Xue, Qiao; Zeng, Fa; Zhao, Junpu; Zheng, Kuixing; Su, Jingqin; Dai, Wanjun

    2018-02-01

    Adaptive optics is a real-time compensation technique using high speed support system for wavefront errors caused by atmospheric turbulence. However, the randomness and instantaneity of atmospheric changing introduce great difficulties to the design of adaptive optical systems. A large number of complex real-time operations lead to large delay, which is an insurmountable problem. To solve this problem, hardware operation and parallel processing strategy are proposed, and a high-speed adaptive optical control system based on DSP is developed. The hardware counter is used to check the system. The results show that the system can complete a closed loop control in 7.1ms, and improve the controlling bandwidth of the adaptive optical system. Using this system, the wavefront measurement and closed loop experiment are carried out, and obtain the good results.

  5. Initial Technology Assessment for the Large UV-Optical-Infrared (LUVOIR) Mission Concept Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolcar, Matthew R.; Feinberg, Lee D.; France, Kevin; Rauscher, Bernard J.; Redding, David; Schiminovich, David

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Astrophysics Divisions 30-Year Roadmap prioritized a future large-aperture space telescope operating in the ultra-violet-optical-infrared wavelength regime. The Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy envisioned a similar observatory, the High Definition Space Telescope. And a multi-institution group also studied the Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope. In all three cases, a broad science case is outlined, combining general astrophysics with the search for bio-signatures via direct-imaging and spectroscopic characterization of habitable exo-planets. We present an initial technology assessment that enables such an observatory that is currently being studied for the 2020 Decadal Survey by the Large UV-Optical Infrared (LUVOIR) surveyor Science and Technology Definition Team. We present here the technology prioritization for the 2016 technology cycle and define the required technology capabilities and current state-of-the-art performance. Current, planned, and recommended technology development efforts are also reported.

  6. Initial Technology Assessment for the Large-Aperture UV-Optical-Infrared (LUVOIR) Mission Concept Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolcar, Matthew R.; Feinberg, Lee; France, Kevin; Rauscher, Bernard J.; Redding, David; Schiminovich, David

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Astrophysics Division's 30-Year Roadmap prioritized a future large-aperture space telescope operating in the ultra-violet/optical/infrared wavelength regime. The Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy envisioned a similar observatory, the High Definition Space Telescope. And a multi-institution group also studied the Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope. In all three cases, a broad science case is outlined, combining general astrophysics with the search for biosignatures via direct-imaging and spectroscopic characterization of habitable exoplanets. We present an initial technology assessment that enables such an observatory that is currently being studied for the 2020 Decadal Survey by the Large UV/Optical/Infrared (LUVOIR) surveyor Science and Technology Definition Team. We present here the technology prioritization for the 2016 technology cycle and define the required technology capabilities and current state-of-the-art performance. Current, planned, and recommended technology development efforts are also reported.

  7. Optical fibre temperature sensor technology and potential application in absorbed dose calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, P.D.; Hargrave, N.J.

    1992-09-01

    Optical fibre based sensors are proposed as a potential alternative to the thermistors traditionally used as temperature sensors in absorbed dose calorimetry. The development of optical fibre temperature sensor technology over the last ten years is reviewed. The potential resolution of various optical techniques is assessed with particular reference to the requirements of absorbed dose calorimetry. Attention is drawn to other issues which would require investigation before the development of practical optical fibre sensors for this purpose could occur. 192 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs

  8. Interactive educational technologies as a method of communicative competency development of optical and fiber optic communication systems specialists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matveeva, Tatiana U.; Osadchiy, Igor S.; Husnutdinova, Marina N.

    2017-04-01

    The article examines the process of formation of communicative competencies of optic and fiber optic communication systems specialists; the role of communicative competencies is examined in the structure of professionally important skills, together with the contents of professional activity. The stages of empirical research into formation of communicative competencies have been presented, and the values of statistical reliability of data have been provided. The model of formation of communicative competency using interactive technology has been developed based on the research done, and main stages of model implementation and motives of formation of communicative competency have been highlighted. A scheme of "Communicative competence as a base of future success" training session has been suggested as one of the basic interactive technologies. Main components of education that are used during the stages of the training cycle have been examined. The statistical data on the effectiveness of use of interactive educational technologies has been presented; it allowed development of communicative competency of specialists in the field of optical and fiber optic communication system.

  9. Optical technology: a new generation of instrument transformer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klimek, A.

    2003-07-01

    The advantages of optical sensors to measure current and voltage are discussed. They combine the typical benefits of high accuracy, wide dynamic range, high bandwidth, reduced weight and size, safety and low maintenance, with the environmental benefits derived from not using SF{sub 6} or oil paper insulation. Fibre-optic based current and voltage sensors such as the NxtPhase NXVCT voltage and current sensor, are an increasingly vital part of measurement and control systems installed by utilities throughout North America. With an inherently digital signal, optical sensors are capable of being utilized in ways that are not possible with analog signals; they make possible an all-encompassing digital substation with digital communication between voltage and current sensors, relays, SCADA functions, breakers and switches.

  10. Technology for Polymer Optical Fiber Bragg Grating Fabrication and Interrogation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganziy, Denis

    The aim of this project is to develop a new, high-quality interrogator for FBG sensor systems, which combines high performance with costeffectiveness. The work includes the fields of optical system design, signal processing, and algorithm investigation. We present an efficient and fast peak...... analyze and investigate errors and drawbacks, which are typical for spectrometer-based interrogators: undersampling, grating internal reflection, photo response nonuniformity, pixel crosstalk and temperature and long term drift. We propose a novel type of multichannel Digital Micromirror Device (DMD......) based interrogator, where the linear detector is replaced with a commercially available DMD, which leads to cost reduction and better performance. Original optical design, which utilizes advantages of a retro-reflect optical scheme, has been developed in Zemax. We test the presented interrogator...

  11. Development of optical fiber cable's inspection technology and maintenance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Min-Su; Ju, Hee-Wan; Shim, Seon-Heum; Lee, Youn-Ki; Kim, Jin-Il; Huh, Tae-Young

    2008-01-01

    Improve the reliability and establish the systematic maintenance methods for the digital control facilities' optical fiber cable, reviewed the technical requirements and the current maintenance procedures, analyzed the optical fiber cable's characteristics through actual test like bending, tension, attenuation. Based on the results of review, test and analysis, prepared the maintenance criteria and standard maintenance guideline. Also we verified those can be applied directly to the operating nuclear power plant through the actual test at Ulchin Unit 6. The details of test and analysis are presented in this paper. Also introduce the contents of maintenance criteria and guidelines

  12. Research on fabrication of aspheres at the Center of Optics Technology (University of Applied Science in Aalen); Techical Digest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerret, Rainer; Burger, Jochen; Bich, Andreas; Gall, Christoph; Hellmuth, Thomas

    2005-05-01

    The Center of Optics Technology at the University of Applied Science, founded in 2003, is part of the School of Optics and Mechatronics. It completes the existing optical engineering department with a full optical fabrication and metrology chain and serves in parallel as a technology transfer center, to provide area industries with the most up-to-date technology in optical fabrication and engineering. Two examples of research work will be presented. The first example is the optimizing of the grinding process for high precision aspheres, the other is generating and polishing of a freeform optical element which is used as a phase plate.

  13. Overview of Multi-kilowatt Free-Piston Stirling Power Conversion Research at GRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Steven M.; Mason, Lee S.; Dyson, Rodger W.; Penswick, L. Barry

    2008-01-01

    As a step towards development of Stirling power conversion for potential use in Fission Surface Power (FSP) systems, a pair of commercially available 1 kW class free-piston Stirling convertors and a pair of commercially available pressure wave generators (which will be plumbed together to create a high power Stirling linear alternator test rig) have been procured for in-house testing at Glenn Research Center. Delivery of both the Stirling convertors and the linear alternator test rig is expected by October, 2007. The 1 kW class free-piston Stirling convertors will be tested at GRC to map and verify performance. The convertors will later be modified to operate with a NaK liquid metal pumped loop for thermal energy input. The high power linear alternator test rig will be used to map and verify high power Stirling linear alternator performance and to develop power management and distribution (PMAD) methods and techniques. This paper provides an overview of the multi-kilowatt free-piston Stirling power conversion work being performed at GRC.

  14. Overview of Multi-Kilowatt Free-Piston Stirling Power Conversion Research at GRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Steven M.; Mason, Lee S.; Dyson, Rodger W.; Penswick, L. Barry

    2008-01-01

    As a step towards development of Stirling power conversion for potential use in Fission Surface Power (FSP) systems, a pair of commercially available 1 kW class free-piston Stirling convertors and a pair of commercially available pressure wave generators (which will be plumbed together to create a high power Stirling linear alternator test rig) have been procured for in-house testing at Glenn Research Center. Delivery of both the Stirling convertors and the linear alternator test rig is expected by October, 2007. The 1 kW class free-piston Stirling convertors will be tested at GRC to map and verify performance. The convertors will later be modified to operate with a NaK liquid metal pumped loop for thermal energy input. The high power linear alternator test rig will be used to map and verify high power Stirling linear alternator performance and to develop power management and distribution (PMAD) methods and techniques. This paper provides an overview of the multi-kilowatt free-piston Stirling power conversion work being performed at GRC.

  15. Optical sensor technology for simultaneous measurement of particle speed and concentration of micro sized particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Casper; Han, Anpan; Kristensen, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Experimental characterization of a sensor technology that can measure particle speed and concentration simultaneously in liquids and gases is presented here. The basic sensor principle is based on an optical element that shapes a light beam into well-defined fringes. The technology can be described...

  16. Indoor optical wireless systems : technology, trends, and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koonen, T.

    2018-01-01

    Indoor wireless traffic is evolving at a staggering pace, and is quickly depleting radio spectrum resources. Optical wireless communication (OWC) offers powerful solutions for resolving this imminent capacity crunch of radio-based wireless networks. OWC is not intended to fully replace radio

  17. Feasibility assessment of optical technologies for reliable high capacity feeder links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witternigg, Norbert; Schönhuber, Michael; Leitgeb, Erich; Plank, Thomas

    2013-08-01

    Space telecom scenarios like data relay satellite and broadband/broadcast service providers require reliable feeder links with high bandwidth/data rate for the communication between ground station and satellite. Free space optical communication (FSOC) is an attractive alternative to microwave links, improving performance by offering abundant bandwidth at small apertures of the optical terminals. At the same time Near-Earth communication by FSOC avoids interference with other services and is free of regulatory issues. The drawback however is the impairment by the laser propagation through the atmosphere at optical wavelengths. Also to be considered are questions of eye safety for ground personnel and aviation. In this paper we assess the user requirements for typical space telecom scenarios and compare these requirements with solutions using optical data links through the atmosphere. We suggest a site diversity scheme with a number of ground stations and a switching scheme using two optical terminals on-board the satellite. Considering the technology trade-offs between four different optical wavelengths we recommend the future use of 1.5 μm laser technology and calculate a link budget for an atmospheric condition of light haze on the optical path. By comparing link budgets we show an outlook to the future potential use of 10 μm laser technology.

  18. Optical Fiber Sensor Technologies for Efficient and Economical Oil Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, a.; Pickrell, G.; Xiao, H.; May, r.

    2003-02-27

    The overall goal of this project was to develop reliable cost effective sensors for application in the down-hole environment. The physical parameters measured by these sensors were temperature, pressure, flow and acoustic signals. Sensor head configurations for each of the physical measurands were optimized to increase the sensitivity to the particular measurand of interest while decreasing the cross-sensitivity to the other physical measurands and to environmental influences. In addition, the optical signal demodulation electronics was designed to be insensitive to environmental influences while maintaining the required resolution, precision and accuracy of the parameter being sensed. The influence of potentially detrimental agents such as water in the down-hole environment was investigated as well as methods to protect both the optical fiber and the sensor from these detrimental effects.

  19. Atmospheric Turbulence Measurements in Support of Adaptive Optics Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-01

    microthermal 2 Cn measurements is also included. In the near future we anticipate completion of the in-depth study of the radar Cn2 applications in the form...temperature fluctuations necessary to use (2) are measured using standard microthermal temperature-resistance sensors and very sensitive - 12...panel is optical Cn computed from microthermal 2measurements of CT assuming negligible water vapor contribution. The middle panel depicts the

  20. Advanced Technologies for Ultrahigh Resolution and Functional Optical Coherence Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-15

    Gorczynska, "Frequency domain optical coherence tomography techniques in eye imaging," Acta Physica Polonica A , vol. 102, pp. 739-46, 2002/12/ 2002. [57] S...other provision of law, no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a ...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: a . REPORT b. ABSTRACT c. THIS PAGE 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT

  1. Advanced optical 3D scanners using DMD technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muenstermann, P.; Godding, R.; Hermstein, M.

    2017-02-01

    Optical 3D measurement techniques are state-of-the-art for highly precise, non-contact surface scanners - not only in industrial development, but also in near-production and even in-line configurations. The need for automated systems with very high accuracy and clear implementation of national precision standards is growing extremely due to expanding international quality guidelines, increasing production transparency and new concepts related to the demands of the fourth industrial revolution. The presentation gives an overview about the present technical concepts for optical 3D scanners and their benefit for customers and various different applications - not only in quality control, but also in design centers or in medical applications. The advantages of DMD-based systems will be discussed and compared to other approaches. Looking at today's 3D scanner market, there is a confusing amount of solutions varying from lowprice solutions to high end systems. Many of them are linked to a very special target group or to special applications. The article will clarify the differences of the approaches and will discuss some key features which are necessary to render optical measurement systems suitable for industrial environments. The paper will be completed by examples for DMDbased systems, e. g. RGB true-color systems with very high accuracy like the StereoScan neo of AICON 3D Systems. Typical applications and the benefits for customers using such systems are described.

  2. Physics and technology development of multilayer EUV reflective optics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louis, Eric

    2012-01-01

    This thesis describes the development of molybdenum/silicon based multilayer reflective elements for the Extreme UV wavelength range, as motivated by their application in photolithography for semiconductor manufacturing. The thesis reflects the basic thin film physics, technological developments,

  3. Emerging electro-optical technologies for defense applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswarlu, Ronda; Ser, W.; Er, Meng H.; Chan, Philip

    1999-11-01

    Technological breakthroughs in the field of imaging and non- imaging sensor sand the related signal processors helped the military users to achieve 'force multiplication'. Present day 'smart-weapon systems' are being converted to 'brilliant-weapon systems' to bridge the gap until the most potent new 'fourth generation systems' come on line based on nanotechnology. The recent military tactics have evolved to take advantage of ever improving technologies to improve the quality and performance over time. The drive behind these technologies is to get a first-pass-mission-success against the target with negligible collateral damage, protecting property and the lives of non-combatants. These technologies revolve around getting target information, detection, designation, guidance, aim-point selection, and mission accomplishment. The effectiveness of these technologies is amply demonstrated during recent wars. This paper brings out the emerging trends in visible/IR/radar smart-sensors and the related signal processing technologies that lead to brilliant guided weapon systems. The purpose of this paper is to give an overview to the readers about futuristic systems. This paper also addresses various system configurations including sensor-fusion.

  4. Optical RAM-enabled cache memory and optical routing for chip multiprocessors: technologies and architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleros, Nikos; Maniotis, Pavlos; Alexoudi, Theonitsa; Fitsios, Dimitris; Vagionas, Christos; Papaioannou, Sotiris; Vyrsokinos, K.; Kanellos, George T.

    2014-03-01

    The processor-memory performance gap, commonly referred to as "Memory Wall" problem, owes to the speed mismatch between processor and electronic RAM clock frequencies, forcing current Chip Multiprocessor (CMP) configurations to consume more than 50% of the chip real-estate for caching purposes. In this article, we present our recent work spanning from Si-based integrated optical RAM cell architectures up to complete optical cache memory architectures for Chip Multiprocessor configurations. Moreover, we discuss on e/o router subsystems with up to Tb/s routing capacity for cache interconnection purposes within CMP configurations, currently pursued within the FP7 PhoxTrot project.

  5. Physics and technology of optical storage in polymer thin films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramanujam, P.S.; Hvilsted, Søren; Ujhelyi, F.

    2001-01-01

    We discuss different strategies for optical storage of information in polymeric films. An outline of the existing trends is given. The synthesis and characterization of side-chain azobenzene polyester films for holographic storage of information is described. A compact holographic memory card...... system based on polarization holography is described. A storage density of greater than 10MB/cm2 has been achieved so far, with a potential increase to 100MB/cm(2) using multiplexing techniques and software correction. Finally the role of surface relief in azobenzene polymers on irradiation...

  6. Ultrafast Optics: Vector Cavity Laser - Physics and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-14

    with a quasi- vector cavity both numerically and experimentally. It is expected that through the study a deep and comprehensive understanding on the...799-801, Jun. 1997. 31. L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, J. Wu, X. Q. Fu, and S. C. Wen , "Noise-like pulse in a gain-guided soliton fiber laser," Opt...solitons in a ring fiber laser," Optics Communications 281 (22), 5614 (2008). 110. L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, J. Wu, X. Q. Fu, and S. C. Wen , "Noise-like

  7. Ultrafast Optics - Vector Cavity Lasers: Physics and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-14

    with a quasi- vector cavity both numerically and experimentally. It is expected that through the study a deep and comprehensive understanding on the...799-801, Jun. 1997. 31. L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, J. Wu, X. Q. Fu, and S. C. Wen , "Noise-like pulse in a gain-guided soliton fiber laser," Opt...solitons in a ring fiber laser," Optics Communications 281 (22), 5614 (2008). 110. L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, J. Wu, X. Q. Fu, and S. C. Wen , "Noise-like

  8. Ultrafast Optics: Vector Cavity Fiber Lasers - Physics and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-14

    with a quasi- vector cavity both numerically and experimentally. It is expected that through the study a deep and comprehensive understanding on the...799-801, Jun. 1997. 31. L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, J. Wu, X. Q. Fu, and S. C. Wen , "Noise-like pulse in a gain-guided soliton fiber laser," Opt...solitons in a ring fiber laser," Optics Communications 281 (22), 5614 (2008). 110. L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, J. Wu, X. Q. Fu, and S. C. Wen , "Noise-like

  9. Micro-resonators based on integrated polymer technology for optical sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Girault , Pauline; Lemaitre , Jonathan; Guendouz , Mohammed; Lorrain , Nathalie; Poffo , Luiz; Gadonna , Michel; Bosc , Dominique

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Research on sensors has experienced a noticeable development over the last decades especially in label free optical biosensors. However, compact sensors without markers for rapid, reliable and inexpensive detection of various substances induces a significant research of new technological solutions. The context of this work is the development of a sensor based on easily integrated and inexpensive micro-resonator (MR) component in integrated optics, highly sensitive and ...

  10. Single-mode glass waveguide technology for optical interchip communication on board level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusberg, Lars; Neitz, Marcel; Schröder, Henning

    2012-01-01

    The large bandwidth demand in long-distance telecom networks lead to single-mode fiber interconnects as result of low dispersion, low loss and dense wavelength multiplexing possibilities. In contrast, multi-mode interconnects are suitable for much shorter lengths up to 300 meters and are promising for optical links between racks and on board level. Active optical cables based on multi-mode fiber links are at the market and research in multi-mode waveguide integration on board level is still going on. Compared to multi-mode, a single-mode waveguide has much more integration potential because of core diameters of around 20% of a multi-mode waveguide by a much larger bandwidth. But light coupling in single-mode waveguides is much more challenging because of lower coupling tolerances. Together with the silicon photonics technology, a single-mode waveguide technology on board-level will be the straight forward development goal for chip-to-chip optical interconnects integration. Such a hybrid packaging platform providing 3D optical single-mode links bridges the gap between novel photonic integrated circuits and the glass fiber based long-distance telecom networks. Following we introduce our 3D photonic packaging approach based on thin glass substrates with planar integrated optical single-mode waveguides for fiber-to-chip and chip-to-chip interconnects. This novel packaging approach merges micro-system packaging and glass integrated optics. It consists of a thin glass substrate with planar integrated singlemode waveguide circuits, optical mirrors and lenses providing an integration platform for photonic IC assembly and optical fiber interconnect. Thin glass is commercially available in panel and wafer formats and characterizes excellent optical and high-frequency properties. That makes it perfect for microsystem packaging. The paper presents recent results in single-mode waveguide technology on wafer level and waveguide characterization. Furthermore the integration in a

  11. Structural Health Monitoring of Civil Infrastructure Using Optical Fiber Sensing Technology: A Comprehensive Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, X. W.; Su, Y. H.; Han, J. P.

    2014-01-01

    In the last two decades, a significant number of innovative sensing systems based on optical fiber sensors have been exploited in the engineering community due to their inherent distinctive advantages such as small size, light weight, immunity to electromagnetic interference (EMI) and corrosion, and embedding capability. A lot of optical fiber sensor-based monitoring systems have been developed for continuous measurement and real-time assessment of diversified engineering structures such as bridges, buildings, tunnels, pipelines, wind turbines, railway infrastructure, and geotechnical structures. The purpose of this review article is devoted to presenting a summary of the basic principles of various optical fiber sensors, innovation in sensing and computational methodologies, development of novel optical fiber sensors, and the practical application status of the optical fiber sensing technology in structural health monitoring (SHM) of civil infrastructure. PMID:25133250

  12. Structural health monitoring of civil infrastructure using optical fiber sensing technology: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, X W; Su, Y H; Han, J P

    2014-01-01

    In the last two decades, a significant number of innovative sensing systems based on optical fiber sensors have been exploited in the engineering community due to their inherent distinctive advantages such as small size, light weight, immunity to electromagnetic interference (EMI) and corrosion, and embedding capability. A lot of optical fiber sensor-based monitoring systems have been developed for continuous measurement and real-time assessment of diversified engineering structures such as bridges, buildings, tunnels, pipelines, wind turbines, railway infrastructure, and geotechnical structures. The purpose of this review article is devoted to presenting a summary of the basic principles of various optical fiber sensors, innovation in sensing and computational methodologies, development of novel optical fiber sensors, and the practical application status of the optical fiber sensing technology in structural health monitoring (SHM) of civil infrastructure.

  13. Structural Health Monitoring of Civil Infrastructure Using Optical Fiber Sensing Technology: A Comprehensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. W. Ye

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, a significant number of innovative sensing systems based on optical fiber sensors have been exploited in the engineering community due to their inherent distinctive advantages such as small size, light weight, immunity to electromagnetic interference (EMI and corrosion, and embedding capability. A lot of optical fiber sensor-based monitoring systems have been developed for continuous measurement and real-time assessment of diversified engineering structures such as bridges, buildings, tunnels, pipelines, wind turbines, railway infrastructure, and geotechnical structures. The purpose of this review article is devoted to presenting a summary of the basic principles of various optical fiber sensors, innovation in sensing and computational methodologies, development of novel optical fiber sensors, and the practical application status of the optical fiber sensing technology in structural health monitoring (SHM of civil infrastructure.

  14. Evaluation of emerging parallel optical link technology for high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chramowicz, J; Kwan, S; Prosser, A; Winchell, M

    2012-01-01

    Modern particle detectors utilize optical fiber links to deliver event data to upstream trigger and data processing systems. Future detector systems can benefit from the development of dense arrangements of high speed optical links emerging from industry advancements in transceiver technology. Supporting data transfers of up to 120 Gbps in each direction, optical engines permit assembly of the optical transceivers in close proximity to ASICs and FPGAs. Test results of some of these parallel components will be presented including the development of pluggable FPGA Mezzanine Cards equipped with optical engines to provide to collaborators on the Versatile Link Common Project for the HI-LHC at CERN. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, operated by Fermi Research Alliance, LLC under contract No. DE-AC02-07CH11359 with the United States Department of Energy.

  15. Strategic planning of developing automatic optical inspection (AOI) technologies in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, K C; Hsu, C

    2005-01-01

    In most domestic hi-tech industries in Taiwan, the automatic optical inspection (AOI) equipment is mostly imported. In view of the required specifications, AOI consists of the integration of mechanical-electrical-optical-information technologies. In the past two decades, traditional industries have lost their competitiveness due to the low profit rate. It is possible to promote a new AOI industry in Taiwan through the integration of its strong background in mechatronic technology in positioning stages with the optical image processing techniques. The market requirements are huge not only in domestic need but also in global need. This is the main reason to promote the AOI research for the coming years in Taiwan. Focused industrial applications will be in IC, PCB, LCD, communication, and MEMS parts. This paper will analyze the domestic and global AOI equipment market, summarize the necessary fish bone technology diagrams, survey the actual industrial needs, and propose the strategic plan to be promoted in Taiwan

  16. Strategic planning of developing automatic optical inspection (AOI) technologies in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, K. C.; Hsu, C.

    2005-01-01

    In most domestic hi-tech industries in Taiwan, the automatic optical inspection (AOI) equipment is mostly imported. In view of the required specifications, AOI consists of the integration of mechanical-electrical-optical-information technologies. In the past two decades, traditional industries have lost their competitiveness due to the low profit rate. It is possible to promote a new AOI industry in Taiwan through the integration of its strong background in mechatronic technology in positioning stages with the optical image processing techniques. The market requirements are huge not only in domestic need but also in global need. This is the main reason to promote the AOI research for the coming years in Taiwan. Focused industrial applications will be in IC, PCB, LCD, communication, and MEMS parts. This paper will analyze the domestic and global AOI equipment market, summarize the necessary fish bone technology diagrams, survey the actual industrial needs, and propose the strategic plan to be promoted in Taiwan.

  17. Medical smart textiles based on fiber optic technology: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaroni, Carlo; Saccomandi, Paola; Schena, Emiliano

    2015-04-13

    The growing interest in the development of smart textiles for medical applications is driven by the aim to increase the mobility of patients who need a continuous monitoring of such physiological parameters. At the same time, the use of fiber optic sensors (FOSs) is gaining large acceptance as an alternative to traditional electrical and mechanical sensors for the monitoring of thermal and mechanical parameters. The potential impact of FOSs is related to their good metrological properties, their small size and their flexibility, as well as to their immunity from electromagnetic field. Their main advantage is the possibility to use textile based on fiber optic in a magnetic resonance imaging environment, where standard electronic sensors cannot be employed. This last feature makes FOSs suitable for monitoring biological parameters (e.g., respiratory and heartbeat monitoring) during magnetic resonance procedures. Research interest in combining FOSs and textiles into a single structure to develop wearable sensors is rapidly growing. In this review we provide an overview of the state-of-the-art of textiles, which use FOSs for monitoring of mechanical parameters of physiological interest. In particular we briefly describe the working principle of FOSs employed in this field and their relevant advantages and disadvantages. Also reviewed are their applications for the monitoring of mechanical parameters of physiological interest.

  18. Medical Smart Textiles Based on Fiber Optic Technology: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaroni, Carlo; Saccomandi, Paola; Schena, Emiliano

    2015-01-01

    The growing interest in the development of smart textiles for medical applications is driven by the aim to increase the mobility of patients who need a continuous monitoring of such physiological parameters. At the same time, the use of fiber optic sensors (FOSs) is gaining large acceptance as an alternative to traditional electrical and mechanical sensors for the monitoring of thermal and mechanical parameters. The potential impact of FOSs is related to their good metrological properties, their small size and their flexibility, as well as to their immunity from electromagnetic field. Their main advantage is the possibility to use textile based on fiber optic in a magnetic resonance imaging environment, where standard electronic sensors cannot be employed. This last feature makes FOSs suitable for monitoring biological parameters (e.g., respiratory and heartbeat monitoring) during magnetic resonance procedures. Research interest in combining FOSs and textiles into a single structure to develop wearable sensors is rapidly growing. In this review we provide an overview of the state-of-the-art of textiles, which use FOSs for monitoring of mechanical parameters of physiological interest. In particular we briefly describe the working principle of FOSs employed in this field and their relevant advantages and disadvantages. Also reviewed are their applications for the monitoring of mechanical parameters of physiological interest. PMID:25871010

  19. Medical Smart Textiles Based on Fiber Optic Technology: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Massaroni

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The growing interest in the development of smart textiles for medical applications is driven by the aim to increase the mobility of patients who need a continuous monitoring of such physiological parameters. At the same time, the use of fiber optic sensors (FOSs is gaining large acceptance as an alternative to traditional electrical and mechanical sensors for the monitoring of thermal and mechanical parameters. The potential impact of FOSs is related to their good metrological properties, their small size and their flexibility, as well as to their immunity from electromagnetic field. Their main advantage is the possibility to use textile based on fiber optic in a magnetic resonance imaging environment, where standard electronic sensors cannot be employed. This last feature makes FOSs suitable for monitoring biological parameters (e.g., respiratory and heartbeat monitoring during magnetic resonance procedures. Research interest in combining FOSs and textiles into a single structure to develop wearable sensors is rapidly growing. In this review we provide an overview of the state-of-the-art of textiles, which use FOSs for monitoring of mechanical parameters of physiological interest. In particular we briefly describe the working principle of FOSs employed in this field and their relevant advantages and disadvantages. Also reviewed are their applications for the monitoring of mechanical parameters of physiological interest.

  20. Application technology for optical fiber in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Min; Lee, Yong Bum; Kim, Woong Ki; Kim, Seung Ho; Kim, Chang Hoi; Hwang, Suk Yeong; Kim, Byung Soo; Sohn, Surg Won

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this project is to study the radiation effects on optical fiber, to develop remote inspection and image processing system, and to apply image processing technique to X-ray radiography analysis and to laser beam diagnostic system. Thermal neutrons cause nuclear radiation with fiber compositions, so secondary ionizing radiations of high energy are generated. These ionizing radiations from color centers, which increase transmission loss of optical fiber by absorbing propagating light in fiber core. As a result of experiment, owing to Ge, P, and B doping effects the induced loss in multimode fibers has been 5 times larger than that in single mode fibers, the loss at 0.85 μm wavelength region more susceptible for radiations has been twice higher than that at 1.3 μm. Remote inspection mechanism captures images remotely, and the images are inhanced by image processing surfaces of bent or long-straight pipe in hostile environment. Laser beam diagnostic system using image processing techniques can be used to observe and analyze laser beam quality. This system will be effectively applied for laser development and application field. X-ray radiographic image analysis by image processing technique make it easier to inspect and measure irradiated fuel rod, and the accuracy of the obtained data is also improved. (author)

  1. Advanced Motor Control Test Facility for NASA GRC Flywheel Energy Storage System Technology Development Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Barbara H.; Kascak, Peter E.; Hofmann, Heath; Mackin, Michael; Santiago, Walter; Jansen, Ralph

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the flywheel test facility developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center with particular emphasis on the motor drive components and control. A four-pole permanent magnet synchronous machine, suspended on magnetic bearings, is controlled with a field orientation algorithm. A discussion of the estimation of the rotor position and speed from a "once around signal" is given. The elimination of small dc currents by using a concurrent stationary frame current regulator is discussed and demonstrated. Initial experimental results are presented showing the successful operation and control of the unit at speeds up to 20,000 rpm.

  2. Optical technologies for extreme-ultraviolet and soft X-ray coherent sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canova, Federico; Poletto, Luca

    2015-01-01

    The book reviews the most recent achievements in optical technologies for XUV and X-ray coherent sources. Particular attention is given to free-electron-laser facilities, but also to other sources available at present, such as synchrotrons, high-order laser harmonics and X-ray lasers. The optical technologies relevant to each type of source are discussed. In addition, the main technologies used for photon handling and conditioning, namely multilayer mirrors, adaptive optics, crystals and gratings are explained. Experiments using coherent light received during the last decades a lot of attention for the X-ray regime. Strong efforts were taken for the realization of almost fully coherent sources, e.g. the free-electron lasers, both as independent sources in the femtosecond and attosecond regimes and as seeding sources for free-electron-lasers and X-ray gas lasers. In parallel to the development of sources, optical technologies for photon handling and conditioning of such coherent and intense X-ray beams advanced. New problems were faced for the realization of optical components of beamlines demanding to manage coherent X-ray photons, e.g. the preservation of coherence and time structure of ultra short pulses.

  3. Development of optical thin film technology for lasers and synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apparao, K.V.S.R.; Bagchi, T.C.; Sahoo, N.K.

    1985-01-01

    Dielectric multilayer optical thin film devices play an important role not only in the working of lasers but also in different front line research activities using high power lasers and high intensity synchrotron radiation sources. Facilities are set up recently in the Spectroscopy Division to develop the optical thin film design and fabrication technologies indigeneously. Using the facilities thin film devices for different laser applications working in the wavelength range from 300 nm to 1064 nm were developed. Different technical aspects involved in the technology development are briefly described. (author)

  4. Bridge continuous deformation measurement technology based on fiber optic gyro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Weibing; Hu, Wenbin; Liu, Fang; Tang, Jianguang; Li, Sheng; Yang, Yan

    2016-03-01

    Bridge is an important part of modern transportation systems and deformation is a key index for bridge's safety evaluation. To achieve the long span bridge curve measurement rapidly and timely and accurately locate the bridge maximum deformation, the continuous deformation measurement system (CDMS) based on inertial platform is presented and validated in this paper. Firstly, based on various bridge deformation measurement methods, the method of deformation measurement based on the fiber optic gyro (FOG) is introduced. Secondly, the basic measurement principle based on FOG is presented and the continuous curve trajectory is derived by the formula. Then the measurement accuracy is analyzed in theory and the relevant factors are presented to ensure the measurement accuracy. Finally, the deformation measurement experiments are conducted on a bridge across the Yangtze River. Experimental results show that the presented deformation measurement method is feasible, practical, and reliable; the system can accurately and quickly locate the maximum deformation and has extensive and broad application prospects.

  5. Contact microphone using optical fibre Bragg grating technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezombes, F A; Lalor, M J; Burton, D R

    2007-01-01

    A contact microphone using optical fibre Bragg grating has been developed. It enables one to listen and record a human voice and/or breathing by monitoring the vibration generated by the outer wall of the throat during speech. This system can have many applications such as detecting defects in vocal folds, measuring and monitoring the vibration and defection generated by intubations of a patient throat and other voice related problem, low level speaking recording and transmitting is also possible, the microphone can be also used to monitor breathing and the system can be used as a microphone in very harsh environments for example it would allow one to hear the patient during a cat scan

  6. Miniature and Molecularly Specific Optical Screening Technologies for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    generated by the photodiode. When we expanded to a 4x4 probe for imaging, we used a multi-channel transimpedance amplifier (Multiboard, SolGel Technologies...GmbH) so that the signals can be read simultaneously. The transimpedance amplifier circuitry was assembled within a small metal housing and powered...600 nm) greater than 2/cm. We started designing a new integrateded transimpedance amplifier (ITIA) array, which will also have multplexed ADC

  7. OPTICAL correlation identification technology applied in underwater laser imaging target identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Guang-tao; Zhang, Xiao-hui; Ge, Wei-long

    2012-01-01

    The underwater laser imaging detection is an effective method of detecting short distance target underwater as an important complement of sonar detection. With the development of underwater laser imaging technology and underwater vehicle technology, the underwater automatic target identification has gotten more and more attention, and is a research difficulty in the area of underwater optical imaging information processing. Today, underwater automatic target identification based on optical imaging is usually realized with the method of digital circuit software programming. The algorithm realization and control of this method is very flexible. However, the optical imaging information is 2D image even 3D image, the amount of imaging processing information is abundant, so the electronic hardware with pure digital algorithm will need long identification time and is hard to meet the demands of real-time identification. If adopt computer parallel processing, the identification speed can be improved, but it will increase complexity, size and power consumption. This paper attempts to apply optical correlation identification technology to realize underwater automatic target identification. The optics correlation identification technology utilizes the Fourier transform characteristic of Fourier lens which can accomplish Fourier transform of image information in the level of nanosecond, and optical space interconnection calculation has the features of parallel, high speed, large capacity and high resolution, combines the flexibility of calculation and control of digital circuit method to realize optoelectronic hybrid identification mode. We reduce theoretical formulation of correlation identification and analyze the principle of optical correlation identification, and write MATLAB simulation program. We adopt single frame image obtained in underwater range gating laser imaging to identify, and through identifying and locating the different positions of target, we can improve

  8. Optical technology for microwave applications V; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 3-5, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Shi-Kay

    Consideration is given to light modulation technologies, wideband optical links, phased array antenna applications, radar and EW applications, and novel optoelectronic devices and technologies. Particular attention is given to wideband nonlinear optical organic external modulators, ultra-linear electrooptic modulators for microwave fiber-optic communications, coherent optical modulation for antenna remoting, a hybrid optical transmitter for microwave communication, a direct optical phase shifter for phased array systems, acoustooptic architectures for multidimensional phased-array antenna processing, generalized phased-array Bragg interaction in anisotropic crystals, analog optical processing of radio frequency signals, a wideband acoustooptic spectrometer, ring resonators for microwave optoelectronics, optical techniques for microwave monolithic circuit characterization, microwave control using a high-gain bias-free optoelectronic switch, and A/D conversion of microwave signals using a hybrid optical-electronic technique. (For individual items see A93-25727 to A93-25758)

  9. Applications of telecommunication technology for optical instrumentation with an emphasis on space-time duality

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Howe, James William

    Telecommunication technology has often been applied to areas of science and engineering seemingly unrelated to communication systems. Innovations such as electronic amplifiers, the transistor, digital coding, optical fiber, and the laser, which all had roots in communication technology, have been implemented in devices from bar-code scanners to fiber endoscopes for medical procedures. In the same way, the central theme of the work in the following chapters has been to borrow both the concepts and technology of telecommunications systems to develop novel optical instrumentation for non-telecom pursuits. This work particularly leverages fiber-integrated electro-optic phase modulators to apply custom phase profiles to ultrafast pulses for control and manipulation. Such devices are typically used in telecom transmitters to encode phase data onto optical pulses (differential phase-shift keying), or for chirped data transmission. We, however, use electro-optic phase modulators to construct four novel optical devices: (1) a programmable ultrafast optical delay line with record scanning speed for applications in optical metrology, interferometry, or broad-band phase arrays, (2) a multiwavelength pulse generator for real-time optical sampling of electronic waveforms, (3) a simple femtosecond pulse generator for uses in biomedical imaging or ultrafast spectroscopy, and (4) a nonlinear phase compensator to increase the energy of fiber-amplified ultrashort pulse systems. In addition, we describe a fifth instrument which makes use of a higher-order mode fiber, similar in design to dispersion compensating fibers used for telecom. Through soliton self-frequency shift in the higher-order mode fiber, we can broadly-tune the center frequency of ultrashort pulses in energy regimes useful for biomedical imaging or ultrafast spectroscopy. The advantages gained through using telecom components in each of these systems are the simplicity and robustness of all-fiber configurations, high

  10. Real-time data acquisition and computation for the SSC using optical and electronic technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantrell, C.D.; Fenyves, E.J.; Wallace, B.

    1990-01-01

    The authors discuss combinations of optical and electronic technologies that may be able to address major data-filtering and data-analysis problems at the SSC. Novel scintillation detectors and optical readout may permit the use of optical processing techniques for trigger decisions and particle tracking. Very-high-speed fiberoptic local-area networks will be necessary to pipeline data from the detectors to the triggers and from the triggers to computers. High-speed, few-processor MIMD superconductors with advanced fiberoptic I/O technology offer a usable, cost-effective alternative to the microprocessor farms currently proposed for event selection and analysis for the SSC. The use of a real-time operating system that provides standard programming tools will facilitate all tasks, from reprogramming the detectors' event-selection criteria to detector simulation and event analysis. 34 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  11. Mobile internet and technology for optical teaching reform in higher education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Muchun; Zhao, Qi; Chen, Yanru

    2017-08-01

    There are some problems in optical education such as insufficient flexibility, individuality and adaptability to students who need information and education at present. The development of mobile internet and technology provides support to solve these problems. Basic characteristics, advantages and developments of these techniques used in education are presented in this paper. Mobile internet is introduced to reform the classroom teaching of optical courses. Mobile network tool selection, teaching resources construction and reform in teaching methods are discussed. Academic record and sampling surveys are used to assess intention to adopt mobile internet and learning effect of academic major of students, the results show that high quality optical education can be offered by adopting mobile internet and technologies in traditional instruction.

  12. 40-Gb/s all-optical processing systems using hybrid photonic integration technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehayas, E.; Tsiokos, D.I.; Bakopoulos, P.

    2006-01-01

    the potential that all-optical technology can find application in future data-centric networks with efficient and dynamic bandwidth utilization. This paper also reports on the latest photonic integration breakthroughs as a potential migration path for reducing fabrication cost by developing photonic systems...

  13. Advanced Fiber Optic-Based Sensing Technology for Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Lance; Parker, Allen R.; Piazza, Anthony; Ko, William L.; Chan, Patrick; Bakalyar, John

    2011-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of fiber optic sensing technology development activities performed at NASA Dryden in support of Unmanned Aircraft Systems. Examples of current and previous work are presented in the following categories: algorithm development, system development, instrumentation installation, ground R&D, and flight testing. Examples of current research and development activities are provided.

  14. Low power wide spectrum optical transmitter using avalanche mode LEDs in SOI CMOS technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agarwal, V.; Dutta, S; Annema, AJ; Hueting, RJE; Steeneken, P.G.; Nauta, B

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a low power monolithically integrated optical transmitter with avalanche mode light emitting diodes in a 140 nm silicon-on-insulator CMOS technology. Avalanche mode LEDs in silicon exhibit wide-spectrum electroluminescence (400 nm < λ < 850 nm), which has a significant

  15. Integrated optical serializer designed and fabricated in a generic InP based technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stopinski, S.T.; Malinowski, M.; Piramidowicz, R.; Smit, M.K.; Leijtens, X.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    This work presents design and characterization results of an optical pulse serializer, realized as an Application Specific Photonic Integrated Circuit (ASPIC) in a novel, generic InPbased technology and fabricated in a multi-project wafer run. The measurement results show high-speed (32 Gbit/s)

  16. Minimally invasive non-thermal laser technology using laser-induced optical breakdown for skin rejuvenation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habbema, L.; Verhagen, R.; Van Hal, R.; Liu, Y.; Varghese, B.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a novel, minimally invasive laser technology for skin rejuvenation by creating isolated microscopic lesions within tissue below the epidermis using laser induced optical breakdown. Using an in-house built prototype device, tightly focused near-infrared laser pulses are used to create

  17. Development of Articulated Competency-Based Curriculum in Laser/Electro-Optics Technology. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzerne County Community Coll., Nanticoke, PA.

    A project was conducted at the Community College of Luzerne County (Pennsylvania) to develop, in cooperation with area vocational-technical schools, the first year of a competency-based curriculum in laser/electro-optics technology. Existing programs were reviewed and private sector input was sought in developing the curriculum and identifying…

  18. Optical sensor technology for a noninvasive medical blood diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraitl, Jens; Ewald, Hartmut; Gehring, Hartmut

    2007-02-01

    NIR-spectroscopy and Photoplethysmography (PPG) and is used for a measurement of blood components. The fact that the absorption-coefficients μ a and scattering-coefficients μ s for blood differ at difference wavelengths has been exploited and is used for calculation of the optical absorbability characteristics of human blood yielding information on blood components like hemoglobin and oxygen saturation. The measured PPG time signals and the ratio between the peak to peak pulse amplitudes are used for a measurement of these parameters. A newly developed PMD device has been introduced. The non-invasive in-vivo multi-spectral method is based on the radiation of monochromatic light, emitted by laser diodes, through an area of skin on the finger. Deferrals between the proportions of hemoglobin and plasma in the intravasal volume should be detected photo-electrically by signal-analytic evaluation of the signals. The computed nonlinear coefficients are used for the measurement and calculation of the relative hemoglobin concentration change. Results with this photometric method to measure changes in the hemoglobin concentration were demonstrated during measurements with a hemodynamic model and healthy subjects. The PMD is suitable for non-invasive continuous online monitoring of one or more biologic constituent values. The objective of this development is to reduce the dependence on measurement techniques which require that a sample of blood be withdrawn from the patient for in-vitro analysis. Any invasive method used on the patient to obtain blood is accompanied by problems of inconvenience, stress, and discomfort. The patient is also exposed to the normal risks of infection associated with such invasive methods.

  19. Implantable optogenetic device with CMOS IC technology for simultaneous optical measurement and stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruta, Makito; Kamiyama, Naoya; Nakajima, Shun; Motoyama, Mayumi; Kawahara, Mamiko; Ohta, Yasumi; Yamasaki, Atsushi; Takehara, Hiroaki; Noda, Toshihiko; Sasagawa, Kiyotaka; Ishikawa, Yasuyuki; Tokuda, Takashi; Hashimoto, Hitoshi; Ohta, Jun

    2017-05-01

    In this study, we have developed an implantable optogenetic device that can measure and stimulate neurons by an optical method based on CMOS IC technology. The device consist of a blue LED array for optically patterned stimulation, a CMOS image sensor for acquiring brain surface image, and eight green LEDs surrounding the CMOS image sensor for illumination. The blue LED array is placed on the CMOS image sensor. We implanted the device in the brain of a genetically modified mouse and successfully demonstrated the stimulation of neurons optically and simultaneously acquire intrinsic optical images of the brain surface using the image sensor. The integrated device can be used for simultaneously measuring and controlling neuronal activities in a living animal, which is important for the artificial control of brain functions.

  20. Optical investigations of various polymeric materials used in dental technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrutiu, Meda Lavinia; Sinescu, Cosmin; Topala, Florin Ionel; Ionita, Ciprian; Goguta, Luciana; Marcauteanu, Corina; Rominu, Mihai; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh.

    2011-10-01

    Dental prosthetic restorations have to satisfy high stress as well as aesthetic requirements. In order to avoid deficiencies of dental prostheses, several alternative systems and procedures were imagined, directly related to the material used and also to the manufacturing technology. Increasing the biomechanical comportment of polymeric materials implies fiber reinforcing. The different fibers reinforcing products made very difficult the evaluation of their performances and biomechanical properties analysis. There are several known methods which are used to assess the quality of dental prostheses, but most are invasive. These lead to the destruction of the samples and often no conclusion could be drawn in the investigated areas of interest. Using a time domain en-face OCT system, we have recently demonstrated real time thorough evaluation of quality of various dental treatments. The aim of this study was to assess the quality of various polymeric materials used in dental technology and to validate the en face OCT imagistic evaluation of polymeric dental prostheses by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and microcomputer tomography (μCT). SEM investigations evidenced the nonlinear aspect of the interface between the polymeric material and the fiber reinforcement and materials defects in some samples. The results obtained by microCT revealed also some defects inside the polymeric materials and at the interfaces with the fiber reinforcement. The advantages of the OCT method consist in non-invasiveness and high resolution. In addition, en face OCT investigations permit visualization of the more complex stratified structure at the interface between the polymeric material and the fiber reinforcement.

  1. Research on applicability of optical and digital technologies to nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emoto, Motonori

    1990-01-01

    Recently, the development of electronic technology represented by optical multiple transmission technology and digital technology is remarkable, and it is expected that this tendency advances further hereafter. The improvement of the reliability, operational performance and maintainability of nuclear power stations by applying these most advanced technologies to them has been desired. In this research, it was found that by the application of optical multiple transmission and digital technology to nuclear power stations, their operation by a small number of operators, the automation of work management and so on can be realized. Besides, it was found that as the major technologies of hereafter, the advance of artificial intelligence technology, rapid and large capacity information processing, the network of the computers of different types and others is necessary. Further, if these technologies are completed, the clarification of the requirement when those are actually applied to nuclear power stations is necessary, and it was found also that as the matters to be considered at that time, the extent of improvement of reliability, the reduction of risk at the time of the troubles of equipment and other fundamental matters must be clarified hereafter. (K.I.)

  2. Optically pumped VECSELs: review of technology and progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guina, M; Rantamäki, A; Härkönen, A

    2017-01-01

    Vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VECSELs) are the most versatile laser sources, combining unique features such as wide spectral coverage, ultrashort pulse operation, low noise properties, high output power, high brightness and compact form-factor. This paper reviews the recent technological developments of VECSELs in connection with the new milestones that continue to pave the way towards their use in numerous applications. Significant attention is devoted to the fabrication of VECSEL gain mirrors in challenging wavelength regions, especially at the yellow and red wavelengths. The reviewed fabrication approaches address wafer-bonded VECSEL structures as well as the use of hybrid mirror structures. Moreover, a comprehensive summary of VECSEL characterization methods is presented; the discussion covers different stages of VECSEL development and different operation regimes, pointing out specific characterization techniques for each of them. Finally, several emerging applications are discussed, with emphasis on the unique application objectives that VECSELs render possible, for example in atom and molecular physics, dermatology and spectroscopy. (topical review)

  3. Near field ice detection using infrared based optical imaging technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Moati, Hazem; Morris, Jonathan; Zeng, Yousheng; Corie, Martin Wesley; Yanni, Victor Garas

    2018-02-01

    If not detected and characterized, icebergs can potentially pose a hazard to oil and gas exploration, development and production operations in arctic environments as well as commercial shipping channels. In general, very large bergs are tracked and predicted using models or satellite imagery. Small and medium bergs are detectable using conventional marine radar. As icebergs decay they shed bergy bits and growlers, which are much smaller and more difficult to detect. Their low profile above the water surface, in addition to occasional relatively high seas, makes them invisible to conventional marine radar. Visual inspection is the most common method used to detect bergy bits and growlers, but the effectiveness of visual inspections is reduced by operator fatigue and low light conditions. The potential hazard from bergy bits and growlers is further increased by short detection range (<1 km). As such, there is a need for robust and autonomous near-field detection of such smaller icebergs. This paper presents a review of iceberg detection technology and explores applications for infrared imagers in the field. Preliminary experiments are performed and recommendations are made for future work, including a proposed imager design which would be suited for near field ice detection.

  4. OPTICAL FIBER SENSOR TECHNOLOGIES FOR EFFICIENT AND ECONOMICAL OIL RECOVERY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Wang; H. Xiao; R. May

    1999-10-29

    Efficient and complete recovery of petroleum reserves from existing oil wells has proven difficult due to a lack of robust instrumentation that can monitor processes in the downhole environment. Commercially available sensors for measurement of pressure, temperature, and fluid flow exhibit shortened lifetimes in the harsh downhole conditions, which are characterized by high pressures (up to 20 kpsi), temperatures up to 250 C, and exposure to chemically reactive fluids. Development of robust sensors that deliver continuous, real-time data on reservoir performance and petroleum flow pathways will facilitate application of advanced recovery technologies, including horizontal and multi-lateral wells. The main objective of the research program is to develop cost-effective, reliable fiber sensor instrumentation for real-time monitoring and /or control of various key parameters crucial to efficient and economical oil production. This report presents the detailed research work and technical progress from October 1, 1998 to September 30, 1999. The research performed over the first year of the program has followed the schedule as proposed, and solid research progress has been made in specification of the technical requirements, design and fabrication of the SCIIB sensor probes, development of the sensor systems, development of DSP-based signal processing techniques, and construction of the test systems. These technical achievements will significantly help to advance continued research on sensor tests and evaluation during the second year of the program.

  5. A Review on Radio-Over-Fiber Technology-Based Integrated (Optical/Wireless) Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajpal, Shivika; Goyal, Rakesh

    2017-06-01

    In the present paper, radio-over-fiber (RoF) technology has been proposed, which is the integration of the optical and radio networks. With a high transmission capacity, comparatively low cost and low attenuation, optical fiber provides an ideal solution for accomplishing the interconnections. In addition, a radio system enables the significant mobility, flexibility and easy access. Therefore, the system integration can meet the increasing demands of subscribers for voice, data and multimedia services that require the access network to support high data rates at any time and any place inexpensively. RoF has the potentiality to the backbone of the wireless access network and it has gained significant momentum in the last decade as a potential last-mile access scheme. This paper gives the comprehensive review of RoF technology used in the communication system. Concept, applications, advantages and limitations of RoF technology are also discussed in this paper.

  6. The application of phase grating to CLM technology for the sub-65nm node optical lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Gi-Sung; Kim, Sung-Hyuck; Park, Ji-Soong; Choi, Sun-Young; Jeon, Chan-Uk; Shin, In-Kyun; Choi, Sung-Woon; Han, Woo-Sung

    2005-06-01

    As a promising technology for sub-65nm node optical lithography, CLM(Chrome-Less Mask) technology among RETs(Resolution Enhancement Techniques) for low k1 has been researched worldwide in recent years. CLM has several advantages, such as relatively simple manufacturing process and competitive performance compared to phase-edge PSM's. For the low-k1 lithography, we have researched CLM technique as a good solution especially for sub-65nm node. As a step for developing the sub-65nm node optical lithography, we have applied CLM technology in 80nm-node lithography with mesa and trench method. From the analysis of the CLM technology in the 80nm lithography, we found that there is the optimal shutter size for best performance in the technique, the increment of wafer ADI CD varied with pattern's pitch, and a limitation in patterning various shapes and size by OPC dead-zone - OPC dead-zone in CLM technique is the specific region of shutter size that dose not make the wafer CD increased more than a specific size. And also small patterns are easily broken, while fabricating the CLM mask in mesa method. Generally, trench method has better optical performance than mesa. These issues have so far restricted the application of CLM technology to a small field. We approached these issues with 3-D topographic simulation tool and found that the issues could be overcome by applying phase grating in trench-type CLM. With the simulation data, we made some test masks which had many kinds of patterns with many different conditions and analyzed their performance through AIMS fab 193 and exposure on wafer. Finally, we have developed the CLM technology which is free of OPC dead-zone and pattern broken in fabrication process. Therefore, we can apply the CLM technique into sub-65nm node optical lithography including logic devices.

  7. Recent Developments in Optical Detection Technologies in Lab-on-a-Chip Devices for Biosensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Miguel Matos Pires

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The field of microfluidics has yet to develop practical devices that provide real clinical value. One of the main reasons for this is the difficulty in realizing low-cost, sensitive, reproducible, and portable analyte detection microfluidic systems. Previous research has addressed two main approaches for the detection technologies in lab-on-a-chip devices: (a study of the compatibility of conventional instrumentation with microfluidic structures, and (b integration of innovative sensors contained within the microfluidic system. Despite the recent advances in electrochemical and mechanical based sensors, their drawbacks pose important challenges to their application in disposable microfluidic devices. Instead, optical detection remains an attractive solution for lab-on-a-chip devices, because of the ubiquity of the optical methods in the laboratory. Besides, robust and cost-effective devices for use in the field can be realized by integrating proper optical detection technologies on chips. This review examines the recent developments in detection technologies applied to microfluidic biosensors, especially addressing several optical methods, including fluorescence, chemiluminescence, absorbance and surface plasmon resonance.

  8. Technologies for Elastic Optical Networking Systems in Spatial, Temporal and Spectral Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Chuan

    As the demand for more data capacity keeps increasing, the need for the more efficient use of the data channel becomes more imperative. The fixed wavelength grid which has been in use for more than ten years in conventional wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) is a bottleneck that prevents the capacity from upgrading towards 400 Gb/s and above. A new elastic optical networking scheme where both transceivers and interconnects become flexible break the boundary of wavelength grids and allow a more efficient use of the limited optical bands for communication. This dissertation focuses on a few enabling technologies for elastic optical networking systems. Optical arbitrary waveform generation (OAWG) uses Fourier synthesis and generates user-defined broad-band scalable optical waveforms with high-fidelity through line-by-line full field control of a coherent optical frequency comb. OAWG finds its niche in elastic optical networking since it provides no grids, and scales to user-defined bandwidth. When elastic optical networking builds various connections to use an arbitrary number of subcarriers depending on the users' bandwidth needs, the flexibility also creates non-contiguous spectral fragmentation, much like a computer hard disk generating fragments. Spectral defragmentation aims to re-optimize and re-assign the optical spectrum to achieve more efficient use of the spectrum. One of the technologies is "hop tuning" defragmentation method with a fast auto-tracking local oscillator (LO). In the demonstrated defragmentation experiment, I used a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) to monitor the wavelength change in the signal laser and tune the front and rear current that controls the wavelength of the local oscillator laser. However, the control of the front and rear current needs a complete and accurate calibration of the LO laser and may not apply to a larger number of coherent communication links. A single-tone optical frequency shifter can shift the LO laser

  9. Integration of NASA-Developed Lifing Technology for PM Alloys into DARWIN (registered trademark)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClung, R. Craig; Enright, Michael P.; Liang, Wuwei

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) and NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) have worked independently on the development of probabilistic life prediction methods for materials used in gas turbine engine rotors. The two organizations have addressed different but complementary technical challenges. This report summarizes a brief investigation into the current status of the relevant technology at SwRI and GRC with a view towards a future integration of methods and models developed by GRC for probabilistic lifing of powder metallurgy (P/M) nickel turbine rotor alloys into the DARWIN (Darwin Corporation) software developed by SwRI.

  10. Assessment of fiber optic sensors and other advanced sensing technologies for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashemian, H.M.

    1996-01-01

    As a result of problems such as calibration drift in nuclear plant pressure sensors and the recent oil loss syndrome in some models of Rosemount pressure transmitters, the nuclear industry has become interested in fiber optic pressure sensors. Fiber optic sensing technologies have been considered for the development of advanced instrumentation and control (I ampersand C) systems for the next generation of reactors and in older plants which are retrofitted with new I ampersand C systems. This paper presents the results of a six-month Phase I study to establish the state-of-the-art in fiber optic pressure sensing. This study involved a literature review, contact with experts in the field, an industrial survey, a site visit to a fiber optic sensor manufacturer, and laboratory testing of a fiber optic pressure sensor. The laboratory work involved both static and dynamic performance tests. This initial Phase I study has recently been granted a two-year extension by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The next phase will evaluate fiber optic pressure sensors in specific nuclear plant applications in addition to other advanced methods for monitoring critical nuclear plant equipment

  11. An electrochemical study of the flow rate effect on the oxide film of SA106 Gr.C piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, S. M.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, I. S.

    2002-01-01

    Effect of water flow rate on the oxide film of SA106 Gr.C piping was evaluated quantitatively through electrochemical method. It was carried out with weight change experiments, polarization tests, and EIS tests with rig that simulates water flow. Without water flow, the oxide film is so stable that it effectively blocks current exchange. With water flow, the oxide film was damaged and electrochemical current density and oxide film properties, C dl and R p were significantly changed

  12. Fiber in access technologies and network convergence: an opportunity for optical integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiggino, Pierpaolo C.

    2008-11-01

    Broadband networks are among the fastest growing segment in telecom. The initial and still very significant push originated with xDSL technologies and indeed a significant amount of research and development is still occurring in this field with impressive results and allowing for a remarkable use of the installed copper infrastructure way beyond its originally planned bandwidth capabilities. However it is clear that ultimately a more suitable fiber based infrastructure will be needed in order to reduce both operational and network technology costs. Such cost reduction in inevitable as the added value to end users is only related to services and these cannot be priced outside a sensible window, whilst the related bandwidth increase is much more dramatic and its huge variability must be met with little or no cost impact by the network and its operation. Fiber in access has indeed the potential to cope with a huge bandwidth demand for many years to come as its inherent bandwidth capabilities are only just tapped by current service requirements. However the whole technology supply chain must follow in line. In particular optical technology must brace itself to cope with the required much larger deployment and greater cost effectiveness, whilst at the same time deliver performance suitable to the bandwidth increase offered in the longer term by the fiber medium. This paper looks at this issues and debates the opportunities for a new class of optical devices making use of the progress in optical integration

  13. Leak before break evaluation for main steam piping system made of SA106 Gr.C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Kyoung Mo; Jee, Kye Kwang; Pyo, Chang Ryul; Ra, In Sik [Korea Power Engineering Company, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-04-01

    The basis of the leak before break (LBB) concept is to demonstrate that piping will leak significantly before a double ended guillotine break (DEGB) occurs. This is demonstrated by quantifying and evaluating the leak process and prescribing safe shutdown of the plant on the basis of the monitored leak rate. The application of LBB for power plant design has reduced plant cost while improving plant integrity. Several evaluations employing LBB analysis on system piping based on DEGB design have been completed. However, the application of LBB on main steam (MS) piping, which is LBB applicable piping, has not been performed due to several uncertainties associated with occurrence of steam hammer and dynamic strain aging (DSA). The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the applicability of the LBB design concept to main steam lines manufactured with SA106 Gr.C carbon steel. Based on the material properties, including fracture toughness and tensile properties obtained from the comprehensive material tests for base and weld metals, a parametric study was performed as described in this paper. The PICEP code was used to determine leak size crack (LSC) and the FLET code was used to perform the stability assessment of MS piping. The effects of material properties obtained from tests were evaluated to determine the LBB applicability for the MS piping. It can be shown from this parametric study that the MS piping has a high possibility of design using LBB analysis.

  14. Effect of environment on the propagation of electromagnetic waves in GRC 408E digital radiorelay devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojkan M. Radonjić

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality transmission of digital signals from a transmitting radio-relay device to a receiving one depends on the impact of environmental effects on the propagation of electromagnetic waves. In this paper some of the most important effects are explained and modeled, especially those characteristic for the frequency range within which the GRC 408E operates. The modeling resulted in the conclusions about the quality of transmission of digital signals in the GRC 408E radio-relay equipment. Propagation of electromagnetic waves A radio-relay link is achieved by direct electromagnetic waves, provided there is a line of sight between the transmitting and receiving antenna of a radio-relay device. Electromagnetic waves on the road are exposed to various environmental influences causing phenomena such as bending, reflection, refraction, absorption and multiple propagation. Due to these environmental effects, the quality of information transmission is not satisfactory and a radio-relay link is not reliable. The approach to the analysis of the quality of links in digital radiorelay devices is different from the one in analog radio-relay devices. Therefore, the quality is seen through errors in the received bit ( BER , the propagation conditions are taken into account, a reservation for the fading is determined by other means, etc.. Phenomena which accompany the propagation of electromagnetic waves in digital radio-relay links The propagation of direct EM waves is followed by the following phenomena: - attenuation due to propagation, - diffraction (changing table, - refraction (refraction, - reflection (refusing, - absorption (absorption and - multiple wave propagation. Each of these has a negative effect on the quality of the received signal at the receiving antenna of the radio-relay device. Attenuation due to propagation of electromagnetic waves The main parameter for evaluating the quality of radio-relay links is the level of the field at the reception

  15. National Ignition Facility quality assurance plan for laser materials and optical technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, C.R.

    1996-05-01

    Quality achievement is the responsibility of the line organizations of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Project. This subtier Quality Assurance Plan (QAP) applies to activities of the Laser Materials & Optical Technology (LM&OT) organization and its subcontractors. It responds to the NIF Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP, L-15958-2, NIF-95-499) and Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5700.6C. This Plan is organized according to 10 Quality Assurance (QA) criteria and subelements of a management system as outlined in the NIF QAPP. This Plan describes how those QA requirements are met. This Plan is authorized by the Associate Project Leader for the LM&OT organization, who has assigned responsibility to the Optics QA engineer to maintain this plan, with the assistance of the NIF QA organization. This Plan governs quality-affecting activities associated with: design; procurement; fabrication; testing and acceptance; handling and storage; and installation of NIF Project optical components into mounts and subassemblies.

  16. New radiological material detection technologies for nuclear forensics: Remote optical imaging and graphene-based sensors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Richard Karl [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Martin, Jeffrey B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wiemann, Dora K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Choi, Junoh [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Howell, Stephen W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    We developed new detector technologies to identify the presence of radioactive materials for nuclear forensics applications. First, we investigated an optical radiation detection technique based on imaging nitrogen fluorescence excited by ionizing radiation. We demonstrated optical detection in air under indoor and outdoor conditions for alpha particles and gamma radiation at distances up to 75 meters. We also contributed to the development of next generation systems and concepts that could enable remote detection at distances greater than 1 km, and originated a concept that could enable daytime operation of the technique. A second area of research was the development of room-temperature graphene-based sensors for radiation detection and measurement. In this project, we observed tunable optical and charged particle detection, and developed improved devices. With further development, the advancements described in this report could enable new capabilities for nuclear forensics applications.

  17. Inner structure detection by optical tomography technology based on feedback of microchip Nd:YAG lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chunxin; Zhang, Shulian; Tan, Yidong; Zhao, Shijie

    2013-05-20

    We describe a new optical tomography technology based on feedback of microchip Nd:YAG lasers. In the case of feedback light frequency-shifted, light can be magnified by a fact of 10(6) in the Nd:YAG microchip lasers, which makes it possible to realize optical tomography with a greater depth than current optical tomography. The results of the measuring and imaging of kinds of samples are presented, which demonstrate the feasibility and potential of this approach in the inner structure detection. The system has a lateral resolution of ~1 μm, a vertical resolution of 15 μm and a longitudinal scanning range of over 10mm.

  18. Surveying and optical tooling technologies combined to align a skewed beamline at the LAMPF accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauke, W.; Clark, D.A.; Trujillo, P.B.

    1985-01-01

    Optical Tooling evolved from traditional surveying, and both technologies are sometimes used interchangeably in large industrial installations, since the instruments and their specialized adapters and supports complement each other well. A unique marriage of both technologies was accomplished in a novel application at LAMPF, the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility. LAMPF consists of a linear accelerator with multiple target systems, one of which had to be altered to accommodate a new beamline for a neutrino experiment. The new line was to be installed into a crowded beam tunnel and had to be skewed and tilted in compound angles to avoid existing equipment. In this paper we describe how Optical Tooling was used in conjunction with simple alignment and reference fixtures to set fiducials on the magnets and other mechanical components of the beamline, and how theodolites and sight levels were then adapted to align these components along the calculated skew planes. Design tolerances are compared with measured alignment results

  19. High-power electro-optic switch technology based on novel transparent ceramic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue-Jiao, Zhang; Qing, Ye; Rong-Hui, Qu; Hai-wen, Cai

    2016-03-01

    A novel high-power polarization-independent electro-optic switch technology based on a reciprocal structure Sagnac interferometer and a transparent quadratic electro-optic ceramic is proposed and analyzed theoretically and experimentally. The electro-optic ceramic is used as a phase retarder for the clockwise and counter-clockwise polarized light, and their polarization directions are adjusted to their orthogonal positions by using two half-wave plates. The output light then becomes polarization-independent with respect to the polarization direction of the input light. The switch characteristics, including splitter ratios and polarization states, are theoretically analyzed and simulated in detail by the matrix multiplication method. An experimental setup is built to verify the analysis and experimental results. A new component ceramic is used and a non-polarizing cube beam splitter (NPBS) replaces the beam splitter (BS) to lower the ON/OFF voltage to 305 V and improve the extinction ratio by 2 dB. Finally, the laser-induced damage threshold for the proposed switch is measured and discussed. It is believed that potential applications of this novel polarization-independent electro-optic switch technology will be wide, especially for ultrafast high-power laser systems. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61137004, 61405218, and 61535014).

  20. High-power electro-optic switch technology based on novel transparent ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xue-Jiao; Ye Qing; Qu Rong-Hui; Cai Hai-wen

    2016-01-01

    A novel high-power polarization-independent electro-optic switch technology based on a reciprocal structure Sagnac interferometer and a transparent quadratic electro-optic ceramic is proposed and analyzed theoretically and experimentally. The electro-optic ceramic is used as a phase retarder for the clockwise and counter-clockwise polarized light, and their polarization directions are adjusted to their orthogonal positions by using two half-wave plates. The output light then becomes polarization-independent with respect to the polarization direction of the input light. The switch characteristics, including splitter ratios and polarization states, are theoretically analyzed and simulated in detail by the matrix multiplication method. An experimental setup is built to verify the analysis and experimental results. A new component ceramic is used and a non-polarizing cube beam splitter (NPBS) replaces the beam splitter (BS) to lower the ON/OFF voltage to 305 V and improve the extinction ratio by 2 dB. Finally, the laser-induced damage threshold for the proposed switch is measured and discussed. It is believed that potential applications of this novel polarization-independent electro-optic switch technology will be wide, especially for ultrafast high-power laser systems. (paper)

  1. Optical coherence tomography-current technology and applications in clinical and biomedical research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marschall, Sebastian; Sander, Birgit; Mogensen, Mette

    2011-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive imaging technique that provides real-time two- and three-dimensional images of scattering samples with micrometer resolution. By mapping the local reflectivity, OCT visualizes the morphology of the sample. In addition, functional properties such...... biology. The number of companies involved in manufacturing OCT systems has increased substantially during the last few years (especially due to its success in opthalmology), and this technology can be expected to continue to spread into various fields of application....

  2. Research on the high-precision non-contact optical detection technology for banknotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiaofeng; Liang, Tiancai; Luo, Pengfeng; Sun, Jianfeng

    2015-09-01

    The technology of high-precision laser interferometry was introduced for optical measurement of the banknotes in this paper. Taking advantage of laser short wavelength and high sensitivity, information of adhesive tape and cavity about the banknotes could be checked efficiently. Compared with current measurement devices, including mechanical wheel measurement device, Infrared measurement device, ultrasonic measurement device, the laser interferometry measurement has higher precision and reliability. This will improve the ability of banknotes feature information in financial electronic equipment.

  3. Ethernet access network based on free-space optic deployment technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhart, Michael; Leitgeb, Erich; Birnbacher, Ulla; Schrotter, Peter

    2004-06-01

    The satisfaction of all communication needs from single households and business companies over a single access infrastructure is probably the most challenging topic in communications technology today. But even though the so-called "Last Mile Access Bottleneck" is well known since more than ten years and many distribution technologies have been tried out, the optimal solution has not yet been found and paying commercial access networks offering all service classes are still rare today. Conventional services like telephone, radio and TV, as well as new and emerging services like email, web browsing, online-gaming, video conferences, business data transfer or external data storage can all be transmitted over the well known and cost effective Ethernet networking protocol standard. Key requirements for the deployment technology driven by the different services are high data rates to the single customer, security, moderate deployment costs and good scalability to number and density of users, quick and flexible deployment without legal impediments and high availability, referring to the properties of optical and wireless communication. We demonstrate all elements of an Ethernet Access Network based on Free Space Optic distribution technology. Main physical parts are Central Office, Distribution Network and Customer Equipment. Transmission of different services, as well as configuration, service upgrades and remote control of the network are handled by networking features over one FSO connection. All parts of the network are proven, the latest commercially available technology. The set up is flexible and can be adapted to any more specific need if required.

  4. The Large UV/Optical/Infrared Surveyor (LUVOIR): Decadal Mission concept technology development overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolcar, Matthew R.

    2017-09-01

    The Large Ultraviolet / Optical / Infrared (LUVOIR) Surveyor is one of four large mission concept studies being developed by NASA for consideration in the 2020 Astrophysics Decadal Survey. LUVOIR will support a broad range of science objectives, including the direct imaging and spectral characterization of habitable exoplanets around sun-like stars, the study of galaxy formation and evolution, the epoch of reionization, star and planet formation, and the remote sensing of Solar System bodies. The LUVOIR Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) has tasked a Technology Working Group (TWG), with more than 60 members from NASA centers, academia, industry, and international partners, with identifying technologies that enable or enhance the LUVOIR science mission. The TWG has identified such technologies in the areas of Coronagraphy, Ultra-Stable Opto-mechanical Systems, Detectors, Coatings, Starshades, and Instrument Components, and has completed a detailed assessment of the state-of-the-art. We present here a summary of this technology assessment effort, as well as the current progress in defining a technology development plan to mature these technologies to the required technology readiness level (TRL).

  5. Copper Disk Manufactured at the Space Optics Manufacturing and Technology Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This photograph shows Wes Brown, Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) lead diamond tuner, an expert in the science of using diamond-tipped tools to cut metal, inspecting the mold's physical characteristics to ensure the uniformity of its more than 6,000 grooves. This king-size copper disk, manufactured at the Space Optics Manufacturing and Technology Center (SOMTC) at MSFC, is a special mold for making high resolution monitor screens. This master mold will be used to make several other molds, each capable of forming hundreds of screens that have a type of lens called a fresnel lens. Weighing much less than conventional optics, fresnel lenses have multiple concentric grooves, each formed to a precise angle, that together create the curvature needed to focus and project images. The MSFC leads NASA's space optics manufacturing technology development as a technology leader for diamond turning. The machine used to manufacture this mold is among many one-of-a-kind pieces of equipment of MSFC's SOMTC.

  6. Optical technology for microwave applications VI and optoelectronic signal processing for phased-array antennas III; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 20-23, 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Shi-Kay; Hendrickson, Brian M.

    The following topics related to optical technology for microwave applications are discussed: advanced acoustooptic devices, signal processing device technologies, optical signal processor technologies, microwave and optomicrowave devices, advanced lasers and sources, wideband electrooptic modulators, and wideband optical communications. The topics considered in the discussion of optoelectronic signal processing for phased-array antennas include devices, signal processing, and antenna systems.

  7. Electro-Optics Millimeter/Microwave Technology in Japan. Report of DoD Technology Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-01

    sink packages covering frequencies up to 94 GHz is being produced. They are suitable for both con- tinuous wave (CW) and pulsed operations. Mean -time...Processing Tel ecommunications Semiconductor and Electronic Components The Technology Team visited the Fujitsu Laboratory, Kanagawa. Topics covered included...Japan, the representatives of the Government of Japan and the Government of the United States of America have held discussions on the ways and means to

  8. 2008 GRC Iron Sulfur Enzymes-Conference to be held June 8-13, 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cramer, Stephen [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Gray, Nancy Ryan [Gordon Research Conferences, West Kingston, RI (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Iron-sulfur proteins are among the most common and ancient enzymes and electron-transfer agents in nature. They play key roles in photosynthesis, respiration, and the metabolism of small molecules such as H2, CO, and N2. The Iron Sulfur Enzyme Gordon Research Conference evolved from an earlier GRC on Nitrogen Fixation that began in 1994. The scope of the current meeting has broadened to include all enzymes or metalloproteins in which Fe-S bonds play a key role. This year's meeting will focus on the biosynthesis of Fe-S clusters, as well as the structure and mechanism of key Fe-S enzymes such as hydrogenase, nitrogenase and its homologues, radical SAM enzymes, and aconitase-related enzymes. Recent progress on the role of Fe-S enzymes in health, disease, DNA/RNA-processing, and alternative bio-energy systems will also be highlighted. This conference will assemble a broad, diverse, and international group of biologists and chemists who are investigating fundamental issues related to Fe-S enzymes, on atomic, molecular, organism, and environmental scales. The topics to be addressed will include: Biosynthesis & Genomics of Fe-S Enzymes; Fundamental Fe-S Chemistry; Hydrogen and Fe-S Enzymes; Nitrogenase & Homologous Fe-S Enzymes; Fe-S Enzymes in Health & Disease; Radical SAM and Aconitase-Related Fe-S Enzymes; Fe-S Enzymes and Synthetic Analogues in BioEnergy; and Fe-S Enzymes in Geochemistry and the Origin of Life.

  9. Assessing the future of diffuse optical imaging technologies for breast cancer management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tromberg, Bruce J.; Pogue, Brian W.; Paulsen, Keith D.; Yodh, Arjun G.; Boas, David A.; Cerussi, Albert E.

    2008-01-01

    Diffuse optical imaging (DOI) is a noninvasive optical technique that employs near-infrared (NIR) light to quantitatively characterize the optical properties of thick tissues. Although NIR methods were first applied to breast transillumination (also called diaphanography) nearly 80 years ago, quantitative DOI methods employing time- or frequency-domain photon migration technologies have only recently been used for breast imaging (i.e., since the mid-1990s). In this review, the state of the art in DOI for breast cancer is outlined and a multi-institutional Network for Translational Research in Optical Imaging (NTROI) is described, which has been formed by the National Cancer Institute to advance diffuse optical spectroscopy and imaging (DOSI) for the purpose of improving breast cancer detection and clinical management. DOSI employs broadband technology both in near-infrared spectral and temporal signal domains in order to separate absorption from scattering and quantify uptake of multiple molecular probes based on absorption or fluorescence contrast. Additional dimensionality in the data is provided by integrating and co-registering the functional information of DOSI with x-ray mammography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which provide structural information or vascular flow information, respectively. Factors affecting DOSI performance, such as intrinsic and extrinsic contrast mechanisms, quantitation of biochemical components, image formation/visualization, and multimodality co-registration are under investigation in the ongoing research NTROI sites. One of the goals is to develop standardized DOSI platforms that can be used as stand-alone devices or in conjunction with MRI, mammography, or ultrasound. This broad-based, multidisciplinary effort is expected to provide new insight regarding the origins of breast disease and practical approaches for addressing several key challenges in breast cancer, including: Detecting disease in mammographically dense tissue

  10. Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Mathieu, Jean Paul

    1975-01-01

    Optics, Parts 1 and 2 covers electromagnetic optics and quantum optics. The first part of the book examines the various of the important properties common to all electromagnetic radiation. This part also studies electromagnetic waves; electromagnetic optics of transparent isotropic and anisotropic media; diffraction; and two-wave and multi-wave interference. The polarization states of light, the velocity of light, and the special theory of relativity are also examined in this part. The second part is devoted to quantum optics, specifically discussing the classical molecular theory of optical p

  11. The outlook of innovative optical-electronic technologies implementation in transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilina, Elena V.; Ryabichenko, Roman B.

    2005-06-01

    Information and telecommunication technologies (ITT) are already tool economic development of society and their role will grow. The first task is providing of information security of ITT that is necessary for it distribution in "information" society. The state policy of the leading world countries (USA, France, Japan, Great Britain and China) is focused on investment huge funds in innovative technologies development. Within the next 4-6 years the main fiber-optic transfer lines will have data transfer speed 40 Gbit/s, number of packed channels 60-200 that will provide effective data transfer speed 2,4-8 Tbit/s. Photonic-crystalline fibers will be promising base of new generation fiber-optic transfer lines. The market of information imaging devices and digital photo cameras will be grown in 3-5 times. Powerful lasers based on CO2 and Nd:YAG will be actively used in transport machinery construction when producing aluminum constructions of light rolling-stock. Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) will be base for energy saving and safety light sources used for vehicles and indoor lighting. For example, in the USA cost reducing for lighting will be 200 billion dollars. Implementation analysis of optic electronic photonic technologies (OPT) in ground and aerospace systems shows that they provide significant increasing of traffic safety, crew and passengers comfort with help of smart vehicles construction and non-contact dynamic monitoring both transport facilities (for example, wheel flanges) and condition of rail track (road surface), equipping vehicles with night vision equipment. Scientific-technical programs of JSC "RZD" propose application of OPT in new generation systems: axle-box units for coaches and freight cars monitoring when they are moved, track condition analysis, mechanical stress and permanent way irregularity detection, monitoring geometric parameters of aerial contact wire, car truck, rail and wheel pair roll surface, light signals automatic detection from

  12. International Conference on New Technologies in the Humanities and Fourth International Conference on Optics Within Life Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Bally, Gert

    1997-01-01

    New high-tech developments in the field of optics show increasing applicability not only in classical technological fields but also in the humanities. This book contains selected contributions to an international, interdisciplinary joint conference on "New Technologies in the Humanities" and "Optics Within Life Sciences". Its objective is to forward interdisciplinary information and communication between specialists in optics as well as in medicine, biology, environmental sciences, and cultural heritage. It is unique as a presentation of new optical technologies for cultural heritage protection. The contributions cover international research activities in the areas of archaeological research and new technologies, holography and interferometry, material analysis, laser cleaning, pattern recognition, unconventional microscopy, spectroscopial techniques, and profilometry.

  13. Installation of a technological center for highly efficient optical gratings at Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loechel, B; Erko, A; Lemke, St; Senf, F; Nelles, B; Schmidt, M

    2013-01-01

    In 2009 Carl Zeiss stopped the manufacture of precision gratings. All users of their gratings were very concerned about this decision, since they all need precision gratings for their experiments. One of the institutes of the HZB, the Institute for Nanometer Optics and Technology (INT), has extensive experience in micro fabrication (technology group). In spring 2010, HZB decided to take over the old C. Zeiss grating fabrication and build up its own technology center for grating fabrication. In March 2010, the INT applied to the Senate of Berlin for funding for our project from the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF). In October 2010, HZB received an approval of its application from the Senate of Berlin (contract No 20072013 2/43). Using this governmental support, HZB will install all necessary equipment and processes to fulfill these demands until end of 2013.

  14. Optical Manufacturing and Testing Requirements Identified by the NASA Science Instruments, Observatories and Sensor Systems Technology Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Barney, Rich; Bauman, Jill; Feinberg, Lee; Mcleese, Dan; Singh, Upendra

    2011-01-01

    In August 2010, the NASA Office of Chief Technologist (OCT) commissioned an assessment of 15 different technology areas of importance to the future of NASA. Technology assessment #8 (TA8) was Science Instruments, Observatories and Sensor Systems (SIOSS). SIOSS assess the needs for optical technology ranging from detectors to lasers, x-ray mirrors to microwave antenna, in-situ spectrographs for on-surface planetary sample characterization to large space telescopes. The needs assessment looked across the entirety of NASA and not just the Science Mission Directorate. This paper reviews the optical manufacturing and testing technologies identified by SIOSS which require development in order to enable future NASA high priority missions.

  15. Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Fincham, W H A

    2013-01-01

    Optics: Ninth Edition Optics: Ninth Edition covers the work necessary for the specialization in such subjects as ophthalmic optics, optical instruments and lens design. The text includes topics such as the propagation and behavior of light; reflection and refraction - their laws and how different media affect them; lenses - thick and thin, cylindrical and subcylindrical; photometry; dispersion and color; interference; and polarization. Also included are topics such as diffraction and holography; the limitation of beams in optical systems and its effects; and lens systems. The book is recommen

  16. Research and Technology 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Walter S.

    2003-01-01

    This report selectively summarizes NASA Glenn Research Center s research and technology accomplishments for fiscal year 2002. It comprises 166 short articles submitted by the staff scientists and engineers. The report is organized into five major sections: Aeronautics, Research and Technology, Space, Engineering and Technical Services, and Commercial Technology. A table of contents and author index have been developed to assist readers in finding articles of special interest. This report is not intended to be a comprehensive summary of all the research and technology work done over the past fiscal year. Most of the work is reported in Glenn-published technical reports, journal articles, and presentations prepared by Glenn staff and contractors. In addition, university grants have enabled faculty members and graduate students to engage in sponsored research that is reported at technical meetings or in journal articles. For each article in this report, a Glenn contact person has been identified, and where possible, a reference document is listed so that additional information can be easily obtained. The diversity of topics attests to the breadth of research and technology being pursued and to the skill mix of the staff that makes it possible. For more information about research at Glenn, visit us on the World Wide Web (http://www.grc.nasa.gov). This document is available online (http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/RT). For publicly available reports, visit the Glenn Technical Report Server (http://gltrs.grc.nasa.gov/GLTRS/).

  17. Research and Technology 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This report selectively summarizes NASA Glenn Research Center's research and technology accomplishments for fiscal year 2001. It comprises 156 short articles submitted by the staff scientists and engineers. The report is organized into five major sections: Aeronautics, Research and Technology, Space, Engineering and Technical Services, and Commercial Technology. A table of contents and author index have been developed to assist readers in finding articles of special interest. This report is not intended to be a comprehensive summary of all the research and technology work done over the past fiscal year. Most of the work is reported in Glenn-published technical reports, journal articles, and presentations prepared by Glenn staff and contractors. In addition, university grants have enabled faculty members and graduate students to engage in sponsored research that is reported at technical meetings or in journal articles. For each article in this report, a Glenn contact person has been identified, and, where possible, a reference document is listed so that additional information can be easily obtained. The diversity of topics attests to the breadth of research and technology being pursued and to the skill mix of the staff that makes it possible. For more information about research at Glenn, visit us on the World Wide Web (http://www.grc.nasa.gov). This document is available online (http://www.grc.nasa.gov/www/RT). For publicly available reports, visit the Glenn Technical Report Server (http://gltrs.grc.nasa.gov/GLTRS).

  18. Data Fusion Based on Optical Technology for Observation of Human Manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falco, Pietro; De Maria, Giuseppe; Natale, Ciro; Pirozzi, Salvatore

    2012-01-01

    The adoption of human observation is becoming more and more frequent within imitation learning and programming by demonstration approaches (PbD) to robot programming. For robotic systems equipped with anthropomorphic hands, the observation phase is very challenging and no ultimate solution exists. This work proposes a novel mechatronic approach to the observation of human hand motion during manipulation tasks. The strategy is based on the combined use of an optical motion capture system and a low-cost data glove equipped with novel joint angle sensors, based on optoelectronic technology. The combination of the two information sources is obtained through a sensor fusion algorithm based on the extended Kalman filter (EKF) suitably modified to tackle the problem of marker occlusions, typical of optical motion capture systems. This approach requires a kinematic model of the human hand. Another key contribution of this work is a new method to calibrate this model.

  19. Evolution of National University Students' Optical-Science-Technology competition in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu; Liu, XiangDong; Wang, XiaoPing; Zheng, XiaoDong; Lin, YuanFang; Wang, Kaiwei

    2017-08-01

    The goal of National University Students' Optical-Science-Technology Competition (NUSOSTC) is to provide a nation-wide platform for students from the colleges and universities, which have majors in the field of optics and photonics, to communicate and learning each other. Meanwhile, it works on pushing forward the popularity of optoelectronic knowledge, cultivating the students' teamwork and innovation ability, promoting higher education personnel training mode and practice teaching reform, and then improving the quality of talent training. The founding, organizational structure development and overall organizational arrangements of NUSOSTC were introduced in this paper. Besides, the competition logo, theme, title, final date, numbers of participating universities, undertaking universities and cities of the five NUSOSTCs held during 2008 to 2016 and the progress had been made were given in detail.

  20. Advances in laser technology and fibre-optic delivery systems in lithotripsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Nathaniel M; Irby, Pierce B

    2018-06-08

    The flashlamp-pumped, solid-state holmium:yttrium-aluminium-garnet (YAG) laser has been the laser of choice for use in ureteroscopic lithotripsy for the past 20 years. However, although the holmium laser works well on all stone compositions and is cost-effective, this technology still has several fundamental limitations. Newer laser technologies, including the frequency-doubled, double-pulse YAG (FREDDY), erbium:YAG, femtosecond, and thulium fibre lasers, have all been explored as potential alternatives to the holmium:YAG laser for lithotripsy. Each of these laser technologies is associated with technical advantages and disadvantages, and the search continues for the next generation of laser lithotripsy systems that can provide rapid, safe, and efficient stone ablation. New fibre-optic approaches for safer and more efficient delivery of the laser energy inside the urinary tract include the use of smaller-core fibres and fibres that are tapered, spherical, detachable or hollow steel, or have muzzle brake distal fibre-optic tips. These specialty fibres might provide advantages, including improved flexibility for maximal ureteroscope deflection, reduced cross section for increased saline irrigation rates through the working channel of the ureteroscope, reduced stone retropulsion for improved stone ablation efficiency, and reduced fibre degradation and burnback for longer fibre life.

  1. Printing polymer optical waveguides on conditioned transparent flexible foils by using the aerosol jet technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitberger, Thomas; Hoffmann, Gerd-Albert; Wolfer, Tim; Overmeyer, Ludger; Franke, Joerg

    2016-09-01

    The optical data transfer is considered as the future of signal transfer due to its various advantages compared to conventional copper-based technologies. The Aerosol Jet Printing (AJP) technology offers the opportunity to print materials with high viscosities, such as liquid transparent polymer adhesives (epoxy resins), on almost any possible substrate material and even in third dimension. This paper introduces a new flexible and comparatively cost-effective way of generating polymer optical waveguides through AJP. Furthermore, the conditioning of the substrate material and the printing process of planar waveguides are presented. In the first step, two lines with hydrophobic behavior are applied on foil material (PMMA, PVC, PI) by using a flexographic printing machine. These silicone based patterns containing functional polymer form barriers for the core material due to their low surface energy after curing. In the second step, the core material (liquid polymer, varnish) is printed between the barrier lines. Because of the hydrophobic behavior of the lines, the contact angle between the substrate surface and the liquid core material is increased which yields to higher aspect ratio. The distance between the barrier lines is at least 100 μm, which defines the width of the waveguide. The minimum height of the core shall be 50 μm. After UV-curing of the core polymer, the cladding material is printed on the top. This is also applied by using the AJP technology. Various tests were performed to achieve the optimal surface properties for adequate adhesion and machine process parameters.

  2. LISA technologies in new light: exploring alternatives for charge management and optical bench construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciani, Giacomo; Chilton, Andrew; Olatunde, Taiwo; Apple, Stephen; Conklin, John W.; Mueller, Guido

    2015-08-01

    A LISA-like gravitational wave observatory is the choice candidate for ESA's L3 large mission scheduled to launch in 2034. The LISA Test Package (LTP) mission will launch later this year and test many critical technologies needed for such an observatory, among which are picometer interferometry in space and UV charge management of the Test Mass (TM). The design of these subsystems has been frozen many years ago during the final formulation of the LTP mission; since then, the LISA mission concept has evolved and new technologies have become available, making it possible to re-think the way these subsystem are implemented. With the final formulation of the L3 mission still years in the future and the LTP results expected in about one year, now is an ideal time look for areas of possible improvement and explore alternative implementations that can enhance performance, reduce costs or mitigate risks.Recently developed UV LED are lighter, cheaper and more powerful than traditional mercury lamps; in addition, their fast response time can be used to implement AC discharge techniques that can save even more space and power, and provide a more precise control of the charge.The most recent iteration of the mission baseline design allows for eliminating some of the optical components initially deemed essential; paired with the use of polarization multiplexing, this permits a redesign of the optical bench that simplifies the layout and enables a modular approach to machining and assembly, thus reducing the risks and costs associated with the current monolithic design without compromising the picometer stability of the optical path.Leveraging on extensive previous experience with LISA interferometry and the availability of a torsion pendulum-based LISA test-bed, the University of Florida LISA group is working at developing, demonstrating and optimizing both these technologies. I will describe the most recent advancements and results.

  3. Developing Magnetorheological Finishing (MRF) Technology for the Manufacture of Large-Aperture Optics in Megajoule Class Laser Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menapace, J A

    2010-10-27

    Over the last eight years we have been developing advanced MRF tools and techniques to manufacture meter-scale optics for use in Megajoule class laser systems. These systems call for optics having unique characteristics that can complicate their fabrication using conventional polishing methods. First, exposure to the high-power nanosecond and sub-nanosecond pulsed laser environment in the infrared (>27 J/cm{sup 2} at 1053 nm), visible (>18 J/cm{sup 2} at 527 nm), and ultraviolet (>10 J/cm{sup 2} at 351 nm) demands ultra-precise control of optical figure and finish to avoid intensity modulation and scatter that can result in damage to the optics chain or system hardware. Second, the optics must be super-polished and virtually free of surface and subsurface flaws that can limit optic lifetime through laser-induced damage initiation and growth at the flaw sites, particularly at 351 nm. Lastly, ultra-precise optics for beam conditioning are required to control laser beam quality. These optics contain customized surface topographical structures that cannot be made using traditional fabrication processes. In this review, we will present the development and implementation of large-aperture MRF tools and techniques specifically designed to meet the demanding optical performance challenges required in large-aperture high-power laser systems. In particular, we will discuss the advances made by using MRF technology to expose and remove surface and subsurface flaws in optics during final polishing to yield optics with improve laser damage resistance, the novel application of MRF deterministic polishing to imprint complex topographical information and wavefront correction patterns onto optical surfaces, and our efforts to advance the technology to manufacture large-aperture damage resistant optics.

  4. Optical waveguiding and applied photonics technological aspects, experimental issue approaches and measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Massaro, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    Optoelectronics--technology based on applications light such as micro/nano quantum electronics, photonic devices, laser for measurements and detection--has become an important field of research. Many applications and physical problems concerning optoelectronics are analyzed in Optical Waveguiding and Applied Photonics.The book is organized in order to explain how to implement innovative sensors starting from basic physical principles. Applications such as cavity resonance, filtering, tactile sensors, robotic sensor, oil spill detection, small antennas and experimental setups using lasers are a

  5. Overview of Fiber Optic Sensor Technologies for Strain/Temperature Sensing Applications in Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Manjusha; Rajan, Ginu; Semenova, Yuliya; Farrell, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the different types of fiber optic sensors (FOS) that can be used with composite materials and also their compatibility with and suitability for embedding inside a composite material. An overview of the different types of FOS used for strain/temperature sensing in composite materials is presented. Recent trends, and future challenges for FOS technology for condition monitoring in smart composite materials are also discussed. This comprehensive review provides essential information for the smart materials industry in selecting of appropriate types of FOS in accordance with end-user requirements. PMID:26784192

  6. Hard X-ray Optics Technology Development for Astronomy at the Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubarev, Mikhail; Ramsey, Brian; Kilaru, Kiranmayee

    2009-01-01

    Grazing-incidence telescopes based on Wolter 1 geometry have delivered impressive advances in astrophysics at soft-x-ray wavelengths, while the hard xray region remains relatively unexplored at fine angular resolution and high sensitivities. The ability to perform ground-breaking science in the hard-x-ray energy range had been the motivation for technology developments aimed at fabricating low-cost, light-weight, high-quality x-ray mirrors. Grazing-incidence x-ray optics for high-energy astrophysical applications is being developed at MSFC using the electroform-nickel replication process.

  7. Research and Technology 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This report selectively summarizes the NASA Glenn Research Center's research and technology accomplishments for the fiscal year 1999. It comprises 130 short articles submitted by the staff scientists and engineers. The report is organized into four major sections: Aeronautics. Research and Technology, Space, and Engineering and Technical Services. A table of contents and an author index have been developed to assist readers in finding articles of special interest. This report is not intended to be a comprehensive summary of all the research and technology work done over the past fiscal year. Most of the work is reported in Glenn-published technical reports, journal articles, and presentations prepared by Glenn staff and contractors. In addition, university grants have enabled faculty members and graduate students to engage in sponsored research that is reported at technical meetings or in journal articles. For each article in this report, a Glenn contact person has been identified, and where possible, reference documents are listed so that additional information can be easily obtained. The diversity of topics attests to the breadth of research and technology being pursued and to the skill mix of the staff that makes it possible. For more information about research at NASA Glenn, visit us on the World Wide Web (http://www.grc.nasa.gov). This document is available on the World Wide Web (http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/RT/). For publicly available reports, visit the Glenn Technical Report Server (GLTRS) on the World Wide Web (http://gltrs.grc.nasa.gov/GLTRS/).

  8. Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Fincham, W H A

    2013-01-01

    Optics: Eighth Edition covers the work necessary for the specialization in such subjects as ophthalmic optics, optical instruments and lens design. The text includes topics such as the propagation and behavior of light; reflection and refraction - their laws and how different media affect them; lenses - thick and thin, cylindrical and subcylindrical; photometry; dispersion and color; interference; and polarization. Also included are topics such as diffraction and holography; the limitation of beams in optical systems and its effects; and lens systems. The book is recommended for engineering st

  9. The application of confocal technology based on polycapillary X-ray optics in surface topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Guangcui; Sun, Tianxi; Liu, Zhiguo; Yuan, Hao; Li, Yude; Liu, Hehe; Zhao, Weigang; Zhang, Ruixia; Min, Qin; Peng, Song

    2013-01-01

    A confocal micro-X-ray fluorescence (MXRF) technology based on polycapillary X-ray optics was proposed for determining surface topography. This confocal topography method involves elemental sensitivity and can be used to classify the objects according to their elemental composition while obtaining their surface topography. To improve the spatial resolution of this confocal topography technology, the center of the confocal micro-volume was overlapped with the output focal spot of the polycapillary X-ray, focusing the lens in the excitation channel. The input focal spot of the X-ray lens parallel to the detection channel was used to determine the surface position of the sample. The corresponding surface adaptive algorithm was designed to obtain the surface topography. The surface topography of a ceramic chip was obtained. This confocal MXRF surface topography method could find application in the materials sciences

  10. Optical gesture sensing and depth mapping technologies for head-mounted displays: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, Bernard; Lee, Johnny

    2013-05-01

    Head Mounted Displays (HMDs), and especially see-through HMDs have gained renewed interest in recent time, and for the first time outside the traditional military and defense realm, due to several high profile consumer electronics companies presenting their products to hit market. Consumer electronics HMDs have quite different requirements and constrains as their military counterparts. Voice comments are the de-facto interface for such devices, but when the voice recognition does not work (not connection to the cloud for example), trackpad and gesture sensing technologies have to be used to communicate information to the device. We review in this paper the various technologies developed today integrating optical gesture sensing in a small footprint, as well as the various related 3d depth mapping sensors.

  11. Characterization of a Reconfigurable Free-Space Optical Channel for Embedded Computer Applications with Experimental Validation Using Rapid Prototyping Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Gil-Otero

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Free-space optical interconnects (FSOIs are widely seen as a potential solution to current and future bandwidth bottlenecks for parallel processors. In this paper, an FSOI system called optical highway (OH is proposed. The OH uses polarizing beam splitter-liquid crystal plate (PBS/LC assemblies to perform reconfigurable beam combination functions. The properties of the OH make it suitable for embedding complex network topologies such as completed connected mesh or hypercube. This paper proposes the use of rapid prototyping technology for implementing an optomechanical system suitable for studying the reconfigurable characteristics of a free-space optical channel. Additionally, it reports how the limited contrast ratio of the optical components can affect the attenuation of the optical signal and the crosstalk caused by misdirected signals. Different techniques are also proposed in order to increase the optical modulation amplitude (OMA of the system.

  12. Characterization of a Reconfigurable Free-Space Optical Channel for Embedded Computer Applications with Experimental Validation Using Rapid Prototyping Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Theodore

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Free-space optical interconnects (FSOIs are widely seen as a potential solution to current and future bandwidth bottlenecks for parallel processors. In this paper, an FSOI system called optical highway (OH is proposed. The OH uses polarizing beam splitter-liquid crystal plate (PBS/LC assemblies to perform reconfigurable beam combination functions. The properties of the OH make it suitable for embedding complex network topologies such as completed connected mesh or hypercube. This paper proposes the use of rapid prototyping technology for implementing an optomechanical system suitable for studying the reconfigurable characteristics of a free-space optical channel. Additionally, it reports how the limited contrast ratio of the optical components can affect the attenuation of the optical signal and the crosstalk caused by misdirected signals. Different techniques are also proposed in order to increase the optical modulation amplitude (OMA of the system.

  13. Progress making the top end optical assembly (TEOA) for the 4-meter Advanced Technology Solar Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canzian, Blaise; Barentine, J.; Arendt, J.; Bader, S.; Danyo, G.; Heller, C.

    2012-09-01

    L-3 Integrated Optical Systems (IOS) Division has been selected by the National Solar Observatory (NSO) to design and produce the Top End Optical Assembly (TEOA) for the 4-meter Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) to operate at Haleakal', Maui. ATST will perform to a very high optical performance level in a difficult thermal environment. The TEOA, containing the 0.65-meter silicon carbide secondary mirror and support, mirror thermal management system, mirror positioning and fast tip-tilt system, field stop with thermally managed heat dump, thermally managed Lyot stop, safety interlock and control system, and support frame, operates in the "hot spot" at the prime focus of the ATST and so presents special challenges. In this paper, we describe progress in the L-3 technical approach to meeting these challenges, including silicon carbide off-axis mirror design, fabrication, and high accuracy figuring and polishing all within L-3; mirror support design; the design for stray light control; subsystems for opto-mechanical positioning and high accuracy absolute mirror orientation sensing; Lyot stop design; and thermal management of all design elements to remain close to ambient temperature despite the imposed solar irradiance load.

  14. National Ignition Facility quality assurance plan for laser materials and optical technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, C.R.

    1996-05-01

    Quality achievement is the responsibility of the line organizations of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Project. This subtier Quality Assurance Plan (QAP) applies to activities of the Laser Materials ampersand Optical Technology (LM ampersand OT) organization and its subcontractors. It responds to the NIF Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP, L-15958-2, NIF-95-499) and Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5700.6C. This Plan is organized according to 10 Quality Assurance (QA) criteria and subelements of a management system as outlined in the NIF QAPP. This Plan describes how those QA requirements are met. This Plan is authorized by the Associate Project Leader for the LM ampersand OT organization, who has assigned responsibility to the Optics QA engineer to maintain this plan, with the assistance of the NIF QA organization. This Plan governs quality-affecting activities associated with: design; procurement; fabrication; testing and acceptance; handling and storage; and installation of NIF Project optical components into mounts and subassemblies

  15. Transmission Grating and Optics Technology Development for the Arcus Explorer Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmann, Ralf; Arcus Team

    2018-01-01

    Arcus is a high-resolution x-ray spectroscopy MIDEX mission selected for a Phase A concept study. It is designed to explore structure formation through measurements of hot baryon distributions, feedback from black holes, and the formation and evolution of stars, disks, and exoplanet atmospheres. The design provides unprecedented sensitivity in the 1.2-5 nm wavelength band with effective area above 450 sqcm and spectral resolution R > 2500. The Arcus technology is based on 12 m-focal length silicon pore optics (SPO) developed for the European Athena mission, and critical-angle transmission (CAT) x-ray diffraction gratings and x-ray CCDs developed at MIT. The modular design consists of four parallel channels, each channel holding an optics petal, followed by a grating petal. CAT gratings are lightweight, alignment insensitive, high-efficiency x-ray transmission gratings that blaze into high diffraction orders, leading to high spectral resolution. Each optics petal represents an azimuthal sub-aperture of a full Wolter optic. The sub-aperturing effect increases spectral resolving power further. Two CCD readout strips receive photons from each channel, including higher-energy photons in 0th order. Each optics petal holds 34 SPO modules. Each grating petal holds 34 grating windows, and each window holds 4-6 grating facets. A grating facet consists of a silicon grating membrane, bonded to a flexure frame that interfaces with the grating window. We report on a sequence of tests with increasing complexity that systematically increase the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) for the combination of CAT gratings and SPOs towards TLR 6. CAT gratings have been evaluated in x rays for diffraction efficiency (> 30% at 2.5 nm) and for resolving power (R> 10,000). A CAT grating/SPO combination was measured at R ~ 3100 at blaze angles smaller than design values, exceeding Arcus requirements. Efficiency and resolving power were not impacted by vibration and thermal testing of gratings. A

  16. Lidar Technology at the Goddard Laser and Electro-Optics Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaps, William S.; Obenschain, Arthur F. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Laser and Electro-Optics Branch at Goddard Space flight Center was established about three years ago to provide a focused center of engineering support and technology development in these disciplines with an emphasis on spaced based instruments for Earth and Space Science. The Branch has approximately 15 engineers and technicians with backgrounds in physics, optics, and electrical engineering. Members of the Branch are currently supporting a number of space based lidar efforts as well as several technology efforts aimed at enabling future missions. The largest effort within the Branch is support of the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESAT) carrying the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) instrument. The ICESAT/GLAS primary science objectives are: 1) To determine the mass balance of the polar ice sheets and their contributions to global sea level change; and 2) To obtain essential data for prediction of future changes in ice volume and sea-level. The secondary science objectives are: 1) To measure cloud heights and the vertical structure of clouds and aerosols in the atmosphere; 2) To map the topography of land surfaces; and 3) To measure roughness, reflectivity, vegetation heights, snow-cover, and sea-ice surface characteristics. Our efforts have concentrated on the GLAS receiver component development, the Laser Reference Sensor for the Stellar Reference System, the GLAS fiber optics subsystems, and the prelaunch calibration facilities. We will report on our efforts in the development of the space qualified interference filter [Allan], etalon filter, photon counting detectors, etalor/laser tracking system, and instrument fiber optics, as well as specification and selection of the star tracker and development of the calibration test bed. We are also engaged in development work on lidar sounders for chemical species. We are developing new lidar technology to enable a new class of miniature lidar instruments that are compatible with small

  17. Resilient backhaul network design using hybrid radio/free-space optical technology

    KAUST Repository

    Douik, Ahmed

    2016-07-26

    The radio-frequency (RF) technology is a scalable solution for the backhaul planning. However, its performance is limited in terms of data rate and latency. Free Space Optical (FSO) backhaul, on the other hand, offers a higher data rate but is sensitive to weather conditions. To combine the advantages of RF and FSO backhauls, this paper proposes a cost-efficient backhaul network using the hybrid RF/FSO technology. To ensure a resilient backhaul, the paper imposes a given degree of redundancy by connecting each node through K link-disjoint paths so as to cope with potential link failures. Hence, the network planning problem considered in this paper is the one of minimizing the total deployment cost by choosing the appropriate link type, i.e., either hybrid RF/FSO or optical fiber (OF), between each couple of base-stations while guaranteeing K link-disjoint connections, a data rate target, and a reliability threshold. The paper solves the problem using graph theory techniques. It reformulates the problem as a maximum weight clique problem in the planning graph, under a specified realistic assumption about the cost of OF and hybrid RF/FSO links. Simulation results show the cost of the different planning and suggest that the proposed heuristic solution has a close-to-optimal performance for a significant gain in computation complexity. © 2016 IEEE.

  18. Micro-resonators based on integrated polymer technology for optical sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girault, Pauline; Lemaitre, Jonathan; Guendouz, Mohammed; Lorrain, Nathalie; Poffo, Luiz; Gadonna, Michel; Bosc, Dominique

    2014-05-01

    Research on sensors has experienced a noticeable development over the last decades especially in label free optical biosensors. However, compact sensors without markers for rapid, reliable and inexpensive detection of various substances induce a significant research of new technological solutions. The context of this work is the development of a sensor based on easily integrated and inexpensive micro-resonator (MR) component in integrated optics, highly sensitive and selective mainly in the areas of health and food. In this work, we take advantage of our previous studies on filters based on micro-resonators (MR) to experiment a new couple of polymers in the objective to use MR as a sensing function. MRs have been fabricated by processing SU8 polymer as core and PMATRIFE polymer as cladding layer of the waveguide. The refractive index contrast reaches 0.16 @ 1550 nm. Sub-micronic ring waveguides gaps from 0.5 to 1 μm have been successfully achieved with UV (i-line) photolithography. This work confirms our forecasts, published earlier, about the resolution that can be achieved. First results show a good extinction coefficient of ~17 dB, a quality factor around 104 and a finesse of 12. These results are in concordance with the theoretical study and they allow us to validate our technology with this couple of polymers. Work is going on with others lower cladding materials that will be used to further increase refractive index contrast for sensing applications.

  19. Deterministic ion beam material adding technology for high-precision optical surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wenlin; Dai, Yifan; Xie, Xuhui; Zhou, Lin

    2013-02-20

    Although ion beam figuring (IBF) provides a highly deterministic method for the precision figuring of optical components, several problems still need to be addressed, such as the limited correcting capability for mid-to-high spatial frequency surface errors and low machining efficiency for pit defects on surfaces. We propose a figuring method named deterministic ion beam material adding (IBA) technology to solve those problems in IBF. The current deterministic optical figuring mechanism, which is dedicated to removing local protuberances on optical surfaces, is enriched and developed by the IBA technology. Compared with IBF, this method can realize the uniform convergence of surface errors, where the particle transferring effect generated in the IBA process can effectively correct the mid-to-high spatial frequency errors. In addition, IBA can rapidly correct the pit defects on the surface and greatly improve the machining efficiency of the figuring process. The verification experiments are accomplished on our experimental installation to validate the feasibility of the IBA method. First, a fused silica sample with a rectangular pit defect is figured by using IBA. Through two iterations within only 47.5 min, this highly steep pit is effectively corrected, and the surface error is improved from the original 24.69 nm root mean square (RMS) to the final 3.68 nm RMS. Then another experiment is carried out to demonstrate the correcting capability of IBA for mid-to-high spatial frequency surface errors, and the final results indicate that the surface accuracy and surface quality can be simultaneously improved.

  20. Open source 3D printers: an appropriate technology for building low cost optics labs for the developing communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwamuri, J.; Pearce, Joshua M.

    2017-08-01

    The recent introduction of RepRap (self-replicating rapid prototyper) 3-D printers and the resultant open source technological improvements have resulted in affordable 3-D printing, enabling low-cost distributed manufacturing for individuals. This development and others such as the rise of open source-appropriate technology (OSAT) and solar powered 3-D printing are moving 3-D printing from an industry based technology to one that could be used in the developing world for sustainable development. In this paper, we explore some specific technological improvements and how distributed manufacturing with open-source 3-D printing can be used to provide open-source 3-D printable optics components for developing world communities through the ability to print less expensive and customized products. This paper presents an open-source low cost optical equipment library which enables relatively easily adapted customizable designs with the potential of changing the way optics is taught in resource constraint communities. The study shows that this method of scientific hardware development has a potential to enables a much broader audience to participate in optical experimentation both as research and teaching platforms. Conclusions on the technical viability of 3-D printing to assist in development and recommendations on how developing communities can fully exploit this technology to improve the learning of optics through hands-on methods have been outlined.

  1. Zigbee networking technology and its application in Lamost optical fiber positioning and control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yi; Zhai, Chao; Gu, Yonggang; Zhou, Zengxiang; Gai, Xiaofeng

    2010-07-01

    4,000 fiber positioning units need to be positioned precisely in LAMOST(Large Sky Area Multi-object Optical Spectroscopic Telescope) optical fiber positioning & control system, and every fiber positioning unit needs two stepper motors for its driven, so 8,000 stepper motors need to be controlled in the entire system. Wireless communication mode is adopted to save the installing space on the back of the focal panel, and can save more than 95% external wires compared to the traditional cable control mode. This paper studies how to use the ZigBee technology to group these 8000 nodes, explores the pros and cons of star network and tree network in order to search the stars quickly and efficiently. ZigBee technology is a short distance, low-complexity, low power, low data rate, low-cost two-way wireless communication technology based on the IEEE 802.15.4 protocol. It based on standard Open Systems Interconnection (OSI): The 802.15.4 standard specifies the lower protocol layers-the physical layer (PHY), and the media access control (MAC). ZigBee Alliance defined on this basis, the rest layers such as the network layer and application layer, and is responsible for high-level applications, testing and marketing. The network layer used here, based on ad hoc network protocols, includes the following functions: construction and maintenance of the topological structure, nomenclature and associated businesses which involves addressing, routing and security and a self-organizing-self-maintenance functions which will minimize consumer spending and maintenance costs. In this paper, freescale's 802.15.4 protocol was used to configure the network layer. A star network and a tree network topology is realized, which can build network, maintenance network and create a routing function automatically. A concise tree network address allocate algorithm is present to assign the network ID automatically.

  2. US long distance fiber optic networks: Technology, evolution and advanced concepts. Volume 3: Advanced networks and economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-10-01

    This study projects until 2000 the evolution of long distance fiber optic networks in the U.S. Volume 1 is the executive Summary. Volume 2 focuses on fiber optic components and systems that are directly related to the operation of long-haul networks. Optimistic, pessimistic and most likely scenarios of technology development are presented. The activities of national and regional companies implementing fiber long haul networks are also highlighted, along with an analysis of the market and regulatory forces affecting network evolution. Volume 3 presents advanced fiber optic network concept definitions. Inter-LATA traffic is quantified and forms the basis for the construction of 11-, 15-, 17-, and 23-node networks. Using the technology projections from Volume 2, a financial model identifies cost drivers and determines circuit mile costs between any two LATAs. A comparison of fiber optics with alternative transmission concludes the report.

  3. Optical Encoding Technology for Viral Screening Panels Final Report CRADA No TC02132.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenhoff, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Haushalter, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-08-15

    This was a collaborative effort between Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Parallel Synthesis Technologies, Inc. (PSTI), to develop Optical Encoding Technology for Viral Screening Panels. The goal for this effort was to prepare a portable bead reader system that would enable the development of viral and bacterial screening panels which could be used for the detection of any desired set of bacteria or viruses in any location. The main objective was to determine if the combination of a bead-based, PCR suspension array technology, formulated from Parallume encoded beads and PSTI’s multiplex assay reader system (MARS), could provide advantages in terms of the number of simultaneously measured samples, portability, ruggedness, ease of use, accuracy, precision or cost as compared to the Luminexbased system developed at LLNL. The project underwent several no cost extensions however the overall goal of demonstrating the utility of this new system was achieved. As a result of the project a significant change to the type of bead PSTI used for the suspension system was implemented allowing better performance than the commercial Luminex system.

  4. Can Integrated Micro-Optical Concentrator Technology Revolutionize Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Solar Energy Harvesting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, Michael W.

    2015-12-01

    The economies-of-scale and enhanced performance of integrated micro-technologies have repeatedly delivered disruptive market impact. Examples range from microelectronics to displays to lighting. However, integrated micro-scale technologies have yet to be applied in a transformational way to solar photovoltaic panels. The recently announced Micro-scale Optimized Solar-cell Arrays with Integrated Concentration (MOSAIC) program aims to create a new paradigm in solar photovoltaic panel technology based on the incorporation of micro-concentrating photo-voltaic (μ-CPV) cells. As depicted in Figure 1, MOSAIC will integrate arrays of micro-optical concentrating elements and micro-scale PV elements to achieve the same aggregated collection area and high conversion efficiency of a conventional (i.e., macro-scale) CPV approach, but with the low profile and mass, and hopefully cost, of a conventional non-concentrated PV panel. The reduced size and weight, and enhanced wiring complexity, of the MOSAIC approach provide the opportunity to access the high-performance/low-cost region between the conventional CPV and flat-plate (1-sun) PV domains shown in Figure 2. Accessing this portion of the graph in Figure 2 will expand the geographic and market reach of flat-plate PV. This talk reviews the motivation and goals for the MOSAIC program. The diversity of the technical approaches to micro-concentration, embedded solar tracking, and hybrid direct/diffuse solar resource collection found in the MOSAIC portfolio of projects will also be highlighted.

  5. PFGA based, full-duplex, multi-channel, optical gigabit, synchronous data transceiver for TESLA technology LLRF control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pozniak, K.T.; Romaniuk, R.S.; Jalmuzna, W.; Olowski, K.; Perkuszewski, K.; Zielinski, J. [Warsaw Univ. of Technology (Poland). Inst. of Electronic Systems; Kierzkowski, K. [Warsaw Univ. (Poland). Inst. of Experimental Physics

    2005-07-01

    It may be predicted now, even assuming very conservative approach, that the next generation of the Low Level RF control systems for future accelerators will use extensively such technologies like: very fast programmable circuits equipped with DSP, embedded PC and optical communication I/O functionalities, as well as multi-gigabit optical transmission of measurement data and control signals. The paper presents the idea and realization of a gigabit synchronous data distributor designed to work in the LLRF control system of TESLA technology based X-ray FEL. The design bases on a relatively simple and cheap FPGA chip Cyclone. Commercially available SERDES (serializer/deserializer) and optical transceiver chips were applied. The optoelectronic module is embedded on the main LLRF BMB (backbone mother board). The MB provides communication with the outside computer control system, programmable chip configuration, integration with other functional modules and power supply. The hardware implementation is here described and the used software for BER (bit-error-rate) testing of the multi-gigabit optical link. The measurement results are presented. The appendix contains a comparison between the available protocols of serial data transmission for FPGA technology. This TESLA Technology Report is a partial contribution to the next version of the SIMCON system which is expected to be released this year. The SIMCON, ver 3. will contain 8 channels and multi-gigabit optical transmission capability. (orig.)

  6. A new fiber-optic sensor technology for rapid and inexpensive characterization of soil contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milanovich, F.P.; Brown, S.B.; Colston, B.W. Jr.; Daley, P.F.; Rossabi, J.

    1993-04-01

    The extent and complexity of worldwide environmental contamination are great enough that remediation will be extremely costly and lengthy. There is an urgent need for characterization techniques that are rapid, inexpensive, and simple and that do not generate waste. Towards this end LLNL is developing a fiber-optic chemical sensor technology for use in groundwater and vadose-zone monitoring. We use a colorimetric detection technique, based on an irreversible chemical reaction between a specific reagent and the target compound. The accuracy and sensitivity of the sensor (<5 ppb by weight in water, determined by comparison with gas chromatographic standard measurements) are sufficient for environmental monitoring of at least trichloroethylene (TCE) and chloroform

  7. Participant recruitment and motivation for participation in optical technology for cervical cancer screening research trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuhatovich, Olga M; Sharman, Mathilde P; Mirabal, Yvette N; Earle, Nan R; Follen, Michele; Basen-Engquist, Karen

    2005-12-01

    In order to improve recruitment for cervical cancer screening trials, it is necessary to analyze the effectiveness of recruitment strategies used in current trials. A trial to test optical spectroscopy for the diagnosis of cervical neoplasia recruited 1000 women from the community; the trial evaluated the emerging technology against Pap smears and colposcopically directed biopsies for cervical dysplasia. We have examined women's reasons for participating as well as the effectiveness and efficiency for each recruitment strategy. Reasons for participation were identified and compared between trials. The recruitment method that resulted in the most contacts was newspaper reportorial coverage and advertising, followed by family and friends, then television news coverage. The most cost-effective method for finding eligible women who attend the research appointment is word of mouth from a family member or friend. Recommendations are given for maximizing the efficiency of recruitment for cervical cancer screening trials.

  8. Optical properties of flexible fluorescent films prepared by screen printing technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Chen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we prepared a fluorescent film comprised phosphors and silicone on flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET substrate using a screen printing technology. The effects of mesh number and weight ratio of phosphors to silicone on the optical properties of the flexible films were investigated. The results indicate that the emission intensity of the film increase as the mesh decreased from 400 to 200, but the film surface gradually becomes uneven. The fluorescent film with high emission intensity and smooth surface can be obtained when the weight ratio of phosphor to gel is 2:1, and mesh number is 300. The luminous efficiency of the fabricated LEDs combined the fluorescent films with 460 nm Ga(InN chip module can reach 75 lm/W. The investigation indicates that the approach can be applied in the remote fluorescent film conversion and decreases the requirements of the particle size and the dispersion state of fluorescent materials.

  9. Optical properties of flexible fluorescent films prepared by screen printing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Ke, Taiyan; Chen, Shuijin; He, Xin; Zhang, Mei; Li, Dong; Deng, Jinfeng; Zeng, Qingguang

    2018-05-01

    In this work, we prepared a fluorescent film comprised phosphors and silicone on flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate using a screen printing technology. The effects of mesh number and weight ratio of phosphors to silicone on the optical properties of the flexible films were investigated. The results indicate that the emission intensity of the film increase as the mesh decreased from 400 to 200, but the film surface gradually becomes uneven. The fluorescent film with high emission intensity and smooth surface can be obtained when the weight ratio of phosphor to gel is 2:1, and mesh number is 300. The luminous efficiency of the fabricated LEDs combined the fluorescent films with 460 nm Ga(In)N chip module can reach 75 lm/W. The investigation indicates that the approach can be applied in the remote fluorescent film conversion and decreases the requirements of the particle size and the dispersion state of fluorescent materials.

  10. Structural and optical properties of NiFe2O4 synthesized via green technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, S.; Saleem, M.; Varshney, Dinesh

    2018-05-01

    The nanoparticles of NiFe2O4 were successfully synthesized via green technology using banana peel extract as the catalyst as well as the medium for reaction technique is reported. Analysis of X-ray diffraction spectrum revealed the cubic structure for the prepared spinel ferrite samples crystallized into cubic spinel structure with the space group Fd3m. The Retvield refinement was carried out which obeyed the results obtained from the XRD spectrum analysis of the sample. Raman spectrum provided confirmation for the spinel structure formation and five active Raman modes were observed. Since the optical band-gap value shows inverse response to the crystallite size, The UV-Vis spectrum study confirmed dual but reduced band-gap value.

  11. Optical Multi-Gas Monitor Technology Demonstration on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilgrim, Jeffrey S.; Wood, William R.; Casias, Miguel E.; Vakhtin, Andrei B,; Johnson, Michael D.; Mudgett, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    There are a variety of both portable and fixed gas monitors onboard the International Space Station (ISS). Devices range from rack-mounted mass spectrometers to hand-held electrochemical sensors. An optical Multi-Gas Monitor has been developed as an ISS Technology Demonstration to evaluate long-term continuous measurement of 4 gases. Based on tunable diode laser spectroscopy, this technology offers unprecedented selectivity, concentration range, precision, and calibration stability. The monitor utilizes the combination of high performance laser absorption spectroscopy with a rugged optical path length enhancement cell that is nearly impossible to misalign. The enhancement cell serves simultaneously as the measurement sampling cell for multiple laser channels operating within a common measurement volume. Four laser diode based detection channels allow quantitative determination of ISS cabin concentrations of water vapor (humidity), carbon dioxide, ammonia and oxygen. Each channel utilizes a separate vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) at a different wavelength. In addition to measuring major air constituents in their relevant ranges, the multiple gas monitor provides real time quantitative gaseous ammonia measurements between 5 and 20,000 parts-per-million (ppm). A small ventilation fan draws air with no pumps or valves into the enclosure in which analysis occurs. Power draw is only about 3 W from USB sources when installed in Nanoracks or when connected to 28V source from any EXPRESS rack interface. Internal battery power can run the sensor for over 20 hours during portable operation. The sensor is controlled digitally with an FPGA/microcontroller architecture that stores data internally while displaying running average measurements on an LCD screen and interfacing with the rack or laptop via USB. Design, construction and certification of the Multi-Gas Monitor were a joint effort between Vista Photonics, Nanoracks and NASA-Johnson Space Center (JSC

  12. Optical spectral signatures of liquids by means of fiber optic technology for product and quality parameter identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignani, A. G.; Ciaccheri, L.; Mencaglia, A. A.; Diaz-Herrera, N.; Garcia-Allende, P. B.; Ottevaere, H.; Thienpont, H.; Attilio, C.; Cimato, A.; Francalanci, S.; Paccagnini, A.; Pavone, F. S.

    2009-01-01

    Absorption spectroscopy in the wide 200-1700 nm spectral range is carried out by means of optical fiber instrumentation to achieve a digital mapping of liquids for the prediction of important quality parameters. Extra virgin olive oils from Italy and lubricant oils from turbines with different degrees of degradation were considered as "case studies". The spectral data were processed by means of multivariate analysis so as to obtain a correlation to quality parameters. In practice, the wide range absorption spectra were considered as an optical signature of the liquids from which to extract product quality information. The optical signatures of extra virgin olive oils were used to predict the content of the most important fatty acids. The optical signatures of lubricant oils were used to predict the concentration of the most important parameters for indicating the oil's degree of degradation, such as TAN, JOAP anti-wear index, and water content.

  13. Application of fluidic lens technology to an adaptive holographic optical element see-through autophoropter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chancy, Carl H.

    A device for performing an objective eye exam has been developed to automatically determine ophthalmic prescriptions. The closed loop fluidic auto-phoropter has been designed, modeled, fabricated and tested for the automatic measurement and correction of a patient's prescriptions. The adaptive phoropter is designed through the combination of a spherical-powered fluidic lens and two cylindrical fluidic lenses that are orientated 45o relative to each other. In addition, the system incorporates Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing technology to identify the eye's wavefront error and corresponding prescription. Using the wavefront error information, the fluidic auto-phoropter nulls the eye's lower order wavefront error by applying the appropriate volumes to the fluidic lenses. The combination of the Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor the fluidic auto-phoropter allows for the identification and control of spherical refractive error, as well as cylinder error and axis; thus, creating a truly automated refractometer and corrective system. The fluidic auto-phoropter is capable of correcting defocus error ranging from -20D to 20D and astigmatism from -10D to 10D. The transmissive see-through design allows for the observation of natural scenes through the system at varying object planes with no additional imaging optics in the patient's line of sight. In this research, two generations of the fluidic auto-phoropter are designed and tested; the first generation uses traditional glass optics for the measurement channel. The second generation of the fluidic auto-phoropter takes advantage of the progress in the development of holographic optical elements (HOEs) to replace all the traditional glass optics. The addition of the HOEs has enabled the development of a more compact, inexpensive and easily reproducible system without compromising its performance. Additionally, the fluidic lenses were tested during a National Aeronautics Space Administration (NASA) parabolic flight campaign, to

  14. 40-Gb/s all-optical processing systems using hybrid photonic integration technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kehayas, E.; Tsiokos, D.; Bakapoulos, P.; Apostolopoulos, D.; Petrantonakis, D.; Stampoulidis, L.; Poustie, A.; McDougall, R.; Maxwell, G.D.; Liu, Y.; Zhang, S.; Dorren, H.J.S.; Seoane, J.; Van Holm-Nielsen, P.; Jeppesen, P.; Avramopoulos, H.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental performance characterization of all-optical subsystems at 40 Gb/s using interconnected hybrid integrated all-optical semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) gates and flip-flop prototypes. It was shown that optical gates can be

  15. Development of optically stimulated luminescence technology for personnel monitoring applications at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, M.S.

    2012-01-01

    The popularity of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) technology in the radiation dosimetry applications, in general, and personnel and environmental monitoring, in particular, has driven investigation and developmental programme using OSL technique for a viable system for personnel monitoring at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre. The OSL related phosphor materials and instrumentation development has a very recent history in Bhabha Atomic Research Centre. The OSL technique is more versatile and easy to use than thermoluminescence (TL) technique. The X- and gamma ray (both high and low energy) photons and beta particles can be measured with OSL technique. In the OSL technique, the phosphor (say á- Ai 2 O 3 :C) is optically stimulated by blue/green light and the resulting light emitted from Al 2 O 3 :C (410-420 nm) is measured and correlated to the amount of radiation exposure. For a fixed stimulation intensity, the emitted blue light from the Al 2 O 3 :C dosimeter is proportional to the radiation exposure. The OSL technology is being increasingly used in several applications in external radiation dosimetry, in-vivo medical dosimetry in radiotherapy, in-situ, long-term monitoring system for radioactive contaminants, geological and archaeological dating of sediments, etc. For the success of OSL technology for large scale countrywide personnel monitoring program, indigenous development of dosimetric grade sensitive detector material was a key issue. Therefore, since 2002, efforts were directed towards the development of OSL phosphors (like aluminum oxide doped with carbon, á- Al 2 O 3 :C) and related instrumentation. To begin with, simple low cost OSL readers were developed using blue (470 nm) and green (530 nm) LED clusters. New techniques were developed for the preparation of dosimetric grade á- Ai 2 O 3 :C and other OSL phosphors. With the success in the development of indigenous technique for the large scale preparation of á- Al 2 O 3 :C phosphor, a four

  16. Point-of-care and point-of-procedure optical imaging technologies for primary care and global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boppart, Stephen A; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    2014-09-10

    Leveraging advances in consumer electronics and wireless telecommunications, low-cost, portable optical imaging devices have the potential to improve screening and detection of disease at the point of care in primary health care settings in both low- and high-resource countries. Similarly, real-time optical imaging technologies can improve diagnosis and treatment at the point of procedure by circumventing the need for biopsy and analysis by expert pathologists, who are scarce in developing countries. Although many optical imaging technologies have been translated from bench to bedside, industry support is needed to commercialize and broadly disseminate these from the patient level to the population level to transform the standard of care. This review provides an overview of promising optical imaging technologies, the infrastructure needed to integrate them into widespread clinical use, and the challenges that must be addressed to harness the potential of these technologies to improve health care systems around the world. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  17. EVALUATION OF A FORMER LANDFILL SITE IN FORT COLLINS, COLORADO USING GROUND-BASED OPTICAL REMOTE SENSING TECHNOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report details a measurement campaign conducted using the Radial Plume Mapping (RPM) method and optical remote sensing technologies to characterize fugitive emissions. This work was funded by EPA′s Monitoring and Measurement for the 21st Century Initiative, or 21M2. The si...

  18. Optical Coherence Tomography Technology and Quality Improvement Methods for Optical Coherence Tomography Images of Skin: A Short Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adabi, Saba; Turani, Zahra; Fatemizadeh, Emad; Clayton, Anne; Nasiriavanaki, Mohammadreza

    2017-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) delivers 3-dimensional images of tissue microstructures. Although OCT imaging offers a promising high-resolution method, OCT images experience some artifacts that lead to misapprehension of tissue structures. Speckle, intensity decay, and blurring are 3 major artifacts in OCT images. Speckle is due to the low coherent light source used in the configuration of OCT. Intensity decay is a deterioration of light with respect to depth, and blurring is the consequence of deficiencies of optical components. In this short review, we summarize some of the image enhancement algorithms for OCT images which address the abovementioned artifacts. PMID:28638245

  19. Optical Coherence Tomography Technology and Quality Improvement Methods for Optical Coherence Tomography Images of Skin: A Short Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Adabi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Optical coherence tomography (OCT delivers 3-dimensional images of tissue microstructures. Although OCT imaging offers a promising high-resolution method, OCT images experience some artifacts that lead to misapprehension of tissue structures. Speckle, intensity decay, and blurring are 3 major artifacts in OCT images. Speckle is due to the low coherent light source used in the configuration of OCT. Intensity decay is a deterioration of light with respect to depth, and blurring is the consequence of deficiencies of optical components. In this short review, we summarize some of the image enhancement algorithms for OCT images which address the abovementioned artifacts.

  20. Application for surveying technology for the alignment of large optical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauke, W.

    1984-01-01

    Precise alignment of optical elements in large optical systems is difficult if many elements are positioned such that direct alignment or boresighting becomes impossible. A practical approach is to identify discrete optical path segments and align these using standard surveying or optical-tooling instrumentation. One simply has to develop an alignment theory in which the alignment optical path duplicates or closely approximates the optical path of the operational device. The surveying instruments can then be used to simulate the optical input beams to the system segments to be aligned. Auxiliary targets and reflectors may be added, and the alignment procedure may be augmented by standard optical test instrumentation and techniques. Examples are given using theodolites, transits, and levels with autocollimating capability and micrometer adaptors to perform boresighting and autocollimation techniques on segments of the optical train of the Antares Laser Fusion System at Los Alamos National Laboratory

  1. Broad frequency band full field measurements for advanced applications: Point-wise comparisons between optical technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanarini, Alessandro

    2018-01-01

    The progress of optical systems gives nowadays at disposal on lightweight structures complex dynamic measurements and modal tests, each with its own advantages, drawbacks and preferred usage domains. It is thus more easy than before to obtain highly spatially defined vibration patterns for many applications in vibration engineering, testing and general product development. The potential of three completely different technologies is here benchmarked on a common test rig and advanced applications. SLDV, dynamic ESPI and hi-speed DIC are here first deployed in a complex and unique test on the estimation of FRFs with high spatial accuracy from a thin vibrating plate. The latter exhibits a broad band dynamics and high modal density in the common frequency domain where the techniques can find an operative intersection. A peculiar point-wise comparison is here addressed by means of discrete geometry transforms to put all the three technologies on trial at each physical point of the surface. Full field measurement technologies cannot estimate only displacement fields on a refined grid, but can exploit the spatial consistency of the results through neighbouring locations by means of numerical differentiation operators in the spatial domain to obtain rotational degrees of freedom and superficial dynamic strain distributions, with enhanced quality, compared to other technologies in literature. Approaching the task with the aid of superior quality receptance maps from the three different full field gears, this work calculates and compares rotational and dynamic strain FRFs. Dynamic stress FRFs can be modelled directly from the latter, by means of a constitutive model, avoiding the costly and time-consuming steps of building and tuning a numerical dynamic model of a flexible component or a structure in real life conditions. Once dynamic stress FRFs are obtained, spectral fatigue approaches can try to predict the life of a component in many excitation conditions. Different

  2. Cost-effective backhaul design using hybrid radio/free-space optical technology

    KAUST Repository

    Douik, Ahmed S.

    2015-06-08

    The deluge of date rate in today\\'s networks poses a cost burden on the backhaul network design. Developing cost efficient backhaul solutions becomes an interesting, yet challenging, problem. Traditional technologies for backhaul networks include either radio-frequency backhauls (RF) or optical fibres (OF). While RF is a cost-effective solution as compared to OF, it supports lower data rate requirements. Another promising backhaul solution that may combine both a high data rate and a relatively low cost is the free-space optics (FSO). FSO, however, is sensitive to nature conditions (e.g., rain, fog, line-ofsight, etc.). A more reliable alternative is, therefore, to combine RF and FSO solutions through a hybrid structure called hybrid RF/FSO. Consider a backhaul network, where the base-stations (BS) can be connected to each other either via OF or hybrid RF/FSO backhaul links. The paper addresses the problem of minimizing the cost of backhaul planning under connectivity and data rates constraints, so as to choose the appropriate costeffective backhaul type between BSs (i.e., either OF or hybrid RF/FSO). The paper solves the problem using graph theory techniques by introducing the corresponding planning graph. It shows that under a specified realistic assumption about the cost of OF and hybrid RF/FSO links, the problem is equivalent to a maximum weight clique problem, which can be solved with moderate complexity. Simulation results show that our proposed solution shows a close-to-optimal performance, especially for practical prices of the hybrid RF/FSO.

  3. X-RAYS SEPARATOR: FORWARD STEP IN TECHNOLOGY OF OPTICAL SEPARATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Potrakhov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Presently the X-ray separation is used not only for research program, but it is also elaborated and applied for different sectors of economy. The seeds as biological objects that possess the complicated microstructure are very difficult to be exanimated by x-ray technology. The application of x-rays and further elaboration of optical  separators, principle  of action, basic specifications, way of their use and their efficiency was shown in the article. The x-ray separator may distinguish all hidden seed defects as it was described by a programmer, where owing to the use of the optical separating block in visual range it is possible to add some more details as a shape, brightness and a color of object surface being exanimated. The elaboration of such separation equipment is scientifically hard work requiring time and expenses. Last year researchers of ‘LETI’ developed the working model of industrial x-ray separator for examination of grains and nuts in different crops. This model was made on the basis of photoseparator F-5 manufactured at OAO ‘Voronezhselmash’. The instrument state and its mechanism operation are highlighted on monitor. In the regime of processing (separation and examination of each controlled batch, the passport is produced with  following  information on identification  code,  time of material receiving, time of test passed, number of grains or seeds tested. The code of receiver of material is given to each of established characteristics when working the regime of separation, determination of number of objects with characteristics tested and number of unidentified objects. The application of x-ray separators constructed on the basis of photoseparator F-5 enables to carry out the complex estimation on seed quality and separation in only instrument with the development of electronic protocol with many characteristics.

  4. Cost-effective backhaul design using hybrid radio/free-space optical technology

    KAUST Repository

    Douik, Ahmed S.; Dahrouj, Hayssam; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2015-01-01

    The deluge of date rate in today's networks poses a cost burden on the backhaul network design. Developing cost efficient backhaul solutions becomes an interesting, yet challenging, problem. Traditional technologies for backhaul networks include either radio-frequency backhauls (RF) or optical fibres (OF). While RF is a cost-effective solution as compared to OF, it supports lower data rate requirements. Another promising backhaul solution that may combine both a high data rate and a relatively low cost is the free-space optics (FSO). FSO, however, is sensitive to nature conditions (e.g., rain, fog, line-ofsight, etc.). A more reliable alternative is, therefore, to combine RF and FSO solutions through a hybrid structure called hybrid RF/FSO. Consider a backhaul network, where the base-stations (BS) can be connected to each other either via OF or hybrid RF/FSO backhaul links. The paper addresses the problem of minimizing the cost of backhaul planning under connectivity and data rates constraints, so as to choose the appropriate costeffective backhaul type between BSs (i.e., either OF or hybrid RF/FSO). The paper solves the problem using graph theory techniques by introducing the corresponding planning graph. It shows that under a specified realistic assumption about the cost of OF and hybrid RF/FSO links, the problem is equivalent to a maximum weight clique problem, which can be solved with moderate complexity. Simulation results show that our proposed solution shows a close-to-optimal performance, especially for practical prices of the hybrid RF/FSO.

  5. Rapid exchange ultra-thin microcatheter using fibre-optic sensing technology for measurement of intracoronary fractional flow reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diletti, Roberto; Van Mieghem, Nicolas M; Valgimigli, Marco; Karanasos, Antonis; Everaert, Bert R C; Daemen, Joost; van Geuns, Robert-Jan; de Jaegere, Peter P; Zijlstra, Felix; Regar, Evelyn

    2015-08-01

    The present report describes a novel coronary fractional flow reserve (FFR) system which allows FFR assessment using a rapid exchange microcatheter (RXi). The RXi microcatheter is compatible with standard 0.014" coronary guidewires facilitating lesion negotiation and FFR assessment in a wide range of coronary anatomies. In case of serial lesions, a microcatheter would have the important advantage of allowing multiple pullbacks while maintaining wire access to the vessel. The RXi is a fibre-optic sensor technology-based device. This technology might allow reduction in signal drift. The RXi microcatheter's fibre-optic sensor is located 5 mm from the distal tip. The microcatheter profile at the sensor site is 0.027"0.036". The segment of the catheter which is intended to reside within the target lesion is proximal to the sensor and has dimensions decreased to 0.020"0.025"; these dimensions are comparable to a 0.022" circular-shaped wire. The RXi microcatheter FFR system represents a novel technology that could allow easier lesion negotiation, maintaining guidewire position, facilitating pullbacks for assessment of serial lesions and simplifying the obtainment of post-intervention FFR measurements. The optical sensing technology could additionally result in less signal drift. Further investigations are required to evaluate the clinical value of this technology fully.

  6. FY15 GRC CIF -Sulfur Cathode for High-Energy Li-Sulfur Battery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Based on the Power Energy and Conversion Roadmap TA03 future NASA missions will require high specific energy battery technologies, > 400 Wh/kg. NASA's current...

  7. Development of a technology for fabricating low-cost parallel optical interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Steenberge, Geert; Hendrickx, Nina; Geerinck, Peter; Bosman, Erwin; Van Put, Steven; Van Daele, Peter

    2006-04-01

    We present a fabrication technology for integrating polymer waveguides and 45° micromirror couplers into standard electrical printed circuit boards (PCBs). The most critical point that is being addressed is the low-cost manufacturing and the compatibility with current PCB production. The latter refers to the processes as well as material compatibility. In the fist part the waveguide fabrication technology is discussed, both photo lithography and laser ablation are proposed. It is shown that a frequency tripled Nd-YAG laser (355 nm) offers a lot of potential for defining single mode interconnections. Emphasis is on multimode waveguides, defined by KrF excimer laser (248 nm) ablation using acrylate polymers. The first conclusion out of loss spectrum measurements is a 'yellowing effect' of laser ablated waveguides, leading to an increased loss at shorter wavelengths. The second important conclusion is a potential low loss at a wavelength of 850 nm, 980 nm and 1310 nm. This is verified at 850 nm by cut-back measurements on 10-cm-long waveguides showing an average propagation loss of 0.13 dB/cm. Photo lithographically defined waveguides using inorganic-organic hybrid polymers show an attenuation loss of 0.15 dB/cm at 850 nm. The generation of debris and the presence of microstructures are two main concerns for KrF excimer laser ablation of hybrid polymers. In the second part a process for embedding metal coated 45° micromirrors in optical waveguiding layers is described. Mirrors are selectively metallized using a lift-off process. Filling up the angled via without the presence of air bubbles and providing a flat surface above the mirror is only possible by enhancing the cladding deposition process with ultrasound agitation. Initial loss measurements indicate an excess mirror loss of 1.5 dB.

  8. Optical Coherence Tomography Technology and Quality Improvement Methods for Optical Coherence Tomography Images of Skin: A Short Review

    OpenAIRE

    Adabi, Saba; Turani, Zahra; Fatemizadeh, Emad; Clayton, Anne; Nasiriavanaki, Mohammadreza

    2017-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) delivers 3-dimensional images of tissue microstructures. Although OCT imaging offers a promising high-resolution method, OCT images experience some artifacts that lead to misapprehension of tissue structures. Speckle, intensity decay, and blurring are 3 major artifacts in OCT images. Speckle is due to the low coherent light source used in the configuration of OCT. Intensity decay is a deterioration of light with respect to depth, and blurring is the conseque...

  9. Nanomechanical recognition of prognostic biomarker suPAR with DVD-ROM optical technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bache, Michael; Bosco, Filippo G; Brøgger, Anna L; Frøhling, Kasper B; Boisen, Anja; Alstrøm, Tommy Sonne; Hwu, En-Te; Chen, Ching-Hsiu; Hwang, Ing-Shouh; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    In this work the use of a high-throughput nanomechanical detection system based on a DVD-ROM optical drive and cantilever sensors is presented for the detection of urokinase plasminogen activator receptor inflammatory biomarker (uPAR). Several large scale studies have linked elevated levels of soluble uPAR (suPAR) to infectious diseases, such as HIV, and certain types of cancer. Using hundreds of cantilevers and a DVD-based platform, cantilever deflection response from antibody–antigen recognition is investigated as a function of suPAR concentration. The goal is to provide a cheap and portable detection platform which can carry valuable prognostic information. In order to optimize the cantilever response the antibody immobilization and unspecific binding are initially characterized using quartz crystal microbalance technology. Also, the choice of antibody is explored in order to generate the largest surface stress on the cantilevers, thus increasing the signal. Using optimized experimental conditions the lowest detectable suPAR concentration is currently around 5 nM. The results reveal promising research strategies for the implementation of specific biochemical assays in a portable and high-throughput microsensor-based detection platform. (paper)

  10. Add/drop filters based on SiC technology for optical interconnects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, M; Vieira, M A; Louro, P; Fantoni, A; Silva, V

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate an add/drop filter based on SiC technology. Tailoring of the channel bandwidth and wavelength is experimentally demonstrated. The concept is extended to implement a 1 by 4 wavelength division multiplexer with channel separation in the visible range. The device consists of a p-i'(a-SiC:H)-n/p-i(a-Si:H)-n heterostructure. Several monochromatic pulsed lights, separately or in a polychromatic mixture illuminated the device. Independent tuning of each channel is performed by steady state violet bias superimposed either from the front and back sides. Results show that, front background enhances the light-to-dark sensitivity of the long and medium wavelength channels and quench strongly the others. Back violet background has the opposite behaviour. This nonlinearity provides the possibility for selective removal or addition of wavelengths. An optoelectronic model is presented and explains the light filtering properties of the add/drop filter, under different optical bias conditions

  11. Optical coherence tomography-current technology and applications in clinical and biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschall, Sebastian; Sander, Birgit; Mogensen, Mette; Jørgensen, Thomas M; Andersen, Peter E

    2011-07-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive imaging technique that provides real-time two- and three-dimensional images of scattering samples with micrometer resolution. By mapping the local reflectivity, OCT visualizes the morphology of the sample. In addition, functional properties such as birefringence, motion, or the distributions of certain substances can be detected with high spatial resolution. Its main field of application is biomedical imaging and diagnostics. In ophthalmology, OCT is accepted as a clinical standard for diagnosing and monitoring the treatment of a number of retinal diseases, and OCT is becoming an important instrument for clinical cardiology. New applications are emerging in various medical fields, such as early-stage cancer detection, surgical guidance, and the early diagnosis of musculoskeletal diseases. OCT has also proven its value as a tool for developmental biology. The number of companies involved in manufacturing OCT systems has increased substantially during the last few years (especially due to its success in opthalmology), and this technology can be expected to continue to spread into various fields of application.

  12. A Comparison of Novel Optical Remote Sensing-Based Technologies for Forest-Cover/Change Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian V. Lui

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing is gaining considerable traction in forest monitoring efforts, with the Carnegie Landsat Analysis System lite (CLASlite software package and the Global Forest Change dataset (GFCD being two of the most recently developed optical remote sensing-based tools for analysing forest cover and change. Due to the relatively nascent state of these technologies, their abilities to classify land cover and monitor forest dynamics have yet to be evaluated against more established approaches. Here, we compared maps of forest cover and change produced by the more traditional supervised classification approach with those produced by CLASlite and the GFCD, working with imagery collected over Sierra Leone, West Africa. CLASlite maps of forest change from 2001–2007 and 2007–2014 exhibited the highest overall accuracies (79.1% and 89.6%, respectively and, importantly, the greatest capacity to discriminate natural from planted mature forest growth. CLASlite’s comparative advantage likely derived from its more robust sub-pixel classification logic and numerous user-defined parameters, which resulted in classified products with greater site relevance than those of the two other classification approaches. In light of today’s continuously growing body of analytical toolsets for remotely sensed data, our study importantly elucidates the ways in which methodological processes and limitations inherent in certain classification tools can impact the maps they are capable of producing, and demonstrates the need to understand and weigh such factors before any one tool is selected for a given application.

  13. ECOAL Project—Delivering Solutions for Integrated Monitoring of Coal-Related Fires Supported on Optical Fiber Sensing Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Ribeiro

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The combustion of coal wastes resulting from mining is of particular environmental concern, and the importance of proper management involving real-time assessment of their status and identification of probable evolution scenarios is recognized. Continuous monitoring of the combustion temperature and emission levels of certain gases allows for the possibility of planning corrective actions to minimize their negative impact on the surroundings. Optical fiber technology is well suited to this purpose and here we describe the main attributes and results obtained from a fiber optic sensing system projected to gather data on distributed temperature and gas emissions in these harsh environments.

  14. Compact and cost-effective multi-channel optical spectrometer for fine FBG sensing in IoT technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Tsuyoshi; Yamasaki, Yu

    2018-02-01

    Optical fiber sensor networks have attracted much attention in IoT technology and a fiber Bragg grating is one of key sensor devices there because of their advantages in a high affinity for optical fiber networks, compactness, immunity to electromagnetic interference and so on. Nevertheless, its sensitivity is not always satisfactory so as to be usable together with widespread cost-effective multi-channel spectrometers. In this paper, we introduce a new cost-effective approach for a portable multi-channel spectrometer with high spectral resolution and demonstrates some preliminary experimental results for fine FBG sensing.

  15. Optical system design, analysis, and production for advanced technology systems; Proceedings of the Meeting, Innsbruck, Austria, Apr. 15-17, 1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Robert E. (Editor); Rogers, Philip J. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    The present conference considers topics in the fields of optical systems design software, the design and analysis of optical systems, illustrative cases of advanced optical system design, the integration of optical designs into greater systems, and optical fabrication and testing techniques. Attention is given to an extended range diffraction-based merit function for lens design optimization, an assessment of technologies for stray light control and evaluation, the automated characterization of IR systems' spatial resolution, a spectrum of design techniques based on aberration theory, a three-field IR telescope, a large aperture zoom lens for 16-mm motion picture cameras, and the use of concave holographic gratings as monochomators. Also discussed are the use of aspherics in optical systems, glass choice procedures for periscope design, the fabrication and testing of unconventional optics, low mass mirrors for large optics, and the diamond grinding of optical surfaces on aspheric lens molds.

  16. Is Optical Gas Imaging Effective for Detecting Fugitive Methane Emissions? - A Technological and Policy Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikumar, A. P.; Wang, J.; Brandt, A. R.

    2016-12-01

    Mitigating fugitive methane emissions from the oil and gas industry has become an important concern for both businesses and regulators. While recent studies have improved our understanding of emissions from all sectors of the natural gas supply chain, cost-effectively identifying leaks over expansive natural gas infrastructure remains a significant challenge. Recently, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has recommended the use of optical gas imaging (OGI) technologies to be used in industry-wide leak detection and repair (LDAR) programs. However, there has been little to no systematic study of the effectiveness of infrared-camera-based OGI technology for leak detection applications. Here, we develop a physics-based model that simulates a passive infrared camera imaging a methane leak against varying background and ambient conditions. We verify the simulation tool through a series of large-volume controlled release field experiments wherein known quantities of methane were released and imaged from a range of distances. After simulator verification, we analyze the effects of environmental conditions like temperature, wind, and imaging background on the amount of methane detected from a statistically representative survey program. We also examine the effects of LDAR design parameters like imaging distance, leak size distribution, and gas composition. We show that imaging distance strongly affects leak detection - EPA's expectation of a 60% reduction in fugitive emissions based on a semi-annual LDAR survey will be realized only if leaks are imaged at a distance less than 10 m from the source under ideal environmental conditions. Local wind speed is also shown to be important. We show that minimum detection limits are 3 to 4 times higher for wet-gas compositions that contain a significant fraction of ethane and propane, resulting a significantly large leakage rate. We also explore the importance of `super-emitters' on the performance of an OGI-based leak

  17. Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional answer card reading method using OMR (Optical Mark Reader, most commonly, OMR special card special use, less versatile, high cost, aiming at the existing problems proposed a method based on pattern recognition of the answer card identification method. Using the method based on Line Segment Detector to detect the tilt of the image, the existence of tilt image rotation correction, and eventually achieve positioning and detection of answers to the answer sheet .Pattern recognition technology for automatic reading, high accuracy, detect faster

  18. Label-free optical imaging technologies for rapid translation and use during intraoperative surgical and tumor margin assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boppart, Stephen A.; Brown, J. Quincy; Farah, Camile S.; Kho, Esther; Marcu, Laura; Saunders, Christobel M.; Sterenborg, Henricus J. C. M.

    2018-02-01

    The biannual International Conference on Biophotonics was recently held on April 30 to May 1, 2017, in Fremantle, Western Australia. This continuing conference series brought together key opinion leaders in biophotonics to present their latest results and, importantly, to participate in discussions on the future of the field and what opportunities exist when we collectively work together for using biophotonics for biological discovery and medical applications. One session in this conference, entitled "Tumor Margin Identification: Critiquing Technologies," challenged invited speakers and attendees to review and critique representative label-free optical imaging technologies and their application for intraoperative assessment and guidance in surgical oncology. We are pleased to share a summary in this outlook paper, with the intent to motivate more research inquiry and investigations, to challenge these and other optical imaging modalities to evaluate and improve performance, to spur translation and adoption, and ultimately, to improve the care and outcomes of patients.

  19. Analysis of the use of fiber optic technology for the monitoring heart rate of the pregnant and fetus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedoma, Jan; Fajkus, Marcel; Martinek, Radek; Jargus, Jan; Zboril, Ondrej; Vasinek, Vladimir

    2017-10-01

    This article describes an analysis of the use of fiber-optic technology in biomedical applications, specifically for the monitoring heart rate of the pregnant (mHR) and fetal (fHR). Authors focused on the use of Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) and Fiber-Optic Interferometers (FOI). Thanks to the utilization of conventional method so-called cardiotocography (CTG), the mortality of newborn babies during delivery has decreased. Generally, among disadvantages of this method, there is a high sensitivity to noises caused by the movement of a mother, and it is connected with the frequent transfer of ultrasonic converters. This method is not suitable for a long-term continuous monitoring due to a possible influence of ultrasonic radiation on the fetus. Use of fiber-optic technology offers many advantages, for example, use measuring probes based FBG or FOI does not represent any additional radiation burden for the pregnant woman or fetus, fiber-optic measurement probes are resistant to technical artifacts such as electromagnetic interferences (EMI), thus they can be used in situations where it is impossible to use classic methods, e.g. examination by magnetic resonance (MR) or in case of delivery in water. The article describes the first experimental knowledge of based on real measurements.

  20. Optical materials technology for energy efficiency and solar energy conversion 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granqvist, C.G.; Lampert, C.M.

    1989-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: smart window coatings; Transparent infrared reflectors; Holographic concentrators and reflectors; Solar collecting devices; Solar absorber coatings; Optical properties and durability

  1. The Master's program in Advanced Optical Technologies: an interdisciplinary, international and individual approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Großmann, Jürgen; Schmauss, Bernhard

    2017-08-01

    The Master's Program in Advanced Optical Technologies (MAOT) was established at the Friedrich-Alexander Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg in 2007 as part of the Elite Network of Bavaria (ENB), an initiative by the Bavarian State Government comprising about 40 elite Master's programs and doctoral programs. MAOT can be studied after a Bachelor in physics or an engineering subject. The Master's program realizes an innovative concept combining three core elements: (1) Interdisciplinarity: The program integrates courses and researchers from five engineering subjects and from physics. The degree of interdisciplinarity goes far beyond traditional programs. (2) Internationality: The program is taught entirely in English and special support is given to international students. (3). Individuality: The course curriculum was adapted at several points based on the experience in the initial years. The same is true for the way in which international students are supported and the type of support they need. The students are given an unusually high degree of freedom to develop an individual curriculum and to pursue research projects. Crucial experience and lessons learned are: (1) Lecturers and researchers have to be coordinated and the perspectives of the different disciplines have to be integrated within one program. Students must be guided in order to deal with the demands and challenges of the different disciplines. (2) International students need support with settling in Germany and with learning and working in a German cultural environment. They need support with administrative issues. Furthermore, they need to analyze and understand cultural differences and how they impact on the cooperation between lecturers and students and on the work in research groups. (3) Students must be helped to develop their own curriculum. They must learn how to combine their first-degree qualification with the specialized qualification which they gain after completing their Master's program. They

  2. 2012 THIN FILM AND SMALL SCALE MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR GRS/GRC, JULY 21-27, 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balk, Thomas

    2012-07-27

    The mechanical behavior of materials with small dimension(s) is of both fundamental scientific interest and technological relevance. The size effects and novel properties that arise from changes in deformation mechanism have important implications for modern technologies such as thin films for microelectronics and MEMS devices, thermal and tribological coatings, materials for energy production and advanced batteries, etc. The overarching goal of the 2012 Gordon Research Conference on "Thin Film and Small Scale Mechanical Behavior" is to discuss recent studies and future opportunities regarding elastic, plastic and time-dependent deformation, as well as degradation and failure mechanisms such as fatigue, fracture and wear. Specific topics of interest include, but are not limited to: fundamental studies of physical mechanisms governing small-scale mechanical behavior; advances in test techniques for materials at small length scales, such as nanotribology and high-temperature nanoindentation; in-situ mechanical testing and characterization; nanomechanics of battery materials, such as swelling-induced phenomena and chemomechanical behavior; flexible electronics; mechanical properties of graphene and carbon-based materials; mechanical behavior of small-scale biological structures and biomimetic materials. Both experimental and computational work will be included in the oral and poster presentations at this Conference.

  3. Research on precision grinding technology of large scale and ultra thin optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lian; Wei, Qiancai; Li, Jie; Chen, Xianhua; Zhang, Qinghua

    2018-03-01

    The flatness and parallelism error of large scale and ultra thin optics have an important influence on the subsequent polishing efficiency and accuracy. In order to realize the high precision grinding of those ductile elements, the low deformation vacuum chuck was designed first, which was used for clamping the optics with high supporting rigidity in the full aperture. Then the optics was planar grinded under vacuum adsorption. After machining, the vacuum system was turned off. The form error of optics was on-machine measured using displacement sensor after elastic restitution. The flatness would be convergenced with high accuracy by compensation machining, whose trajectories were integrated with the measurement result. For purpose of getting high parallelism, the optics was turned over and compensation grinded using the form error of vacuum chuck. Finally, the grinding experiment of large scale and ultra thin fused silica optics with aperture of 430mm×430mm×10mm was performed. The best P-V flatness of optics was below 3 μm, and parallelism was below 3 ″. This machining technique has applied in batch grinding of large scale and ultra thin optics.

  4. Technology development for the Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) as a candidate large UV-Optical-Infrared (LUVOIR) surveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolcar, Matthew R.; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham; Clampin, Mark; Crooke, Julie; Feinberg, Lee; Postman, Marc; Quijada, Manuel; Rauscher, Bernard; Redding, David; Rioux, Norman; Shaklan, Stuart; Stahl, H. Philip; Stahle, Carl; Thronson, Harley

    2015-09-01

    The Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) team has identified five key technologies to enable candidate architectures for the future large-aperture ultraviolet/optical/infrared (LUVOIR) space observatory envisioned by the NASA Astrophysics 30-year roadmap, Enduring Quests, Daring Visions. The science goals of ATLAST address a broad range of astrophysical questions from early galaxy and star formation to the processes that contributed to the formation of life on Earth, combining general astrophysics with direct-imaging and spectroscopy of habitable exoplanets. The key technologies are: internal coronagraphs, starshades (or external occulters), ultra-stable large-aperture telescopes, detectors, and mirror coatings. Selected technology performance goals include: 1x10-10 raw contrast at an inner working angle of 35 milli-arcseconds, wavefront error stability on the order of 10 pm RMS per wavefront control step, autonomous on-board sensing and control, and zero-read-noise single-photon detectors spanning the exoplanet science bandpass between 400 nm and 1.8 μm. Development of these technologies will provide significant advances over current and planned observatories in terms of sensitivity, angular resolution, stability, and high-contrast imaging. The science goals of ATLAST are presented and flowed down to top-level telescope and instrument performance requirements in the context of a reference architecture: a 10-meter-class, segmented aperture telescope operating at room temperature (~290 K) at the sun-Earth Lagrange-2 point. For each technology area, we define best estimates of required capabilities, current state-of-the-art performance, and current Technology Readiness Level (TRL) - thus identifying the current technology gap. We report on current, planned, or recommended efforts to develop each technology to TRL 5.

  5. Applications of Emerging Parallel Optical Link Technology to High Energy Physics Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chramowicz, J.; Kwan, S.; Prosser, A.; Winchell, M.

    2011-01-01

    Modern particle detectors depend upon optical fiber links to deliver event data to upstream trigger and data processing systems. Future detector systems can benefit from the development of dense arrangements of high speed optical links emerging from the telecommunications and storage area network market segments. These links support data transfers in each direction at rates up to 120 Gbps in packages that minimize or even eliminate edge connector requirements. Emerging products include a class of devices known as optical engines which permit assembly of the optical transceivers in close proximity to the electrical interfaces of ASICs and FPGAs which handle the data in parallel electrical format. Such assemblies will reduce required printed circuit board area and minimize electromagnetic interference and susceptibility. We will present test results of some of these parallel components and report on the development of pluggable FPGA Mezzanine Cards equipped with optical engines to provide to collaborators on the Versatile Link Common Project for the HI-LHC at CERN.

  6. NASA GRC's High Pressure Burner Rig Facility and Materials Test Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, R. Craig

    1999-01-01

    The High Pressure Burner Rig (HPBR) at NASA Glenn Research Center is a high-velocity. pressurized combustion test rig used for high-temperature environmental durability studies of advanced materials and components. The facility burns jet fuel and air in controlled ratios, simulating combustion gas chemistries and temperatures that are realistic to those in gas turbine engines. In addition, the test section is capable of simulating the pressures and gas velocities representative of today's aircraft. The HPBR provides a relatively inexpensive. yet sophisticated means for researchers to study the high-temperature oxidation of advanced materials. The facility has the unique capability of operating under both fuel-lean and fuel-rich gas mixtures. using a fume incinerator to eliminate any harmful byproduct emissions (CO, H2S) of rich-burn operation. Test samples are easily accessible for ongoing inspection and documentation of weight change, thickness, cracking, and other metrics. Temperature measurement is available in the form of both thermocouples and optical pyrometery. and the facility is equipped with quartz windows for observation and video taping. Operating conditions include: (1) 1.0 kg/sec (2.0 lbm/sec) combustion and secondary cooling airflow capability: (2) Equivalence ratios of 0.5- 1.0 (lean) to 1.5-2.0 (rich), with typically 10% H2O vapor pressure: (3) Gas temperatures ranging 700-1650 C (1300-3000 F): (4) Test pressures ranging 4-12 atmospheres: (5) Gas flow velocities ranging 10-30 m/s (50-100) ft/sec.: and (6) Cyclic and steady-state exposure capabilities. The facility has historically been used to test coupon-size materials. including metals and ceramics. However complex-shaped components have also been tested including cylinders, airfoils, and film-cooled end walls. The facility has also been used to develop thin-film temperature measurement sensors.

  7. Rare-earth-doped materials with application to optical signal processing, quantum information science, and medical imaging technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cone, R. L.; Thiel, C. W.; Sun, Y.; Böttger, Thomas; Macfarlane, R. M.

    2012-02-01

    Unique spectroscopic properties of isolated rare earth ions in solids offer optical linewidths rivaling those of trapped single atoms and enable a variety of recent applications. We design rare-earth-doped crystals, ceramics, and fibers with persistent or transient "spectral hole" recording properties for applications including high-bandwidth optical signal processing where light and our solids replace the high-bandwidth portion of the electronics; quantum cryptography and information science including the goal of storage and recall of single photons; and medical imaging technology for the 700-900 nm therapeutic window. Ease of optically manipulating rare-earth ions in solids enables capturing complex spectral information in 105 to 108 frequency bins. Combining spatial holography and spectral hole burning provides a capability for processing high-bandwidth RF and optical signals with sub-MHz spectral resolution and bandwidths of tens to hundreds of GHz for applications including range-Doppler radar and high bandwidth RF spectral analysis. Simply stated, one can think of these crystals as holographic recording media capable of distinguishing up to 108 different colors. Ultra-narrow spectral holes also serve as a vibration-insensitive sub-kHz frequency reference for laser frequency stabilization to a part in 1013 over tens of milliseconds. The unusual properties and applications of spectral hole burning of rare earth ions in optical materials are reviewed. Experimental results on the promising Tm3+:LiNbO3 material system are presented and discussed for medical imaging applications. Finally, a new application of these materials as dynamic optical filters for laser noise suppression is discussed along with experimental demonstrations and theoretical modeling of the process.

  8. A novel all-fiber optic flow cytometer technology for Point-of Care and Remote Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mermut, Ozzy

    Traditional flow cytometry designs tend to be bulky systems with a complex optical-fluidic sub-system and often require trained personnel for operation. This makes them difficult to readily translate to remote site testing applications. A new compact and portable fiber-optic flow cell (FOFC) technology has been developed at INO. We designed and engineered a specialty optical fiber through which a square hole is transversally bored by laser micromachining. A capillary is fitted into that hole to flow analyte within the fiber square cross-section for detection and counting. With demonstrated performance benchmarks potentially comparable to commercial flow cytometers, our FOFC provides several advantages compared to classic free-space con-figurations, e.g., sheathless flow, low cost, reduced number of optical components, no need for alignment (occurring in the fabrication process only), ease-of-use, miniaturization, portability, and robustness. This sheathless configuration, based on a fiber optic flow module, renders this cytometer amenable to space-grade microgravity environments. We present our recent results for an all-fiber approach to achieve a miniature FOFC to translate flow cytometry from bench to a portable, point-of-care device for deployment in remote settings. Our unique fiber approach provides the capability to illuminate a large surface with a uniform intensity distri-bution, independently of the initial shape originating from the light source, and without loss of optical power. The CVs and sensitivities are measured and compared to industry benchmarks. Finally, integration of LEDs enable several advantages in cost, compactness, and wavelength availability.

  9. Research and Technology 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This report selectively summarizes the NASA Glenn Research Center's research and technology accomplishments for the fiscal year 2000. It comprises 138 short articles submitted by staff scientists and engineers. The report is organized into five major sections: Aeronautics, Research and Technology, Space, Engineering and Technical Services, and Commercial Technology, a table of contents and an author index have been developed to assist readers in finding articles of special interest. This report is not intended to be a comprehensive summary of all the research and technology work done over the past fiscal year. Most of the work is reported in Glenn-published technical reports, journal articles, and presentations prepared by Glenn staff and contractors. In addition, university grants have enabled faculty members and graduate students to engage in sponsored research that was reported at technical meetings or in journal articles. For each article in this report, a Glenn contact person has been identified, and where possible, reference documents are listed so that additional information can be easily obtained. The diversity of topics attests to the breadth of research and technology being pursued and to the skill mix of the staff that makes it possible. For more information about research at NASA Glenn, visit us on the World Wide Web (http://www.grc.nasa.gov). This document is available online (http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/RT). For publicly available reports, visit the Glenn Technical Report Server (http://gltrs.gre.nasa.gov/GLTRS).

  10. NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center (AFRC) Fiber Optic Sensing System (FOSS) Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Lance; Parker, Allen R.; Piazza, Anthony; Chan, Patrick; Hamory, Phil; Pena, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Attached is a power point presentation created to assist the Tech Transfer Office and the FOSS project team members in responding to inquiries from the public about the capabilities of the Fiber Optic Sensing System.

  11. Technology Development for Ultra-High-Resolution X-ray Optics

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Readiness of the fabrication method is needed to justify future NASA astrophysics & heliophysics Missions.We propose to develop a novel optics fabrication method...

  12. Optical Trap Methods to Determine the Viscoelastic Properties of Biological Materials | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Cancer Institute seeks licensees and/or co-development partners for methods that provide significant improvements in examining clinically relevant tissue samples, by improving spatial resolution and tissue depth using optical trapping. 

  13. Cryogenic Liquid Level-Sensing using Fiber-Optic Strain Sensor (FOSS) Technology Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Armstrong innovators have developed a highly accurate method for measuring liquid levels using optical fibers. Unlike liquid level gauges that rely on discrete...

  14. Background-Oriented Schlieren used in a hypersonic inlet test at NASA GRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clem, Michelle; Woike, Mark; Saunders, John

    2016-01-01

    Background Oriented Schlieren (BOS) is a derivative of the classical schlieren technology, which is used to visualize density gradients, such as shock wave structures in a wind tunnel. Changes in refractive index resulting from density gradients cause light rays to bend, resulting in apparent motion of a random background pattern. The apparent motion of the pattern is determined using cross-correlation algorithms (between no-flow and with-flow image pairs) producing a schlieren-like image. One advantage of BOS is its simplified setup which enables a larger field-of-view (FOV) than traditional schlieren systems. In the present study, BOS was implemented into the Combined Cycle Engine Large-Scale Inlet Mode Transition Experiment (CCE LIMX) in the 10x10 Supersonic Wind Tunnel at NASA Glenn Research Center. The model hardware for the CCE LIMX accommodates a fully integrated turbine based combined cycle propulsion system. To date, inlet mode transition between turbine and ramjet operation has been successfully demonstrated. High-speed BOS was used to visualize the behavior of the flow structures shock waves during unsteady inlet unstarts, a phenomenon known as buzz. Transient video images of inlet buzz were recorded for both the ramjet flow path (high speed inlet) and turbine flow path (low speed inlet). To understand the stability limits of the inlet, operation was pushed to the point of unstart and buzz. BOS was implemented in order to view both inlets simultaneously, since the required FOV was beyond the capability of the current traditional schlieren system. An example of BOS data (Images 1-6) capturing inlet buzz are presented.

  15. Advancing adaptive optics technology: Laboratory turbulence simulation and optimization of laser guide stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampy, Rachel A.

    Since Galileo's first telescope some 400 years ago, astronomers have been building ever-larger instruments. Yet only within the last two decades has it become possible to realize the potential angular resolutions of large ground-based telescopes, by using adaptive optics (AO) technology to counter the blurring effects of Earth's atmosphere. And only within the past decade have the development of laser guide stars (LGS) extended AO capabilities to observe science targets nearly anywhere in the sky. Improving turbulence simulation strategies and LGS are the two main topics of my research. In the first part of this thesis, I report on the development of a technique for manufacturing phase plates for simulating atmospheric turbulence in the laboratory. The process involves strategic application of clear acrylic paint onto a transparent substrate. Results of interferometric characterization of the plates are described and compared to Kolmogorov statistics. The range of r0 (Fried's parameter) achieved thus far is 0.2--1.2 mm at 650 nm measurement wavelength, with a Kolmogorov power law. These plates proved valuable at the Laboratory for Adaptive Optics at University of California, Santa Cruz, where they have been used in the Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics testbed, during integration and testing of the Gemini Planet Imager, and as part of the calibration system of the on-sky AO testbed named ViLLaGEs (Visible Light Laser Guidestar Experiments). I present a comparison of measurements taken by ViLLaGEs of the power spectrum of a plate and the real sky turbulence. The plate is demonstrated to follow Kolmogorov theory well, while the sky power spectrum does so in a third of the data. This method of fabricating phase plates has been established as an effective and low-cost means of creating simulated turbulence. Due to the demand for such devices, they are now being distributed to other members of the AO community. The second topic of this thesis pertains to understanding and

  16. Developing chiral technologies. Optical division by liquid chromatography; Hattensuru kiraru technology. Ekitai chromatography ni yoru kogaku bunkatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onishi, a. [Daicel Chemical Industries, Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1998-05-01

    Optical division using chiral fixing phase for polysaccharide derivative based HPLC has been exhibiting superior capability as an analysis means. It now has transcended the framework of analysis as a result of the encounter with the SMB process, and is completing itself as an optically active body manufacturing means. This paper introduces the following examples of applying the chiral fixing phase for HPLC using polysaccharide derivatives as an unconformity identifier to the unconformity identifying mechanism and mass synthesis: 1) aromatic groups and carbamate groups as substitution groups are arranged regularly along a polysaccharide main chain having a regular and unconformable stereostructure, and a certain `unconformity identification field` is formed: 2) hydrogen bonding and dipole-to-dipole interactions take place between solutes in the ester groups and carbamate groups, and such an interaction act as stacking of aromatic rings among those having aromatic rings; and as a result, interactions in 2) occur in the `unconformity identification field` in 1), where the unconformity identification is executed. This paper describes the pseudo migration bed (SMB) process developed by UOP Corporation as a method for mass-synthesizing fillers for the polysaccharide derivative based HPLC. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  17. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES AS THE TOOL OF EFFICIENCY IMPROVING OF FUTURE PHYSICS TEACHERS TRAINING TO LABORATORY SESSION IN OPTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goncharenko T.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the problem of the use of information technologies implementation as the tool of the efficiency improving of future physics teachers training to execution of laboratory session in Optics is considered in the article. The problems and contradictions concerning ICT tools use in higher education institutions, the work of which is aimed at future physics teachers training are described. Due to the specifics of future teachers training in higher education institutions, labor market requirements and public procurement, the main ICT tools are identified, that are effective in students’ self-activity work to laboratory session execution. The developed list of electronic resources is divided into blocks according to the topics of laboratory works in Optics. The methodology of using of ICT tools at future students training for laboratory session on the example of individual topics is considered.

  18. Mode division multiplexing technology for single-fiber optical trapping axial-position adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhihai; Wang, Lei; Liang, Peibo; Zhang, Yu; Yang, Jun; Yuan, Libo

    2013-07-15

    We demonstrate trapped yeast cell axial-position adjustment without moving the optical fiber in a single-fiber optical trapping system. The dynamic axial-position adjustment is realized by controlling the power ratio of the fundamental mode beam (LP01) and the low-order mode beam (LP11) generated in a normal single-core fiber. In order to separate the trapping positions produced by the two mode beams, we fabricate a special fiber tapered tip with a selective two-step method. A yeast cell of 6 μm diameter is moved along the optical axis direction for a distance of ~3 μm. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the trapping position adjustment without moving the fiber for single-fiber optical tweezers. The excitation and utilization of multimode beams in a single fiber constitutes a new development for single-fiber optical trapping and makes possible more practical applications in biomedical research fields.

  19. Research & Technology 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This report selectively summarizes NASA Glenn Research Center's research and technology accomplishments for fiscal year 2005. It comprises 126 short articles submitted by the staff scientists and engineers. The report is organized into three major sections: Programs and Projects, Research and Technology, and Engineering and Technical Services. A table of contents and an author index have been developed to assist readers in finding articles of special interest. This report is not intended to be a comprehensive summary of all the research and technology work done over the past fiscal year. Most of the work is reported in Glenn-published technical reports, journal articles, and presentations prepared by Glenn staff and contractors. In addition, university grants have enabled faculty members and graduate students to engage in sponsored research that is reported at technical meetings or in journal articles. For each article in this report, a Glenn contact person has been identified, and where possible, a reference document is listed so that additional information can be easily obtained. The diversity of topics attests to the breadth of research and technology being pursued and to the skill mix of the staff that makes it possible. For more information, visit Glenn's Web site at http://www.nasa.gov/glenn/. This document is available online (http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/RT/). For publicly available reports, visit the Glenn Technical Report Server (http://gltrs.grc.nasa.gov).

  20. Research and Technology 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This report selectively summarizes NASA Glenn Research Center's research and technology accomplishments for fiscal year 2004. It comprises 133 short articles submitted by the staff scientists and engineers. The report is organized into three major sections: Programs and Projects, Research and Technology, and Engineering and Technical Services. A table of contents and an author index have been developed to assist readers in finding articles of special interest. This report is not intended to be a comprehensive summary of all the research and technology work done over the past fiscal year. Most of the work is reported in Glenn-published technical reports, journal articles, and presentations prepared by Glenn staff and contractors. In addition, university grants have enabled faculty members and graduate students to engage in sponsored research that is reported at technical meetings or in journal articles. For each article in this report, a Glenn contact person has been identified, and where possible, a reference document is listed so that additional information can be easily obtained. The diversity of topics attests to the breadth of research and technology being pursued and to the skill mix of the staff that makes it possible. For more information, visit Glenn's Web site at http://www.nasa.gov/glenn/. This document is available online (http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/RT/). For publicly available reports, visit the Glenn Technical Report Server (http://gltrs.grc.nasa.gov).

  1. Evolution of optical fibre cabling components at CERN: Performance and technology trends analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoaie, Mohammad Amin; Meroli, Stefano; Machado, Simao; Ricci, Daniel

    2018-05-01

    CERN optical fibre infrastructure has been growing constantly over the past decade due to ever increasing connectivity demands. The provisioning plan and fibre installation of this vast laboratory is performed by Fibre Optics and Cabling Section at Engineering Department. In this paper we analyze the procurement data for essential fibre cabling components during a five-year interval to extract the existing trends and anticipate future directions. The analysis predicts high contribution of LC connector and an increasing usage of multi-fibre connectors. It is foreseen that single-mode fibres become the main fibre type for mid and long-range installations while air blowing would be the major installation technique. Performance assessment of various connectors shows that the expanded beam ferrule is favored for emerging on-board optical interconnections thanks to its scalable density and stable return-loss.

  2. Main-Reflector Manufacturing Technology for the Deep Space Optical Communications Ground Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britcliffe, M. J.; Hoppe, D. J.

    2001-01-01

    The Deep Space Network (DSN) has plans to develop a 10-m-diameter optical communications receiving station. The system uses the direct detection technique, which has much different requirements from a typical astronomical telescope. The receiver must operate in daylight and nighttime conditions. This imposes special requirements on the optical system to reject stray light from the Sun and other sources. One of the biggest challenges is designing a main-reflector surface that meets these requirements and can be produced at a reasonable cost. The requirements for the performance of the reflector are presented. To date, an aspherical primary reflector has been assumed. A reflector with a spherical reflector has a major cost advantage over an aspherical design, with no sacrifice in performance. A survey of current manufacturing techniques for optical mirrors of this type was performed. Techniques including solid glass, lightweight glass, diamond-turned aluminum, and composite mirrors were investigated.

  3. High Speed and High Spatial Density Parameter Measurement Using Fiber Optic Sensing Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Allen R. Jr. (Inventor); Chan, Hon Man (Inventor); Richards, William Lance (Inventor); Piazza, Anthony (Inventor); Hamory, Philip J (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    The present invention is an improved fiber optic sensing system (FOSS) having the ability to provide both high spatial resolution and high frequency strain measurements. The inventive hybrid FOSS fiber combines sensors from high acquisition speed and low spatial resolution Wavelength-Division Multiplexing (WDM) systems and from low acquisition speed and high spatial resolution Optical Frequency Domain Reflection (OFDR) systems. Two unique light sources utilizing different wavelengths are coupled with the hybrid FOSS fiber to generate reflected data from both the WDM sensors and OFDR sensors operating on a single fiber optic cable without incurring interference from one another. The two data sets are then de-multiplexed for analysis, optionally with conventionally-available WDM and OFDR system analyzers.

  4. Migration to Broadband and Ubiquitous Environments by Using Fiber-Optic Technologies in Access/Home Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguchi, Kimio

    2016-03-01

    The recent dramatic advances in information and communication technologies have yielded new environments. However, adoption still differs area by area. To realize the future broadband environment that everyone can enjoy everywhere, several technical issues have to be resolved before network penetration becomes ubiquitous. One such key is the use of fiber optics for the home and mobile services. This article overviews initial observations drawn from numerical survey data gathered over the last decade in several countries/regions, and gives some example scenarios for network/service evolution. One result implies that implementing new/future services must consider the gross domestic product impact.

  5. Training course on optical telecommunication and multimedia technologies for specialists in endoscopic video surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agliullin, Arthur F.; Gusev, Valery F.; Morozov, Oleg G.; Samigullin, Rustem R.; Akul'shin, Alexander, Iv.; Bagapov, Nail N.

    2011-04-01

    The program of courses is recommended for the experts working in endoscopy area, surgery, diagnostics, to developers of optical, optoelectronic and electronic equipment, and also for students and the post-graduate students of telecommunication high schools in addition trained on specializations of biomedical engineering. It urged to help the future researcher, engineer and doctor to understand mechanisms of images formation and display, to understand more deeply procedures of their processing and transfer on telecommunication channels of the various natures, to master modern reports of record and video and audio information reproduction. The separate section is devoted to questions of designing of surgical toolkit compatible with fiber-optical endoscopes.

  6. How to design fiber optic sensors that work: basic technology, main problems, pitfalls, and potential solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Dakin, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    Summary• Overview of optical fibre sensor types(Classified according to operating principles)• Difference between intrinsic and extrinsic sensors• Intensity-based sensors• Spectrally-encoded sensors• Propagation-time-encoded sensors• Interferometric sensors• Discussion of how to avoid problems and make practical sensors• Multiplexed and distributed sensors

  7. Optical metrology alignment and impact on the measurement performance of the LISA Technology Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirth, M; Fichter, W; Brandt, N; Gerardi, D [iFR, Universitaet Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 7a, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Schleicher, A [Astrium GmbH, 88039 Friedrichshafen (Germany); Wanner, G, E-mail: marc.hirth@ifr.uni-stuttgart.d [Albert Einstein Institut, Callinstrasse 38, 30167 Hannover (Germany)

    2009-03-01

    Aside from LISA Pathfinder's top-level acceleration requirement, there is a stringent independent requirement for the accuracy of the optical metrology system. In case of a perfectly aligned metrology system (optical bench and test masses) it should rather be independent of residual displacement jitter due to control. However, this ideal case will not be achieved as mechanical tolerances and uncertainties lead to a direct impact of test mass and spacecraft displacement jitter on the optical measurement accuracy. In this paper, we present a strategy how to cover these effects for a systematic requirement breakdown. We use a simplified nonlinear geometrical model for the differential distance measurement of the test masses which is linearized and linked to the equations of motion for both the spacecraft and the two test masses. This leads from test mass relative displacement to a formulation in terms of applied force/torque and thus allows to distinguish the absolute motion of each of the three bodies. It further shows how motions in each degree of freedom couple linearly into the optical measurement via DC misalignments of the laser beam and the test masses. This finally allows for deriving requirements on the alignment accuracy of components and on permittable closed-loop acceleration noise. In the last part a budget for the expected measurement performance is compiled from simulations as no measurement data is available yet.

  8. SOFTWARE FOR SIMULATION OF TECHNOLOGICAL ADAPTATION OF THE OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. K. Artioukhina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Programs for calculation and analysis of optical systems of any class are provides. The most effective was to combine the programs into a complex with the general system of mathematical models. A characteristic feature is to unify the exchange of information between these programs and software systems Opal and Zemax.

  9. Laser & Fiber Optics: Instructional Manual. The North Dakota High Technology Mobile Laboratory Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eickhoff, Luvern R.

    This instructional manual contains 20 learning activity packets for use in a workshop on lasers and fiber optics. The lessons cover the following topics: what a laser; coherent light; setting up the laser; characteristics of the laser beam; scattering of light; laser beam divergence, intensity, color, ophthalmology, and reflections; directivity of…

  10. All-optical broadcast and multicast technologies based on PPLN waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ye, Lingyun; Wang, Ju; Hu, Hao

    2013-01-01

    All-optical 1×4 broadcast and 1×3 multicast experiments of a 40-Gb/s return-to-zero on-off keying (RZ-OOK) signal based on a periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) waveguide are demonstrated in this letter. Clear opened eye diagrams and error-free performance are achieved for the broadcast...

  11. Nanomechanical recognition of prognostic biomarker suPAR with DVD-ROM optical technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Michael; Bosco, Filippo; Brøgger, Anna Line

    2013-01-01

    In this work the use of a high-throughput nanomechanical detection system based on a DVD-ROM optical drive and cantilever sensors is presented for the detection of urokinase plasminogen activator receptor inflammatory biomarker (uPAR). Several large scale studies have linked elevated levels...

  12. Surface Contaminant Control Technologies to Improve Laser Damage Resistance of Optics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The large high-power solid lasers, such as the National Ignition Facility (NIF of America and the Shenguang-III (SG-III laser facility of China, can output over 2.1 MJ laser pulse for the inertial confinement fusion (ICF experiments. Because of the enhancement of operating flux and the expansion of laser driver scale, the problem of contamination seriously influences their construction period and operation life. During irradiation by intense laser beams, the contaminants on the metallic surface of beam tubes can be transmitted to the optical surfaces and lead to damage of optical components. For the high-power solid-state laser facilities, contamination control focuses on the slab amplifiers, spatial filters, and final-optical assemblies. In this paper, an effective solution to control contaminations including the whole process of the laser driver is put forward to provide the safe operation of laser facilities, and the detailed technical methods of contamination control such as washing, cleanliness metrology, and cleanliness protecting are also introduced to reduce the probability of laser-induced damage of optics. The experimental results show that the cleanliness level of SG-III laser facility is much better to ensure that the laser facility can safely operate at high energy flux.

  13. Optical metrology alignment and impact on the measurement performance of the LISA Technology Package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirth, M; Fichter, W; Brandt, N; Gerardi, D; Schleicher, A; Wanner, G

    2009-01-01

    Aside from LISA Pathfinder's top-level acceleration requirement, there is a stringent independent requirement for the accuracy of the optical metrology system. In case of a perfectly aligned metrology system (optical bench and test masses) it should rather be independent of residual displacement jitter due to control. However, this ideal case will not be achieved as mechanical tolerances and uncertainties lead to a direct impact of test mass and spacecraft displacement jitter on the optical measurement accuracy. In this paper, we present a strategy how to cover these effects for a systematic requirement breakdown. We use a simplified nonlinear geometrical model for the differential distance measurement of the test masses which is linearized and linked to the equations of motion for both the spacecraft and the two test masses. This leads from test mass relative displacement to a formulation in terms of applied force/torque and thus allows to distinguish the absolute motion of each of the three bodies. It further shows how motions in each degree of freedom couple linearly into the optical measurement via DC misalignments of the laser beam and the test masses. This finally allows for deriving requirements on the alignment accuracy of components and on permittable closed-loop acceleration noise. In the last part a budget for the expected measurement performance is compiled from simulations as no measurement data is available yet.

  14. Optical fiber grating based technologies and their applications: from nuclear fusion to medical

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, L.K.; Vliegenhart, W.A.; Habisreuther, T.

    2012-01-01

    In the last decades, Fiber Optic (FO) sensor has gained increasing acceptance. Among the different FO sensor types, Fiber Bragg Grating is most widely used due to its commercial availability and the unique multiplexing potential. The latter feature enables the development of large sensor array

  15. Development of Optical Fiber Technology in Poland, International Journal of Electronics and Telecommunication, vol. 57, no 2, pp.191-197, July 2011

    CERN Document Server

    Dorosz, J

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the authors, chairmen of the 13th Conference on Optical Fibers and Their Applications OFA2011, and editors of the conference proceedings summarize the development of optical fiber technology in Poland (during the period of 2009- 2011) on the basis of papers presented there and consecutively published in this volume. The digest is thus not full but covers the periodically presented material every 18 months during the meetings on optical fibers in Białystok-Białowie˙za and Lublin- Krasnobród. OFC systems are developed for HEP experiments and accelerators. OFC systems are also developed for virtual atomic clocks. EuCARD information presentation was organized during this meeting. Keywords— optical fibers, optical communication systems, photonic sources and detectors, photonic sensors, integrated optics, photonics applications, photonic materials.

  16. Avalanche-mode silicon LEDs for monolithic optical coupling in CMOS technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dutta, Satadal

    2017-01-01

    Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuit (IC) technology is the most commercially successful platform in modern electronic and control systems. So called "smart power" technologies such as Bipolar CMOS DMOS (BCD), combine the computational power of CMOS with high voltage

  17. Experimental demonstration of an OpenFlow based software-defined optical network employing packet, fixed and flexible DWDM grid technologies on an international multi-domain testbed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channegowda, M; Nejabati, R; Rashidi Fard, M; Peng, S; Amaya, N; Zervas, G; Simeonidou, D; Vilalta, R; Casellas, R; Martínez, R; Muñoz, R; Liu, L; Tsuritani, T; Morita, I; Autenrieth, A; Elbers, J P; Kostecki, P; Kaczmarek, P

    2013-03-11

    Software defined networking (SDN) and flexible grid optical transport technology are two key technologies that allow network operators to customize their infrastructure based on application requirements and therefore minimizing the extra capital and operational costs required for hosting new applications. In this paper, for the first time we report on design, implementation & demonstration of a novel OpenFlow based SDN unified control plane allowing seamless operation across heterogeneous state-of-the-art optical and packet transport domains. We verify and experimentally evaluate OpenFlow protocol extensions for flexible DWDM grid transport technology along with its integration with fixed DWDM grid and layer-2 packet switching.

  18. Challenges and Approach for Making the Top End Optical Assembly for the 4-meter Advanced Technology Solar Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canzian, Blaise; Barentine, J.; Hull, T.

    2012-01-01

    L-3 Integrated Optical Systems (IOS) Division has been selected by the National Solar Observatory (NSO) to make the Top End Optical Assembly (TEOA) for the 4-meter Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) to operate at Haleakala, Maui. ATST will perform to a very high optical performance level in a difficult thermal environment. The TEOA, containing the 0.65-meter silicon carbide secondary mirror and support, mirror thermal management system, mirror positioning and fast tip-tilt system, field stop with thermally managed heat dump, thermally managed Lyot stop, safety interlock and control system, and support frame, operates in the "hot spot” at the prime focus of the ATST and so presents special challenges. In this paper, we will describe the L-3 IOS technical approach to meet these challenges, including subsystems for opto-mechanical positioning, rejected and stray light control, wavefront tip-tilt compensation, and thermal management. Key words: ATST, TEOA, L-3 IOS, thermal management, silicon carbide (SiC) mirrors, hexapods, solar astronomy

  19. A usability evaluation of an interactive application for halal products using optical character recognition and augmented reality technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Meng Chun; Nizam, Siti Soleha Muhammad; Arshad, Haslina; A'isyah Ahmad Shukri, Saidatul; Hashim, Nurhazarifah Che; Putra, Haekal Mozzia; Abidin, Rimaniza Zainal

    2017-10-01

    This article discusses the usability of an interactive application for halal products using Optical Character Recognition (OCR) and Augmented Reality (AR) technologies. Among the problems that have been identified in this study is that consumers have little knowledge about the E-Code. Therefore, users often have doubts about the halal status of the product. Nowadays, the integrity of halal status can be doubtful due to the actions of some irresponsible people spreading false information about a product. Therefore, an application that uses OCR and AR technology developed in this study will help the users to identify the information content of a product by scanning the E-Code label and by scanning the product's brand to know the halal status of the product. In this application, E-Code on the label of a product is scanned using OCR technology to display information about the E-Code. The product's brand is scan using augmented reality technology to display halal status of the product. The findings reveal that users are satisfied with this application and it is useful and easy to use.

  20. Performances for confocal X-ray diffraction technology based on polycapillary slightly focusing X-ray optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hehe; Liu, Zhiguo [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Sun, Tianxi, E-mail: stxbeijing@163.com [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Peng, Song [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Ma, Yongzhong [Center for Disease Control and Prevention of Beijing, Beijing 100013 (China); Sun, Weiyuan; Li, Yude; Lin, Xiaoyan; Zhao, Weigang; Zhao, Guangcui; Luo, Ping; Pan, Qiuli; Ding, Xunliang [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2013-09-21

    The confocal X-ray diffraction (XRD) technology based on a polycapillary slightly focusing X-ray lens (PSFXRL) in excitation channel and a polycapillary parallel X-ray lens (PPXRL) with a long input focal distance in detection channel was developed. The output focal spot of the PSFXRL and the input focal spot of the PPXRL were adjusted in confocal configuration, and only the X-rays from the volume overlapped by these foci could be accordingly detected. This confocal configuration was helpful in decreasing background. The convergence of the beam focused by the PSFXRL and divergence of the beam which could be collected by the PPXRL with a long input focal distance were both about 9 mrad at 8 keV. This was helpful in improving the resolution of lattice spacing of this confocal XRD technology. The gain in power density of such PSFXRL and PPXRL was about 120 and 7 at 11 keV, respectively, which was helpful in using the low power source to perform XRD analysis efficiently. The performances of this confocal XRD technology were provided, and some common plastics were analyzed. The experimental results demonstrated that the confocal diffraction technology base on polycapillary slightly focusing X-ray optics had wide potential applications.

  1. Employing optical code division multiple access technology in the all fiber loop vibration sensor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Shin-Pin; Yen, Chih-Ta; Syu, Rong-Shun; Cheng, Hsu-Chih

    2013-12-01

    This study proposes a spectral amplitude coding-optical code division multiple access (SAC-OCDMA) framework to access the vibration frequency of a test object on the all fiber loop vibration sensor (AFLVS). Each user possesses an individual SAC, and fiber Bragg grating (FBG) encoders/decoders using multiple FBG arrays were adopted, providing excellent orthogonal properties in the frequency domain. The system also mitigates multiple access interference (MAI) among users. When an optical fiber is bent to a point exceeding the critical radius, the fiber loop sensor becomes sensitive to external physical parameters (e.g., temperature, strain, and vibration). The AFLVS involves placing a fiber loop with a specific radius on a designed vibration platform.

  2. Optical fiber sensors technology for supervision, control and protection of high power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Ivo Maciel

    The work described in this PhD Thesis focuses on the post-processing of optical fibers and their enhancement as sensing element. Since the majority of sensors presented are based in Fabry-Perot interferometers, an historical overview of this category of optical fiber sensors is firstly presented. This review considers the works published since the early years, in the beginning of the 1980s, until the middle of 2015. The incorporation of microcavities at the tip of a single mode fiber was extensively studied, particularly for the measurement of nitrogen and methane gas pressure. These cavities were fabricated using hollow core silica tubes and a hollow core photonic crystal fiber. Following a different approach, the microcavities were incorporated between two sections of single mode fiber. In this case, the low sensitivity to temperature makes these microcavities highly desirable for the measurement of strain at high temperatures. Competences in post-processing techniques such as the chemical etching and the writing of periodical structures in the fiber core by means of an excimer or a femtosecond laser were also acquired in the course of the PhD programme. One of the works consisted in the design and manufacturing of a double clad optical fiber. The refractive index of the inner cladding was higher than the one of the outer cladding and the core. Thus, light was guided in the inner cladding instead of propagating in the core. This situation was overcome by applying chemical etching, thus removing the inner cladding. The core, surrounded by air, was then able to guide light. Two different applications were found for this fiber, as a temperature sensor and as an optical refractometer. In the last, the optical phase changes with the liquid refractive index. Two different types of fiber Bragg gratings were characterized in strain and temperature. Sensing structures obtained through the phase mask technique at the tip of an optical fiber were subjected to chemical

  3. Optical biosensor technologies for molecular diagnostics at the point-of-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schotter, Joerg; Schrittwieser, Stefan; Muellner, Paul; Melnik, Eva; Hainberger, Rainer; Koppitsch, Guenther; Schrank, Franz; Soulantika, Katerina; Lentijo-Mozo, Sergio; Pelaz, Beatriz; Parak, Wolfgang; Ludwig, Frank; Dieckhoff, Jan

    2015-05-01

    Label-free optical schemes for molecular biosensing hold a strong promise for point-of-care applications in medical research and diagnostics. Apart from diagnostic requirements in terms of sensitivity, specificity, and multiplexing capability, also other aspects such as ease of use and manufacturability have to be considered in order to pave the way to a practical implementation. We present integrated optical waveguide as well as magnetic nanoparticle based molecular biosensor concepts that address these aspects. The integrated optical waveguide devices are based on low-loss photonic wires made of silicon nitride deposited by a CMOS compatible plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) process that allows for backend integration of waveguides on optoelectronic CMOS chips. The molecular detection principle relies on evanescent wave sensing in the 0.85 μm wavelength regime by means of Mach-Zehnder interferometers, which enables on-chip integration of silicon photodiodes and, thus, the realization of system-on-chip solutions. Our nanoparticle-based approach is based on optical observation of the dynamic response of functionalized magneticcore/ noble-metal-shell nanorods (`nanoprobes') to an externally applied time-varying magnetic field. As target molecules specifically bind to the surface of the nanoprobes, the observed dynamics of the nanoprobes changes, and the concentration of target molecules in the sample solution can be quantified. This approach is suitable for dynamic real-time measurements and only requires minimal sample preparation, thus presenting a highly promising point-of-care diagnostic system. In this paper, we present a prototype of a diagnostic device suitable for highly automated sample analysis by our nanoparticle-based approach.

  4. Construction of a Chemical Sensor/Instrumentation Package Using Fiber Optic and Miniaturization Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, R. L.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this research was to construct a chemical sensor/instrumentation package that was smaller in weight and volume than conventional instrumentation. This reduction in weight and volume is needed to assist in further reducing the cost of launching payloads into space. To accomplish this, fiber optic sensors, miniaturized spectrometers, and wireless modems were employed. The system was evaluated using iodine as a calibration analyte.

  5. An Optical Fiber Viscometer Based on Long-Period Fiber Grating Technology and Capillary Tube Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Neng Wang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This work addresses the development and assessment of a fiber optical viscometer using a simple and low-cost long-period fiber grating (LPFG level sensor and a capillary tube mechanism. Previous studies of optical viscosity sensors were conducted by using different optical sensing methods. The proposed optical viscometer consists of an LPFG sensor, a temperature-controlled chamber, and a cone-shaped reservoir where gravitational force could cause fluid to flow through the capillary tube. We focused on the use of LPFGs as level sensors and the wavelength shifts were not used to quantify the viscosity values of asphalt binders. When the LPFG sensor was immersed in the constant volume (100 mL AC-20 asphalt binder, a wavelength shift was observed and acquired using LabVIEW software and GPIB controller. The time spent between empty and 100 mL was calculated to determine the discharge time. We simultaneously measured the LPFG-induced discharge time and the transmission spectra both in hot air and AC-20 asphalt binder at five different temperatures, 60, 80, 100, 135, and 170 Celsius. An electromechanical rotational viscometer was also used to measure the viscosities, 0.15–213.80 Pa·s, of the same asphalt binder at the above five temperatures. A non-linear regression analysis was performed to convert LPFG-induced discharge time into viscosities. Comparative analysis shows that the LPFG-induced discharge time agreed well with the viscosities obtained from the rotational viscometer.

  6. Design and manufacture of super-multilayer optical filters based on PARMS technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Shaobo; Wang, Ruisheng; Ma, Jing; Jiang, Chao; Mu, Jiali; Zhao, Shuaifeng; Yin, Xiaojun

    2018-04-01

    Three multilayer interference optical filters, including a UV band-pass, a VIS dual-band-pass and a notch filter, were designed by using Ta2O5, Nb2O5, Al2O3 and SiO2 as high- and low-index materials. During the design of the coating process, a hybrid optical monitoring and RATE-controlled layer thickness control scheme was adopted. The coating process was simulated by using the optical monitoring system (OMS) Simulator, and the simulation result indicated that the layer thickness can be controlled within an error of less than ±0.1%. The three filters were manufactured on a plasma-assisted reactive magnetic sputtering (PARMS) coating machine. The measurements indicate that for the UV band-pass filter, the peak transmittance is higher than 95% and the blocking density is better than OD6 in the 300-1100 nm region, whereas for the dual-band-pass filter, the center wavelength positioning accuracy of the two passbands are less than ±2 nm, the peak transmittance is higher than 95% and blocking density is better than OD6 in the 300-950 nm region. Finally, for the notch filter, the minimum transmittance rates are >90% and >94% in the visible and near infrared, respectively, and the blocking density is better than OD5.5 at 808 nm.

  7. Metal-Mesh Optical Filter Technology for Mid IR, Far IR, and Submillimeter, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovative, high transmission band-pass filter technology proposed here is an improvement in multilayer metal-mesh filter design and manufacture for the far IR...

  8. Optical fronthauling for 5G mobile: A perspective of passive metro WDM technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zou, Shihuan Jim; Wagner, Christoph; Eiselt, Michael

    2017-01-01

    We discuss the necessity of passive WDM technology in the 5G fronthaul application. The proof-of-concept field trial showed that the proposed system integrated seamlessly with the current wireless equipment and had no impact on services.......We discuss the necessity of passive WDM technology in the 5G fronthaul application. The proof-of-concept field trial showed that the proposed system integrated seamlessly with the current wireless equipment and had no impact on services....

  9. Challenges in Ecohydrological Monitoring at Soil-Vegetation Interfaces: Exploiting the Potential for Fibre Optic Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalari, A.; Ciocca, F.; Krause, S.; Hannah, D. M.; Blaen, P.; Coleman, T. I.; Mondanos, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Birmingham Institute of Forestry Research (BIFoR) is using Free-Air Carbon Enrichment (FACE) experiments to quantify the long-term impact and resilience of forests into rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations. The FACE campaign critically relies on a successful monitoring and understanding of the large variety of ecohydrological processes occurring across many interfaces, from deep soil to above the tree canopy. At the land-atmosphere interface, soil moisture and temperature are key variables to determine the heat and water exchanges, crucial to the vegetation dynamics as well as to groundwater recharge. Traditional solutions for monitoring soil moisture and temperature such as remote techniques and point sensors show limitations in fast acquisition rates and spatial coverage, respectively. Hence, spatial patterns and temporal dynamics of heat and water fluxes at this interface can only be monitored to a certain degree, limiting deeper knowledge in dynamically evolving systems (e.g. in impact of growing vegetation). Fibre optics Distributed Temperature Sensors (DTS) can measure soil temperatures at high spatiotemporal resolutions and accuracy, along kilometers of optical cable buried in the soil. Heat pulse methods applied to electrical elements embedded in the optical cable can be used to obtain the soil moisture. In July 2015 a monitoring system based on DTS has been installed in a recently forested hillslope at BIFoR in order to quantify high-resolution spatial patterns and high-frequency temporal dynamics of soil heat fluxes and soil moisture conditions. Therefore, 1500m of optical cables have been carefully deployed in three overlapped loops at 0.05m, 0.25m and 0.4m from the soil surface and an electrical system to send heat pulses along the optical cable has been developed. This paper discussed both, installation and design details along with first results of the soil moisture and temperature monitoring carried out since July 2015. Moreover, interpretations

  10. Fraud in Rights and Contracts: A Review of Bankruptcy Case of Livent Inc. Based on Governance, Risk, and Compliance (GRC Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Anindyo Widhoyoko

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This research discussed the accounting scandal in the perspective of governance, risk, and compliance using Governance, Risk, and Compliance (GRC framework. Unlike other fraud’s framework, GRC framework combinedthree different aspects of business sustainability of reporting. The purpose of the research was to highlight early business fraud that usually initiated by the company in boosting up the revenue during the Initial public offering(IPO processes. When other research discussed the business’ fraud schemes through the document alteration, this research focused on a case showing how a business could make the wrong statement to the investors through real and lawful future contracts with unqualified audit opinion. Structurally, this research was done through the action research method in pointing out all the directors’ failures in their function to hold the fiduciary duty to exercise their responsibility. Based on the analysis with the accordance with the framework used, it is highlighted that directors in the aspect of (1 governance decisive, they fail to set proportional target, provide ethical value, and react positively to maintain the company sustainability; (2 compliance submissive, they do not submit the accounting standards through undisclosed third-party agreement, misrepresentation of revenue recognition, and mistreatment of expense omission; (3 risk preventive, they fail to assess the risk occurs from legal aspect of conflict of interest, long-term contractual and engagement risks, and insufficient future cash flow.

  11. Novel inspection of welded joint microstructure using magneto-optical imaging technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Xiang-dong; Li Zheng-wen; You De-yong; Katayama, Seiji

    2017-01-01

    A novel method for measuring differences of microstructure by advanced use of the Faraday magneto-optical effect is proposed. Two groups of YAG laser welds on Q235 have been investigated in order to compare MO imaging and traditional methods. Microstructure images have been compared with MO images, and MO diagrams display different colors and gray scales for the base metal, the weld zone, and the heat affected zone. Experimental results indicate that the welded joint microstructure can be inspected by MO imaging without metallographic preparation. (paper)

  12. Exploring in teaching mode of Optical Fiber Sensing Technology outcomes-based education (OBE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Guangwei; Fu, Xinghu; Zhang, Baojun; Bi, Weihong

    2017-08-01

    Combining with the characteristics of disciplines and OBE mode, also aiming at the phenomena of low learning enthusiasm for the major required courses for senior students, the course of optical fiber sensing was chosen as the demonstration for the teaching mode reform. In the light of "theory as the base, focus on the application, highlighting the practice" principle, we emphasis on the introduction of the latest scientific research achievements and current development trends, highlight the practicability and practicality. By observation learning and course project, enables students to carry out innovative project design and implementation means related to the practical problems in science and engineering of this course.

  13. Occlusal overload investigations by noninvasive technology: fluorescence microscopy and en-face optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcauteanu, Corina; Negrutiu, Meda; Sinescu, Cosmin; Demjan, Enikö; Hughes, Michael; Bradu, Adrian; Dobre, George; Podoleanu, Adrian G.

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study is the early detection and monitoring of occlusal overload in bruxing patients. En-Face Optical coherence tomography (eF-OCT) and fluorescence microscopy (FM) were used for the imaging of several anterior teeth extracted from patients with light active bruxism. We found a characteristic pattern of enamel cracks, that reached the tooth surface. We concluded that the combination of the en-Face OCT and FM is a promising non-invasive alternative technique for reliable monitoring of occlusal overload.

  14. Self-Raman Nd:YVO4 Laser and Electro-Optic Technology for Space-Based Sodium Lidar Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krainak, Michael A.; Yu, Anthony W.; Janches, Diego; Jones, Sarah L.; Blagojevic, Branimir; Chen, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    We are developing a laser and electro-optic technology to remotely measure Sodium (Na) by adapting existing lidar technology with space flight heritage. The developed instrumentation will serve as the core for the planning of an Heliophysics mission targeted to study the composition and dynamics of Earth's mesosphere based on a spaceborne lidar that will measure the mesospheric Na layer. We present performance results from our diode-pumped tunable Q-switched self-Raman c-cut Nd:YVO4 laser with intra-cavity frequency doubling that produces multi-watt 589 nm wavelength output. The c-cut Nd:YVO4 laser has a fundamental wavelength that is tunable from 1063-1067 nanometers. A CW (Continuous Wave) External Cavity diode laser is used as a injection seeder to provide single-frequency grating tunable output around 1066 nanometers. The injection-seeded self-Raman shifted Nd:VO4 laser is tuned across the sodium vapor D2 line at 589 nanometers. We will review technologies that provide strong leverage for the sodium lidar laser system with strong heritage from the Ice Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite-2 (ICESat-2) Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS). These include a space-qualified frequency-doubled 9 watts-at-532-nanometer wavelength Nd:YVO4 laser, a tandem interference filter temperature-stabilized fused-silica-etalon receiver and high-bandwidth photon-counting detectors.

  15. Technology Development of a Fiber Optic-Coupled Laser Ignition System for Multi-Combustor Rocket Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Huu P.; Early, Jim; Osborne, Robin; Thomas, Matthew E.; Bossard, John A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper addresses the progress of technology development of a laser ignition system at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The first two years of the project focus on comprehensive assessments and evaluations of a novel dual-pulse laser concept, flight- qualified laser system, and the technology required to integrate the laser ignition system to a rocket chamber. With collaborations of the Department of Energy/Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and CFD Research Corporation (CFDRC), MSFC has conducted 26 hot fire ignition tests with lab-scale laser systems. These tests demonstrate the concept feasibility of dual-pulse laser ignition to initiate gaseous oxygen (GOX)/liquid kerosene (RP-1) combustion in a rocket chamber. Presently, a fiber optic- coupled miniaturized laser ignition prototype is being implemented at the rocket chamber test rig for future testing. Future work is guided by a technology road map that outlines the work required for maturing a laser ignition system. This road map defines activities for the next six years, with the goal of developing a flight-ready laser ignition system.

  16. Electro-optical equivalent calibration technology for high-energy laser energy meters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Ji Feng, E-mail: wjfcom2000@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Precision Measurement Technology and Instrument, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Institute of Applied Electronics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Graduate School of China Academy of Engineering Physics, Beijing 100088 (China); Key Laboratory of Laser Science and Technology, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Chang, Yan; Zhang, Kai; Hu, Xiao Yang; Zhang, Wei [Institute of Applied Electronics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Key Laboratory of Laser Science and Technology, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Sun, Li Qun [State Key Laboratory of Precision Measurement Technology and Instrument, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2016-04-15

    Electro-optical equivalent calibration with high calibration power and high equivalence is particularly well-suited to the calibration of high-energy laser energy meters. A large amount of energy is reserved during this process, however, which continues to radiate after power-off. This study measured the radiation efficiency of a halogen tungsten lamp during power-on and after power-off in order to calculate the total energy irradiated by a lamp until the high-energy laser energy meter reaches thermal equilibrium. A calibration system was designed based on the measurement results, and the calibration equivalence of the system was analyzed in detail. Results show that measurement precision is significantly affected by the absorption factor of the absorption chamber and by heat loss in the energy meter. Calibration precision is successfully improved by enhancing the equivalent power and reducing power-on time. The electro-optical equivalent calibration system, measurement uncertainty of which was evaluated as 2.4% (k = 2), was used to calibrate a graphite-cone-absorption-cavity absolute energy meter, yielding a calibration coefficient of 1.009 and measurement uncertainty of 3.5% (k = 2). A water-absorption-type high-energy laser energy meter with measurement uncertainty of 4.8% (k = 2) was considered the reference standard, and compared to the energy meter calibrated in this study, yielded a correction factor of 0.995 (standard deviation of 1.4%).

  17. Physics Teacher Candidates' Opinions on Fiber Optics and New Technologies in This Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çildir, Sema

    2016-01-01

    Factors such as innovations brought in by the developing technology, also rapidly changing social structures casted various roles to both the student and the teacher. Therefore, it is necessary to associate such knowledge acquired in courses with implications of the knowledge in our real lives and to constantly enrich course contents, namely to…

  18. Measurement of Oil and Natural Gas Well Pad Enclosed Combustor Emissions Using Optical Remote Sensing Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Office of Research and Development (ORD) and EPA Region 8 are collaborating under the EPA’s Regional Applied Research Effort (RARE) program to evaluate ground-based remote sensing technologies that could be used to characterize emis...

  19. A Survey of Recent Advances in Optical and Multimedia Information Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessop, Deborah

    1997-01-01

    Examines developments in multimedia technologies and in the World Wide Web. Discusses CD-recordable, CD-rewritable, cable modems, personal digital assistants, digital video discs, interactivity and virtual worlds, advertising on the Web, and Intranets and CD-ROM networks. Eight tables and figures show costs, download time, estimated sales, storage…

  20. Fabricating Optical Fiber Imaging Sensors Using Inkjet Printing Technology: a pH Sensor Proof-of-Concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, J C; Alvis, R M; Brown, S B; Langry, K C; Wilson, T S; McBride, M T; Myrick, M L; Cox, W R; Grove, M E; Colston, B W

    2005-03-01

    We demonstrate the feasibility of using Drop-on-Demand microjet printing technology for fabricating imaging sensors by reproducibly printing an array of photopolymerizable sensing elements, containing a pH sensitive indicator, on the surface of an optical fiber image guide. The reproducibility of the microjet printing process is excellent for microdot (i.e. micron-sized polymer) sensor diameter (92.2 {+-} 2.2 microns), height (35.0 {+-} 1.0 microns), and roundness (0.00072 {+-} 0.00023). pH sensors were evaluated in terms of pH sensing ability ({le}2% sensor variation), response time, and hysteresis using a custom fluorescence imaging system. In addition, the microjet technique has distinct advantages over other fabrication methods, which are discussed in detail.

  1. Free-space optics technology employed in an UMTS release 4 bearer independent core network access part

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibac, Ionut

    2005-08-01

    The UMTS Bearer Independent Core Network program introduced the 3rd Generation Partnership Program Release 4 BICN architecture into the legacy UMTS TDM-switched network. BICN is the application of calI server archltecture for voice and circuit switched data, enabling the provisioning of traditional circuit-switched services using a packet-switched transport network. Today"s business climate has made it essential for service providers to develop a comprehensive networking strategy that means introduction of RCBICN networks. The R4-BICN solution to the evolution of the Core Network in UMTS will enable operators to significantly reduce the capital and operational costs of delivering both traditional voice sewices and new multimedia services. To build the optical backbone, which can support the third generation (3G) packetized infrastructure, the operators could choose a fibre connection, or they could retain the benefits of a wireless connectivity by using a FSO - Free Space Optical lmk, the only wireless technology available that is capable of achieving data rates up to 2.4 Gbit/s. FSO offers viable alternatives for both core transmission networks and for replacing microwaves links in NodeB - RNC access networks. The paper and presentation aim to demonstrate the manner in which FSO products and networks are employed into R4-BICN design solutions.

  2. Aeroelastic Control of a Segmented Trailing Edge Using Fiber Optic Strain Sensing Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Corbin Jay; Martins, Benjamin; Suppanade, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    Currently, design of aircraft structures incorporate a safety factor which is essentially an over design to mitigate the risk of structure failure during operation. Typically this safety factor is to design the structure to withstand loads much greater than what is expected to be experienced during flight. NASA Dryden Flight Research Centers has developed a Fiber Optic Strain Sensing (FOSS) system which can measure strain values in real-time. The Aeroelastics Lab at the AERO Institute is developing a segmented trailing edged wing with multiple control surfaces that can utilize the data from the FOSS system, in conjunction with an adaptive controller to redistribute the lift across a wing. This redistribution can decrease the amount of strain experienced by the wing as well as be used to dampen vibration and reduce flutter.

  3. An evaluation of optical tool inspection and compensation technologies. CRADA final report for CRADA Number Y-1291-0052

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babelay, E.F. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Centola, J.; Zorger, W.; Serafin, W. [United Technologies, East Hartford, CT (United States). Pratt and Whitney Div.

    1994-05-15

    A Cooperative Research And Development Agreement (CRADA) was established April 1992 between Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. and United Technologies Corporation, Pratt and Whitney Division to evaluate the existing applicability of the Energy Systems optical tool inspection and compensation system (OTICS) for use at Pratt and Whitney`s East Hartford Plant. The OTICS was developed at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant and optically measures the shape of a single point cutting tool. The tool shape inspection provides process information relating to tool wear and if desired the tool shape geometry can be used to generate a new numerical control machining program that is compensated for the tool forms errors. The tool wear measurement capability of OTICS was successfully evaluated in the Phase-1 testing. The testing verified that OTICS can easily detect tool wear and the {+-} 0.0001 inch resolution obtained was sufficient for the larger cutter inserts used by Pratt and Whitney (P and W). During the tool wear experiments at P and W, a second potential use identified for OTICS was the accurate on-machine dimensional verification of special ground contour forming tools. The OTICS tool path compensation experiment demonstrated the varied technologies that are integrated in the tool path compensation process. The OTICS system was successful at inspecting the 0.125 in. radius tool and compensating the tool path for tool form errors. The need for automated interfaces between the OTICS computer and controller along with the part program requirements and the overall compensation methodology were highlighted in the demonstration.

  4. Optical Frequency Optimization of a High Intensity Laser Power Beaming System Utilizing VMJ Photovoltaic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raible, Daniel E.; Dinca, Dragos; Nayfeh, Taysir H.

    2012-01-01

    An effective form of wireless power transmission (WPT) has been developed to enable extended mission durations, increased coverage and added capabilities for both space and terrestrial applications that may benefit from optically delivered electrical energy. The high intensity laser power beaming (HILPB) system enables long range optical 'refueling" of electric platforms such as micro unmanned aerial vehicles (MUAV), airships, robotic exploration missions and spacecraft platforms. To further advance the HILPB technology, the focus of this investigation is to determine the optimal laser wavelength to be used with the HILPB receiver, which utilizes vertical multi-junction (VMJ) photovoltaic cells. Frequency optimization of the laser system is necessary in order to maximize the conversion efficiency at continuous high intensities, and thus increase the delivered power density of the HILPB system. Initial spectral characterizations of the device performed at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) indicate the approximate range of peak optical-to-electrical conversion efficiencies, but these data sets represent transient conditions under lower levels of illumination. Extending these results to high levels of steady state illumination, with attention given to the compatibility of available commercial off-the-shelf semiconductor laser sources and atmospheric transmission constraints is the primary focus of this paper. Experimental hardware results utilizing high power continuous wave (CW) semiconductor lasers at four different operational frequencies near the indicated band gap of the photovoltaic VMJ cells are presented and discussed. In addition, the highest receiver power density achieved to date is demonstrated using a single photovoltaic VMJ cell, which provided an exceptionally high electrical output of 13.6 W/sq cm at an optical-to-electrical conversion efficiency of 24 percent. These results are very promising and scalable, as a potential 1.0 sq m HILPB receiver of

  5. Research of developing and processing technology of new visual and optical materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sun Jae; Kim, K. H.; Rhee, C. K.; Lee, H. G.; Kim, W. W.; Jeon, C. J.; Park, S.; Kim, H. S.

    2000-08-01

    Crystalline TiO 2 powder with rutile phase for the plastic lens material was prepared by the homogeneous precipitation process at ambient or low temperatures (HPPLT) using simply heating aqueous TiOCl 2 solution. The transparent TiO 2 thin films and CR39/TiO 2 composite lens were fabricated using dispersed TiO 2 particle in the aqueous or organic solution. The monodisperse TiO 2 ultrafine particles with the diameters of 40 ∼ 400 nm were obtained from aqueous TiOCl 2 solution with an appropriate Ti 4+ concentration by the HPPLT. The process was carried out under the conditions in the ranges of 17 ∼ 230 deg C to prevent H 2 O evaporation completely and to make it freely or to prevent it thoroughly. The existence of SO 4 2- ion in aqueous TiOCl 2 solution make the preferential growth of the acicular primary particles suppressed, resulting in the spherical or round primary particles with the anatase phase. The ultrafine TiO 2 powder by the HPPLT was well dispersed with sizes of 20 ∼ 50 nm in n-butyl alcohol solution. The mixture of TiO 2 particles with silica sol, corresponding to 1.0 wt.% SiO 2 in 99 wt.% (TiO 2 + H 2 O) aqueous solution was coated with 40 ∼ 50 nm thickness on the substrate. The optical transmittance of CR39/TiO 2 composite lens with increase in the addition of the ultrafine TiO 2 powder decreases gradually although TiO 2 particles were well dispersed in n-butyl alcohol solution. Thus, it can be thought that it is appropriate to add 0.3 mL of 1.0 g TiO 2 /1000 mL n-butyl alcohol solution to the CR39 solution for the CR39/TiO2 composite lens with optical transmittances more than 90 %. It was also confirmed that PMMA/TiO 2 composite thin films showed a similar transmittance like the CR39/TiO 2 composite lens

  6. Research of developing and processing technology of new visual and optical materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sun Jae; Kim, K. H.; Rhee, C. K.; Lee, H. G.; Kim, W. W.; Jeon, C. J.; Park, S.; Kim, H. S

    2000-08-01

    Crystalline TiO{sub 2} powder with rutile phase for the plastic lens material was prepared by the homogeneous precipitation process at ambient or low temperatures (HPPLT) using simply heating aqueous TiOCl{sub 2} solution. The transparent TiO{sub 2} thin films and CR39/TiO{sub 2} composite lens were fabricated using dispersed TiO{sub 2} particle in the aqueous or organic solution. The monodisperse TiO{sub 2} ultrafine particles with the diameters of 40 {approx} 400 nm were obtained from aqueous TiOCl{sub 2} solution with an appropriate Ti{sup 4+} concentration by the HPPLT. The process was carried out under the conditions in the ranges of 17 {approx} 230 deg C to prevent H{sub 2}O evaporation completely and to make it freely or to prevent it thoroughly. The existence of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} ion in aqueous TiOCl{sub 2} solution make the preferential growth of the acicular primary particles suppressed, resulting in the spherical or round primary particles with the anatase phase. The ultrafine TiO{sub 2} powder by the HPPLT was well dispersed with sizes of 20 {approx} 50 nm in n-butyl alcohol solution. The mixture of TiO{sub 2} particles with silica sol, corresponding to 1.0 wt.% SiO{sub 2} in 99 wt.% (TiO{sub 2} + H{sub 2}O) aqueous solution was coated with 40 {approx} 50 nm thickness on the substrate. The optical transmittance of CR39/TiO{sub 2} composite lens with increase in the addition of the ultrafine TiO{sub 2} powder decreases gradually although TiO{sub 2} particles were well dispersed in n-butyl alcohol solution. Thus, it can be thought that it is appropriate to add 0.3 mL of 1.0 g TiO{sub 2}/1000 mL n-butyl alcohol solution to the CR39 solution for the CR39/TiO2 composite lens with optical transmittances more than 90 %. It was also confirmed that PMMA/TiO{sub 2} composite thin films showed a similar transmittance like the CR39/TiO{sub 2} composite lens.

  7. Advances in Fiber Optic Sensors Technology Development for temperature and strain measurements in Superconducting magnets and devices

    CERN Document Server

    Chiuchiolo, A.; Bajko, M.; Bottura, L.; Consales, M.; Cusano, A.; Giordano, M.; Perez, J. C.

    2016-01-01

    The luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) requires the development of a new generation of superconducting magnets based on Nb$_{3}$Sn technology. In order to monitor the magnet thermo-mechanical behaviour during its service life, from the coil fabrication to the magnet operation, reliable sensing systems need to be implemented. In the framework of the FP7 European project EUCARD, Nb$_{3}$Sn racetrack coils are developed as test beds for the fabrication validation, the cable characterization and the instrumentation development. Fiber optic sensors (FOS) based on Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) technology have been embedded in the coils of the Short Model Coil (SMC) magnet. The FBG sensitivity to both temperature and strain required the development of a solution able to separate the mechanical and temperature effects. This work presents the feasibility study of the implementation of embedded FBG sensors for the temperature and strain monitoring of the 11 T type conductor. We aim to monitor and regi...

  8. Single attosecond pulse generation by using plasmon-driven double optical gating technology in crossed metal nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Liqiang; Liu, Katheryn

    2018-05-01

    An effective method to obtain the single attosecond pulses (SAPs) by using the multi-cycle plasmon-driven double optical gating (DOG) technology in the specifically designed metal nanostructures has been proposed and investigated. It is found that with the introduction of the crossed metal nanostructures along the driven and the gating polarization directions, not only the harmonic cutoff can be extended, but also the efficient high-order harmonic generation (HHG) at the very highest orders occurs only at one side of the region inside the nanostructure. As a result, a 93 eV supercontinuum with the near stable phase can be found. Further, by properly introducing an ultraviolet (UV) pulse into the driven laser polarization direction (which is defined as the DOG), the harmonic yield can be enhanced by two orders of magnitude in comparison with the singe polarization gating (PG) technology. However, as the polarized angle or the ellipticity of the UV pulse increase, the enhancement of the harmonic yield is slightly reduced. Finally, by superposing the selected harmonics from the DOG scheme, a 30 as SAP with intensity enhancement of two orders of magnitude can be obtained.

  9. Optical sensor technology for a noninvasive continuous monitoring of blood components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraitl, Jens; Timm, Ulrich; Lewis, Elfed; Ewald, Hartmut

    2010-02-01

    NIR-spectroscopy and Photoplethysmography (PPG) is used for a measurement of blood components. The absorptioncoefficient of blood differs at different wavelengths. This fact is used to calculate the optical absorbability characteristics of blood which is yielding information about blood components like hemoglobin (Hb), carboxyhemoglobin (CoHb) and arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2). The measured PPG time signals and the ratio between the peak to peak pulse amplitudes are used for a measurement of these parameters. Hemoglobin is the main component of red blood cells. The primary function of Hb is the transport of oxygen from the lungs to the tissue and carbon dioxide back to the lungs. The Hb concentration in human blood is an important parameter in evaluating the physiological status of an individual and an essential parameter in every blood count. Currently, invasive methods are used to measure the Hb concentration, whereby blood is taken from the patient and subsequently analyzed. Apart from the discomfort of drawing blood samples, an added disadvantage of this method is the delay between the blood collection and its analysis, which does not allow real time patient monitoring in critical situations. A noninvasive method allows pain free continuous on-line patient monitoring with minimum risk of infection and facilitates real time data monitoring allowing immediate clinical reaction to the measured data.

  10. Beam line optics technologies series (7). Orthopedic treatment of sharp of light (reflecting mirror)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uruga, Tomoya; Nomura, Masaharu

    2006-01-01

    A reflecting mirror (mirror) is the most popular light device for orthopedic treatment of the shape of light. The paper explains the kinds of mirror for hard X-ray field and its applications in order to think the objects of mirror and how to adjust it when user experiment on the beam-line. The basic knowledge of reflection of X-ray, a use of mirror, the kinds of condenser mirror, the influence factors on the condenser size, arrangement of mirror in the hard X-ray beam-line, what kinds of mirror are necessary, evaluation of performance of mirror and adjustment, and troubles and measures are described. Layout in optics hutch at BL01B1 at SPring-8, refraction and total reflection of X-rays at surface, reflectivity of Rh and Pt with ideal surface as a function of photon energy, effects of surface roughness on reflectivity of Rh, calculated beam sizes for typical SPring-8 mirror as a function of magnification, schematic drawing of mirror, standard mirror system for vertical deflection in bending magnet beam-line, and observed and calculated reflectivity of Rh double mirror at BL01B1 at SPring-8 are illustrated. (S.Y)

  11. Ultrahigh speed endoscopic optical coherence tomography using micromotor imaging catheter and VCSEL technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Tsung-Han; Potsaid, Benjamin; Tao, Yuankai K; Jayaraman, Vijaysekhar; Jiang, James; Heim, Peter J S; Kraus, Martin F; Zhou, Chao; Hornegger, Joachim; Mashimo, Hiroshi; Cable, Alex E; Fujimoto, James G

    2013-07-01

    We developed a micromotor based miniature catheter with an outer diameter of 3.2 mm for ultrahigh speed endoscopic swept source optical coherence tomography (OCT) using a vertical cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) at a 1 MHz axial scan rate. The micromotor can rotate a micro-prism at several hundred frames per second with less than 5 V drive voltage to provide fast and stable scanning, which is not sensitive to the bending of the catheter. The side-viewing probe can be pulled back to acquire a three-dimensional (3D) data set covering a large area on the specimen. The VCSEL provides a high axial scan rate to support dense sampling under high frame rate operation. Using a high speed data acquisition system, in vivo 3D-OCT imaging in the rabbit GI tract and ex vivo imaging of a human colon specimen with 8 μm axial resolution, 8 μm lateral resolution and 1.2 mm depth range in tissue at a frame rate of 400 fps was demonstrated.

  12. Designing Optical Spreadsheets-Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge Simulation (S-TPACK): A Case Study of Pre-Service Teachers Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thohir, M. Anas

    2018-01-01

    In the 21st century, the competence of instructional technological design is important for pre-service physics teachers. This case study described the pre-service physics teachers' design of optical spreadsheet simulation and evaluated teaching and learning the task in the classroom. The case study chose three of thirty pre-service teacher's…

  13. Optical electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Yariv, Amnon

    1991-01-01

    This classic text introduces engineering students to the first principles of major phenomena and devices of optoelectronics and optical communication technology. Yariv's "first principles" approach employs real-life examples and extensive problems. The text includes separate chapters on quantum well and semiconductor lasers, as well as phase conjugation and its applications. Optical fiber amplification, signal and noise considerations in optical fiber systems, laser arrays and distributed feedback lasers all are covered extensively in major sections within chapters.

  14. Status on Technology Development of Optic Fiber-Coupled Laser Ignition System for Rocket Engine Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Huu P.; Early, Jim; Osborne, Robin; Thomas, Matthew; Bossard, John

    2003-01-01

    To pursue technology developments for future launch vehicles, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is examining vortex chamber concepts for liquid rocket engine applications. Past studies indicated that the vortex chamber schemes potentially have a number of advantages over conventional chamber methods. Due to the nature of the vortex flow, relatively cooler propellant streams tend to flow along the chamber wall. Hence, the thruster chamber can be operated without the need of any cooling techniques. This vortex flow also creates strong turbulence, which promotes the propellant mixing process. Consequently, the subject chamber concept: not only offer system simplicity, but also enhance the combustion performance. Test results have shown that chamber performance is markedly high even at a low chamber length-to-diameter ratio. This incentive can be translated to a convenience in the thrust chamber packaging.

  15. Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 receptor activation in vitro and in vivo by pro-tussive agents: GRC 17536 as a promising anti-tussive therapeutic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indranil Mukhopadhyay

    Full Text Available Cough is a protective reflex action that helps clear the respiratory tract which is continuously exposed to airborne environmental irritants. However, chronic cough presents itself as a disease in its own right and despite its global occurrence; the molecular mechanisms responsible for cough are not completely understood. Transient receptor potential ankyrin1 (TRPA1 is robustly expressed in the neuronal as well as non-neuronal cells of the respiratory tract and is a sensor of a wide range of environmental irritants. It is fast getting acceptance as a key biological sensor of a variety of pro-tussive agents often implicated in miscellaneous chronic cough conditions. In the present study, we demonstrate in vitro direct functional activation of TRPA1 receptor by citric acid which is routinely used to evoke cough in preclinical and clinical studies. We also show for the first time that a potent and selective TRPA1 antagonist GRC 17536 inhibits citric acid induced cellular Ca(+2 influx in TRPA1 expressing cells and the citric acid induced cough response in guinea pigs. Hence our data provides a mechanistic link between TRPA1 receptor activation in vitro and cough response induced in vivo by citric acid. Furthermore, we also show evidence for TRPA1 activation in vitro by the TLR4, TLR7 and TLR8 ligands which are implicated in bacterial/respiratory virus pathogenesis often resulting in chronic cough. In conclusion, this study highlights the potential utility of TRPA1 antagonist such as GRC 17536 in the treatment of miscellaneous chronic cough conditions arising due to diverse causes but commonly driven via TRPA1.

  16. Research Center for Optical Physics: Education and Technology for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    During the past eleven years since its inception, RCOP has excelled in its two primary goals: 1) training of the scientists and engineers needed for the twenty-first century with special emphasis on underrepresented citizens and 2) research and technological development in areas of relevance to NASA. In the category of research training, as of May 2003, RCOP produced 36 Bachelors degrees, 25 Masters degrees, and 13 Doctoral degrees. Of these, all 36 Bachelors degrees, 16 of the Masters degrees and 9 of the Doctoral degrees were awarded to African Americans. Four of the Doctoral graduates and one of the Masters graduates are working at NASA Field Centers. RCOP has also provided research experiences to 130 undergraduate students and 22 high school students through a number of outreach programs held during the summer and the academic year. RCOP has also been crucial to the development of the Ph.D. program in physics at Hampton University by providing high quality research training and technical electives required for a Doctoral degree in physics. RCOP has also excelled in research and technological development. Since 1992, RCOP researchers have leveraged over 8 million dollars in additional research funding, published 152 papers in refereed journals and proceedings, and given 125 presentations at refereed international conferences in the United States and eight other countries. RCOP also developed numerous collaborations with other research centers, universities and industries. In recognition of this outstanding work, RCOP is the first research center in the United States invited to join the Joint Open Laboratory for Laser Crystals and Precise Laser Systems headed by Dr. Alexander Kaminiskii of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

  17. Stereo-Optic High Definition Imaging: A New Technology to Understand Bird and Bat Avoidance of Wind Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Evan; Goodale, Wing; Burns, Steve; Dorr, Chirs; Duron, Melissa; Gilbert, Andrew; Moratz, Reinhard; Robinson, Mark

    2017-07-21

    There is a critical need to develop monitoring tools to track aerofauna (birds and bats) in three dimensions around wind turbines. New monitoring systems will reduce permitting uncertainty by increasing the understanding of how birds and bats are interacting with wind turbines, which will improve the accuracy of impact predictions. Biodiversity Research Institute (BRI), The University of Maine Orono School of Computing and Information Science (UMaine SCIS), HiDef Aerial Surveying Limited (HiDef), and SunEdison, Inc. (formerly First Wind) responded to this need by using stereo-optic cameras with near-infrared (nIR) technology to investigate new methods for documenting aerofauna behavior around wind turbines. The stereo-optic camera system used two synchronized high-definition video cameras with fisheye lenses and processing software that detected moving objects, which could be identified in post-processing. The stereo- optic imaging system offered the ability to extract 3-D position information from pairs of images captured from different viewpoints. Fisheye lenses allowed for a greater field of view, but required more complex image rectification to contend with fisheye distortion. The ability to obtain 3-D positions provided crucial data on the trajectory (speed and direction) of a target, which, when the technology is fully developed, will provide data on how animals are responding to and interacting with wind turbines. This project was focused on testing the performance of the camera system, improving video review processing time, advancing the 3-D tracking technology, and moving the system from Technology Readiness Level 4 to 5. To achieve these objectives, we determined the size and distance at which aerofauna (particularly eagles) could be detected and identified, created efficient data management systems, improved the video post-processing viewer, and attempted refinement of 3-D modeling with respect to fisheye lenses. The 29-megapixel camera system

  18. Hot slumping glass technology for the grazing incidence optics of future missions with particular reference to IXO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghigo, M.; Basso, S.; Bavdaz, M.; Conconi, P.; Citterio, O.; Civitani, M.; Friedrich, P.; Gallieni, D.; Guldimann, B.; Martelli, F.; Negri, R.; Pagano, G.; Pareschi, G.; Parodi, G.; Proserpio, L.; Salmaso, B.; Scaglione, F.; Spiga, D.; Tagliaferri, G.; Terzi, L.; Tintori, M.; Vongehr, M.; Wille, E.; Winter, A.; Zambra, A.

    2010-07-01

    The mirrors of the International X-ray Observatory (IXO) consist of a large number of high quality segments delivering a spatial resolution better than 5 arcsec. A study concerning the slumping of thin glass foils for the IXO mirrors is under development in Europe, funded by ESA and led by the Brera Observatory. We are investigating two approaches, the "Direct" and "Indirect" slumping technologies, being respectively based on the use of convex and concave moulds. In the first case during the thermal cycle the optical surface of the glass is in direct contact with the mould surface, while in the second case it is the rear side of the foil which touches the master. Both approaches present pros and cons and aim of this study is also to make an assessment of both processes and to perform a trade-off between the two. The thin plates are made of D263glass produced by Schott. Each plate is 0.4 mm thick, with a reflecting area of 200 mm x 200 mm; the mould are made of Fused Silica. After the thermal cycle the slumped MPs are characterized to define their optical quality and microroughness. The adopted integration process foresees the bonding of the slumped foils to a rigid backplane by means of reinforcing ribs. During the bonding process the plates are constrained to stay in close contact to the surface of the master (i.e. the same mould used for the hot slumping process) by the application of a vacuum pump suction. In this way spring-back deformations and low frequency errors still present on the foil profile after slumping can be corrected. In this paper we present the preliminary results concerning achieved during the first part of the project.

  19. Temperature variation in metal ceramic technology analyzed using time domain optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinescu, Cosmin; Topala, Florin I.; Negrutiu, Meda Lavinia; Duma, Virgil-Florin; Podoleanu, Adrian G.

    2014-01-01

    The quality of dental prostheses is essential in providing good quality medical services. The metal ceramic technology applied in dentistry implies ceramic sintering inside the dental oven. Every ceramic material requires a special sintering chart which is recommended by the producer. For a regular dental technician it is very difficult to evaluate if the temperature inside the oven remains the same as it is programmed on the sintering chart. Also, maintaining the calibration in time is an issue for the practitioners. Metal ceramic crowns develop a very accurate pattern for the ceramic layers depending on the temperature variation inside the oven where they are processed. Different patterns were identified in the present study for the samples processed with a variation in temperature of +30 °C to +50 °C, respectively - 30 0°C to -50 °C. The OCT imagistic evaluations performed for the normal samples present a uniform spread of the ceramic granulation inside the ceramic materials. For the samples sintered at a higher temperature an alternation between white and darker areas between the enamel and opaque layers appear. For the samples sintered at a lower temperature a decrease in the ceramic granulation from the enamel towards the opaque layer is concluded. The TD-OCT methods can therefore be used efficiently for the detection of the temperature variation due to the ceramic sintering inside the ceramic oven.

  20. Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC) Technology Maturation in Preparation for Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wayne A.; Cornell, Peggy A.

    2012-01-01

    The Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC) is being developed by an integrated team of Sunpower and National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA s) Glenn Research Center (GRC). The ASC development, funded by NASA s Science Mission Directorate, started as a technology development effort in 2003 and has since evolved through progressive convertor builds and successful testing to demonstrate high conversion efficiency, low mass, and capability to meet long-life Radioisotope Power System (RPS) requirements. The technology has been adopted by the Department of Energy and Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company s Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), which has been selected for potential flight demonstration on Discovery 12. This paper provides an overview of the status of ASC development including the most recent ASC-E2 convertors that have been delivered to GRC and an introduction to the ASC-E3 and ASC flight convertors that Sunpower will build next. The paper also describes the technology maturation and support tasks being conducted at GRC to support ASC and ASRG development in the areas of convertor and generator extended operation, high-temperature materials, heater head life assessment, organics, nondestructive inspection, spring fatigue testing, and other reliability verification tasks.

  1. Single-chip ring resonator-based 1 x 8 optical beam forming network in CMOS-compatible waveguide technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhuang, L.; Roeloffzen, C.G.H.; Heideman, Rene; Borreman, A.; Meijerink, Arjan; van Etten, Wim

    2007-01-01

    Optical ring resonators (ORRs) are good candidates to provide continuously tunable delay in optical beam forming networks (OBFNs) for phased array antenna systems. Delay and splitting/combining elements can be integrated on a single optical chip to form an OBFN. A state-of-the-art ring resonator-

  2. Assessing community exposure to hazardous air pollutants by combining optical remote sensing and "low-cost" sensor technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikelnaya, O.; Polidori, A.; Wimmer, R.; Mellqvist, J.; Samuelsson, J.; Marianne, E.; Andersson, P.; Brohede, S.; Izos, O.

    2017-12-01

    Industrial facilities such as refineries and oil processing facilities can be sources of chemicals adversely affecting human health, for example aromatic hydrocarbons and formaldehyde. In an urban setting, such as the South Coast Air Basin (SCAB), exposure to harmful air pollutants (HAP's) for residents of communities neighboring such facilities is of serious concern. Traditionally, exposure assessments are performed by modeling a community exposure using emission inventories and data collected at fixed air monitoring sites. However, recent field measurements found that emission inventories may underestimate HAP emissions from refineries; and HAP measurements data from fixed sites is lacking spatial resolution; as a result, the impact of HAP emissions on communities is highly uncertain. The next generation air monitoring technologies can help address these challenges. For example, dense "low-cost" sensors allow continuous monitoring of concentrations of pollutants within communities with high temporal- and spatial- resolution, and optical remote sensing (ORS) technologies offer measurements of emission fluxes and real-time ground-concentration mapping of HAPs. South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) is currently conducting a multi-year study using ORS methods and "low-cost" Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) sensors to monitor HAP emissions from selected industrial facilities in the SCAB and their ambient concentrations in neighboring communities. For this purpose, quarterly mobile ORS surveys are conducted to quantify facility-wide emissions for VOCs, aromatic hydrocarbons and HCHO, and to collect ground-concentration profiles of these pollutants inside neighboring communities. Additionally, "low-cost" sensor nodes for deployment in neighborhood(s) downwind of the facilities have been developed in order to obtain long-term, granular data on neighborhood VOC concentrations, During this presentation we will discuss initial results of quarterly ORS

  3. Small Business Innovation Research GRC Phase I, Phase II, and Post-Phase II Opportunity Assessment for 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.

    2016-01-01

    This report outlines the 2015 Small Business Innovation Research/Small Business Technology Transfer (SBIR/STTR) Phase I, Phase II, and Post-Phase II opportunity contract award results associated with NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD), Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD), Science Mission Directorate (SMD), and Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) for NASA Glenn Research Center. The report also highlights the number of Phase I, Phase II, and Post-Phase II contracts awarded by mission directorate. The 2015 Phase I contract awards to companies in Ohio and their corresponding technologies are also discussed.

  4. High Sensitivity Refractometer Based on TiO2-Coated Adiabatic Tapered Optical Fiber via ALD Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shan; Pang, Fufei; Huang, Sujuan; Zou, Fang; Guo, Qiang; Wen, Jianxiang; Wang, Tingyun

    2016-01-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) technology is introduced to fabricate a high sensitivity refractometer based on an adiabatic tapered optical fiber. Different thicknesses of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanofilm were coated around the tapered fiber precisely and uniformly under different deposition cycles. Attributed to the higher refractive index of the TiO2 nanofilm compared to that of silica, an asymmetric Fabry–Perot (F-P) resonator could be constructed along the fiber taper. The central wavelength of the F-P resonator could be controlled by adjusting the thickness of the TiO2 nanofilm. Such a F-P resonator is sensitive to changes in the surrounding refractive index (SRI), which is utilized to realize a high sensitivity refractometer. The refractometer developed by depositing 50.9-nm-thickness TiO2 on the tapered fiber shows SRI sensitivity as high as 7096 nm/RIU in the SRI range of 1.3373–1.3500. Due to TiO2’s advantages of high refractive index, lack of toxicity, and good biocompatibility, this refractometer is expected to have wide applications in the biochemical sensing field. PMID:27537885

  5. The application of surgical navigation system using optical molecular imaging technology in orthotopic breast cancer and metastasis studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Chongwei; Zhang, Qian; Kou, Deqiang; Ye, Jinzuo; Mao, Yamin; Qiu, Jingdan; Wang, Jiandong; Yang, Xin; Du, Yang; Tian, Jie

    2014-02-01

    Currently, it has been an international focus on intraoperative precise positioning and accurate resection of tumor and metastases. The methods such as X-rays, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) have played an important role in preoperative accurate diagnosis. However, most of them are inapplicable for intraoperative surgery. We have proposed a surgical navigation system based on optical molecular imaging technology for intraoperative detection of tumors and metastasis. This system collects images from two CCD cameras for real-time fluorescent and color imaging. For image processing, the template matching algorithm is used for multispectral image fusion. For the application of tumor detection, the mouse breast cancer cell line 4T1-luc, which shows highly metastasis, was used for tumor model establishment and a model of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expressing breast cancer. The tumor-bearing nude mice were given tail vein injection of MMP 750FAST (PerkinElmer, Inc. USA) probe and imaged with both bioluminescence and fluorescence to assess in vivo binding of the probe to the tumor and metastases sites. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining was performed to confirm the presence of tumor and metastasis. As a result, one tumor can be observed visually in vivo. However liver metastasis has been detected under surgical navigation system and all were confirmed by histology. This approach helps surgeons to find orthotopic tumors and metastasis during intraoperative resection and visualize tumor borders for precise positioning. Further investigation is needed for future application in clinics.

  6. Optical fibers installation the different technologies and the advantages of using the RTE power grid; Pose de fibres optiques les differentes technologies et les avantages lies a l'utilisation du reseau de transport d'electricite de RTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    To install optical fibers lines RTE implements two different technologies: the THYM line and the COE line. The two technologies are explained and compared with the advantages of using RTE for such an equipment. (A.L.B.)

  7. Hermod: optical payload technology demonstrator flying on PROBA-V: overview of the payload development, testing and results after 1 year in orbit exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, S.; Blasco, J.; Henriksen, V.; Samuelsson, H.; Navasquillo, O.; Grimsgaard, M.; Mellab, K.

    2017-11-01

    Proba-V is the third mission of ESA's Programme for In-orbit Technology Demonstration (IOD), based on a small, high performance satellite platform and a compact payload. Besides, the main satellite instrument aiming at Vegetation imaging, Proba-V embarks five technological payloads providing early flight opportunities for novel instruments and space technologies. Successfully launched by the ESA VEGA launcher in May 2013, it has now completed its commissioning and the full calibration of platform, main instrument and additional payloads and is, since last October, fully operational. The High dEnsity space foRM cOnnector Demonstration or HERMOD is the last payload selected to fly on Proba-V. The payload objective is to validate through an actual launch and in orbit high-density optical fibre cable assembly, cumulate space heritage for fibre optics transmission and evaluate possible degradation induced by the space environment compared to on-ground tests. The future applications of this technology are for intrasatellite optical communications in view of mass reduction, the electrical grounding simplification and to increase the transmission rate. The project has been supported under an ESA GSTP contract. T&G Elektro (Norway) developed and tested the different optical cable assembly to be validated in the payload. The electrooptic modules, control, power and mechanical interfaces have been developed by DAS Photonics (Spain). The payload contains four optical channels to be studied through the experiment, two assemblies with MTP/PC connectors and two assemblies with MPO/APC connectors. Optical data is transmitted in the four independent channels using two optoelectronic conversion modules (SIOS) working at 100Mbps including 2 full duplex channels each. A FPGA is used to generate, receive and compare the different binary patterns. The number of errors (if any) and Bit Error Rate (BER) is sent to the satellite TM interface. HERMOD successfully went through all mechanical

  8. Electromagnetic modeling and characterization of an optically-controlled microwave phase shifterin GaAs integrated technology

    OpenAIRE

    Tripon-Canseliet, C.; Faci, S.; Deshours, F.; Algani, C.; Alquié, G.; Formont, S.; Chazelas, J.

    2005-01-01

    A state of the art of the modeling of microwave photoswitching devices is exposed. A new 3 D electromagnetic modeling allows the design of an optically-controlled microwave phase shifter microwave starting from the traditional circuit of a microwave photoswitch. Measurements of the parameters S of this optically-controlled microwave phase shifter attests the function of this circuit by optical way and highlights the interest of the integration of this new type of microwave phase shifters in ...

  9. Conference Paper NFO-7:7th International Conference on Near-Field Optics and Related Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novotny, Lukas [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)

    2004-10-18

    The seventh conference in the NFO conference series, held here in Rochester, provided to be the principal forum for advances in sub-wavelength optics, near-field optical microscopy, local field enhancement, instrumental developments and the ever-increasing range of applications. This conference brought together the diverse scientific communities working on the theory and application of near-field optics (NFO) and related techniques.

  10. A High Gain-Bandwidth Product Distributed Transimpedance Amplifier IC for High-Speed Optical Transmission Using Low-Cost GaAs Technology.

    OpenAIRE

    Giannini, F.; Limiti, E.; Orengo, G.; Serino, A.; De Dominicis, M.

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports a distributed baseband transimpedance amplifier for optical links up to 10 Gb/s. The amplifier operates as a baseband amplifier with a transimpedance gain of 48 dB Ω and a DC-to-9 GHz bandwidth. Some innovative design techniques to improve gain-bandwidth performance at low and high frequency with an available low-cost GaAs MESFET technology have been developed.

  11. Digital Optical Circuit Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-01

    in lergth from 2 to 115 on, with i stra-savity -gas tells as short as 1 mm w-r.- iperati at S;F(. itas ;a’arasrasgqisg from c-i. I to (a. 27001 terr...a.aria,s I iaae iai the I’ LI and I o a 1- TEA ClyzI asir were ’ iso -i to, Lam;il Lb’ dense aaii biroad spectral features s-f tuel , s-rat as-aual as...range of logic operut isos laso upon the two possible out- it levels. This contrasts with GaAs in which, as a result of the ratio of not- linearity to

  12. A scintillation testing technology at a viewpoint of optical test. At a memory of winning of the Radiation Prize (Prize of Encouragement)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Tatsuyuki

    2000-01-01

    In a 'summer school' held at Matsushima, a series of developmental results had been introduced on a wavelength shift type beta-ray detector and others recently progressed by author at a viewpoint of 'new reconsideration on scintillation testing, one of the oldest radiation testing technology for an optical testing'. As a chance to write this theme again was obtained at present, here were introduced on trial and errors, backgrounds on ideas, pains for trial production and so forth at a process of putting together them for actual technologies and products under combining a series of ideas with their needs. Here were newly introduced on developmental backgrounds, points for practicability, and so forth on optical radiation testing technology which had been developed by authors. By upgrading of radiation resistance on the optical fibers themselves, developments for not only radiation testing but also instrumentation in storage vessel specific to nuclear instrumentation are considered in future. And, some findings on new elements and techniques, such as application of radiation to refractive index change due to much minute exotherm, application of Cherenkov phenomenon in glass, fiber grating and interference test assembles a minute diffraction lattice into a core, and so forth are found recently, which will be expected for their future developments. (G.K.)

  13. A scintillation testing technology at a viewpoint of optical test. At a memory of winning of the Radiation Prize (Prize of Encouragement)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekawa, Tatsuyuki [Toshiba Corp., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2000-04-01

    In a 'summer school' held at Matsushima, a series of developmental results had been introduced on a wavelength shift type beta-ray detector and others recently progressed by author at a viewpoint of 'new reconsideration on scintillation testing, one of the oldest radiation testing technology for an optical testing'. As a chance to write this theme again was obtained at present, here were introduced on trial and errors, backgrounds on ideas, pains for trial production and so forth at a process of putting together them for actual technologies and products under combining a series of ideas with their needs. Here were newly introduced on developmental backgrounds, points for practicability, and so forth on optical radiation testing technology which had been developed by authors. By upgrading of radiation resistance on the optical fibers themselves, developments for not only radiation testing but also instrumentation in storage vessel specific to nuclear instrumentation are considered in future. And, some findings on new elements and techniques, such as application of radiation to refractive index change due to much minute exotherm, application of Cherenkov phenomenon in glass, fiber grating and interference test assembles a minute diffraction lattice into a core, and so forth are found recently, which will be expected for their future developments. (G.K.)

  14. Integrated Optical Circuit Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriram, S.

    1985-04-01

    Implementation of single-mode optical fiber systems depends largely on the availability of integrated optical components for such functions as switching, multiplexing, and modulation. The technology of integrated optics is maturing very rapidly, and its growth justifies the optimism that now exists in the optical community.

  15. Ring resonator-based single-chip 1x8 optical beam forming network in LPCVD waveguide technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhuang, L.; Roeloffzen, C.G.H.; Heideman, Rene; Borreman, A.; Meijerink, Arjan; van Etten, Wim; Koonen, A.M.J.; Leijtens, X.J.M.; van den Boom, H.P.A.; Verdurmen, E.J.M.; Molina Vázquez, J.

    2006-01-01

    Optical ring resonators (ORRs) are good candidates to provide continuously tunable delay in beam forming networks (BFNs) for phased array antenna systems. Delay and splitting/combining elements can be integrated on a single optical chip to form an OBFN. A state-of-the-art 1×8 OBFN chip has been

  16. Fibre-optic communications

    CERN Document Server

    Lecoy, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    This book describes in a comprehensive manner the components and systems of fiber optic communications and networks. The first section explains the theory of multimode and single-mode fibers, then the technological features, including manufacturing, cabling, and connecting. The second section describes the various components (passive and active optical components, integrated optics, opto-electronic transmitters and receivers, and optical amplifiers) used in fiber optic systems. Finally, the optical transmission system design is explained, and applications to optical networks and fiber optic se

  17. FIBER OPTICS: Fibre optics: Forty years later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dianov, Evgenii M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a brief overview of the state of the art in fibre optics and its main applications: optical fibre communications, fibre lasers and fibre sensors for various physical property measurements. The future of fibre optics and the status of this important area of the modern technology in Russia are discussed.

  18. Quantum optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drummond, P D [University of Queensland, St. Lucia, QLD (Australia).Physics Department

    1999-07-01

    Full text: Quantum optics in Australia has been an active research field for some years. I shall focus on recent developments in quantum and atom optics. Generally, the field as a whole is becoming more and more diverse, as technological developments drive experiments into new areas, and theorists either attempt to explain the new features, or else develop models for even more exotic ideas. The recent developments include quantum solitons, quantum computing, Bose-Einstein condensation, atom lasers, quantum cryptography, and novel tests of quantum mechanics. The talk will briefly cover current progress and outstanding problems in each of these areas. Copyright (1999) Australian Optical Society.

  19. The Athena Optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bavdaz, Marcos; Wille, Eric; Shortt, Brian

    2015-01-01

    studies and in parallel a comprehensive series of technology preparation activities. [1-3].The core enabling technology for the high performance mirror is the Silicon Pore Optics (SPO), a modular X-ray optics technology, which utilises processes and equipment developed for the semiconductor industry [4...

  20. Advanced digital optical communications

    CERN Document Server

    Binh, Le Nguyen

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a fundamental understanding of digital communication applications in optical communication technologies. Emphasizing operation principles versus mathematical analysis, the Second Edition includes new coverage of superchannel optical transmission systems, metropolitan and long-haul optical systems and networks, and Nyquist pulse shaping and high spectral efficiency of optical transmission systems, as well as new homework problems and examples. Featuring theoretical foundations as well as practical case studies, the text focuses on enhancements to digital technologies that are

  1. Optics/Optical Diagnostics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Optics/Optical Diagnostics Laboratory supports graduate instruction in optics, optical and laser diagnostics and electro-optics. The optics laboratory provides...

  2. Space Solar Power Satellite Technology Development at the Glenn Research Center: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudenhoefer, James E.; George, Patrick J.

    2000-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). is participating in the Space Solar Power Exploratory Research and Technology program (SERT) for the development of a solar power satellite concept. The aim of the program is to provide electrical power to Earth by converting the Sun's energy and beaming it to the surface. This paper will give an overall view of the technologies being pursued at GRC including thin film photovoltaics, solar dynamic power systems, space environmental effects, power management and distribution, and electric propulsion. The developmental path not only provides solutions to gigawatt sized space power systems for the future, but provides synergistic opportunities for contemporary space power architectures. More details of Space Solar Power can be found by reading the references sited in this paper and by connecting to the web site http://moonbase.msfc.nasa.gov/ and accessing the "Space Solar Power" section "Public Access" area.

  3. Eight-channel video broadcast feed service using free-space optical wireless technology at the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szajowski, Paul F.; Rigas, A. J.; Robinson, J. W.; Nykolak, Gerald; Paulson, Bruce D.; Tourgee, G. E.; Auborn, James J.

    2001-02-01

    12 Terrestrial 1550 nm WDM free-space optical communication systems have been demonstrated to provide a viable means to transport data, voice and video channels for point-to-point applications without the use of optical fiber. Key features of free-space optical transmission systems are their ability to utilize present day telecommunication components such as: laser diode transmitters, high-power optical amplifiers operating within the 1550 nm optical transmission window and high-sensitivity optical receivers designed for multi-Giga- bit data rates. In this paper, we report on details of the world's first field test, demonstrating real time video transmission of eight uncompressed standard-definition (SD) video channels operating at an aggregate data rate of 1.485 Gb/s over a 0.89 km terrestrial free-space link. This data link was used in support of the 2000 Olympic games held recently in Sydney, Australia. Results from this eight- channel SD terrestrial free-space laser communications systems are presented. The transmission system operated error-free continuously from September 14, 2000 until October 1, 2000, twenty-four hours a day, throughout the coverage of the games. Modeling results predict that free- space SD video transmission systems can be designed and operated over significant link distances under nominal visibility conditions.

  4. Nonlinear Optics and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdeldayem, Hossin A. (Editor); Frazier, Donald O. (Editor)

    2007-01-01

    Nonlinear optics is the result of laser beam interaction with materials and started with the advent of lasers in the early 1960s. The field is growing daily and plays a major role in emerging photonic technology. Nonlinear optics play a major role in many of the optical applications such as optical signal processing, optical computers, ultrafast switches, ultra-short pulsed lasers, sensors, laser amplifiers, and many others. This special review volume on Nonlinear Optics and Applications is intended for those who want to be aware of the most recent technology. This book presents a survey of the recent advances of nonlinear optical applications. Emphasis will be on novel devices and materials, switching technology, optical computing, and important experimental results. Recent developments in topics which are of historical interest to researchers, and in the same time of potential use in the fields of all-optical communication and computing technologies, are also included. Additionally, a few new related topics which might provoke discussion are presented. The book includes chapters on nonlinear optics and applications; the nonlinear Schrodinger and associated equations that model spatio-temporal propagation; the supercontinuum light source; wideband ultrashort pulse fiber laser sources; lattice fabrication as well as their linear and nonlinear light guiding properties; the second-order EO effect (Pockels), the third-order (Kerr) and thermo-optical effects in optical waveguides and their applications in optical communication; and, the effect of magnetic field and its role in nonlinear optics, among other chapters.

  5. Advanced Optical Diagnostic Methods for Describing Fuel Injection and Combustion Flowfield Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Randy J.; Hicks, Yolanda R.; Anderson, Robert C.

    2004-01-01

    Over the past decade advanced optical diagnostic techniques have evolved and matured to a point where they are now widely applied in the interrogation of high pressure combusting flows. At NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), imaging techniques have been used successfully in on-going work to develop the next generation of commercial aircraft gas turbine combustors. This work has centered on providing a means by which researchers and designers can obtain direct visual observation and measurements of the fuel injection/mixing/combustion processes and combustor flowfield in two- and three-dimensional views at actual operational conditions. Obtaining a thorough understanding of the chemical and physical processes at the extreme operating conditions of the next generation of combustors is critical to reducing emissions and increasing fuel efficiency. To accomplish this and other tasks, the diagnostic team at GRC has designed and constructed optically accessible, high pressurer high temperature flame tubes and sectar rigs capable of optically probing the 20-60 atm flowfields of these aero-combustors. Among the techniques employed at GRC are planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) for imaging molecular species as well as liquid and gaseous fuel; planar light scattering (PLS) for imaging fuel sprays and droplets; and spontaneous Raman scattering for species and temperature measurement. Using these techniques, optical measurements never before possible have been made in the actual environments of liquid fueled gas turbines. 2-D mapping of such parameters as species (e.g. OH-, NO and kerosene-based jet fuel) distribution, injector spray angle, and fuel/air distribution are just some of the measurements that are now routinely made. Optical imaging has also provided prompt feedback to researchers regarding the effects of changes in the fuel injector configuration on both combustor performance and flowfield character. Several injector design modifications and improvements have

  6. Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on technology, on advances in such areas as aeronautics, electronics, physics, the space sciences, as well as computers and the attendant progress in medicine, robotics, and artificial intelligence. Describes educational resources for elementary and middle school students, including Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videotapes, books,…

  7. All-optical signal processing for optical packet switching networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.; Hill, M.T.; Calabretta, N.; Tangdiongga, E.; Geldenhuys, R.; Zhang, S.; Li, Z.; Waardt, de H.; Khoe, G.D.; Dorren, H.J.S.; Iftekharuddin, K.M.; awwal, A.A.S.

    2005-01-01

    We discuss how all-optical signal processing might play a role in future all-optical packet switched networks. We introduce a concept of optical packet switches that employ entirely all-optical signal processing technology. The optical packet switch is made out of three functional blocks: the

  8. Nanofabrication Technology for Production of Quantum Nano-Electronic Devices Integrating Niobium Electrodes and Optically Transparent Gates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    TECHNICAL REPORT 3086 January 2018 Nanofabrication Technology for Production of Quantum Nano-electronic Devices Integrating Niobium Electrodes...work described in this report was performed for the by the Advanced Concepts and Applied Research Branch (Code 71730) and the Science and Technology ...Applied Sciences Division iii EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This technical report demonstrates nanofabrication technology for Niobium heterostructures and

  9. Wavelength converter technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kloch, Allan; Hansen, Peter Bukhave; Poulsen, Henrik Nørskov

    1999-01-01

    Wavelength conversion is important since it ensures full flexibility of the WDM network layer. Progress in optical wavelength converter technology is reviewed with emphasis on all-optical wavelength converter types based on semiconductor optical amplifiers.......Wavelength conversion is important since it ensures full flexibility of the WDM network layer. Progress in optical wavelength converter technology is reviewed with emphasis on all-optical wavelength converter types based on semiconductor optical amplifiers....

  10. Optical Disk Technology and the Library. Part 1: The Technology and Its Applications. Part 2: The National Library Videodisc Demonstration Project. Canadian Network Papers Number 9 = Technologie du Videodisque et la Bibliotheque. Premiere partie: La Technologie et ses Applications. Deuxieme partie: Projet de Demonstration du Videodisque a la Bibliotheque Nationale. Documents sur les Reseaux Canadiens Numero 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchesne, Roddy; Sonnemann, Sabine S.

    This report is intended to assist Canadian libraries in assessing potential library applications of optical disk technology. Part 1 provides a general outline of the technology and describes a number of library applications and projects. Descriptions are purposely general and illustrative in nature since the technology and its applications are…

  11. Results from the electro-optic sensors domain of the materials and components for missiles innovation and technology partnership (phase 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Mark E.; Shears, Robert A.

    2013-10-01

    The Materials and Components for Missiles Innovation and Technology Partnership (ITP) is a research programme supporting research for guided weapons at Technology Readiness Levels 1 to 4. The Anglo-French initiative is supported by the DGA and the MoD, with matched funding from industry. A major objective is to foster projects which partner UK and French universities, SMEs and larger companies. The first projects started in January 2008 and the first phase completed in spring 2013. Providing funding is secured, the next phase of the programme is due to start later in 2013. Selex ES leads Domain 3 of the MCM-ITP which develops Electro-Optic sensor technology. In collaboration with DGA, MoD and MBDA, the prime contractor, we identified 4 key objectives for the first ITP phase and focussed resources on achieving these. The objectives were to enable better imagery, address operationally stressing scenarios, provide low overall through life cost and improve active and semi-active sensors Nine normal projects and one ITP innovation fund project have been supported within the domain. The technology providers have included 3 SMEs and 8 research centres from both the United Kingdom and France. Highlights of the projects are included. An outline of the priorities for the domain for the new phase ise provided and we encourage organisations with suitable technology to contact us to get involved.

  12. Application of distributed optical fiber sensing technologies to the monitoring of leakage and abnormal disturbance of oil pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaojun; Zhu, Xiaofei; Deng, Chi; Li, Junyi; Liu, Cheng; Yu, Wenpeng; Luo, Hui

    2017-10-01

    To improve the level of management and monitoring of leakage and abnormal disturbance of long distance oil pipeline, the distributed optical fiber temperature and vibration sensing system is employed to test the feasibility for the healthy monitoring of a domestic oil pipeline. The simulating leakage and abnormal disturbance affairs of oil pipeline are performed in the experiment. It is demonstrated that the leakage and abnormal disturbance affairs of oil pipeline can be monitored and located accurately with the distributed optical fiber sensing system, which exhibits good performance in the sensitivity, reliability, operation and maintenance etc., and shows good market application prospect.

  13. Optical CDMA components requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, James K.

    1998-08-01

    Optical CDMA is a complementary multiple access technology to WDMA. Optical CDMA potentially provides a large number of virtual optical channels for IXC, LEC and CLEC or supports a large number of high-speed users in LAN. In a network, it provides asynchronous, multi-rate, multi-user communication with network scalability, re-configurability (bandwidth on demand), and network security (provided by inherent CDMA coding). However, optical CDMA technology is less mature in comparison to WDMA. The components requirements are also different from WDMA. We have demonstrated a video transport/switching system over a distance of 40 Km using discrete optical components in our laboratory. We are currently pursuing PIC implementation. In this paper, we will describe the optical CDMA concept/features, the demonstration system, and the requirements of some critical optical components such as broadband optical source, broadband optical amplifier, spectral spreading/de- spreading, and fixed/programmable mask.

  14. Optical Computing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Optical computing technology is, in general, developing in two directions. One approach is ... current support in many places, with private companies as well as governments in several countries encouraging such research work. For example, much ... which enables more information to be carried and data to be processed.

  15. Optics and Plasma Research Department annual progress report for 2004

    OpenAIRE

    Bindslev, Henrik; Lynov, Jens-Peter; Pedersen, C.; Petersen, Paul Michael; Skaarup, Bitten

    2005-01-01

    The Optics and Plasma Research Department performs basic and applied research within three scientific programmes: (1) laser systems and optical materials, (2) optical diagnostics and information processing and (3) plasma physics and technology. Thedepartment has core competencies in optical sensors, optical materials, biophotonics, fusion plasma physics, and industrial plasma technology. The department employs key technologies in micro- and nanotechnology for optical systems, temperaturecalib...

  16. Projects for the implementation of science technology society approach in basic concept of natural science course as application of optical and electrical instruments’ material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satria, E.

    2018-03-01

    Preservice teachers in primary education should be well equipped to meet the challenges of teaching primary science effectively in 21century. The purpose of this research was to describe the projects for the implementation of Science-Technology-Society (STS) approach in Basic Concept of Natural Science course as application of optical and electrical instruments’ material by the preservice teachers in Elementary Schools Teacher Education Program. One of the reasons is the lack of preservice teachers’ ability in making projects for application of STS approach and optical and electrical instruments’ material in Basic Concept of Natural Science course. This research applied descriptive method. The instrument of the research was the researcher himself. The data were gathered through observation and documentation. Based on the results of the research, it was figured out that preservice teachers, in groups, were creatively and successful to make the projects of optical and electrical instruments assigned such as projector and doorbell. It was suggested that the construction of the instruments should be better (fixed and strong structure) and more attractive for both instruments, and used strong light source, high quality images, and it could use speaker box for projector, power battery, and heat sink for electrical instruments.

  17. Fun with Optical Fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alti, Kamlesh

    2017-01-01

    Optical fibres play a very crucial role in today's technologies. Academic courses in optical fibres start at the undergraduate level. Nevertheless, student's curiosity towards optical fibres starts from the school level. In this paper, some fun experiments have been designed for both school and college students, which have some concrete…

  18. Near-infrared emitting fluorescent nanocrystals-labeled natural killer cells as a platform technology for the optical imaging of immunotherapeutic cells-based cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Yong Taik; Cho, Mi Young; Noh, Young-Woock; Chung, Bong Hyun; Chung, Jin Woong

    2009-01-01

    This study describes the development of near-infrared optical imaging technology for the monitoring of immunotherapeutic cell-based cancer therapy using natural killer (NK) cells labeled with fluorescent nanocrystals. Although NK cell-based immunotherapeutic strategies have drawn interest as potent preclinical or clinical methods of cancer therapy, there are few reports documenting the molecular imaging of NK cell-based cancer therapy, primarily due to the difficulty of labeling of NK cells with imaging probes. Human natural killer cells (NK92MI) were labeled with anti-human CD56 antibody-coated quantum dots (QD705) for fluorescence imaging. FACS analysis showed that the NK92MI cells labeled with anti-human CD56 antibody-coated QD705 have no effect on the cell viability. The effect of anti-human CD56 antibody-coated QD705 labeling on the NK92MI cell function was investigated by measuring interferon gamma (IFN- γ) production and cytolytic activity. Finally, the NK92MI cells labeled with anti-human CD56 antibody-coated QD705 showed a therapeutic effect similar to that of unlabeled NK92MI cells. Images of intratumorally injected NK92MI cells labeled with anti-human CD56 antibody-coated could be acquired using near-infrared optical imaging both in vivo and in vitro. This result demonstrates that the immunotherapeutic cells labeled with fluorescent nanocrystals can be a versatile platform for the effective tracking of injected therapeutic cells using optical imaging technology, which is very important in cell-based cancer therapies.

  19. [Adaptive optics for ophthalmology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, M

    2016-04-01

    Adaptive optics is a technology enhancing the visual performance of an optical system by correcting its optical aberrations. Adaptive optics have already enabled several breakthroughs in the field of visual sciences, such as improvement of visual acuity in normal and diseased eyes beyond physiologic limits, and the correction of presbyopia. Adaptive optics technology also provides high-resolution, in vivo imaging of the retina that may eventually help to detect the onset of retinal conditions at an early stage and provide better assessment of treatment efficacy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Deep lithography with protons Modelling and predicting the performances of a novel fabrication technology for micro-optical components

    CERN Document Server

    Volckaerts, B; Veretennicoff, I; Thienpont, H

    2002-01-01

    We developed a simulation package that predicts 3D-dose distributions in proton irradiated poly(methylmetacrylate) samples considering primary energy transfer and scattering phenomena. In this paper, we apply this code to predict the surface flatness and maximum thickness of micro-optical and mechanical structures fabricated with deep lithography with protons (DLP). We compare these simulation results with experimental data and highlight the fundamental differences between DLP and deep X-ray lithography.

  1. Optical coherence tomography. A new high-resolution imaging technology to study cardiac development in chick embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yelbuz, T.M.; Choma, M.A.; Thrane, L.

    2002-01-01

    volumetric reconstructions and short video clips. The OCT-scanned embryos (2 in each group) were photographed after histological sectioning in comparable planes to those visualized by OCT. The optical and histological results showing cardiovascular microstructures such as myocardium, the cardiac jelly......, and endocardium are presented. Conclusions-OCT is a powerful imaging modality which can provide new insight in assessing and understanding normal and abnormal cardiac development in a variety of animal models....

  2. Contributed Review: The feasibility of a fully miniaturized magneto-optical trap for portable ultracold quantum technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, J A; Aldous, M; Himsworth, M D

    2014-12-01

    Experiments using laser cooled atoms and ions show real promise for practical applications in quantum-enhanced metrology, timing, navigation, and sensing as well as exotic roles in quantum computing, networking, and simulation. The heart of many of these experiments has been translated to microfabricated platforms known as atom chips whose construction readily lend themselves to integration with larger systems and future mass production. To truly make the jump from laboratory demonstrations to practical, rugged devices, the complex surrounding infrastructure (including vacuum systems, optics, and lasers) also needs to be miniaturized and integrated. In this paper we explore the feasibility of applying this approach to the Magneto-Optical Trap; incorporating the vacuum system, atom source and optical geometry into a permanently sealed micro-litre system capable of maintaining 10(-10) mbar for more than 1000 days of operation with passive pumping alone. We demonstrate such an engineering challenge is achievable using recent advances in semiconductor microfabrication techniques and materials.

  3. A Review of Hybrid Fiber-Optic Distributed Simultaneous Vibration and Temperature Sensing Technology and Its Geophysical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Khalid; Potter, David K

    2017-11-01

    Distributed sensing systems can transform an optical fiber cable into an array of sensors, allowing users to detect and monitor multiple physical parameters such as temperature, vibration and strain with fine spatial and temporal resolution over a long distance. Fiber-optic distributed acoustic sensing (DAS) and distributed temperature sensing (DTS) systems have been developed for various applications with varied spatial resolution, and spectral and sensing range. Rayleigh scattering-based phase optical time domain reflectometry (OTDR) for vibration and Raman/Brillouin scattering-based OTDR for temperature and strain measurements have been developed over the past two decades. The key challenge has been to find a methodology that would enable the physical parameters to be determined at any point along the sensing fiber with high sensitivity and spatial resolution, yet within acceptable frequency range for dynamic vibration, and temperature detection. There are many applications, especially in geophysical and mining engineering where simultaneous measurements of vibration and temperature are essential. In this article, recent developments of different hybrid systems for simultaneous vibration, temperature and strain measurements are analyzed based on their operation principles and performance. Then, challenges and limitations of the systems are highlighted for geophysical applications.

  4. A Review of Hybrid Fiber-Optic Distributed Simultaneous Vibration and Temperature Sensing Technology and Its Geophysical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Miah

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Distributed sensing systems can transform an optical fiber cable into an array of sensors, allowing users to detect and monitor multiple physical parameters such as temperature, vibration and strain with fine spatial and temporal resolution over a long distance. Fiber-optic distributed acoustic sensing (DAS and distributed temperature sensing (DTS systems have been developed for various applications with varied spatial resolution, and spectral and sensing range. Rayleigh scattering-based phase optical time domain reflectometry (OTDR for vibration and Raman/Brillouin scattering-based OTDR for temperature and strain measurements have been developed over the past two decades. The key challenge has been to find a methodology that would enable the physical parameters to be determined at any point along the sensing fiber with high sensitivity and spatial resolution, yet within acceptable frequency range for dynamic vibration, and temperature detection. There are many applications, especially in geophysical and mining engineering where simultaneous measurements of vibration and temperature are essential. In this article, recent developments of different hybrid systems for simultaneous vibration, temperature and strain measurements are analyzed based on their operation principles and performance. Then, challenges and limitations of the systems are highlighted for geophysical applications.

  5. Contributed Review: The feasibility of a fully miniaturized magneto-optical trap for portable ultracold quantum technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rushton, J. A.; Aldous, M.; Himsworth, M. D., E-mail: m.d.himsworth@soton.ac.uk [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-15

    Experiments using laser cooled atoms and ions show real promise for practical applications in quantum-enhanced metrology, timing, navigation, and sensing as well as exotic roles in quantum computing, networking, and simulation. The heart of many of these experiments has been translated to microfabricated platforms known as atom chips whose construction readily lend themselves to integration with larger systems and future mass production. To truly make the jump from laboratory demonstrations to practical, rugged devices, the complex surrounding infrastructure (including vacuum systems, optics, and lasers) also needs to be miniaturized and integrated. In this paper we explore the feasibility of applying this approach to the Magneto-Optical Trap; incorporating the vacuum system, atom source and optical geometry into a permanently sealed micro-litre system capable of maintaining 10{sup −10} mbar for more than 1000 days of operation with passive pumping alone. We demonstrate such an engineering challenge is achievable using recent advances in semiconductor microfabrication techniques and materials.

  6. Successful field application in continuous DTS monitoring under harsh environment of SAGD wells using improved optical fiber technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaura, J.; Sierra, J. [Halliburton Energy Services, Calgary, AB (Canada). WellDynamics

    2008-10-15

    Most protective materials of conventional optical fibers used in well monitoring applications are not designed for the extreme temperatures associated with steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) operations. Optical fiber performance is highly affected by hydrogen ingression; thermal resistance of materials; and mechanical resistance of the fiber. Optical fibers exposed to hydrogen experience increased absorption or light loss due to various chemical species in the glass fiber. This paper described the performance of a newly developed distributed temperature sensing (DTS) high temperature (HT) system for use in a hydrogen-rich SAGD environment. The OptoLog uses a new single-mode fiber that is hydrogen resilient under severe temperature. Hydrogen molecular reactions with impurities from the manufacturing process are minimized by a pure core glass fiber. The new temperature calculation algorithm used by the system was also described in this paper along with a comparative evaluation of the system performance with that of a conventional multi-mode DTS system. It was concluded that this newly developed system is a feasible solution for lowering Opex and minimizing interventions. It also reduces personnel exposure to hazardous well conditions because of the enhanced longevity of the OptoLog DTS-HT fiber. The data provided by the new system enables users to quickly identify anomalies; implement corrective actions immediately; and allow for better steam utilization. 24 refs., 6 figs.

  7. Optical Measurement Technologies for High Temperature, Radiation Exposure, and Corrosive Environments—Significant Activities and Findings: In-vessel Optical Measurements for Advanced SMRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anheier, Norman C.; Cannon, Bret D.; Qiao, Hong (Amy); Suter, Jonathan D.

    2012-09-01

    Development of advanced Small Modular Reactors (aSMRs) is key to providing the United States with a sustainable, economically viable, and carbon-neutral energy source. The aSMR designs have attractive economic factors that should compensate for the economies of scale that have driven development of large commercial nuclear power plants to date. For example, aSMRs can be manufactured at reduced capital costs in a factory and potentially shorter lead times and then be shipped to a site to provide power away from large grid systems. The integral, self-contained nature of aSMR designs is fundamentally different than conventional reactor designs. Future aSMR deployment will require new instrumentation and control (I&C) architectures to accommodate the integral design and withstand the extreme in-vessel environmental conditions. Operators will depend on sophisticated sensing and machine vision technologies that provide efficient human-machine interface for in-vessel telepresence, telerobotic control, and remote process operations. The future viability of aSMRs is dependent on understanding and overcoming the significant technical challenges involving in-vessel reactor sensing and monitoring under extreme temperatures, pressures, corrosive environments, and radiation fluxes

  8. 2009 Clusters, Nanocrystals & Nanostructures GRC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lai-Sheng [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)

    2009-07-19

    For over thirty years, this Gordon Conference has been the premiere meeting for the field of cluster science, which studies the phenomena that arise when matter becomes small. During its history, participants have witnessed the discovery and development of many novel materials, including C60, carbon nanotubes, semiconductor and metal nanocrystals, and nanowires. In addition to addressing fundamental scientific questions related to these materials, the meeting has always included a discussion of their potential applications. Consequently, this conference has played a critical role in the birth and growth of nanoscience and engineering. The goal of the 2009 Gordon Conference is to continue the forward-looking tradition of this meeting and discuss the most recent advances in the field of clusters, nanocrystals, and nanostructures. As in past meetings, this will include new topics that broaden the field. In particular, a special emphasis will be placed on nanomaterials related to the efficient use, generation, or conversion of energy. For example, we anticipate presentations related to batteries, catalysts, photovoltaics, and thermoelectrics. In addition, we expect to address the controversy surrounding carrier multiplication with a session in which recent results addressing this phenomenon will be discussed and debated. The atmosphere of the conference, which emphasizes the presentation of unpublished results and lengthy discussion periods, ensures that attendees will enjoy a valuable and stimulating experience. Because only a limited number of participants are allowed to attend this conference, and oversubscription is anticipated, we encourage all interested researchers from academia, industry, and government institutions to apply as early as possible. An invitation is not required. We also encourage all attendees to submit their latest results for presentation at the poster sessions. We anticipate that several posters will be selected for 'hot topic' oral presentations. Because of the important role that students and postdocs play in the future of this field, we also anticipate to select several posters from young investigators for oral presentations.

  9. Advances in optical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bremer, C.; Ntziachristos, V.; Mahmood, U.; Tung, C.H.; Weissleder, R.

    2001-01-01

    Different optical imaging technologies have significantly progressed over the last years. Besides advances in imaging techniques and image reconstruction, new 'smart' optical contrast agents have been developed which can be used to detect molecular targets (such as endogenous enzymes) in vivo. The combination of novel imaging technologies coupled with smart agents bears great diagnostic potential both clinically and experimentally. This overview outlines the basic principles of optical imaging and summarizes the current state of the art. (orig.) [de

  10. Optical techniques for perfusion monitoring of the gastric tube after esophagectomy: a review of technologies and thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, S M; de Bruin, D M; van Berge Henegouwen, M I; Strackee, S D; Veelo, D P; van Leeuwen, T G; Gisbertz, S S

    2018-04-26

    Anastomotic leakage is one of the most severe complications after esophageal resection with gastric tube reconstruction. Impaired perfusion of the gastric fundus is seen as the main contributing factor for this complication. Optical modalities show potential in recognizing compromised perfusion in real time, when ischemia is still reversible. This review provides an overview of optical techniques with the aim to evaluate the (1) quantitative measurement of change in perfusion in gastric tube reconstruction and (2) to test which parameters are the most predictive for anastomotic leakage.A Pubmed, MEDLINE, and Embase search was performed and articles on laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF), near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI), fluorescence imaging (FI), sidestream darkfield microscopy (SDF), and optical coherence tomography (OCT) regarding blood flow in gastric tube surgery were reviewed. Two independent reviewers critically appraised articles and extracted the data: Primary outcome was quantitative measure of perfusion change; secondary outcome was successful prediction of necrosis or anastomotic leakage by measured perfusion parameters.Thirty-three articles (including 973 patients and 73 animals) were selected for data extraction, quality assessment, and risk of bias (QUADAS-2). LDF, NIRS, LSCI, and FI were investigated in gastric tube surgery; all had a medium level of evidence. IDEAL stage ranges from 1 to 3. Most articles were found on LDF (n = 12), which is able to measure perfusion in arbitrary perfusion units with a significant lower amount in tissue with necrosis development and on FI (n = 12). With FI blood flow routes could be observed and flow was qualitative evaluated in rapid, slow, or low flow. NIRS uses mucosal oxygen saturation and hemoglobin concentration as perfusion parameters. With LSCI, a decrease of perfusion units is observed toward the gastric fundus intraoperatively. The perfusion units (LDF, LSCI), although

  11. Optical materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poker, D.B.; Ortiz, C.

    1989-01-01

    This book reports on: Diamond films, Synthesis of optical materials, Structure related optical properties, Radiation effects in optical materials, Characterization of optical materials, Deposition of optical thin films, and Optical fibers and waveguides

  12. Optical near-fields & nearfield optics

    OpenAIRE

    Meixner, Alfred J; Leiderer, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Optical methods provide exceedingly powerful tools in science and technology for measuring, analyzing and manipulating, from optical microscopy and spectroscopy to the characterization of ultrafast processes by femtosecond pulses and the modification of materials by intense laser radiation. However, when it comes to applications in the nanometer-regime, the conventional optical techniques suffer from the resolution limit – formulated by Ernst Abbe one and a half centuries ago – that light can...

  13. BetaScint{trademark} fiber-optic sensor for detecting strontium-90 and uranium-238 in soil. Innovative technology summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Accurate measurements of radioactivity in soils contaminated with Strontium-90 (Sr-90) or Uranium-238 (U-238) are essential for many DOE site remediation programs. These crucial measurements determine if excavation and soil removal is necessary, where remediation efforts should be focused, and/or if a site has reached closure. Measuring soil contamination by standard EPA laboratory methods typically takes a week (accelerated analytical test turnaround) or a month (standard analytical test turnaround). The time delay extends to operations involving heavy excavation equipment and associated personnel which are the main costs of remediation. This report describes an application of the BetaScint{trademark} fiber-optic sensor that measures Sr-90 or U-238 contamination in soil samples on site in about 20 minutes, at a much lower cost than time-consuming laboratory methods, to greatly facilitate remediation. This report describes the technology, its performance, its uses, cost, regulatory and policy issues, and lessons learned.

  14. BetaScintTM fiber-optic sensor for detecting strontium-90 and uranium-238 in soil. Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    Accurate measurements of radioactivity in soils contaminated with Strontium-90 (Sr-90) or Uranium-238 (U-238) are essential for many DOE site remediation programs. These crucial measurements determine if excavation and soil removal is necessary, where remediation efforts should be focused, and/or if a site has reached closure. Measuring soil contamination by standard EPA laboratory methods typically takes a week (accelerated analytical test turnaround) or a month (standard analytical test turnaround). The time delay extends to operations involving heavy excavation equipment and associated personnel which are the main costs of remediation. This report describes an application of the BetaScint trademark fiber-optic sensor that measures Sr-90 or U-238 contamination in soil samples on site in about 20 minutes, at a much lower cost than time-consuming laboratory methods, to greatly facilitate remediation. This report describes the technology, its performance, its uses, cost, regulatory and policy issues, and lessons learned

  15. Cognitive technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Mello, Alan; Figueiredo, Fabrício; Figueiredo, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on the next generation optical networks as well as mobile communication technologies. The reader will find chapters on Cognitive Optical Network, 5G Cognitive Wireless, LTE, Data Analysis and Natural Language Processing. It also presents a comprehensive view of the enhancements and requirements foreseen for Machine Type Communication. Moreover, some data analysis techniques and Brazilian Portuguese natural language processing technologies are also described here. .

  16. Automatic on-line detection system design research on internal defects of metal materials based on optical fiber F-P sensing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Liu; Shan, Ning; Chao, Ban; Caoshan, Wang

    2016-10-01

    Metal materials have been used in aerospace and other industrial fields widely because of its excellent characteristics, so its internal defects detection is very important. Ultrasound technology is used widely in the fields of nondestructive detection because of its excellent characteristic. But the conventional detection instrument for ultrasound, which has shortcomings such as low intelligent level and long development cycles, limits its development. In this paper, the theory of ultrasound detection is analyzed. A computational method of the defects distributional position is given. The non-contact type optical fiber F-P interference cavity structure is designed and the length of origin cavity is given. The real-time on-line ultrasound detecting experiment devices for internal defects of metal materials is established based on the optical fiber F-P sensing system. The virtual instrument of automation ultrasound detection internal defects is developed based on LabVIEW software and the experimental study is carried out. The results show that this system can be used in internal defect real-time on-line locating of engineering structures effectively. This system has higher measurement precision. Relative error is 6.7%. It can be met the requirement of engineering practice. The system is characterized by simple operation, easy realization. The software has a friendly interface, good expansibility, and high intelligent level.

  17. Detection of premature browning in ground beef with an integrated optical-fibre based sensor using reflection spectroscopy and fibre Bragg grating technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Farrell, M; Sheridan, C; Lewis, E

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on an optical fibre based sensor system to detect the occurrence of premature browning in ground beef. Premature browning (PMB) occurs when, at a temperature below the pasteurisation temperature of 71 deg. C, there are no traces of pink meat left in the patty. PMB is more frequent if poorer quality beef or beef that has been stored under imperfect conditions. The experimental work pertaining to this paper involved cooking fresh meat and meat that has been stored in a freezer for, 1 week, 1 month and 3 months and recording the reflected spectra and temperature at the core of the product, during the cooking process, in order to develop a classifier based on the spectral response and using a Self-Organising Map (SOM) to classify the patties into one of four categories, based on their colour. Further tests were also carried out on developing an all-optical fibre sensor for measuring both the temperature and colour in a single integrated probe. The integrated probe contains two different sensor concepts, one to monitor temperature, based on Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) technology and a second for meat quality, based on reflection spectroscopy in the visible wavelength range

  18. Educational area for learning of optics and technologies: union of open laboratories of ideas, methods and practices (OLIMP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivashchenko, Maksim; Bodrov, Kirill; Tolstoba, Nadezhda

    2016-09-01

    The paper deals with the concept of creating the union of Open Laboratories of Ideas, Methods and Practices (OLIMP). It describes the structure designed to simplify the relationship, such as business incubators, start-up accelerators, small innovative enterprises, fabrication laboratories and student centers. We consider their advantages and disadvantages for the specific audience of students and enthusiasts who do not have funding for their own projects. The experience of interaction between the Open Laboratories of Ideas, Methods and Practices and the Student Research Laboratory for Optical Engineering shows the relative impact of structures on each other and the value of using such interaction in the learning process. The paper also addresses issues such as: the motivation of students, enthusiasm for the direction the lab participants identify and maintain the initiatives, profiling in the design, scientific, commercial, social sphere.

  19. Integrating undergraduate research into the electro-optics and laser engineering technology program at Indiana University of Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Andrew F.

    2014-07-01

    Bringing research into an undergraduate curriculum is a proven and powerful practice with many educational benefits to students and the professional rewards to faculty mentors. In recent years, undergraduate research has gained national prominence as an effective problem-based learning strategy. Developing and sustaining a vibrant undergraduate research program of high quality and productivity is an outstanding example of the problem-based learning. To foster student understanding of the content learned in the classroom and nurture enduring problem-solving and critical-thinking abilities, we have created a collaborative learning environment by building research into the Electro-Optics curriculum for the first- and second-year students. The teaching methodology is described and examples of the research projects are given. Such a research-integrated curriculum effectively enhances student learning and critical thinking skills, and strengthens the research culture for the first- and second-year students.

  20. The natural abundance of 13C with different agricultural management by NIRS with fibre optic probe technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Mariela; González-Martín, Inmaculada; Hernández-Hierro, Jose Miguel; Hidalgo, Claudia; Govaerts, Bram; Etchevers, Jorge; Sayre, Ken D; Dendooven, Luc

    2009-06-30

    In the present study the natural abundance of (13)C is quantified in agricultural soils in Mexico which have been submitted to different agronomic practices, zero and conventional tillage, retention of crop residues (with and without) and rotation of crops (wheat and maize) for 17 years, which have influenced the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the soil. The natural abundance of C13 is quantified by near infrared spectra (NIRS) with a remote reflectance fibre optic probe, applying the probe directly to the soil samples. Discriminate partial least squares analysis of the near infrared spectra allowed to classify soils with and without residues, regardless of the type of tillage or rotation systems used with a prediction rate of 90% in the internal validation and 94% in the external validation. The NIRS calibration model using a modified partial least squares regression allowed to determine the delta(13)C in soils with or without residues, with multiple correlation coefficients 0.81 and standard error prediction 0.5 per thousand in soils with residues and 0.92 and 0.2 per thousand in soils without residues. The ratio performance deviation for the quantification of delta(13)C in soil was 2.5 in soil with residues and 3.8 without residues. This indicated that the model was adequate to determine the delta(13)C of unknown soils in the -16.2 per thousand to -20.4 per thousand range. The development of the NIR calibration permits analytic determinations of the values of delta(13)C in unknown agricultural soils in less time, employing a non-destructive method, by the application of the fibre optic probe of remote reflectance to the soil sample.

  1. Automated optical assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, John L.

    1995-08-01

    Automation and polymer science represent fundamental new technologies which can be directed toward realizing the goal of establishing a domestic, world-class, commercial optics business. Use of innovative optical designs using precision polymer optics will enable the US to play a vital role in the next generation of commercial optical products. The increased cost savings inherent in the utilization of optical-grade polymers outweighs almost every advantage of using glass for high volume situations. Optical designers must gain experience with combined refractive/diffractive designs and broaden their knowledge base regarding polymer technology beyond a cursory intellectual exercise. Implementation of a fully automated assembly system, combined with utilization of polymer optics, constitutes the type of integrated manufacturing process which will enable the US to successfully compete with the low-cost labor employed in the Far East, as well as to produce an equivalent product.

  2. Controls and Health Management Technologies for Intelligent Aerospace Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Sanjay

    2004-01-01

    With the increased emphasis on aircraft safety, enhanced performance and affordability, and the need to reduce the environmental impact of aircraft, there are many new challenges being faced by the designers of aircraft propulsion systems. The Controls and Dynamics Technology Branch at NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio, is leading and participating in various projects in partnership with other organizations within GRC and across NASA, the U.S. aerospace industry, and academia to develop advanced controls and health management technologies that will help meet these challenges through the concept of an Intelligent Engine. The key enabling technologies for an Intelligent Engine are the increased efficiencies of components through active control, advanced diagnostics and prognostics integrated with intelligent engine control to enhance component life, and distributed control with smart sensors and actuators in an adaptive fault tolerant architecture. This paper describes the current activities of the Controls and Dynamics Technology Branch in the areas of active component control and propulsion system intelligent control, and presents some recent analytical and experimental results in these areas.

  3. Design of a K/Q-Band Beacon Receiver for the Alphasat Technology Demonstration Payload (TDP) #5 Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Jacquelynne R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the design and performance of a coherent KQ-band (2040 GHz) beacon receiver developed at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) that will be installed at the Politecnico di Milano (POLIMI) for use in the Alphasat Technology Demonstration Payload 5 (TDP5) beacon experiment. The goal of this experiment is to characterize rain fade attenuation at 40 GHz to improve the performance of existing statistical rain attenuation models in the Q-band. The ground terminal developed by NASA GRC utilizes an FFT-based frequency estimation receiver capable of characterizing total path attenuation effects due to gaseous absorption, clouds, rain, and scintillation. The receiver system has been characterized in the lab and demonstrates a system dynamic range performance of better than 58 dB at 1 Hz and better than 48 dB at 10 Hz rates.

  4. Binary optics: Trends and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farn, Michael W.; Veldkamp, Wilfrid B.

    1993-01-01

    We describe the current state of binary optics, addressing both the technology and the industry (i.e., marketplace). With respect to the technology, the two dominant aspects are optical design methods and fabrication capabilities, with the optical design problem being limited by human innovation in the search for new applications and the fabrication issue being limited by the availability of resources required to improve fabrication capabilities. With respect to the industry, the current marketplace does not favor binary optics as a separate product line and so we expect that companies whose primary purpose is the production of binary optics will not represent the bulk of binary optics production. Rather, binary optics' more natural role is as an enabling technology - a technology which will directly result in a competitive advantage in a company's other business areas - and so we expect that the majority of binary optics will be produced for internal use.

  5. Optical technologies applied alongside on-site and remote approaches for climate gas emission quantification at a wastewater treatment plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samuelsson, Jerker; Delre, Antonio; Tumlin, Susanne

    2018-01-01

    Plant-integrated and on-site gas emissions were quantified from a Swedish wastewater treatment plant by applying several optical analytical techniques and measurement methods. Plant-integrated CH4 emission rates, measured using mobile ground-based remote sensing methods, varied between 28.5 and 33.......5 kg CH4 h−1, corresponding to an average emission factor of 5.9% as kg CH4 (kg CH4production) −1, whereas N2O emissions varied between 4.0 and 6.4 kg h−1, corresponding to an average emission factor of 1.5% as kg N2O-N (kg TN influent) −1. Plant-integrated NH3 emissions were around 0.4 kg h−1...... quantifications were approximately two-thirds of the plant-integrated emission quantifications, which may be explained by the different timeframes of the approaches and that not all emission sources were identified during on-site investigation. Off-site gas emission quantifications, using ground-based remote...

  6. Optic neuritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retro-bulbar neuritis; Multiple sclerosis - optic neuritis; Optic nerve - optic neuritis ... The exact cause of optic neuritis is unknown. The optic nerve carries visual information from your eye to the brain. The nerve can swell when ...

  7. Poster – 39: Using Optical Scanner and 3D Printer Technology to Create Lead Shielding for Radiotherapy of Facial Skin Cancer with Low Energy Photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickey, Daniel; Leylek, Ahmet; Dubey, Arbind; Sasaki, David; Harris, Chad; Butler, Jim; Sharma, Ankur; McCurdy, Boyd; Alpuche Aviles, Jorge E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Treatment of skin cancers of the face using orthovoltage radiotherapy often requires lead shielding. However, creating a lead shield can be difficult because the face has complex and intricate contours. The traditional process involved creating a plaster mould of the patient’s face can be difficult for patients. Our goal was to develop an improved process by using an optical scanner and 3D printer technology. Methods: The oncologist defined the treatment field by drawing on each patient’s skin. Three-dimensional images were acquired using a consumer-grade optical scanner. A 3D model of each patient’s face was processed with mesh editing software before being printed on a 3D printer. Using a hammer, a 3 mm thick layer of lead was formed to closely fit the contours of the model. A hole was then cut out to define the field. Results: The lead shields created were remarkably accurate and fit the contours of the patients. The hole defining the field exposed only a minimally sized site to be exposed to radiation, while the rest of the face was protected. It was easy to obtain perfect symmetry for the definition of parallel opposed beams. Conclusion: We are routinely using this technique to build lead shielding that wraps around the patient as an alternative to cut-outs. We also use it for treatment of the tip of the nose using a parallel opposed pair beams with a wax nose block. We found this technique allows more accurate delineation of the cut-out and a more reproducible set-up.

  8. Poster – 39: Using Optical Scanner and 3D Printer Technology to Create Lead Shielding for Radiotherapy of Facial Skin Cancer with Low Energy Photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rickey, Daniel; Leylek, Ahmet; Dubey, Arbind; Sasaki, David; Harris, Chad; Butler, Jim; Sharma, Ankur; McCurdy, Boyd; Alpuche Aviles, Jorge E. [CancerCare Manitoba, CancerCare Manitoba, CancerCare Manitoba, CancerCare Manitoba, CancerCare Manitoba, CancerCare Manitoba, CancerCare Manitoba, CancerCare Manitoba, CancerCare Manitoba (Canada)

    2016-08-15

    Purpose: Treatment of skin cancers of the face using orthovoltage radiotherapy often requires lead shielding. However, creating a lead shield can be difficult because the face has complex and intricate contours. The traditional process involved creating a plaster mould of the patient’s face can be difficult for patients. Our goal was to develop an improved process by using an optical scanner and 3D printer technology. Methods: The oncologist defined the treatment field by drawing on each patient’s skin. Three-dimensional images were acquired using a consumer-grade optical scanner. A 3D model of each patient’s face was processed with mesh editing software before being printed on a 3D printer. Using a hammer, a 3 mm thick layer of lead was formed to closely fit the contours of the model. A hole was then cut out to define the field. Results: The lead shields created were remarkably accurate and fit the contours of the patients. The hole defining the field exposed only a minimally sized site to be exposed to radiation, while the rest of the face was protected. It was easy to obtain perfect symmetry for the definition of parallel opposed beams. Conclusion: We are routinely using this technique to build lead shielding that wraps around the patient as an alternative to cut-outs. We also use it for treatment of the tip of the nose using a parallel opposed pair beams with a wax nose block. We found this technique allows more accurate delineation of the cut-out and a more reproducible set-up.

  9. Peptide Integrated Optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handelman, Amir; Lapshina, Nadezda; Apter, Boris; Rosenman, Gil

    2018-02-01

    Bio-nanophotonics is a wide field in which advanced optical materials, biomedicine, fundamental optics, and nanotechnology are combined and result in the development of biomedical optical chips. Silk fibers or synthetic bioabsorbable polymers are the main light-guiding components. In this work, an advanced concept of integrated bio-optics is proposed, which is based on bioinspired peptide optical materials exhibiting wide optical transparency, nonlinear and electrooptical properties, and effective passive and active waveguiding. Developed new technology combining bottom-up controlled deposition of peptide planar wafers of a large area and top-down focus ion beam lithography provides direct fabrication of peptide optical integrated circuits. Finding a deep modification of peptide optical properties by reconformation of biological secondary structure from native phase to β-sheet architecture is followed by the appearance of visible fluorescence and unexpected transition from a native passive optical waveguiding to an active one. Original biocompatibility, switchable regimes of waveguiding, and multifunctional nonlinear optical properties make these new peptide planar optical materials attractive for application in emerging technology of lab-on-biochips, combining biomedical photonic and electronic circuits toward medical diagnosis, light-activated therapy, and health monitoring. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. The NASA Next Generation Stirling Technology Program Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, J. G.; Shaltens, R. K.; Wong, W. A.

    2005-12-01

    NASAs Science Mission Directorate is developing the next generation Stirling technology for future Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for surface and deep space missions. The next generation Stirling convertor is one of two advanced power conversion technologies currently being developed for future NASA missions, and is capable of operating for both planetary atmospheres and deep space environments. The Stirling convertor (free-piston engine integrated with a linear alternator) produces about 90 We(ac) and has a specific power of about 90 We/kg. Operating conditions of Thot at 850 degree C and Trej at 90 degree C results in the Stirling convertor estimated efficiency of about 40 per cent. Using the next generation Stirling convertor in future RPS, the "system" specific power is estimated at 8 We/kg. The design lifetime is three years on the surface of Mars and fourteen years in deep space missions. Electrical power of about 160 We (BOM) is produced by two (2) free-piston Stirling convertors heated by two (2) General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules. This development is being performed by Sunpower, Athens, OH with Pratt & Whitney, Rocketdyne, Canoga Park, CA under contract to Glenn Research Center (GRC), Cleveland, Ohio. GRC is guiding the independent testing and technology development for the next generation Stirling generator.

  11. Recent Advances and Applications in Cryogenic Propellant Densification Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomsik, Thomas M.

    2000-01-01

    This purpose of this paper is to review several historical cryogenic test programs that were conducted at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), Cleveland, Ohio over the past fifty years. More recently these technology programs were intended to study new and improved denser forms of liquid hydrogen (LH2) and liquid oxygen (LO2) cryogenic rocket fuels. Of particular interest are subcooled cryogenic propellants. This is due to the fact that they have a significantly higher density (eg. triple-point hydrogen, slush etc.), a lower vapor pressure and improved cooling capacity over the normal boiling point cryogen. This paper, which is intended to be a historical technology overview, will trace the past and recent development and testing of small and large-scale propellant densification production systems. Densifier units in the current GRC fuels program, were designed and are capable of processing subcooled LH2 and L02 propellant at the X33 Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) scale. One final objective of this technical briefing is to discuss some of the potential benefits and application which propellant densification technology may offer the industrial cryogenics production and end-user community. Density enhancements to cryogenic propellants (LH2, LO2, CH4) in rocket propulsion and aerospace application have provided the opportunity to either increase performance of existing launch vehicles or to reduce the overall size, mass and cost of a new vehicle system.

  12. Optical protocols for terabit networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, P. L.; Lambert, J. L.; Morookian, J. M.; Bergman, L. A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a new fiber-optic local area network technology providing 100X improvement over current technology, has full crossbar funtionality, and inherent data security. Based on optical code-division multiple access (CDMA), using spectral phase encoding/decoding of optical pulses, networking protocols are implemented entirely in the optical domain and thus conventional networking bottlenecks are avoided. Component and system issues for a proof-of-concept demonstration are discussed, as well as issues for a more practical and commercially exploitable system. Possible terrestrial and aerospace applications of this technology, and its impact on other technologies are explored. Some initial results toward realization of this concept are also included.

  13. A Study of Future Communications Concepts and Technologies for the National Airspace System - Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponchak, Denise S.; Apaza, Rafael D.; Haynes, Brian; Wichgers, Joel M.; Roy, Aloke

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) is investigating current and anticipated wireless communications concepts and technologies that the National Airspace System (NAS) may need in the next 50 years. NASA has awarded three NASA Research Announcements (NAR) studies with the objective to determine the most promising candidate technologies for air-to-air and air-to-ground data exchange and analyze their suitability in a post-NextGen NAS environment. This paper will present progress made in the studies and describe the communications challenges and opportunities that have been identified during the studies' first year.

  14. A Study of Future Communications Concepts and Technologies for the National Airspace System - Part IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponchak, Denise S.; Apaza, Rafael D.; Wichgers, Joel M.; Haynes, Brian; Roy, Aloke

    2015-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) is investigating current and anticipated wireless communications concepts and technologies that the National Airspace System (NAS) may need in the next 50 years. NASA has awarded three NASA Research Announcements (NAR) studies with the objective to determine the most promising candidate technologies for air-to-air and air-to-ground data exchange and analyze their suitability in a post-NextGen NAS environment. This paper will present the final results describing the communications challenges and opportunities that have been identified as part of the study.

  15. Optical Multidimensional Switching for Data Center Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Kamchevska, Valerija; Galili, Michael; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Berger, Michael Stübert

    2017-01-01

    Optical switches are known for the ability to provide high bandwidth connectivity at a relatively low power consumption and low latency. Several recent demonstrations on optical data center architectures confirm the potential for introducing all-optical switching within the data center, thus avoiding power hungry optical-electrical-optical conversions at each node. This Ph.D. thesis focuses precisely on the application of optical technologies in data center networks where optics is not only u...

  16. Wearable Optical Sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Ballard, Zachary S.; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2017-01-01

    The market for wearable sensors is predicted to grow to $5.5 billion by 2025, impacting global health in unprecedented ways. Optics and photonics will play a key role in the future of these wearable technologies, enabling highly sensitive

  17. Optical design and testing: introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chao-Wen; Koshel, John; Sasian, Jose; Breault, Robert; Wang, Yongtian; Fang, Yi Chin

    2014-10-10

    Optical design and testing has numerous applications in industrial, military, consumer, and medical settings. Assembling a complete imaging or nonimage optical system may require the integration of optics, mechatronics, lighting technology, optimization, ray tracing, aberration analysis, image processing, tolerance compensation, and display rendering. This issue features original research ranging from the optical design of image and nonimage optical stimuli for human perception, optics applications, bio-optics applications, 3D display, solar energy system, opto-mechatronics to novel imaging or nonimage modalities in visible and infrared spectral imaging, modulation transfer function measurement, and innovative interferometry.

  18. POLARISATION PRESERVING OPTICAL FIBRE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    . This cladding structure provides polarisation preserving properties to the optical fibre. Optical fibres using this technology may have claddings with elements placed non-periodically as well as in a two-dimensional periodic lattice - such as cladding providing Photonic Band Gap (PBG) effects....

  19. Optical network democratization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejabati, Reza; Peng, Shuping; Simeonidou, Dimitra

    2016-03-06

    The current Internet infrastructure is not able to support independent evolution and innovation at physical and network layer functionalities, protocols and services, while at same time supporting the increasing bandwidth demands of evolving and heterogeneous applications. This paper addresses this problem by proposing a completely democratized optical network infrastructure. It introduces the novel concepts of the optical white box and bare metal optical switch as key technology enablers for democratizing optical networks. These are programmable optical switches whose hardware is loosely connected internally and is completely separated from their control software. To alleviate their complexity, a multi-dimensional abstraction mechanism using software-defined network technology is proposed. It creates a universal model of the proposed switches without exposing their technological details. It also enables a conventional network programmer to develop network applications for control of the optical network without specific technical knowledge of the physical layer. Furthermore, a novel optical network virtualization mechanism is proposed, enabling the composition and operation of multiple coexisting and application-specific virtual optical networks sharing the same physical infrastructure. Finally, the optical white box and the abstraction mechanism are experimentally evaluated, while the virtualization mechanism is evaluated with simulation. © 2016 The Author(s).

  20. Improved information processing and dissemination through the introduction of new technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spath, C E; Marsh, Jr, F E

    1983-10-01

    This paper discusses the following topic on information technology: technology signals a liberation; application of information technology; optical character recognition; optical memories; and planning considerations and the future.

  1. Summary of 2017 NASA Workshop on Assessment of Advanced Battery Technologies for Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Ajay

    2018-01-01

    A workshop on assessment of battery technologies for future aerospace applications was held in Cleveland, OH on August 16-17. The focus of the workshop, hosted by NASA GRC, was to assess (1) the battery needs for future aerospace missions, (2) the state of battery technology and projected technology advances, and (3) the need for additional investments for future aerospace missions. The workshop had 109 attendees that included internationally recognized technology leaders from academia and national laboratories, high level executives from government and industry, small businesses, and startup companies. A significant portion of the workshop was focused on batteries for electrified aircraft. The presentation will summarize the finding on the state of battery technologies for electrified aircraft and will include assessment of current state of battery technology, gaps in battery technology for application in electrified aircraft, and recommended technology development options for meeting near-term and long-term needs of electrified aircraft.

  2. Evaluation of optical data gained by ARAMIS-measurement of abdominal wall movements for an anisotropic pattern design of stress-adapted hernia meshes produced by embroidery technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breier, A.; Bittrich, L.; Hahn, J.; Spickenheuer, A.

    2017-10-01

    For the sustainable repair of abdominal wall hernia the application of hernia meshes is required. One reason for the relapse of hernia after surgery is seen in an inadequate adaption of the mechanical properties of the mesh to the movements of the abdominal wall. Differences in the stiffness of the mesh and the abdominal tissue cause tension, friction and stress resulting in a deficient tissue response and subsequently in a recurrence of a hernia, preferentially in the marginal area of the mesh. Embroidery technology enables a targeted influence on the mechanical properties of the generated textile structure by a directed thread deposition. Textile parameters like stitch density, alignment and angle can be changed easily and locally in the embroidery pattern to generate a space-resolved mesh with mechanical properties adapted to the requirement of the surrounding tissue. To determine those requirements the movements of the abdominal wall and the resulting distortions need to be known. This study was conducted to gain optical data of the abdominal wall movements by non-invasive ARAMIS-measurement on 39 test persons to estimate direction and value of the major strains.

  3. Ultrafast all-optical signal processing using semiconductor optical amplifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Z.

    2007-01-01

    As the bit rate of one wavelength channel and the number of channels keep increasing in the telecommunication networks thanks to the advancement of optical transmission technologies, switching is experiencing the transition from the electrical domain to the optical domain. All-optical signal

  4. Optical computing, optical memory, and SBIRs at Foster-Miller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domash, Lawrence H.

    1994-03-01

    A desktop design and manufacturing system for binary diffractive elements, MacBEEP, was developed with the optical researcher in mind. Optical processing systems for specialized tasks such as cellular automation computation and fractal measurement were constructed. A new family of switchable holograms has enabled several applications for control of laser beams in optical memories. New spatial light modulators and optical logic elements have been demonstrated based on a more manufacturable semiconductor technology. Novel synthetic and polymeric nonlinear materials for optical storage are under development in an integrated memory architecture. SBIR programs enable creative contributions from smaller companies, both product oriented and technology oriented, and support advances that might not otherwise be developed.

  5. Optics, light and lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Meschede, Dieter

    2008-01-01

    Starting from the concepts of classical optics, Optics, Light and Lasers introduces in detail the phenomena of linear and nonlinear light matter interaction, the properties of modern laser sources, and the concepts of quantum optics. Several examples taken from the scope of modern research are provided to emphasize the relevance of optics in current developments within science and technology. The text has been written for newcomers to the topic and benefits from the author's ability to explain difficult sequences and effects in a straightforward and easily comprehensible way. To this second, c

  6. Optics for engineers

    CERN Document Server

    DiMarzio, Charles A

    2011-01-01

    This book is an excellent resource for teaching any student or scientist who needs to use optical systems. I particularly like the addition of MATLAB scripts and functions. Highly recommended.-Professor James C. Wyant, Dean of College of Optical Sciences, University of ArizonaHis book is clear, concise and highly readable. This is an excellent text.-Professor Changhuei Yang, California Institute of TechnologyAt last, a book on optics that is written with the practising engineer in mind. I have been teaching optics to engineers for many years and have often longed for a text aimed at my student

  7. Fiber optics standard dictionary

    CERN Document Server

    Weik, Martin H

    1997-01-01

    Fiber Optics Vocabulary Development In 1979, the National Communications System published Technical InfonnationBulle­ tin TB 79-1, Vocabulary for Fiber Optics and Lightwave Communications, written by this author. Based on a draft prepared by this author, the National Communications System published Federal Standard FED-STD-1037, Glossary of Telecommunications Terms, in 1980 with no fiber optics tenns. In 1981, the first edition of this dictionary was published under the title Fiber Optics and Lightwave Communications Standard Dictionary. In 1982, the then National Bureau of Standards, now the National Institute of Standards and Technology, published NBS Handbook 140, Optical Waveguide Communications Glossary, which was also published by the General Services Admin­ istration as PB82-166257 under the same title. Also in 1982, Dynamic Systems, Inc. , Fiberoptic Sensor Technology Handbook, co-authored and edited by published the this author, with an extensive Fiberoptic Sensors Glossary. In 1989, the handbook w...

  8. Optics and Plasma Research Department annual progress report for 2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindslev, Henrik; Lynov, Jens-Peter; Pedersen, C.

    2005-01-01

    The Optics and Plasma Research Department performs basic and applied research within three scientific programmes: (1) laser systems and optical materials, (2) optical diagnostics and information processing and (3) plasma physics and technology. Thedepartment has core competencies in optical sensors......, optical materials, biophotonics, fusion plasma physics, and industrial plasma technology. The department employs key technologies in micro- and nanotechnology for optical systems, temperaturecalibration, and infrared measurement techniques. The research is supported by several EU programmes, including...

  9. Synthesis of highly integrated optical network based on microdisk-resonator add-drop filters in silicon-on-insulator technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaźmierczak, Andrzej; Dortu, Fabian; Giannone, Domenico; Bogaerts, Wim; Drouard, Emmanuel; Rojo-Romeo, Pedro; Gaffiot, Frederic

    2009-10-01

    We analyze a highly compact optical add-drop filter topology based on a pair of microdisk resonators and a bus waveguide intersection. The filter is further assessed on an integrated optical 4×4 network for optical on-chip communication. The proposed network structure, as compact as 50×50 μm, is fabricated in a CMOS-compatible process on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrate. Finally, the experimental results demonstrate the proper operation of the fabricated devices.

  10. Optical Fiber Chemical Sensor with Sol-Gel Derived Refractive Material as Transducer for High Temperature Gas Sensing in Clean Coal Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiquan Tao

    2006-12-31

    The chemistry of sol-gel derived silica and refractive metal oxide has been systematically studied. Sol-gel processes have been developed for preparing porous silica and semiconductor metal oxide materials. Micelle/reversed micelle techniques have been developed for preparing nanometer sized semiconductor metal oxides and noble metal particles. Techniques for doping metal ions, metal oxides and nanosized metal particles into porous sol-gel material have also been developed. Optical properties of sol-gel derived materials in ambient and high temperature gases have been studied by using fiber optic spectroscopic techniques, such as fiber optic ultraviolet/visible absorption spectrometry, fiber optic near infrared absorption spectrometry and fiber optic fluorescence spectrometry. Fiber optic spectrometric techniques have been developed for investigating the optical properties of these sol-gel derived materials prepared as porous optical fibers or as coatings on the surface of silica optical fibers. Optical and electron microscopic techniques have been used to observe the microstructure, such as pore size, pore shape, sensing agent distribution, of sol-gel derived material, as well as the size and morphology of nanometer metal particle doped in sol-gel derived porous silica, the nature of coating of sol-gel derived materials on silica optical fiber surface. In addition, the chemical reactions of metal ion, nanostructured semiconductor metal oxides and nanometer sized metal particles with gas components at room temperature and high temperatures have also been investigated with fiber optic spectrometric methods. Three classes of fiber optic sensors have been developed based on the thorough investigation of sol-gel chemistry and sol-gel derived materials. The first group of fiber optic sensors uses porous silica optical fibers doped with metal ions or metal oxide as transducers for sensing trace NH{sub 3} and H{sub 2}S in high temperature gas samples. The second group of

  11. Optical Ethernet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Calvin C. K.; Lam, Cedric F.; Tsang, Danny H. K.

    2005-09-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Ethernet The Journal of Optical Networking (JON) is soliciting papers for a second feature issue on Optical Ethernet. Ethernet has evolved from a LAN technology connecting desktop computers to a universal broadband network interface. It is not only the vehicle for local data connectivity but also the standard interface for next-generation network equipment such as video servers and IP telephony. High-speed Ethernet has been increasingly assuming the volume of backbone network traffic from SONET/SDH-based circuit applications. It is clear that IP has become the universal network protocol for future converged networks, and Ethernet is becoming the ubiquitous link layer for connectivity. Network operators have been offering Ethernet services for several years. Problems and new requirements in Ethernet service offerings have been captured through previous experience. New study groups and standards bodies have been formed to address these problems. This feature issue aims at reviewing and updating the new developments and R&D efforts of high-speed Ethernet in recent years, especially those related to the field of optical networking. Scope of Submission The scope of the papers includes, but is not limited to, the following: Ethernet PHY development 10-Gbit Ethernet on multimode fiber Native Ethernet transport and Ethernet on legacy networks EPON Ethernet OAM Resilient packet ring (RPR) and Ethernet QoS definition and management on Ethernet Ethernet protection switching Circuit emulation services on Ethernet Transparent LAN service development Carrier VLAN and Ethernet Ethernet MAC frame expansion Ethernet switching High-speed Ethernet applications Economic models of high-speed Ethernet services Ethernet field deployment and standard activities To submit to this special issue, follow the normal procedure for submission to JON, indicating "Optical Ethernet feature" in the "Comments" field of the online submission form. For all other questions

  12. Final Report for completed IPP-0110 and 0110A Projects: 'High Energy Ion Technology of Interfacial Thin Film Coatings for Electronic, Optical and Industrial Applications'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Ian

    2009-01-01

    The DOE-supported IPP (Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention) Project, IPP-0110, and its accompanying 'add-on project' IPP-0110A, entitled 'High Energy Ion Technology of Interfacial Thin Film Coatings for Electronic, Optical and Industrial Applications' was a collaborative project involving the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) as the U.S. DOE lab; the US surface modification company, Phygen, Inc., as the US private company involved; and the High Current Electronics Institute (HCEI) of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk, Siberia, Russia, as the NIS Institute involved. Regular scientific research progress meetings were held to which personnel came from all participating partners. The meetings were held mostly at the Phygen facilities in Minneapolis, Minnesota (with Phygen as host) with meetings also held at Tomsk, Russia (HCEI as host), and at Berkeley, California (LBNL as host) In this way, good exposure of all researchers to the various different laboratories involved was attained. This report contains the Final Reports (final deliverables) from the Russian Institute, HCEI. The first part is that for IPP-0110A (the 'main part' of the overall project) and the second part is that for the add-on project IPP-0110A. These reports are detailed, and contain all aspects of all the research carried out. The project was successful in that all deliverables as specified in the proposals were successfully developed, tested, and delivered to Phygen. All of the plasma hardware was designed, made and tested at HCEI, and the performance was excellent. Some of the machine and performance parameters were certainly of 'world class'. The goals and requirements of the IPP Project were well satisfied. I would like to express my gratitude to the DOE IPP program for support of this project throughout its entire duration, and for the unparalleled opportunity thereby provided for all of the diverse participants in the project to join in this collaborative research. The

  13. Advances in integrated optics

    CERN Document Server

    Chester, A; Bertolotti, M

    1994-01-01

    This volwne contains the Proceedings of a two-week summer conference titled "Advances in Integrated Optics" held June 1-9, 1993, in Erice, Sicily. This was the 18th annual course organized by the International School of Quantum Electronics, under the auspices of the "Ettore Majorana" Centre for Scientific Culture. The term Integrated Optics signifies guided-wave optical circuits consisting of two or more devices on a single substrate. Since its inception in the late 1960's, Integrated Optics has evolved from a specialized research topic into a broad field of work, ranging from basic research through commercial applications. Today many devices are available on market while a big effort is devolved to research on integrated nonlinear optical devices. This conference was organized to provide a comprehensive survey of the frontiers of this technology, including fundamental concepts, nonlinear optical materials, devices both in the linear and nonlinear regimes, and selected applications. These Proceedings update a...

  14. Gigahertz Optical Data Transmitters for Laser Communications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Wireless optical communication systems have gone through considerable development in the past few years, as optical components have experiences important technologic...

  15. Wearable Optical Sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Ballard, Zachary S.

    2017-07-12

    The market for wearable sensors is predicted to grow to $5.5 billion by 2025, impacting global health in unprecedented ways. Optics and photonics will play a key role in the future of these wearable technologies, enabling highly sensitive measurements of otherwise invisible information and parameters about our health and surrounding environment. Through the implementation of optical wearable technologies, such as heart rate, blood pressure, and glucose monitors, among others, individuals are becoming more empowered to generate a wealth of rich, multifaceted physiological and environmental data, making personalized medicine a reality. Furthermore, these technologies can also be implemented in hospitals, clinics, point-of-care offices, assisted living facilities or even in patients’ homes for real-time, remote patient monitoring, creating more expeditious as well as resource-efficient systems. Several key optical technologies make such sensors possible, including e.g., optical fiber textiles, colorimetric, plasmonic, and fluorometric sensors, as well as Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED) and Organic Photo-Diode (OPD) technologies. These emerging technologies and platforms show great promise as basic sensing elements in future wearable devices and will be reviewed in this chapter along-side currently existing fully integrated wearable optical sensors.

  16. Field guide to nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Powers, Peter E

    2013-01-01

    Optomechanics is a field of mechanics that addresses the specific design challenges associated with optical systems. This [i]Field Guide [/i]describes how to mount optical components, as well as how to analyze a given design. It is intended for practicing optical and mechanical engineers whose work requires knowledge in both optics and mechanics. This Field Guide is designed for those looking for a condensed and concise source of key concepts, equations, and techniques for nonlinear optics. Topics covered include technologically important effects, recent developments in nonlinear optics

  17. Funding and Strategic Alignment Guidance for Infusing Small Business Innovation Research Technology Into Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate Projects at NASA Glenn Research Center for 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.; Morris, Jessica R.

    2015-01-01

    This document is intended to enable the more effective transition of NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) SBIR technologies funded by the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program as well as its companion, the Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) program into NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) projects. Primarily, it is intended to help NASA program and project managers find useful technologies that have undergone extensive research and development (RRD), through Phase II of the SBIR program; however, it can also assist non-NASA agencies and commercial companies in this process. aviation safety, unmanned aircraft, ground and flight test technique, low emissions, quiet performance, rotorcraft

  18. Advanced optical manufacturing digital integrated system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yizheng; Li, Xinglan; Li, Wei; Tang, Dingyong

    2012-10-01

    It is necessarily to adapt development of advanced optical manufacturing technology with modern science technology development. To solved these problems which low of ration, ratio of finished product, repetition, consistent in big size and high precision in advanced optical component manufacturing. Applied business driven and method of Rational Unified Process, this paper has researched advanced optical manufacturing process flow, requirement of Advanced Optical Manufacturing integrated System, and put forward architecture and key technology of it. Designed Optical component core and Manufacturing process driven of Advanced Optical Manufacturing Digital Integrated System. the result displayed effective well, realized dynamic planning Manufacturing process, information integration improved ratio of production manufactory.

  19. Research on nuclear reactor instrumentation system using optical technology. JAERI's nuclear research promotion program, H10-041. Contract research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakazawa, Masaharu; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Fukuda, Daiji [University of Tokyo, Graduate School of Engineering, Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-03-01

    To apply optical fiber sensing technique to nuclear measurements, we have irradiated the F-doped optical fiber and experimented with two optical fiber sensors: Raman Distributed Temperature Sensor (RDTS) and Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG). We have irradiated F-doped optical fiber, which has high radiation resistivity, with a 60Co gamma source and fast neutron source reactor YAYOI. Although the radiation induced loss with gamma source showed saturation tendency, the loss with YAYOI showed linear loss increase. RDTS has been installed at YAYOI with the correction techniques. During the continuous measurements more than 1 year, the feasibility of RDTS for remote inspection and surveillance was demonstrated. From the result of irradiation experiments on FBG, FBG has high radiation resistivity for a temperature or strain monitor in nuclear plants. For these results, optical fiber sensing can be expected as nuclear measurements. (author)

  20. Lasers technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The Laser Technology Program of IPEN is developed by the Center for Lasers and Applications (CLA) and is committed to the development of new lasers based on the research of new optical materials and new resonator technologies. Laser applications and research occur within several areas such as Nuclear, Medicine, Dentistry, Industry, Environment and Advanced Research. Additional goals of the Program are human resource development and innovation, in association with Brazilian Universities and commercial partners

  1. Optical and digital GaAs technologies for signal-processing applications; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 16-18, 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendett, Mark P.; Butler, Daniel H., Jr.; Prabhakar, Arati; Yang, Andrew

    1990-10-01

    Practical problems that need to be solved for the introduction of optical modules into processing systems are reviewed. Some papers deal with the state of the art in such key devices as Bragg cells, spatial light modulators, and fast CCDs. Issues unique to optical packaging are also highlightened. New architectures to enable real-time operations are demonstrated, and optical interconnects for parallel processors are discussed. Particular attention is given to the status and operational advantages of government-sponsored efforts to upgrade existing military systems with digital GaAs signal processors and the state of the art in computer-aided design and advanced system architectures.

  2. Nonlinear optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, R.W.

    1992-01-01

    Nonlinear optics is the study of the interaction of intense laser light with matter. This book is a textbook on nonlinear optics at the level of a beginning graduate student. The intent of the book is to provide an introduction to the field of nonlinear optics that stresses fundamental concepts and that enables the student to go on to perform independent research in this field. This book covers the areas of nonlinear optics, quantum optics, quantum electronics, laser physics, electrooptics, and modern optics

  3. Physical optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim Il Gon; Lee, Seong Su; Jang, Gi Wan

    2012-07-01

    This book indicates physical optics with properties and transmission of light, mathematical expression of wave like harmonic wave and cylindrical wave, electromagnetic theory and light, transmission of light with Fermat principle and Fresnel equation, geometrical optics I, geometrical optics II, optical instrument such as stops, glasses and camera, polarized light like double refraction by polarized light, interference, interference by multiple reflections, diffraction, solid optics, crystal optics such as Faraday rotation and Kerr effect and measurement of light. Each chapter has an exercise.

  4. Physical optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim Il Gon; Lee, Seong Su; Jang, Gi Wan

    2012-07-15

    This book indicates physical optics with properties and transmission of light, mathematical expression of wave like harmonic wave and cylindrical wave, electromagnetic theory and light, transmission of light with Fermat principle and Fresnel equation, geometrical optics I, geometrical optics II, optical instrument such as stops, glasses and camera, polarized light like double refraction by polarized light, interference, interference by multiple reflections, diffraction, solid optics, crystal optics such as Faraday rotation and Kerr effect and measurement of light. Each chapter has an exercise.

  5. Optical network design and planning

    CERN Document Server

    Simmons, Jane M

    2014-01-01

    This book takes a pragmatic approach to designing state-of-the-art optical networks for backbone, regional, and metro-core networks.   Algorithms and methodologies related to routing, regeneration, wavelength assignment, subrate-traffic grooming, and protection are presented, with an emphasis on optical-bypass-enabled (or all-optical) networks. There are numerous case studies throughout the text to illustrate the concepts, using realistic networks and traffic sets. A full chapter of economic studies offers guidelines as to when and how optical-bypass technology should be deployed. There is also extensive coverage of recent research to provide insight into how optical networks are likely to evolve. The second edition includes new chapters on dynamic optical networking and flexible/elastic optical networks. There is expanded coverage of new physical-layer technology and its impact on network design, along with enhanced coverage of ROADM architectures, including the colorless, directionless, contentionless, a...

  6. Excimer Laser Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Basting, Dirk

    2005-01-01

    This comprehensive survey on Excimer Lasers investigates the current range of the technology, applications and devices of this commonly used laser source, as well as the future of new technologies, such as F2 laser technology. Additional chapters on optics, devices and laser systems complete this compact handbook. A must read for laser technology students, process application researchers, engineers or anyone interested in excimer laser technology. An effective and understandable introduction to the current and future status of excimer laser technology.

  7. FinalReport for completed IPP-0110 and 0110A Projects:"High Energy Ion Technology of Interfacial Thin Film Coatings for Electronic, Optical and Industrial Applications"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Ian

    2009-09-01

    The DOE-supported IPP (Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention) Project, IPP-0110, and its accompanying 'add-on project' IPP-0110A, entitled 'High Energy Ion Technology of Interfacial Thin Film Coatings for Electronic, Optical and Industrial Applications' was a collaborative project involving the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) as the U.S. DOE lab; the US surface modification company, Phygen, Inc., as the US private company involved; and the High Current Electronics Institute (HCEI) of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk, Siberia, Russia, as the NIS Institute involved. Regular scientific research progress meetings were held to which personnel came from all participating partners. The meetings were held mostly at the Phygen facilities in Minneapolis, Minnesota (with Phygen as host) with meetings also held at Tomsk, Russia (HCEI as host), and at Berkeley, California (LBNL as host) In this way, good exposure of all researchers to the various different laboratories involved was attained. This report contains the Final Reports (final deliverables) from the Russian Institute, HCEI. The first part is that for IPP-0110A (the 'main part' of the overall project) and the second part is that for the add-on project IPP-0110A. These reports are detailed, and contain all aspects of all the research carried out. The project was successful in that all deliverables as specified in the proposals were successfully developed, tested, and delivered to Phygen. All of the plasma hardware was designed, made and tested at HCEI, and the performance was excellent. Some of the machine and performance parameters were certainly of 'world class'. The goals and requirements of the IPP Project were well satisfied. I would like to express my gratitude to the DOE IPP program for support of this project throughout its entire duration, and for the unparalleled opportunity thereby provided for all of the diverse participants in the project to join

  8. Quantum optics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Agarwal, G. S

    2013-01-01

    .... Focusing on applications of quantum optics, the textbook covers recent developments such as engineering of quantum states, quantum optics on a chip, nano-mechanical mirrors, quantum entanglement...

  9. Spiral nonimaging optical designs

    OpenAIRE

    Zamora Herranz, Pablo; Benitez Gimenez, Pablo; Miñano Dominguez, Juan Carlos; Vilaplana, J.

    2011-01-01

    Manufacturing technologies as injection molding or embossing specify their production limits for minimum radii of the vertices or draft angle for demolding, for instance. In some demanding nonimaging applications, these restrictions may limit the system optical efficiency or affect the generation of undesired artifacts on the illumination pattern. A novel manufacturing concept is presented here, in which the optical surfaces are not obtained from the usual revolution symmetry with res...

  10. Handbook of nano-optics and nanophotonics

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    In the 1990s, optical technology and photonics industry developed fast, but further progress became difficult due to a fundamental limit of light known as the diffraction limit. This limit could be overcome using the novel technology of nano-optics or nanophotonics in which the size of the electromagnetic field is decreased down to the nanoscale and is used as a carrier for signal transmission, processing, and fabrication. Such a decrease beyond the diffraction limit is possible by using optical near-fields. The true nature of nano-optics and nanophotonics involves not only their abilities to meet the above requirements but also their abilities to realize qualitative innovations in photonic devices, fabrication techniques, energy conversion and information processing systems. The objective of this work is to review the innovations of optical science and technology by nano-optics and nanophotonics. While in conventional optical science and technology, light and matter are discussed separately, in nano-optics a...

  11. Center for X-ray Optics (CXRO)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Center for X-Ray Optics at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory works to further science and technology using short wavelength optical systems and techniques....

  12. Atomic optics. The optics of the year 2000?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman, Angela M.

    1998-01-01

    In atom optics the roles of light and matter are exchanged with respect to those of conventional optics. Atom optics makes possible the manipulation of atoms with lasers. This review deals with foundations and recent developments on atom optics: laser cooling and trapping, optical lattices, Bose-Einstein Condensation (BEC), and the atom laser. Main features of BEC and theoretical models for generation of a coherent atomic beam are described, indicating the technological challenges involved in their implementation. Special attention is devoted to the model of Guzman et al. perspectives and possible applications are mentioned

  13. Photon technology. Hard photon technology; Photon technology. Hard photon gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Research results of hard photon technology have been summarized as a part of novel technology development highly utilizing the quantum nature of photon. Hard photon technology refers to photon beam technologies which use photon in the 0.1 to 200 nm wavelength region. Hard photon has not been used in industry due to the lack of suitable photon sources and optical devices. However, hard photon in this wavelength region is expected to bring about innovations in such areas as ultrafine processing and material synthesis due to its atom selective reaction, inner shell excitation reaction, and spatially high resolution. Then, technological themes and possibility have been surveyed. Although there are principle proposes and their verification of individual technologies for the technologies of hard photon generation, regulation and utilization, they are still far from the practical applications. For the photon source technology, the laser diode pumped driver laser technology, laser plasma photon source technology, synchrotron radiation photon source technology, and vacuum ultraviolet photon source technology are presented. For the optical device technology, the multi-layer film technology for beam mirrors and the non-spherical lens processing technology are introduced. Also are described the reduction lithography technology, hard photon excitation process, and methods of analysis and measurement. 430 refs., 165 figs., 23 tabs.

  14. Fundamentals of attosecond optics

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Zenghu

    2011-01-01

    Attosecond optical pulse generation, along with the related process of high-order harmonic generation, is redefining ultrafast physics and chemistry. A practical understanding of attosecond optics requires significant background information and foundational theory to make full use of these cutting-edge lasers and advance the technology toward the next generation of ultrafast lasers. Fundamentals of Attosecond Optics provides the first focused introduction to the field. The author presents the underlying concepts and techniques required to enter the field, as well as recent research advances th

  15. Development of optical sciences in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

    2013-10-01

    Research and technical communities for optics, photonics and optoelectronics is grouped in this country in several organizations and institutions. These are: Photonics Society of Poland (PSP), Polish Committee of Optoelectronics of SEP, Photonics Section of KEiT PAN, Laser Club at WAT, and Optics Section of PTF. Each of these communities keeps slightly different specificity. PSP publishes a quarterly journal Photonics Letters of Poland, stimulates international cooperation, and organizes conferences during Industrial Fairs on Innovativeness. PKOpto SEP organizes didactic diploma competitions in optoelectronics. KEiT PAN takes patronage over national conferences in laser technology, optical fiber technology and communications, and photonics applications. SO-PTF has recently taken a decision to organize a cyclic event "Polish Optical Conference". The third edition of this conference PKO'2013 was held in Sandomierz on 30.06-04.07.2013. The conference scientific and technical topics include: quantum and nonlinear optics, photon physics, optic and technology of lasers and other sources of coherent radiation, optoelectronics, optical integrated circuits, optical fibers, medical optics, instrumental optics, optical spectroscopy, optical metrology, new optical materials, applications of optics, teaching in optics. This paper reviews chosen works presented during the III Polish Optical Conference (PKO'2013), representing the research efforts at different national institutions.

  16. Technology forum Berlin '82. Technologieforum Berlin '82

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    36 articles are represented concerning mechanical engineering, materials, chemicals, communications and telecommunications technology, metal working, precision engineering and optics, microelectronics, plastics, information supplying, patent realization and technology transfer.

  17. Optical coding theory with Prime

    CERN Document Server

    Kwong, Wing C

    2013-01-01

    Although several books cover the coding theory of wireless communications and the hardware technologies and coding techniques of optical CDMA, no book has been specifically dedicated to optical coding theory-until now. Written by renowned authorities in the field, Optical Coding Theory with Prime gathers together in one volume the fundamentals and developments of optical coding theory, with a focus on families of prime codes, supplemented with several families of non-prime codes. The book also explores potential applications to coding-based optical systems and networks. Learn How to Construct

  18. Digital diffractive optics: Have diffractive optics entered mainstream industry yet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, Bernard; Hejmadi, Vic

    2010-05-01

    When a new technology is integrated into industry commodity products and consumer electronic devices, and sold worldwide in retail stores, it is usually understood that this technology has then entered the realm of mainstream technology and therefore mainstream industry. Such a leap however does not come cheap, as it has a double edge sword effect: first it becomes democratized and thus massively developed by numerous companies for various applications, but also it becomes a commodity, and thus gets under tremendous pressure to cut down its production and integration costs while not sacrificing to performance. We will show, based on numerous examples extracted from recent industry history, that the field of Diffractive Optics is about to undergo such a major transformation. Such a move has many impacts on all facets of digital diffractive optics technology, from the optical design houses to the micro-optics foundries (for both mastering and volume replication), to the final product integrators or contract manufacturers. The main causes of such a transformation are, as they have been for many other technologies in industry, successive technological bubbles which have carried and lifted up diffractive optics technology within the last decades. These various technological bubbles have been triggered either by real industry needs or by virtual investment hype. Both of these causes will be discussed in the paper. The adjective ""digital"" in "digital diffractive optics" does not refer only, as it is done in digital electronics, to the digital functionality of the element (digital signal processing), but rather to the digital way they are designed (by a digital computer) and fabricated (as wafer level optics using digital masking techniques). However, we can still trace a very strong similarity between the emergence of micro-electronics from analog electronics half a century ago, and the emergence of digital optics from conventional optics today.

  19. Optical Coherence Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mette; Themstrup, Lotte; Banzhaf, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has developed rapidly since its first realisation in medicine and is currently an emerging technology in the diagnosis of skin disease. OCT is an interferometric technique that detects reflected and backscattered light from tissue and is often described as the o......Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has developed rapidly since its first realisation in medicine and is currently an emerging technology in the diagnosis of skin disease. OCT is an interferometric technique that detects reflected and backscattered light from tissue and is often described...

  20. Optical Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Woods, Damien; Naughton, Thomas J.

    2008-01-01

    We consider optical computers that encode data using images and compute by transforming such images. We give an overview of a number of such optical computing architectures, including descriptions of the type of hardware commonly used in optical computing, as well as some of the computational efficiencies of optical devices. We go on to discuss optical computing from the point of view of computational complexity theory, with the aim of putting some old, and some very recent, re...